Florida College Farmer
Agricultural Students of the
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Right: Good type purebred bulls of three
breeds suitable for use on Florida farms
Page 2 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1938
BRINGS BETTER PRICES
And Produce Greater Quantities
Of Quality Fruit As A Great
Many Other Florida Growers
LYONS FERTILIZER COMPANY
Seminole Stores, Inc.
OCALA AND GAINESVILLE
Growers' and Shippers'
FOR ALL CROPS
THE RIGHT plant foods in the
right amounts at the right time,
plus dependable all-the-year Field
Service, is the GULF formula for
crop success. Growers of all com-
mercial crops in Florida have found
it a formula that pays.
The Gulf Fertilizer Co.
CRATES AND HAMPERS
(Ocala Mfg Co)
F J. COOLEDGE PAINTS
Your Inquiries Promptly
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1938THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 3
FOR IMPROVED LIVESTOCK
It is really a worthwhile undertaking to improve
the animals on our farms; whether they be dairy
cattle, beef cattle, hogs, poultry, or any others.
We should take into consideration selective breed-
ing, proper feeding and careful management in order
to improve our herds economically.
It is impossible to give adequate information in
a magazine of this size to insure proper management
of a livestock farm, but we have tried to stress
some of the more important items, and present the
animal husbandry situation as it actually exists in
Florida. We urge frequent consultations with Coun-
ty Agents or Iome Demonstration Agents concern-
ing problems that arise in the animal husbandry
-J. C. ID.
WHAT IS A FARM WITHOUT
During the past two years a great deal of well-
merited publicity has been given to the problem of
soil erosion in the United States. The American
people, when they realized nearly two-thirds of their
nearly two trillion acres of land had deteriorated
much or little through erosion, raised their hands
13,400,000 acres of land in the United States have
been entirely destroyed for cultivation.
We in Floiida have seen no great problem in
erosion at home, thanks to the level topography of
our state. However, gullying and water erosion are
being carried forward in Florida to some extent,
and the Soil Conservation Act has made money
available in this state to pay farmers cooperating in
the program to conserve soil resources.
See your county agent.
-E. B. W.
The cow is a female quadruped with an alto voice
and a countenance in which there is no guile. She
collaborates with the pump in the production of a
liquid called milk, provides the filler for hash, and
at last is skinned by those she has benefited, as
mortals commonly are.
The young cow is called a calf, and is used in the
manufacture of chicken salad.
The cow's tail is mounted aft and has a universal
joint. It is used to disturb marauding flies, and the
tassel on the end has unique educational value. Per-
sons who milk cows and come often in contact with
the tassel have vocabularies of peculiar and impres-
in mild horror and said
something should be done
about it. They saw their
good black earth leaching
out into the rivers and
through them flowing to
the sea; they saw the fer-
tile soil of the Middle
West flying in thick black
blizzards with the hot
wind, leaving deserts
where once green fields
had been; they saw their
birthright being dissipated
and raised their voices in
a demand for action.
Out of that inarticulate
but meaningful protest of
the American people was
born the Soil Conservation
Act of 1935 and the re-
vised Act of 1936, two as
potent pieces of legislation
as the New Deal has of-
fered. An allotment not
to exceed $500,000,000 was
appropriated. The soil con-
servation program was set
up to fight against com-
plete denuding of land
through improper cutting
of forests and the ravages
of wind and water erosion;
factors which were wast-
ing our land more rapidly
than any other. From wind
erosion and gullying alone
The Florida College Farmer
Published by representatives of Student Organizations
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
J. CLYDE DRIGGERS, '38 ............. .... ................... Editor
EDWIN B. WEISSINGER, '40 ..... Managing Editor
J. LESTER POUCHER, '40 ....... .. .............Associate Editor
HENRY (I. LUNSFORD. '3S .................. Business Manager
Ross E. MOWRY, '38 ....Assistant Business Manager
CHARLES 0. ALLAN, '3S .................. Circullatio Manager
EDITORIAL STAFF ASSISTANTS
OScAR K. MOOR, '3 .............. College of Agriculture
EUGENE II. BOYLES, '41 4.... ........... ...... 4-H Clubh
MYRON GRENNELL, '41 Future Farmers of America
MRS. JULIET H. CARRINGTON, '38 ..........Alumni Notes
WILLIAM H. STONE, '38 ..... ......... Ag. Engineering
CHARLES CLYMORE, '3S .... ................A Econonics
E. WILTON STEPHENS, '38 ........Horticulture
R. T. NEUMANN, '38 ........ Forestry
WAYNE P. DEAN, '38 Entomology
FRANK H. RICH, '38 ..... ... grononim
SIDNEY P. MARSHALL. .. ........Animal Jfbllandrl!
CHARLES JAMISON, '40 .. Poultry Husa'ind
R. F. Tucker. '38; J. H. Jones, '38: G. L. Boydston.
38; A. L. French. Jr.. '41: Walter Badger, '44; anid
Sturgen Rothe, '39.
FACULTY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
H. II. HUME, Chairman
C. H. WILLOUGBY J. FRANCIS COOPER
PUBLISHED FOUR TIMES DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR
Subscription Fifty Cents
The cow has two
stomachs. The one on the
ground floor is used as a
warehouse and has no
other functions. When this
one is filled, the cow re-
tires to a quiet place
where her ill manners will
occasion no comment and
devotes herself to belch-
ing. The raw material
thus conveyed for the sec-
ond time to the interior of
her face is pulverized and
delivered to the auxiliary
stomach, where it is con-
verted into cow.
The cow has no upper
plate. All of her teeth are
parked in the lower part
of her face. This arrange-
ment was perfected by an
efficiency expert to keep
her from gumming things
up. As a result she bites
up and gums down.
The male cow is called
a bull and is lassoed along
the Colorado, fought south
of the Rio Grande, and
shot in the vicinity of the
A slice of cow is worth
8 cents in the cow, 14 cents
in the hands of packers,
and $2.40 in a restaurant
that specializes in at-
-Baltimore Evening Sun.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
The Florida College Farmer
Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
The Florida Cattle Industry Then and Now
By RAYMON F. TUCKER, '38
More than 400 years ago cattle were
brought to Florida to furnish meat
for the gold seekers. These Spaniards
were so busy seeking gold that they
had no time to devote to cattle rais-
ing, consequently some of their cattle
escaped to the wilds, forming the
foundation for the Floridai cattle in-
dustry of today. The Indians stole and
bought many more front the Spaln-
iards. Before tlhe 16th century haId
ended the Indils had llanly large
herds of cattle and guarded then
The Spaniards finally saw the pro-
gress that the Indians had made and
were linking with their (lttle andl
proceeded to obtain large land grants
from the King. upon which they placed
cattle that thrived. The way was not
easy for these early settlers, because
of constant lawless invasions, but the
cattle continued to thrive.
In 1763 Florida was ceded to Enig-
land by Spain. and a large influx of
British subjects obtained vast grants
of land from the King: and proceeded
to build up large plantations. In 1783
when England returned Florida to
Spanish rule, settlers were given eight
Months to sell their holdings to Span-
ish settlers but again the cattle stayed
During the war of 1812 between
America and England a contingent of
troops under General George Mcltosh
of Georgia marched against Slanish
Florida. The troops were withdrawn
in 1813 and disorder reigned in the
St. Augustine section. A chronicler of
the period recorded that the section
was overrun by adventurers, most of
whom owned nothing more than ia
horse and a rifle, whose lain occupll-
tion was stealing cattle front the
Indians and others and selling then
across the St. Mary's river. There was
continuous strife between the English,
Spanish, and Indians until 1845. when
Florida hecanie a state in the Union.
The Florida Indians, who showed tlhe
white race the real value of Florida
lands for cattle, are not allowed to
enjoy the success of the cattle industry.
The way has been hard for cattle-
men and is still hard; as a result.
today we have cattlemlen who come
from families that have for genera-
tions worked with clttle and lived
their work. These imen have overcome
numerous obstacles in the past and
will overcome more in the future.
They have learned to rely 1upon theii-
selves and no one else. In short, they
are the sort of imen who push steadily
forward and provide the backbone of
Inl 1861 some cattlemen realized that
the small Spanish "fighting battle "
were decidedly inferior in quality of
meat. These mlen brought in cattle of
English breeds from adjoining states.
This marks the beginning of beef cattle
improvement in Florida. A bull and
a clw of the fanlous Devon breed
were purchased to build up the herd
of an Alachua cattlemanl Brahmann
cattle were brought in from Tennes-
see in 1880. Red Polled cattle followed
Fighting the Tick
These purelred cattle did not do so
well at first. Out of a carload of
pulrelred Hereford hulls brought into
the state by an Alachua County cattle-
man in the late 19th century, only
three survived. And therein begins
the story of a great handicap which
has been finally overcome by the cattle-
men, assisted by the Federal govern-
nlent. Early in the 20th century it
was found that the fever tick was the
cause of the death of fine cattle in-
trod(ued to the state. The native cattle
had built nlup partial inlnunlity to cattle
fever, although the loss was tre-
mendons at times during winter
months; especially to young calving
heifers and very old cows. The pure-
bred cattle being brought in. not hav-
ing this illnilnity, were attacked by
ticks anld died very soon with tick
fever. State officials saw this trouble
and tried to put on separate county
campaigns of tick eradication which
the cattlemen fought in a most inde-
llendelt and "leave nle alone manner".
Their cattle were using the open range,
soine of them scattered over at least
four counties, and could not lie dipped
without pasturing. "P'asturing" in the
section of the state that 1 cmine fronl
seemed preposterous to the cattlemen.
