Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
Vol. IV FEBRUARY, 1936 No. 2
BEEF CATTLE HAVE BEEN IMPORTANT IN FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE FOR NEARLY 400 YEARS.
THE INDUSTRY IS MAKING RAPID STRIDES FORWARD TODAY.
-R6 1 .
Page 2 TIlE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1936
For downright money's worth
have no equal
This statement is by no means just an idle asser-
tion. It is the experienced conclusion of growers
in every part of Florida. What they have learned
about the value of other fertilizers as compared
with Ideal Fertilizers has resulted in the fact that
for more than forty years more Ideal Fertilizers
have been used in Florida than any other brand.
Time after time their superiority has been proven
in every branch of agriculture.
Manufactured Exclusively by
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Co.
MARTIN'S HY-TEST SEEDS
TODAY, AS SIXTY YEARS AGO, WE
OFFER THE BEST IN QUALITY
SEEDS. OUR STOCKS ARE
COMPLETE AND OUR PRICES RIGHT.
OUR INTERESTS ARE IN THE
FARMERS AND FUTURE FARMERS
E. A. MARTIN SEED CO.
Established in 1875
A generation of service
to the agricultural in-
terests of a great State.
$1.00 A YEAR
fLORIDA GROW[R PRESS
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1936 TIlE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Beef Production in Florida
By LLOYD RHODEN, '37
With only a few published records
and hardly any narrative sketches of
the history of Florida, it is hard to
be exact in writing a history of the
beef cattle industry in the State.
Many things point to the fact that
the pastures of our State and espe-
cially Alachua County have been in
use for cattle grazing over a period
of 400 years. It is generally accepted
that cattle were first brought to Flor-
ida from the nearby islands by the
Spanish, and the Indians obtained and
developed animals from these early
introductions. Reasons for believing
that cattle were first introduced by
Spaniards are: The State was en-
tirely taken up by land grants to
Spanish gentlemen, and it was only
natural that they should bring their
native stock and equipment with
them; second, the native cattle that
roam the woods today still bear many
of the characteristics of those early
Spanish animals; other proofs are
found in the writings of various trav-
elers. Buchholz' says, "The Indians
of the Alachua tribe of the Seminoles
grew wealthy in the cattle and horses
raised on the great prairies and many
small savannas." Also Bartram2
mentions cattle encountered on his
"The extensive Alachua Savanna is
a level, green plain about fifteen miles
across and about fifty miles in cir-
cumference and scarcely a bush of
any kind to be seen on it, at the same
time could be seen innumerable droves
of cattle: the lordly bull, the lowing
cow, and the sleek capricious heifer."
The area was then settled by the
The success of the Indians caused
the Spaniards to take interest in the
industry, and many requests were
sent to the Spanish Crown for grants
of land for the express purpose of
From 1830 to 1850 many cattle
were imported from the States of
Georgia and Alabama; from 1870 to
1900 many importations of purebred
cattle were made; included were such
breeds as Hereford, Aberdeen Angus,
Shorthorn and Devon.
The Industry Advances
Much is now being done for the
advancement and improvement of the
industry in the State. Great areas
of cut-over land are being turned into
The greatest single effort now being
made to aid the cattle industry is the
work being done in the tick eradica-
tion program. About 90 percent of
1Buchbolz, F. W. History of Alachua
County, Florid,. Record Publishing Co., St.
2 Bartram, William. Travels, Through
North and South Carolina, Georgia, and
Florida. James and Johnson. Philadelphia,
the State has been freed of the cattle
fever tick. It is said that Florida
imports annually $20,000,000 worth
of beef products, and it is further said
that upon the completion of the pres-
ent plans for tick eradication these
importations will be materially re-
At present state workers are doing
much to encourage importation of
purebred cattle, especially purebred
bulls, to turn on the range with na-
Cooperative organizations are being
formed throughout the State for the
purpose of obtaining better markets,
better methods of production, and
better market prices for cattle.
During the four centuries that cat-
tle have inhabited Florida, they have
adapted themselves to our range and
climatic conditions. They have learned
to withstand adverse conditions, to
rustle for their own food, and other-
wise care for themselves with little
or no help from man. Many of these
native cows are never fed; as a result
their average weight is only from 600
to 700 pounds. With the introduction
of purebred bulls, and the improve-
ment of feed conditions, a larger sized
animal shall be obtained.
A Good Bull
The desirable bull should be of a
compact conformation, low set, with
a deep and firm covering of flesh. It
is desired that both top and bottom
lines be straight. Much width is de-
sired across the loins. The ribs
should be well sprung, with much
width in the chest region; a short,
wide head is best, with clear and pla-
cid eyes that show a quiet tempera-
ment. The neck should denote mas-
culinity, and be thick and well
muscled. Above all, the bull should
be prepotent, that is possess the
ability to stamp his desirable charac-
teristics on his offspring.
In the development of the cattle
industry in the State four breeds have
played important roles. It is entirely
a matter of personal preference as to
which breed is best.
The Aberdeen Angus breed origi-
nated in Scotland, and importations
were made into this State as early
as 1873. The breed is noted for its
health and vigor, its heaviness in the
hindquarters, and black color. Many
farmers desire them for their grazing
abilities and ability to flesh well with
a high degree of marbling.
The Hereford strain of beef cattle
comes from England. Records show
that as early as 1817 these cattle
were .brought into the state. The
outstanding characteristics of these
animals are the red and white color
and their foraging ability. They are
more numerous on Florida ranges
than any other breed, being used ex-
tensively in the production of baby
beef because of their early maturing
The Shorthorn is perhaps the oldest
of all distinct breeds, and it was one
of the last to be introduced into Flor-
ida. Animals of this breed are by
far the largest of any breed, yet they
are undesirable in the state because
of lack of rustling ability; however,
they are extremely well adapted to
sections of the country where cattle
are fattened in feed lots.
Last to be brought into the state
were the Brahmans. These cattle
are natives of India (the sacred cows
of India). Brahmans are particularly
noted for their ruggedness. When
crossed with the native Florida cow,
a very desirable animal is produced.
The meat of Brahmans tends to be
tough and stringy.
Equipment for Beef Production
Comparatively little equipment is
needed in beef production in Florida.
The winters are very mild; hence,
there is no need for the expensive
barns and sheds used in the North.
It is best to have ample facilities
to care for the cattle. In herds of
50 cattle or more, a silo is necessary,
so you may have a convenient place
to store food. A barn constructed of
light cheap material is all that is
necessary in the way of shelter. There
is need, however, of pens to care for
Under Florida range and pasture
conditions, fewer cows should be al-
lowed to each bull. Where it is prac-
ticable, hand mating should be ob-
served. The age of the bull also plays
an important part in the number of
cows serviced. It is hard to set down
a definite rule as to the number of
cows per bull, but the following gen-
eral rule may apply under the range
and pasture conditions now existing.
For yearling bulls, 8 to 10 cows per
season; two year old bulls, 15 to 20
cows per season; three years and old-
er, 20 to 35 cows per season; and for
hand breeding these figures may be
increased 25 to 50 percent.
A carefully regulated breeding sea-
son is desirable so that all calves will
be dropped within a few weeks of
each other. The herd bull should be
separated from the cows except dur-
ing the breeding season. This prac-
tice makes the calves of a uniform
size and age, hence they bring better
prices on the market.
Important in the production of beef
in Florida is the consideration of such
things as operations and diseases.
Major operations are the castration
and dehorning of animals. Both
processes are very simple. Castra-
(Concluded on page 17)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Interesting Campus News Notes
The new Forestry Club has been
very successful in securing outstand-
ing men in the profession of forestry
to speak at its meetings.
B. F. Williamson, past president of
the Florida Forestry Association, re-
lates the importance of research in
the study of forestry. Through re-
search it has been found that paper
can be produced from the pulp of
Southern yellow pine cheaper than
in any other part of the United
States. Rayon, shoe polish, ink, and
many other products can be obtained
Harry Lee Baker, State Forester,
is cooperating with the Forestry De-
partment and Forestry Club in every
way possible. His speech to the Club
November 26 revealed the importance
of fire depression. Fire is the great-
est known enemy to the forest. Mr.
Baker also told of the many fields
open for forestry students.
Frank A. Albert, Supervisor of the
National Forests in Florida, gave the
early history of forestry in America.
As early as 1828 President John
Quincy Adams had the coastal areas
of Georgia, Florida, and North Caro-
lina examined in order to get a re-
port on the supply of live oak timbers,
as he had just established a naval
station, which used this type of hard-
wood, near Pensacola, Florida. This
report showed such a small supply
of timber that he set aside thirty
thousand acres of land on Santa Rosa
Island for the purpose of raising live
It was not until 1905 that the De-
partment of Forestry was really es-
tablished. As the result of President
Roosevelt's action in 1907, the total
acreage of our forests, which were
mostly in the West, reached one hun-
dred million acres.
Forestry in the East did not begin
until 1911 when Congress passed the
Weeks Act authorizing the Federal
Government to buy privately owned
lands. Pisgah National Forest, which
is around Mt. Pisgah, North Carolina,
was the first National Forest estab-
lished in the East.
There are four national forests in
Florida, the Choctawhatchee, the
Ocala, the Apalachicola, and the
Osceola, all totaling approximately
nine hundred and eighty-five thousand
acres. Besides the national forests
there are several state and private
Mr. Albert says that under the
present plan, the Florida National
Forest acreage will grow to one mil-
lion, one hundred and fifty thousand
acres by July 1, 1936.
Dr. P. H. Rolfs, former Dean of
the College of Agriculture and Di-
rector of the Experiment Station for
15 years, spoke on forestry in Brazil.
Austin Cary, formerly in the U. S.
Forest Service but now retired, will
be a future speaker.
The officers of the club are: George
Smoak, president; Frank H. Rich,
vice-president; Henry Lunsford, sec-
retary-treasurer; Art Karst, reporter.
-H. C. L.
W. H. Lundy, better known as Dick,
comes from Milton, Florida. Dick
has been associated with agriculture
practically all of his life so that it
is not surprising that he has chosen
agriculture as his profession.
The first year that he attended col-
lege was at the well known Berry
College, located at Mt. Berry, Georgia.
After completing his freshman year
there, he remained out of school for
one year before entering the College
of Agriculture at the University of
Florida. Or to express it as Dick
would, "The best college on the cam-
Dick is majoring in Agronomy and
is specializing in soils and genetics.
