Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00013
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text


Vol. III JANUARY, 1932 No. 4

1 f1
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SFor 28 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade-mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall maintain
the reputation of" GULF BRANDS."
Bradenton Lake Wales Winter Haven Winter Garden
P. O. Box 2790

We Announce
to Florida Growers that we have opened a depart'
ment to handle high quality seeds. Our seeds are
obtained from the best growers in the country and
will be marketed under the name of


Including Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage,Cucumber,
Eggplant, Lettuce, Peppers,Tomatoes and other seeds
Write Us for Catalog Giving Prices and Full Information
Tampa, Florida



A Size

for every use

A hundred

uses for

every size

Burgman Tractor &
Equipment Company
No. 8 Riverside Viaduct
Jacksonville, Florida

1 I


Contents for January

Nineteen Thirty-two Farm Outlook 3
When Are Farm Profits Made? 4
By Donald S. Ruff, '33.
Permanent Florida Agriculture 5
By E. M. Cook, '33.
Whitefly vs. Aschersonia 7
By N. Broward Bevis, '34.

Close Proximity Between Agricultural Expositions
and Farm Progress 8
By James L. Malone, Publicity Director of South Florida Fair.
Proper Care of Drought-Injured Citrus Trees 10
By E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citriculturist.

Editorials 6
Florida 4-H Club 11
Extension News 9

TODAY, as in the past, our
policy is to manufacture quality Fertilizer of
honest ingredients and priced accordingly.
Substitutes never enter our mixtures.

Orange Belt Brands are noted for
producing maximum crops of
quality fruits. And this year,
more, than ever, Quality Fruit
will command a premium.

Remember "There is a Difference in Fertilizer"


Tampa BELT Florida
805 Citrus Exc. Bldg. 35th St. and 4th Ave.

A 1RE you interested in
making your Lawn velvety,
your flowers more beautiful-
your shrubbery sturdy? Use
Vitalizer, the complete, bal-
anced Plant Food!

A & G Brands of fertilizer
contain No Filler-Just the
exact number of pounds of
YOUR analysis.
Write for copy of booklet "Lawns,
Flowers & Shrubs", and our
latest Price List No. 66.
P. O. Box 172




January, 1932






If Not, This is the
Time to Start!

Begin the
New Year
by reading this period-
ical of information of
those who are inter-
ested in forwarding the
prosperity of Florida's

For Advertising and
Subscription Rates

Florida College
College of Agriculture
Gainesville, Fla.



Agricultural Resources on Parade

12 Days

12 Nights

Crowded to Capacity With Educational
and Entertainins Feature Attractions

World's Greatest Winter Exposition
FEB. 2 to FEB. 13

The Florida Orange


26th -27th 28th-29th -30th, 1932

W ILL again offer a wonderful exhibition of Oranges and
Grapefruit and the many allied industries-a beautiful
display of color, lights and golden fruit, arranged with full ex-
pression to the various educational and commercial features.
The program for the Festival includes the following events:
Tuesday, January 26-SCIHOOL DAY-devoted to the entertainment
and education of students who will be admitted free.
Wednesday, January 27-GOVERNOR'S DAY-Reception to the Hon.
Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida; official inspection of exhibits;
Washington bicentennial pageant and crowning of the Orange Festival
Thursday, January 28-ALL-STATES AND TOURISTS DAY-Third
annual gathering of Tourists and Tourist Club members throughout
Florida; Ohio-Virginia wedding at 8 p. m.
Friday, January 29-GROWER'S DAY-Fifth annual gathering of
Florida citrus growers; special meetings morning and afternoon.
Saturday, January 30-AMERICAN LEGION DAY-Special concert by
Winter Haven American Legion Auxiliary Fife and Drum Corps.
Students' Theater Concession Card Will Be Honored

January, 1932


"Florida First''

**<>< i0..


Growers Must Face Surplus

as they Plan 1932 Crops

ACCORDING to the recent outlook
report released by the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service there
will be considerable change in some of
the Florida crops for 1932. The report
bases its outlook on information
gathered from all parts of the United
States and foreign countries and on
data from state sources.

Citrus Outlook Suggests Economy
Not Expansion
In the United States there are 535,-
000 acres of orange trees. About four-
fifths are of bearing age, five years
or more, and only two-fifths are 15
years old. In Florida there are 265,
000 acres. About three-fifths are of
bearing age but not in full bearing,
and an additional one-fifth is over 15
years old.
Exports of oranges from the United
States during the last 18 years have
averaged 8.1 percent of the crop.
About 7 percent has gone to Canada,
and in recent years increasing
amounts have gone to the United
Kingdom. Attention should be called
to the fact that Canada has placed a
duty of 75 cents per box on American
oranges. The Mediterranean basin,
which supplies the bulk of Europe's
winter oranges, is expected to have a
crop this year two million boxes larg-
er than last.
At present there are 190,000 acres
of grapefruit in the United States.
About 45 percent is less than five
years, and only 17 percent is 15 years
old. In Florida there are 93,000 acres,
a third of which is 15 years old.
Increasing foreign demand for
American grapefruit is expected to
continue, but not without increased
competition from foreign producers.
Grapefruit exports, mostly to Canada
and the United Kingdom, have aver-
aged 7.8 percent of the crops for the
last four years. Increasing amounts
are going to the United Kingdom, but
Porto Rico with 8,400 acres, three-
fourths of which is in bearing, is shift-
ing to this market.
Florida citrus growers may expect

competition from other areas to in-
crease. This coupled with restricted
buying power does not make the pres-
ent season look too bright. Favorable
factors are the progress that is being
made in reducing production and
packing costs, in truck movement,
and in canning and freezing.

Demand for Truck Crops Not Likely
to Improve Soon.
Truck crop acreage in the United
States was reduced last year for the
first time in six years, but business
conditions are such that little im-
provement in demand will occur be-
fore Floridas next crop is marketed.
The Florida strawberry acreage is
expected to be reduced 10 percent,
while Louisiana is expected to show
some reduction. Dry weather has
been the chief cause of this reduction.
The early cabbage states are ex-
pected to reduce acreage about 13
percent, and there will be light hold-
ings of old stocks when the early
movement begins.
Low prices for the late crop of 1931
potatoes has caused a lot of them to
be held over, and early producers in
Florida may expect greater come.
tition from this carryover than they
experienced last spring.
The early fall crop of tomatoes in
Florida and Texas is likely to be re-
duced to 35 percent below last year.
The Mexican acreage is expected tc
be 1/6 less. Texas is planning about
a 10 to 25 percent increase in late
tomatoes, while Mississippi will likely
reduce acreage 25 to 50 percent.
The Texas snap bean acreage will
show a slight decrease while slight
increases are expected in Louisiana,
Arkansas, and South Carolina. It is
probable that acreage in the Florida
Everglades will be increased next
spring due to a very successful fall
The southern states are expected to
increase watermelon acreage next
season in spite of the low prices re-
ceived last year.

Poultry Situation About the Same as
a Year Ago.
There has been a slight decrease in
.he number of birds on farms although
total production is about the same as
last year. The number of hens and
pullets being kept for layers in the
United States on October 1 was 6.2
percent less than for the same period
last year. In the South Atlantic states
the decrease was about 3 percent.
Stocks of dressed poultry in stor-
age were about 9,000,000 pounds, or
20 percent, more than a year ago, and
about 8,000,000 pounds more than the
average for the same period in the last
five years.
Shell egg stocks in storage are about
13 percent less than a year ago but
only slightly less than the five-year
average. This decrease is partially off-
set by larger stocks of frozen eggs
than last year. Plentiful supplies of
eggs this fall has made it difficult to
move storage eggs.
Consumption of poultry meat during
1931 was apparently less than the year
before. Consumption of eggs increased
during the first of the year due to
low prices, but weakened late in the
summer. Consumption at the four
principal markets increased 17 per-
cent during the first three months of
1931, but only 6.6 percent for the first
nine months.
Feed for poultry is in ample supply
this year. The decline in feed prices
compared with last year or the level
of recent years was much more than
the decline in prices for chickens and
General Farm Crops
Peanut production in the United
States for 1931 was estimated at 38
percent more than last year, and
26 more than the last five-year aver-
age. The supply of old crop peanuts
was reported as being small. It seems
wise to reduce rather than increase
the acreage planted for market in
1932 due to the 1931 heavy production
and the business situation.
(Continued on Page 13)


January, 1932

When Are Farm Profits Made?

"flOW is the farming coming
Li along?" Jake asked his neighbor
as they met along the line fence one
"Oh! Pretty fair, I guess. How is it
with you?" Henry asked.
"Well, I don't know," Jake answer-
ed, "but I think I more than broke
even last year."
This conversation might have taken
place between any two of many Flor-
ida farmers. In this case neither Jake
nor Henry knew whether he had
made a profit from his farm the year
before. Both guessed.
Every farmer has time and money
invested in his farm and is entitled
to know what returns he is getting
from that investment.
There is no sound economic reason
why efficient farming should not re-
turn to the farmer a satisfactory re-
ward for labor, capital, and manage-
ment. If farming cannot yield returns
equal to those received from like ef-
fort and investment in other lines of
business, there is no good reason why
anyone should choose to own and
operate a farm.
Many farmers seem satisfied with-
out taking the trouble to learn
whether the year's work shows a
profit or a loss. In fact, they are sat-
isfied if they have been able to pay
their current debts and earn a living
for themselves and their families. But
one cannot farm at a profit unless his
business pays something more than a
living. If the farm operations do not
return interest on the capital invested
in land, buildings, equipment, supplies
and labor, then the farm is being
operated at a loss. This labor must in-
clude that of the farmer and all mem-
bers of his family.
In the main, the general rise of
land values is due to the increase of
population and the advance of civili-
zation. Where marked advance in
value has occurred in a whole com-
munity above that in other commun-
ities similarly situated, it may very
properly be attributed to better farm-
ing in that community. There is also
the case of the individual 'farmer
whose management and upkeep of his
farm is so much better than the aver-
age that a purchaser will willingly
give him much more than the original
cost. In both these instances the in-
creased value is earned by good farm-
ing, according to F. W. Howe, pro-
fessor of farm economics, Syracuse
In the past, farmers have habitually
neglected many important factors in
the cost of production and marketing.
for example, many farmers forget to
charge for horse labor on the farm,
because they do not usually have to
hire horses. Neither do they always
charge for their own labor or that of
the members of their families. Yet all
these are items that must be taken in-
to account when figuring costs.


Donald S. Ruff, '33

To arrive at farm profit, one must
take the difference between receipts
and expenditures. Receipts are usually
very easy to figure, but many expen-
ditures are often overlooked. The
various items of expense include
labor, taxes, insurance, interest, de-
preciation, and the value of the
owner's labor and that of other mem-
bers of the family, besides supplies
and repairs.
In the early days of American agri-
culture, it was a common practice to
crop a piece of new land, as long as
the return was satisfactory, without
applying fertilizer to the soil. When
it refused to respond under this treat-
ment, the farmer moved to new and
virgin areas, only to repeat the soil-
robbing process. In this kind of farm-
ing the difference between receipts
and expenditures cannot be called
profits. Every farm, to be profitable,
over a long period of years, must be
so managed as to maintain or increase
its original store of soil fertility, with-
out maintenance of soil fertility, there
can be no profit in the long run.
Maintenance of soil fertility may be
set down as the first goal of the
farmer who would make profit from
his land.
The second goal of the successful
farmer is to get a rate of pay for his
own labor better than that of his hired
man. Failing in this, he will become
a hired man himself. Farming must
pay in order to attract either labor or
For a farm to be profitable, it must
be properly capitalized. This means
that the cost and size of the buildings,
the size of the farm, the number of
horses and other live stock, the tools
and machinery, must be so adapted
as to fit into each other in the very
best kind of a working combination.
If the machinery is too heavy, it is too
hard on the horses; if too light, not
enough work is turned out in a day.
If fields are too large, part of the
planting and harvesting is late, re-
sulting in loss; if too small, the labor
is not completely utilized.
Unprofitable farms may frequently
be made profitable by changing the
type of farming, by adding live stock,
buildings, or equipment, or increasing
or diminishing the scale of operation.
If a farm is not paying, its case is not
necessarily hopeless; a little more
capital added, a few more day's work,
or a little more careful planning may
lift it from below the "dead line" to a
satisfactory and increasing profit.
Many lines of business are run at a
loss during the first few years of
operation. Many a business man has

been obliged to invest more capital
in order to save losses on capital al-
ready invested. This is equally true
in farming. Hence it becomes neces-
sary for the farmer to study his busi-
ness and to keep a record of its opera-
The farmer must plan the year's
work with reference to the usual con-
ditions of season and market. The
farm manager must always be ready
to readjust his labor to the best pos-
sible advantage in consequence of any
change of weather or other conditions.
The farmer can hardly hope to
manage his farm with the greatest
efficiency over a period of years unless
he has some data for comparing the
results of one year with those of an-
other. In order to do this, he will
require certain records and accounts.
To be sure, bookkeeping itself does
not produce profits or cause losses,
but it is only by means of bookkeep-
ing records that the source and
amount of profits or losses can be de-
The extent and nature of the farm-
er's bookkeeping will depend upon the
detail desired and the inclination to
record it. The burden of keeping such
accounts as are necessary to an in-
telligent view of the farmers progress
can be greatly reduced by the use of
specially designed farm record books.
These books may be obtained from
your agricultural experiment station
by writing and requesting that they be
sent to you, or your county agent will
be glad to get them for you. "The
farmer who begins to keep records
will find them of so much service that
he will be influenced to increase
rather than to diminish their scope.
Much of the farmer's business is
done on credit, and it is very import-
ant that a careful record be kept of
all such transactions if he wishes to
have the means of maintaining his
legal rights in the event of a dispute.
The farmer who trusts to his memory
for the details of his dealing with
persons is without legal proof of his
accounts. He is not only liable to
loss during his lifetime, but at his
death his estate may suffer serious
loss due to the lack of records. Then,
too, in order to comply with the re-
quirements of the income tax laws,
both State and Federal, it would seem
to be absolutely necessary that the
farmer keep records of the same
nature as any other business man.
The minimum records for conduct-
ing the simplest system of farm book-
keeping may be stated as follows; a
record of the annual inventory, of
notes issued and received, and of all
dealings with persons on account. To
this should be added an itemized cash
account. To these essential records
the farmer may add such accounts
with fields, crops, stock, and special
enterprises as he may wish to keep
in detail.
(Continued on Page 10)

January, 1932


Permanent Florida Agriculture

Soil Improvement by Natural Resources

Dominant Factor

THE careful farmer wants cash
compensation for the intelligent
care he gives to his land. Farming
that leads into debt in the long run
is poor farming, no matter how well
the soil may produce temporarily un-
der inadequate treatment. The mainte-
nance and increase of soil fertility go
hand in hand with permanent income
for the owner when the science that
relates to farming is rightly used.
Productive soils are in a condition
to admit air freely. The presence of
air in the soil is as necessary to the
changes that make
plant food avail-
able as it is to the
changes essential to
life in the human
body. A water-
logged soil is a
worthless one in re-
spect to the produc-
tion of most valu-
able Florida plants.
The well-being of
soil and plants re-
quires that the level
of dead water be a
considerable distance
below the surface.
The only exception
is the land on which
may be grown the
grasses that thrive
fairly well under
moist conditions.
drains serve to re-
lieve the land of
free water which is
very harmful to
most plants if left
to stagnate in the
earth near the sur-
face. They serve not
only to drain the
land, but indirectly to warm it, for if
the water is removed the sun's heat
warms the soil, instead of cooling it
by evaporating the surplus water.
Underdrains promote fertility by
opening up the soil to the oxidizing
action of the air, and by making the
soil more comfortable for the nutrify-
ing organisms.
Theie are places and times when
stone, boards, or brush may be used
but they are relatively few. If drain
tile can be obtained at a reasonable
price, it should be used. Its use re-
quires less labor than that of stone,
and when properly laid on a good
bottom, it remains effective indefinite-
ly. There is no known limit to the
durability of good tile.

Crop Rotation
A good crop rotation favors high
productiveness. One kind of crop
paves the way nicely for another

E. M. Cook, '33

crop. Organic matter can be supplied
without the use of an undue portion
of the total crop growing time. The
stores of plant food throughout all
the soil are more surely reached by
a variety of plants, differing in their
habits of root growth. The injury
from disease and insect is kept down
to a minimum. There is better dis-
tribution of the labor required by the


farm, and neglect of crops at critical
times is avoided. The maintenance of
fertility is dependent much upon the
use of a legume that will furnish nit-
rogen from the air. A permanently
successful agriculture in Florida must
be based on the use of legumes, and
crop rotations would be demanded for
this reason alone if none other existed.
Alva Agee, in "Crops and Methods
For Soil Improvement," gives the fol-
lowing advantages of crop rotation:
(1) It enables the farmer to main-
tain the supply of organic matter in
his soil. The roots and stubble of a
grain crop are insufficient for this
purpose, and the introduction of a sod
or cover crop is helpful.
(2) It permits the use of legumes
to secure cheap supplies of nitrogen.
(3) Some plants feed near the sur-
face of the ground, and the use of
other plants which send roots deeper
add to the production.

(4) Some crops leave the soil in
a bad physical condition, and the use
of other crops in the rotation serves
as a corrective.
(5) The keeping of livestock is
made more feasible and profitable, and
this leads to increase in farm manures.
(6) In a proper succession of
crops the soil is covered with living
plants nearly all the time, and thus
is prevented from washing or leach-
(7) In addition to these influences
upon soil fertility crop rotation assists
in control of insect and fungus foes
and of weeds; it
permits such distrib-
ution of labor on the
farm that the largest
total production may
be secured by its
employment; and it
saves the farmer
from sole depend-
ence upon a single

Cover Crops-
Any plant that
rots in the soil adds
in the production
powers of the soil
but plants differ in
value as makers of
humus. There are
only ten essential
constituents of plant
food, and the soil
contains only three
that concern us be-
cause the others are
always present in
abundance. We are
concerned with these
en is stored.) three only: nitro-
gen, phosphoric acid,
potash. The last
two are minerals and cannot come
from the air. They must be ob-
tained from outside sources in the
form of commercial fertilizers. The
nitrogen is in the air in abundance,
but plants cannot draw directly from
this store in any appreciable amount.
Profitable farming is based upon
the fact that we have one class of
plants which can use bacteria to work
over the nitrogen of the air into a
form available for their use, and the
store of nitrogen thus gained can be
added to the soil's supply for future
crops. These plants are known as
legumes. The legumes most used in
Florida are: peas, beggar weeds and
According to the University of
Florida Agriculture Experiment Sta-
tion Bulletin No. 398, crotalaria as a
soil improver for Florida has given
better results than other leguminous
(Continued on Page 12)


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club
COPELAND NEWBERN, JR..... Editor-in-Chief
MILTON B. MARCO.........Business Manager
J. W. GOODING, JR....... Circulation Manager
Richard L. Brooks........ .Managing Editor
Raymond Rubin ..... Asst. Managing Editor
F. W. Barber. ................... 4-H Club
W. W. Roe ................. Future Farmers
Harry Brinkley ................ Horticulture
J. A. McClellan. .................... Poultry
Clyde Bass.............. Animal Husbandry
John W. Covey................ Copy Editor
Hugh Dukes. ................... Exchange
Clark Douglass..Associate Business Manager
Albert Guy.......... Asst. Business Manager
William Guenther..Asst. Circulation Manager
E. Roberts ........ Asst. Circulation Manager
Robert Gill.............. Publicity Director
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class
matter at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida


1932-A Challenge to Farm Youth

Every year is, of course, twelve months of challenge;
but'not in a long while has one held so much work to
be done, and so many upward steps to be taken in
agriculture, as does 1932. It is distinctly a year of
superb challenges.
1932 with its agriculture adversity is a challenge to
farm youth. This period of hard times that we have
been experiencing is a dare. The new year with its
difficulties to be overcome calls for aggressiveness and
courage. Low prices for farm crops, citrus and live-
stock demands a sharpening of wits, the concentrated
use of every faculty.
Youth doesn't hang back when a challenge or dare
is flung into its face. Perhaps youth is a little optimis-
tic; maybe its enthusiasm prevents it from clearly
realizing the difficulties it so eagerly goes to meet.
Likely it is somewhat reckless in making its decisions,
but that is youth's way and it is a winning way.
Maturity, sobered by the lessons of experience, is
inclined to be hesitant, cautious, conservative. It lacks
the fever that makes light of difficulties. It sees, weighs
and values every adverse circumstance. Usually it
goes ahead with the same courage as youth, but not
with the same flaming will to win. On its willingness
to share or relinquish the prize authority of leadership
may depend the future security of agriculture.

1932 can not help but bring forth profits for those
who are shrewd, skilled and use modern scientific
practices, even though agriculture economic conditions
do not show great changes. Large acreage, intense
practices and new developments have lowered produc-
tion costs. The man who follows his business closely
will show a profit in spite of the adversity. The de-
pression has lowered prices-so it has lowered the
cost of farm lands, animals and labor, the tools of the
farmer. So the new year before us with its new diffi-
culties will also have its new advantages.
The opportunities that 1932 will bring to farm youth
will be as fine and promising as any that young men
and women ever had. Rewards of successful leader-
ship will be measured by the difficulties to be over-
come. Youth is responding. From the agriculture
colleges, the vocational agriculture classes, from 4-H
clubs, and from the city jobs where they have tested
out their abilities in business, are coming the youth
who will prepare the highways along which farming
must travel.
The wise ones in agriculture will not be stubborn
about letting youth have its fling at leadership. They
will urge it on, directing its energy when possible, but
drawing from it the magic power which wins success.
The boy and girl of yesterday, today and tomorrow
are making a new agriculture in America. They will
make more of it and get more from it than their
parents had ever dreamed of and will not be contented
with a position of economic inferiority. There is a
spirit in farm youth of today that is not kin to meek-
ness. Youth wants none of the "poor relative"
patronage from industry or government, but a fair
chance to do a man's job and harvest the fruits of it
in a comfortable living, liberal education, proper leisure
and deserved security.

Again we are back at the "old grind," after a
slight pause to ring the old year out and the new year
in. Yes! We enter a new year; we continue on the
same school year, but we are in the new, and can't
help but feel enthused over the fact.
As we start anew, is there a true feeling that each
is bearing a full share of the burden that befalls us?
Is everyone doing his utmost to carry out his part?
Is the load equally balanced, in proportion to each
individual's ability? Or do some of us fall out on our
part of the job? The greater part of the Ag students
are of the former group, but there are a few of the
Let each of us as we frame that good resolution
for the new year, remember our part. Let's remember
that work has to be done. Then figure it out mathe-
matically, and survey the answer. The more there
are working, the lighter it will be on each individual
person. Also an increased number of workers means
an increased competition, and the results will be in-
evitable. The results will be greater and finer, as well
as quicker. All concerned will benefit. So let us re-
member, think, and act; let each of us do our part.

Everybody seems to know what is wrong with agri-
culture. The merchant, the banker, the politician, and
even the day laborer of the town and city are always
ready to enlighten the farmer on the subject. The
farmer gains little or nothing from these dissertations.
Some farmers are waiting for a Daniel to read the
handwriting on the wall, but the wiser one are in-
terpreting it for themselves. After all, is there any-
thing more wrong with agriculture than any other in-
dustry? They all have their problems and we dare
say many of them would gladly trade futures with
agriculture just now.

January, 1932

January, 1932


Whitefly vs. Aschersonia

Eradication of Whitefly in Citrus Fruits by

Introduction of Attacking Fungus

HAVE not Florida farmers suffered
from the disastrous effects of the
Citrus Whitefly long enough?
Why should they permit this little
pest to rob them of hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars annually while only
a small amount of time and money
would curtail this loss?
There are thousands of farmers all
over the state who are losing money
on citrus groves chiefly because of this
little insect.
Fifteen or twenty years ago the
Whitefly was our most destructive
insect and even today, it holds that
distinction in some parts of the state.
It has undergone a striking reduction
in the past ten years but it still does
considerable damage.
"A very conservative estimate of
the damage done to our Citrus indus-


N. Broward Bevis, '34

(1) It withdraws immense quanti-
ties of sap from the trees, thus check-
ing their growth and that of the fruit.
Fruits of the badly infested trees are
always fewer and inferior in quality.
(2) The larvae of the Whiteflies
throw off large quantities of a sweet-
ish nectar-like substance known as
honeydew, which falls on the leaves
and fruit. In this honeydew grows a
black fungus called "Sooty Mold."
Sooty Mold blackens the entire
tree and fruit, and requires that the
fruit be washed before it can be

(3) The sooty mold is directly re-
sponsible for an increase in amount of
the various scales.
The Whitefly grows on many trees
other than citrus, among them-
Chinaberry, Cape Jasmins, Privet,
Prickly Ash and Japanese Persimmon.
These should never be grown near
a citrus grove. It has been estimated
that a large Chinaberry tree will pro-
duce on an average between 25,000,-
000 and 50,000,000 Whiteflies each sea-
son. From these trees, the adults of
the late summer brood fly out to in-
fest citrus trees when the leaves of
the Chinaberry are no longer attrac-
tive, according to Florida Experiment
Station Bulletin No. 183.
There are several ways of control-
ling Whiteflies but the most popular
one is a combination of spray and

Left, Spraying Fungi onto a tree. Center, Culture of Fungi. Right, Fungi on Leaf.

try by the Whitefly would be about
5% of the crop," says J. R. Watson,
entomologist of the Florida Experi-
ment Station. "With our annual aver-
age yield of 16,000,000 boxes valued at
$1 per box, one can see that Florida
citrus farmers are deprived of $800,-
000 annually from the effects of the
Whitefly alone," continues Mr. Wat-
Injuries to Citrus
The Whitefly injures citrus in three
different ways, according to Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Bulletin No.

packed. Washing adds to the expense
of packing and brings in a new liabil-
ity for loss from scratches and innoc-
ulation with fungi that cause decay.
The blackening of the tree is the most
conspicuous sign of the presence of
the Whitefly.
Sooty mold injures the trees in an-
other way. The shade it produces cuts
off much of the light from the leaves
and thus interferes with the process
of food-making which is very essen-
tial to the life and growth of the

"Under average conditions a grove
should be sprayed about twice a year.
The spring and fall brood should be
killed with an oil emulsion. If this is
thoroughly done, the summer brood
can be controlled fairly well by fungi.
The most opportune time to spray is
about ten days after the flight of the
greatest number of flies," reports Mr.
There are at least six fungus para-
sites known to infect the Whitefly that
infects citrus. These are: Red Ascher-
sonia, Yellow Aschersonia, Brown
(Continued on Page 12)


Close Proximity Between Agriculture

Expositions and Farm Progress

HISTORICAL reviews of the de-
velopment of American agricul-
ture and the live stock industry that
fail to mention the integral relation-
ship of county, district and state fairs
would be as incomplete as American
history without George Washington.
Since the sixteenth century, agricul-
tural expositions have been linked
with farming progress in America,
serving as an inspiration to the
serious minded producer seeking qual-
ity and quantity production.
From the early day community
fairs where the colonists displayed
their horticultural products and live


James L. Malone
Publicity Director of
South Florida Fair

not receive financial aid from any
source, and yet offers more than $40,-
000 annually in premiums, s the
South Florida Fair held annually at
Tampa. The broad scope of activities
covered by this exposition has,
through astute management, resulted
in a self sustaining organization, offi-

such great care, the value of the fair
to the community is practically lost.
Therefore the successful fair manager
must incorporate amusements on his
daily programs and use them as the
magnet to draw thousands of visitors
through the gates where the myriad
attractions await them.
Years and years of experience dur-
ing which fairs, like other business
enterprises, profited by errors of
others until today, the majority of ex-
positions are under the management
of trained experts whose keen insight
into conditions and the needs of the
territory served, make possible well


stock in competition for prizes, ex-
positions of nation-wide scope, ex-
pending millions of dollars annually
in the interests of agriculture, have
been developed. More than 2,000 fairs
are held each year in the 48 states of
the union, hundreds of them serving
communities and counties and a hun-
dred more embracing large districts
and states.
Some expositions are devoted en-
tirely to poultry, others to beef or
dairy cattle and still others to fruits
or products which are the mainstay
of the immediate territory served. In
every instance, however, the purpose
of the fair is to stimulate interest in
improved quality and educate pro-
ducers, through comparisons, to use
the proper treatments in maintaining
healthy plant or animal life.
Few fairs, if any, are operated for
profit. In fact the majority of exposi-
tions, officered by enterprising busi-
ness men in the various communities,
could not survive were it not for ap-
propriations received from govern-
mental bodies for the payment of
premiums and building improvements.
Probably the only major exposition
on the American continent that does

cered by 25 of the leading business
men of the community. It has become
a state institution and each year
every district of Florida displays its
choice products before the half mil-
lion visitors from all sections of the
country that attend.
Stimulating interest among agricul-
turalists in educational programs is
only one of the benefits to be derived
from fairs and expositions, however.
Probably even more important is the
development of closer contacts be-
tween the farmer and the city dwel-
ler, few of whom understand the prob-
lems of rural life and therefore main-
tain but slight interest in agricultural
Magnificent displays of fruits, vege-
tables, grains and other products form
an impressive reminder of the value
of the community or state's resources,
breeding civic morale and instilling
confidence into the minds of investors
and prospective citizens. An enter-
prising fair gives the .commonwealth
its only direct contact with the public
to which it wishes to sell its future.
Unless an exposition attracts great
crowds to inspect the agricultural dis-
plays that have been collected with

balanced expositions that have a popu-
lar appeal. City folk rub elbows with
the agriculturist, developing a close
relationship that engenders common
sympathies. Visitors who come to be
entertained find knowledge in the
agricultural demonstrations and the
farmer who comes to compete for
awards through the merits of the
products he has produced, learns of
the most modern methods of operat-
ing through the exhibitions of com-
mercial enterprises who use the ex-
hibition halls to form contacts for
the marketing of their products.
For many years the United States
Department of Agriculture has been
fully cognizant of the value of Amer-
ican Fairs as a means of reaching the
agriculturalists of every community
with the statistical data and educa-
tional programs prepared each year
by government experts to aid the
producer. The cooperation of the
government works hand in hand with
the general purpose of each exposi-
tion and the educational value of their
campaigns has been an important
factor in bringing recognition to the
United States as the wealthiest agri-
cultural nation in the world.

January, 1932


Over the State with Extension Workers

Optimistic Spirit
Evident in Winter
Farming Sections
A more optimistic spirit is in evi-
dence in certain of the winter farming
areas of Florida, according to W. T.
Nettles, district agent with the Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service,
who has just returned from a trip
over the peninsular part of the state.
Cash is being brought into the Ever-
glades by the beans which have yield-
ed abundantly and are selling for a
fair price. The Southern Sugar Com-
pany's mill at Clewiston is now
operating, giving employment to
more people in the Everglades.
A cash buyer's platform was re-
cently opened at Homestead, and
sales are being made to truckers,
commission men, and others who
come to the platform. No retail sales
are made.
In DeSoto County there is optimism
on all sides as to the prospects for
the sale of a large crop of Crotalaria
seed which has been produced in the
county, and is being sold by the De-
Soto County Crotalaria Association.
While there are no large quantities
of winter vegetables available in any
one county, most of the South Flor-
ida counties are shipping medium
quantities of vegetables which are
bringing fairly good to average
prices. The darkest spot on the ag-
ricultural horizon seemed to be the
strawberry areas, where December
prices were rather low.

Southern Beekeepers
To Meet in Florida
Beekeepers from over the Southern
states will gather in St. Petersburg
February 2 and 3 for the annual
Southern States Beekeepers' Confer-
ence, according to R. E. Foster, state
apiary inspector.
An interesting program of talks,
motorcades, and visits to the South
Florida Fair is being planned.

Lee Agent Becomes
State Nutritionist;
New Agent is Named
Miss Anna Mae Sikes, home demon-
stration agent in Lee County for the
last three years, has been appointed
extension nutritionist with the State
Home Demonstration Department,
and Miss Clarine Belcher has been
named to succeed her in the Lee
County work, according to an an-
nouncement by Miss Flavia Gleason,
state home demonstration agent.
Both women are graduates of the
Florida State College for Women.
Miss Belcher has taught home eco-
nomics at the Arcadia high school and
the Louisiana Polytechnic Institute at

Know What to Keep
County agricultural agents are
one of the necessities which
Southern farmers will not give
up, even in the depression. A
north Mississippi report shows
that not a single agent will be
lost this year, out of eighteen in
the district. And the reason is
found in the further report that
counties having agricultural
agents are "in the best condition
as regards feed and foodstuffs
for farmers' home winter sup-
ply." The counties which can't
afford county agents now are
the ones which haven't had
them, in the past, says the Fed-
eral Farm Board.

Hillsborough County
Mrs. L. H. Birt, Tampa home dem-
onstration club member, has just been
announced winner of fourth place, and
$10, in the construction division of the
American Farm Bureau Federation
national home improvement contest.
She was one of four Hillsborough
County women to enter the contest,
Miss Allie Lee Rush, home demon-
stration agent, reports.
During the past year the Birt home
has been remodeled. A bath-room
and sun parlor have been added, one
room has been made over, a front
terrace has been built, new windows
have been cut, and a fireplace has
been added. This construction, along
with other exterior and interior im-
provements, has changed practically
the entire place, Miss Rush said.

Fertilizer Hints
Made by College of
Agriculture Men
Fertilizer recommendations for cit-
rus groves, truck crops, and general
field crops are contained in a report
recently made by a committee of 17
workers of the College of Agriculture,
Experiment Station, and Agricultural
Extension Service.
The best information available
about materials to use for different
conditions as well as the time for
and rate of applying them is con-
tained in the report. Free copies may
be obtained from the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, Gainesville.

Gadsden County
Close to $4,000 worth of dressed
poultry has been sold by the farm
women of Gadsden County this
past year, reports Miss Elsie Laffitte,
home demonstration agent. The
women are also selling canned fruits
and vegetables, after enough for home
use has been saved. Recently they
filled an order for 1,000 cans of a
special soup mixture.

Santa Rosa County
Mrs. G. W. Boles, Santa Rosa
County home demonstration club
member, was recently announced win-
ner of first place in the construction
division of the American Farm Bureau
Federation national home improve-
ment contest.
The biggest problem in Mrs. Boles'
home improvement was a lack of
money. This she has solved by rais-
ing turkeys. In three years she added
$1,153 to the home improvement fund
in this way, reports Miss Eleanor
Barton, home demonstration agent.
With part of this money she bought
two brood sows, and with them has
added $300 more to the fund.
But first, she owned no home to im-
prove, so 20 acres of land on which
stood a two-room house was purchas-
ed. Porches and more rooms were
built, and slowly the house has been
remodeled into a modern, convenient
home. It has been screened, has run-
ning water, and about every conven-
ience a woman could want in the
Very little furniture was purchased,
but much time was spent in renovat-
ing the old. Draperies, curtains, and
shades for the entire house were pur-
The yard was landscaped, mostly
with shrubs from the woods, and a
lawn was started.

I)eSoto County
Several DeSoto County farmers and
growers are enjoying pecans for
Christmas and an equal number of
South Carolina pecan growers will
have richer soils next fall as a result
of a recent trade of farm products.
The South Carolina farmers had the
pecans, good ones, too, which were
not selling any too well. The DeSoto
County growers had some seed of
Crotalaria, a wonderful leguminous
summer cover crop plant introduced
to the United States through Florida
in recent years and which is especially
desirable for planting in pecan or-
chards, and other orchards, groves
and vineyards.
"We'll swap you some pecans for
some Crotalaria seed, pound for
pound," said the South Carolinians.
"It's a bargain," said the DeSoto
Countians, and so the trade was made.
County Agent J. J. Heard acted as in-

The number of tractors on Florida
farms has increased from 680 to 5,618
during the last 10 years, according to
the 1930 census report.

At present 7,559 farm dwellings in
Florida have running water, com-
pared with 3,341 in 1920, according to
census reports.


January, 1932

Proper Care of Drought-Injured Citrus Trees

THE drought of the last two
months has extended into all parts
of the citrus belt and is resulting in
heavy dropping of fruit and consider-
able tree injury. Dead wood may be
expected to develop immediately and
along during the next twelve months,
especially in trees weakened by
disease and heavy crops of fruit.
Along with this condition will come
deplodia, withertip, and a heavy in-
fection of melanose in the spring.
These conditions must be met eco-
nomically and with good judgment.
Following a freeze, drought or other
conditions resulting in an unusual
amount of dead wood in the trees,
many growers are inclined to be too
hasty in pruning out the dead wood.
This is probably accounted for by the
fact that in some way the erroneous
impression has gone out that dead
twigs are poisonous to a citrus tree
and therefore should be pruned out
and destroyed immediately. It has
not been proved that allowing dead
twigs or limbs to remain in a citrus
tree causes further dieing back, except
in rare cases that have to do with
wood-rot fungi and certain tree borers.
On the other hand, it has been clearly
demonstrated that pruning a weaken-
ed or diseased tree while it is still in
a declining condition usually results
in still further dieing back or decline.
The pruning opens new wounds and
weakens the tree.
In many of the drought-injured
groves diplodia and withertip are
quite prevalent. The former is mani-
fested by gum exudations on twigs
and small limbs. If pruning is done
while this disease is active many of
the cuts will be inoculated with the
organisms and further dieing back
will result. The writer carefully in-
spected a drought-injured grapefruit
grove last week in which drastic prun-

When Are Farm Profits
(Continued from Page I4)

The annual farm inventory is an
itemized statement of all property
owned, land, buildings, live stock,
tools and machinery, feed and sup-
plies, cash on hand and in bank, and
notes and accounts due from others on
the one hand; and all mortgages,
notes and accounts due to others, on
the other hand.
The annual farm inventory should
be taken at that time of the year
when farm work is least pressing and
when stocks of feed and supplies are
lowest. Once the date for taking in-
ventory is fixed, it should be varied
from year to year as little as possible
in either direction, in order that the
actual business of each year may be
easily and accurately compared with
that of previous years.
Probably most farmers who have
not established the practice of taking

E. F. DeBusk
Extension Citriculturist

ing had recently been done. The prev-
alence of gumming on the pruned
limbs indicated that diplodia was very
active at the time of pruning. Ninety-
four per cent of the cuts made in
pruning presented gum exudations,
evidence of inoculation with diplodia
or some other disease organism.
Limbs were already showing further
decline or dieing back.
Under conditions first described,
where a crop of fruit cannot be ex-
pected next year, pruning should not
be done until after trees have put on
a new growth and are well along
toward recovery from the drought
shock. Lock up the pruning equip-
ment and unlock the fertilizer bins.
Feed the trees and give them water.
They have been starved and weakened
by the prolonged drought. Disease has
taken hold because a hungry tree is a
feeble fighter. They can be strength-
ened by the use of plant food, and not
by pruning.
In drought-injured trees dead twigs
will be produced right on through the
winter and may prove a potent source
of melanose for the spring flush of
growth, and fruit. Where trees have
been only slightly injured and still
show promise of producing a crop of
fruit next year, melanose may be re-
duced by pruning out dead twigs just
before the spring flush of growth.
Where little or no fruit is expected be-
cause of the weakened condition of
trees, building up the vitality of the
trees should have first consideration.
The same fundamental principles
obtain in rejuvenating weakened or
run-down trees from any cause. The
first thing to do is to remove the

an annual inventory are discouraged
from beginning the inventory through
fear that it is a complicated or a time
consuming job. It need not be. In the
first instance, the farmer needs only
to make an observant inspection of
his property, with pencil and paper
in hand, making note of everything
that belongs to him. When all the
property has been listed, it is com-
paratively easy to classify the items
under these heads; real estate, live
stock, machinery and tools, feed and
supplies, cash, bills receivable and
bills payable.
One of the best forms of service
which can be rendered to the farmers
is to furnish suggestion and guidance
to those who appreciate the import-
ance of reliable farm records and the
desire to establish them on their own
farms. The development of general
interest in this subject would mark
the greatest immediate advance which
American farmers can make upon the
agricultural progress of former gen-

cause; then feed them and let them
rest. This feeding implies an ample
supply of soil moisture, and proper
soil management. Right here the im-
portance of a liberal supply of bulky
organic matter cannot be over-em-
phasized in the fertilizing program.
A heavy mulching of any kind of
vegetable matter will prove highly
beneficial. The fertilizer should be ap-
plied on the mulch which serves as a
buffer and helps to maintain a condi-
tion highly favorable to best results
from fertilizers applied. Deep plough-
ing or deep cultivation should not be
practiced under present conditions.
The drought has greatly reduced the
number of small rootlets. As the
available soil moisture becomes ex-
hausted these small feeder roots die.
This dieing off takes place near the
surface first, where the highest root
concentrations is found. As the soil
dries out from the surface downward,
permitting a deeper circulation of the
air, increased development of those
small feeder roots is found at the
lower depths. When the soil becomes
thoroughly wetted to these lower
depths this root development will
cease and many of the rootlets will
be killed by the exclusion of air. At
the same time there will be found a
rapid development of feeder roots
near the surface. Deep cultivation may
destroy many of the roots of straw
size up to pencil size, that have sur-
vived the drought and from which
the new feeder root system is to be
reestablished. Thus it can readily be
seen that practices resulting in root
pruning might greatly inhibit the re-
.establishment of a normal root system,
and consequently result in ammonia-
tion, dieback, and other so-called
physiological diseases during next
Briefly stated, "Feed 'em and leave
'em alone."

Sometimes a few feet of fall in
even a small stream of water can be
made to operate a hydraulic ram and
thus furnish an inexpensive supply of
water for home, garden, and stock
purposes. Information on rams ap-
pears in Farmers' Bulletin 1448-F,
Farmstead Water Supply mailed free
by the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, Washington, D. C.

A lime-sulphur or nicotine-sulphur
dip will cure mange, or common scab.
on cattle and sheep. At least two
dippings are necessary, from 10 to 14
days apart.

Locomotives cause too many forest
fires. Railroads are testing a centri-
fugal spark arrester which catches in
the stack and whirls them until they
have time to cool.

About all that is now visible of the
peace dove released twelve years ago
at Versailles is the bill.

January, 1932




Florida Girl Wins $500
Scholarship; Boy
Gets Alternate
County 4-H club girl, is winner of
one of the $500 scholarships offered
by the International Harvester Com-
pany, according to word received at
the State Home Demonstration De-
Jack Platt, Marion County Club
boy, was chosen as an alternate to
get one of the scholarships in case
the winner, an Arkansas boy, is un-
able to take it.
More than 100,000 club members
over the United States competed for
the 100 scholarships given as a part
of the celebration of the centennial of
the invention of the grain reaper by
Cyrus Hall McCormick. The winners
are located in 36 states.
The winners were selected by a
committee headed by Arthur M.
Hyde, secretary of agriculture, and
announced by the National Committee
on Boys and Girls Club Work. The
awards were made by Alex Legge,
president of the Harvester company,
at a luncheon held during the National
4-H Club Congress which has just
concluded at Chicago.
Miss McDaniel attended the Con-
gress as the best all-round club girl
in Florida territory traversed by the
L. & N. railway. She has been an out-
standing club leader and project
worker for the past five years, ac-
cording to Miss Eleanor Clark, Jack-
son County home demonstration
agent. She plans the family garden,
and last year canned 500 quarts of
fruits and vegetables from it and the
home orchard, she does her own sew-
ing and some for other members of
the family, and has done much to im-
prove the home.
Jack did not attend the Congress.
He has been a club boy for five years;
his poultry club work being outstand-

4-H Club News of State-Wide
Florida, the land of sunshine, is
still living up to its reputation of
growing the healthiest 4-H club girls
and boys in the South.
Miss Hilda Hall, one of Florida's
outstanding all 'round club girls, won
fifth place in the health contest at the
National Club Congress held in
Chicago. Two years ago Miss
Florence Smock was judged the
healthiest 4-H club girl in the United
States. It is very evident that the
Health-H in our 4-H club pledge is
receiving due attention and really
means something.

71.5 Bu. Per Acre
In Hillsboro County 4-H club boys
raise corn and more corn. They know
the art of growing corn down there
and have ample proof that they put
their knowledge into practice. On 36
acres these 4-H club boys grew an
average of 71.5 bushels per acre. The
average of the state is around 10 or
15 bushels per acre.
In this county 45 boys raised $7,290
worth of farm products. Not only can
4-H club boys grow corn, but the 4-H
club girls and boys of our state know
how to raise quality poultry. Five
pens of birds have been entered in the
4-H club contest at the Florida
National Egg Laying Contest. The
laying average of the regular contest
birds was 16.4 eggs per bird for the
month of November, while the 4-H
club contest birds had an average of
18.4 eggs per bird. Miss Frieda
Norvak, of Escambia County, has the
high pen for the past two months.

College Students Visit
Jacksonville Industries
Thirty College of Agriculture
students recently spent a day in Jack-
sonville inspecting large scale agri-
cultural industries. They were under
the leadership of Professors C. H.
Willoughby and F. G. Martin, and the
tour was arranged by County Agent
A. S. Lawton.
The points visited were the Wilson
and Toomer fertilizer plant, the dairy
farm of V. C. Johnson, Dinsmore, the
Foremost Dairy milk products plant,
Farris and Company packing plant,
the National Stock Yards, King Ed-
ward cigar headquarters, and the Ar-
mour and Company storage plant.

A New 4-H Club Association
A 4-H club Crotalaria association,
the first of its kind in the country,
was organized at Lake Butler this
month by 30 Crotalaria club members
of Union and Bradford Counties.
The boys each grew an acre of
Crotalaria last season and now all of
them have about 12,000 pounds of
seed to sell. This seed will be reclean-
ed, pooled, and sold by the associa-
tion. The association will charge three
cents per pound; two cents for actual
expenses and one cent for the treas-
Regular officers and an adult ad-
visory committee, composed of
parents of three of the boys were
elected and a constitution accepted.
The purpose of the association is to
further the growing of Crotalaria in
the two counties, and to sell seed for
its members.
Mr. Dyer, county agent, said that
at least 50 farmers in the two counties
have already said they expected to
buy seed from the association this
This spring each boy will plant an-
other acre of Crotalaria, and plant
corn on last year's Crotalaria acre.

The College Farmer of Missouri
College of Agriculture says: The use
of electricity on the farm has no
longer confined itself to the milking
machine and the feed grinder. The
latest use recorded is that of groom-
ing the cows with a vacuum cleaner.

The possibility of another industry
has opened up in the South. It has
been discovered that white paper can
be made from slash pine. This pine
grows faster in the South than in the


12 THE

Whitefly vs. Aschersonia
(Continued from Page 7)
Whitefly-fungus, Cinnamon fungus
and White Fringe fungus. All of these
grow on or infect the larvae, or imma-
ture stages of the Whitefly.
Florida's moist climate and abund-
ant rainfall, together with the high
temperature, furnishes ideal conditions
for the growth of these fungi.
The Red Aschersonia is the most
commonly used type of fungus. It, as
well as the other types, reproduces it-
self by means of minute bodies called
"spores" which vary in sizes from
13,000,000 to 52,000,000 per square
When a spore of this fungus, which
has become lodged on or near its in-
sect-host, germinates, it sends out
one of several minute threads that
penetrate the body wall of the insect.
Once inside the insect these grow
throughout all of its parts, gradually
absorbing the substance of the insect
and transforming it into fungus. After
resting the fungus begins to burst
through some part of the insect's
skin and forms a pustule which pro-
duces spores. These fungi obtain their
nourishment only from insects that
they infect and not from the leaves
or other parts of the plant that the
insect infect, according to Dr. E. W.
Berger, entomologist of the Florida
Experiment Station.
Red Aschersonia can be purchased
from the State Plant Board at Gaines-
ville for $1 per culture which is a
sufficient amount to treat an acre of
This fungus can be introduced by
simply spraying a mixture of spores
and water into the trees infected with
the Whitefly or by pinning or tying
fungus materials collected from trees
into other trees.

Whitefly History
Whitefly first attracted the notice of
entomologists in 1878, when it was
first observed in the orange grove of
the United States Department of
Agriculture at Washington.
The original home of the Whitefly
is not definitely known, although some
entomologists incline to believe that
it is a native of Florida, whereas
others think it an importation.
The fly seems to have been first
known in Florida throughout the
region composed of Volusia, Marion,
Lake, Alachua, and Orange Counties.
Following the severe freezes during
the years from 1895 to 1900, the in-
sect was so thoroughly exterminated
in the northern part of its range by
successive defoliations due to the
cold that it was believed to be ex-
tinct; however, during the two sea-
sons following, indications of its re-
vival were evident. These spots were
so conspicuously adjacent to ham-
mocks that it was suggested that the
insects emerged from them.
Besides the State of Florida, the
insect is recorded as either being or
having once been in Louisiana,
Georgia, North Carolina, District of
Columbia, and Texas.


Bulbs Offer Quick,
Easy Way to Have
Flowers All Year
Bulbous plants offer the Florida
gardener possibly the easiest and
quickest way of securing bloom from
flowers every day in the year, H.
Harold Hume, of the College of Ag-
riculture, stated in a recent address
from WRUF.
A great variety of colors as well as
types are to be had. There is the
yellow and gold of daylilies, the pure
white of Easter lilies, the pink of
fairy lilies, the red of Amaryllis, the
blue of the Roman hyacinth, and
shadings in between. In height some
hug the ground while others are head
high. Some are evergreens and
others lose their leaves with the com-
ing of low temperatures. Different
types may prefer different soils and
locations, thus a knowledge of how
each behaves is necessary that it may
be fitted in its right place in the
Soil for bulbs should be prepared
about eight inches deep, and should
have about a two inch layer of humus
incorporated into it. Manure is not
preferable. About 2 pounds of a
commercial fertilizer, about a 5-8-10
analysis, should be added to each 100
square feet.
Small bulbs may be planted close
while those about two inches in di-
ameter should be spaced six to eight
inches apart. Most bulbs should be
planted to a depth equal to three or
four times their diameter. With such
evergreens as Amaryllis hybrids and
Crinums, however, the necks or
crowns should not be covered. The
ground should be kept moist but not
Permanent Agriculture
(Continued from Page 2)
crops. The percentage and quantity
of nitrogen in crotalaria is as high as
or higher than in any other legum-
inous crop, depending on the stage of
growth. This high percentage of nit-
rogen, coupled with the large yield of
top growth, has produced from 83 to
207 pounds of nitrogen per acre in
tests carried out at the Gainesville
and Lake Alfred experiment stations.
Turning under this high nitrogen crop
not only increases the available nitro-
gen in the soil but also adds to the
humus content of the soil. When com-
pared with other green manure crops
turned under, crotalaria produced
3,000 pounds more organic material
per acre.
Crotalaria may be sown from
March to June. Early seedlings gen-
erally produce a more satisfactory
cover crop to compete with weeds.
Rates of seeding vary from 5 to 20
pounds per acre. This crop should be
turned under just before the pods
begin to form.
In order, then, to maintain the fer-
tility of our soil, according to Lyon
and Buckman, in "The Nature and
Properties of Soils," we should (1)
Supply nitrogen in crop residues,
farm manures, green manures,
legumes as a regular crop, and the ad-
dition, of nitrogenous fertilizers. (2)

January, 1932

Florida Bird Refuge
to Get More Acreage
Authorization for the acquisition of
5,285 more acres of land for the St.
Marks Migratory Bird Refuge in Wa-
kulla County, Florida, has been ap-
proved by the Migratory Bird Con-
servation Commission of which Secre-
tary Hyde of the Department of Ag-
riculture is chairman. Similar author-
izations were made for eight other
This will bring the acreage in the
St. Marks Refuge to 19,167 acres.
Stretching for about 14 miles along
the shores of Apalachee Bay, it is a
famous winter resting ground for
many species of ducks and shorebirds,
and is one of the greatest Canada
goose concentration areas along the
Gulf coast.

Jack Greenman Chosen
For Blue Key
Jack Greenman, the past president
of the Agriculture Club and the past
Business Manager of The Florida
College Farmer was honored last
month by receiving a bid to Blue
Key. This comes as the high point of
a career which has been full of many
outstanding achievements.
Blue Key is an honor society that
originated at the University of Flor-
ida in 1925, under the leadership of
Major B. C. Riley. The object of the
National Blue Key honor society is to
study, discuss and strive to further
the best interests of the University; to
promote the spirit of fraternalism
among the students; to foster inter-
collegiate relationships and develop
a national spirit by placing the stamp
of approval upon college leaders,
which will make it possible to recog-
nize them wherever they, will be
Greenman is a senior this year,
majoring in Agricultural Chemistry.
He has maintained an A average for
his past three years in college.

Cost Raising Beef
in Florida One-Third
Less than in North
Beef cattle can be raised in Florida
for one-third less than in the cooler
states, George Dyson, general mana-
ger of the Dyson and Rodewald
Ranch, Rushville, Ill., stated during a
recent visit to the College of Agricul-
ture herd here. Foundation stock for
the college herd was purchased from
this nationally known ranch two years
"Here the farmer has a plentiful
supply of natural pasture during
practically the entire year, and he is
not confronted with the difficult and
expensive housing problem that makes
cattle-raising in the northern states
expensive", he said.
Apply lime if necessary to correct
acidity and to supply calcium as a
nutrient. (3) Maintain organic matter
and control its activity by adequate
residues and upkeeps of nitrogen. (4)
Keep up the available potash by
farm manures and crop residues and
potassium fertilizers. (5) Add phos-
phoric acid as a phosphatic fertilizer.

January, 1932


1932 Farm Outlook
(Continued from Page 3)
More sweet potatoes were grown
in the Cotton Belt this year, and pro-
duction for the United States is esti-
mated to be 24 percent more than last
year. So long as this situation exists
farmers who grow sweet potatoes for
market may find it best to reduce
acreage as well as production cost.
Supplies of flue-cured tobacco in the
United States are 5 percent less than
those of a year ago but 3 percent
more than the five-year average.
Cigarette consumption started on the
decline in July and by September was
8.3 percent less than the previous
September. Exports for July through
September were 29 percent less than
last year and 10 percent below the
average. Since two-thirds of the flue-
cured tobacco enters foreign markets
this is of vital importance.
The supply of cotton is so burden-
some on the market that if the record
consumption of 1926-27 was repeated
in 1932 there would still be as much
left as was consumed in the year
1930-31. Production must be reduced
if the situation is to improve much.
Planting some of the cotton acreage
to feed and food crops, growing cover
crops to improve the soil, and growing
good varieties on good land, judic-
iously fertilized are suggestions for
meeting the situation.
The 1931 corn crop in the Southern
states was 15 percent above average,
though 67 percent larger than last
year. The oat crop was also larger
and the grain sorghum crop was a bit
above average. Hay supplies over the
country are less, but in the South are
larger than last year and slightly
less than the average of recent years.
Generally speaking pastures are in
poor condition. Feedstuffs as a group
are plentiful and are cheaper than
they have been since before the World
More Livestock Grown in United
States Last Year
Hog numbers on farms and supplies
in storage in the United States are
larger than a year ago, but smaller
than the average for the last five
years. Demand weakened during the
year, but low feed prices will likely
cause some expansion this season.
Local markets in the South will de-
pend to a large extent on maintain-
ing the present production. Regard-
less of the outlook, adequate produc-
tion for home use is recommended.
The demand for fluid milk in Flor-
ida is being adequately supplied. Pro-
duction has advanced to the stage
where there is a year-round surplus.
Cheese factories, creameries, and the
like may succeed in Florida farm sec-
tions where a steady abundance of
cheap milk can be produced from
cheap, home-grown feed. There has
never been a better time to buy good
breeding animals at a bargain.
Beef cattle numbers, while still low,
increased some during the last year.
In Florida tick-free areas, continued

South Florida Fair
To Be Held
February 2 to 13
THE South Florida Fair held in
Tampa, Florida, each year is
recognized as one of the outstanding
events of its kind in America. It an-
nually attracts thousands of visitors
from every section of the country
and ranks today as the fourth largest
Fair and Exposition in America.
Features and attractions scheduled
for the 1932 South Florida Fair which
will be held in Tampa February 2nd
to February 13th, 1932, insure- its be-
ing the most impressive and spec-
tacular event ever. There will be ex-
hibits from the richest agricultural
sections of Florida. There will be
amazing exhibitions of Woman's
work, Educational Institutions, State
Departments, Interesting Museum of
Natural History, Fish and Game ex-
hibits, mammoth display of Poultry
and Pet stock, splendid exhibits of
cattle and hogs, National Honey show
and Flower show. These displays and
exhibitions will take up over 300,000
square feet of space. There has been
over $40,000 offered as premiums,
prize money to be paid to the pro-
ducers of the finest quality product
in every classification.
The South Florida Fair will offer
you Information and Education, the
value of which cannot be estimated.
Florida is the leading state in the
Union in the growing of Citrus Fruits.
Strawberries, Pecans, Grains, Winter
Grown Vegetables and garden pro-
ducts. Florida leads the nation in the
diversity of Food Products and in
the dollars per acre crop yields and
number of growing days.
Besides the magnificent display of
Florida products there will be daily
an entertainment program. These
programs will include horse racing,
auto racing, day and night fireworks,
Circus and hippodrome acts, monster
parades and special days will be

pasture improvements, feed produc-
tion, selection of breeding cows, and
the introduction of good bulls is ad-
visable. In tick-infested areas, care-
ful handling and close culling of the
present herd is recommended.
There is little tendency for general
farmers to reduce sheep numbers.
Many are taking advantage of low
prices to buy good breeding stock.
World wood production continues
large, and production in the United
States increased 7 percent last year.

Soils are like tools they will wear
out; they must be renewed. Winter
legumes will help to do it. Hairy
vetch and Austrian winter peas are
good winter legumes. Another legume
equally as good is crotalaria. It is
planted in the summertime.

Education is what is left after you
have forgotten all you ever learned.-
C. H. K. Marten.





State Bank



Photo- It Half Tones
End*ar)es 1 SgilICe ZncEtching~
SArtists ColorPlates



M ore Eggs...

Lower Cost


Iodine Vermicide for Worms
Iodine Suspensoid for
the Health of the Flock
Price List of All Grains and Feed
Sent Weekly on Request

Howard Grain Co.
Jacksonville, Florida




due to the generous amount of organic Nitrogen
(almost entirely from Genuine Peruvian Guano)
used in their make-up.
Plan now to use NACO Brand Fertilizers. Results will prove
the wisdom of your choice. Bigger yields of improved quality
fruit and truck will bring added profits.




International Motor Trucks


Farm Operating Equipment

International Harvester Company

All Other Marking Devices
All Orders Promptly Filled for

The College

of the

University of

offers the best training for
Florida boys in all lines
of agricultural production
and leadership.
Four year course leading
to B. S. degree, with
specialization in Horti-
culture, Agronomy,
Animal Husbandry, Eco-
nomics, Entomology,
Chemistry, Agricul-
tural Engineering, and
Only College in Southeast
offering full courses in
Citrus and Sub-Tropical
Fruit Culture, and in
Landscape Design.
Courses of One Semester,
One Year and Two Years
easily arranged for those
wishing to study technical
agriculture only.
Low expenses for board
and fees.
For catalog and full in-
formation, write postal
card to

Dean or (Secretary)

College of


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