"Dipping" was new to state officials.
consequently nlally Ilistakes were
inade: often-tinies the dill was made
too strong and tle tte te were dipped
while hot, resulting in large losses
which had to he borne by the cattle-
mnen. These irregularities discouraged
the cattlemen and they fought tick
eradication bitterly land finally defeat-
ed the dipling program as set up at
Before long the Federal government
stepped in. placed a quarantine onil
Florida cattle and begnll a state-wide
compulsory canmplaign for tick eradic(a-
tion. now nearing coplllletion after two
decades of dipping. Many cattlemen
sold their stock rather than dip them.
In 1927. 70.000 head were shipped out
of the state at a sacrificial price of
from $5.00 to $12.00 per head. Froml
1925 to 1930 there were sold 224.000
head or 34(% oif all cattle in Florida.
But in 1930 a caenlmpialn w;as lput on
lby the extension workers to get cattle-
nIen to dip their cattle instead of
selling. Froml 1!3 to 1:133 an 11% in-
crease was shown in number of cattle
in the state.
(Cttlemen were forced to pasture
their battle so they( could hlerd them
every two weeks to dip them. As be-
fore, lanly n'istakes were nllde by
both c(tthlmen andl state officials.
Agaill dip solutions were lade too
strong, cattlenmen placed their cattle
in too snnll pastulres: consequently
large hIsscs resulted again. But the
diplingl in sections where it is now
completed. gained several illlortant
results: first and lost important it
eradicated the tick so that Florida
cattle (a;in be improved by the use of
good herd bulls. From the increased
thriftiness of the cattle, after the
dipping was over, the cattlelmen saw
they ilad been done a good turn. As
a result they beeame mllore prone to
listen to state officials and extension
workers. This has been a large factor
in the progress made il the last few
Many cattlemen. after the dipping
was over, turned their cattle back to
thle open range lbut they could not
forget that sense of security they had
enjoyed in knowing their cattle were
safely behind wire: in other words
they became pasture-linlded as a re-
sult of dipping. Consequelltly when
the extension workers and the college e
of Agriculture officials started advo-
cating the use of good ualls they,
realizing that very little progress could
e ae ll oil tie open range, began to
lease land and put their cattle baick
ill pastures. It is now estimated that
at least two -tirds cf the cattle of
the state are in pastures. There has
been more fence built in this state in
the Ilst three years than there had
been in the 25 preceding years.
This last year mnore than 50.000 acres
of pasture were mnowed to cut tle
weeds and bushes. According to Mr.
T. M. Lykes and Mr. L. K. Edwards
this process doubles hle grazing ea-
pacity of the land. This is no sniall
factor when one is paying high taxes.
As mentioned before, these steps are
necessary before bulls of the better
English breeds can Ie used to in al d-
vantage. The native Florida cattle
that we now have are the ones that
have been able to survive with very
little assistance iln most cases through
starving winters. consequently they
are animals that hereditarily are rug-
ged and good rustlers. But this is not
Feray 198TEFOIACLLG AMRPg
true with tle majority of the English
breeds. They originated from' a fertile
country with plenty of feed and if
placed on the scanty native grasses of
Florida without some feed during the
winter they will (lie or ie so small
that the Florida cows look like
"primes" decide them.
Malny cattlelnen have seen this and
by providing winter feed and better
pasture have proved that to get good
herd bulls is the only sensible thing
to do after provisions have been made
to take care of them.
The cattle business is now onl a more
solid basis. The ranchers are cooperat-
ing in associations, state and local:
thus they cal profit by the other fel-
lows mistakes and run their business
Fntil 1935 there was no outlet for
Florida cattle because of the fever tick
and due to their inferior quality. But
as ticks were cleaned up many of tche
more progressive cattlemen not only
bought good bulls but selected their
chest individual cows as well. They set
in for controlled breeding to get best
maximum calf crop: to improve color.
type and conformation to the point
where Florida calves in 1935 for the
first time in history were shipped to
Eastern markets to compete with
would ble a "good doer" in the feed
lot. Along with this le sure to 1put
the number of cattle in the feed lot
that your feed supply will finishh".
Thesq steers should lie fed at least
,0t to 120 days and if the program is
arranged where they finish in the
spring when beef is scarce. the feeder
has very little to worry about.
Five to 15 years ago the Florida
cattleman had to hunt a place to sell
his fat cattle. He had to sell to local
markets and take the price they offer-
ed. but such is not the case today. The
cattlemen are daily in contact with
markets through the Extension Ser-
vice. State Marketing Bureau. radio.
and newspapers. and( can better plan
when to market their cattle. The "big
four" packing companies are pushing
their houses farther and farther into
Florida. and we have more and more
efficient, growing. local plants here int
the state each year. We have Jones-
('hambliss, Jacksonville: Farris andl
companyny. Jacksonville: Lykes Broth-
ers, Tampa : ('ruin Packing ('o., Tamnpa :
Herman Sausage ('Co., Tampa: all ouit-
standing plants, besides many others
not here mentioned. One of the large
pickers is bringing a system of grad-
ing into the state that will pay the
cattlemen in dollars and cents for ill-
proving their steers and will show
them why they can i:fford to do so.
Pure-Bred Brahrr.an Bull
calves from the West (St. Louis and
The extension force and (College of
Agriculture brought to the cattlemen
the fact that experillental feeding and
feeding carried on by practical cattle-
li'venl have proved profitable when good
"feeders" are used. And when 1he1
feed budget is planned \where tlhe
steers will have a balanced ration.
flirple in quantity to "finishl" tliem'
when the nmtrket is not overloaded.
That is, pick your steers tliat carry
soite improved l loodt, such as Her'e-
ford. Angius. tlrahiman, or )evon. Tlhe
top and lunderline should be straight
and the back and loin wide. Generally.
the steer should le broad, deep. witd
deeply and evenly fleshedl. havivhng
capacious middle and chest and l ov-
ered with i nimellw, pliable c:)at. A
wide head is an indication that he
Ill addition to tile lpacking establish-
iaents above mintionldi(, tit, a.cotion
markets distributed over the state
bring the packerss face to face in conl-
petititon, thus keeping the price level
iup. grade for grade, in comparison to
lie price tlihat prevails on thie central
Along this line. the "stock shows"
tlat are increasing in popularity each
ar show Better Cattlemen t tr
menioIs increase in inico're. improved
breeding and feeding will bring. The
stimulus is revealing itself in a larger
number of "well finished" steers at the
shows each year.
To produce good thrifty feeder
steers we mnst have a thrifty breed-
ing herd and to provide adeqlately
for this foundation herd, we nmst not
only keep the herd on good pasture,
and supplied with mineral supplements.
but also must plan for the winter
feed. It is common knowledge that
many cattle lose front 100 to 2(10
pounds each during lean winters and
nmainy die before spring. iThe ones that
do survive are in most cases so weak
that it takes three to four months
before they get back in condition. Weak
cows that calve in the early spring
not only bring undernourished, weak
calves and cannot supply a sufficient
flow of milk for them, but do net
have a chance to get back in condi-
tion themselves. As a result they break
down early in life and their off-spritn
are small iand stunted. Fertility is
jeopardized both in male and female
and the calf crop is small as a result.
I have seen the calf crop vary as
itu(ch as 10 to 25% as a resu !t of a
('attleimen who have land of sluf-
ficient lquiality to produce winter feed.
Is velvet beans, silage, or peanut hay.
are fortunate. In sections where feed
cllnnot lie produced economically I
would like to present some statistics
of iir'ice and valle of cottonseed c(ake.
For the past few years Agricultural
Experiment Station Workers have
wintered cattle by feeding ahout two
polinds of cottonseed cake daily to
each grown cow. Tie cattle actually
showed a gain through the winter
months. An experiment was run by
them also thlt showed cattle did just
as well with cottonseed cake oil ptas-
ture as didt cattle receiving 25 to 30
pounds of silage plus two plindts of
cottonseed nmeal in dry lot.
Likewise. Dr. II. II. Rotle wintered
some loan cows tliat ~were shipll'ed in
from the drought area Iast year. at
Green ('ove Springs. with one and a
half to two ipolnds of cottonlseted cke,
with good results. I saw these cows
in the early spring and they were in
fine condition. This year the Agricul-
tural Experiment Station bought cot-
tonseed ce'ke. 41% protein, for ,about
$25.00 per ton in 10-ton lots. At this
lrat it will cost about $2.00 to $2.25
per cow. allowing abollt two pounds
per aniiin'l a day for three months.
If thie whole herd is not fed the weak-
est individuals can lie separated and
the mortality riltce cn 1ei thus cut to
a mi niniiuml. Also, the steers can he
fed with the cows with very little
trouble, and by so doing, they will be
grass-fat two months before lhey
would if not fed. In this manner the
cattlemuan can proditue grass Ieef in
tlle late spring when it is scarce: thus
coaullln lieng a 1 to 1% cents higher
price than lIater il Ithe slummer and
fall when grass steers overload the
market. It may e.st from $2.25 to
$2.50 to feed a 7.50 pound steer but
if it brings 1 cent per pound more it
has itlmde $5.00 per steer almost with-
out a struggle.
IPraetically all of the English breeds
and Brahman both in purebred, hybrid
a nd high grades are being used on the
inalive Florida cattle for improvement.
Itapdh progress is i being made, blit the
ideal b reed for Florida lias yet iot
been produced. I believe this ideal cow
for Florida conditions would carry
something like one-fourth Brahman
and one-fourth Florida native to flurn-
isih htldiness nuld rustling ability and
(Cont'nued on Page 12)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Slaughtering And Curing Pork on the Farm
By G. L. BOYDSTON, '38
Meat curing and clnning is the prae-
tice of manyii thrifty fariners and is
a means of material saving. Present
day findings indicate that the live-at-
hoIne prograin in Florida will be more
nearly conmlllete if smcle provision is
lmadle for inningg and (clring mneat.
'The use of meat preserved on the faril
will materially assist in helping to
keep down household expenses, and
will help to maintain ia balanced meant
diet throughout the year.