He plans to enter the tung oil field
While Dick has been partially
working his way through college, he
has found time to take an active part
in campus activities. During his
junior year he was a member of the
very successful debating team which
represented the Ag College on its trip
to the University of Georgia and Au-
burn. This year he is the president
of his fraternity, president of the
Inter-fraternity Conference, president
of the Baptist Student Union. He was
elected Chronicler of Alpha Zeta but
had to resign his post due to his many
extra-curricula a c t i v it i e s. Dick
pledged Phi Sigma during the past
fall. Ever since his coming to this
campus, Dick has been a member of
the Ag Club and has taken an active
interest in campus politics. The sum-
mer of 1935 found Dick the Clerk of
the Honor Court.
The University of Florida, for the
first time in its history, was repre-
sented at the National Interfraternity
Conference, which was held the past
fall in New York City. Dick was
elected the Florida delegate and was
accompanied there by Dean B. A.
Jefferson Davis was elected Presi-
dent of the Ag Club, on November
18, 1935. Other officers elected at
that time are: Vice-President, Wilson
Matthews; Sec. Treas., Kathleen
Wheeler; Reporter, Waldo E. Bishop;
Critic, Ben McLauchlin.
Mr. Owens who was one of the
founders of the Ag Club in 1912, made
a few very interesting remarks at the
meeting on November 25. He is now
a professor at Tallahassee.
L. L. Russof, of the Experiment
Station, spoke to the Ag Club on the
subject of Vitamins in Relation to
Health, at the meeting on December
2. The Constitution Revision Com-
mittee presented the revised Consti-
tution, and it was accepted by the
club. This committee was composed
of Professor Frazier Rogers, Ben
McLauchlin and L. K. Edwards.
On December 9 the Ag Club held
its annual fish fry in Magnolia
Grove beneath the beautiful full moon
and amid the joy of all present. The
fish for the fry were furnished by
Professor C. E. Abbott. The fry was
made a great success by the work
of Dr. P. H. Senn and a few mem-
bers of the club. There were about
100 present for the fry.
Miss Lucy Belle Settle, of the Ag-
ricultural Extension Service, gave a
very interesting and educational talk
on etiquette at the December 16
On January 6 J. Francis Cooper,
Jr., Editor for the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service and Experiment Sta-
tion, related to the club the import-
ance and ways of securing agriculture
publicity.-W. E. B.
In choosing a calf, choose it of the
breed that you admire most and be-
lieve suited to your conditions.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
LISTENERS ON RADIO
"MEET THE FACULTY"
While students in the classroom
meet members of the faculty daily,
often they do not know all the inter-
esting items of personal experience
and training which these "profs" have
had. Much less does the average citi-
zen know about them.
However, since the first of the year
both students and others have had an
opportunity to "meet the faculty" on
the air. Radio personality sketches
have been given of practically every
one of the teachers in the College of
Agriculture. These sketches have
been prepared by students and pre-
sented on the noonday Florida Farm
Hour over WRUF.
Facu'ty members whose life history
has been laid bare, and students who
did the delving to obtain the informa-
tion include: Major W. L. Floyd by
Charley Glenn; Dr. C. V. Noble by
Ben McLauchlin; Dr. Wilmon Newell
by Wilmer Bassett; Prof. H. Harold
Hume by John Granger; Dr. O. C.
Bryan by Fred Yancey; Frazier Rog-
ers by T. M. Love; Dr. P. H. Senn by
W. Harper Kendrick; C. E. Abbott
by Frank Bennett; Dr. J. T. Creighton
by Jeff Davis; C. H. Willoughby by
Victor Nettles; Dr. H. G. Hamilton
by Phil Arey; Norman R. Mehrhof
by Ben Gittings; Dr. N. W. Sanborn
by H. W. Lundy; W. W. Henley by
Dan Allen and H. S. Newins by Frank
Ag College Choral Club
During the fall of the present
school year, a choral club was organ-
ized by a group of students at the
College of Agriculture who are inter-
ested in singing. Miss Cleva J. Car-
son, director of music in the P. K.
Yonge Laboratory School, proved to
be a friend in need and consented to
direct the newly organized choral
club. There are now about 30 stu-
dent and faculty members in the club.
Plans have been made to appear in
several college activities, such as Ag
Club and other meetings, and to make
a trip to Tallahassee with the Ag
Under the able guidance of Chan-
cellor Victor F. Nettles the program
for Alpha Zeta this year is being car-
ried out nicely. Radio talks sponsored
by Alpha Zeta are being given this
year. Two publications are planned
for the year, one, a mid-year Alpha
Zeta Sunshine, and the other a Year
Book of the College of Agriculture.
New members initiated into the
chapter during the first semester
were: J. Lacey Barton, John Causey,
Charlie Glenn, L. S. Maxwell, Howard
Moore, and Paul Seiler.
When you think you have reached
the end of your rope, tie a knot in it
and hang on.
Former 4-H Girls Continue
Their Club Work in College
A College 4-H Club was organized
at State College for Women in 1926
with a very small number of girls.
As the years have passed, the club
has grown in numbers and popularity.
It is composed of former 4-H girls
who have done some phase of home
demonstration work before coming to
One object of the club is to carry
over into college days the fine spirit
and standards learned in former 4-H
work. During the years in college
the girls must devote themselves to
training the four H's, which symbol-
ize the aim of the club: the Head,
Heart, Hands, and Health. By train-
ing these four, they will be able to
more fully serve college, community,
State and nation.
Each member strives to strengthen
club work throughout the State. At
the end of school term in June, five
or six hundred 4-H club girls attend
the annual Short Course in Tallahas-
see, College 4-H club girls assist in
putting on programs, become leaders,
and help the club girls during their
stay. In this way former 4-H Club
members assist the State workers to
strengthen 4-H club work.
Although the annual Short Course
is the greatest part of the College
4-H program, there are other activi-
ties. A tea honoring Freshmen, a
Christmas party, 4-H week, Fresh-
man initiation for new members, an
outing at Camp Flastacowo with the
"Ag" Club from Gainesville, and the
Senior Tea are a few of the many
social events during the year.
Success of the club is due to co-
operation received from the state
home demonstration staff. Miss Flavia
Gleason, State Home Demonstration
Agent, Miss Anna Mae Sikes, Acting
District Agent, and Miss Ruby Mc-
David, District Agent, are sponsors
of the Club.-Doris McCullough.
Station Library Is
Among Best in South
For a long time after its establish-
ment the most important work of the
Experiment Station was educational
and very little attention was paid to
the accumulation of a library. It
was only after real research work
became of first importance that the
great need of a scientific research
library began to be actually felt.
After the removal of the institution
to Gainesville, for lack of necessary
funds the library opened only half
time. In August 1923 the work of
the Station made it important that
the library begin to function as a
regular department, specializing in
agricultural literature for the con-
stantly increasing number of scien-
Mrs. Ida Keeling Cresap, a full time
librarian, was appointed and since
that time the library has functioned
on the same basis as that of the other
The library has grown and devel-
oped so greatly within the past few
years that the space is quite limited.
It is now one of the best agricultural
libraries in the South. The library
contains 12,580 bound volumes and
numbers of volumes that are unbound
due to lack of funds.
The library is maintained especial-
ly for the research workers, but is
open to all agricultural students and
others interested.-0. Z. Revell.
Ag Students Make
In Gator Athletics
While delving into the mysteries
of the soil or learning about crops
and livestock, many students in the
College of Agriculture have had time
to develop and demonstrate athletic
ability which has been outstanding.
They have had a keen appreciation
of the value of physical training and
a great love for sport and the Uni-
versity of Florida. While the College
of Agriculture is relatively small, it
has produced a wealth of athletic
Among the Ag stars who have
scintillated across the horizon have
been such notables as Jim Sparkman,
Paul Baker, "Tootie" Perry, "Buck"
Carlton, "Spec" Lightsey, and many
others whose names are synonymous
with athletic prowess. In football,
the Ag College has furnished the
team with three captains, one alter-
nate captain, one all-Southern half-
back, and 32 letter men.
Baseball has been another favorite
sport. In the years gone by, two
captains and 18 letter men have been
the product of the Ag College. Johnny
Burnett, a former student, went into
professional baseball and while with
the Cleveland Indians made the
world's record of nine safe hits in 11
trips to the plate. Johnny is now
with the St. Louis Browns.
Lance Richbourg, a student in 1919,
has played with New York, Boston
and Chicago in the National League
and with the Washington Senators in
the American. At present he is man-
ager of Nashville, in the Southern
Basketball has claimed five men,
track lured four, and boxing two.
The year 1935 put into the lime-
light six Ag men, five in football and
one in boxing.
Dan Allen was a second year man
on the Fighting Gator boxing team,
and made an excellent record. Among
the football players, Alton Brown
was alternate captain, and at center
was the mainstay of the Gator line.
Other varsity men from the Ag Col-
lege were "Foots" Turner, Charlie
Root, Kenneth Willis, and Bill Pagh.
BEYOND THE CAMPUS
With Florida Agricultural Alumni
Wah Lau, '35, is now employed by
the Bureau of Agriculture and For-
estry in China.
Merritt P. Bailey, '35, assistant
superintendent of the famous Rule
Ranch at Jenner, California, visited
the college recently. The Rule Ranch
breeds many of the nation's prize
winning Hereford cattle.
Howard Matthews, '35, is now sta-
tioned at Graceville, Florida, with the
Soil Conservation Service.
Bernard "The Duke" Fehmerling,
'35, is studying advanced agricultural
chemsitry at the University this year.
M. A. Boudet, '32, is educational
adviser for Company 453, C.C.C., sta-
tioned at Sebring, Florida. Boudet
is one of the highest rated educational
advisers in this corps area.
E. S. Matthews, '33, is connected
with the Florida Forest Service and
Will Dunn, '33, will receive his de-
gree in Veterinary Science from Iowa
State this year.
Melvin Maines, '33, is a Smith-
Hughes man, located at Trenton,
Johnny Friesner, '33, is fruit in-
spector for the State Citrus Commis-
sion. He is stationed at Crescent
Jack Guthrie, '35, is fruit inspector
for the State Citrus Commission. He
is stationed at Winter Garden, Florida.
W. J. Platt, Jr., B.S.A. '33, is Dis-
trict Supervisor with the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine at
Bartow. His address is Box 926,
Huey I. Borders, '33, is the Educa-
tional Adviser for a C. C. C. camp at
Sulphur Springs, Florida.
Fred Nagib Farun, '32, will receive
a master of science degree from the
School of Forestry at Oxford, England
Harry Carl Bucha, '26, is connected
with the DuPont Chemical Company
at Wilmington, Delaware.
Gharod Whitfield, '35, is the Smith-
Hughes teacher at Allentown, Florida.
