Biennial report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075940/00007
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 23-29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publisher: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee
Creation Date: 1954
Frequency: biennial
Subjects / Keywords: Game protection -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish culture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fishery management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Wildlife management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: First biennial report covers the period from the time of the organization (of the Commission) July 1, 1935 to December 31, 1936.
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000327977
oclc - 01332271
notis - ABV7514
System ID: UF00075940:00007
 Related Items
Preceded by: Florida. Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish.|Biennial report of the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
Succeeded by: Florida. Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.|Annual report

Full Text


799 -


o For the years

C over 'Ihotograph
The Florida panther is now confined mainly to
remote wilderness areas of Florida. The panther is,
however, inclined to roam and may occasionally
appear at surprising places in well-settled portions
of the state. The Florida panther is listed as a
game animal and may be hunted only during the
regular hunting season.


!game and fresh V/ater 7.Jh


January 31, 1957
Governor of Florida
State Capitol
Tallahassee, Florida

Herewith is submitted the Biennial Report of the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission for the period ending June 30, 1956, with a financial
report for the 30-month period ending December 31, 1956.
Through this report we wish to make known to you, to the Members of
the State Legislature and to the People of Florida, the activities and achieve-
ments of the Commission.
We feel that the Commission made a great deal of progress in its fish and
wildlife work, insofar as was humanly practicable with the finances available.
Looking forward, we feel that the rapid increases of human population
in Florida, plus the increase in industrial operations, and the development of
wilderness areas, mean that additional finances will be needed in the future
if the fish and wildlife of the State of Florida are to be properly conserved
and utilized.
We feel that the overall work accomplished during the past two years
is but a small portion of the work that must be accomplished in the future
so that Florida may attain a full realization of its valuable fish and game
We feel confident that the progress made by the Commission during the
past biennium will be multiplied many-fold during the years to come.
Finally, we wish to express our appreciation to the many State Officials
and private citizens whose vision and cooperation have assisted so greatly
in our conservation endeavor.
Respectfully submitted,


FFH: mns


Subject Page
Letter of Transmittal ............. .... ..... ....... ............. 1
The Com m issioners ............................ ................... 4
The Administrative Staff ................ .... .......... ............. 7
Report of Progress ............................................... 8
Future Prospects .................................................. 11
Administration of the Commission .................................. 12
Wildlife Officer Distribution of Time................................. 15
Law Enforcement and the Wildlife Officer ............................. 16
Merit System for Employees ........................................ 18
Game Management Division ..................... .................. 19
Fisheries Division ................................................. 32
Fiscal Division ................................................. 39
Information and Education .............. .. .. ................... 49
"Florida W wildlife" M magazine .......................................... 53
Aviation .... ................... ................. ................ 54
Radio Communications ............... .............................. 57
The Regional Offices ............................................... 59
South Florida Region .....: ........................................ 60
Northeast Florida Region ....................... ......... ..... ........... 62
Northwest Florida Region .......................................... 64
Everglades Florida Region ........................................... 66
Central Florida Region .............................................. 68
The Administrative Regions ................ ......... .............. 70
Youth Conservation Education ..................................... 73



Third District

Forace F. Holland, Panama City,
has served as Chairman of the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission
since appointment April 13, 1955,
with a subsequent re-appointment
January 8, 1957.
Mr. Holland is a lifetime outdoors-
man, having fished, hunted and
camped all his life. Golfing is also
one of his hobbies.
As Chairman of the Commission,
Mr. Holland is particularly inter-
ested in seeing that the Commission
is operated on a business basis. He
believes that a government business,
such as the Commission, must be
operated by careful, common-sense
rules, whereby the best will be done
for the most people.
Mr. Holland is interested in all
phases of the Commission's work,
and believes that we must work
toward a better conservation future
for the State of Florida. He believes
law enforcement is an integral part
of Commission work and that young
people should be trained to be the
adult sportsmen of the future. He
believes that the game and fish man-
agement programs should produce
the utmost potentialities of public
fishing and hunting, insofar as is con-
sistent with good fish and wildlife
management practices.
Above all, he believes that the best
of private business practices can,
and must, be applied to all opera-
tions of the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission.
Mr. Holland was born in Otter
Creek, Levy County, August 13,
1906. He is owner and president of
Holland Lumber Company which
he began operating in 1933, and Hol-
land Homes, Inc., which he began in
Mr. Holland was a member of the
Florida House of Representatives,
Bay County, during the 1943-45 ses-

sions. He also served several years
as a director of the Panama City
Country Club. He is a charter mem-
ber of the Panama City Lodge No.
1598 B.P.O. Elks. He is a Past Ex-
alted Ruler and Past Vice President,
Florida State Elks Association. He
is a Past President and Past Lt. Gov-
ernor of the Kiwanis, and has served
as a Director and Vice President of
the Chamber of Commerce. He is
also Past President of the Florida
Lumber and Millwork Association,
a 1950-54 director of the National
Retail Lumber Dealers Association,
and is now serving as an associated
director of the latter organization.
He is also a member of the Board of
Trustees of the Florida Building Ma-
terials Dealers Exchange.
He is married to the former Miss
Mary Frances Gay. Mr. and Mrs.
Holland have two children, Kath-
erine Alicia, 26, and Frances Gay,


Talmadge C. Hart, Wauchula, was
appointed as Commissioner from the
First Conservation District January
17, 1955.
After two years of service as a
Commissioner, Mr. Hart says:
"Looking back over the past two
years, I can see that much has been
done in furthering the major pro-
grams of the Commission.
"There have been several new
Wildlife Management Areas added
to insure continued good hunting for
the hunters of the state, and the re-
stocking program has provided the
needed game for good propagation
in all the areas.
"The fishing has been on an in-
crease, due largely to the fine work

First District

Second District

being done by the Fisheries Divi-
sion, and the Hyacinth Control units
of that Division. Many thousands of
acres of water have been opened up
to fishermen, as well as boat en-
thusiasts, by the control of the
dreaded water hyacinth in many of
our lakes and streams.
"The Information and Education
Division has kept the people well in-
formed about the progress the Com-
mission has made with the various
programs and this was done through
the stepped-up program in the I & E
section of TV programs, more news
releases, more public appearances of
our personnel, and various other
methods of contacting the general
public. The Youth Conservation
Camp has been operated for the first
time without a loss to the Commis-
sion, and with a large number of
youngsters reaping large benefits
from the lessons they learn in con-
servation from actually doing con-
servation work.
"Law enforcement personnel,
equipment and technicians have
been improved to considerable de-
"I feel that the Commission as a
whole has made several good steps
forward toward the eventual goal of
making the State of Florida the best
hunting and fishing state in the
Mr. Hart is a native of Paris, Ten-
nessee, and completed his high
school education in Avon Park, Flor-
ida, in 1922. He then entered busi-
nes with a large crate manufacturing
company, and started T. C. Hart
Lumber Company in Wauchula in
1936. In 1938, he began his opera-
tions in cattle and citrus interests.
He has served as vice president and
director of the Bradenton Produc-
tion Credit Association, director of
the Hardee County Cattlemen's As-
sociation, member of the Farmer's
Home Administration Committee in
Hardee County, and deacon in the
Baptist Church.
In 1932, Commissioner Hart mar-
ried Mabel E. Johns of Wauchula.
They have two daughters, Judith
and Shirlene.


Riley Gordon Granger was born
October 24, 1898, in Loris, Horry
County, South Carolina, son of Ed-
mund Riley and Frances (Wilkins)
Granger. His father was engaged in
the turpentine industry and in farm-
ing operations.
Perhaps his outstanding achieve-
ment has been organization of what
is now the State Forest Ranger

School of the University of Florida.
It was in January, 1947, that he as-
sisted in organizing the Columbia
Forestry School at Lake City. That
school was a non-profit corporation,
and Mr. Granger was made presi-
dent of the corporation. So success-
ful was the new school that those
responsible for its existence and con-
tinuance arranged for its transfer
to the University of Florida as a
part of the university system on
July 1, 1949. Since that time it has
operated as the State Forest Ranger
School of the University of Florida.
Mr. Granger is also president of
Granger Lumber Company, Inc. of
Lake City; president of the G.B.S.
Corporation of Lake City, a develop-
ment enterprise; director of the
Southern Pine Association of New
Orleans, Louisiana; director of the
Associated Industries of Florida, and
also a director of the local Chamber
of Commerce of Lake City and
Columbia County. Mr. Granger was
also formerly a director of the Perry
Banking Company of Perry, Flor-
ida, from 1935 to 1940. From 1926
to 1934 he was a member of the
Branford Town Council, and from
1932 to 1935 he was chairman of the
board of trustees of Branford High
He is a member of the American
Legion and the Veterans of Foreign
Wars. He was cited in General
Order No. 64 for "distinguished and
exceptional gallantry in action" at
Somme-Py, France, on October 8,
1918, and was awarded the Silver
Star Medal. He is also entitled to
wear the decorations of the French
fourragere in the colors of the
French Croix de Guerre.

Today Mr. Granger is active in
fraternal circles as a member of the
Free and Accepted Masons. He has
held the different offices of his lodge,
and has been district deputy grand
master under two grand masters of
the Grand Lodge of Florida. He is
a member, too, of the Order of the
Eastern Star, in which he has served
as associate patron and worthy pa-
tron. He is also active in the Ancient
Arabic Order of Nobles of the
Mystic Shrine. In the Benevolent
and Protective Order of Elks he is
a leading worker. He belongs to the
Lake City Shrine Club and other
groups, and attends the Methodist
Church, of which most members of
his family are members.
Mr. Granger married, August 14,
1922, in Perry, Florida, Merle Van-
sickel, daughter of Harry Ellsworth
and Eva (Passmore) Vansickel. Mr.
and Mrs. Granger are the parents of
five children: Doris Lillian, 31;
Dura Glenn, 30; Marjorie Ann, 25;
Patsy Ruth, 23, and Riley Gordon,
Jr., 19.


Dr. James Watson Cosper, Jr., who
is Commissioner for the Fourth Con-
servation District, was born May 17,
1924, in Birmingham, Alabama. He
presently resides in Homestead,
where he practices dentistry.
Dr. Cosper attended the Univer-
sity of Alabama, where he received
the following degrees: Bachelor of

Fourth District Fifth District

Science and Doctor of Medical Den-
tistry from the School of Dentistry.
He entered the Dental Corps of
the United States Navy in May, 1942,
where he saw service in the South
Pacific. He was honorably discharged
in May, 1946.
Dr. Cosper is a member of the
Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Lions
and the Junior Chamber of Com-
merce. He serves on the Board of
Directors of the Redland District
Golf and Country Club. He also
serves as Chairman of the Zoning
and Planning Board for the City of
Homestead, Florida.
Dr. Cosper is Treasurer of the
Dade County Dental Research Clinic
and is a member of the Board of
Directors, Miami Dental Society, the
Florida Dental Society, the Ameri-
can Dental Society, the American
Society Dentistry for Children, the
International Association of Anes-
thesiologists, and a Diplomat of the
National Board of Dental Examiners.
Dr. Cosper is especially interested
in fishing, hunting and golfing. Pro-
fessionally, he is especially inter-
ested in Dental Research, especially
as related to restorative dentistry.
Dr. Cosper was appointed as a
member of the Florida Game and

Fresh Water Fish Commission on
March 22, 1956.
Dr. Cosper is married to the for-
mer Miss Evelyn Fay Sullivan. They
have one daughter, Denese Marie,
aged 18 months.


F. Don Southwell, Commissioner
for the Fifth Conservation District,
first came to Florida in 1917 from
Michigan. Until 1931 his time was
divided between Texas and Florida;
building telephone lines and survey-
ing Florida swamps and building
houses in Texas.
In 1939, he left the building busi-
ness and returned to Florida. He
made one trip to California in 1940,
to make sure that Florida was the
place and in 1941, settled perma-
nently in Ormond Beach.
Hunting, fishing and conservation
have always been Mr. Southwell's
hobbies. A life-long interest in per-
petuation of natural resources and
wildlife, along with a firm convic-
tion that Florida should be main-
tained as a "Sportsman's Paradise,"
resulted in the years of his active

work in conservation in Florida.
Mr. Southwell accomplished much
conservation work while serving the
Florida Wildlife Federation as Di-
rector for many years. At times, he
also served as the Federation's Treas-
urer, Executive Secretary, and Re-
cording Secretary.
He is an active member of the
Florida Outdoor Writers Association,
and served as president of the Fifth
District Sportsmen's Association in
1954, and as president of Halifax
Hunting and Fishing Club for sev-
eral years.
He feels that his interest and
knowledge of the needs of Florida's
sportsmen, and the state as a whole,
led to his appointment to the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission
on June 8, 1955.
Mr. Southwell is especially inter-
ested in every phase of the Commis-
sion's work, with particular empha-
sis on the Youth Conservation Camp
at Lake Eaton, as well as acquisition
of additional managed public hunt-
ing areas, extended hyacinth control
operations, and the expansion of the
law enforcement and education di-
visions of the Commission.
Mr. Southwell married the former
Miss Doris Smith in 1934.


DIRECTOR ...................................... ...........................A. D. ALDRICH
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR ....................... ............. ................... EARLE FRYE

FISCAL .............................................................. JOEL MCKINNON
GAME MANAGEMENT ............................................ E. B. CHAMBERLAIN, JR.
FISHERIES ............................................................... E. T. HEINEN
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION .......................................... ROBERT A. DAHNE

"FLORIDA WILDLIFE" MAGAZINE ..................................... WILLIAM F. HANSEN
COMMUNICATIONS .................................................... RHETT MCMILLIAN
AVIATION ........ ... ...................... ............. ..... ....... W ILLIAM S. DURKEE

NORTHWEST ............................................ .......... JAMES W. BICKERSTAFF
NORTHEAST ...................... ..................................... CHARLES CLYMORE
CENTRAL .......... ......... .............. ..... ...... ...................... D. C. LAND
SOUTH ......................................................... ......... C. R. REVELS
EVERGLADES ........................................................ FRED W STANBERRY





A. D. "Bob" Aldrich began his
duties as Director of the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission on April 11, 1955. Mr. Al-
drich has an impressive record of
conservation experience dating from
1921 when he accepted a position
with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries.
He was appointed Fish Hatchery
Supervisor of the Oklahoma Game
and Fish Department in 1926. In
later years, he served as Director of
Fisheries for the Oklahoma Game
Department, Supervisor of Lakes
and Recreation for the City of Tulsa,
Oklahoma, biologist for the U.S.
Corps of Engineers, and Acting Di-
rector of the Oklahoma Game and
Fish Department.
Mr. Aldrich has long been active
in the afairs of the American Fish-
eries Society, the International As-
sociation of Game, Fish and Conser-
vation Commissioners, the Wildlife
Society, the National Waterfowl
Council and other professional or-
ganizations. He has served as Chair-
man of the Central Flyway, North
American Waterfowl Council, Mem-
bership Committeeman of the Amer-
ican Fisheries Society, and similar
positions in allied organization work.
Mr. Aldrich is now serving as Sec-
ond Vice President of the Interna-
tional Association of Game, Fish and
Conservation Commissioners.

A CCELERATED progress in all
phases of conservation work
was made by the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission dur-
ing the biennial period from July 1,
1954, through June 30, 1956.
In general, the Commission de-
voted its efforts toward rendering
better service to the general public
and the sportsmen of the State of
Florida. This was done by improv-
ing personnel standards, clarifying
operational procedures, defining
channels of authority and responsi-
bilities, coordinating activities, and
bringing the program closer to the
Great emphasis was placed on
defining channels of authority with-
in the Commission, so as to render
the department more efficient.
Particular attention was devoted to
improving the quality of personnel
and their status of employment.
General policies of the Commission
were strengthened and clarified.
Better liaison between the Commis-
sion and the public was established.
Most particularly, the general over-
all scope of department activities
and services was expanded into
new fields of endeavor, without in-
creasing costs or personnel.
During the biennium, there was a
continuation of the program of ob-
taining and opening additional pub-
lic hunting and fishing areas. Also
continued was the effort to attain
sound fish and wildlife management

practices as determined by accurate
technical research programs.
There was an accelerated drive to-
ward bringing the programs of the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission, especially the setting of
hunting and fishing rules and regu-
lations, closer to the people.
Better coordination and efficiency
was achieved in, and between, all
divisions and sections of the Com-
mission, with greater emphasis
placed on law enforcement and
public services.
On the overall, the activities of
the past biennium will serve as a
concrete indication of the determi-
nation of the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission and
its employees to have a more pro-
gressive program of fish and wild-
life conservation in Florida.
Following are the highlights of
work accomplished during the bi-
ennial period:
On February 28, 1956, the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mision, in formal public meeting,
adopted an official statement of
policy, as follows:
"During the year, it will be the
policy and intent of the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission to
continue to advance the overall
quality of our employees, their
status as employees, and their ser-
vice to the public. Important in



A. D. ALDRICH, Director

this connection will be a standardized employment
system whereby the criterion for employment and
working with the Commission shall be merit rather
than political or personal consideration.
"The Commission will also spend a great deal of
time defining and clarifying channels of authority
within the department, and in specifically delegat-
ing authority down through the various divisions and
channels in order to achieve greater efficiency in all
Most important of all, will be the continuing attempt
to improve the Commission's law enforcement pro-
gram. We will continue to employ and train the
highest type of Wildlife Officers and to make replace-
ments whenever such action will improve the effi-
ciency of the Department. We will work toward the
broadening of the services of the Wildlife Officer in
the field. We shall continue to improve our law en-
forcement equipment. We shall seek to simplify and
clarify all rules and regulations so that they may be
properly enforced by our personnel.
"We shall seek to extend the scope of our game
management division, attaining more accurate infor-
mation as to game populations, habitats, environments
and related ecological factors. We shall attempt, pro-
vided adequate finances are available, to provide ad-
ditional public hunting areas operated under accepted
and proven game management techniques. We shall
continue to improve food and cover for game. And
we shall seek to improve and simplify hunting rules
and regulations.
"We shall do everything possible to improve and
extend the operations of our fish management divi-
sion. Primary emphasis will be given to hyacinth
control and elimination of roughfish. We shall con-
tinue lake and stream surveys, and investigations into
fish populations and related factors. We will contem-
plate the construction of public piers and landings
and the problems of providing access areas to many
of the rivers, lakes and streams of the state, most
especially in the large impoundment areas of the
Everglades. We shall do everything possible to de-
velop greater potentialities in native fish populations.
We shall seek to improve the fishing rules and regula-
tions according to sound management principles.
"We shall give greater emphasis to our program
of informing and advising the public in an under-
standable manner as to the Commission's programs
and policies, and the need for wildlife conservation
rules and regulations. We shall continue to attempt
to weld together a highly efficient Information and
Education program. We shall create a full-fledged in-
formation program that will operate efficiently on
all levels-local, regional, state and national.

"We shall continue to improve our radio communi-
cations section, and its equipment, including mobile
units, air units, and base stations. We shall spend
a great deal of time on property maintenance, inven-
tories and improvement of equipment. We shall
continue to streamline the financial operations of our
auditing department which must keep records of all
receipts and disbursements for the entire Commission.
"With the help and cooperation of the sportsmen, and
the general public, which we earnestly solicit, we
shall continue to the best of our ability, to efficiently
perform our obligation to the public which is the
conservation, protection, utilization and restoration
of the fish and wildlife of Florida for future genera-
tions. All these things can be accomplished only
through the cooperation and aid of all agencies and
individuals concerned."
With the above policy statement, the Director, his
staff officers, and employees had a clear-cut task of
procedures and achievements outlined. The policy
statement was of great aid in carrying the work
During the biennium, there was a clarification of
channels of authority within the Commission, which
enabled all staff officers and employees to re-evalu-
ate and re-organize their activities and procedures.
The channels of authority were strengthened and
clarified in such a manner that a direct chain of
command and responsibilities was achieved, result-
ing in better efficiency and coordination in all di-
visions and sections of the Commission.
Because the Commision now demands more services
and efficiency from its employees, the aim of the


* wr -

Commission is to gradually increase
personnel base salaries, wherever
possible, in order to attract and
hold qualified conservation career
During the biennium, the base
salaries for wildlife officers was in-
creased to $250 per month, with
automatic increases of ten percent
for the first year of seniority, and
two percent annually thereafter for
six years, for a maximum of 22 per-
cent over base salary. The increase
in base salary immediately resulted
in a higher caliber of employee ap-
During the biennium, the Com-
mission put its own Merit System of
Employee Examinations into effect.
Also put into effect was a system of
training all new employees before
assigning them to their jobs in the
field. This resulted in the employ-
ment and training of better quali-
fied personnel.
By specifically delegating au-
thority down clarified channels of
command, coordination between em-
ployees and divisions and sections
of the Commission was greatly im-
proved. Employee morale was also
improved, resulting in more effi-
cient services and work programs.
A new policy of holding public
meetings throughout the state was
adopted during the biennium. The
policy was especially effective in the
series of public meetings held
throughout the state to obtain ex-
pressions from the general public on
the setting of hunting rules and reg-
ulations. This resulted in the com-
piling of information which will be
of great value during the current
biennium to aid the setting of equit-

able, overall rules and regulations
that will conform to the desires of
the public insofar as may be possi-
ble without interfering with good,
sound conservation management
The public meetings also served
to allow the people of the state to
come into closer contact with the
Commission, and its employees, to
a mutual benefit.
Employees of the Commission
were also advised as to the necessity
for becoming involved in what may
be termed as extra-curricular duties
-services and responsibilities which
are not normally considered part of
the employees' jobs. Beyond their
normal Commission duties, many
employees now serve on special com-
mittees and perform liaison activi-
ties between the Commission and
other State and Federal agencies.
Important in this respect is the
cooperative efforts of Commission
personnel with civic, social and
sportsmen's organizations through-
out the State, especially the Florida
Outdoor Writers, the press, tele-
vision, radio and the Florida Wild-
life Federation. Such liaison activi-
ties by Commission personnel are
essential to a general and effective
understanding of the Commission's
wildlife conservation program.
Another new phase of activities
during the biennium was adminis-
tration of the state-wide Hyacinth
Control program with funds appro-
priated by the Florida State Legis-
lature. Along with administering
the Hyacinth Control funds of $276,-
500 set aside by the Legislature and
under direct control and subject to
the approval of the Florida State
Cabinet, the Florida Game and

Fresh Water Fish Commission oper-
ated a companion Hyacinth Control
program with $100,000 of its own
The Hyacinth Control program
was of tremendous benefit to the
people of Florida during the bi-
A new addition during the bi-
ennium was the consolidation of the
aviation equipment and personnel
into an Aviation Section. This
achieved better maintenance for the
planes and motors, resulting in bet-
ter safety for the pilots. It also
afforded a reduction in costs through
the process of having a centralized
repair center, parts depot, and me-
chanical service shop. Creation of
the new section also affords better
training and operational procedures
for all aviation personnel.
During the biennium, an Audio-
Visual Section was added to the In-
formation and Education Division.

Audio-Visual was created to pro-
duce television and feature films
concerning wildlife and conserva-
tion education. Creation of the
Audio-Visual Section resulted in a
decrease of costs of photography and
art-work for the FLORIDA WILD-
LIFE Magazine as the result of hav-
ing the photography and art-work
created within the Commission
rather than purchased from outside
interests. It also greatly increased
the effects of the general program
to inform and educate the people to
the needs for good natural-resource
Progress made during the bien-
nium in all Divisions and Sections
of the Commission is adequately
presented in the various reports con-
tained in this Biennial Report.
There can be little doubt that the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission made considerable pro-
gress in all phases of its activities
during the biennial period. More
important, the basic groundwork
was laid to allow a greatly acceler-
ated program to take effect during
the current biennium. Much has
been done, but a great deal more
remains to be done. We feel certain
that, with the help of all sportsmen
and the general public, that we can
continue to do our job of conserv-
ing, protecting and restoring the fish
and wildlife under a wise resource-
use program that will guarantee an
outdoor heritage for future gen-
erations. 0



N BUSINESS should be, or can be,
operated properly without com-
prehensive plans for the future.
The Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission has such
plans. Plans which are designed to
insure future satisfaction for the
Florida sportsmen the fishermen
and the hunter. Plans which affect
the future of our fish and wildlife.
Plans which will help guarantee a
heritage of natural resources for our
children and their children.
We sincerely believe that much
has been accomplished during past
years, as the result of active co-
operation from interested sportsmen
and the general public. And we fully
realize that much more must be done
to protect, preserve, conserve and
utilize our natural wildlife resources.
We, the Commission, firmly be-
lieve that there is a much brighter
future for Florida wildlife interests
during the coming years. We believe
that sportsmen are fully within their
moral and legal rights in demanding
a more aggressive and effective pro-
gram for Florida wildlife and the
conservation thereof. We believe that
it is the duty and the responsibility
of this Commission to do everything
within its power to implement such
a program.
BUT this cannot be done without
the firm and active backing of all
interested sportsmen and citizens.
Such a future cannot be attained
without adequate finances. And it
most certainly cannot be done
without aggressive and progressive
Here are the general plans that
will be undertaken by the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission:
First will be an improved and

more effective Law Enforcement pro-
gram. The Commission plans to con-
tinue employing and training a pro-
gressively higher calibre of Wildlife
Officer. We plan to continue improv-
ing the cooperation and coordination
of our Law Enforcement efforts. We
plan to continue improving the
equipment of the Wildlife Officers,
so that they may more efficiently
perform their duties in the field. We
plan to obtain more simplified and
improved Fish and Game Laws and
regulations, based on sound manage-
ment principles and resource-use
Number two on the list of future
plans is the acquisition of additional
public hunting and fishing lands.
This is of utmost concern to every
fisherman, hunter and wildlife stu-
dent. Florida is developing rapidly.
Without an aggressive land acquisi-
tion program, areas available for the
average sportsman will be drastically
reduced. More lands must be held in
trust for the Florida fisherman and
hunter, and every other citizen -
public lands accessible for the enjoy-
ment of all.
The Commission plans to work to-
ward opening more privately owned
lands to controlled public hunting,
fishing, boating and general recrea-
tion purposes in conformance with
sound wildlife and land management
The Commission intends to dis-
cover and develop new techniques
and procedures that will enable the
greatest possible realization of the
potentialities of game and fish popu-
lations, and fishing and hunting op-
We intend to do everything within
our power to study all plans formu-
lated by State and Federal agencies
when such plans will affect the
waters, soils, forests, wilderness, and
fish and wildlife of the State of Flor-
ida. We intend to continue, where
necessary, to make recommendations
for changes in any plans or programs
which we consider to have a poten-
tial detrimental effect on the fish and
wildlife, and other natural resources,
of the State. We intend to take any

necessary steps that will help safe-
guard our wildlife heritage.
We plan to continue acting in our
capacity of custodian and watchman
of our natural resources, especially
fish and wildlife.
In the future, we plan to continue
developing the Commission's Merit
System for Employees, to insure that
all employment is based on aptitude
and qualifications of employee appli-
cants. We plan to continue training
our employees so that they will be
better fitted for their work.
We plan to continue serving the
general public in all possible ways-
Civil Defense, rescuing lost persons,
aiding citizens in difficulty, furnish-
ing information to the general public,
answering calls for emergency help
and transportation, and similar pub-
lic service duties.
We plan to work toward a more
uniform and equitable Florida fishing
and hunting license structure that
will be fair to one and all.
We plan to support legislation that
will be beneficial to the sportsmen
and to wildlife. We plan to work for
legislation that will include stiffer
penalties for game and fish law vio-
lations, more satisfactory control of
airboats, more funds for hyacinth
control and acquisition of public
lands and waters, more workable
laws affecting fish and wildlife, and
a more uniform license structure.
The Commission also plans to im-
prove its programs dealing with farm
pond management, food and cover
plantings for wildlife, youth conser-
vation education, public information
and education, and the many other
vital phases of conservation activi-
We know that there is a bright
future for the Florida sportsman.
The Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission plans to do every-
thing within its power to work to-
ward that brighter future. This fu-
ture must be attained through the
cooperation of everyone in Florida.
We are confident that we will ulti-
mately reach the goal of realizing all
of Florida's vast fish and wildlife
potential. *

THE FLORIDA Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission was
created by a Constitutional Amend-
ment passed at the general election
of 1942, and becoming effective Jan-
uary 1, 1943. Under this amendment,
there is vested in the Commission all
regulatory and management author-
ity for birds, game, fresh water fish,
fur bearing animals, reptiles and
The Commission consists of five
Commissioners-one of whom is ap-
pointed by the Governor from each
of the five Congressional Districts
of Florida that existed as of January
1, 1941.
The overall administration of the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission is delegated by the Commis-
sion to a Director who is appointed
by and serves at the pleasure of the
five-man Commission.
Assisting the Director, and imme-
diately under his supervision, are an
Assistant Director, a Secretary to
the Commission, personnel working
on special assignments such as spe-
cial investigators, and all Staff Of-
Staff officers of the Commission
consist of the Business Manager, the
Chiefs of Game Management, Fish
Management, Information and Edu-
cation, Communications, Aviation,
and the Magazine Editor and the
five Regional Managers.
The lines of Administrative au-
thority are as depicted in the at-
tached diagram. This diagram shows
that the Director is immediately re-
sponsible to the Commission. All
Chiefs of Divisions, or Staff Officers,
are, on the other hand, responsible
to the Director. Division personnel
are, of course, responsible to their
Staff Officers.

Thus, when a policy is set by the
Commission, it is administered by
the Director through his Staff Offi-
cers and their personnel.
Under this arrangement, it is the
Staff Officers' duty not only to at-
tend to their particular administra-
tive duties, but also to keep the Di-
rector, and through him the Com-
mission itself, fully informed as to
all important activities in all admin-
istrative branches.
Prior to 1951, all Game Commis-
sion programs were organized and
put into effect from one state-wide
office in Tallahassee. This resulted
in a cumbersome procedure that re-
sulted in a loss of vital contact with
personnel working in the field, and
the local problems with which they
were constantly confronted. Staff
Officers in the Tallahassee main
office were often isolated, not only
from their own personnel, but also
from the sportsmen and general pub-
lic of the State of Florida.
In an effort to overcome this oper-
ational handicap, the Administrative
set-up was decentralized to attain
closer contact with field problems
and personnel.
To accomplish this, Game Com-
mission Regional offices were estab-
lished in strategically located spots
throughout the state. Five Regions,
and offices, were located in North-
west Florida, Northeast Florida,
Central Florida, South Florida and
Everglades Florida, with headquar-
ters now in Panama City, Lake City,
Ocala, Lakeland and Okeechobee.
Each Region was placed under a
Regional Manager, responsible to the
Commission's Director and Assistant
Director. The Regional Managers
are directly responsible for all ac-
tivities within the geographical area


of the



Assistant Director

composing their Region. These in-
clude all work and personnel in law
enforcement, communications, game
and fish management, aviation, in-
formation and education, and budge-
tary matters.
In order to make this operation
workable, all activities of a techni-
cal nature must be supervised joint-
ly by the Regional Manager and
the Division Chief or Staff Officer
of the appropriate function.
Thus, the Regional Manager, and
his personnel, are assisted, at the
upper level, by various Staff Offi-
cers. All state-wide programs set
into effect by the Commission are
organized and coordinated, with the
cooperation of the Regional Man-
agers and their personnel, by the
Division Chiefs. It is therefore pos-
sible to put any overall program
into immediate effect in all points
of the state, with no discrepancies in
policy or administration. A state-
wide program is thereby operated
exactly the same in every point of
the state.
The close cooperation between the
Director, the Assistant Director, the
Division Chiefs and the Regional
Managers is the most important item
in the entire Administrative set-up.
Answerable to the various Staff
Officers are additional sub-supervis-
ory personnel. To the Business Man-
ager is delegated responsibility for
the State Property Officer, and
Book-keeping and Auditing person-
nel. The Game and Fish Manage-
ment Chiefs are responsible for the
leaders of Federal and State-wide
Projects, such as the hyacinth con-
trol program, controlled seining,
wildlife management areas, deer and
turkey restoration, and water fowl
and mourning dove research and
management projects. The Informa-
tion and Education Chief is respon-
sible for the Supervisor of Youth
Education, Chief of Audio-Visual
and the five Regional Education
Officers. Regional Managers are re-
sponsible for regional fish and game
and education officers, and area
Each of these is, in turn, respon-
sible for other personnel. For exam-
ple, the Area Supervisor is respon-
sible for law enforcement activities
in from two to four counties in a
Region, and is directly in charge of
the activities of law enforcement
personnel in such areas.
All of the lower level supervisory
personnel actually participate in
carrying out the work concerned.
For example, Area Supervisors
spend a great deal of their time in
actual law enforcement as well as
in supervision of law enforcement
in their respective areas.



0 i-
p4 0

L J O 0
O4 1
) a

^&j ^^ u ^
PL *

The degree to which any individ-
ual can participate in actual work
depends, of course, upon the extent
of his administrative duties. The
farther up the administrative ladder
he goes, the more he is occupied with
administrative matters, and the less
he is able to participate in the work
he is supervising.
One of the most important duties
of the Director is the collection and
assimilation of information from the
various staff members for presenta-
tion to the Commissioners for use in
evaluating and establishing overall
policies of the Commission. It is
the Director's very definite respon-
sibility to keep the Commissioners
fully informed as to activities in the
various phases of Conservation en-
deavors, and as to public opinion re-
garding any specific issue. This can
be accomplished by frequent person-
al contacts with individual Commis-
sioners, and by means of periodic
reports covering Commission activi-
By the use of such direct descend-
ing lines of authority and adminis-
tration, and by the returning lines of
responsibility, personnel welfare and
public contact, it is possible to ad-
minister a complete and well-inte-
grated program of wildlife conser-
vation for the State of Florida. 0

of the
Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission

S '-
..4.. ..

KEY-1. South Florida Region, Office at Lakeland; 2. Northeast Florida Region, Office
at Lake City; 3. Northwest Florida Region, Office at Panama City, Central Office at
Tallahassee; 4. Everglades Florida Region, Office at Okeechobee; 5. Central Florida
Region, Office at Ocala.

O. Earle Frye has served as As-
sistant Director of the Florida Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission
since 1951. He first joined the Com-
mission as a bobwhite quail research
technician on January 14, 1946, and
has since rendered service in many
capacities and positions.
Mr. Frye is especially noted for
organizing and putting into effect
a progressive game management
program for the Commission, with a
subsequent improvement in hunting
success for the Florida hunter.
It was during the years of 1947
and 1951, while Frye was serving
as Chief Wildlife Biologist that a
management program including the
acquisition of public hunting rights
on a tremendous acreage of private
lands was inaugurated. The suc-
cess of sportsmen in the fields and
forests has ascertained that a good
management program has been in-
strumental in providing game for
this top-notch outdoor sport.
Frye, who was born in Tennessee
in 1917 and moved to Florida in
1925, first became interested in wild-
life as a boy hunting and fishing

near Winter Haven. He decided to
make a career of conservation when
a sophomore at the University of
Florida, where he received a Bach-
elor's Degree in Biology in 1939,
followed by a Master's Degree in
1941. He then spent one year of

training in the Department of Wild-
life Management in Agriculture and
Mechanical College of Texas.
The Assistant Director enlisted in
the U. S. Navy in June 1942 and
became a naval aviator. His two
years of sea duty were spent in anti-
submarine warfare as a torpedo
plane pilot aboard aircraft carriers
in the North Atlantic. He held the
rank of Lieutenant, Senior Grade
and received the Air Medal with
one Gold Star, and the Presidential
Unit Citation before being released
from active duty in January 1946.
After his Military service, Frye
was employed by the Florida Game
Commission. In 1947 he became
Chief Wildlife Biologist and spent
the following four years in game
management work. He was then ap-
pointed Assistant Director in 1951.
He has written numerous technical
and non-technical articles about
wildlife and game management pro-
grams for many different publica-
He was awarded his Doctor of
Philosophy by the University of
Florida June 7, 1954.

The Average Florida Wildlife Officer
Distributes His Time


Law Enforcement


The Wildlife Officer

VIGOROUS enforcement of the
Game and Fish laws will al-
ways be an extremely important
phase of a good wildlife conservation
program. It will always be necessary
to have game and fish laws, and it
will always be necessary to see that
such laws are properly enforced.
Florida's Wildlife Officers have
the tremendous task of enforcing the
game and fish laws applying to ap-
proximately 39,000,000 acres of land
and water within the confines of the
State of Florida. With the second
largest woodland area in the United
States, and with over 30,000 named
fresh-water lakes, countless rivers
and streams, and 58,560 square miles
of territory to patrol, the Florida
Wildlife Officer is faced with a task
that is all-important and never-
During the biennial period cov-
ered by this report, The Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission Wildlife Officers spent a

total of 712,720 hours patrolling on
land, ever-alert for law violations.
During the same period, they spent
a total of 96,518 hours on water
patrol, and 2,970 hours in air patrol.
During the same two-year period,
our Florida Wildlife Officers trav-
eled an aggregate total of 4,728,601
miles while engaged in their law-
enforcement duties. They checked
a total of 345,539 fishing and hunting
licenses, and made a total of 4,634
arrests. They also investigated a
total of 6,248 complaints and alleged
violations, and seized 95 illegal nets
and 26 illegal seines.
During the two-year period, the
Officers spent 7,741 hours engaged
in court-room procedures resulting
from the 4,634 arrests. They spent
21,212 hours in maintaining their
operational equipment in proper
condition, and 12,535 hours in office
work and reports. The Florida Wild-
life Officers also reported 15,304
hours spent in game management ac-

tivities, 3,192 hours in fish manage-
ment activities, and 3,848 hours in
professional improvement and stu-
dies. They also spent many hours
devoted to conservation education of
of the general public, in rendering
assistance and emergency aid to the
public, and many miscellaneous ac-
The above figures prove that the
Florida Wildlife Officer is engaged in
a tremendous task that is most im-
portant to the welfare of the State
of Florida. The importance of the
Wildlife Officer cannot be over em-
While in the field, the Wildlife
Officer represents the authority, the
responsibility, the duty and the po-
tentiality of the entire Florida Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
To the average fisherman and hunt-
er, who has no other contact with
the Commission, the Florida Wild-
life Officer IS the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission.
It is vitally important, therefore,
that our Wildlife Officers be men of
good character and excellent quali-
fications. They must be thoroughly
trained in all techniques of good law
enforcement and must understand
general wildlife conservation and
management principles. It is impor-
tant that they have both good per-
sonal character and educational
background. They must have the
physical stamina necessary to a life-
time of rugged work in the outdoors
under difficult conditions. They
must have the mental attributes
necessary to keep abreast of the
rapid advance in modern wildlife
conservation theories.
The Wildlife Officer must, above
all, be ever courteous and fair in all
matters relating to the sportsmen
and the general public of Florida.
The Wildlife Officer must also be
capable of working independently,
by himself, in wilderness areas
where he cannot obtain either com-


pany, assistance or instructions. He
must, in other words, be self-operat-
ing, self-governing and self-supervis-
ing at many times.
It takes many qualifications to
make a good Wildlife Officer. There-
fore, it is necessary that all Wild-
life Officers pass a strict mental,
physical and character examination
before being employed by the Com-
One of the more important aspects
of the Law Enforcement branch of
the Commission is that it is sub-
divided geographically, correspond-
ing to the five administrative Re-
gions of The Commission. Each Re-
gion has a force of Wildlife Officers,
supervised by several Area Super-
visors, under the authority of the
Regional Manager.
The job of Wildlife Officer is es-
sentially the same in all Regions of
the State. The Officers must, how-
ever, adapt their work procedure to
fit local circumstances, such as geo-
graphy, topography, population con-
centrations of wildlife and humans,
and seasonal variations. With good
transportation equipment cars,
trucks, Jeeps, airboats, marsh bug-
gies, horses, boats, motors, airplanes
-and effective radio communica-
tions, the Florida Wildlife Officers
effectively cover the entire State, in-
sofar as is humanly practicable
under present budgetary require-
But Law Enforcement, or the sole
responsibility of enforcing the Game
and Fish Laws, is not the Wildlife
Officer's only duty. The Officer is
also expected to serve or assist in
local game and fish management
work, community service, special in-
vestigations and public appearances.
The Wildlife Officer is expected to
make suitable speeches before or-
ganized groups, maintain his equip-
ment in good working order, assist
in fair exhibits and special promo-
tions, and make many appearances
in court. He is also concerned with
maintaining good relations between
the sportsmen of the state and the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission. And, since he has special-
ized transportation equipment, good
radio communications and the neces-
sary experience, the Wildlife Officer
is often called upon for aid in search
and rescue missions involving dis-
tressed persons.
In all, the Wildlife Officer has a
well-rounded schedule of duties that
is extremely important in the pro-
gram of conservation, protection and
utilization of our fish and game.
One of the most important ad-
vances in the Commission's Law En-
forcement Program during the bi-
ennium was the result of the great

..'p .-

improvement in cooperative work
between all divisions and sections of
the Commission. Better coordina-
tion of activities and responsibilities
resulted in better laws and better
enforcement of the Laws.
By definition, the Florida Wildlife
Officer is the man who is primarily
concerned with enforcement of the
Game and Fish Laws. However, all
male employees of the Commission,
except office janitors, are actually
commissioned as wildlife officers
with the duty of enforcing the Game
and Fish Laws, no matter what their
routine jobs might be.
Just as the Wildlife Officer is con-
cerned with good public relations, so
is the Information and Education
Officer concerned with Law Enforce-
ment. And, as the Wildlife Officer
is concerned with good game and
fish management work, so, too, is
the Game or Fish Management
Technician concerned with good
Law Enforcement.
The policy that it is mandatory for
all employees to be concerned in all
phases and programs of the Com-
mission is of primary importance to
the sportsmen of the State of Flor-
ida. It is the only way in which a
true wildlife conservation program
may be achieved.
The fine cooperation between the
Wildlife Officers of the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission and the Federal Game
Agents of the U. S. Fish and Wild-
life Service in Florida should also
be mentioned. The excellent team-
work between the three Federal
Agents stationed in Florida and our
Florida Wildlife Officers has been
responsible for improved protection

not only of migratory game but of
resident species as well, and has
been extremely effective in many
difficult cases.
Another new program during the
biennium was the adoption of a
Training Program whereby all new
Wildlife Officers undergo a brief but
comprehensive training program be-
fore being assigned to their duties
in the field. As a result, the inexper-
ienced officer is much better pre-
pared to assume the responsibilities
of his new job.
All Wildlife Officers, new and old,
undergo periodic Training Schools
where they receive the latest inform-
ation concerning all Commission

programs and activities. In Train-
ing, the accent is on Fish and Game
Laws, Law Enforcement Techniques,
Wildlife Code, Commitment and Im-
prisonment, Searches, Seizures, For-
feitures, and similar topics. Other
studies include the State Constitu-
tion, Game Management, Fish Man-
agement, First Aid and Safety, Fed-
eral Court Procedures, Public Rela-
tions, and many other courses of in-
The well-trained Wildlife Officer
is a good Wildlife Officer.
The Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission realizes that
only through the cooperation of an
informed and interested public can
game law violators be controlled
and good conservation practices be
employed. This is the reason why
Wildlife Officers are expected to
serve in so many diverse capacities.
Law Enforcement is, without
question, one of the most important
branches of the many varied pro-
grams and activities carried on by
the Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission. 0


NOTE: Special Enforcement Area St.
Johns River Area is located in Central
Florida Region and includes the St. Johns
River from the St. Johns County line south-
ward to the south line of Seminole County.



for Employees

D URING the biennium, the
Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission put into effect a Merit
System of Examinations for em-
The Commission's Merit System
is designed so that all employment
is based on the aptitude and qualifi-
cations of each employee. The sys-
tem is designed to be a continuous
program which will better fit all em-
ployees of the Commission for their
particular work, and, in turn, render
better service to the people of the
State of Florida.
Since the first examination, Octo-
ber 15, 1955, the Commission has
hired all of its employees under its
own Merit System procedures.
An indication of the selectiveness
of the Merit System is that in the
first year of operation, a total of 427
applications for employment was re-
ceived by the Commission. Of the
427 applicants, a total of 51 new
wildlife officers was employed. The

new officers were employed as re-
All applicants must successfully
complete a series of written examin-
ations, with the examining being
done in various locations through-
out the state in order to encourage
additional examinees. The examin-
ations are then graded by an im-
partial authority-the State Merit
Those who successfully complete
the written examinations are then
called before an oral interview
board. Those who successfully com-
plete oral interviews are then placed
on the Commission's Merit System
Eligibility List for employment
when vacancies occur.
New employees are then put
through a one-week training period,
during which they are drilled in-
tensively in all facets of the Commis-
sion's programs, policies and opera-
After completing the training

course, the new employees are then
assigned to the field.
Under terms of the Commission's
Merit System, applicants taking ex-
aminations must have a high-school
education, or the equivalent, and
must be between the ages of 21 and
35. Applications for employment
may be made to the Commission at
any time. All applicants are then
notified of the date and places of the
written examinations.
During the first year of the Merit
System Examinations, the Commis-
sion found that the overall caliber
and quality of employee applicants
improved steadily throughout the
year, as prospective employees be-
came familiar with the Merit System
of the Commission.
As the result, the Merit System
has enabled the Commission to place
better-qualified and better-trained
officers in the field. The increase in
employee efficiency and morale has
been noteworthy. 0





EMPHASIS during the past two
fiscal years continued to be
placed upon the organization and
operation of a well-rounded, produc-
tive program. Research, develop-
ment, land acquisition, and adminis-
tration all received due attention
and it is felt that the past year has
seen a level of effectiveness hitherto
unreached in Florida's game man-
agement program. All factors con-
tributing to sound game manage-
ment were stressed, and continual
effort was made to insure every
project being worthwhile and pro-
ductive. Where personnel, money
and equipment are so meager, no
non-essential work can be under-
A high calibre of research pro-
duced sound results and findings di-
rectly applicable to our problems.
Noteworthy are the studies dealing
with wildlife resources, habitat
changes, and land use in connection
with the Central and Southern Flor-
ida Flood Control Project; investi-
gations of quail, dove, deer, turkey,
waterfowl and squirrel; food habits,
nutritional content, and browse
studies, harvest and inventory
studies; and frog investigations.
Probably the most important inves-
tigations and research are those
being carried out in connection with
water control programs of the Corps
of Engineers and Central and South-
ern Flood Control District in the St.
Johns and Kissimmee Valleys and

the Everglades. Somewhat similar
and important work is being done
concerning waterfowl values of vari-
ous mosquito control impoundments
being built in Brevard County.
Continued work in land acquisi-
tion succeeded in adding as wildlife
management areas the 70,000 acre
Camp Blanding, a 16,000 acre tract
in Okeechobee County, and a 119,000
acre tract in eastern Collier County.
The Hendry Management Area was
discontinued at the request of the
landowner. About 10,000 acres were
added to the Richloam area and 7,-
000 acres to the Aucilla area. A five
year lease was secured for the major
tract in the Lee area, and the Fish-
eating Creek lease agreement was
satisfactorily renewed. An entirely
new area was secured in Osceola
County, approximately 22,400 acres,
called the Holopaw Wildlife Manage-
ment Area.
Uncertainty as to the status of the
Jim Woodruff Reservoir lands, be-
cause of legislation pending through
the year which would have permit-
ted sale of the land to former owners,
prevented a project being set up for
development. Much time and effort
were devoted to holding these lands,
and eventually a compromise was
reached whereby the Commission
retained the choice 4,000 of the orig-
inal 7,000 acres. Congress finally
passed legislation to this effect. Ar-
rangements were made to discon-
tinue the buffer zones of the Apala-

chicola Management Area and to re-
align the boundaries. In addition,
a tract of about 60,000 acres in the
Leon and Wakulla Districts of the
Apalachicola National Forest, in-
cluding the 48,000 acre Simmon's
Pasture breeding ground, will be
opened as a management area. Sev-
eral sections in private ownership
south of Homestead in Dade County
were secured under a short agree-
ment which will permit planting of
foods and public hunting. Much
negotiation was done with the State
Forest Service relative to jointly ac-
quiring the Withlacoochee Land Use
Project from the U. S. Forest Serv-
ice. Preliminary negotiations with
private owners were carried out
relative to adding to the Gaskin
Area, and to acquiring waterfowl
areas in St. Johns and Franklin
Development and habitat im-
provement received much attention,
and the major share of the funds.
This work was largely centered on
the management areas and involved
food plots, controlled burning, clear-
ing, and maintenance and construc-
tion of facilities. Plantings on the
Homestead and Jim Woodruff areas,
and turkey and hog trapping at
Fisheating Creek and Myakka Park
were done with state funds. Much
needed equipment, including a TD
-14A bullgrader, was obtained, and
considerable progress gained in this
important activity.

In addition to plantings for quail
and turkey, goose browse was put
in on the St. Marks area, duck food
plantings put in on Little Talbot Is-
land, and routine construction and
maintenance done on buildings,
roads, fences, and other facilities.
The largest single construction was
approximately 20 miles of fence built

TABLE 1. Pittman-Robertson Apportionments and Expenditures of Funds
during Fiscal Years 1954-55, 1955-56 and 1956-57 with Summary
of Projects by Type.
1954-55 1955-56 1956-57
Amount* Pet. Amount* Pct. Amount* Pct.
Coordination $ 18,517.40 7.1 $ 25,150.67 7.7 $ 25,581.68 7.2
Research 89,379.96 34.5 131,056.14 40.2 131,593.87 37.2
Development 103,585.16 40.0 128,050.00 39.2 144,760.10 41.2
Maintenance 47,802.15 18.4 42,099.42 12.9 50,881.96 14.4

TOTAL $259,284.67 $326,283.63 $352,817.61
Apportionment $131,738.07 $159,904.24 $196,660.53
* Federal monies with matching State funds. These amounts are planned
Summary of Projects by Type
1955-56 1956-57
Research 9 8
Development 4 (2 containing mainten- 5 (3 containing mainten-
ance features) ance features)
Maintenance 2 (both containing de- 0
velopment features)
Coordination 1 1

TABLE 2. Wildlife Management Areas Operated in 1955-56
Open to Closed to Location by
Hunting Hunting Ownership County
1. Eglin Air Force 390.000 70,000 U.S. Air Force Santa Rosa,
Reservation Okaloosa, Walton
2. Blackwater 85,000 Fla. Forest Ser. Santa Rosa,
3. Roy S. Gaskin 110,000 Private Gulf, Bay,
4. Apalachicola 100,000 98,000 U.S. Forest Ser. Liberty
5. St. Marks 3,000 62,000 U.S. Fish & Wild. Wakulla
6. Aucilla 110,000 Private Wakulla, Jeffer-
7. Steinhatchee 225,000 Private Dixie, Lafayette
8. Osceola 65,000 42,000 U. S. Forest Ser. Columbia, Baker
9. Lake Butler 96,000 Private Union, Baker,
10. Little Talbot Island 250,000 Fla. Park Ser. Nassau
11. Gulf Hammock 100,000 20,000 Private Levy
12. Ocala 185,000 90,000 U.S. Forest Ser. Marion, Putnam
13. Tomoka 50,000 Private Volusia
14. Sumter-Citrus 30,000 Private Sumter, Citrus
15. Farmton 50,000 Private Volusia
16. Croom 17,000 U. S. Forest Ser. Hernando
17. Richloam 48,000 U. S. Forest Ser. Hernando, Pasco,
18. Holopaw 22,000 Private Osceola
19. Avon Park 108,000 U. S. Air Force Polk, Highlands
20. Okeechobee 16,000 Private Okeechobee
21. Fisheating Creek 100,000 175,000 Private Glades
22. Cecil M. Webb 57,000 5,000 Game & Fish Comm. Charlotte
23. J. W. Corbett 97,000 Game & Fish Comm. Palm Beach
24. Lee 85,000 Private Lee
25. Hendry 27,000 Private Hendry
26. Collier 300,000 50,000 Private Collier
27. Everglades 720,000 Central & Southern Palm Beach,
Fla. Flood Control Broward, Dade
28. Woodruff 6,000 1,000 U.S. Corps Eng. Jackson
29. Camp Blanding 56,500 13,500 State Armory Board Clay
30. Big Cypress 119,000 Private Collier

on the Steinhatchee area. A new
development project was approved
for construction of boat trails on the
Everglades area.

Tables 1 through 4 summarize im-
portant aspects of the program and
summaries of the various projects

W-8-L, Charlotte County Game
Management Area Acquisition
Segment 8 of this project was pre-
pared when the Commission had
opportunity to purchase additional
lands in Charlotte County during
the past fiscal year. This segment
provided for the purchase of two in-
terior holdings, one consisting of 40
acres and the other of 80 acres. The
40 acre tract was purchased for
$930.00, while the 80 acre tract cost
$1,760.00. Both constituted adverse
interior holdings within the Com-
mission property.

W-11-R, Charlotte County Quail
The principal activity of the proj-
ect leader during the past year con-
sisted of compilation, organization
and analysis of routine quail data
collected principally by the assistant
leader. The assistant leader devoted
his time to the following activities:
maintenance with the project assis-
tant of approximately 285 feeders;
counts of slough grass plants and
seeds on areas subject to various
burning and grazing treatments; col-
lection of quail wings, crops, and
heads from Charlotte County hunt-
ing clubs and from the Management
Area; tabulation of sex and age
classes from wings collected; taking
spring and fall quail census, and col-
lection of data from the controlled
There was an increase in the quail
population in 1955-56 over 1954-55
except on Feeder Area No. 1 which
showed a slight decrease. This was
reflected in the excellent hunting in
Charlotte County in general and the
heaviest kill, approximately 4,500
birds, on the Cecil M. Webb Man-
agement Area since the area has
been opened to hunting. Slough
grass production was up in 1955,
almost double that of the preceding
The 1955-56 studies showed more
hens than cocks in both the hunting
club populations. This has occurred
only one time previously, in the win-
ter of 1946-47. Due to the extreme
rarity of this condition in quail pop-
ulations, the sex ratio data will be
given careful statistical analysis for
possible sampling error.
Although slightly reduced from
1954-55, the quail population on
Feeder Area No. 1 remains at a
considerably higher level than be-
fore the feeders were increased in
the spring of 1954. A pattern of cen-
sus courses was set for Feeder Area
No. 2 and was first worked in the
spring of 1956.

W-15-D, Farm Game Habitat
Work on this project during the
past year has involved further study
of the quail population on the ex-
perimental Jackson County quail
management area and the distribu-
tion of planting material to landown-
ers in the spring for quail habitat
improvement. In addition, some
planting evaluation studies were
made on material distributed previ-
ously. No effort was made to re-
establish plantings on the Jackson
County experimental area that were
destroyed by drought last year be-
cause of the continued very dry
weather through the past winter and
spring. The winter census revealed
a population of 216 birds, the lowest
in any of the eight winters that the
area has been censused. It is be-
lieved that the severe summer
drought, producing adverse hatching
conditions, and changes in land use
from cropland to overgrazed pasture
have been the principal contributing
factors to the decline.
Seed drop trays placed in plant-
ings on the Roy S. Gaskin area last
fall showed a seed yield of 603
pounds per acre for partridge peas
and 380 pounds per acre for thun-
bergii lespedeza. This is the highest
yield that has been recorded for any
of the bush lespedezas in Florida.
Planting material distributed early
in 1956 to 35 counties consisted of
358,400 thunbergii plants, 7,900
pounds of partridge pea seed, and
3,515 pounds of common lespedeza
seed. Follow up inspections of
plantings made from material distri-
buted the previous year showed the
following results: Thunbergii les-
pedeza Excellent, none; Good,
none; Fair, 25%; Poor 75%; par-
tridge pea Excellent, 5%; Good,
30%; Fair, 45%; Poor, 20%. The
severe spring drought was respon-
sible for the high number of low
quality plantings.
In cooperation with Project W-11-
R, a quail management bulletin for
Florida was prepared, to be pub-
lished early in 1957.
W-19-R, Florida Waterfowl
Work during the period consisted
of tabulating band recovery informa-
tion from Patuxent, vegetation
studies on mosquito control im-
poundments in Brevard County, in-
spection of areas and formulation of
recommendations f o r interested
landowners, the annual fall Florida
duck census, inspection of areas in-
volved in the Central and Southern
Florida Flood Control District pro-
gram, waterfowl bag checks and giz-
zard collection, trapping operations,

bi-weekly aerial waterfowl inven-
tories, and analysis of carrying cap-
acity and population data.
Perhaps the most important job
was planning for and beginning a
vegetation study on the Kissimmee
River Valley, the St. Johns River
Valley and Lake Okeechobee. A
point transect method was designed
for the vegetation study in order to
sample vegetation systematically
over a vast area. Because of the
volume of data which will be ob-
tained, mark sense cards were de-
signed and compilation and analysis
will be made by IBM machine. Re-
sults of this study will be correlated
with hydrographs of the area, his-
tories of water level cycles, food

habits studies, and with waterfowl
population and carrying capacity
During the past year there was in
general an average number of water-
fowl in south and central Florida
during November and December,
but drought conditions forced the
birds away from the inland areas
by mid-January. Waterfowl densi-
ties on Lake Okeechobee compared
quite closely with last year.
During the trapping season, a total
of 2,665 waterfowl was banded at
four trapping stations. Double band-
ing was done at Titusville to check
on band retention. Of approximate-
ly 1,976 old type bands applied, 0.7

TABLE 3. Summary of Active Pittman-Robertson Projects
Operated in 1955-56
Project Name Purpose Total Cost
W-8-L Charlotte County Game To purchase lands $ 2,690.00
Management Area Acquis-
W-1l-R Charlotte County Quail To study ecology of south
Investigation Florida quail 6,602.78
W-13-C Wildlife Management To administer and supervise
Coordination program 19,224.64
W-15-D Habitat Restoration for To improve quail habitat 12,989.21
Farm Game
W-19-R Florida Waterfowl Survey To study waterfowl ecology 11,070.47
W-22-R Mourning Dove Study To study dove populations
and migrations 4,679.35
W-23-R Palm Beach County Game To develop better manage-
Investigation ment methods 2,715.40
W-27-R Eglin Field Deer Investi- To study deer populations
gation and management 4,924.34
W-31-D Steinhatchee-Aucilla Man- To develop the Steinhatchee,
agement Area Development Aucilla, and St. Marks Areas 23,261.35
W-32-R Ocala Deer Investigation To study deer populations
and management 4,412.83
W-33-R Wildlife Inventory, Har- To learn statewide harvest
vest and Economic Survey and hunting pressures 14,677.29
W-34-R Key Deer Investigation To publish final report 1,631.25
W-35-D Statewide Wildlife Man- To develop management areas
agement Area Development in north and central Florida 59,938.47
W-37-M Maintenance of Charlotte To maintain facilities of
County Quail Project Area Charlotte Area 3,369.36
W-39-R Wildlife Investigation of
the Central and Southern To develop management and
Florida Fl ood Control operational methods 16,360.01
W-40-M South Florida Wildlife To develop management areas
Management Area Maint. in south Florida 29,714.63
W-41-R Management A r e a Re- To study game populations
search and make management re-
commendations 25,820.84
W-43-D Wildlife Development of
the Central and Southern To develop Everglades Area 12,573.60
Florida F ood Control
W-44-D Lake Miccosukee Develop- To rip-rap dam and water
ment control structure No costs
Prior to 30 June 1956
TOTAL COSTS $256,655.82

Full time technicians ............ 18
Part time technicians ............ 2
Full time non-technical ........... 11
Part time non-technical .......... 8
Bookkeeper ....................... 1
Secretarial ....................... 2
Half-time secretarial .............. 1

percent were lost, and of 1,976 new
type bands 0.5 percent were lost.
Two percent of the 3,953 bands ap-
plied on double banded birds were
open to various degrees. The med-
ian length of time from time of band-
ing to the time of known loss was
13 days. Apparently loose wire ends
in the traps are a factor in band loss
and opening. Of approximately
4,000 waterfowl that passed through
the Titusville traps, there were 91
mortalities. Autopsy on some of the
lesser scaup mortalities by a poultry
pathologist revealed that many of
the birds had a very heavy infesta-
tion of tapeworms and that many
were severely emaciated. Twenty-
three reports of color marked birds
had been received by the end of
June, 1956.
During 1954-55 banding and color
marking were done at three stations.
Figure eight traps were used, and
coots were taken by airboat at night.
A total of 2,449 birds was banded,
and 1,449 were recaptured in the
traps. Twenty-seven reports of
sightings of color marked birds were
The Brevard County mosquito
control impoundments are extremely
important to waterfowl since it is
expected that within ten years some
15,000 acres of marsh will be im-
pounded. So far, six impoundments
totaling 2,700 acres have been built.
These areas promise to be very val-
uable for waterfowl.
W-22-R, Mourning Dove Study
The greater part of the project
leader's time has been spent in ana-
lyzing data collected by other per-

sonnel and supervising project acti-
vities in general. Trapping was car-
ried on at the West Palm Beach sta-
tion throughout the biennium at Al-
ligator Point in Franklin County
during October, and from time to
time on various management areas
as conditions warranted. The ran-
dom road counts by wildlife officers
were made during the months of
July through February. Personnel
assigned to Project W-41-R made the
annual call counts and collected kill
data during the hunting season.
Birds at the West Palm Beach
station were aged as repeats as well
as new bandings, thus yielding age
ratios for the total population. The
ratio of immature birds during Jan-
uary and February has remained
much higher than at any time dur-
ing the preceding years of study.
Study of the total population data
for two years reveals that the peak
population occurs in June and the
lowest population in February. The
smallest proportion of immature
birds occurs in March. From 653
doves banded at Alligator Point dur-
ing October 1955, 38 returns were
reported by the end of June. This
is 5.8 return. Trapping results in the
life of the project show 16,905 new
birds banded and a total of 27,464
birds handled. Approximately 4,000
Keysort cards have been coded for
analysis of dove trapping at West
Palm Beach.
W-23-R, Palm Beach County
Game Investigations
During the biennium, a new office
location was found and operations
transferred. Arrangements were in-
itiated and work has been completed

for the leasing of land in the Corbett
area to a tomato farmer. Under the
terms of this lease, the farmer will
pay a rental to the Commission, will
clear, dike and ditch approximately
250 acres to be planted to tomatoes
during the coming fall and winter.
After this crop is removed, the land
will revert to the Commission to be
planted to waterfowl and upland
game foods. An economic evaluation
of the area was made in order that
the Corps of Engineers might be re-
quested to proceed with the con-
struction of the C-18 canal. Con-
struction of a low dike across one of
the large sloughs has been com-
pleted and the area cleared for plant-
ing to millet and rice. A good
growth is being made but no water
impounded yet, due to lack of rain-
Herbarium work continued
through the past year in accordance
with project work plans. Quadrat
studies suffered because of burning
by wild fires which entered the area
from the outside.
Turkey feeders have been in con-
tinuous operation except for the pe-
riod during the hunting season. It
is now estimated that the turkey
population on the area is approxi-
mately 250 birds, while the deer
population is estimated to be ap-
proximately 360 animals.
Functions of this project were
transferred to W-41-R 1 July 1956.
However, the work program con-
tinued without interruption.
W-27-R, Eglin Field Deer
The present project leader was
assigned to this job in September
1955. Since that time he has become
acquainted with the terrain, vege-
tation, and people along with the
wildlife problems of the area. The
last quarter of the year was spent
primarily on the Apalachicola Na-
tional Forest and in carrying out
bear damage to apiary investi-
During the nine day 1955 archery
season, the 106 archers bagged three
bucks. The 8,199 shotgun hunters
reported 719 legal deer, one animal
to each 11.4 hunters. It is general
knowledge, however, that consider-
ably more deer were harvested but
an accurate estimate of the addition-
al number is impossible. During the
1956 spring gobbler season held from
March 31 to April 8, 137 hunters
bagged 12 gobblers.
A deer census by the track count
method during the spring of 1956
revealed a population for Eglin Field
of 8,500 animals. A similar count
in January 1956 in the Apalachicola
National Forest showed approxi-


mately 1,385 deer present, a popula-
tion of one animal per 403 acres.
However, in the Simmons Pasture
breeding ground, the population is
approximately one deer per 87 acres.
Plans were made to provide for the
opening of this, along with additional
lands, for controlled hunting during
the 1956-57 season. The boundary
of the Apalachicola Wildlife Man-
agement Area was also realigned
and the buffer zone eliminated.
W-31-D, Steinhatchee-Aucilla Wild-
life Management Area Development
On the Steinhatchee unit fences
were checked and repaired, four
new food plots were established for
turkey, and controlled burning to
open thick areas was carried out.
On the Aucilla and St. Marks units,
activities consisted of fence repair,
boundary posting, controlled burn-
ing, planting of foods for goose
browse, and replacement of gates.
During the year work plans were
closely followed covering habitat im-
provement, posting, maintenance of
fences and buildings, and of other
facilities. The managed hunts were
carried out as usual on all three
units. Records of the amounts and
condition of game taken, the num-
ber of hunters, and the amount of
hunting pressure were kept. In ad-
dition, sex and age data on geese
were recorded on the St. Marks
hunt. In an effort to simplify and
improve administration, the func-
tions of this project were transferred
to W-35-D with the beginning of the
1956-57 fiscal year.
A 20,000 acre fire in the sog area
of the Steinhatchee unit partially
destroyed nine miles of fence neces-
sitating considerable repair. On the
three units, 98 acres were planted in
food plots.
W-32-R, Ocala Deer Investigation
Results of deer track counts
showed approximately 6,400 deer in
the management area. Considerable
time was also spent on a field survey
and study of the effects of the U. S.
Forest Service T. S. I. program.
Much time was spent in working
with Forest Service personnel in
order to modify the program so that
it might be the very least detrimen-
tal. As a part of this work, the proj-
ect leader and Forest Service per-
sonnel set up an oak seed orchard
study which will give information
on the effect of various T. S. I. prac-
tices on mass production. Plants
were collected monthly for a pro-
tein analysis study by Florida State
University. The project leader
spent considerable time as a mem-
ber of the Southeastern Section of
The Wildlife Society, Forest Game
Research Needs Committee.

Direct observations during the
latter part of the summer revealed
a doe-fawn ratio of 1:1.14. During
the annual archery and gun seasons,
one deer and two turkey were killed
by 174 archers, while 445 legal deer
were checked by the gun hunters.
Last winter's cold weather re-
duced a screw-worm fly activity to
a minimum. For the first time in six
years, no reports of screw-worm in-
festation were received during the
1955-56 hunt. Results of the mast
study are inconclusive when com-
pared to deer condition. This is
probably due to the fact that the
acorn crops for the last three years
have averaged from fair to good and
checking station personnel varied
greatly in their classification of good
condition of deer. Results of the
deer exclosure study indicate at the
present time that deer are not over-
browsing the major shrubs and trees
found in the area. The study did
indicate that heavy cattle usage fol-
lowing burning may retard the
growth of plant species and thus
cause a decrease in available food
supplies for deer. The cattle allot-
ment for the Lake George Ranger
District was terminated May 1, 1956.
Two allotments, or a total of 351
cattle, are allowed on the Seminole
Ranger District. The greatest com-
petition between cattle and deer
probably arises for mast with the
exception of the hammock area
where there is also competition for
browse species.
W-33-R, Wildlife Inventory,
Harvest and Economic Survey
During 1954-55 project headquar-
ters were moved from Williston to
Leesburg. The new quarters pro-
vide more space and better working
conditions. The 016 key punch was
turned in and an 031 key punch ac-
quired. An 075 sorter was also ac-
quired and much of the routine sort-
ing and card counting may now be
done in the project office.
A special report was prepared in
July 1954 consisting of tabulations
from the 1954 mail surveys dealing
with the results of the dove seasons
and the opinions of the hunters con-
cerning the dove seasons. It is inter-
esting to note that in connection
with the question regarding split
dove seasons that all districts
showed significant preferences in
the total, District I being in favor
of the late season and all others in
favor of a split or early season. How-
ever, all districts except the first
showed strong opinions between
counties. No patterns are discern-
able in the plotting of opinions on
the state map and the only possible
zone that could be recommended is

Game management officer inspecting fine
crop of Pensacola Bahia seed on food plot
No. 1, located in Farmton Wildlife Man-
agement Area. This plot is adjacent to thick
cypress stand. Turkeys visit plot daily.

View of Union Bag food plot (Tomoka
Wildlife Management Area.) This plot is
surrounded by cypress ponds. It is approxi-
mately three acres in size.
Group of wild turkeys at feeder. Use of
such feeders help establish newly stocked
birds, furnishes food when needed, and
provides opportunity for observation to
gather data on population size and com-

Wildlife biologist removes dove from trap at
Alligator Point. Birds from the heavy early
migration are banded to gain information
on problems of migration and harvest.


Commission personnel dip coots at night
from airboat. This unique method of capture
yields large numbers of birds for banding
when conditions are favorable.

Wildlife biologists examine seed from a
thunbergii lespedeza planting on Gaskin
Wildlife Management Area. These plant-
ings produced heavy yields and were much
used by quail.

made up of the First District and a
few adjoining counties.
Kill data showed that the split
season is a highly effective way in
which to insure all areas of some
good dove shooting.
During the past fiscal year, work
was conducted on hunter bag
checks, mail questionnaires, coordin-
ation of data from other sources,
quail population studies, and in
assisting in the planning of vegeta-
tion studies for the St. Johns and
Kissimmee valleys for Conservation
Area 2, and in working on problems
of surveying fish camp operators and
fishermen with the leader of Project
As a part of the evaluation of wa-
terfowl hunting in the St. Johns and
Kissimmee Valleys, economic data
were collected through field contacts
of waterfowl hunters at key points
in this area. Data were collected by
personnel of Projects W-39-R, W-19-
R, W-41-R and by U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service personnel. Mean
expenditures per hunter day varied
in the various areas sampled be-
tween $3.47 and $24.77. The bag of
ducks per hunter varied in the vari-
ous areas sampled between 0.48 and
2.92 birds. Total waterfowl per
hunter varied between 0.84 and 3.23
On the recommendation of the
statistical laboratory of North Caro-
lina State University, the answers
to the 1955 permanent mailing list
were matched to the answers of the
same individuals in 1954. Analyses
of these findings have not yet been
completed. The 1956 mail surveys
were conducted under the standard-
ized procedures reported on 1 July
1955. The 1956 questionnaire con-

trained an opinion question pertain-
ing to the closing of Mondays, Tues-
days and Fridays during the open
season. Data resulting from this
question were prepared as a special
During the 1955-56 hunt, a test
of a mark sense procedure for col-
lecting pressure statistics was made
on the Gulf Hammock Wildlife Man-
agement Area. This test was highly
satisfactory, and the procedures will
be used on other areas during the
coming year. Considerable effort
has also been devoted to planning a
sampling system for the determina-
tion of hunting pressures on the
management areas. Such plans
would use a system of roving road
blocks a n d automatic highway
counters rather than established
check stations.
W-34-R, Key Deer Investigation
The very excellent final report of
this project was printed as Technical
Bulletin No. 3.
W-35-D, Statewide Management
Area Development
Activities on the various manage-
ment areas for the biennium in-
cluded planting and maintenance of
food plots, maintenance of fences,
signs, roads, bridges, assisting in
controlled hunt operations, servicing
turkey feeders and obtaining data
to evaluate various phases of the
Little Talbot Island and the
Sumter-Citrus areas were added to
the project during 1954-55 and Gulf
Hammock in 1955-56. Twenty miles
of fire lane on the Blackwater area
and eight miles on the Gaskin area
were planted to carpet grass. Two

^ /-. E'(. .; ....... .
Food plot planted to Pensacola Bahia on
Farmton Wildlife Management Area. Such
plots receive heavy usage by turkey.

Portion of Conservation Area No. 2, showing
rotary marsh digger and a Hi-Oliver Crawler
used for transportation. The boat trail and
open area in foreground were cleared by

Table 5. Estimated kill and hunting pressure during the 1954-55 and
1955-56 Season by resident licensed hunters in Florida. (Data in


Dove (Total)
Dove (Early)
Dove (Late)
Marsh Hen

Hunters Kill Days
40 8.3 270
25 14.3 130
66 1,340 470
68 1,150 440
50 1,540 370
40 790 190
38 760 180
30 270 160
12 160 50
3.5 3.6 12
4.5 40 13
8.4 57 32





hundred forty quail' food plots were
maintained on the Gaskin area. Al-
most 22 acres of grass plantings were
prepared on the Tomoka area. These
were subjected to various mainten-
ance treatments, such as mowing,
grazing, and burning. Other work
on the Tomoka area included road

clearing, fire lane clearing, and con-
trolling burning. Eight food plots
were cleared and planted on the
Farmton area, 2,900 acres controlled
burned, 75 miles of fire lane plowed,
and 11 miles of new road opened.
On the Lake Butler area, 50 1/2
acres of food plots have been plant-

ed for turkey. Hog proof fences
were built around 23 acres and a
storage shed constructed. Last
year's plots received good usage, and
both the deer and turkey populations
are increasing. Particular attention
has been devoted to the preparation
and cultivation of food plots. All of

Table 6. Tabulation of hunting pressure and game killed on State operated Management Areas
during the 1954-55 hunting season.


Ocala 01
Osceola 02
Apalachicola 03
St. Marks 05
Hammock 11
Avon Park 12
C. M. Webb 13
Steinhatchee 14
Farmton 15
Tomoka 16
Corbett 17
Collier 18
Hendry 19
Sumter 20
Creek 21
Aucilla 22
Lee 23
Richloam 24
























52 ........
2 8


















































Table 7. Tabulation of hunting pressure and game killed on State operated Management Areas
during the 1955-56 hunting season.

Game Killed


Ocala 01
Osceola 02
Apalachicola 03
St. Marks 05
Gulf Hammock 11
Avon Park 12
C. M. Webb 13
Steinhatchee 14
Farmton 15
Tomoka 16
J. W. Corbett 17
Collier 18
Hendry 19
Sumter 20
Fisheating Creek 21
Aucilla 22
Lee 23
Richloam 24
Gaskin 26
Holopaw 27
Croom 28
Okeechobee 29










105,620 97,352




Toms Hens Total

6 7 13

126 66 56
12 32 29













690 793 1,569 16,825


Cat Fox




























Sound progressive game management pro-
gram requires up-to-date information on
hunter activity and harvest. Here, thou-
sands of questionnaires are being prepared
for mailing to hunting-license purchasers.

the plots put in this year are located
so as to include mast bearing trees,
particularly live oak. In this man-
ner, a number of oaks will be saved
which otherwise'might be sacrificed
to make areas available for planting
of pine trees. Plantings on Little
Talbot Island are very satisfactory.
They were made approximately a
month earlier than last year and
conditions were nearly ideal. Plant-
ings were made of buckwheat,
Egyptian wheat, soybeans, cattail
millet, and Japanese millet. Approx-
imately 25 acres are involved.
Work on the Gulf Hammock Man-
agement Area has consisted primari-
ly of fence maintenance, establish-
ment and maintenance of food plots
and improvement of roads. Partic-
ularly important was the new mile
and a quarter grade constructed be-

Volume and complexity of much present-
day game management work requires ma-
chine analysis. Here, wildlife biologist
checks data on IBM cards which are being
separated and tabulated on an electronic
sorting machine.



tween Watson Bridge and Buck
On the Sumter-Citrus Manage-
ment Area, twenty-four and three-
quarter acres were developed for
food plantings. Approximately sev-
en acres are in a low, wet area,
which will be utilized by waterfowl,
while the other plantings are prim-
arily for deer and turkey. Eight food
plots totaling seventeen and a half
acres were developed on the Rich-
loam Area. These were planted to
Pensacola bahia grass and to chufas.
Approximately 2,460 acres were
control burned.
Camp Blanding was added as a
management area late in March,
1956. The shortness of time limited
the amount of development work
which could be done, but during the
latter part of the planting season
fifty 1/8 acre food plots were
cleared, disced, fertilized, and plant-
ed with quail foods, while three two
acre plots were cleared, fertilized
and planted in Pensacola bahia to
improve the turkey habitat.
On the Blackwater Management
Area, the existing 48 quail food plots,
each 1/8 acre in size, were disced,
replanted in partridge pea, and fer-
tilized. Carpet grass was planted
along fire lanes and fertilized. All
quail food fence plots were repaired.
Deer track counts were taken and
a 5,300 acre pasture in the Black-
water was secured in order that
work may be concentrated in a cat-
tle free area.
During the 1955-56 season the
first controlled hunt was held on the
Gaskin Area. It proved to be entire-
ly successful. Little usage of food
plots by quail was noted during the
fall. This was due apparently to the
extremely good pine mast crop. Dur-
ing the late winter, however, quail
were flushed from more than 50%
of the plantings. During this period,
utilization was heavy. All of the
existing quail food plantings were
reworked during the late winter of
1955-56. Maintenance of lespedeza
plantings consisted of mowing and
fertilizing. Partridge pea plantings
were disced, seeded and fertilized.
On the Tomoka Management
Area, a storage shed was erected
and checking stations were main-
tained. Twelve creosoted telephone
poles were obtained from the Volu-
sia County Commission to be used
in repairing the bridge across the
Big Tomoka River. Ten miles of new
grade were seeded to carpet grass
and sixteen and three-tenths miles
of old grade were reworked by the
landowners. One-half mile of fence
was replaced and the entire outer
boundary checked and repaired
where necessary. Food plantings on

old plots were maintained and eight
acres of canal bank were leveled
and cultivated as a new plot. Ninety-
five miles of new fire lanes were
plowed and 300 miles of old fire lane
were maintained. A total of 3,600
acres was controlled burned.
On the Farmton Area, four check-
ing stations were maintained and
six and a half miles of new grade
were seeded to carpet grass. Fence
repairs and replacement of bound-
ary signs were made as necessary.
Food plots were fertilized and seed-
ed as necessary. A total of 2,500
acres of flatwoods was controlled
On all areas in 1955-56, 170 acres
of food plots were completed, 33
miles of road were planted to
grasses, 726 miles of fire lane were
plowed, and 15,800 acres were con-
trolled burned.

W-36-R, Collier Wildlife
Considerable time was spent se-
lecting locations for grazing and
burning exclosure plots. It has been
a problem to find representative
samples of various vegetation types
in accessible locations where there
is reasonable assurance that the
ownership and major use of the land
will not be drastically changed for
some time. Suitable sites were
finally selected, however.
Six turkey feeders were operated
throughout the year with regular
observation periods from blinds to
determine the seasonal use and sex
and age ratios.
Six checking stations were ope-
rated during the year and informa-
tion collected on deer and turkey
weights. Turkey wings and crops
were also collected for food habits
and age and sex ratios studies.
Sight records on deer and turkey
have been kept throughout the year.
In April and May frequent checks
were made on water holes to ob-
serve the amount of utilization by
deer and turkey.
The past dry season was consider-
able drier than that in 1953. Evi-
dence gathered on the utilization of
the water holes indicates that during
a normal dry season deer and turkey
do not need artificial watering de-
vices. Functions of this project were
transferred to W-41-R at the begin-
ning of the 1955-56 fiscal year.

W-37-M, Maintenance of Charlotte
County Quail Project Area
Activities of the present project
have been in connection with im-
provement and general maintenance
of the area.


During 1954-55, 13 bridges and one
cattle guard were repaired and put
in service. Four new bridges were
constructed, six other bridges have
been repaired, and three bridges
have had their plank runways re-
placed. One cattle guard has been
repaired. With one exception, all
of the bridge work was done on
Tuckers Grade. One bridge was re-
built at the entrance to the Squire
Farm Pasture and from the Bermont
Road. In all of this bridge work, the
county furnished labor and equip-
ment. It is expected that remain-
ing bridges can be repaired under
the same arrangement.
One of the cattle grazing lessees
constructed eight and one half miles
of new fence, six of these during the
present year. The other grazing
lessees did not construct any fence,
but cut approximately 8,000 post.
Approximately 20 miles of exterior
fence was painted with traffic yel-
low as provided for in the work
plans. It will be necessary to re-
paint and repost six miles of fence
along the east boundary because of
the new fence which has been con-
structed. Considerable time has been
spent on wood salvage operations
during the year. Four three-man
crews were engaged in this work
with most of the wood being ship-
ped by rail to a retort plant. Check
station buildings were repaired
where necessary and were repainted.
During the year, approximately 20,-
000 acres were controlled burned,
mainly being carried out by the graz-
ing lessee under the direct super-
vision of the project leader. This
burning was completed by the end
of February.
Two wild fires caused by lightning
burned approximately 250 acres.
One of the grazing lessees com-
pleted the planting of 35 acres of
Pensacola grass in strips 50 to 75
yards wide and 3/8 mile long with
like amounts of uncleared land be-
tween the improved strips. Unfor-
tunately, these plantings have be-
come almost a complete failure.
Doubtless, the dry weather during
the summer was partially responsi-
ble. These food strips need to be
re-disced and replanted. Other food
plantings on Commission lands west
of U. S. 41 are in need of fertilization.
This work is the responsibility of
the present grazing lessee.
Eleven and a half miles of ex-
terior fence and two and a half
miles of interior fence were com-
pleted during 1955-56. Along with
these fences, 11 new gates were in-
stalled. Approximately 20,000 acres
were controlled burned during the
early fall and winter. No burning
was done after 15 February because

of the extremely dry conditions. The
three checking stations on the area
were maintained.
Due to the discontinuance of main-
tenance projects, the functions of
this project will be transferred to
W-45-D effective 1 July 1956.

W-39-R, Wildlife Investigation of the
Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control Project
A great amount of work has been
done and much progress achieved on
this project during the past bien-
nium. A very elaborate and detailed
set of work plans was prepared for
the project renewal in January, and
these plans have aided considerably
in the accomplishments which have
been noted so far. Work plans were
closely followed on all phases of the
project. As in the past, close liaison
was maintained with personnel of
the Central and Southern Florida
Flood Control District, the Corps of
Engineers, U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, and the Marine Corps. The
Corps bombing range in Area 2 was
moved two miles northward to pro-
vide for area for public use in the
deeper water portions. A complete
set of aerial photographs was ob-
tained for use in preparation of a
vegetation type map of Conservation
Area 2. Considerable work has been
done in the preparation of this map,
and both aerial and ground coverage
have been extensive. A system of
plant community classification was
developed using the criterion of
dominance and species designation.
A differential level was run through
one of the large "tree islands" in
Conservation Area 2 which indicated
that "tree islands" in the Everglades
are actually ridges and are higher
in elevation that the adjacent open
marsh. Composition of the vegeta-
tion on the studied "tree island" in-
dicated an abrupt change in vegeta-
tion with a rise in elevation of only
0.42 feet.
A sawgrass clipping study was
initiated in an effort to correlate
sawgrass growth increments with
water levels. Green weight, oven-
dried weight, and stem counts are
being recorded. Seven permanent
vegetative quadrats were estab-
lished. Quadrats are field-checked,
plotted, and vertically photographed
every 120 days. Soil nutrient an-
alyses were made from three saw-
grass plots and determined to be
relatively uniform.
Three experimental aerial deer
counts were made and an indicated
density of 2.3 deer per square miles
was calculated. It was determined
that the optimum time to conduct
counts was either early morning or

Chufas being planted at Jim Woodruff Res-
ervoir to provide food for waterfowl. When
reservoir is flooded, water will stand one
foot deep in this section.

late afternoon.
Preliminary field data indicate
that fawns are probably dropped in
the Everglades area during every
month of the year with the peak
occurring in December, January
and February.
Observation of colonial birds in
Conservation Area 2 indicated a
peak population of approximately
5,000 herons, ibises, and egrets in
early April. Detailed observations
were made of Pomocea snail egg
clusters in an effort to learn more
about this extremely important food
Eighty-eight frogs were collected
for weighing, measuring and sexing.
The sample consisted of 21.5 per-
cent males to 78.5 percent females.
Saddle weights averaged out to
nearly one half the total weight of
the frog.
During the past dry season, ap-
proximately 110,000 acres in Con-

Improved roads on game management areas
facilitate hunter access, as well as opera-
tions and administration. Wildlife biologists
shown are examining new grading and log
stringers on J. W. Corbett Wildlife Man-
agement Area.



~C4~E~L". i

servation Area 2 and 300,000 acres
in Conservation Area 3 were se-
verely burned by wild fires. Obser-
vations so far indicate that if
sawgrass is cut in water one foot
deep or more and if water is held
over the severed stalks for a period
of four to six months, a complete
kill will result. It is indicated also
that sawgrass can be killed by burn-
ing during the dry season and then
immediately holding water above the
burnt stalks or any new shoots for
a period of four to six months.
Experimental plantings of the
smartweed, Polygonum densiflor-
um, were made in Conservation
Area 2 with approximately 95%
A special report was prepared on
Lake Isotokpoga water regulations,
submitted to the Corps of Engineers,
accepted, and incorporated in their
plans. Special reports to the Corps
were partially completed regarding
Area 2 and the northwest shore of
Lake Okeechobee, pointing out
means for protecting those ex-
tremely valuable resources. Field
work was initiated in the Kissimmee
Valley in cooperation with person-
ael of Project W-19-R.

W-40-M, South Florida Wildlife
Management Area Maintenance
Considerable progress was made
on this project despite several handi-
caps. The Lee County management
area which had previously been
handled on year to year agreements
was set up on a five year lease.
Negotiations were completed for
acquisition of a 22,000 acre tract in
Osceola County to be known as the
Holopaw Wildlife Management Area,
and for acquisition of a small man-
agement area in Okeechobee
County. During 1954-55, posted signs
were maintained on approximately
400 miles of exterior boundary on
five management areas. Twenty-two
4' x 4' management area signs were
erected on the various areas.
Twenty-one checking stations were
maintained and three were moved
to new locations. Three miles of
road were partly completed.
Approximately 150,000 acres were
controlled burned in cooperation
with the landowners and about 40
acres were planted to various game
foods on the Avon Park and J. W.
Corbett Management Areas. A va-
riety of plantings was made on the
Avon Park Area and detailed rec-
ords kept as to planting and cultural
treatments so that additional infor-
mation may be gathered on the best
plants to use and most suitable
methods of handling them. An open
sided shed 17' x 40' was constructed

of galvanized metal and lightwood
on the J. W. Corbett Management
Area for the storage of equipment
and supplies. Fifteen miles of road
on the Indian Trail Ranch were im-
proved by the oil lessee and one and

one quarter miles of new road con-
structed into the south end of the
Commission-owned lands of the
Corbett Area. A railroad crossing
using culverts and fill has been
partly installed by the contractors

Table 8. Estimated number of resident licensed hunters of each

species during the 1954-55 hunting season
post-season Random Mail Survey.

as determined by the

Deer 6,500 8,300 9,800 5,200 9,700
Turkey 5,600 3,500 7,300 3,200 5,300
Quail 13,900 11,900 22,900 5,900 11,100
Squirrel 13,400 16,000 22,200 2,800 13,800
Dove (Total) 12,400 10,000 11,100 7,000 9,600
Dove (Early) 8,900 8,000 9,300 6,700 6,600
Dove (Late) 9,800 8,900 7,400 4,700 7,300
Duck 5,400 5,700 7,600 4,600 6,900
Coot 2,200 1,600 1,500 2,700 3,600
Goose 500 600 1,900 100 400
Marsh Hen 900 1,300 500 1,000 800
Snipe 2,800 1,300 800 1,800 1,800
Number of
Licensees 25,300 24,700 33,100 13,800 25,500
Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.



Table 9. Estimated number of resident licensed hunters of each
species during the 1955-56 hunting season as determined by the
post-season Random Mail Survey.
Deer 8,400 9,700 10,200 5,400 10,500 44,00(
Turkey 9,900 4,800 8,300 4,000 6,500 33,00(
Quail 14,800 10,600 12,300 6,000 9,300 53,00(
Squirrel 15,100 16,500 23,100 2,900 14,200 72,00(
Dove (Total) 13,700 10,600 12,700 7,800 9,300 54,00(
Dove (Early) 9,100 7,700 10,000 6,300 6,800 40,00(
Dove (Late) 10,700 8,300 8,500 4,800 6,400 39,00(
Duck 8,000 5,600 8,200 6,600 8,400 37,00(
Coot 2,400 1,900 1,600 3,400 5,000 14,00(
Goose 300 800 1,400 300 400 3,20(
Marsh Hen 800 1,300 700 1,100 900 4,901
Snipe 2,700 1,300 1,100 1,500 1,300 7,701
Number of

Licensees 27,400 24,600 33,200 14,900 26,100
Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.



Table 10. Estimated total man-days of hunting pressure expended
for each species by resident licensed hunters during the 1954-55
hunting season, as determined by the post-season Random Mail

Deer 37,000 57,000 72,000 32,000 70,000
Turkey 27,000 17,000 34,000 17,000 32,000
Quail 197,000 78,000 89,000 33,000 75,000
Squirrel 69,000 111,000 151,000 13,000 93,000
Dove (Total) 87,000 80,000 80,000 53,000 66,000
Dove (Early) 40,000 36,000 46,000 32,000 32,000
Dove (Late) 47,000 44,000 34,000 21,000 34,000
Duck 23,000 29,000 35,000 24,000 47,000
Coot 7,000 5,000 8,000 12,000 19,000
Goose 1,100 2,400 5,900 1,000 1,700
Marsh Hen 2,600 3,500 900 3,900 2,500
Snipe 8,900 10,000 2,600 5,600 4,600
Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.



building the new Jupiter-Indian-
town Road at the northeast corner
of the management area. About 20
acres of food plots were disced, ferti-
lized and planted to Pensacola bahia,
and carpet grass. These plots are

Table 11. Estim
for each species
hunting season,

Dove (Total)
Dove (Early)
Dove (Late)
Marsh Hen

approximately 40 feet wide and vary
from 100 yards to one quarter mile
in length.
In 1955-56 on the Avon Park area,
those plots which were planted in
annuals the previous year were re-

ated total man-days of hunting pressure expended
by resident licensed hunters during the 1955-56
as determined by the post season Random Mail








Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.

Table 12. Estimated total kill of each species by resident licensed
hunters during the 1954-55 hunting season, as determined by the
post season Random Mail Survey.

Deer 1,200 1,900 1,800 1,000 2,400
Turkey 3,200 1,800 4,600 1,500 3,200
Quail 462,000 253,000 257,000 121,000 246,000
Squirrel 205,000 270,000 405,000 28,000 241,000
Dove (Total) 353,000 358,000 338,000 208,000 287,000
Dove (Early) 163,000 164,000 194,000 126,000 141,000
Dove (Late) 190,000 194,000 144,000 82,000 146,000
Duck 36,000 47,000 51,000 46,000 89,000
Coot 26,000 18,000 16,000 30,000 68,000
Goose 400 600 2,300 100 200
Marsh Hen 8,000 18,000 2,000 6,000 7,000
Snipe 18,000 6,000 6,000 17,000 11,000
Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.


Table 13. Estimated total kill of each species by resident licensed
hunters during the 1955-56 hunting season, as determined by the
post-season Random Mail Survey.

Dove (Total)
Dove (Early)
Dove (Late)
Marsh Hen








Slight discrepancies in totals are due to method of rounding
each estimate independently from detailed computation sheets.


planted and fertilized. All grass
plantings were refertilized. The
Hendry Wildlife Management Area
was discontinued at the request of
the landowner. Following this, all
posted signs were removed and all
Commission improvements on the
property were taken down.
The addition of several thousand
acres to the Fisheating Creek Man-
agement Area made necessary post-
ing of additional boundary, the
building of one-quarter mile of
fence, and the installation of a gate.
Checking stations were painted and
reblocked and window panes in-
stalled. One food plot was cleared
and roads improved in several
places. A total of 202 turkey was
trapped from the area during the
winter and released in 12 different
On the Collier Management Area,
the entire exterior boundary was
reported and since the location of
the closed area was changed it was
necessary to repost a portion of the
interior boundaries. Approximately
12 miles of tram road were cleared
of ties and planted to grasses in
order to improve the area for turkey.
After the hunting season on the
J. W. Corbett Management Area, the
entire outside boundary fence was
repaired and reported. Both check-
ing stations were painted and sealed
on the inside. A grade one and a
half miles long running into the area
from the north checking station was
constructed. In addition to the
grading of the road, three large food
plots were cleared during March and
at present time a right-of-way inside
the fence line is being plowed and
cleared. Three fields totaling about
265 acres have been leased to a to-
mato farmer who has cleared and
diked them.
A total of approximately 400 miles
of boundary was posted on the man-
agement areas. Fifteen acres of food
plantings were put in on Avon Park,
five acres on Corbett, and 15 acres in
the Homestead area. Approxi-
mately 200,000 acres were controlled
burned on the various management
areas. Approximately 150 hogs were
trapped on Myakka Park and re-
leased in the Corbett Area and Con-
servation Areas 2 and 3.
With the beginning of the 1956-57
fiscal year, the functions of this
project were taken over by a new
development project, W-45-D.

W-41-R, Management Area
Activities during the past two
years have consisted of operation of
turkey feeders, deer observations,
squirrel census, collection and

analysis of kill data during the hunt
season, deer browse studies, vegeta-
tion studies on the Collier Area, food
habits studies, turkey counts, quail
call counts, deer track counts, mast
studies, dove trapping, dove call
counts, and the making of deer jaw
bone aging boards. Attempts were
also made to develop procedures for
evaluating food plot utilization.
Deer observations on five manage-
ment areas in 1954-55 gave a buck-
doe ratio of 1:2.36, while track counts
on 733.4 miles of road gave an aver-
age of 5.53 tracks per mile.
Analysis of 128 turkey crops from
the more southern management
areas showed acorns, cabbage palm
berries, yellow-eyed grass, cypress
mast, carpet grass, pine seed, wax
myrtle, penny wort, and grasshop-
pers to be the most important food
items taken. These crops were col-
lected during the various controlled
Turkey feeder studies indicated
that May, June, December, January,
February and March were the
months of greatest utilization.
Considerable work was done on
deer browse studies, using a 100%
clipping technique. Areas concerned
were Lake Butler, Blackwater, Tom-
oka, Eglin, Chinsegut, and Inverness.
Good correlations between varying
degrees of deer and cattle pressure
and good comparisons of various
habitats have been obtained. De-
tailed deer browse work was done on
the Collier, Everglades, and Ocala
Wildlife Management Areas in
1955-56. These areas were chosen
for their widely different habitat and
because they represent important
deer ranges. Two year old pulpwood
and brush cut sand pine-scrub oak in
the Ocala had 33% more available
woody plants than a four year old
cutting and 58% more than a 30 year
old stand. On the Collier Area, the
important mast plant, saw palmetto,
was more abundant in areas without
cattle. Levee spoil banks and tree
islands of Conservation Area 2 pro-
duce a good quantity and variety of
leer food plants.
Squirrel census work, primarily
aimed at establishing a satisfactory
technique, was done on the Lake
Butler and Ocala areas and at
O'Leno State Park. Results are
promising, but much improvement
is yet necessary. For example, a
squirrel call count has been made
on the Ocala management area for
the past two years. The 1954 count
showed an increase in replies of 52
percent. The kill increased from
1,519 in 1953, to 2,776 in 1954. The
pre-season estimate of kill, assuming
it would be directly proportional
to the number of squirrels replying,

was 2,300. Squirrel census work has
been severely handicapped by any
usable check on the census tech-
Attempts were made to age and
sex turkeys from feet collected at
the check stations. It was found
that hens could be separated from
gobblers, and young gobblers from
old, but young hens could not be
satisfactorily separated- from old.
Using these and other data, the tur-
key kill was broken down as fol-
lows: 53% hens and 47% gobblers,
73% sub-adults and 27% adults.
During the spring gobbler season
in the Third District, it was found
that 16 to 30 man-days of hunting
were required to kill a turkey. Dur-
ing the 1955-56 hunting season,
turkey could be shot for a five day
period in Hardee, DeSoto, Manatee
and Sarasota Counties. It was in
these four counties that a restora-
tion program was begun in 1949.
There was considerable local feeling
that hunting would do much damage
to the turkey population, although
the number of turkeys had increased
to a point where a season was in-
dicated. A five day season was
allowed with a bag limit of one bird.
To assist in enforcing this regula-
tion, a special snap-on tag was se-
cured and used satisfactorily. A
return post card issued with the tag
provided means for estimating
hunter success and harvest. Ap-
proximately 5,000 cards were issued
in and adjacent to the hunt area.
Of this number, 1,161 cards were re-
turned, approximately 23%. Of the
cards returned, 528 killed turkeys,
506 did not kill turkeys, and 127 did
not hunt. It is estimated that the
total kill was approximately 1,400
birds, probably 25% of the total
population. It is believed that in
this habitat, 50% to 60% of the total
population could be harvested each
A total of 91 deer stomachs col-
lected from ten management areas
was analyzed for food contents. Only
17 food species made up the ten pre-
ferred items in 1953, '54 and '55. The
three year sample consisted of 196
stomachs. The number of additional
stomachs from the various areas re-
quired to give adequate samples was

W-43-D, Development of Everglades
Conservation Area
This project was initiated on 1
February 1955 to act as a companion
to Project W-39-R. Its purpose is
to provide means of access into the
present almost impenetrable Conser-
vation Areas 2 and 3 of the Ever-
glades Management Area. At pres-

ent, the only feasible means of
transportation into the area is the
airboat which is expensive to operate
and maintain. During low water
periods, it is often impossible to get
over parts of the area even by air-
boat. In addition to these disadvant-
ages, the airboat is both dangerous
and noisy. It is expected that the
trails to be built by this project
will be suitable for use by small
boats with outboard motors during
most of the year. Such trails pro-
viding access, will, of course, be ex-
tremely valuable for administration,
general conduct of the research and
development programs, and for the
collection of research data as well as
for management of the area.
A Rotary Marsh Land Digger,
manufactured in Louisiana, ap-
peared promising and was brought
over for a field demonstration. This
machine cuts a four foot boat trail
operating well through sawgrass
which is one of the major vegetative
types. The machine works best in
approximately 12 inches of water.
The plan of operation calls for the
machine to be used in the optimum
one-foot depth zone, following plot-
ted courses through the marsh. As
the water rises during the rainy sea-
son, the machine will follow this one-
foot zone northward toward the
shallow end of the area and as the
water recedes during the dry period,
it will follow the same desirable
depth southward.
The marsh land digger was pur-
chased with a June delivery date.
However, due to extreme drought
conditions, the project area was al-
most completely dry on June 1 so
that delivery was postponed. With
the coming of the rainy season in
June and July, conditions become
favorable for use of the machine in
August, so that delivery was made
at that time.
Low water conditions in the con-
servation areas in the spring of 1956
prevented the use of the rotary
marsh digger. Previous low water
levels severely hampered use of this
machine during the preceding
months. However, during the year,
approximately 11 miles of boat trails
and six ponds were constructed.
Fifty-four miles of management
area boundary were posted and
seven large management area signs
were erected at major access points.
Ten acres of water hyacinths were
sprayed with 2,4-D. One new airboat
trailer was constructed and the other
two boat trailers were modified. A
rotary weed chopper was acquired
through intra-division transfer, and
an OC-3 Hi-Oliver acquired through
inter-department transfer.

W-44-D, Lake Miccosukee

This project was approved in late
January 1956 and is designed to
permit cooperation by the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission with
the County Commissions of Leon
and Jefferson Counties, along with
the Trustees of the Internal Im-
provement Fund, for the construc-
tion of a dike and control structure

on Lake Miccosukee. This large,
shallow lake lying in Leon and Jef-
ferson Counties is extremely im-
portant to waterfowl and fish. In
recent years, it has periodically gone
dry, most of the water leaving
through a sink hole in the north-
west corner. A large ring dike has
been constructed to cut off this sink
hole from the main body of the lake,
and a control structure installed to
permit passage of the water in either

direction as desired. The Commis-
sion's contribution will be to par-
tially finance the installation of rip-
rap along the dam and at the con-
trol structure. At the close of the
1955-56 fiscal year, however, the
county had progressed only to the
point of ordering the necessary ma-
terials. The project will be com-
pleted by payment of funds to the
county as soon as placement of the
rip-rap is completed. 0


Biologists examine stand of wild millet. Extensive areas of north-
west shore of Lake Okeechobee support this important waterfowl
food plant.

Some 975,000 acres of Florida's National Forest lands are open
to controlled public hunting. Here, Ocala National Forest hunters
dress deer downed by a Lakeland hunter.

T HE DIVERSIFIED activities of the
Fisheries Division of the Flor-
ida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission during the biennium
continued to make great strides in re-
search and applied methods. Several
major objectives were achieved,
and numerous smaller projects com-
pleted. Some of these, such as hya-
cinth control, selective poisoning
and chemical renovation of lakes
and ponds, resulted in tremendously
increased fishing areas. Other ac-
tivities, such as creel census, popu-

lation studies, age and growth
studies, advice to private pond
owners and bait dealers, has sup-
plied data to the Commission and
information to the fishermen which
will help reduce the time between
fish bites. A general summary of
activities related to the major proj-
ects is presented.
The creation of the project, which
for all practical purposes could be
titled Hyacinth Control, was a re-

suit of numerous complaints from
sportsmen and Commission person-
nel that many of our favorite fish-
ing streams and lakes were being
or were totally covered with water
hyacinths (Eichornia crasippes).
Other agencies previously active in
hyacinth control were limited al-
most exclusively to efforts to aid
drainage and navigation. Hence,
a large majority of our inland waters
received no attention toward con-
trolling this vegetation menace to
fisheries. The popularity of the
hyacinth control program, which is
more successful than originally ex-
pected, is exemplified by the num-
erous requests received weekly for
consideration on treating new lakes
and streams.
The 1955 session of the Florida
State Legislature appropriated a
fund amounting to $276,500, subject
to control of the Florida State Cabi-
net and to be administered by the
Game Commission, for hyacinth con-
trol over a period of two years.
Please note that only one-half ($138,-
250) of this fund will be included in
this report. The Game and Fresh Wa-
ter Fish Commission also put into its
budget $100,000 for the control of
noxious vegetation for this biennium.
This allowance from the Commission
was supplemented by interested
sportsmen and various County Com-
missions. As a result of a concentrat-
ed effort by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission and the Leg-
islature, approximately 18,000 acres
of hyacinths and other types of nox-
ious vegetation have either been
brought under control or eradicated.
The chemical used in this opera-
tion acts upon a plant as a cancerous
growth reacts upon animal tissue.
The use of hormone type herbicides,
such as 2.4-D amine and ester and
2,4,5-T, is usually successful in con-
trolling most emergent vegetation.
The average amount of herbicide
required to bring about a controlled
condition of one acre of hyacinths is
.64 gallon. The cost per acre of
vegetation killed has averaged about
$7.00, including the cost of equip-
ment, salary, operating expense and
chemical. The actual cost of chemi-
cal per acre killed averages about
Through the above program, num-
erous lakes and streams have been
rid of the dreaded hyacinth. The
Suwannee, Withlacoochee, Peace
and parts of the Kissimmee Rivers
have been brought under control to
the extent that only a small amount
of follow up work is required each
year to maintain a desirable condi-
tion. The major remaining problem
of hyacinth control lies in the St.



E. T. HEINEN-Chief

Johns River Basin. The U.S. Corps
of Engineers control the hyacinths
in this drainage only to the extent
to allow navigation. It has been esti-
mated by qualified authorities that
a sum of $50,000 for chemical alone
would be necessary to bring about
a controlled condition in this in-
fested area.
Explanation of Equipment:
The airboat plays an important
part in our spray operations in be-
ing able to penetrate into areas
either too shallow or too thickly
clogged with vegetation to allow an
outboard. The outboard is used as
follow-up equipment to treat areas
previously cleaned either by air-
boat or airplane. The airplane is
put into use as a highly efficient
device on large blocks of noxious
vegetation that lie in areas acces-
sible from the air.
Florida can be proud of its repu-
tation of introducing the first and
most recognized aquatic vegetation
control program.
The Lake and Stream Survey was
initiated in July, 1954. Its main
purpose is to collect and catalog in-
formation concerning public lakes
over 150 acres in size, and all im-
portant streams. Where water areas
with fishery problems are encount-
ered, recommendations are made by
the survey team to correct the
Information of interest to sports
fishermen is published periodically
in fishery bulletins, and distributed
to interested parties. Other detailed
biological data are kept on file at
the Commission office in Talla-
One bulletin entitled "Fish and
Fishing in Leon and Gadsden Coun-
ties, Florida" has been published
and distributed. Additional copies

are on hand at the office in Talla-
hassee. The next publication is to
be on the Apalachicola River sys-
tem. Over half the field work was
completed in 1955, when the survey
team was moved to south Florida to
make a fishery investigation on Lake
In the Lake Ockeechobee investi-
gation, the Lake and Stream Survey
cooperated with the Commission's
River Basin Study project on the
field work, and an 83-page technical
report was made presenting the re-
sults. The purpose of the survey was
to obtain biological data that would
enable the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission to make recom-
mendations to the Corps of Engi-
neers concerning a proposed dike
along the northwest shore of Lake
Okeechobee. It was to the Com-
mission's interest to recommend the
dike alignment that would be the
least detrimental to the fishery of
Lake Okeechobee.
It was found that the broad shal-
low shore area around the north-
west shore of the lake made an im-
portant contribution to the general
fishery of Lake Okeechobee. The
dike should be placed where it
would cause the least interference
in this area.
The following graph (page 35)
shows a comparison of gill net
catches between the northwest shore
area (included) and the east shore
The Lake and Stream Survey took
part in a general fisheries investi-
gation of Lake George in Putnam,
Volusia, and Marion Counties, Flor-
ida, in the early part of 1956. The
survey team's part in this investiga-
tion was fish population sampling by
spot poisoning and trawling. A
comparison was made between
trawls made in 1953 and 1956. A
technical report showing the results

of the trawl comparisons and the
spot poison samples was incorpor-
ated into the general report on Lake
Upon completion of the report on
Lake George, the Lake and Stream
Survey was called back to North-
west Florida. There work was be-
gun on Merritt's Mill Pond, a 340-
acre impoundment near Marianna,
Florida. For many years, this body
of water had one of the most im-
portant sports fisheries in North-
west Florida. In recent years, how-
ever, there has been a sharp decline
in the size of the fishes caught,
principally bluegill. (See tables,
pages 32-33, showing creel census
results in 1951 and 1956.)
An investigation of Merritt's Mill
Pond showed an overpopulation of
bluegills (over 6,000 per acre) and
a rank growth of submerged vege-

tation which covered most of the
bottom of the pond. Therefore, rec-
ommendations were made to draw
the impoundment down to a low
level during the winter months.

Known as "The Spider," because of its peculiar rigging, the se-
lective electrical roughfish control unit was developed by the
Commission, and is proving effective for control of certain types
of undesirable fish.

Fish are attracted to and momentarily stunned by impulses from
electrical grids. By regulatory controls, various charges of elec-
tricity may be applied to the water to take undesirable fish as an
aid to effective fish management.

Spot poisoning and sampling techniques are often used by fish
management personnel. Techniques aid analysis of bodies of
Water and compositions of fish populations,

This was in order to decrease the population of blue-
gills and to help control the submerged vegetation by
exposing it to the open air.
At the present time, Merritt's Mill Pond has been
drawn down and the effects of the drawdown are
being closely observed to insure a proper fish popula-
tion balance when the pond returns to its normal
level. The pond will be raised in time for bass
During the latter part of 1956, a probable new
species of bass (Chipola Bass) was collected by the
Lake and Stream Survey team from the Chipola
River near Marianna, Florida.
The Chipola, or "shoal", bass at the present time
has been found only in a small section of the Chipola
River. In this section, the bottom is of limestone and
the water is clear and fast flowing. There are numer-
ous rapids or shoals with deep pools in between. In
fighting qualities, the new bass is probably comparable
to the smallmouth bass found in states other than
At the present time, 1956-57, the Lake and Stream
Survey is conducting field work on North Bay near
Panama City, in Bay County, Florida. Bay County
plans to impound this area of salt water and convert
it to fresh water for a water supply reservoir to be
used by the town of Panama City and the surround-
ing county. The Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission is interested in the proposed new impound-
ment from a fresh water fishery standpoint.
Future work for the Lake and Stream Survey will
include the completion of field work on the Apalachi-
cola River system and investigations of "trouble"
spots in Northwest Florida.

Merritt's Mill Pond-September, 1956
Number of People Contacted-59
Total Number of Hours Fished-140.5 hr.
Number of Hours Per Fishermen-2.4 hr.
Total Number of Fishes Caught-374
Number of Fishes Per Fisherman Hour-2.7
% Composition
Species No. Wt. No. Wt. Av.Wt.
Bluegill 320 31.9 lb. 86 % 68 % .lb.
Redbreast 23 2.5 6 % 5 % .1
(Willow Bream)
Shellcracker 15 6.3 4 % 13 % .4
Largemouth Bass* 12 5.4 3 % 12 %
Stumpknocker 2 .1 0.5% 0.2%
Golden Shiner 2 .5 0.5% 1 %
* One of the bass checked weighed 3.6 pounds

Merritt's Mill Pond-June, 1951
Number of People Contacted-82
Total Number of Hours Fished-395.5
Number of Hours Per Fisherman-4.8
Total Number of Fishes Caught-1,284
Number of Fishes Per Fisherman Hour-3.3
% Composition
Species No. Wt. No. Wt. Av.Wt.
Bluegill 826 211.0 lb. 64 % 65 % .26 lb.
Shellcracker 408 93.0 32 % 29 % .23
Largemouth Bass 40 17.2 3 % 5 % .43
Warmouth 1 .2 0.1% 0.1%
Stumpknocker 8 1.1 0.1% 0.3%
Speckled Catfish 1 1.0 0.1% 0.3%

The River Basin Fisheries Investigations was under-
taken to study proposals and make recommendations
regarding fish management on the lands and waters
included in the Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District project for which the U. S. Corps of
Engineers is the planning and construction agency.
The project boundaries include all or part of 17 central
and south Florida counties and some of Florida's major
rivers and lakes, i.e., the Kissimmee River, Lake Okee-
chobee, and a major portion of the St. Johns River.
(See map page 38.)
The total value of surface water utilization admin-
istered directly or indirectly by the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission is $128 million dollars an-
nually. Of this total, sport fishing alone makes up
$83 million dollars annually; these values are increas-
ing about $3 million dollars annually. The fresh waters
within the River Basin Fisheries Investigation project
are major contributors to this already large and ever
increasing business. Tourism is one of Florida's
biggest businesses, contributing over a billion dollars
in 1955, and our fresh water resources are an integral
part of tourism and associated recreation sought by
residents and visitors alike.
The Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission is
acutely aware that a water control project of the type
being formulated for central and south Florida could
seriously impair the fresh water resources. Conse-
quently, the fisheries investigations of the River
Basin Fisheries Investigation project was formed to
study these engineering proposals. This project was
initiated November 1, 1955 as a cooperative Federal-
State study financed through the provisions of the
Dingell-Johnson Act.
The purpose of this project is to act as technical

Meritt's Mill Pond-July, 1951
Number of People Contacted-88
Total Number of Hours Fished-245.5
Number of Hours Per Fisherman-2.8 hr.
Total Number of Fishes Caught-783
Number of Fishes Per Fisherman Hour-3.2

Aerial spraying of hyacinths is an important part of the Florida
fish management and water improvement program.

Largemouth Bass

No. Wt.
301 93.7 lb.
249 77.8
219 74.1
14 3.2

% Composition
No. Wt. Av.Wt.
38% 38% .31 lb.
32% 31% .31
28% 30% .34
2% 1%

Before spraying, aerial photographs reveal extent of hyacinth
infestation in a Florida lake

Below is a table giving by species the estimated
numbers and pounds of fishes per acre in Merritt's
Mill Pond. The estimates were made from the results
of spot poison samples.

Species Number Per Acre
Largemouth Bass 873
Warmouth 489
Stumpknocker 62
Shellcracker 644
Bluegill 5,973
Redbreast (Willow Bream) 35
Brown Bullhead (Speckled Cat) 64
Yellow Cat 6
Miscellaneous Fishes 940
Total Per Acre 9,086

Pouds Per Acre

After spraying, treated lake reveals extent of hyacinth control.
Complete elimination of hyacinths is rarely possible, so area
must be re-treated periodically.

Bass fishing is Florida's top fresh-water fishing. This 6-lb. 4-oz.
largemouth black bass was taken from Lake Okeechobee

Commission's developer of "The Spider" sits before operating
panel of the selective electrical roughfish control apparatus.

Underwater device for sampling bottom vegetation gives regulated-
distance samples by utilizing a "mouse-trap" catch device.

advisors to the Corps of Engineers, the planning
agency, on the mitigation of losses, and the possible
increment of benefits to a valuable fishery resource.
Before initiating this fisheries project, a study was
made to determine the major factors of flood control
construction that would affect the fishery resource.
It was found that ditching and diking, water fluctuat-
ion control, and the subsequent effects each would
have upon the fishery population and, necessarily, the
economics, were the primary factors.
Ditching and diking takes many forms, i.e., channeli-
zation of a river, dikes placed on the edge of an existing
flood plain, etc. In most cases this construction work
will be done in shallow water or other areas that are
biologically important and must be maintained if the
existing population of fishes are to continue to per-
petuate themselves in numbers great enough to pro-
vide good fishing. This shallow water, littoral area,
is thought of as the nursery grounds for most species
of fish, and construction work often seriously damages
or destroys these valuable food producing and spawn-
ing areas.
Fluctuating water levels are highly desirable from
the standpoint of fish production. Planning in the
River Basin Fisheries Investigation Project specifies
water level manipulation that varies considerably
with existing conditions.
Economic information is compiled on a state-wide
basis as well as for specific areas.
Project activities are designed to inventory existing
biological conditions in areas under consideration for
flood control construction.
Biological data when coupled with economic data
gives a relatively complete picture of what the effects
of construction will be on an area as well as the pre-
and post-construction value of the area. All data,
along with recommendations, are submitted to the
Corps of Engineers in the form of reports. Three
such reports have been written to date: Lake Istok-
poga, Conservation Area #2, and Northwest Shore of
Lake Okeechobee.

Selective poisoning techniques as worked out by
the Fisheries Division have been notably successful. The
destruction of large poundages of gizzard shad and
threadfin shad has resulted in tremendously improved

Underwater soil sampling device assists fish management techni-
cians in their work.

sportfishing, particularly in lakes which have large
populations of black crappie. The largest lake treated
was Newnan's Lake, 6,200 acres in area. Much inter-
est is being displayed for similar work to be con-
ducted on Lake Apopka, which is 48 square miles in
The basis for continuing this work on a stepped-up
scale is contained in a series of experiments which
were conducted under Federal Aid auspices. Briefly,
these experiments have consisted of studies of fish
populations in small lakes containing large propor-
tions of shad, and the change wrought in the fish
populations as a result of selective poisoning. As many
as four treatments to determine the effects of different
concentrations of poison with different climatological
factors have been accomplished on some lakes. Selec-
tive poisoning promises to be a major fishery manage-
ment method on Florida lakes.
Application and experimental work with the Com-
mission's experimental selective electrical roughfish
apparatus has provided the basis for the design of a
unit which will be used primarily for control work.
The low water of the Glades region concentrated
tremendous numbers of gar and mudfish in the canal
region. This in turn enabled the Commission to study
the effects of various electrical input voltages on large
numbers of fish. An innovation in this work was the
development of a method of concentrating gars so
that this machine could take large numbers without
moving long distances. A baiting device was used for
this accomplishment.


Blackwater Hatchery, located at Holt, produce
ing the year 1955 a total of 46,631
bass, 102,800 bream, bass and shell-
crackers, and 1,062,351 bluegills.
During 1956, 67,990 bass and 1,474,-
100 bream were produced. Winter
Haven Hatchery, located at Eagle 35-
Lake, produced during the year 1955
a total of 471,249 bass and 179,300
bream. During the year 1956, 408,-
980 bass and 160,490 bluegills were 30- NO

The work done by the Commis-
sion's Regional Fisheries Extension
technicians is individually covered
in the various biennial reports of the
five administrative regions.
On a state-wide basis, the regional
fisheries extension technicians ac-
complished the following:
Stocked 1,182 bodies of water. In-
spected 2,077 lakes and ponds. Stock-
ed 2,072,740 bream, of which 421,500
were obtained from the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service at Welaka during
the fall of 1956, and the remainder
from Commission hatcheries. Stock-
ed 414,110 bass.
Regional technicians also partici-
pated in various projects, surveys
and investigations, which are dis-
cussed in detail in the various re-
gional reports. 0



Graph showing comparative gill net catches between northwest
and east shores of Lake Okeechobee.

Depth echo sounding equipment gives a revealing graph of con-
tours of bottoms and depths of water in various lakes and streams.

Chipola, or "Shoal," bass, from all indications, is a new species
of Florida black bass, located during the biennial period by
Commission Lake and Stream survey technicians.






__ -7 -




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No MONEY is received by the
Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission from any source except
the State Game Fund. All money in
the State Game Fund results from
operation of the Commission and the
administration of the laws and regu-
lations pertaining to fish and wild-
Under the Constitutional Amend-
ment which created the Commission,
the money in the State Game Fund
results from sales of hunting and
fishing sporting licenses and permits,
commercial licenses, court costs,
sales of Commission-owned equip-
ment, timber and land, and oil and
grazing leases. Federal Aid monies
from the Pittman -Robertson and
Dingell-Johnson programs are also
By law, the Commission cannot
obligate itself beyond the current re-
sources of the State Game Fund, un-
less specifically authorized to do so
by the State Legislature.
As the result, the Commission
operates primarily on money re-
ceived from the sale of fishing and
hunting sporting licenses, sold by the
County Judges, plus some finances
from additional revenue sources.
The money which accumulates in
the State Game Fund is used by the
Commission as it deems fit to carry
out the provisions of the Constitu-
tional Amendment which created the
Commission. The Commission, by
law, cannot spend the State Game
Funds for any other purpose than
that mentioned above.
Since the State Game Funds are
accumulated primarily from the

sale of licenses, there is no way of
accurately forecasting what amount
of revenue will be available to the
Commission during any coming year.
The Commission, therefore, operates
on what it terms an "Anticipated
Budget." The Commission "antici-
pates" what it will receive during the
coming year, and then prepares the
Anticipated Budget.
If, during the year, the revenue
does not prove to be what was antici-
pated, the Commission has no alter-
native but to spend less than it an-
ticipated spending. If, however, rev-
enue proves to be more than antici-
pated, the Commission can then
spend more than it anticipated that
it would be able to spend.
The Commission, of course, is able
to draw upon its experienced Fiscal
personnel in making up the annual
Anticipated Budget of Receipts and
Since the Commission has no other
sources of income beyond that in
the State Game Fund, it can spend
only the money received during any
current year, plus any amount that
may be carried forward in the State
Game Fund from previous years.
It should be emphasized that the
Commission does not have the power
to set the amount of the various fish-
ing and hunting licenses or permits.
Only the State Legislature has the
power to set costs of the fishing and
hunting licenses and permits.
It should also be emphasized that
the Commission operates on its own
sources of revenue, which revenue
is received into and disbursed from
the State Game Fund.





The Fiscal Division of the Com-
mission has many varied duties per-
taining to the financial transactions
of the Commission.
Since the Commission is a self-
supporting agency, with its finances
derived primarily from the sale of
licenses and permits, plus Federal
Grant-In-Aid monies, the Commis-
sion must carefully observe its finan-
cial status at all times.
The Fiscal Division records all
Commission receipts, which average
$165,766.88 per month. It also re-
cords all disbursements, which aver-
age $161,558.05 per month.
Total receipts for 1954-55 was $1,-
989,202.58, and receipts for 1955-56,
$1,891,464.02. Disbursements were
$1,938,696.59 for 1954-55, and $1,923,-
810.45 for 1955-56.
Along with recording the financial
transactions of the Commission, the
Fiscal Division, also checks and
codes all invoices prior to submission
to the State Comptroller for pay-
ment from the State Game Fund.
All arrests for violations of the
game and fish laws are also recorded
by the Fiscal Division, and the re-
spective Counties are billed for court
costs just as soon as the cases are
disposed of in court.
The Fiscal Division also compiles
all operational costs records on all
Commission vehicles. Per mile cost
of operating each vehicle are also
determined and reported monthly.
This enables the Commission to keep
a close check on the cost of opera-
tions, and determine the proper time
for disposition-sale-of vehicles.
The Fiscal Division also draws up
the payrolls each month, and also
keeps up with each employee's in-
surance and retirement deductions.
The payroll for the Commission
averages over $89,000.00 per month
for approximately 285 employees.
Since 78 percent of the Commis-
sion's revenue is derived from sale
of various types of license and per-
mits, the Fiscal Division spends a
great deal of time drawing up speci-
fications for such license and per-
mits. All sporting license are sold
by the 67 County Judges, and the
Fiscal Division distributes the li-
censes to the respective County
Judges. Commercial license are sold
by the Commission's Fiscal Division,
and mailed direct to the applicants.
The Fiscal Division also issues
calls for bids for purchase of new
equipment, and sale of old equip-
ment. It supervises all purchases
over the sum of $25.00, and issues
purchase orders for same.
The Fiscal Division also has a

Property Officer, who is responsible
for recording and inspecting all prop-
erty of the Commission, and seeing
that proper Memorandum Receipts
are issued for employees holding
such properties for use in their work
Because of the Commission's fi-
nancial operations, whereby all
monies received in the State Game
Fund are disbursed for improved
conservation and law enforcement
programs, the Commission's dis-
bursements for the past ten-year pe-
riod have steadily increased in pro-
portion to the increase in receipts.
The work of the Fiscal Division has,
therefore, increased steadily over the
The following pages contain a com-
plete statement of Commission re-
ceipts and expenditures for the fiscal
years 1954-55 and 1955-56, as well as
for the first six months of the fiscal
year 1956-57, ending December 31,
Also included are circle-graphs
demonstrating financial expenditures
in various departments, as well as
comparative receipts, and additional
information. *

General Fixed Assets (Cost Valuation) as of June 30, 1955
Land and Buildings ---.. ...........................
Aircraft Equipm ent ................................................
Automotive Equipment ......................................
Marine Equipment ................-.................
M otors .......................... ........ ........... $29,568.11
Boats ........................................ 38,297.12
Trailers .............. ............................ 24,543.79
Office Furniture and Equipment .:.................
Photographic Equipment .. ................. .......
Radio Equipm ent .................................. .... ......
Field and Other Equipment .....................
Livestock .............. ... .................. ..........

General Fixed Assets (Cost Valuation) as of June 30, 1956
Land and Buildings ....................................
Aircraft Equipment ............................. .......
Automotive Equipment ........ ................ .....
Marine Equipment ................................... ....
M otors ................................. ...... ................. $30,081.88
B oats ............................................................ 42,056.42
Trailers .......................................................... 26,782.85
Office Furniture and Equipment ....................
Photographic Equipment .....................................
Radio Equipment .............................................
Field and Other Equipment ...............................
Livestock ................................ ........... .....................

Increase in General Fixed Assets in Fiscal Year
1955-56 over 1954-55 of .......................

LICENSE 1.56 %

Sport License .............. $1,460,752.00
Commercial License ......... 29,594.00
D/J (Dingell-Johnson) ...... 81,970.79
P/R (Pittman-Robertson) .... 149,150.59
Other Sources ............... 169,996.64

Total .......................$1,891,464.02





Sport License .............. .$1,500,320.65
Commercial License ......... 33,701.90
D/J (Dingell-Johnson) ...... 95.240.51
P/R (Pittman-Robertson) ... 213,527.58
Other Sources .............. 146,411.95

Total .......................$1,989,202.58

$ 525,963.60




$ 45,539.72




1955-56 1954-55
Federal Aid ..............$ 231,121.38 12.22% Federal Aid ...............$ 308,768.08
*Fishing ................... 800,640.25 42.33% *Fishing ................... 893,306.40
**Hunting .................. 689,705.75 36.46% **Hunting .................. 640,716.15
Other Sources ............. 169,996.64 8.99% Other Sources ............. 146,411.95

Total .....................$1,891,464.02 100.00%
*Includes all Sport and Commercial Fishing License.
**Includes Sport Hunting License, Permits and all types of
License pertaining to Game Animals.

Total ....................$1,989,202.58 100.00%
*Includes all Sport and Commercial License.
**Includes Sport Hunting License, Permits and all types of
License pertaining to Game Animals.


Administration ..............$ 145,434.91
Information & Education ..... 193,906.42
Fish Management .......... 179,545.57
Game Management ......... 366,102.95
Law Enforcement ........... 1,038,820.60

Total .......................$1,923,810.45



Administration ..............$ 143,784.88
Information & Education ..... 169,794.87
Fish Management ........... 212,398.59
Game Management .......... 349,721.20
Law Enforcement ........... 1,062,997.05

Total ...................... $1,938,696.59






General Administration ....... $111,465.75
Fiscal ........................ 33,969.16

Total ........................$145,434.91

76.64% General Administration ....... $112,588.38
23.36% Fiscal ....................... 31,196.50

100.00% Total ........................$143,784.88

Information & Education

1955-56 1954-55
Administration ...............$ 68,340.70 35.24% Administration ...............$ 26,072.78
Magazine .................... 94,753.22 48.87% Magazine .................... 113,492.74
Fairs ........................ 8,460.02 4.36% Fairs ........................ 10,363.32
Youth Program ............... 22,352.48 11.53% Youth Program ............... 19,866.03

Total ....................... $193,906.42 100.00% Total ........................$169,794.87






Fish Management

Administration ..............$ 9,453.50 5.27%
Hyacinth Control ............. 54,480.96 30.34%
Holt Hatchery ................ 9,509.99 5.30%
Winter H. Hatchery ........... 11,220.34 6.25%
D/J (Dingell-Johnson) ........ 94,880.78 52.84%

Total ....................... $179,545.57 100.00%

Administration ...............$ 11,649.88
Hyacinth Control ............. 56,937.45
Winter H. Hatchery .. ........ 14,161.78
Holt & Wewa. Hatchery ....... 10,672.09
D/J (Dingell-Johnson) ........ 118,977.39

Total ........................$212,398.59

Game Management

General Game Management .... $ 11,864.27
State Hunts .................. 53,644.48
National Hunts ............... 37,443.87
P/R (Pittman-Robertson) ...... 263,150.33

Total ....................... $366,102.95

3.24% General Game Management .... $ 9,491.31
14.65% State Hunts .................. 40,036.33
10.23% National Hunts ............... 34,983.04
71.88% P/R (Pittman-Robertson) ..... 265,210.52


Total ........................$349,721.20






Law Enforcement

South Region ...............$ 191,029.27
Northeast Region ........... 205,735.32
Northwest Region ........... 195,035.55
Everglades Region ........... 175,404.05
Central Region .............. 201,446.87
Communications ............ 70,169.54

Total .......................$1,038,820.60

18.39% South Region ...............$ 185,189.66
19.81% Northeast Region ............ 230,644.44
18.77% Northwest Region............ 201,313.88
16.89% Everglades Region ........... 178,080.93
19.39% Central Region .............. 215,136.75
6.75% Communications ............ 47,978.99
Work Shop .... ............. 4,652.40
Total .......................$1,062,997.05



Financial Statement--July 1, 1954 Thru December 31, 1956
Statement of Cash Receipts, Disbursements and Balances

July 1, 1956 thru Dec. 31, 1956
1954-1955 1955-1956 1956-1957
Item Source Item Source Item Source
Total Total Total Total Total Total
Beginning Cash Balance July 1, 1954...... $ 128,925.09 $ 178,202.66 $ 99,160.55
License Sold by County Judge ............$1,450,901.75 $1,368,369.00 $ 946,015.25
License Sold by State Office ........... 122,980.30 133,543.00 63,418.70
Revenue from Other Governmental
Agencies ..................... ........ ..... .... 337,251.53 254,986.78 115,035.83
Revenue from use of Property ............ 24,655.62 18,070.75 2,484.80
Revenue from Publication of
Magazine ........................ ............ 31,695.46 24,562.20 12,975.55
Sale of Fixed Assets ................. .......... 13,807.75 85,291.14 15,573.25
Revenue from Other Sources ............. 7,910.17 6,641.15 3,950.31
Total Cash Receipts Schedule "A"........... 1,989,202.58 1,891,464.02 1,159,453.69
Cancelled & Restored Warrants ............. 20.00 360.90 13.05
Adjustment Account .............. ........... 874.00
County Judges Account ...................... 74.83 1,352.75 45.50
Special Building Fund ............................. 49,000.00
Total Revenue Available .................... 2,118,222.50 2,072,254.33 1,307,672.79
Salaries ................................................... 1,069,812.60 1,023,358.99 578,015.68
Tel., Telegraph, Postage & Freight .... 35,169.75 31,360.98 16,084.45
General Printing & Reproduction ........ 127,592.18 112,028.38 65,709.86
Repairs to Equipment .......................... 75,894.17 57,739.70 25,124.75
Travel .............................. ................... 93,971.02 91,964.00 46,114.42
Other Contractual Services ................ 58,293.58 41,804.93 23,438.61
Materials & Supplies .......................... 64,228.72 79,477.37 40,945.40
Motor Fuel & Lubricants ...................... 140,853.66 138,266.01 70,348.61
Insurance & Surety Bonds .................... 40,215.42 42,964.35 33,770.98
Motor Vehicles ............................. 78,882.67 119,578.80 58,831.24
Motors, Boats & Trailers ................ ... 17,105.70 17,286.52 15,660.74
Other Capital Outlay .......................... 55,328.88 80,141.88 21,621.99
Transfer to Federal Government ........ 17,218.72 18,742.50 21,939.75
Other Expenses ....................................... 64,129.52 69,096.04 39,860.72
Total Disbursements Schedule "B" ........ 1,938,696.59 1.923,810.45 1,057,467.20
Adjustment Account ......................... 1,323.25 222.89
Cancelled Warrants C & R Account ........ 68.92
County Judges Account ....................
Total Disbursements ............................--. 1,940,019.84 1,923,810.45 1,057,759.01
Ending Cash Balance .......... ........... 178,202.66 148,443.88 249,913.78
Less Special Building Fund ................ 49,283.33
Balance Forwarded ..................................... $ 99,160.55

July 1, 1956 Thru Dec. 31, 1956
SCHEDULE "A" 1954-1955 1955-1956 1956-1957
Item Source Item Source Item Source
Total Total Total Total Total Total
Fishing ......................... .. .............-.. .. 861,794.50 772,956.25 427,923.00
Hunting .... ....... ....... .----.- ......--- 547,965.75 581,725.75 470,823.00
Trapping ....-... ........... .....- ........ 1,312.00 2,121.00 330.00
Alien Hunting ........................ .. 100.00 100.00
U. S. Permits ................... ....- .....- 400.00 550.00 600.00
Charlotte County Permits ................ 2,810.00 3,573.00
Goose Permits ................-..-.-------. 3,038.40 2,766.00 2,949.00
State Hunting Permits .......................... 81,870.00 95,860.00 30,060.00
Archery Permits -..................-........ 1,030.00 1,100.00 1,000.00
Camp Blanding Permits ...................... 655.00
Total Sporting License ................ $1,500,320.65 $1,460,752.00 $ 934,340.00
Retail Fish Dealer ...........-........---..---.. 11,785.00 11,255.00 9,995.00
Non-Res. Retail Fish Dealer ............. 100.00 100.00 100.00
Wholesale Fish Dealer ......................... 2,850.00 2,100.00 2,200.00
Non-Res. Wholesale Fish Dealer .......... 2,000.00 500.00
Commercial Boat ...................--- .... 1,633.40 1,574.00 1,390.10
Non-Res. Commercial Boat .................. 20.00 20.10
Boat for Hire ............ ..... .....---- .....-- 13,143.50 12,635.00 11,919.50
Guide ...............--.--.....----- -.... 410.00 310.00 430.00
Game Farm .................--. .........--. .--- 835.00 855.00 645.00
Wholesale Fur Dealer & Agent ............ 750.00 560.00 800.00
Local Fur Dealer ......................--.....--- 100.00 90.00 70.00
License to Exhibit Poisonous or
Venomous Reptiles .......................... 95.00 95.00 85.00
Total Commercial License .......... $ 33,701.90 $ 29,594.00 $ 28,154.70


SCHEDULE "A"- (Continued)

Court Costs Collected .............................. 28,483.45
Prev. Years License Collected .............. 39,829.50
Miscellaneous Receipts .-----......................... 4,250.05
Pittman Robertson ................................ 213,527.58
Dingell Johnson .................................... 95,240.50
Sale of Magazine Subscriptions .......... 26,260.34
Sale of Magazine Advertising .............. 4,706.47
Sale of Magazine Single Copies ....... 728.65
Sale of Old Equipment .......................... 11,847.75
Sale of Confiscated Material
and Equipment .................................-. 468.15
Sale of Livestock ................................... 75.00
Sale of Rough Fish ................................ 149.56
Sale of Tim ber ........................................ 3,042.41
Sale of Land & Buildings .................... 1,885.00
Prev. Years Hunt Permits Collected .... 25.00
Prev. Years Com. License Collected .... 5.00
Charlotte County Grazing Lease ........ 10,503.54
Charlotte County Oil & Gas Lease ....
Corbett Area Oil Lease .......................... 14,152.08
Total Other Sources ......................
Total Receipts ...............................

$ 455,180.03

$ 23,865.40




$ 10,551.93




$ 401,118.02


$ 196,958.99

July 1, 1956 thru Dec. 31, 1956
1954-1955 1955-1956 1956-1957
Item Source Item Source Total Source
Total Total Total Total Item Total

Salaries ......................................................$1,069,812.60 $1,023,358.99 $ 578,015.68
Professional Fees & Consultant
Services ...................................-- ...... 2,523.00 2,147.60 993.21
Advertising Florida Resources ............ 20.00 1,352.03 2,285.19
Telephone & Telegraph .......................... 20,480.07 16,789.19 9,510.53
Postage, Freight & Express .................... 14,689.68 14,571.79 6,573.92
General Printing & Reproduction ........ 127,592.18 112,028.38 65,709.86
Repairs & Maintenance .......................... 75,894.17 57,739.70 25,124.75
Travel ....................................................... 91,228.10 89,592.01 43,652.72
Travel-Other than Employees ........... 2,742.92 2,371.99 2,461.70
Other Contractual Services ............... 58,293.58 41,804.93 23,438.61
Beddings, Clothing & Textile
Products ................................................ 2,475.21 230.67 9.30
Building Construction Material
and Supplies ...................................... 6,792.14 4,018.07 796.47
Coal, Fuel Oil, Heating Supplies ........ 486.11 661.25 238.00
Ed., Med. Scient. & Agri. Supplies ........ 31,600.14 36,331.58 19,683.17
Food Products ...........................-----------............. 5,229.02 1,314.87 115.16
Maintenance Mat. & Supplies .............. 43,311.26 54,822.34 21,333.40
Motor Fuel & Lubricants ...................... 140,853.66 138,266.01 70,348.61
Office Material & Supplies .................... 7,061.38 7,243.19 5,400.07
Other Materials & Supplies .................. 13,856.08 17,411.84 14,211.93
Insurance & Surety Bonds .................... 40,215.42 42,964.35 33,770.98
Pensions & Benefits ................................ 600.00 600.00 250.00
Rental of Buildings & Equipment........ 9,798.34 17,376.80 10,230.43
Other Current Charges & Obligations 1,423.24 1,701.30 515.51
B ooks ......................................................... 33.94
Building & Fixed Equipment .-......-..-- 11,279.76 19,916.52 1,551.74
Ed., Med., Scient., & Agricultural
Equipment ............................................ 24,032.22 3,374.16 3,021.76
Motor Vehicles ........................................ 78,882.67 119,578.80 58,831.24
Motors, Boats & Trailers ...................... 17,105.70 17,286.52 15,660.74
Other Motor Vehicles .......................... 504.00 6,080.00
Office Furniture & Equipment ........... 5,250.40 6,220.14 3,483.01
Land & Interest in Land ....................... 2,690.00
Other Structures & Improvements .... 460.40 485.50 161.70
Other Capital Outlay ..... ---........................ 14,228.56 41,861.06 13,565.48
Distribution & Transfer ........................ 17,218.72 18,742.50 21,939.75
Revolving Fund ................ ...... ............ 20.13 2,979.87
$1,938,696.59 $1,923,810.45 $1,057,467.20


1954-1955 1955-1956 July 1, 1956 thru Dec. 31, 1956
SCHEDULE "B"-Disbursements Budget Department Budget Department Budget Department
by Department Total Total Total Total Total Total

Salaries ........................ ................
General Expense ...............................
Capital Outlay .............................

Salaries ...............................................
General Expense .................... ..........
Capital Outlay ...................................

Salaries ...................... ...... ..............
General Expense ..................................
Capital Outlay .......................................

Salaries ................ .......... ...............
General Expense .............................
Capital Outlay ........................................

Salaries ......... ............... ... ......
General Expense ...................................
Capital Outlay ..................... ...............

Salaries ...............................................
General Expense ..........................
Capital Outlay ........................................

Salaries ................................. ..............
General Expense ...................................
Capital Outlay .....................................

$ 36,801.46







$ 37,261.07
$112,588.38 3,472.91



47,978.99 23,033.79





19,866.03 12,661.56









94,753.22 ................

Salaries ..................................................
General Expense .............. .................
Capital Outlay ..................................

Salaries ........... .............. ...........
General Expense ...............................
Capital Outlay ......................................

Salaries ........................... ..............
General Expense ................................
Capital Outlay ...................................

S salaries ...................................................
General Expense ........... ............. ......
Capital Outlay ..................-..-...-......

Salaries ................ ............. ... ........
General Expense .............................
Capital Outlay ..................................

Salaries ................................ ...........
General Expense ........................
Capital Outlay ..................................

Salaries .................. ............... ...........
General Expense ............................
Capital Outlay ...................................








265,210.52 39,069.37







34,983.04 ................





$ 17,763.48






$ 73,004.24





























SCHEDULE "B"-Disbursements
by Department

Budget Department
Total Total

Budget Department
Total Total

July 1, 1956 thru Dec. 31, 1956
Budget Department
Total Total

Salaries .... ..................... ...... ........
General Expense .................................
Capital Outlay ........................ ...........

Salaries ........................... .................
General Expense ..................................
Capital Outlay .....................................

S salaries ................. ....................... ...
General Expense ...................................
Capital Outlay ......................................

Salaries ............................. ...................
General Expense ................................
Capital Outlay .......................................

Salaries .................. ........................
General Expense ................................
Capital Outlay ..................................

Salaries ....................... .......... ......
General Expense ..............................
Capital Outlay ..................................

Salaries .................. ..........................
General Expense ...................................
Capital Outlay .......................................

Salaries .................................
General Expense .............................
Capital Outlay ...................................

Salaries ............... ............................
General Expense ...............................
Capital Outlay ..................................








...... ........

11,220.34 ................

............... ................ 12,348.00
............ .. ................ 12,220.06
............ ................ 59.35







185,189.66 30,048.74

230,644.44 20,383.86

201,313.88 23,098.67

178,080.93 18,458.90

215,136.75 24,258.70





















1,923,810.45 1,057,467.20

................ 1,923,810.45






Motion Picture Photography

T HE DIRECTIVE to weld together an efficient Infor-
mation and Education program has keynoted all
work carried forward during the period covered by
this biennial report.
Every effort was made to create a full-fledged in-
formation and education program that would operate
efficiently on all levels-local, state and national-and
in all phases of activities.
Clarification of the duties of the Information and
Education Division as a whole was the first achieve-
ment. Delegation of authority and responsibility to the
various sections and employees was then carried out.
Next was the establishment of a system of reports
which, for the first time, allowed the individual em-
ployees and sections, as well as the entire Division, to
keep accurate records of the work carried out and the
resulting successes. This was accomplished through
establishment of a series of weekly, quarterly and
annual record charts and reports. The report system
has resulted in streamlining operations and more effec-
tive information and education programs.
Other major work phases of the biennium included
completion of the initial building program at the Youth

Lectures and Television Appearances

Conservation Camp at Lake Eaton, inauguration of the
Audio-Visual Section of the I&E Division, and estab-
lishment of an in-service training conference procedure
for Division employees.
Operational procedures and policies of the Informa-
tion and Education Division are outlined as follows:
By its nature, the Information and Education
program carried on by the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission is both intricate and widely
In all, the Information and Education Division is
responsible for carrying on a total of 15 major inter-
related programs that fall roughly into the five general
classifications of Information, Education, Publicity,
Public Relations and Internal Employee Training.
The 15 major programs that are carried on simul-
taneously are: Publications, Films and Film Libraries,
News Releases, Fair Exhibits, Radio, Television, News-
papers, Photography, Public School Resource-Use
Education, Lectures, Information Requests, Special
Promotions, Organizations and Conventions, Junior
Conservation Clubs and League, Employee Training
Schools and Morale.
Each of these 15 major programs contains, of course,
many minor and varied programs and projects.
In general, the Information and Education work is
carried on two main levels: Out-of-State Information
and Education, and Intra-State Information and Edu-
cation. Of the two, the Intra-State work has always
been considered the most important phase of the Com-
mission's I&E work.
The Out-of-State I&E program is carried on pri-
marily through the office in Tallahassee. In its essence,
the theme of any programs designed for out-of-state
dissemination is to publicize the great potentialities of
fishing and hunting in Florida. Much of this work is
involuntary in that it is done at specific request from
persons, concerns and states outside of Florida.
The Out-of-State work continues to be necessary
and desirable just so long as the national interest in
Florida's fishing and hunting continues to grow so
rapidly as the result of invaluable publicity received
in countless national magazines, newspapers, books,
television programs and motion pictures. The out-of-



4 a

state work undoubtedly results in
the arrival of many hundreds of out-
of-state visitors and many prospec-
tive permanent residents.
The Intra-State work of the In-
formation and Education Division is
considered to be of most vital inter-
est to the Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission. This is be-
cause the primary duty and respon-
sibility of the Game Commission is
to the Florida citizens who purchase
licenses to fish and hunt within the
It is the duty of the Information
and Education Division to inform
and educate the sportsmen and citi-
zens of Florida to the desirability of
proper wildlife conservation in all
its facets. The I&E Division is pri-
marily charged with the responsi-
bility of informing and educating the
general public as to the policies, the
work programs, the game and fish
laws and the management practices
which are being set into motion by
the Commission.
The I&E Division is not, and has
never been considered to be, a propa-
ganda machine. Nor is it the "brain"
of the Commission. It serves, in-
stead, as the "tongue" of the Com-
mission, giving voice, in all possible
ways, to the official policies and prac-
tices of the Commission. In order to
do its job, the I&E Division is con-
cerned only with the true facts
concerning Florida wildlife and its
proper conservation.
The quickest way to destroy the
efficiency and power of the I&E Di-
vision would be through any attempt
at distortion or partial concealment
of the truth. The Division must al-
ways deal in whole and exact truths,
or its efficacy will be totally lost. Nor
is it the duty or the intent of the
Information and Education Division
to in any way infringe upon or com-

pete with established private staff or
free-lance writers, editors and pro-
grammists for newspapers, maga-
zines, books and radio and television
stations. Instead, it is the duty of
the I&E Division to cooperate with
and assist in every possible way all
such writers and editors.
In order to effect an efficient 15-
point program on a state-wide basis,
the Staff Officer known as the Chief
of Information and Education has
the assistance, cooperation and ad-
vice of five Regional Information and
Education Officers. These Officers,
located in each Region headquarters
office of the Commission, are com-
pletely responsible for the proper
conduct of complete information and
education programs in the areas en-
compassed by the respective Regions.
Under the Regional administrative
set-up, all state-wide informational
or educational programs are organ-
ized and set into motion by the Tal-
lahassee office. The programs are
then carried out on a Regional, or
local, basis by the Regional Officers.
Thus, when an official policy or
operation is adopted by the Commis-
sion or its Director, the informational
and educational aspects are organ-
ized and coordinated by the Talla-
hassee office through the Regional
The Chief of I&E also has complete
responsibility for all actions and pro-
grams carried on by the Supervisor
of Youth Education, and the Chief
of Audio-Visual.
The new activity report system for
the Division was first established for
the calendar year of 1956. Abstracted

from these reports are the following
figures of general interest:
During the twelve-month period,
the five Regional Education Officers
performed a total of 1,672/2 hours of
cooperative work-other than nor-
mal I&E work-with other Divisions
and Sections of the Commission.
They also released 5,938 copies of
regional news releases, presented
formal talks before 16,435 persons,
showed films or slides to a total of
11,120 persons, installed fair exhibits
viewed by an estimated 453,381 per-
sons, answered 5,780 mail requests
for information, and distributed
83,602 pieces of Game Commission
The five Education Officers also
attended 427 meetings during the
year, loaned a total of 280 films from
the regional film libraries, made a
total of 100 appearances on radio and
television programs, spent 2761/2
hours working with youth clubs, and
spent a total of 110 working days on
special promotions.
During the same twelve-month
period, the Tallahassee I&E office
secretary mailed to out-of-state ad-
dresses a total of 29,622 individual
pieces of literature in answer to spe-
cific mail requests for information
about Florida fishing and hunting,
and also mailed 1,885 sample copies
of FLORIDA WILDLIFE magazine to in-
terested persons.
It is also of interest to note that
the Audio-Visual Section produced
a total of ten television news films
of Commission programs, and copies
were distributed to the 20 television
stations in Florida. The films were
telecast to the viewing audiences at
an average cost to the Commission of

Youth Education and Fair Exhibits


about one cent per 50 television sets,
with a potential audience of 250 per-
sons for each penny spent.
The Audio Visual Section also
processed a total of 1,675 photo-
graphic negatives during a seven-
month period.
Details of various operations of the
Division follow:
The I&E Division office at Talla-
hassee has the duty of preparing,
processing, editing and publishing
the majority of pamphlets, booklets
and brochures which the Commis-
sion distributes as an aid to properly
informing and educating interested
persons as to wildlife and the con-
servation thereof. A total of seven
new publications were originated
during the biennial period, and oth-
ers were revised and brought up-to-
date. The major portion of these
copies were distributed through the
I&E Division channels.
In addition to the television news
films previously mentioned, the I&E
Audio-Visual Section produced one
twenty-minute feature color-sound
film concerning Florida fresh-water
fishing, and one short subject con-
cerning the Commission's Youth
Conservation Camp. The Commis-
sion, at present, has 49 copies of
feature-length conservation films in
its five regional film libraries. These
films were acquired at low cost or
no cost over a period of years. Only
a portion of the film copies are in
good condition, the remainder being
in fair or worn-out condition from
numerous showings. These films are

presently shown only within the
State of Florida, none being loaned
for out-of-state usage. Because of the
shortage of funds and films, the prac-
tice of loaning Commission films to
persons or groups located outside of
Florida was temporarily discontin-
ued during the biennium.
Statewide news releases are proc-
essed and distributed by the Talla-
hassee office. Region-wide news re-
leases are processed and distributed
by the Regional Education Office.
News releases are one of the most
important programs carried on by

the I&E Division, for it is only
through this medium that most
newspapers, radio stations, television
stations, editors, outdoor writers and
interested sportsmen obtain author-
itative information concerning cur-
rent Commission policies, programs,
activities, and rules and regulations.
News releases are not distributed
on any set, regulated basis- to do
so would result in the forced, or
"canned" type of release. Instead,
news releases are prepared only
when the Commission is involved in
a newsworthy occurrence, or when
a point of public information needs
clarification, such as hunting rules
and regulations. During the twelve-
month period January 1, 1956,
through December 31, 1956, the Tal-
lahassee I&E office prepared and dis-
tributed a total of 107 statewide news
releases-each release being mailed
to approximately 800 addresses. Dur-
ing the same twelve-month period,
the five Regional Education offices
prepared and distributed a total of
100 region-wide news releases.
The Audio-Visual Section of the
I&E Division was created August 1,
1955, with one employee, the Section
Chief. Audio-Visual was created to
handle still and motion photography,
film and color-slide loan-libraries,
television news films, magazine art-
work, darkroom laboratory film
processing, and related educational
and informational activities. In the
first 17 months, Audio-Visual pro-
duced one 20-minute color-sound
feature film on Florida fishing and
the new three-day $1.25 non-resident

Visual Aids and Color Slides

Operation of Youth Conservation Camp

fishing license, and a total of ten
television news films ranging from
one to five minutes in length. Each
TV film was used at least once by
an average of seven to ten Florida
television stations. One short-subject
color-sound film on the Youth Camp
was also produced during the period.
In addition, Audio-Visual produced
a set of educational public-safety 35-
mm. slides for television use, and an
extensive amount of artwork for the
Commission published FLORIDA
WILDLIFE magazine. Audio-Visual
also compiled color slides for the
loan library service, and produced
still photography when needed. On
June 3, 1956, a darkroom laboratory
technician was employed to process
1,675 still negatives in a seven-month
period, as well as handle the color-
slide photography and library. De-
tailed reports of Audio-Visual activi-
ties are available to interested
During the biennium, a large
amount of effort was expended in
re-organizing and re-defining the
Youth Education program and re-
sponsibilities. Details are to be found
in the Youth Education section of
this biennial report.
The Mobile Wildlife Trailer Ex-
hibit, featuring wild animals, birds
and reptiles, was discontinued during
the biennium. Close study of opera-
tional reports and public reactions

revealed that the trailer was no
longer a profitable operation since
the majority of the interested people
in the state had seen the trailer at
least once, if not numerous times.
Discontinuance of the expensive mo-
bile-type exhibit resulted in a sav-
ings of monies for the Division.
During the biennium, many local fair
exhibits were scheduled, constructed
and exhibited through the initiative
and resources of the respective Re-
gional Officers.

Radio activities were confined to
personal appearances by Regional
Education Officers and personnel on
local radio stations and tape-re-
corded programs.

In addition to the Audio-Visual
Television work, Regional Education
Officers and personnel made per-
sonal appearances on numerous tele-
vision programs. During a twelve-
month period, the five Regional Edu-
cation Officers made a total of 100
appearances on radio and television

Maintaining good relations with
newspaper writers and editors
throughout the state is always a con-
tinuing program of the I & E Di-
vision, with the efforts carried on by
Regional Education Officers.

All I & E Officers, as well as other
employees of the Commission, are
continuously available for public ap-
pearances and addresses before num-
erous public gatherings and organi-
zations throughout the state.
Work done in handling informa-
tion requests, special promotions,
organizations and conventions, and
public school resource-use education
are covered in other sections of this
Biennial Report.
In general,the Information and
Education section is charged with
the responsibility of informing and
educating the public to proper con-
servation methods and practices. It
is vitally concerned with publicizing
the activities and policies of the
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission. It is always interested
in maintaining good relations be-
tween the sportsmen and the Com-
mission. It is, of course, interested
in employee training and morale. It
must, at all times, work in coopera-
tion with all branches of the Com-
mission in all fields, and it must
attain continuous and complete con-
tact with all Commission employees
and programs. Essentially, the In-
formation and Education Division is
a service department-offering its
service to all persons connected with
the Commission, and to all sports-
men and citizens of Florida and the
United States. 0





Editor -

"a a -
~tt ~.A

tant medium employed by the Game
and Fresh Water Fish Commission
for the effective disbursing of infor-
mation and educational material so
important to the eventual success
of present and future Commission
A total of 39 major state Game and
Fish Commissions now make use
of periodic publications as a proven
public information service. These
publications range from weekly bul-
letins to the slick monthly magazine
type format. FLORIDA WILDLIFE has
recently obtained high national rec-
ognition in the latter category.
A balanced contents of factual,
technical and general type articles
are presented each month. Subjects
covered in each issue include Com-
mission programs, fresh water fish-
ing, hunting, conservation and nat-
ural history in general.
FLORIDA WILDLIFE is dedicated to
the conservation, preservation and
propagation of Florida's fresh water
fish, game and related natural re-
sources. The purpose of this maga-
zine is to acquaint and educate the
public with the many problems con-
nected with the immense task of con-
serving a natural heritage for all
future generations, and to report on
the progress being made by the Com-
mission in meeting the challenge. It
also seeks to develop a general un-
derstanding and cooperative public
relations between state officials and
technicians and the people of Florida.
The Commission now prints 20,000
copies of each monthly issue. Ap-
proximately 18,500 are mailed each
month to a regular mailing list con-
sisting of paid subscribers, Commis-
sion employees, state officials and
members of other state and Federal
conservation agencies. The remain-
ing 1,500 are distributed free of
charge through various fairs and ex-

hibits, Chambers of Commerce, and
through official state promotional
distribution agencies.
A portion of the cost of publishing
FLORIDA WILDLIFE is paid for from
the paid subscriptions which now go
to all 48 states and several foreign
countries. The remaining cost is ab-
sorbed by the Commission as an im-
portant public information service
with value received immeasurable as
to dollars and cents value.
It should be remembered that, al-
though this portion of the over-all
budget earmarked for FLORIDA WILD-
LIFE is expended mostly on the
monthly publication, the personnel
of this department spend consider-
able time assisting in functions di-
rectly connected with other Com-
mission departments.
Duties assigned to the small mag-
azine staff of four include: editorial
preparation, article writing and re-
writing, photography, publication
layout and makeup mechanics, field

work, information disbursing, book-
keeping, special addressograph and
mailing procedure, related clerical
duties and other required Commis-
sion activities.
Under the present organization
and Commission policy, FLORIDA
WILDLIFE has, for the past biennium,
shown a continuous increase in paid
circulation and improved format
quality. During the same period,
through an efficient systematic or-
ganization, the general over-all pub-
lishing cost has been steadily de-
Research in the magazine publish-
ing field shows that approximately
21/2 individuals read each distributed
copy of this type monthly periodical.
Based on the aforementioned figures,
the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission's monthly magazine,
FLORIDA WILDLIFE, delivers a mes-
sage of definite importance to ap-
proximately 600,000 readers annu-
ally. 0

a- a- -or-
ap.d rh,.


Chief -

All pilots assist licensed aircraft and engine
mechanic in routine inspections, aircraft
checks and repairs.

T he Aviation Section is the new-
est element to be added to the
ranks of the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission.
To understand the reason for its
growth, it is necessary to re-trace
our steps back to the time when the
first aircraft was purchased by the
Commission. This was nearly 10
years ago. The advantage of aircraft
in furthering the law enforcement
program and as a communications
aid was soon realized, and in the
succeeding years additional aircraft
were purchased until each of the
five regional headquarters was
assigned a full time Wildlife Officer
Pilot and ship. The last regional
aircraft purchased was the ship for
the Central Region, and it was ac-.
quired in the fall of 1954.
Recently, for reasons of economy,
efficiency and safety, the Commis-
sion approved a proposal to combine
all Game Commission aircraft into
an individual department recognized
as the Aviation Section. A separate
budget was appropriated for the
Headquarters for the Aviation
Section were originally located at
the Old Montbrook Air Base at
Williston, Florida. In December of
1955, when the Central Region
offices were moved to Ocala, the
Aviation Section moved at the same
time to the Ocala Municipal Airport.
Space was made available in one of
the hangars, and includes a complete
aircraft and engine shop to facilitate
all routine inspections, plus minor
and major repairs to Commission
aircraft required by the Civil Aero-
nautics Administration. It might be

added here that the aviation division
personnel also maintain all aircraft
engines used in the airboats re-
quired in the Hyacinth Control Sec-
tion. All radios installed in aircraft
are also installed at Ocala.
Section personnel includes the
Chief of Aviation, a pilot for each
of the five regions, two pilots for
Hyacinth Control, an aircraft and
engine mechanic, and a part-time
The aircraft consist of Four Piper
PA-18's, two Cessna 170's and one
Cessna, model 180. One PA-18 and
the Cessna 180 are equipped with
spraying apparatus for the eradica-
tion of hyacinths. Another PA-18
is equipped with amphibious floats
for water work.
The primary function of the Avia-
tion Section is to give close, coordin-
ated air support to ground personnel
for obtaining maximum results in
law enforcement work. Totals taken
from pilots' activity reports for a
five-month period show that they

spent 1,546 hours in the air, includ-
ing patrol (day and night), spray
time, personnel transportation, photo
flights, surveys, and assisting State
and Federal agencies. In addition
to this, they spent 1,132 hours on
ground patrol, 52 hours for public
appearances and information and
education work, assisted with 31 ar-
rests, and spent another 1,050 hours
generally assisting personnel of their
various regions.
During a 24-hour period, a pilot
may be requested to assist in many
various tasks, day or night, such as
patrol, flying over our many lakes
and streams, management areas, the
famed Everglades swamps and
marshes and public properties for
the purpose of locating illegal means
of taking game or fish.
To give an example of the coordin-
ation between the Aviation Section
and law enforcement personnel:
several months ago, a plan was de-
veloped by the Central Florida
Region personnel and Aviation Sec-

Complete aircraft and engine shop with all facilities for inspections and repairs is maintained
at Ocala, thereby lowering maintenance costs.

tion personnel. This plan was an at-
tempt to make a large number of
"monkey fishing" arrests on Lake
George, where this type of illegal
fishing is one of the great problems
of law enforcement.
Wildlife Officers equipped for
water patrol work plus U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service officers met
late one evening at a place where
they believed they would not be de-
tected and spent the night. The am-
phibious plane flew in late that same
afternoon, and landed on a small
lake in the Ocala National Forest.
On the morning of the operation,
the Central region aircraft, carry-
ing the information and education
officer as an observer and camera-
man, left the Ocala Airport. Shortly
before this, the seaplane had left
its base carrying a wildlife officer,
and started on a general patrol of
the lake, looking for "monkey fish-
ermen". These were soon spotted,
and that fact given to the other air-
plane and officers by radio. The
Central region aircraft immediately
flew over the fishermen taking pic-
tures of the operation. This contin-
ued for a time until the "monkey
fishermen" decided they might be
better off in some other place. By
the time they had made this de-
cision, however, the crew of officers
in boats, having been directed to the
area by radio had nearly closed in
on them. They managed to elude
the officers and started for open
water. In a short time, the officers,
with the aid of the aircraft, had
rounded up the fishermen, boats,
motors and fishing devices. Six men
were arrested and over $4,000 worth
of equipment was confiscated.
Another example of the coopera-
tion between pilots and ground per-
sonnel took place in the Everglades
Region and received national pub-
licity. An attempt was being made
to stock the Big Cypress manage-
ment area with turkeys trapped in
other areas. It was found that the
long trip by truck into this remote
area often left the turkeys in a
weakened condition and prey to ani-
mals and diseases. It was suggested
that it might be possible to release
them into the area by use of an air-
plane. It was tried with one turkey
being released from the airplane at
an altitude of about 200 feet. The
turkey glided down to earth and
came to roost in a tall pine tree.
Since that time, several dozen tur-
keys have been released from air-
craft into that management area.
There is seldom a week goes by
that the Commission pilots do not
assist some other state agency with
its work. About two years ago,

Commission pilots moved in a group
to Perry, Florida, to help the Flor-
ida Forest Service combat disastrous
fires which were sweeping the
woods area of Dixie and Taylor
Counties. The pilots flew night and
day observing new outbreaks and
directing fire fighters with the aid
of walkie-talkie radios.
Commission pilots very frequently
also aid the Highway Patrol and
Sheriffs' departments in looking for
lost persons, missing aircraft, es-
caped prisoners or illegal stills.
A great many hours are flown at
night in an attempt to make it very
difficult for the illegal hunter, who
must use a light to locate and shoot
game, to leave the area without
being detected. Aerial communica-
tions also play an important part
here, making it possible to direct
ground personnel to intercept and
apprehend the violator.
General survey and aerial photo
work are commonplace, and in the
fall the "duck count" is begun. All
duck habitat in the entire State of
Florida is flown over for the purpose
of classifying species and approxi-
mate numbers.
The float-equipped aircraft is
based in the central part of Florida,
amidst our many fresh water lakes
suitable for this type of aircraft
Two of the aircraft, a PA-18 and
a Cessna 180 previously mentioned
in this article, have the never ceas-
ing problem of hyacinth eradication
which plagues our many fresh water

Air safety is an important factor in all
Commission Aviation work.

lakes and streams. To enable a
proper and effective kill, the pilot
must fly directly over the plants at
an altitude of between five and
fifteen feet, which requires a great
deal of skill and concentration.
Because of the many and varied
tasks which an aircraft must per-
form, positive and thorough main-

Aircraft is an immense aid in law enforcement patrol work.

Leased helicopter proved extremely effective in aerial spraying
of hyacinths in certain areas not accessible by ordinary means.

One seaplane is based at Lakeland, permitting extensive inland
water patrol.

tenance is a must for all Commis-
sion aircraft. Each plane must be
carefully and thoroughly inspected
after 100 hours of flight. Because
the maintenance shop carries on a
program of "progressive mainten-
ance" for the aircraft, at this time
minor repairs are given to each
plane. This may be in the form of
new sparkplugs, oil changes, new
tires and tubes, worn bolts, nuts or
rivets, and replacement of worn
cables. At the end of a 600 to 900
hour period of flight, what is known
as a "major overhaul" takes place.
At this time, the engine is complete-
ly torn down, and worn parts re-
placed wherever necessary. Neces-
sary fuselage repairs also take place
at this time, such as new fabric or
paint. Once a year, the airplane is
carefully checked and licensed by

an authorized representative of the
Civil Aeronautics Administration.
The maintenance personnel have
spent 1,656 hours working on the
section aircraft. They have com-
pleted 15 100-hour inspections, seven
annual inspections, four major eng-
ine overhauls and six top overhauls.
Also during this time, they have
made eight installations of engines
in Hyacinth Control airboats.
In order to become a pilot with
the Game Commission, a person
must have a commercial pilot's li-
cense and a minimum of 1,000 flying
hours, and, in addition to this, he
must pass rigid tests given by the
Chief Pilot. This is done to ascer-
tain the pilot's capabilities in con-
trolling his aircraft at altitudes and
speeds not familiar to the average
commercial pilot during routine fly-

ing. He must also have a complete
understanding of aircraft mechanics.
communications, weather and ori-
Besides this, he must be thorough-
ly familiar with all the duties of a
Wildlife Officer. Not only must the
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission pilots be very competent in
performing their duties with the
aircraft, but they must also be sin-
cerely interested in conservation
and wildlife.
The Aviation Section, while only
a newcomer in the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission of the State
of Florida, is sincere in the hope
that it will continue to progress and
maintain its part in helping the over-
all law enforcement program, as
well as all other Commission pro-
grams and activities. 0

Close radio contact is always maintained by law enforcement
officers on land, water and in the air


Besides patrol and spray work, Commission pilots fly many
hours of search, rescue and survey missions as a public service.

f :''''




-Chief -

T HE Communications Section
was set up late in the year of
1948 to serve primarily as an aid to
the Law Enforcement program. Be-
yond its primary purpose of serving
as a tool for officers in the field, the
radio system has since proved itself
to be a valuable adjunct to the Com-
mission's continuous efforts in
achieving greater efficiency with a
consequent saving in both time and
Now, the Communications Section
not only serves as a law-enforcement
tool, but also as an aid to greater
flexibility in the overall state-wide
administrative functions.
The headquarters of the Commu-
nication Section are located central-
ly in New Smyrna, and here are
found the necessary operating tools
of the far-flung radio system. Com-
munications Headquarters keeps ac-
curate cost records of each radio
unit, operating manuals and signal
cards which are prepared and furn-
ished to Commission personnel, and
a stock of emergency parts and sup-
The communication operating
equipment now in the Commission
consists of 289 mobile units, includ-
ing pack and airborne sets, 24 base
stations, including two stations at
temporary sites. Six of the base sta-
tions are operated in cooperation
with the State and Federal Forestry
Services, two in cooperation with

the State Park Service, one in co-
operation with a County Sheriff, and
one in cooperation with the South
Florida Conservation District.
Base station locations are: New
Smyrna, Coldwater, Eglin Field,
Panama City, Bonifay, Wilma, Tal-
lahassee, Perry, Cross City, Lake

City, Jacksonville, San Mateo,
Ocala, Williston, Leesburg, Tomoka,
Magnolia, Lakeland, Myakka, High-
lands, Okeechobee, Belle Glade,
Immokalee and Miami.
During the biennial period, the
base station located at Live Oak
was removed and reinstalled at

Cross City. The station at Perry was
removed from City operation to
Commission operation. The Station
at Lake Butler was removed and
reinstalled at Belle Glade. The sta-
tion at Blountstown was removed
and reinstalled at Wilma. The old
Crestview station was removed and
reinstalled at Coldwater. A new sta-
tion was installed at Eglin Field, and
also at the Region headquarters
office in Ocala. The old station at
St. Cloud was removed and rein-
stalled at Magnolia Ranch. The sta-
tion at Immokalee was relocated. A
new station was installed in Miami.
Several antenna sites have been
erected about the state, so ground
mobile units may connect to the
larger antenna and send and receive
for greater distances at important
A new radio operation manual
was compiled, and service and oper-
ator schools have been held about
the state.
The Commission continues to co-
operate with the Federal Civil De-
fense, and the Communications sys-
tem has taken important part in all
disaster tests. The Chief of Com-
munications is a member of the State
Civil Defense Communications Com-
The Communications Division is
composed of six technicians, and has
repair facilities and personnel at
New Smyrna, Panama City, Lake
City and Okeechobee. During the
biennial period, the Division made
348 base station repairs, 59 base in-
stallations, 2,123 mobile unit repairs,
and 476 mobile unit installations.
Communications personnel traveled
190,102 miles for 3,835 hours, spent
3,908 hours in repair, 2,318 hours on
installation, 2,419 hours in general
maintenance, 737 hours in develop-
mental work, 3,400 hours in office
work and reports, 3,118 hours in
conference and instruction, and 749
hours in miscellaneous work.
Maintenance personnel traveled
an average of 23 1/2 miles per month
for an average of .5 hours travel per
unit per month. They also spent an
average of .52 hours repair per unit
per month, and .34 hours per unit
per month in installation of equip-
ment. Each technician was respon-
sible for the maintenance and opera-
tion of an average of six base and
sixty-six mobile units.
The Commission has begun re-
placing the last of its old mobile
unit equipment and at this time finds
its communication system in the
best condition since its inception. 0


/ocetione shown on Iqp



wA WIAL /-' TALKl/ &.Y/TI
L, -\/

NOTE: 30-mile radius around each base station location is normal car-to-
station communications range. Station-to-station range and station-to-
plane-to-car range is much greater.




Santa Rosa.............. Coldwater
Okaloosa............... Eglin Field
Bay.................. Panama City
Holmes .................... Bonifay
Liberty. ................. .. Wilma
Leon .................. Tallahassee

Taylor ......... ........ .. .Perry
Dixie ............... ... Cross City
Columbia................ Lake City
Duval................. Jacksonville
Putnam................ San Mateo

Levy..................... Williston



Marion ...................... Ocala

Volusia ................... Tomoka
Volusia......... New Smyrna Beach
Lake..................... Leesburg

Orange .................. Magnolia
Polk .................. ... Lakeland
Highlands..... ........... Sebring

Sarasota....... Myakka State Park
Okeechobee........... Okeechobee
Palm Beach........... Belle Glade
Collier. ................ Immokalee

Broward...... ........Hollywood

40 *" '


NORTHWEST REGION .....................................Panama City
207 East 15th Street, SUnset 5-5352

NORTHEAST REGION.......................................Lake City
301 North Marion, P. O. Box 908, Phone 1725

CENTRAL REGION ......................... ................ Ocala
205 West Adams Street, MArion 9-2802

SOUTH REGION .......................... ................... Lakeland
Lodwick Airport, P. O. Box 1392, MUtual 6-5171

EVERGLADES REGION................................... Okeechobee
County Courthouse, P. O. Box 877, ROdeo 2-2851

T HE South Region, which may be
described as the West Coast
Region, includes 13 counties stretch-
ing from Brooksville on the North
to Bonita Springs on the South.
Counties included in the region are
Charlotte, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee,
Hernando, Hillsborough, Highlands,
Lee, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk
and Sarasota. (Map Page 70.)
To bring, the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission as close to
the hunting and fishing public as
possible, we have assigned to the
office in Lakeland, a Regional Man-
ager, a Secretary, a Fish-Manage-
ment Technician, an Educational
Officer, a Pilot, a Radio Technician,
three Area Supervisors, and 27
Wildlife Officers.
During the biennial period ending

June 30, 1956, our officers traveled a
total of 1,102,406 miles making 1,102
arrests. While making the arrests,
they checked 74,860 licenses and de-
voted over 148,500 hours to land
patrol activities. Water patrol took
up a little over 5,000 hours of their
time, and resulted in the confiscation
of 226 illegal fish traps and 21 illegal
In this biennium, a restock area
consisting of Hardee, DeSoto, Man-
atee, and Sarasota Counties was
opened to turkey hunting. The area
had been closed for several years,
and after receiving excellent coop-
eration from the local residents, it
produced over 1,300 turkeys for
hunters the first year it was open.
The results for the second year's
hunt have not been tabulated at this

writing, but it is expected to com-
pare favorably to the first year's.
The folks living in these four
counties should be commended for
their efforts in trying to bring back
the turkey population they remem-
ber from the "good old days".
This coming hunting season may
see the opening of still another re-
stock area in south Polk and Hills-
borough Counties. Not expecting
as large a game population here as
in the other area, we are still very
hopeful that the results will be sat-
isfactory. If time spent by the
officers patrolling the area is any
criterion, then we may expect an-
other highly successful project.
Another vital project being under-
taken is the attempt to purchase new
vehicles, run them a year, and then
sell them for the approximate price
of new vehicles. This practice would
keep all field men in good, reliable
cars and drastically cut down the
high cost of operation. The idea is
not new, but four such vehicles were
sold last year for a net difference of
$75.00 per unit. Since that amount
of money would have been spent
within a year for new tires and bat-
teries, considerable savings were
effected for the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission and the
hunters and fishermen footing the
bill. We expect to move more
automobiles this year, on the same
economical basis.
A service furnished the sportsmen
of the area is our fisheries research
and extension work. The regional
fisheries technician, made 729 trips
to visit various bodies of water with-
in the region. These trips, with
ensuing recommendations, resulted
in the renovation and stocking of 56
old lakes and ponds, and the stocking
of 254 new lakes and ponds with
254,140 bluegill and 61,828 bass fing-
erlings from the Winter Haven
Hatchery. The above figures repre-
sent 518 acres of new additional
water now under management and
available to the fishermen.
Experiments in selective poison-
ing were also carried on within the
region to the extent that now the
waste fish, the gizzard shad, may be
eliminated from a body of water
without injury to other species pres-
ent. This type of management tool
is now used throughout the state.
Further experiments in rough fish
control are planned for the future,
with the expectation of having an
electrical shocker to help rid small
streams of large concentrations of
garfish during their spawning run.
It is hoped that this will in turn im-
prove fishing conditions in lakes fed
by such small streams.
Of primary concern to the fisher-

South Florida Region



men in the region is the current
drought and its effect on the fish
life. In some counties, lakes have
hit an all-time low, with many of
them drying up completely. This
necessitated the seining of 26 lakes
in an effort to save some of the fish
that were thus left in distress. Prac-
tically all such fish were released in
rivers nearby that still had some
water left. Plans are being made
now to restock those areas that were
hit the hardest, just as soon as the
water levels come up sufficiently.
During the period, we had 33 fish
kills in ponds, pits, and lakes, that
were not necessarily due to low
water conditions. In conjunction
with such kills, our technician at-
tended a Pollution School held at
Florida Southern College, in Lake-
land. The school was sponsored by
the State Board of Health and con-
ducted by the Robert A. Taft School
of Sanitary Engineering from Cin-
cinnati, Ohio. New methods of de-
tecting various forms of pollutions
were discussed, and tests made from
nearby streams for practice.
In an effort to sell our program of
conservation, our educational officer
and several of our field personnel
spoke before 150 civic organizations,
showing films and slides of our ac-
tivities in game and fish manage-
ment. We have received excellent
radio, television and newspaper
coverage throughout our region and
are deeply grateful for the interest
and understanding shown by the

various sports writers and editors.
It is largely through their efforts
that our message of conservation can
be brought to the hunters and fish-
ermen. Along with public appear-
ances before civic groups, we have
endeavored to participate in as many
fairs and fishathons as possible.
Many folks visiting such fairs as the
Tampa State Fair had never realized
the vast potential that Florida has to
offer with our fishing and hunting.
Many viewed the largest game bird
in North America, the bronzed wild-
turkey, at such places and were
pleasantly and properly impressed.
The sight of the large bass, viewed in
the portable fishtanks, brought as-
tonishment to the visitors' faces.
Invariably, the viewers asked ques-
tions from our Officers regarding all
facets of our work.
Of particular importance are the
South Florida public hunting areas,
which have again proved highly suc-
cessful. Besides the areas at Fish-
eating Creek, the Avon Park
Bombing Range, the Lee and Char-
lotte areas, and Richloam, we have
added another at Croom, near
Brooksville. Even though this is a
relatively small area, it produced
nearly 50 deer last year. This year,
because of the extremely dry weath-
er, the kill was somewhat lower, but
high hopes are held for a bigger kill
next year.
Judging from the excellent and al-
most unbelievable reports of suc-
cessful hunting trips made this past

Recapitulation Wildlife Officers Activities
South Florida Region

1. Miles Traveled
2. Arrests Made
3. Licenses Checked
4. Hrs. Land Patrol
5. Hrs. Water Patrol
6. Hrs. Air Patrol
7. Hrs. in Court
8. Public Speeches Made
9. Hrs. in Meetings
10. Hrs. Game Mgt. Acts.
11. Hrs. Fish Mgt. Acts.
12 Persons Talked to Re. Conserv.
13. Informers Contacted
14. Hrs. Rend. Community Service
15. Complaints Alleged Vio. Invest.
16. Commercial Lic. Sold
17. Hrs. Professional Improvement
18. Magazine Subs. Sold
19. Hrs. Equip. Maintenance
20. Hrs. Demonstrations
21. Persons Public Assist. Rendered
22. Hrs. Ofc. Work
23. No. Nets Seized
24. No. Traps Seized
25. Misc.




season, the region can be justly
proud of having done a good job in
providing the hunter with a better
place to enjoy this type of recreation.
The proposed Water Control Com-
mission will certainly play a big part
in our future fish and game manage-
ment programs. Possibly, through
the efforts of such a Commission,
working closely with the Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commision, many
more acres of land can be brought
under proper management. The
Hyacinth Control Program, which
has already done a remarkable
clearing job within the region, will
continue to open old and new water-
ways for the fisherman. And with
this aid to fishermen, we certainly
feel that the time is not too far off
when pollution problems may be
met and fought with more success.
The future does look bright for
fishing and hunting in this region.


' CPJCk.r* a 'L~S1TKtwt 4i- c~ll~.LU

cOT e

Northeast Florida Region



T he most significant change in
the Northeast Region during
the biennium was the transfer of
the regional office from Jacksonville
to Lake City. This move placed the
regional office in the center of the
region, and resulted in substantial
savings in mileage, travel time, and
expenses for all region- wide em-
ployees. This centralization permit-
ted a reorganization of enforcement
areas, which, together with a re-
alignment of radio stations, gives us
a more compact and efficient organ-
The 16 counties that comprise the
Northeast R e g i o n are Alachua,

Baker, Bradford, Clay, Columbia,
Dixie, Duval, Gilchrist, Hamilton,
Lafayette, Madison, Nassau, St.
Johns,* Suwannee, Taylor, and
Union. (Map Page 71.) The region
logically divides into four enforce-

* Plan for the next biennium, be-
ginning July 1, 1956, include
transfer of St. Johns County from
the jurisdiction of the Northeast
Florida Region to that of the Cen-
tral Florida Region, with Levy
County being transferred from the
jurisdiction of the Central Flor-
ida Region to that of the North-
east Florida Region.

ment areas, each under the super-
vision of an area supervisor. Twenty-
nine wildlife officers are the law en-
forcement arm of the region. Other
regional personnel includes a region-
al manager, secretary, education offi-
cer, three radio station operators,
pilot, fish management technician,
and radio engineer. In addition,
there are six game management tech-
nicians working in the region, two
more than during the previous bi-
ennium. These additions, together
with an added radio engineer and a
radio station operator, give the re-
gion a working force of 48 persons,
which is three less than in the pre-
vious reporting period.
Despite the fact that fewer officers
were in the field, the statistical
totals of the work accomplished by
these men overshadows that of the
previous two years. A compilation
shows the men traveled 1,141,378
miles, put in 172,222 of land patrol,
checked 49,801 licenses, and made
962 arrests. The licenses checked
figure doubtless includes many dup-
lications, but the old sportsman's
complaint of never having his li-
cense checked is seldom heard now-
adays. Twenty-six illegal but usable
deer, seven turkeys, and 3,922
pounds of fish were seized by the
men, and donated to charitable in-
stitutions. During the course of 23,-
740 hours of water patrol, officers
destroyed 180 illegal fish traps, and
confiscated four seines totaling 700
yards in length. This last figure is
considerably lower than that report-
ed for the previous two years, and
reflects a more vigorous approach
to the problem, as well as low-water
As previously mentioned, the re-
location of radio stations in this reg-
ion has greatly increased the effec-
tiveness of our communication sys-
tem. All officers are radio-equipped,
and, with stations now located at
Jacksonville, Lake City, Perry,
Cross City, and Williston, there are
no areas where radio coverage can-
not be achieved. It is hard to over-
estimate the usefulness of the radio
as a law enforcement tool in this
As important as law enforcement
is, the long-range goal in this region
is recognized as education of the
public, and no effort is spared in this
department. All personnel partici-
pate in this phase of our work, but
the main burden, of course, falls on
the Education Officer. He is almost
constantly on the road, making talks
to school groups, civic clubs, and
sportsmens organizations, working
with youth groups, getting out fav-
orable news releases and pictures,

and generally spreading the word of good conservation.
Much emphasis has been laid on this work during the
past two years in this region, and a growing aware-
ness on the part of the public of the need for following
good conservation practices is plainly apparent in
many of our counties.
Requests for assistance with fish management prob-
lems have continued to increase, and the regional fish
management technician works hard to see that all re-
quests are promptly answered. In addition to pond
poisoning and noxious plant control, the technician
stocked 102 ponds, lakes, and streams with 185,500
bream, and 67 bodies of water with 87,900 largemouth
black bass. He inspected 246 lakes and ponds. He
assisted the fish management division on several large
projects, and was in turn greatly aided by the hyacinth
control unit with several hyacinth control problems
in the region.
The seining program in Newnan's Lake was discon-
tinued when results showed that the haul seine was
not a satisfactory tool in controlling gizzard shad.
A return visit to the Yateras, located near the U. S.
naval base in Cuba, was made possible by the U. S.
Navy. The regional manager and two fish technicians
were unable to find any survivors of the 5,000 finger-
ling bass placed in the river in 1953.
The seven management areas located in the North-
east region total 698,250 acres, with all but 96,250
acres available for hunting. The steadily increasing
number of permits sold testifies to hunters' satisfac-
tion with the management area program in this region.
Larger kills of all game species are reported in the
areas every year, which indicates that the game biolo-
gists stationed in this region are doing an outstanding
Reports show that only 594 hours were flown by the
regional plane during the biennium, but this was due
to the fact that the plane was out of service for several
months for repairs, and that we were without a regular
pilot for another long period. We were fortunate to
secure a pilot who had four years of pilot-game warden
experience with the Federal government, and in se-
curing a Cessna 170B airplane for him to use in his
work. This plane is well suited to the needs of law
enforcement work, and the experience of the pilot has
enabled him to be of great assistance to the officers on
the ground in making cases. Illegal fire hunters have
been known to shut off their light and go home upon
hearing a plane near them, whether it was our plane
or not. They have learned that a plane in the vicinity
very often means that wildlife officers in cars will soon
make their appearance, and it is believed that consid-
erable game has been saved as a result of the use of
the plane.

Another important use of the plane is in fire spot-
ting. The pilot is always on the lookout for fires while
on patrol, and has been the first to report several fires.
The plane is available to personnel of this and other
regions when haste and distance are factors in making
trips, and has been especially useful in this respect on
several occasions.
The Northeast Florida Wildlife Officer's Club, com-
posed of officers of the region, continues to hold its
periodic meetings, and has seen the practice spread to
other regions. Meetings are held quarterly, at which
time the men have the opportunity to exchange ideas
and experiences, and, quite often, officials from the
Tallahassee office are present to explain new policies
and programs, and to answer questions that arise dur-
ing the course of the officer's work. It is felt that these
meetings are invaluable from the standpoint of morale.
The formation and encouragement of sportsmens
groups is one of the most important aspects of the work
in this region. A good working conservation program
is not possible without the cooperation of the public,
regardless of the efforts of a State conservation agency.
All personnel of the region recognize this fact, and no
effort is spared to help each and every sportsmens
club in the region to be a success. Several new clubs
have been formed in the region in the last two years,
and they, in turn, have been extremely helpful to the
personnel of the region. On several occasions, mem-
bers of sportsmens clubs have held violators at the
scene of violation until the arrival of the wildlife officer,
and have appeared as witnesses at the trial. This type
of cooperation between the two groups bodes well for
the success of wildlife conservation in Florida. 9

Northwest Florida Region



The Northwest Florida Region
is comprised of sixteen coun-
ties making up the Third Congres-
sional District of Florida.
The Northwest region is an area
of approximately 7,713,639 acres,
bordered on the west and north by
Alabama and Georgia, and on the
south by the Gulf of Mexico. This
region is commonly referred to as
the "Big Bend" or "Pan-handle" of
Counties included in the North-
west Region are Bay, Calhoun, Es-
cambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Gulf,
Holmes, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty,
Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Wakulla,
Washington, Jackson and Walton.
(Map Page 70.)
From a fish and game conserva-
tion viewpoint, Northwest Florida
is distinctive when compared to the
rest of Florida. The majority of the
fishing pressure comes from non-
resident weekend fishermen, and is
restricted mostly to rivers or sim-
ilar waters. An estimated eighty
percent of the fishermen are cane
pole addicts, and the pan-fish is by
far the most sought after species.
Topographically, Northwest Florida
is composed of hills, pine forest,
small lakes, and hardwood and cy-
press swamps.
Of the approximately 7,713,639
acres in the Northwest region, over
865,000 or 11.2 percent, is now under
a Commission supervised game man-
agement or public hunting program.
There is a total of eight wildlife
management areas in Northwest
Florida, seven of which are open for
public hunting, to give the sports-
men a total of 719,000 acres of man-
aged hunting. These controlled
hunting areas include the 67,000-
acre Leon Wakulla area and the
110,000-acre Liberty area located in
the Apalachicola National Forest,
the 110,000-acre Gaskin area located
in Gulf, Calhoun and Bay counties,
as well as a portion of the Aucilla
area (25,000 acres located in Wakul-
la and Jefferson counties), and the
3,000-acre St. Marks area, which is
the only management area in the
state operated solely for waterfowl,
and the newly established 4,000-acre
Woodruff area. The 390,000 acre
Eglin area is unique in the fact that
the hunt is made possible through
the cooperation of the U.S. Air
Force and the Game and Fresh Wa-
ter Fish Commission.
There is one special archery hunt
held annually within the Northwest
region. The Eglin Archery Hunt
produced a total of seven deer for
the 1956 hunt. Controlled bear
hunts were conducted in the Liberty
area during the month of October.
The Northwest region has been host
to the Florida Fox Hunters Associa-

tion field trials for the past four
years. The Northwest region is also
unique in being the first region to
conduct a spring gobbler hunt. This
hunt was first held in the Eglin area
as a controlled hunt in 1955, and
region-wide in 1956.
Rediscovery of a probable new spe-
cies of Florida black bass, the "Chip-
ola Bass", was confirmed by the De-
partment of Biology, University of
Florida, in 1956. The Chipola Bass,
found by the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission's Lake and Stream
Survey team, is described as a "cop-
per colored streamlined scrapper
that could be compared to the
Northern Smallmouth in both its
fighting ability and in its choice of
habitat." While presently restricted
to the waters of the Chipola River,
the rediscovery of the Chipola Bass
does constitute an important find
to bass fishermen.
The Northwest region is divided
into four enforcement areas, with
headquarters located in Panama
City. Personnel serving the region
include a regional manager, educa-
tion officer, pilot, fish management
technician, radio engineer, secre-
tary, four area supervisors and
thirty wildlife officers.
A summary of the activities of
the enforcement section for the past
year, January 1956 through Decem-
ber 1956, shows that wildlife officers
spent 78,925 hours on land patrol,
16,500 hours on water patrol, made
501 arrests for game and fish law
violations, checked a total of 83,027
licenses, and traveled 592,582 miles
in performance of their duties.
Meetings are held quarterly for all
personnel in the Northwest region,
and monthly for the four law en-
forcement areas. These meetings
are designed to keep the personnel
of the Northwest region abreast of
the changes in the programs and
policies of the Game and Fresh Wa-
ter Fish Commission, and to serve
as a morale factor, and education
medium. Through the use of such
meetings, the Northwest region is
constantly striving to produce a bet-
ter informed and, thereby, a better
qualified wildlife officer. The wild-
life officers of the Northwest region
are today better qualified, better
equipped and more capable of per-
forming the duties of a Commission
wildlife officer than ever before.
The Northwest Florida regional
fisheries technician investigated

numerous fishery problems in the
past two years. Six hundred and
fifty-two inspection visits were made
to various ponds and lakes. Of this
number, 358 were initial inspections.
Technical assistance was provided
in all phases of small lake and pond
management. The greatest possible
utilization of hatchery fingerlings
has been obtained by inspections to
determine stocking needs. A total
of 473 bodies of water was stocked,
and 1,397,100 bream and 133,824
bass were released.
Fish kills were investigated on the
Escambia, Ochlockonee, Chattahoo-
chee and Little Rivers to determine
whether or not industrial pollutions
were responsible.
The Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission operates one fish hatch-
ery in the Northwest region, the
Blackwater hatchery located at Holt,
which produces an average of one
and a half million bluegill finger-
lings and seventy thousand bass
fingerlings per year. The Dead
Lakes hatchery located at Wewa-
hitchka has been closed due to a
shortage of water. The Northwest
region fisheries technician assisted
hatchery personnel with hatchery
management so that maximum utili-
zation of existing facilities could be
The regional technician partici-
pated in the following projects and
surveys; Lake George, Lake Jack-
son, Lake Bradford, Merritts Mill
Pond, North Bay and Dead Lakes,
and, attended numerous meetings
throughout the region concerning
a variety of problems. Talks and
lectures were presented to schools,
clubs, and civic organizations on
proper fish management technique
and procedure.
The region pilot flew a total of
634 hours as law enforcement aid.
Close cooperation between air ob-
servation and law enforcement re-
sulted in numerous arrests that
otherwise would have been impos-
sible. The region pilot also assisted
in a number of air searches, and
conducted waterfowl inventories in
the St. Marks refuge and through-
out the entire region.
The region education officer, as
routine duty answers all informa-
tion requests, presents lectures on
wildlife, conservation of natural re-
sources, and various subjects, to
sportsmen's organizations, civic
clubs, schools and other allied

groups, and handles public relations
activities concerning the Commis-
sion and the Northwest region. He
also conducts a year-round training
program among the wildlife officers
of the region, and is responsible for
seeing that the Commission's activi-
ties, programs and policies are prop-
erly presented to the people of the
Northwest region.
The communications section of
the Northwest region consists of one
radio engineer who is responsible for
the installation and maintenance of
the six base stations and the sixty-
seven mobile units in the region.
With the present installation of six
base stations, the Commission now
has complete radio coverage over
the entire Northwest region. 0

Releasing bluegill fingerlings in Northwest
Florida to improve fishing conditions.

Storing illegally-taken deer for court evi-
dence in law-enforcement arrest case.

J Ue

Everglades Florida Region



The Everglades Region encom-
passes nearly eight million
acres of land ranging from the pop-
ulous tourist centers of Miami, West
Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale
to the forbidding primitive areas of
the Everglades. The region includes
the nine counties of Broward, Col-
lier, Dade, Indian River, Martin,
Monroe, Okeechobee, Palm Beach
and St. Lucie. (Map Page 72.)
The Everglades swamp area has
been described as a huge, shallow,
creeping river hidden by a sea of
grass. Mystery, intrigue and adven-
ture are words instilled in the minds
of many sportsmen who have en-
tered into this vast realm of saw-
grass and sub-tropical swamps that
composes the Everglades of South
To those who have experienced
a hunting or fishing trip by airboat
into the Everglades sawgrass, or by
swampbuggy, half-track or weasel
into the Big Cypress Swamp, the
region contains an ever-fascinating,
daring land that challenges the ima-
gination of man to conquer its mys-

teries. Certainly, the region con-
tains some of the most unusual hunt-
ing and fishing in the world.
The distinctive mark of the Ever-
glades region is the need for highly
specialized equipment to fish, hunt,
explore or work the uncivilized
areas. Many sportsmen have
evolved mobile equipment capable
of conquering the remotest areas.
So proud are they of their swamp
equipment swamp buggies, air-
boats, or weasels- that two of the
more thrilling events in South Flor-
ida are the "Swamp Buggy Day"
parade and races at Naples, and the
airboat races held each year in West
Palm Beach, where the equipment
owners compete for highest honors.
The Commission's Everglades reg-
ion contains over one-third of the
population of the State of Florida.
It also contains the most desolate
wilderness areas. The region, based
at Okeechobee, is constantly faced
with specialized problems peculiar
only to this region.
The region has a force of 20 wild-
life officers, four area supervisors,

one pilot, and a regional manager
that make up the law enforcement
staff. These men are all veterans
who are highly specialized; self
trained by many years of association
with the vast reaches of the Big
Cypress, Lake Okeechobee and the
Everglades sawgrass even before
joining the Commission. This ex-
perience is helpful to the job of law
enforcement and most of all to wild-
erness survival in view of the many
dangers encountered in the more
isolated areas.
Most of the region's highly spe-
cialized equipment used by officers
today was developed by their knowl-
edge and experimentation. Stainless
steel bottoms replaced the aluminum
on the region's new airboat hull de-
signs to give the Everglades wild-
life officers the fastest airboats in
the 'glades, in spite of added equip-
ment such as extra gas and camping
equipment necessarily carried for
extended law-enforcement patrols.
Special tracks for the Commission
half-track mobile equipment had to
be developed so the equipment
would be reliable at all times and
not fail at a crucial moment.
This regional experimentation is
still going on, and the results have
been appreciable. But, still, there
is the problem of more and more
hunters and equipment invading this
region each year. The Everglades
personnel shall continue to improve
their present equipment to widen
its range and potential to keep pace
with increase of sportsmen in the
Because of the four completely
different types of terrain found in
this region several different kinds
of specialized equipment are needed
to patrol the areas. Airboats are a
must in the sawgrass areas, while
swamp buggies and half-tracks are
often used during a low water pe-
riod. Swamp buggies, half-tracks
and weasels are mandatory in the
Big Cypress, where trees, rocks and
mud would soon rip out the bottom
of an airboat or bog down a jeep.
The northern flat pine portion of the
region requires only jeeps and auto-
mobiles. In the Lake Okeechobee
district, consisting of open water and
marsh areas, airboats are most suit-
able, with one inboard and several
outboard boats patrolling the open
One can surmise from the fore-
going that equipment is the key note
to success.
Besides their primary duty of law
enforcement, wildlife officers in this
region have continually been called
upon for many other tasks ranging
from collecting biological data to
rescue work. Throughout the past


two years, three escaped convicts
have been found and apprehended,
messages of sickness and death
taken to hunters in the field, and
several rescues were made of fish-
ermen in overturned boats and
hunters lost in swamps and the
Everglades. Hunters accidentally
shot or stricken with sickness were
given immediate first aid and swift
transportation to hospitals. Creel
census and bag checks made by
wildlife officers have given a more
complete picture to many of the
game and fish management depart-
ments projects.
Much of the trapping and restock-
ing of turkey, deer and wild hogs
was done by wildlife officers under
supervision of game management
A trail cutter was designed by
wildlife officers, built and put into
operation in the marshes on the west
shore of Lake Okeechobee to cut
clearly defined boat trails for duck
hunters and fishermen making
otherwise inaccessible areas avail-
able to the eager sportsman.
Many of the wildlife officers and
other personnel of the region have
presented television shows contin-
ually throughout each year. The
"Wide Wide World" TV show in the
Everglades was a tremendous un-
dertaking for our region, but
through the untiring efforts of all
concerned the show, depicting the
Everglades and its wildlife was a
huge success.
Our personnel also cooperated
effectively with Eastern Air Lines in
bringing a group of sports and out-
door writers into the Everglades on
a public relations trip of hunting,
fishing and sightseeing throughout
Florida resulting in much favorable
publicity in northern newspapers.
The Everglades Region was the
first region to join the Ground Ob-
server Corps, with mobile outposts
in many of the normally inaccessi-
ble points in South Florida. Field

glasses have been furnished by the
Observer Corps for better plane
spotting. Personnel also participated
in nation-wide Civil Defense alerts.
The Belle Glade base radio station
was added October 25, 1955, to give
a more complete radio coverage of
the region. A new base station in
Hollywood, Florida, will be erected
early in 1957 to link the southeast-
ern part of the region with other
base stations.
The demand for fisheries efforts
on both public and privately owned
waters continued to increase com-
mensurate with the general growth
of the state. The fisheries extension
service experienced not only in-
creased calls for management recom-
mendations on newly created ponds
and lakes, but also more calls on
weed problems, fish kills and pollu-
tion problems on old ponds. Multi-
ple ownership of non-public waters
in large real estate developments
present difficult human relationship
strains chiefly because of the cost
of management practices, and the
objection to the turbid appearance
of fertilized waters.
Lake Trafford, near Immokalee,
was selectively poisoned twice to re-
duce the overbalanced gizzard shad
population, and, to date, the crappie
fishing has been the bag-limit type.
Whether the bass population will
re-establish itself, using hatchery
fish to hasten any potential favor-
able change, remains to be deter-
mined. Local wildlife officers are re-
cording catch data while checking
licenses, and thus provide very es-
sential data as to the value of the
treatment of the lake with respect
to the success of the sport fisherman.
The Commission's electrical
roughfish control unit has been
working for months in reducing the
rough fish population of the Tami-
ami Canal, aided considerably by
the general drouth conditions which
otherwise have seriously reduced
sport fishing success.

During 1956, two part-time proj-
ects were begun and will continue
until results indicate cessation; the
first is a limited fishing pressure and
success survey of Lake Okeechobee;
the second, an investigation into the
cause or causes of oxygen depletion
in the canals during the dry season
draw-downs and the first rains of
the new wet season.
Present trends indicate intensifi-
cation of the problems of access
points to public fishing, pollution
from various sources, need for fish
population investigations in canals,
lakes and small ponds, more suitable
aquatic weed and algae killers, and
need for better water management
and utilization from the sport fish-
ing aspect on watersheds, rivers and
During the period covered by this
report, the regional fisheries tech-
nician inspected 189 lakes and ponds.
A total of 39 bodies of water were
stocked, and 44,120 bream and 17,-
558 bass were stocked.
During this period, wildlife offi-
cers traveled 791,724 miles, made
1,226 arrests, checked 83,441 li-
censes, spent 140,936 hours on land
patrol, and 9,468 hours on water
patrol. A total of 1,634 hours was
devoted by the pilot wildlife officer
to air patrol, and regional employees
spent 1,431 hours in court, made 59
speeches, spent 2,076 hours in meet-
ings, 4,179 hours in game manage-
ment work, 527 hours in fish man-
agement work, talked to 29,937
persons regarding conservation, con-
tacted 1,537 informers, rendered 413
hours community service, investi-
gated 1,432 complaints and alleged
violations, sold 113 licenses, spent
1,640 hours on professional improve-
ment, 3,407 hours on equipment
maintenance, 1,222 hours on demon-
strations, rendered public assistance
to 1,887 persons, spent 2,605 hours
on office work, seized 11 nets, seized
78 traps, and spent 1,881 hours on
miscellaneous work. 0

Wildlife officers voluntarily improve efficiency and fellowship by
forming pistol team for intra-departmental competitions.

Wild hogs were trapped in South Florida Region and released in
Everglades Region. Hogs are game animals in certain sections.

J he

Central Florida Region



The Central Florida Region, for-
merly known as the Fifth
District, is composed of Brevard,
Citrus, Flagler, Lake, Levy,* Mar-
ion, Orange, Osceola, Putnam, Sem-
inole, Sumter and Volusia Counties.
The smallest of these counties is
Seminole with 347 square miles,
while the largest is Marion County
with 1,624 square miles. The entire
area in the Central Florida Region
covers 11,870 square miles, and takes
in some of the finest hunting and
fresh water fishing area in the State.
It also encompasses a large part of
the St. Johns River and its tribu-
taries, including Lake George. (Map
Page 71.)
Until October, 1955, Mr. David
Swindell was manager of the region,
and offices were at the old Mont-
brook Air Base at Williston, Flor-
ida. At that time, Mr. Swindell was
made Liaison Officer for the Game
Commission and transferred his ac-
tivities to Tallahassee. Mr. D. C.
Land, an officer with many years
experience in the Commission, was
made manager to replace Mr. Swin-
dell. In December, 1955, the offices
of the region were moved to Ocala,
Florida. Also, at this time, the Sup-
ervisor of Youth Conservation Edu-
cation moved his office to Ocala, and
the activities of the Aircraft Divi-

* Plans for the next biennium, be-
ginning July 1, 1956, include
transfer of Levy County from the
jurisdiction of the Central Florida
Region to that of the Northeast
Florida Region, with St. Johns
County being transferred from the
jurisdiction of the Northeast Flor-
ida Region to that of the Central
Florida Region.

sion were moved to the Ocala Muni-
cipal Airport. The Williston offices
were taken over by the Hyacinth
Control Division of the Commission.
Offices in the Central Florida Reg-
ion also include the Lake Fisheries
Experiment Station at Leesburg,
At the time of this writing, there
are 27 Wildlife Officers and three
Area Supervisors handling law en-
forcement work in the region. The
rest of the staff is composed of the
regional manager, information and
education officer, fish management
technician and secretary radio
Other activities in the region in-
clude the work of seven game man-
agement personnel covering the
various game management areas in
the territory.
The office of the Supervisor of
Youth Conservation Education in-
cludes a part-time secretary-radio
operator and the Aircraft division
employs a part-time secretary-radio
operator and an aircraft and engine
mechanic, in addition to the chief
of the division.
Also included in the region are
the offices of the Chief of Commu-
nications, located at the airport at
New Smyrna Beach. The assistant
chief of communications is the radio
engineer for the region.
The communications system is
very effective, with stations in Ocala
and Leesburg, manned by Commis-
sion personnel, and stations at San
Mateo (Putnam County), Tomoka
(near Daytona Beach) and Magnolia
(Osceola County) manned by Flor-
ida Forest Service personnel. The
office of the district supervisor for

the Forest Service is located in
Ocala, making cooperation between
the two agencies in this instance
most effective for good radio cover-
age of the area. In addition to this,
all officers and technicians are
equipped with radio mobile units.
There is very seldom a time that a
field officer cannot contact a station,
belonging either to his own region or
that of another region.
Wherever possible, all officers and
personnel have residence telephones,
creating a minimum of delay in
handling emergency matters and ad-
ministrative problems which might
be of a confidential nature.
The effectiveness of radio and
telephone is noted in the fact that,
while the Central Florida Region
Wildlife Officers traveled only 1,-
100,511 miles in the performance of
their duties in the last two years,
as compared with 900,000 miles in
the year 1953, the total number of
arrests is 843, as compared with 600
in the previous two -year period.
The officers spent 172,085 hours in
land patrol and 41,805 hours in
water patrol. In the performance of
their duties, they checked 55,492
fishing and hunting licenses. They
also confiscated 24 illegal fishing
nets, plus 14 boats and 7 motors
being used with the above men-
tioned illegal nets. In addition, they
gave to charitable institutions 26
illegally taken or road-killed deer,
1,994 pounds of illegally taken fresh
water game fish and cat fish, and
2,932 pounds of illegal shad.
A great deal of advancement has
been made in the type of equipment
being used by officers in the Central
region. Approximately 95% of the
field personnel have 1955 and 1956
vehicles, all of standard make and
color. Nineteen out of the 27 officers
have boats, motors and other equip-
ment necessary for efficient water
patrol. Plans are under way to
equip the rest of the officers with
the necessary boats, motors and
trailers for water patrol, if and when
For the past two years, one of the
major problems in law enforcement
in the Central Florida Region has
been an illegal device known as a
"monkey machine" used by certain
fishermen in the St. Johns River
and Lake George territory. Catfish
are very abundant in the St. Johns
River, and the "monkey machine"
stuns them with electricity carried
by electrodes placed in the water.
The stunned catfish come to the sur-
face, where they are dipped into the
boats. This is a profitable under-
taking, since hundreds of pounds of
catfish may be taken in a single

operation by a group of fishermen
working together.
"Monkey fishing" has been the
subject of a great deal of unfavor-
able comment from sports fishing
interests throughout the State, who
have claimed that "monkey fishing"
has been extremely detrimental to
sports fishing in that particular area
involved. The controversy grew into
such proportions that the Fisheries
Division of the Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission made a
complete investigation of that water
In April, 1956, fisheries biologists,
technicians, helpers and a secretary
set up temporary operations at We-
laka. Experiments were conducted
for several months, and a complete
report was made to the Commission.
The "monkey machine" is an ille-
gal device, outlawed in the entire
United States. Because of this, the
fishermen using this type of device
have been the object of a great many
hours of water patrol by officers,
and have caused the Commission
to buy many thousands of dollars
worth of equipment which would
not have otherwise been necessary.
Plans are presently under way to
make this into a separate area, with
its own crew and Area Supervisor
to combat the illegal types of fishing.
The ardent hunters in Central
Florida has less than 100 miles to
travel to reach any one of the seven
game management areas in the Cen-
tral Region. These game manage-
ment areas include over one-half
million acres. The smallest in area
is Holopaw in Osceola County, with
23,000 acres, while the largest is the
Ocala National Forest with 203,580
acres open to public hunting. The
others are Tomoka (Volusia Coun-
ty), Farmton (Volusia County),
Sumter-Citrus (Sumter and Citrus
Counties), Richloam (Sumter, Her-
nando and Pasco Counties), and
Croom (Hernando and Sumter
Counties). Every species of native
game animal, migratory and non-
migratory game birds and water-
fowl found in Florida are available
to the hunter in this region.
Fish and game management tech-
nicians are available to the public

Kill Comparison for the

Gulf Hammock


for advice and assistance in the de-
velopment of better hunting and
fishing areas. The regional fish
management technician,, based at
Leesburg, annually checks hundreds
of small lakes and ponds and often
assists the information and educa-
tion officers by giving lectures and
talks of a specialized nature. The
fish management technician's aid to
the people of the region may be in
the form of weed control, rough fish
removal or re-stocking where it is
found necessary. During the past
two years, 261 ponds and lakes were
investigated and checked for one of
the above-mentioned reasons. Of
this number, 41 ponds were com-
pletely poisoned to eliminate rough-
fish populations, and later restocked.
Hatchery fish stocked during this
period amounted to 236,000 bream
and 113,000 bass. Total number of
bodies of water stocked was 191.
In addition to regional work, the
technician assisted the Fish Man-
agement Division with selective
poisoning operations on four large
public lakes. One of these lakes,

Central Florida Division Management Areas
Turkey Quail Cat Squir. Duck Dove Bt
58 212 702 29
55 23 5187 741 4
4 198 1
12 144 2776 141 43
38 373 2577 55 2


54 140


Starke Lake, is located in the Cen-
tral Region at Ocoee. Fish survey
work was also done at Lake George
and Lake Apopka with the Fish
Management Division; both of these
lakes are located in the Central
The information and education
officer has one of the most versatile
positions in the Central Florida
Region. He is responsible to the
Chief of Information and Education
and to the regional Manager. It is
his duty to disseminate as much in-
formation as possible to the people
of the region concerning the activi-
ties of the Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission. He gives talks
and lectures and shows movies and
slides to various social, civic and
educational groups. He makes ap-
pearances on television and radio,
supervises numerous fishathons for
children throughout the area, an-
nually mails out thousands of pieces
of material especially prepared by
the Commission, prepares press re-
leases on a local level, and where-
ever possible takes pictures of any
interesting event which may occur
in the region. He may also work as
a part-time radio operator and wild-
life officer if he has nothing else to
It is the hope of the personnel of
the Central Florida Region that they
have been successful in maintaining
their part of the goal of the Game
Commission, which is good conser-
vation and better hunting and fish-
ing throughout the State. 0





1. Regional Office-Lakeland
2. Winter Haven Hatchery
3. Croom Wildlife Management Area
4. Richloam Wildlife Management Area
5. Avon Park Wildlife Management Area
6. Fisheating Creek Wildlife Management
7. Cecil M. Webb Wildlife Management
8. Lee Wildlife Management Area


1. Regional Office-Panama City
2. Commission Main Office-Tallahassee
3. Eglin Wildlife Management Area
4. Blackwater Wildlife Management Area
5. Woodruff Wildlife Management Area
6. Roy S. Gaskin Wildlife Management
7. Liberty Wildlife Management
8. St. Marks Wildlife Management Area
9. Aucilla Wildlife Management Area
10. Leon-Wakulla Wildlife Management
11. Wewahitchka Hatchery
12. Holt Hatchery


1. Regional Office-Ocala
2. Youth Camp-Lake Eaton
3. Ozala Wildlife Management Area
4. Tomoka Wildlife Management Area
5. Farmton Wildlife Management Area
6. Sumter-Citrus Wildlife Management
7. Richloam Wildlife Management Area
8. Leesburg Fisheries Station
9. Communications Hdq.-New Smyrna
10. Aviation Hdq.-Ocala


1. Regional Office-Lake City
2. Aucilla Wildlife Management Area
3. Steinhatchee Wildlife Management
4. Gulf Hammock Wildlife Management
5. Osceola and Lake Butler Wildlife Man-
agement Areas
6. Camp Blanding Wildlife Management
7. Little Talbot Island Wildlife Manage-
ment Area
8. Hyacinth Control Hdq.-Williston







~~i. C





MA CLLIER t uccf
,-~ I P F o O L IE RC~)j~'B R O W AR i D

L ~U~k ~~OLLIE~

0 10 CYPRe S




Regional Office-Okeechobee
Collier Wildlife Management Area-Collier
Big Cypress Wildlife Management Area-
Collier County
Everglades Wildlife Management Area-
Broward, Dade and Palm Beach Counties
J. W. Corbett Wildlife Management Area-
Palm Beach County
Okeechobee Wildlife Management Area-
Okeechobee County







Since the adult citizens of to-
morrow are the youth of today,
the proper training of young people
is paramount in any education pro-
The Florida Game and Fresh
Water Fish Commission has long
placed great emphasis on the im-
portance of developing a program
designed to educate our youth in the
proper concepts of natural resource
Recognizing its obligations in
youth education, the Commission,
in 1952, created its Junior Conser-
vation Club program. The clubs
were later banded together in a
Youth Conservation Club League
of Florida, sponsored by the Com-
mission. A summer camp training
program was also initiated.
During the ensuing years, the pro-
gram has progressed to the point
where an expansion of the Com-
mission's youth education program
was not only desirable, but almost
mandatory. Public demand for fur-
ther Commission sponsored youth
education services made such an ex-
pansion necessary.
During the biennial period cov-
ered by this report, the Commis-
sion's Information and Education
Division re-defined its youth educa-
tion program, and shifted the em-
phasis from the Junior Conservation
Clubs and the League to a program
which would be more inclusive with-
out neglecting either the Clubs, the
League or the Camp.
The entire program was re-evalu-
ated in the first portion of 1955, and,
in March of the same year, the title
of Supervisor of Youth Education
was established as an integral part
of the Information and Education
Division. This was done by a clari-
fication of purposes and a re-assign-
ment of duties and responsibilities,

without increasing the number of
personnel involved.
The responsibility of developing
a multi-phased youth education pro-
gram was assigned to the Supervisor
of Youth Education, who was for-
merly known only as the Executive
Secretary of the Junior Conserva-
tion Club League. As the result, in
the past two years greater attempts
have been made to reach as many
young people in Florida as possible
with an adequate conservation
The goal of youth conservation
education, however, c a n n o t be
achieved without a definition of
an exact purpose. To develop the
conservation education program for
youth, a set of five-fold concepts has
been used:
1. To train our youth toward a
better understanding of con-

servation of our natural re-
2. To instill in the minds of our
youth a greater appreciation
of the out of doors and to rec-
ognize the great need of pro-
tecting and improving the
State's outdoors areas.
3. To teach them the wise use
and planned maintenance of
our soils and waters.
4. To guide them in the sound
use and intelligent manage-
ment of our fish and wildlife.
5. To help them foster the proper
utilization and systematic per-
petuation of our forests.
Using these five-fold concepts as
the basis for the program, it has
been necessary to employ various
methods to capture and hold the
interest and cooperation of our
youth. To stimulate their thinking

to a better understanding of conser-
vation of our natural resources, the
program has been designed to in-
clude as many challenges as possible.
The four divisions of the program
are: Conservation Clubs, Conserva-
tion Club League, State Youth Con-
servation Camp, and State Wide
Youth Educational Program.
by the Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission, has developed to a
stage where it now includes 20 or-
ganized clubs in the State League.
These clubs are found in some of the
principal cities of the State of Flor-
ida. Other than the 20 affiliated
clubs, there area 50 youth conserva-
tion clubs known to have been spon-
taneously organized in the state dur-
ing the past few years. Whenever a
club is organized, it is not mandatory
for the club to join the League. The
club may remain independent, but
is still guaranteed the many services
which the Commission extends in
its educational program.
The purpose of creating these
clubs is to bring together in a com-
mon bond of interest all young peo-
ple who are interested in fishing,
hunting, conservation, and the out-
These clubs are organized under
the co-sponsorship of the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
mission. Any interested adult group
can sponsor one of the clubs. The
development of these clubs in the
State has been gradual and is con-
stantly making progress each year.
created for the purpose of bringing
together the clubs, and their mem-
bers, to consolidate their efforts to-
ward a greater comprehension of
conservation. Only those youth
clubs that have organized and have
a charter and by-laws are eligible

for League membership.
The clubs that join the League
are required to meet certain stand-
ards; when these standards are met,
they are invited to join and partici-
pate in all League activities.
Each year, at an annual meeting
held at the Youth Conservation
Camp, delegates from the various
affiliated clubs convene for the pur-
pose of electing officers, and for the
purpose of discussing Club and
League business. At the annual
meeting, the Board of Directors,
elected by the delegates, prepares
an agenda for the ensuing year, and
makes recommendations for the an-
nual summer camp.
The Board governs and creates
policies for the League and affiliates.
TION CAMP has been established
for the purpose of giving our youth
an opportunity to enjoy the out-
doors, and to learn more about con-
servation. At Camp, they join forces

for a week of combined recreation
and outdoor education. During the
encampment, the youthful conserva-
tionists learn new concepts of con-
servation. At Camp, they are g'ven
the opportunity to recognize that
conservation of our natural re-
sources means the wise use of these
resources with the greatest good for
the largest number of people for the
longest time. They learn that the
wealth of the Nation depends on its
available resources and upon the re-
sourcefulness of its people. At
Camp, they are made aware that
conservation applies to all people,
rural and urban, and to be most
effective must be practiced uni-
The Youth Conservation Camp is
located in the Ocala National Forest
on Lake Eaton. The Camp covers
an area of 57 acres. In 195 a mess
hall, which will accommodate 400
young campers, was constructed.
The building is also used for recre-
ational purposes. Ten concrete-
block cabins were also constructed,
to accommodate a total of 100 camp-
ers. A power line has been installed
to supply electricity. A winding
road trails from State Road 314 to
the center of Camp. The road was
constructed by the State Road De-
partment in 1954. A sandy bach
has been pumped up, and a dock and
swimming float constructed.
During the summer of 1953, the
Camp operated for 8 weeks. In 1956,
it operated for 7 weeks. The com-
bined total enrollment for these two
years was 818.
Since the beginning of the Camp
in 1954, over 1,000 young campers
have attended the summer camp and
school at Lake Eaton.
The operation of the Camp is the

direct responsibility of the Super-
visor, who also serves as Camp Di-
rector. All operation, maintenance,
programming, and scheduling is the
responsibility of the Director of the
Plans for future construction call
for an additional 10 dormitory-style
buildings, and a recreation building.
The recreation building will in-
clude a conservation library, sick
bay, administration offices, work
shops, stage, small auditorium, and
lecture rooms. Plans also include
additional docks for boating, fishing
and swimming, and a larger beach.
The encampment for 1956 was the
third held at Lake Eaton. Two pre-
vious encampments were held in the
southern part of Florida. Operation
of the Youth Conservation Camp
and School for 1957 will be the sixth
annual encampment.
Programming for each summer
camp is considered most important
for the young campers. Consider-
able attention is given to outlining
a program which will be interesting.
Through the experiences of past
years, it has been determined that
a program offering the greatest in-
terest is one which includes active
participation. The lectures or talks
have been minimized; and wherever
instruction is given to the young
people, discussion groups are organ-
ized. These discussion groups allow
for a greater exchange of ideas and
more participation of individuals.
Definite progress has been made
in the past few years in creating
schedules which are appealing to
both boys and girls. The schedules
include ample opportunity for free
periods in which to do the things
that they enjoy most.
Each encampment is evaluated.
The following year's program is de-
veloped by studying recommenda-
tions from the preceding year. In-
novations are constantly employed
to improve the program. The Di-
rector and counselors are alert to
evaluate any part of the scheduled
program, and to make the necessary
changes which will bring about the
most successful results.
Counseling is the most important
phase of the summer camping pro-
gram. It is important to have quali-
fied counselors who know how to
work with, and understand, their
young charges. Each encampment
calls for better and more qualified
and enthusiastic counselors. These
men and women must have a sin-
cere interest and desire to help the
During the past two years, at the
conclusion of each week's encamp-
ment, examinations have been given
to determine what each youngster

learned while in attendance. The
results have been both stimulating
and interesting. In the two years,
304 award badges have been pre-
sented for outstanding grades. This
means that approximately 37% of
the entire enrollment qualified to
receive these badges.
a closer working relationship with
schools and other organizations.
These organizations are Boy Scouts,
Girl Scouts, Future Farmers, Future
Foresters, 4-H Clubs, and others.
The purpose for presenting this
program to these organizations is to
stress special emphasis on the con-
servation of our natural resources.
A special Conservation Program
has been created for the Boy Scouts
of America in Florida. Negotiations
are being made with the Director
of Programming for the Boy Scouts
of America at National Headquar-
ters to have this program accepted
in Florida.
A similar program is being con-
sidered for the Girl Scouts.
The Youth Conservation Section
of the Information and Education
Division has broadened its scope
to include all youth agencies. Assis-
tance is given either directly to the
youth organizations, or through the
school system. Plans are also being
made to introduce a program for the
elementary as well as the secondary
Preparations are being made to
work in conjunction with the State
Board of Education in the Outdoor
Education Project recommended by
the N.E.A. for school curriculum.
This Outdoor Education Project for
schools is sponsored by the National
Education Association through its
Association of Physical Education,
Health, and Recreation.
Future workshops are to be set
up for teachers as well as laymen.
In many counties, the schools are
recognizing the value of the pro-
gram and are working closer with
resource agencies.
The Information and Education
Division, through its officers, is con-
stantly promoting better relation-
ships with the schools and teachers.
Some officers have been assigned
specific projects to promote and cre-
ate teacher's conservation clinics.
New ideas are constantly consid-
ered for the promotion of any pro-
gram which will interpret proper
conservation concepts. Future plans
call for creation of workshops and
clinics for the non-professional, and
the sportsmen.
Efforts are being exerted to pre-
sent a program to the State Board of
Education for establishing training

periods in conservation for teachers.
The Youth Education section is
also interested in promoting and
working with conservation commit-
tees of civic and fraternal clubs.
During the years covered by this
biennial report, 1955-56, the Super-
visor of Youth Education attended
193 meetings of Junior Conservation
Clubs and other organizations. He
presented talks at 141 of these meet-
ings, appearing before approximate-
ly 7,250 persons. These figures do
not include television or radio ap-
During the biennium, the Youth
Education office at Ocala distributed
over 4,000 pieces of literature to
interested persons. In addition, over
400 letters were received, and over
1,000 letters sent out.
The Supervisor also wrote a total
of 24 articles for the Junior Conser-
vationist Column of FLORIDA
WILDLIFE Magazine. He also
wrote three booklets: "How to Or-
ganize a Youth Conservation Club,"
"How to Operate a Youth Conser-
vation Club," and "Florida's Youth
Conservation Camp and League."
During the biennium, a state-wide
senior advisory committee of volun-
teer citizens was created, with the
committee to serve in an advisory
capacity to the clubs and the League.
During the biennium, a total of
125 Conservation Projects were cre-
ated for use in the League Conser-
vation Merit System of accomplish-
A camp caretaker was employed
during the biennium, and suitable
living quarters arranged.
On an overall basis, the Youth
Education Program has made con-
siderable progress during the past
biennium, especially in the consoli-
dation of programs and activities,
formulation of new policies and pro-
cedures, and the creation of new
printed material and a system of
Detailed reports of all operations
are available to interested persons.