Selection of Hogs for Slaughter
The selection of hogs, previous to
slaughtering, involves several factors.
sucllh s health, condition. quality. age.
weight. sex, andt general care before
killing in order to obtain wholesome
a'nd palatable pork iand pork products.
One of the imlportnnt things to con-
sider in selecting inuimils for slaugh-
tering is health. Even though they
have been properly fed and are well
finished thie iest quality of lneat .can-
not be obtained if the animal is not
healthy. Select animals that are
thrifty in appearance and gaining inll
Select anillals of medical length,.
wide over the shoulders, back andl
loin, deep in the body, uniformly and
thickly fleshed throughout. Anilmals
lacking. in flesh and development of
hanms will not produce a very satis-
factory pork product. Condition is
just as important as good fleshing.
By condition is Imleant tlhe degree of
fat that the anlillal possesses. Fat
adds flavor and aids in the keeping
qualities of the nieat. The meat from
thin logs will be lacking in flavor,
while the nIeat from exceedingly fat
nllimals often is too greasy to be
palatable and there is a large loss ini
cooking. Therefore, a Ilediuml condi-
tion is desirable.
High quality meat is obtained from
thrifty, well developed animals. Qual-
ity in the auinial is shown by the
size of bone. texture of hair, and gen-
eral appearance of the animal. Large,
coarse holes, indicated by tile size of
the slhank, slows a asking in qulllity;
but mediumll and smaller-lnlled ani-
nials tend to give a high degree of
Age, sex and weight it must kept
in lnind when choosing an animal for
slaughtering. A harrow or gilt six to
eight months of age and weighing
from 1(i5 to 225 poundI s is most desir-
able. Never choose a Iboar1, ,as the
meat will ble coarse and decidedly
lacking in desirable flavor.
Animals selected for slaughter should
le isolated for at least 24 hours le-
fore they are killed. They should he
put in a small lien and given plenty
of fresh water hint no feed. Full
stomachs and intestines prevent good
bleeding and are harder to remove.
Never kill in animal while it is ex-
cited or overheated. as this will cause
poor bleeding, which lowers the keelp-
ing qualities of thle lmealt.
(ire should Ie taken in the handling
of live animals so that they do not
become bruised or cut. Never use
whips and sticks in driving the ani-
mals, or cateh with dogs. In driving,
use a "fllap jack" which is made by
attaching a strip of heavy enval s on
a handle. This has proven to be quite
good il driving hogs. Bruises will not
often show until the (arcass is dress-
ed. a1nd these inflalmed areas must 1be
cut out, leaving holes that spoil tlhe
appearance of the nmeat and increIses
the waste material.
Killing of the Hogs
For convenience it is always neces-
sary to have everything ready at the
time of slaughtering. The knives should
be sharp. the scrapers, gambrels. 1one1
saw. andl aI nleans of scalding and
hanging must all le provided. Being
prepared tends to lighten the job of
It is iliportant that most of tile
blood he removed from the cnrcass
if a good prodnet is to be obtained.
A more thorough bleeding will result
if the hog is stnck without being,
stunned first. In this way tie bleed-
ing will result in a few miuntes of
pulling action by tle heart and by
drainage. Stunning the animal before
sticking often hinders the Iation of
tile heart and thereby prevents good
bleeding. An exception to the rule
of stunning lmay be 1111(le when the
animal is too lanr-e to hliandle easily.
Never shoot an ani mal for slaughter.
The bullet mnly lodge in one of tile
shoulders and the wound will spoil
Tile hog is held on his laek for
sticking. An incision is made in the
throat and then the knife is inserted
just under the breast bone, cutting
down toward the vertebrae. In this
lannller the arteries and( veins of the
throat are cut which will insure rapid
A barrel or tank lay lie used for
scalding. Inl cool wellther and where
small containers are used, the water
should le 150 degrees F. with large
containers or tnnks and the work is
being done indoors, tile water caln le
142 to 145 degrees F: however, this
will require a little longer time in
tile scalding process. A small allount
of lye and hardwood ashes may he
added to tie water to help remove
the dirt and scurf so that water will
reach the roots of the hair and loosen
thellm more easily. Where only a part
of tile hog is scalded at one time the
hindl end is done first. The carcass
should lie worked around in the water
to give even scalding. When the hair
slips easily from the feet and flank
the carcass is pulled out and tile front
part put into the water. There are
several precautions that llmst lie taken
for best results ; (1) do not over-scald
as it sets the hair which makes it
more difficult to remove; (2) too high
tellperature tends to partially cook
the skin. Bell scrapper, ia conleave disc
implement, is used in scraping. Tlhe
head and feet are cleaned first as they
are always the hardest. The final
cleaning of the ('arlass is done when
it is hanging up. This mlay le accom-
plished )by usillg wi'arll water and
scraler, goilg over the carcass in this
manner several times, and( by giving
a final rinse with cold water.
Removing the viscera is not a dif-
ficult job if the intestines are fairly
empty from having been kelt off feed
for 24 hours. The carcass is then
sawed down the middle of the back-
bone. and care should le taken so as
to saw through the middle of each
of the spinal processes. The halves
of the carcass should be thoroughly
washed to remove all blood and bony
material left from sawing.
As soon as possible remove the
halves of the carcass to refrigeration.
Here they should he chilled for at least
12 to 24 hours at 32 to 38 degrees F.
Cutting the Carcass
The cutting is done to get the meat
in usable sizes. The tenderness of
the lieat depends upon cutting across
the grain as nearly as possible. The
grain of the nleat is the direction in
which the muscle fibers run. For tile
ease of handling and curing the thick
pieces are cut front the thin ones.
They should le m(ade as attractive as
possible. which nmay be done by smooth
cuts, proper trimming of all unevel
edges or tag ends. Long shanks are not
attractive on hanis or shoulders and
it is difficult to get a satisfactory
In starting to cut a half a carcass,
the head is cut off at the atlas joint
at right angles to the main length
of the carcass. The jowl can be cut
off. trimmed and cured or made into
The shoulder is removed by cutting
through the third and fourth ribs and
parallel to the cnt which was made
in removing the head. The ribs and
vertebrae are removed. leaving as nluch
meat on the shoulder as possible. It
nmay be trimmed and cured in this
way, but a better cured product will
le had if the top part is taken off.
The outside fat or clear plate is re-
moved, leaving what is called the
Boston butt. The clear plate is used
for lard and the Boston butt mnny be
made into chops, a roast or nay lie
cured. The remaining part of the
shoulder is called the picnie. The shank
of the picnic is cut off two to three
inches above the knee joint after trim-
Iling all loose ends from the knee.
Remove the ham by cutting at right
angles to the shank innnediately in
front of the nitch or pelvic bone. If
a large hamn is desired, the cut is imade
farther away from the aitchl hone.
toward tile loin vertebrae.
The back or belly shoull he separated
by cutting from a joint just at the
lower edge of the tenderloin nimsele
where the hanl was ('ut off to a point
at the lower edge of the lbacktone at
the shoulder (1end. Remove the layer
of fat or fat hack from the loin. This
fat is used for lard, bilt if it is thick
enough it may be salt-cured. The )loin
(a1n le used for roasts, sliced into
chops, or it nmy he cured satisfae-
torily. The ribs are removed from the
belly and the edges squared to nimke
a side of bacon. The Ilan trimmings
are made into sausage or other by-
products. and tile trimmed fat made
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Florida's Dairy Industry Advances
By JAMES H. JONES, '38
Fifteen or 20 years ago Florida rank-
ed low as It dairy state. Milk prices
were so high that almost anlly cow
was profitable tha t could lie milked.
During the hoolli period llilk and cows
were shipped in front other states.
The close of the booml found more
cows in the state than were necessary
to meet the local demands for market
mlilk. competitionn wals keen : prices of
milk dropped to ai lover level, and
more attention liad to be given to
conservative iliad economical dairy
There have been mIlany changes ill
tile industry in Florida during recent
years, and tilhe turn that dairying takes
during the next 10 years or so will
largely determine whether the dairy
industry of the state will be placed
on Ia solid foundation, or whether it
will continue to be something to talk
A great manny people have had thel
idea tliat Florida conditions were not
conducive to the development of the'
dairy industry. However, the rapid
development of dairying in recent
years lhas changed this ()old altitude.
But. the fact that there have been
hindrances to the industry in this State
cannot lie doubted. The presence of
the cattle fever tick resulted in very
little breeding stock being available,
thus nnmaking it practically impossible
to improve dniry herds. Another
hindrance was the la(k of feed andll
forage cropss suitable for feeding dairy
Florida offers sloe distillnct ad-
vantages to the dairy industry that
arlle not found in very uniiny other
states. Somlle of these Ire: the very
long grazing season in ll lpar1ts of tlhe
State: the climate lakes expensive
brnlls unnecessary: the cows, indl ill
turn the barn, are llmuclh easier to keel)
(clean on the sandy soils of Florida.
Dairying in Florida is divided into
three distinct classes, unaely : the
fanlily-cow dairy, dairying as a part
of general falling, and the c(oninercial
dniry. There is marked need for i
sulplly of milk for home use on every
fitllri, particularly where there are
children. When milk is available, less
cash is required to buy groceries for
the family living: people live better
and are healthier: a higher standard
of living for the entire family is
maintainedll, since money saved oil
groceries is available for other needs
of farm life. Even a low-producing
cow mally render valuable service as
a family cow.
Feed. Feed, Feed
The permanent pasture is without
question the most illlmprtant of all
c(ro(s in dairy work. The dairyman
who ldoes not 11ave ia permanellnt pasture
cannot afford to keep dairy cows. Tlhe
addition of many thousands of aeres
of fertilized pastures and silage cro ps
grown on dairy farins lhas contributed
1 annual allill illncomllle of several Illillionll
dollars to the cash returns of Florida
lands. But the most valuable profits
from the fertilized pasture and silage
crops is in the improved quality of
milk sold to consumers of the state.