Dwight H. Freeman, '31, is con-
nected with the Federal Land Bank.
He is appraiser for the Orlando Dis-
Robert F. Hosford, '35, is the Smith-
Hughes teacher at Branford, Florida.
Harry Brinkley, '35, is connected
with the Wingate Fertilizer Company
at Augusta, Georgia.
Aubrey Hudson, '33, is district su-
pervisor of the Screw-Worm Control
at Marianna, Florida.
Raymond Crabtree, '34, is stationed
at Gainesville, Florida, in connection
with the Rural Resettlement Adminis-
The Florida College Farmer is
very much interested in the ac-
tivities of alumni of the College
of Agriculture. It is the inten-
tion of the staff, as far as pos-
sible, to keep alumni informed
as to activities, success, and
interests of their former class-
In this and following issues
there will be a page devoted to
alumni doings. Since this is
your page, the staff requests
your cooperation in making it
as complete and interesting as
possible. If there is anything
about an alumnus that you
would like to know, just write
to The Florida College Farmer
and we will endeavor to find out
for you. Or, if you know some
interesting item about alumni,
please be sure to send it to us.
You may rely on our full co-
When you are in Gainesville
drop in The Florida College
Farmer office in the College of
Agriculture. Always glad to
Dumb Hunter: How do you detect
Guide: You can smell a faint odor
of peanuts on his breath.
Ag Student: I suppose you think
I'm a perfect idiot.
Girl: Oh, none of us are perfect.
REGRET TILLER DEATH
Friends of Will Mason Tiller, Agri.
'21, of Kissimmee, will regret to learn
of his recent death at his home in that
city. While attending the Univer-
sity Mr. Tiller became a member of
the Kappa Alpha social fraternity.
He was the first student instructor in
boxing when the University included
that sport in its program. He was
also a member of the University
Band. At the time of his death Mr.
Tiller was for the Continental In-
surance Company in Kissimmee and
vicinity. He is survived by his wid-
ow, Mrs. Pauline Waters Tiller, and
daughter, Martha Harwell Tiller. In-
terment was made in the Kissimmee
The marriage of Miss Mary Ellen
Taylor of Pittsburgh and Sarasota,
and Dunning Albert Bright, Agri. '34,
of Dallas, Texas, took place recently
in the Christ Episcopal Church, in
Nashville, Tennessee. Mrs. Bright
attended schools in Pittsburgh, Bir-
mingham Hills School in Pennsyl-
vania and Sullins College in Sullins,
Virginia. During the past winter she
was queen of the Pageant of Sara de
Sota. Mr. Bright was graduated
from the Sarasota High School and
later attended Stetson University be-
fore entering the University. He is
a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha
fraternity. Mr. Bright is now asso-
ciated with the First National Bank
of Dallas, Texas, where he and his
bride are making their home.
Miss Bernice Askew of Lakeland
and Mr. Charles Edgerton Patterson,
Agr. '22, of Tallahassee, were mar-
ried December 26, at the First Meth-
odist Church in Lakeland. Mrs. Pat-
terson is a graduate of Florida South-
ern College and is a member of the
Kappa Gamma Tau sorority. She is
a member of the Highland City High
School. Mr. Patterson attended Da-
vidson College before coming to the
University and is a member of the
Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. Mr.
Patterson is engaged in the hardware
business in Tallahassee where he and
his bride will make their home.
No wonder a hen gets discouraged
at times. She never can find things
where she laid them.-Hoard's Dairy-
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page '7
The Lucky Shot
By WILMER W. BASSETT, JR., '37
Sam Perkins had gotten the old
white pig out of the pen and had tied
it by one leg to the little mountain
oak just back of his house. And
from that oak the pig was pulling and
squealing bloody murder.
Hen Perkins, as his brothers knew
him and "Dewitt" as he was called by
his mother, was carrying the crates
of eggs out of the spring-house where
they had been put to keep fresh.
There were eight crates with 24 dozen
in each crate.
"Be careful with them eggs, De-
witt," Mrs. Perkins begged. "They're
"Can't hear you; the pig's squealin'
so," Hen said.
"I said be careful with them eggs,"
Mrs. Perkins shouted.
"Yes, it squeals worse because it's
tied by the leg," Hen answered.
"I said eggs," shouted Mrs. Perkins.
"Eggs, not legs. Be careful of 'em."
When Hen had finished with the
eggs, he turned toward the barn, on
a hill above the house.
"Bill! Hey, Bill!" he shouted.
"Bring down the wagon!"
Bill, youngest of the boys and bet-
ter known to his mother as Creel,
came to the door of the barn leading
Noah, the family horse. He let loose
the halter rope and whacked Noah
on the rump.
"Get along down there, you old hip-
popotamus," he said, but Noah only
dropped his head. Bill whacked him
again and Noah gave a sad sigh and
walked on down the path.
On the level beside the barn stood
the light farm wagon. Bill walked
to it, wheeled it around and started
it down the hill. He let the shafts
fall and threw himself on them, lying
on one of them with one foot drag-
ging, while the wagon ran down the
As it neared the level back of the
house Bill, guiding with his foot,
steered out of the ruts and toward
the house. The wagon should have
stopped then, but it had gained too
much headway. Mrs. Perkins screamed,
Hen and Sam shouted, and the white
pig squealed three times as loudly as
before. The wagon hit the side of
the house with a bang. There was
noise of cups and dishes falling off
inside, and Bill slid under the wagon
and hit the foundation of the house
"My goodness!" he exclaimed. "I
didn't start stopping soon enough."
"Well, you're a pretty looking ob-
ject to go to town!" his mother ex-
claimed. "Muddy from head to foot."
But just then Mrs. Perkins turned
toward the spring-house.
"Frances Braswell Perkins, fetch
out that jar of butter. These boys
have got to get away from here,"
commanded Mrs. Perkins.
"Comin' with it, Ma," the sister
"Hurry up, then," said Mrs. Perkins.
"Now, let me see-nine crates of
"Eight," said Hen. "You count 'em."
"Why, I counted nine in the spring-
house." Mrs. Perkins paled as she
said this, for obviously it was a seri-
"There were nine crates, all right,"
Hen said, "but only eight of them
had eggs in them."
"My goodness!" exclaimed Mrs.
Perkins. "Then we won't have
enough. We will need 10 more dol-
lars to pay off the mortgage, and
Judge Clark won't put the day off.
After we have been working and slav-
ing and slaving and working!" She
sank down on an egg crate and hid
"Maybe I can get Felix Johnson
to pay more for the eggs. One cent a
dozen or something like that," prof-
"You and your talk," said Frances.
"A fine chance you would have of
making him pay when Ma couldn't."
From farming to fiction is a long
step, but Wilmer Bassett, a junior
in the University of Florida Col-
lege of Agriculture, is adept at
both. He has made an excellent
record in 4-H club work as a mem-
ber and for the past two years as
director of camping activities at
Camp McQuarrie in Lake County
each summer. Wilmer is from
The fact was that the whole family
didn't think much of Bill's ideas. Bill
worked about as much as any of the
other boys, but he talked so much
and did so little that it always seemed
he never did anything at all. Bill
had queer ideas, amusing but some-
times exasperating to other members
of the family. For instance, he had
suggested that the other boys take
the pig, eggs, and butter to town and
let him take his shotgun and go out
and try to catch the bank robber hid-
den out in the mountains near there.
They all hooted at that and even
Mrs. Perkins had said, "I declare,
sometimes I think you ain't got no
sense a'tall, Creel. You couldn't
catch no bank robber even if there
is five hundred dollars reward."
The shortage of a crate of eggs was
no joke to the Perkins family. For
three years Mrs. Perkins had worked
and scraped to get together the money
needed to pay the small mortgage.
She now had just about enough in
the bank and with what she thought
she had today she could have paid
off the mortgage, and on the day it
was due. But now it was impossible
to do so.
"Well, I don't know," she said. "It
does seem as if Fate was against us,
but I've got to hope for the best. If
you can't get Clarke to let us owe
him 10 dollars for a month, the farm
will be his tomorrow."
"Ma!" exclaimed Bill, "I've got an
idea. Can I tell to you my idea, Ma?"
"Yes, but hurry," said his mother.
"It might help."
"Let me carry my gun along with
us and I might can kill that old part-
ridge that is always dusting itself in
the sand on top of Seven Mile Hill.
Moseley Henry said yeste'd'y he
passed right by it in his father's
wagon and it didn't even fly away.
It is good and fat, too."
"Ruben Creel Perkins! What!
Where could you get 10 dollars for a
fat partridge?" yelled his mother.
"Why, Ma," pleaded Bill, "I could
give it to Mr. Clarke. You know how
he likes partridges to eat. When I
give it to him he may let us off easy."
"Son," said Mrs. Perkins solemnly,
"sometimes I almost think you've got
good sense! You get that partridge
if it's to be got."
While all this talk had been going
on, Sam and Hen had been patching
up the harness with twine and wire.
"Sure is rotten," one of them re-
With the egg boxes they made a
pen in the wagon for the pig and
placed him in it. The jar of butter
was then put in back and the boys
were ready to go. They got their
final instructions and started on their
13-mile drive to town, up Seven Mile
Hill and down six miles the other side.
The boys started old Noah who
went down the short stretch to the
main Seven Mile Hill Road and clat-
tered out on the wide state highway.
As the boys rode along they said
little, all thinking about what would
happen if they didn't succeed in pay-
ing the mortgage. Not until the
wagon had nearly reached the top
of the straight and steep stretch of
road at the top of which was the old
partridge's dusting place, did one of
the boys happen to look down into
"Say, Sam, look!" he cried. "Look
down in the valley! Men with guns
-it's a posse hunting that robber.
See them spread out to surround that
brush clump down yonder! Look at-."
At that moment Bill spied the old
partridge. He raised his gun and
fired. At the sound of the shot old
Noah gave one mighty jump. He
jumped clear out of the shafts and
the next moment he was headed down
the road at a speed he had never
made before, even in his younger days.
The old partridge minus only a
(Concluded on page 15)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
0 FUTURE FARMERS
." -OF AMERICA
Trends in Agricultural Education
By J. F. WILLIAMS, JR.
State Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture
Since the program of vocational
agricultural education started func-
tioning in Florida in 1917-18, it has
grown from a program where four
teachers were employed to the place
where now, 1935-36, there are 69
teachers in 40 counties of the State,
reaching approximately 5,000 persons
through organized instruction in ag-
In the early years of the program
we lost a number of departments, due
largely to inefficient, poorly-trained
teachers, while now with a well-
trained, efficient corps of teachers,
we have not had a single County
School Board discontinue a depart-
ment of vocational agriculture during
the past two years. On the contrary,
many counties are requesting addi-
Since the inception of the program
in 1917, our teachers have rendered
a service to the high school farm boys
in their communities, but it was not
until 1925 that they realized that a
need existed for helping the farm
boys in the small rural schools, the
farm boys who were not in school
and the adult farmers ,themselves.
After this need became apparent, the
teachers of vocational agriculture in
addition to teaching all-day classes,
also started teaching day-unit, part-
time, and evening classes. The work
in these fields, increased so rapidly
that for the fiscal year 1934-35, the
enrollment in these extra classes
totaled more than the enrollment in
the all-day classes for the same year.
During the first years of the work
the average enrollment per teacher
was approximatley 20 pupils. About
1925 the per teacher enrollment be-
gan a steady increase and for the
year 1934-35 reached 70 pupils.
The agricultural education program
in Florida compares favorably with
that in the other Southern States, as
indicated by the fact that one of our
teachers, M. B. Jordan of Chiefland,
was chosen Master Teacher of the
South for 1935.
The Vocational Agricultural teach-
ers in Florida are interested in their
professional growth. They all sub-
scribe to the Agricultural Education
Magazine, the only national profes-
sional magazine for agricultural
teachers. They also maintain a 100
percent membership in the Florida
Vocational Agricultural Teachers' As-
sociation, the Florida Vocational As-
sociation and the American Vocation-
In 1928 the organization, "Future
Farmers of America", was incorpor-
ated. The membership consists of
boys who are studying vocational ag-
riculture in the United States and its
possessions. The organization has
become a vital part of our vocational
agricultural education program since
it fills a definite need in the lives of
these farm boys. From the beginning
the Future Farmer organization has
had a rapid growth and it is now a
strong organization with approxi-
mately 100,000 members. The Florida
Association of the Future Farmers of
America has been very active and has
received national recognition as fol-
1929-National Vice-President, F.
1930-Winner First Place National
1931-Winner First Place National
J. F. WILLIAMS, JR.
State Adviser, FFA
1932-Honorable Mention National
1933-Fourth Place in National
1934-National Dairy Cattle Judge
(High Individual); National Student
Secretary, F. F. A.
1935-National Hog Judge (High
We may expect the future leaders
in Florida agriculture from this group
of boys who are receiving training
in technical agriculture in their vo-
cational agricultural classes and ac-
tive training in the principles of co-
operation, leadership, and the like,
through the medium of the Future
NATIONAL FFA WINNERS
ENJOY FLORIDA VISIT
The Shawnee Mission Chapter of
Merriam, Kansas, winner of the 1935
National FFA Chapter Contest, vis-
ited the Homestead, Florida, Chapter
during -the Christmas holidays,
through special invitation by G. N.
Wakefield, adviser of the Homestead
Chapter. There were 54 members
and guests travelling in 11 automo-
biles under the direction of Mr. H. D.
Garver, the Chapter Adviser.
The highlights of their visit to
1. They spent their first night in
Florida in the Tallahassee Armory
as guests of Mr. J. F. Williams, Jr.,
State Adviser of Florida. The next
day they had their picture taken with
Hon. Dave Sholtz, Governor, and oth-
er members of the State Board of
2. They stopped at Chiefland en-
route south and were welcomed by
M. B. Jordan, Southern Regional Mas-
ter Teacher, and members of the
Chiefland Chapter, who presented
them a bushel of roasted peanuts.
3. They arrived at Homestead
Christmas Eve and spent four days
as guests in the Homestead Chapter
home, being entertained during that
time with a deep sea fishing trip, a
banquet, a swim in the ocean at Miami
Beach, and a broadcast over a Miami
4. Enroute home they spent one
night as guests of the St. Cloud Chap-
ter, and one as guests of the P. K.
Yonge Chapter where they visited the
points of interest on the University
of Florida campus.-H. E. Wood.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 9
Future Farmers of
This year for the first time the
Wauchula FFA Chapter, with the
largest membership in its history, has
a cooperative chapter farm project.
The plot is only two acres large but
that is enough to keep the boys ac-
In the fall the boys planted /4 acre
in eggplants, 1/ acre in pepper, and
% acre in strawberries for commer-
cial crops. These enterprises were
conducted according to the recom-
mendations of the State Experiment
Station as studied in the classroom
by the students. The pepper and egg-
plants have been harvested from these
two enterprises. The boys realized
enough money to pay all expenses of
the entire plot, and now they have the
acre of strawberries, which they
have begun to harvest, for clear
profit. This spring the boys intend
to plant 1% acres of early roasting
ear corn interplanted with tomatoes.
They have decided to plant the Glovel
variety of tomatoes, which has just
been developed by the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the State
Experiment Station. This variety is
highly resistant to wilt and nailhead
rust, the two most common diseases
of tomatoes in Hardee County. The
boys are hoping that by introducing
this new variety of tomatoes, they
will aid the farmers of their com-
munity in solving one of their largest
In addition to the above enterprises,
they are conducting a 1 acre demon-
stration year-'round garden. They
also have /4 acre in Crotalaria inter-
media, which is the first of its kind
to be planted in Hardee County. They
have harvested the seed from this
crop and have divided them equally
among the members. These seed are
to be carried to their respective
homes and planted this summer. At
the end of the year each boy is to
harvest the seed from his crop and
give one-half of them back to the
chapter to be redistributed to new
boys next year on the same basis.
The boys also maintain a -acre
ornamental nursery where they prop-
agate and raise ornamentals. These
plants are then distributed through-
out the county and used for home
The profit made from these co-
operative enterprises is to be divided.
One-half is to go into the chapter
treasury, the other half is to be equal-
ly divided among the members to help
them defray expenses to the State
Convention in Gainesville next sum-
MIGHT TRY IT BEFORE EXAMS
First Student: This liniment makes
my arm smart.
Second Student: You should rub
some of it on your head.
SPONSORS HOG SALES
Because of the increase in the price
and production of pork in the Greens-
boro community, the need arose for
a greater convenience in marketing
The Greensboro FFA Chapter real-
ized the increase in production and
the boys knew that many farmers
were not interested in arranging to
transport just four or five hogs 100
miles to market, yet they would be
interested in selling at the local stock
pens. These pens were constructed
10 years ago by the railroad company
but have not been used during the
past five years.
Future Farmers of America make a success
of hog marketing.
The chapter decided upon the plan
of listing the hogs to be marketed
and then setting a date when they
were to be sold. This was accom-
plished by each member notifying his
parents and neighbors of the plan and
listing the hogs they had for sale.
After the hogs were listed and the
selling date set, the list was given to
Dr. L. V. Porter, county veterinarian,
who had charge of the weighing,
grading and selling. He notified the
various packing plants of the sale
and on the loading day bids were re-
ceived and the highest bidder received
The first four sales were not of
car-lot size but up to date 700 hogs
have been sold through this plan,
bringing a total of approximately
Many distinct advantages in hold-
ing these sales locally have been noted
by the chapter. Fifty to 75 cents per
head has been sated in the loss of
weight from hauling and the cost of
transportation itself. The sales have
given the farmers an opportunity to
compare weights and qualities of hogs
according to the various breeds.
These sales are continuing with car-
lots being sold every two weeks.-
A. G. Driggers.
SEMINOLE BOYS MAKE
VISIT TO WASHINGTON
Sixteen members of the Seminole
Chapter of the FFA of Sanford,
Florida, enjoyed an interesting and
educational vacation tour last sum-
mer to Washington, D. C. We were
accompanied by our instructor, Pro-
fessor Alex R. Johnson, and Mr.
Jones, the father of one of the mem-
bers. Mr. Jones kindly furnished his
truck for the transportation on the
trip. The truck was comfortably
prepared for the trip by the members
of the chapter.
The expenses for the trip were ex-
ceedingly low, as we camped along
the way and cooked our meals. Each
member making the trip was assessed
We remained in Washington about
five days, camping at the Washington
Tourist Camp. Among the many
places visited, the Capitol was the
most interesting. We also visited the
House of Representatives and Senate
while they were in session. Among
the other places of interest were the
Congressional Library, the new Su-
preme Court building, the Bureau of
Printing and Engraving, Mt. Vernon,
the White House, the Smithsonian
Institution, the Zoological Park, the
U. S. D. A. building, where our pic-
tures were taken with the Secretary
of Agriculture, Henry A. Wallace.
On our journey home, we visited
the Endless Caverns, near New Mar-
ket, Virginia, and the Natural Bridge
This 2,100 mile trip was a success
from beginning to end, because of
the cooperation of every boy and
above all, the careful planning for
the trip by our instructor.
One of the objectives of the Semi-
nole Chapter for 1936 is a trip to
Yellowstone National Park. It will
be a large undertaking, but Seminole
Chapter is capable of doing it.-Ran-
4-H BOYS WILL COMPETE
AT 2ND FAT STOCK SHOW
The second annual Florida Fat
Stock Show is going to be held at the
Union Stockyards in Jacksonville
March 10 and 11, 1936. At least 25
fat steers fed out by 4-H club boys
will be shown.
During the Fat Stock Show there
will be a 4-H judging contest. Ten
counties will be presented by judging
teams at this contest. In the contest
last year, the judging team from
Suwannee County placed first and the
Alachua County team finished second.
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club
Agent, says he is sure that this show
and contest is going to be much big-
ger and better than last year because
of the added interest that 4-H club
boys have taken in the growing of
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
STO MAKE THE BEST BETTER
Florida 4-H Club Boys and Girls
Five Girls Attend Club Congress
By ANNA MAE SIKES, Extension Nutritionist
The Fourteenth National 4-H Club
Congress, held in connection with the
International Live Stock Exposition,
was attended by 1,200 boys and girls
and their leaders coming from 44
states and Canada. Each delegate
was a state champion and had the
opportunity of representing her state
in the national contests. The Florida
delegation was composed of the fol-
lowing five girls: Edna Sims, Walton
County; Frances Palmer, Gadsden
County; Margaret Dunford, Polk
County; Rebecca Partin, Palm Beach
County and Lorena Wetherbee, Or-
ange County. They were chaperoned
by Miss Anna Mae Sikes, Extension
The Florida delegation entered all
contests for which they were eligible
to compete and participated in all
group activities. They spent a full
week in Chicago listening to outstand-
ing speakers; touring the city; judg-
ing; visiting the 4-H club and Inter-
national Live Stock exhibits; and at-
tending inspirational and educational
Some of the outstanding events
that were arranged by the National
Committee were: 4-H Club Church
Service; visit to Adler's Planetarium;
visit to Field Museum and Art Insti-
tute; 50-mile drive through Chicago;
dinner and entertainment by Wilson
and Company; luncheon at the Palmer
House where the 4-H club motion pic-
ture was shown; luncheon and enter-
tainment by the International Har-
vester Company; National 4-H Style
Revue; 4-H Club Banquet at the
Stevens Hotel where awards were
given to National Contest winners,
and the drama "New Vista" prepared
for the 4-H club was presented; also
the 4-H club parade in which all dele-
gates participated, held in the
"Arena" at the Stock Yard.
Activities and Impressions
Edna Sims of Walton County gives
the following account of her trip to
"Having won a trip to the National
Club Congress in June at our State
Short Course, I had looked forward to
making this trip for several months.
At last the time came and on Friday,
November 29, 1935, Miss Sikes and
the five Florida girls left for the trip
on the Dixie Flyer from Jacksonville.
"There were two things we Florida
girls looked forward to seeing and
we were not disappointed; one was
mountains and the other was snow.
The route we took carried us through
the mountains and on Sunday morn-
ing when we arrived in Chicago every-
thing was white with snow. It was
a thrilling experience.
"After arriving we registered, had
lunch and went for a 50-mile tour of
Chicago. This gave us a good view
of the city and its surroundings and
prepared us for some of the events
of the week. This tour proved to be
very interesting. We saw the city
as five zones, first the famous loop,
the slums, the manufacturing centers,
the residential section and the exclu-
sive features of the city. Some of the
things we saw were Lincoln Park
that is 600 acres of land reclaimed
from Lake Michigan. The lake is 300
miles long and 100 miles wide and lies
wholly in the United States. We saw
where and how the city gets its water
supply from the Lake.
"Two interesting places we visited
during the week were the Field Mu-
seum and the Planetarium. In the
museum we passed through the hall
known as 'Hall of Stone-age Man'.
We saw Egyptian mummies, pre-
historic animals and birds. At the
Planetarium we were directed to the
amphitheater which has a large dome
top. The room was gradually dark-
ened as at twilight and then all the
stars and planets were pointed out
to us and how and where they would
appear at the different seasons of the
"Besides all these wonderful things
we saw in Chicago we visited the big
International Live Stock Show with
its many interesting exhibits and
where many of our 4-H club girls and
boys are winners in competition with
the best in the many classes. One
night we marched in the big arena
in state groups.
"The National Congress brings to-
gether winners from the various
states who compete for national hon-
ors and the competition is keen.
Florida was represented in five of the
contests; clothing by Margaret Dun-
ford of Polk County who had honor-
able mention; Frances Palmer of
Gadsden County had a most credit-
able canning exhibit; Lorene Wether-
bee outstanding records of achieve-
ments; Rebecca Partin was in the
health contest and I represented Flor-
ida in the bread judging contest.
"I have gained much knowledge
and inspiration from this trip and
will always live up to the 4-H club
pledge, 'To make the best better.' To
those who have helped in any way to
make this trip possible I wish to ex-
press my sincere appreciation."
Not Soon Forgotten
In summarizing some of the things
that made the most lasting impres-
sion during the trip, Frances Palmer
of Gadsden County lists the following:
"(1) The experience of the long
train trips and sleeping on a Pullman;
(2) the grandeur of the mountains
and my first snow scene; (3) life in
a big hotel; (4) the cordial treatment
given 4-H club folks by people, busi-
nesses and organizations in a big city
like Chicago; (5) the tremendous
amount of planning necessary to
make the details of the Congress
move off smoothly; (6) the thought,
time and money spent on entertain-
ing and educating the rural girls and
boys in our country as compared with
that spent on the rural youth in our
mothers' and fathers' young days;
(7) the revelation that our girls and
boys do just as good 4-H work as any
other section and are just as fine;
(8) the fact that people are more
interested in Florida than I had
thought-many think of our state as
a veritable fairyland; (9) the unique
and interesting ways used to give us
insight into art and culture and the
finer things of life; (10) the feelings
that after all our county is a small
place and that we club folks are all
working toward the same big aim,
which is to make of ourselves better
citizens and of our land a better na-
tion in which to live."
While in Chicago, Margaret Dun-
ford of Polk County gave over the
Radio greetings from Florida and
invited the entire Congress to come
to visit Florida, the best place to live.
Upon her return to Florida, Lorena
Wetherbee of Orange County gave the
following conclusion of the trip in a
Radio broadcast from Orlando: "I
gained very much from my trip. I
was able to meet boys and girls who
were champion 4-H club members in
44 states and parts of Canada, with
whom I exchanged ideas on club work.
I gained incentive to do better work
in the coming years. It makes me
very proud to be a part of this won-
derful organization, the 4-H club,
where every one works together for
the betterment of his Head, Heart,
Hand, and Health."
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 11
Summer Program Draws
1,200 Boys and Girls to
Two State 4-H Camps
In Florida there are two boys' and
girls' 4-H camps. The older of the
two camps is Camp Timpoochee, in
the heart of the Choctawhatchee Na-
tional Forest, in Okaloosa County.
The Camp is situated on a 15-foot
bluff overlooking the vast and beau-
tiful waters of Choctawhatchee Bay.
Camp Timpoochee is named for a
famous Indian Chief, who roamed
over the present camping ground
more than 100 years ago.
Camp McQuarrie, which has just
concluded its second year of opera-
tion, is located in a beauty spot of
Central Florida, deep in the recesses
of the Ocala National Forest. This
camp sits on the crest of a hill that
slopes gently down to one of the many
beautiful lakes in Lake County. The
camp is named for a fine old gentle-
man, C. K. McQuarrie, from 1914 to
1921 state agent with the Agricul-
tural Extension Service of the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Both of these camps are equipped
with electric lights, running water,
and sanitary sewerage disposal sys-
tems. Each camp also has a power
victrola which supplies beautiful
music for folk dances, such as the
grand march, Virginia reel, etc.
In these camps will be found a well
balanced program that would interest
any Florida boy or girl. There are
periods for swimming, and games,
such as basket ball, volley ball, and
water polo. There is also time set
aside for instruction in life-saving,
public speaking, 4-H club records, and
basket and chair bottom weaving.
Evening programs consist of singing
and story telling around a camp fire;
or if the program is held in the audi-
torium, one-act plays, folk dancing
or kangaroo courts, give the campers
There were approximately 1,200
boys and girls who attended one or
the other of these camps this past
summer season. Over 600 adults at-
tended the Farmers Institute at Camp
Timpoochee, and approximately 400
people attended the Citrus Growers'
Institute held at Camp McQuarrie the
first week in September.
It would be interesting to consider
the number of meals the camp cooks
prepared during the official camping
season. For the 1,200 who attended,
they cooked approximately 18,000
meals. Including the two institutes,
the number was' raised to nearly
How much does it cost to serve
18,000 meals to 1,200 boys and
girls? These meals compare favor-
ably with restaurant meals; one good
meat, salad, three vegetables and
often a dessert, form the basis of a
good healthy meal, which may be con-
sidered the average type served. At
an ordinary restaurant the price
would be at least 50 cents, but the
efficiency of the County and Home
Demonstration Agents enables them
to serve meals at an average cost of
It has been my privilege this past
summer, to serve as Camp Director
of Camp McQuarrie. During the
camping season, there were 21 coun-
ties represented at this camp, from
Dade on the south, to as far north
as Duval and westward to Madison.
Each camp lasted for a period of one
week, and as many as six counties
have been represented at one time.
The last camp held at Camp McQuar-
rie was one for the boys in the terri-
tory, who were good swimmers and
interested in life-saving. Twenty-five
were licensed as life-savers by the
American Red Cross. Next year the
plans are to hold a life-saving camp
for the girls.
Camp McQuarrie and Camp Tim-
poochee are owned and operated by
the Extension Service of the Univer-
sity of Florida and are under the
immediate supervision of R. W. Black-
lock, State Boys' Club Agent.-Wil-
mer W. Bassett, Jr.
Girls Celebrate Christmas
And Continue Club Work
HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY (EAST)
Miss Clarine Belcher, Agent
"All 4-H clubs have been assisted
with the completion of their sewing,
sewing records and stories. These
are to be collected and brought to the
office by the local leaders during the
month of January for the contest and
Annual Achievement Day. At each
community club a visit was made by
the agent and club girls to the best
4-H club garden. Some very pretty
gardens were visited. The weather
conditions have not been very favor-
able but with some warm weather
the girls will have some good garden
"The 4-H County Council sponsored
a Christmas party for all active 4-H
club girls. A contest was held for
all coming dressed in Nursery Rhyme
Costumes and a prize awarded the
best one. Each girl brought toys, a
toy which she had made, and these
were put into Christmas baskets for
the needy which the Business and
Professional Women's Club distribut-
ed. Games and singing of Christmas
Carols were enjoyed and refreshments
of fruits, cookies, and nuts were
served to all attending. About 50
club girls and local leaders attended
Miss Pansy Norton, Agent
"ALUMNAE 4-H PARTY-Twenty-
two alumnae girls attended the an-
nual Christmas party at which time
they had their business meeting,
making plans for their Alumnae 4-H
Camp in June as well as making ar-
rangements to take charge of the big
4-H camp in June. The girls seemed
to be glad to get together once again.
"4-H WORK. One of the Alumnae
girls, Phyllis Stoker, volunteered to
visit each 4-H club, model a 1st year
uniform and a 2nd year uniform in
order that the girls might better
appreciate good looking outfits. All
required work was checked this month.
"Five hundred packages of marigold
seed were bought by the Council and
given out this month as well as rad-
ish, cabbage and tomato. Many girls
had to replant their gardens due to
the hurricane. Of course, some are
somewhat discouraged. Chairmen are
continuing having their program and
demonstration of the different proj-
ects of work in each club. The girls
were very much interested in the
hand-made Christmas tree decoration
contest in each club."
Miss Olga Kent, Agent
"4-H club schedule has been fol-
lowed through in meetings twice in
the month. At the first meeting in
December the girls were given mime-
ographed instructions on planting to-
matoes, a demonstration of trans-
planting was given and five plants
were given to each girl who would
promise to care for them.
"The second set of 4-H meetings
was the Christmas work meetings.
The younger girls made Christmas
decorations from cellophane and tin-
foil which they had been saving, and
painted pine cones and pretty seed-
pods they had collected. The older
girls made Christmas wreaths or sim-
ple Christmas cards using cajeput
"Christmas wreaths using pine,
coontie leaves, seeds and fruit, crab
eye seed pods, eucalyptus pods, Flor-
ida rosemary, crotons and sapodilla
leaves and other tropical materials
were made. These were displayed in
several public places such as Cham-
ber of Commerce, public libraries,
women's clubs, etc., and a newspaper
article called attention to the use of
native materials for wreaths."-Ex-
cerpts from December Monthly Re-
ports of Some Home Demonstration
AGENTS FORMER 4-H BOYS
With the addition of four new
agents in the last few months, the
percentage of county agents that
were at one time 4-H club boys has
been raised to 20%. The new agents
are John Hentz, Bay County; Fred
Barber, Flagler; James A. McClellan,
Jr., Pasco; and K. S. McMullen, Tay-
The older agents that are former
4-H club boys are L. H. Alsmeyer,
Highlands; J. H. Logan, Manatee;
Clifford R. Hiatt, Lake; A. S. Lawton,
Duval; J. G. Kelley, Calhoun; and
Henry Hudson, Washington County.
The young club boys are glad to
see so many of their old members still
actively interested in club work.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Interesting College Personalities
Major Floyd Has Given
Long, Valuable Service
Major W. L. Floyd was born and
reared on a farm near Nichols, South
Carolina. He was the eldest of seven
children and, because of the short
term of the community school, much
of his early training was given by
his mother, who was a teacher before
her marriage. Being an ambitious
man, his education did not stop there.
He was awarded a scholarship to
The Citadel, the military college in
Charleston, South Carolina, where he
was graduated in 1886 with the
Bachelor of Science degree.
His scholarship obligated him to the
schools of South Carolina for two
years, but due to his interest in edu-
cation there, he remained in that state
for five years. During that period
he taught short terms in country
schools and was principal of C'io
School in 1888 and 1889 and principal
of Cypress High School between 1889
In the South Carolina schools at
that time, the teacher in country dis-
tricts often boarded with the parents
of the pupils, staying one week in
each home. Despite the inconveni-
ences of living and other discomforts,
Major Floyd realized the needs in the
school system and decided to make
this his vocation.
He was then appointed to the East
Florida Seminary and Military Insti-
tute. It was here that Major Floyd's
contributions to the State as an edu-
cator were begun. From 1892 to
1896 he was instructor in English and
assistant commandant. In 1896 he
became the professor of natural sci-
ence. At this time he did graduate
work at Harvard University.
Being the assistant commandant,
he was commissioned Major by the
Governor of Florida. He is still
called Major by all who know him.
During my interview with Major
Floyd the students of the old East
Florida Seminary were mentioned. He
praised his students and remarked
about the number of his graduates
remaining in Florida and how they
became prominent citizens of the
State. He said there were four to
six students graduated from the Uni-
versity each year whose parents were
his students at the East Florida Semi-
nary. He called these his intellectual
When the Buckman Act was passed
in 1905 abolishing all then-existing
Better Quality Fertilizers
Have been making better crops for the Florida
Growers for over a quarter of a century. They
are known for their value-not because they are
We make Better Quality Brands as good as
scientific research, good materials, and careful
manufacturing methods direct.
You will be pleased with them. Ask any user.
If there is. no agent in your community, write us.
Trueman Fertilizer Company
State schools, of which the East Flor-
ida Seminary was one, and establish-
ing the University of Florida, Major
Floyd received the appointment as
professor of English and science in
the normal department. Here he
spent his first year in teaching. He
also did graduate work, and that year
received his Master of Science degree.
Major Floyd's interest lay more in
agriculture and the sciences. He was
assistant professor of biology and
physics between the years of 1906 and
1909 and from 1909 to 1915 he was
professor of botany and horticulture.
He never lost his aim to better him-
self and his graduate work took him
to the University of California.
As assistant dean of the college he
has become a much loved man through
friendly nature and his affiliation with
the boys. His influence has been
dominant since he assumed this post.
He has made several valuable con-
tributions to magazines on fruits, or-
namental flowers and shrubs.
His work at the University in for-
estry has led to the establishment of
a Forestry Department. This depart-
ment is working toward the develop-
ment of idle lands, furthering the
naval stores industry, and giving a
new program of work in the manu-
facture of paper.
Major Floyd is a member of the
Florida Horticultural Society, Ameri-
can Society for Horticultural Science,
the Florida Florists' Association and
the American Rose Society. He is
also a member of the following hon-
orary fraternities: Phi Kappa Phi,
Alpha Zeta, and Thyrsus.
One can readily see that the Major
has made a mark for himself as edu-
cator and holds the distinction of be-
ing the oldest member of the Univer-
sity Staff. Held in high esteem by
his students and his colleagues, Major
Floyd is indeed an outstanding per-
sonality in the University of Florida
College of Agriculture. Charley
H. H. Hume Is Outstanding
Harold Hume, Assistant Dean of
the College of Agriculture and Assist-
ant Director of the Experiment Sta-
tion of the University of Florida, is
one of the most widely known and
recognized authorities on botanical
and horticultural questions in the
Professor Hume was born in Rus-
sell, Ontario, June 13, 1875. In 1897
when he matriculated at the Ontario
Agriculture College he decided on a
horticultural career with a major in
botany. The following year he en-
tered Iowa State College, where he
received a bachelor of science degree
in agriculture in 1899. Continuing
February, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 13
his studies there in the summers he
received his master of science degree
two years later.
During the regular winter school
sessions from 1899 to 1904 he served
as head of the Department of Botany
and Horticulture at our own Univer-
sity of Florida. In 1904 Mr. Hume
accepted the position of head of the
Department of Horticulture at North
Carolina State College, serving in the
capacity for two years. He was also
North Carolina State Horticulturist
in this same period.
Following his stay at North Caro-
lina, Professor Hume returned to
Florida to become director and ad-
viser for the Glen Saint Mary Nur-
series. Later he became president
of the organization. For several
years he also served as president of
E. O. Painter Fertilizer Company.
His work in his chosen field gained
him early recognition and in 1909 he
became president of the Florida State
Horticultural Society, and held this
position for many years. Professor
Hume is also a member of the Society
of Horticultural Science, the Ameri-
can Pomological Society, the National
Nutgrowers' Association, the Iowa
Academy of Science, and the St. Louis
Academy of Science. Important as
are the positions he has held, his
greatest fame and recognition have
come from the bulletins and books he
has written on various horticultural
problems. His book, "The Cultivation
of Citrus Fruits", is probably his most
famous and best known work. This
book is recognized as the standard
for citrus culture, and is recommended
to those who seek information on this
His hobby is landscape designing
with ornamental trees and shrubs.
In this field, he has promoted a state-
wide beautification campaign with his
addresses to numerous garden clubs
and women's beautification clubs
throughout the State. His books,
"Gardening in the Lower South" and
"Azaleas and Camellias", are compre-
hensive and will be informative as
well as entertaining to those interest-
ed in beautifying the home and garden.
His work has not been restricted
to one field and besides authoring an
additional book on citrus fruits en-
titled, "Citrus Fruits and Their Cul-
ture" he has written "The Pecan and
The pamphlets of Mr. Hume are
recognized by horticultural students
everywhere as based on long and thor-
ough study. He has written bulletins
on the following subjects: Citrus
fruits, pecans, cauliflower, pineapple,
Japanese persimmon, potato disease,
fungicides and insecticides, apples,
mulberries, and state-wide beautifica-
Qualified and capable is Mr. Hume,
an impressive and earnest speaker,
and above all an inspiring leader. Ad-
mired and respected by all who have
worked with him and under him he
stands as a favorite with College of
Agriculture students.-John A. Gran-
Plans Under Way For
Livestock Show of '36
Members of the Toreador Club of
the College of Agriculture are already
making plans for one of the best
Little International livestock shows
ever put on at the University. In-
spired and aided by timely advice of
animal husbandry staff members at
the College, the boys have brought
the club to a stage of development
that marks the Little International
as one of the best exhibitions of
school work put on by any student
organization on the campus.
Members of the club are making
eager plans for a bigger and better
show this year. In the past the Little
International was strictly an exhibi-
tion of showmanship and the ability
of boys to care for and prepare an
animal for the show-ring. However,
the show has developed into an exhi-
bition of animals, displays of meat
products as prepared by members of
the class, a contest in riding steers,
and exhibitions of horsemanship.
In the short time of four or five
years during which the Toreador
Club has been organized, it has de-
veloped the Little International into
an event claiming campus-wide at-
tention and having many friends
throughout the state.
Dr. A. L. Shealy, head of the de-
partment of animal husbandry, re-
cently announced that the department
has purchased one purebred Aberdeen-
Angus bull and three heifers. These
animals come from the herd of J.
Garret Tolan of Pleasant Plains, Ill.,
the outstanding Angus breeder of to-
day. These animals will be shown
in this year's Little International, and
members of the herd have been prize
winners at the Chicago International.
Toreador members are busy making
plans that will improve the success-
ful show of last season. Applications
have been made for the privilege of
riding steers in the riding contest.
Thus is illustrated the advanced in-
terest of students in the show.
Recent conferences by Grover How-
ell, president of the club, with Dr.
Shealy and Bradford Knapp, animal
husbandman with the United States
Department of Agriculture, have re-
vealed possibilities of adding events
to the show's program that will give
it greater attraction.
On a Saturday in March the Agri-
cultural College barns will buzz with
activity as boys showing animals
make last minute inspections of their
animals to see that all is in readiness;
the crowd will assemble quickly at
show time, and once again the Little
International Livestock Show will
hold full sway on the campus.
Seminole Stores, In(.
BARNWELL, S. C.
Growers' and Shippers'
FOR ALL CROPS
INSECTICIDES AND PAINTS
CRATES AND HAMPERS
(Ocala Mfg. Co.)
Your Inquiries promptly
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
FOR BIG CROPS AND
TIMELY MATURITY AT
* Most Plant-food per bag
* Most crop per unit of plant-
* Least labor in handling and
* Lowest cost per unit of plant-
Send for booklet
Jackson Grain Co.
TO THE BEST
Gator Barber Shop
138 N. 9th
COLLEGE INN CLEANERS
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H. A. HENLEY, Prop.
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You may have a
FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Box 2133, University Station
Experiment Station Dairy Herd Is
Used for Wide Variety of Studies
By GROVER C. HOWELL, '36
The purebred Jersey herd at the
Experiment Station was founded with
the purchase of the registered cows,
Blandora 171373 and Royal Rosalie
171371 on March 15, 1901 from Mr.
W. I. Vason of Tallahassee, Florida.
Twenty-eight registered females have
been purchased or donated to the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion in founding the present herd.
Some lines have been eliminated nat-
urally because of lack of female de-
scendants; others for insufficient
production; others for failure to
transmit producing ability to their
Six cows have been purchased with-
in the last two years from the State
of North Carolina, to be used as new
lines in the present herd. They are
direct descendants of animals with
enviable records in their home state.
In addition to these cows the herd
traces back to seven of the original
cows. Nearly one-half of the herd
traces back in some degree to a son
of Royal Rosalie, mentioned above.
At the present time the herd con-
sists of 42 registered cows, 34 reg-
istered heifers and calves, and -three
Jersey herd sires in service; making
a total of 80 Jerseys.
The dairy herd is maintained by
the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station primarily for investigation of
problems confronting the dairy indus-
try of the State. Experiments have
been run or are now in progress to
determine the feeding value of Flor-
ida feeds; mineral elements and nu-
trition; the cause and prevention of
salt sickness in cattle; the relation of
mineral matter to bone strength, milk
yield and reproduction. Feed trials
have been and are now being run to
show the value of ensilage made from
soybeans, Crotalaria intermedia, or-
ange by-products, and dried grape-
A series of digestion trials has been
run for the last three years. Chemi-
cal studies with the ensiling processes
have been in progress for five years.
Some other important studies are:
Inheritance studies, the relation of
body type and conformation to pro-
duction in dairy cattle; the influence
of arsenical dipping on the milk yield
of dairy cows; the management of
dairy cattle; factors affecting milk
and butterfat production, such as, the
season of the year, advancing lacta-
tion, temperature, length of dry
period. The herd is used in class-
room and laboratory instruction with
the College of Agriculture and for
4-H club and Smith-Hughes short
A limited number of purebred Jer-
sey bull calves, from the better cows
in the Station herd, have been sold
to dairies throughout the State. A
very satisfactory amount of improve-
ment in the herds of the State has
been proven as a result of this dis-
Future improvement in the herd
depends upon herd sires in service,
or those that may replace them from
time to time. Each cow is given op-
portunity to qualify in the official
Register of Merit of the American
Jersey Cattle Club. All the heifers
are placed on the Register of Merit
test with first lactation and again at
a mature age.
The measurement of all cows and
their lifetime records are used in co-
operative experimental work by the
Bureau of Dairy Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture.
Up to the present time 31 cows have
been slaughtered, as they became too
old to reproduce, or for other reasons
were eliminated from the herd. These
records are sent to the U. S. D. A.
It has never been the purpose to
have the herd compete with any pri-
vately owned dairies of the State.
Student labor is used in caring for
the herd and assisting in experiment-
al work. Needy students are given
preference for this work.
Bulletins have been published from
time to time by the Experiment Sta-
tion dealing with the above-mentioned
OLDER GIRLS AND BOYS TO
ASSIST WITH CLUB WORK
Older club girls and boys in about
40 Florida counties will assist county
and home demonstration agents in
directing club work for the next few
months, under a plan just worked out
between officials of the Agricultural
Extension Service and the National
From two to five boys and an equal
number of girls per county, each to
be at least 16 years old, will assist
in enrollment, visiting the boys and
girls, conducting club meetings,
checking record books, and doing
other things to forward the work
under the direction of county and
home demonstration agents. Each
will work only in his or her communi-
ty, and will be paid by the National
The plan has been evolved by R. C.
Beaty, state NYA director in Jack-
sonville, R. W. Blacklock, state boys
club agent in Gainesville, and Miss
Flavia Gleason, state home demon-
stration agent in Tallahassee.
Slash pine grows rapidly and yields
revenue in turpentine gum at an early
February starts a new semester;
let's make the most of it.
The Lucky Shot
(Continued from page 7)
feather or two, sailed out over the
valley- and disappeared.
"Ding it! Missed him!" Bill ex-
claimed in disgust, and the next mo-
ment he realized that the wagon was
rolling backward down a seven mile
incline. With each second it gained
speed. Bill thought of the eggs.
"Sam, the eggs! The eggs!" he
Sam and Hen were trying to hold
on to keep from falling out of the
wagon. Bill got to his feet and
pulled Sam out of the way. He then
climbed onto the seat and over the
dash-board and slid down onto the
singletree of the shafts and lowered
himself along one shaft. He lay there
hugging the shaft and stuck out one
foot, letting it drag on the concrete
"Hen! Hen!" he shouted, "Tell me
how to steer."
The boys traveled faster and faster
down the mountain and at one time
if they had had a speedometer it
would have registered 40 miles an
hour. Then, ahead of them and trav-
eling only 20 miles an hour, Bill saw
"Sam!" he called, "Sam, I'm going
to try to pass that car. Pull the pig's
tail! Pull the pig's tail!"
Soon Sam understood and pulled
the pig's tail. The pig squealed loud-
ly. "Wee! Wee! Wee!" the pig
squealed louder than any horn. The
driver in the car ahead was startled
by the din behind him. He gave one
look back and saw the horseless wag-
on charging down upon him. He
wasted no time in pulling out of the
road. The wagon and boys were now
making a speed that no one had ever
dared to make going down the moun-
tain and around the curves.
As they neared the foot of the
mountain, Bill realized that he could
never swing the wagon around the
right-hand turn at the bridge.
"Hen! Hen!" he shouted. "I can't
make the turn. Jump, Hen! Sam,
A deep creek ran alongside the road.
Sam and Hen both dived in. Just
as they hit the water the wagon hit
the far corner of the bridge head-on
and became a mass of debris. The
eggs stopped with the wagon and be-
came a mass of uncooked omelet. The
shafts reared upward and threw Bill
clear across the creek into a thick
clump of brush.
Bill felt his feet hit something hard
and he knew no more.
When he came to his senses he
found his brothers bending over him.
When he looked around he saw the
white pig, squealing as loudly as ever,
tied to something that looked like a
man. The man was unconscious and
was bound tightly with what was left
of the lead lines. It was at this mo-
ment that the man opened his eyes.
"What hit me?" he asked, and then
added, "I surrender! My name is
Blue-Steel, the bank robber."
"You bet you do, Mr. Robber!"
taunted Sam. "Our little brother
jumped right into your den and land-
ed on top of you."
The boys then took the man to the
road where they could hail the first
"Well, Sam," said Bill, "it looks as
if we will get the $500 reward, but it
will come too late to pay the mort-
The next day Mrs. Perkins went up
to see her lawyer about the mortgage.
She told the man about the story of
one shot at a partridge. The good
old lawyer laughed vociferously.
"Why, good night!" he cried. "You
women and business don't go together
at all. That mortgage was paid a
"Paid a week ago?" and Mrs. Per-
kins was astounded. "Where did the
money come from?"
"Why," said the lawyer, "I put the
money in the bank as you paid it in
to me and it drew interest enough to
make up what was needed."
Work Expands; Camp
Goes to Lake Alfred
Gainesville, Fla.-Initiation of an
expansion program in citrus research
work at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, Lake Alfred, is announced by
Dr. Wilmon Newell, director of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station system. Dr. A. F. Camp, for
the past eight years head of the de-
partment of horticulture at the Main
Station here, has been appointed hor-
ticulturist in charge of the Citrus
Station, and is moving to the Polk
The plan calls for institution of
nutrition and soils work, irrigation
studies, and further research on utili-
zation of citrus by-products. The
Station now has about 80 acres of
land under cultivation, and it is
planned to develop 50 acres more, 40
of which were donated to the State
some months ago by the Florida Ag-
ricultural Research Institute.
The Citrus Experiment Station was
established in 1920, and since that
time experiments concerning citrus
diseases, insects, propagation, cover
crops, and chemistry have been prose-
cuted. These will be continued under
the new set-up.
Employees already at the Citrus
Station, who will remain there, in-
clude John H. Jefferies, superintend-
ent, Dr. B. R. Fudge, associate chem-
ist, W. A. Kuntz, associate plant pa-
thologist, and W. L. Thompson, as-
Twelve thousand miles of roads and
trails were built in the National For-
ests during 1935, according to the
Forest Service. Maintenance work on
184,000 mi'es of roads and trails was
done in 1935, also. The CCC did much
of this work, the Service reports.
and Farmers have
I about their Fertilizer.
NACO Fertilizers give
such uniformly good
results in grove and field that growers
and farmers cross this worry off their
list when they apply NACO to their
trees and under their crops. NACO
Brands bring CONFIDENCE and ease
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SEE THE NACO DEALER OR WRITE
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Baird Hardware Co.
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MEET AND EAT
Orange & Blue
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Page 16 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1936
Up to a Standard--
Not Down to a Price
and Color Work
for All Purposes
and Office Supplies
PEPPER PRINTING CO.
Opposite Post Office
The College of Agriculture of the University of Florida
OFFERS TRAINING IN ALL LINES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND LEADERSHIP
Four year curricula leading to B.S. degree, with specialization in all
Only college in Southeast offering full courses in citrus and subtropical
Department of Forestry established this fall.
Courses of one semester, 1 year, 2 years, easily arranged for those wishing
to study technical agriculture only.
Ample opportunities to develop talents through extra-curricula activities.
DEBATING, DRAMATICS, ORATORY, VOICE, BUSINESS, POLITICS.
For catalog and full information write:
DEAN, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
University of Florida
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
February, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Beef Production in Florida
(Continued from page 3)
tion is often performed with an ordi-
nary pocket knife and dehorning with
a common wood saw. There are spe-
cial implements with which to per-
form these tasks. The main and fore-
most thing to consider is cleanliness.
Pastures and Feeds
There are many sections in Florida
where good native pastures are found.
Such areas afford good grazing dur-
ing the greater portion of the year.
Under natural conditions the flat-
woods and blackjack areas furnish
much less pasture than do the prairie
and hammock lands. It is estimated
that the flatwoods pastures can carry
only one steer to 20 acres of land the
year round, while the hammock land
can accommodate two animals for
each 20 acres.
There are many improved pastures
in Florida, and grasses are sown each
year for the improvement of ranges.
Among the best of these are carpet,
Bahia, Dallis and Bermuda grasses.
Lespedeza grows well on the heavier
soils where abundant moisture is
Fields are often used where there
is not winter pasture. Velvet beans
and corn are planted in the spring,
and cattle are turned in on the field
in the late fall. This is a very eco-
nomical way to carry steers over the
winter, and will also add much fer-
tility to the soil for the next year's
Roughages are used considerably
in Florida as feed for beef cattle.
Peanut hay is perhaps the most popu-
lar of this type of feed. The plants
are dug in early fall and allowed to
dry; the peanuts are picked and the
vines fed to the animals as needed.
Cowpea hay or peavine hay is perhaps
the next most popular feed, though
it is first in food value. It is cut and
dried or cured much the same as pea-
nut hay, and is often baled for con-
venience. When peavine hay is used,
very little concentrated feed is neces-
There are many types of silage used
in Florida. Corn is probably the most
important of all, with its long leaves,
its succulent stalk, and ears of corn,
it produces great quantities of feed
per acre and is easily stored. When
feeding corn silage to cattle, it is
very important that supplementary
feeds be used, because corn is very
low in protein content. Among the
lesser crops used as silage in Florida
are sorghum and sugarcane.
In feeding concentrates to animals
in Florida cottonseed meal is perhaps
most valuable and popular. A great
amount of protein is found in this
food and consequently it is used ex-
tensively to balance rations that are
high in carbohydrates. When fed
with silages, cottonseed meal is one
of the most satisfactory fattening
feeds used in Florida.
There is no single feed of such uni-
versal importance as corn. In the
mid-West the entire beef industry is
built around this feed. Corn can be
economically produced in some sec-
tions of Florida. Where this is pos-
sible, there is no better fattening
feed to be found. When feeding corn,
three general factors must be consid-
ered: first, the available supply; sec-
ond, the price that is to be paid for
the feed; and third, the kind and
amount of roughage that is to be fed
with the corn. Corn may be fed as
shelled corn, broken ear corn, or as
ground snap corn. Shelled corn is
probably the most widely used.
Velvet beans supply a considerable
amount of feed for Florida beef cat-
tle. Beans may be picked and
ground, then fed in the form of meal;
however, most producers have found
it more profitable to leave the beans
in the field to furnish winter grazing
for their cattle.
The use of green feeds, other than
silage, has had little development in
this State. Oats and millet form the
greater part of our green feeds.
These crops cannot be used economic-
ally except as grazing crops.
Marketing is a phase of beef pro-
duction which requires the serious at-
tention of Florida farmers. It is im-
portant to furnish packers with the
grade of cattle desired by the whole-
sale and retail trade.
Breeding is important in marketing
because it deals with the quality of
meat produced. Breeding also assures
a uniform size and type of animal.
Along with breeding, it is necessary
to realize the importance of feeding,
because the demands of the market
cannot be satisfied without proper
The time of marketing animals is
governed mainly by the following
factors: local trade demands, feed
supply, number of head to be market-
ed, and the degree of finish in the
A steady market is available at all
times to Florida producers, because of
the fact that only 25 percent of Flor-
ida beef is produced in the State.
The feed supply is a determining
factor in the time and age of mar-
keting. If the producer has no fat-
tening feeds, it is necessary for him
to sell his animals as feeders. If he
has sufficient feed, he may finish his
animals and sell as fat cattle.
The degree of finish governs the
time of sale. There is always a market
for high class beef animals; whereas,
it is sometimes difficult to dispose of
low grade animals either locally or on
the larger markets.
It is necessary here to set down
only the market grades in the order
that they come. Prime steers are
those above reproach in every way.
The other grades follow in order,
choice steers, good, medium, fair,
plain and common. Each of these
grades is standard and must be main-
tained in every sense of the word.
When shipping cattle great care
should be used. They should be
handled as easily and gently as pos-
sible to prevent nervousness and con-
sequent loss of weight. The cars
should be closely inspected and
cleaned. Animals are not to be crowd-
ed. The number of cattle to be
shipped per car ranges from 22 to
61, according to the weight of the
animal and the size of the car.
When the animals reach the market,
they are usually received by commis-
sion agents, who dispose of them to
the greatest advantage of the pro-
MISS KEOWN INAUGURATES
HOME WORK IN PUERTO RICO
Miss Mary E. Keown, district agent
with the State Home Demonstration
Department, has returned to her
duties in Florida after an absence of
18 months in Puerto Rico. While in
the neighboring island, she organized
home demonstration work there at
the request of the Extension Service
of the United States Department of
Agriculture, and received high com-
mendation for her services.
Miss Keown supervises home dem-
onstration work in counties along the
East Coast of Florida.
Miss Flavia Gleason, state home
demonstration agent, announces that
with Miss Keown's return, Miss Anna
Mae Sikes returns to her duties as
nutritionist with the State Home
Demonstration Department, a posi-
tion filled for the past 18 months by
Mrs. Eva R. Culley.
COUNCILS BEING SET UP
County agricultural program coun-
cils are being set up in every county
in Florida where county agents are
working. The movement was started
at the beginning of 1936, and the
councils are expected to be function-
ing shortly. The councils are com-
posed of successful farmers and lead-
ing farm women.
They will map agricultural and
rural home programs that best meet
the needs of the farming population
in each county. They will take into
consideration all available facts which
will guide them in formulating pro-
grams for both present and future.
The work is being directed by the
State Agricultural Extension Service,
and is at the request of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
Other divisions of the College of Ag-
riculture, the State Planning Board,
vocational agriculture teachers, and
others will participate in formulating
Probably the only place in the world
where cows wear shoes is on the low-
er Florida East Coast.
Slash pine can be profitably grown
in the South on poor and wet lands.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Page 18 THE E FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1936
Til fLORIDA (OLL[GM IARM[R
Published by Representatives of Student Organizations
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
LLOYD RHODEN, '37 Editor
WILMER W. BASSETT, JR., '37-........Associate Editor
FRANK H. RICH, '38 Managing Editor
CLYDE DRIGGERS, '38 Future Farmers
ARTHUR M. MCNEELY, '37 4-H Club Boys
DOT MCCULLOUGH 4-H College Girls
JACK WEAVER, '38
GROVER HOWELL, '36
WAYNE DEAN, '37
GEORGE SMOAK, '37
BEN MCLAUCHLIN, '37 Business Manager
JEFF DAVIS, '37 Asso. Business Manager
DAN ALLEN, '36 Circulation Manager
H. C. LUNSFORD, '38............Asso. Circulation Manager
A. J. MACGILL, '38 Advertising Manager
W. E. BISHOP, '38 .. ........Asso. Advertising Manager
FACULTY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
H. H. HUME, Chairman
C. H. WILLOUGHBY J. FRANCIS COOPER
PUBLISHED FOUR TIMES DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR
Subscription Fifty Cents
TRAINING FOR SELF-RELIANCE
Agricultural conditions in America are chal-
lenging the boys and girls of today. Those of
us who are young now will be the farmers and
homemakers of tomorrow. We will have to carry
on with that business which forms the backbone
of the nation.
To avoid the many pitfalls that have caught
the farmer in the past few years, we must train
ourselves to do our own work. We must not
depend on the hired help or the "share-cropper"
to run our farms.
In many sections of the country it is quite
impossible to get labor on the farm. Good ten-
ants are at a premium. Why? Because these
people much prefer to work on "relief". They
only have to work three or four days a week and
in this way they earn enough money to keep
body and soul together. Why should they work
on the farm?
If we of the younger generation will teach
ourselves to be independent, to care for the man-
agement of our own farms, and to be self-reliant
it will not be necessary for us in future years
to worry about labor or relief.
Our state and federal governments have done
much to aid the young farmers of today. Through
monies received from federal and state agencies,
4-H clubs for boys and girls have been organized
and vocational training is offered to high school
students who maintain the Future Farmers of
America organization. These clubs are continu-
ously carrying out varied programs of education
for boys and girls of the nation.
It is to our distinct advantage to belong to
these organizations of young people. The ex-
perience, the contacts that we obtain will aid
us greatly in later life. We learn from those
leaders of today how to make leaders of ourselves
HELP US TO SERVE
The purposes of the Florida College Farmer are
1. It is the connecting link for various agricul-
2. It provides entertainment and information
for its readers.
3. It serves as an instrument of expression for
students of the College of Agriculture.
4. It provides training for agricultural students.
5. It serves an educational function for its
This is all very well. The Florida College
Farmer does have many outstanding, beneficial
characteristics. But who makes it possible for
the Florida College Farmer to resume publication,
after a lapse of time?
You know the answer already. It is the adver-
tisers. Advertising pays the majority of bills and
without the advertising there would be no Florida
Members of the staff sincerely appreciate every
inch of advertising carried. Our advertisers have
demonstrated their progressiveness by advertising
in this student publication. The students in the
College of Agriculture endorse Florida College
Patronize them. Buy from them. Trade with
them. Here they are:
International Harvester Company
Jackson Grain Company
Florida Grower Press
Armour's Fertilizer Works
Howard Grain Company
Howard Seed Company
E. A. Martin Seed Company
Trueman Fertilizer Company
Nitrate Agencies Company
Wilson-Toomer Fertilizer Company
Seminole Seed Company
College of Agriculture
College Inn Cleaners
Baird Hardware Company
Orange and Blue
Gator Barber Shop
Pepper Printing Company
It is our hope that the Florida College Farmer
will become an everlasting organ-if it does, then
we owe a great part of its success to our adver-
tisers. Again we urge our readers to remember
our friends.-B. L. M.
E FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Page 18 TH
INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER offers
HORSE DRAWN IMPLEMENTS
Chattanooga Walking Plows, and McMormick-Deering Cultiva-
tors, Harrows, Hay Machines, Planters, Fertilizer Distributors,
etc., are the standards by which other implements are judged.
Dealers are located in every county and genuine repairs may
be had on short notice.
Farmall and McCormick-Deering
Tractors take the drudgery out of
farming, and decrease production
costs. Power through drawbar, power
take-off, and pulley, accomplishes
many jobs around the farm other than
crop work. International Harvester
offers the most complete line of trac-
tors and tractor implements of any
The same standards of quality by which the McCormick-Deering
line is manufactured, also governs the manufacture of Interna-
tional Motor Trucks. The new dual-ratio rear axle models are
ideal for the farm where power in the sand and speed on the
highway is needed. A simple gear shift in the cab changes
the ratio while truck is in motion.
INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
434 E. Bay St.
Page 20 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER February, 1936
QUALITY -:- PRICE -:- SERVICE
Howard Grain Company
Offers the feed buyers of Florida a
COMPLETE feed service every day
Write for weekly prices.
WE SERVE THE MOST CRITICAL
Howard Seed Company
Write for our large catalog.
Selected Strains of seeds adapted to
southern soils and climates
MAKE EVERY ACRE DO
Armour's Big Crop is more than a balanced ration of
the major plant foods-Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and
Potash. In addition, the average Armour formula
provides 46 73/100% minor and secondary plant foods
without extra cost.
See your nearest Armour Agent or write
ARMOUR FERTILIZER WORKS
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER