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Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress

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Title:
Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress
Uniform Title:
Lumber World Review
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Proceedings of the ... Southern Forestry Congress
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Southern Forestry Congress.
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Chapel Hill, N.C.
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Southern Forestry Congress
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annual
regular
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English
Edition:
6th, 1924, Jan 28-30
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12 v. : ; 23 cm.

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Forests and forestry -- Congresses ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Congresses -- Southern States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
conference publication ( marcgt )

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Dates or Sequential Designation:
1st (1916)-12th (1930).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Published in Feb. 25, 1922 issue of Lumber World Review.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Suspended 1917-1919.
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Publisher and place of publication vary with each edition.
General Note:
Title varies slightly.

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University of Florida
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PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

Sixth
Southern Forestry
Congress


HELD AT
SAVANNAH, GEORGIA JANUARY 28-30, 1924



































THE SEEMAN PRINTERY, INC.
DURHAM, N. C.
1925

















OFFICERS

OF THE

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS



PRESIDENT. BONNELL H. STONE, Pfister & Vogel Land Co.
BLAIRSVILLE, GA.
VICE-PRESIDENT. P. R. CAMP, Vice-President Camp Mfg. Co.
FRANKLIN, VA.
SECRETARY-TREASURER R. D. FORBES,
Director Southern Forest Experiment Station
NEW ORLEANS, LA.
ASSISTANT SECRETARY J. ROLAND WESTON,
H. Weston Lumber Co.
LOCTOWN, MISS.
CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE .JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director Geological and Economic Survey
CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
CHAIRMAN FINANCE COMMITTEE :J. K. JOHNSON,
Forester, Great Southern Lumber Co.
BOGALUSA, LA.
CHAIRMAN PUBLICITY COMMITTEE .J. S. HOLMES, State Forester CHAPEL HILL, N. C.
CHAIRMAN LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE A. B. HASTINGS,
Assistant State Forester
CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA.

EXECUTIMIE COMMITTEE-The above officers, together with all former
Presidents of the Congress, constitute the Executive Committee.

THE FORMER PRESIDENTS ARE: Elected
COL. JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Chapel Hill, N. C.-1916 HON. HENRY E. HARDTNER, Urania, La 1920
MR. ROY L. HOGUE, Jackson, Miss 1921
MR. W. D. TYLER, Dante, Va 1922




















EDITOR'S NOTE
In view of the delay of twelve months in getting these proceedings published, and because it is necessary to keep the cost of publication within the means of the Congress, it has been decided by the Executive Committee to publish only such part of the proceedings of this Congress as relate to the Naval Stores Industry. This seems most appropriate, not only because Savannah, where the Congress met, is in the heart of the country where this industry has been flourishing for the past fifty years, but even more because the Naval Stores operators attended the Congress in such numbers and contributed in such large part to the success of the meeting. Not only, therefore, have a number of very interesting and valuable papers contributed by the speakers named on the program been omitted, but a considerable part of the discussion as taken by the stenographer has been cut out. The Editor and the Executive Committee of the Congress herewith desire to extend their apologies for taking this liberty with the Proceedings.
J. S. HOLMES, Editor
March 15, 1925.













CONTENTS
PAGE
PROGRAM OF SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS . 7 INTRODUCTORY BY MAYOR SEABROOK AND COL. PRATT-.11 LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE 12
LETTER FROM SECRETARY WALLACE 14
LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT'S PRIVATE SECRETARY, Hon E. T. Clarke .15
"THE FRENCH NAVAL STORES SYSTEM AND ITS LESSONS,"
Col. W. B. Greeley 17
"PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY:
THE PRODUCERS PART," L. V. Pringle 27
"CAN THE FACTOR PREVENT RECKLESS TURPENTINING?"
H. L. Kayton .------ --- 30
DISCUSSION: "THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY"
Mr. Thomas Gamble, Temporary Chairman . 33 Mr. C. F. Speli 36
Mr. A. K. Sessomns 36
Mr. C. S. Hodges 3.7
Mr. A. V. Wood 39
Mr. A. S. Carr 40
Mr. Thomas Gamble 41
Mr. J. G. Pace 41
Mr. Thomas Gamble 42, 49, 52
Resolution 43
Dr. F. P. Veitch 44
Mr. 0. H. L. Wernicke 47, 49









6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

Mr. J. E. Lockwood 50
Mr. J. S. Holmes 51, 52
Dr. Austin Cary 53
PERSONNEL OF COMMITTEES 53, 54
RESOLUTION ON DEATH OF MR. M. L. ALEXANDER ---------------- 55
REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 56
REPORT OF RESOLUTIONS COMMITTFF 58
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLACE OF MEETING 62
REPORT OF TREASURER 63, 64
APPENDIX I. CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF THE
SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS WITH LIST OF CHARTER
MEMBERS 65
APPENDIX II. BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS . 73
APPENDIX III. LIST OF PATRONS OF THE SIXTH SOUTHERN
FORESTRY CONGRESS 76
APPENDIX IV. LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES ATTENDING
THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 79









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


PROGRAM


MONDAY, JANUARY 28 10:00 A. M.
Invocation-Rev. W. A. Jonnard, St. John's Episcopal Church,
Savannah.
Address of Welcome-Hon. Paul E. Seabrook, Mayor of
Savannah.
Reply-Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, President Western N. C.
Inc., Asheville, N. C.
President's Address-Bonnell H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land
Co., Blairsville, Ga.
Topic-The Naval Stores Industry:
"Prolonging the Life of the Industry-the Producer's
Part." Address by L. V. Pringle, Vice-President
Gillican-Chipley Co., Inc., Biloxi, Miss.
"Can the Factor Prevent Reckless Turpentining ?" Address
by H. L. Kayton, Vice-President Carson Naval Stores
Co., Savannah.
Discussion, led by Thomas Gamble, Editor Naval Stores Review, Savannah.
Appointment of Committees.
1:30 P. M.
Automobile tour of Savannah, followed by an oyster roast at
the Savannah Yacht Club, and drive to Tybee Beach.
8:15 P. M.
Illustrated Lecture-"What Goes on Inside a Turpentined
Tree," by Miss Eloise Gerry, Forest Products Laboratory, U. S. Forest Service, Madison, Wis.
Motion Pictures-Louisiana Department of Conservation, and
U. S. Forest Service.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


TUESDAY, JANUARY 29
10:00 A, M.
Topic-Forestry and the South's Business:
"Forest Fires-a Menace to the South Atlantic Ports."
Address by Matthew Hale, President South Atlantic
Maritime Corporation, Washington, D. C.
"A Business Man's View of the Cut-Over Land Problems."
Address by 0. H. L. Wernicke, President Pensacola
Tar and Turpentine Co., Gull Point, Fla.
"Florida's Forests and Florida's Agriculture." Address
by R. W. Bennett, Secretary Standard Container Manufacturers, Jacksonville, Fla.
"The Surest Crop on the Farm." Address by H. M. Curran, Extension Specialist, Raleigh, N. C.
"The Interest of Banks and Trust Companies in Forestry."
Address by Eliot Norton, Interstate Trust & Banking
Co., New Orleans, La.
Discussion of each paper as presented.

2:00 P. M.
Topic-The Responsibility for Forestry:
"Forestry-a Problem for Us All." Address by David L.
Goodwillie, Chairman National Forestry Policy Committee, National Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, Ill.
"The State's Part." Address by member of State Forestry
Board, Alabama.
"Can the Hardwood Manufacturer Practise Forestry?"
Address by Phil D. Houston, Houston Bros., Vicksburg, Miss,
"Forestry for the Pine Manufacturer." Address by J. M.
Camp, Vice-President Camp Manufacturing Co.,
Franklin, Va.
Discussion of each papet as presented.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


8:15 P. M.
Introductory Address-Hon. Clifford Walker, Governor of
Georgia, Chairman.
"The Newspapers' Interest in Forestry." Address by Major
James A. Holloman, Managing Editor, Atlanta Constitution, Atlanta, Ga.
"France Points the Way to America." Address by Col. Win. B.
Greeley, Chief Forester, United States Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 30 10:00 A. M.
Report of the Secretary-R. D. Forbes, New Orleans, La. Reports of Standing Committees-Executive, Col. Joseph Hyde
Pratt; Finance, J. K. Johnson, Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa, La.; Legislation, A. B. Hastings, Asst. State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.; Publicity,
J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C. Resolutions.
Elections. 2:00 P. M.

Round Table Conference-State Delegations from South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
Presiding Officers:
South Carolina-Prof. Andrew C. Moore, University of
South Carolina, Columbia, President South Carolina
Forestry Association.
Georgia-A. V. Wood, The Downing Co., Brunswick,
Vice-President Georgia Forestry Association.
Florida-W. L'E. Barnett, Mount Dora, President Florida
Forestry Association.

4:00 P. M.

"The South's Opportunity"-Illustrated Lecture by Dr. Austin
Cary, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.










10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

8 -00 P. M.
Tree Identification Contest for pupils of Fifth, Sixth, Seventh,
Eighth, and High School Grades, Savannah SchoolsConducted by J. S. Holmes, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Motion Pictures of Wild Life-Louisiana Department of Conservation.
Announcement of Prize Winners.













Proceedings
OF THE

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS
HELD AT SAVANNAH, GEORGIA
JANUARY 28-30, 1924.

The Sixth Southern Forestry Congress was called to order by the President, Mr. Bonnell H. Stone, of Blairsville, Ga., at 10:00 A. M., January 28th, in the Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Ga. After an invocation by Dr. S. B. McGlohon of St. Paul's Church, Savannah, the Mayor, Hon. Paul E. Seabrook, gave a cordial welcome to the Congress. "You have wisely selected Savannah as the place of this meeting," he said, "as she is known as the Forest City of the South. We have centered here, as you know, many activities that depend on the raw materials of the forest and you will find here ready sympathy and willing cooperation in the advancement of everything looking to the protection and conservation of the raw materials on which we here are so dependent. You know, no doubt, that Savannah is the premier Naval Stores port of the world. Her lumber interests are also extensive, and there are other activities that are dependent on the raw material that we get only from the forests."
In his reply to the Mayor's courteous words of welcome, Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, President of Western North Carolina, Inc., and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Congress, spoke in part as follows:
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, Asheville, N. C.: The restoration of the Naval Stores Industry, or perhaps I had better say the increase of the Naval Stores Industry, in Georgia is of such importance to Savannah that every man, woman and child in the City and surrounding sections should be asking what can I do to bring this about. The Port of Savannah is largely dependent upon the Naval Stores Industry and no one thing that the City of Savannah and the State of Georgia can do tc re establish the importance of the Port of Savannah will be giver greater results than to build up the Naval Stores Industry.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


The first step towards this is for the State to pass adequate legislation for the protection of the forests of Georgia from fire.
The question of re-forestation is being agitated throughout the whole country but no State is in a position to undertake or even to consider re-forestation until legislation has been passed that will insure the protection of the forest from fire. Reforestation is necessary not only for the Naval Stores industry, but to insure the South of an adequate supply of lumber. Through the investigations of expert Foresters of the U. S. Forest Service it has been determined that not only can the long leaf pine be reproduced in Georgia and other Southern States, but that the Slash Pine which is a more rapid growing tree than the Long Leaf Pine and almost equal in its turpentine product, can be grown successfully in the South.
The cooperation of the Federal Government in acquiring large areas of land in the South for the production of timber which are designated as National Forests should be an incentive for the State to acquire areas for State Forests to be used for the same purpose. The Federal Government has already acquired 1,500,000 acres of land in the Southern States for National Forests. Of this amount 360,000 acres are in North Carolina, and during 1923 there were disbursed amongst the Counties of North Carolina, in which National Forest areas occur, sums of money representing 25 per cent of the income of the National Forests which was equal to approximately the property tax of the County on the land area in the County at an assessed valuation of $5.00 per acre. This is the promised income in lieu of taxes.
The following communications were then read.

LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE TO THE
CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
November 13, 1923.
My dear Colonel Pratt:
It is a matter of sincere regret to me that I am unable to attend the meeting of the Southern Forestry Congress to be held at Savannah next January. This organization has undertaken a most commendable public











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


enterprise in awakening the people of the South to the value of their forest resources and in bringing them together for mutual counsel to the end that these resources may be perpetuated. I am informed that the Southern Forestry Congress has been identified with most of the progressive developments toward forest protection and reforestation which have been launched in the Southern States during recent years; and that its recurring sessions have become clearing houses for the discussion of public and private developments in forestry, thus rendering an admirable service both to your own region and to the entire Nation.
It is scarcely necessary for me to emphasize the importance of reforestation in the United States. The American people came into the possession of the greatest wealth in virgin timber with which any people in the history of the world was ever endowed. Our unstinted use of our forests has made us dependent upon their products in agriculture, manufacturing industries, and living standards to a degree that is not paralleled elsewhere in the world. But, because we have not as yet learned to grow timber in any degree commensurate with our use of timber, we find ourselves confronted with an approaching shortage of raw forest materials.
The necessity of moving aggressively toward the growing of timber both as a public activity and through the encouragement of private reforestation is probably greater in the States covered by the Southern Forestry Congress than in any other portion of the Union of comparable size. With an aggregate area of forest land or potential forest land in excess of 220 million acres, with a remarkable variety of valuable forest trees, and with climatic conditions exceptionally favorable to the growth of timber, it is not wide of the mark to say that this region contains more than half of the future wood producing resources of the United States. A large portion of the forest land of the South has already been cut over. In many sections you are experiencing the exhaustion of the original supplies of virgin timber, the moving out of sawmills, and the consequent loss of industry and population. You are face to face with the problem created by enormous areas of denuded and idle land. In the economy of the South itself and in the economy of the entire country, it is imperative that the portion of these areas which is unsuited for agriculture shall not remain land without a crop.
The development of practical ways and means for securing timber growth is a matter of the highest importance which should more and more enlist the efforts of our national and state governments and of our citizens. Consequently, I can but wish God-speed and the largest measure of success to the Southern Forestry Congress.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) CALVIN COOLIDGE.
Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chairman
Executive Committee,
Southern Forestry Congress,
Chapel Hill, North Carolina.











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
WASHINGTON
January 17th, 1924.
Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt,
Chairman, Executive Committee,
Southern Forestry Congress,
Chapel Hill, N. C.

Dear Colonel Pratt:
Let me express through this letter my very real appreciation of your invitation to be with the Southern Forestry Congress at its meeting in Savannah this month, and also my profound regret because I am not able to do this.
Although I shall not actually be with you I need not say, I hope, that I am heartily with you in your aims and purposes. To my mind, the Southern Forestry Congress is performing a very real, a very necessary, and a very vital service not only to the South but to the entire country.
So far as the forestry situation is concerned, this country ha's but little time to delay before applying remedial measures. We have danced overlong to the tune of "Endless Resources," little realizing that the piper must some day be paid. We have reduced our original 822,000,000 acres of virgin forest land to less than 138,000,000. This land is being cutover now at the rate of about 10,000,000 acres yearly.
It would seem bromidic indeed to say today, especially to such a gathering as this, that forest land is one of our basic national resources and that our national welfare depends upon its productivity. Yet the fact that from a quarter of a century to more than a century is required to mature the forest crop has a significance that is neither widely nor deeply realized. Shortages in forest-grown material cannot be rectified in a season or two like shortages in wheat or cotton. If the people of the United States wait until the injury to social and industrial wellbeing for lack of wood crops is overwhelming, the loss in time before any remedy could be made effective would create little short of a national disaster.
In furthering tree growth on a national scale it niust be realized that an obligation rests upon the public to reduce the forest hazard by legislation and by policy functions directed at the origin of forest fires, and also to assist land owners in the cost of fire control and fire suppression. The public has a very specific obligation to adapt the taxation of forest growing land and what it produces to the reasonable requirements of an undertaking which requires for its harvesting more than a quarter of a century.
The results of treating our timber as a mine rather than as an everrenewable crop has been to leave 81,000,000 acres of forest land largely barren, 250,0000,000 acres that are only partially productive, and each year add to these from 5,000,000 to 10,000,000 acres.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Through the establishing of forests that are permanent, abundant, and well distributed, this country must and shall be placed upon a selfsustaining basis. I hope and confidently trust that this day may not be too long delayed. I know that the farsighted, well directed efforts of such an organization as yours can do much toward hastening the dawn.
Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) HENRY C. WALLACE, Secretary.

LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY TO THE PRESIDENT

THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON
January 12, 1924.
My dear Mr. Forbes:
Your letter of December 29th, transmitting resolutions adopted by the Fifth Southern Forestry Congress, is before me. I have been at some pains and effort to examine into this matter somewhat carefully. I think I can best answer it by forwarding to you the substance of a letter written by the Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. Wallace, to whom the resolutions were referred. The essential features of Secretary Wallace's letter I am enclosing herewith.
Most sincerely yours,
(Signed) E. T. CLARK, Secretary.
Mr. R. D. Forbes,
Secretary, Southern Forestry Congress, Inc., 323 Customhouse,
New Orleans, La.
Enclosure.

QUOTATION FROM A LETTER OF SECRETARY WALLACE

"As to Federal forestry legislation, the resolution covers practically the provisions of the bill introduced in the House of Representatives on February 7, 1923, by Hon. John D. Clarke, of New York. Before introducing this bill, Mr. Clarke submitted a draft copy to President Harding, who gave it his approval in a letter to Mr. Clarke, dated January 24, 1923. 1 also heartily approved that bill, and am now prepared to advocate the passage of the bill (S. 1182) similar in many respects, introduced on December 15 by Senator McNary, Chairman of the Select Committee on Reforestation of the United States Senate, which, for the past year, has held hearings in our different forest regions and given much thought to the subject. This bill would authorize, among other appropriations, appropriations as large as $2,500,000 each year for co6peration with the States in protecting forest lands from fire and in study-











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


ing the effects of present tax laws upon forest perpetuation, which is an amount more nearly commensurate, in my opinion, with the importance and seriousness of these problems.
"The resolution refers to research conducted by the Forest Products Laboratory and also that of the Federal Forest Experiment Stations. The purpose of the latter is to secure a technical basis for the growing of timber, and of the former to secure the scientific information necessary to reduce waste and permit the effective utilization of wood. The present drain upon the forests of the United States through cutting and fire is estimated at approximately 25 billion cubic feet annually. At the present time this drain is being replaced by new growth only to the extent of 6 billion cubic feet, or approximately one-fourth. By a series of simple measures, such, for example, as universal fire protection and the leaving of seed trees where necessary to insure a new timber crop, it would be possible ultimately to increase the growth of the forests of the United States to approximately 14 billion feet. The gap between a possible growth of 14 billion and 25 billion cubic feet can be made up only by intensive forest management. Such management must depend upon a technical knowledge of trees and forests of a character which can be secured only by forest experiment stations. With the necessary basic information, it would be possible ultimately to grow upon the present area of forest land an amount of timber slightly in excess of the present drain. The place of the forest experiment station is, therefore, to furnish the scientific basis upon which, alone, timber growth can be increased from 14 billion to 25 billion cubic feet. In a number of important forest regions we now have no forest experiment stations, and in all of the remainder the force and equipment is so limited as to make it possible to cover only a part of the most urgent problems and that in an unsatisfactory and inadequate way.
"Twenty-two and one-half billion cubic feet are cut from our forests each year and out of this total we waste, avoidably and otherwise, about 9 billion. By the elimination of obvious waste in the woods, the manufacture of lumber, and in its remanufactured and use by the general application of technical knowledge already available, and by thoroughgoing research in the properties, protection, and utilization of wood, it should be possible to save at least 6Y billion board feet of lumber alone each year and additional amounts of other material. This saving is essential to extend the life of our present timber supply and thus help to bridge the gap between the existing virgin forests and new timber crops. Such a saving should mean greater profits to manufacturers and by increasing the preparation of the crop which can be utilized it should help to make timber growing more profitable. The research which will make possible a large part of the saving is, broadly, the function of the Forest Products Laboratory. But the Laboratory with its present personnel and equipment is able to cover only a part of the most urgent problems which underlie the effective utilization of timber and the reduction of waste.
"The recommendation for the continued acquisition of forest land by the Federal Government and for an appropriation for that purpose of at least two million dollars is in accord with the views of the National









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Forest Reservation Commission and of the Forest Service. While prebent financial conditions operate against an appropriation as large as that recommended, the members of the Southern Forestry Congress no doubt will be gratified to know that the budget for the fiscal year 1925 carries an item of one million dollars for that purpose, this representing an increase of $550,000 over the appropriation for the present year.
"There is complete lactord between the War Department and the Department of Agriculture on the subject of devoting to National Forest uses the areas suitable for such uses which were acquired for military purposes during the war but not at present needed for such purposes. Careful examinations have been made of the majority of the more important of such areas; the reports thereon have been reviewed by a joint committee representing both Departments, and the Secretary of War has already given his approval to legislation which will make a number of larger camps National Forests, subject, however, to unhampered use for military purposes should the need arise. I am sure that the progress in this line is in complete accord with the wishes of the Southern Forestry Congress and that the results will meet their highest expectations."

THE FRENCH NAVAL STORES SYSTEM AND ITS LESSONS
COL. W. B. GREELEY
CHIEF, TJ. S. FOREST SERVICE
It is apparent to all students of the situation in the southern pine forests that the time has come for the naval stores industry of the South to look very keenly into its future, to take stock of its methods, and to give thought to the natural resources upon which it is dependent, with a view to shaping its course to meet a radical change in circumstances. I believe that our industry has much to learn from the French in this preparation for the future. In order that we may fairly decide whether or not this is true we might take a look at the present situation in the American naval stores industry and compare it with the situation in France. Then, if possible, we will ascertain the factors that are accountable for the great differences that exist. When the principles that underlie the success of the French industry have been clearly set out where we can see and weigh them, we can consider the practicability and desirability of their application to our conditions.
The American naval stores industry has dominated the world's trade in those essential commodities, rosin and turpen-









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


tine, since early colonial days, but the industry is now on the wane. The crest of production has passed and the end of the industry as a major activity of the South is definitely in sight. The industry as we have known it, is doomed for the simple reason that the old stand of longleaf and slash pine from which the raw product is obtained is about to be exhausted and no adequate second crop has come to take its place in continuing the supply. Such second growth as is present bids fair to be removed from consideration at an early date through the use of methods not adapted to realizing its full value.
The once green forest of longleaf pine that covered the coastal plain from Virginia to Texas is now sadly depleted. The best figures available show that of the original longleaf pin I e forest which covered one hundred to one hundred and thirty million acres, only fifteen million acres are still uncut and this remainder is being cut over at the rate of two million acres per annum; a decade will see its practical finish. Second growth timber is being cut also as fast as it reaches merchantable size. Wood turpentine can be produced from stumps and tops and this form of production, undoubtedly, has a future of promise, but the gum turpentine and rosin industry must have green timber to work on, and the passing of the longleaf pine forest automatically chokes it off at the source.
The output of naval stores fluctuates from season to season but has been gradually falling since the peak year of 1909. The number of turpentine farms is decreasing. Each year an increasing number of turpentine operators must give up turpentining and go into something else, because no timber can be found on which to place cups. Operators have followed the longleaf south-ward to the Everglades of Florida and westward to the plains of Texas and, being thrown back by these outward limits of the spec ' ies, are now combing over afresh their hunting grounds of long ago, picking up scattered pieces passed by before as too insignificant or too poor to work and supplementing them with crops of cups placed on saplings that have grown up since the first Operation. In the last five years operators, particularly in Georgia and since 1920 in the Carolinas, have been depending upon second growth, frequently immature, for a large part of their output. Unf fortunately because of the method of working followed, they are rapidly destroying the main hope for the future.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


While the distribution and financing of naval stores has been a stabilized part of the industry for a great many years as is shown by the history of this city, the operations in the woods have been of a transient nature, always on the move, ever in the backwoods. The thought and practice have been to get the maximum amount of gum out of the trees in the minimum of time and move on to pastures green. There was ever, until the last few years, plenty more timber just beyond the horizon, westward or southward, ready to be worked and nobody worried much about the future. Trees were seldom worked more than four or five years and stills were seldom operated in one location for more than ten years, many for less. The longleaf pine belt from Virginia to Texas is spotted with thousands of old turpentine camps, of which nothing exists now save a few bricks where the old still kettle stood. While there may be some, I do not know of a town that has grown up from a turpentine still and has been maintained permanently as such by woods operation for naval stores. I know of no permanent system of roads nor of any permanent schools or churches that have been built and maintained by or for a population depending upon turpentine operations.
The typical turpentine camp is of flimsy, temporary construction set away off in the wilderness. Such a place usually fails to satisfy the natural cravings of the average American citizen for what he considers the common necessities of life. Partly due to the isolation and the comparative hardships of the life, the woods end of our industry is frequently embarrassed by the labor situation. The only class of common labor attracted is difficult to hold; the annual labor turn-over in the average camp is enormous. Recruiting his force often takes as much of a manager's time as any phase of the operation. The supply of labor is fluctuating and often insufficient, and by the same token, wages, the biggest item in the cost of naval stores, may vary tremendously from year to year.
Now let us take a look at the French Industry. I shall not attempt to describe here the French methods in detail nor burden you with statistics of yields, costs, etc. I simply want to give you a bird's eye view of the industry as a whole. As you know, French naval stores are produced almost exclusively in the Landes Region of France from an area of less than two million










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acres. The Landes was originally an enormous swamp in the rainy season and an arid, sandy desert the balance of the year. It was reclaimed, drained and planted to maritime pine, starting about one hundred and twenty-five years ago. The project was carried on in the face of many obstacles and the reclamation of this land and its afforestation stand today as one of the greatest and most successful efforts on the part of man to radically change the face of nature.
The maritime pine is not as good a producer of gum, nor is it nearly so valuable for saw timber as our longleaf and slash pines. If you can imagine such a thing, it looks like a cross between a loblolly and a spruce pine. Is is a fast grower and a prolific seed bearer. The French originally planted this trees in the Landes, though by far the greater bulk of the present forest is the result of natural reproduction, the forests originally planted having been worked out and cut for saw timber and their place taken by a second crop. The pine reaches saw timber size at around seventy years from seed, when it is cut, yielding from seven to ten thousand feet per acre of saw timber and a considerable amount of ties, poles, cordwood, and charcoal in addition. This alone is a mighty good crop for a soil originally as poor as beach sand, but the raising of saw timber is really a side issue with the French timber owner in the Landes. His main crop is turpentine and rosin.
The French developed their method of gum extraction and the system of management of their turpentine orchards on the basis of timber production rather than timber mining. Their methods are the result of over a century of experience in which there has been ever present the grim necessity of replacing old crops with new on the same ground, for they have never had any reason to believe that their stock of turpentine timber was inexhaustible. One hundred years ago they were where the naval stores industry of the South now finds itself, only in a very much harder case.
Now after a hundred years or more of existence what are the conditions existing in the French industry? Let me, as briefly as I may, paint a word picture of the Landes as I saw it in 1917 and 1918. It is a gently rolling sandy plain roughly triangular in shape, containing slightly less than two million acres, in the southwest of France near the coast, covered from










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boundary to boundary with an unbroken forest of maritime pine in all stages of development from seedling to saw timber, every acre of which has either been planted or is the result of seed from planted trees. North and south through the heart of this area runs one of the main trunk line railroads of France from which, every ten or twelve miles, feeder rail lines branch out to the east and west penetrating to the outer boundaries of the region. As extensive as this system of railroad transportaion is, it is supplemented by an even greater mileage of roads, of which the greater part is hard surfaced. I doubt if there is a body of timber in the whole region that is more than three miles from a railroad or a paved highway.
Every few miles along these railways and roads one comes on a little village set in a narrow fringe of fields and grass land and surrounded by woods. The heart of each village is a turpentine still and a wood using plant of some kind. The villages are of brick and stone with red tile roofs. Large churches, schools and public buildings adorn their plazas and business is brisk indeed on their well paved "main streets." These villages correspond directly with our turpentine camps but with what a difference! Every now and then the traveller comes to a small city of from twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants, of which there are several in the Landes. These are the centers of marketing, distribution and government for the adjacent territory; and the bustle and stir of business reminds one more of some wide-awake western city than of what we would naturally expect in old and settled France. The Landes supports a permanent population of 1,400,000, half as many people as the whole state of Georgia, although Georgia contains nearly nineteen times the area; and these folk are considered among the most prosperous and contented in the whole of France. It is no exaggeration to say that every man, woman, and child of this population derives his daily bread directly or indirectly from the maritime pine forests that surround him, and it is a mighty good living I assure you.
Since the forests are permanent, the turpentine plants are permanent. The structures are of steel, brick and concrete and embody the latest thought in the processes of manufacture. The continual use, over and over of the same land for growing timber crops and extracting gum and timber products










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requires and justifies an extensive and permanent system of roads; the continuous production of turpentine, rosin, lumber, mine props, and cordwood maintains standard guage railroads, and the never failing opportunity for labor year around and in fixed location attracts a steady localized supply which many years ago became the permanent population of the country. The output of naval stores from the Landes has been steady and uniform for many years. It was, of course, somewhat upset during the war, but seems to have fully recovered since. The two million acres of the Landes, no larger than four or five average Georgia counties, produces one-fourth as much naval stores as does the whole South. The future of the industry and of the region is assured and the outlook is all the brighter because of the gradual weakening of America's dominance in the world's naval stores markets that must take place as we near the exhaustion of our source of supply.
Now what is the secret of the success of the French industry? Does the answer lie in the soil or the climate, or the species, or in intensive European conditions generally? It does not. Their climate is not as good as ours; our season is longer as a rule and a good deal warmer. Their soil is very much inferior to even that of our poorer sand hills and they have none in the Landes that compares with our better clay soils. The maritime pine is inferior to longleaf and slash pine in every respect. It does not produce as much gum; its lumber is poor indeed compared with that from our pines; it is not as hardy against fire, insects, and disease; and on our better soils both slash and longleaf pine should grow as rapidly, and under proper care, more rapidly than the maritime pine. Is it the method of extracting the gum, or the way the gum is converted into turpentine and rosin, or is it the happy combination of these two features and the high yield and value of the additional forest products such as lumber, mine props, poles, etc.? These all bear an important part but the prime factor in the French success is their acceptance of the principle that timber growing comes first, that there must be an uninterrupted succession of forest crops, and that each operating unit must be built up on a continuous yield of gum as well as lumber and wood by grouping about it a suitable acreage of each stage of forest, from seedlings to full grown trees. All the rest of their sys-









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tem has been worked out to fit in with this governing principic, or has followed as a natural result. It is this principle, rather than any detail of cupping or chipping or climate or manufacture that marks the fundamental difference between our practice and the French system.
It is perhaps true that the French, keen thinkers as they are, were driven to the adoption of this principle by the limitations of the situation as they found the Landes a hundred years or more ago. It may be contended that, facing no such limitations, but on the contrary finding themselves possessed of an apparently inexhaustible supply of turpentine timber, already mature and often in demand for lumber, the pioneers of our industry were fully justified in following a different principle. We won't quarrel over that; what has passed is history but we are now facing a set of conditions that differs radically from what our forebears found. The inexhaustible timber is about gone and the gum naval stores of the South must in the not far distant future be derived from second growth timber. We are today where the French were when they started, and the fundamental principle they have followed so successfully is now as sound for us as it has proved to be for them.
Not only is it sound, but, in the opinion of men much more closely in touch with the conditions in the southern pine region than I am, it is now possible of application over a considerable portion of the naval stores belt.
To apply the principle of continuous production profitably, either here or in France, it must, of course, be brought down to the individual unit of operation, and the methods of extracting gum and utilizing timber must be adapted to take full advantage of the conditions in the particular operation without seriously affecting the welfare and growth of the timber. This is about how it is done in the Landes. A well established turpentine plant owns its timber in the form of fifteen or more tracts or lots, each of which has a stand of a different agefor instance, tract number one will be covered with a stand of five year old seedlings; tract number two with young saplings ten years old; tract three, fifteen years old, and so on. Tract fifteen will be a stand seventy years old. The stands below twenty years of age, which are nearly always the result of natural seeding and very dense, are gone over periodically and









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thinned out by cutting to speed up the growth. In the tracts that contain stands twenty to thirty years old the thinning continues but the trees to be removed are first turpentined heavily, then cut and sold. The object of each of these thinning is to remove the poorer trees and leave the best trees to grow at an accelerated rate. As a consequence the tract that contains the thirty year old timber shows a fine, evenly spaced stand of fast growing, big crowned trees, each as sound as a dollar and ready for the long time working now to commence. There are as a rule from seventy to one hundred and twenty of these trees to the acre, depending on the quality of the soil.
Each of the tracts that contain thirty year and older timber is worked as follows. One face three and one-half inches wide is placed on each tree and is worked for four years. The tract is then abandoned for from two to three years in order to rest, the operation being shifted in the meantime to some other lot that has had its rest. After the period of rest, another face is made on the back of the tree and working continued four years. The tract is again rested, then a new face is started; and so on during a period of forty years until the tree reaches seventy years of age when it is generally ready for the sawmill and is felled and manufactured. There is always sufficient seed in the duff after the felling to bring on a heavy growth of seedlings within a year after felling. Planting is only resorted to in case fire sweeps over a young stand before it has reached seed bearing size.
The chipping is done every five days, oftener in July and
-August, with a tool that looks something like a twisted foot adze. The chipping is about one-half inch deep and the face resembles somewhat a shallow gutter extending up the tree. The gum is caught in a earthenware cup like ours, but smaller. The narrowness of the faces and the rapid growth of the trees allow a rapid healing of the face so that continued working is possible without seriously retarding the growth of the tree or rapidly reducing its productive capacity.
By this process of management and chipping the still receives a steady income of gum, the sawmill a steady income of sawlogs, and the wood yard a steady income of mine timbers, poles, posts, ties, fuel wood and charcoal, and at the same time










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the worked out lots are being reforested; and a new crop is being grown with which to continue the circle of production.
I have given you this account of French chipping methods simply to round out the description of their manner of operating. I am certainly not going to advocate any wholesale acceptance of French methods for use in this country for I am satisfied that once the principle of continuous forest production by units of operation is accepted, American ingenuity will invent methods of chipping, cupping and utilization that will give the desired results and at the same time be adapted to the circumstances of labor, markets and finances peculiar to our country. The Forest Service has been conducting a comparative test of the French method of chipping on the Florida National Forest for the past several years, and a bulletin concerning it is now being prepared for the press. The author of that bulletin, Mr. F. K. McKee, is at this meeting and I will not steal his thunder. I am sure you will find his conclusions interesting. Seeing is believing. Proposal for trip to France.
To start one of their sustained yield units of operation, the French had to go through the laborious process of draining the land and then planting it. Men of vision have the opportunity now and right here in Georgia, as well as in other parts of the naval stores belt, to build tip such units by the purchase of land already satisfactorily stocked with young growth at the price of the land alone. The greater part of the vast acreage of cutover pine land in the South will not be needed for agriculture for many years; a very large part of it will never have a higher use than that of growing timber crops. With soil, climate, species and location near the great markets all in its favor, the opportunity for profitable timber growing on these lands is unquestionably great. When we add to these favorable factors the possibility of making the trees pay their way, and a profit besides, through producing naval stores while they are growing to maturity. It can be said with truth that the South stands first in the United States as a field for forestry.
Nor is the production of naval stores the only medium through which pines may be made to pay early returns and yield revenue while growing to maturity. The paper industry is confronted by the necessity of finding new woods from which to manufacture pulp and it is spreading south. Already Seven-










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teen pulp and paper mills are in operation in the longleaf belt with a capital investment of over $15,000,000, and more are coming. Pulp mills make a ready market for the small trees worked out and cut in the process of thinning the growing stands as well as for the older material that sawmills cannot utilize. Then, too, there is the wood turpentine industry with its demand for stump wood and light wood as a market for one of the products of timber growing. Properly managed grazing of cattle and sheep is another source of profit from forest lands. A large proportion of the income of the Government's National Forests is derived from this source.
There is every reason to look with optimism for steady advances in the value of standing timber in the country at large, and especially of longleaf pine with its dual use. Average stumpage prices for this species have doubled since 1910 and the value of the second growth has increased even more in the same period. As an indication of the rise in the values of turpentine leases, I may cite our experience on the Florida National Forest. In 1909 we granted three year leases on virgin timber at the rate of $50 per thousand cups. In 1924 our leases were made on the basis of $275 per M for virgin timber. When our foreign customers have covered their purchasing power, it is reasonable to look forward to a greatly increased demand for the products of our wineries and I believe that we may expect that the trend in values will continue to be upward for a number of years to come.
If I have made myself clear, it must be apparent that the production of naval stores should be an essential part of the practice of forestry in the southern wineries. It has been, I know, the fashion for many years to damn turpentine orcharding as a destructive agency in our pine woods, but as I said before, let's forget the past and prepare for a new era. To continue to exist at all, this industry must radically change its viewpoint and its methods. By so doing it will at once cease to be an agency of destruction, a plague of locusts as it were, and become a direct and powerful factor in forest conservation, the key industry that will make the rejuvenation of southern pine lands a practicable and profitable thing. When this comes to pass-and not before-we will see the chief emphasis placed upon the continuous production of resin-making trees rather










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than where it is now, upon the marketing of their products. Then we will see turpentine farming acquire the standing it has in France as a permanent, progressive and lucrative calling in which men engage generation after generation with profit to themselves and with the satisfaction and self-respect that comes of knowing that they are building and not destroying.

"PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NAVAL STORES
INDUSTRY-THE PRODUCER'S PART"
MR. L. V. PRINGLE
VICE-PRESIDENT GILLICAN-CHIPLEY CO., INC.
This is a very important problem which confronts one of the great industries of the South in which there is engaged about 1,200 producers and many thousand employees all of whom are face to face with the problem of prolonging the Naval Stores Industry producing gum turpentine and rosin from living pine trees, if not they must find other means of livelihood.
The naval stores industry is an essential industry. Essential in the economic life of the South as it represents actual creation of wealth to the extent of forty-five to sixty millions of dollars annually. Essential to the consumer as it furnishes him with a raw material much cheaper than other raw materials which he would be compelled to use. It replaces fats and allows so that oils are available for edible purposes. Replaces imported fossil gums and makes possible the use of china-wood oil, making a cheap, efficient, waterproof varnish. Many industries are built on the expectation of having available a continual supply of these materials.
It is necessary, therefore, that our raw material-the tree, be made available for future production. This means the efficient utilization of the trees now standing and this in turn means to work a tree in such a way that it will produce the amount of turpentine and rosin which it is capable of producing before being cut. This cannot be done by tapping the small, immature tree. This practice means the using of the tree ahead of time and, therefore, depriving the country of a source of supply in later years.
There is another phase to the question and that is, the working of the small timber creates an erratic ratio of supply and









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demand, giving in one year an over-supply with a low market and the next year an under-supply with a high market, with the consequence that neither the producer or consumer are benefited. Moreover, putting it on the ratio basis, it takes an investment or expense of 100 cents operating such timber and the best returns possible to expect at the prices which the consumer can afford to pay would be about 75 cents, causing a loss of 25 cents. Therefore, instead of actually creating wealth those producers are absorbing wealth from the South. Moreover, it is not good business. Operators should inform themselves better as to the statistical position of their product and operate with a view of stabilizing market conditions and prevent violent fluctuations existing from over production.
The producers for many years past have gone along in a careless and wasteful way paying little or no attention to conserving the timber, disregarding the fact that the supply is being rapidly depleted by wasteful methods of operation. The chief of which is the working of small immature trees which are not large enough to make a profitable yield, thereby, making a loss to the producer and in many cases consuming all the profit derived from larger trees which not only results in a loss to the operator doing the work but works an injury to his neighbor as well as all who are engaged in the business, as the product from small unprofitable trees is placed on the market and reduces the price. When the sensible thing to have done would have been to work only such size trees as will produce sufficient to give a profitable return on the operator's investment.
The worst feature of operating a small tree is the fact that an asset has been consumed that if left until it becomes of proper age and size would be of greater value and prove instrumental in prolonging the life of the industry on a profitable basis.
The size tree from which a profitable yield can be expected has been worked out and fully demonstrated by the Forestry Department under the able supervision of Mr. Austin Cary which clearly shows that no tree under 10 inches-15 inches from the ground should be worked for turpentine. I make the assertion without fear of successful contradiction that if only trees of the size above mentioned had been worked since the close of the World War that the o p orators would not be in the









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deplorable financial condition the majority of them find themselves today. I fear the operators are not profiting as they should from the splendid work being done by the Government in the National Forest Reserve at Crest View, Florida, which is further developed by practical experiments being made at Stork, Fla., and other points from time to time by Mr. A. Cary. I strongly recommend that all operators procure and study closely all bulletins covering these experiments. If the life of the industry is to be prolonged as it should be more conservative methods of chipping must be adopted. It has been clearly demonstrated by the Government in experiments conducted by its efficient Microscopist, Miss Olose Gerry of Forest Products Laboratory, that we have been chipping too deep and climbing the tree too fast both of which detracts from the vitality of the tree and retards production and consumes chipping surface on the tree that should be conserved for later production. A place under my supervision has been operated this season with the chipping done by the method recommended by Miss Gerry namely Y2 x Y2 with most gratifying results as to yield and conserving of timber. I think all factors and bankers should cooperate in the matter of conserving small timber to thj_- extent that no advances would be made any operator who would not agree to only work timber of the proper size. Think how foolish it is to spend 100 cents operating timber that at best can only produce 75 cents which only results in reducing the price and in so doing labor is being used that should be utilized for other profitable work.
If we hope to prolong the life of the industry the time is now at hand when we must resort to reforestation and conservation of the young timber'which the South Atlantic and Gulf States are so wonderfully blessed with soil and climatic conditions suited for reproducing.
Let's all return to our homes with a firm resolve to co6perate to the utmost to conserve our young timber for the benefit of present and future generations.









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CAN THE FACTOR PREVENT RECKLESS TURPENTINING?
MR. H. L. K[AYTON
VICE-PRESIDENT CARSON NAVAL STORES COMPANY
In order that I may properly approach the subject which has been assigned to me, it will first be best to consider exactly what is meant by "reckless turpentining." I should say that the term would apply not only to the wasteful cutting and cupping of small timber, the rapid draining of the trees by chipping too deeply and too frequently, but also the failure to properly protect the timber from the winter and early spring fires which annually visit the forests. Factors may exercise actual control only over a comparatively small percentage of operators and are loath to apply pressure even under conditions where they are in position to dictate to the operator the methods which he should employ. The factor would much prefer adopting a policy of education for a producer who is not susceptible to the improved methods which are now being evolved is naturally an undesirable patron and one who must eventually fail to survive.
It may not be amiss to take a step backward into the past and trace the naval stores business from the early days up to the present time. We find records showing that naval stores were made through the efforts of the early English settlers, who secured pitch tar and rosin from the then vast pine forests which overspread the Virginia shores. The industry has been migratory and has steadily moved southward, then westward, as the virgin forests fell before the axes of the lumbermen, after having been first bled for rosin and turpentine. It has been barely fifty years since the naval stores business was firmly established in this territory and it is less than fifty years since the pioneer factorage house was established in Savannah. For the first twenty-five or thirty years of that period production in this territory developed rapidly and timber was so plentiful and so readily available that turpentine leases could be obtained at very low cost and as a consequence slight capital only was necessary for the establishment of a turpentine still.
As the timber became depleted farther north, the North Carolina operators moved into Georgia and factorage houses in









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Savannah were organized and prepared to furnish such accommodation as was needed by the naval stores producers. The facilities required for concentrating and distributing receipts of rosin and turpentine were promptly established and Savannah has remained the chief port for naval stores and bids fair to maintain her premier position.
In view of the low cost of turpentine leases and supplies, loans by factors were comparatively small. Losses were negligible and despite the fact that producers generally were men of little or no education and had not been afforded the opportunity of business training, the profits accruing to them and consequently to the factors were sufficiently remunerative to warrant the factors taking what we would today consider unsound risks. The factors were prepared to furnish their patrons with their entire requirements of supplies, food-stuffs, tools and equipment and as few of the operators enjoyed established credits they were not in position to secure their needs from sources other than the factors. At that time there were practically no country banks, hence banking accommodation was not available, and even actual payroll money was obtained from the factors, who sent it out by express or registered mail as needed.
Conditions gradually changed and the personnel of the naval stores producer has been developed into a type which in intelligence and business capacity compares favorably with the personnel in other lines of industry. Many producers are men of substances who have acquired a goodly share of worldly goods, in fact, must be men of means to control considerable acreage of timber at present values. They are frequently leaders in their communities and many hold public office. They can secure their supplies where they please, can market their product when and as they see fit, and need not market through the factor unless they consider it to their best interest to so do. The independent operator is no longer the exception, though possibly not yet the rule.
Naturally the factor has changed also and where formerly his hold upon his patron was through the purse strings, today his hope for success lies in his ability to perform service. His supply business is obtained only in the keenest competition with modern merchants and in many cases he finds it impossible to









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sefl goods to an otherwise staunch patron. He must himself be familiar with modern improvements and discoveries and acquire knowledge in such way as he can so that he may intelligently discuss with his patrons the newer thoughts and suggestions which are being thrown out by the research workers of the U. S. Forest Service. Improved methods of chipping the trees have been discovered through painstaking tests extending over a period of years, modification of the tree workings are recommended by the Forest Products Laboratory Microscopist, who has exhaustively studied the structure and processes of the pine, better gathering and stilling methods are taught by the Department of Agriculture's Naval Stores demonstrator, and the factor who desires to prove of value to his producer patrons must cooperate with the various governmental agencies, exchange experiences therewith and act as an intermediary in the dissemination of practical, useful and beneficial discoveries. The factor must further take upon himself the duty of educating his clientele in the desirability and necessity of fire prevention, and creating among the naval stores producers a sentiment in favor of a state organization for forest fire control. Therein lies the hope for permanence of the industry.
I think I may safely assert that fifty per cent of the present day producers are men who operate entirely upon their own capital and are independent. Possibly another 25 per cent seek some accommodation, and borrow from factors since the terms of repayment are more liberal than those offered by banks, but these men could readily secure the funds from other than factorage sources if they so desired. Many of the remaining twenty-five per cent offer their business on a desirable basis and only a small number of prqent day operators are of the wholly dependent type. It should be obvious, therefore, that the power of the factor to control the volume of production is highly circumscribed and limited mostly to such influence as he can exert in the way of advis 'ng for or against curtailment or augmentation of operations. The factor is called upon constantly for his views on market conditions, his ideas about the size of the next crop, and is looked upon as a fount of wisdom from which the likely happenings of the future may be freely drawn in copious streams. He must keep himself well-posted on world conditions and continuously study the changing situ-










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nations which effect the demands for rosins and turpentine. Even with the small group of dependent operators his control goes but little farther than an expression of opinion as to the desirable course, for not infrequently, despite a desire for crop reduction, the situation of the dependent is so precarious that the attempt to force curtailment might cause disaster. A turpentine location heavily involved must necessarily produce liberally in order to utilize the only means or hope of salvation. Overhead expense and interest would otherwise quickly bring about bankruptcy. Sharp curtailment of production by the minor producing group would fail in any event to bring about the desired end, hence the responsibility devolves upon the major group of independent and semi-independent producers. It is my experience that these men seek the views of their factors, listen intently to the summing up of the situation, but heed them not in Actual practice. Inability to resist the temptation of available timber, necessity of cupping under leases already contracted for, pressure from timber owners who are in need of funds and must cash in their holdings, are some reasons which impel enlarged operations. The desire to be a "big operator" sometimes is the cause of better judgment being suppressed, while always the hope springs eternal that "maybe prices wont be so bad anyway." Agreements among the operators themselves have proven of no avail in the past and conditions in the naval stores industry do not lead to the belief that a co6perative movement along the lines followed in several of the fruit and vegetable industries could prove effective.
The salvation, so far as conservation of timber is concerned, lies in the operators themselves, who individually must study conditions and act intelligently. The factors will gladly aid and will supply such information as will assist their patrons in reaching wise conclusions, but the final decision as to the volume of production lies almost entirely in the hands of those who actually manufacture the goods.

DISCUSSION
Mr. Thomas Gamble, Editor of the Naval Stores Review, Savannah, Ga.: I know the industry and trade appreciate the great courtesy this Southern Forestry Congress has shown to










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it in assigning an entire day to tie consideration of questions regarding the protection and needs of the naval stores industry. Those who have followed the history of naval stores know what a tremendous slump has come ini receipts, until the last year, when there has been another forward movement. The forward movement in the production this year, those who have investigated this matter feel, has been to a great extent due to the utilization of the small timber that should not have been cut or boxed. In South Carolina, for instance, where nature has come to the rescue of the industry, and where for twenty-five or thirty or more years young timber has been growing prolifically, there has been a tremendous increase in production this year, perhaps forty or fifty stills being operated in that State where probably there were not eight or ten in operation a few years ago.
Men who have recently traversed a great deal of the new growth timber lands of South Carolina tell me that their hearts have been made sick bv the destruction of the small trees in that section, trees that ii left alone for a few years would have been enormously profitable as turpentine producers and would also have been valuable as lumber trees. The same doubtless holds true in Georgia, where there has been great boxing and cupping of new timber, as a result of which we have seen a large increase in receipts at Savannah and Brunswick. This has been especially noticeable in the production of pale rosins. In fact, the activity of Georgia in the production of pale rosins has been astounding, and to some extent has upset all calculations and done material damage, one might say, in holding down the market value of the upper grades. Mr. Pringle, in his paper, laid special stress, and very properly so, on this boxing and cutting of young trees. The Government has demonstrated conclusively that the working of immature trees is not only unwise but unprofitable to the operator, for the operator loses on every small tree on which he puts an axe or hangs a cup. I asked a factor in Savannah the other day, if this bad practice of cutting young trees was to continue, and he said that only a short time before one of his best operators was in the office, and he said to him, "Why are you operating these small trees? They are not sources of profit to you," but it was impossible to convince the operator that that was the case. "Why," he said, "I










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have leased this timber, it temporarily belongs to me, to work for three or four years, and I am going to work everything on the place," and it was utterly impossible to convince him that he wasn't even getting the cost of labor expended out of the small trees. Not only does the working of young trees destroy the future prospects of the producing timber that would be of great value, but by the increasing of the crop it serves to bring down and hold down the prices of the turpentine and rosin derived from the larger and more mature trees-so that it works two ways. The operator works such trees at a loss to himself, and at the same time by overproduction he reduces the value of the output from the trees that would be profitable. The Georgia crop this season is said to be increasing somewhere between 25 and 30 per cent, to a great extent due to the working of young trees that ought wisely have been left to a future time. The Government showed a year or so ago that there were in sight in the United States, out in the woods and at the ports, in the hands of the producers and otherwise, about one million two hundred and fifty thousand round barrels of rosin. This excess supply of rosin has been hanging over the United States market, as we all know, for several years, and the result has been the holding down of the market to a point that the production of rosin and turpentine has been unprofitable. This morning I asked three large operators whom I saw here what the conditions were in their section. They said there was a very bad feeling of depression as a result of the unsatisfactory rosin prices that are ruling this year.
Mr. Kayton has shown in his paper that this cannot be controlled by the factor, that the factor is not in a position where he can dictate any more, though he might have done so at one time,-to the operators as to what they shall do, and that the remedy lies entirely in the hands of the producers. The demand for naval stores has been more active during the past year. The foreign demand for turpentine is 50 per cent greater than a year ago, and practically the same for rosins, but while the outside world is taking so much more rosin and turpentine than it did during the previous season, it is not taking enough to take the increased production of 20 per cent, and to bring down the visible supply that was brought over, so that we have not benefited very much from the improvement in consumption, and if










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we go on another year and increase the crop, it looks as if it is perfectly hopeless to expect better prices from the operations of the naval stores industry.
Mr. C. F. Speh, Turpentine & Rosin Producers Association, New Orleans, La.: The factor and the banker-I say banker, because he furnishes the money-but the factor essentially, has it within his power to remedy the situation. It may not be that he can dictate to the producer and say, "You must only operate so many trees," but the producer needs a little outside education. The solution of this problem is going to be not so much in dictation as in education. If we can bring about a change through education we are going to have much more easy sailing than if we try to force it. So I think we have a perfect right, as producers in the industry, to look to the factor, the man who has always a common interest, to try the educational remedy,-to educate the producer that it is unprofitable to work these small trees. He can do that in several ways, by always telling them that it is to their advantage. He can always have it in his mind to point out to the producer that there is no sense in any business man operating an unprofitable enterprise. It is merely a question of dollars and cents, the foolishness of putting a hundred cents into something and getting back from it only seventy-five cents. We would not do it in the timber business, and we would not do it at anything else. Why, that's not the way we do any of these things. Furthermore, it is unfair, it is wrong for any man to take upon himself to withdraw from our wealth of one hundred years and destroy it just simply as a means of keeping himself in labor, when we know that he cannot possibly add thereby to his wealth. So I really believe I am going to pass the buck to the factor, that it is up to him to pass the education on to the producer. I believe you will get the more advanced operators to listen to you, and they might help you and take on themselves the work of educating the smaller producers.
Mr. A. K. Sessonw, Cogdell, Ga.: I know this, that a great destruction of small timber has been going on in the woods, but, as to how to best control that, my own views are that it is a matter of education. Now, whether the operator, or whether the factor can best educate him to do it, or go after the man that owns the land, I hardly know, but possibly all of them










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together could do something. In my opinion it is a question of education of the man owning the timber, or owning the land, to prohibit that gross destruction of his own resources, and that it is not profitable.
Mr. C. S. Hodges, Cyrene, Decatur County, Ga.: Out of thirty years experience in the yellow pine belt of Southwest Georgia, I have observed that necessity is a severe schoolmaster, but I have learned that the turpentine operator will learn in no other than the school of experience. In my own county, Decatur, which is right at the southwest point of Georgia, and in Douglas and Early and other counties in this section, the yellow pine has been the chief source of wealth. It has been heartrending to see the destruction of the yellow pine in southwest Georgia. It is surprising to me that the great Giver of all gifts has allowed the reproduction of that yellow pine harvest. It has been in spite of our efforts, for we have lent nothing to it. We have not protected the yellow pine from the forest fires. In our operations we have been guilty as a man who would pull up young corn. We have cut everything that you could stick a cup on. I thought one time,-and I am sure that we were correct-that when we got cups for the timber it would be a blessing, and I guess it was, but the trouble is that we have not profited by it, because we would stick a cup on a little tree that we could not get a box in. r heard a man say last year that thousands of those which were cupped were so small that it took two men to do the job,-one to hold the tree steady while the other put the cup on; and that is very nearly true.
The forest in our Southwest Georgia is fast reproducing itself. We have thought the turpentine operators were due no protection, for they use no common sense, you might say, but only greed for gain. We destroy the very thing that would in time be of value to the rising generation and to the State and to ourselves. I do not know how to conserve the forests, though I have made it a study for years. I have tried it in a small way on a few thousand acres of cut-over lands, and the reproduction of that forest has been phenomenal. I have ridden through the holdings of other men near me. I have watched the reproduction there and in the adjoining counties to me, and it is wonderful there, with nothing save what Nature has done. No effort or no man's hand has been turned to save the tree. We live in









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a country where the piney-woods rooter runs at large, and every turpentine man knows what that means when it comes to the destruction of new trees only a year or two old, and sometimes four and five. They will go down and get them and tear them out by the roots. The pine tree, as every one knows, is not like the sassafras or some other trees. If you break it tip even with the ground it will not produce itself any more, and therefore, the destruction alone of the piney-woods rooter has been more than we can calculate, but it has not been as much or as extensive as the destruction of us operators, I am sorry to say.
The question of taxation was brought up in Mr. Pringle's paper. I believe that the tax on cut-over lands in the territory that I live in, and in several counties like mine, will not amount to more than 20 cents per acre. I think that is low. Six or seven dollars per acre is the valuation. In Mr. Pringle's country the village is thirty-five or forty, and I believe that will amount to more than 20 cents per acre. That condition itself will pre-ent conservation and discourage men to reproduce forests, because the lands there are not so very valuable, other than the pine trees that grow on them. It is poor land, and the good Lord has given us one thing that will grow on poor land, and that is yellow pine. How we can do this, how we can bring about a system of thinking and education among our people with reference to the burden of taxation, I don't know, but I do know that it takes from 15 to 20 years for a forest to reproduce itself to where you can saw mill it again, and that is only where it has not been sawn over too close. There is a saw mill in our county now that will cut timber down to where it is only eight or nine inches, right at the ground too. Now, it will take that forest forty years to reproduce itself. Where it is cut to 10 and 12 inches, and the trees left, it can be worked and turpentined, if it is worked conservatively, in 15 years. Pardon me for taking so much time, but I want to say one thing. A few years ago I went to an old farmer to lease his timber. He said, "How small are you going to cut it?" I said, "Well, we are not going to cut it below eight or nine inches." He said, "You cannot cut my timber that low." That old man got me to thinking. I finally traded with him on the basis of cutting his timber down to 10 inches. I thought somebody had been talking to him and he would not bother about watching the









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woods, but that old creature was out there the day we started. He ran the negroes out of the woods. He would not let me cut it under ten inches. I said, "We can't measure every tree." He said, "You will have to do some good guessing, then. You can't cut my timber under ten inches." Mr. President, I made more money on that than I ever made on a lease proposition in my life, because I got results from the trees that I did work.
On the other hand I can show you thousands of these little trees worked elsewhere. Let turpentine go to one dollar and a half and two dollars, and every turpentine man will lease anything he can lay his hands on, that he can put a cup on, and I can show you trees where they were worked four years, and they are broken off where they cut them. Now, that is a destruction that the factor cannot control, and gentlemen, we cannot expect anybody else to control it, except the man that is operating it. Turpentining has been too easy,-it has been too easy to make a living. Now, that is a fact. We all know it. A fellow can get a nice check-book in his hip pocket and get in his automobile and ride around and have a good time, and get incompetent men to look after it, just so that he breaks even in the fall, and is able to borrow money from some bank or some factor. But we haven't paid any attention whatever to the very thing from which we have been deriving a livelihood. We have paid no attention whatever. Let it go, let it go. If I had what has been burned up in the territory where I am working,-I wont go any further than that,-if I had what has been burned up down there, I would have more than we can work out of the live trees.
Mr. A. V. Wood, Vice-President Georgia Forestry Association, Brunswick, Ga.: I am one of those young men like Mr. Kayton, who has only had a few years in the business. I began sometime in 1868. 1 have watched the turpentine business in a way during those years, and have followed the flag, you might say, only at Brunswick instead of Savannah, for forty-eight years. I am thoroughly in accord with the ideas and the remarks of these gentlemen on the question of education. It is a matter of education entirely, as to what we could do. I thought we could educate our legislators in the first place to the enormous possibilities that they have of correcting some of the evils we have been confronted with. How we are going









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to do that I do not know. I was in the Legislature but once in my life, and then I quit. I tried to get a bill passed in the Legislature some years ago to establish a State Board of Health,-and of course it has been established since.
Education of the operators is coming gradually. As Mr. Kayton said we have a great many more intelligent operators in the forests now than we have ever had before. Conservation is growing there, but it has not grown to the extent that it should grow. To many of us it sometimes appears as if it were almost stagnant. I don't know very much about the naval stores business, but I am an observer, and one of the great things that is being done now and has been done f or the last f ew years has been the educational work by Mr. Austin Cary. Those of us who have been in the business see the revelations of this man working all the time. The operator in the country is seeing it, those that he comes in touch with all the time. Many of them are profiting by his researches and the experiments that he is making, and certainly that is going to be one of the big results, the conservation of the timber already standing. It is already showing results.
I went into the business, as I say, in 1868. In 1871 the senior member of the concern that I was working with came to me very dolefully, I suppose we had had a bad year,-and said, "The naval stores business will last about five years more." It was very doleful to me, a young man, only to have five years lease of life in that particular business. However, it jogged along. I traveled on down to Brunswick, and after I had been there about ten years, one of the members of our firm came in one afternoon, called me in his office, and said, "Woods, what are you going to do?" He felt as if the industry was going to stop. He said, "I will give it about ten years." So I really have become an extreme optimist. I don't believe there is any stopping point in the naval stores industry. I am certain that there wont be any lessening of naval stores production if an organization like this, and people like we have in this organization, keep themselves thoroughly alive to the situation and push it forward as it should be pushed.
Mr. A. S. Carr, President A. S. Carr Co., Bainbridge, Ga.:
I am in line with Mr. Pringle's views, and Mr. Seph, about the production from the small tree, the small immature pine tree,









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so many of which are being operated in our country. I suppose at least 15 to 20 per cent of the total production is produced from immature trees that do not produce any profit. The life of that tree is destroyed, preventing future growth that would make it good for lumber. In working these small trees we do not produce any profit, but destroy wealth and make an overproduction of turpentine. I have always been in favor of letting the small tree grow until more mature when we can make a profit out of it. I have kept an account of the costs and I know for a fact that you put more money into a small tree than you get out of it.
Mr. Gamble: When the cup system came in I remember talking with Mr. Shooter, who certainly was one of the ablest who ever handled naval stores. He had been carefully looking into the cup system, and he said it would bring about two things,-bring about overproduction and bring down the price of the pale grades to a point where they and the low grades would be on a level; and Mr. Shooter's prediction has very well been demonstrated. He saw that the cup would enable them to work smaller trees, and that the industry would be guilty of all sorts of overproduction.
Mr. J. G. Pace, President, Pace Lumber Co., Pensacola, Fla.: I have belonged to this Southern Forestry Congress for a number of years. I was with it last year in Montgomery. In regard to naval stores, I am glad to see these turpentine people connected with it. We have been turpentining for thirty years like Mr. Hodges said. I went through Southwest Georgia about thirty years ago, out by Cordele, Americus and Abbeville, and I told my wife when I left Pensacola yesterday that I was going to come through Georgia in day-light. I came to Montgomery Saturday morning, and got on the train,-came by the Seaboard all the way through. Thirty years ago it was a beautiful country with timber on it. Today in all those vast acres there is nothing left but denuded land, land not fit for farming or making anything, nothing but stumps left on that land. Well, sir, I was never more surprised, to see the land between Americus and Cordele and over here at these rivers, cleared up down to the branches. They are turpentining right along in these spaces, cutting right in the little small spaces that were left. There is a growth of timber there large enough for









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turpentining, and a gentleman I was talking with last night on the train said they were getting 48 to 55 gallons of turpentine per acre. That beats Florida.
Now, whether we take the command and go forward or not, I do say this, that the man who owned timber, and stood still, has got more than the man who has gone forward in the effort for gain. That is my experience. To illustrate that, I am going to tell you a little coincidence in my own business. A young man once came to me, about the time I lived in Georgia, about 22 or 23 years ago, and said, "Mr. Pace, I want to borrow $150 to buy a piece of land." I said, "Is there anything on it?" He said, "Nothing but a second growth of timber." This was 22 years ago. I loaned him $150, and he bought something like 450 acres of land. Now, these turpentine people had already turpentined a small amount of adjoining timber. I said, "Now Mills, these turpentine people will be nosing up by you before long,-just hold your timber." He did. And six or eight years later he sold that timber to the turpentine people for $1500. He kept his land and had a pretty fair growth of small timber.
Reforestation is no individual or no corporation concern. It is a community interest. No one individual, no one corporation, no several corporations can do it alone.
Taxes at 20 cents per acre, while you have got a young growth of timber on it, seems to me pretty high. It is discouraging for a man to try to hold a tract of land to reforest with the high rate of taxation you have to pay. However, I believe I had just as soon have money invested in cut over pine land as to have it put in anything else, even at 20 cents per acre, when I consider the number of trees growing on the land.
The lease system is bad. A turpentine man takes a short lease. Labor is scarce and hard to manage. He will do anything to try to cut it all before his three year lease expires. That is a bad system, but most of us work that way.
Mr. Thomas Gamble: just as a little interlude between hearing from the operators, I am going to introduce a resolution to bring the matter right before the meeting. All of you know that the Government is doing a good deal for the turpentine industry. Ever since Dr. Herty began his investigation which opened up interest in the naval stores industry, more and










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more attention is given to it by the National Government and in various operations throughout the South, but we all realize that the Government is not doing as much as it should do, that these investigations are hampered very much by the absence of adequate appropriations. In the matter of uses of naval stores, for instance, the Government could do a great deal of work toward broadening the uses of rosin and turpentine and in finding out what they can be used for. A gentleman came to my office a week or ten days ago. He is one of the largest buyers of rosin in the world. His concern handles one hundred to two hundred thousand round barrels of rosin,-quite a batch of stuff for one concern. He told me the Eastman Kodak Co. was importing three to five thousand barrels of French rosin everv vear because they couldn't get sufficiently fine rosins in the fJnited States. I do not vouch for that statement, 1 am giving it to you as given to me. He says we don't make the fine rosins for the needs of that concern, and they had gotten a French rosin, which they call AAAA, a grade about four or five grades lighter than our best water white rosin. There may be others in this country who would use a No. 4A grade if it was called to their attention. It might be this quality of rosins could be enormously developed in this country. These are the things that the Government could and ought to do for us in the rosin and turpentine and various other trades. Now, to bring that before the meeting, the following resolution has been prepared:

*TO URGE CONGRESS TO MAKE PROPER APPROPRIATIONS
FOR RESEARCH TO AID THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY
WHEREAS, The Naval Stores industry of the United States, including the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, in its production of spirits turpentine and rosin and allied products represent a gross aggregate value of fifty million dollars annually, of which approximately one-half, or twenty-five million dollars, is exported to foreign countries yearly, and
WHEREAS, This industry furnishes constant employment to many thousands of men and represents an invested working capital of many millions of dollars, and is a source of prosperity to large sections of the Southern States referred to, and a large element in the freights of railroads and steamship lines, and
* This resolution is here given in its amended form as finally adopted by the Congress.











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WHEREAS, These naval stores products are essential elements in the manufacture of many commodities used in domestic consumption and extensively exported, and thereby assist materially in the employment of many thousands in manufactories located in other sections of our country, and
WHEREAS, The perpetuation of this naval stores industry and its profitable operation depend upon reforestation and the establishment of improved methods of production, and
WHEREAS, The Federal Government in recent years has undertaken investigations and furnished valuable cooperative assistance in efforts to promote the industry, but has permitted such vitally important cooperative work to be seriously hampered by inadequate funds, thereby preventing the industry from deriving the full benefits that should accrue from governmental operation of this character; therefore, be it
RESOLVED, By the Southern Forestry Congress, assembled at Savannah, Georgia, in its Sixth Annual Congress, and on a day devoted entirely to the naval stores industry, that a committee of seven representing the several sections of the naval stores belt, and including representatives of the naval stores sections of the Savannah Board of Trade, Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce and Pensacola Chamber of Commerce, be appointed by the President of the Congress to memorialize the United States Congress and communicate directly with the Senators and Representatives from the naval stores states, urging larger and continued appropriations for the naval stores industry, and that in particular appropriations be made for research work looking to new and broadened uses for spirits turpentine, rosins and allied products, and for field and laboratory work that will promote the practical industry and encourage and establish reforestation as the means of its perpetual continuance, such Committee in its memorial to present facts and arguments and elaborate on the work the Government can satisfactorily and effectively do in this connection.

Dr. F. P. Veitch, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.: I think it is needless to say that we are deeply interested in your industry, and that the Department of Agriculture has the greatest desire to be of all possible help to you in making it a success, not only for the present, but for the f uture years. Perhaps I should give you a brief outline of what we in the Bureau of Chemistry are trying to do. I think it is of the greatest importance and greatest service to you, a work that ought to be done, and that work we are trying to supply or carry on further both at the still and in the uses of your products. Now, our work is divided in general into three main lines,-that of domestic research work and the enforcement of the recently enacted Naval Stores Act. The purpose of our domestic work is at the individual places to carry to the









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individual operator and his force the best methods known to the Department of Agriculture, to develop by the Forest Service, wherever we can supply that work, our own rule and the best methods known to the industry itself. Wherever we see a good thing in the hands of an operator we steal it from him and give it to the rest of them. That is what we want to do. He has no objection there. Bear that in mind. He is perfectly willing that the good thing that he finds out may be passed on for the use of the whole industry. So we are trying, among other things, to stop these tremendous losses that occur after the gum is drawn from the tree. It has been very clearly brought out here this morning, and should have been known a long time, that the larger that loss the less we got from a diminished or small tree. It has been shown that this is the least productive. I am perfectly convinced that we are losing money also on all the larger trees because of the wasteful processes that are so generally used through a large section of the industry. I am frank to say that at least ten per cent will be a low estimate of the increased value that you could get from a thorough careful control and saving of the wastes that now occur in the industry, and that increased return is profit, because you have already had all your expenses.
In this demonstration work which we have been doing ever since we have had operation of naval stores the government has been fortunate in securing the services of a man who knew naval stores from a to z. This man at present is located here in Savannah. He is at your service, to visit your places and help you in every way that it is possible, to point out where he thinks you can improve your outturn and receipts and make more money. He is here for you to call on at any time, either here or at your places, and I hope that a large number of you will do this. We want to extend that work and make it more useful to you, as funds are available. We are seriously handicapped this year in that work, and I am a little fearful that we will have difficulty in raising funds to assist you in the field as we would like to do during the present year, but we are making our best efforts to get funds from our present resources.
Now, in addition to that, we are doing constantly a great amount of research work, looking to a better production, the reasons why we are getting lower grade articles, the reasons









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why these products give trouble in certain uses, and also to extend the uses of these various products. This all takes money, and we haven't enough money to do this as thoroughly and as vigorously as we would like. It is surprising to find how many problems come up from the users of turpentine and rosin, things that they have used for years and years, and yet every once in a while there is a little unexplained difficulty that they have with it. And they are presenting these things to us, and we cannot always tell them the answer. First, perhaps, it is a maker of dentists' supplies, and then again a maker of varnish, and so it goes. Another time it is a maker of a turpentine drum. What is the trouble? What is the difficulty here that we are encountering? And we are trying to solve these problems,-difficulties, to extend the uses and explain flaws in the old uses, why these things have turned up, and to try to eliminate the difficulties that are coming about in some cases with these well known useful materials.
Mr. Gamble and other speakers have referred to the use of rosin in place of fossil gums. You know that the varnish enterprise has been able to use fossil gums. It is only comparatively recently that good varnishes have been made from rosin. Now, we can extend the market for rosin by determining what are the characteristics that are required for a first-class varnish, and try to give rosin those characteristics. I am sure that it can be done, it is the coming thing, and it can be done. One of the things that has been very dear to my heart for many years and one of the things that as soon as we are in funds I want to inaugurate is the combination of demonstration and research work. I want to see the Government have at some centralized, easily accessible locality, where local conditions are right,-a first-class demonstration still, in order to show the best methods for production and in the uses of turpentine and rosin. The Bureau of Chemistry is prepared now to introduce some, I think, decided improvements along that line, and to cooperate with the Forest Service and other governmental agencies, and with the turpentine operators and producers, in the full exploitation and running of such a still, a place where every item of the turpentine production can be clearly visualized and fully understood, from acquaintance in the very beginning, and from the very production in the beginning of the tree to the final making









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of the product. I hope we will be able to do that at an early date but it is all going to depend on the funds to do it with. It will probably take $15,000 to even establish such an institution and $5,000 more to run it.
Now, I want to say a few words in conclusion about the enforcement of the Naval Stores Act. That work has been assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry. No appropriation has so far been made for carrying it out, but estimates have been made and we will soon be actively engaged in enforcing that work. You know what we have done in the way of providing rosin standards and that these have been adopted by an Act and made Federal grades. Our regulations under the Act are now in the hands of the printer, to be available to you in a short time. I am confident that we will be able to make you some money by a vigorous enforcement of this act. We are going to decrease the supply of so-called turpentine I think very materially, and increase the price of turpentine, because there is a lot of adulterated stuff that is being sold in this country, and it is being sold generally where it is very, very difficult to reach. That is, it is sold to you and me over the counter of the small store, especially the country store where we have got no opportunity of finding out the source, whether it is pure turpentine or heavily adulterated turpentine, and the law is going to enable us to get at that, and I think very much good will result to the producing industry, to the dealing industry, and to the final user of the turpentine who pays the bill, that is, the householder.
Mr. 0. H. L. Wernicke, Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co., Gull Point, Fla.: I have been quite close to the Southern turpentine and rosin producers for thirty years, and am somewhat posted as to your local conditions and your viewpoint; I have also been a consumer of those products to a greater or less extent. Dr. Veitch has told us about the work the Government is doing and also mentioned the Naval Stores bill. I hope the naval stores business will get some benefit from the bill. We will take turpentine as an example, where it is used for a thinner or dryer, if we were dependent on turpentine alone we would have to close up most of our finishing materials industry, because there is not enough turpentine to go around. We only make about 500,000 barrels of turpentine and much of it is exported, other thinners and dryers are extensively used and










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this must be so regardless of sentiment. It has not been popular to talk of mixing turpentine with other dryers. Petroleum spirits are acceptable to the trade and if naval stores people would encourage the use of turpentine and petroleum compounds, it would surely increase the popularity of turpentine and extend its use, and probably stabilize the price. I have no quarrel with the United States in regulating things, if we put 25 barrels of turpentine and 25 barrels of petroleum spirits together making a product that is useful to somebody else, we should be willing to label it properly so there could be no deception, but the present bill prohibits the use of the word turpentine in combination with any other chemical, whether the result is good, bad or indifferent, and the results of it is that wood turpentines have declined and have to be sold at a heavy sacrifice since that bill was enacted. Those are the facts, gentlemen, and they do not help the general turpentine situation. The purpose of the bill is all right but its effect is not what was anticipated; its administration will be a very difficult matter. I do not believe men like Dr. Veitch who are charged with the administrative features of the bill would knowingly do a harmful thing, but they can not know all the conditions that we have to face in this industry.
There can be no overproduction of turpentine except as a result of under-consumption. Turpentine is a small part of the total of paint varnish material, particularly in the line of solvents and dryers. There is nobody in this hall who can tell why turpentine rather than petroleum or coal tar dryers and thinners should be used. They are all good solvents. Of course turpentine is used and generally preferred but there is no use deluding ourselves. If a varnish manufacturer can get along with ninety per cent of other solvents and dryers he can use them altogether, that is nobody's fault, but it is a fact that we have got to face. If we dry up every source of turpentine in the United States, it will not stop the making of finishing materials. The makers of automobiles, vehicles, and part of our railroad cars use no turpentine. Ford doesn't use turpentine. Studebaker, who used to buy it to finish his wagons does not use turpentine, they all go right on making more vehicles and cars than ever and are getting along without turpentine. But there are other uses for









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turpentine that have not been developed and it is part of the work of Dr. Veitch and his department to discover in what form it can best be used.
There is another great waste going on in our commercial activities with reference to color. If a man makes black or brown varnish, why in the world does he need water white turpentine? Be it government standard or any other standard, what does he want with water white turpentine?
You may depend on the technical industries to call for the kind of color that suits their particular product, there is no use in suggesting to them that everything must be water white. The color adds nothing to the quality.
The United States government specifies water white turpentine to paint the bottom of a ship and it must distill 90 per cent off at 170'C. What has that got to do with the bottom of a ship? Absolutely nothing whatever, except to retard the use of turpentine.
I think the turpentine producers ought to get together and make some experiments of their own; they could employ men like Mr. Pace and Mr. Hodges who spoke to us, and send them to Washington with Dr. Veitch to work out these problems from a practical point of view. They could say to him, "We have 50,000 barrels of excess turpentine, and as many barrels of rosin that we must get rid of and we want you to tell us in what form we can sell it to somebody." We must broaden our consumption rather than restrict our production.
Mr. Gamble: Why did Studebaker quit using turpentine?
Mr. Wernicke: Studebaker found that if everybody used turpentine they could get it only thirty days in the year, and the rest of the time would have to use something else. So when they found that they couldn't get turpentine all the time, they sought and found a substitute. There was a time when the sleeping car people used turpentine. There was a time when the railroads were large users of turpentine. That was before the days of development of petroleum spirits in varnish and paint mixing. The amount of thinning material then used was relatively small, and turpentine was relatively cheap. It was economical to use.
Take lime, everybody thought it was a simple product since the time of King Tut until the lime association was organized








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and took a fellowship in the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburg. Speaking of lime, I want to tell you that we are finding it possible now to use rosin in varnish and paint because we learned something new about lime in connection with it. Not so long ago rosin varnish was unpopular but now the very best grades require the use of rosin. We did not know how to use Chinese wood oil, but we discovered that by using a lime combination we could dispense with linseed oil. We now make a fair varnish from cheap materials, which it was thought could only be produced from genuine linseed oil, costly gums and pure turpentine.
At one time we thought if we bought a hundred million dollars worth of automobiles it would bankrupt this country. I heard a wise banker say so. At this time we are spending for automobiles and accessories something like four or five billion dollars a year and we have just recently spent thirty billion dollars on the World War and it hasn't killed us. We have more automobiles now than we had before the war and we are buying them now at a greater rate than ever before. I mention that to show that it is an artificially developed industry. There is no normal demand; nobody had ever thought they needed such a thing as an automobile. They didn't even know that they wanted them until they had been demonstrated and advertised. In earlier days the horse and the wagon carried our produce to market, but today we couldn't keep house without autos and radio. All you have to do is to make more people want naval stores, rosin and turpentine in the particular branches where its use will answer the purpose a little better than something else, and it need not be cheap.
The big soap people buy your rosin at about two cents per pound, but you buy their soap at 25c per bar. What are the rosin producers doing to protect conditions in that field? Absolutely nothing in an organized way. It would not be difficult to expand the uses of rosin so that instead of there being a surplus there would be a demand for more.
Mr. J. E. Lockwood, Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Del.: I am very much impressed with what has been said today. I believe in the economical utilization of the pine trees, and the talks we have had today regarding the conservation of the pine trees or forests in this country. I believe the economy









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


should also include the utilization of the stumps and the dead wood, so that as a man produces timber it will be fully utilized, and then reforestry reaches the circle of repeating. We are seeking at all times in what ways we find possible and what suggestion we get from others, to find out how we can better produce naval stores or find possible uses for them; and one thing that has rather impressed me forcibly today is this,---that so much has been said of one dollar being invested in a part of the operation where only seventy-five cents is returned. It occurs to me that if we would take the money that has heretofore been invested where it did not produce the logical and proper result, and invest that in finding and developing the possible and proper uses of naval stores, we would be doing more to conserve our resources and to develop possible profit from them than we can in many other ways. I believe, as Mr. Wernicke said, that much can be done that would open up the possibility of larger consumption, and we would be very glad if every one of those interested in the naval stores industry were to get together and exchange views. We would be very glad to bring up various things that we believe might possibly lead to a larger demand, possibly to recovering markets and uses which have been lost. If we can all get together, not relying on the Federal government, but taking hold ourselves, doing what we can, investing our money in a logical profitable way, we will get the promised result.
I would like to add as one concrete fact which was recently brought to my attention, namely that the slogan, "Save the surface and you save all," with the entire paint and varnish industry in this country behind it, has doubled and trebled the paint and varnish business in this country at a cost to everybody of less than one per cent. Compare that to investing one dollar and only getting back 75 cents for it. I believe in combination, it holds a great deal of promise.
If further meetings are held of people interested in naval stores, when they get ready to exchange views and get the common combined experiences of the business, we would be very glad to come with you, because we are trying to advance and double our profits in the naval stores industry.
Mr. J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.: In seconding those resolutions may I say just a word in regard to








PROCFFDINGS OF THF


them. I come from a State where the children in the schools have for the past 100 years been taught that some of the leading products are tar, pitch and turpentine. Of course we have had no appreciable amount of these for many years, but the fiction is still perpetuated. I have been tremendously interested in the vital talks this morning, and I realize that perhaps what you gentlemen say is correct. But I realize, and want it expressed in the resolution, that the end of this business is in sight unless something is done to perpetuate it. We have destroyed the industry in North Carolina, and our meeting here today was particularly for the purpose of seeing if something cannot be done. I believe our purpose is to try and perpetuate this industry. I have noticed that most of the discussion has dealt with increasing the output, increasing the markets and uses of turpentine, but very little has been said about perpetuating the supply. I would suggest that something be added to that resolution, asking the Government to investigate methods whereby the land-owners and the operators themselves can help perpetuate the supply. I think it is very important that we who are all interested in the Naval Stores industry should also emphasize that side of the problem in these resolutions.
Mr. Gamble: Are you offering that as an amendment?
Mr. Holmes: Yes, I would like to see it amended in that way.
Member: Would it not be wise to refer these resolutions, pending further development of the purposes of this meeting, to the Resolutions Committee?
Mr. Gamble: Except for this reason, that this is peculiarly the naval stores day, and the rest of the days, after half an hour or so, will be too taken up with other matters, and there will be no opportunity to get to this again.
The President: Mr. Gamble, if you will allow me, would it not be well to get an expression of opinion while we are all here on the gist of the resolution, and then the Resolutions Committee can incorporate that in their report after they have perf ected it?
Mr. Gamble: It goes to the Committee of Seven to prepare an amendment.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


The President: Does anybody desire the resolution read again before presenting it for action? The resolution is now before the body. Those in favor will say aye, those opposed no.
The ayes have it, and the resolution is adopted. The President will appoint a committee of seven as provided for in the resolution.
Dr. Austin Cary, U. S. Forest Serzice, Washington, D. C.:
Mr. Wernicke has shot into this meeting some ideas of a very wholesome and important character, and I want to acknowledge that, and emphasize their importance. One is in regard to the turpentine enterprise in the South, that all Naval Stores interests ought to get together. He also stated yesterday that the turpentine industry is an enterprise that has just begun, and with a possibility of markets for its products that we do not yet realize. That is startling, because men have been thinking of this industry' as a failing one.
In compliance with the resolution calling for the appointment of a Special Naval Stores Committee of Seven the President appointed the following:
SPECIAL NAVAL STORES COMMITTEE OF SEVEN
Mr. J. C. Nash, Chairman Savannah, Ga.
Mr. A. V. Wood Brunswick, Ga.
Mr. J. G. Pace Pensacola, Fla.
Mr. J. W. LeMaistre Lockhart, Ala.
Mr. L. V. Pringle New Orleans, La.
Mr. E. C. Gay Biloxi, Miss.
Mr. Harry Wilson Jacksonville, Fla.
The President also appointed the following Committees:
COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS
Mr. E. 0. Siecke, Chairman Texas
Mr. C. B. Harman Georgia
Mr. A. B. Hastings Virginia
Mr. George Wrigley South Carolina
Mr. E. C. Gay Mississippi
Mr. W. L. Barnett Florida
Mr. E. H. Frothingharn North Carolina
Mr. Phillip D. Houston Tennesee
Mr. A. A. Benson Alabama











54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

COMMITTEE ON SELECTION OF NEXT PLACE OF MEETING
Mr. H. L. Kayton, Chairman Savannah
Mr. J. S. Holmes North Carolina
Mr. P. R. Camp Virginia
Mr. C. F. Speh Louisiana
Prof. T. D. Burleigh Georgia
Mr. J. H. L. Henly Alabama
Mr. E. R. McKee Florida
Dr. A. C. Moore South Carolina

COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS
Mr. W. D. Tyler, Chairman Virginia
Mrs. M. E. Judd Georgia
Maj or J. G. Lee Louisiana
Mr. 0. M. Butler Washington, D. C.
Mr. J. R. Weston Mississippi
Mr. W. E. White Florida
Mrs. Julia Lester Dillon South Carolina














DEATH

of

M. L. ALEXANDER

Marcus Lafayette Alexander was Commissioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana from January 1912 to the day of his death on March 18, 1923. He was born in Mecklenburg County, Va., and died in New Orleans, La., at the age of 58 years.

By motion of the Congress the following resolution is to occupy a page of these proceedings:

RESOLUTION

WHEREAS, this Congress has lost since its last session, by the death of Colonel M. L. Alexander, one of its most useful, active, and lovable members, one who has left his indelible imprint on the forestry work of not only Louisiana but the entire Nation, therefore

BE IT RESOLVED, that this Congress hereby expresses its great sorrow at the irreparable loss which it has sustained.


SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE.
The chief function of a Legislative Committee of this Congress, as I see it, is to act as a clearing house for information on National and State forestry legislation for the use of all states in our group, especially, but by no means solely, for the states where state action looking toward systematic forestry practice is contemplated. Stich a Committee to be of use to the Congress must have help from interested and informed men in each state and from the Forest Service. I wish to suggest that the Committee for the Seventh Congress be organized immediately after this session and to urge that each member of the Congress who is in touch with legislative matters in his state, keep the new Chairman informed. Such information can be sent direct or through the Secretary, and can be used effectively when a call comes to any officer of the Congress.
It is easy to get the impression that in the case of the States now organized for forestry work, the several legislative measures are all worked out and are operating adequately. This is far from true and it is becoming increasingly important for individual and concerted action to be taken looking toward more adequate forestry practice in the States where forestry departments have longest been established.
No attempt will be made in this brief report to describe the legislative situations in the various states. It will be of interest, however, once more to call the roll,-Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas have forestry departments which are holding their own and gaining ground each year, with Alabama now added to the fold. Kentucky, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri are yet to take up forestry as a State activity, although legislation is now pending, or soon will be, in most of these States.
The experience of Mississippi and other States has taught the lesson that initial forestry legislation should be simple and direct, providing for:
(1) A non-political Commission with representation from
vitally interested groups;
(2) A technically trained and experienced forester;
(3) The investigation of existing conditions;










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


(4) The education in the protection and development for continuous use of the forest resources;
(5) The control of fire;
(6) Such equitable taxation as will relieve growing timber
from the unequal burden of the general property tax.
(This is not, in fact, and should not be called, tax
exemption.)
It will sometimes be neither possible, nor advisable, to incorporate tax legislation into the forestry bill. Doubtless in the future, as in the past, it will in some states be necessary to make a start with a law which provides no tax relief. It seems certain, however, that little real progress can be made in reforestation if the general property tax can be levied each year upon the full value of young growth.
Alabama has enacted, during the past year, a remarkably comprehensive law as its initial legislation. It should be borne in mind, however, that Alabama already had a source of revenue from occupational, license, or privilege taxes imposed for engaging in business dealing with timber, without which a less complete program only might have been possible. This same advantage is available to some other states and might point the way to a start in such states.
In the States which impose a severance license tax on the cutting of timber or privilege license taxes on businesses dealing with timber or other forest products, it is urged that all of the funds thus collected be set aside in a special State Forestry Fund to be devoted to the protection and development of the forest resources of these States.
In closing, it is desired to urge as essential that the simple, direct legislation for the establishment of a department, be backed with sufficiently adequate financial and moral support from the start, so that the few things attempted can be thoroughly and well done, first for their own sakes, and secondly, in order that the new department may have a fair chance to gain the confidence of the citizens, through which alone, healthy expansion in the future can be assured.
A. B. HASTINGS,
Assistant State Forester of Virginia.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS
The following resolutions were recommended by the Committee and after some discussion were adopted by the Congress. Resolutions on the Naval Stores Industry and on the death of M. L. Alexander will be found elsewhere in these proceedings.

1. THE CLARKE-McNARY BILL
Whereas, a Select Committee on Reforestation of the United States Senate has, during the past year, toured the country, visited practically all of our large forest regions, held hearings at a number of points, and submitted a report on the forest situation in the country; and
Whereas, the Chairman of this Committee, Senator McNary, has introduced a bill in the United States Senate, and Representative Clarke, of New York, has introduced a companion bill in the United States House of Representatives, which include the recommendations of that Committee concerning cooperation with the States and the acquisition of lands for National Forests;
Be It Resolved: that the Southern Forestry Congress urges the passage of these bills, and
Be It Further Resolved, that a copy of this resolution be sent to the President of the United States and to the members of the Congressional Committees to which these bills were referred.
2. FOREST ExPERIMENT STATIONS
Whereas, we recognize that the safety of investments in forest raising cannot be assured without definite, detailed, and reliable information upon all phases, and that this can be satisfactorily secured only as a result of systematic forest investigations such as are being carried on in the coastal pine region by the Southern Forest Experiment Station, in the Appalachian hardwood region by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, and generally by the Forest Products Laboratory;
And Be It Resolved, that we urge upon the Federal and State legislators and upon educational institutions, associations and forest landowners in the States concerned the necessity of










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


enlarged facilities for forest investigations, particularly by increased funds and cooperative participation in the work of the two Stations and of the Laboratory.
And Be It Further Resolved, that copies of this resolution be brought to the attention of Federal and State Senators and Congressmen of the Southern States.

3. A STATE FOREST POLICY
Whereas, the Southern States contain more than one-third of the idle forest lands of the United States, which now constitute a grave state and national menace, but which can be converted into one of the greatest assets of the South through the adoption of a practical state forestry policy.
Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Congress assembled in its Sixth Annual Meeting in Savannah, Ga., urges the Southern States immediately to adopt a state forest policy to include in the main:
(1) A non-political State Board of Forestry or Commismission representing the forest, agricultural, stock-raising, and other interests which may be chiefly concerned, to supervise the development of state forestry work under the immediate direction of a trained and competent
f forester.
(2) The establishing of a Forest Fire Protection System.
(3) Provisions for encouraging and inducing private participation in re f restoration. through operation with public agencies and by modification or readjustment of the existing system of taxing forest property, or lands devoted to reforestation; and
(4) Provisions for properly financing the state's forestry
department and work.
And Be It Further Resolved, that, in the opinion of the Southern Forestry Congress, the forestry law enacted in 1923 by the State of Alabama, embodies, to a great degree, the essentials above enumerated and that therefore, this Congress urges the Southern States now without proper forestry laws, carefully to consider the Alabama law as a basis for forestry legislation.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


4. THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION
Recognizing that vigorous and widespread education is essential to the progress of forestry both locally and nationally, and that there is great need for a continuous campaign of education throughout all sections of the United States, to the end that a proper appreciation of our forests may be instilled into every man, woman, and child in this country; and recognizing that the American Forestry Association, through its monthly magazine, American Forestry and Forest Life, and through its other facilities for disseminating information, is carrying to the people in every State in the Union accurate, interesting, and informative material regarding our forests, their uses and their needs, and is thereby molding a sound and constructive public sentiment in behalf of State and National forestry, and that the Association is an agency by which concerted action can be taken in behalf of public forest measures throughout the country, the Southern Forestry Congress herewith commends and endorses the work of the American Forestry Association and pledges the support of the Congress to the objects and activities of this Association, and it urges its members to support the association by becoming active members and by aiding in increasing the membership of the Association and the distribution of its magazine.

5. THE McNARY-SMITH BILL
Whereas, the Southern Forestry Congress, while primarily engaged in the promotion of forestry, affirms that there is no conflict, as regards forestry progress and agricultural progress, and that consistent and proper development of stich cutover lands as are agricultural in character constitutes sound public policy.
Therefore, Be It Resolved, that this Congress endorses the principles of the McNary-Smith Bill, the purpose of which is to stimulate the development of agricultural land now in an unproductive state.

6. COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION
Whereas, we, the Southern Forestry Association in congress assembled, feel that a real crisis has arrived in the development of a National Forestry Program, and that it is now the time to act,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the President of this Congress be and is hereby empowered to appoint a suitable committee to meet at Washington, D. C., and appear before the proper authorities with a view to hastening in every possible way the enactment of constructive and progressive forestry legislation.

7. ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN FORESTRY
Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Congress hereby urges that elementary instruction in forestry be given in all graded schools, universities, agricultural colleges, and normal schools in the Southern States, and recommends that the Southern Forestry Congress prepare brief statements concerning the forestry situation for distribution to civic organizations, federated clubs, and all other agencies that should be interested in forestry progress.

8. FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SOUTHERN LANDS
Whereas, the timber resources of the Nation are rapidly disappearing, and
Whereas, the forest land in the Southern States comprises one of the best and most rapid growing timber regions in the United States, therefore,
Be It Resolved, that it is the sense of this Congress that a bill should be passed by the National Congress authorizing and directing the Forest Department of the Government to purchase suitable cut-over lands in the Southern States of such size as will be adapted to economic and profitable operation for the public welfare and to demonstrate forestry possibilities to the private owner.
9. BENNING NATIONAL FOREST
Whereas, on December 12, 1923,, there was presented in the United States Senate by the Hon. Wm. J. Harris, Senator, from Georgia, a Bill, S-1033, entitled "To Establish the Benning National Forest in the State of Georgia,"
It IsResolved, that the said Bill is given the endorsement of this Congress, that the Secretary so inform Senator Harris, and that he also request all Senators and Congressmen from the Southern States to cooperate in securing its adoption.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


10. APPRECIATION AND THANKS
Resolved, that the Congress hereby expresses its appreciation and thanks to
(a) The Honorable Clifford Walker, Governor of Georgia, f or his cordial welcome to the Sixth Congress, and for his strong endorsement of its purposes.
(b) The Honorable Paul E. Seabrook, Mayor of Savannah, for his hearty welcome, and to other members of the city administration for numerous courtesies.
(c) The Savannah Board of Trade, especially Manager E. B. Walker, and Mr. Nelson Stephens, Secretary of the Convention Bureau, for the wide publicity and care in arrangements which they gave the meeting; Mr. Thomas Hoynes, chairman of the entertainment committee; Mr. Robertson, chairman of the committee on decorations, and Mr. W. J. Pierpont, Jr., chairman of the committee on exhibits, and to all members of these committees, whose untiring work has made the Sixth Congress memorable and enjoyable beyond any previous Congress; Dr. S. B. McGlohon, and to the Auto and other clubs, the hotels, and many private citizens of Savannah, for courtesies extended to the Congress and its delegates during our most delightful stay in their city.
(d) The daily press of Savannah, and the Weeklv Naval Stores Review and its editor, Mr. Thomas Gamble.
(e) The Georgia Forestry Association, and particularly its division chairman at Savannah, Mr. H. L. Kayton, for their untiring support.
(f) Our president, Mr. Bonnell H. Stone, and our Secretary, Mr. R. D. Forbes, for the splendid material condition of this organization; the Patrons, for their generous financial support; and those who have presented the inspiring papers and participated in the discussions of the Sixth Congress.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEXT PLACE OF MEETING
Your Committee has considered the requests from various cities for the holding of the Seventh Congress, invitations having been received from Richmond, Va., Columbia, S. C., Jacksonville, Fla., St. Louis, Mo., Little Rock, Ark., Asheville,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 63

N. C., Nashville, Tenn., and Louisville, Ky. Representatives from such of these cities as cared to do so appeared in person before the Committee, which carefully weighed the arguments submitted and considered the advantages both from the viewpoint of convenience to delegates and desirability from a standpoint of the greatest good to all concerned.
The invitation from Richmond was extremely cordial and your Committee believes that Virginia is entitled to consideration, but in view of the fact that the forestry situation in Arkansas can be greatly aided by the holding of the next Congress at Little Rock, and in view of the fact that both Louisiana and Missouri, although applicants, were willing to yield in favor of the Arkansas capital, your Committee deemed it best to recommend Little Rock as the location for holding the Seventh Southern Forestry Congress, which we hereby do.
Respectfully submitted,
(Signed) H. L. KAYTON,
Chairman.

REPORT OF THE TREASURER
FiFTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Expenditures
Reporting $ 157.00
Local Expense 31.95
Program 24.30
Proceedings:
Printing 752.30
Forwarding 84.27

Total $1049.82
Forward 418.13
$1467.95
Receipts
Balance $ 891.30
Contributions from Patrons 250.00
Sale of Proceedings:
Single copies (113) 169.50
In bulk 157.15

$1467.95










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INC.
Expenditures
Charter $ 38.30
Postage 117.24
Telephone Service 33.87
Stationery and Supplies 150.74
Stenographer and Clerk 113.20
Bank Exchange, Etc. 10.00
Officials Expenditures 111.45
Badges 36.00
Forestry Instruction in Savannah Schools 125.00
Use of Theatre 113.00
Savannah School Children's Tree Naming Contest 60.60
Programs and Posters 39.00
Local Expense 41.59
Speaker's Honorarium 140.00
Reporting 202.00

Total $1331.99
Forward 404.47

$1736.46
Receipts
Balance $ 418.13
Contributions from Patrons 1225.00
Co6p. Savannah School 80.00
Miscellaneous Receipts 13.33

$1736.46
Balance on hand, April 23, 1924, $404.47.

















23921
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
OF
SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INCORPORATED

THIS IS TO CERTIFY, that we, the undersigned, do hereby associate ourselves into a non-stock corporation under and by virtue of the laws of the State of North Carolina, as contained in Chapter 22 of the Consolidated Statutes, entitled "Corporations," and the several amendments thereto, and to that end do hereby set forth:
1. The name of this corporation is SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INC.
2. The location of the principal office of the corporation in this State is in the City of Asheville, County of Buncombe.
3. The objects for which this corporation is formed are as follows:
(a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by disseminating information as to its objects, needs, and methods, and its relation to the development of idle lands; to promote the conservation of the forests of the South in such a way that they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timber and a home for game and birds, and that they may protect the upper sources of streams; and to promote and encourage reforestation and the prevention of forest fires.
(b) To cooperate with and to bring about a closer cooperation and unity between national, state, county, municipal, corporate and private forestry agencies and organizations.
(c) To support federal, state and local legislation which will promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in the South.
And in order properly to prosecute the objects and purposes above set forth, the corporation shall have full power and


Appendix










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


authority to purchase, lease and otherwise acquire, hold, mortgage, convey and otherwise dispose of all kinds of property, both real and personal, both in this State and in all other States, Territories and dependencies of the United States ' and generally to perform all acts which may be deemed necessary for the proper and successful prosecution of the objects and purposes for which the corporation is created.
4. The corporation is to have no capital stock.
5. The names and post office addresses of the incorporators are as follows:


Name
Joseph Hyde Pratt J. S. Holmes Miss Minnie Queen Miss Grace White Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt Mrs. J. S. HolmesFred B. Merrill George Howe


Post Office Address Chapel Hill, N. C.
it it 64 it
it 44 it CC
cc it cc cc
cc cc cc cc
cc it it it
CC CC it it
CC it 99 it


6. The period of existence of this corporation is limited to 50 years.
7. Members may be admitted after organization upon the following terms:
Upon election and payment of dues in such manner as the corporation may determine. The persons whose names and addresses are included in the attached list are to be the charter


members of the corporation.
8. The following is a list corporation:
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. Edward A. Hauss, Pres., Century, Fla, Dr. C. P. Ambler, Asheville, N. C.
0. L. Ayrs, 1512 Brown-Marx Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. Gordon T. Backus, Box 629, Asheville, N. C.


of the charter members of the

Hugh P. Baker, Secretary
American Paper and Pulp Ass'n.,
New York.
W. L. E. Barnett,
Care Bankers' Trust Co.,
3 and 5 Place Vendome,
Paris, France.
Dr. S. Westray Battle,
Asheville, N. C.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Miss Alice Baxter,
31 East Fourth St.,
Atlanta, Ga. J.M. Beal, Professor of Botany,
A. and M. College, Miss. H. H. Bennett,
U. S. Bureau of Soils,
Washington, D. C. F. W. Besley,
State Forester,
815 Calvert Bldg.,
Baltimore, Md. J. B. Bishop,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Pinola, Miss. T. S. Boswell,
So. Ry. Co.,
Brevard, N. C.
Governor Win. W. Brandon,
Montgomery, Ala. R. G. Breland,
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co.,
Moss Point, Miss. B. A. Buck,
Mobile, Ala.
Thos. D. Burleigh,
University of Georgia,
Athens, Ga. 0. M. Butler,
914 Fourteenth St., N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
Camp Manufacturing Co.,
Franklin, Va. J. Phil Campbell,
State College of Agriculture, Athens, Ga. W. A. Candler, Chancellor of Emory University, Atlanta, Ga. G. A. Cardwell, Agri. and Indus. Agent, A. C. L. Ry. Co., Wilmington, N. C. Austin Cary, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. John J. Cathey, Gadsen, Ala.


Champion Fibre Company,
Canton, N. C. H. H. Chapman,
Yale Forestry School,
New Haven, Conn. Clinchfield Coal Corp.,
Dante, Va.
Mrs. S. T. Cohen,
Treasurer City Federation Wornen's Clubs,
4000 Canal St., New Orleans, La. Forrest H. Colby,
Bingham, Me.
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La. Mrs. Edwin P. Cox,
Richmond, Va. Edwin P. Cox,
Richmond, Va.
Crossett Lumber Co.,
Crossett, Ark. H. M. Curran,
Farm Forestry Specialist,
Raleigh, N. C. D. T. Cushing,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Bogalusa, La. A. D. Daneel, A. B. & A. R. R. Co., Atlanta, Ga. W. J. Damtoft, The Champion Fibre Co., Canton, N. C. Henry S. Drinker,
Merion Station, Pa. Mrs. Geo. Drolet, Tuscaloosa, Ala. George Drolet, Kaul Lumber Co., Tuscaloosa, Ala. Frederick Dunlap,
Care Missouri Forestry Ass'n.,
Columbia, Mo.
Hon. Robert C. Ellis, Tifton, Ga. W. D. Faucette, Chief Engineer, S. A. L. Railway Co., Norfolk, Va.












PROCEEDINGS OF THE


F. H. Fechtig, A. C. L. R. R. Co., Wilmington, N. C. Prof J. A. Ferguson,
The Penn State College,
State College, Pa. R. T. Fisher,
Harvard University, Weston, Mass. Florida Development Board, Jacksonvilla, Fla. R. D. Forbes,
Sou. Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La. John H. Foster,
State Forester, Concord, N. H. E. H. Frothingham,
Box 1518,
Asheville, N. C. Thos. H. Gill,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C. Henry S. Graves,
Yale University,
New Haven, Conn.
Col. WV. B. Greeley, Forester,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C. S. Winford Greene,
McNeill, Miss.
Miss Juliet Emily Hardtner,
Urania, La.
Miss Violet Urania Hardtner,
Urania, La.
Mrs. Henry E. Hardtner,
Urania, La.
C. B. Harman, Secretary,
Sou. Sash, Door and Millwork
Mfrs. Ass'n., Atlanta, Ga. R. M. Harper,
University, Ala. WV. 0. Hart,
134 Carondelet St.,
New Orleans, La. Frank E. Haskell,
Yale Forestry School,
New Haven, Conn.


Alfred B. Hastings, Asst. State Forester, University, Va. A. M. Henry, Tallahassee, Fla. Hon. Frank R. Hewitt, 311 Montford Ave., Asheville, N. C. A. E. Hickerson,
Supt. Delta Land and Timber Co.,
Conroe, Texas John Sprunt Hill,
Durham, N. C. Mrs. S. W. Hills,
Robinson Road, R. 3, Grand Rapids, Mich. WV. R. Hine,
Urania, La. Roy L. Hogue,
Interior Lumber Co.,
Jackson, Miss. J. S. Holmes,
State Forester,
Chapel Hill, N. C. H. B. Holroyd,
Agriculturist and Forester,
L. and N. R. R. Co.,
Louisville, Ky. Robert R. Hope,
Georgetown. S. C.
Care James D. Lacey & Co.,
350 Madison Ave., New York. Ralph D. Hosmer,
Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.
E. E. Jackson Lumber Co.,
Baltimore, Md.
Max Jasspon, Forest Engineer,
Box 203, Savannah, Ga. J. K. Johnson,
Great Southern Lumber Co.,
Bogalusa, La.
XV. Goodrich Jones,
21114 Barnard St.,
Waco, Texas
Chapin Jones, State Forester,
Charlottesville, Va. John L. Kaul,
Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala.











SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala. Milton Klein, Atlanta Hoo Hoo Club, Atlanta, Ga. H. H. Kopman,
Asst., Game Division,
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La.
Krause & Managan Lbr. Co., Ltd.,
Westlake, La. Otto Katzenstein,
Atlanta, Ga. W. M. Lambert,
1102 Southwest Ave.,
Johnson City, Tenn. Rev. Geo. W. Lay,
Beaufort, N. C.
Leas & McVitty, Inc.,
Salem, Va.
J. G. Lee, Prof.,
A. and M. College,
Baton Rouge, La. J. W. LeMaistre,
Lockhart, Ala.
J. W. Lewis, Gen. Mgr.,
The Long-Bell Lumber Co.,
Lake Charles, La.
Lock, Moore & Co., Ltd.,
Westlake, La.
E. N. Lowe, Director,
Mississippi Geological Survey,
Jackson, Miss.
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, La. B. M. Lufburrow,
Acting Forest Supervisor,
Forest Service,
Moulton, Ala.
R. S. Maddox, State Forester,
Nashville, Tenn.
J. M. Mallory, Gen. Indus. Agent,
Savannah, Ga.
Mrs. Annie D. Martin,
Woddfields,
Hendersonville, N. C. E. D. Mays,
S. A. L. R. R Co,
Jacksonville, Fla.


3. Alfred Mitchell,
Forest Service,
Washington, D. C. Sydney L. Moore,
Jacksonville, Fla.
R. F. Morse, Gen. Mgr.,
Long-Bell Company,
Quitman, Miss.
Mrs. Louis A. Neill,
446 Jackson St., Albany, N. Y. J. G. Pace,
Pace Lumber Co.,
Pensacola, Fla.
Charles Lathrop Pack, Pres.,
American Tree Association,
Lakewood, N. J. H. H. Patterson,
Artmore, Ala. John L. Patterson,
Richmond, Va.
The Pennsylvania State College,
State College, Pa.
3. G. Peters,
U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Karl E. Pfeiffer, Asst. Forester,
815 Calvert Bldg,
Baltimore, Md.
Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt,
Chapel Hill, N. C. Col. J. H. Pratt,
Director Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C. J. H. Price,
Price & Price,
Magnolia, Miss. Miss Minnie Queen,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
1. T. Quinn, Coin. of Conservation,
Montgomery, Ala. E. E. Randolph,
State College, Raleigh, N. C.
Mrs. Ora M. Randolph,
State College, Raleigh, N. C.











PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Harris A. Reynolds,
4 Joy St.,
Boston, Mass. Verne Rhoades,
U. S. Forest Service,
Asheville, N. C.
C. L. Ritter Lumber Co.,
Huntington, W. Va. H. H. Burns, Treas.,
C. L. Ritter Lumber Co.,
Huntington, W. Va.
Hon. Lee M. Russell, Governor,
Jackson, Miss. Thorndike Saville,
Chapel Hill, N. C. Jas. R. Schick, Engineer Branch Lines N. & W. R. R. Co.,
Roanoke, Va.
Walter G. Schwab, Dist. Mgr.,
Glatfelter Pulpwood Co.,
La Plata, Md.
W. D. Faucette, Chief Engr.,
S. A. L. R. R. Co.,
Norfolk, Va.
Edmund Secrest, State Forester, Ohio Agr'l Experiment Sta., Wooster, Ohio. A. Sessoms,
Bank of Bonifay, Bonifay, Fla. Edmund Seymour, The American Bison Society, 45 Wall St., New York. D. F. Shull, 206 South 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. Jos. S. Silversteen, Pres., The Gloucester Lumber Co., Rosman, N. C. Howard C. Smith, Union Springs, Ala. Jas. Sinclair, A. C. L. R. R. Co., Waycross, Ga. Hon. John H. Small, 940 Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C.


V. H. Sonderegger,
Supt. of Forestry,
Department of Conservation,
New Orleans, La.
Andrew M. Soule, Pres.
State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
Southern Pine Lumber Co.,
Texarkana, Texas Miss Vera M. Spuhler,
Southern Forest Experiment Sta.,
New Orleans, La. Mrs. W. W. Stark,
Federation of Women's Clubs,
Commerce, Ga.
Office of State Forester,
College Station, Texas Mrs. A. F. Storm,
Morgan City, La.
E. F. Stovall, Gen. Agt, L. C. R. R., Birmingham, Ala Mrs. Alice Strickland, Duluth, Ga. Henry P. Talmadge, Pres.
Sale-Davis Co., 52 William St., New York City. Miss Julia A. Thorns, Asheboro, N. C. E. W. Thorpe, De Funiak Springs, Fla. J. W. Tourney, Yale Forestry School, New Haven, Conn. W. B. Townsend, Little River Lumber Co., Townsend, Tenn. Mrs. W. D. Tyler, Dante, Va. W. D. Tyler, Pres. Southern Forestry Congress, Dante, Va. Union Sawmill Co., Huttig, Ark. S. H. Vredenburgh, Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh, Ala.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Hon. Zebulon Weaver, Asheville, N. C. J. Roland Weston, Logtown, Miss. Wm. P. Wharton, Mass. Forestry Association, Groton, Mass. Wier Long Leaf Lumber Co., Houston, Texas J. C. Williams, Mgr., Development Service Southern Ry. Co., Washington, D. C.


James A. Wilson, Box 304, Shelby, N. C. Mrs. John D. Winters, Montgomery, Ala. Theodore S. Woolsey, Jr., 242 Prospect St., New Haven. Conn. Geo. Wrigley, Greenville, S. C. L. J. Young, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.


In Testimony Whereof, We have hereunto set our hands and affixed our seals, this the second day of November, A. D. 1923.


(SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL)


Joseph Hyde Pratt J. S. Holmes Minnie Queen Grace White Mary Bayley Pratt Mrs. J. S. Holmes Fred B. Merrill George Howe


Signed, sealed and delivered in
the presence of M. B. Utley, Witness.

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, SS.
County of Orange,
This is to Certify, that on this 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923, before me, a Notary Public, personally appeared Joseph Hyde Pratt, J. S. Holmes, Minnie Queen, Grace White, Mary Bayley Pratt, Mrs. J. S. Holmes, Fred Merrill, George Howe, who, I am satisfied, are the persons named in and who executed the foregoing certificate of incorporation of Southern Forestry Congress, Inc., and I having first made known to them the contents thereof, they did each acknowledge that they signed, sealed and delivered the same as their voluntary act and deed, for the uses and purposes therein expressed.









72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my official seal, this the 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923.
M. B. UTLEY, Notary Public. Com. exp. Sept. 7, '24 (Notarial Seal)
Filed Nov. 5,1923.
W. N. EVERETT,
Secretary of State.















BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INCORPORATED. ADOPTED BY VOTE
OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS, AT SAVANNAH,
GEORGIA, JANUARY 30,1924.
1. Name: The name of this corporation shall be the Southern Forestry Congress, Inc.
2. Object: The objects for which this corporation is formed are as follows:
(a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by disseminating information as to its objects, needs, and methods, and its relation to the development of idle lands; to promote the conservation of the forests of the South in such a way that they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timber and a home for game and birds, and that they may protect the upper sources of streams; and to promote and encourage reforestation and the prevention of forest fires.
(b) To cooperate with and to bring about a closer co6peration and unity between national, state, county, municipal, corporate and private forestry agencies and organizations.
(c) To support federal, state and local legislation which will promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in the South.
3. Membership and Dues: Any person interested in the objects of the Congress may become a member, as hereinafter provided.
a. Members shall be of four classes:
Annual Members, who shall pay a fee sufficient to cover the cost of a copy of the Proceedings, to be decided by the Executive Committee, but not to. exceed $2.
Associate Members, consisting of State Departments and Associations, who shall pay a sum not to exceed $2S, to be decided by the Executive Committee.
Contributing Members, consisting of persons, firms and corporations, who shall from time to time make material cash contributions to the expenses of the Congress.


Appendix II









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Honorary Members, persons eminent in some line of work more or less closely connected with the objects of the Congress. Honorary members shall be elected by the annual Congress after being considered and recommended by the Executive Committee. They shall not be subject to annual dues, but shall have every other privilege of full members.
b. Only members shall be eligible to office and entitled to vote; provided that unless the point of order is raised and sustained all persons who have registered for any regular meeting of the Congress may vote at that Congress. Associate and contributing members will be considered to have voted when their representatives have voted. Associate members may have not to exceed four voting representatives for annual dues of $10, up to ten voting representatives for dues of $25. Contributing members may be represented according as to whether they are persons (I voting representative), firms (2 voting representatives), or corporations (4 voting representatives).
4. Officers: The officers of this corporation shall be 4 President, a Vice-President, a Chairman of the Executive Committee, a Secretary, a Treasurer, but the Secretary and Treasurer may be one and the same person, and as Assistant Secretary, each of whom holds office for one year, or until his successor has been duly elected and qualified.
5. Committees: There shall be four regular standing committees: an Executive Committee and Committees on Finance, Legislation and Publicity. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Chairman, who is elected by the Congress, the four other officers of the Congress and the Chairmen of the three other standing Committees, And the past Presidents of the Congress. It shall decide the policy of the. Congress and be responsible f or its activities.
At all formally called meetings of the Executive Committee three members shall be qualified to transact any business that may come before ft. The -Chairmen of the other three Committees shall be appointed annually by the incoming President. Each Chairman shall appoint the members of his own Committee and be responsible for its activities, subject to the approval of the President.
At each annual meeting the President shall appoint regular Committees on Auditing, Resolutions and Nominations, each










SOUTHERN FoREsTRY CONGRESS


committee to be entrusted with the duties usually devolving on such committees. The President shall appoint such other special committees as may be called for by the Congress.
6. PuNications: The Proceedings of the Congress, in as full a.form as seems advisable to' the Executive Committee, shall be published as soon after each annual meeting as is practicable and distributed, one to each member who has paid his annual dues. Contributing and associate members may receive additional copies in accordance with the decision of the Executive Committee. Complimentary copies may be sent out as decided by the Executive Committee.
7. Meetings: The Congress shall meet annually or as nearly so as is practicable, at such time and place as may be decided on by the Executive Committee. At any regular meeting of the Congress twenty members, or a majority of those registered, will be considered a quorum. Meetings of the Executive Committee shall be held before each annual meeting of the Congress and at such other times as the Chairman may deem necessary.
8. Amendments: These By-Laws may be amended by a three-fourths vote of the members present and entitled to vote at the annual meeting of the Congress.













Appendix III


PATRONS*

SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS
ALABAMA
Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham.
The Scotch Lumber Co., Mobile.
Jackson Lumber Co., Lockhart.
W. P. Brown Lumber Co., Fayette.
Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh.
Horse Shoe Lumber Co., River Falls.
Lathrop Lumber Co., Birmingham.
Deal Lumber Co., Buhl.
Allison Lumber Co., Inc., Bellamy.
W. T. Smith Lumber Co., Chapman.
FLORIDA
Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century.
J. Ray Arnold Lumber Co., Groveland.
Putnam Lumber Co., Jacksonville.
Taylor Co. Lumber Co., Springdale.
Standard Lumber Co., Live Oak.
Brooks-Scanlon Corp., Eastport.
St. Andrews Bay Lumber Co., Millville.
Bagdad Land & Lumber Co., Bagdad.
Weaver-Loughridge Lumber Co., Boyd.
W. B. Harbeson Lumber Co., De Funiak Springs.
KENTUCKY
Combs Lumber Co., Lexington.
Ruby Lumber Co., Madisonville.
Langstaff-Orm Lumber Co., Paducah.
Sherrill-Russell Lumber Co., Paducah.
Hon Lumber Co., Winchester.
J. N. Russell Lumber Co., Bowling Green.

Those who contribute towards the expenses of the Congress are termed Patrons.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


W. J. Hughes & Sons Co., Inc., Louisville. Fred G. Jones & Co., Inc., Louisville. C. W. Brickly Lumber Co., Louisville. Norman Lumber Co., Louisville.
LOUISIANA
L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co., New Orleans. Powell Lumber Co., Lake Charles. Hillyer-Deutsch-Edwards, Inc., Oakdale. Lock, Moore & Co., Ltd., Westlake. W. G. Ragley Lumber Co., Ragley. Gulf Lumber Co., Fullerton. J. A. Bel Lumber Co., Inc., Lake Charles. Vernon Parish Lumber Co., Inc., Kurthwood. Louisiana Central Lumber Co., Clarke. Natalbany Lumber Co., Ltd., Hammond. Peavy-Byrnes Lumber Co., Shreveport. Industrial Lumber Co., Elizabeth. Frost-Johnson Lumber Co., Shreveport. Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa.
Mississippi
Interior Lumber Co., Jackson. Houston Bros., Vicksburg. Long-Bell Co., Quitman. H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown. Finkbine Lumber Trustees, Jackson. L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co., Gulfport. Rosa Lumber Co., Picayune.
MISSOURI
John H. Himmelberger, Cape Girardeau. Delta Land & Timber Co., Kansas City. Bowman-Hicks Lumber Co., Kansas City. Long-Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City. Ozark Land & Lumber Co., Winona. Thomas & Proetz Lumber Co., St. Louis.
MARYLAND
E. E. Jackson Lumber Co., Baltimore.










78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

NORTH CAROLINA Gennett Lumber Co., Asheville.
Suncrest Lumber Co., Sunburst.
OHIO
W. M. Ritter Lumber Co., Columbus.
VIRGINIA
Clinchfield Coal Corp., Dante.
Pocahontas Fuel Co., Inc., Pocahontas.
Guyan Lumber Co., Roanoke.
Norfolk & Western Ry. Co., Roanoke.
Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co., Roanoke.
WEST VIPGINIA Norwood Lumber Company, Welch. R. D. FORBES, Treas., April 23, 1924.














Appendix IV


LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES

ATTENDING THE
SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS

Acosta, St. Elmo W--------.Jacksonville, Fla.
Anderson, Mr. Anderson Hardwood Lumber
Co.,
Marion, S. C.
Babcock, C. F Babcock Bros. Lumber Co.,
Babcock, Miller Co., Ga. Bailey, M. T, Gresston, Ga.
Baker, C. E. 303 East Huntington,
Savannah, Ga.
Baker, Mrs. C. R. 303 East Huntington,
Savannah, Ga.
Barbee, H. V Gresston, Ga.
Barnes, J. W. Mendal Building, Box 228,
Savannah, Ga.
Barnett, Mrs. B. H Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
735 Riverside Ave., Jacksonville, Fla.
Barnett, W. L'F Florida Forestry Ass'n.,
Mt. Dora, Fla.
Barnett, Mrs. W. L'E. Florida Forestry Ass'n., Mt. Dora, Fla.
Bauer, E. 2610 Blossom St.,
Columbia, S. C.
Beale, C. Bernard Division of Forestry,
University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.
Bennett, Russell W---------.Secretary-Manager,
Standard Containers Mfrs., Sec'y, Florida Forestry Ass'n., Jacksonville, Fla.
Benson, A. A Lockhart, Ala.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Bitch & De Loach Blitchton, Ga.
Boyarth, W. A. Williamsburg, Va.
Brooke, R. H Little Rock, Ark.
Ark. Soft Pine Bureau, Rep. Bruen, H. H Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Bruner, E. Murray Inspector, U. S. Forest Service,
Asheville, N. C.
Burleigh, Thos. D Division of Forestry,
State College of Agriculture, Athens, Ga.
Burrage, C. H. James D. Lacey & Co.,
Timber Land Factors, New York.
Butler, 0. M American Forestry Ass'n.,
Washington, D. C.
Cain, Mrs. J. R.------------ 108 Park Ave., East,
Savannah, Ga.
Calvert, W. C W. J. Snead Lumber Co.,
Greenwood, S. C.
Caples, M. J Vice-President, S.A.L. Ry. Co.,
Norfolk, Va.
Cargill, G. S. Superior Court Chamber,
Savannah, Ga.
Carr, A. S President, The A. S. Carr Co.,
Bainbridge, Ga.
Carr, Win. B.Bainbridge, Ga. Carson, J. A. G., Jr.-.------.Vice-President,
Carson Naval Stores Co., Savannah, Ga.
Cary, Austin U. S. Forest Service,
Washington, D. C.
Coker, J. T. Carolina Fibre Co.,
Hartsville, S. C.
Colly, J. A. Blackshear, Ga.
Coleman, F. J Cobbtown, Ga.
Comings, W. D Box 595,
Georgetown, S. C.
Cook, J. M Milan, Ga.
Cooper, Robert L. Savannah, Ga.










SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Coult, A. A Secretary,
Florida Development Board, Jacksonville, Fla.
Cossels, A. Gordon President, The Cossels Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Council, K. Clyde .Wananish, N. C.
Curran, H. M . Agricultural Extension Service, Raleigh, N. C.
Dabbs, E. W Mayesville, S. C.
De Loach, R. C Furman, S. C.
Dent, Gratz County Agent, Savannah, Ga.
Derby, L. H Warren, Ark.
Dill, C. W New York (Naval Stores)
Dillon, Mrs. Julia Lester ---------- City Forester,
Sumter, S. C.
Doherty, Chas. P 295 Henderson Ave.,
Athens, Ga.
Dorman, Miss Caroline C ------- Chin. Conservation, La. Federation Women's Clubs, Saline, La.
Drawdy, S. T. Homerville, Ga.
Drew, D. S Dunlevie Pine Products Co.,
Allenhurst, Ga.
Drew, Herbert J Standard Lumber Company,
Live Oak, Fla.
Dudley, C. H . Atlanta, Ga. Dunlap, Frederick ----------------. Secretary, Mo. Forestry Ass'n.,
Columbia, Mo.
Dyal, J. F Baxley, Ga.
Eaton, J. T. Viola, Tenn.
Ellis, W. P Furman, S. C.
Forbes, R. D . Southern Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La.
Frampton, W . E ------------------------- Charleston, S. C.
Frothingham, E. H Appalachian Forest Experiment
Station,
Asheville, N. C.
Fowler, James Soperton, Ga.
Foster, J. A 308 East Hall St.,
Savannah, Ga.










PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Fell, Mrs. H. T. 506-37th St. West,
Savannah, Ga.
Farie, A. L., Jr Savannah Bank Bldg.,
Savannah, Ga.
Farie, A. . President,
A. L. Farie Company, Savannah, Ga.
Garrett, George A Professor of Forestry,
University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.
Gay, E. C Biloxi, Miss.
Garroson, J. F Ludowici, Ga.
Gerry, Dr. Eloise Forest Products Laboratory,
Madison, Wisconsin. Glenn, E. C Big Salkehatchie Cypress Co.,
Varnville, S. C.
Glover, Joseph 421 E. 45th St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Goodwillie, D. L. 838 Otis Building,
Chicago, Ill.
Gordon, H. H. McGregor, Ga.
Hale, Matthew Greenville, S. C.
Harrell, E. C Secretary,
Ga., Fla. Saw Mill Ass'n., Jacksonville, Fla.
Holland, W. D Collins, Ga.
Harman, C. B Atlanta, Ga.,
(Ga. Forestry Ass'n.) Hastings, Alfred B Assistant State Forester,
Charlottesville, Va.
Henly, J. H. T. TLockhart, Ala.
Hodges, C. S. Cyrene,
Decatur County, Ga.
Hodges, W. C Hinesville, Ga.
Holmes, J. S Chapel Hill, N. C.
State Forester, N. C. Geological and Economic Survey. Houston, Philip D Randolph Bldg.,
Memphis, Tenn.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Howard, T. T, T udowici, Ga.
Hunter, K. W. Sewanee River Cypress Co.,
Box 434,
Jacksonville, N. C.
Huxford, Folks Homerville, Ga.
Israel, Albert R .Southern Pine Association,
New Orleans, La.
Jackson, J. P. General Agricultural Agent,
Central of Georgia Rwy., Savannah, Ga.
Jasspon, Max Savannah, Ga.
Johnston, Don P Johnston-McNeill & Co.,
Okeechobee, Fla.
Jones, Jas. H Land Agent,
The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century, Fla.
Jordan, R. F Glenwood, Ga.
Judd, Mrs. M. F Dalton, Ga.
Kayton, H. . Vice-President,
Carson Naval Stores Co., Savannah, Ga.
Kenney, A. R Chief Tie and Timber Agent,
A. C. L. R. R.,
Waycross, Ga.
Kirklighter, S. J. Glenville, Ga.
Kirkland, J. B Waycross, Ga.
Kirkland, D Kirkland & Co.,
Denton, Ga.
Leffiteau, E. R T. P. & F. A.,
Merchants & Marine Trans. Co., Savannah, Ga.
Landry, M. B 339 Carondelet St.,
New Orleans, La.
Lee, Maj. J. G L. S. U.,
Baton Rouge, La.
Lockwood, J. F Mgr. Naval Stores Division,
Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware. Loughridge, J. H. Perry, Fla.
Lott, Dan Waycross, Ga.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Macfarland, F. H 1130 E. Henry St.,
Savannah, Ga.
McCaffery, J. F Savannah River Lumber Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
McKee, E. R Deputy Forest Supervisor,
Florida National Forest, Valparaiso, Fla.
McLendon, H. S Agricultural Agent,
F. E. C. Railway,
St. Augustine, Fla.
Mallory, J. M General Industrial Agent,
Central of Georgia Rwy., Savannah, Ga.
Marks, R. P., Jr 1119 East 32nd St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Miller, D. C . Lambert, Ga. Miller, E. C . Senator, 2nd District,
Hinesville, Ga.
Monighan, Francis 650 Reese St.,
Athens, Ga.
Moore, A. C Columbia, S. C.
Moore, A. G. T Southern Pine Ass'n.,
New Orleans, La.
Morgan, Henry C Homerville, Ga.,
Senator 5th District.
Morgan, J. Wm Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Morton, Jas. W Athens, Ga.
Moseley, W. S Collins, Ga.
Mensby, C. T. Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Musgrove, W. V Homerville, Ga.
Nash, J. G President,
Columbia Naval Stores Co., Savannah, Ga.
Newsome, T. A Tuscaloosa, Ga.
Newton, D. C Claxton, Ga.
Norton, Eliot Interstate Tr. & Banking Co.,
New Orleans, La.
Nuite, Chas. W Department of Forestry,
University of Ga.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Ounler, Mrs. S. H 703 Whitaker St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Overstreet, M. 0 Orlando, Fla.
(Member Florida State Senate) Pace, J. G Pace Lumber Co.,
Pensacola, Fla.
Peeples, Miss Doris 303 E. Huntington St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Pendleton, Lawson, Corp . Bryn Athyn, Pa. Peters, J. G . U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
Potter, L. B Columbia Naval Stores Co.,
Savannah, Ga.
Pratt, Joseph Hyde Asheville, N. C.
President Western N. C. Inc. Pringle, L. V Biloxi, Miss.
Rains, G. S . Southern Freight Ass'n.,
Atlanta, Ga.
Rahn, A. Glennville, Ga.
Ray, G. A. Baxley, Ga.
Rice, Miss 0 Scott, Ga.
Rice, S. P Scott, Ga.
Rice, Mrs. S. P ---------------------- Scott, Ga.
Rietz, Paul R State College of Agriculture,
Athens, Ga.
Robertson, E. H Guyton, Ga.
Rogers, J. F Cochran, Ga.
Rose, E. P Valdosta, Ga.
Rountree, J. Leonard --------- Summit, Ga.
Sapp, J. M Savannah, Ga.
Saunders, W. C Walterboro, S. C.
Schick, James Reese Fngineer Branch Lines,
N. & W. Rwy.,
Roanoke, Va.
Schick, Mrs. James Reese . Roanoke, Va. Sessoms, Alex K Cogdell, Ga.
Sheppard, James 0 Fdgefield, S. C.
Shingler, Geo. P., Jr . U. S. Customs House, Savannah, Ga.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


Shoemaker, Mrs. Z. T . Massillon, Ohio. Siecke, E. 0 State Forester,
College Station, Tex.
Simons, Harriet P. (Mrs. Albert) 84 South Bay St.,
Charleston, S. C.
Sinclair, C. W . Madison, Fla. Sizer, Mrs. John H 425 Bull St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Skeele, H. B 116 W. Gaston St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Smith, D. A Wytheville, Va.
Smith, Hogan Sampson City, Fla.
Smith, Howard C Union Springs, Ala.
Smith, R. H Hawthorne, Fla.
Snead, W. J W. J. Snead Lumber Co.,
Greenwood, S. C.
Snooks, B. R Ailey, Ga.
Spahr, H. G Atlanta, Ga.
(Georgia Forestry Ass'n.) Speh, Carl F Turpentine & Rosin Producers'
Ass'n, New Orleans, La. Spell, C. J Lyons, Ga.
Spell, G. S Lyons, Ga.
Spell, T. P Lyons, Ga.
Stevens, J. P Savannah, Ga.
Stillwell, Wm. B Savannah, Ga., Box 522,
(Southern Pine Co. of Ga.) Stone, Bonnel H . Bairsville, Ga.
(Georgia Forestry Assn.) Strain, W. H. 1602 E. Henry St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Sumner, J. W. Scott, Ga.
Tilghman, H. T. Marion, S. C.
Thomas, D. R Agricultural and Industrial
Agent, Tenrille, Ga.
Tillett, A. C Asst. to Vice-Pres., Seaboard
Air Line Rwy.,
Norfolk, Va.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Tison, R. R . Ridgeland, S. C., Supt. of Education,
Jasper County, S. C. Tyler, W. D Clinchfield Coal Corp.,
Dante, Russell Co., Va. Tyler, Mrs. W. D Dante, Va.
Veitch, F. P U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
Veal, W. T. Baxley, Ga.
Tucker, Clement S., Jr . Cogdell, Ga. Ulmer, M. W Largo, Fla.
Woodruff, A. J Decatur, Ga.
Williams, W. K Crossett Lumber Co.,
Crossett, Ark.
Wood, A. D Champion Fibre Co.,
Canton, N. C.
Willet, N. T, Agricultural Agent,
C. & N. C. R. R.,
Augusta, Ga.
Ward, J. 0. Blacksburg, Ga.
Wernicke, 0. H. T. Pensacola Tar & Turpentine
Company,
Gull Point, Fla.
Weston, J. Roland . H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown, Miss.
Weston, Mrs. J. Roland . Logtown, Miss. Whatley, Mrs. E. T 1119 E. Duffy St.,
Savannah, Ga.
Representing Lachlan McIntosh Chapter of D. A. R.
White, W. E Citrus Fruit Growers,
New Port Richey, Fla. Whittin, J. T. Hinesville, Ga.
Willcox, W. A Milan, Ga.
Williamson, Wm. W . 26 Bay E., Savannah, Ga. Wood, A. V 1707 Gloucester St.,
Brunswick, Ga.
Wood, B. 0 Pavo, Ga.
Woods, John B Forest Engineer,
Long-Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City, Mo.









88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

Wrigley, George Greenville, S. C.
Electrical Engineer, J. E. Sirrine & Co. Wyman, Lenthall U. S. Forest Service,
Starke, Fla.
Young, W. D 521 College Street,
Fort Valley, Ga.




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1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Sixth Southern Forestry congress HELD AT SAVANNAH, GEORGIA JANUARY 28 30, 1924

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THE SEEMAN PRINTERY , IN C . DURHAM, N . C. 1925

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OFFICERS OF THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS PRESIDENT .......... .... . . .. BONNELL H. STONE, Pfister & Vogel Land Co. BLAIRSVILLE, GA. VIG:E-PRESIDENT .... , . .. ... . .. .. ... . P. R. CAMP, Vice-Presi dent Camp Mfg. Co. FRANKLIN , VA . SECRETARY-TREASURER ......... . .. .. .. . ...... .. . ..... D. FORBES, Director Soi,thern Forest Experim e nt Station NEW ORLEANS, LA. ASSISTANT SECRETARY . . . .. .. . .......... . ... . ........ . ...... ]. ROLAND WESTON , H. Weston Lumber Co . LOGTOWN, MISS. CHAIRMAN ExECUl'IVE CoMMITTEE .... ... ... . . JOSEPH HYDE PRATT , Dir e ctor Geologi c al a n d Economic Survey CHAPEL HILL, N. C. CHAIRMAN FINANCE COMMITTEE .... ... . .. . . . . . .... ... . ... .. + J. K. JOHNSON , F o r e ster , Gr e a t Southern Lumber Co . BOGALUSA, LA . CHAIRMAN PUBLICITY COMMITTEE .. ... ... .. . ]. S. HOLMES, State Forester CHAPEL HILL , N. C. CHAIRMAN LEGISLATIVE CoMMITTEE .. . ...... . ..• .. .... . .... A. B. HASTINGS, Assistant State For e ster CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. ExE C UTIV I E CoMMIITEE-The above officers, together w ith all former Presidents of the Congress , constitute the Executive Committee. THE FORMER PRESIDENTS ARE : Elected COL. JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Chapel Hill , N . C. ..... ... ......... . 1916 HON. HENRY E. HARDTNER , Urania , La .. ... . ............ . . ........... 1920 MR. ROY L. HOGUE, Jackson , Miss . . ... ... . ..... .. .. .. ... . .... .. . . .. . . . .... . .. . 1921 MR. W . D. TYLER , Dante , Va . ..... .............. . .... .. . . . .. .... ... ... . .. . . . ...... . .. 1922

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EDITOR'S NOTE In view of the delay of twelve months in getting these pro ceedings published, and because it is necessary to keep the cost of publication within the means of the Congress, it has been decided by the Executive Committee to publish only such part of the proceedings of this Congress as relate to the Naval Stores Industry. This seems most appropriate, not only because Savannah, where the Congress met, is in the heart of the country where this industry has been fl o uri shi ng for the past fifty years, but even more because the Naval Stores operators att ended the Congress in such numbers and contributed in such lar ge part to the success of the meeting. Not only, therefore, have a number of very interesting and valuable papers con tributed by the speakers named on the program been omitted, but a considerable part of the discussion as taken by the stenog rapher h as been cut out. The Editor and the Executive Com mittee of the Congress herewith desire to extend their apologies for taking this liberty with the Proceedings. J. S. HOLMES, Editor March 15, 1925.

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CONTENTS PAGE PROGRAM OF SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS. . ...... . ... 7 INTRODUCTORY BY MAYOR SEABROOK AND CoL. PRATT ... . ..... . 11 LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE........................ .. . . . ... .. ... .. ... 12 LETTER FROM SECRETARY WALLACE . ..... . ..... .. . . ..... . .. ... . .... ....... .. . 14 LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT ' S PRIVATE SECRETARY, Hon E. T . Clarke . .. . ..... . ... . . . . ... . ................ ..... .... . ... . ..... ... . . . .. . .. . 15 " THE FRE ' CH NAVAL STOR E S SYSTEM AND ITS LESSONS," Col. W. B. Greeley . . . . .... . .... .. . .. ... . ..... . . .. ... .. .. . . . . .. . .. ... .. . . . . . . . ... . . .. 17 "PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY: THE PRODUCERS PART," L. V. Pringle ... . ... . .. ...... ....... . . .. . . . . . 27 "CAN THE FACTOR PR E VENT RE C KLESS TURPENTINING?" H. L. Kayton . ... . .. . .. .. . ... .. . .. ... ..... . .. . . . ... . . . . .... .. . ........ . ..... . .. . .. . ..... . 30 DISCUSSION: "THE NAVAL STORES INDUSTRY" Mr. Thomas Gamb l e, Temporary Chairman . ... . .. ... . . ... . ... . . . 33 Mr. C. F. Speh . .. . . .. . .. .. ... . . .. .. . . . ..... . .... . .. .. . .... .. .. .... . . ... . .. ... . . . . ... 36 Mr. A. K. Sess o ms . .. . ..... .. .. . . ... . . . .. .. . ... ..... ...... .. ....... .. ........ ... .. 36 Mr. C. S. Hodges ... . . . . ..... . . . . ..... .. .. ....... .... . . .......... .. ........... . .... 3'7 Mr. A. V. Wood . ... . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . ..... . ... .. . . ........ .. . . .... . .. . ........ ... ... 39 Mr. A. S. Carr. .. .. .... . . . . . . ..... .... . ... . .. .. . .. . ....... . .... . . ... .. .......... . . . . 40 Mr. Thomas Gamble .... ... . . .. ... . .. . ...... . ... ..... .. . . . .. .. ..... ... ...... .... .. 41 Mr. J. G. Pace . . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . .. ...... ...... ... . . ... . ....... . .... . .. .. ...... . ......... 41 Mr. Thomas Gamble ... .... . ... . . .. . ... . .. . . ... .. . .... ...... ... . .. . .. .42, 49, 52 Resolution ..... .... ... . ... . . . ..... . . .. .. . ........ . .. .. .. . . .. .... . ....................... 43 Dr. F. P. Veitch .. .................. . ... . . .. . ..... . ...... ..... .. .... .. ...... . .... . .. 44 Mr. 0. H. L. Wernicke .................. . .............................. .47, 49

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6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Mr. J. E. Lockwood ...... ...... ..... ............ ....... ... ...... .. ............... 50 Mr. J. S. Holmes . . ......... . ...... .... ....... . .. ... . .. ..... . .................. 51, 52 Dr. Austin Cary ....... .. . ..... . ...... . ........... ....... ... ...... . ......... . ....... 53 PERsoNNEL OF CoMMITTEEs ... . ..... .. ............ .. . .... . . .... . ............. 53, 54 RESOLUTION ON DEATH OF MR. M. L. ALEXANDER. .. .. . ...... .... 55 REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE . . . .. .... . ................... . .......... 56 REPORT OF RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE ... ....... . ... ... ............ .... .... 58 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLACE OF MEETING .............. . . : . ... . 62 REPORT OF TREASURER ..... ......... . . ..................... .. .... . . . . ... .... . ... . . 63, 64 APPENDIX l. CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS WITH LIST OF CHARTER MEMBERS 65 APPENDIX II. BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 73 APPENDIX III. LIST OF PATRONS OF THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS .......... ........... .... . ... .. .... .... ... . ... ... . . . ..... . . ... 76 APPENDIX IV. LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES ATTENDING THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS .... ... ...... ........ . 79

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS PROGRAM MONDAY , JANUARY 28 10:00 A . M. 7 Invocation-Rev. W. A . Jonnard , St . John's Episcopal Church, Savannah. Address of Welcome-Hon. Paul E . Seabrook, Mayor of Savannah. Reply-Col. Joseph H y de Pr a tt, Pre s ident Western N. C. Inc ., Asheville , N. C . President's Address-Bonnell H . Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co. , Blairsville, Ga. Topic-The N av al Store s Industr y: "Prolon g in g th e Life o f the Industr ythe Producer's Part. " Address by L. V . Pringle, Vice-President G illican-Chiple y C o ., Inc., Biloxi , Miss. " Can the Factor Pre ve nt R e ckless Turpentining? " Address by H. L. Kayton, Vice-Pre s ident Carson Naval Stores Co., Savannah. Discussion, led b y Thoma s G amble , Editor Naval Stores Re view , Savannah. Appointment of Committees . 1 : 30 P. M. Automobile tour of Savannah , followed by an oyster roast at the Savannah Yacht Club, and drive to Tybee Beach. 8 : 15 P. M . Illustrated Lecture-" What Goes on Inside a Turpentined Tree," by Miss Eloise Gerry , Fore s t Products Labo ratory , U . S. Forest Service, Madison, Wis. Motion Pictures-Louisiana Department of Conservation, and U. S. Forest Service.

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8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TUESDAY, JANUARY 29 10:00 A, M. Topic-Fore s try and the South's Business: "Forest Fires-a Menace to the South Atlantic Ports." Address by Matthew Hale , President South Atlantic Maritime Corporation, Washington , D. C. "A Business Man's View of the Cut-Over Land Problems." Address by 0. H. L. Wernicke, President Pensacola Tar and Turpentine Co., Gull Point , Fla . "Florida ' s Fore s ts and Florida's Agriculture." A ddress by R. W. Bennett, Secretary Standard Container Man ufacturers , Jacks o nville, Fla. "The Surest Crop on the Fa rm. " Address by H. M. Cur ran, Extension Specialist, Raleigh, N . C. "The Interest of Banks and Trust Companies in Forestry." Address by Eliot Nor t o n , Interstate Trust & Banking Co., New Orleans, L a . Discussi on of each paper as presented. 2:00 P. M. Topic-The Responsibility for Forestry: " Forestry-a Problem for Us All." Address by David L. Goodwillie, Chairman National Forestry Policy Com mittee, National Chamber of C o mmerce, Chicago, Ill . " The State 's Part." Address by member of State Forestry Board, Alabama. "Can the Hardwood Manufacturer Practise Forestry?" Address by Phil D. Houston , Houston Bros. , Vicks burg, Miss, " Forestry for the Pine Manufacturer ." Address by J. M. Camp, Vice-President Camp Manufacturing Co., Franklin, Va. Discussion of each paper as presented .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CON G RESS 9 8:15 P. M . Introductory Address-Hon. Clifford Walker , Governor of Georgia, Chairman. "The Newspapers' Interest in Forestry." Address by Major J ames A. Holloman, Managing Editor, Atlanta Con stitution, Atlanta, Ga. " France Points the Way to America." Address b y Col. Wm. B. Greeley, Chief Forester, United States Fore st Service, Washington, D . C. WEDNESDAY , JANU ARY 30 10 : 00 A. M. Report of the Secretary-R. D. Forbes, New Orleans , La. Reports of Standing Committee s Exec uti ve, Co l. J oseph Hyde Pratt; Finance, J. K. John son, Grea t Southern Lum ber Co., Bogalusa, La.; Legislation, A. B. Hastings , Ass t . State Forester, Charlottesville , Va.; Publicity, J. S. Holmes, State Forester , Chapel Hill , N. C. Resolution s . Elections. 2 : 00 P. M. Round Table Conference-State D e legations from South Caro lina, Geo r g ia and Florida. Presiding Officers : South Carolina-Prof. Andrew C . Moore, University of South Carolina, Columbia , President South Carolina Forestry Association. Georgia-A. V. Wood, The Downing Co., Brunswick, Vice-President Georgia Forestry Association. Florida-W. L'E . Barnett, Mount Dora, President Florida Forestry Association. 4:00 P. M. "The South's Opportunity"-Illustrated Lecture by Dr. Austin Cary, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.

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10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8:00 P. M. Tree Identification Contest for pupils of Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, ' Eighth ,' and High School Grades, Savannah Schools Conducted by J. S . Holmes, Chapel Hill, N. C. Motion Pictures of Wild Life-Louisiana Department of Con servation. Announcement of Prize Winners.

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Proceedings OF THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS HELD AT SAVANNAH, GEORGIA JANUARY 28-30, 1924. The Sixth Southern Forestry Congress was called to order by the President, Mr. Bonnell H. Stone, o f Blairsville, Ga., at 10 : 00 A. M., January 28th , in the Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Ga. After an invocation by Dr. S. B. McGlohon of St. Paul's Church, Savannah, the Mayor, Hon. Paul E. Seabrook, gave a cordial welcome to the Congress. "You ha ve wisely se lected Savannah as the place of this meeting," h e said, "as s he is known as the ForestCity of the South. We have centered here, as you know, many activities that depend on the raw materials of the forest and yo u will find here ready sympathy and willing cooperation in the advancement of ev ery thing looking to the protection and conservation of the raw materials on which we here are so dependent. You know, no doubt, that Savannah is the premier Naval Stores port of the world. Her lumber intere sts are also extensive, and there are other activities that are dependent on the raw material that we get only from the forests." In his reply to the Mayor ' s courteous words of welcome, Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, President of Western North Carolina, Inc., and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Congress, spoke in part as follows: Colon e l Joseph Hyd e Pratt, Asheville, N. C.: The restora tion of the Naval Stores Industry, or perhaps I had better say the increase of the Naval Stores Industry, in Georgia is of such importance to Savannah that every man, woman and child in the City and surrounding sections should be asking what can I do to bring this about. The Port of Savannah is largely dependent upon the Naval Stores Industry and no one thing that the City of Savannah and the State of Georgia can do tc reestablish the importance of the Port of Savannah will be giver greater results than to build up the Naval Stores Industry.

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12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The first step towards this is for the State to pass adequate legislation for the protection of the forests of Georgia from fire. The question of re-forestation is being agitated throughout the whole country but no State is in a position to undertake or even to consider re-forestation until l egislaion has been passed that will insure the protection of the forest from fire. Re forestation is necessary not only for the Naval Stores indu stry, but to insure the South of an adeq uat e supply of lumber. Through the investigations of expert Foresters of the U. S . Forest Service it has been determined that not only can the long leaf pine be reproduced in Georgia and other Southern States , but that the Slash Pine which is a more rapid growing tree than the Long Leaf Pine and almost equal in its turpentine product , can be grown successfully in the South. The cooperation of the Federal Government in acquiring larg e areas of land in the South for the production of timber which are designated as Nationa l Forests should be an incentive for the State to acquire areas for State Forests to be used for the same purpo s e. The Federal Government has alr e ady ac quired 1 , 500 , 000 acres of l and in the Southern States for National Forests. Of this amount 360,000 acres are in North Carolina , and durin g 1923 there were di s bursed amongst the Counties of North Carolina , in which Nationa l Forest areas occur , s um s of money representing 25 per cent of the income of the Nationa l Forests which was equal to approximately the property tax of the County on the land area in the County at an assessed valuation of $5 . 00 per acre. This is the promised income in li eu of taxes. The following communications were then read. LETTER FROM PRESIDENT COOLIDGE TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE THE WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON November 13 , 1923 . My dear Colonel Pratt: It is a matter of sincere regret to me that I am unable to attend the meeting of the Southern Forestry Congress to be held at Savannah next January. This organization has und ertaken a most commendable public

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 13 enterprise in awakening the people of the South to the value of their forest resources and in bringing them together for mutual counsel to the end that these resources may be perpetuated. I am informed that the Southern Forestry Congress has be e n identifi e d with most of the progres s ive developments toward forest protection and reforestation which have b ee n launch e d in the Southern States durin g r ecent years; and that its recurring sessions have become cl ea ring hou ses for the dis cussion of public and private developments in for es try , thus r e ndering an admirable serv ic e both to your own r eg ion a nd to the entire Nation. It is scarcely nec ess ary for me to emphasize the importanc e of r e for estation in th e United States. Th e Am e ric an people ca me into the poss ess ion of the greatest wealth in virgin timb e r with which any people in the history of the world was ever endowed. Our un s tint e d u se of ciur forests has made us dependent upon their products in agriculture, manufacturing industries, and living standards to a degr ee th at is not paral l e l ed e lsewher e in the world. But, because we ha ve not as yet learned to grow timber in any degre e comm e nsurate with our u se of timb e r, we find ourselves confronted with an approaching sh o rtag e of raw fo r es t materials. Th e n e cessit y of m ov ing aggressive l y toward th e grow ing of timber b o th as a public activity and through th e e ncourag e ment of private re fores tation i s probably g reat e r in th e States covered b y th e Southern For est ry Congress than in any o ther portion of the Union of comparable size. With an aggregate a rea of forest l a nd or potentia l forest land in excess of 220 million acres, with a r e markable variety of valuable forest trees , and with climatic conditions exceptionally favorable to th e growth of timber, it is not wide of the mark t o say that this r eg i o n contains mor e than half of the future wood producing r es our ces of th e United Stat e s . A lar ge portion of the for e st land of the South has a lr ea dy been cut ove r . In many sec tion s you a re expe riencin g the ex haustion o f the origina l supp li es of virg in timb e r, the moving out of sawmills , and the consequent l oss of industry and population . You are face to fac e wi'th the problem created by enormous areas of denuded and idle land . In th e economy of the South itself and in th e economy of the entire country, it is imperative that the portion of these areas which is unsuited for agricu ltur e shall not r e main land with o ut a crop. The deve l opment of practical ways and means for securing timber growth is a matter of the highest importance which shou ld more and mor e e nlist the efforts of our national and state governments and of our citizens. Consequently, I can but wish God-speed and the l argest measure of s uccess to the S o uthern Forestry Congress. Very since rely yours, Col. Joseph Hyde Pratt , Chairman Executive Committee , Southern Forestry Congress, Chapel Hill, Nort h Carolina. (Signed) CALVIN COOLIDGE.

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14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE LETTER FROM THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRlCULTURE WASHINGTON Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt , Chairman , Executive Committee, Southern Forestry Congress, Chapel Hill , N. C. Dear Colonel Pratt: January 17th , 1924. Let me express through this letter my very real appreciation of your invitation to be with the Southern Forestry Congress at its meeting in Savannah this month , and also my profound regret because I am not able to do this . Although I shall not actually be with you I need not say, I hope, that I am heartily with you in your aims and purposes. To my mind, the Southern Forestry Congress is performing a very real , a very n e c e ssary, and a very vital service not only to the South but to the entire country . So far as the forestry situation is concerned , this country has but little tim e to delay before applying remedial measures. We hav e danced ove rlong t o the tune of "Endless Resources," little realizing that the piper mu st some day be paid. We have reduced our original 822 , 000 , 000 acres of virgin forest land to less than 138,000 , 000 . This land is being cutover n ow at the rate of about 10 , 000,000 acres yearly. It w o uld seem bromidic ind ee d t o say today, es pecially to such a gath ering as this, that forest land is one of our basic national r e sources and that our national we lfar e depends upon its productivit y. Yet the fact that from a quarter of a century to more than a century is required to mature the forest crop has a significance that is neith e r wid e ly nor deepl y realized. Shortages in forest-grown material cannot be rectified in a season o r two like shortages in wheat or cotton. If the people of th e Unit e d States wait until the injury to social and industrial well b eing for lack of wood cr ops i s overwhelming, th e l oss in tim e befor e any remedy c o uld b e mad e effec tive w o uld create little short of a national di saster. In furthering tr ee growth on a national scale it must be realized that an o bligation r es ts upon the public to reduce the forest hazard by legi lation and by p o licy function s directed at the origin of forest fires , and also to assist land owners in the cost of fir e control and fir e suppression. Th e public has a v e ry specific ob li gation t o adapt the taxation of forest growing land and what it produces to the r easonab l e requirem e nts of an und e rtaking which requires for its harvesting more than a quarter of a century. The r es ults of treating our timber as a mine rather than as an ever renewabl e crop has been to leav e 81,000,000 acres of forest land larg e ly barr e n, 250,0000,000 acres that are only partially productiv e, and eac h year add to these from 5 , 000 , 000 to 10 , 000,000 acr e s.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 1 5 Through the establishing of forests that are permanent, abundant, and well distributed, this country must and shall be placed upon a self ~ustaining basis. I hope and confidently trust that this day may not b e too l ong delayed. I know that the farsighted, well directed efforts of such an organization as yours can do much toward hastening the dawn . Very sincerely yours , (Signed) HENRY C. WALLACE, Secretary. LETTER FROM THE SECRET ARY TO THE PRESIDENT THE WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON January 12 , 1924 . My dear Mr. Forbes : Your l etter of December 29th, transmitting resolution s adopted by the Fifth Southern Forestry Congress, is before me. I have been a t some pains and effort to ex amine into this matter somewhat carefully. I think I can , best answer it by forwarding t o you the substanc e of a letter written by the Secretary of Agriculture, Mr . Wallace, to whom the resolutions were ref erred. The essentia l features of Secretary Wal lac e's lett e r I am enclosing herewith . Most sincerely yours, (Signed) E . T. CLARK , Secretary. Mr. R. D. Forbes , Secretary , South e rn Forestry C o ngress , Inc. , 323 Customhouse, New Orleans , La. Enclosur e . QUOTATION FROM A LETTER OF SECRET,f\RY WALLACE " As to Federal forestry l egis l ation, the res o lu tion covers practically the provisions of the bill introduced in th e Hou se of Representatives on February 7, 1923, by Hon. John D. Clarke, of New Y o rk. Before intro ducing this bill, Mr. Clarke sub mitt e d a draft copy t o President Hard ing, who gave it his approval in a l e tt e r to Mr. Clarke, dated January 24, 1923 . I also heartily approved that bill, and am now prepared to advocate the passage of the bill ( S. 1182) similar in many respects, introduced on December 15 by Senator McNary, Chairman o f the Select Committee on R efo r es tati on of the United States Senate, which, for th e past year, ha s held h ea rin g s in our different forest r egio n s and given much thought to th e subject. This bill would authorize, a m ong other app ropriations, appropriations as large as $2,500,000 each year for coop eration with th e Sta te s in protecting forest lands fr o m fire and in study

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16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ing the effects of present tax laws upon forest perp e tuation, which is an amount more nearly commensurate, in my opinion, with the importance and s e riousness of these problems. "The resolution refers to research conducted by the F o rest Products Laboratory and also that of the Federal For es t Experiment Stations. The purpose of the latter is to secure a technical basis for the growing of timber, and of the former to secure the scientific information neces sary to reduce waste and permit the effective utilization of wood. The present drain upon the forests of the United States through cutting and fire is estimated at approximate l y 25 billion cubic f ee t annually . At th e pre se nt time this drain is being replaced by new growth only to the ex tent o f 6 billi o n cubic feet, or approximately one-fourth. By a seri e s of simple measur es, such, for ex ample , as univ e rsal fir e protecti o n and the l e aving of seed trees where necessary to in s ure a n ew timb e r crop, it would be possible ultimately to increase the growth of the forests of the Unit e d States to approximately 14 billion feet. Th e gap between a pos sible growth of 14 billi on and 25 billion cubic feet can b e made up only by intensive forest management. Such manag e ment must depend up o n a technical knowledge of tr ees and fore s ts of a character which can be secured only by forest experiment stations . With the n e cessary basic informati o n , it would , be po ss ible ultimatel y to grow upon th e pres e nt area o f forest land an amount of timber slightly in ex ces s of th e pres en t drain. The place of th e for es t experim e nt station i s, th e refor e, to fur ni s h the scientific basi s upon which, alone, timber grow th can be in creased from 14 billion to 25 billion cubic feet. In a number o f important forest r eg ions we now have n o forest experim e nt s tations , and in all o f the remainder the force and equipment i s so limited as to make it p os sib l e to cover only a part of the most urgent problems and that in an un s atisfactory and inadequate way. "Twenty-two and one-half billion cubic feet are cut from our forests each year and out o f this total we waste , avoidab l y and otherwise, about 9 billion. By the eliminatio n of obvious waste in the woods, the manu facture of lumb e r , and in its remanufacture and use by the general appli cation o f technical knowledge already available, and by thoroughgoing r ese arch in the properties, protection , and utilization of wood, it should be possible to save at l eas t 6 billion board f ee t of lumber al o ne each year and additional amounts of other material. This saving is essentia l to extend the lif e o f our present timber suppl y and thus help to bridge the gap between the existing virgin forests and new timb e r crops . Such a saving should mean greater profits to manufacturers and b y increasing the pr e paration of the crop which can be utilized it shou ld help to make timber growing more profitable. The res e arch which wilJ make possible a large part o f the saving is , broadly, the function of the Forest Pr o ducts Laboratory. But the Laborat o ry with its present personnel and equip ment is able to cover only a part of the most urgent problems which underlie the effective utilization of timber and th e reduction of waste. " The recommendation for the continued acquisition of forest land by the Federal Government and for an appropriation for that purpose of at least two million dollars is in accord with the views of the National

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2 SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 17 Forest R ese rvation Commission and of the Forest Service. While pre~ en t financial conditions operate against an appropriation as larg e as that recommended , the member s of the Southern Forestry Congress no doubt will be gratified to know that th e budget for the fiscal yea r 1925 carries an it e m of one million d o llars for that purpose , this r e presenting an increase of $550 , 000 over the appropriation for the pr esent year. "There is complete 'actord between th e War Department and the D epa rtm ent of Agriculture on th e subject of devoting to National Forest uses the a rea s suitable for suc h u ses which were acquired for military purposes during the war but not at pr esent ne e ded for such purposes. Careful exami nations hav e b ee n made of the maj o rity of the more important of such areas; the reports thereon have been reviewed by a j oin t committ ee r eprese ntin g both Departm ents, an d the Secr e tary of War has already given his app roval to legi s lati o n which will make a number of larg er camps National Forests, subject, h oweve r , to unham pered us e for military purpos es sho uld the n ee d a rise. I am sure that th e progr ess in this line is in complete accord with the wishes of the Southern Forestry Congress and that th e results will meet their highest expe ctations . " THE FRENCH NAVAL STORES SYSTEM AND ITS LESSONS CoL . W. B . GREELEY CHIEF , U. S. FOREST SERVICE It is apparent to all s tudents of the situation in the southern pine forests that the time has come for the naval stores industry of the South to look very keenly into its future, to take stock of. its methods, and to give thought to the naural resources upon which it is dependent, with a view to shaping its course to meet a radical change in circumstances. I believe that our industry has much to learn from the French in this preparation for the future. In order that we may fairly decide whether or not this is true we might take a look at the present situation in the American naval stores industry and compare it with the situation in France . Then, if possible , we will ascertain the factors that are accountable for the great differences that exist. When the principles that underlie the success of the French industry have been clearly set out where we can see and weigh them, we can consider the practicability and desirability of their application to our conditions. The American naval stores industry has dominated the world's trade jn those essential commodities, rosin and turpen

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18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE tine, since early colonial days, but the industry is now on the wane. The crest of production has passed and the end of the industry as a major activity of the South is definitely in sight. The industry as we have known it, is doomed for the simple reason that the old stand of longleaf and slash pine from which the raw product is obtained is about to be exhausted and no adequate second crop has come to take its place in continuing the supply. Such second growth as is present bids fair to be removed from consideration at an early date through the use of methods not adapted to realizing its full value . The once green forest of longleaf pine that covered the coastal plain from Virginia to T exas is now sadly depleted. The best figures available show that of the original longleaf pine forest which covered one hundred to one hundred and thirty million acres, only fifteen million acres are still uncut and this remainder is being cut over at the rate of two million acres per annum; a decade will see its practical finish . Second growth timber is being cut also as fast as it reaches merchant able size. Wood turpentine can be produced from stumps and tops and this form of production , undoubtedly , has a future of promise, but the gum turpentine and rosin industry must have green timber to work on, and the passing of the longleaf pine forest automatically chokes it off at the source. The output of naval stores fluctuates from season to season but has been gradually fa ll ing s ince the peak year of 1909. The number of turpentine farms is decreasing. Each year an in creasing number of turpentine operators must give up turpen tining and go into something else, because no timber can be found on which to place cups. Operators have followed the lon g leaf south-ward to the Everglades of Florida and :west ward to the plains of Texas and, being thrown back by these outward limits of the spec _ ies , are now combing over afresh their hunting grounds of long ago, picking up scattered pieces passed by before as too insignificant or too poor to work and supplementing them with crops of cups placed on saplings that have gr , own up since the first operation. In the last five years operators, particularly in Georgia and s ince 1920 in the Caro linas , have been depending upon second growth, frequently immature , for a l arge part of their output. Unfortunately because of the method of working followed, they are rapidly destroying the main hope for the future.

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SouTHERN FoRESTRY CoNGJIBss 19 While the distribution and financing of naval stores has been a stabilized part of the industry for a great many years as is shown by the history of this city, the operations in the woods have been of a transient nature , always on the move, ever in the backwoods. The thought and practice have been to get the maximum amount of gum out of the trees in the minimum of time and move on to pastures green. There was ever, until the last few years, plenty more timber just beyond the horizon , westward or southward, ready to be worked and nobody worried much about the future . Trees were seldom worked more than four or five years and stills were seldom operated in one location for more than ten years, many for less. The longleaf pine belt from Virginia to Texas is spotted with thousands of old turpentine camps, of which nothing exists now save a few bricks where the old still kettle stood. While there may be some, I do not know of a town that has grown up from a turpentine still and has been maintained permanently as such by woods operation for naval stores. I know of no per manent system of roads nor of any permanent schools or churches that have been built and maintained by or for a population depending upon turpentine operations. The typical turpentine camp is of flimsy , temporary con struction set away off in the wilderness. Such a place usually fails to satisfy the natural cravings of the average American citizen for what he considers the common necessities of life. Partly due to the isolation and the comparative hardships of the life, the woods end of our industry is frequently embarrassed by the labor situation . The only class of common labor at tracted is difficult to hold; the annual labor turn-over in the average camp is enormous. Recruiting his force often takes as much of a manager's time as any phase of the operation. The supply of labor is fluctuating and often insufficient, and by the same token, wages, the biggest item in the cost of naval stores, may vary tremendously from year to year. Now let us take a look at the French Industry. I shall not attempt to describe here the French methods in detail nor burden you with statistics of yields, costs, etc. I simply want to give you a bird's eye view of the industry as a whole. As you know, French naval stores are produced almost exclusively in the Landes Region of France from an area of less than two million

PAGE 20

20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE acres. The Landes was originally an enormous swamp in th~ rainy season and an arid , sandy desert the balance of the year. It was reclaimed, drained and planted to maritime pine, starting about one hundred and twenty-five years ago. The project was carried on in the face of many obstacles and the reclama tion of this land and its afforestation stand today as one of the greatest and most successful efforts on the part of man to radically change the face of nature. The maritime pine is not as good a producer of gum, nor is it nearly so valuable for saw timber as our longleaf and slash pines. If you can imagine such a thing, it looks like a cross between a loblolly and a spruce pine. Is is a fast grower and a prolific seed bearer. The French originally planted this trees in the Landes, though by far the greater bulk of the present forest is the result of natural reproduction; the forests origi nally planted having been worked out and cut for saw timber and their place taken by a second crop. The pine reaches saw timber size at around seventy years from seed, when it is cut, yielding from sevei;i to ten thousand feet per acre of saw timber and a considerable amount of ties , poles, cordwood, and char coal in addition. This alone is a mighty good crop for a soil originally as poor as beach sand, but the raising of saw timber is really a side issue with the French timber owner in the Landes. His main crop is turpentine and rosin. The French developed their method of gum extraction and the system of management of their turpentine orchards on the basis of timber production rather than timber mining. Their methods are the result of over a century of experience in which there has been ever present the grim necessity of replacing old crops with new on the same ground, for they have never had any reason to believe that their stock of turpentine timber was inexhaustible. One hundred years ago they were where the naval stores industry of the South now finds itself, only in a very much harder case. Now after a hundred years or more of existence what are the conditions existing in the French industry? Let me, as briefly as I may, paint a word picture of the Landes as I saw it in 1917 and 1918. It is a gently rolling sandy plain roughly triangular in shape, containing slighlty less than two million acres, in the southwest of France near the coast, covered from

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( SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 21 boundary to boundary with an unbroken forest of maritime pine in all stages of development from seedling to saw timber , every acre of which has either been planted or is the result of seed from planted trees. North arid south through the heart of this area runs one of the main trunk line railroads of Frarn,:e from which, every ten or twelve miles, feeder rail lines branch out to the east and west penetrating to the outer boundaries of the region. As extensive as this system of railroad transporta ion is, it is supplemented by an even greater mileage of roads, of which the greater part is hard surfaced. I doubt if there is a body of timber in the whole region that is more than three mile s from a railroad or a paved highwa y . Every few miles along thes e r a ilwa ys and roads one comes on a little village set in a narrow fringe of fields and g r ass l a nd and surrounded by woods. The heart of each village is a tur pentine still and a wood using plant of some kind. The vi lla ges are o f brick and stone with red tile roofs. Large churches, schools and public buildings adorn their plazas and business is brisk indeed on their we ll paved "main streets." These vil lag es correspond directly with our turpentine camps but with what a difference ! Every now and then the traveller comes to a sma ll city of from twenty to thirty thousand inh abitants, of which there are several in the Landes. These are the centers of marketing, distribution and government for the adjacent ter ritory; and the bustle and sti r of business reminds one m ore of some wide-awake western ci t y than of what we wou ld natura ll y expect in old and sett l ed France. The Landes s u pports a per m anent population of 1 , 400 ,00 0 , half as many people as the whole sta t e of Geo r gia, although Georg ia contains nearly nine teen times the area; and these folk are cons idered among the most prosperous and conte nted in the whole of France. It is n o exaggeration to say that every man, woman, and child of t hi s population derives his daily bread directly or indirectly from the maritime pine forests that surround him, and it i s a mighty good living I assure you. Since the forests are permanent, the turpentine plants are permanent. The structures are of stee l, brick and concrete and embody the latest thought in the processes of manufa ct ure . The continual use, over and over of the same land for grow ing timber crops and extracting gum and timb er products

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22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE requires and justifies an extensive and permanent system of roads; the continuous production of turpentine, rosin, lumber, mine props, and cordwood maintains standard guage railroads, and the never failing opportunity for labor year around and in fixed location attracts a steady localized supply which many years ago became the permanent population of the country. The output of naval stores from the Landes has been steady and uniform for many years. It was, of course, somewhat upset during the war, but seems to have fully recovered since . The two million acres of the Landes, no larger than four or five average Georgia counties, produces one-fourth as much naval stores as does the whole South. The future of the indus try and of the region is assured and the outlook is all the brighter because of the gradual weakening of America's domi nance in the world's naval stores markets that must take place as we near the exhaustion of our source of supply. Now what is the secret of the success of the French indus try? Does the answer lie in the soil or the climate, or the species, or in intensive European conditions generally? It does not. Their climate is not as good as ours ; our season is longer as a rule and a good deal warmer. Their soil is very much inferior to even that of our poorer sand hills and they have none in the Landes that compares with our better clay so ils . The maritime pine is inferior to longleaf and slash pine in every respect. It does not produce as much gum; its lumber is poor indeed compared with that from our pines ; it is not as hardy against fire, insects, and disease; and on our better so ils both slash and longleaf pine should grow as rapidly, and under proper care, more rapidly than the maritime pine. Is it the method of extracting the gum, or the way the gum is converted into turpentine and rosin, or is it the happy combination of these two features and the high yield and value of the additional forest products such as lumber, mine props, poles, etc.? These all bear an important part but the prime factor in the French success is their acceptance of the principle that timber grow ing comes first, that there m:ust be an uninterrupted succession of forest crops, and that each operating unit must be built up on a continuous yield of gum as well as lumber and wood by grouping about it a suitable acreage of each stage of forest, from seedlings to full grown trees. All the rest of their sys

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 23 tern has been worked out to fit in with this governing principle::., o r has followed as a natural result. It is this principle, rather than any detail of cupping or chipping or climate or manufacture that marks the fundamental difference between our practice and the French system. It is perhaps true that the French, keen thinkers as they are , were driven to the adoption of this principle by the limitations of the situation as they found the Landes a hundred years or more ago. It may be contended that , facing no such limitations, but on the contrary finding them s elves po s ses s ed of an appar ently inexhaustible supp l y of turpentine timber, already mature and often in demand for lumber, the pioneers of our industry were fully justified in following a different principle . We won't quarrel over that; what has passed is history but we are now facing a set of conditions that differs radically from what our forebears found. The inexhaustible timber is about go ne and the gum naval stores of the South must in the not far distant future be derived from second growth timber. We are today where the French were when they started, and the fundamental principle they have followed so s uccessfully is now as sound for us as it has proved to be for them. Not only is it sound, but, in the opinion of men much more closely in touch with the conditions in the southern pine region than I am, it is now possible of application over a considerable portion of the naval stores belt. To apply the principle of continuous production profitably, either here or in Fr a nce , it must , of course, be brought down to the individual unit of operation, and the methods of extract ing gum and utilizing timber must be adapted to take full advan tage of the conditions in the particular operation without seri ously affecting the welfare and growth of the timber . This is about how it is done in the Landes. A well established tur pentine plant owns its timber in the form of fifteen or more tracts or lots, each of which has a stand of a different _ age for instance, tract number one will be covered with a stand of five year old seedlings; tract number two with young saplings ten years old; tract three, fifteen years old, and so on. Tract fifteen will be a stand seventy years old. The s tand s below twenty years of age, which are nearly always the re su lt of natural seeding and very dense, are gone over periodically and

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24 PROCEEDINGS oi THE thinned out by cutting to speed up the growth. In the tracts that contain stands twenty to thirty years old the thinning con tinues but the trees to be removed are first turpentined heavily, then cut and sold. The object of each of these thinnings is to remove the poorer trees and leave the best trees to grow at an accelerated rate . As a consequence the tract that contains the thirty year old timber shows a fine, evenly spaced stand of fast growing, big crowned trees, each as sound as a dollar and ready for the long time working now to commence. There are as a rule from seventy to one hundred and twenty of these trees to the acre, depending on the quality of the soil. Each of the tracts that contain thirty year and older timber is worked as follows. One face three and one-half inches wide is placed on each tree and is worked for four years. The tract is then abandoned for from two to three years in order to rest , the operation being shifted in the meantime to some other lot that has had its rest. After the period of rest, another face is made on the back of the tree and working continued four years. The tract is again rested , then a new face is started; and so on during a period of forty years until the tree reaches seventy years of age when it is generally ready for the sawmill and is felled and manufactured. There is always s ufficient seed in the duff after the felling to bring on a heavy growth of seed lings within a year after felling. Planting is only resorted to in case fire sweeps over a young stand before it has reached seed bearing size. The chipping is done every five days, oftener in July and August, with a tool that looks somet hing like a twisted foot adze. The chipping is about one-half inch deep and the face resembles somewhat a shallow gutter extending up the tree. The gum is caught in a earthenware cup lik e o urs , but smaller. The narrowness of the faces and the rapid growth of the trees allow a rapid healing of the face so that continued working is possible without seriously retarding the growth of the tree or rapidly reducing its productive capacity. By this process of management and chipping the still re ceives a steady income of gum, the sawmill a steady income of sawlogs, and the wood yard a steady income of mine timbers, poles , posts, ties, fuel wood and charcoal, and at the same time

PAGE 25

SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 25 the worked out lots are being reforested; and a new crop i s being grown with which to continue the circle of production. I have given you this account of French chipping method s simply to round out the description of their manner of oper ating. I am certainly not going to advocate any wholesale acceptance of French methods for u se in this country for I am satisfied that once the principle of co ntinuous forest production by units of operation is accepted , American ingenuity will invent methods of chipping, cupping and utilization that will give the de sired results and at the same time be adapted to the cir cum stanc e s of labor, markets and finances peculiar to our country. The Fore st Service has been conducting a comparative test of th e French method of chipping on the Florida National Forest for the past seve ral years, and a bulletin concerning it is now being prepared for the press. The au thor of that bulletin, Mr. E. K. McKee, is at this me et in g and I will not steal his thunder. I am s ure you will find hi s conclusions interesting. Seeing is b e lieving. Proposal for trip to France. To start one of their sustained yield units of operation , the French had to go through the la borious process of draining th e land and then planting it. Men of vision have the opportunity now and r i ght here in Georgia, as well as in other part s of the naval stores belt, to build up such units by the purchase of land already satisfacto ril y stocked with yo un g growth at the price of the l and a l one. The greater part of the vast acreage of cut over pine l and in the South wi ll not be needed for agriculture for many years; a very l arge part of it wi ll never have a higher u se than that of growing timber crops. With soil, climate, species and l ocation n e ar the g reat markets a ll in it s favor , the opportunity for profitable timber growing on these land s is unquestionably great. When we add to these favorable factors the possibility of makin g the trees pay their way, and a profit besides, through producing naval stores while th ey are growing to maturity. It can be said with trut h that the South s tands first in the United States as a field for forestry. Nor is th e production of naval stores the only medium throu g h which pines may be made to pay early returns and yield revenue while growing to maturity. The paper industry is confronted by the necessity of finding new woods from which to manufacture pulp and it is spreading south. Already seven

PAGE 26

26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE teen pulp and paper mills are in operation in the lon g leaf belt with a capital investment of over $15,000,000, and more are coming. Pulp mills make a read ~ market for the small trees worked out and cut in the proce 1,s of thinning the g rowin g stands as well as for the o lder ~terial that sawmills ca nnot utilize . Then, too, there is the wtjod turpentine industry wit h its demand for s tump wood and li g ht wood as a market for one of the products of timber growi n g. Properly managed grazing of cattle and s heep is another source of profit from forest land s . A lar ge proportion of the income of the Government's Natio nal Forests i s derived from this so urce . Ther e is every reason to look with optimism for steady advances in the value o f standing timber in the country at larg e, and especially of longleaf pine J ith its dual use. Average stumpage prices for this species h ~ve doubled since 1910 and the value of the second growt h has increa sed even more in the sa m e period. As an indi cat ion of t he rise in the values of tur pentine le ases, I may cite our experience on the Florida National Forest . In 1909 we granted three year lea ses on virgin timber at the rate of $50 per thousand cups. In 1924 ou r leases were mad e on the basis of $275 per M for virgin timber. When our foreign customers have cove red their purchasing power , it is reasonable to look forward to a great l y increased demand for the products o f our pineries and I belie ve that we may expect that the trend in values will continue to be upward for a number of years to come. If I have made myself clear, it must be apparent that the production of naval stores should l be an essential part of the practice of forestry in the southe ;r n pineries. It has been , I know, the fashion for man y years to damn turpentine orchard ing as a destructive agency in ou r pine woods, but as I said before, let's forget the past and prepare for a new era. To continue to exist at all, this industry must radically change its viewpoint and its methods. B y so doing it will a once cease to be an agency of destruction, a pla g ue of locusts as it were, and become a direct and powerful factor in forest con se r v ation, the key industry that will make the rejuvenation of southern pine lands a practicable and profitable thing. When this comes to pas s -and not before-we will see the chief emphasis placed upon the continuous production 6f resin-making trees rather

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 27 than where it is now, upon the marketing of their products. Then we will see turpentine farming acquire the standing it has in France as a permanent, progressive and lucrative calling in which men engage generation after generation with profit to themselves and with the satisfaction and se lf-respect that comes of knowing that they are building and not de s troyin g. " PROLONGING THE LIFE OF THE NA VAL STORES INDUSTRY-THE PRODUCER'S PART" MR . L. V. PRINGLE VICE-PRESIDENT GILLICAN-CHIPLEY CO . , I NC. This is a very important problem which confronts one of the great industries of the South in which there is engaged about 1,200 producers and many thousand empl oyees all of whom are face to face with the problem of prolonging the Naval Stores Industry producing gum turpentine and rosin from liv ing pine trees, if not they must find other means of livelihood. The naval stores industry is an essential industry. Essential in th e economic life of the South as it represents actual creation of wea lth to the extent of forty-five to sixty millions of dollars annually. Es se ntial to the consumer as it furnishes him with a raw material much cheaper than other raw materials which he would be compelled to use. It replaces fats and tallows so that oils are available for edible purposes. Replaces imported fossil gums and makes possible the use of china-wood oil, mak ing a cheap, efficient, waterproof varnish. Many industries are built on the expectation of having available a continual supply of these materials. It is necessary , therefore, that our raw material-the tree, be made available for future production. This means the effi cient utilization of the trees now standing and this in turn means to work a tree in such a way that it will produce the amount of turpentine and rosin which it is capable of producin g before being cut. This cannot be done by tapping the small, immature tree. This practice means the using of the tree ahead of time and, therefore, depriving the country of a source of supply in later years. There is another phase to the question and that is, the work ing of the small timber creates an erratic ratio of supply and

PAGE 28

28 PROCE'EDINGS I F THE demand, giving in one year an over-supply with a low market and the next year an under-supply ith a high market, with the consequence that neither the producer or consumer are bene fited. Moreover, putting it on the + tio basis, it takes an invest ment or expense of 100 cents op~rating such timber and the best returns possible to expect at th ~ prices which the consumer can afford to pay would be about 7 p cents, causing a loss of 25 cents. Therefore, instead of actually creating wealth those pro ducers are absorbing wealth from the South. Moreover, it is not good business. Operators sho ld inform themselves better as to the statistical position of thei ti product and operate with a view of stabilizing market conditions and prevent violent fluctu ations existing from over producti ~ 1 n. The producers for many years past have gone along in a careless and wasteful way paying ittle or no attention to con serving the timber, disregarding ~ he fact that the supply is being rapidly depleated by wastefu l methods of operation. The chief of which is the working of~mall immature trees which are not large enough to make a pr fitable yield, thereby, mak ing a lo ss to the producer and in any cases consuming all the profit derived from larger trees wh ~ ch not only results in a loss to the operator doing the work but f orks an injury to his neigh bor as well as all who are engaged i i the busine ss, as the product from small unprofitable trees is pl ced on the market and re duces the price. When the sensib ~ e thing t o have done would h ave be e n to work only such size tr es as will produce sufficient to give a profitable return on the o erator's investm e nt. Th e worst feature of operating a s mall tr ee i s the fac t that an asset has been consumed that if left until it become s of proper age and size would be of gr ater value and prove in s tru m e ntal in prolonging the lif e of he industry on a profitable basis. I The s ize tree from which a prf table y ield can be ~xpected ha s been worked out and fully dem o n s trated b y the Forestry D epa rtm e nt under the able super sion of Mr . Austin Cary which clearly s hows that no tree mder 10 inche s -15 inches from the ground s hould be worke for turpentine. I make the assertion without fear of success 1 contradiction that if only trees of the size above mentioned had been worked since the close of the MTo rld War that the o erators wou ld not be in the

PAGE 29

SO UTHERN F O RE S TR Y CON G RESS 29 deplorable financial condition the majorit y of them find them selves today. I fear the operators are not profiting as they should from the splendid work being done by the Government in the National Forest Reserve at Crest View , Florida , which is further developed b y practical experiments bein g made at Stork, Fla. , and other points from time to time b y Mr. A. Car y. I strongly recommend that all operators procure and study clo se ly all bulletins covering these experiments. If the life of the industry is to be prolonged as it s hould be more conservative methods of chipping must be adopted. It has be e n clearly demonstrated by the Government in experiments conducted by its efficient Microscopist , Miss Olose Gerry of Forest Products Laboratory , that we have been chippin g too deep and climbing the tree too fast both of which detracts from the vitality of the tree and retards production and consumes chipping surface on the tree that s hould be conserved for later production. A place under my supervision has been operated this season with the chipping done by the method recommended by Miss Ge rry namel y x with most gratifying results as to yield and conserving of timber. I think all factors and bankers should cooperate in the matter of conserving small timber to the extent that no advances would be made any operator who would not agree to only work timber of the proper size. Think how foolish it is to spend 100 cents operating timber that at best can only produce 75 cents which only results in reducing the price and in so doing labor is being used that should be utilized for other profitable work. If we hope to prolong the life of the industry the time is now at hand when we must resort to reforestation and conser vation of the young timber which the South Atlantic and Gulf States are so wonderfully blessed with soil and climatic con ditions suited for reproducing. Let's all return to our homes with a firm resolve to cooper ate to the utmost to conserve our young timber for the benefit of present and future generations.

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30 PROCEEDINGS F THE CAN THE FACTOR PR VENT RECKLESS TURPENTI ING? MR . H. L. YTON V I C E-PRE SIDEN T CARSON NA L S TORES COMPANY In order that I may properly approach the subject which has been assigned to me, it will fir t be best to consider exactly what is meant by "reckless turpeltining." I should say that the term would apply not only to t re wasteful cutting and cup ping of small timber, the rapid dr r,i nin g of the trees by chipping too deeply and too frequen f !Y, but also the failure to properly protect the timber from the w inter and early spring fires which annually visit the for sts. Factors may exercise actual control only over a compa t atively small percentage of operators and are loath to apply pr fss ure even under conditions where they are in position to diet e to the operator the m eth ods which he should employ. The factor would much prefer adopting a policy of education for a producer who is not sus ceptible to the improved methods hich are now being evolved is naturally an undesirable patron J nd one who must eventually fail to survive. It may not be amiss to take a step backward into the past and trace the naval stores busines from the early days up to the present time. We find recor s showing that naval stores were made through the efforts o the early English settlers, who sec ured pitch tar and rosin fr m the then vast pine forests which overspread the Virginia sh es. The indu s try has been migratory and has steadily moved southward, then westward , as the virgin forests fell before ' he axes of the lumb er m e n , after having been first bled for r fs in and turp e ntine. It has been barely fifty years since the naval sto res business was firmly established in this territory and it s le ss than fifty years since the pioneer factora ge hou se was established in Savannah. For the fir st twenty-five or thirty years l of that period production in this territory developed rapidly and timber was s o plentiful and so r eadi l y available that turpentinj 1 leases could be obtained at very low cost and as a consequenc slight capital only was nec essary for the establishment of a t rpentine still. As the timber became deplete~ farther north , the Nort h Carolina o perators moved into Geo , gia and factorage houses in

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 31 Savannah were organized and prepared to furnish such accom modation as was needed by the naval stores producers. Th e facilities required for concentrating and distributing receipts of rosin and turpentine were promptly established and Savan nah has remained the chief port for naval stores and bids fair to maintain her premier position. In view of the low cost of turpentine leases and supplies, loan s by factors were comparatively smal l. Losses were neg ligibl e and despite the fact that producers ge nerall y were men of little or no education and had not been afforded th e oppor tunity of business training , the profits accruing to th e m and con seq uently to the factors were sufficiently remunerative to warrant the factors taking what we would today consider un sound risks. The factors were prepared to furni s h their patrons with their entire requirements of supplies, food-stuffs, tools and equipment and as few of the operators enjoyed estab lished credits they wer e not in p os ition to secure their need s from sources othe r than the factors. At that time there we re practically no country banks , hence banking accommodation wa s not availab l e, and even actual payroll money was obtained from the factors, who sent it out by express or registered mail as needed. Conditions gradually changed and the personnel of th e naval stores producer has been developed into a type which in intel ligence and bu s iness capacity compares favorably with th e per sonn e l in other lines of industry. Many producers are men of substances who have acquired a goodly share of wordly goo ds , in fact, mu s t be men of means to control considerable acreage of timber at present values. They are frequentl y l ea ders in their communities and many hold public office. They can se cure their supplies where they please, can market their product when and as they see fit, and need not market through the factor unl ess they consider it to their best interest to so do. The inde pendent operator is no l onger the exception, though possibl y not yet the rule. Natura ll y the factor has changed also and where formerly hi s hold upon his patron was through the purse strin gs, today hi s hope for s u ccess li es in hi s ability to perform service. Hi s supply business is obtained on l y in the keenest competition with modern merchants and in many cases he finds it impossible to

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32 PROCEEDING OF THE sell goods to an otherwise stau nl h patron. He must himself be familiar with modern impro I ements and discoveries and acquire knowledge in such way a he can so that he may intel ligently discuss with his patrons the newer thoughts and sug gestions which are being thrown out by the research workers of the U. S. Forest Service. Improved methods of chipping the trees have been discovered thr ugh painstaking tests extend ing over a period of years, modi cation of the tree workings are recommended by the Forest Products Laboratory Micro scopist, who has exhaustively st died the structure and pro cesses of the pine, better gathe 1 ing and stilling methods are taught by the Department of Agrieulture's Naval Stores demon strator , and the factor who desire 1 to prove of value to his pro ducer patrons must cooperate w ~ th the various governmental agencies, exchange experiences tf erewith and act as an inter mediary in the dissemination of ~ ractical, useful and beneficial discoveries. The factor must farther take upon himself the duty of educating his clientele in t ~e de s irability and nece ss ity of fire prevention, and creating amo 9 g the naval stores producers a sentiment in favor of a state organization for forest fire con trol. Therein lies the hope for permanence of the industry. I think I may safely assert th l t fifty per cent of the present day producers are men who op f ate entirely upon their own capital and are independent . Pos 1 sibly another 25 per cent seek some accommodation, and borroi from factors since the terms of repayment are more liberal than those offered by banks, but these men could readily secure ttje fonds from other than fac torage sources if they so desircl!d. Many of the remaining twenty-five per cent offer their ~ usiness on a desirable basis and only a small number of prefent day operators are of the wholly dependent type. It shou f d be obvious, therefore, that the power of the factor to contr<;il the volume of production is highly circu~scribed and limit~q mostly to su_ch influe~ce as he can exert m the way of adv1s ~ ng for or against curtailment or augmentation of operations. f he factor is called upon con stantly for his views on market , onditions, his ideas about the size of the next crop, and is look f d upon as a fount of wisdom from which the likely happening f of the future may be freely drawn in copious streams . He ust keep himself well-posted on world conditions and continu usly study the changing situ

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 33 ations which effect the demands for rosins and turpentine. Even with the small group of dependent operators his control goes but little farther than an expression of opinion as to the desir able course, for not infrequently , despite a desire for crop re duction, the situation of the dependent is so precarious that the attempt to force curtailment might cause di sas ter. A turpentine location heavily involved must necessarily produce liberally in order to utilize the only means or hope of salvation. Over head expense and inter es t would otherwise quickly bring about bankruptcy. Sharp curtailment of production by the minor producing group would fail in any event to bring about the de sired end, hence the re spo nsibility devolves upon the major group of independent and semi-independent producers. It is my experience that thes e men see k the views of their factors, listen intently to the summing up of the situation, but heed them not in :rctual practice. Inability to re s ist the temptation of avail able timber, necessity of cupping under leases already con tracted for, pressure from timber owners who are in need of fund s and must cash in their holdings , are some reasons which impel enlarged operations. The desire to be a "big operator" sometimes is the cause of better judgment being suppressed, while always the hope springs eternal that "maybe prices wont be so bad anyway . " Agreements among the operators them selves have proven of no avail in the past and conditions in the naval stores industry do not lead to the belief that a cooper ative movement along the lines followed in several of the fruit and vegetable industries could prove effective . The salvation, so far as conservation of timber is concerned, lie s in the operators themselves, who individually must study conditions and act intelligently. The factors will gladly aid and will supply such information as will assist their patrons in reaching wise conclusions, but the final decision as to the volume of production lies almost entirely in the hands of those who actually manufacture the goods. DISCUSSION Mr. Thomas Gamble, Editor of the Naval Stores Rev iew, Savannah, Ga.: I know the industry and trade appreciate the great courtesy this Southern Forestry Congress has shown to

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34 PROCEEDING OF THE it in assigning an entire day to t e consideration of questions regarding the protection and need of the naval stores industry. Those who have followed the hist ry of naval stores know what a tremendous slump has come i receipts, until the last year, when there has been another for f, rd movement. The forward m ovement in the production this ear, those who have investi gated this matter feel, has been to a great extent due to the utilization of the small timber tha should not have been cut or boxed. In South Carolina, for in . tance, where nature has come to the rescue of the industry , a , d where for twenty-five or thirty or more years young timber has been growing prolifically, there has been a tremendous inc ease in production this year, perhaps forty or fifty stills being operated in that State where probably there were not eight or ten in operation a few years ago . Men who have recently trave , sed a great deal of the new growth timber land s of South Ca olina tell me that their heart s have been made sick bv the des~ruction of the small trees in that sect ion , trees that if left alon b for a few years would hav e been enor mousl y profitable as tu te ntine producers and wou ld also have been valuable as lumb 1 r trees. The same doubtless holds true in Georgia, where the e has been great boxing and cupping of new timber, as a res It of which we have seen a lar ge increase in receipts at Sa annah and Brunswick. This has been especially noticeable in he production of pale rosins. In fact, the activity of Georgia i 9 the production of pale rosins has been astounding, and to some extent has upset all calcula tions and done material damage,l 1 ne might say, in holding down the market value of the upper gra es . Mr. Pringle, in his paper , laid specia l stress, and very pro erly so, on this boxing and cutting of young trees. The overnment has demonstrated conclusively that the working Of immature trees is not only unwise but unprofitable to the o~erator, for the operator loses on every small tree on which he l uts an axe or hangs a cup. I asked a factor in Savannah the , ther day, if this bad practice of cutting young tree s was to co tinue, and he said that only a short time before one of his best , perators was in the office , and he said to him, "Why are you ope ating these small trees ? The y are not sources of profit to yo u ," but it was impossible to con vince the operator that that was he case. "Why," he said, "I

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 35 have leased this timber, it temporarily belongs to me, to work for three or four years, and I am going to work everything on the place," and it was utterly impossible to convince him that he wasn't even getting the cost of labor expended out of the small trees. Not only does the working of young trees destroy the future prospects of the producing timber that would be of great value, but by the increasing of the crop it serves to bring down and hold down the prices of the turpentine and rosin derived from the larger and more mature trees-so that it works two ways. The operator works such trees at a loss to himself, and at the same time by overproduction he reduces the value of the output from the trees that would be profitable. The Georgia crop this season is said to be increasing somewhere between 25 and 30 per cent, to a great extent due to the work ing of young trees that ought wisely have been left to a future time. The Government showed a year or so ago that there were in sight in the United States, out in the woods and at the ports , in the hands of the producer s and otherwise, about o n e million two hundred and fift y thousand round barrels of ro s in. This excess supply of rosin has been hanging over the United States market, as we all know, for several years, and the result has been the holding down of the market to a point that the production of rosin and turpentine has been unprofitable. This morning I asked three large operators whom I saw here what the conditions were in their section. They said there was a very bad feeling of depression as a result of the unsatisfactory ro s in prices that are ruling this year. Mr. Kayton has shown in his paper that this cannot be con trolled by the factor, that the factor is not in a position where he can dictate any more, though he might have done so at one time , -to the operators as to what they shall do, and that the remedy lies entirely in the hand s of the producers. The demand for naval stores has been more active during the past ye ar. The foreign demand for turpentine is SO per cent greater than a year ago, and practically the same for rosins, but while the out. side world is taking so much more rosin and turpentine than it did during the previous season, it is not taking enough to take the increased production of 20 per cent, and to bring down the vi s ible supply that was brought over , so that we have not bene fited very much from the improvement in consumption, and if

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36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE we go on another year and increa e the crop, it looks as if it is perfectly hopeless to expect bett r prices from the operations of the naval stores industry. Mr. C. F. Speh, Turpent i ne & Rosin Prod u cers Association, New Orleans, La.: The factor and the banker-I say banker, because he furnishes the money l but the factor essentially, has it within his power to remedy the situation. It may not be that he can dictate to the producer an say, "You must only operate so many trees," but the produce ~ needs a little outside educa tion. The solution of this problef is going to be not so much in dictation as in education. If e can bring about a chang e through education we are going t have much more easy sailing than if we try to force it. So I ~ hink we have a perfect right, as producers in the industry, to I l ook to the factor, the man who has always a common interest, to try the educational rem edy,-to educate the producer t I at it is unprofitable to work these small trees. He can do that in several ways, by always tell ing them that it is to their adva 1 tage. He can always have it in his mind to point out to the p oducer that there is no sense in any busi _ ness man operat in g a unprofitable enterprise. It is merely a question of dollars and cents, the foolishness of put ting a hundred cents into sometliiing and getting back from it only seventy-five cents. We wou ~ d not do it in the timber busi ness, and we would not do it at anything else. Why, that's not the way we do any of these thing f Furt~ermore, it is unfair , it is wrong for any man to take UP,On himself to withdraw from our wealth of on~ hun~lred y~r ~ and destroy it just simply as a means of keepmg him self m {abo r , when we know that he cannot possibly add thereb y to hfs wealth. So I really believe I am going to pass the buck to the factor, that it is up to him to pass the education on to the producer. I believe yo u will get the more advanced operato s to listen to you, and they might help you and take on theI 1 selves the work of educating the smaller producers. Mr. A. K. Sesso-m.s, Cogdell, a.: I know this, that a great destruction of sma ll timber has b . en go ing on in the woods, but, as to how to best control that, +.y own views are that it is a matter of education. Now, whether the operator, or whether the factor can best educate him to do it, or go after the man that owns the land , I hardly k ow, _ but possibly all of them

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 37 together could do something. In my opinion it is a question of education of the man owning the timber, or owning the land, to prohibit that gross destruction of his own resources, and that it is not profitable. Mr. C. S. Ho dges, Cyrene, Decatur County, Ga.: Out of thirty years experience in the yellow pine belt of Southwest Georgia, I have observed that necessity is a severe schoolmaster, but I have learned that the turpentine operator will learn in no other than the school of experience. In my own county, De catur, which is right at the southwest point of Georgi a, and in Douglas and Early and other counties in this section, the yel low pine has been the chief source of wealth. It has been heart rending to see the destruction of the yell,ow pine in southwest Georgia. It is surprising to me that the great Giver of all gifts has allowed the reproduction of that yellow pine h a r ves t. It h as been in spite of our efforts, for we have lent nothing to it. We h ave not protected the ye llow pine from the forest fires. In our operations we have be en guilty as a m a n who would pull up yo ung corn. We h ave cut everything that yo u could st ick a cup on. I thought one tirn e,-and I a m s ure that we were cor r ectthat when we got cups for the timber i t wo uld be a bles s in g, and I guess it was, but the trouble is that we have not profited by it, because we would stick a cup on a littl e tree that we could not ge t a box in. I heard a man say last yea r that th o u sa nd s of those which were cupped were so small that it took two men to do the job,o ne to hold the tree steady whi le the other put the cup on; and that is very nearl y tru e. The forest in our Southwest Georgia is fast reproducing it se lf . We ha ve thought the turpentine ope rators were d ue no protection, for they u se no common se n se, yo u might say, but only greed for gain. We de stroy the very thin g that would in time be of value to the rising ge n e rati on a nd to the State and to ourselves. I do not know h ow to conserve the forests, though I have made it a study for years. I have tried it in a s mall way on a few thou sa nd acres of c ut-over land s, and the reproduction of that forest ha s been phenomenal. I have ridden through the holdings of other men near m e. I ha ve watched the reproduc ti on there and in the adjoining co untie s to me, and it is wonder ful there, with nothing save what Nature has done. No effort or no man 's hand has been turned to save the tree. We live in

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38 PROCEEDINGS / OF THE a country where the piney-woods r(j)Oter runs at large, and every turpentine man knows what that means when it comes to the destructi o n of new tree s only a yei r or two old , and sometimes four and five. They will go down ! and get them and tear them out by the roots. The pine tree, as eve ry one knows, is not like the sassafras or some other trees. If you break it up even with the gro und it will not produce its lf any more , and th erefore, the destruction alone of the piney-woods rooter has been more than we can calculate , but it has not been as much or as exten s i ve as the destruction of u s operators, I am sorry to say. The question of taxation was brought up in Mr. Pringle's paper. I believe that th e tax on cut-over land s in the territory that I live in , and in several counties like mine , w ill not amo unt to more than 20 cents per acre. I think that is lo w. Six or seve n dollars per acre i s the valuation . In Mr. Pringle's coun try the millage is thirty-five or forty, and I believe that w ill amount to more than 20 cents per acre . That condition itself will pre,.ent conser vatio n and discourage men to reproduce fore s ts , because the lands there are not so very val u a ble , other than the pine trees that grow o n them. It is poor l an d, and the goo d Lord has given u s one thing that will grow on poor land, and that is ye ll ow pine. How we can do this, h ow we can bring about a system of thinking and education among our peo ple with ref erence to th e burden of taxation, I don ' t know, but I do know that it takes from 15 to 20 years for a forest to reproduce it se lf to where you can saw mill it again, and that i s only where it ha s not b ee n saw n over too clo s e. The re is a saw mill in o ur co un ty now that wi ll cut timber down to where it is only eight or nine inch es, ri ght at the gro und too. Now, it will take that forest forty yea r s to reproduce itself. Where it is cut to 10 and 12 inche s, and the trees left, it can be worked and turpentined , if it i s worked conservatively , in 15 years. Pardon me for taking so much time, but I want t o say one thin g. A few yea r s ago I went to an o ld farmer to l ease his timber . He sa id, "How sma ll are yo u going to cut it ?" I said, "Well , we are not g oing to cut it below eight or nine inches. " He sa id, "Yo u cannot cut my timber that low." That old man got me to thinking. I finally traded with him on the basis of cuttin g his timber down to 10 inch es . I thought so mebody had been talkin g to him and he would not bother about watching the

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 39 woods, but that old creature was out there the day we started . He ran the negroes out of the woods. He would not let me cut it under ten inches. I said, "We can't measure every tree . " He said, "You will have to do some good guessing, then. You can't cut my timber under ten inches . " Mr. President, I made more money on that than I ever made on a lease proposition in my life, because I got results from the trees that I did work. On the other hand I can show you thousands of these little trees worked elsewhere . Let turpentine go to one dollar and a half and two dollars , and every turpentine man will lease any thing he can lay his hands on, that he can put a cup on, and I can show you trees where they were worked four years, and they are broken off where they cut them. Now, that is a de struction that the factor cannot control, and gentlemen, we can not expect anybody else to control it, except the man that is operating it. Turpentining has been too easy,-it has been too easy to make a living. Now , that is a fact. We all know it. A fellow can get a nice check-book in his hip pocket and get in hi s automobile and ride around and have a good time, and get incompetent men to look after it , just so that he breaks even in the fall, and is able to borrow money from some bank or some factor. But we haven ' t paid any attention whatever to the very thing from which we ha ve been deriving a livelihood. We have paid no attention whatever. Let it go, let it go. If I had what has been burned up in the territory where I am working,-! wont go any further than that , -if I had what has been burned up down there, I would have more than we can work out of the live trees. Mr. A. V. W oo d , Vice-President Georgia Forestry Associ ation, Brunswick, Ga . : I am one of those young men like Mr . Kayton, who has only had a few years in the business. I began sometime in 1868 . I have watched the turpentine busi ness in a way during those years, and have followed the flag , you might say, only at Brunswick instead of Savannah, for forty-ei g ht years. I am thoroughly in accord with the ideas and the remarks of these gentlemen on the question of educa tion. It is a matter of education entirely, a s to w hat we could do. I thought we could educate our legislators in the first place to the enormous possibilities that they have of correcting some of the evils we have been confronted with . How we are going

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40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE to do that I do not know. I was in the Legislature but once in my life, and then I quit. I tried to get a bill passed in the Legislature some years ago to establish a State Board of Health,-and of course it has been established since. Education of the operators is corning gradually. As Mr. Kayton said we have a great many more intelligent operators in the forests now than we have ever had before. Conservation is growing there, but it has not grown to the extent that it should grow. To many of us it sometimes appears as if it were almost stagnant. I don ' t know very much about the naval stores busi ness, but I am an observer, and one of the great things that is being done now and has been done for the las t f ew ye ars has been the educational work by Mr. Austin Cary . Those of u s who ha v e been in the business se e the revelations of this man work ing all the time. The operator in th e country is seeing it, those that he comes in touch with all the time. Many of them are profiting by his researches and the experiments that he is mak ing, and certainly that is going to be one of the big re s ults , the conservation of the timber already standing . It is already show ing results. I went into the business, as I say, in 18 68. In 1871 th e senior member of the concern that I was workin g with came to m e very dolefully, I suppose we had had a bad yea r,-and said, "The naval stores business will last about five years more." It was ve r y doleful to me, a young man, only to have five years lea se of lif e in that particular busines s. However, it j ogg ed along. I tra ve led on down to Brunswick, and after I had been there about ten yea r s, one of the members of our firm came in one afternoon, call ed me in hi s office, an d sa id , "Woo ds , what are you going to do?" He felt as if the industry was going to stop. He said, " I will give it about ten years." So I re a lly have become an extre me optimist. I don't believe th ere i s any stopping point in the naval stores indu s try . I am c erta in that there wont be any lessenin g of naval stores production if an organization like this , and people like we have in this organiza tion, keep themselves thoroughly alive to the s ituation and push it forward as it should be pushed. Mr. A. S. Carr, Presid e nt A . S. Carr Co. , Bainbridge, Ga.: I am in line with Mr. Pringle's views, and Mr. Seph, about the production from the small tree, the small immature pine tree,

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 41 so many of which are being operated in our country. I suppose at least 15 to 20 per cent of the total production is produced from immature trees that do not produce any profit. The life of that tree is destroyed, preventing future growth that would make it good for lumber. In working these small trees we do not produce any profit, but destroy wealth and make an over production of turpentine. I have always been in favor of let ting the small tree grow until more mature when we can make a profit out of it. I have kept an account of the costs and I know for a fact that you put more money into a small tree than you get out of it. Mr. Gambl e: When the cup s ystem came in I remember talking with Mr . Shotter, who certainly was one of the ablest who ever handled naval stores. He had been carefully looking into the cup system, and he said it would bring about two things , -bring about overproduction and bring down the price of the pale grades to a point where they and the low grades would be on a level; and Mr. Shotter's prediction has very well been demonstrated. He saw that the cup would enable them to work smaller trees , and that the industry would be g uilty of all sorts of overprodu c tion . Mr. ]. G. Pac e , Pres i d e nt , Pac e Lumb e r Co. , P en s ac ola , Fla.: I hav e bel o n g ed to thi s S o uth e rn F o r es tr y C o n g r e ss fo r a numb e r o f y ear s . I wa s w ith it la s t yea r in M o nt go mer y. In regard to naval stores, I am g lad to s ee the s e turpentine people connected with it. We have been turpentinin g for thirty years like Mr. Hodges said. I went through Southwest Georgia about thirty years a g o, out by Cordele, Americus and Abbe ville , and I told my wife when I l e ft Pensacola yesterday that I was going to c o me through Georgia in da y -li g ht. I came to Montgomery Saturday morning , and got on the train , -came by the Seaboard all the way through. Thirty years a g o it was a beautiful country with timber on it. Today in all those vast a c re s there is nothing left but denuded land, land not fit for farming or making anything, nothing but stumps left on that land. Well, sir, I was never more surprised, to see the land between Americus and Cordele and over here at these rivers , cleared up down to the branches. They are turpentining right along in these spaces, cutting right in the littl e small spaces that were left. There is a growth of timber there large enough for

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42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE turpentinin g, and a gentleman I was talking with la st night on the train said they were getting 48 to 55 gallons of turpentine per acre. That beats Florida. Now, whether we take the command and go forward or not , I do say this, that the man who owned timber, and stood still, has got more than the man who has gone forward in the effort for gain. That is my experience . To illustrate that, I am going to tell you a little coincidence in my own business. A young man once came to me, about the time I lived in Geor gia, about 22 or 23 years ago, and said, "Mr. Pace , I want to borrow $150 to buy a piece of land." I said, "Is there any thin g on it?" He said, "Nothing but a second growth of tim ber." This was 22 years ago. I loaned him $150, and he bought something like 450 acres of land. Now, these turpen tine people had already turpentined a small amount of adjoin ing timber. I said, "Now Mills, these turpentine people will be nosin g up by you before long,-just hold your timber . " He did. And six or eight years later he sold that timber t o the turpentine people for $1500. He kept his land and had a pretty fair grow th of small timber. Refore s tation is no individual or no corporation concern. It i s a community interest. No one indi v idual, no one corporation, no several corporations can do it alone. Taxes at 20 cents per acre, while you have got a young growth of timber on it, seems to me pretty high. It is dis couraging for a man to try to hold a tract of land to reforest with the high rate of taxation you have to pay. However, I believe I had just as soo n hav e money invested in cut over pine land as to have it put in any thing else, eve n a t 20 cents per acre, when I consider the number of trees growing on the land. The l ease system is bad. A turpentine man takes a short l ease. Labor is scarce and hard to mana g e. He will do any thing to try to cut it all before his three year lease expires. That is a bad system, but most of us work that way . Mr. Thomas Gamble : Just as a little interlude between hearing from the operators, I am going to introduce a resolu tion to bring the matter right before the meeting. All of you know that the Government is doing a good deal for the turpen tine industry. Ever since Dr . Herty began his investigation which opened up interest in the naval stores industry, more and

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 43 , more attention is given to it by the National Government and in various operations throughout the South, but we all realize that the Government is not doing as much as it s hould do , that these investigations are hampered very much by the absence of adequate appropriations . In the matter of uses of na va l stores, for instance, the Government could do a great deal of work toward broadening the uses of rosin and turpentine and in find in g out what they can be used for. A gentleman came to my office a week or ten days ago. He is one of the largest buyers of rosin in the world. His concern handles one hundred to t wo hundred thou sa nd round barrels of rosin,-quite a batch of s tuff for one concern . He told me the Eastman Kodak Co . was importing three to five thousand barrels of French rosin every year because they couldn ' t get sufficiently fine rosins in the United State s. I do not vouch for that statement, I am giv ing it to you as g iven to me . He says we don't make the fine rosins for the needs of that concern, and the y had gotten a French rosin, which they call AAAA, a gra de about four or five grades li g hter than our b est water white rosin. There may be others in this country who would u se a No. 4A grade if it was called to their attention. It might be this quality of rosins could be enormously d eve lop e d in this country. Thes e are the things that the Government could and ought to do for us in the rosin and turpentine and various other trades. Now, to bring that before the meeting, the following resolution has been prepared: *TO URGE CONGRESS TO MAKE PROPER APPROPRIATIONS FOR RESEARCH TO AlD THE NA VAL STORES INDUSTRY WHEREAS , The Naval Stores industry o f th e United States, includ in g the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama , Miss is sippi, Louisiana, and Texa s, in its production of s pirits turpentine and rosin and allied products repr ese nt a gross aggregate valu e of fifty million dollars annually, of which approximately one-half, or twenty-five million dollars, is exported to foreign countries yea rl y, and WHEREAS, This industry furnishes constant employment to many thousands of m en and repres ents an invest ed working capital of many millions of d o llars , and is a so urce of prosperity to large sections of th e Southern States referred to, and a l a rg e element in the fr e ights of railroads and steamship lines, and This r eso luti on is h e re given in its amended form as finally adop t e d by the Con g r ess .

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, 44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE WHEREAS, These naval stores products are essential elements in the manufacture of many commodities used in d o mestic consumption and extensively exported, and thereby assist materially in the employ ment 1 of many thousands in manufactories located in other sections of our c o untry , and WHEREAS , The perpetuation of this naval stores industry and its profitable o peration depend up o n refore st ration and the establishment of impro ved methods of production, and WHEREAS, Th e Federal Government in rec ent yea rs has undertaken inv estigation s and furnished valuable cooperative assistance in e fforts to promote the industry , but ha s permitted such v itall y important co operative work to be se ri ous ly hamp ered by inadequate funds, ther eb y pr eve ntin g the industry from deriving t h e full benefits that s h o uld accrue from governme ntal cooperation of this character; ther e fore, be it RESOLVED , By the Southern Forestry Cong r ess, assembled at Savann a h , Georgia, in its Sixth Annual Congress, and on a day devoted entirely t o the naval stores industry, th a t a committee of seve n repre senting the sev e ral sections of the n aval stores belt, and including repre sentatives of the nava l stores sections of the Savannah Board of Trade , J acksonville Chamber of Commerce and Pensacola Chamber of Com merc e, be appointed by the Presi d e nt of the Cong r ess to memoralize th e United States Congress and communicate directly wi th th e Senators and R ep res e ntativ es from the naval stores states, urgin g l arger and con tinued appropriations for the naval stores industry , and that in particular appropriations be made for research work looking to new and broadened us es for spirits turpentin e, rosins and a lli ed products, a nd for field a nd lab oratory work that will promote the practical indu s try and encourage and establish reforestation as the means of its perpet ual contin uance , s uch Committee in its mem o rial to present facts and arguments and elaborate o n the work th e Government can satisfactori l y a nd effect i ve ly do in this connection . Dr. F. P. Veitch , U. S. Dep-c11rtment of Agricu lt iire, Wash ington , D. C . : I think it is needless to say that we are deep ly intere s ted in your industry , and that the Department of Agri culture has the greatest desire to be of all possible h e lp to you in makin g it a s uc cess, not on l y for the present, but for the futur e years. Perhap s I shou ld g iv e you a br i ef o utlin e of what we in the Bureau of Chemistry a r e trying to do. I think it is of the greatest imp o rtance and g reatest service to you, a work that ought to be done, and that work we are trying to supply or carry on further both at th e still and in the uses of your products. Now , our wo rk is divided in genera l into three main lines , -that of domestic research work and the enforce ment of the recently enacted Naval Stores Act. The purpose of o ur domestic work is at the individual places to carry to the

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 45 indi v idual operator and hi s force th e best methods kno w n to the Department of A g riculture , to develop by the Fore st S ervi ce, wher eve r we can suppl y that work, our own rule and the best methods known to the industry it self . Wherever we see a g ood thin g in the hands o f a n ope rator we stea l it from him and give it to the r est of th e m . That i s wha t we wan t to do. He has no o bj ec ti o n there . B ea r that in mind . He i s perfectly w illin g that the good thin g that he finds out ma y be passed on for the use of the whole industr y . So we are tr y in g, among other thin gs, to s top these tremend o us lo sse s that occur after th e g um is drawn from the tree . It has been very clearly brought out here thi s morning , and s hould ha ve been known a l o n g time, that the lar ge r that lo ss the le ss we got from a diminished or sma ll tree. It has been shown that this i s the l east productive. I am perfectly co n v inced that we are l osi n g m o ne y also on all th e lar ge r trees because of the wasteful processes that are so gener a lly used through a lar ge sect ion of the indu st r y. I am fr a nk to say that at lea s t ten per cent w ill be a low e s timate of the increased val ue that yo u could ge t from a thorough careful control and saving of the wa stes that n ow occ ur in th e industry, and that increased r eturn is profit , b e c a u se yo u have already had all your expenses. In this d e monstrati o n work which we have been doing ever since we have had operation of na va l stores the government has been fortunate in securing the services of a man who knew naval stores from a to z. This man at present is lo c ated here in Savannah. He is at your service , to visit your places and help you in every way that it is possible, to point o ut where he thinks you can improve your outturn and receipts and make more money . He is here for you to call on at any time , either here or at your places , and I hope that a large number of you will do this. We want to extend that work and make it more useful to you, as funds are available. We are seriously handi capped this year in that work, and I am a little fearful that we will have difficulty in raising funds to assist you in the field as we would like to do during the present year, but we are making our best efforts to get funds from our present resources. Now , in addition to that, we are doing constantly a great amount of research work, looking to a better production, the reasons why we are g etting lower grade articles, the rea s ons

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46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE why these products give trouble in certain uses, and also to extend the uses of these various products. This all takes money, and we haven't enough money to do this as thorough l y and as vigorously as we would like. It is surprising to find how many problems come up from the users of turpentine and rosin, things that they have used for years and years, and yet every once in a while there is a little unexplained difficulty that they have with it. And they are presenting these things to us, and we cannot always tell them the answer . First, perhaps, it is a maker of dent i sts' supplies, and then again a maker of varnish, and so it goes. Another time it is a maker of a turpentine drum. What is the trouble? What is the difficulty here that we are encount ering? And we are trying to solve these problems , -difficultie s, to extend the uses and explain flaws in the old uses, why these things have turned up , and to t r y to eliminate the difficulties that are coming about in some cases with these well known useful materials. Mr. G amble and other speakers have referred to the use of rosin in place of fossil g um s . You know that the varnish enter pris e has been able to use fo ss il gums. It is only comparatively recently that good varnishes have been m a de from rosin. Now, we can ex tend the market for rosin by determining what are the characteristics that are required for a first-class varnish, and try to g ive rosin those characteristics. I am sure that it can be done , it i s the comin g thing , and it can be done. One of the thing s that has been very dear to m y heart for many years and one of the things that as soon as we are in funds I want to inaugurate is the combination of demon s tration a nd research work. I want to see the Government have at some centr a lized, easily accessible locality , where local conditions are ri g ht,-a fir s t-class demonstration still, in order to show the best method s for production and in the uses of turpentine and rosin. The Bureau of Chemistry is prepared now to introduce s ome, I think, decided improvements along that line, and to cooperate with the Forest Service and other governmenta l agencies , and with the turpentine operators and producers, in the full exploit ation and running of such a still, a place where every item of the turpentine production can be clearly visualized and fully under stood, from acquaintance in the very be g inning, and from the very production in the beginning of the tree to the final i:naking

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 47 of the product. I hope we will be able to do that at an early date , but it is all going to depend on the funds to do it with. It w ill probably take $15,000 to even establish such an in stit u tion and $5,000 more to run it. Now, I want to say a few words in conclusion about the enforcement of the Naval Stores Act. That work has been assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry. No appropriation has so far been made for carrying it out, but estimates have been made and we will soon be active l y engaged in enforcing that work. You know what we have done in the way of providing rosin standards and that these have been adopted by an Act and made Federal grades. Our regulations under the Act are now in the hands of the printer, to be available to yo u in a short time. I am confident that we will be able to make you some money by a vigorous enforcement of this act. We are go in g to decrease the s upply of so -called turp e ntine I think very materially , and increase the price of turpentine, because there is a lot of adu lt er ated stuff that is being sold in this country, and it is bein g so ld generally where it is very, very difficult to reach. That is, it is sold to you and me over the counter of the small store, especially the country store where we have got no opportunity of finding out the so urce, whether it is pure turpentine or heavily adulter ated turpentine, and the law is going to enable us to ge t at that, and I think very much good will result to the producing indu s try , to the dealing industry , and to the final user of the turpentine who pays the bill, that is, the householder. Mr . 0. H. L. W e rnicke , Pensacola T ar & Turp entine Co., Gull Point, Fla.: I have been quite close to the Southern tur pentine and rosin producers for thirty years, and am somewhat posted as to your l ocal conditions and your viewpoint; I have also been a consumer of those products to a greater or l ess extent. Dr. Veitch has told us about the work th e Government is doing and also mentioned the Na va l Stores bill. I hope the naval stores business wi ll get some benefit from the bill. We will take turpentine as an example, where it is u sed for a thinner or dryer, if we were dependent on turpentine alone we would have to close up most of our finishing materials industr y, be cause there is not enough turpentine to go around. We only make ab.out 500,000 barrels of turpentine and much of it is exported , other thinners and dryers are extensively used and

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48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE this must be so regardless of sentiment. It has not been popular to talk of mixing turpentine with other dry ers. Petroleum spirits are acceptable to the trade and if naval stores people would encourage the use of turpentine and petroleum com pounds, it would surely increase the popularity of turpentine and extend its use, and probably stabilize the price. I have no quarrel with the United States in regulating thin gs, if we put 25 barrels of turpentine and 25 barrels of petroleum spirits to gether making a product that is useful to somebody else, we should be willing to label it properly so there could be no deception , but the present bill prohibits the u se o f the word turpentine in combinati o n with any other chemical , whether the result is good, bad or indifferent, and the results of it i s that wood turpentines have declined and have to be sold at a heavy sacrifice since that bill was enacted. Those are the facts , gentle men, and they do not help the general turpentine situation. The purpose of the bill is all right but its effect is not what was anticipated ; its administration will be a very difficult matter. I do not believe men like Dr. Veitch who are charged with the administrative features of the bill would knowin g ly do a harm ful thing , but they can not know all the conditions that we have to face in this industry. There can be no overproduction of turpentine except as a result of under-consumption. Turpentine is a small part of the total of paint varnish material, particularly in the line of sol vents and dryers. There is nobody in this hall who can tell why turpentine rather than petroleum or coal tar dryers and thinners should be used. They are all good solvents. Of course turpen tine is used and generally preferred but there is no use deluding ourselves. If a varnish manufacturer can get along with ninety per cent of other solvents and dryers he can use them altogether, that is nobody's fault, but it is a fact that we have got to face. If we dry up every source of turpentine in the United States, it will not stop the making of finishing materials. The makers of automobiles, vehicles, and part of our railroad cars use no tur pentine . Ford doesn't use turpentine. Studebaker, who used to buy it to finish his wagons does not use turpentine, they all go right on making more vehicles and cars than ever and are get ting along without turpentine. But there are other uses for

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 49 turpentine that have not been developed and it is part of the work of Dr. Veitch and his department to discover in what form it can best be used. There is another great waste going on in our commercial activities with reference to color. If a man makes black or brown varnish, why in the world does he ne ed water white turpentine? Be it government standard or any other standard, what does he want with water white turpentine? You may depend on the technical industries to call for the kind of color that suits their particular product , there is no use in suggesting to them that everything mu st be water white. The color adds nothing to the qua lit y. The United Stat es gove rnm ent specifies water w hite turpen tine to paint the bott o m of a sh ip and it must di s till 90 per cent off at 170C. What ha s that got to do with the bottom of a s hip ? Absolutely n oth ing whatever, except to ret ard the use of turpentine. I t hink the turpentine producers ought to get together and make some experiments of their own; they could employ men like Mr. Pace and Mr. Hodges who spoke to us , and send them to washington with Dr. Veitch t o work o ut these problems from a practical point o f view. Th ey could say to him , "We hav e 50,000 barrels of excess turpentine, and as man y barrels of r osin that we must get rid of and we want you to tell us in what form we can sell it to so mebody." We must broaden our consumption rather than restrict our produ ct ion. Mr. Gamble: Why did Studebaker quit usin g turp e ntine? Mr. Wernicke: Studebaker found that if everybody u sed turpentine they cou ld get it only thirt y days in the year, an d the rest of the time would ha ve to u se something e ls e. So when the y found that th ey couldn't get turpentine all the tim e, they so u g ht and found a substitute. There was a time when the s leepin g car people used turpentine. There was a tim e when the railroad s were lar ge us e rs of turpentine. That was before the days of development of petroleum sp irit s in varnish and paint mixin g . The amount of thinnin g material th e n used was rela tively s m a ll , and turpentine was relatively cheap. It was ec nomical t o u se. Take lime , everybody thought it was a simple product since the time of King Tut until the lime association was organized 4

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s o PROCEEDINGS OF THE and took a fellowship in the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburg. Speaking of lime, I want to tell you that we are finding it possible now to use rosin in varnish and paint because we learned something new about lime in connection with it. Not so long ago rosin varnish was unpopular but now the very best grades require the use of rosin. We did not know how to use Chinese wood oil, but we discovered that by using a lime combination we could dispense with linseed oil. We now make a fair varnish from cheap materials, which it was thought could only be produced from genuine linseed oil, costly gums and pure turpentine . At one time we thought if we bought a hundred million dol lars worth of automobiles it would bankrupt this country. I heard a wise banker say so. At this time we are spending for automobiles and accessories something like four or five billion dollars a year and we have just recently spent thirty billion dol lars on the World War and it hasn't killed us. We have more automobiles now than we had before the war and we are buying them now at a greater rate than ever before. I mention that to show that it is an artificially developed industry. There is no normal demand; nobody had ever thought they needed such a thing as an automobile. They didn't even know that they wanted them until they had been demonstrated and advertised. In earlier days the horse and the wagon carried our produce to market, but today we couldn't keep house without auto s and radio. All you have to do is to make more people want naval stores, rosin and turpentine in the particular branches where its use will answer the purpose a little better than something else, and it need not be cheap. The big soap people buy your rosin at about two cents per pound, but you buy their soap at 25c per bar. What are the rosin producers doing to protect conditions in that field? Absolutely nothing in an or ga nized way. It would not be difficult to expand the uses of rosin so that instead of there being a surplus there would be a demand for more. Mr.]. E. Lockwood , Hercules Powder Company, Wilming ton , Del.: I am very much impressed with what has been said today. I believe in the economical utilization of the pine trees, and the talks we have had today regarding the conservation of the pine trees or forests in this country. I believe the economy

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 51 should also include the utilization of the stumps and the dead wood, so that as a man produces timber it will be fully utilized, and then reforestry reaches the circle of repeating. We are seeking at all times in what ways we find possible and what suggestion we get from others, to find out how we can better produce naval stores or find possible uses for them; and one thing that has rather impressed me forcibly today is this,-that so much has been said of one dollar being invested in a part of the operation where only seventy-five cents is returned. It occurs to me that if we would take the money that has hereto fore been invested where it did not produce the logical and proper result, and invest that in finding and developing the possible and proper uses of naval stores, we would be doing more to conserve our resources and to develop possible profit from them than we can in many other ways. I believe, as Mr . W ernicke said, that much can be don e that would open up the possibility of larger consumption, and we would be very glad if every one o f those interested in the naval stores industry were to get together and exchange views. We would be very glad to bring up various things that we believe might possibly lead to a larger demand , possibly to recoverin g markets and uses which have been lost. If we can all get together, not rely ing on the Federal government, but taking hold ourselves, doing what we can , investing our money in a lo g ical profitable way, we will get the promised result. I would like to add as one concrete fact which was recently brought to my attention, namely that the slogan, "Save the sur face and you sav e all," with the entire paint and varnish in dustry in this country behind it , has doubled and trebled the paint and varnish business in this country at a cost to everybody of less than one per cent. Compare that to investing one dollar and only get ting back 75 cents for it. I believe in combination, it holds a great deal of promise. If further meetings are held of people interested in naval stores, when they get ready to exchange views and get the com mon combined experienc es of the bu s ine ss , we would be very glad to come with you, because we are trying to advance and double our profits in the naval stores industry. Mr. J . S. Holmes, State For e st e r , Chapel Hill , N. C.: In seconding those resolutions may I say just a word in regard to

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52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE them. I come from a State where the children in the schools hav e for the past 100 years been tau ght that some of the l ead in g products are tar, p i tch and turpentine . Of course we have had n o appreciable amount of these for many years, but the fiction is still perpetuated. I have been tremendously interested in the vita l talks this morning, and I realize that perhaps what you gentlemen say is correct. But I realize, and want it ex pressed in the resolution , that the end of this business is in sight unless something i s done to perpetuate it. We have de st royed the industry in North Carolina, and our meeting here today was particularly for the purpose of s eeing if something cannot be done. I believe our purpose i s to tr y and perpetuate this indus try. I have noticed that m os t of the discussion ha s dealt with increa s ing the output, increasing the markets and u s e s of tur pentine , but very little has been said about perpetuating the supply. I wou ld suggest that something be added to that reso luti o n, ask in g the Government to investigate methods whereby the land-owners and the operators themsel ves can help perpetu ate the supply. I think it i s very important that we who are a ll intere s ted in the Nava l Stores industry should al s o emphasize that side of the problem in the se reso luti ons. Mr . Gamble : Are you offering that as an amendment? Mr . Holm es: Yes, I wou ld like to see it amended in that way. Member: Wou ld it not be wise to refer these resolutions, pend _ in g further development of the purposes of thi s meeting, to the Resolution s Committee? Mr. Gamble: Except for this reason , that this is peculiarly the naval s tores day, and the rest of the days, after half an hour or so, will be too taken up with other matters , and there will be no opportunity to get to this a g ain. The Pres i dent: Mr. Gamble , if you w ill allow me, wou ld it not b e well to get an express i on of opinion whi l e we are all here on the gist of the resolution, and then the Resolutions Com mittee can incorporate that in their report after the y have per fected it? Mr. Gamble: It goes to the Committee of Seven to prepare an amendment.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 53 The Presid e nt: Does anybody desire the resolution read again before presenting it for action? The resolution is now before the body. Those in favor will say aye, those opposed no . The ayes have it, and the resolution is adopted. The Presi dent will appoint a committee of seven as provided for in the resolution. Dr. Austin Cary , U.S . For e st S e rvice , Washington, D. C.: Mr. Wernicke has shot into this meeting some ideas of a very wholesome and important character, and I want to acknowledge that , and emphasize their importance. One is in regard to the turpentine enterprise in the South , that all Naval Stores inter ests ou g ht to get together. He also stated yesterday that the turpentine industry is an enterpri s e that has ju s t begun, and with a possibility of markets for its products that we do not yet realize. That is startling, because men have been thinking of this industry as a failing one. In compliance with the resolution calling for the appoint ment of a Special Naval Stores Committee of Seven the Presi dent appointed the following: SPECIAL NA VAL STORES CO M MITTEE OF SEVEN Mr. J. C. Na s h, Chairman ...... .. ... ...... .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .... ............ .. ... .. .. Savannah, Ga. Mr. A. V. W o od .... ...... ........ .. .............................. .. .. ...... .. .... , .... ...... . Brun s wick , Ga . M r . J . G. P a ce ......... ... .............. .. ...... .... ............ .. ............... ..... .. .. .. .. P e nsac o la, Fla . M r. J . W . L e Maistre ...................... .. .. .. ........ .......... .. .... .. .... ........ .. .. Lockhart , Ala . Mr . L . V. Prin g l e .... .. .... .. .. .. .... .. .... .. ......... .. ...................... .. .. .... . N e w Orl e ans , La. M r . E . C. Ga y .. ...... . . . .... .... ... .. ............................... . ... ... ... ... , .. .. ..... . ....... Bilo x i , Miss. M r. Harry Wil s on .... .. .... .. .... .. .. ...... . ...... .... ..... .......... .... .......... .. Jacksonville, Fla. The President also appointed the following Committe es : COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS M r. E . 0. Siecke , Chairman ...... .. .. ...... .. ... ..... .. ............... .. .......... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .... T e xas Mr. C . B. Harman ...... .......... ................... .. .. ....... ...... ... .. .. .. .... .. . .... .. .. .... .... .. Georgia Mr. A. B. Hasting s ........ ... .. ......... .. .......... ........ .. .... .... .... .. . ......................... Virginia ~~. ~ ~o ~~ e G:~'.~.1 .~. ~ .::: . . .:.: . .:::::.. . .: : :::::::: : :: ::: . ~ :::: : :: :::: ::::: : :: ~.~~~.~~:rs~l:p~ Mr . W . L. Barn e tt . . .... .. ...... . .... ...... .............. ... ..... ... .. . ....... . ........ . ... .... ...... . ... Florida Mr. E. H. Frothingham .... ...... .... .... ........... .... .. .......... .... .. ........... N o rth Carolina Mr. Phillip D. Houst o n ... ...... .. .. .. ............ .. .......................... .. .......... .... ... T e nn e see Mr. A . A. Benson .. .. ..... ... .. .. ... .. .... . ...... ..... ......... ... ... .. .. .. ......... .... ...... ..... .. Alabama

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54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEE ON SELECTION OF NEXT PLACE OF MEETING Mr. H. L. Kayton , Chairman . .......... . .... ... ..... . ..... . ........ . .. . . .... .. . . ..... . . ... Savannah Mr . J . S. Holmes ...... .. .................. . .......... . .... . ... . . . ..... .. ... ....... ...... . . _North Carolina Mr. P. R. Camp . . ........ . . . .. .. ... .. .... . ......... . . ...... . . .. . . ............ .... .. .. . ........ . .. . . .... Virginia Mr. C . F . Speh . . .. ... . .. . . . ......... ... ... .. .... . ..... ... ... . ........ .. ...... . . ..... . ... .. .......... . . Louisiana Prof. T. D. Burleigh . . .. ... . . . .. . . ....... ....... . .. . .. . . . ... .. .. ... . . .. . .. ... . .... . . .... . ... .. . . .. . ... Georgia Mr. J. H. L . Henly ...... . .. . ........ . .. . ........ . .. . . . . ... ... . .... .... . .. .. .... .... . ... . ..... .. . .. .. Ala;bama Mr. E. R. McKee ...... ... ... . . .. .... . .. . . . .... .. . . . .. . ,. .. . .. . ............. . ..... . ... .. . ... ..... . . ... .. . . . Florida Dr. A. C. Moore .. . . . ...... . ... .. . .. ... .. .... . ..... . . . ... ... .... ......... . .. . ... . .. .. .. .. . .. South Carolina COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS Mr. W. D. Tyler, Chairman . .. . . ... ...... .. .. . . ... . . . .... . .. . . .... ... ...... . .. . . .. . . .... ... . . Virginia Mrs. M. E . Judd .. .... ..... . .... .. .. . . . ... .... . ... . . . . .. .. . .... . . .... .. . .......... . . . .. . .......... .. .. . ... Georgia Major J . G. Lee . ... . . .. . .. .. . . ... .. .. ...... ........ . . .. .. . . .. . . ..... .... .... .. ... . . .. . .. ..... .. . . . ... Louisiana Mr. 0. M. Butler . ... . .... ..... .. ...... . .. .. ... . ...... . .. .. ... . ..... . .... , . . . .. .. . . . Washington , D. C. Mr. J . R. Weston . . .. .. . ....... .. .. . . . ......... .. ................... ... , . . . . . . .. . . ... . . , .. .. . ... ... Mississippi Mr. W. E. White .. . .......... . .... .. .... ... . .. ... . . .. .......... .. .. .. ... .. ........ . . .. ........ ... . . ... .. Florida Mrs. Julia Lester Dillon ..... .. .. .. . .. .. ......... . .... . ................... .. . ... .. .. .. South Carolina

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS DEATH of M. L. ALEXANDER Marcus Lafayette A lexander was Commis sioner of Conservation of th e State of Louisiana from January 1912 to the day of his death on March 18, 1923. He was born in Mecklenburg County, Va. , and died in New Orleans, La . , at the age of 58 years. By motion of the Congress the following reso lution is to occup y a page o f these proceedings: RESOLUTION WHEREAS , this Congress has lost since its last session, by the death of Colonel M . L. Alexander, one of its most useful , active , and lovable mem bers, one who has left his indelible imprint on the forestry work of not only Louisiana but the entire Nation , therefore BE IT RESOLVED , that this Congres s hereby ex presses its great sorrow at the irreparable loss which it has sustained. 55

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56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REPORT OF LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE. The chief function of a Legislative Committee of this Con gress, as I see it, is to act as a clearing house for information on National and State forestry le g islation for the use of all state s in our group, especially, but by no means so lely, for the states where state action lo ok ing toward systematic forestry practice is contemplated. Such a Committee to be of use to the Congress must have help from interest ed and informed men in each state and from the Forest Service. I wish to s u ggest that the Commi ttee for the Seventh Congress be organized immediately after this session and to urge that each member of the Congress who is in touch with legislative matters in his state , keep the new Chairman informed. Such information can be sent direct or through the Secretary, and can be used effec tively when a ca ll comes to any offic e r of the Congress . It is easy to get the impression that in the case of the States now organized for forestry work, the several l eg i s lati ve meas ures are a ll worked out and are operating adequately. This is far from true and it is becoming increasingly important for indi vidual and concerted action to be taken looking toward more adequate forestry practice in the States where forestry depart ments have longest been established. No attempt will be made in this brief report to describe the le g isl ative situations in the various states. It will be of inter est, howev e r , once more t o call the roll,-Maryland, West Vir ginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas have forestry departments wh i ch are holding their own and gaining ground each year, w ith A l abama now added to the fold. Kentucky, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri are yet to take up forestry as a State activity, although legislation is now pending, or soon will be, in most of these States. The experience of Mississippi and ot h er States has taught the le s son that initial forestry l egis lati on shou ld be simple and direct , providing for: ( 1) A non -p olitical Commission with representation from vitally interested groups; (2) A technically trained and experienced fore s ter; ( 3) The investigation of existing conditions ;

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 57 ( 4) The education in the protection and development for con tinuous use of the forest resources; ( 5) The control of fire; (6) Such equitable taxation as will relieve growing timber from the un eq ual burden of the general property tax. (This is not, in fact , and should not be called , tax exemption.) It will so metimes be neither possible, nor advisable, to in corporate tax legislation into the forestry bill. Doubtless in th e future, as in the past, it w ill in some states be n ecessary t o make a start wit h a law wh ich provides no tax relief. It seems certain, however, that little real progress can be made in refor estatio n if the ge neral property tax can be levied each year upon the full value of young growth. Alabama has e nacted , during the past year , a remarkably comprehensive law as its initial l egis l at i on. It should be borne in mind, however , that Alabama already had a source of revenue from occ upational , license , or privilege taxes imposed for engag i ng in business dealing with timber, withou t which a less co plete program only might have been possible. Thi s same advan tage is available to some other states and might point the way to a start in such states. In the States w hich impo se a severance license tax on the cutting of timber or privilege license taxes on busine sses deal ing with timber or other forest products , it is urg e d that all of the funds thus co llect ed be se t aside in a specia l State Forestry Fund to be devoted to the protection and development of the fore st resources of these States. In closing, it is desired to urge as essential that the simple, direct legislation for the establishment of a departm e nt , b e backed with s ufficientl y adequate financial and moral support from the start, so that the few things atempted can be thoroughly and well done, first for their own sakes, and sec ondly, in order that the new department may have a fair chance to gain the confidence of the citizens, through which alone , healthy expansion in the future can be assured. A. B. HASTINGS , Assistant State For ester of Virginia.

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58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS The following resolutions were recommended by the Com mittee and after some discussion were adopted by the Congress. Resolutions on the Naval Stores Industry and on the death of M. L. Alexander will be found elsewhere in these proceedings. 1. THE CLARKE-MCNARY BILL Whereas, a Select Committee on Reforestation of the United States Senate has, during the past year, toured the country, visited practically all of our large forest regions, held hearings at a number of points, and submitted a report on the forest sit uation in the country; and Whereas, the Chairman of this Committee, Senator McNary, has introduced a bill in the United States Senate, and Repre sentative Clarke, of New York, has introduced a companion bill in the United States House of Representatives, which include the recommendations of that Committee concerning coopera tion with the States and the acquisiton of lands for National Forests; Be It Resolved: that the Southern Forestry Congress urges the passage of these bills, and Be It Further Resolved, that a copy of this resolution be sent to the President of the United States and to the members of the Congressional Committees to which these bills were referred. 2. FOREST EXPERIMENT STATIONS Whereas, we recognize that the safety of investments in forest raising cannot be assured without definite, detailed, and reliable information upon all phases, and that this can be satis factorily secured only as a result of systematic forest investiga tions such as are being carried on in the coastal pine region by the Southern Forest Experiment Station, in the Appalachian hardwood region by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Sta tion, and generally by the Forest Products Laboratory; And Be It Resolved, that we urge upon the Federal and State legislators and upon educational institutions, associations and forest landowners in the States concerned the necessity of

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 59 enlarged facilities for forest investigations , particularly by in creased funds and cooperative participation in the work of the two Stations and of the Laboratory. And Be It Further Resolved, that copies of this resolution be brought to the attention of Federal and State Senators and Congressmen of the Southern States. 3. A STATE FOREST POLICY Wh e reas , the Southern States contain more than one-third of the idle forest lands of the United States, which now con stitute a grave state and national menace , but which can be con verted into one of the greatest assets of the South through the adoption of a practical state forestry policy. Therefore, Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Con gress assembled in its Sixth Annual Meeting in Savannah, Ga., urges the Southern States immediately to adopt a state forest policy to include in the main: ( 1) A non-political State Board of Forestry or Commis mission representing the forest , agricultural, stock-rais ing, and other interests which may be chiefly concerned, to supervise the development of state forestry work under the immediate direction of a trained and competent forester. (2) The establishing of a Forest Fire Protection System. ( 3) Provisions for encouraging and inducing private par ticipation in reforestration through cooperation with pub lic agencies and by modification or readjustment of the existing system of taxing forest property, or lands de voted to reforestation ; and ( 4) Provisions for properly financing the state's forestry department and work. And Be It Further Resolved, that, in the opinion of the Southern Forestry Congress, the forestry law enacted in 1923 by the State of Alabama, embodies, to a great degree, the essen tials above enumerated and that therefore, this Congress urges the Southern States now without proper forestry laws, care fully to consider the Alabama law as a basis for forestry legislation.

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60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 4. THE AMERICAN FORESTRY ASSOCIATION Recognizing that vigorous and widespread education is es sential to the progress of forestry both locally and nationally, and that there is great need for a continuous campaign of edu cation throughout all sections of the United States, to the end that a proper appreciation of our forests may be instilled into every man, woman, and child in this country; and recogniz ing that the American Forestry Association, through its monthly magazine, American Forestry and Forest Life, and through its other faclities for disseminating information, is carrying to the people in every State in the Union accurate, in teresting , and informative material regarding our forests, their uses and their needs , and is thereby molding a sound and con structive public sentiment in behalf of State and National forestry , and that the Association is an agency by which con certed action can be taken in behalf of public forest meas ures throughout the country , the Southern Fore s try Congress herewith commends and endorses the work of the A1T.1erican Forestry Association and pledges the support of the Congress to the objects and activities of this Association, and it urges its members to support the association by becoming active mem bers and by aiding in increasing the membership of the Asso ciation and the distribution of its magazine . 5 . THE McNARY-SMITH BILL Whereas , the Southern Forestry Con g ress, while primarily e nga ged in the promotion of fore s try , affirms that there is no conflict, as regards forestry progres s and agricultural prog re ss, and that consistent and proper d e v e lopment of suc h cut over l and s as are agricultural in character constitutes sound public policy. Therefore , Be It Resolved, that thi s Congress endorses the principles of the McNary-Smith Bill , the purpose of which is to stimulate the development of agricultural land now in an unproductive state. 6. COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION Whereas, we , the Southern Forestry Association in con gress assembled, feel that a real crisis has arrived in the de velopment of a National Forestry Program, and that it is now the time to act,

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 61 Therefore, B e It Resolved, that the President of this Con gress be and is hereby empowered to appoint a suitable com mittee to meet at Washington, D. C., and appear before the proper authorities with a view to hastening in every possible way the enactment of constructive and progressive forestry legislation. 7. ELEMENTARY INSTRUCTION IN FORESTRY Be It Resolved, that the Southern Forestry Congress hereby urges that elementary instruction in forestry be given in all graded schools, universities, agricultural colleges, and normal schools in the Southern States, and recommends that the South ern Forestry Congress prepare brief statements concerning the forestry situation for distribution to civic organizations, fed erated clubs, and all other agencies that should be it;iterested in forestry progress . 8. FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF SOUTH ERN LANDS Wkereas, the timber resources of the Nation are rapidly dis appearing, and Whereas, the forest land in the Southern States comprises one of the best and most rapid growing timber re g ions in the United States, therefore , Be It Resolved, that it i s the sense of this Congress that a bill should be passed by the National Congress authorizing and directing the Forest Department of the Government to pur chase suitable cut-over lands in the Southern States of such size as will be adapted to economic and profitable operation . for the public welfare and to demonstrate forestry possibilities to the private owner. 9. BENNING NATIONAL FOREST Whereas, on December 12, 1923• , there was presented in the United States Senate by the Hon. Wm. J. Harris, Senator, from Georgia, a Bill , S-1033, entitled "To Establish the Ben ning National Forest in the State of Georgia," It Is , R e solved, that the said Bill is given the endorsement of this Congress, that the Secretary so inform Senator Harris, and that he also request all Senators and Congressmen from the Southern States to cooperate in securing its adoption .

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62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10 . APPRECIATION AND THANKS Resolved , that the Congress hereby expresses its apprecia tion and thanks to (a) The Honorable Clifford Walker, Governor of Georgia, for his cordial welcome to the Sixth Congress, and for his strong endorsement of its purposes . ( b) The Honorable Paul E. Seabrook , Mayor of Savannah , for his hearty welcome, and to other members of the city ad ministration for numerous courtesies . ( c) The Savannah Board of Trade, especially Manager E. B. Walker, and Mr . Nelson Stephens, Secretary of the Convention Bureau, for the wide publicity and care in arrangements which they gave the meeting ; Mr . Thomas Hoynes , chairman of the entertainment committee; Mr. Robertson, chairman of the com mittee on decorations, and Mr . W. J. Pierpont, Jr., chairman of the committee on ex hibit s, and to all members of these com mittees, whose untiring work has made the Sixth Con g ress mem ora ble and enjoyable beyond any previous Congress; Dr. S. B. McGlohon, and to the Auto and other clubs , the hotels, and many private citizens of Savannah, for courtesies extended to the Congress and its del egates during our most delightful stay in their city . (d) The daily press of Savannah, and th e Weekly Naval Stor es Review and its editor, Mr. Thomas Gamble. ( e) The Georgia Forestry Association, and particularly its divis ion chairman at Savannah , Mr. H . L. Kayton , for their untiring support. (f) Our president , Mr. Bonnell H. Stone , and o ur Sec retary, Mr. R. D . Forbes , for the s plendid material condition of this organization; the Patrons , for their generous financial support; and those who have presente d the inspiring papers and participated in the discussions of the Sixth Congres s . REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NEXT PLACE OF MEETING Your Committee has considered the requests from various cities for the holding of the Seventh Congress, invitations hav ing been received from Richmond , Va. , Columbia , S. C. , Jack sonville, Fla . , St. Louis, Mo. , Little Rock , Ark., Asheville,

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 63 N . C., Nashville, Tenn ., and Louisville, Ky. Representatives from such of these cities as cared to do so appeared in person before the Committee, which carefully weighed the arguments submitted and considered the advantages both from the view point of convenience to delegates and desirability from a s tand point of the greatest good to all concerned. The invitation fr o m Richmond was extremely c o rdial and your Committee believes that Virginia is entitled to considera tion, but in view of the fact that the forestry s ituation in Arkan sas can be greatly aided by the holding o f the next Congre ss at Little Rock, and in view of the fact that both Louisiana and Mi sso uri , although applicants, were willing t o yield in favor of tqe Arkansas capital, your Committee deemed it best to recom mend Little Rock as the location for holding the Seventh South ern Forestry Congress, which we hereby do. Respectfully submitted, (Signed) H. L. KAYTO N, Chairman . REPORT OF THE TREASURER FIFTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS E : -c'p en ditur e s Reporting .. .. ... . . . . .......... . ... ..... ................................ .. .... .... .... .......................... $ 1 S 7 . 00 Local Expense .. ........ .. ................ ...... .... .... ............. ........ ............................. 3 1 .9 S Program ........ ... .. .... ....................... . .. .. ... .. . . . ...................... ........... . ................ . Proc eedings : Printing .... .. ....... .. .......... . .... ....... . . .......................... . .. . .... . ....... ... .. .. .. ..... . Forwarding ................ ... ....... . ............. . .. .......... .. ....... .. ............. ... ... . ..... . 2 4.30 752.30 8 4.2 7 T o tal ...... . ......... .. .... .. .. . . ...... ............... ........... .. .. . ....... .. .......... . .. . .... . .. .. ..... $1049.82 Forward ............................ .. .... ............... .. ............. .......................... . .. 418.13 $1467 . 95 R e ceipts Balance .......... . . ........ .... ..... ..... ........ ... .. .. . . ..... ..... .... ...... ..... ............ . .. .. ....... ... . .. $ 891 . 30 Contributions from Patrons .... .... .................... ........ ..... .. .... .... ... ...... ...... 2S0.00 Sal e of Proceedings : Single c o pi e s (113) .............................................................. .. ........ 169.S0 In bulk ....... ..... ... .... ... ..... ....... .... ... .. . .. ............... . .. ...... .. ... ..... . ...... . ........ 1S7.1S $1467.9S

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64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH SO UT HER N FORESTRY C ON G RESS, IN C. Expenditur e s Charter .... ..... . ........ ..... .......... ......... ...... .. ............... . .. ................ .. ........ ... ... ...... $ 38 . 30 Po s ta ge ...... ..... .. .. ........ ...... .... ................................ .. ... ...................... .... .. .... .... 117.24 Telephone Service .............................. .... .... ... .... ... ............ .. .... .... .... ..... ..... 33.87 Stationery and Supplies .... .............................. .. .... .... ........ .. ............ ........ .. 1 50.74 Stenographer and Clerk .... ............ ...... ...... .... ...................... ...... .. .... ........ .. 113 .20 Bank Exchange, Etc. ........ .... .. ........ ..... .... ............................................ ..... 10.00 Officials Expendit ur es .......... ............ .......... ... .............. .... .. ................. .... .. 111.4 5 Badges ............... . ... . .... .... .......... .. .................. ...... .......... .... .......................... .. 36.00 F o restry Instruction in Savannah Scho o ls ............................ ............ 125.00 U se of Th e atre .... ...... .................. . ........ .... ......... .... .. ..... ........... ...... .......... .. 113.00 Savannah School Children ' s Tree Naming Contest ........................ 60.60 Programs and Posters ................... ..... .. .. ......... .......... .......... ...... ............. 39.00 L oca l Expense .. ...... .......... .. .. ...... .. .... .......... .. .............. .. ........ ..... ......... ........ 41.59 Speak e r's Hon ora rium .... ....... ...... . .. .. .. .......... .. ...... ..... ..... .. .............. .. ...... 140 .00 Reporting ........ .................... .. ...... ...... ...... .......... .. ................... .. ............... ... . 202.00 . Total ... ... ...... .... .... .. .. .. ................... ....... ... . .......... .......... .......................... $133 1. 99 F o rward ........ ... .......... ... .............. ....... ...... . .............................. ..... . . . .... 404.47 $ 173 6.46 R ecei pts Bal~nce ........ . .... ... ..... ....... ...................... .. .. ................ .... .......... .. .......... ...... .. $ 418.13 Contributions from Patrons .... ...... .................... ..... .... ............... .... ....... . 1225 . 00 Coop. Sava nnah School .. .. .. ........ ........ ... .... ...... ...................................... . 80.00 Miscellaneous Receipts .... .... .............................................................. .. .. .. 13 .33 $1736.46 Balance on hand , April 23, 1924, $404.47.

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5 Appendix 23921 CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS, INCORPORATED THIS IS TO CERTIFY, that we, the undersigned, do hereby associate ourselves into a non-stock corporation under and by virtue of the law s of the State of North Carolina, as contained in Chapter 22 of the Consolidated Statutes, entitled "Corporations," and the several amendments thereto , and to that end do hereby set forth : 1. The name of this corporation is SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS , INC. 2. The location of the principal office of the corporation in this State is in the City of Asheville, County of Buncombe. 3. The objects for which this corporation is formed are as follows: (a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by disseminating information as to its objects, needs, and method s, and its relation to the development of idle lands; to promote the conservation of the forests of the South in such a way that they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timb e r and a home for game and birds , and that they may protect the upper sources of streams; and to promote and encourage re forestation and the prevention of forest fires. (b) To cooperate with and to bring about a closer coopera t i on and unity between national, state, county, municipal, corpo rate and private forestry agencies and organizations . ( c) To suppor t federal, state and loca l legis l ation which will promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in the S o uth. And in order properly to prosecute the ob j ects and purposes above set forth, the corporation shall have full power and

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66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE authority to purchase , lease and otherwise acquire, hold, mort gage, convey and otherwise dispose of all kinds of property, both real and personal, both in this State and in all other States, Territories and dependencies of the United States, and gen erally to perform all acts which may be deemed necessary for the proper and successful prosecution of the objects and pur poses for which the corporation is created. 4. The corporation is to have no capital stock. 5. The names and post office addresses of the incorporators are as follows : Name Post Office Address Joseph Hyde Pratt Chapel Hill, N. C. J. S. Holmes " " " " Miss Minnie Queen " " " " Miss Grace White " " " " Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt " " " " Mrs. J. S. Holmes " " " " Fred B. Merrill " " " " George Howe " " " " 6. The period of existence of this corporation is limited to 50 years. 7. Members may be admitted after organization upon the following terms : ' Upon election and payment of dues in such manner as the corporation may determine. The persons whose names and addresses are included in the attached list are to be the charter members of the corporation. 8. The following is a list of the charter members of the corporation : The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. Edward A . Hauss, Pres., Century, Fla.. Dr. C. P. Ambler, Asheville , N. C. 0. L. Ayrs, 1512 Brown-Marx Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. Gordon T. Backus, Box 629, Asheville, N. C. Hugh P. Baker, Secretary American Paper and Pulp Ass'n., New York. W . L . E. Barnett, Care Bankers' Trust Co., 3 and 5 Place Vendome, Pari s, France. Dr . S. Westray Battle, Asheville, N. C.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 67 Miss Alice Baxter, 31 East Fourth St., Atlanta, Ga . J.M . Beal, Professor of Botany , A. and M . College, Miss. H. H . Bennett, U. S . Bureau of Soils , Washington, D. C. F. W. Besley, State Forester, 815 Calvert Bldg ., Baltim o re, Md. J. B. Bishop, Great Southern Lumber Co., Pinola , Miss. T. S . Boswell, So. Ry . Co., Brevard , N. C. Governor Wm . W . Brandon, Montgomery, Ala . R. G . Breland , L. N . Dantzler Lumber Co., Moss P o int, Miss. B . A. Buck, Mobile, Ala. Thos. D. Burleigh , University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 0 . M . Butler , 914 Fourteenth St. , N . W., Washin g ton , D . C. Camp Manufacturing Co. , Franklin , Va . J. Phil Campbell, Stat e C o llege of Agriculture, Athens, Ga. W . A. Candler, Chancellor of Emory University, Atlanta, Ga . G. A . Cardwell, Agri . and Indus . Agent , A. C . L. Ry . Co., Wilmington , N . C. Austin Cary, U. S. Forest S e rvice, Washington, D. C. John J . Cathey, Gadsen, Ala. Champion Fibre Company, Canton , N. C. H. H. Chapman, Yale Forestry School, New Haven, Conn. Clinchfield Coal Corp., Dante , Va. Mrs. S . T. Cohen, Treasurer City Federation Wom en's Clubs, 4000 Canal St., New Orl eans, La. Forrest H. Colby, Bingham , Me. Department of Conservation, New Orl e ans, La. Mr s. Edwin P. Cox, Richmond, Va. Edwin P. Cox , Richmond, Va. Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett, Ark. H. M. Curran, Farm For e stry Specialist, Raleigh, N. C. D. T. Cushing, Gr e at Southern Lumber Co. , Bogalusa, La. A. D. Dane e l, A. B. & A. R. R. Co., Atlanta, Ga. W. J . Damtoft, The Champion Fibre Co., Canton, N. C. H e nry S. Drinker, Merion Station, Pa. M r s. Geo. Drolet , Tuscal oos a, Ala. G eorge Drol e t, Kaul Lumber Co., Tuscaloosa, Ala. Frederick Dunlap , Care Missouri Forestry Ass'n., Columbia, Mo . Hon. Robert C. Ellis, Tift o n, Ga. W . D. Fauc e tte, Chief Engineer , S. A . L . Railway Co . , Norfolk , Va.

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68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE F. H. Fechtig, A. C. L. R. R. Co., Wilmingt on, N. C. Prof J . A. Fergu so n , Th e P en n State College, State Colleg _ e, Pa. R. T. Fish e r , Harvard University, W esto n , Mass. Florida Deve l opm e nt Board, J ac ksonvilla, Fla . R. D . Forb es, Sou. Forest Exp e rim ent Stati o n , New Orleans, La. John H. Foster, State Forester , Concord, N. H. E. H. Frothingham , B o x 1 518, Asheville, N . C . Th os. H . Gill, U . S. F o r est Service, Washington, D . C. Henr y S. Grav es, Yale University, N ew Haven, Conn . Col. W. B. Gre e l ey, Forester , U . S . Forest S e rvice, Wash i ngton, D . C. S . Winford Gre e ne, McNeill, Miss. Miss Juli et Emi l y Hardtner, Urania , La. Miss Violet Urania Hardtner, Urania , La. Mrs. Henry E. Hardtner, Urania, La . C. B. H a rman , S ec r e tar y , Sou. Sa s h , D oor and Millwork Mfrs. Ass'n., Atlanta,, Ga . R. M . Harp e r, Univ e rsity, Ala. W. 0. Hart, 134 Carondelet St., New Orl e ans, La . Frank E. Haskell, Yale For est r y School, New Hav e n, Co nn. A lfr e d B. Hastings, Ass t. State F o re ste r, Univer s ity, Va. A. M. Henry, Tallahassee , F l a. H o n . Frank R. Hewitt, 3 11 Montford Ave . , Ashevill e, N. C. A. E. Hick erson, Supt. D e lt a Land and Timber Co., Conroe, Texas John Sprunt Hill , Durham , N. C. M r s. S. W. Hills , Robins o n Road , R. 3 , Grand Rapids , Mich. W.R. Hine, Urania , La. R oy L. Hogue , Interi o r Lumb e r Co., Jackson , Miss. J. S. H o lm es, State Forester , Chape l Hill, N. C. H. B . H o l royd, Ag riculturist and Forester, L. and N . R. R. Co. , Loui sv ill e, Ky. Robert R. Hop e , Ge o r ge town, S . C., Care Jam es D. La ce y & Co . , 350 Madison Ave . , New York. R a l ph D . Hosmer , Co rn e ll Univ e rsity, Ithaca , N. Y. E. E . Jackson Lumber Co., Baltimo r e, Md . Max Jasspon, Forest Engineer, Bo x 2 03 , Sa v annah , Ga . J . K. J o hn son, Great Southern Lumber Co . , Bogalusa, La . W. Goodrich Jon es, 21114 Barnard St., Wac o, T exa s Chapin Jon es, State Forester, Charlottesville, Va . J o hn L. Kaul , Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham , Ala.

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SouTHERN Fo.RESTRY CONGRESS 69 Kau l Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala. Milton Klein, Atlanta Hoo Hoo Club, At l anta, Ga . H. H . Kopman, Asst., Game Division, Department of Conservation, New Orleans, La. Krause & Managan Lbr. Co., Ltd., Westlake, La. Otto Katzenstein, Atlanta, Ga. W. M. Lambert, 1102 Southwest Ave., Johnson City , Tenn. Rev. Geo. W. Lay, Beaufort , N. C. L eas & Mc Vi tty, Inc . , Salem, Va . J. G. L ee, Prof . , A. and M. College, Ba ton Rouge, La. J. W. LeMaistre, L oc khart , Ala. J. W. L e wis, Gen. Mgr., The Lon g-Be ll Lumber Co. , Lake Charles, La . Lock , Moore & Co . , Ltd., Westlake, La. E. N. L o w e, Dir e ctor, Mississippi Ge o logical Survey, Jacks on, M i ss. Loui s iana State University , Bat o n Rouge, La. B . M. Lufburrow, Acting Forest Supervisor , Forest Service, Moulton, Ala. R. S. Maddox, State Forest e r, Nashvill e, Tenn. J. M. Mallory, Gen. Indus. Agent, Savannah, Ga . Mrs . Annie D. Martin, Woddfields, Hend e rsonvill e, N. C. E . D. Mays, S. A . L. R. R Co, Jacksonvill e, Fla. J. A l fred Mitchell, Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Sydney L. Moore, Jacksonville , Fla . R. F. Morse, Gen. Mgr. , L o ng-Bell Company, Quitman, Miss. Mrs . Louis A. Neill, 446 Jackson St . , Albany, N. Y. J. G. Pace, Pace Lumber Co ., Pensacola, Fla. Charles Lathrop Pack, Pres., American Tree Association, Lakewood, N. J. H. H. Patterson, Artmore, Ala. John L. Patt e rson, Richmond, Va. Th e Pennsylvania State College, State College , Pa. J. G. Peters , U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Karl E. Pfeiffer, Asst. Forester, 815 Calvert Bldg, Baltimore, Md . Mrs. Mary Bayley Pratt , Chapel H i ll, N. C. Col. J. H. Pratt, Direct o r Geological and Ec n omic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. J. H . Price , Price & Price, Magnolia, Miss . Miss Minnie Queen, Chap e l Hill, N . C. I. T . Quinn , C o m. of Conservation, Montgomery , Ala. E. E. Randolph , State College, Raleigh, N. C. Mrs. Ora M. Randolph, State College, Raleigh, N. C.

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70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Harris A. Reynolds, 4 Joy St., Boston , Mass. Verne Rhoades, U. S. Forest Service, Asheville, N. C. C. L. Ritter Lumber Co., Huntington , W. Va. H . H. Burns, Treas., C. L . Ritter Lumber Co., Huntingt o n, W. Ya. Hon. Lee M. Russell, Governor, Jackson, Miss. Thorndik e Saville, Chapel Hill , N. C. J as . R. Schick, Engin ee r Branch Lines N. & W. R. R. Co., Roanoke , Va. Walt e r G. Schwab, Dist. Mgr., Glatfelter Pulpwood Co., La Plata , Md. W. D . Fa uc e tt e , Chief Engr., S . A. L. R. R. Co., Norfolk, Va. Edmund Secrest, State Forester, Ohio Agr'l Experiment Sta . , Wooster, Ohio. A. S e ssoms, Bank of Bonifay , Bonifay, Fla . Edmund Seymour, The American Bison Society, 45 Wall St. , New York . D . F . Shull, 206 S o uth 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. Jos. S. Silversteen, Pres., The Gloucester Lumber C o., Rosman , N . C. Howard C. Smith, Union Springs, Ala . Ja s. Sinclair, A. C. L. R. R. Co., Waycross, Ga . Hon. John H. Small, 940 Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C . V. H . Sonderegger, Supt. of Forestry, . D epa rtment of Conservation, New Orleans , La. Andrew M . Soule, Pres . State College of Agriculture, Athens, Ga. Southern Pine Lumber Co., Texarkana, Texas Miss Vera M. Spuhler, Southern For e st Experiment Sta . , New Orl ea ns, La. Mrs. W. W. Stark, F ede rati on of Women's Clubs, Commerce, Ga. Offic e o f State Forester, College Station, Texas Mrs. A. F. Storm, Morgan City, La . E . F . Stovall, Gen. Agt, L . C.R. R. , Birmingham, Ala M r s. A lic e Strickland, Duluth, Ga. Henry P. Talmadge, Pres. S a l e -Davis Co ., 52 William St., N ew York City . Miss Julia A. Thorns, Asheboro , N . C. E . W. Th o rp e, D e Funiak Springs, Fla. J . W. Tourney, Yale Forestr y School, N e w Ha ve n , Conn. W . B . Townsend, Littl e Ri ve r Lumber Co ., T o wnsend, Tenn. Mrs. W . D . Tyler, Dante , Va . W. D. Tyler, Pres. Southern Forestry Congress, Dante , Va. Union Sawmill Co., Huttig , Ark. S. H. Vredenburgh, Vredenburgh Sawmill Co ., Vredenburgh, Ala.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Hon . Zebulon W eave r , Asheville, N. C. J. Roland Weston, Logtown , Miss. Wm. P. Wharton, Mass. F o restry Association, Groton, Mass. Wier Long Leaf Lumber Co., Houston , Texas J. C. Williams, Mgr., Dev e lopment S e rvice Southern Ry . Co., Washington, D. C. James A. Wils o n , Box 304 , Shelby, N. C. M rs . John D . Winters, Montgomery, Ala. Th eodo re S . Woolsey, Jr., 242 Prospect St., New Haven. Conn. Geo. Wrigl e y, Greenville, S. C. L. J . Young, University of M ichigan, Ann Arbor, Mich . 71 In Testimony Whereof, We have hereunto set our hands and affixed our seals, this the second day of November, A. D. 1923 . Jo s eph Hyde Pratt J. S. Holmes Minnie Queen Grace White Mary Bayley Pratt Mrs. J. S. Holmes Fred B. Merrill George Howe Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of M . B . Utley, Witness. STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA , } County of Orange, ss. (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) This is to Certify, that on this 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923 , before me, a Notary Public , personally appeared Joseph Hyde Pratt, J. S. Holmes, Minnie Queen, Grace White, Mary Bayley Pratt, Mrs. J. S. Holmes, Fred Merrill, George Howe, who, I am satisfied, are the pei;sons named in and who executed the foregoing certificate of incorporation of Southern Forestry Congress, Inc. , and I having first made known to them the contents thereof, they did each acknowledge that they signed, sealed and delivered the same as their voluntary act and deed, for the uses and purposes therein expressed.

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72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my h a nd and affixed my official seal, this the 2d day of Nov., A. D. 1923 . Com. exp. Sept. 7, ' 24 Filed Nov. 5 , 1923 . w . N. EVERETT, Secretary of State. M. B. UTLEY , Notary Public . (Notarial Seal)

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Appendix II BY-LAWS OF THE SOUTHERN FORESTRY CON GRESS, IN CORPORA TED. ADOPTED BY VOTE OF THE SIXTH CONGRESS, AT SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, JANUARY 30, 1924. l. Nam e: The name of this corporation shall be the South ern Forestry Congress, Inc. 2. Obj ec t: The objects for which this corporation is formed are as follows : (a) To promote the practice of forestry in the South by dis seminating information as to its objects, needs , and methods, and its relation to the development of idle land s; to promote the con se rvation of the forests of the South in such a way that they may furnish an unfailing supply of growing timber and a home for game and birds , and that they may protect the upper s ources of streams ; and to promote and encourage re forestation and the prevention of forest fire s. ( b) To cooperate with and to bring about a clo se r coopera tion and unity between national , state, county, municipal, cor porate and private forestry agencies and organizations. ( c) To support federal, state and local legislation which wi ll promote, directly or indirectly, the practice of forestry in the South. 3. Membership a;nd Dues: Any person interested in the objects of the Congress may become a member , as hereinafter provided. a. Members shall be of four classes : Annual Members, who shall pay a fee sufficient to cover the cost of a copy of the Proceedings, to be decided by the Execu tive Committee, but not to exceed $2. Associate Members, consisting of State Departments and Associations, w ho shall pay a sum not to exceed $25, to be decided by the Executive Committee. Contr i buting Memb e rs, consisting of persons, firms and cor porations, who shall from time to time make material cash contributions to the expenses of the Congress.

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74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Honorary Members, persons eminent in some line of work more or less closely connected with the objects of the Congress. Honorary members shall be elected by the annual Congress after being considered and recommended by the Executive Committee. They shall not be subject to annual dues, but shall have every other privilege of full members. b. Only members shall be eligible to office and entitled to vote; provided that unless the point of order is raised and sus tained all persons who have registered for any regular meet ing of the Congress may vote at that Congress. Associate and contributing members will be considered to have voted when their representatives have voted. Associate members may have not to exceed four voting representatives for ann:ual dues of $10, up to ten voting representatives for dues of $25 . . Con tributing members may be represented according as to whether they are persons ( 1 voting representative), firms (2 voting representatives); or corporations ( 4 voting representatives). 4. Officers: The officers of this corporation shall be President, a Vice-President, a Chairman of the Executive Com mittee, a Secretary, a Treasurer, but the S~retary and Treas urer may be one and the sam,e person, and as Assistant Secretary, each of whom holds office for one year, or until his successor has been duly elected and qualified. 5. Committees: There shall be four regular standing com mittees: an Executive Committee and Committees on Finance, Legislation and Publicity. The Executive Committee shall con sist of the Chairman, who is elected by the Congress, the four other officers of the Congress and the Chairmen of the three other standing Committees, and the past Presidents of the Con gress . It shall deciqe the policy of the. Congress and be respon sible for its activities. At all formally called meetings of the Executive Committee three members shall be qualified to transact any business that may come before it. The Chairmen of the other three Com mittees shall be appoin.ted annually by the incoming President. Each Chairman shall appoint the members of his own Commit tee and be responsible for its activities, subject to the approyal of the President. At each annual meeting the President shall appoint regular Committees on Auditing, Resolutions and Nominations, each j

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 75 committee to be entrusted with the duties usually devolving on such committees. The President shall appoint such other spe cial committees as may be called for by the Congress. 6. Publications: The Proceedings of the Congress, in as full a . form as seems advisable to the Executive Committee, shall be published as soon after each annual meeting as is practicable and distributed, one to each member who has paid his annual dues. Contributing and associate members may receive addi tional copies in accordance with the decision of the Executive Committee. Complimentary copies may be sent out as decided by the Executive Committee. 7. Meetings: The Congress shall meet annually or as nearly so as is practicable, a, such time and place as may be decided on by the Executive Committee. At any regular meeting of the Congress twenty members, or a majority of those registered, will be considered a quorum. Meetings of the Executive Com mittee shall be held before each annual meeting of the Congress and at such other times as the Chairman may deem necessary. 8. Amendments: These By-Laws may be amended by a three-fourths vote of the members present and entitled to vote at the annual meeting of the Congress.

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Appendix III PATRONS* SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ALABAMA Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham. The Scotch Lumber Co., Mobile. Jackson Lumber Co., Lockhart. W . P. Brown Lumber Co., ;Fayette. Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh. Horse Shoe Lumber Co., River Falls. Lathrop Lumber Co., Birmingham. Deal Lumber Co., Buhl. Allison Lumber Co. , Inc., Bellamy. W. T . Smith Lumber Co., Chapman . FLORIDA Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century. J. Ray Arnold Lumber Co . , Groveland. Putnam Lumber Co., Jacksonville . Taylor Co . Lumber Co. , Springdale . Standard Lumber Co., Live Oak. Brooks-Scanlon Corp. , Eastport . St. Andrews Bay Lumber Co., Millville. Bagdad Land & Lumber Co. , Bagdad. Weaver-Loughridge Lumber Co., Boyd . W. B. Harbeson Lumber Co., De Funiak Springs. KENTUCKY Combs Lumber Co. , Lexington. Ruby Lumber Co., Madisonville. Langstaff-Orm Lumber Co., Paducah. Sherrill-Russell Lumber Co., Paducah . Hon Lumber Co . , Winchester. J. N. Russell Lumber Co., Bowling Green. * Those who contribute towards the expenses of the Congress are termed Patrons .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS W. J. Hughes & Sons Co., Inc., Louisville. Fred G. Jones & Co., Inc., Louisville. C. W. Brickly Lumber Co., Louisville. Norman Lumber Co., Louisville. LOUISIANA L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co. , New Orleans . Powell Lumber Co., Lake Charles . Hillyer-Deutsch-Edwards , Inc ., Oakdale. Lock , Moore & Co., Ltd. , Westlake. W . G. Ragley Lumber Co., Ragley. Gulf Lumber Co., Fullerton. J . A . Bel Lumber Co., Inc. , Lake Charles. Vernon Parish Lumber Co., Inc., Kurthwood. Loui si ana Central Lumber Co ., Clarke. Natalbany Lumber Co., Ltd. , Hammond. Peavy-Byrnes Lumber Co ., Shreveport. Industrial Lumber Co ., Elizabeth. Frost-Johnson Lumber Co. , Shreveport. Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa . MISSISSIPPI Interior Lumber Co ., Jackson. Houston Bros., Vicksburg. Long-Bell Co., Quitman. H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown. Finkbine Lumber Trustees, Jackson. L. N. Dantzler Lumber Co., Gulfport. Rosa Lumber Co., Picayune. MISSOURI John H. Himmelberger , Cape Girardeau. Delta Land & Timber Co ., Kansas City . Bowman-Hicks Lumber Co., Kansas City. Long-Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City. Ozark Land & Lumber Co., Winona. Thomas & Proetz Lumber Co. , St. Louis. MARYLAND E . E. Jackson Lumber C o., Baltimore. 77

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78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NORTH CAROLIN A Gennett Lumber Co., Asheville. Suncrest Luniber Co., Sunburst. Omo W. M. Ritter Lumber Co ., Columbus. VIRGINIA Clinchfield Coal Corp., Dante. Pocahontas Fuel Co., Inc., Pocahontas. Guyan Lumber Co., Roanoke. Norfolk & Western Ry. Co., Roanoke. Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co., Roanoke. WEST VIRGINIA Norwood Lumber Company, Welch. R. D. FORBES, Treas. , April 23, 1924.

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Appendix IV LIST OF REGISTERED DELEGATES ATTENDING THE SIXTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Acosta , St. Elmo W .......... . . ...... .Jacksonville, Fla. Anderson , Mr ........ . ............ ....... .Anderson Hardwood Lumber Co. , Marion, S. C. Babcock, C. F ........... . . ..... . .... .... . .. .Babcock Bros. Lumber Co ., Babcock , Miller Co., Ga. Bailey, M. L. .... ...... . . .... .... . .. ... .. .. . Gresston, Ga . Baker , C . E . .. . ............................ .303 East Huntington , Savannah, Ga. Baker, Mrs. C. E ........... .......... ... 303 East Huntington, Savannah, Ga. Barbee , H . V . . . .. .. . ..... ...... .. ........ . Gresston, Ga. Barnes , J . W ... . ...... . .. ... . ............. Mendal Building , Box 228, Savannah, Ga. Barnett, Mrs. B. H .. . ..... . ........... Florida Forestry Ass ' n. , 735 Riverside Ave., J ac ksonville , Fla. Barnett , W. L'E. ..... ... . ..... .. . . ..... . Florida Fore st ry Ass'n., Mt. Dora, Fla. Barnett, Mrs. W. L'E .... . .. .. ... . . . Florida Forestry Ass'n., Mt. Dora, Fla . Bauer, E ........... . ...... .. . .. ........... . .2610 Blossom St ., Columbia, S . C. Beale , C. Bernard ...... .... ........ ... Division of Forestry, . University of Georgia, At hens, Ga. Bennett, Russell W. : Secretary-Manager, Standard Containers Mfrs., Sec'y, Florida Forestry Ass'n., Jacksonville, Fla. Benson, A. A ..... .. .......... .. ........... Lockhart, Ala.

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80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Blitch & De Loach . .. . . ....... . ........ Blitchton, Ga. Boyarth, W. A ..... .... ............. .... Williamsburg, Va. Brooke, R. H . .... ....... ............... ... Little Rock, Ark. Ark. Soft Pine Bureau, Rep . Bruen, H . H . ....... ..... ... . .. .. . ....... .. Columbia Naval Stores Co. , Savannah , Ga. Bruner , E. Murray . . . .. ........... . .... .Inspector, U. S . Forest Service, As heville , N. C. Burleigh , Thos. D . ......... . ........... .Division of Forestry , State College of Agriculture, At hens , Ga. Burrage, C. H ............ . ....... .. .. . ... .James D . Lacey & Co., Timber Land Factors, New York. Butler, 0. M ........... .. .. .. .......... ... .Ame rican Forestry Ass'n . , Washington, D. C. Cain, Mrs. J . R. ........ . ........ . ..... . .. 108 Park Ave., East, Savannah, Ga. Calvert, W. C ......................... ... .. . W. J. Snead Lumber Co., Gree n wood, S. C . Caples, M. ]. ... . .................. .. .. .. ... .Vice-President, S.A.L. Ry. Co. , Norfolk, Va. Cargill, G . S .......................... . ... Superior Court Chamber, Savannah, Ga. Carr, A. S . .... .. . ... .... ........ .. .... . . . . .. President, The A. S. Carr Co., Bainbridge, Ga. Carr, Wm. B . .......... . . .............. .. . . Bainbridge, Ga. Carson, J . A . G. , Jr. , ... ...... . .. . ... . .Vice-President, Carson Naval Stores Co., Savannah, Ga. Cary, Austin .... . ...... ..... ...... . . ..... .U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Coker, J. L. ..... . . .. . .... ..... .......... .... . Carolina Fibre Co., Hartsville, S. C. Colly, J. A ............ ..... . ... ... . . ........ .Blackshear, Ga. Coleman , F . ] ........... . .. . ................ Cobbtown, Ga. Coming s, W. D . ....... ... ..... ...... ..... Box 595 , Geo rgetown, S. C. Cook, J. M ..... .... . ............. ............ Milan, Ga. Cooper, Robert L. . .. ..... . ....... . ....... Savannah, Ga.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Coult, A. A. ........ . .. . . . ............. .. .. . Secretary , , Florida Development Board , .Jacksonville, Fla. Cossels, A . Gordon .................... -President, The Cossels Co . , Savannah, Ga. Council, K. Clyde ... . ......... ... .. . ..... Wananish, N. C. 81 Curran, H. M ..... .. ... . .. . . .. . .... .. ..... Agricultural Extension Service, Raleigh, N. C. Dabbs, E. W ....... ... .................. ... Mayesville, S. C. De Loach, R. C .. ............ .. ..... .. .... Furman, S. C. D ent, Gratz . ..... ... . ........... .. ...... . .. County Agent, Savannah, Ga. Derby, L. H ..... . . ........... .. . . . .... .. ... . Warren, Ark. Dill , C. W .. . ........... ... ... ...... . .. . . .... .. ew York (Naval Stores) . Dillon, Mrs. Julia Lester.. . .. ... .. City Forester, Sumter, S. C. Doherty, Chas . P .. . .. . ..... . ...... .. .... 295 Henderson Ave., A thens, Ga. Dorman, Miss Caroline C. ... .. . . . Chm . Conservation, / La. Federation Women's Clubs, Saline, La. Drawd y, S. L. . . .... . . .. . ... .... ...... . .. . Homerville, Ga . Drew, D . S . .. . ... ..... .... .. . . .... ... ........ Dunlevie Pine Products Co . , A llenhurst , Ga. Drew, Herbert } . .... . . .. .... ...... .. .... Standard Lumber Company, Live Oak , Fla. Dudley, C. H ... ......... . ...... ... .. ... ... .Atlanta, Ga. Dunlap, Frederick ... ....... ... . .. ...... Secretary, Mo. Forestry Ass'n., C o lumbia, Mo. Dyal, J. E .. .... ..... .. . . .. ........ ... ......... Baxley, Ga. Eaton, J. L. . .. . . . . ........... . .. . ... ... . .... Viola , Tenn . Ellis, W. P . ... . . . . . ........... .. ... . .... .. ... Furman, S. C. Forbes, R. D ... ... . . .. . . . . . .. ..... .. . .. .. .. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La. Frampton , W. E ..... ... .. ...... . . . .. . ... Charleston , S. C. Frothingham, E. H .... ... . . .. ..... .. .. .Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, N. C. Fo w ler, James .. ... .... ... ...... ... ... . ... Soperton , Ga. Foster, J. A. .. . .. . .. . . ....... ... ............ 308 East Hall St., Savannah, Ga.

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82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Fell, Mrs. H. L. ....... . .. .... . ........ . .. 506-37th St. West, Savannah, Ga. Farie, A. L., Jr .... . ... ... ................ Savannah Bank Bldg., Savannah, Ga. Farie, A. L. ................ . . .. . .. . ......... . President, A. L. Farie Company, Savannah, Ga. Garrett, George A ......... . .... ... ...... Professor of Forestry, University of the South, Sewanee , Tenn. Gay, E. C .. ................... ....... ... ...... Biloxi, Miss. Garroson, J. E. ..... . .............. . ... .. . .Ludowici, Ga. Gerry, Dr . Eloise ....... .... ..... . ....... Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin. Glenn, E. C. ... .. ....... ........... .. . .. . .. . Big Salkehatchie Cypress Co., Varnville, S. C. Glover, Jo seph .......... .... .. .............. 421 E. 45th St., Savannah, Ga. Goodwillie, D. L. .. .. ...... , . ....... . .... 838 Otis Building, Chicago, Ill. Gordon, H. H .. ......... .... .... . .... .. . .. McG regor , Ga. Hale, Matthew ....... .... .... .. .......... . G reenville, S. C. Harrell, E. C . .... ....... . .... . .... ....... .. Secretary , Ga., Fla. Saw Mill Ass'n., Jacksonville , F la . Holland, W. D . .... ... .. . . ................ . Collins, Ga . Harman, C. B . ....... .. ...... . ............. .Atlanta, Ga., ( Ga. Forestry Ass ' n.) Hastings, Alfred B . .. .. .... .... .... .. . .Assistant State Forester, Charlottesville, Va. Henly, J. H. L. .... ..... ..... . .... ... . ... . . Lockhart, Ala. Hodges, C. S ... .. . . . . .. .. ............. .. ... Cyrene, Decatur County, Ga. Hodges, W. C ................. . . .. ....... . Hinesville, Ga. Holmes, J. S . . ... ... ... . .. . ..... ....... . . . ... Chapel Hill , N. C. State Forester, N. C. Geological and Economic Survey. Houston, Philip D . . . .. ... ...... . .. ... .. Randolph Bldg., Memphis, Tenn.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CO NG RESS Howard, T. L. . . .. . . .. . . : ..... . . . ....... . . Lud ow ici , Ga. Hunter, K. W ...... . . . ........ .. . .. . ..... . Sewanee River Cypress Co. , Box 434 , Jacksonville, N. C. Huxford , Folks . . .. .. .. .... .. ........ .... Homerville, Ga . Israel, Albert R. .... .. .. . .... . .. . . . ... . . . . Southern Pine Association, ew Orleans, La. Jackson, J. P . ....... . . .... . ... . ... . ..... . .. Ge neral Agr icultural Agent, Central o f Georgia Rwy ., Savannah, Ga . Jasspon, Max .. . . . . . .. ................. . . . . Savannah, Ga. Johnston , Don P . . . . .... .. . . . . . . ... ..... .J ohns t o n McNeill & Co., Okeechobee , Fla. Jones , J as . H . ....... .. .. . ..... ..... ...... .. L and Agent, 83 Th e A l ge r-Sullivan Lumber Co . , Ce ntur y , Fla . Jordan , R. F ... . . . ..... .... . . . ..... . ... . .. . G lenwood, Ga. Judd , Mrs. M . E .. . . ........ . . . .. . . .... . . Dalton , Ga . Kayton, H. L. .. . .. . ....... ... .... . . ..... .. . V i cePr es ident, Ca r so n Nava l Stores Co. , Sava nn ah, Ga . Kenney, A. R. ....... . .. . .. . . .... ........ . . Chief Tie and Timber Agent , A. C. L. R. R., Waycross, Ga . Kirklighter , S. J ... .. . ... .. . . . .. ... .... . . G l env ill e, Ga. Kirkland, J. B . ............ . ....... ........ Waycross, Ga. Kirkland, D ...... . ......... ......... ... .. . .... Kirk l a nd & Co., Denton, Ga . Leffiteau , E. E . .... . ... .. . . .. . ....... . .... .T. P. & F. A., Me rchant s & Marine Trans. Co ., Sa va nm l h, Ga. Landry, M. B . .... . .. ..... ... .. ....... . . .. . .339 Caro ndel e t St ., New O rl e ans, La. Lee, Maj. J. G ......... . ... . ... ... ... .... . .L. S. U., Bato n Rouge, La. L ockwood, J . E ..... . .. . . . ....... ... ... .. Mgr. ava l Stores Division, Hercules Powder Company, Wi lmin gto n, D e la w are. Loughridge, J. H. ... ... .. ....... . ... .. . .. Perry, Fla. Lott , D a n . . . ......... . ..... . ...... .... ... ... . Wayc r oss, Ga.

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84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Macfa rland , F . H. ........... . ........ . . 1130 E . Henry St., Savannah, Ga. McCaffery, J. E .. .. .... . . . .... .. .. . . ..... . Savannah River Lumber Co., Savannah, Ga. McKee, E . R. . . . . .. . . . . .... . . ... . .. ... ... . .Deputy Forest Supervisor, Florida National Forest, Valparaiso, Fla. McLend on , H. S ... .. .. ...... ........ ... Agricultural Agent, F. E. C. Railway, St. Augustine, Fla. Mallory, J. M ............. ... ... . ........... General Industrial Agent, Central of Georgia Rwy . , Savannah, Ga . Marks, R. P., Jr . ........ ... .. . . . .. ..... .1119 East 32nd St., Savannah , Ga. Miller, D. C .... ... ..... .. ...... .. .......... .Lambert, Ga. Miller, E. C . ... ........ . .. .... ...... . .... ... Senator, 2nd Di st rict , Hinesville, Ga. Monighan, Francis . .... ...... ........... 650 Reese St., Athe ns , Ga. Moore, A. C . ....... ........ . ............. . Columbia, S. C. Moore, A. G . T ......................... .. Southern Pine Ass'n., New Orleans, La . Morgan, Henry C. ....... . .. .... . .. . ... . Homerville , Ga., Senator 5th Di strict. Morgan, J. Wm . . .. . .......... . ........... Columbia Nava l Stores Co., Savannah, Ga. Morton, Jas. W . ....... . ... . . .. . ........ . Athens, Ga . Moseley, W. S ..... .. ....... . .. .. .... . .. . . . Collins, Ga. Mensby, C. L. ........ .... .. . . . ............ . Columbia Nava l Stores Co., Savannah, Ga . Musgrove, W. V . .. .. ....... . . ........... Homerville, Ga . Nash, J. G .. . ... ... ............ , ....... ..... . President, Columbia Nava l Stores Co., Savannah, Ga. Newso me, T . A . ...... ....... ..... ....... .Tuscaloosa, Ga . Newton, D . C . ...... . ........... .......... .. Claxton, Ga. Norton, Eliot . ... . ........... .... .. .. .... . .Inter state Tr. & Banking Co., New Orleans, La. Nuite , Chas. W .... ... .. ..... . ........... . Departm ent of Forestry, University of Ga .

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SOUTHERN FORESTR Y CONGRESS Ounler, Mrs. S. H ....... ... . .. . . ..... .703 Whitaker St. , Savannah, Ga. Overstreet, M. O ... . . .......... . ..... . . .. Orlando, Fla. 85 (Me mber F l orida State Sena te) Pace, J . G .... .. .. .. . ..... ... ............ .... . . Pace Lumber Co., Pensacola, Fla. Peeples , Miss Doris . ............ . . . . . .. 303 E . Huntin g ton St., Savannah, Ga. Pendl eton, Law s on, Corp . .. . .. .. . .. Bryn At hyn, Pa. Peter s, J. G . . . . ............... . ..... . ........ U . S. Forest Service, Washington , D. C. Potter , L. B .. . ... ...... .. .. ... .... . ... . ..... Columbia Naval Stores Co., , Savannah, Ga. Pratt, Joseph Hyde .. ... ..... ... .... . . .As h ev ille, N . C. Preside nt Western N . C. Inc . Prin g le, L. V . ... .... . ... .. ........... . . . ... B il ox i , Miss : R ains, G. S ... . . . ... ........ .... .. .... . .. .. . Southern Frei g ht Ass'n., At l a nt a, Ga. Rahn , A .. ... .. .. .... . .... .... ... .. . ..... ...... G l ennv ill e, Ga. Ray, G . A ..... .. .. ....... . .... . ....... . ....... Bax l ey, Ga. Rice, Miss O .. ..... . ... .. .... .. . . . ..... .... .. Scott , Ga. Rice , S. P . .. . . . ...... . ............... . .... . .. .Scott, Ga . Ri ce, Mrs. S. P . .. . .. . ... . ......... . ...... Scott, Ga. Rietz, Paul R . . ... . . ........ .. .. ............ State Co llege of Agricul ture , At h e n s, Ga . Robertson, E . H ... .. . . ..... .. ............ . G u yto n, Ga. Rogers , J. F .... . ...... ... . . . . . .......... .... Coc hran , Ga. Rose, E. P ..... . ........ . ............... .. . . .Va ldo sta, Ga. Rountree, J. Leonard ...... . .. . ...... Su mmit , Ga. Sapp, J . M . .. ..... . .. ... . .......... .. .... ... . Sava nnah, Ga . Saunders, W. C. ... . . . . . ........... ... . ... Walterboro, S. C. Schick , James Reese . .. . .. . ..... .. . . . . . .Engi n eer Branch Line s, N. & W. R wy., Roanoke, Va. Schick, Mrs. Jame s Reese ....... .. R oanoke, Va. Sessoms, Alex K. ........ . .. . . .. ....... . .Cogde ll , Ga. Sheppard , James O ..... . ....... . . .. . . . .Edgefie ld , S . C. Shingl e r , Geo . P., J r .. ... . ..... . . .. . . . .U. S. C u s tom s House , Savannah, Ga .

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86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Shoemaker, Mrs. Z. T. .. .. ............ Massillon, Ohio. Siecke, E. O ....... . .... . . . ........ . .. . .. . .. .State Forester, College Station, Tex. Simons, Harriet P. (Mrs. Al bert) . .. ..................................... 84 South Bay St., Charleston, S. C. Sinclair, C. W ... .. .......... .... .. . ...... . Madison, Fla. Sizer, Mrs. John H ... . ... . ............. 425 Bull St., Savannah, Ga. Skeele, H . B ............ .. ................ . . .116 W. Gaston St., Savannah, Ga. Smith, D. A ...... .......... . ............... . Wytheville, Va. Smith, Hogan .................... . ........ . Sampson City, Fla. Smith, Howard C . .. ..... . .. ....... . ... . Union Springs , Ala. Smith, R. H ........... .. ......... ...... ..... Hawthorne, Fla . Sn e ad, W. J . . ... .. ......... ... ........... . .. W. J. Snead Lumber Co., Greenwood, S. C. Snooks, B. R. .. . .. . ... . ...... . ............ Ailey, Ga. Spahr, H. G ... .. .... ............... . ....... .Atlanta, Ga. ( Georgia Forestry Ass'n.) Speh, Carl F ... .. ..... . . ........... .. . .. .. ... Turpentine & Rosin Producers ' Ass ' n, New Orleans, La. Spell , C. J .. ..... .. . . .......... .. .. .. ...... . ... Lyons , Ga. Spell, G. S ....... .. ... . ... ..... ... ... ... . . . . .Lyons, Ga. Spell, T. P ..... .. . . . .. . ........... ....... .... Lyons, Ga . Stevens, J. P . .............. . ........... .. .... Savannah, Ga. Stillwell, Wm. B .... .. ..... . .. . . . ...... .. Savannah, Ga., Box 522 , ( Southern Pine Co. of Ga.) Stone, Bonnel H ... . .......... .. ........ .Bairsville, Ga. ( Georgia Fore s try Assn.) Strain, W. H . . ......... . .......... ...... . 1 602 E. Henry St., Savannah, Ga. Sumner, J. W ..... . .......... . ... .. ...... . Scott, Ga. Tilghman, H. L. ..... .................. .. . Marion, S. C. Thomas, D. R. . . ...... . ..... ... .. . ....... . Agricultural and Industrial Agent, Tenrille, Ga. Tillett, A. C. ........ ........ . . . .. . ... ... . .. A s st. to Vice-Pres . , Seaboard Air Line Rwy., Norfolk, Va.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Tis o n, R. R. ................. . . . . ...... ... . . Ridgeland, S. C., Supt. of Education, Jasper County, S. C. Tyler, W . D .. . .. . . . .. ..... .... . . ... ..... ... . Clinchfield Coal Corp ., Dante , Russell Co., Va. Tyler, Mrs. W. D ....................... Dante, Va. Veitch, F. P ................................ .U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C . Veal, W. L. . .. ............ .............. ... . . Baxley, Ga. Ucker, Clement S. , Jr ................. . Cogdell, Ga. Ulmer, M. W . . ............................. Largo, Fla. Woodruff, A. ] ...... . ............ .. .... . Decatur, Ga. Williams, W. K. . . ..... . ................. . Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett, Ark. . Wood , A. D ................................ Champion Fibre Co., Canton, N. C. Willet, N. L ... . ................... . .. ...... Agricultural Agent, C. & N. C. R. R., Augusta, Ga. Ward, J. 0 ..... . . . . ...... ......... ... . .... . Blacksburg, Ga. 87 Wernicke, 0. H. L. . .. ... .... ........ .. Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company, Gull Point, Fla . Weston, J. Roland ... ......... .......... H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown, Miss. Weston , Mrs. J. Roland ........... .Logtown, Miss. Whatley, Mrs. E. T ..................... 1119 E. Duffy St. , Savannah, Ga. Repres enting Lachlan McIntosh Chapter of D . A. R. White, W. E ............................... . . Citrus Fruit Growers, New Port Richey, Fla. Whittin, J. L. ............................. . Hinesville, Ga. Willcox, W. A .. . ............. ......... . ... Milan, Ga. Williamson, Wm. W .. . .......... .... .26 Bay E., Savannah, Ga. Wood, A. V . ........... ............. ... . ... 1707 Gloucester St., Brunswick, Ga. Wood, B. 0 ......... . .............. ....... . Pavo, Ga. Woods, John B. . .... . .......... ... ..... ... Forest Engineer, Long-Bell Lumber Co., Kansas City, Mo.

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88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Wrigley, George .... .. . ... . . ......... . .. Greenville, S. C. E l ectrical Engineer, J. E. Sirrine & Co. Wyman, Lenthall ............... . ... ... . U. S. Forest Service, Starke, Fla. Young, W. D . ... .. .... . ...... .......... . .. 521 College Street, Fort Valley, Ga.