Fresh sweet milk produced fronil
good quality green forage front cows
grazing inll the sunshine and open nir
is much superior to milk coming from
cows housed ill dark cold Iarls and
cows that are fed dried grains and
forage. Anll abundance of good quality
forage, green anild ciannlled, is essential
in growing large, healthy dairy ani-
illals. I)Demonstration pastures live
been established ill various pars of
the state, all of which have shown
thlie possibilities of imllproved Ipstures'
in all sections of Florida. The dem-
onstratioll pistures have shown lthaI
it is possille to increase hie grazing
value of thousands of acres of the
cut-over land of the State. They have
also shown that onle acre of land can
Ie nlalde to produce as much grazing
as 10 ncres lhanve been producing.,
()e problem tlat confronts every
dairyman is that of culling unprofit-
able cows. They lare found in every
herald and will always le there. It
makes no difference how good sollle
cows are. people will always want
their poorest lprolucers to 'produclPe as
iucl(h as their best ones. The dairy
industry is therefore continually faced
with the problem of how to improve
production and at the same time re-
duce the cost of produlltion. The best
way to do this is 1by raising repllce-
At one time it was not profitable to
try to raise calves in Florida, but to-
dily ia large n1iil)(Ter' of falrnlers l1nd
dairyinven realize that it is more eco-
nonmical to raise heifer Calves tlhain to
Iny cows from time to time. It is
alinost impossible inll practise to make
any improvement in average produc-
tion of a dairy herd when replacements
are Il'de by purchase of cows oll the
market. Approximately 20 to 25 per
cent of a dairy herd is replaced nn-
nually, the proportion illencreasing in
areas where cows 'are sold for dairy
pll'urposes. Til tendency is to cull more
closely ill the winter tourist sections.
The disease ernldiention program lis
helped to emphasize the raising of
hlerd replaenenets and has lessened the
cost if raising calves.
Thell best bull available is essential
for I herd sire when replacements ll'are(
raised. This bull should he bred only
to the better class ofi cows.
Guarding Bovine Health
Perhaps o qlluestion sllhould receive
more consideration front dairyinen than
that of healthy cows because, if for
no other reason, healthy iows will pro-
lduce more l1ilk tan lllllllheilthy olls.
Climatic conditionss in F1lorida are such
that the question of healthy aows\
sllfld give the dairylma very little
concern if care and judgment are usedl
i ull rchasinlllg now anll ti'a1ls.
The eradicaltion of inlig's disease
has made ralid pllogress. In the large
market centers of tlhe state in the last
three years, there lias been i reduc-
lion of infected animals from in aver-
age of 25 to 30 per cent to less than
ll/. per cent. There are 30 naccredited
Bang's diseanse-free dairies listed with
the State Live Stock Sanitary Board
and thle United States Bureau of Ani-
wal Industry. Fllorida is at the top of
tlle list of states in thle United Stales
ill progress of eradication of EInIg's
disease fromll dairy cattle. Probably 90
pI'r cent of the dliry cattle of Florida
are meeting tile health qualifications
for certified milk.
Within recent years the Cattle fever
tick has been eradicated fronl all
dairies inl the state. Also, the entire
State has been placed inl i Federal
Modified Accredited Area aIs a result
of eradication of tuberculosis. There
is less than 1/.% per cent tuberculosis
inll the herds of the State. This is due
nainly to the fnet that Florida dairy
cows spend 3(ii days each year out in
the oellen which makes it less likely
for then to pick up) tuberculosis gerns
(Continued on Page 9)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
TO MAKE THE BEST BETTER
Florida 4-H Clubs Boys and Girls
4-H Club Members to Vie
For Awards at Stock Show
Of special interest to all Florida
4-H ('lub Iioys is the Fat Stock Show
to lie held in the Natioinal Stocikyards
at Jacksonville oiil March N anIld 1,
113S8. At this show there will le a
special class for steers owned by 4-11
(lub boys. ('Cash awards offered total
$147 and $2.50 will lie given to each
boy in good standing who exhibits a
calf at tile show. to help ill defraying
the expenses of the boy and his alli-
nmal while ill Jacksonville.
In addition to being aile to show
his animal inl the special 4-H club
division, the boy exhibitor can show
his calf in the main di division. which
consists of all opinll class, and a slpeial
division for Floridn fed, bred. and
As a grand prize there will lie given
a $1100 scholarship to tlt' University
of Florida. This award will lie given
on a percentage basis, as follows: 50%/
for his beef project. 11% for the
inumb)er of years in cllu work. 9)
for the numbiier of years he has elr-
ried Ia ieef calf project, and 30(% will
lie allowed for the anninal exhibited
at the Fat Stock Show. The (cliu
lelinlber must also be at least 15 years
In addition to the competitive (lasses
for steers there will he a 4-11 club
Florida 4-H Club Group
Attends National Meeting
Ten delegates ciposiscd of' live boys
and five girls represented the Florida
4-II chlls at the Sixteenth National
Club Congress il ('hicago Nove-nb er
2(i to December 4. The girls were
Almena Rogers of (Odsdlen County,
Clair Alice \Wrilield of ITillslihroungh.
Fralnces liroomlle of (Oralnge. Juniie Good-
bread of Palm Benchl. iand Loin Belle
Crelmell of Dade: tie boy represent:-
tives were Dfan Roberts. Stan.ley
Roseiiiergerl, and Robert Diouglas, of
Alaella ('Conly, ('Connie McCorllick of
('olumbia, and R]obert Reeves of Leoni
County. These were accol, anield by
Miss Lucy Belle Silttle. Dlin F. Siwell.
and Fred L. (raft.
Allpoximately 1,(500 persons from
41 slates. Canada and IHawaii werx in
atteindallce at the ieetinlg hlield in icn-l
nection with the International Live
Stock Exposition. These 4--II'ers par-
ticipated ill 111 busy pI 'rogranll of tlhe
convention, including a tour of the
city. The three Alacliua County boys
entered the National 4-1- IIoultry judg-
judging contest. As awards in this con-
test. each nllemier of the high scoring
team will receive a scholarship toi the
4-II ('lul Short Course held at tlie
University of Florida onil June 6-11.
Second prize will lie a scholarship to
the 4-H e-Ilb capil) to each Itel ember
of the teiam xvhich is runner-lu. The
high scoring individual will lie award-
ed a gold iedal. These boys will judge
three classes oif steers: Angns,. Here-
ford, and grade.
The weights of tile steers in their
respective classes are: steers weighing
up to 700 his.. Class A: steel-rs weigh-
ing from 7011 lbs.. to 85)0 lbs.. Class B:
and steers wveighing over 8.50 lis..
All cattle to eomillpete for awards
must have beell owned by the ex-
hilitor amnd in Fiorida for four months
previous, and entered 10 days previous,
to the show. All cattle must lie enter-
ed and classified en Monday. March
7. The judging begins promptly at
S:(10 A. M.. Tuesday, March S. The
4-H Judging ('initest will be at 2:30
P. M.. and the hlntiilet where prizes
will le awarded is at 7:30( P. M. The
sale of all fat cattle entered in the
show will begin at 9 :30 A. M..
WVednesdaiy. March i9.
Scholarships To Be Won
By 4-H Club Members
Saturday, Febhriury 1'., 1938. has
been unanimoilllly agree. d uipon by the
Directors of the central l Florida Ex-
position. Orlando. as 4-H ('lulb nay
during which (cilu) activities such as
poultry judging. egi g judging, prize
awarding. etc.. will take place.
Again this year the exposition is
going to grant a $100.00 scholarship
to either the University of Florida or
the Florida State College for Women
to tile boy or girl \wio a(ccullmtes
the highest score ill the judging con--
test. In addition to, this scholarship,
another grand prize is being! offered
by the Florida ('lain Stores Assoeia-
tion-a free trip for tile winning team
to tlie International Live Stoclk lthow.
This l:imrveloiis educational trip is be-
ing offered to ipromoate 4-11 c(lulb vork
and enciurage productiion of better
eggs anld poultry in the state. This
team of either boys or girls or both
will represent the State of Florida
inll the National 4-II Poultry Judging
'Contest. ('hicago. A team consists of
three elllllbels \iwho are illona fide 1011l-
try clb l!members.
The show will le conducted along
the same general line as last year.
Mr. D. F. Sowell. Assistant Extension
Poiltryman, will lie the superintendent.
The judges of c(itests will b)e Miss
M'ary E. Keown. State Ihome Dein-
onstraltion Agent. Mr. N. It. lMehrof.
Extension Poultryniaii. Mr. R. W.
BIlac(klock. State ('lul Agent. and Mr.
I). F. Sowell.
-A. Lee Frenchi. Jr., '41.
Madison County Club
Boy Receives Award
M. ('. Leslie of Madlison Coinity is
the 1937 winner (,f the 4-I1 title.
"Florida State Livestock ('halniiion".
For his achievement Leslie ihas Ieen
awarded a $50.00 gold watch given by
Thomas E. Wilson. former president
of Wilson and ('oininllalv. The livestock
contest. which hias been conducted :111-
nually since 1932, attracts a great deal
of interest aiionlg. the 4-H livestock
prodncers of Florida. Mr. Wilson. in
soinsorilng such a clmtest. holes to
encourage the boys of the State to
produce lore andl better livestock.
In addition to presenting a gold
watch to soine lby in the State, Mr.
Wilson annually awards folr trips to
the National 4-H ('lb ('Congress. a nd
$((100 in scholarships in connection with
with the livestock contest. Former
winllels of tle waltcl have been
Artihr MleNely. William C(legg. Eu-
gene Hoyles ind Leroy Fortner.
Leslie has been iotstanding in tile
animal production field. having raised
brth hogs and lief cattlee. Inl swine
lie lias carried several projects: breed-
ing pigs. and fitting "and showing a
fat Iarrow in the State IPig ('lub Show.
He has raised one beef cow and lias
fedl. itted, and slown two fat steers
for the Fat Stock Show at Jackson-
ville. In addition to this Leslie has
carried several projects in soybeans
a nd corii. His total sales return on
all of his projects has been $374.00.
During his three years of cnlub vork
M. ('. Leslie lias attended all ulit one
of the .31 meetings held lby the Iinettal
('lull. Recently the inemlers of his clilu
elected himil as their president.
The awards ianide possible throuihi
the generosity of Mr. Thomas E. Wil-
soil should enllconrae mllor'e I(boys who
are interested inl livestock production
to tak ,e part ill the a Illlllil contest.
For Good Food Try
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Florida's Dairy Industry
(Continued from Page 7)
than the dairy cnws kept in the barn
from four 1o six montllls during lthe
It is safe to say that when tile herd
is properly fed and cared for there
will be no more trouble froln sickness
in the herd in Florida than occurs inl
any other State in the Union, and
probably somewhat less.
Production Per Cow Rises
The opinion hits been somllewhat
collunon tlhat cows would not produced
as much milk in thie warm climate of
Floritlda as iln tany other parts of the
United States. This has been largely
true in the past. lbut i only beeause
Florida hals not had as high produe-
ing cows as are found elsewhere. Dur-
ing the past few years authentic pro-
duction records of a lnumbler of good
cows have been obtained in Fl lorida.
Several Jerseys :nld Guernseys have
produced over 1,500 gallons of milk in
365 days while the best Dutch Belted
cow has a record of over 2 (00 gal-
lons. There tare a; number of records
varying from 1.0(00 to 1.200 gallons.
Dairymen generally try to have cows
freshen at regular intervals during the
year. in order to meet the demllnd of
their markets. About 80 per cent of
Florida dairymen prefer to have their
cows freshen in the fall. which is de-
sirable because the greatest demand
for milk is during the late fall and
winter season when the Itrgest lnu'l-
her of tourists are in the State. Int
towns having an important volumlle of
tourist trade the demand is seasonal
and requires a large proportion of
cows in heaviest milk flow during that
The choice of a breed of cattle to
le used in c'inmercial dairies is af-
fected largely by preference of the
individual owner, and education of the
consumers for milk of a particular
quality. Several causes have retarded
introduction and more extensive use
of valuable puerelred dairy cattle. The
proportions of the different pure
breeds of dairy and dual-lpurpose battle
in the United States alnd in Floridal
have been determined in the 1930 Agri-
cultural Census. Registered Jerseys
represent over 70 per cent of the pure-
bred dairy cattle in Florida. Guern-
seys and Holsteins imake 1up an addi-
tional 26 per cent of the purebred
animals, leaving as few ais 4 per cent
of registered purelreds among the re-
nmaining six breeds of dairy and dual-
In recent months progressive dairy-
men in 15 counties have organized
dairy herd improvement associations
and are taking active steps il breed-
ing better dairy aiinimls. A few thou-
sand high-bred, registered dairy ani-
mals have been shipped into the State
as foundation lanials to improve the
quality of dairy cows on Florida farms
in recent months. With a complete set
of dairy farm records as a filncial(ll
guide, the dairy herd implrovelent
records will furnish complete inforlna-
tion for a breeding and management
The Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and( College of Agricul-
ture is now ready to offer services in
dairy products work on a scale similar
to that offered by Experiment Stations
and Agricltlural Colleges of neigh-
boring states. A new dairy products
laboratory has been constructed 'and
equipped on the canmps of the TTni-
versity of Florida and in a few weeks
will lie in full operation. This labora-
tory is to be used in working out a
solution to the needs of the state's
At present production of milk during
the winter months is about sufficient
to take (cfre of the delllmnd for fluid
inilk and a part of the sweet cream.
This means, of course, that the amount
of milk "lv ilable during the su11mmer
is considerably in excess of fluid milk
needs. The question of finding the
most advantiageollus market for this
surplus during tile summer is n proh-
len of major importance to the dairy
industry. Apparently this surplus
sollletillles exceeds even the needs for
cream for ice creant manufacture dur-
ing fihe summer season. This situation
raises the question of whether thle
manufacture of such products as but-
ter and cheese in crenlmeries lland
cheese factories should lie undertaken.l
It would seem doubtful that any
manufacture of dairy products other
than ice cream is likely to occur in
central and south Florida because of
the superior returns usually expected
from citrus, truck crops and the tour-
ist trade. In west Floridn, where few-
(er winter tourists visit, the develop-
nlent and expansion (of :I butter anlld
cheese industry seems illlllinent. A
conMsitdrable expanse of good hlnd is
to bel found in this section of the
state suited to the raising- of crops
necessary for feeding dairy cows. In-
asuninch as Florida produces little
of these products now it would seem
that a ready market could h)e found
for Florida-produced butter and cheese
of good quality. Three rerlomries and
cheese fnetories have already lbeel
established in the state.
In the past 10 years great progress
has been made in tile improvement of
the quality of milk sold as fluid or
market milk. The introduction of
modern refrigerating machinery and
improved equipment for sterilizing
dairy utensils iln ia large percentage
of tie dairy farllls lias revolutionized
the keeping quality of milk. There are
several 1 hundred Grade-A dairies
marketing milk today direct to the
consumers of Florida that have mlilk
with a lower lncterial count ;and with
better keepingl quality than the aver-
age milk sold from certified dairies 30
The more favorable outlook for
prices of mlilk products in relation to
other farm commodities has created
an interest in general faring centers
in the production of milk as "1 cash
crop in a general farming program.
Substantial progress has been made in
recent years in placing family milk
cows on farms in all sections of the
State to furnish milk and milk pro-
ducts for the family living. These
farin cows. given the proper feed and(
Imnagement, are contributing real
service in building health and happi-
liess ill ouri fearing communities.
WHAT YOU DON'T KNOW
It's Latest Production Methods
Newest Possibilities for Development
Recent Discoveries in Marketing
And General Productivity
IS FOUND MONTHLY IN
THE FLORIDA GROWER
For producer, student, or general public desiring to be
well informed there is no better source of timely, money-
making information. This ad and $1.00 will for a short
time bring the magazine to you for a full three years.
Why wait until the price is higher?
FLORIDA GROWER MAGAZINE TAMPA, FLA.
Page 10 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1938
Bunnell Future Farmers Use Brooders How I Plan to Continue
unnell future farmers se rooders My F.F.A. Farming Program
By J. H. NORFLEET. JR.
The pupils in vocational agriculture
at Bunnell are successfully using elec-
tric and hot water brooders. These
brooders in use are made in the farm
The brooders are box type andl ap-
proximately three feet long and two
feet wide with the front cut out to al-
low the chickens to feed. The bottom
for the brooder is made from 1x2 inch
boards and covered with hardware
cloth. The bottom is then nailed to
the box brooder so that it fits securely.
Ialf of the box is partitioned off with
a cloth curtain. In this part of the
electric brooder a turpentine cup (tin
can) is turned up-side-down over a
50 watt bulb. This electric light keeps
the chamber warm at all times. Feed
troughs are placed outside the part
of the brooder farthest away from the
The hot water brooder is con-
structed the sale way as the electric
brooder except that water pipes are
used on the inside and are set so
that there is a gradual drop all the
way from the top of the brooder
where the water leaves the container
to the bottom where the cold water
returns. The container for the water
is an oil can. The water is heated
with a kerosene lamip placed directly
under the water container. The cost
of this brooder is a little higher than
the electric brooder. The electric
brooder costs approximately $1.00 for
Both of these brooders have been
used successfully. Five different
groups of chickens have been produced
in the hot water type with a 10 per-
cent mortality. and two groups in the
electric brooder with a 7 percent
The following bill of material will
le needed to construct these brooders:
2 pieces 1" x S" x 3'.
2 pieces 1" x 8" x 2'.
2 pieces 1" x 2" x 3'.
2 pieces 1" x 2" x 2'.
1 piece hardware cloth /%" mesh 2'
1 electric light socket.
1 fifty-watt electric light bulb.
1 turpentine cup or tin (anl large
enough to go over the electric light
Hot Water Type
Use the same material as for the
electric brooder but with the follow-
ing material substituted for the elec-
trical equipment :
1 five-quart can for water.
8' of 1/ pipe.
4 pipe nuts to fasten can to pipe.
1 kerosene lamp.
Largo Chapter Establishes
Cooperative Broiler Plant
By G. C. HOWELL
The Largo Chapter, FFA, has now
ilt operation a cooperative poultry
project of 1.000 chickens, ranging in
age from day old to the fryer stare.
One of the rooms of the agricultural
building has been reconstructed by
the chapterr members and is used as
the brooder house. This room is
equipped with four battery brooders.
One starter battery has a capacity of
600 chicks until they are two weeks
of age: one intermediate battery. a
capacity of 400 chicks up to five weeks
old: and two finishing batteries, a
capacity of 100 chicks each up to tlhe
In conducting this project, a rotat-
ing plan is used. On the 1st and 15th
of each month 200 baby chicks are
purchased. Each week, approximately
100 two-pound fryers are sold. This
buying and selling process insures am-
proximately 1,000 chicks on hand at
The money for financing the project
was borrowed from a local business
man. The principal is being paid back
in monthly installments. All business
arrangements are handled by the four
Chapter members who compose the
board of directors.
In caring for the chicks the students
follow the latest improved methods of
sanitation and feeding. The project
has two principal objectives: First.
to give the students actual experien-e
in cooperation and business dealings:
second, to enable the Chapter to
finance a trip to the FFA National
Convention in Kansas City next
FARMERS MILLING CO.
Velvet Beans-Snap Corn-Shelled
Corn-Peanut Hay and Molasses
LIVE OAK, FLORIDA
By W. EARL FAIRCLOTH
With money secured through my
projects. and money made otherwise,
I hbught 40 acres of general type
fanrn land from mny Dad last year.
My farm has much room for improve-
ment and I plan to improve it with
profit made from mny projects during
the next year.
My future ideal farn is poultry
type. Two of my four livestock
projects are poultry. I plan to carry
for my poultry projects 100 laying
hens and 500 fryers. Twenty head of
meat hogs and a dairy cow will be
my other livestock projects.
I plan to carry eight crop projects.
Among these will be 10 acres of hog
feed (cowpeas and peanuts), six acres
of corn. two acres of cabbage, two
acres of English peas. 12 acres of
pepper, five acres of watermelons, a
tomato seedbed (4' x 26'), and three
pepper plant beds (4' x 36'), and three
these except the pepper projects will
be on my farm. I have rented 12
acres of more suitable land for pepper.
Although lmost cf my projects are
cash enterprises. I have tried to work
out a balanced program. I have one
or more major, minor. and contribu-
tory enterprises. It is my plan to use
money secured from cash crops in
carrying on my improvement practices.
My cabbage and English pea projects
will le financed with money borrowed
from the Production Credit Association.
I will have completed these before it
is time to begin most of my other
projects, thereby earning enough to
I plan to use the money that I earn
from my projects by wisely investing
it in nmy fari and for my education.
It is mnly hope that in a few years
my actual farmn will le a realization
of the ideal one which I now have
District Federation Of
FFA Chapters Formed
Approximately (0 officers from the
chapters in District V met in Plant
City on November 13 and voted for
a federation of chapters in the dis-
trict. As a part of the program of
the day, some time was devoted to
a school of instruction for chapter
officers. The purpose of this federa-
tion is to bring the various chapters
into closer contact with each other
and to create a greater spirit of co-
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Toreador Club Obtains
Block and Bridle Charter
In order to promote tile illprove-
inent and increase the interest among
thei students of llilinal hlushlilldry la ll
to bring alout closer relationship Ips
milliong inell pursuing somlle phase of
lanimalll husbandry as a profession, the
Toreador ('Club. known throughout the
state as sponsors of the annual Little
International Livestock. Poultry Show,
and Rodeo, will now function as a
collegiate elihpter of the National
Block and Bridle ('lub.
The Block and Bridle Club is a
tiiiionill organization of students in-
terested in the aninml hlusnlldry iln-
dustry. At present there are 18S
ellalpters of the club with approxi-
nmtely 3,(0(0 lilmembers. At the last
ltannuah1l ('lll1 Convenltion Deceilmer 1.
1937, at tllhe Stocky(ards Iull in ('hi-
,ago. Sidney Marshall, president of
the Toreador ('lull. presented n pe-
titilo with tile proper credentials
asking for tlhe establishlent of ;
chapter at the I'tIiversity of Florida.
The petition was passed and 20 menii-
bers were initiated. (Cornell wilh 7()
initiates alld t(lemson College with
30 were also granted chapter cluharters
nt the convention.
National officers of the Block nund
Bridle ('lub Club are Mr. W. L.
Stangel of Texas. President, Mr. II.
('. Moffett. Missouri. Vice-President.
and Mr. AM. G. Snell, L. S. I., Secre-
tary-Treasurer. The objects of tilhe
organization are, first, to promote a
higher scholastic standard among
students of llnimal husbandry: see-
ond, to prollote mllore interest at inter-
collegiate judging contests; third, to
bring about a closer relationship
llamong the menll pllursuinllg solle phase
of anllillil hIusllhldry as a profession:
lId fourth, to encourage students tol
participate in the animal huslandry
Several years ago livestock judging
leanis of the Animal Husbandry De-
artmentl, college e of Agriculture
rUniversity of Florida, traveled to the
livestock expositions of the Southlern,
Midwestern, land North Central regions
to take part in the judging of the
Best stock tle country has to offer
and to partake of the resulting edu-
ca tionll aspects. A small s11un ap-
proll'rilted by the State Legislature
was utilized for this purpose. But
with depression years, this alpropria-
tion failed to blie forthcoming.
It is hoped that the creation of a
chnupter of the National Block alnd
Bridle Club here on the campus will
once again foster active participation
in livestock judging and that similar
of revenue will lie available. C(on-
irary to the opinion of many. live-
stock judging is inot a gamlie. Frotll
it one gains invaluable knowledge of
the factors constituting quality in
unimall and poultry. It allows one
to gain a mental picture of the per-
fect anilltal or third. thereby allowing
hinl to seek similar factors in tihe
breeding, feeding. and mnungement of
livesto ck and poultry. One cnl read
malllly books oi tlie sillject blit unless
hie natually cones into contact with
animals possessing outstanding merits.
it's just about imnpossilde for hlini to
obtain ia good picture of a desirable
type hanill. Students doing judging
at the hllrge shows. where good
animals are on exhibition, can quickly
formulate ideas of what he should
breed and feed for when he gets back
oil the farlli.
Florida's livestock industry is
quickly "stanipeding" toward the front
rank of agriculture in the state. She
needs good livestockmlien to spur the
stampede onl and add a stable eadenet
to tlhe procession.
Broiler Enterprise Started
At Greenville High School
By D. G. ALLEN
Seven imemllbers (of the Greenville
(Chapter, FFA. have lurlchased 1.100
chicks to raise for broilers. The boys
borrowed two hundred dollars froin
the Production credit t Association for
financing tlhe project.
The chicks purchased were either
Rhode Island Reds or Orpingtons.
After the chicks were pulrelsed. the
remaining money wais used to pur-
chase cooperatively the needed feed.
The feed has already been purchased
so that noi student will le out of feed
ait any time.
Ill brooding these chicks, each boy
constructed a brooder house and is
using either a brick, druml, or clay
brooder. The houses vary ill size
from 10' x 10' to 12' x 12'. each house
being constructed so that it can be
changed into a Ilying house. These
houses are shed type ilnd tare con-
structed out of rough or discarded
lumber and lpiie logs.
The members conducting these
projects are securing practical experi-
encles in cooperative borrowing and
cooperative purchasing of feed a nd
chicks: and each individual is learn-
ing how to properly produce chicks
at home. Each boy has icolstructed
his own brooder house, feed troughs.
and other containers.
The purposes of these brooder
projects are to allow the boys to learn
elements of cooperation as well as the
various skills connected with growing
of broilers. It is also hoped that
enough money will lie earned to pur-
chase baby chicks in April to be raised
for the laying flock next fall and
COLLEGIATE MEN'S SHOP
Florida Theater Block
It's not the SIZE of the BUD but the AGE
of the ROOT that counts
Any experienced grower knows that what counts most in a nursery tree is the root system.
Given well developed, vigorous roots, a young tree will not only g'row quickly but will come into
One year old buds grown by GLEN SAINT MARY all carry root systems-not two or three-but
four years old. That's why GLEN trees beg-in to bear fruit one or two years sooner than the
ordinary run of nursery trees.
And that's why GLEN trees, regardless of the size of the buds-whehether or or '/" or
larger-invariably make a remarkable growth from the very start, when properly planted and
It will pay you many times over to buy GLEN trees
Send today for your copy of our Citrus Catalogue and latest price list
Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.
WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA
LARGEST CITRUS NURSERIES IN THE WORLD
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
* IN GATORLAND 0
Interesting Campus News Notes
Marshall Wins Chicago
Trip Awarded By Swift
By OSCAR KEELING MOORE, '38
By excelling in aI contest offered to
juniors in tlhe Animal Husbandry
Department by Swift & Comipany.
which is iased upol leadership inl
showi ing niln'als inl the Little Inter-
national Livestock Show, outstanding
scholastic attainnients in the Univer-
sity. and ability to write an essay.
Sidney Marshall won an all-expenses-
paid trip to Chicago to attend Swift
& Comllany's market study and the
International Live Stock Exposition.
Due to the efforts of IDrl. A. L.
Shealy. head of the aninoll husbandry
del:artment at the University of
Florida, Swift & (Compainy last year
awarded Orville Struthers a free trip
to (hicago to visit tile Live Stock
Exposition ain Swift's packing plants.
This year. Swift & company y under-
took to make tlhe offer oiln a nation-
wide liasis and gives credit to D)octor
Shealy its leing the originator of tlhe
idea. As a result, students from 37
states traveled to, (hicago.
ITUpon arriving at (C'hicago oni Nov.
2N. winners attended lectures (:I his-
tory. developments, activities, scope.
distribution methods, efficiency and
economy, and earnings of the livestock
industry which were given by Swift
representatives. Four full days were
devoted to study at the Swift head-
quarters and the Live Stock Exposi-
tion. Much time was spent right ill
the stockyards to see how packers
deterllilne what to lid for cattle.
hogs, and sheep, and how purchases
are made and ill thll packinghouses
to see plant operations, including Ipro-
.essing methods and production. Rep-
reselltatives of the dairy aid poultry
department also discussed various
phases of preparing and miierchandis-
ing dairy and poultry products.
The nost impressive incident, so
Marshall relates, was attending the
1anna1 l linlllquet of the American
Society of Animal Production at the
Saddle and Sirloin Club. At this
banquet such notables as Drl'. F. B.
Morrison. Professor of Anipnal Hus-
Iandry. Cornell University. and
author of Feeds and Feeding, were
to lie seen.
Another feature of the Swift trip
was attending the International Live
Stock Exposition's Horse Show il the
Chi'cago Almphitheatre. Here the coun-
try's best horses were displayed, in-
cluding roadsters, horses in harness.
ponies in harness. Shetland ponies,
fine harness horses, three and five
gaited saddle horses, hunters. juiplers.
and draft classes.
"I stunmled over tile roots of tlle
tree which I planted." II must have
been all old forester wiho said tliat.
Before the Revolutiol it was all ef-
fort: afterwards it all c(hanigedl to
Dairy Products Building
Now Open and Completed
The finishing touches have been
added to tie new dairy products bnild-
ing to complete one of the most n1od-
erlnly equipped dairy products Ilborla-
tories in the South.
Thei building contains offices, (hen-
ical laboratories, and a baeleriologicial
control laboratory in addition to the
milk plant which is equipped to 11make
market milk, butter. cheese, ice creant.
and condensed milk. A locker roomin
and shower facilities Ire "also Iprovild-
ed for students who are taking ad-
vanced work inl tile plant. The plant
laboratories afford facilities for Ipra'-
tical as well as technical training for
olle or llore of the following jobs:
technical dairy plant operation, plant
Ill ageenlt. labor atory technology,
ililk plant andi dairy illnsection work.
alld dairy luaillnfactlre Ieaching an lld
researllh. It is possiille to viry tlhe
crr icnunlln alcc rdinllg lo the type woirk
a student expects to enter upon lev-
Some of the first researchll studies
to be nmadle by Dr. IL. M. Tlurston.
Iead of Dairy Produects Delpartment.
will include implroved iietliods of
preserving surpllns siutnier miilk in lile
form of creal anmd condenllsed miilk ill
the frozen state for winter use iit ice
c'recan ilnlllfafetulrimng. Tile use of Flor-
ida fruits for ice creatni, ices. sherberts.
and all investigation of tile effects of
certain feeds, which are peculiar to
Florida, on milk flavor are other re-
search problems upon which Doctor
Thurston will work.
-SIDNEY P. AIARSlIAL,.. '3.S.
Organize Beneficial Club
Friday nigllt. Nove"lher 12. 1937.
wi s the eve on which tl,,e 25 rec-il Ients
of the .$10000 scholalrshinls given vby
Sears-RItoebuk and (Co(llllmpan to this
University wet to form t cilinh for the
mutual benefits of its lleulmbers
After electing officers the i'en dis-
cussed plans for the coniin,, year. A
committee was appointed by tile ures-
ident to dra ft a clnstitntion and Iy-
laws for the (club andt silrnlit at tle
next meeting a program for thle year.
Possibilities of the "ell i1r's entertain-
ing over the Florida Flar" Hour and
other events of interest w\ere a lso
tinched during the si'-f -' eating.
The officers. is elected are: Preisi-
dent, Myron Grennel : vice-president.
Eugene Boyles secret iry- lrea snrer.
Kenleth Clark : reporter. Harold
Brewer. The faculty vlvis')ry (com-
mittee. as selected, consists of: I)eill
RIt. C. Beaty. chairman., Major WV. L.
Floyd, and Dr. P. II. Scullenn.
-A. Lee French. -e r.. '41.
SUBSCRIBE NOW TO
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE
Notable Pedologist Now
In Agronomy Department
UTpon the resignation of Dr. O. C.
LBryain. who is now coinluercially en-
gaged in the State, Deanl Wilinon
Newell of the College of Agriculture
selected Dr. F. B. Smith. outstanding
scientist of Iowa State College at
Allmes, as professor of and researeher
in pedology-soil science. Doctor Smith.
being a specialist in the field of soil
microbiology. will be engaged pri-
iaarily in work with organic nimatter
aind cover crops.
Being in Florida doesn't greatly re-
move Doctor Smith from Ils home.
since he is a native of Georgia. Hav-
ing graduated at his state university,
Doctor Smlith undertook gra(dlalte work
it Iowla State where lie earned both
Mlitsler of Scieice and Doctor of
Philosophy degrees resulting front his
work w itli soil bacteriology an"d soil
Malny and varied are Ihis experiences.
since Doctorl Smith has devoted sev-
erail years as professor in South Car-
olinal and Lollisiana high schools, at
Colorado State College. and at Iowa
State College. During tile past five
years, lie lhas served ais researchl as-
sociate professor of soils at the Iltter
FLORIDA CATTLE INDUSTRY
(Continued from Page 5)
tile other one-half English illood to
furnish quality. Tlie RSanta (ertrudas
is tlhe only established breed that nears
this lit. lihas not been tried in the
state as yet.
Frimi the progress tlihat has been
mllde in the last five years tle future
outlook of the Florida cattle industry
appears good. We can't all feed out
Iour steels but we (an11 inllilrove our
stock to tlhe point where we can put
feeder steers and calves of equal
quality on the Eastern markets at a
lower price than the Western cattle-
men; because we are so much closer
to those markets.
The time is not far off when the
value of the( cattle industry to the
state will lie fully recognized.
1866 W. University Avenue
Chesnut Office Equipment
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Poultry Housing in Florida
By OSCAR KEELING MOORE, '38
Although Florida's air-conditioned.
custonn-huilt climate appreciably silmpli-
ties the problems involved in housing
poultry. nevertheless. we need give
extensive forethought to the construc-
tion of our poultry houses. Regardless
of the egg-producing ability of our
bird's ancestry, regardless of how good
the ration fed. and notwithstanding
the fact that we devote our best abili-
ties to the management of the flock.
ail of this (lan lie of no avail unless
we properly house the birds.
To a inodern airplane-il bird (If tihr'
sky-the laying flock-hirds If 1err11
firnmi-can be likened. With an air-
liner, only ia inuite device, if defec-
tive. c;an disable the entire ship con-
verting life into death aid a i costly
plane into wv're(kailge. With poulry.1 ilm-
proller housing, like faulty breeding,
inn.uhatiol, birooding, feeding'. and
sanitation, (i.on convert living lirds
into delid. i protlitable enterprise into
This airlplne-chicken discussion re-
minds ine of a qiueer incident which
occurred recently anld vhich you most
likely will not believe. But you nmay
take my word, it's true regardless.
Getting at the Source
On the South Anlerinll (Coast of
Columbia near Barranquilla, cionstrue-
tion crews had just complleted a liase
airport serving Paii-Alleriean Airway's
flying clipper ships enroute from Palla-
na., (Canal Zone. ro Port of Spain,
Trinidad. For several days the passage
of the giant, bird-like clippers over this
region of Columbia's dense tropical
jungles had incited the ilinost-slvagge
natives into a turmoil. What were
these hugh. seemingly living birds that
cast out foreigners and drank petro-
On the sixth night of arriving and
departing of aircraft, selii-lnude Ilacks
stealthily crept through tropical vege-
tation in the direction of P'an-Ameri-
cnll's lnew, expansive hanger. Entering
this metal structure was quick work;
for these ipagan Colunllliinlls \who were
savagely adept at climbing and relep-
ing upon prey.
But the venture was ll in vain,
and the blacks' carefully planned. ad1-
venturesome project was gone with tihe
wind, for 1'an-American, too. was
aware of native sentiment and hadi
Having selected whalt appeared to ibe
the chieftain of the captured lot. the
guards, with the aid of all interpreter,
proceeded to question as to the reason
for the intrusion.
It was very simple. The blacks hlad
cinme to destroy all the eggs il the
hig, silvery-topped nest, s,) the avia-
tors couldn't hatch any more of tihe
gigantic, noisy thirds whlicih carried
whites in their bosom !
But now, let's get back to business
Plan Before You Build
In constructing laying houses, it's
Ilighty ilnplirtant to have definite plans
for the entire structure Iefore ia hlial-
iler strikes the first Ilil. Correct place-
lenit of wVinldows, open fronts, vent
intake and exit flues, (drolppings boards.
and equipment is iilmperative in order
to insure adequate gravitational air
circulation with freedom from drafts
and other factors which 11imay hinder
health ,and egg production.
In cnsellequence, piIltrymnenl should
sicuire pla1ls of houses that have given
satisfaction here in Florida. When
I liuiltryiianl tries to fori'mulate plans
of iris own. utilizing a good p-iint from
neighbor Smith's house, another from
IIenry Gooldson's newest laying house.
landl oIl down the line, he's pleading
for trouble. These points lnay appear
advalltageous in the other mian's house.
unt when a collection of several dif-
ferent apparently good ideas aire in-
co(perated in ole housee. one cn('n never
prophlesy what the outcomne shall lie.
So. do not experiment. Select a proved
plan, use good materials, good con-
struction, and adhere to your selected
Four types of houses that appar))l'ent-
ly seem well adapted to Florida. rend-
erilng unquestio1na1ble service, are: (a)
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest
type house, (h) Vniversity of Florida
College of Agriculture two-third span
colony house and gable roofl' 1 x 25
foot laying house, and (cl tlie 10 x 12
foot pmotable combination house which
is gaining widespread use in both
northern and southern regions (of tilhe
The Contest House
Iouses that have given shelter to
birds capturing international egg-lay-
ilg contest records must lie adapted
to our state. These are found at Flor-
ida's National Egg-Laying contestt lo-
eated at Chipley. Comparatively re-
cently, a pen of birds here outpointed
all other thirds il contests over tlhe
entire I nitted States. and year after
year 300-egg producers are' turned out
that are among the nation's best. No
higher recommendation enn hle attri-
buted to ;any house.
The contest plant is located approxi-
nmntely two miles east of Chipley oil
the Jacksonville-Pensacola highway.
Tile land is sloping in three directions.
assuring Viwater and air drainage. The
soil is 11hevy clay lonal which is de-
sirable lith for runs and for growing
green feed. There are 50 two-third span.
open front. 12 x 14 foot houses. Tnder
contest work. t tese houses i('n(ii(o-
date 24 birds or two pens: otherwise
56 birds, allowing the usuil recom-
mel(dation of three square feel of floor
snaee per bird, could lie accommnodated.
The houses Ilare arranged in six rows
of eight houses each with a driveway
fronting ench row. Two additional
houses are in the rear of tile group.
There is a driveway through the center
which divides the contest into two
All houses havoe a southern ex-
posure, coclrete floors, cypSress shingle
roof, and eight-inch vent door under
the real enve which is opened in sum-l
ller and closed in winter, and tile open
front extends from a foot under the
front eave down within three feet of
the ground. One by six-inch wenthelr-
hoarding forms tile siding.
The Florida Contest houses, designed
1by N. 1. Mehrhof, head of the Poultry
department. collegee of Agriculture.
University of Florida, and E. F. Stan-
ton, supervisor of the contest, are now
serving their 12th year in housing
chamnlpion egg producers.
The College House
At the poultry plant of the College
of Agriculture in Gainesville will be
found Dr.. N. W. Sanborn's conception
of the ideal poultry house for Florida
use. (Dr. Sallnborn is emeritus professor
of poultry huslbadry.) These houses
resulted from experimental work con-
ducted at the College from 1121 to
192G, alnd they. too, have stood the
test of 12 years' usnage with success.
This house is 12 x 10 feet, of two-
third spalin construction, hais a gal-
vanized nielii roof. a(nd allow's 7 feet
The front of the house is ollen just
under the over-hanging roof for 18-
inches, the opening heing covered with
wire netting to exclude birds which
liarbor diseases illld )parasites. Below
the netting, the front is hoarded up
and down with 1 x 0 inch material
splaced one inch pilplrt.
The rear of the house is boarded
up and down like the front from the
sill to the back edge of the dropping
hoards. The remainder of the back is
loarded tightly ilp to the top of the
l1late, leaving nll open 11)nee of about
four inches between plate and roof.
The ends of the house are similarly
hoarded with one-inch spacing between
boards for half the distance from front
to rear. The real half of the house's
side is boarded tightly, providing pro-
teetion about the roosting quarters.
For the !imiltryman who desires a
larger house and one which can be
constructed as a continuous type house.
rather than the smaller, colony-type
house which is representative of the
(Coltest house and the alove-described
model, Irofessor Mehrhof together
with other members of the poultry de-
lirtilent and( Professor Frazier Rogers
of the agricultural engineering depart-
inent of the College have just recently
designed and erected three 16 x 25
foot gablle roof houses witll a llacity
of 15i0 Leghorns or 125 birds of the
heavy breeds. These houses ean be
built in any length desired having any
number of lens, making an intensive
system of poultry farming.
These 1hoses, although they have
IOeen in use for only a few months,
give evidence of being very suitable
to Florida's climatic conditions as is
proved by the favorable response made
by several hundred pullets that they
The ventilation system installed in
these houses is proving quite appllic-
able to this clinaute. The system of
ventilation is adequate. providing a
eool house ill summller, which is of
paramount illportance, and yet is re-
stricted enough to allow for warnith
ill winter. To ile, it seems that a de-
sirable medium of air circulation is
provided-not too much. yet enough
to allow frequent air changes.
Page 14 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1938
The ventilation system consists pri-
marily of a 31%-foot opening at the
front extending the full length of the
house, of single sash windows placed
in the rear of the house below the
dropping boards, which are opened in
summer and closed in winter, of a
4-inch opening between rafters run-
ning the full length of the house in
front and real, and of a continuous
ventilator at the saddle of the gable
roof. This ventilator consists of a
slot-like opening in the roof saddle
leading into the house with a V-shapied
metal covering raised and offset four
inches from the roof by 2x4 inch
plates, thus allowing the air to escape
to the south and north of the house
(the houses halve a southern exposure).
Fresh air enters the house without
drafts through the open front and
front air intakes, through the rear
windows and rear intake, circulates
through the house. rises to the ceil-
ing, and escapes through the saddle
Other alpoilintments of these houses
consist of durable, sanitary concrete
floors which are kept covered with
absorbent shavings: eight inches of
roosting space per bird with removable
perches to facilitate cleaning, with
one inch mesh wire netting enclosing
the dropping boards as a sanitary
pleasure; plenty of nests-- nest per
5 birds-that are kept clean with
shavings constituting the nesting ma-
terial; and plenty of feed and water
s1l'ce-three inches of hopper slilace
per bird. Before pltaing birds in the
houses and frequently thereafter. the
entire interior of the houses is sprayed
with a creosote material which repels
lice and niites and disease-producingl
organisms in general. .lus all ordi-
nary small insecticide spray is used
for this work.
The fourth type house enumerated
is the 10x12 foot portablle combination
brooder, range, and laying house
which, I believe, was originally de-
veloped anld brought to its present
perfective state by Hlnrold and Law-
rence Irwin of Pinelreeze Farm, ('al-
lahan, Florida. This poultry farm.
which is the state's largest, maintain-
ing 15,000 layers and breeders, has
given many type houses a trial, but
all have been abandoned in favor of
This type house is readily finding
acceptance over the state where plenty
of land is available for egg farming.
The houses are cheap, one poultryianl
stating that $35 will cover all costs
including labor. Another advantage
is that they may lie easily moved to
clean, new ground iln a rotation pro-
gram for reducing the high mortality
This house is satisfactory as a
brooder house for haby chicks. By
removing insulation board from the
sides which is used while brooding
and replacing the brooder stove with
roosts along one side. it becomes an
ideal range shelter for 1O pulllets
front the seventh week to maturity.
Placing nests along the wall opposite
the roosts just beneath the side open-
ing makes it a satisfactory movable
laying house with a capacity of 85
The house is built on 2x8 inch run-
ners 14 feet long with 2x6 inch con-
necting joists dropped two inches le-
low the top of the 2xS's for easy
moving. A 10x12 foot floor is laid
on 2x4 joists placed flat on 2 foot
centers. The joists are notched into
the 2xS runners and nailed flat onl
top of the 2x6's. Braces are cut into
the corners to prevent racking.
For the plates 2x4 material 12 feet
in length is used which, in turn, is
supported by 52-inch uprights. Four
lpairs of rafters are cut to form a
fair pitch and are nailed on the places.
This house, thus, is built very low.
The rear end of the house is com-
pletely closed with the exception of
a 1x2 foot vent opening in the ganle
which, in severe weather, should lie
covered with muslin. A door, placed
off center, is built in the front, al-
lowing roosts to be placed on one side.
The roosts consist of four 2x2's placed
on 12-inch centers preferably 1nmle in
two 5' 9" sections with wire netting
fastened to the
underside to keep
birds out of the
droppings. Open- B
ings running the
full length of the
house and 18
inches in depth
are left on each
side just beneath
the eaves which Have been
should extend ida Growei
well out from the They are k
house to repel they are
blowing rains. are
When used as a W
brooder the sides make
and roof on the scientific r
interior should be ful manuf
masonite, celotex. You will
or a similar ma- user. If t
trial and the ty, write u
door, which is
covered with wire
mesh, should be
covered with mus-
lin. This givesT
subdued light per- T
mitting chicks to
find feed and
type house will
to 400 chicks.
e. 3. Coles & Sons
Jewelers, Silversmiths, Opticians
Studi of .
making better crops for the Flor-
rs for over a quarter of a century.
known for their value-not because
Better Quality Brands as good as
research, good materials, and care-
acturing methods direct.
be pleased with them. Ask any
here is no agent in your communi-
The ^8pty ^w~r*binuj Qompau4 3nc.
36 SOUTH MAIN ST.
ART SERVICE PLATE SERVICE
BOOKLET COVERS HALFTONES
PHOTO LAYOUTS ZINC ETCHINGS
TRADE MARKS COLOR PLATES
SPECIAL MAPS BEN DAY PLATES
PHOTO-RETOUCHING NEWSPAPER HALFTONES
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1938 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 15
k1W .Ti/.iA i
O-^ on the 1 W! qI .
Melotte gives you not
only the sensational, ex- /
elusive. Suspended, Self-
Balancing Bowl feature,
but also 100% Stainless
Steel in every part that touches
milk. Only 18 discs. Longer wearing.
Can't rust. Easier turning. Auto-
motive type overhead oiling system.
New precision straight cut gears.
Instantly removable bowl chamber.
Convenient to use. Lowest upkeep
cost. And-the best skimmer of all.
Trade in That
Trade in your old cream wasting separator now.
Pay for your new Melotte on our easy terms offer
out of the extra cream checks you get. Ask for
our big Trade Allowance! Come in or phone today.
Equipment & Supply Dept.
Howard Grain Co.
PRODUCERS OF EARLY
FRUIT MAKE MONEY
Enable grower to produce the
earliest fruit of finest
Jackson Grain Co.
one of the largest and most
complete plants in the Southeast
ROSE PRINTING CO.
ROSE BUILDING TALLAHASSEE
Printers Publishers Bookbinders Rulers
and Veneer Company
Established 1896 Incorporated 1903
Manufacturers of Citrus and
HENRY W. LAND, BSA '33
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
GROWERS and farmers
who look for an advance
in prices paid for their crops
in coming markets must pre-
pare to meet the demand for
higher quality. NACO
Brand Fertilizers produce
better yields....finer quality.
'FOR SALE IN THIS TERRITnRY BY
NITRATE AGENCIES CO.
Pres. & Gen'l Mgr.
Paqe 16 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1938
In One or More Colors
MADE BY -
The Tampa Times Engraving Plant
PRINT BETTER LOOK BETTER
WE MAKE A SPECIALTY OF SCHOOL
AND COLLEGE ANNUALS
Engravers for the "Seminole" and "Florida Alligator"
The College of Agriculture of the University of Florida
OFFERS TRAINING IN VARIOUS LINES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND LEADERSHIP
Two Years General College Followed by Two Years in Applied Agriculture
Leading to B. S. A. Degree, with Specialization in the Following Fields:
Animal Husbandry Agricultural Education
Agricultural Engineering Horticulture
Only college in Southeast offering full courses in citrus and sub-tropical fruit culture.
School of Forestry offering a B.S. Degree in Forestry.
Ample opportunity to develop talents through extra-curricula activities.
DEBATING, DRAMATICS, ORATORY, BUSINESS, POLITICS.
For catalog and full information write:
DEAN, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER