Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00014
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

Volume III The Florida Number 5

College Farmer

for May 1932
* U

i U
-L a! "Y


U Ul
U ..

,. .
TWMMMMMhe male is ofprme mportggance The femggggales thgggat ner thgemagaa




iii ':: '7 i'i ........ I


SThe male is of prime importance The females that enter the

Sin breeding. He will transmit his breeding pen should also be
qualities, good or bad, to about selected carefully for vigor, non-

'12 times the pullets from one broodiness, body type, and other
hen. He should come from high points that make for high and
Producing stock, and should be profitable egg production of
an outstanding individual, their pullets.

PU12HE time the pulletsUA from one brodiess bod tyeand othe "LRD

hen H shS~ ~oul oefo ihpitsta aefrhg n
prdcn*tc ad hudbUrftbl g rdcino
anottnig niiul terples


* U

May, 1932


For 28 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade-mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.

Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall maintain
the reputation of" GULF BRANDS."
Bradenton Lake Wales Winter Haven Winter Garden
P. 0. Box 2790

(Nitrate of Lime) (18.2% Ammonia)
Quick, Safe, Effective

(41.3% Ammonia)
Organic, Prompt, Safe, Long-lasting


High Analysis Complete Three-way Fertilizer
A Form for Every Need

Write for Complete Information and Prices.

More Egs ...
Lower Cost

Iodine Vermicide for Worms
Iodine Suspensoid for
the Health of the Flock
Price List of All Grains and Feed
Sent Weekly on Request

Howard Grain Co.
Jacksonville, Florida

A RE you interested in
making your Lawn velvety,
your flowers more beautiful-
your shrubbery sturdy? Use
Vitalizer, the complete, bal-
anced Plant Food!

A & G Brands of fertilizer
contain No Filler-Just the
exact number of pounds of
YOUR analysis.
Write for copy of booklet "Lawns,
Flowers & Shrubs", and our
latest Price List No. 66.
P. O. Box 172


Contents for May

"Just Imagine"- 1981
No Place for the Broody Hen
By H. M. Fulghuni, Asst. Extension Editor

Hatching and( Growing Pullets for Egg-Laying Con-
By E. F. Stanton, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest,

Improvement of the Farm .
By J. Francis Cooper
Diseases of Chicks .
By E. F. Thomas, Asst. Veterinarian Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Gainesville
Johnson Represents Florida in Regional Contest
By H. E. Wood, Asst. State Supervisor of Agricultural

Editorial .
Over the State with Extension Workers
Florida 4-H Club News.

. 7


. 11
. 13




due to the generous amount of organic Nitrogen
(almost entirely from Genuine Peruvian Guano)
used in their make-up.
Plan now to use NACO Brand Fertilizers. Results will prove
the wisdom of your choice. Bigger yields of improved quality
fruit and truck will bring added profits.



for agricultural






May, 1932



One Man Egg Farm .... 100,000 Birds
Place: Uptown New York-Top floor of any building

1. An electrically operated incubator, including control of heat, ventilation, turning and
mechanical handling of trays will deliver chicks to a moving belt, properly guarded, and will
deliver empty trays, cleaned and disinfected to storage racks. At proper intervals, a new sup-
ply of eggs will automatically be trayed and carried into the machine. (The eggs will have
been X-rayed and all the males killed).
2. The moving belt with chicks (all pullets) will pass into battery rooms where chicks will
drop off into compartments which will automatically move into a proper place when a certain
designated total weight of chicks has been loaded. (Feed, water, heat and ventilation auto-
matic). Manure pans under batteries for birds of all ages to be kept filled with running water
which will carry manure away as fast as it is produced.
3. Four weeks later, time clock controlled, these cages will discharge the living chicks to
a moving belt, properly guarded, which will carry the birds to individual cages. The batteries
will then pass through proper cleaning operations for removal of dead chicks and return to
storage racks for use once more.
4. The pullets in the individual cages will be cared for automatically and will remain in the
cages for the remainder of their lives. These cages will move very slowly, with feed and water
constantly available and as they pass a certain point, the weight of the bird will be recorded.
If below a designated weight, the cage will move out of position and be delivered by belt to
the killing room. (By this method, cages containing dead birds will also be removed as such
birds will have failed to show the proper weight).
5. At five months of age, the cages will pass into the laying section. In here, they again
will move slowly and once in 24 hours will pass over a designated point where any eggs pres-
ent will be pushed off on a recording device. This device will be adjusted so that the same
cage will have its eggs recorded consecutively as they are produced and any cage not deliver-
ing a set number of eggs in a given time will move out of position and pass into the killing
room. (This also removes cages containing any dead birds, as they will fail to register pro-
6. In the killing room, a guillotine will remove the head of the bird when she attempts to
eat. (Birds that have died previously, thus not eating, will pass into an incinerator). This
process, the guillotine, will automatically release the bottom of the cage and the bird will
drop into a machine which will remove all the feathers by the vacuum process. From here,
she will be released to washing and cooling room and finally weighed and packed automat-
ically and delivered to a refrigerated slot machine in her proper weight section.
7. The eggs after being removed from the cages will be carried thru a sand blast machine,
sprayed with oil, packed in cartons by weight and delivered to a slot machine according to
8. The slot machines will open on the street level and passing customers will make their
purchasers in the same manner as present day automatic lunch counters.
9. The one man operating the plant will open crates of hatching eggs each morning and
set them up preparatory to their going through the X-ray machine. After this is done, he
will spend the remainder of the day watching the machinery. The money from the slot
machines will automatically be counted and packed and once daily the operator will remove
the same for banking.
10. A twelve-hour day of artificial light for stock of all ages. Ideal ventilation and tem-
perature control. No unprofitable stock at any time. All air disinfected and no disease.
P. S. A partnership could be established and work provided for the partner by having the
slowly moving cages pass into a dark room at the expiration of twelve hours where they
would remain for a 12-hour rest period. In the meantime, a second group of birds would be
passing through the feeding and production sections, thus establishing two shifts, utilizing
the machinery 24 hours a day and supplying fresh eggs every minute of the day and night.





Vot.. '"No 1
-.611 00..

No Place for the Broody Hen

FOR a hen to go broody at the
College of Agriculture poultry
plant is about the same as her com-
mitting suicide. There's no place on
a poultry farm for the clucking hen,
Dr. N. W. Sanborn, professor of
poultry husbandry, decided
soon after he took charge
of the plant.
In December, 1921, he PER
had just four Rhode Island
Reds with which to start a
breeding pen, and three of
them were broody. From Year
this 75 per cent broody be-
ginning, a flock of almost
non-broody birds was bred. 1921-2
and no new stock was 1922-2
added to accomplish this 1923-2
record. Four years after the 1924-2
beginning only five out of 1925-2
70 pullets, or 7 per cent, 1926-2
went broody their first year. 1927-2
At that time the flock was 1928
stolen. Though disheart- 1929-
ened, Dr. Sanborn is now
breeding up another flock
from which he hopes to en-
tirely eliminate broodiness. The
To begin with, the four that w
original hens were mated, and thi
and 19 pullets were raised, as tabu
Eleven, or 58 per cent of
them went broody, and the
19 averaged 190 eggs the
first year. The original hens played
171 eggs their first year, thus the male
bird proved that he was a good in-
The next year the best of these
pullets were mated to their father,
and the others to a brother. Fifteen
pullets were raised, 43 per cent of
them went broody, and the average
production per bird for the year was
208 eggs.
From these pullets and the old hens
the next breeding pen was selected.
Forty pullets were raised. Broodiness
dropped to 22 per cent and produc-
tion stayed about the same. The next
year 70 pullets were raised, and only
five of them went broody. Average
production for the 42 which com-
pleted the year was 217 eggs.

R. M. Fulghum
Assistant Extension Editor


Number of

Birds Stolen

Per Cent






table gives the number of birds, the per
ent broody at least one time during the y
e average number of eggs played for each
dated from the trapnest records at the coll

This actual reduction of broodiness
from 75 to 7 per cent and increasing
of production from 171 to 217 eggs
per bird in four years is proof of
what selective breeding will do on
the poultry farm.
After the flock was stolen, 14 of the
same stock was gotten together from
several sources, and the entire breed-
ing program started over. Those 14
birds, the first year, averaged 160 eggs
and 36 per cent of them went broody.
Last year, 81 pullets in the flock
averaged 190 eggs. For the present
breeding season 12 pens, with about
12 birds each, are mated. None of
the males in these pens are from hens
that have ever gone broody, and in
most cases their granddams were
non-broody. The hens have been

closely culled for broodiness, and only
pullets from practically non-broody
stock are being used.
Possibly the most interesting
feature in all of this breeding is the
effect that the first male had on his
offspring. His daughters
from the first mating av-
eraged 19 eggs more than
3E their mothers during the
first laying year, and brood-
iness was lowered 17 per
cent. Then bred to his own
daughters he raised the av-
on erage production 18 more
eggs, and cut broodiness 15
per cent. Selected daughters
and sons from this male
played an important part in
the further improvement of
the flock.
In the pullets hatched
during 1924 we find a good
contrast of two males.
Young Jim had six pullets
in the flock and six of them
went broody. None were
from broody hens. Male
cent number 994 had nine pul-
ear, lets in the same flock and
year two of them, both from
ege. broody hens, went broody.
The year that broodiness
dropped as low as 7 per
cent, every one of the
broody birds were from one male
bird, and two of the five came from
hens that had never gone broody.
Three other males had daughters in
the flock that year, and none of them
went broody.
In one of the flocks there were 23
pullets, and nine of them went broody.
Four of the nine were from a hen
which went broody five times the
year before and three from one
which went broody seven times.
In all of the breeding, Dr. San-
born's biggest problem was the find-
ing of males that did not carry brood-
iness. A detailed study of the pedi-
gree and trapnest records over the 10-
year period of breeding show that
good males must be used if progress
is to be made.


Hatching and Growing Pullets for

Egg-Laying Contests

SOME may have the idea that an
egg-laying contest is only for the
benefit of a few big poultry breeders
who are doing lots of advertising and
selling high priced stock. This is a
mistaken idea, for, while the contest
is one of the best means of advertis-
ing to the poultry world just what
kind of stock a breeder may have, it
is also the best place for a small
poultryman to have his own hens
tested so that he may know whether
or not they are the kind he should
continue to keep on his own farm, or
whether he should dispose of and
then get better birds. The contest has
been the means of stimulating many
a small poultryman to renewed efforts

E. F. Stanton
Florida National Egg-Laying Contest
Time to Hatch
Pullets for contest work should be
hatched at about the same time that
is considered proper for the hatching
of pullets to be kept in your own
laying houses. Heavy breed chicks
should be hatched in February or
March, while light breed chicks
should be hatched in April. The con-
test starts the first of October so
you should plan on having the pullets
just making a good start at that time.
Should they be hatched too early,

breeders whether it be for the pro-
duction of contest pullets or stock to
be kept at home. There are plenty of
low grade hens produced each year
that go through life enjoying the
benefits of good feeds, good houses
and good attention, without the in-
herited ability of laying enough eggs
to pay for it. "Like begets like." is a
saying that has been ruling all phases
of breeding work for centuries; so, if
you want to produce good layers, you
must hatch from good layers and use
males that are the sons of good layers.
Also be very careful to use nothing
but hens that lay good sized eggs and
a male out of a large-egg hen. The
male is often 75 per cent of the mat-

Houses and Trapnest at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest

along better breeding lines and for
giving him official records to adver-
tise in the poultry journals. If it had
not been for the contest he would
probably have lost interest in the work
and even if he had made remarkable
records on his own plant, they do not
mean so much as do those made on
state conducted contests, where rec-
ords made are considered official and
accurate. A number of the poultry
breeders right here in Florida have
benefited greatly by having pullets in
this contest from year to year and are
doing a much better business than
they could expect from any other
form of advertising. If you do not
trapnest at home, you will have some
trapnested birds to use as breeders
when your pen is returned from the

they are likely to go through a moult
in the fall after having produced a few
eggs in late summer when they are
cheap. This will mean a loss of val-
uable time either at the contest or
at home. If pullets are hatched at
the proper time they will begin to lay
right through the first year of their
lives without a let up. They should
not be hatched too late or they do
not get away to the proper start,
neither do they make the proper
growth, which is shown by those
hatched during the months that
nature intended they should be
hatched. The nearer we can work
with nature the better results we may
Breed from Good Layers
Great care should be used in the
selection of all birds to be used as

ing, so use extreme care in his selec-
tion. If you haven't a bird that you are
pretty sure will give good results it
will pay you to send someone who
has shown results in contests and buy
a bird that you can be more sure will
give you a good flock of pullets. Re-
member that it does not take any
more feed or heat to raise good birds
than it does poor ones. and when they
are raised there is a vast difference
in their values.
Select from Large Eggs
Since most of the egg-laying con-
tests give prizes according to the
point system which is based on the
size or weight of the eggs laid, it is
essential that breeders should lay eggs
that will weigh at least 24 ounces to
the dozen. For contest work it will pay
(Continued on Page 10)

May, 1932


Improvement of the Farm Home

RAISING poultry and selling poul-
try products is helping rural
women of Alachua County, Florida,
improve their homes. The poultry
provides the money necessary in the
home improvements, which are made
gradually, as time and money become
There is scarcely a farm woman
in the country who does not have a
desire, uttered or unexpressed, to have
a more beautiful, comfortable and
convenient farm home. On account
of limited finances, or the indiffer-
ence of other members of the family,
this desire often remains unrealized.
The plan of using the income from
poultry for making home improve-
ments has been used now for about
five years by club women of Alachua
County, with whom their home dem-
onstration agent, Mrs. Grace F. War-
ren, is working. This plan has proved
its value in Alachua County, and is
adaptable to almost any section of
the United States.

Lawns Improved
It seems that home improvements
is one demonstration which is sure
to strike fire. Community home im-
provement projects have come from
a few well placed demonstrations in
Alachua County. Five or six years
ago demonstrations of exterior and
interior beautification were placed at
a few central points in the county
with women who were willing to im-
prove their homes and be the demon-
Five years ago, for instance, one
woman sowed her front yard to St.
Augustine grass for a lawn. She
lived in a community where a clean-
swept yard once a week was one of
the prime earmarks of a good house-
keeper. Now there are more than 20
lawns in the community, and the
lawnmower now supplants the old
brush broom for sweeping yards.
Twenty homes of that one commun-
ity have more beautiful front yards,
and twenty housewives have more
time to rest and enjoy their sur-
roundings. There are other commun-
ities in the county with records
equally as good.
Sometimes the first women to im-
prove their homes in a community
have done so in the face of sly or
open ridicule. However, the ones who
scoff at first are not long in seeking
help to improve their own homes
when they behold the transformation
that has taken place in the improved
In addition to the help given wom-
en of the county by Mrs. Warren.
Florida's smiling apostle of better
rural homes, Miss Virginia P. Moore,
state home improvement specialist
with the Extension Service, has
helped with bulletins, suggestions,


J. Francis Cooper

plans and encouragement. Even the
architect at the University of Florida
has been drafted occasionally.

Systematic Plans Adopted
The home improvement work fol-
lows a systematic plan. Miss Moore
has had printed a home improve-
ment record book for junior and sen-
ior club members. The homes are
scored before improvements are made,
and then re-scored when the improve-
ments are completed. The improve-
ment is divided into seven classes,
and score cards are provided for each
class. The classes are: Kitchen,
living room, dining room, bedroom,
sanitary premises, artistic plantings,
and new house built or old house re-
modeled. The record book also con-
tains space for reports of projects on
exterior beautification, interior beau-
tification, rural engineering and labor-
saving equipment. Suitable prizes, do-
nated by commercial firms, are award-
ed annually to women who make the
best records in improvement in the

Mrs. Warren visits every home in
Alachua County before the improve-
ments are made, and many times dur-
ing the progress of the improvements.
Miss Moore often visits the homes
with her. Suggestions are given as
to how the home can be improved to
best advantage, which outhouses
should be torn down and which moved
to other locations, what plantings
would be desirable, and similar helps.
Nearly always the women are en-
couraged to improve only part of the
home at a time. If they can make a
success of improving the living room
-a relatively small undertaking-
there will be more enthusiasm for
improving the bedroom and kitchen.
And when the interior of the home is
improved, attractive plantings just
have to be made. And so the work
develops, gaining the active support
of every member of the household.
Mrs. McVoy's Home an Illustration
Every improved home is an inter-
esting story in itself. However, the
work done by Mrs. E. C. McVoy and
her family will serve as an illustra-
tion of the accomplishments of these
poultry home-improvement members
of Alachua County home demonstra-
(Continued on Page 10)

Upper view shows McVoy house before it was improved. Lower view
shows the house after the improvement was made. Study the contrast.

May, 1932


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club

COPELAND NEWBERN, JR...... Editor-in-Chief
MILTON B. MARCO ....... .Business Manager
]. W. GOODING, JR....... Circulation Manager

Raymond Rubin .......... Managing Editor
F. W. Barber. .................... 4-H Club
W. W. Roe ................ Future Farmers
Harry Brinkley ............... Horticulture
J. A. McClellan .................. Poultry

Albert Guy......... Asst. Business Manager
William Guenther. .Asst. Circulation Manager

STAFF FOR 1932-33
Raymond Rubin ........... Editor-in-Chief
Gray Miley.............. Business Manager
Henry W. Land........ Circulation Manager

C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
Frazier Rogers


Subscription One Dollar

Application filed for entry as second-class
matter at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida


The world commemorates this year the memory of
a man wno took a feeble, quarrelsome minority of re-
bellious colonists and made a nation of it. George Wash-
ington was a leader. There was need for leadership, and
he filled that need. Today, the world needs leaders more
than ever before-and that need, great as it is today, will
be greater tomorrow. If our civilization is to continue, we
must produce men great enough to lead, and to break trail,
and to explore into the future. These men must be strong,
to bear the opposition we will surely give them, and they
must be great, to command our grudging respect so that
we will finally follow them. The task of the leader is
not an easy one. Washington had a bitter struggle,
against every conceivable handicap, before he finally suc-
ceeded. But the important thing is that he persevered.
The world needs more Washingtons.
The Father of His Country was not only "first in war,
first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."
He led as a soldier, and as a statesman. But it is too
often forgotten that he was a farmer, and that he was a
leader in introducing new methods in agriculture.
The basic industry of the human race has been, is, and
will continue to be agriculture. Its leaders have always
had and will always have a profound influence on the
history of mankind.
No modern industry faces more troubles, more handi-
caps, more problems, than does agriculture. The future
of the farmer is precarious and difficult. He must have
leadership, to save not only himself and his industry, but
his race. This leadership must come from the youth of
today. They will assume control at a time when every-

one is beginning to doubt the wisdom of the past ages,
and to view our civilization cynically and bitterly. It
is an appalling task, and one which can be completed
only by trained and skillful men. The colleges and uni-
versities must supply that training, must develop the high-
est qualities of leadership among their students.
In our own University of Florida, and, more particu-
larly, in our College of Agriculture, hundreds of students
are pursuing courses designed to make them better men
and more capable men. But can set college carricula
alone make leaders? College courses provide facts and
data with which to work. It is necessary that the student
gather together and unify the various things he has
learned. It is necessary that he practice leadership, if he
is to lead.
To fulfill this need for practice in leadership, extra cur-
ricula activities are provided. Leaders of the past have
organized clubs, magazines, and other fields of endeavor.
Today, because of a lack of leadership, it seems that these
extra curricula activities are dying. Even in the Ag
Club, one of the most active organizations on the Univer-
sity campus, a graual decline in interest is to be noted,
and attendance is decreasing. Other similar organizations
are almost defunct. If the students of the college do not
wish their organization to go out of existence, immediate
action is necessary. Let some of the leaders of the future
demonstrate their fitness to lead by constructive work that
will not only maintain the traditions of the past, but will
raise the Ag Club to a position higher than it has ever
held before. There is a definite place for the Ag Club-
a place that no other activity can fill. It gives valuable
training, and more students should take advantage of this
training in preparation for the tasks that will confront
them after graduation. If they realized this fact, they might
take more interest. There is a great opportunity for the
leaders to show their ability by developing the club.
Leadership displayed in student affairs will aid the
student to be a leader when he leaves school. It will
give the practice that is so necessary, and will help to
train him for his tasks in the world. It is a peculiarly
appropriate time to stress the need for leadership, when
the United States is celebrating the two hundredth anni-
versary of the birth of Washington, our first and one of
our greatest leaders. The story of his life should in-
spire us to strive, first in our comparatively small field
of the campus, and then in the larger field of life, to leave
conditions a little better than we found them.

Last issue the COLLEGE FARMER introduced a new
cover design, which aroused considerable comment and
interest. It was intended as an experiment, and the ap-
proval it won has caused it to be continued. The cover
is significant as a symbol of the many improvements and
changes that the staff hopes to make in the magazine.

The holly tree has had its reign, dispensing Christmas cheer,
The elm has been a favorite, this bicentennial year.
The cherry tree, of hatchet fame, in favor has been high,
'Cause Washington, the story goes, "could never tell a lie."
Throughout our col entry's broad domain, with Florida in the van,
The Father of His Country is honored with this plan
Of planting trees-lie loved them from every land and clime-
We memorialize his hobby through two centuries of time.
From the hills of (ld Virginia to the Gulf of Mexico,
The queen of all the forest trees where southern breezes blow
Is the stately sweet magnolia, whose buds by April showers
Will emerge from velvet blankets into snowy waxen flowers.
Her evergreen's symbolic of "eternal memory" dear
Of our great men. down i the ages who without reserve or fear,
Did their best as duty showed them, and we lay upon their tomb
Wreaths of laurel mixed with myrtle and the sweet magnolia bloom.
t.s today we plant this sapling to the memory of the great,
Let us hope its shapely members grow as did this 'Son of Fate,"
Shade the ground for little children from the scorching rays of noon,
Who e'er long may breathe the fragrance of the sweet magnolia bloom.

May, 1932


Diseases of Chicks

POULTRYMEN who have been in
the poultry business for several
years have come to realize that, to a
large extent, the profits of poultry
raising depends on keeping down the
mortality in the chicks. Chick dis-
eases, if allowed to go uncontrolled,
will take the usual toll of approxi-
mately 50 per cent of the total num-
ber of chicks hatched. With the
proper precautionary measures taken
into account in time it is possible to
cut this enormous loss down to a
minimum. Studies made of flocks
with low chick mortality and with
high chick mortality have shown that
in flocks which have high mortality as
chicks the greater the mortality will
be in the hens from this flock the fol-
lowing year with a subsequent low
egg production and less profit.
The control of baby chick diseases
must begin farther back than the
chick itself as it emerges from the
shell. It should begin with the hen
that lays the egg from which you
hope to hatch the chick, for it is here
that some of our most fatal chick dis-
eases have their origin.

The hens from which the eggs are
selected should be birds with plenty
of vigor and vitality. They should be
free from disease, with special em-
phasis placed on bacillary white
diarrhea, as this is our most import-
ant back-chick disease and one that
is transmitted through the egg to the
chick. The hatcheryman should de-
mand that all his eggs come from
birds that have been tested for bac-
illary white diarrhea and found nega-
tive to this test. It is true that such
a test is not 100 per cent perfect, but
it has proven worthy of its use in the
control of bacillary white diarrhea.
The repeated yearly tests of breeding
stock with proper disposal of the re-
actors together with proper sanita-
tion and a vigorous culling of un-
thrifty chicks will make this test
prove worthy of its use and will in-
sure to a great extent that the baby
chicks will be free of this most dread-
ed of all diseases of baby chicks.
There is nothing that is quite so dis-
couraging to the poultryman as to
lose a high percentage of a brood of
chicks during the first week.

In the incubator is another place
that baby chick diseases may origin-
ate. Before each filling of the incu-
bator for a new hatch, it should be
fumigated with formaldehyde gas to
insure against any previous infection
gaining entrance through the con-
taminated incubator. It is known that
bacillary white diarrhea infection
spreads in the incubators. The amount
of materials to use in this fumigation
is: formaldehyde, 35 c. c., and potas-
sium permanganate, 17.5 grams for

E. F. Thomas
Assistant Veterinarian
Agricultural Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
each 100 cubic feet of air space. The
permanganate is placed in a shallow
vessel with flaring sides, and the
proper amount of formaldehyde is
poured in the vessel containing the
permanganate. After mixing the
chemicals, the operator should close
the incubator at once to avoid inhal-
ing the irritating fumes. The incu-
bator should be kept closed for one
hour. All ventilators in the incubator
should be closed so that the gas can-
not escape.
The brooding of the chick must be
right. Plenty of space should be pro-
vided, as crowding will cause death
and will act as a predisposing cause
of diseases. The brooder house should
be well ventilated so as to keep a
fresh air supply at all times, for hot,
oppressive atmosphere or foul air soon
weakens the chicks and causes heavy
losses. The proper temperature should
be kept to prevent chilling and over
heating. The houses should be fre-
quently cleaned and the floor occa-
sionally disinfected. Clean ground is
necessary especially ground that other
fowls have not used in the last year.
There should be some way pro-
vided to give the chicks sunshine.
When sufficient sunshine cannot be
provided, it is necessary to add 1 to
2 per cent of cod liver oil to the
ration, especially in battery brooding,
to prevent "leg weakness" in the
brood; and plenty of green feed should
be given.
Improper feeding, irregularity of
feeding, neglect and the lack of the
right living conditions, especially old,
diseased contaminated grounds, are at
the bottom of many of our heavy
chick losses.

Pullorum Disease (Bacillary White
Bacillary white diarrhea is the most
common cause of deaths of baby
chicks, and it is this disease that is
responsible for the heaviest losses
shortly after the chicks have hatched.
Bacillary white diarrhea is distributed
in all sections where poultry is being
raised. Millions of chicks die annually
from its ravages. The disease is
caused by a specific bacterium known
as Salmonella pullora, which is found
in the diseased chick's body. The in-
fection is also found in some chicks
that do not succumb to the disease,
but survive and grow up to be adult
hens. In such cases the bacteria are
found to be located in the ovaries,
and these germs may be passed off in

the eggs that the infected hen lays.
The disease usually originates in
chicks from eggs played by such in-
fected hens or from sources of in-
fection which may be through incu-
bators and brooders which have pre-
viously held diseased chicks. Day-
old chicks from infected flocks may
carry infection to other flocks and
infect them. The chick is more sus-
ceptible to the infection during the
first 24 hours of its life, and is it
during the first week that losses from
this disease are greatest. The dis-
ease has been known to break out
occasionally in older chicks that are
low in vitality.
The symptoms of bacillary white
diarrhea in chicks are that they appear
sleepy and are observed to huddle to-
gether, remaining under the brooder
more than young chicks should. They
appear listless, stupid, and indifferent
to what is going on around them and
stand in one position for a long time
with eyes closed. The wings droop
and project slightly from the body
and a diarrhea may or may not be
The post-mortem finding is a
brownish-yellow colored liver. The
kidneys are dark and swollen. The
lungs may show small white spots
on the surface next to the ribs, and
similar spots may also be observed on
the liver and heart.
No treatment has been found to be
effective in handling the disease. The
control of an outbreak of bacillary
white diarrhea lies in rigid sanitary
measures to curl) the source of infec-
tion. All affected chicks should be
isolated from the healthy ones as soon
as any symptoms of the disease are
observed, and such chicks should be
killed and burned. The brooder house
should be cleaned thoroughly, by re-
moving all the litter and applying
some good disinfectant to the floor-a
five per cent solution of creolin is
good for this purpose. Then change
the litter daily until the disease is
under control. Where it is at all pos-
sible, it is best to remove all healthy
chicks to a new place, and take pre-
cautions against attendants and visit-
ors going from the infected premises
to the premises on which the healthy
chicks are kept. Keep a fresh supply
of clean water in fountains at all
times, and have the fountains ar-
ranged so that the chicks cannot con-
taminate the drinking water by get-
ting their feet in the fountain.

After the chicks have reached the
age of two weeks, coccidiosis is the
most fatal disease of chicks. Cocci-
diosis is caused by a protozoan or-
ganism, Ein erta avium, that gains
(Continued on Page 14)

May, 1932


Improvement of the
Farm Home
(Continued from Page 7)
tion clubs. Mrs. McVoy is the wife of
a retired minister who came to Flor-
ida on account of his health. Of the
three boys in the family, two were
about ready for college. So the fam-
ily bought a farm near the University
of Florida, in Gainesville. They
wanted a farm on a paved road, with
towering and spreading moss-draped
trees on it, and "a pretty white, vine-
clad cottage, with roses around the
door." They found one for sale which
met the first two requirements admir-
ably, but the pretty cottage was a
tumble-down shack. However, they
"could see possibilities" in the place,
so they bought it.
In speaking of the house, Mrs. Mc-
Voy said: "It was little more than a
rough shack, had never seen any
paint, was unsealed except for one
room, and there were side cracks in
the walls and floors."
After they moved in, the McVoys
were not long in undertaking some
improvements to the house. "We had
little money for improvements, and
there was so much to be done we
hardly knew where to begin," said
Mrs. McVoy. The money immediately
available was put to work, and a
poultry flock was stated to "doing its
By a unanimous vote, the family de-
cided that one of the first things they
must have was running water and a
bathroom. A home light plant was
obtained, and furnished not only the
running water but also lights. A small
dressing room was partitioned off
from the living room, two screened
sleeping porches and a small screened
front porch were built. The house
was sealed with beaver-board; closets
and shelves were built, cracks were
boarded up, leaky places in the roof
were repaired, and the house was
Attention was then turned to the
surroundings. New fences were built
and old ones were repaired. Three
unsightly outbuildings were removed,
and a fourth was remodeled into a
garage and feed room. A hay shed,
corn crib, and four chicken houses
were built.
The next summer a larger front
porch was built, the living room was
remodeled, and the sleeping porches
were enclosed with windows. The old-
er two boys did practically all the
work, but were ably aided and abet-
ted by Mrs. McVoy and the youngest
boy. The next summer the boys built
themselves their "bachelor quarters,"
consisting of study, sleeping porch,
and bath. One of the old sleeping
porches was removed to make way
for this improvement.
And "we are not through yet," says
Mrs. McVoy. "We are going to con-
tinue until we have converted our

Green Corn Yields
Best if Fertilized
and Planted Early

Green corn planted early and side-
dressed with nitrate of soda has given
best results in tests at the Florida
Experiment Station.
Of plantings made side by side the
15th of February, March, April, May,
and June, the February plantings have
given the highest yields with those of
March a close second. Roasting ears
were produced on the February plant-
ings about 10 days to two weeks
earlier than on the March plantings.
In co-operative tests on a farm near
Alachua, where 450 pounds of a gen-
eral fertilizer was applied per acre,
the yield was 21 crates per acre more
than where no fertilizer was applied.
However, on a near-by plot where
only 200 pounds of nitrate of soda was
applied as a side-dressing the yield
was as high as the complete fertiliz-
ed plot in addition to more of the
crates being ready for harvest early
in the season.

original shack into a really attractive
and comfortable home. Of course, if
we had been building a new house, we
could have planned and arranged
better. But we had to use the old
house, as we could do only a little
building at a time, and in the mean-
time we had to keep on living."
Mrs. McVoy, as most of the other
women improving their homes with
the help of their home demonstration
agent, is not forgetting the furnish-
ings for the home. She is making a
complete and attractive home.

Poultry Brings the Cash
She and other Alachua County
women have found that poultry lends
itself admirably to combination with
the home improvement project. The
income from poultry is gradual, but
the home improvement work must be
done gradually. Mrs. McVoy keeps
from 1000 to 1500 chickens, and mar-
kets eggs, broilers, and fryers. Prac-
tically all of her marketing is done
direct. She has an attractive road-
side sign which results in numerous
sales at the door. Also, she supplies
private homes and boarding houses in
Gainesville, and thus gets retail prices
for her poultry products. She has
built up a considerable trade.
There are ten women in the county
who hatch and sell baby chicks to
help them make an income for their
improvement work. They run home
incubators and do custom hatching
for their neighbors.
"Let the poultry flock improve your
home," might well be the slogan of
Mrs. Warren and her Alachua County
home demonstration club members.

Egg-Laying Contest
(Continued from Page 6)
to use birds that will run 26 ounces
or better, then it can be expected that
the daughters will lay a fair sized
egg. It used to be that an egg was
considered an egg regardless of size,
but in the standard contests of the
United States and Canada rulings have
been made which are much fairer and
the valuation placed on the birds from
a breeding standpoint show the buy-
ing public who has the kind of birds
to buy.
The vigor and vitality of all breed-
ers should be one of the main points
to be looked to. Never use a bird in
the breeding pen if it has any signs
of weakness or low vitality, regardless
of any high records back of it. No
matter how many eggs may have
been bred into a bird, you can never
hope to get a record out of it if the
strength is lacking. It takes a good,
strong pullet to stand up under the
strain of continued, heavy egg produc-
Another good point to watch is
what might be termed "persistency."
Try to use birds that are not easily
knocked out of production by a change
of some kind, either in feed, house,
or weather. The birds that arrive at
a contest in a laying condition and
continue without a break are the ones
that will bring home the ribbons,
silver cups and cash prizes.

Have Plenty of Heat
There's no best method for brood-
ing chicks. You should have a brood-
er that will furnish plenty of heat,
since the baby chick is dependent on
heat after it gets out of the shell just
the same as before. (Growth, de-
velopment, and even life itself, stops
when heat is not supplied in proper
degree. Proper digestion cannot take
place under cool environment. In this
section of the country a number of
poultrymen are having splendid re-
sults with a homemade brick brooder
which burns green oak wood. This
can be used in an ordinary brooder
house about 12 feet square or larger,
and is one of the most economical
ways of brooding chicks where one
can get wood on his own farm or can
buy it pretty cheap.
Some use a battery brooder with
good success and then use a brooder
house with wire floor for a few weeks
before turning the young birds on the

Photo- yovt I Half Tones
IEn at)e-rs 'o to Zinc Etchings
Artists Color Plates

May, 1932


Duval Dairymen Raise
Crop of Fine Calves

Dairymen in Duval County last year
raised 2,000 calves compared with
about 500 the year before, says
County Agent A. S. Lawton. They
were of better quality than the calves
of previous years, since many of them
came from the 63 purebred bulls
brought into the county the previous
year, and since calves were raised only
from the best cows.
Thirty-five of the dairymen co-
operated with the county agent in
feeding and parasite-control demon-
strations. One of the main feeds used
was skim-milk, and the calves were
grazed on pastures that no calves
had been on during the last year.
This was to prevent the spread of
calf parasites.

Lake County

Close to 95 per cent of the grape
acreage in Lake County, largest grape
growing county in the state, was
planted to crotalaria last year, reports
County Agent Clifford Hiatt.

A man who does not read and ob-
serve has only his own experiences to
guide him: one who reads and ob-
serves what others are doing has the
whole world as a guidepost.

Many of the shrubs in Florida
woods may be used in landscaping
the yard. Try some of them this

Taylor County

The University of Arkansas is
given as authority for the state-
ment that larger drouth loans
had to be made in the counties
which had no county agents
than in the counties having such
service. The average of the
loans in counties with county
agents was $205.90. For all
other counties the average was
$226.94. The explanation given
is that $21 less would meet the
urgent needs, per family, in the
county agent counties, because
more feed was grown for live-
stock or more of the family liv-
ing was provided from the farm.

Crotalaria Planted in

Half Highlands Citrus

Crotalaria was planted on 55 per
cent of the citrus acreage in High-
lands County last year, reports
County Agent Louis H. Alsmeyer.
By careful handling of this cover
crop the growers were able to cut
fertilizer and cultivation costs, friend-
ly fungi were aided in the control
of insects, and the crop of fruit was
improved in both quality and quantity.

Letting sows farrow on grazing
crops and keeping the pigs there for
four months proved profitable to two
Taylor County farmers who conduct-
ed demonstrations with County Agent
R. S. Dennis last year. There were 10
sows in the demonstrations. They
farrowed 89 pigs. Three of them were
mashed by the sows and 85 were
raised. They were farrowed in March
and when butchered in October
weighed 160 to 170 pounds.
Oats were planted in November,
and the sows were turned on them in
February, just before they farrowed.
They were kept on the oats until
May and fed about one-third grain
ration. The pigs were then turned
on cattail millet, sorghum, and peas,
and watered from an automatic barrel.
They were kept on this grazing until
they were put on early corn and peas
for fattening.
The adoption of this practice would
mean thousands of dollars to the
farmers of the county, since worms
cause the loss of many pigs and stunt
the growth of many more, Mr. Dennis
said. No signs of worms were re-
ported by the two demonstrators, who
were the late W. B. Davis and Brade

Beekeepers on the Florida West
Coast this year have one of the finest
and best quality honey-crops they
have ever produced, reports H. G.
Clayton, district extension agent.

I B .:.-:. T ":'-'-'-":'-
.4 --- -"

Co-operative Markeling has helped many Florida Poultrymen

May, 1932


May, 1932

Johnson Represents Florida in Regional Contest

LEX R. Johnson, Teacher of Vo-
cational Agriculture at Sanford.
has prepared an interesting report of
his work there during the fiscal year
of 1930-31 (July 1st to June 30th).
This report has been mailed to the
Federal Board for Vocational Educa-
tion in Washington to compete in the
Southern Regional Master Teacher
Contest. Mr. Johnson earned the
right to enter this contest by being
rated as the best agricultural teacher
in Florida, making a total of 976
points out of a possible 1000, and lead-
ing his nearest opponent by 28 points.
This is the third consecutive year that
Mr. Johnson has represented Florida
in the Southern Regional Contest,
and his program has been growing
by leaps and bounds in Seminole
It would be impossible to cover Mr.
Johnson's work in the space allowed
for this article, therefore, only a few
of the "high spots" will be touched.
He is training each boy in his va-
rious classes to make a complete an-
alysis of his home farm conditions
and then work out a long-time pro-
gram for making the farm profitable.
In doing this each boy is required to
map out a personal farming program
which he actually carries out in cor-
relation with his studies.
On the Sanford School Farm, each
student is taught through actual prac-
tice, the most improved methods of
doing different farm jobs. On this
farm many variety and fertilizer tests
are being made with the major farm
crops grown at Sanford. The students
and farmers get valuable information
from the results of these tests. During
1930-31, the school farm developed to
a point where over one thousand
visitors per year visited it for the
purpose of viewing the work and ob-
taining agricultural information.
In the school farm shop, the stu-
dents get valuable training in how to
plan and construct farm buildings, re-
pair farm equipment, build farm
equipment and do various other shop
jobs necessary on a Seminole County
Last year a total of 33 boys in all
types of classes earned $1.739.83 in
the various projects operated by them.
Although this amount is not out-
standing, it represents a nice profit
for school boys who at the same
time earn one and one-half credits
toward graduation from high school,
on vocational agriculture.
Mr. Johnson has done outstanding
work in conducting evening classes
for adults. A total of 72 farmers en-
rolled in these classes. At these
meetings only farm problems con-
fronting the farmers were discussed,
and the teacher supplied information
dealing with the solution of the
The following are some of the ac-

H. E. Wood
Assistant State Supervisor of
Agricultural Education
complishments which are direct re-
sults of these evening classes for
(1) Organization of the Seminole
County Agricultural Club which has
a membership of 187 and includes
80% of the truck growers of the com-
munity. At present this organiza-
tion is making a united complaint
against recent freight rate increases.
(2) A county-wide corn growing
contest resulted in 100% more corn
being grown by farmers. New vari-
eties introduced have increased the
yield 75% over the commonly grown
varieties. During the past two years
40 gas-proof corn cribs have been
built and the practice of controlling
weevils by carbon bisulfide is firmly
(3) Crotalaria was introduced as a
soil-building crop and 6,000 lbs. of
seed distributed among growers dur-
ing the past year.
(4) Seminole Poultry Club organ-
ized and largely responsible for stag-
ing a poultry show in Sanford each
year which stimulates more and bet-
ter poultry in the county.
(5) About '25% increase in the
amount of mixed vegetables grown,
which aids in soil rotation practices
and also displaces some celery acre-
(6) Improving spray mixtures for
the control of celery blight which
increased efficiency and eliminated
false practices.
(7) Bringing back into production
certain celery soils which had be-
come unproductive through the ac-
cumulation of fRrtilizer residue. The
cause was discovered and the remedy
evolved as a result of adult class
(8) Recommendations of celery
fertilizing practices which have re-
sulted in a saving of about $30.00 per
acre and increased the yield 10%.
(9) Testing the soil for acidity,
and correcting accordingly, instead of
guessing, as previously done.
Approximately 700 acres of inten-
sive truck crop land was used by
farmers representing the evening
adult classes. This land produced
approximately 490,000 crates of celery
and other vegetables which had a
f.o.b. value of approximately $800,000.
Approximately 22,800 bushels of
corn was produced with a value of
Changed practices by members of
the evening adult class resulted in 358
instances and it is estimated that
these changed practices had an in-
creased value of $39,720.00 to the
The following is an example of

the county's confidence in Mr. John-
son's agricultural ability:
Seminole County has a county-home
farm used for a prison and poor
farm. It has been in existence for 5
years, during which time it has grad-
ually depreciated and increased in
liability. Upon request of the Board
of County Commissioners, Mr. John-
son took his class of boys and sur-
veyed and drew maps of this farm,
then prepared a report and recom-
mendations for the future operation
of the farm.
This report with the recommenda-
tions was immediately approved and
adopted by the Commissioners.
Mr. Johnson has been the local ad-
visor of the Seminole Chapter, Future
Farmers of America, for the past
three years. This organization is
composed of farm boys who are reg-
ularly enrolled students in vocational
agriculture classes. The Seminole
Chapter is duly affiliated with the
State and National Future Farmer or-
ganization and has made an enviable
record in connection with carrying out
the objectives and program of work
of the F. F. A. organization. The
Seminole Chapter, F. F A,, has won
first place in the State-wide Chapter
Contest for the past two years, and
as State winner, has represented
Florida in the National Contest for
F. F. A. Chapters, thus bringing to
Florida the honor of having an F. F.
A. Chapter that won "Honorable
Mention" in the National Contest,
The principal factor in the out-
standing success made by Alex R.
Johnson as teacher of vocational ag-
riculture in Sanford, Seminole County,
Florida, has been his ability to "Plan
his work and then work his plan."
Three years ago, when he took
the position at Sanford, he set a goal
for himself. Previously, vocational
agriculture was looked upon as
merely another class in high school
and was not considered as having a
part in the agricultural program of
the community. He determined to
change this condition and with this
in mind, planned his work in order to
bring about a long-time constructive
program and the recognition of the
Vocational Agricultural Department
of the High School as an instrument
for bettering the agricultural inter-
ests of the community and county.
That Mr. Johnson's goal has been
realized is evidenced by the fact an
additional county-wide one-half mill
tax has been levied for the further
expansion of the vocational agricul-
tural education program in Seminole
County and an assistant teacher of
vocational agriculture added to the
personnel of the department.
Seminole County is proud of Mr.
Johnson and their program of voca-
tional agricultural education.




Another Successful 4-H Club Girl
In 1930 Ottie Lee Bass, who lives in
Okaloosa County, raised 1530 pounds
of vegetables on one-twentieth of an
acre. This was an unusual yield and
placed Miss Bass among the outstand-
ing 4-H Club girls of West Florida.
She was awarded a scholarship to
the Boys and Girls 4-H Club Con-
gress in Chicago, in November. While
there Miss Bass came in contact with
girls and boys from all over the
United States, and came home fully
determined to make her best better.
For the year 1931 Ottie Lee ordered
seed catalogues and selected all the
varieties of vegetables grown in the
South, fifty-six different kinds of veg-
etables in all. She carefully studied
the directions as to the planting and
care of her garden, and received help
from her Home Demonstration Agent.
As soon as the weather would per-
mit, Ottie Lee began to plant her
garden, although she had to protect
some of her plants from frost several
The most of the garden was given
over to staple production, while small
plots were devoted to many new veg-
etables that she had never grown be-
fore. Some of these new vegetables
were served to the family and were
liked very much. After winter plant-
ing was over, new seed was planted
between the rows, allowing them to
come up and be growing by the time
the old crop was harvested.
Naturally the summer drouth
hindered planting for a few weeks,
but with the first rains planting was
started again. As soon as the plants
were growing well, a top dressing of
nitrate of soda was applied every two
weeks, to keep the crops well supplied
with nitrogen and growing briskly.
Ottie Lee harvested a total of 3,848
pounds of vegetables during the year,
valued at $111.96. She canned 816
quarts of fruits, meats and vegetables
for home use. Her expenses for the
year were $14.19. Such is the admir-
able record of a true 4-H Club girl.
4-H Club boys are not only farmers
but efficient business men as well.
Only half the battle is won when the
crop has been grown, because much
depends on how the crop is sold.
Thirty-nine boys in Union and Brad-
ford Counties who raised crotalaria
as their club project in 1931, formed
an organization to sell the seed. To
insure a uniform product, all seed
was brought to a central place for
cleaning and packing. Over 8,000

pounds of first grade seed has been
cleaned and sacked by this organiza-

St. Johns County boys prepare for
1932. The County Agent for that
County reports the organization of
strong 4-H Clubs at St. Augustine and
Hastings. The Chamber of Com-
merce is quite interested in starting
and fostering a pig club. With such
strong backing the boys are sure to
make good.

We are glad to hear the welcome
news that club work is steadily in-
creasing in our sunshine state. News
is coming in from all parts of Florida
that clubs are being organized and
new members being enrolled for 1932.
From present indications 1932 will be
a big year in 4-H Club work in Flor-
ida. Counties are reporting unusual
enrollment and the organization of
local clubs.

The 4-H Club boys of Escambia
County knew what to do last year
and they did it. For two months
County Agent E. P. Scott was sick
and could not visit the clubs, but the
work was kept up and 30 per cent
more boys than the year before com-
pleted their club work.

4-H Club boys all over the state
have their part in the South Florida
Fair. Over 100 bushels of corn with
125 10-ear exhibits make this the larg-
est corn club show ever staged in
Florida. Sixty feet of space is filled
entirely with cotton.

The first calf club show at the
Tampa Fair gets a big start with 25
registered calves being shown. With
the eradication of the tick an increas-
ing interest in dairy club work is evi-
dent. Over $1,200 in prize money will
be given to winning club boys at the

Over 71 bushels of corn per acre
is the record made during the last
year by 36 Hillsborough County 4-H
Club boys, County Agent C. P.
Wright reports. Each of the boys
grew one acre, and their average
yield was 71.5 bushels. The boys
made a profit of $1,981, or an average
of about $55 each.

California Fruit Growers Exchange
employees now get orange juice twice
daily to conform with Sunkist adver-
tisement.-California Citrograph.

May, 1932

4-H Club Boy's Baby Chick Project


Diseases of Chicks
(Continued from Page 9)
entrance into the chick's body through
the mouth with food and water. This
organism may attack the first portion
of the intestines (duodenum), and the
ceca (blind pouches). The source of
infection of coccidiosis may be adult
birds that are spreading it everywhere
they chance to go in the poultry yard;
the grounds may have been infected
by a previous outbreak on the same
grounds, thereby serving as a source
of infection; also it is possible that
the infection could have been intro-
duced by some animal or person
coming from another poultry flock in
which the disease exists. There is a
possibility that wild birds'may serve
as carriers of the coccidia.
The symptoms of coccidiosis in
young birds are droopy projecting
wings and ruffled wing feathers; the
chicks crowd together under the
brooder and eat very little, and soon
a diarrhea develops that may or may
not be tinged with blood. The dis-
ease progresses very rapidly after
gaining entrance into the flock and
several chicks will be found dead
daily-the deaths in the flock usually
increasing in number each day. If
reinfection is prevented, the disease
will have run its course in three
weeks to a month's time; and the
coccidia will have been eliminated
from the sick birds if they are able
to withstand the disease for that
period of time.
Post-mortem findings, of chicks
that die of coccidiosis, depend upon
the portion of the intestinal tract af-
fected. If the duodenum is affected,
this part of the intestines will show
a swollen lining with numerous hem-
orrhagic areas over it, and the con-
tents will be somewhat reddened. If
the ceca is affected, similar conditions
will be noted in the ceca with blood
clots usually in the contents of this
organ, causing the organ to have a
dark appearance. A microscopic ex-
amination of the contents or scrap-
ings of the wall of the affected por-
tion of the intestines will show cocci-
dia present. Such a microscopic ex-
amination is the only sure way of
making a diagnosis for coccidiosis.
In treating the disease, all well birds
should be separated from the sick
ones and put on clean floors with
litter which can be cleaned up daily,
or else use hardware cloth floors so
that the droppings can pass through,
thereby preventing the chicks from
coming in contact with the infected
droppings. Give them milk or some
of the substitutes, such as powdered
milk, or semi-solid buttermilk, and
allow the chicks to have nothing
else to drink but the milk. If powdered
milk is used, mix it with the mash so
as to make the mash 40 per cent milk.
When liquid milk is used, reduce the
amount of mash normally fed. Feed

Home Orchards in
Florida May Grow
At Least 20 Fruits

At least 20 fruits are adapted to the
home orchard in any section of
Florida, according to H. Harold
Hume, assistant director of research
at the Florida Experiment Station.
Fruits that lose their leaves in the
winter, like the pecan and persimmon,
should be set as early as possible,
since they make better growth in the
spring if set while they are still dor-
mant. Tropical trees like the mango
and avocado are best planted in the
rainy season in summer.
Mr. Hume stresses the ornamental
effect of these fruit trees around the
home as well as the variety of quality
fruit they will yield for home use.
Fruits adapted to the north and
western parts of the State, as listed
by Mr. Hume, are: pecan, pear, per-
simmon, plum, peach, grapefruit,
Satsuma and sweet oranges, loquat,
limequat, kumquat, calamondin, fig,
quince, huckleberry, pomegranate,
muscadine and bunch grapes, mul-
berry, the Youngberry, and straw-
Those fruits that will do well in
central Florida are: hardy avocados.
oranges, grapefruit, pear, peach, per-
simmon, loquat, guava, calamondin,
limequat, kumquat, Surinam cherry,
fig, pomegranate, dewberries and
blackberries, mulberry, muscadine and
bunch grapes, and strawberries.
For the South Florida home or-
chard he recommends: avocado, man-
go, grapefruit, orange, lime, tangelo,
roseapple, tamarind, sapodilla, lime-
quat, kumquat, calamondin,, Surinam
cherry, guava, sugar-apple, soursop,
papaya, purple granadilla, mulberry,
and pineapple.

scratch grain as usual. The dura-
tion of the milk feeding will depend
somewhat upon the severity of the
outbreak, but the high milk ration
should never be fed longer than two
In order to control and prevent a
disease which is so easily transmitted
as is coccidiosis, it is very important
not to allow visitors to go on the
premises where the chicks are kept,
for it is a known fact that the in-
fection can be carried from infested
premises to healthy flocks on the
shoes and clothing of people.

Aspergillosis (Brooder Pneumonia)
This is a respiratory disease that is
caused by a mold which grows on
moldy litter and trash. The mold
spores are inhaled in contaminated
dust and locates in the lungs and
other air passages.
The growth of this mold in the air
passages produces difficult breathing
which has other symptoms associated
with it, such as diarrhea, droopy
wings, weakness, and "going light."
The post-mortem findings are

Good Color Schemes
To Paint the House

A little paint adds much to the
beauty of the house, besides protect-
ing the wood. In selecting the color
to use, nearby buildings and foliage
should be considered. Failing to con-
sider them often results in the use of
ugly, crude colors.
A house obscured by foliage should
he painted in light, rather bright
colors to give somewhat of a con-
trast. On the other hand, a house
standing alone in a conspicuous loca-
tion should not be in too bright
colors. Small houses will tend to
look larger if they are painted to
light colors, particularly of the
warmer tints.
Judicious use of trim colors is an
important factor in the color scheme.
Colonial houses always look well in
white with green shutters and green
shingled roofs. Light yellow houses
with white trimmings are very pleas-
ing. Bungalows are attractive when
painted ivory, white, or light yellow.
If they are small, a light gray, or
light yellow would make them look
Suggested color combinations are:
ivory trimmed with light yellow, for-
est green, or white. White trimmed
with light yellow, gray or green.
Light yellow trimmed with white,
ivory or brown. Seal brown trimmed
with ivory, white, yellow, or sage
green. Silver gray trimmed with
ivory, warm gray, or moss green.
Warm gray trimmed with white, or
silver gray. Light lead trimmed with
white, warm gray, or silver gray.
Apple green trimmed with dark
green, white, or gray.
Ask the home demonstration agent
to help you select the colors for your

greenish gray exudate in the air
passages and lungs.
There is no effective treatment for
this disease, but it is an easy matter
to prevent it. By keeping the brooder
house, litter and feed dry, molds will
not find a favorable place to grow,
which is the important factor in the
prevention of this disease.

Rickets (Leg Weakness)
Rickets are caused by a lack of vita-
min D in the ration. The disease is
characterized by leg weakness, en-
larged joints, crooked bones, and
stunted growth. The disease is most
commonly seen in young chickens
that are kept out of the sunshine and
not fed an adequate amount of green
Treatment of rickets consist of sun-
shine, green feed or cod liver oil. It
is much better to prevent it by furn-
ishing these required sources of Vita-
min D by feeding greens or 2 per
cent cod liver oil to chicks not al-
lowed to have access to sunshine.

May, 1932



Cayana Cane Yields 156
Gallons More Per Acre

One hundred and fifty-six gallons
of syrup more per acre is what farm-
ers who conducted Cayana 10 variety
demonstrations with county agents in
North and West Florida made last
year, reports J. Lee Smith, district
extension agent. Twenty-six of the
demonstrations were reported, each
growing Cayana beside the old red
sugar cane varieties.
The reason for the success of the
Cayana is that it is immune to at-
tack by mosaic and nematodes which
take a heavy toll on the other varie-

Seed Treatment
Controls Sweet
Potato Diseases

Treating seed sweet potatoes with
corrosive sublimate is an effective
means for preventing several fungus
diseases that might give trouble later
on, according ot Dr. W. B. Tisdale,
plant pathologist for the Florida Ex-
periment Station.
Just before bedding, those potatoes
that show rots or blemishes should
be discarded. The healthier ones
should be disinfected for five to eight
minutes in a solution of corrosive
sublimate made by dissolving three
ounces of the crystal in 24 gallons of
water. After 10 bushels have been
treated add one-half ounce more of
the crystals, making up to 24 gallons
with water and treat 10 more bush-
els. The solution should then be dis-
carded. He advised bedding the po-
tatoes as soon as they are treated.
Corrosive sublimate is a deadly poison
and should be handled with care.

When no other green feed is avail-
able feed the layers and growing
chicks sprouted or germinated oats.
Make a little bit of simple record
keeping a part of every day's farm
It pays to use good seed because it
means larger yields of better quality

Timber Owners Warned
Against Burning Woods
and Too Heavy Chipping

Timber owners run a very grave
risk of heavy insect damage to their
woods if fires are allowed to burn
through them during the present
drouth period, or if the trees are
chipped too heavy, says Lenthall
Wyman, associate silviculturist with
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
He has already received many re-
ports of insect losses in turpentined
and round timber, and he says that
much insect-killed timber can be seen
throughout the northeastern part of
the state.
Control measures are rather expen-
sive and the most feasible action to
take is to remove all insect-attacked
trees from the woods whenever they
can be disposed of, even at a slight
loss. Any conditions which are a
strain on the trees, such as defolia-
ting fires, winter turpentining, con-
tinued drouth, and warm weather,
will contribute to further losses.
In regions where the dry weather
has been serious, trees should be very
conservatively worked next spring.
He especially advocated the avoiding
of deep chipping.

Democratic Service

"In co-operative agricultural exten-
sion service," according to Dr. C.
B. Smith, of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, "is probably
the most democratic thing in America.
National, state and county govern-
ments, farmers' organizations and in-
dividual farm men and women help in
determining whether or not an exten-
.sion agent is to be located in a
county. All have a voice in selecting
him or her, help finance the work and
determine what the program shall be.
About 2,400 counties now have one
or more co-operative extension
agents. Surveys show that this work
is affecting farm and home practices
on between two and three million
farms and homes each year."

Watch Your Soil Condition


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May, 1932

Phone 261


TODAY, as in the past, our
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Substitutes never enter our mixtures.

Orange Belt Brands are noted for
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more, than ever, Quality Fruit
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Remember "There is a Difference in Fertilizer"


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