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Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.

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Title:
Proceedings of the Southern Forestry Congress.
Uniform Title:
Lumber World Review
Added title page title:
Proceedings of the ... Southern Forestry Congress
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Southern Forestry Congress.
Place of Publication:
Chapel Hill, N.C.
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Southern Forestry Congress,
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Frequency:
annual
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
5th, 1923, Jan.29-31
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12 v. : ; 23 cm.

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Forests and forestry -- Congresses ( lcsh )
Forests and forestry -- Congresses -- Southern States ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
conference publication ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1st (1916)-12th (1930).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Published in Feb. 25, 1922 issue of Lumber World Review.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Suspended 1917-1919.
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Publisher and place of publication vary with each edition.
General Note:
Title varies slightly.

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University of Florida
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ROCEEDINGS


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hern Forestry Congress


HELD AT
TGOMERY, ALABAMA JANUARY 29-31, 1923


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OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES OF'THE

FIFTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS



President :-W. D. Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va.
Chairman of the Executive Committee :-Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C.
Secretary:-R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La.
Assistant Secretary --Alfred B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.




Executive Committee
The Chairman
The chairmen of the committees on Finance, Legislation, and Publicity.
The President, Secretary, and Assistant Secretary,




Finance Committee
H. W. Shields, General Manager, Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co., Roanoke, Va., Chairman.
I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Ala.
E. A. Hauss, President, Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century, Fla.
M. H. Foerster, Consolidation Coal Co., Jenkins, Ky.
Major Geo. L. Wood, R. E. Wood Lumber Co., Baltimore, Md.
Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Mo.
W. B. Townsend, President, Little River Lumber Co., Townsend, Tenn.
L. D. Gilbert, General Manager, Southern Pine Lumber Co., Texarkana, Tex.
C. W. Boyd, White Oak Lumber Co., Putnam, Va.










Legislation Committee

J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C., Chairman.
Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Mo.
R. L. Hogue, Manager Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss.
E. 0. Siecke, State Forester, College Station, Tex.
B. H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville. Ga.



Publicity Committee

H. E. Hardtner, President, Urania Lumber Co. Urania, La., Chairman.
A. A. Coult, Secretary, Florida Development Board. Jacksonville, Fla.
R. S. Maddox, State Forester, Nashville, Tenn.
J. E. Rhodes, Secretary-Manager, Southern Pine Association, New Orleans, La.
C. S. Ucker, General Development Agent, Seaboard Air Line, Savannah, Ga.



Alabama Committee

I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Chairman.
E. F. Allison, President, Allison Lumber Co., Bellamy.
Geo. C. Hamilton, Manager, Ark-Ala Lumber Co., Wetumpka.
Jas. H. Jones, Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century, Fla.
B. M. Lufburrow, Forest Supervisor, Moulton.
W. T. McGowin, Mac Lumber Co., Jackson.
E. L. More, President, Horseshoe Lumber Co., River Falls.
W. T. Neal, Manager, T. R. Miller Mill Co., Brewton.
H. H. Patterson, President, W. M. Carney Mill Co., Atmore.
Sellers Vredenburgh, Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh.














TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ORDER OF SPEAKERS




P re fa ce . 8

A ddress of W elcom e . 9
Governor W. W. Brandon of Alabama.

Reply to Governor's Welcome . 14
M. L. Alexander, Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La.

P resid ent's A d -dress . 18
W. D. Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va.

S ecretary's R ep ort . . 2 4
R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans, La.

Financial Statem ent . 2 5

Report of Executive Committee . 27
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.

Report of Legislation Committee . 30
J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.

Comment by Committee Members . 37
Roy L. Hogue, Manager, Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss.; B. H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville, Ga.; E. 0.
Siecke, State Forester, College Station, Texas; Frederick Dunlap,
Secretary, Missouri Forestry Assn., Columbia, Mo.

Address-Research in Forest Fires . 41
R. D. Forbes, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station,
New Orleans. La.

Address-Grazing as Affected by Range Fires in the
L ongleaf P ine B elt . - 4 7
S. W. GreeneL Superintendent, Coastal Plain Experiment Station,
McNeill. Miss.

Address Organization or Methods in Fire Protection. 55
Chapin Jones, State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.

Address-Forest Fire Problems in the Southern App a lach ia n s . 6 4
E. F. McCarthy, Silviculturist, Appalachian Forest Experiment
Station, Asheville, N. C.

Address-Forestry for the Private Landowner . 72
Henry E. Hardtner, President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La.









Address- Forestry Work of the Great Southern . 77
J. K. Johnson, Superintendent of Forestry Department, Great
Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa, La.
A d d ress . 8 6
W. K. Williams, Forester, Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett,
Arkansas.
Add ress--C conservation from a Hardwood Manufacturer's Standpoint . 89
C. H. Sherrill, President, Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute,
New Orleans, La.
Addresses before the Senate and House of Representatives, Alabama Legislature:
J. G . Peters . 10 4 M . L . A lexander . 1 10 H enry E. H partner . 1 15
Address- Forestry and Homes . 118
C. B. Harman, Secretary, Southern Sash, Door and Millwork
Manufacturers' Assn., Atlanta, Ga.
Address-How Some Southern Business Men View
F o restry . 12 3
Austin Cary, Logging Engineer, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
Address-The Development of Fire Protection in
T ex a s . 13 7
Page S. Bunker, Assistant State Forester, College Station, Texas.
Address- Development of Forestry in the States. . 141
J. G. Peters, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C.
Address- Forestry in Alabama . 147
John L. Kaul, President, Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala.
Address- Alabama's Forestry Problems . 152
1. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Ala.
D iscu ssio n . 15 7
Address-What the National Forests Mean to the
S o u th . 16 1
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, Geological and Economic Survey,
Chapel Hill, N. C.
A d d ress . . 16 7
Mrs. J. L. Starke, Chairman, Committee on Conservation, Alabama
Federation of Women's Clubs, Troy, Ala.
A d d ress . . 1 7 1
Mrs. John D. Winter, State Chairman, Daughters of the American
Revolution, Montgomery, Ala.









Address-The Agricultural Development of Cut-Over
L a n d s . 1 7 5
Roy C. Bishop, Secretary- Manager, Alabama Farm Bureau Feder
ation, Montgomery, Ala.
D iscu ssio n . . 1 7 7 Resolutions Adopted by the Congress . 183 Officers of the Sixth Congress . 188

Appendix:
Patrons, Fifth Southern Forestry Congress . 190
List of Delegates, Fifth Southern Forestry
C o n g ress . 19 3









PREFACE


The Fifth Southern Forestry Congress aimed to return to the precedent of the first two Congresses in keeping down the number of prepared addresses and encouraging the informal discussion of each paper or speech as it was presented. This aim was largely carried out, and injected a spontaneity and variety into our somewhat lengthy program of three days which could have been achieved in no otherway. It furthermore tended to keep the meeting out of the hands of a small group of set speakers-men and women whose interest and support were already assured
-and to place it in the hands of the entire audience. As the Congresses are avowedly held with the purpose of reaching the ears and minds of those who have hitherto not espoused our cause, the large amount of informal discussion indulged in by the Fifth Congress was the source of great satisfaction to all of our friends.
Unfortunately these proceedings as here presented include by no means all of the discussions which took place. An unforeseen breakdown in our arrangements for a stenographic report of all six sessions is partly to blame. But had a verbatim transcript of all that was said at Montgomery been available, it would probably have been impossible for the Secretary, whose task it is to edit the proceedings, to arrange a complete and orderly account. Like all other officers of the Congress, the Secretary performs the work which he has assumed in its behalf at such times as he can spare from his regular and official duties. His ability to do the work at all depends on his limiting the time spent within reasonable bounds. These proceedings suffer somewhat in consequence. In fact, without the help of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Weston, and of Miss Vera M. Spuhler of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, this volume could not have been completed at all within the time allowed.
It is a matter of particular regret to the editor that for the reasons given in the text of the proceedings we are unable to print the notable addresses of the Reverend P. A. Simpkin, Chaplain of the Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo, and of Mrs. Louis A. Neill, President of the Alabama Federation of Women's Clubs.











PROCEEDINGS
OF THE

Fifth Southern Forestry Congress
HELD AT
MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA
JANUARY 29-31, 1923


Monday,. January 29
Morning Session, 10:00 A. M.
The meeting was called to order by President Tyler, in the auditorium of the Montgomery Chamber of Commerce.
Doctor Charles A. Stately, Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Montgomery, delivered an invocation.


ADDRESS OF WELCOME.
By the HONORABLE W. W. BRANDON,
Governor of Alabama.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a great pleasure for me to welcome this body of thoughtful men and women to what I choose to term the greatest state in the American Union. You meet not only in a great state but perhaps in the most historic city in the South. It was here that Davis took the oath of office as President of the Confederacy. But thank God those days of struggle have passed, and today as I stand in this presence, from the dome of that old Confederate capitol floats the stars and stripes of our American Union, and we in the South yield to no men more loyalty to that flag or to that Union than the descendants of the Confederate veterans.
Alabama is perhaps one of the greatest states in natural resources of any Southern state. Her fertile fields, her smooth meadows, her navigable rivers, her mountain mines, her timbered forests, all speak in thunder tones of her material wealth. The beautiful valley of the Tennessee









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


that lies on her northern border can nowhere be surpassed, while the hidden treasures of the outlying hills in the Birmingham district find comparison nowhere. The fertility of her soil in the Black Belt is equal to that of the Valley of the Nile. Her timbered forests are excelled nowhere,, while down upon the glittering sands of Mobile's Bay we find an outlet to the world for a market. What then is lacking? We should with energy sow and reap, mine and manufacture, export and import, and fill the earth with the material blessings of Alabama.
But you thoughtful men, catching a vision of the future, have gathered in your Congress in order that these natural advantages of Alabama and of the South should not be destroyed with negligent hands, but shall be conserved in order that the South may take its proper place in industry and in the development and conservation of its natural resources.
It is a privilege then for me to greet you as the representative of the people of this great Commonwealth. The South, long noted for its hospitality, Alabama particularly, welcomes you to her borders, opening her heart and her hand to you while you deliberate, not only for her interest but the interest of the people whom you represent in this great Southern country of ours.
It might not be amiss for me to say to you that so far as the particular industry which you represent is concerned, that in 1910 Alabama ranked first in lumber production. In 1910 Mobile's port on our Southern border ranked first in the exportation of lumber of any port in this country. In 1919 Alabama ranked third in lumber production, falling from first to third place. In 1919 Mobile's port ranked sixth in the export of lumber, falling from first to sixth place, due largely perhaps -to lack of conservation of our natural resources in this country and the ruthless cutting of timber. Alabama now ranks seventh in production. These figures indicate to the mind of the thoughtful man that it is high time that the thought of this Congress should take cognizance of the fact that if we continue and do not make some preparation for the future that the generations to come will be lacking these great material industries and these benefits from our timber that we now enjoy. We do not legislate, Mr. President, for a day; we do not think for a day. I have respect, gentlemen, for that man or woman who sees more in the tree than the bark that encases it, but sees in the trees









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


a mighty mill that fashions the unfinished product into the finished product; who sees in the tree a city builder and its teeming thousands, busy and happy in industrial pursuits; yea, verily, who sees in the heart of the tree the casket, gentlemen, that takes him to his lasting resting place. Men who have that vision are really statesmen and patriots. I have respect, ladies, for the woman who riding through the fields of the South and seeing the blossom on the cotton, sees more in that cotton than its fleecy beauty, but sees in it a cotton dress for the citizen of our country. I have respect, Mr. Chairman, for that man who sees more in the grain of wheat than its kernel, but sees the loaf of bread that is to feed our teeming thousands. Therefore, I take it that this Congress has a vision for the future. In Alabama today, due possibly to the fact that she ranked first back yonder in 1910, there are six and a half millions of acres-think of it, Mr. President, ix and a half millions of acres of cutover lands that are valueless today to the Commonwealth or to its citizens, because of lack or preparation for the future. These cut-over lands are in the pine area of the state. Fifty per cent of these lands are non-cultivable. It seems that when God Almighty created this earth, gentlemen, he designed that the mighty timbers of the forests should be rooted in the soil and give to generations yet unborn the privileges that we have enjoyed. This can be done and ought to be done by proper legislation, so as to insure these lands beginning to produce timber for the future, as I recommended in my recent message to the Legislature. We have here in Alabama men who know the lumber business, men who perhaps have lost money in the lumber business, certainly after the war when prices slumped and lumber was piled at mills and there was no transportation for it. And transportation is essential, and these cut-over lands are not far from the port of Mobile. So Alabamians arose in their might and passed a bill authorizing the issuance of bonds in the State, for the State to lend its credit in order to open the port of Mobile and build there the best port in the South. Let us conserve these lands for the future that we may utilize our water power and our transportation facilities in order that the lumber industry of this country may not come to an end.
I do not know how it is in your state, Mr. President, or in your state, Mr. Delegate, but I am sick and tired









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


in this state of hearing the cry of hard times. It is set to music in this country. I went out recently when I was candidate for governor-and I went out frequently then
-to see an old farmer friend of mine. I alighted and went into his barn and said "How are you, Bill? " He said "It is hard times." I began to untie the hame string that loosely held the collar on the neck of his old horse and found that the leather out of which that string was made came from the back of a cow that was raised in Tennessee. I cut open a sack of corn and found that it was raised in Illinois. I broke the band from a bale of hay and found that it was raised in Kentucky. I caught the fumes of the supper from the little room called the kitchen of the farmhouse and there found, ladies, the good housewife cooking on a stove that was made in Chattanooga. We went into the dining room and she brought me some great big biscuits like mother used to make, as big as a saucer, and I found that the wheat from which they were made came from Indiana. She brought in a little strip of bacon, fried to a crisp, and I found that it came from the body of a hog that was raised in Nebraska. She then brought in some coffee that came from the Lord knows where, I don't, and some sugar that came from Louisiana. I stirred it with a pewter spoon that was made in Boston, and began to dream about "hard times in Alabama." She took me to the living room and he read to me out of a book that was made in Richmond, Virginia. I was then led to the little room where I was to sleep and I jumped into an oldfashioned feather bed and sank down about two feet, and found that the feathers in the ticking came from a gander that flew across Texas. I looked at the bed quilt and found that it was made in Cincinnati, and again began to dream about "hard times in Alabama. .1 About 1 1:30 that night I was awakened by a fearful noise on the outside and looked out of the window and saw by the light of the moon an old hound that was so thin you could almost see through him, and found that it was the only thing on the place raised in Alabama.
And yet, gentlemen, with the resources within her borders there is no reason why all the commodities I have mentioned could not have been raised and made in Alabama for the benefit of our Commonwealth.
Oh men, you thoughtful men, you busy men, you industrial men, let us now together, as men who are think-









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ing not only for a day but for the future, conserve our God-given resources and make the Southland blossom. as God intended it, as the rose. We can do it, we must do it, and it is for you thoughtful men to work out the plans. There are many things that have come in to cripple the great industrial life of our State and the progress of our State. These things should be eliminated. Therefore, Mr. President, I welcome you to our borders. I was born in this Commonwealth, there is not a breath of air that sweeps across her hills that is not dear to me, her people are my people and I am proud of their history, but with all the glorious history of the past it is your privilege and mine to conserve and preserve for the future our God-given natural resources. In the name of the Commonwealth of Alabama, Sir, I welcome you to her borders, praying that God's richest blessings may rest upon this Congress, and that plans may be worked out by which we may save these cut-over lands and make them produce for the future generations, and then we will hear the plaudit "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."

Mr. Tyler:
I think all the members of this Congress will agree that we have heard a wonderful speech of welcome. The Southern Forestry Congress always likes to have that sort of thing replied to by the proper party. Therefore, we have selected as the speaker to reply to Gov. Brandon Mr. M. L. Alexander, who for years past has been Commissioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana, the state that makes us all turn green with envy when we think about what she has really accomplished under the laws of conservation. Mr. Alexander has been president of the American Fisheries Association, and is now a vice-president of the American Forestry Association, and is also an ex-president of the National Association of Fish and Game Commissioners, and is a tower of strength, as he will prove to you when he rises to his feet.









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


REPLY TO GOVERNOR'S WELCOME.
By M. L. ALEXANDER,
Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La.

I think the committee has given me quite a task-to respond to so eloquent and forceful an address as has been made by the Governor of the great State of Alabama-and I want to say that we are sincerely appreciative not only of the very cordial expressions of welcome which the governor has tendered us for our visit to Alabama, but we are also more than appreciative of the expressions that came from the chief executive of this great state as to his views on the important questions which we are to discuss at this time. We are also glad to be assembled in this historic city of Alabama and of the South, the city which has impressed itself so deeply upon the tablets of the past. We feel sure that our welcome here will be a most cordial and hospitable one, because of Alabama's reputation in the past as well as the reputation of all the states of the Southland for hospitality.
I want to say to you, ladies and gentlemen, that the question of conservation, the question which we are assembled here to discuss, is the all-important question facing the country today, because after all the natural resources of the nation are the foundation of the nation's wealth and the basis of the nation's credit. So it is with the states, that the natural resources of the states if properly conserved mean their future prosperity and building. The South especially has been given great wealth in its natural resources, but my friends, we have been drawing on that natural wealth to such an extent that the time has arrived when we should take reckoning, because some of these great natural resources which have been given us are nearing the stage of depletion, and that particularly applies to the question of conservation of the forests, which we are here specifically to discuss.
This is an earnest body of men that has gathered here to discuss and to outline policies on this so all-important subject, an earnest body of men representing state and federal governments, professors of colleges, state officials and state employes, who recognize that the time has arrived when we have got to take reckoning of the very rapid depletion of the forests of this country, which have meant so much to the wealth and prosperity of the South.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


I think that there originally existed about one hundred and thirty-five millions of acres of virgin forests in the Southern states. I am told today that there is less than twenty-five million acres of these virgin forests left standing. Take your own state of Alabama, originally with between fifteen and sixteen million acres of virgin trees. Your Governor has said that at one time Alabama stood first in the production of lumber, but now it stands seventh. Why is it? It is because these great virgin forests have been cut away so rapidly that today, of the fifteen or sixteen million acres that you originally had, you have practically only a million acres of virgin trees left. And so it is in my state of Louisiana, where we originally had about sixteen million acres of virgin forests, today we have over twelve million acres of cutover lands and about three and a half million acres of virgin trees left. Therefore, is it not time that we should take notice of these conditions? Is it not time that we should look somewhat to the future with a vision, as the Governor has expressed it? Have we a right to go on in the reckless way which we have done, without looking forward to the treasuring and protection of some of these resources for the people that are to come aftei us, our children and our children's children?
We have no criticism to off er of the lumbermen who have cut these forests; they have been cut legitimately and under the law. It was their right. It has meant a great deal to the prosperity and the industrial life of our section, and we have no criticism to offer of them.
I have found in the administration of my office in the State of Louisiana that one of the greatest co-operative influences we have had has come from the lumbermen. I find that amongst the most patriotic citizens we have are the lumbermen. The lumbermen are willing to go hand in hand with you in the protection and the development of these conditions. The lumbermen of the State of Louisiana voluntarily taxed themselves so that they could create a fund for the purpose of protecting the great forest areas of the State of Louisiana from fire; and so it is that we are working hand in hand with them, and we are seeking their cooperation and support so that we can continue to work hand in hand with them.
It is necessary, my friends, that we have laws, but these laws should be reasonable, and not oppressive. We should seek the passage of laws that will guarantee the









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


owners of these large areas of denuded lands, a fair and reasonable basis of assessment and taxation, so that they could afford to wait for the growing of this crop, which takes twenty-five, thirty or forty years to mature, as it may be. It is neither reasonable nor fair that laws should be passed that would be so oppressive, or taxes so excessive, that these men could not reproduce, if they so desired, a crop of timber on these lands. The state and the land owner, whether it be lumbermen, or stockman, or whoever it may be, should go hand in hand in great cooperation in the development of these conditions. And it is necessary that they should be developed, because as your governor has said there is approximately fifty per-cent of these cutover or denuded lands that are not suitable for agriculture. We all want to see all the agricultural development that it is possible for us to have. But take the state of Louisiana, settled for two hundred years, with the most fertile land under the sun, situated in the valley of the Mississippi river, a land more fertile than the famous valley of the Nile, yet in that two hundred years, with every possible ideal condition of soil and climate, we have put on the agricultural list less than five million acres of land, and now we have twelve million acres of denuded or cutover land, cut over from the harvesting of the forest crop. What are we going to do with them if we cannot develop them agriculturally? Are we going to let them go to barren waste? Are you in Alabama going to let them go to barren waste, and all these other southern states in a like condition? Is it not our duty and is it not our obligation tosee what we can do, to determine what is the best crop we can grow on these lands, and how it would be best to encourage the growth of that crop?
I think Louisiana possibly has one of the most ideal forestry laws of any state in the Union today. Louisiana has made great development of these forest areas. I believe that I can say without egotism that Louisiana stands today as one of the leaders in the administration and practice of forestry and the growing of trees, but it has taken long years of struggle and effort for us to reach the condition which we now occupy. This has been accomplished by the advocacy of proper and reasonable laws, with our state authorities going hand in hand with the lumbermen and land owners in the reforestation and agricultural development of these denuded sections. As far as possible we encourage the individual owner to re4orest his hold








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ings. We also think it is a question that should be taken hold of strongly by both state and federal authorities. We believe the states themselves should recognize the necessity of growing trees and bringing back this great asset of the state, the forests. We believe, and have so advocated before the Legislature of Louisiana, that if these denuded pine lands could be bought by the state in limited acreage, distributed equitably throughout the state, at say the assessed valuation of the lands and bonds given in payment, thirty or forty year bonds, at a small rate of interest, the state itself could create its own forests and recreate in a large measure its own wealth, and that when the bonds had matured that the crop itself would have matured and it would pay itself out with much profit to the state. We believe also that it is proper that the National government should own forests throughout the nation.
Thus, through all these great co-operative influences, through National government and State government, and individual owner, this great movement of reforestation will go forward. And so it is, my friends, we are here today, sitting in conference, to counsel with each other as to what we can do, as to' what it will be best to do, so that we can guarantee to the future and to the people that come after us, to our children and our children's children, some of the benefits of this great wealth that has been placed in our hands in trust.








PROCEEDINGS OF THE


PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.
By W. D. TYLER,
Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va.


The next -number on the program is one that I should gladly omit if I could.
The president of this Congress does not expect to pose as an orator alongside of Governor Brandon, nor does h possess the information that is the property of our friend Alexander, but it is necessary that those of you who may be here who have never been in a meeting of this Congress before should know something of the Congress and how it came to exist, and it will not hurt those of us who have been at every meeting of the Congress since its organization to cast an eye backward and refresh our minds a little as to how this Congress came into being and what its progress has been.
In the year 1916, at Asheville, North Carolina, in the month of July, was held the first meeting of what is now the well established Southern Forestry Congress. That meeting was called by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, who for years has been in charge of the Geological Survey of the State of North Carolina, and he was assisted by Dr. Holmes, the State Forester of North Carolina. We have both these gentlemen with us today.
The man whose brains conceived this plan and conceived this organization I have had the pleasure and honor of knowing for the past sixteen years. I first met him in the flesh at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, where he had charge of the North Carolina Geological exhibit at that world show. He has stood in the forefront of everything that has meant progress in North Carolina ever since he was old enough to begin to make a fuss, and I imagine that was pretty early. He has found time to dip into the road question of North Carolina; he found time to go overseas and serve his country in France, and he came back from that service marred and broken, but we are glad to say he is now recuperating splendidly.
The Congress that was held at Asheville was in many ways a very remarkable meeting. It got together for the first time representatives from practically all of the southern states for the purpose of discussing the forestry ques. tion, forestry conservation, forestry protection and for-








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


estry reproduction, and the meeting was truly a wonderful one. Following the meeting at Asheville the United States got into things in Europe, and in common with a great many other matters the Southern Forestry Congress for the time being had to take a back seat, while we attempted to help to make the world a safe place to live in. The second Congress met at New Orleans, and there again we had a very remarkable meeting. Governor John M. Parker, today the chief executive of Louisiana, had at that time just been nominated for the office which he now holds, and I had the pleasure the other day of having a letter from Governor Parker in which he expressed his deep regret at not being able to be with us here at this meeting.
The third meeting of the Congress was held some little time after the meeting at New Orleans, at Atlanta, Georgia, a year ago last July, and here we had a revival of what had happened at the two previous meetings.
Last year it was agreed that our meeting should be held at Jackson, Mississippi, and it was so held in the early part of February, 1922, just about a year ago, or not quite a year ago. One of the particular developments that showed for itself at Jackson was the fact that nearly fifty per-cent of our attendance at that meeting of the Congress was made up of Mississippi lumbermen.
If anyone should say to you that this Congress is made up of a bunch of theorists or a bunch of college professors and a bunch of technically trained foresters, who come together to talk over their affairs ideas of conservation, reproduction and protection-please say to them for us that such an idea is absolutely erroneous. We have had as president of this Congress, to begin with, Colonel Pratt. True, he has been a college professor, but he is in charge of a department for the State of North Carolina which means a great eal more than pure theory. Our second president was Mr. Henry E. Hardtncr of Louisiana, one of the largest lumbermen in the state. The third president of the Congress, Mr. Roy L. Hogue of Mississippi, has personally been connected with the actual production of lumber in Mississippi for years. The present president of the Congress is interested in the actual production of lumber, as well as the actual production of coal, and one of my chief reasons for being as much interested in this Congress as I am is that I have charge in the State of Virginia of three hundred thousand acres of coal. and tim









PROCEEDINGS OF THE


ber lands for the largest land-owning corporation in that state, where our forests are being rapidly cut, and because they are hardwood forests we have in front of us a question of reproduction the seriousness of which you people who are accustomed to dealing with longleaf pine know little about.
As to the objects of the Congress, I have already stated them in a way, except that I should possibly put more stress on the one word which is the keynote of everything that we do, and that is "education." The prime object of this Congress is to educate all who come within its reach and within its touch, in order that they may appreciate the seriousness of the present lumber situation not only of the United States, if you please, but of the whole world, and in order that they may prepare themselves to take an active part in the program of protection of the forests from fire, protection of the forests from improper handling and improper cutting, the protection of the product of the forests from waste, undue waste, unnecessary waste. Later on, maybe, prepared by the education that they may receive from this source and other sources, they will take an active part in the program of reproduction, which is certainly a program which is staring us in the face and must within a very few years form a very 'important part of any forestry movement, the purpose of which may be to continue the supply of lumber for the uses of our people.
In connection with the matter of education it is necessary to have cooperation, and this Congress has and has always had the cooperation of the Federal Department of Forestry. We' have with us today representatives of that department, who will be with us throughout this entire Congress. We have always had such representatives present at every meeting of the Congress. Again, we must have the cooperation of the states, and we have with us representatives from almost every state within the purview of this Congress. We figure that we can properly include, as composing the Southern Forestry Congress, the sixteen states south of the Mason and Dixon Line, extending to and including the State of Texas; and unless I am misinformed I believe we have or will have with us at this Congress representatives from every one of those states.
If. is not the purpose of this Congress to go into any state with any intention whatever of attempting to dictate to that state, to its governor, to its senators or represen-









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


natives, as to what they should do as to forestry matters. That thought has never entered our minds. We are an organization formed for the purpose of helping. If we can be of any service or assistance to any state or any of its officials or representatives, we want to be able to step into the gap and supply whatever information it may be possible for us to give. It is necessary and absolutely essential that any program of conservation shall have legislative cooperation, and therefore the members of this Congress and those who will address its meetings do so with the hope that something that they may say or do will be of actual help to those who are interested in and responsible for, in the case of this meeting, the situation in Alabama
Just to give you an idea of the things that the Southern Forestry Congress has been asked to help with at various stages of the game, it might be well for me to mention the fact that although North Carolina had a forestry association before the formation of the Southern Forestry Congress, I think Colonel Pratt and Dr. Holmes will agree with me that their association has been strengthened, its hands have been upheld, and it has been helped in every way, by the Southern. Forestry Congress. When it comes time to speak of Louisiana and what they have done there, we must take off our hats, as we do to North Carolina, and say thaf Louisiana was ahead of us. The second president of this Congress, the Honorable Henry E. Hardtner, was the first Commissioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana, and that was before the Southern Forestry Congress existed, and a good many years before. The plans for which he was primarily responsible have been so developed and carried out in the State of Louisiana, and so amplified by Mr. Alexander and others who have intervened in the meantime, that today I believe there is no gainsaying the statement that Louisiana has the best conservation laws of any state in these United States and that the administration of those laws is the very best.
We held a meeting, as I have said, at Atlanta, Georgia. One of the outcomes of that meeting was an immediate endeavor to form a forestry association in the State of Georgia, and that association has now been definitely organized. A legislative commission was appointed to look into the question of forestry, and that commission acted









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and made its report to the general assembly of the State of Georgia.
In Oklahoma a forestry association has been established, the development of which has been assisted by the Southern Forestry Congress, and there is now pending before the legislature of the State of Oklahoma, which is today in session, a bill looking to the protection of the forest& of Oklahoma.
South Carolina has during the past year gone actively into the question of formation of a forestry association and the preparation of bills for the protection of the forests of South Carolina. In October of last year I had a personal invitation, as did others connected with our Congress, from the Governor of South Carolina to meet him for a conference. Unfortunately I had a previous engagement to be present at the meeting of the American Mining Congress at Cleveland, Ohio, and was unable to attend the South Carolina conference, but it was attended by members of the Southern Forestry Congress and their advice sought, given, and taken.
The State of Missouri has also drawn on the Southern Forestry Congress for he.p, and they have today before their legislature a bill the purpose of which is the protection of the forests of Missouri.
And so, from a beginning which took place amongst the hills of Western North Carolina, than which there is nothing more beautiful, we have travelled over the South trying to place our meetings so that at some time we may have covered the entire area which we include as the boundaries of our Congress, always with the purpose of trying to help, never with the purpose or desire to suggest anything that is arbitrary or impractical, never with a desire to insist on theory in preference to well accepted practice, but always with the desire, as I have said, to help; and if perchance we can answer any question that may be troubling the mind of any man as to what is the proper thing to do, if the experts that we have here with us, those experts of the United States Government, those experts of the states that have well established forestry departments, if these men can answer any question that may be bothering anybody, that is what we are here for. We want at all times to maintain the attitude that we have assumed from the very beginning, of wanting to









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 23

help every one that we can, with the prospect in view of some day seeing every state within the boundaries of our Congress taking such measures as will result not only in conservation and protection, but in the perpetuation, of the forests of the South.









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SECRETARY'S REPORT.
By R. D. FORBES,
Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La.

I can make a very brief report indeed of the activities of the Secretary's office, which is also that of the Treasurer of the Association. About all that it is necessary for me to say is something with regard to the efforts that have been put forth to give publicity to this Congress. There is a good deal of creaking machinery behind any meeting of this kind and I am not going to weary you with any account of the letters written or anything of that sort. I will say, however, that I think this meeting, thanks to the efforts of a great many people, has been better advertised than any meeting the Congress has ever held. That may be a broad statement, but I think it is correct. Not only, for example, has Mr. Tyler sent out personal letters, he tells me, to some three hundred people all the way from Maine to California, many of them his personal friends, but Mr. Henry E. Hardtner, of Louisiana, Chairman of our Publicity Committee, who will speak for himself in a minute, has sent out a tremendous number of letters to friends and people interested in the work of the Congress. Mr. A. B. Hastings, our Assistant Secretary, has notified everyone who has ever attended any of the meetings of the Southern Forestry Congress, and has followed it up with one of the preliminary programs. Then, in addition to all that, I as Secretary have called upon the secretaries of the State Forestry Associations of Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina to send out notices of the meeting to every one of their members.
We have had the most cordial cooperation from these gentlemen, but the thing I am really proudest of is the cooperation we have had from the secretaries of the various lumber and forest industries associations. I think every one of these associations has sent out our programs, and written letters not only to their own membership but in many cases to their entire mailing list. These are the associations: the Southern Pine Association of New Orleans (Mr. Rhodes is here today); the Georgia-Florida Saw Mill Association; the North Carolina Pine Association; the Southern Cypress Manufacturers Association; the Turpentine & Rosin Producers' Association; the Southern Sash,









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Door & Mill Work Manufacturers' Association, whose Secretary, Mr. Harman, will address us tomorrow; the Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute (we will hear from Mr. Sherrill, its president, also tomorrow); and an organization known as the Standard Container Manufacturers, of Jacksonville, Fla. So that all told I think we have probably had notice of this meeting sent to at least two thousand people. Now, that is the Secretary's report, and my
Treasurer's report can be as brief.
Because the chairman of our Finance Committee, Mr.
Shields, has been unavoidably detained at home, I am
just going to say a word that will take the place of his report, or try to. I want to thank the members of the
Finance Committee, headed by Mr. Shields. There have been local chairman or members of that finance committee in several of the states, and they have done splendid work. For example, we have Mr. L. D. Gilbert of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, who acted in Texas; Mr. E. A. Hauss of the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company, in Florida; Mr. W. B. Townsend of the Little River Lumber Company in Tennessee; Commissioner Quinn here in Alabama; Mr. G. L. Wood of the R. E. Wood Lumber Company in Maryland; and theie have been a number of others who have been active although not perhaps officially connected with the finance committee. Mr. Tyler, for example, has done yeoman service in securing contributions to the Congress. The concrete proof of it all is this:
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
Balance reported to 4th Congress . $ 10.35
Contributions from individuals, firms, State Associations and Departments.
A lab am a . . 14 5 .0 0 F lo rid a . 10 5 .0 0 K en tuck y . 2 5.0 0 L ou isian a . 10 .0 0 M ary lan d . 4 0 .0 0 M ississip p i . 30 .0 0 M isso u ri . 2 0 .0 0 N orth C arolina . 75.00 O klah om a . 10 .00








26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

P ennsylvania . 2 5.00
T en n e ' ssee . . 13 5 .0 0 T ex a s . 9 0 .0 0 V irg in ia . 3 75 .0 0 W est V irginia . 75.00 Contributions, regional associations . 72.50
Contributions, railroads . 70.00
Miscellaneous receipts . 37.00

T o ta l . $ 1,3 4 9 .8 5 Expenditures
Programs, 4th Congress . $ 21.65
Proceedings, 4th Congress . . 301.04
P o sta g e . 2 1.8 5 E x p ress . 10 .4 3
Telephone and telegraph . 8.75
O ffi ce supplies . 1.35
E xch iaage on checks . . 1.9 3 L etter h ead s . . 5 2 .75 Stenographic w ork . 32.60
P o sters . 3 .0 0 Miscellaneous expenditures . - 126

$458.55
Balance, excess of receipts over expenditures,
January 29, 1923 . $89 1.30
Against this balance we have approximate
liabilities as follows:
Programs, Fifth Congress . $ 20.00
Postage due Asst. Secretary . 15.00

T o ta l . $ 3 5 .0 0

Mr. Tyler:
In order that the Secretary may be properly satisfied that his accounts are correct and thereby be relieved from anxiety on the subject, I am going to appoint Mr. Hogue and Dr. Holmes as a committee of the Congress to audit the Secretary's financial report, and to report at such later hour in the meeting as may suit their convenience.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
By JOSEPH HYDE PRATT,
Director, Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C.

The members of your executive Committee have tried in every way to further the work of the Southern Forestry Congress and to carry out the objects for which the Congress was organized. Members of the Committee were in Washington early in 1922 and appeared before the House Committee on Agriculture and discussed certain legislation that was before the Committee in the interest of Forestry in the Southern Appalachain states under the Week's Law. They also had conferences with various Senators and Congressmen in regard to forestry measures that were being considered by Congress. It is believed that the information presented by members of this Congress had considerable weight in securing the passage of some of the Forestry Legislation that was passed by Congress in 1922.
Members of this Committee have also assisted in the organization of the Georgia Forestry Association, the South Carolina Association, and the Oklahoma Forestry Association.
Your Committee has also tried to keep in touch with the forestry situation throughout the South; has advised by request with several states in regard to legislative measures and tried in every way to give information and en encouragement to those who have been working for the protection and conservation of our forests.
A meeting of the Committee was held in Asheville August 24th and 25th and plans discussed and arrangements made for the Fifth Congress to be held in Mont. gomery, Alabama, January 29th to 31st, 1923.
Your Committee has also given considerable thought and study to the influence of, condition and future suc. cess of the Congress and wish to recommend for the consideration and approval of this Congress the following:
1. That the personnel of the Executive Committee of the Congress be changed so as to include all past Presidents of the Congress, the elective Officers and the Chairmen of the Standing Committees.
2. That the number of elective officers of the Congress be increased by two, i. e. a Vice-President and a Treas-









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urer; but the Secretary and the Treasurer may be one and the same person.
3. That the President appoint with the approval of the Executive Committee a State Vice-President from each state interested and taking part in the work of the Congress.
4. That the Southern Forestry Congress be incorporated under the laws of some state to be selected by the Executive Committee.
5. That if the members of the Congress decide on its incorporation that all persons, corporations, associations and institutions that have been in any way associated with the Congress by attendance and registration at any of its meetings, by contribution to its support or by assisting in its work, shall be invited by letter to become charter members of the Congress; and the names of the charter members be published in the next issue of the proceedings of the Congress.
6. That there shall not be any membership dues; but that members desiring copies of the proceedings of the Congress shall pay such price per copy as shall be determined by the Executive Committee.
7. That those making contributions for carrying on the work of the Congress and the publication of its proceedings shall be designated Patrons of the Congress, and that a list of the Patrons for each year shall be published in the proceedings of the Congress for that year.
8. That the members of the Congress assist in every way possible in bringing about the organization of state forestry associations in Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, as it is believed that such organizations can exert a wonderful influence in creating throughout a state an interest and desire for forestry legislation that will protect our forests from fire and will insure a satisfactory reproduction of timber on our cutover land. Such forestry associations have been organized in Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri.
(At the afternoon session of the Congress on January 30, Colonel Pratt moved the adoption of the first seven of the foregoing recommendations, and after some discussion, the motion was unanimously passed by the Congress. )









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 29

Mr. H. E. Hardtner, Chairman of the Publicity Committee, when called on for a report from his committee, stated that its activities had already been covered by the Secretary.
The report of the Legislation Committee, which follows, was actually delivered at a later session, but is inserted here as originally planned. Because of the absence from the meeting of two members of his committee, Chairman Holmes was unable to secure unanimous assent to his report, and comments from his co-workers are given at its close.









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REPORT OF LEGISLATION COMMITTEE.
By J. S. HOLMES,
Chairman, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C.


Advisable forestry legislation for the Southern States occupies two separate fields, Federal and State. The report of this committee has, therefore, been divided into these two parts, dealing with: A. Federal Forestry Legislation.
B. Advisable forestry legislation as generally applicable to the States of the South.
A. Federal Legislation: As was expected, the hearing on the Snell Bill before the congressional committee in Washington, January 9-12 of last year resulted in abandoning the measure. There was too much difference of opinion among experts as to the effectiveness of the so called control measures. On the other hand, there was remarkable unanimity among all present, foresters, lumbermen and public officials as to the need for certain measures such as protection from fire, federal acquisition of forest lands, forest planting-especially in the Prairie States and further scientific research into the growth and utilization of timber. These, it will be recalled, are measures urged in the resolutions of our last Congress.
The Secretary of Agriculture has recently recommended to the Chairman of the House Committee on Agriculture, at the latter's request, the following five measures and appropriations, as the most practical step which can be taken in forestry legislation at the present time: Fiscal Proposed
Activity year author- Increase
1923 ization
Cooperation with States
in forest protection . $4009000 $1,000,000 $ 600,000 Cooperation with States
in tree planting . 100,000 100,000
Promotion of timber
growing on farms . 1009000 100,000
Purchase of forest lands 450,000 2,000,000 1,550,000 Forest research . 425,000 600,000 175,000

$1,2 75,000 $3,800,000 $2,525,000









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I - Cooperation with the States in Forest Fire Prevention under the Weeks Law is of the greatest value to the South. So far only seven Southern States have been able to take advantage of the offer made by the Forest Service because no money is being expended by the other States for protection. The States could use to advantage much larger apportionments of Federal money in this work and with the prospect of several additional States needing help the present appropriation of $400,000 a year is inadequate. The million dollars advocated by the Secretary of Agriculture is much more commensurate with the needs of the work.
2. Cooperation with States in tree-planting is a new measure, but one which would be of very great advantage to many States in stimulating this branch of forestry. The greater part of this appropriation would probably go to the Prairie States but there seems no reason why the Southern States, none of which have started planting, should not benefit from this fund.
3. The promotion of timber-growing on farms is a branch of forestry which needs rapid and universal extension. A number of the States already specialize in this work, but most States are handicapped by the lack of appropriation because the need for farm forestry is not realized. If the Federal Government could offer money inducements for the support of this work it would mean much to all of the Southern States.
4. The purchase of forest lands under the Weeks Law has been going on for the past eleven years, with an appropriation averaging about one million dollars per year. Last year the Budget Commissioner recommended a cut in this appropriation to $50,000.00, which would have very seriously crippled the work. Fortunately, through the efforts of the friends of this work, especially Senator Keyes of New Hampshire, and Senator Overman of North Carolina, the item was increased to $450,000. This year the budget commission recommended this latter sum, and though an eff ort was made to increase it to one million dollars it has passed both House and Senate in its original form. A very real effort should be made to secure the amount recommended by the Secretary, namely two million dollars, for the following year. The Southern States are vitally interested in this measure as already considerable areas have been purchased in several of them









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and if the restrictions as to headwaters of streams provided in the Weeks Law can be removed, practically every Southern State would get direct benefit from this measure.
5. The forest research mentioned in this item is not cooperative but is under the direct management of the Forest Service. The two forest experiment stations established, one in the Southern Appalachians and the other in the Gulf States, have proved popular and are already doing much constructive work. There is great need for similar stations in the Lake States and in New England. The establishment of these should be provided for at once; while the stations already established should be more liberally provided for as they are seriously handicapped for lack of funds.
The Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wis., has proved of the greatest use to the lumber and wood-using industries, and there is a universal demand among them for a considerable enlargement of this phase of experimental work. The present laboratory should be considerably enlarged or branch laboratories should be established in connection with it in other parts of the United States. The proposal of the Secretary to raise this item to $600,000 seems, therefore, inadequate, and your committee would suggest that one million dollars be provided for forest research.
6. Transfer of Public lands to the National Forests. The transfer of all unreserved lands in the public domain and all unappropriated lands in Indian Reservations to the National Forests should be authorized by Congress. While large areas of these lands are valuable chiefly for grazing their administration by the Forest Service as grazing lands would add greatly to their value to the public. The regulation of grazing is needed and has been strongly advocated by livestock interests of the West, so that it is reasonable to have such lands administered by a division of the government already successfully administering such lands.
The forested areas, some of them very considerable, should be managed as are the National Forests at the present time. There may be certain restricted areas which may be found of greater value for recreation than for timber production, and these would be managed as are similar areas in the National Forests with the end in view of the greatest benefit to the public. There seems no ex-








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


cuse for transferring these public lands to the National Park System, which is concerned only with the recreational and scenic value of certain restricted areas.
7. Other Federal Measures. Last year at this time there seemed considerable danger of a transfer of the National Forests from the Forest Service to the Department of the Interior. The Southern Forestry Congress and other interested organizations all over the country protested against this proposal. The Brown report to the President made public last fall did advocate this change, which was apparently inspired by the Secretary of the Interior. It appears certain that no attempt will be made to carry out this recommendation, for with the resignation of Secretary Fall, the main reason for it will have disappeared.
Federal Water Power Act. Foresters and conservationists generally have been greatly interested in the proper regulation of our water powers, and the passage of the Federal Water Power Act of 1920 was the result of a strenuous campaign by the friends of conservation all over the country. This act prevents monopoly and safe-guards public rights, and the hydro-electric industry says of it that it is workable and just. It is nevertheless under attack both in the courts and in Congress, and it must be defended until it becomes firmly established as an indispensable part of our economic system. Any attempt to break it down by securing the passage of legislation exempting interests from certain of its provisions should be strenuously opposed and defeated.
B. State Forestry Legislation for the States of the South: Although one-third of the Southern States now have functioning forestry departments, general forestry legislation means starting from the beginning. So far as this committee is aware, no very comprehensive forestry law has ever been enacted without being preceded by earlier legislation. Such legislation grows and does not come into being through one all-inclusive enactment. On the other hand, many comprehensive laws have failed because of their so-called drastic provisions. It seems, therefore, advisable to recommend a minimum number of provisions, which shall be briefly and clearly worded which will secure the necessary machinery for starting effective forestry work, and this looks to the gradual prevention of forest fires and the securing of adequate reproduction on cut-over and devastated forest lands.








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A state forest law should provide at the least for M an appropriation, either direct or special, sufficiently large to start work on an effective scale; and (2) a sound, nonpolitical organization including forest fire protection and administration units.
The principal obstacle to the adoption of a forestry program in every quarter of the South is the problem of financing the work. If a satisfactory method of securing adequate funds can be worked out a good start can be made in every case and the work will then grow as the needs become apparent.
Different methods for raising money by the State for forestry work are being advocated by foresters and public men, and while one may be most acceptable in one State another method may be favored somewhere else.
(a) Direct appropriation: Up to the present time most States have started and maintained their forestry work through direct appropriation by the legislature. It is the quickest way of financing the work and when the needs are thoroughly understood probably the most satisfactory way, because appropriations can be increased from year to year as the work grows and the demand for extension increases. No special legal fight can be made against a direct appropriation after it is once made. The objections to a direct appropriation come chiefly from the legislative body itself. The members are usually interested in many other projects which call for increased appropriation and are obliged to urge strict economy. A first appropriation is often very difficult to secure and is apt to be much too small to start the work effectively. For these reasons, the two other methods are somewhat more generally favored by foresters, though where it is possible to secure a direct appropriation this is urged.
(b) The Severance Tax-- Louisiana has been called the pioneer in this method of raising funds for forestry but even there the plan has not been an entire success. The severance tax is a tax on all timber cut and on other natural resources taken from the ground. This tax, amounting to some 12 V2 c per thousand bd. ft., is paid into the State Treasury by the lumbermen and other operators. It was originally planned to have this covered into a special fund to be used entirely for forestry. After several years' legal fight on the ground of unconstitutionality, a constitutional amendment was adopted by the people legalizing this tax.








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


When it began to be collected the legislative body found in it a fruitful source of income for the State and took over the proceeds for general use, making much less liberal appropriations from it to maintain the department of conservation. Recently a dertai i percentage of this fund has been allotted to the forestry work, which places the department on a fairly sound financial basis.
The severance tax is opposed by many of the large lumbermen, because they feel that they pay enough without this additional tax. It has been proposed in a number of States in addition to Louisiana but it seems destined to meet some very strenuous opposition. However, a nominal severance tax that will bring in-from fifty to one hundred thousand dollars per year will of course be much better than a direct appropriation of say $10,000.00. It will serve to get the work established and after the State work has developed for four or six years and the amount of the severance tax decreases, as it undoubtedly will owing to the gradual reduction in the amount of timber being cut annually in each State, it should not be hard to obtain supplementary direct appropriations.
(c) Occupational and License Taxes: It has recently been proposed that an occupational or license tax be levied against all or certain specified industries engaged in producing and manufacturing forest products for the support of the forestry work of the State. In States where such taxes are already levied they might be diverted to this special purpose. This was recently proposed in Florida and no very active opposition was encountered. Georgia has proposed to adopt the same method and in neither State have the lumber and turpentine interests opposed it. It must be remembered that in all cases where business is taxed the ultimate cost is borne by the public because the various industries are obliged to make a living profit and if the tax interferes with this the price of the product must be raised. Taxing industries seems a legitimate and sensible way of securing money for the purpose of making sure a permanent supply of raw material for those industries. Your committee therefore favors this third method over the other two.
Administration: Your committee feels that a State forestry department should consist of a representative nonpolitical board, or commission, appointed by the Governor, who may be ex-officio chairman. The various members








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of the board should represent the various industries and activities of the people of the State directly or indirectly interested in the preservation of the forests. They should b- authorized and required to secure the services of a competent, reputable technically-trained and experienced forester, as State Forester, to supervise and plan under their general direction the forestry work of the State. The board should be given large powers in the selection and payment of assistants in the various lines and in the organization and personnel of the forest fire prevention organization. Local efforts to inject politics into the selection of forest wardens and other employees should be resisted to the utmost.
If the State has no adequate law providing penalties for setting fire to the woods, fields, etc., intentionally or carelessly a clear, simple yet comprehensive measure should be either incorporated in the forest law or enacted as a separate measure.
Advisable, but not necessary provisions of a State Forest Law might include:
1. Permission to acquire by gift or purchase lands for State Forests or Parks, which are suitable for timber production, demonstration, or other conservative purposes.
2. The establishment from miscellaneous forest receipts of a forestry fund.
3. Provision for suitable instruction in forestry subjects in all institutions of learning wholly or in part supported by the State, especially in State Agricultural Schools and Colleges.
4. Requirement that all local prosecuting officials shall prosecute all alleged violations of the Forest Law.
Other measures such as those requiring railroads to keep clean their rights-of-way, compelling operators of engines to use spark arresters and other safety devices, forbidding electric companies to injure shade trees, providing for exemption from or deferred payment of taxes on forest land or growing timber might well be postponed until the more essential provisions of a forest law had been enacted and the most important work of forest fire prevention inaugurated.








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


COMMENT BY COMMITTEE MEMBERS
By Mr. ROY L. HOGUE,
Manager of the Interior Lumber Company, Jackson, Miss.

"I can see no serious objection to the report as written though, personally, I would not have favored saying that the committee favored the occupational or license tax over the other two described. As a last resort and where not actively opposed by the interests directly affected, it might be accepted as a compromise but I believe the Congress should stand squarely on the proposition that forestry is a matter of public concern and that the funds for the support of forestry work should be taken directly from the public treasury.
As Mr. Holmes suggested, a license tax will be passed on to the consumer, but this is only partly true for a concern may be able to absorb a small tax and live where completion is not too strong, and, until all the similarly situated producing territory had identical taxes, license taxes would be a handicap to that extent."

By Mr. B. H. STONE,
Forester for Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville, Ga.

"I see absolutely nothing in our report to object to. We might have added some reference to a Capacity Tax, as some of our naval stores people are inclined to favor that method since it simplifies book-keeping, but I think the report is all right as it stands."

By Mr. E. 0. SIECKE,
State Forester, College Station, Texas.

"The report of the Legislative Committee of the Southern Forestry Congress submitted to the Fifth Meeting of this organization at Montgomery, Alabama, in January, 1923, is approved by the undersigned, with the following exception:The undersigned, considers that it is not wise for the Legislative Committee of the Southern Forestry Congress to favor one method of obtaining revenue over other








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methods. Local conditions and numerous industrial and economic factors differ radically in the various Southern States. My position is that in States where severance or occupation taxes pertaining to timber and the manufacture of timber products are now levied, the forest interests in those States should make every effort to obtain for forestry purposes the proceeds of such license or occupation taxes. Furthermore, in case legislation imposing severance or occupation taxes, as specified in the report of the Legislative Committee, are proposed in any Southern States, and it is apparent that such legislation will prevail, then the forestry interests should, without arguing for or against the merits of such taxes, urge that the proceeds of such taxation legislation rightly belong to the work of developing forestry and making forest industry permanent."
-E. 0. Siecke.

By. Mr. FREDERICK DUNLAP,
Secretary of the Missouri Forestry Association, Columbia, Mo., in
a letter to Chairman Holmes.

"I have spent considerable time studying the Report of the Legislative Committee and find myself forced to the conclusion that it is very able discussion of the legislative situation such as you are so well prepared to present rather than a committee report in which I can concur. I have tried to formulate the reservations under which I should concur and find I am only picking flaws in a very good paper. After much thought I feel that I must tell you I cannot sign the report as it is, simply because in some important respects it departs from my views. I had looked forward to the opportunity of thrashing out these things with the Committee at Montgomery and am accordingly disappointed."

The morning's session was concluded with a characteristically inspiring address on "Forestry, the Health, Happihess; and Long Life of the Forest Industries," by. the Reverend P. A. Simpkin, Chaplain of the Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo, St. Louis, Mo. ("Parson" Simpkin's address was recorded stenographically in part, but thru a series of unfortunate circumstances could not be transcribed and reproduced. This has been a serious loss to the Proceedings, and a source of great regret to the CongressEditor.)








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


Monday, January 29
Afternoon Session, 2:00 P. M


President Tyler in the chair.


Mr. Tyler:
Being a Pennsylvanian by birth and education it affords me great pleasure to read to the Congress a telegram from the Governor of Pennsylvania. He says: "Regret pressure of business prevents acceptance of kind invitation to Forestry Congress, exceedingly sorry"-Gifford Pinchot.
Mr. Hardtner hands me the following telegram: "Writing you today exceedingly urgent invitation to help us at Legisture hearing Jefferson City evening February first, hope you can come." From Mr. Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Missouri.
I have another telegram which I am sure Mr. Forbes as Secretary and Treasurer will appreciate. It reads "Check for seventy-five dollars forwarded to Forbes today, regret conditions prevent my attendance." From H. W. Shields, Chairman of our Finance Committee.
I want to add that this contribution of $75.00 towards the funds of the Congress comes from the second largest coal mining corporation in the Pocahontas coal field, and the territory operated by the donor lies partly in Virginia and partly in West Virginia, so West Virginia and Virginia will have a scrap as to who shall get the credit.
Here is a telegram to Mr. Forbes from College Station, Texas: "Regret keenly that Legislative hearing prevents my attendance. Best wishes for successful meeting." From E. 0. Siecke, State Forester.









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The first address on our program for this afternoon was a paper on "Research in Forest Fires" by Mr. Lenthall Wyman of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, Starke, Fla. I arm sorry to have to announce that Mrs. Wyman is ill and her illness prevents Mr. Wyman's presence. Mr. Forbes, our Secretary, is thoroughly conversant with what Mr. Wyman would have said had it been possible for him to be here and I am therefore going to call on Mr. Forbes in Mr. Wyman's stead.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ADDRESS
RESEARCH IN FOREST FIRES.
By R. D. FORBES,
Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La.


Mr. Wyman is really a research man and I wish that he could have been here today. He represents the same organization that I do, namely the Southern Forest Experiment Station, of the United States Forest Service, and of course our main business is research in all of the silvicultural and protection problems of the Southern Coastal Plain, our territory being from South Carolina to Texas. I am a very poor research man myself, but as long as the rest of the men are busy I consider that I am doing a big day's work. I wish Mr. Wyman were here to present his own work, because he is more competent along that line than I am. However, it seems a desirable thing, rather than drop out Mr. Wyman's topic altogether, for someone to say something in a general way concerning forest fires in the South, because as you will note by looking at the program we are going to take it up from two or three different angles. For example, Mr. Greene, who follows me, will talk about "Fires and the Southern Stock Range." Then Mr. Hastings, who will substitute for Mr. Jones, will talk about the question of "How to Organize Fire Protective Departments in the States," and finally Mr. McCarthy will come along and speak more particularly of fires in the Southern Appalachian mountains, in the hardwood country where of course the fire problems are quite different in many ways from those in the piney woods of the South. Mr. Wyman's paper was to be concerned with forest fires in the piney woods principally.
just by the way of review then of the fire situation, I want to bring to your attention what a good many people seem to overlook, namely, that a fire which merely burns in the grass and brush and leaves in our piney woods in the South or in the hardwood regions, does real damage. It seems to have escaped a great many of our citizens that a tree, like every other vegetative organism, starts as a very small affair. Of course every tree, as we who are interested in the subject all know, starts either from a seed or a sprout from the root of an old stump, and when that tree is young it is just as susceptible to fire as any









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other organism; so that when you have one of those innocent appearing fires in our piney woods you are not simply cleaning up the dead leaves and the old dry grass and some of the brush on the ground, you are also licking up hundreds of millions of young trees, not only seedlings but sprouts. I often wish, or half wish that fires in the South did more damage than they do, for the reason that our indifference to them has been compounded of general carelessness with regard to our timber resources and our thoughtlessness as to this vital question of young trees; whereas up in the Lake states and in the far Western country you have fires that sweep over thousands of acres, destroying entire villages and taking many human lives, and doing a damage which is apparent to every one. It hits those people between the eyes and they have got to recognize their fire problem, whereas in the South the damage has been so little apparent to the unthinking person that we overlook the fires.
Just to go very briefly into what these fires do in addition to wiping out year after year the seedling trees that must be the foundation of the forests of the future, let me start with the mature timber. For example, a good many people do not realize that in every pine forest a considerable number of trees every year are actually brought to the ground by repeated surface fires. A single fire will rarely do much damage to a mature tree; the bark is heavy and a single fire will do no more, if it burns in a tuft of grass or pine knot resting against the base of the tree, than kill the bark on that side of the tree; the bark drops off and the tree responds to the stimulus by exuding a certain amount of resin. The next year fire comes along and burns in the resin, eating itself into the tree. More pitch is exuded, and year after year the fire eats into the heart of the tree, and finally down it comes.
If I speak as if we knew all about this business of fire it is with the keenest realization that we do not know anything about it, except that fires are a tremendous menace to our forests. We do not know what proportion of the standing timber, mature pine, is annually put down by fires, but I do remember that one of the first pieces of work I did in the State of Louisiana was to run a little survey through a piece of ground belonging jointly to Mr. Hardtner and his southern neighbor. We found that in two years, in a magnificent stand of virgin pine timber, something like three and one-half per-cent of the trees









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


had been burned through and stretched on the ground by repeated fires; that is, the damage in those two years was the culmination of fires in previous years. I believe that Professor Bryant of the Yale Forest School has said if we continue to burn our pine woods as in the past, in fifty years we would not have a stick of virgin timber left.
Until very recently I had been under the impression that the hardwood forests of the South were very little bothered by fires, but I want to tell you that the other day I went on the lands of an awfully good friend of this Congress, namely, Mr. George Houston of Houston Brothers, Vicksburg, Mississippi, and looked over a tract of land which his company is at present logging. Mr. Houston, who of course today is wholly in the office, told me that the hardwood bottoms in the Yazoo Delta of Mississippi burned Oyer once in every three years. When I got into the woods, his logging superintendent, who is out there a part of the year, told me it burned over every other year, and the men who live in the woods told me it burned over every year, so the nearer you get to the ground the more often the fires burn according to the authorities, and many of the trees have been so badly injured by fire that there is no telling the reduction in their merchantable value. A large number of the trees have been "cat-faced" by these fires. When you have "cat-face" you have rot in the interior of the tree, and not only the big trees, which of course are nearing the term of their existence and would naturally be susceptible to any injury, but the little trees also burn. I saw a couple of acres of beautiful young gums every one of which had a cat-face at the bottom, and rot was present in the interior of those trees.
Fires then injure the mature timber. Fires also injure half-grown timber. We do not know a thing in the world as to the quantitative effect of these fires in half-grown timber. The Experiment Station at the present time has a plot in the Arkansas National Forest in which we are deliberately burning young pine. We have every one of the trees tagged. We have their exact diameter and height at the time of the experiment. We have another area which has not been burned and out of which we are going to keep the fire. Then in five years we will be able to measure the increase in diameter of the repeatedly burned plot as opposed to the plot that has had no fire in it, and we will be able to say to a land owner: "It is worth while to keep the fires out of your young timber, because it will









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take you say sixty years to mature a saw log in a repeatedly burned stand as compared with forty years in a stand free from fire." However, as yet we have no exact figures, and we are simply laying the foundation for that sort of work.
The damage to seedling trees I have already mentioned. That is the biggest damage, all things considered, from fires. In addition to the damage to the trees themselves we have the damage which Mr. Greene will speak of so convincingly, the damage to the stock range. And finally we have a very real damage to the soil of the South. Here again we have got to experiment to get at the exact way the fires work. For instance, it has always been the forester's theory that if you burn over a piece of land and consume all the dead grass and leaves on the ground, you remove a great deal of humus or decaying vegetable matter that would add to the fertility of the soil. Now, we do not know whether that is true or not. A very high official of the Bureau of Soils has told us that in our humid Climate, where we have conditions very favorable to the rots and decays which destroy that vegetable matter, we are not necessarily losing a great deal of soil fertility when we burn. The reason is this: Unless that dead grass and leaves are mixed with the soil in some mechanical manner, say by plowing or rooting under by hogs, their substance does not necessarily return to the soil. In the process of oxidation a great part of it is carried off into the atmosphere and forms gas. So that possibly the loss is not as great to the soil as we have said it was. I mention this simply as a hypothesis, as an example of one of the things we need to investigate. But we are convinced of this, that the physical effect of the blanket of decaying vegetable matter upon the soil is extremely important. If you will walk through a piece of land that has on its surface plenty of "dug," as they call it in the north woods, and will rake a little of it aside and thrust a stick into it, the stick will sink into the ground; whereas if you go into a place where fires have burned up that duff-where there is no mulch-your stick will not go in at all, the ground is hard. And that of course means that when the rain falls, instead of going into the ground and doing some good to your trees and vegetation, it runs off on the surface and to a very large extent is lost.
Now, gentlemen, as I say, I cannot do the subject the justice that Mr. Wyman would have done. We do not








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


feel that we know everything about it; we want to know and we intend to know it, and the Southern Forest Experiment Station would be glad of suggested locations for experimentation in which we can carry on a more satisfactory analysis of the damage done by fires. Mr. J. S. Holmes:
Two years ago in making a study of second-growth longleaf pine in North Carolina, we found abundant reproduction in one county from the trees on the ground. I was so interested in the question as to what became of all this reproduction that I laid off four plots in this area, of one hundred square feet to the plot, and interested the Boy Scouts of Wilmington in trying to keep up with these plots. I took them out there and showed them how to count the seedlings and how to examine the area to see what would happen. They reported to me about every two months as to the condition of those plots and the number of seedlings in the plots. I checked them up two or three times during the two year period. I intend to keep up with those plots in the future. I want to give you just a brief outline of the results so far obtained. The first count of seedlings on those plots amounted to about one and a half seedlings to the square foot, something like one hundred and fifty to th ' e plot. That was in April, after the seeds had germinated that winter. The following Fall there were about 54% of those seedlings still on the ground. That is, something like 46% of them had died from one cause and another, part of them no doubt from being trampled upon by the boys counting them. We kept on and that next spring, at one time early in the spring, one of the plots burned over with the rest of the woods in that immediate locality. But the other three plots were not burned over. At the ead of the second Fall, that is eighteen or twenty months after we first counted, on the three unburned plots there were still fifty per-cent of the seedlings originally there. On the burned plot there was six per-cent; that is, the I I I seedlings on that plot were reduced to seven. Seven seedlings were








46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

left on the burned plot, and these were very weak and very much damaged by the fire.
Of course, that shows that the second year the seedfings are very susceptible to fire, but further, the second spring there was a large crop of seedlings again, more in fact than the previous year, something like two and a half seedlings to the square foot came in the second year, and in the Fall there were more than fifty per-cent of the second year seedlings still on the unburned plots and there was not one on the burned plot. So that the result of that examination so far has been to determine that a fire in the early spring had absolutely destroyed all the seedlings of that winter and 94% of the seedlings of the previous winter.








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ADDRESS
GRAZING AS AFFECTED BY RANGE FIRES IN THE
LONGLEAF PINE BELT.
By S. W. GREENE,
Superintendent, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, McNeill, Miss.


Since I represent an experiment station that is located in the heart of the Piney Woods country, you may have expected that I was prepared to present an array of figures .showing you how many seed trees are necessary for reproduction to longleaf pine, how many cords of wood or how many feet of lumber you could grow in a given number of years. I can't give you those figures because I am not a forester but a cattleman. I am not the man that measures the wood-1 am the man that burns the woods. You let the forester tell you all the nice things you can do and then you come around to me and ask me if I am going to let you do it. For if you don't consult me about it, I am going to burn you out just as sure as there ever was a "Longstraw pine" grew in South Alabama.
You need not worry about the part Mother Nature will play in reforestation,-she will take care of every acre that you don't put the plow in. She does do it every year there is a seed crop. There is nothing strange about the fact that we haven't got a crop of second growth pine coming on, except that the forestry people haven't spoken to the cattlemen about it.
Since fire is recognized as the limiting factor in reforesting to pines in the South, and since fires in a very large majority of cases are set by cattlemen, it seems logical that the first thing to do is for the foresters and cattlemen to get together and reach some sort of an agreement. If not we will have no pines and the truth of the matter is, we will not have very many cattle.
I don't believe there is any necessity for the lumbermen and the cattlemen to go out gunning for each other. If they will stop and analyze the situation they will find that the two industries of growing cattle and, growing timber can go together and should go together. I will try and present from my viewpoint, some of the reasons why the two industries should be closely linked.








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Basic Reasons For Reforestation and Animal Production:
II would like for you to consider, first of all, the basic i7easons for reforestation and animal production on the Cut-Over Pine Lands. The extent of the cut-over pine lands is at present more than 100 million acres. This is an area greater than the combined area of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi. It is at present largely nonproductive, less than 10 c of it having been taken up for cultivation altho much of it is suitable for cultivation. In most of the counties of the pine country the improvements in the way of graveled roads, consolidated schools, and public institutions came in a large part from taxes on standing timber which is now gone or is fast disappearing. The present farming population cannot long hold up the burden of taxation when it is all thrown upon them. They will have to give up the good roads and schools or be tax-ridden until they move out. Taxes in many places are now 6 per-cent. With money at 8 per-cent and a tax of 6 per-cent makes an overhead of 14 per-cent which farming is not well able to bear. If every farmer in the county in which I lived had his farm free of debt and was making a good living from it, we would still not have a rich farming community because of the simple fact that there are not enough farmers. And gentlemen I want to make a flat statement t- "There are not enough surplus farmers in the U. S. to farm the Piney Woods and there will not be for two generations." If we did have it all farmed there would be a surplus production for which there would be no market. We are not yet land hungry in this country.
If we can't farm it the use of the Cut-Over Land then becomes a question of public economy that interests both the individual lumberman and the county at large. It must be put to some productive use to make the county a desirable place to live in.
Two possible means of utilization are open which do not require much labor. The lumberman says reforest it and the cattleman says graze it. The lumberman wants. to grow a new crop of timber and the cattleman wants to utilize the grass that is already growing. It remains to be proven that both crops cannot be grown at the same time.
Opposition of Stockmen to Reforestation:
Under present conditions in most sections the ideas of the forester and the cattleman are at odds. The forester









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


says the range must be fenced and protected from fire for another crop of pines and the stockmen says it must be left open and burned annually for his use. The difference is largely an economic one. The man who undertakes to grow another crop of timber owns a large tract of land and has a permanent interest in its future development, while the man who favors open range and annual burning, as a rule pastures his cattle on land that does not belong to him and in which he has no future interest. The cattleman is represented by practically every citizen in the community and altho their individual holdings of cattle are very small it is a very real asset to them.
The native stockmen have known nothing but open range for generations. The range has been free for all since the land was public domain. The owners of the land bought it for the timber and until that was gone and he wished to put the land to some productive use, there was no question as to the right of the local people to use the range. Long established customs are hard to change and it takes time and education to accomplish it. You can't legislate against custom. The lumberman does not want his skidded legislated out of existence and a great many people look at reforestation as a fore-runner of a stock law which would close the open range. It would be best to go easy on the matter and establish some middle ground if possible. It will take a general county-wide sentiment against fires to stop them. The state troops couldn't do it under martial law. It is a problem of getting the cattlemen to see that they can raise stock without burning the woods and getting their help to control fires in return for the use of the pasture.

Why is Annual Burning Practiced?
This is a question that is not hard to answer. Every cattleman has observed that the cattle graze the burns in the Spring in preference to the rough. This is because the dead grass that remains over winter is not palatable and contains little food value. It is in the way of grazing and the cattle can get a quicker fill on the burns.
The range looks better to the eye but the grass is no earlier and in fact it is retarded because the fires destroy the dead grass that protects the early growth. At the









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present time (February) the sheep can get a good living from the rough but would starve to death on the burns. But it is the custom to burn and the range burns every year.
Effect of Annual Burning:
The most apparent effect of burning is the bare uncovered condition in which the ground is left through killing the pine seedlings and burning off the dead grass. There is nothing left to prevent washing and nothing left to rot on the ground. If the land was to be used for farming and not to grow pines there would still be a tremendous loss through the burned organic matter that should be left to incorporate with the soil and form humus in which our sandy soils are very deficient. With the addition of humus through the decay of organic matter, our Piney Woods soils become wonderfully productive.
Burning destroys a large part of the early growth which is protected by the dead grass and it also kills the root system of some of the grass. There is plenty of grass left for the number of cattle that are run in the woods but the carrying capacity is being constantly lowered. Dead grass if left on the range is apt to be a benefit to the cattle through its tendency to check the scouring effect of the early watery grass. Cattle will do better on a mixture.
Quality of Grasses on Burned Range:
With annual burning only those grasses are left on the range which are able to withstand fire. This limits the grasses largely to perennial clump grasses which have a strong root system protected by a stool. Tender creeping perennials and annuals are easily killed by fires and included are carpet grass and Lespedeza, our two most valuable grazing plants.
The plants left on the burned range are mostly sedges and wire grass which were present in the virgin forest and have persisted because they were able to withstand fires. These grasses furnish good grazing in the early spring and summer but send up seed stems and mature in June and July, are then tough, woody, unpalatable and furnish very little nutriment. From July on the range is very poor. When cattle should be fattening they often lose the gains of the earlier season unless they have unlimited range to graze over. One of the biggest problems to solve before this section can ever become a producer of great









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


numbers of cattle, is the improvement of the Fall range. Our greatest hope in this direction is through the natural spread of carpet grass and Lespedeza, but these two plants are checked very seriously if not actually prohibited by fires.
The standard by which all pastures are usually measured are bluegrass and alfalfa. There is little question but what carpet grass is as good pasture as bluegrass and Lespedeza as good as alfalfa.
Improvement Through Fire Protection:
The most marked benefit to the range pasture through fire protection should be through the natural spread of desirable plants, such as carpet grass and Lespedeza. Where these are allowed a foothold and the pasture closely grazed, the native grasses disappear and are replaced by the more valuable grasses which persist when they are once established. This is shown clearly around every little town in the Piney Woods, around every logging camp and along every dummy-line and road. All carpet grass needs is a fighting chance and Lespedeza always goes along with it.
We don't need the native grasses, - we want to get rid of them as much as possible,-but burning is the surest way of keeping them. There is plenty of grass on the range for the few head of cattle that run in the woods but there is not enough grass for a profitable cattle industry on a commercial scale.
Change Taking Place:
It does not take a botanist to understand that the original vegetation of the virgin forest must change under such a radical change in environment as was occasioned by the rapid removal of the timber. Plants which were able to thrive in deep shade, covered by a carpet of pinestraw and burned annually, could not be well adapted to open sunlight where sun-loving plants are protected from fire. The ferns do not come out of the swamp and grow in the fields.
A change is gradually taking place in the cut-over lands and it has gone far enough in places to predict that carpet grass will be the dominant grass and the Piney Woods will eventually be a carpet grass country the same as Kentucky is a bluegrass country.









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However, this change is largely dependent on fire protection. If fire keeps down the carpet grass and Lespedeza the amount of turf is gradually reduced and weeds take the place of grasses.
To sum the matter up,-Fires perpetuate the undesirable grasses and prohibit the desirable ones. Under a system of annual burning the ranges deteriorate rather than improve.
Reforestation and Grazing:
We are now ready to establish the connection between reforestation and grazing. The same steps that are necessary to improve the range pasture are necessary to establish a second growth of pines. When the stockman is educated to see that fire is his enemy instead of his ally, his troubles with the forester will quickly clear away. The second growth of pines may interfere somewhat with the grazing but this will not happen for a good many years with a system of grazing where as much as ten acres is allowed for one head of cattle. Cattle will not hurt the pines. Where there are plenty of seed trees and the fire is kept off you will get many more pines than are needed and if the cattle help to keep them down to some extent I understand it would be beneficial rather than harmful. There is also an added protection to the pines through grazing, that the lumberman cannot overlook. If the woods are protected from fire and not grazed the rough would be so heavy in a few years that a fire would be disastrous to the pines. Grazing will keep the grass down and lessen the fire hazard. If for no other reason the lumberman should encourage grazing on his land.
In discussing the evil effects of burning I skipped what was perhaps the most important point of all. That was the black-jack and scrub oaks. Every man in this audience from the Piney Woods, knows of some piece of old range land that has grown up to scrub oaks until it is so thick that you can't ride a horse through it. There is a reason for every oak thicket and that reason is fire. Nature made the Piney Woods a timber country and if the cut-over land is not put into cultivation it is going to reforest itself, fire or no fire. If protected from fire you will get what nature intended,-Longleaf pines and they will keep the oaks down. If you burn off the pines the scrub oaks will take possession. If the pines were as valueless as the oaks they could still be easily gotten rid of because








SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


they will not sprout. But if you cut down an oak you get 24 oaks in its place. When it comes to making a pasture of an oak thicket I absolutely throw up my hands. I like cattle too well to go into the goat business. Besides the oaks lower the value of the land for agricultural purposes. An oak thicket in a pine stump field is too tough a proposition for the pioneer stock we have left to clear the land.
The man that deliberately burns the woods year after year is not only doing an injury to himself but he is burning his children and grandchildren out of the lumber business, the grazing business and the farming business.
The conditions here set down are the result of a long period of abuse to our cut-over lands. They will not be remedied or changed in a day or a year. It will take concerted action to change them at all. As I said in the beginning the lumberman must come around and ask the cattleman about it. The cattleman at present holds the whip hand and the lumberman is at his mercy when it comes to reforesting his land. The lumbermen need to look at some of the points I have mentioned, from both sides of the question and come in a body and not as individuals because it will take concerted action and a great deal of educational work to accomplish anything.
Such is the substance of the observations on which we have based our experimental work at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station at McNeill, Miss. Our work has been in connection with livestock and forage plants. Our major problem has been the improvement of the pastures. We know that we can build good pastures on cultivated lands. We are now undertaking to establish the relationship between fires and improved pastures on range land. Also the relation between grazing *nd reforestation because we know that when we exclude fires we will get a stand of pines.
In cooperation with the U. S. Forest Service we have leased a section of and, part of which is to be burned for ten years and part protected from fire, and all of it grazed as tho grazing were the only consideration. On smaller subdivisions we will graze sheep on land protected from fire, make plantings of improved pasture plants, graze at different rates and other minor projects.
Ten years is a comparatively short time in the develop. ment of the Piney Woods and at the end of that time we will have some figures and data to back up our demon.









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stations instead of hearsay and we are not going to cover up any bad features that may show up.
You usually think of the experiment station as catering to the needs of the average farmer alone. However, an experiment station has rarely had to face the conditions we have to face in the Piney Woods and you will understand from the very nature of our problems that our major projects must be planned looking far ahead and that they will benefit chiefly the large land-owners because they are the ones that are holding the bag at the present. It is to you men here today and to the lumbermen as a body that we look to for encouragement and suggestions as to the direction of our work. We cordially invite you to pay us a visit at any time that you may see fit.









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


ADDRESS
ORGANIZATION OR METHODS IN FIRE-PROTECTION By CHAPIN JONES,
State Forester, Charlottesville, Va.
Read by A. B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester.

In my opinion the States have a very decided responsibility to bring about forest-fire protection within their borders, one that they have no right to ignore or to make light of. As I see it this responsibility is due primarily to the fact that under our form of government the States are sovereign, except in such fields in which they have ceded authority to the Federal Government. This sovereignty necessarily carries with it responsibility for initiative and leadership in forest-fire protection, as long as the necessity for organized activities in that field exists, and the States would have no justification whatever for a disposition to "pass the buck" -to the Federal Government nor to any other agency. I think it very fortunate that the relation between the Federal and State Governments in the matter of forest-fire protection on privately owned lands is one that is based on the recognition of the State's primary responsibility. As you doubtless know, the Federal Government co-operates financially and through advice as to methods, etc., only with those States which are themselves undertaking to solve the forest-fire problern, and has done what it properly could do to get the individual States to recognize and meet their responsibility in this field, but has not independently undertaken forest-fire protection measures on privately owned land. The Federal co-operation is handled very wisely and efficiently, and has been a great stimulus to the States.
The countries or other local political sub-divisions of the State cannot be considered to have any ultimate responsibility as distinct from the State. I believe it is wise from every standpoint, politically and socially, that local self-government be encouraged, and it may very well be that the best results will be secured, under certain circumstances, under a plan of giving considerable authority to local officials, but after all, the adoption of such a plan must be looked upon as only a matter of expediency and its wisdom tested by results. If the results are not satisfactory it clearly devolves upon the sovereign State









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to correct any unsatisfactory conditions arising through its delegation of certain powers to -local officials.
I presume everyone will agree that the owners of the forest land protected should be required to share the cost of a fire protection system, because obviously the protection adds to the value of their property and allows the growing of forest crops, the revenue from the sale of which goes to the owner. The State would be shirking its responsibility, however, and failing to actually get the desired results, if it attempted to throw the entire responsibility for fire protection upon the owners, for two very important reasons; Ist, the owners as a rule are responsible for the origin of only a small percentage of the fires that threaten their property, and, 2nd, the incidental benefits to the public through the existence of the forests in good condition, such as the regulation of the evenness of stream-flow, the lessening of erosion and floods, particularly in the case of forests on mountainous lands, the general beneficial effects of forests on climate, etc., do not accrue principally to the owners but rather to the general public. It is for the State to meet its own responsibility by adopting a wise policy as to what it will do for the owners of forest land and what it will require of them, in the interest of all its citizens, both present and future.
It is obvious that effective forest-fire protection is not feasible without the enforcement of adequate laws dealing with forest-fires. These laws of course rest upon the police powers of the State, and are State laws. It would clearly be absurd for the State to leave the enforcement of its own laws in any other hands than its own. The State, therefore, whatever powers it may delegate from time to time, must recognize and meet its responsibility for the prevention and control of forest-fires within its borders.
There does not seem to be any one form of organization of a State forestry department as a branch of the State government that can be said to be positively better than all others under all conditions. My position as Secretary of the Association of State Foresters has made me more or less familiar with the form of organization of each of the different forestry departments and given me some idea as to the way each of them is working out, and I am struck by the great variety in the forms of organization. It is generally believed that there should be a forestry









SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS


board or commission of broad-minded and patriotic men interested in the subject who should exercise more or less authority in the determination of policies, but whose primary function should be the selection and appointment of an administrative officer, usually called a State Forester, who should have both the technical and practical education and training in forestry and who should be responsible for the actual conduct of the State's forestry work. Whatever the form of organization, the main point is that the men in charge of the forestry work should have the necessary interest in-forestry and the necessary training in forestry. Forest-fire protection measures should not be thought of as a separate problem or as an object in themselves, but should be part of a comprehensive forestry program put into effect for the purpose of rendering all forest or waste lands as productive and profitable as it is possible to make them, which Of Course is the essence of forestry.
The organization of fire protection work and the methods of carrying it out are different in every State that has taken up such work from what they are in every other State, and I presume that such will always be the case, more or less, because of different natural, economic and political conditions in the different States. We are so very far from being able to put into effect anything like an ideal form of organization, even if one had been carefully worked out to fit each set of conditions, that it seems to me that this discussion will be more fruitful if we stress particularly certain special things that have been done in different States that have proved themselves valuable or are showing promise. There are men here from most of the other States that are trying to meet the forest-fire situation that can speak for those States, and I shall discuss particularly two features of the work in my own State, Virginia, which I believe give promise of being useful in other Southern states in which the conditions may be somewhat similar. I refer to our organization of fire protection measures in co-operation with the counties, through voluntary appropriations on their part, the plan under which the greater part of the work in Virginia is being carried out at present, and to our work in co-operation with large land-owners.
First, the co-operation with the counties. I should explain that we adopted this plan in the first place not from choice but from necessity. We started this work in 1916









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with an appropriation of only $10,000 per year from the legislature and a contingent allotment from the Federal Government of $4,000 per year. Our law provided, and still provides, that the Boards of Supervisors of the several counties might at their discretion appropriate funds for forest protection, improvement and management. Obviously a total sum of $14,000 per year for all kinds of forestry, including other things as well as fire protection, could not go very far in a State with a land area of twentyfive and a half million acres, over half of it wooded. We were presented with the alternative of concentrating our efforts in a few small areas, trying to put a very thorough protection system into effect in those areas while absolutely neglecting protection in all the balance of the State, or making what funds we had cover as large an area as possible, not primarily with the idea of using them in the actual suppression of fires, but rather as a means of stimulating local interest and local effort in the hope that in this way it would be possible to get a really effective state-wide system sooner. The latter alternative was chosen, and we have not regretted the decision.
Disregarding, for the sake of brevity, certain variations at different times or places for one reason or another, the plan is to make a formal offer to the Board of Supervisors of each county to co-operate with them in forestfire protection if they will make an appropriation for this purpose of an amount between certain stipulated limits. Our plan at first was to offer to exactly duplicate their appropriation, the combined sums to be used for the payment of from one to four patrolmen in each county. We stipulated that the appointment of these patrolmen must rest with us, although we asked their hearty co-operation in selecting the men. We then employed these men on a daily basis on the driest days during the dangerous fire seasons to thoroughly cover their districts with fire warning posters and patrol their districts on the lookout for fire, while at the same time doing everything . possible in an educational way to urge the people to be careful with fire, to warn those who were apt to cause forest-fires either carelessly or intentionally, etc. They also made it a point to examine the condition of the numerous small sawmills and stavemills scattered through the woods to see that the operators were complying with the laws for the operation of the mills in a safe manner. The patrolmen also fought such fires as occurred within their dis-









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tracts to the best of their ability under the circumstances, although they were-not expected to be able to make headway against large fires unless they could get assistance. Each of these patrolmen reported directly to the State forestry department, on a daily basis, and was supervised only directly from the headquarters.
With an increase in the Federal and State funds available we have thought it best to employ one chief forest warden for each county, whom we ourselves appoint, with the assistance of the Board of Supervisors wherever they are willing to help us in the selection. This man also works on a daily basis, reporting directly to us. He makes a selection of the other members of the fire protection force in his county, relieving us of this duty, and one of his principal duties is to get as capable and enthusiastic a body of wardens as possible, and supervise them in their work. We do not ask the counties to pay any part of the chief forest warden's salary or expense. We ask them only to pay one-half of the cost of the services of the district patrolmen, just referred to, and of the local forest wardens who do no patrolling but are on duty only in case of fire.
The chief forest warden also takes off the shoulders of the patrolmen and local wardens in his county the primary responsibility for securing the enforcement of the forest-fire laws. The local warden at each fire does what he can at the time to learn the origin of the fire, and gives such information as he can secure to the chief forest warden, who, with the advice of the Commonwealth's Attorney for the county, follows up any possible clues, and, where the circumstances warrant prosecution, sees to it that the case is fairly tried.
In the Southern states the fire protection systems have usually started with the employment of patrolmen with extremely large territories to cover, so large that their duties have been primarily educational and the actual extinguishment of the fires by them could not be expected. We have come to feel very strongly in Virginia that this stage in the organization should be passed as soon as it is at all possible to do so. We feel that the actual suppression of fires must be developed at the earliest possible moment, through the employment of a large number of local forest wardens who immediately take steps to extinguish any fire that may occur in their districts. We believe that if this stage is not reached very soon the








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force of the educational work will be lost and the whole program will come to be considered a failure by the people. For this purpose we are steadily extending our staff of local forest wardens and reducing the size of their districts.
The amounts appropriated by the different counties vary from $75 to $360 per year, and have been gradually increasing somewhat. The number of counties making such appropriations has increased from 8 in 1916 to 45 out of the 100 counties in the State by the autumn of 1922, and the total amounts of their appropriations have increased from $1,000 for 1916 to $6,756 for 1922. The expenditures have sometimes been considerably less than the appropriations, as we have found it difficult to get all of the patrolmen and wardens to be on duty as much as we have wanted them to. The steady increase in the number of counties appropriating and in the amounts of the appropriations seems to indicate that the great majority of the counties that have tried this system believe they are getting their money's worth for what they spend. A few of the counties after making such appropriations one or two years have discontinued them, but in spite of such temporary setbacks the work as a whole has steadily increased in extent and effectiveness. Of course the original appropriations by the counties are usually made only after solicitation to do so on the part of the State forestry department, which includes a very careful statement of the proposed plan and usually personal attendance at a county board meeting on the part of a member of the staff of the forestry department. Securing such original appropriations and their continuance through subsequent years takes a good deal of time and money on the part of the State forestry department, which might be spent in other ways if this necessity did not exist. In my opinion, because of this consideration, and because of the fact that forest-fires are no respecters of county boundary-lines, commonly originating in one county and burning into another, and for other reasons, the State should require the participation by the counties in a fire protective plan on some reasonable basis that could be worked out. Nevertheless, in the absence of such a law, this plan does make it possible to cover a great deal of ground with a system of fire protection which is not very intensive, but which in almost every case, the exceptions occurring principally where we have not been able to se-









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cure as wardens the high type of men that we try to get, results in such a decided reduction in the fire loss from what it was before without protection that the cost of the ,system is trifling in comparison.
The cheapness of the work is partly explained by the fact that except in the case of the wardens, who arc paid for their leadership and responsibility, the actual fire fighting is done voluntarily, as a neighborhood proposition, in regions where most of the timberland is owned locally and therefore each man is usually willing to help his neighbor. Where the timber is owned in large tracts this voluntary fire fighting is usually not to be expected, because of the feeling that the large owners should pay for such services. Under such circumstances the wardens are trying to make arrangements with the owners in advance whereby the owners will pay for the necessary fire fighters employed by the wardens. It takes time to get such arrange. ments perfected, but we are making 'progress along that line.
At the same time that we started our county coopcration we worked out a plan of cooperation with owners of large tracts of forest land, and made a proposition for cooperative fire protection to all the large land-owners in the State with whom we could get in contact. This plan was worked with the mountainous part of the State primarily in mind and may be better adapted to the mountains than to the rolling or level country. It presupposed the necessity of the construction of certain permanent improvements in the case of large holdings. These improvements vary depending upon the local situation, and consist of either lookout towers with telephone connections, fire lines, trails, fire fighting tools, etc., or a combination of these things. The plan provided that the land-owners should embark on a policy of constructing such improvements as were mutually agreed upon to be most necessary under. the circumstances, spending for this purpose each year a sum at least equal to the wages of the lookout watchmen or patrolmen whom the State would employ and who would be commissioned as forest wardens to give them the authority to enforce the forest-fire laws. The land-owners were also to undertake to meet the cost of the employment of local people to fight fire in case of necessity where employed by the patrolmen and wardens for this purpose. The first land owning company in the State to accept our offer of co-operation in this









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way was the Clinchfield Coal Corporation, represented by its Land Agent, Mr. W. D. Tyler, President of the Southern Forestry Congress, to whom credit is due for the undoubted success that has been achieved. This is our largest and best cooperative project. It covers practically an entire county. The company has spent on this project far more than has ever been required under our agreement, and has shown what can be accomplished with the necessary determination and judgment.
Exactly this plan is now in effect in co-operation with only three of the large land holding companies. Recently we have been extending such work on a somewhat different plan. We have brought about the organization of two Associations of land-owners, who pay I cent per acre per year into a common fund to be used for all fire protection purposes indiscriminately in the holdings of the members of the Association. The State, with the assistance of the U. S. Forest Service, contributes an equal amount, thereby becoming an equal partner in the project, and the work is all done under the direction of the chief forest warden for the county in which the land is situated. This plan brings together all of the different agencies concerned and in my opinion offers very great promise for the future.
Where there are no land-owners protective associations, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the supplement. ing of our county protective systems by securing voluntary agreements with large land-owners whereby the latter would undertake in writing in advance of the season to pay any fire fighters employed by any of our forest warden for fighting fire on or threatening their lands. In one of the largest counties of the State we were able to secure such a written agreement with every owner of a tract of forest land of more than 1000 acres in extent, and in several other counties we are beginning to approach this goal. The payment for actual fire fighting seems to be necessary in regions of large holdings, whereas on the other hand in regions of small holdings owned by the local people we have not yet gone into payment for fire fighting, because we find that our wardens are able to get the local people to think of the matter as a neighborhood proposition, each man helping the others and the others helping him. The small owner contributes labor. The large owner when not in position to contri-









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bute labor directly is called upon to pay for the labor of others.
Our experience with the large land-owners is that they rarely undertake anything which is effective over large areas except when urged to do so and shown how to do so by representatives of the State forestry department, and that even then most of them go rather slowly at first, but we feel that by taking the leadership and continually hammering at the work we can get really effective results from the great majority of the owners who live nearby or have local representatives. The occasional large tracts owned by outsiders purely as speculations are a more serious problem. I am not sure but what additional legislation will be needed to deal with the problem of absentee ownership.
While, as I have said, I believe it would be the best policy for the State to make participation in a fire protection system on a reasonable basis compulsory on the part of the counties and the large land-owners, in the absence of such legislation it has clearly been shown that at least under conditions as they are in Virginia very decided progress in fire protection can be made under a system of voluntary participation. It seems to me that there might be States in the far South which have not yet undertaken fire protection at all which could make a start on this basis if not on any other. Under it at least there could be a certain degree of protection from fire in those counties in which the sentiment of the majority of the people is favorable to it.









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ADDRESS
FOREST FIRE PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS.
By E. F. McCARTHY,
Silviculturist, Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, N. C.

The hardwood forest of the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont Plateau is never secure from injury by fire. However possible it may be to burn over the mature southern pine forest without economic loss, the hardwood forest is incapable of undergoing such treatment without injury to the mature timber and complete destruction of the small trees and reproduction.
Public judgment of the degree of fire damage has been .shaped by the economic interests of those who have used the forests and who have measured the extent of fire damage by their own financial gain or loss. The truer economic measure of damage by the unbiased determination of the loss in producing power of the forest is the basic principle of research in forest fire damage problems. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the subject of forest fire research by an analysis of its problems as they have been met in a current fire study conducted by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station in the Southern Appalachian mountain and Piedmont regions.
In addition to the need for an exact measure of fire damage which will assist in determining the legitimate expenditure in protection of the forests, there are problems of administration, such as the analysis of the origin and behavior of fires and studies of the technique of fire prevention, detection, and suppression which must be included in this discussion. The general acceptance of the practicality of such research will be materially furthered if it is made plain that all experience which adds to progress in the program above outlined- must be rated as research. A considerable amount of information has already been acquired through the administrative records of organized fire protective forces. Facts must be recorded to be of future value, and definite progress can be made more rapidly if the problem is analyzed and the information is sought with a purpose. This statement has been made to emphasize the value of previous work in studying fire problems.








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The susceptibility of hardwoods to fire injury at all ages, but especially in younger stands, demands that fire protection shall be absolute. Absolute protection should be accomplished in so far as it is economically feasible, and protection must be accomplished to the extent of securing the young stands against even a single fire, or the effort expended in protecting the area will be wasted.
The extent of damage is much reduced in this region from that obtaining two decades ago when there was little incentive to protect the forests from fire. The statement has been made by an investigator* of fire conditions at that time that "with the exception of the moister coves and bottoms . . . it is difficult to find forest land which is not burned over at least once in ten years; a full half or two-thirds of the timbered area is burned over at least once in every five years and in the heavily grazed parts a large part of the forest is burned at least once and sometimes twice a year."
The condition existing during the past six years is shown by the report of the North Carolina Geological and Eco. nomic Survey for the State of North Carolina. An area of 614,659 acres was reported as burned in the 24 mountain counties during the period of 6 years from 1915-1920, inclusive. This gives, conservatively, an average annual burned area of 100,000 acres. The total area of the 24 counties considered is given by the census of 1920 as 6,464,640 acres. The unimproved land outside of farms is 1,417,540 acres, and the woodland in farms is 2,184,055 acres, giving a total of probable forest land of 3,601,595. In case there were no repetitions of fire on the same area, this would mean the complete burning of the forest in each 36 years, too short a period for the trees to reach a size resistant to fire, and even if 50 per cent of the area is considered as returned, the percentage of fire damaged timber will still represent an enormous public loss.
While North Carolina has been taken as an example, it must be recalled that this state has made material progress in organizing a state protective force and that the average of fire loss is being reduced through its efforts. Since the fire reports came from voluntary sources, they are incomplete, and to that extent the estimate of loss is conservative.
* Mulford, Walter. Forest Conditions of the Southern Appalachians. Ms. 1905.








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Although a statistical record of acreage burned is an essential primary step in determining fire injury, the damage sustained is more than the mere destruction or deterioration of merchantable timber, the standard by which fire damage has been commonly measured. An acre of forest is more than a mere acre of land, it is an acre of land with a growing stock of timber. The ability of the acre to produce a revenue depends directly upon the amount of capital accumulated in the form of a growing stock of timber not yet matured. Injury to the smaller size classes of trees causes a reduction in value of the growing stock and a proportionate loss in producing power of the forest. The deceptive green crown cover of the Southern Appalachian forest often hides a condition of this sort in which successive fires have killed the smaller size classes and produced a crippled and diseased veteran stand, largely of sprout origin. Such injury may be even worse than complete killing, since the useless old stand is an impedi. ment to the growth of a straight boled and thrifty young one.
The loss due to fire includes injury to the soil, the loss to merchantable timber, to the non-merchantable young stand, and to reproduction. All of these factors of loss can be measured, but vary widely even in a single fire.
In addition to the damage to timber production there are several other less tangible phases of forest fire loss. The effect of fire on the run-off of water is a problem which will require systematic observations through a period of years on selected sites, where conditions can be accurately measured. Such a study will be needed to help solve the problem of silting up of reservoirs in the power deveIopment of the Appalachian region. Reduction in the recreational value of the forest after fires is a matter of increasing importance. Not only is the attractiveness of the forest destroyed, but there is a material loss through killing of game and fish.
A complete understanding of the difficulty in analyzing fire problems can be reached only by a discussion of the factors which cause varying amounts of damage. Fire sever. ity varies in different regions and types of timber; it is also influenced by the season, the age of the stand, the amount of litter accumulated, the species, dryness of the forest floor, degree of slope, condition left by logging, time of day, direction of fire with reference to the wind








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and weather conditions. This is a long list of variable factors which must be considered in analyzing fire damage and it is simplified only by the fact that any fire which consumes the hardwood leaf litter of a single season is severe enough to kill all reproduction and ignite dead wood.
The southern mountains and plateau forests lack the protecting snowfall which materially reduces the fire season of the northern forests, although types of timber similar to those of the north are found at high altitudes. In the spring when the trees are beginning their growth fires are more destructive because of the sensitive condition of the zone of growth beneath the bark. Young trees are more severely injured than older ones, since the bark is thinner and injury has been found to vary quite uniform. ly with the size of the trees in a stand where all size classes are represented. The amount of wood material in the dead litter will influence the severity of fire, though decay takes place rapidly under a closed crown cover, thereby preventing an increasing accumulation. The hard pines found on dry slopes and in the plateau region are more resistant to fire injury than any of the hardwoods and there are also certain thickbarked hardwood species, such as chestnut Oak, which resist fire to a limited extent.
The larger fires are usually the outcome of a culmination of conditions which increase inflammability in the f orest. A period of dry weather combined with wind is especially serious when the fire occurs in an area where logging slash has accumulated. Such fires vary greatly in destructiveness, depending on whether the fire runs up or down the slope, with-or against the wind, in the night or day, and upon the amount of fuel found on the forest floor. Hardwood forest fires seldom climb into the crowns of trees, though this may happen if small pines are in the stand. This analysis of factors influencing the destructiveness of forest fires makes obvious the difficulty of establishing the extent of damage except by a detailed consideration of each burned area.
The Appalachian Forest Experiment Station is engaged in such a study, in the course of which a detailed examination has been made of six extensive burned areas in the Appalachian Mountain and Piedmont sections. Since this study is not yet completed, only tentative conclusions can be drawn.








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The injury done by a single fire is most severe in the spruce-fir type on the high mountains. While this type does not burn readily in its natural state, it is highly inflammable after a logging operation, when the heavy slash on the steep slopes is very liable to cause a conflagration which results in devastation of the land. Burned spruce lands are not as a rule reproducing and will not return to a satisfactory producing condition until they are restocked artificially.
The next most severely injured type is that in which white pine and hemlock are mixed with beech, birch or maple, a northern type extending to the high moist slopes of the mountain region and sometimes found in high coves. This type, which was common in Pennsylvania, recovers poorly after a slash fire, and contains an increased amount of sprout hardwood with little pine or hemlock. It may become partially devastated by repeated fires.
The lower moist slope and cove type is subject to fires even before cutting, though less so than the dry slope, ridge, and plateau types. An increase of sprout forest results. In addition to injury to mature trees of the better species, the usual killing of small trees and reproduction occurs. Fires which follow logging and occur in conjunction with favorable soil and moisture conditions may leave enough seed in the duff to generate a good stand of second growth.
The conditions which are required to bring about this favorable result are complex and imperfectly understood. Even if further work makes this clear the control of fire is a difficult task, and must be handled with care and good judgment. An instance may be cited, however, where controlled burning of slash in the Douglas fir region of the west coast brings about a Douglas fir reproduction and removes the objectionable competition of the western hemlock. No such condition is certainly known to exist in the mountain hardwood forest.
On the dry south slopes the greatest acreage of land has been made unproductive by fire. Much of this type on the higher slopes contained a light merchantable stand. The effect of successive fires has been to injure and kill the better oaks and chestnut, leaving crippled trees of these species with gum, scarlet oak, soft maple, pitch and table mountain pine. Tke result is a non-merchantable stand over an increased acreage. Such stands will re-









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cover so slowly, even if protected, that it is questionable whether they will pay the cost of that protection, yet these areas must be protected to insure the safety of the remaining forest.
The study has shown that fires in standing timber deteriorate the stand, creating sprout growth favoring the poorer species because they sprout readily and are tenacious of life, and favoring poor pines in preference to hardwood growth.
These same general conclusions will hold good for the lower dry slopes and plateau type, except that the original stand was better and shortleaf pine which comes in is a desirable species.
Two methods of study may be used in obtaining facts regarding fire damage. The one giving quickest results is the detailed inventory of burned areas of various ages which show different conditions of type and treatment. The difficulty presented in following this method is that of reconstructing the history of treatment, and inability to predict the future reaction to the fire.
The more accurate method of study is by use of small

Sample areas which can be burned under observation and. restudied at intervals.
Not the least damaging result of fire is the scarring of standing timber at the base. This occurs usually on the upper side of the tree where litter has lodged and the fire is hottest. This opens an opportunity for the entry of disease and favors insect attack. While trees may subsequently grow over such wounds, the decay continues to spread in the interior of the tree. The extent of such damage can be determined only by a study in conjunction with a logging operation, when the injury to timber is exposed by cutting in the woods and sawmill. Such a study has been planned to complete the field observations of fire damage and will yield data on the per cent of lumber grades and the rate of spread of disease, coincident with the study of fire injury as the cause of infection in the tree.
The influence of fire on the forest cannot be expressed in absolute terms, since we still lack the data to predict accurately the yield of fully stocked stands. Since fire damage must take into consideration not only destruction of mature timber but also changes in composition of the









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forest and delayed production which results from killing of the small size classes, the entire problem of damage is a part of a larger study of yield in natural stands as modified by cutting operations. While this basic infor-, mation is being acquired, future production must be estimated by studies of unburned stands similar to those which are burned, if possible areas adjoining and of the same general character. The tasks of forest fire prevention, detection, and suppression present in each instance a field for research looking toward the improvement of methods now used. The basis of this is the education of the public and the perfecting of organization and equipment. Systematic studies of the efficiency of existing organizations and present equipment form a type of such investigation which will result in reduced cost of fire fighting operations. In this connection may be mentioned such problems as:
1. The value of airplane patrol as compared with the lookout system of fire detection.
2. The introduction of new equipment, such as gasoline driven pumps, and the use of the wireless telephone. Each year of active protection work shows increasing development in efficiency through the experimental study of such organization problems.
While roads, trails, lines of communication, and well distributed equipment constitute the defense fortifications against fire, these are useless without an organized personnel, the support of public opinion, and thorough analysis of the fire hazard. Funds are necessary for these purposes, and large initial expenditures, wisely made, will doubtless bring quicker public appreciation of the forest fire problems and eventually result in cheaper fire protection.
When an organization of a fire force is well established and equipped, based on the needs of the ordinary fire season, a supplementary force is needed to serve in emergency. Such an emergency may come without warning and is a difficult condition to meet without excessive expense. There is an obvious need for some means of predicting the approach of a severe fire season such as occurs









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at intervals of a few years. A study carried on this year by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station points to the possible use of the weather observations of the U. S. Weather Bureau in predicting dangerous fire weather. Further study will be given to this phase of protection.
Successful fire protection in the forest does not differ in principle from fire protection in the city. It depends on continual vigilance, prompt action, and the support of public opinion. Every good citizen is an enemy of the city fire, even if he is not financially interested, and in like manner a public recognition of forest values and the destructiveness of fires will solve many of the administrative fire problems. For this reason progress in forestry practice which means an investment in future forest values will educate people to recognize the forest fire as an enemy and enlist them in forest protection.


The papers of the afternoon aroused a great deal of valuable discussion, in which the following delegates took active part:
Messrs. Alexander, Cary, Cathey, Faucette, Hardtner, Holmes, J. K. Johnson, Lee, Lufburrow, Pace, Pfeiffer, Pratt, Sessoms, H. C. Smith, Sonderegger, Stone and Tyler.








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Tuesday, January 30
Morning Session, 10 A. M.

President Tyler in the chair.

ADDRESS
FORESTRY FOR THE PRIVATE LANDOWNER.
By HENRY E. HARDTNER,
President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La.

I shall endeavor to discuss the subject of reforestation and forestry in a plain, blunt business way as is demanded by any business man before he would even consider the investigation of a question that has up to the present time ogered so little attraction and inducement for investment. Fifteen years ago I spoke as a theorist-enthusiast-speculative-visionary. Today, after years of experience, I deal in cold calculating facts, and here they are.
Cost of growing pine timber where a sufficient number of seed trees were left to insure natural reforestation.
Value of land, $3.00 per acre. Interest at 8%. Taxes 2 V2 on valuation, or 7!/2 c per acre per year. Supervision, 71//2c per acre per year.
50,000 acres @ $3.00 acre . $150,000.00 Taxes per year . 3,750.00 Supervision, etc. per year . 3,750.00
At the end of 20 years the investment has reached about $1,000,000 or $20.00 per acre. From now on to the 40th year there should be enough sales of wood products to pay taxes and cost of supervision. At forty years the cost of the venture would be $4,000,000 or $80.00 per acre. We can reasonably expect a minimum yield of 15,000 feet per acre or 750,000,000 feet. The cost per thousand feet is about $5.00, to which must be added a severance or yield tax of at least 10 7c when the timber is cut, as the State and counties are entitled to a reasonable tax on the timber grown, and based on a stumpage value of $10.00 per M. the severance tax would be $1.00 per M. feet, or $15.00 per acre. Thus the cost of growing timber is $6.00 per M. feet. Ten dollars stumpage means









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a profit of $4.00 per M. feet, or $60.00 per acre. Cattle raising in connection with the venture will yield a profit and is recommended. Should the cost be increased $5.00 per acre for planting trees, then the interest rate would have to be lowered in order to show a profit and no one would be very enthusiastic over such a proposition. Now, who can aff ord to grow timber?
The Federal Government, for every citizen is a stockholder and the government has the advantage of cheap money and taxes. The government can practice forestry on lands at a greater cost than could ever be realized for the finished product in order, for instance, to conserve water for irrigation of valuable farm lands, as in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains.
The people cannot long permit vast areas of forest lands to lie idle. If the owners cannot or will not practice forestry then the goverment must take over the lands at the cash value for such forest lands.
The States can afford to reforest forest lands on a smaller

Scale than the Federal Government and for the same reasons.
Cities and towns should have municipal forests, both for profit, playgrounds, and watersheds. The cities can afford it and for similar reasons as for the State.
The farmer who owns 160 acres or more of average land can grow trees on half his land and raise stock in connection while he cultivates that portion best suited for farming. He needs about 2000 feet of lumber per year to keep up his place to say nothing of fire wood. Eighty acres carefully looked after will easily produce 40,000 feet annually and soon be a source of revenue to the farmer. The owner of large tracts of denuded forest lands can afford to practice forestry, provided the people want him to, and support their wish by fixing a fair tax rate on the land while the timber is growing and thus making it possible for him to expect a profit from a long time venture. He can afford it for the reason that the land is of doubtful value and if he can afford the luxury of owning a large tract, he must surely have enough means to develop it. A lumber manufacturer can afford to grow timber easier than even the government, provided again that the question of taxation was settled and the State required him to handle his lands under approved forestry methods. But unfortunately the states and counties are









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more interested in getting what taxes they can now than a reasonable tax for all times. They compel him to make a desert of the forest. For if he leaves seed trees and saplings on the land the taxing authorities force him to pay a higher tax rate. He is penalized for trying to perpetuate the forest.
Some one will say, Mr. Hardtner, you are practicing forestry on 50,000 acres of forest lands. How can you afford to? And I answer-First, the State of Louisiana fixed a valuation on forest lands, if set aside under contract with the State and under State regulation, of one dollar per acre for forty years and full value after that and a severance tax in addition. The lowest rate now is $3.00.
Second, I owned 25,000 acres that I was convinced was suitable only for forest purposes and I accepted the contract offered by the State.
Third--Some years later I had denuded 25,000 acres more which I commenced to reforest and was assessed at a valuation of $5.50 per acre, or an average value of $3.25 per acre on 50,000 acres, or about 10 cents per acre per year.
Fourth-I was operating a saw mill and making enough profit to pay taxes and supervision on these lands which were of doubtful value for any purpose except forestry. I am now setting aside a sinking fund from the profits of my business to take care of the property especially taxes after all of my virgin forests have been cut until the new forest will take care of itself.
Fifth-It is a great pleasure to work along forest lines and assist nature in regenerating a new forest. The work is pleasant but costly for it means six to ten thousand dollars annually being paid out for at least 20 years without any returns. But of course as I see the trees growing inch by inch, I realize that the property is enhancing in value at least more rapidly than money invested in United States bonds.
I have made a success of my venture which was strictly business, for every acre of the fifty thousand acres has a thrifty growth of young trees coming on and bids fair to yield a harvest twice as great as the original forest. We have many head of cattle and hogs which we find pays in connection with forestry.









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Anyone can grow trees. There are no difficult problems to overcome. Trees will grow anywhere. and they grow night and day, winter and summer-drought and flood. It is a sure crop.
Now the question-What must the state-The Nation
-the people do in order to get the millions of acres reforested? And as a man experienced along forestry lines I reply: Sharpen your pencil and figure interest, taxes, and supervision on a given investment-if the cost is too great, your investment and taxes or interest rate is too high. Experienced government foresters will tell you just how much timber or cordwood you can grow in 20 to 40 years. If you cannot figure a profit under conditions around you do not worry about forestry-let the State do it. What do I consider correct values in order to grow trees in the average county in the South? Two Dollars and fifty cents per acre value for the forest land-taxes not exceeding seven cents per acre annually and a severance tax of ten per cent on the value of the timber when cut. I do not advocate any tax exemptions nor does any experienced forester- we ask only for the actual cash value to be placed on the forest lands for the full period in which it takes to grow timber or cordwood and then a severance tax on the products when harvested. If the people want forests they can have them, but must first make it possible for the landowner to go into the business. Until you do this, you have no right to complain about the complete disappearance of your once magnificent forests and heap censure on the head of the lumber operator, for after all he only carries on a business under the methods which you permit and encourage. Give the forest landowners a chance and millions of acres will soon reproduce a new forest.
Remember, no sound business man, forester or thinker, recommends or asks for bonuses or exemptions. Forestry as a business must yield a profit and when the Government takes up the problem of regeneration of denuded









76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE

forest lands in earnest, forestry will become an attractive business in which millions of dollars will be invested and the second crop and succeeding crops of timber will be a thousand-fold greater in value than the first which was so carelessly exploited.

At the conclusion of his paper Mr. Hardtner was questioned on various points in his address by Messrs. McCarthy, Pace, and Cary.
President Tyler called on Mr. J. H. Jones, of the AlgerSullivan Lumber Co., to describe the work in thinning longleaf pine which his company has been doing. Mr. Jones stated that 1000 acres of small second-growth had been thinned to an approximate spacing of eight or ten feet at a cost of about 20c an acre. This included a certain amount of climbing. The trees cut were too small to utilize, and were left flat on the ground to rot.








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ADDRESS
THE FORESTRY WORK OF THE GREAT SOUTHERN.
By J. K. JOHNSON,
Superintendent of Forestry Department, Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa, Louisiana.

It has more and more occurred to me as I have studied personally this question of forestry in the South, the question of the necessity of conserving the powers of the land to produce continuously, and I am sure that that is the inner convictions and feelings of a great many other men who are interested in conservation, that we really and truly approach the question from the wrong angle. It seems to be the thing uppermost in the mind of every landowner, be he farmer or lumberman, as to "Can I afford to do it?" Can we afford to do it? I said that I believe that is the conviction of every man who had given this matter progressive thought, that we approached it from the wrong angle. I believe that we are fast coming to the place as Southern men, farmers, lumbermen and men in all walks of life, where we are going to say "Can we afford not to do.it?"
I just felt like making that little statement before I undertook to go into some minor details as to what my company is trying to do in forestry matters.
I heard an old college professor one time make an illustration I thought was good and I have thought of it often in my limited experience in affairs. He was talking to a class of students and he said . 'Boys, always remember that there will always be coming to you if you do right more than you are looking for, more than you are actually figuring for, when it comes to a cold calculation of dollars and cents. "Now," he said, "I will give you an illustration. For instance, the blacksmith, he has an objective, that objective is a horseshoe. He has the horse there and he labors faithfully and earnestly and joyously at shaping and fitting a horseshoe to that horse's foot, and when that is completed his objective has been reached. But that blacksmith receives a subjective benefit that is surprising sometimes, in the strong brawny arm that he has developed in doing the righteous thing."
Before going on and referring to what my Company has done and is trying to do I feel like reading just two









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or three-not all of this paper, because I did not write it-but two or three short paragraphs which will show the background, the backing that I as a simple employe have in the enthusiasm I really think I have in the work I am trying to do. This is a paper that was written by the president of the Great Southern Lumber Company that happened to fall into my hands a few days ago. It is an expression, and really the first expression that I have seen from him, which was given to the press.
"The Chief Forester of the United States has recently said that 'our national forest policy should recognize that a real solution of the timber supply problem of the United States will come only as business men see their way clear to embark upon the growing of timber as a business undertaking.'
I wish that this truth might have found an earlier lodging in the minds of our lawmakers and our government officials. It is only recently, and even now only in a few states, that the tax laws have permitted the growing of timber by private owners. Today in those states which have adopted a proper plan for the taxation of timber, business men are beginning to see their way clear to this undertaking and I agree with Colonel Greeley that on this basis, a real solution of the timber supply problem of the United States is at hand.
The owners of the Company with which I am connected believe in the growing of timber, and we practice that belief. We have embarked definitely upon a policy of leaving our cut-over land in a productive condition and protecting it against the two great enemies of the young growth in the South-hogs and fires. Our policy is not the product of impractical idealism. It is the healthy offspring of business necessity. An adopted child, if you like-but adopted because it pays.
Some two years ago we began to take rxiotice of the fact that our timber supply was diminishingg, We were not ready for the undertaker by any means, but we did need medicine. We made a diagnosis-an investigation. We found that where fires had not burned cirt-over lands in our neighborhood that certain kinds of pine had established themselves in an abundant growth, and where hogs had been kept out as well, that all kinds of pine would grow. The rate of growth varied, of course, with conditions of soil and stand, but it appr. ,r qj'ahat on the









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average, without thinning or special care, our cut-over lands would grow timber of sufficient size for pulp wood in from fifteen to twenty years. We had found the disease and began to apply the remedies.
We found that it was possible at a very slight additional expense to so conduct our logging operations as to leave sufficient seed trees standing to produce almost a carpet of seedlings on the ground which we had cut over. We have put a hog-proof fence around this land and we have kept the fires out of it. On some areas cut over two years ago, we have sown seed and planted seedlings, some taken from the forest, some grown in seed beds. We are trying different kinds of pine in different soils and locations. We are experimenting to find the best trees for various conditions. But we know, without experimenting, that Southern Pine can be grown on our lands and we are going to grow it."
Those are words from Colonel A. C. Goodyear, President of the Great Southern Lumber Company.
It has doubtless been told to a number of the gentlemen present-it is no new thing-that the Great Southern Lumber Company, in advance of the turpentine or logging operations, goes into the forest and marks the small trees, from ten inches at least and under and down, with paint. It is done quickly and easily. That points out to the loggers, to the sawyers, those trees they are requested to do all' they can to prevent from damage and destruction, caused by falling trees and by the skidded lines in pulling logs up to be loaded on the cars. The forestry department has men, one man, that stays with each skidded. He is not an expensive man and he cleans the slash from around these little trees and makes a check of them daily. That check goes into the office. It gives us the number of the skidded that is operating, the number of seed trees or small trees that are marked, the number damaged, and at the end of the month those figures are compiled, and we are able to show the management just exactly how many seed trees have been left on the area cut over for that month, and what percentage damaged and destroyed. The Great Southern has been practicing that now some two years. We have not found that it paid to leave the large trees; to the contrary, we have tried that some, and found they did not survive. It is the little thrifty tree that will stand it and in years to come will be there to do the work. I am sure that








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every one whom I have taken through our cut-over lands marks with pleasure the line on the cut-over lands which shows the difference between the old way when the Company had no notion of forestry and where we are cutting now. It leaves the woods in quite a different condition, it looks like there is some life left in the woods and our officials seem to be very well satisfied with the undertaking. We are quite sure that these seed trees we leave will be sufficient to restock the land where it has not already had some young growth in the grass that will come along in years to come. I think it might be well for me to say that our goal is not more than twenty-five per cent of damaged trees. The Department of Forestry feels if we can get seventy-five per cent of the little trees left in our woods undamaged that we have done pretty fine, but we don't get it. In one or two instances we have been able to show the damage at 2517, but generally it is about thirty to thirty-five per cent.
So much for seed trees. That is the practice in the virgin forest. The big undertaking we have in forestry is on cut-o ' ver lands. There is a large percentage of the cut-over lands we have now under operation for forestry purposes that was cut over years ago, where it was logged off without leaving the seed trees, and that we are trying to plant artificially, both to the seed and to the seedling. In 1920 we had, as most of you know, a great seed year. It was a wonderful gift to the South-that seed crop-and we did not know it, some of us. The South really as a whole did not take advantage of it. If we could have gotten the seed fall of 1920 on the timber lands of the South, especially in Louisiana and Mississippi-I do not know so much about what it was in Alabama and Florida, although I understand that 1920 was generally a good seed year-we would have been rich in the South today, in the longleaf belt especially. But we did not catch it except in a few places. We tried to catch some of it and did. That year the department of forestry for the Company organized some crews that fell right in behind the logging operation and picked up the cones and hauled them out to every old shed and place we could store them. If I had known then what I know now we would have harvested a great deal of slash as well as longleaf and loblolly.
We planted those seeds, most of them. At first we went into the open woods where it had been logged








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years ago and where the foresters tell us there appears to be no hope of natural reproduction,-hope all gonel You know that reminds me of a passage of scripture; you know when hope is gone there is a great deal gone. I told one of our officials one time that when I was a boy I used to hear a piney woods preacher and he preached from this text, and I looked it up one time in the bible to see what it did say. I recommend you all to look it' up when you go home, if you have bibles. Here is the scripture: "There be hope of a tree if it be cut down that it will sprout up again." I thought about that and I told my folks that the trouble with the pine tree is that it did not sprout from the stump or wood, it came only from the seed, and when we cut the pine trees off hope is gone if we don't leave any seed trees. In the winter of 1920-21 we went into the woods where it had been logged over several years ago and broadcasted the seed, scattered about a pound to the acre-and there we n- issed it. We sowed sparingly, and that reminds me of another scripture, we sowed sparingly and we are going accordingly to reap sparingly. We planted about 2800 acres in longleaf by the broadcasting method, but we have got something to show, and as time goes on it is showing up better every year. At first I thought we had hardly anything, but we have. I was out there the other day trying to pick out a place to plant some nursery stock this season and had a party with me, we thought we would take a fenced place where we had broadcasted this longleaf seed, and began to look around. Lo and behold, we would occasionally see a longleaf seedling that I knew was from the 1920 seed, and we decided we would make a more careful check. We paced off a quarter acre at one place and at another place where the soil was different we paced off half an acre, and we spent almost half a clay on 'this area finding 'out what we had to show from that seed scattering that we did in 1920-21, when we sowed sparingly. Our check and estimate is that we have got an average on that land of 45 longleaf seedlings to the acre. Now, that is a small amount. Remember, however, we made this check in the unburned woods, but the 45 is what we actually saw and counted. I believe that we can figure on another subjective benefit there. At any rate, that piece of land has been seeded. It is not thoroughly seeded, I mean it has not come up thoroughly, but it is coming.









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So much for broadcasting longleaf seed in the piney-woods cut-over lands.
That same year we fenced a piece of ground and plowed it in rows at intervals of eight feet, just a few acres for experimental purposes, and threw loblolly seed on this broken sod, and there we have something to Show for our work. We again sowed the seed sparingly; I am sorry we did not put out more seed. We would change our methods some in that respect if we were to do it again, but there is enough to encourage us and I think to warrant us in protecting it. Those seedlings, from the loblolly seed planted in 1920-1921, some of them are getting up like that now, (indicating by gesture 15 inches above floor) up above the ground. We have been fortunate in protecting it from fire. We have a fire patrol system, trying to cover a certain area in a definite way. We also in 1921-22 planted certain territory in wild stock seedlings that we took out of the natural nursery, dug them up out of the woods and planted them. Our method in that case was to mark the ground off with a plow at intervals of ten feet and try to plant the seedlings six feet in the drill. It is a very easy matter for you who are familiar with Southern soils in old cutover lands to take a mule and steel beam turning plow and turn the sod over, and we did that thinking that the seedlings would probably grow better to put them in this plowed broken sod; also it served about the cheapest way we could make a mark for the planters to follow. We had a check of that last summer. This was planting done in 1921-22, a year ago now, and I think that we have in the neighborhood of seventy-five per cent surviving, some of them growing good, some of them planted in sour, crawfish soil not doing good. That is another thing we learned, that soil conditions have to do with these things, and we have to know about that.
We took some seed that we harvested in 1920 and put in a little nursery bed in cooperation with the Department of Conservation in this State, and in this small bed we grew nearly half a million seedlings (loblolly), and we have just finished planting those to the permanent orchard. In just a little while longer we will have finished planting one million seedlings this season. We planted all the nursery stock and from that we went on into the woods where we have quantities of natural-grown seedlings and we are taking these up and carrying them over









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to the cut-over lands and putting them in what we think is good soil for the class of timber. I might say that all things considered we feel that we have about 3800 acres that is well and partially restocked by artificial means, which we are observing and protecting. So much for seed planting. Before I leave that I just want to ask right here and now if there is anybody in this building who knows where we can get some seed for next year. We would like to have it, we want to plant our nursery right now. We have written everywhere and cannot find any seed in the South.
Now, we all know about the piney woods hogs, the razorbacks. They are a great menace to longleaf and they are not the only menace by any means, but they are a menace just the same. The Great Southern conceived the idea of fencing some of their cut-over lands and we follow that policy every two or three years. We now have under fence nearly 20,000 acres and are undertaking to fence about 15,000 additional acres this season. Personally and as a native of the South and a native of the parish in which the Great Southern operations exist, I think it is one of the biggest things my Company is doing, fencing that land, not only because of the benefit I believe they are going to get out of it, but because of the benefit it is going to be to that country as a whole. It costs money, yes, and yet if you can get a large block of land under one fence the cost per acre is small. It costs, I would say, about $200.00 per mile to build a good fence, posts about 12 feet apart. It gives opportunity not only to get rid of hogs but it gives better opportunity in patrolling that territory, patrolling it against fire, and it gives an opportunity for improved grazing. It inspires confidence in the community as to the value of property of that class and such confidence is not a bad company asset. I suppose when it comes to taxation that maybe that would not be so for a time, but anyway you know our farming class of p! ople -,ave lots of cut-over lands right on their own farms, lots'of them. Now, we get cooperation from the farmers that live in the community contiguous to our lands; in fact, I think they rather approve of and rejoice in the fact that the Company is fencing in these lands. As in the past we still let them have free use of this land for grazing purposes, although some of them are doubtful about it at first, but when we put in gates wherever they WAnt them, without any locks








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-put a simple latch on them and tell them the latch string is on the outside, and to turn in their cattle and their horses and sheep, all we want you to do is to keep goats and hogs out and fire, help us do that and the pasture is yours-we have had absolutely no trouble about keeping the gates closed.
Now, we may want to pasture some ourselves some day. There is certain of this area that has not burnt over in three winters, and I can hear the stockmen who have put their stock in there already talking; "I have never seen my cattle come through the winter in as good condition as they have this year." I have been in there personally and looked at the sheep and little lambs and they are absolutely in fine condition right now, the lambs growing and playing over these rough woods, and it is my humble opinion that the fencing question will help in fire prevention and will revolutionize this question with reference to the stock industry. I believe it will. Now, of course these conditions would not apply everywhere, but in my community it happens that the Company owns great quantities of land, and it is very well blocked in places, and we are thus able to put in these fences. I think by a system of fire prevention and of grazing that we will reduce the fire hazard. Mr. Greene told us how that was done, and I agree with him that if we keep the fire out of the woods long enough we will have other grasses and growths on the land that will take the place of the sage grass, which is the greatest fire hazard known to the South, I suppose.
Gentlemen, I might go on at length discussing what we are trying to do in this way. One more thing I would like to say a few words about, and that is our fire pre. vention work and how we are coming out. We have tried to approach that in two ways; first, we have tried to do educational work in cooperation with our Department of Conservation, and to show as far as possible in the community where we live the advantage of protection and protective measures. We have tried that in various ways. In this definite area that we are trying to patrol from fire we have had no bad fires this season. The patrol covers about 103,000 acres. The Company does not own all that land; I don't know just what per cent of it it does own. However, I don't think we have lost more than two or three thousand acres of the









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part we have been patrolling, notwithstanding a very hazardous season.
There are various ways in which we can harness the powers that exist for doing things. For instantan+ , we fence our land. I knew that a certain class of hunter was going to hunt there, and they say that hunters Are a fire hazard-a certain class of them (a good sport is not)
-but there are lots of them don't know, and I posted the land: "Hunting on this land prohibited except by special permit, apply to the Department of Forestry," etc. Big signs all over it, and I put it in the local papers. I issued I expect 150 to 200 permits to hunt over that cutover aiea, and you enjoin them strictly in the permit you give them to help keep fire out and when they accept this permit they have accepted a contract with you that they will do it. You have thereby turned what was a hazard, into a protection, as it were.
There is another great hazard in our community, the hewers of ties and the hewers of wood. You can do it the same way, we are trying at least, and I am sure it has been partially successful. I have recently made a recommendation to the Company that we call on all the men who have contracts to get ties and haul wood through our lands, especially after we had some pretty bad fires in a certain territory-this territory happened to be where we were not patrolling in a definite way-to call on these fellows, and say: "Here, your contract is up, especially on this burnt over area. Now there is a place over there where you can haul wood until it burns over, and when it burns over you cannot haul any more wood until next summer." You start that kind of propaganda and you will see they will not only refrain from setting the fire out themselves but they are going to tell the other fellow and they will make good patrolmen for you. You know the wood haulers and the tie men are not especially against the woods burning, I suspect some of you know that; in fact, they want it burnt off so they can see the knots. The long grass and straw you know make the bottoms of the shoes slick and it is a little harder to get about. That was true of the turpentine tappers we discussed yes terday. But they can walk through the burnt woods, and when they begin to scent the fact that their job is gone if it burns they will make good patrolmen.









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ADDRESS
By W. K. WILLIAMS,
Forester, Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett, Ark.

Gentlemen of the Southern Forestry Congress: I am a stranger here, but I come as one who is vitally interested in the cause of forestry.
I am glad to attend this meeting as a representative of the Crossett Lumber Company, which is located at Crossett, Arkansas. We are intensely interested in the conservation of our timber resources and we are encouraged greatly to see that people in other states are thinkin- along the same lines. The State Legislature of Arkansas is now in session and I expect you will be interested to know that there are tw-o penalty fire laws and a bill providing for the establishment of a forestry department, before that body of men. The lumbermen of Arkansas are heartily behind these bills and we believe they will be passed. Arkansas has not been very progressive in conservation up to this time, but we are awakening to the great need of it. We have a Forestry, Fish, and Game Association in the State which was organized in December and at the present time it has a membership of 70 and a paid secretary who carries on the business of that organization. That Association is endeavoring to protect fish and game and conserve all natural resources through legislation and propaganda.
Private landowners and lumbermen in Arkansas are gradually seeing the light of a new era in conservation. Private landowners are asking for advice as to methods of cutting timber and putting out plantations. Lumbermen are wanting foresters to work in that capacity and to work into the industry. People of reason are demanding help in the protection of timber land from fire, as they realize the great depletion of raw material which is being brought about by that agent. States are crying out for laws which will conserve and protect our timber and other resources. Forestry associations are being formed, and everybody seems interested and eager to learn more about forestry.
Gentlemen, I am led to believe that we are entering into a new era of conservation. Forestry is coming to the f oref ront.








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The Crossett Lumber Company has been interested in forestry for years but it has not been until just recently that they have entered into it actively. We plunged into the problem last September and immediately decided to regulate our cutting of timber and to follow out some systematized methods. As a result of some study on the matter the Logging Department and the Forestry Department came to an agreement regarding the methods to be employed. At the present time we have two practical men who have been taught the necessary forestry principles involved in the marking of timber. Briefly we are using two methods: (1) In old stands leaving scattered seed trees and (2) in young stands leaving enough trees on the ground which form the basis for a second cut in 20 years from now.
In carrying out the first method we are leaving about two genuine seed-bearing trees per acre. These trees are carefully protected during logging by all the flatheads. They have been instructed not to throw any trees into the tops of the seed trees, bruise them, or throw tops within 10 feet of their bases. This method we have found works out very well, and the sawyers are cooperating with us to the best of their ability. When trees happen to get topped up, they are cleared away. The second method of cutting is that of leaving a second cut. This method is applied only in localities where we will be about to block up a large area. At the present time we are leaving a second cut in an old field of about 1500 acres. All trees left are distributed evenly over the area so that they can put on the fastest growth possible during the next 20 years. After the cutting has been made our two men who do the marking take a sufficient number of men and clean out around all trees to a radius of 6-10 feet. Stumps are being cut low and limby top logs are being taken out.
Our cutting methods are of no avail if we do not keep out the fires and this is what we are working hard to do. All 12 locomotives have been turned into oil burners and the three loaders will be so equipped to burn oil by March Ist. The logging operation keeps down all their own fires and any others which may come in where they are working. Propaganda is being spread and a fire protection organization consisting of a chief fire warden and 10-12 assistants is being formed. These men will have regular beats to patrol during our dangerous seasons.









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Another forestry operation is that of carrying on a forest survey which will cover 300,000 acres. We are finding out:
( I ) Estimate on all cut-over lands.
(2) Maps showing locations of farm land, severely burned lands, areas where insufficient seed trees have been left for a second cut and location of areas where we can get a second cut in 15-20 years from now.
(3) Our data is being taken so that we can correlate it with growth studies. The Crossett Lumber Company wants to know how much our timber lands are growing every year so that we can limit our cut to growth being put on and thus eventually put the forest on a sustained yield basis. We have now three men working on this problem and during the summer we expect to have on eight crews or about 16 men.
We have established one permanent sample plot in order to study the growth of loblolly and shortleaf pine which has come in naturally on cut-over lands in Arkansas. The Crossett Lumber Company has great faith in forestry and we are directly opposed to the old idea of cutting out and getting out. We believe in conservation and continuation.









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ADDRESS
CONSERVATION FROM A HARDWOOD
MANUFACTURER'S STANDPOINT.
By C. H. SHERRILL,
President, Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute, New Orleans, La.


It is indeed a pleasure to be here today, and I am grateful to your officers for the invitation to address this distinguished gathering. It would be interesting under almost any conceivable conditions to meet such a splendid body of men. The pleasure of this meeting is intensified by the belief that our views and purposes are in entire harmony respecting the subject which brings you together in this meeting.
From what I have learned of your purposes and your plans, I take it that among other things you are primarily interested in the preservation and prolongation of the life of our forests. You are looking into the future for your children and your children's children; for those who will indefinitely succeed you as directors, stockholders, superintenclents and managers of the business institutions you represent. You are interested that not only the present generation, but future generations shall have as adequate a supply of timber and lumber as it is possible for intelligent planning and constructive measures to assure them. As lumber manufacturers we are as profoundly interested in this as you can possibly be.
You are interested, as we are interested, in the conservation of our forest resources, and we are therefore, in common, interested in the means and measures by which it may be most wisely and effectively accomplished.
I will pass by for the present such important topics as reforestation, fire prevention, the fighting of insects and other causes of blight and go directly to a subject of even greater interest, if possible, than these, because of the timeliness of the discussion, in view of developments in the lumber industry within the last year, and because also of its vast significance to the cause of conservation. I desire to speak of the tremendous saving possible through more economical manufacture, merchandising and utilization of our timber resources-and I speak especially of hardwoods, for the conditions I speak of do not obtain,









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generally speaking, in respect to the lumber industry as a whole, to the same extent as in respect to hardwoods alone.
Hardwood lumber is largely re-manufactured or fabricated into commodity articles. In this respect it differs generally from soft woods, which are largely prepared at once for utilization, for example in construction work of various kinds. In reducing hardwood trees into finished products made of hardwood lumber there probably will always be at best a very large shrinkage in volume. In this process at the present time under grade rules which have obtained in the industry for a quarter of a century the shrinkage in volume reaches an almost unbelievable figure. The quantity of lurAer which takes its place in finished articles such as ordinary articles of furniture interior trim, music cabinets, chairs, hardwood flooring and so forth, is such a small percentage of the gross volume of the hardwood trees cut as to be startling.
William A. Durgin, Chief, Division of Simplified Practice, of the Department of Commerce, addressing an assemblage of lumbermen in July last, speaking of waste, said: I "It is in this most serious situation that the Department of Commerce hopes to be of vital assistance. Responding to Secretary Hoover's question, 'What can the Department do to helpY many business leaders have urged the great promise of material reduction of costs all along the line through waste elimination, and the elimination they have in view is quite a different thing from the 'conservation' you lumbermen have heard very possibly ad nauseam. It happens that this subject of waste has long been a primary interest to Hoover. Some two years ago when he was president of the Federated American Engineering Societies, the organization undertook a careful survey of the wastes in six major industries-boots and shoes, clothing, textiles, printing, metal trades and building construction. The results are published by the McGrawHill Book Co. in 'Waste in Industry,' and would well repay your detailed reading, but the outstanding fact for the moment is: this report shows that on the average, these six industries are being operated with a waste of 40 per cent
-40% of the capital, material labor, mental effort just thrown away with nothing to show for itl Of course, it's an engineer's report and some of you may want to discount the technical man's findin-s, but surely you'll admit these engineers are at least half right and that would mean a waste of









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20 per cent-$I out of every $5 destroyed. Assuming that something similar applies in your special field, this means an absolute waste of at least $1,000,000,000 and very probably much more in lumber last year. At least a half billion dollars wasted already this year, even allowing for decreased production."
If the figures given are correct for the six industries treated, undoubtedly they are conservative for the hardwood branch of the lumber industry, for there the informed know the waste is unusually heavy.
Competent authorities estimate that there is in the hardwood industry a loss and waste of at least 500,000,000 feet annually of hardwood lumber, because lumber grades are not so formulated as to make possible proper economic utilization of hardwood lumber; in other words grades are such that fabricating consumers cannot avoid enormous waste in the utilization of the lumber which they are compelled to accept under present grade specifications and merchandising methods.
It is not my purpose to discuss this subject with you today in a technical way. I assume that while many of you no doubt know lumber rul es quite as well as the average, that some of you are not so informed and it would hardly be proper at this time to undertake to discuss what might be termed the technical phases of grade rules under which such a condition has so long been possible and continues with us at the present. I will endeavor however, to indicate the general character of the situation. A certain grade of lumber, for illustration, is determined as to its grade classification by specific defects such as knots for instance, without any regard to the location of such defects in the board, or piece of lumber and without any regard to the actual net yield of the piece in any fabricated sizes that may be required by the different indus. tries using lumber of that general character. Not only is the situation thus with respect to the defects, but the grade taken for illustration includes a varying number of the defects with respect to the width and length of the board. Furthermore, the grade embraces boards in respect to width from 3 inches on up without limit.
Such a condition of grade structure in its practical application exhibits facts which should have careful consideration. Some of these boards can be used to considerable advantage by, say a table manufacturer requir-









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ing good long wide cuttings with a smaller percentage of shorter cuttings, but this class of manufacturer could not use without enormous waste, the boards which would produce only long narrow strips or ripping.
On the other hand, certain classes of manufacturers such, for instance, as the manufacturers of hardwood flooring and chair manufacturers, can use with greater economy and to better advantage, the boards producing the long narrow ripping than the wide boards producing the comparatively short cuttings. And the boards thus capable of economical use by such manufacturers would to a marked degree, be unsuited to the other classes of manufacturers.
These illustrations will provide you with the key thought to the basic inadequacy of present grade rule specifications in the hardwood lumber industry. There is no mystery about the matter. It is simplicity itself-although the remedy may not be simple or easy of accomplishment.
When we reflect that some of the boards falling within a given grade at the present time may be used by one class of manufacturer with only 10 or 15 per cent of waste, and when we reflect that other manufacturers using the same identical boards could not use them without as much as 70 or 80 per cent of waste, and when we further reflect that no particular consuming industry can use to advantage all of the boards that fall within present grade definitions of any grade, and that every industry experiences a vast variation in the waste that obtains in working different boards which fall within the present grades, and that under present grade specifications any user, whatever his line of manufacture, would have to accept all of these boards in one grade and pay the same price for them, we will realize fully that there is imperative need for fundamental treatment of this subject, because rules which permit such a condition are antiquated, crude and unscientific and make imperative an enormous waste of lumber.
I do not mean gentlemen, merely to say that under these rules a large amount of waste is possible; I mean to make it much stronger. I mean to say that under these rules a vast amount of unnecessary waste is inevitable because they have not been based on production possibilities ard consumption requirements with a sensible common sense eff ort to fit the one to the other in the best way possible in order to consume the maximum amount of the lumber








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produced from the tree with the minimum amount of waste.
There are those who contend that the rules which are commonly used are relatively perfect It is clairred for them that they are the result of evolution during a period of twenty-five years. On this subject I would like to quote a distinguished writer, Mr. Hugh Farrell the Financial Editor of the New York Commercial. He says:
"Opponents of grading reforms in the hardwood branch of the lumber industry contend that existing rules have been arrived at in the course of "evolution," and that upon the basis of the principles of evolution in general they must be accepted as the best that the human mind can devise. As a matter of fact, so far as we can see, there is nothing in the rules that suggests evolution; to our untrained eye they appear to have been standing still for the entire term of their life."
Mr. Farrell's observation is essentially just.
The question will naturally arise in your mind and you may desire to inquire of me why such a condition came about in respect to hardwood lumber grading rules, and why, if it did come about, it was allowed to continue and to persist to the present day.
Such an inquiry would embarrass me to some extent only for the reason that I could not truthfully answer it without seeming to criticize, and I would prefer, if possible, to avoid entering a controversial field. However, I am sure that I may, with propriety, state a few facts about which there can be no real controversy, and I think I can do this by making a brief quotation from an address recently delivered by a gentleman who is an authority on the subject of which he speaks. On this subject he said in part:
"Originally inspection rules were provided purely for the purpose of having some arbitrary measure by which the log run product could be separated into parts. Lumber at that time was very cheap, the cost of fabricating because of labor costs and low overhead was materially less than it is now; the average quality of lumber was better and therefore the percentage of waste was correspondingly lower. In addition to all this the average factory utilizing hardwoods made a greater variety of articles than are being manufactured today at any one plant, and could









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utilize a greater variety and a greater number of different size cuttings.
"That method of grade construction, which had for its purpose purely the determination of the average value of the log run product, has never been departed from. From time to time slight changes have been made, but these changes have usually been dictated by the whims of s-ime interested individual, and have never had any relation to the needs of consumption. In this respect the hardwood industry differs from all other branches of the lumber business. In all other kinds of lumber, a study has been made of the consumer's needs, with the result that in these woods there are available to the consumers standardized grades that will answer their specific requirements with a minimum of waste, and at the same time the operators are provided with a ready market for the entire product of the log.
"There are several reasons why hardwoods have not made the progress in this respect that has been made in other lines of lumber manufacture. One reason is that the problem is much more difficult because we have so many different kinds of woods to consider, and a vastly greater number of utilization problems. Another reason, and I believe really the controlling reason, is that the hardwood manufacturing units represent in the main an insignificant individual production, and operate on a very meager capital. Originally, or when grade specifications were first provided, practically all hardwood saw mills were very small institutions. Their operators had no opportunity to study market conditions, knew nothing about merchandising their products, and sold their lumber almost exclusively through middlemen or jobbers on such terms, prices and conditions as were dictated by the latter. In the beginning, therefore, the sawmill man had practically no voice in the formulation of grading rules, and while lately there has been in evidence a greater disposition to assert his rights, it is a deplorable fact that the standards by which the sawmill man sells his products have always been fixed by the dealer."
Supplementing what was here stated, I may say that the historical development and control of the grade making functions by those who are responsible for the present grades came to be such that no comprehensive, constructive changes in grade rules have been possible, if we may judge the possibility by actual accomplishment.









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The manufacturers and the consumers in submitting to the continuance of a condition where they can be dominated, and any constructive action they desire taken can be defeatcd, is an absurd and intolerable condition.
The situation in this regard in the hardwood industry is entirely different from all other branches of the industry. In these other branches the manufacturers have made their grade rule definitions, naturally doing so after consultation with and taking in full consideration the desires of the consumers.
Why hardwood producers and consumers have not made their wants and desires known and asserted their rights to the extent of securing proper grade formulation in the hardwood lumber industry in the years past is a question which will always be a source of wonder if not of mystery to many of us.
Be that as it may, many hardwood lumber manufacturers have seen with clearness for a long time the vice of the present situation, and at least, some consumers have realized the inadequacy of the present rules.
A well known writer, writing from the standpoint of consuming industries, criticized severely present rules as not taking into consideration the question of utility,-that is, the purpose to which the lumber is intended to be put. This writer asked the question,-"What is the matter with the National Hardwood inspection rules?" and he says that the answer can be put into a few words and then he gives the answer as follows: "The National Hardwood inspection rules send to the junk pile at least four boards out of every ten that fall from the saw."
Others who are qualified to speak have declared that actual tests show that from 30 to 40 per cent of the current waste experienced. by fabricating manufacturers can be avoided by proper and thorough practical adaptation of the lumber to the requirements of the particular fabricator, by means of properly formulated specifications. It is easy to realize that there is need of such adaptation when we reflect that these antiquated rules largely took their form years before the advent of specialized wood working; before, for instance the automobile industry became a factor in American industrial life, and before the days of specialized manufactures such as we have now where a great plant or group of plants may be confined to the manufacture of one or two items of similar character.








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In other words, these rules never based on any practical consideration of factory needs, have become more and more inadequate because of the character of specialized factory work, which has taken place. In the factories of twenty years ago where a great multiplicity of articles were made in the same shop it was possible to use the grades with less waste than at present where one factory will be devoted entirely to the manufacture of tables, another to the manufacture of . chairs, another to the manufacture of flooring and so forth.
These brief and somewhat disjointed observations I trust have given you some little insight into the character of the condition which needs to be remedied.
The Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute and the hardwood manufacturers with which I am associated, believe that the proper way to approach the remedying of this condition is to consider the facts of utility, and this must be done by making the determining factor of every grade of lumber the net yield that can be obtained in as nearly the fabricated sizes as practicable. In other words, the net yield is the clear or good or usable material in the piece as the case may be that should determine its grade classification.
In no other way can the consumer know that cost holds a logical relation to the quantity yield of his lumber and in no other way can the consumer reckon with any degree of confidence on the approximate yield for his purpose for any given quantity of lumber. It is furthermore the belief of these manufacturers, and I may say that it seems to be equally emphatically the belief of the consumers of the lumber who have given attention to this subject, that such formulation of grades can be made only after an actual ascertainment in reasonable detail of the needs and requirements of the consumers and the possibilities of production of the producers.
There are elements involved in this matter which cause uneasiness on the parts of some who are interested in the subject, especially the manufacturers. Since we have been laboring with this problem which is very positively and directly a phase of the general lumber standardization and simplification program inaugurated at the suggestion of Mr. Hoover, we have had many producers to say in substance this: "All of this sounds very nice from the standpoint of the consumer who would, of course, like to have









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hardwood lumber cut into the exact dimensions to fit his every need, but as there are some eight or nine thousand hardwood consumers using various kinds of hardwood lumber, and using these in various sizes, etc., it is impossible and absurd to expect the producer to cut up his logs into any such numbers and kinds and sizes of commodities and no one but an impractical theorist would advocate anything of the kind."
Of course those who have had such thoughts and have voiced such criticism have not understood what is really aimed at. We have at all times pointed out that it is impossible to make grades in the number and variety and with the varying specifications to exactly fit the needs of every consumer because no hardwood producer could manufacture and assemble and separate his production into any such number of grades or lots.
The practical limitations of the small, as well as the large hardwood lumber manufacturers constitute conditions which must at all times be kept in view in any solution of this matter. Furthermore, the practical requirements of the consumers must be likewise duly considered and given full play, for as it has been well stated, it would be absurd for producers to attempt to standardize what consumers cannot use, and consumers cannot standardize what manufacturers cannot produce, and in order for one to be commensurate with the other, grade rule specifications should be the result of the joint or united judgment of the producers and the consumers.
One of the fundamental troubles with the situation in the past is that the jobbers have endeavored to a degree to usurp functions which properly belong to the manufacturers and the consumers, and in making this statement I do not desire to be understood as imputing any deliberate wrong motives to anyone. I merely mean to point out that in my judgment such has been the effect of the historical development of the grade rule and merchandising situation in the hardwood lumber industry.
There has been much effort expended to misrepresent the position of the Hardwood Manufacturers Institute on this question. It has been represented as opposed to the jobbers; it has been stated and reiterated that it was the purpose and plan of the Institute to eliminate the wholesaler-meaning by the wholesaler, -the jobbers-in the industry.









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Nothing could be further from the fact. A very large part of the output of the hardwood lumber industry is merchandised through the intermediate dealers and there is no purpose or desire on the part of anyone so far as I know to eliminate them from the trade, but on the contrary we desire the most cordial and helpful relations to subsist between them and the manufacturers, but we think that they should occupy the position in the hardwood lumber industry that jobbers and dealers occupy in other industries. They should in the first place not seek to usurp the rightful functions of the consumers or the manufacturers and they should be willing to function as merchants and distributors, and they should whole-heartedly join the manufacturers and the consumers in accomplishing the realization of the constructive policies such as providing guarantees to the public and consumers of the quantity and the quality of lumber purchased.
There are so many reasons why there should be uniformity in the names and designations, not only of trees and woods, but of grades and 'kinds and qualities of lumber, as well as sizes-so far as that is practicablethat I will not undertake to go into detail. I may mention however, in passing, that if there were so far as possible, uniformity in size of competitive woods it would make for the interest of the ultimate consumer, for instance, the builder, because he would have a large variety of kinds to choose from in filling his requirements. There is no reason whatever why various kinds of hardwood grades should not compete with soft woods in certain localities and under certain conditions for many purposes, such, for instance, as framing, sheathing, and so forth.
I have already indicated that the problem of remedying a wide- spread fundamentally wrong condition by comprehens4ve treatment was undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. Hoover.
I have not however, given an adequate idea of the comprehensiveness of this movement because I have spoken principally of hardwoods. The program contemplates every kind and character of lumber. There are some thirteen or fourteen lumber manufacturers associations in the United States, having to do with practically every variety of wood manufactured, such for example as Southern Pine Association, Southern Cypress Manufacturers Association, North Carolina Pine Association, California Red









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Wood Association and so forth. These lumbermen upon the initiative of their administrative organization - the National Lumber Manufacturers Association-of the United States, initiated this comprehensive movement pursuant to Mr. Hoover's suggestion, and in order that the matter might be given the best and most t ' thorough consideration and that the conclusions reached should be as nearly just and satisfactory to everyone as possible-consumers, retailers and wholesalers, architects and engineers and others have joined in the plans for thoroughly working out a program which will remedy the entire situation. These various elements thus brought together created what has been for convenience termed the Central Committee on Lumber Standards, and is pressing its work particularly in respect to four phases of the general problems:
First: With a view to simplification of lumber grades and grade names.
Second: The standardization of lumber sizes.
Third: Adequate and practical guarantee to the buyers and users of lumber; for the proper delivery of both quantity and quality, and
Fourth: Improvement and extension of lumber inspection service as an aid to the maintenance of the established grade standards.
This has been declared to be by all odds the most farreaching and ambitious program that has been undertaken by any major American Industry.
The lumber industry of the United States ranks third in respect to labor employed, using over 700,000 men and third in the value added by manufacture, and ninth in respect to value of its production.
One of the first acts of the Hardwood Manufacturers Institute after the Lumber Conference held at Mr. Hoover's suggestion at Washington in May, was to emphatically approve the action taken and the plans made by the conference, and to pledge itself in all practical ways to aid the speedy accomplishment of the program thus outlined. With that end in view it immediately began through the instrumentality of its Standardization and Grading Rules Committee to secure the cooperation of, and to offer its cooperation to consumers in ascertaining their wishes, needs and requirements. As a part of this program it organized an Engineering Department and began the making of surveys, in cooperation with consumers, in order to provide









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the essential basic data upon which proper grade rules might be formulated in order in the most perfect fashion possible to fit production to consumption needs.
The industry as a whole as organized through the Central Committee on Lumber Standards, is having the full cooperation of the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Commerce.
A development of the greatest moment in this connection has been the enlistment of the services of the Forest Products Laboratory for the purposes of making the essential surveys and helping to formulate a system of grade rules scientifically arrived at, and based upon the substructure of facts in respect to both production and consumption. as the same may be disclosed by the surveys determined upon. The Hardwood Manufacturers Institute has placed at the disposal of the Forest Products Laboratory all of its facilities in order to aid it in the work which it has undertaken, and is proceeding in thorough cooperation with all of the other elements of the lumber industry, pursuant to the comprehensive plans which have been made and announced by the Central Committee on Lumber Standards.
To my mind after all, the great basic underlying thought of the whole situation is summed up in the word CONSERVATION. I have always believed that the enlightened manu. facturer is the most enthusiastic conservationist in the world. There are some faddists and impractical theorists who regard all kinds of utilization as . wanton destruction." This is not only unfair, but it is worse-it is demagogic. Utilization is one thing and destruction is another. And if, as we have every reason to believe Mr. Hoover's vision for simplification and standardization in the lumber industry is measurably achieved by the industry itself through the constructive program going forward under the guidance of the Central Committee on Lumber Standards, millions of feet of hardwood lumber, to say nothing of the other varieties, will be saved and conserved annually for the future. When we appreciate the fact that it is reliably estimated that such a reform as is contemplated respecting grade rules, will result in the annual saving of 500,000,000 feet of hardwoods alone, and will save more than a billion dollars annually in waste in the industry as a whole, and when we remember that authorities tell us that a billion feet of lumber can be in this way saved at less cost than a million feet can be grown, it is easy to appreciate




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H•++ I I I I I I H I I I I I I 1-+-l+I-+ I I I I ++-1+1-+ I I I I I I I I I I I I PROCEEDINGS OF THE Fifth Southern Forestry Congress HELD AT MONTGOMERY , ALABAMA JANUARY 29-3 I, 1923 +++-1-++-1+1--i+H+i-+++++++++++++++++++++-++-1+1-++++

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99,9 5121 p v.5-1 AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY'

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OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES oF THE FIFTH SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS President : -W . D . Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va . Chairman of the Executive Committee:-Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director, North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. Secretary :-R. D. For bes, Director, Southern For est Experiment Station, New Orleans, La. Assistant Secretary :-Alfred B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester, Charlottesville, Va. Executive Committee The Chairman The chairmen of the committees on Finance, Legislation, and Publicity. The President ; Secretary, and Assistant Secretary . Finance Committee H. W . Shields, General Manager, Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co. , Roanoke, Va., Chairman. I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery , Ala. E. A. Hauss, President, Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co. , Century, Fla . M. H. Foerster, Consolidation Coal Co., Jenkins , Ky. Major Geo. L. Wood, R. E. Wood Lumber Co., Baltimore, Md. Frederick Dunlap , Columbia, Mo. W. B. Townsend, President, Little River Lumber Co., Townsend, Tenn. L. D. Gilbert, General Manager, Southern Pine Lumber Co., Texarkana, Tex. C. W. Boyd, White Oak l, u mlie . r Co., Putnam, Va.

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Legislation Committee J. S. Holmes, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C . , Chairman. Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Mo. R. L. Hogue, Manager Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miu. E. 0. Siecke, State Forester, College Station, Tex. B. H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville . Ga. Publicity Committee H. E. Hardtner , President, Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La., Chairman . A ; A. Coult, Secretary, Florida Development Board , Jackson ville, Fla . R. S. Maddox , State Forester, Nashville, Tenn. J . E. Rhodes, Secretary-Manager, Southern Pine Aaaociation, New Orleans, La. C. S. Ucker, General Development Agent, Seaboard Air Line, Savannah, Ga. Alabama Committee I. T. Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, Chairman. E. F . Allison, President, Allison Lumber Co., Bellamy . Geo . C. Hamilton, Manager, Ark-Ala Lumber Co . , Wetumpka . Jaa. H . Jones , Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century , Fla. B. M. Lufburrow, Forest Supervisor, Moulton. W. T . McGowin, Mac Lumber Co., Jackson. E . L. More, President, Horseshoe Lumber Co., River Falla. W. T . Neal, Manager, T. R. Miller Mill Co., Brewton. H . H . Patterson, President, W. M. Carney Mill Co ., Atmore. Sellers Vredenburgh, Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ORDER OF SPEAKERS Preface .. . .. .... . .. . . . . ........ . .... .. .. ... . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. ... . .. . ........ . . . ................ . ... . ....... . . .. .. . ..... 8 Address of Welcome .. . ... . ...... . ..... . . . ...... .. . . .................... . ... .. .. . . . . . . ... ..... .. . .. . . 9 Governor W . W. Brandon of Alabama . Reply to Governor's Welcome . .. . . .. . ....... ... .......... ........... .. .. . .. . . ......... I 4 M . L. Alexander, Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La . President's Address . .. ... . .. ... .. ..... . ... . . . .. ........ . . . ... . .. . .. ... . . . ..... . ....... . ...... .... . . . 18 W . D. Tyler, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dant e, Va . Secretary's Report ......... . ... . ... .. ........ . .... ....... . ..... . . . .. .. .... ... ... . .. .. .... . .. .. . .. .. ... 24 R . D . Forbes, Director , Southern Forest Experim e nt Station , New Orlean,, La. Financial Statement ... ... . .. .... . .. ....... . ....... ... .. ... .. .. ..... . . .. . ....... ... ....... .. . . . . . .. .. 2 5 Report of Executive Committee . . .. . . ... . . .... .... . .. . . ..... .. . .. . . .. . . ..... .. .... 2 7 Jos e ph Hyde Pratt, Dir ec t or, Geolo11ical and Economic Sur vey, C hapel Hill, N . C . Report of Legislation Committee ... . .. .. ...... . . . . .. . ... .. . ..... . . .. .. .. ... .. . .. ... 30 J . S, Holme•, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N . C. Comment by Committee Members .. ... . ... .. . .. . .. . .... . ..... .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 3 7 Roy L. Hog ue, Manager, Interior Lumber Co,. Ja ckson , Miss.; B . H . Stone, Pfister & Vog e l Land Co., Blairsvill e , Ga . ; E. 0. Siecke, State Forester , College Station, Texas; Frederick Dunlap, Secretary, Missouri Forestry As s n., Co lumbia., Mo. Address-Research in Forest Fires. ..... . ......... .. . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .... .. . . . . 4 I R. D . Forbes, D irector. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La. Address-Grazing as Affected by Range Fires in the Longleaf Pine Belt... .. . .. . .... . .... . ...... . . . .. . .................... . ... . .... . .. . ........ 4 7 S . W . Greene, . Sup eri ntendent, Coasta l Plain Expe rim ent St a tion, McNeill, Miss . Address-Organization or Methods in Fire Protection ... 5 5 Chapin Jon e,, State Forester, Cha rlottesville, Va . Address-Forest Fire Problems in the Southern Appalachians ..... , ... . . .... . .. . . . .. .. ... .. .... ... . ...... .. . ... ... ... .. ..... .... . . . .. . . ... ............. 64 E . F. McCarthy, Silviculturiat, Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, N. C. AddressForestry for the Private Landowner ... .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. 72 Henry E . Hardtner, Preaident , Urania Lumber Co . , Urania, La .

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Address-Forestry Work of the Great Southern .. . .. .. .. . .. 7 7 J . K . J o hnson, Sup e r i nt e nd e nt of For e stry D ep ar t m e nt, Great S outh e rn Lumber Co., B og alu sa , L a. Address ...... . ... . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .............. . .... . . .. . ... .... . ...... .. . . . . ..... . ...... ... .. .. . . . .. ........ . ..... 86 W . K. William s , F o r e st e r, C ro s s e tt Lumb e r Co . , C r os s e tt, Ark a n s as . Address-Conservation from a Hardwood Manufacturer's Standpoint .. ........ .. .. .. . ... ... ....... .. .. . .. ............ .... ....... .... ........ 89 C . H . Sh e rrill, Pr es id e nt, H a r d wood Manufacturers ' In s titut e, N e w Orl e ans, La . Addresses before the Senate and House of Representa tives, Alabama Legislature: J . C. Pet e rs ... ... ............ .. . .. . . ... .. . .. . .... . .... ... .... .. .. . . . .. .. .. . ..... ... . ........ . ..... 104 M . L. Al e xand e r ..................... .. .... ........ . ... ........ ........... . ...... .... . ........ 1 1 0 Henry E . Hardtner .. .. .. ... .. . ...... . . .. .. . . ... ... . .. .. .. . ...... .. .... . . . ........ ..... ... 11 5 Address-Forestry and Homes ....... ..... ................. .. ........... .. .. .. ... .. .... 118 C . B . H ar man, S ec r e tary, South e rn S a s h , D o or and Mill wo rk Manu f acturers' A ss n., Atl a nt a , Ca. Address-How Some Southern Business Men Vi~w Forestry ..... .. .. ...... ... ... .. . ..... .. . ..... . ...... . ....... .. ...... .... ... ...... .. ...... .. .......... .. . 123 Austin C a ry, Lo g ging En g in ee r , U . S. For es t Se r v ic e , Wa s hin g• t o n, D . C . Address-The Development of Fire Protection in Texas .. ...... .. .. .. .. ... ... .. ...... . .. .. .............. .. .... . .. .. .. . ........ ..... .. .. .. ..... . .. .. ..... ..... 137 Pa ge S , Bunk e r , A s si s ta nt Stat e For es t e r, Co ll ege Stati o n , T e xa s. Address-Development of Forestry in the States . .......... .... 1 4 I J . C . P e t e r s , U. S . F o r e st S e rv i ce, Wa s hington , D. C. Address-Forestry in Alabama ... ............ .. ....... ... . . .. ..... . ......... . .... . .. 14 7 J o hn L. Kaul , Pr es id e n t , Kaul Lumb er Co. , Birmin g h a m, Ala . Address-Alabama's Forestry Problems .. .. .. . .. ..... . ... .. .. .. . ..... . ... . . 152 I. T. Quinn, C ommi s si o n e r o f Co n se rv a tion, M o nt g om e ry, Ala . Discussion ......................... . ..... .. ............ . .... . . ... .... . .... . .. . . ... . . .. . ....... .. .... .. ....... .. . I 5 7 Address-What the National Forests Mean to the South . .... . ... .. .... . .. . ...... .. ... . . .... ....... ... . .. . ... . ... ... . .... .. . . ... . . . ............ . . . .... . ....... 161 Jos ep h H yde Pratt, Dir ec t o r, G eo l ogica l a nd Econ o mi c Survey, C ha pe l Hill , N. C. Address . .. . .. . .. .. ..... .. ....................... .. . . ...... . .. . ..... . .............. .. ...... . .. ... ..... . .. . .. .. . .. . . . 1 6 7 Mrs . J . L. Stark e, C ha ir man , C ommi t t ee on C on se rvation, Al a bama F ede r a tion of Wo m e n 's C lub s , Tr o y, Al a. Address . . . . ... : .. ...... ... . . ... . ... . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . ..... .. . ... ... . ... . . . . ... . ... . . . ..... .. ...... .. ......... . .... .. . 1 7 1 Mrs . J o hn D . W i nt e r , St a t e C hairman , Dau g hters of the American Revolution , M o ntgom e r y , Ala .

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Address-The Agricultural Development of Cut Over Lands . ......................... . ....... .. ............................ . .. ......... . . ..... .... ... . ... .. . ... . . 175 R oy C. Bishop , S ec r e t ary. Mana ge r , A l aba m a Farm Bur ea u Fede r a ti on, M o nt go m e ry, A]a . Discussion ........ . .................. . .. . . . ...... . ... .. ... ....... . ................ . ....... . ... .. . . . . . .. .. . .... ,. 1 7 7 Resolutions Adopted by the Congress ... . ... . ......................... . . ... . . .. 183 Officers of the Sixth Congress . . .. . .. .. .... . .. .. ... . ......... . .... .... . . ..... . ......... 188 Appendix: Patrons, Fifth Southern Forestry Congress .............. . . .. 190 List of Delegates, Fifth Southern Forestry Congress . .. . .. .. .. . .. . ... .. .. ... . . .. . ...... .. . .. ......... ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. . ... .. .... ......... l 9 3

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PREFACE The Fifth Southern Forestry Congress a imed to return to the precedent of the first two Congresses in keeping down the number of prepared addresses and encouraging the informal discussion of each paper or speech as it was presented. This aim was largely carried out, and injected a spontaneity and variety into our somewhat lengthy pro gram of three days which could have been achieved in no otherway. It furthermore tended to keep the meeting out of the hands of a small group of set speakers-men and women whose interest and support were already assured -and to place it in the hands of the entire audience. As the Congresses are avowedly held with the purpose of reaching the ears and minds of those who have hitherto not espoused our cause, the large amount of informal siscussion indulged in by the Fifth Congress was the source of great satisfaction to all of our friends. Unfortunately these proceedings as here presented in clude .by no means all of the discussions which took place. An unforseen breakdown in our arrangements for a steno graphic report of all six sessions is partly to blame. But had a verbatim transcript of all that was said at Mont gomery been available, it would probably have been im possible for the Secretary, whose task it is to edit the proceedings, to arrange a complete and orderly account. Like all other officers of the Congress, the Secretary per forms the work which he has assumed in its behalf a t such times as he can spare from his regular and official duties. His ability to do the work at all depends on his limiting the time spent within reasonable bounds. These proceedings suffer somewhat in consequence. In fact, with out the help of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. Weston, and of Miss Vera M. Spuhler of the Southern Forest Experi ment Station, this volume could not have been com pleted at all within the time allowed. It is a matter of particular regret to the editor that for the reasons given in the text of the proceedings we are unable to print the notable addresses of the Reverend P. A. Simpkin , Chaplain of the Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo, and of Mrs . Louis A. Neill, President of the Alabama Federation of Women's Clubs.

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE Fifth Southern Forestry Congress HELD AT MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA JANUARY 29-31, 1923 Monday, _ January 29 Morning Session, 10 :00 A. M. The meeting was called to order by President Tyler, in the auditorium of the Montgomery Chamber of Com merce. Doctor Charles A. Stakely, Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Montgomery, delivered an invocation. ADDRESS OF WELCOME. By the HONORABLE W. W. BRANDON, Governor of Alabama. Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a great plea sure for me to welcome this body of thoughful m en and women to what I choose to term the greatest state in the American Union. You meet not only in a great stat e but perhaps in the most historic city in the South. It was here that Davis took the oath of office as President of the Confederacy. But thank God those days of struggle have passed, and today as I stand in this presence, from the dome of that old Confederate capitol floats the stars and stripes of our American Union, and we in the South yield to no men more loyalty to that flag or to that Union than the descendants of the Confederate veterans. Alabama is perhaps one of the greatest states in natural resources of any Southern state. Her fertile fields, her smooth meadows, her navigable rivers, her mountain mines, her timbered forests , all speak in thunder tones of her material wealth. The beautiful valley of the Tennessee

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10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE that lies on her northern border can nowhere be surpassed, while the hidden treasures of the outlying hills in the Bir mingham district find comparison nowhere. The fertility of her soil in the Black Belt is equal to that of the Valley of the Nile. Her timbered forests are excelled nowher e, while down upon the glittering sanqs of Mobile's Bay we find an outlet to the world for a market. What then is lacking? We should with energy sow and reap, mine and manufacture, export and import , and fill the earth with the material blessings of Alabama. But you thoughtful men, catching a vision of the future, have gathered in your Congress in order that these natural advantages of Alabama and of the South should not be destroyed with negligent hands, but shall be conserved in order that the South may take its proper place in in dustry and in the development and conservation of its nat ural resources. It is a privilege then for me to greet you as the rep resentative of the people of this great Commonwealth. The South, long noted for its hospitality, Alabama partic:u larly, welcomes you to her borders, opening her heart and her hand to you while you deliberate, not only for her interest but the interest of the peopl e whom you rep resent in this great Southern country of ours. It might not be amiss for me to say to you that so far as the particular industry which you represent is con cerned, that in 1 91 0 Alabama ranked first in lumber pro duction. In 19 I O Mobile's port on our Southern border ranked first in the exportation of lumber of any port in this country. In 1919 Alabama ranked third in lumber production, falling from first to third place. In I 9 I 9 Mobile's port ranked sixth in the export of lumber, falling from first to sixth place, due largely perhaps to lack of c onservation of our natural re s ources in this country and the ruthless cutting of timber . Alabama now ranks seventh in production. These figures indicate to the mind of the thoughtful man that it is high time that the thought of this Congress should take cognizance of the fact that if we continue and do not make some preparation for the future that the generations to come will be lacking these great material industries and these benefits from our tim ber that we now enjoy . We do not legislate , Mr. President, for a day; we do not think for a day. I have respect, gentlemen, for that man or woman who sees more in the tree than the bark that encases it, but sees in the trees

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS II a mighty mill that fashions the unfinished product into the finished product; who sees in the tree a city builded and its teeming thousands, busy and happy in industrial pursuits; yea, verily, who sees in the heart of the tree the casket, gentlemen, that takes him to his lasting resting place. Men who have that v1s1on are really statesmen and patriots. I have respect, ladies, for the woman who riding . through the fields of the South and seeing the blossom on the cotton, sees more in that cotton than its fleecy beauty, but sees in it a cotton dress for the citi zen of our country. I have respect, Mr. Chairman, for that man who sees more in the grain of wheat than its kernel, but sees the loaf of bread that is to feed our teem ing thousands. Therefore, I take it that this Congress has a vision for the future. In Alabama today, due possi bly to the fact that she ranked first back yonder in 191 0, there are six and a half millions of acres-think of it , Mr. President,-six and a half millions of acres of cut over lands that are valueless today to the Commonwealth or to its citizens, because of lack or preparation for the future. These cut-over lands are in the pine area of the state . Fifty per cent of these lands are non-cultivable. It seems that when God Almighty created this earth, gen tlemen, he designed that the mighty timbers of the for ests should be rooted in the soil and give to generations yet unborn the privileges that we have enjoyed. This can be done and ought to be done by proper legisla tion, so as to insure these lands beginning to produce timber for the future, as I recommended in my recent message to the Legislature. We have here in Alabama men who know the lumber business, men who perhaps have lost money in the lumber business, certainly after the war when prices slumped and lumber was piled at mills and there was no transportation for it. And trans portation is essential, and these cut-over lands are not far from the port of Mobile. So Alabamians arose in their might and passed a bill authorizing the issuanc'e of bonds in the State, for the State to lend its credit in order to open the port of Mobile and build there the best port in the South. Let us conserve these lands for the future that we may utilize our water power and our transportation facilities in order that the lumber indus try of this country may not come to an end. I do not know how it is in your state, Mr. President, or in your state, Mr. Delegate, but I am sick and tired

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12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE m this state of hearing the cry of hard times. It is set to music in this country. I went out recently when I w a s candidate for governor--and I went out frequently then -to see an old farmer friend of mine. I alighted and went into his barn and said " How are you, Bill?.. H e said "It is hard times." I began to untie the hame string that loosely held the collar on the neck of his old horse and found that the leather out of which that string was made came from the back of a cow that was raised in Tennessee. I cut open a sack of corn and found that it was raised in Illinois . I broke the band from a bale of hay and found that it was raised in Kentucky. I caught the fumes of the supper from the little room called the kitchen of the farmhouse and there found, ladies, the good housewife cooking on a stove that was made in Chattanooga. We went into the dining room and she brought me some great big biscuits like mother used to make, as big as a saucer, and I found that the wheat from which they were made came from Indiana . She brought in a little strip of bacon, fried to a crisp, and I found that it came from the body of a hog that was raised in Nebraska. She then brought in some coffee that came from the Lord knows where, I don't, and some sugar that came from Louisiana. I stirred it with a pew ter spoon that was made in Boston, and began to dream about "hard times in Alabama." She took me to the living room and he read to me out of a book that was made in Richmond, Virginia. I was then led to the lit tle room where I was to sleep and I jumped into an old fashioned feather bed and sank down about two feet, and found that the feathers in the ticking came from a gander that flew across Texas. I looked at the bed quilt and found that it was made in Cincinnati, and again be gan to dream about "hard times in Alabama." About 11 :30 that night I was awakened by a fearful noise on the outside and looked out of the window and saw by the light of the moon an old hound that was so thin you could almost see through him , and found that it was the only thing on the place raised in Alabama. And yet, gentlemen, with the resources within her bor ders there is no reason why all the commodities I have mentioned could not have been raised and made in Ala bama for the benefit of our Commonwealth. Oh men, you thoughtful men, you busy men, you in dustrial men, let us now together, as men who are think

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 13 ing not only for a day but for the future, conserve our God-given resources and make the Southland blossom. as God intended it, as the rQse. We can do it, we must do it, and it is for you thoughtful men to work out the plans. There are many things that have come in to cripple the great industrial life of our State and the pro gress of our State . These things should be eliminated. Therefore, Mr. President, I welcome you to our borders. I was born in this Commonwealth, there is not a breath of air that sweeps across her hills that is not dear to me, her people are my people and I am proud of their his tory, but with all the glorious history of the past it is your privilege and mine to conserve and preserve for the future our God given natural resources. In the name of the Com monwealth of Alabama, Sir, I welcome you to her bor ders, praying that God's richest blessings may rest upon this Congress, and that plans may be worked out by which we may save these cut-over lands and make them produce for the future generations, and then we will hear the plaudit "Well done, thou good and faithful servant." Mr. Tyler: I think all the members of this Congress will agree that we have heard a wonderful speech of welcome. The Southern Forestry Congress always likes to have that sort of thin_g replied to by the proper party. Therefore, we have selected as the speaker to reply to Gov. Brandon Mr. M. L. Alexander, who for years past has been Commis sioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana, the state that makes us all turn green with envy when we think about what she has really accomplished under the laws of con servation. Mr. Alexander has been president of the American Fisheries Association, and is now a vice-presi dent of the American Forestry Association, and is also an ex-president of the National Association of Fish and Game Commissioners, and is a tower of strength, as he will prove to you when he rises to his feet.

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14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REPLY TO GOVERNOR'S WELCOME. By M. L. ALEXANDER, . Commissioner of Conservation, New Orleans, La. I think the committee has given me quite a task-to respond to so eloquent and forceful an address as has been made by the Governor of the great State of Alabama-and I want to say that we are sin c erely appreciati v e not only of the very cordial express i ons of welcome which the governor has tendered us for our visit to Alabama, but we are also more than appreci a tive of the expressions that came from the chief executive of this great state as to his views on the important questions which we are to discuss at this time. We are also glad to be assembled in this historic city of Alabama and of the South, the city which has impressed itself so deeply upon the tablets of the past. We feel sure that our welcome here will be a most cordial and hospitable one, because of Alabama's reput a tion in the p a st as w e ll as the reputation of all the states of the Southland for hospitality. I want to say to you, l a dies and gentlemen , that the question of conservation, the question which we are as sembled here to discuss , is the all-important question facing the country today, because after all the natural resources of the nation are the foundation of the nation's wealth and the basis of the nation's credit. So it is with the states, that the natural resources of the states if properly con served mean their future prosperity and upbuilding. The South especially has been given great wealth in its natural resources, but my friends, we have been drawing on that natural wealth to such an extent that the time has arrived when we should take reckoning, because some of these great natural resources which have been given us are nearing the stage of depletion , and that particularly ap plies to the question of conservation of the forests , which we are here specifically to discuss . This is an earnest body of men that has gathered here to discuss and to outline policies on this so all-important subject, an earnest body of men representing state and federal governments, professors of colleges, state officials and state employes, who recognize that the time has ar rived when we have got to take reckoning of the very rapid depletion of the forests of this country, which have meant so much to the wealth and prosperity of the South.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 15 I think that there originally existed about one hundred and thirty-five millions of acres of virgin forests in the Southern states. I am told today that there is less than twenty-five million acres of these virgin forests left stand ing. Take your own state of Alabama, originally with between fifteen and sixteen million acres of virgin trees. Your Governor has said that at one time Alabama stood first in the production of lumber, but now it stands seventh. Why is it? It is because these great virgin forests have been cut away so rapidly that today, of the fifteen or six teen million acres that you originally had, you have practi cally only a million acres of virgin trees left. And so it is in my state of Louisiana, where we originally had about sixteen million acres of virgin forests, today we have over twelve million acres of cutover lands and about three and a half million acres of virgin trees left. There fore, is it not time that we should take notice of these conditions? ls it not time that we should look some what to the future with a vision, as the Governor has expressed it? Have we a right to go on in the reckless way whi c h we have done, without looking forward to the treasurin g and prote c tion of some of these resources for the people that are to come after us, our children and our children s children? We have no criticism to offer of the lumbermen who have cut these forests; they have been cut legitimately and under the law. It was their right. It has meant a great deal to the prosperity and the industrial life of our section, and we have no criticism to offer of them. I have found in the ad!ninistration of my office in the State of Louisiana that one of the greatest co-operative influences we have had has come from the lumbermen. I find that amongst the most patriotic citizens we have are the lumbermen. The lumbermen are willing to go hand in hand with you in the protection and the develop ment of these conditions. The lumbermen of the State of Louisiana voluntarily taxed themselves so that they could create a fund for the purpose of protecting the great forest areas of the State of Louisiana from fire; and so it is that we are working hand in hand with them, and we are seeking th eir cooperation and support so that we can continue to work hand in hand with them. It is necessary, my friends, that we have laws, but these laws should be reasonable, and not oppressive. We should seek the passage of laws that will guarantee the

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16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE owners of these large areas of denuded lands, a fair and reasonable basis of assessment and taxation, so that they could afford to wait for the growing of this crop, which takes twenty five, thirty or forty years to mature, a!I it may be . It is neither reasonable nor fair that laws should be passed that would be so oppressive, or taxes so excessive, that these men could not reproduce, if they so desired, a c rop of timber on these lands. The state and the land owner, whether it be lumbermen, or stockman, or who ever it may be , should go hand in hand in great coopera tion in the development of these conditions. And it is necessary that they should be developed, because as your governor has said there is approximately fifty per-cent of these cutover or denuded lands that are not suitable for agriculture. We all want to see all the agricultural development that it is possible for us to have. But take the state of Louisiana, settled for two hundred years, with the most fertile land under the sun, situated in the valley of the Mississippi river, a land more fertile than the famous valley of the Nile, yet in that two hundred years, with every possible ideal condition of soil and climate, we have put on the agricultural list less than five million acres of land, and now we have twelve million acres of denuded or cutover land, cut over from the harvesting of the forest crop. What are we going to do with them if we cannot develop them agriculturally? Are we going to let them go to barren waste? Are you in Alabama going to let them go to barren waste , and all these other southern states in a like condition? Is it not our duty and is it not our obligation to , see what we can do, to determine what is the best crop we can grow on these lands, and how it would be best to encourage the growth of that crop? I think Louisiana possibly has one of the most ideal forestry laws of any state in the Union today . Louisiana has made great development of these forest areas. I be lieve that I can say without egotism that Louisiana stands today as one of the leaders in the administration and prac tic e of forestry and the growing of trees, but it has taken long years of struggle and effort for us to reach the con dition which we now occupy. This has been accomplished by the advoca c y of proper and reasonable laws , with our state authorities going hand in hand with the lumber men and land owners in the reforestation and agricultqral development of these denuded sections. As far as possible we encourage the i _ ndividual owner to re .. forest his hold ~

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 17 mgs. We also think it is a question that should be taken hold of strongly by both state and federal authorities . We believe the states themselves should recognize the necessit y of growing trees and bringing back this great asset of the state, the forests. We believe , and have so advocated before the Legislature of Louisiana, that if these denuded pine lands could be bought by the state in limited acre a ge, distributed equitably throughout the state, at say the assessed valuation of the lands and bonds given in payment, thirty or forty year bonds, at a small rate of interest, the state itself could create its own forests and recreate in a large measure its own wealth, and that when the bonds had matured that the crop itself would have matured and it would pay itself out with much profit to the state. We believe also that it is proper that the National government should own forests throughout the nation. Thus , through all these great co-operative influences, through National government and St . ate government, and individual owner, this great movement of reforestation will go forward . And so it is , my friends, we are here today, sitting in conference, to counsel with each other as to what we can do , as to what it will be best to do, so that we can guarantee to the future and to the people that come after us, to our children and our children's children , some of the benefits of this great wealth that has been placed in our hands in trust.

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18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. By W. D. TYLER, Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va. The next number on the program is one that I should gladly omit if I could. The president of this Congress does not expect to pose as an orator alongside of Governor Brandon, nor does he possess the information that is the property of our friend Alexander, but it is necessary that those of you who may be here who have never been in a meeting of this Congress before should know something of the Con gress and how it came to exist, and it will not hurt those of us who have been at every meeting of the Congress since its organization to cast an eye backward and refresh our minds a little as to how this Congress came into being and what its progress has been. In the year 1916, at Asheville, North Carolina, in the month of July, was held the first meeting of what is now the well established Southern Forestry Congress. That meeting was called by Dr. Joseph Hyde Pratt, who for years has been in charge of the Geological Survey of the State of North Carolina, and he was assisted by Dr. Holmes, the State Forester of North Carolina. We have both these gentlemen with us today. The man whose brains conceived this plan and con ceived this organization I have had the pleasure and honor of knowing for the past sixteen years. I first met him in the flesh at the Jamestown Exposition in 1 9 0 7, where he had charge of the North Carolina Geological exhibit at that world show. He has stood in the forefront of everything that has meant progress in North Carolina ever since he was old enough to begin to make a fuss, and I imagine that was pretty early. He has found time to dip into the road question of North Carolina; he found time to go overseas and serve his country in F ranee, and he came . back from that service marred and broken, but we are glad to say he is now recuperating splendidly. The Congress that was held at Asheville was in many ways a very remarkable meeting. It got together for the first time representatives from practically all of the south ern states for the purpose of discussing the forestry ques tion, forestry conservation, forestry protection and for

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 19 estry reproduction, and the meeting was _ truly a wonder ful one . Following the meet i ng at Asheville the United States got into things in Europe, and in common with a g reat many other matters the Southern Forestry Congress for . the time being had to take a back seat, while we attempted to help to make the world a safe place to live in. The second Congress met at New Orleans, and there again we had a very remarkable meeting. Governor John M. Parker, today the chief executive of Louisiana, had at that time just been nominated for the office which he now holds, and I had the pleasure the other day of hav ing a letter from Governor Parker in which he expressed his deep regret at not being able to be with us here at this meeting. The third meeting of the Congress was held some little time after the meeting at New Orleans, at Atlanta, Georgia, a year ago last July, and here we had a revival of what had happened at the two previous meetings. Last year it was agreed that our meeting should be held at Jackson , Mississippi, and it was so held in the early part of February, 1922, just about a year ago, or not quite a year ago. One of the particular developments that showed for itself at Jackson was the fact that nearly fifty per-cent of our attendance at that meeting of the Congress was made up of Mississippi lumbermen. If anyone should say to you that this Congress is made up of a bunch of theorists or a bunch of college professors and a bunch of technically trained foresters, who come together to talk over their affairs-ideas of conservation, reproduction and protection-please say to them for u s that such an idea is absolutely erroneous. We have had a s president of this Congress, to begin with, Colonel Pratt . True, he has been a college professor , but he is in charge of a departmel).t for the State of North Carolina which means a great deal more than pure theory. Our second president was Mr. Henry E. Hardtner of Louisiana, one of the largest lumbermen in the state. The third presi dent of the Congress, Mr. Roy L. Hogue of Mississippi, has personally been connected with the . ~ctual production of lumber in Mississippi for years . The p r e ~ nt president of the Congress is interested in the actual p;cfdt1ct 1 on of lumber, as well as the actual production of coal, and one of my chief reasons for being as much interested in this Congress as I am is that I have . charge in the State of 1/jr~ini~ of three hundred thousand acres of coal and tim

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20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE her lands for the largest land-owning corporation in that state, where our forests are being rapidly cut, and because they are hardwood forests we have in front of us a question of reproduction the seriousness of which you people who are accustomed to dealing with longleaf pine know little about. As to the objects of the Congress, I have already stated them in a way, except that I should possibly put more stress on the one word which is the keynote of everything that we do, and that is ••education." The prime object of this Congress is to educate all who come within its reach and within its touch, in order that they may ap preciate the seriousness of the present lumber situation not only of the United States, if you please, but of the whole world, and in order that they may prepare them selves to take an active part in the program of protection of the forests from fire, protection of the forests from im proper handling and improper cutting, the protection of the product of the forests from waste, undue waste, un necessary waste. Later on, maybe, prepared by the educa tion that they may receive from this source and other sources, they will take an active part in the program of reproduction, which is certainly a program which is star ing us in the face and must within a very few years form a very / important part of any for.estry movement, the purpose of which may be to continue the supply of lumber for the uses of our people. In connection with the matter of education it is neces sary to have cooperation, and this Congress has and has a lways had the c ooperation of the Federal Department of Forestry. We have with us today representatives of that department, who will be with us throughout this en tire Congress. We have always had such representatives pre:ient at every meeting of the Congress. Again, we must have the cooperation of the states, and we have with us representative s from almost every state within the pur view of this Con g ress. We figure that we can properly include, as composing the Southern Forestry Congress, the sixteen stat.es south of the Mason and Dixon Line, extend ing to and including the State of Texas; and unless I am misinformed I believe we have or will have with us at this Congress representatives from every one of those states. It is not the purpose of this Congress to go into any sta l; e with any intention whatever of attempting to dictate to that state, to its governor, to its senators or represen

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 21 tatives, as to what they should do as to forestry matters. That thought has never entered our minds . We are an organization formed for the purpose of helping. If w e ' can be of any service or assistance to any state or any of its officials or representatives , we want to be able to step into the gap and supply whatever information it may be possible for us to give. It is necessary and absolutely essential that any program of conservation shall have legis lative cooperation, and therefore the members of this Con gress anq those who will address its meetings do so with the hope that something that they may say or do will be of actual help to those who are interested in and respon sible for, in the case of this meeting, the situation in Alabama. Just to give you an idea of the things that the South ern Forestry Congress has been asked to help with at various stages of the game, it might be well for me to mention the fact that although North Carolina had a forestry association before the formation of the Southern Forestry Congress, I think Colonel Pratt and Dr. Holmes will agree with me that their association has been strength ened, its hands have been upheld, and it has been helped in every way, by the Southern . Forestry Congress. When it comes time to speak of Louisiana and what they have done there, we must take off our hats, as we do to North Carolina, and say that: Louisiana was ahead of us. The second president of this Congress, the Honorable Henry E . . Hardtner, was the first Commissioner of Conservation of the State of Louisiana, and that was before the South ern Fores try Congress existed, and a good many years before. The plans for which he was primarily responsible have been so developed and carried out in the State of Louisiana, and so amplified by Mr. Alexander and others who have intervened in the meantime, that today I be lieve there is no gainsaying the statement that Louisiana has the best conservation laws of any state in these United States and that the administration of those laws is the very best. We held a meeting, as I have said, at Atlanta, Georgia. One of the outcomes of that meeting was an immediate endeavor to form a fe>restry association in the State of Georgia, and that association has now been definitely or ganized. A legislative commission was appointed to look into the question of forestry, and that commission acted

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22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE and made its report to the general assembly of the State of Georgia. In Oklahoma a forestry association has been established, the development of which has been assisted by the South ern Forestry Congress, and there is now pending before the legislature of the State of Oklahoma, which is today in session, a bill looking to the protection of the forests of Oklahoma. South Carolina has during the past year gone actively into the question of formation of a forestry association and the preparation of bills for the protection of the forests of South Carolina. In October of last year I had a personal invitation, as did others connected with our Congress, from the Governor of South Carolina to meet him for a con ference. Unfortunately I had a previous engagement to be present at the meeting of the American Mining Congress at Cleveland, Ohio, and was unable to attend the South Carolina conference, but it was attended by members of the Southern Forestry Congress and their advice sought, given, and taken. The State of Missouri has also drawn on the Southern Forestry Congress for he:p, and they have today before their legislature a bill the purpose of which is the pro tection of the forests of Missouri. And so, from a beginning which took place amongst the hills of Western North Carolina, than which there is nothing more beautiful, we have travelled over the South trying to place our meetings so that at some time we may have covered the entire area which we include as the boundaries of our Congress, always with the purpose of trying to help, never with the purpose or desire to sug gest anything that is arbitrary or impractical, never with a desire to insist on theory in preference to well accepted practice, but always with the desire, as I have said, to help; and if perchance we can answer any question that may be troubling the mind of any man as to what is the proper thing to do, if the experts that we have here with us, those experts of the United States Government, those experts of the states that have well established forestry departments, if these men can answer any question that may be bothering anybody, that is what we are here for. We want at all times to maintain the attitude that we have assumed from the very beginning, of wanting to

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 23 help every one that we can, with the prospect in view of some day seeing every state within the boundaries of our Congress taking such measures as will result not only in conservation and protection, but in the perpetuation, of the forests of the South.

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24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECRETARY'S REPORT. By R. D. FORBES, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La . I can make a very brief report indeed of the activities of the Secretary's office, which is also that of the Treasurer of the Association. About all that it is necessary for me to say is something with regard to the efforts that have been put forth to give publicity to this Congress. There is a good deal of creaking machinery behind any meeting of this kind and I am not going to weary you with any account of the letters written or anything of that sort. I will say, however, that I think this meeting , thanks to the efforts of a great many people, has been better adver tised than any meeting the Congress has ever held. That may be a broad statement, but I think it is correct. Not only, for example, has Mr. Tyler sent out personal letters, he tells me, to some three hundred people all the way from Maine to California, many of them his personal friends, but Mr. Henry E. Hardtner , of Louisiana, Chairman of our Publicity Committee, who will speak for himself in a minute, has sent out a tremendous number of letters to friends and people interested in the work of the Congress . Mr. A. B. Hastings, our Assistant S e cretary , has notified every one who has ever attended any of the meetings of the Southern Forestry Congre s s, and has followed it up with one of the preliminary programs. Then, in addition to all that, I as Secretary have called upon the secretaries of the State Forestry Associations of Texas , Louisiana, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, Georgia , and North Caro lina to send out notices of the meeting to every one of their members. We have had the most cordial coop e ration from these gentlemen , but the thing I a m r e ally proudest of is the cooperation we have had from the secretaries of the various lumber and forest industries associations. I think every one of these associations has sent out our programs, and written letters not only to their own membership but in many cases to their entire mailin g list. These are the associations: the Southern Pine Association of New Or leans (Mr . Rhodes is here today); the Georgia-Florida Saw Mill Association; the North Carolina Pine Association; the Southern Cypress Manufacturers Association; the Tur pentine & Rosin Producers' Association; the Southern Sash,

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 25 Door & Mill Work Manufacturers' Associa~ion , whose Sec retary, Mr. Harman, will address us tomorrow; the Hard wood Manufacturers' Institute ( we will hear from Mr. Sherrill, its president, also tomorrow) ; and an organiza tion known as the Standard Container Manufacturers, of Jacksonville, Fla . So that all told I think we have proba bly had notice of this meeting sent to at least two thousand people. Now, that is the Secretary's report, and my Treasurer's report can be as brief. Because the chairman of our Finance Comm:ittee, Mr. Shields, has been unavoidably detained at home, I am just going to say a word that will take the place of his report, or try to . I want to thank the members of the Finance Committee, headed by Mr. Shields. There have been local chairman or members of that finance committee in several of the states, and they have done splendid work . For example, we have Mr. L. D . Gilbert of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, who acted in Texas; Mr. E. A . Hauss of the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company, in Florida; Mr. W. B. Townsend of the Little River Lumber Com pany in Tennessee; Commissioner Quinn here in Alabama; Mr. G. L. Wood of the R. E. Wood Lumber Company in Maryland; and there have been a number of others who have been active although not perhaps offi<;:ially connected with the finance committee. Mr. Tyler, for example, has done yeoman service in securing contributions to the Con gress. The concrete proof of it all is this: FINANCIAL STATEMENT Receipts Balance reported to 4th Congress ......... . .................... $ 10.35 Contributions from individuals, firms, State Associations and Departments. Alabama . . .. ... . . . .... ..... .. .. . . . ........................ .. ... .. ... .. .. .. . . .. . ... .. ..... . . . Florida .... .. . .. . . . ...... . .. . ... ... .. ......... . .. . ... . . .. ........ . ..... . ... . ... . ..... . ... .. . . . Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi ... . . . ... .. . . ...... .. ............... . . .. .. ................ .. ... ... ...... . . ... . Missouri . ........... . .. ............... . .. .. . .. .......... . ........ . ........ . ....... . . . ...... . North Carolina . ... .. . ..... . . . .. . ...... . . .. .. ... .. . ............. . .... . ... .. ........ . Oklahoma ........... . .. . . .. . .. . ..... . . . .... . . . . . ..... . ..... .. ... . . .................... . 145.00 105.00 25.00 10.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 75.00 10.00

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26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Pennsylvania ....... . ....... . . .. . .. . . .. . . . ... ........................... . .... .... ... . T enne . ssee . .. . ... . .. .. . . .. ..... .. .... ..... .......... ..... .............. . ... . . . ..... . . . . Texas ......... . .... . . .... . .. . . . . . . . .. . .... . . .. .... . .... ...... . .. . . . ........ ..... .. .......... .. . Virginia ....... .... . . . .. ... . .. . ... . . . . .. . ...... .. .. ... .. . . .. ..... . ........ . . .. .......... . .. . West Virginia . ... . .. . . .. . ....... .... . ..... . ......... .. .............. .. . .. . . .. ... ... . . Contributions, regional associations ......... . ........ . ... .. ........... . Contributions, railroads .. . . ............. . ...... . .. . .. . .. . ........ . ... .. ... ..... . .. . Miscellaneous receipt11 .................... . ...... ........... ........................ . 25.00 135.00 90 . 00 375.00 75.00 72.50 70.00 37 . 00 Total... . ... ..... . .... ....... .. . . ...................... . ..... .. ........ . . . ....... . ....... $1,349.85 Expenditures Programs, 4th Congress ....... . ....... . . . . . . ......... .. . .. .... ... .. .. . . . . ........ . . $ 21.65 Proceedings , 4th Congress . . ...... . ................. .. ....................... 301.04 Postage . . . . .......... . .................................... .. ... .. ............ . ................. . .... . .. 21.85 Express . .. ........ ... .. . ...... .... ..................... . . .. .... .. .. ..... ...... . . . .. . .... ..... . .... . .. . . I 0.43 Telephone and telegraph ........... ..... .. . ..... ......... .. .. . .. .. ..... ... . ..... . ... 8. 7 5 Office supplies ................... . . . . . .. . ........... .. ... ... . .. .. .... .................. . .... ... I . 3 5 Exch~nge on checks . ......... . ... . .... ... ... . . . .... . ......... '. ................. .......... . I . 9 3 Letter heads ....... . . .. ............. . .... ..... .. .. .... . .. . . . ....................... . ...... .... .... 52. 75 Stenographic work ...... .. . . ........... . ...... .. ......................... . ................ 32.60 Posters ... ... . ..................... . . . . .. . ..... . ....... .. .. .. .... . ... . .......... . .... . ...... .. .. . . . . .. . .. . 3 . 00 Miscellaneous expenditures -3.20 $458.55 Balance, excess of receipts over expenditures, January 29, 1923 .......... . ............. . .. . .... . .... . .... .. .. . . .. . .. . ........ $89 I .3 0 Against this balance we have approximate liabilities as follows: Programs, Fifth Congress .. ... . . .. ... . .......... . ... .... . . ... . ... .. ... $ 20.00 Postage due Asst. Secretary ........ ......... . .. . ..... . .... .. ... 15 . 00 Total... ...... . ............... . . . . .. ..... . ........ ... .... ... .... . . . ................ . ........... $ 35.00 Mr. Tyler: In order that the Secretary may be properly satisfied that his accounts are correct and thereby be relieved from anxiety on the subject, I am going to appoint Mr. Hogue and Dr. Holmes as a committee of the Congress to audit the Secretary's financial report, and to report at such later hour in the meeting as may suit their convenience.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE By JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director, Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. 27 The members of your executive Committee have tried in every way to further the work of the Southern Forestry Congress and to carry out the objects for which the Con gress was organized . Members of the Committee were in Washington early in 1922 and appeared before the House Committee on Agriculture and discussed certain legislation that was before the Committee in the interest of Forestry in the Southern Appalachain states under the Week's Law. They also had conferences with various Senators and Congressmen in regard to forestry measures that were being considered by Congress. It is believed that the information presented by members of this Con gress had considerable weight in securing the pas s age of some of the Forestry Le g islation that was pas s ed by Con gress in 1922. Members of this Committee h a ve also assisted in the organization of the Georgia Fores try Association, the South Carolina As s o c iation, and the Oklahoma Forestry Associa tion. Your Committee has also tried to keep in touch with the forestry situation throughout the South; has advised by request with several states in regard to legislative meas ures and tried in every way to give information and en couragement to those who h a ve been working for the protection and conservation of our forests. A meetin::;: of the Committee was held in Asheville August 24th and 25th and plans discussed and arrange ments made for the Fifth Congress to be held in Mont gomery, Alabama, January 29th to 31st, 1923. Your Committee has also given considerable thought and study to the influence of , condition and future suc cess of the Congress and wish to recommend for the con sideration and approval of this Congress the following: 1. That the personnel of the Executive Committee of the Congress be changed so as to include all past Presi dents of the Congress, the elective Officers and the Chair men of the Standing Committees. 2. That the number of elective officers of the Con gress be increased by two, i. e. a Vice-President and a Treas

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28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE urer; but the Secretary and the Treasurer may be one and the same petson. 3. That the President appoint with the approval of the Executive Committee a State Vice-President from each state interested and taking part in the work of the Congress . 4. That the Southern Forestry Congress be incorporated under the laws of some state to be selected by the Execu tive Committee. 5. That if the members of the Congress decide on its incorporation that all persons, corporations, associa tions and institutions that have been in any way associated with the Congress by attendance and registration at any of its meetings, by contribution to its support or by assisting in its work, shall be invited by letter to become charter members of the Congress; and the names of the charter members be published in the next issue of the proceed ings of the Congress. 6. That there shall not be any membership dues; but that members desiring copies of the proceedings of the Congress shall pay such price per copy as shall be deter mined by the Executive Committee. 7. That those making contributions for carrying on the work of the Congress and the publication of its proceedings shall be designated Patrons of the Congress, and that a list of the Patrons for each year shall be published in the proceedings of the Congress for that year. 8. That the members of the Congress assist in every way possible in bringing about the organization of state forestry , associations in Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, as it is believed that such organi zations can exert a wonderful influence in creating through out a state an interest and desire for forestry legislation that will protect our forests from fire and will insure a satisfactory reproduction of timber on our cutover land. Such forestry associations have been organized in Mary land, North Carolina, South Carolina , Georgia , Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma , and Missouri. (At the afternoon session of the Congress on January 30, Colonel Pratt moved the adoption of the first seven of the foregoing recommendations, and after some dis cussion, the motion was unanimously passed by the Con gress.)

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 29 Mr . H. E. Hardtner, Chairman of the Publicity Com mittee , when called on for a report from his committee, sta tedthat its activit(es had already been covered by the Secretary. The report of the Legislation Committee, which follows , was actually delivered at a later session, but is inserted here as originally planned. Because of the absence from the meeting of two members of his committee, Chairman Holmes was unable to secure unanimous assent to his re port, and comments from his co-workers are given at its close.

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30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE REPORT OF LEGISLATION COMMITTEE. By J. S. HOLMES, Chairman, State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C. Advisable forestry legislation for the Southern States occupies two separate fields , Federal and State. The re port of this committee has, therefore, been divided into these two parts , dealing with: A. Federal Forestry Legislation. B. Advisable forestry legislation as generally appli cable to the States . of the South. A. Federal Legislation: As was expected, the hearing on the Snell Bill before the congressional committee in Washington, January 9-12 of last year resulted in abandon ing the measure. There was too much difference of opinion among experts as to the effectiveness of the so called con trol measures. On the other hand, there was remark able unanimity among all present, foresters, lumbermen and public officials as to the need for certain measures such as protection from fire, federal acquisition of forest lands, forest planting-especially in the Prairie States-and further scientific research into the growth and utilization of tim ber . These, it will be recalled , are measures urged in the resolutions of our last Congress. The Secretary of Agriculture has recently recommended to the Chairman of the House Committee on Agriculture, at the latter's request, the following five measures and ap propriations , as the most practical step which can be taken m forestry legislation at the present time: Fiscal Proposed Activity year author Increase 1 9 2 3 ization Cooperation with States in forest protection . .. $400 , 000 Cooperation with States in tree planting ... . .. . . . . . . Promotion of timber growing on farms . . .. . . Purchase of forest lands 450 , 000 Forest research . . . .. .. ... . .... . . . 425,000 $1,000,000 $ 600,000 100,000 100 , 000 2 , 000,000 600,000 100 , 000 I 00,000 1,550,000 175,000 $1,275,000 $3,800,000 $2,525,000

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 31 I. Cooperation with the States in Forest Fire Pre• vention under the Weeks Law is of the greatest value to the South. So far only seven Southern States have been able to take advantage of the off er made by the Forest Service because no money is being expended by the other States for protection. The States could use to advantage much larger apportionments of Federal money in this work and with the prospect of several additional States needing help the present appropriation of $400,000 a year is inadequate. The million dollars advocated by the Sec retary of Agriculture is much more commensurate with the needs of the work. 2. Cooperation with States in tree-planting is a new measure, but one which would be of very great advantage to many States in stimulating this branch of forestry. The greater part of this appropriation would probably go to the Prairie States but there seems no reason why the Southern States, none of which have started planting, should not benefit from this fund. 3. The promotion of timber-growing on farms is a branch of forestry which needs rapid and universal exten sion. A number of the States already specialize in this work, but most States are handicapped by the lack of appropriation because the need for farm forestry is not realized. If the Federal Government could offer money inducements for the support of this work it would mean much to all of the Southern States. 4. The purchase of forest lands under the Weeks Law has been going on for the past eleven years, with an ap propriation averaging about one million dollars per year. Last year the Budget Commissioner recommended a cut in this appropriation to $50,000.00, which would have very seriously crippled the work. Fortunately, through the efforts of the friends of this work, especially Senator Keyes of New Hampshire, and Senator Overman of North Carolina, the item was increased to $450,000. This year the budget commission recommended this latter sum, and though an effort was made to increase it to one million dollars it has passed both House and Senate in its origi nal form. A very real effort should be made to secure the amount recommended by the Secretary, namely two million dollars, for the following year. The Southern States are vitally interested in this measure as already considerable areas have been purchased in several of them

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32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE and if the restrictions as to headwaters of streams pro vided in the Weeks Law can be removed, practically every Southern State would get direct benefit from this measure. 5. The forest research mentioned in this item is not cooperative but is under the direct management of the Forest Service . The two forest e x periment stations es tablished, one in the Southern Appalachians and the other in the Gulf States , have proved popular and are already doing much constructive work. There is great need for similar stations in the L a ke States and in New England. The establishment of these should be provided for at once; while the stations already established should be more liber ally provided for as they are seriousl y handicapped for lack of funds. The Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wis., has proved of the greatest use to the lumber and wood-using industries, and ther e i s a universa l demand among them for ' a considerable enlargement of this phase of experi mental work . The present laboratory should be consider ably enlarged or branch laboratories should be established in connection with it in other parts of the United States. The proposal of the Secretar y to raise this item to $600,000 seems , therefore , inadequate , and your com mittee would suggest that one million dollars be provided for forest research. 6. Transfer of Public lands to the National Forests. The transfer of all unreserved lands in the public domain and all unappropriated lands in Indian Reservations to the National Forests should be authorized by Congress. While large areas of these lands are valuable chiefly for grazing their administration by the Forest Service as graz ing lands would add greatly to their value to the public. The regulation of grazing is needed and has been strongly advocated by livestock interests of the West, so that it is reasonable to have such lands administered by a divi sion of the government already successfully administering such lands. The forested areas, some of them very considerable , should be managed as are the National Forests at the pres ent time. There may be certain restricted areas which may be found of greater value for recreation than for tim ber production , and these would be managed as are simi lar areas in the National Forests with the end in view of the greatest benefit to the public. There seems no ex

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 33 cuse for transferring these public lands to the National Park System, which is concerned only with the recrea tional and scenic value of certain restricted areas. 7. Other Federal Measures. Last year at this time there seemed considerable danger of a transfer of the National Forests from the Forest Service to the Depart ment of the Interior. The Southern Forestry Congress and other interested or g anizations all over the country protested again s t this proposal. The Brown report to the President made public last fall did advocate this change, which was apparently inspired by the Secretary of the In terior. It appe a rs certain that no attempt will be made to carry out this recommendation, for with the resigna tion of Secretary Fall, the main reason for it will have disappeared. Federal Water Power Act. Foresters and conservation ists generally have been greatly interested in the proper regulation of our water powers, and the passage of the Fed eral Water Power Act of 1920 was the result of a strenuous campaign by the friends of conservation all over the country. This act prevents monopoly and safe-guards public rights, and the hydro-electric industry says of it that it is work able and just. It is nevertheless under attack both in the courts and in Congress, and it must be defended until it becomes firmly established as an indispensible part of our economic system. Any attempt to break it down by se curing the passage . of legislation exempting interests from certain of its provisions should be strenuously opposed and defeated. B. State Forestry Legislation for the States of the South: Although one-third of the Southern States now have functioning forestry departments, general forestry legislation means starting from the beginning. So far as this committee is aware, no very comprehensive forestry law has ever been enacted without being preceded by earlier legislation. Such legislation grows and does not come into being through one all-inclusive enactment. On the other hand, many comprehensive laws have failed be cause of their so-called drastic provisions. It seems, there fore, advisable to recommend a minimum number of pro visions, which shall be briefly and clearly worded which will secure the necessary machinery for starting effective forestry work, and this looks to the gradual prevention of forest fires and the securing of adequate reproduction on cut-over and devastated forest lands.

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34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE A state forest law should provide at the least for ( I ) an appropriation , either direct or special, sufficiently large to start work on an effective scale; and ( 2) a sound, non political organization including forest fire protection and administration units. The principal obstacl e to the adoption of a forestry program in every quarter of the South is the problem of financing the work . If a satisfactory method of securing adequate funds can be worked out a good start can be made in every case and the work will then grow as the needs become apparent . Different methods for raising money by the State for forestry work are being advocated by foresters and pub lic men, and while one may be most acceptable in one State another method ma y be favored somewhere else . (a) Direct appropriation: Up to the present time most States have started and maintained their forestry work through direct appropriation by the legislature. It is the quickest way of financing the work and when the needs are thoroughly understood probably the most satisfactory way, because appropriations can be increased from year to year as the work grows and the demand for exten sion increases . No special legal fight can be made against a direct appropriation after it is once made. The objec tions to a direct appropriation come chiefly from the leg islative body itself. The members are usually interested in many other projects which call for increased appropri/ ation and are obliged to urge strict economy. A first ap propriation is often very difficult to secure and is apt to be much too small to start the work effectively. For these reasons, the two other methods are somewhat more gen erally favored by foresters, though where it is possible to secure a direct appropriation this is urged . (b) The Severance Tax; Louisiana has been called the pioneer in this method of raising funds for forestry but even there the plan has not been an entire success. The severance tax is a tax on all timber cut and on other natural resources taken from the ground. This tax, amount ing to some 12 c per thousand bd. ft., is paid into the State Treasury by the lumbermen and other operators. It was origi nally planned to have this covered into a special fund to be used entirely for forestry. After several years' legal fight on the ground of unconstitutionality, a constitutional amendment was adopted by the people legalizing this tax . .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 35 When it began to be collected the legislative body found in it a fruitful source of income for the State and took over the proceeds for general use, making much less liberal appropriations from it to maintain the department of col}. servation. Recently a certai~ p . ercentage of this fund has been allotted to the forestry work, which places the department on a fairly sound financial basis . The severance tax is opposed by many of the large lumbermen , because they feel that they pay enough with out this additional tax. It has been proposed in a num ber of States in addition to Louisiana but it seems destined to meet some very strenuous oppos1t1on. However , a nominal severance tax that will bring in , from fifty to one hundred thousand dollars per year will of course be much better than a direct appropriation of say $10,000.00. It will serve to get the work established and after the State work has developed for four or six years and the amount of the severance tax decreases, as it undoubtedly will owing to the gradual reduction in the amount of timber being cut annually in each State , it should not be hard to obtain supplementary direct appropriations. ( c) Occupational and License Taxes: It has recent ly been proposed that an occupational or license tax be levied against all or certain specified industries engaged in producing and manufacturing forest products for the support of the forestry work of the State. In States where such taxes are already levied they might be diverted to this special purpose. This was recently proposed in Florida and no very active opposition was encountered. Georgia has proposed to adopt the same method and in neither State have the lumber and turpentine interests opposed it. It must be remembered that in all cases where business is taxed the ultimate cost is borne by the public because the various industries are obliged to make a living pro fit and if the tax interferes with this the price of the pro duct must be raised. Taxing industries seems a legiti mate and sensible way of securing money for the purpose of making sure a permanent supply of raw material for those industries. Your committee therefore favors this third method over the other two. Administration: Your committee feels that a State forestry department should consist of a repres e ntative non political board, or commission , appointed by the Governor, who may be ex-officio chairman. The various members

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36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE of the board should represent the various industries and activities of the people of the State directly or indirectly interested in the preservation of the forests. They should be authorized and required to secure the services of a competent, reputable technically-trained and experienced forester, as State Forester, to supervise and plan under their general direction the forestry work of the State. The board should be given large powers in the selection and payment of assistants in the various lines and in the organization and personnel of the forest fire prevention organization. Local efforts to inject politics into the selec tion of forest wardens and other employees should be resisted to the utmost. If the State has no adequate law providing penalties for setting fire to the woods, fields, etc., intentionally or care lessly a clear, simple yet comprehensive measure should be either incorporated in the forest law or enacted as a separate measure. Advisable, but not necessary provisions of a State Forest Law might include: 1. Permission to acquire by gift or purchase lands for State Forests or Parks, which are suitable for timber pro duction, demonstration, or other conservative purposes. 2. The establishment from miscellaneous forest re ceipts of a forestry fund. 3. Provision for suitable instruction in forestry sub jects in all institutions of learning wholly or in part sup ported by the State, especially in State Agricultural Schools and Colleges. 4. Requirement that all local prosecuting officials shall prosecute all alleged violations of the Forest Law. Other measures such as those requiring railroads to keep clean their rights-of-way, compelling operators of engines to use spark arresters and other safety devices, forbidding electric companies to injure shade trees, providing for ex emption from or deferred payment of taxes on forest land or growing timber might well be postponed until the more essential provisions of a forest law had been enacted and the most important work of forest fire prevention inaugu rated .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS COMMENT BY COMMITTEE MEMBERS By Mr. ROY L. HOGUE, Manager of the Interior Lumber Company, Jackaon, Miu. 37 "I can see no serious objection to the report as written though, personally, I would not have favored saying that the committee favored the occupational or license tax over the other two described. As a last resort and where not actively opposed by the interests directly affected, it might be accepted as a compromise but I believe the Congress should stand squarely on the proposition that forestry is a matter of public concern and that the funds for the support of forestry work should be taken directly from the public treasury. As Mr. Holmes suggested, a license tax will be passed on to the consumer, but this is only partly true for a con cern may be able to absorb a small tax and live where competion is not too strong, and, until all the similarly situated producing territory had , identical taxes, lic ' ense taxes would be a handicap to that extent." By Mr. B. H. STONE, F oreater for Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairaville, Ga. "I see absolutely nothing in our report to object to. We might have added some reference to a Capacity Tax, as some of our naval stores people are inclined to favor that method since it simplifies book-keeping, but I think the report is all right as it stands." By Mr. E. 0. SIECKE, State Foreater, College Station, Texa1. "The report of the Legislative Committee of the South ern Forestry Congress submitted to the Fifth Meeting of this organization at Montgomery, Alabama, in January, 1923, is approved by the undersigned, with the following exception:The undersigned considers that it is not wise for the Legislative Committee of the Southern Forestry Congress to favor one method of obtaining revenue over other

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38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE methods. Loc a l conditions and numerous industrial and economic factors differ radically in the various Southern Stat e s. My position is that in States where severance or occupation taxes pertaining to timber and the manufacture of timber products are now levied, the forest interests in those States should make every effort to obtain for for estry purposes the proceeds of such license or occupation taxes. Furthermore, in case legislation imposing severance or occupation taxes , as specified in the report of the Legis lative Committee, are proposed in any Southern States, and it is apparent that such legislation will prevail, then the forestry interests should, without arguing for or against the merits of such taxes, urge that the proceeds of such ta x ation legislation rightly belong to the work of develop ing forestry and making forest industry permanent. " -E . 0 . Siecke. By. Mr. FREDERICK DUNLAP, Secr e tary of the Missouri Forestry Association, Columbia, Mo., in a letter to Chairman Holmes. " I have spent considerable time studying the Report of the Legislative Committee and find myself forced to the conclusion that it is very able discussion of the legis lative situation such as you are so w e ll prepar e d to pres ent rather than a . committee report in which I can concur . I have tried to formulate the reservations under which I should concur and find I am only picking flaws in a very good paper . After much thought I feel that I must tell you I cannot sign the report as it is , simply because in some important respects it departs from my views. I had looked forward to the opportunity of thrashing out these things with the Committee at Montgomery and am ac cordingly disappointed.'' The morning ' s session was concluded with a characteris tically inspiring address on "Forestry , the Health, Happi ness and Long Life of the Forest Industries," by _ the Rever end P. A . Simpkin, Chaplain of the Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo, St. Louis, Mo. ( "Parson" Simpkin' s address was recorded stenographically in part , but thru a series of unfortunate circumstances could not be tran s cribed and reproduced. This has been a serious loss to the Pro ceedings, and a source of great regret to the Congress Editor . )

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Monday, January 29 Afternoon Session, 2 :00 P. M President Tyler m the chair. Mr. Tyler: 39 Being a Pennsylvanian by birth and education it affords me great pleasure to read to the Congress a telegram from the Governor of Pennsylvania. He says: "Regret pressure of business prevents acceptance of kind invitation to Forest ry Congress, exceedingly sorry"-Gifford Pinchot. Mr. Hardtner hands me the following telegram: "Writing you today exceedingly urgent invitation to help us at Legis ture hearin~ Jefferson City evening February first, hope you can come." From Mr. Frederick Dunlap, Columbia, Missouri. I have another telegram which I am sure Mr. Forbes as Secretary and Treasurer wiJI appreciate. It reads "Check for seventy-five dollars forwarded to Forbes today, re gret conditions prevent my attendance." From H. W. Shields, Chairman of our Finance Committee. I want to add that this contribution of $ 7 5. 00 towards the funds of the Congress comes from the second largest coal mining corporation in the Pocahontas coal field, and the territory operated by the donor lies partly in Virginia and partly in West Virginia, so West Virginia and Virginia will have a scrap as to who shall get the credit. Here is a telegram to Mr. Forbes from College Station, Texas: "Regret keenly that Legislative hearin g prevents my attendance. Best wishes for successful meeting." From E. 0. Siecke, State Forester.

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40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The first address on our program for this afternoon was a paper on "Research in Forest Fires" by Mr. Lenthall Wyman of the Southern Forest Experiment Station, Starke, Fla. I alll sorry to have to announce that Mrs. Wyman is ill and her illness prevents Mr. Wyman's presence. Mr. Forbes, our Secretary, is thoroughly conversant with what Mr. Wyman would have said had it been possible for him to be here and I am therefore g oing to call on Mr. For bes in Mr . Wyman's stead.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS RESEARCH IN FOREST FIRES. By R. D . FORBES, Director, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La. 41 Mr. Wyman is really a research man and I wish that he could have been here today. He represents the same or ganization that I do, namely the Southern Forest Experi ment Station, of the United States Forest Service, and of course our main business is research in all of the silvicultural and protection problems of the 3o~thern Coastal Plain, our territory being from South Carolina to Texas. I am a very poor research man myself, but as long as the rest of the men are busy I consider that I am doing a big day's work. I wish Mr. Wyman were here to present his own work, because he is more competent along that line than I am. However, it seems a desirable thing, rather than drop out Mr. Wyman s topic altogether, for someone to say some thing in a general way concerning forest fires in the South, because as you will note by looking at the program we are going to take it up from two or three different angles. For example, Mr. Greene, who follows me, will talk about "Fires and the Southern Stock Range... Then Mr. Hastings, who will substitute for Mr. Jones, will talk about the ques tion of "How to Organize Fire Protective Departments in the States, .. and finally Mr. McCarthy will come along and speak more particularly of fires in the Southern Appala chian mountains, in the hardwood country where of course the fire problems are quite different in many ways from those in the piney woods of the South. Mr. Wyman's paper was to be concerned with forest fires in the piney woods principally . Just by the way of review then of the fire situation, I want to bring to your attention what a good many people seem to overlook, namely, that a fire which merely burns in the grass and brush and leaves in our piney woods in the South or in the hardwood regions, does real damage. It seems to have escaped a great many of our citizens that a tree, like every other vegetative organism, starts as a very small affair. Of course every tree, as we who are interested in the subject all know , starts either from a seed or a sprout from the root of an old stump, and when that tree is young it is just as susceptible to fire as any

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42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE other organism; so that when you have one of those innocent appearing fires in our piney woods you a re not simply cleaning up the dead leaves and the old dry grass a nd some of the brush on the ground, you are also lickin g up hundreds of millions of young trees , not only seed lings but sprouts. l often wish, or half wish that fires in the South did more damage than they do, for the reason that our indifference to them has been compounded of general carelessness with regard to our timber resources and our thoughtlessness as to this vital question of young trees; whereas up in the Lake states and in the far Western country you have fires that sweep over thousands of acr e s, destroying entire villages and taking many human live s, and doing a damage which is apparent to every one. It hits those people between the eyes and they have got to recognize their fire problem, whereas in the South the dam age has been so little apparent to the unthinking person that we overlook the fires . Just to go very briefly into what these fires do in ad dition to wiping out year after year the seedling trees that must be the foundation of the forests of the future , let me start with the mature timber. For example, a good many people do not realize that in every pine forest a considerable number of trees every year are actually brought to the ground by repeated surface fires. A single fire will rarely do much damage to a mature tree; the bark is heavy and a single fire will do no more, if it burns in a tuft of grass or pine knot resting against the base of the tree, than kill the bark on that side of the tree; the bark drops off and the tree responds to the stimulus by exuding a certain amount of resin . The next year fire comes along and burns in th~ resin, eat i ng itself into the tree. More pitch is exuded, and year after year the fire eats into the heart of the tree, and finally down it comes. If I speak as if we knew all about this business of fire it is with the keenest realization that w e do not know anything about it, except that fires are a tremendous menace to our forests. We do not know what proportion of the standing timber, mature pine, is annually put down by fires, but I do remember that one of the first pieces of work I did in the State of Louisiana was to run a little survey through a piece of ground belonging jointly to Mr . Hardtner and his southern neighbor. We found that in two years, in a magnificent stand of virgin pine timber, something like three and one-half per-cent of the trees

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 43 had been burned through and stretched on the ground by repeated fires ; that is, the damage in those two years was the culmination of fires in previous years. I believe that Professor Bryant of the Yale Forest School has said if we continue to burn our pine woods as in the past, in fifty years we would not have a stick of virgin timber left. Until very recently I had been under the impression that the hardwood forests of the South were very little bothered by fires, but I want to tell you that the other day I went on the lands of an awfully good friend of this Congress, namely, Mr. George Houston of Houston Brothers, Vicks burg, Mississippi, and looked over a tract of land which his company is at present logging. Mr. Houston, who of course today is wholly in the office, told me that the hardwood bottoms in the Yazoo Delta of Mississippi burned over once in every three years. When I got into the woods, his logging superintendent, who is out there a part of the year , told me it burned over every other year, and the men who live in the woods told me it burned over every year, so the nearer you get to the ground the more often the fires burn according to the authorities, and many of the trees have been so badly injured by fire that there is no telling the reduction in their merchantable value. A large number of the trees have been " cat-faced" by these fires. When you have "cat-face " you have rot in the in terior of the tree, and not only the big trees, which of course are nearing the term of their existence and would naturally be susceptible to any injury, but the little trees also burn. I saw a couple of acres of beautiful young gums every one of which had a cat-face at the bottom , and rot was present in the interior of those trees. Fires then injure the mature timber. Fires also injure half-grown timber. We do not know a thing in the world as to the quantitative effect of these fires in half-grown timber. The Experiment Station at the present time has a plot in the Arkansas National Forest in which we are deliberately burning young pine. We have every one of the trees tagged . We have their exact diameter and height at the time of the experiment . We have another area which has not been burned and out of which we are go ing to keep the fire. Then in five years we will be able to measure the increase in diameter of the repeatedly burned plot as opposed to the plot that has had no fire in it, and we will be able to say to a land owner: "It is . worth while to keep the fires out of your young timber, because it will

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44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE take you say sixty years to mature a !aw lo g i n a repeat edly burned stand as compared with forty ye a rs in a stand free from fire . " However, as yet we have no exact figures, and we are simply laying the foundation for that sort of work. The damage to seedling trees I have already mentioned. That is the biggest damage , a ll things considered , from fires . In addition to the damage to the trees themselves we have the damage which Mr. Greene will speak of so convincingly, the damage to the stock range. And finally we have a very real damage to the soil of the Sonth . Here again we have got to experiment to get at the exact way the fires work . For instance, it has alw ay s been the for ester ' s theory that if y ou burn over a piece of land a nd consume all the dead grass and leaves on the ground , you remove a great deal of humus or decaying vegetable matter that would add to the fertility of the soil. Now, we do not know whether that is true or not. A very hi g h official of the Bureau of Soils has told us that in our humid climate , where we have cond i tions very fa vorable to the rots and decays which destroy that v egetabl e matter , we are not necessarily losing a great deal of soil fertility when we burn. The reason is this: Unless that dead grass and leaves are mixed with the soil in some mechanical man ner, say by plowing or rooting under by hogs , their sub !tance does not necessarily return to the soil. In the process of oxidation a great part of it is carried off into the atmosphere and forms g a s. So that possibly the loss is not as great to the soil as we have said it was . I mention this simply as a hypothesis, as an example of one of the things we need to inve!tigate. But we are convinced of this, that the physical effect of the blanket of decaying vegetable matter upon the soil is extremely important. If you will walk through a piece of land that has on its surface plenty of "duff , " as they call it in the north woods, and will rake a little of it aside and thrust a stick into it, the stick will sink into the ground; whereas if you go into a place where fires have burned up that duff-where there is no mulch-your stick will not go in at all, the ground is hard . And that of course means that when the rain falls, instead of going into the ground and doing some good to your trees and vegetation, it runs off on the sur face and to a very large extent is lost . Now, gentlemen, as I say , I cannot do the subject the justice that Mr. Wyman would have done. We do not

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 45 feel that we know everything about it; we want to know and we intend to know it, and the Southern Forest Ex periment Station would be glad of suggested locations for experimentation in which we can carry on a more satis factory analysis of the damage done by fires. Mr. J. S. Holmes: Two years ago in making a study of second-growth long leaf pine in North Carolina, we found abundant repro duction in one county from the trees on the ground. I was so interested in the question as to what became of all this reproduction that I laid off four plots in this area, of one hundred square feet to the plot, and interested the Boy Scouts of Wilmington in trying to keep up with these plots. I took them out there and showed them how to count the seedlings and how to examine the area to see what would happen. They reported to me about every two months as to the condition of those plots and the num ber of seedlings in the plots. I checked them up two or three times during the two year period. I intend to keep up with those plots in the future. I want to give you just a brief outline of the results so far obtained. The first count of seedlings on those plots amounted to about one and a half seedlings to the square foot, something like one hundred and fifty to th _ e plot. That was in April, after the seeds had germinated that winter. The follow ing Fall there were about 5 4 % of those seedlings still on the ground. That is, something like 46 % of them had died from one cause and another, part of them no doubt from being trampled upon by the boys counting them. We kept on and that next spring, at one time early in the spring, one of the plots burned over with the rest of the woods in that immediate locality. But the other three plots were not burned over. At the end of the second Fall, that is eighteen or twenty months after we first counted, on the three unburned plots there were still fifty per-cent of the seedlings originally there. On the burned plot there was six per-cent; that is, the 111 seedlings on that plot were reduced to seven. Seven seedlings were

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46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE left on the burned plot, and these were very weak and very much damaged by the fire. Of course, that shows that the second year the seed lings are very susceptible to fire, but further, the second spring there was a large crop of seedlings again, more in fact than the previous year, something like two and a half seedlings to the square foot came in the second year, and in the Fall there were mor~ than fifty per-cent of the . second year seedlinis still on the unburned plots and there was not one on the burned plot. So that the result of that examination so far has been to determine that a fire in the early l!pring had absolutely destroyed ~II the seed lin~s of that winter and 94 % of the seedlings of the pre vious winter.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 47 ADDRESS GRAZING AS AFFECTED BY RANGE FIRES IN THE LONGLEAF PINE BELT. By S. W. GREENE, Superintendent, Coastal Plain Experiment Station, McNeill, Miu. Since I represent an experiment station that is located in the heart of the Piney Woods country, you may have expected that I was prepared to present an array of figures showing you how many seed trees are necessary for re production to longleaf pine, how many cords of wood or how many feet of lumber you could grow in a given number of years. I can't give you those figures because I am not a forester but a cattleman. I am not the man that measures the wood-I am the man that burns the woods . You let the forester tell you all the nice things you can do and then you come around to me and ask me if I am going to let you do it. For if you don't consult me about it, I am going to burn you out just as sure as there ever was a "Longstraw pine" grew in South Alabama. You need not worry about the part Mother Nature will play in reforestation,-she will take care o-f every acre that you don't put the plow in. She does do it every year there is a seed crop. There is nothing strange about the fact that we haven't got a crop of second growth pine coming on, except that the forestry people haven't spoken to the cattlemen about it. Since fire is recognized as the limiting factor in re foresting to pines in the South, and since fires in a very large majority of cases are set by cattlemen, it seems logi cal that the first thing to do is for the foresters and cattle men to get together and reach some sort of an agreement . If not we will have no pines and the truth of the matter is, we will not have very many cattle. I don't believe there is any necessity for the lumber men and the cattlemen to go out gunning for each other. If they will stop and analyze the situation they will find that the two industries of growing cattle and growing timber can go together and should go together. I will try and present from my viewpoint, some of the reasons why the two industries should be closely linked.

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48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Basic Reasons For Reforestation and Animal Production: I would like for you to consider, first of all, the basic -. ea.sons for refore sta tion and animal production on the Cut-Over Pine L an ds. The extent of the cut-over pine lands is at present more than 1 00 million acres. This is an area greater than the co mbined area of Georgia, Alabama and Mi ss issippi. It is at present largely non productive , less than 1 0 'lo of it having been taken up for cutivation altho mu c h of it is suitable for cultivation. In most of the counties of the pine country the improvements in the way of graveled roads, consolidated schools, and public institutions came in a la rge part from taxes on stand ing timber which is now gone or is fast disappearing. The present farming population cannot long hold up the burden of taxation when it is all thrown upon them. They will h ave to give up the goo d roads and schools or be tax-ridden until they move out. Taxes in many places are now 6 per-cent . With money at 8 per -ce nt and a tax of 6 per-cent makes an overhead of 1 4 per-cent which farming is not well able to bear. If every farmer in the county in which I lived had his farm free of debt and was making a good living from it, we would still not have a rich farming community because of th e simple fact that there are not enough farmers . And gentlemen I want to make a flat statement-"There are not enough surplus fa, mers in the U. S. to farm the Piney Woods and there will not be for two generations." If we did have it all farmed there would be a surplus production for which there would be no market . We are not yet land hungry in this country. If we can't farm it the use of the Cut-Over Land then becomes a question of public economy that interests both the individual lumberman and the county at large. It must be put to som e productive use to make the county a desirable plac e to live in. Two possible means of utilization are open which do not require much labor. The lumb e rm a n says reforest it and the cattleman says gra ze it. The lumberman wants . to g row a new crop of timber and the cattleman wants to utilize the grass that is already growing. It remains to be proven that both crops cannot be grown at the same time. Opposition of Stockmen to Reforestation: Under pre se nt conditions in most sections the ideas of the forester and the cattleman are at odds. Th e forester

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 49 says the range must be fenced and protected from fire for another crop of pines and the stockmen says it must be left open and burned annually for his use. The differ ence is largely an economic one. The man who under takes to grow another crop of timber owns a large tract of land and has a permanent interest in its future develop ment, while the man who favors open range and annual burning, as a rule pastures his cattle on land that does not belong to him and in which he has no future interest. The cattleman is represented by practically every citizen in the community and altho their individual holdings of cattle are very small it is a very real asset to them. The native stockmen have known nothing but open ran g e for generations. The range has been free for all s ince the land was public domain. The owners of the land bought it for the timber and until that was gone and he wished to put the land to some productive use, there was no question as to the right of the local people to u~e the range . Long established customs are hard to change and it takes time and education to accomplish it. You can't legislate against custom. The lumberman does not want his skidder legislated out of existence and a great many people look at reforestation as a fore-runner of a stock law whi c h would close the open range. It would be best to g o e a sy on the matter and establish some middle ground if possible . It will take a general county-wide sentiment ag a inst fires to stop them. The state troops couldn ' t do it under martial law. It is a problem of getting the cattle m e n to see that they can raise stock without burning the woods and getting their help to control fires in return for the use of the pasture. Why is Annual Burning Practiced ? This is a question that is not hard to answer. Every cattle m a n has observed that the cattle graze the burns in the S pring in preference to the rough. This is because the d ea d grass that remains over winter is not palatable and cont a ins little food value. It is in the way of grazing and the cattle can g e t a quicker fill on the burns. The range looks better to the eye but the grass is no earlier and in fact it is retarded because the fires destroy the dead grass that protects the early growth. At the

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50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE present time (February) the sheep can get a good living from the rough but would starve to death on the burns . But it is the custom to burn and the range burns every year. Effect of Annual Burning: The most apparent effect of burning is the bare un covered condition in which the ground is left through killing the pine seedlings and burning off the dead grass. There is nothing left to prevent washing and nothing left to rot on the ground. If the land was to be used for farming and not to grow pines there would still be a tremendous loss through the burned organic matter that should be left to incorporate with the soil and form humus in which our sandy soils are very deficient . With the addition of humus through the decay of organic matter, our Piney Woods soils become wonderfully productive. Burning destroys a large part of the early growth which is protected by the dead grass and it also kills the root system of some of the grass. There is plenty of grass left for the number of cattle that are run in the woods but the carrying capaci . ty is being constantly low~red . Dead grass if left on the range is apt to be a benefit to the cattle through its tendency to check the scouring effect of the early watery grass. Cattle will do better on a mixture. Quality of Grasses on Burned Range: With annual burning only those grasses are left on the ran ge which are able to withstand fire. This limits the grasses largely to perennial clump grasses which have a strong root system protected by a stool. Tender creep ing perennials and annuals are easily killed by fires and in cluded are carpet grass and Lespedeza, our two most valu able grazing plants. The plants left on the burned range are mostly sedges and wire grass which were present in the virgin forest and have persisted because they were able to withstand fires. These grasses furnish good grazing in the early spring and summer but send up seed stems and mature in June and July , are then tough, woody , unpalatable and furnish very littl e nutriment. From July on the range is very poor. When catt le should be fattening they often lose the gains of the earlier season unless they have unlimited range to graze over. One of the biggest problems to solve be fore this section can ever become a producer of great

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 51 numbers of cattle, is the improvement of the Fall range. Our greatest hope in this direction is through the natural spread of carpet grass and Lespedeza, but these two plants are checked very seriously if not actually prohibited by fires. The standard by which all pastures are usually measured are bluegrass and alfalfa. There is little question but what carpet grass is as good pasture as bluegrass and Lespedeza as good as alfalfa. Improvement Through Fire Protection: The most marked benefit to the range pasture through fire p~otection should be through the natural spread of desirable plants, such as carpet grass and Lespedeza. Where these are allowed a foothold and the pasture close ly grazed, the native grasses dissappear and are replaced by the more valuable grasses which persist when they are once established. This is shown clearly around every little town in the Piney Woods, around every logging camp and along every dummy-line and road. All carpet grass needs is a fighting chance and Lespedeza always goes along with it. We don't need the native grasses, we want to get rid of them as much as possible,-but burning is the surest way of keeping them . There is plenty of grass on the range for the few head of cattle that run in the woods but there is not enough grass for a profitable cattle industry on a commercial scale. Change Taking Place: It does not take a botanist to understand that the ong1nal vegetation of the virgin forest must change under such a radical change in environment as was occasioned by the rapid removal of the timber. Plants which were able to thrive in deep shade, covered by a carpet of pinestraw and burned annually, could not be well adapted to open sunlight where sun-loving plants are protected from fire. The ferns do not come out of the swamp and grow in the fields. A change is gradually taking place in the cut-over lands and it has gone far enough in places to predict that carpet grass will be the dominant grass and the Piney Woods will eventually be a carpet grass country the same as Ken tucky is a bluegrass country.

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52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE However, this change is largely dependent on fire pro tection. If fire keeps down the carpet grass and Lespedeza the amount of turf is gradually reduced and weeds take the place of grasses. To sum the matter up ; -Fires perpetuate the undesirable grasses and prohibit the desirable ones. Under a system of annual burning the ranges deteriorate rather than im prove. Reforestation and Grazing: We are now ready to establish the connection between reforestation and grazing. The same steps that are neces sary to improve the range pasture are necessary to estab lish a second growth of pines. When the stockman is educated to see that fire is his enemy instead of his ally, his troubles with the forester will quickly clear away. The second growth of pines may interfere somewhat with the grazing but this will not happen for a good many years with a system of grazing where as much as ten acres is allow ed for one head of cattle. Cattle will not hurt the pines . Where there are plenty of seed trees and the fire is kept off you will get many more pines than are needed and if the cattle help to keep them down to some extent I understand it would be beneficial rather than harmful. There is also an added protection to the pines through grazing, that the lumberman cannot overlook. If the woods a re protected from fire and not grazed the rough would be so heavy in a few years that a fire would be disastrous to the pines. Grazing will keep the grass down and les sen the fire hazard. If for no other reason the lumber man should encourage grazing on his land. In discussing the evil effects of burning I skipped what was perhaps the most important point of all. That was the black-jack and scrub oaks. Every man in this audience from the Piney Woods, knows of some piece of old range land that has grown up to scrub oaks until it is so thick that you can't ride a horse through it. There is a reason for every oak thicket and that reason is fire. Nature made the Piney Woods a timber country and if the cut-over land is not put into cultivation it is going to reforest it self, fire or no fire. If protected from fire you will get what nature intended,-Longleaf pines and they will keep the oaks down. If you bum off the pines the scrub oaks will take possession. If the pines were as valueless as the oaks they could still be easily gotten rid of because

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 53 they will not sprout. But if you cut down an oak you get 24 oaks in its place. When it comes to making a pasture of an oak thicket I absolutely throw up my hands. I like cattle too well to go into the goat business. Besides the oaks lower the value of the land for agricultural purposes. An oak thicket in a pine stump field is too tough a proposition for the pioneer stock we have left to clear the land. The man that deliberately burns the woods year after year is not only doing an injury to himself but he is burn ing his children and grandchildren out of the lumber busi ness, the grazing business and the farming business. The conditions here set down are the result of a long period of abuse to our cut-over lands. They will not be remedied or changed in a day or a year. It will take con certed action to change them at all. As I said in the be ginning the lumberman must come around and ask the cattleman about it. The cattleman at present holds the whip hand and the lumberman is at his mercy when it comes to reforesting his land. The lumbermen need to look at some of the points I have mentioned, from both sides of the question and come in a body and not as in dividuals because it will take concerted action and a great deal of educational work to accomplish anything. Such is the substance of the observations on which we have based our experimental work at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station at McNeill, Miss. Our work has been in connection with livestock and forage plants. Our major problem has been the improvement of the pastures. We know that we can build good pastures on cultivated lands. We are now undertaking to establish the relationship be. tween fires and improved pastures on range land. Also the relation between grazing 1 ~1.nd reforestation because we know that when we exclude fires we will get a stand of pines. In cooperation with the U. S. Forest Service we have leased a section of and, part of which is to be burned for ten years and part protected from fire, and all of it grazed as tho grazing were the only consideration. On smaller subdivisions we will graze sheep on land protected from fire, make plantings of improved pasture plants, graze at different rates and other minor projects. Ten years is a comparatively short time in the develop ment of the Piney Woods and at the end of that time we will have some figures and data to back up our demon

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54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE strations instead of hearsay and we are not going to cover up a:ny bad features that may show up . You usually think of the experiment station as catering to the needs of the average farmer alone. However, an experiment station has rarely had to face the conditions we have to face in the Piney Woods and you will under stand from the very nature of our problems that our major projects must be planned looking far ahead and that they will benefit chiefly the large land-owners because they are the ones that are holding the bag at the present. It is to you men here today and to the lumbermen as a body that we look to for encouragement and suggestions as to the direction of our work. We cordially invite you to pay us a visit at any time that you may see fit.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 55 ADDRESS ORGANIZATION OR METHODS IN FIRE-PROTECTION By CHAPIN JONES, State Forester, Charlottesville, Va. Read by A. B. Hastings, Assistant State Forester. In my opm1on the States have a very decided responsi bility to bring about forest-fire protection within their bor ders, one that they have no right to ignore or to make light of. As I see it this responsibility is due primarily to the fact that under our form of government the States are sovereign, except in such fields in which they hav e ceded authority to the Federal Government. This sovereignty necessarily carries with it responsibility for initiative and leadership in forest-fire protection, as long as the neces sity for organized activities in that field exists, and the States would have no justification whatever for a disposi tion to "pass the buck" to the Federal Government nor to any other agency. I think it very fortunate that the re lation between the Federal and State Governments in the matter of forest-fire protection on privately owned lands is one that is based on the recognition of the State's primary responsibility. As you doubtless know, the Fed eral Government co-operates financially and through ad vice as to methods, etc., only with those States which are themselves undertaking to solve the forest-fire problem, and has done what it properly could do to get the individual States to recognize and meet their responsi bility in this field, but has not independently undertaken forest-fire protection measures on privately owned land. The Federal co-operation is handled very wisely and ef ficiently, and has been a great stimulus to the States. The countries or other local political sub-divisions of the State cannot be considered to have any ultimate re sponsibility as distinct from the State. I believe it is wise from every standpoint, politically and socially, that local self-government be encouraged, and it may very well be that the best results will be secured, under certain cir cumstances, under a plan of giving considerable authori ty to local officials, but after all, the adoption of such a plan must be looked upon as only a matter of expediency and its wisdom tested by results. If the results are not satisfactory it clearly devolves upon the sovereign State

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56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE to correct any unsatisfactory conditions ansmg through its delegation of certain powers to local officials. I presume everyone will agree that the owners of the forest land protected should be required to share the cost of a fire protection system, because obviously the pro tection adds to the value of their property and allows the growing of forest crops, the revenue from the sale of which goes to the owner. The State would be shirking its re sponsibility, however, and failing to actually get the de sired results, if it attempted to throw the entire responsi bility for fire protection upon the owners, for two very important reasons; I st, the owners as a rule are responsi ble for the origin of only a small percentage of the fires that threaten their property, and, 2nd, the incidental bene fits to the public through the existence of the forests in good condition, such as the regulation of the evenness of stream-flow, the lessening of erosion and floods, particu larly in the case of forests on mountainous lands, the general beneficial effects of forests on climate, etc., do not accrue principally to the owners but rather to the general public. It is for the State to meet its own responsibility by adopt ing a wise policy as to what it will do for the owners of forest land and what it will require of them, in the inter est of all its citizens, both present and future. It is obvious that effective forest-fire protection is not feasible without the enforcement of adequate laws deal ing with forest-fires. These laws of course rest upon the police powers of the State, and are State laws. It would clearly be absurd for the State to leave the enforcement of its own laws in any other hands than its own. The State, therefore, whatever powers it may delegate from time to time, must recognize and meet its responsibility for the prevention and control of forest-fires within its borders. There does not seem to be any one form of organization of a State forestry department as a branch of the State government that can be said to be positively better than all others under all conditions. My position as Sec retary of the Association of State Foresters has made me more or less familiar with the form of organization of each of the different forestry departments and given me some idea as to the way each of them is working out, and I am struck by the great variety in the forms of organiza tion. It is generally believed that ~here should be a forestry

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 57 board or commission of broad-minded and patriotic men interested in the subject who should exercise more or less authority in the determination of policies, but whose pri mary function should be the selection and appointment of an administrative officer, usually called a State Forester, who should have both the technical and practical educa tion and training in forestry and who should be responsi ble for the actual conduct of the State's forestry work. Whatever the form of organization, the main point is that the men in charge of the forestry work should have the neces sary interest in forestry and the necessary training in for estry. Forest-fire protection measures should not be thought of as a separate problem or as an object in them selves, but should be part of a comprehensive forestry program put into effect for the purpose of rendering all forest or waste lands as productive and profitable as it is possible to make them, which of course is the essence of forestry. The organization of fire protection work and the methods of carrying it out are different in every State that has taken up such work from what they are in every other State, and I presume that such will always be the case, more or less, because of different natural, economic and politi cal conditions in the different States. We are so very far from being able to put into effect anything like an ideal form of organization, even if one had been carefully worked out to fit each set of conditions, that it seems to me that this discussion will be more fruitful if we stress particu larly certain special things that have been done in differ ent States that have proved themselves valuable or are showing promise. There are men here from most of the other States that are trying to meet the forest-fire situa tion that can speak for those States, and I shall discuss particularly two features of the work in my own State, Virginia, which I believe give promise of 1 being useful in other Southern states in which the conditions may be somewhat similar. I refer to our organization of fire pro tection measures in co-operation with the counties, through voluntary appropriations on their part, the plan under which the greater part of the work in Virginia is being carried out at present, and to our work in co-operation with large land-owners. First, the co-operation with the counties. I should ex plain that we adopted this plan in the first place not from choice but from necessity. We started this work in I 916

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58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE with an appropriation of only $ I 0,000 per year from the legislature and a contingent allotment from the Federal Government of $4,000 per year. Our law provided, and still provides, that the Boards of Supervisors of the several counties might at their discretion appropriate funds for forest protection, improvement and management. Ob viously a total sum of $14,000 per year for all kinds of forestry, including other things as well as fire protection, could not go very far in a State with a land area of twenty five and a half million acres, ove r half of it wooded. We were presented with the alternative of c oncentrating our efforts in a few small areas, trying to put a very thorough protection system into effect in those areas while abso lutely neglecting protection in all the balance of the State, or making what funds we had cover as large an area as possible, not primarily with the idea of using them in the actual suppression of fires, but rather as a means of stimulating local interest and local effort in the hope that in this way it would be possible to get a really effective state-wide system . sooner. The latter alternative was chosen, and we have not regretted the decision . Disregarding, for the sake of brevity, certain variations at different times or places for one reason or another, the plan is to make a formal offer to the Board of Super visors of each county to co-operate with them in forest fire protection if they will make an appropriation for this purpose of an amount between certain stipulated limits. Our plan at first was to offer to exactly duplicate their appropriation, the combined sums to be used for the pay ment of from one to four patrolmen in each county. We stipulated that the appointment of these patrolmen must rest with us, although we asked their hearty co-operation in selecting the men. We then employed these men on a daily basis on the driest days during the dangerous fire seasons to thoroughly cover their districts with fire warn ing posters and patrol their districts on the lookout for fire, while at the same time doing everything possible in an educational way to urge the people to be careful with fire, to warn those who were apt to cause forest-fires either carelessly or intentionally, etc. They also made it a point to examine the condition of the numerous small sawmills and stavemills scattered through the woods to see that the operators were complying with the laws for the operation of the mills in a safe manner. The patrol men also fought such fires as occurred within their dis

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 59 tricts to the best of their ability under the circumstances, although they were not expected to be able to m a ke h e ad way against large fires unless th e y could g et a ssistance . Each of these patrolmen reported directly to the State forestry department, on a daily basis, and was super vised only directly from the headquarters. With an increase in the Federal and State funds avail able we have thought it best to employ one chief forest warden for each county, whom we ourselves appoint, with the assistance of the Board of Supervisors wherever they are willing to help us in the selection. This m a n also works on a daily basis , reporting directly to us. He mak e s a selection of the other members of the fire protection force in his county , relieving us of this duty, and one of his principal duties is to get as capable and enthusias tic a body of ward . ens as possible , and supervise them in their work. We do not ask the counties to pay any part of the chief forest warden ' s salary or expense. We ask them only to pay one half of the cost of the services of the district patrolmen, just referred to , and of the local forest wardens who do no patrolling but are on duty only in case of fire . The chief forest warden also takes off the shoulders of the patrolmen and local wardens in his county the primary responsibility for securing the enforcement of the forest-fire laws. The local warden at each fire does what he can at the time to learn the origin of the fire, and gives such information as he can secure to the chief forest war den, who, with the advice of the Commonwealth's At torney for the county, follows up any possible clues, and, where the circumstances warrant prosecution, sees to it that the case is fairly tried. In the Southern states the fire protection systems have usually started with the employment of patrolmen with extremely large territories to cover , so large that their duties have been primarily educational and the actual ex tinguishment of the fires by them could not be expected. We have come to feel very strongly in Virginia that this stage in the organization should be passed as soon as it is at all possible to do so. We feel that the actual sup pression of fires must be developed at the earliest pos sible moment, through the employment of a large number of local forest wardens who immediately take steps to extinguish any fire that may occur in their districts. We believe that if this stage is not reached very soon the

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60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE force of the educational work will be lost and the whole program will come to be considered a failure by the p e opl e . For this purpose we are steadily extending our st a ff of local forest wardens and reducing the size of their dis tricts. The amounts appropriated by the different counties var y from $75 to $360 per year, and have been gradually in creasing somewhat. The number of counties making su c h appropriations has increased from 8 in 1 9 1 6 to 4 5 out of the 100 counties in the State by the autumn of 1922, and the total amounts of their appropriations have in creased from $1,000 for 1916 to $6,756 for 1922 . The expenditures have sometimes been considerably less th a n the appropriations, as we have found it difficult to get all of the patrolmen and wardens to be on duty as much as we have wanted them to . The steady increase in the number of counties appropriating and in the amounts of the appropriations seems to indicate that the great majori ty of the counties that have tried this system believe they are getting their money's worth for what they spend. A few of the counties after making such appropriations one or two years have discontinued them, but in spite of such temporary setbacks the work as a whole has steadily in creased in extent and effectiveness. Of course the orig nal appropriations by the counties are usually made only after solicitation to do so on the part of the State for estry department, which includes a very careful state ment of the proposed plan and usually personal attend ance at a county board meeting on the part of a member of the staff of the forestry department . Securing such original appropriations and their continuance through sub sequent years takes a good deal of time and money on the part of the State forestry department, which might be spent in other ways if this necessity did not exist. In my opinion, because of this consideration, and because of the fact that forest-fires are no respecters of county boundary-lines, commonly originating in one county and burning into another, and for other reasons, the State should require the participation by the counties in a fire pro tective plan on some reasonable basis that could be work ed out. Nevertheless, in the absence of such a law, this plan does make it possible to cover a great deal of ground with a system of fire protection which is not very inten sive, but which in almost every case, the exceptions oc curring principally where we have not been able to se

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 61 cure a s wardens the high type of men that we try to get, results in such a decided reduction in the fire loss from what it was before without protection that the cost of the system is trifling in comparison. The cheapness of the work is partly explained by the fact that except in the case of the wardens, who are paid for their leadership and responsibility, the actual fire fight ing is done voluntarily, as a neighborhood proposition, in regions where most of the timberland is owned locally and therefore each man is usually willing to help his neighbor. Where the timber is owned in large tracts this voluntary fire fi g hting is usually not to be expected, because of the feeling that the large owners should pay for such ser vices . Under such circumstances the wardens are trying to make arrangements with the owners in advance where by the owners will pay for the necessary fire fighters em ployed by the wardens. It takes time to get such arrange• ments perfected, but we are making progress along that line. At the same time that we started our county coopera tion we worked out a plan of cooperation with owners of large tracts of forest land, and made a proposition for cooperative fire protection to all the large land-owners in the State with whom we could get in contact. This plan was worked with the mountainous part of the State primarily in mind and may be better adapted to the mountains than to the rolling or level country. It pre supposed the necessity of the construction of certain per manent improvements in the case of large holdings. These improvements vary depending upon the local situation, and consist of either lookout towers with telephone connections, fire lines, trails, fire fighting tools, etc., or a combination of these things. The plan provided that the land-owners should embark on a policy of constructing such improve ments as were mutually agreed upon to be most necessary under . the circumstances, spending for this purpose each year a sum at least equal to the wages of the lookout watchmen or patrolmen whom the State would employ and who would be commissioned as forest wardens to give them the authority to enforce the forest-fire laws. The land owners were also to undertake .to meet the cost of the e mployment of local people to fight fire in case of n e c es sity where employed by the patrolmen and war den s for this purpose. The first land owning company in the State to accept our offer of co-operation in this

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62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE way was the Clinchfield Coal Corporation, represented by its Land Agent, Mr. W. D. Tyler, President of the Southern Forestry Congress, to whom credit is due for the undoubted success that has been achieved. This is our largest and best cooperative project. It covers practi cally an entire county. The company has spent on this project far more than has ever been required under our agreement , and has shown what can be accomplished with the necessary determination and judgment . Exactly this plan is now in effect in co-operation with only three of the large land holding companies . Recently we have been extending such work on a somewhat dif ferent plan . We have brought about the organization of two Associations of land-owners, who pay 1 cent per acre per year into a common fund to be used for all fire pro tection purposes indiscriminately in the holdings of the members of the Association. The State, with the assis tance of the U. S. Forest Service, contributes an equal amount, thereby becoming an equal partner in the pro ject, and the work is all done under the direction of the chief forest ward e n for the county in which the land is situated. This plan brings together all of the different agencies concerned and in my opinion offers very great promise for the future. Where there are no land-owners protective associations, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the supplement ing of our county protective systems by securing volun tary agreement~ with large land-owners whereby the lat ter would undertake in writing in advance of the season to pay any fire fighters employed by any of our forest warden for fighting fire on or threatening their lands. In one of the largest counties of the State we were able to secure such a written agreement with every owner of a tract of forest land of more than I 000 acres in extent, and in several other counties we are beginning to ap proach this goal. The payment for actual fire fighting seems to be necessary in regions of large holdings, where as on the other h a nd in regions of small holdings owned by the loc a l people we have not yet gone into payment for fire fi g hting , because we find that our wardens are able to g e t the loc a l people to think of the matter as a neighborhood proposition, each man helping the others and the others helping him . The sm a ll owner contributes labor. The large owner when not in position to contri

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 63 bute labor directly is called upon to pay for the labor of others. Our experience with the large land-owners is that they rarely undertake anything which is effective over large areas except when urged to do so and shown how to do so by representatives of the State forestry department, and that even then most of them go rather slowly at first, but we feel that by taking the leadership and continually hammering at the work we can get really effective results from the great majority of the owners who live nearby or have local representatives. The occasional large tracts owned by outsiders purely as speculations are a more seri ous problem. I am not sure but what additional legislation will be needed to deal with the problem of absentee owner ship. While, as I have said, I believe it would be the best policy for the State to make participation in a fire pro tection syli!tem on a reasonable basis compulsory on the part of the counties and the large land-owners, in the absence of such legislation it has clearly been shown that at least under conditions as they are in Virginia very de cided progress in fire protection can be made under a system of voluntary participation. It seems to me that there might be States in the far South which have not yet undertaken fire protection at all which could make a start on this basis if not on any other. Under it at least there could be a certain degree of protection from fire in those counties in which the sentiment of the majority of the people is favorable to it.

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64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADDRESS FOREST FIRE PROBLEMS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS. By E. F. McCARTHY, Silviculturist, Appalachian Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, N. C. The hardwood forest of the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont Plateau is never secure from injury by fire. How ever possible it may be to burn over the mature southern pine forest without economic loss, the hardwood forest is incapable of undergoing such treatment without injury to the mature timber and complete destruction of the small trees and reproduction. Public judgment of the degree of fire damage has been shaped by the economic interests of those who have used the forests and who have measured the extent of fire damage by their own financial gain or loss. The truer economic measure of damage by the unbiased determination of the loss in producing power of the forest is the basic prin ciple of research in forest fire damage problems. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the subject of forest fire research by an analysis of its problems as they have been met in a current fire study conducted by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station in the Southern Appalachian mountain and Piedmont regions. In addition to the need for an exact measure of fire damage which will assist in determining the legitimate ex penditure in protection of the forests, there are problems of administration, such as the analysis of the origin and behavior of fires and studies of the technique of fire pre vention, detection, and suppression which must be includ ed in this discussion. The general acceptance of the prac ticality of such research will be materially furthered if it is made plain that all experience which adds to progress in the program above outlined must be rated as research. A considerable amount of information has already been acquired through the administrative records of organized fire protective forces. Facts must be recorded to be of future value, and definite pro g ress can be m a de more rapidly if the problem is analyzed and the information is sought with a purpose. This statement has been made to em phasize the value of previous work in studying fire problems.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 6.S The susceptibility of hardwoods to fire injury at all ages, but especially in younger stands, demands that fire protection shall be absolute. Absolute protection should be accomplished in so far as it is economically feasible, and protection must be accomplished to the extent of se curing the young stands against even a single fire, or the effort expended in protecting the area will be wasted. The extent of damage is much reduced in this region from that obtaining two decades ago when there was little incentive to protect the forests from fire. The statement has been made by an investigator"" of fire conditions at that time that "with the exception of the moister coves and bottoms . . . . it is difficult to find forest land which is not burned over at least once in ten years; a full half or two-thirds of the timbered area is burned over at least once in every five years and in the heavily grazed parts a large part of the forest is burned at least once and some times twice a year." The condition existing during the past six years is shown by the report of the North Carolina Geological and Eco nomic Survey for the State of North Carolina. An area of 614,659 acres was reported as burned in the 24 mountain counties during the period of 6 years from 1915-1920 , inclusive. This gives, conservatively, an average annual burned area of 100,000 acres. The total area of the 24 counties considered is given by the census of 1 9 2 0 as 6,464,640 acres. The unimproved land outside of farms is 1,417,540 acres, and the woodland in farms is 2,184,055 acres, giving a total of probable forest land of 3,601,595 . lri case there were no repetitions of fire on the same area, this would mean the complete burning of the forest in each 36 years, too short a period for the trees to reach a size resistant to fire, and even if 5 0 per cent of the area is considered as reburned, the percentage of fire damaged ti~ber will still represent an enormous public loss. While North Carolina has been taken as an example, it must be recalled that this state has made material pro gress in organizing a state protective force and that the average of fire loss is being reduced through its efforts. Since the fire reports came from voluntary sources, they are incomplete , and to that extent the estimate of loss is conservative. ""Mulford, Walter. Forest Conditions of the Southern Appalachians. Ms. 1905.

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66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Although a statistical record of acreage burned is an essential primary step in determining fire injury, the dam age sustained is more than the mere destruction or deterior ation of merchantable timber, the standard by which fire damage has been commonly measured. An acre of forest is more than a mere acre of land, it is an acre of land with a growing stock . of timber. The ability of the acre to produce a revenue depends directly upon the amount of capital accumulated in the form of a growing stock of timber not yet matured. Injury to the smaller size class es of trees causes a reduction in value of the growing stock and a proportionate loss in producing power of the for est. The deceptive green crown cover of the Southern Appalachian forest often hides a condition of this sort in which successive fires have killed the smaller size classes and produced a crippled and diseased veteran stand, largely of sprout origin. Such injury may be even worse than complete killing, since the useless old stand is an impedi ment to the growth of a straight holed and thrifty young one. The loss due to fire includes injury to the soil, the loss to merchantable timber, to the non-merchantable young stand, and to reproduction. All of these factors of loss can be measured, but vary widely even in a single fire. In addition to the damage to timber production there are several other less tangible phases of forest fire loss. The effect of fire on the run-off of water is a problem which will require systematic observations through a period of years on selected sites, where conditions can be accur ately measured. Such a study will be needed to help solve the problem of silting up of reservoirs in the power p.e velopment of the Appalachian region. Reduction in the recreational value of the forest after fires is a matter of increasing importance. Not only is the attractiveness of the forest destroyed, but there is a material loss through killing of game and fish. A complete understanding of the difficulty in analyzing fire problems can be reached only by a discussion of the factors which cause varying amounts of damage. Fire sever ity varies in different regions and types of timber; it is also influenced by the season, the age of the stand, the amount of litter accumulated, the species, dryness of the forest floor, degree of slope, condition left by logging, time of day, direction of fire with reference to the wind

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 67 and weather conditions. This is a long list of variable factors which must be considered in analyzing fire dam age and it is simplified only by the fact that any fire which consumes the hardwood leaf litter of a single season is severe enough to kill all r e production and ignite dead wood . The southern mountains and plateau forests lack the protecting snowfall which m a te r i a lly reduces the fire sea son of the northern forests, although types of timber simi• lar to those of the north are found at high altitudes. In the spring when the trees are beginning their growth fires are more destructive because of the sensitive condition of the zone of growth beneath the bark. Young trees are more severely injured than older ones, since the bark is thinner and injury has been found to vary quite uniform ly with the size of the trees in a stand where all size classes are represented . The amount of wood material in the dead litter will influence the severity of fire, though de cay takes place rapidly under a closed crown cover , there by preventing an increasing accumulation. The hard pines found on dry slopes and in the plateau region are more resistant to fire injury than any of the hardwoods and there are also certain thickbarked hardwood species , such as chestnut oak, which resist fire to a limited extent. The larger fires are usually the outcome of a culmina tion of conditions which increase inflammability in the forest. A period of dry weather combined with wind is especially serious when the fire occurs in an area where logging sla:sh has accumulated. Such fires vary greatly in destructiveness, depending on whether the fire runs up or down the slope, with or against the wind, in the night or day, and upon the amount of fuel found on the forest floor. Hardwood forest fires seldom climb into the crowns of trees, though this may happen if small pines are in the stand . This analysis of factors influencing the destruc tiveness of forest fires makes obvious the difficulty of es tablishing the extent of damage except by a detailed con sideration of each burned area. The Appalachian Forest Experiment Station is engaged in such a study, in the course of which a detailed exami nation has been made of six extensive burned areas in the Appalachian Mountain and Piedmont sections. Since this study is not yet completed, only tentative conclu sions can be drawn.

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68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The mJury done by a single fire is most severe in the spruce fir type on the high mountains. While this type does not burn readily in its natural state, it is highly in flammable after a logging operation, when the heavy slash on the steep slopes is very liable to cause a conflagration which results in devastation of the land . Burned spruce lands are not as a rule reproducing and will not return to a satisfactory producing condition until they are re stocked artificially . The next most severely injured type is that in which white pine and hemlock are mixed with beech, birch or maple, a northern type extending to the high moist slopes of the mountain region and sometimes found in high coves. This type , which was common in Pennsy1vania, recovers poorly after a slash fire, and contains an increased amount of sprout hardwood with .little pine or hemlock. It may become partially devastated by repeated fires. The lower moist slope and cove type is subject to fires even before cutting, though less so than the dry slope, ridge, and plateau types. An increase of sprout forest results. In addition to injury to mature trees of the bet ter species, the usual killing of small trees and reproduction occurs. Fires which follow logging and occur in conjunc tion with favorable soil and moisture conditions may leave enough seed in the duff to generate a good stand of second growth. The conditions which are required to bring about this favorable result are complex and imperfectly understood. Even if further work makes this clear the control of fire is a difficult task, and must be handled with care and good judgment. An instance may be cited, however, where controlled burning of slash in the Douglas fir region of the west coast brings about a Douglas fir reproduction and re moves the objectionable competition of the western hem lock. No such condition is certainly known to exist in the mountain hardwood forest. On the dry south slopes the greatest acreage of land has been made unproductive by fire. Much of this type on the higher slopes contained a light merchantable stand. The effect of successive fires has been to injure and kill the better oaks and chestnut, leaving crippled trees of these species with gum, scarlet oak, soft maple, pitch and table mountain pine. Tlie result is a non-merchantable stand over an increased acreage. Such stands will re

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 69 cover so slowly, even if protected, that it i s qu e st i onable whether they will pay the cost of that protection, yet these areas must be protected to insure the safety of the remain ing forest. The study has shown that fires in standing timber deteri orate the stand, creating sprout growth favoring the poorer species because they sprout readily and are tenacious of life, and favoring poor pines in preference to hardwood growth. These same general conclusions will hold good for the lower dry slopes and plateau type, except that the origi nal stand was better and shortleaf pine which comes in is a desirable species. Two methods of study may be used in obtaining facts regarding fire damage. The one giving quickest results is the detailed inventory of burned areas of various ages which show different conditions of type and treat ment. The difficulty presented in following this method is that of reconstructing the history of treatment, and in ability to predict the future reaction to the fire. The more accurate method of study is by use of small sample areas which can be burned under observation and . restudied at intervals. Not the least damaging result of fire is the scarring of standing timber at the base. This occurs usually on the upper side of the tree where litter has lodged and the fire is hottest. This opens an opportunity for the entry of disease and favors insect attack. While trees may sub sequently grow over such wounds, the decay continues to spread in the interior of the tree. The extent of such damage can be determined only by a study in conjunction with a logging operation, when the injury to timber is exposed by cutting in the woods and sawmill. Such a study has been planned to complete the field observations of fire damage and will yield data on the per cent of lum ber grades and the rate of spread of disease, coincident with the study of fire injury as the cause of infection in the tree. The influence of fire on the forest cannot be expressed in absolute terms, since we still lack the data to predict accurately the yield of fully stocked stands. Since fire damage must take into consideration not only destruction of mature timber but also changes in composition of the

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70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE forest and delayed production which results from killing of the small size classes, the entire problem of damage . is a part of a larger study of yield in natural stands as modified by cutting operations. While this basic infor i mation is being acquired, future production must be esti mated by studies of unburned stands similar to those which are burned, if possible areas adjoining and of the same general character. The tasks of forest fire prevention, detection, and suppression present in each instance a field for research looking toward the improvement of methods now used. The basis of this is the education of the pub lic and the perfecting of organization and equipment. Sys tematic studies of the efficiency of existing organizations and present equipment form a type of such investigation which will result in reduced cost of fire fighting operations. In this connection may be mentioned such problems as: 1 . The value of airplane patrol as compared with the lookout system of fire detection . 2. The introduction of new equipment , such as gaso line driven pumps, and the use of the wireless telephone. Each year of active protection work shows increasing de velopment in efficiency through the experimental study of such organization problems . While roads, trails, lines of communication, and well distributed equipment constitute the defense fortifications against fire, these are useless without an organized per sonnel, the support of public opinion, and thorough analy sis of the fire hazard. Funds are necessary for these pur poses, and large initial expenditures, wisely made, will doubtless bring quicker public appreciation of the forest fire problem s and eventually result in cheaper fire pro tection . When an organiz at ion of a fire force is well established and equipped, based on the n ee ds of the ordinary fire season, a supplementary force is needed to serve in emer gency. Such an emergency may come without warning and is a difficult condition to meet without excessive ex pense . There is an obvious need for some means of pre dicting the approach of a seve re fire season such as occurs

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 71 at intervals of a few years. A study carried on this year by the Appalachian Forest Experiment Station points to the possible use of the weather observations of the U. S. Weather Bureau in predicting dangerous fire weather . . Further study will be given to this phase of protection. Successful fire protection in the forest does not differ in principle from fire protection in the city. It depends on continual vigilance, prompt action, and the support of public opinion. Every good citizen is an enemy of the city fire, even if he is not financially interested, and in like manner a public recognition of forest values and the destructiveness of fires will solve many of the adminis trative fire problems. For this reason progress in forestry practice which means an investment in future forest values will educate people to recognize the forest fire as an enemy and enlist them in forest protection . The papers of the afternoon aroused a great deal of valuable discussion, in which the following delegates took active part: Messrs. Alexander, Cary, Cathey, Faucette, Hardtner, Holmes, J. K. Johnson, Lee, Lufburrow, P a ce , Pfeiffer, Pratt, Sessoms , H . C. Smith, Sonderegger, Stone and Tyler.

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72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Tuesday, January 30 Morning Session, 10 A. M. President Tyler in the chair. ADDRESS FORESTRY FOR THE PRIVATE LANDOWNER. By HENRY E. HARDTNER, President, Urania Lumber Co,, Urania, La. I shall endeavor to discuss the subject of reforestation and forestry in a plain, blunt business way as is demanded by any business man before he would even consider the investigation of a question that has up to the present time offered so little attraction and inducement for in vestment. Fifteen years ago I spoke as a theorist-en thusiast-speculative-visionary. Today, after years of ex perience, I deal in cold calculating facts, and here they are . Cost of growing pine timber where a sufficient number of seed trees were left to insure natural reforestation. Value of land, $3 . 00 per acre. Interest at 8 % . Taxes 2 % on valuation , or 7 c per acre per . year . Super vision, 7 Vi c per acre per year . 50,000 acres @ $3 . 00 acre .. .......... $150,000.00 Taxes per year.. ............................... .. .. . ... . 3,750.00 Supervision, etc. per year.. . . . . ........... . 3,750 . 00 At the end of 20 years the investment has reached about $1,000,000 or $20.00 per acre. From now on to the 40th year there should be enough sales of wood products to pay taxes and cost of supervision. At forty years the cost of the venture would be $4,000,000 or $80.00 per acre. We can reasonably expect a minimum yield of 15,000 feet per acre or 750,000,000 feet. The cost per thousand feet is about $5.00, to which must be added a severance or yield tax of at least 1 0 % when the timber is cut, as the State and counties are entitled to a reasonable tax on the timber grown, and based on a stumpage value of $10.00 per M. the severance tax would be $1.00 per M. feet , or $ 1 5. 00 per acre. Thus the cost of growing timber is $6.00 per M. feet. Ten dollars stumpage means

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 73 a profit of $4.00 per M. feet, or $60.00 per acre. Cattle raising in connection with the venture will yield a profit and is recommended. Should the cost be increased $5.00 per acre for planting trees, then the interest rate would have to be lowered in order to show a profit and no one would be very enthusiastic over such a proposition. Now, who can afford to grow timber? The Federal Government, for every citizen is a stock holder and the government has the advantage of cheap money and taxes. The government can practice forestry on lands at a greater cost than could ever be realized for the finished product in order, for instance, to conserve water for irrigation of valuable farm lands, as in Colo rado and the Rocky Mountains. The people cannot long permit vast areas of forest lands to lie idle. If the owners cannot or will not practice for estry then the goverment must take over the lands at the cash value for such forest lands. The States can afford to reforest forest lands on a smaller scale than the Federal Government and for the same reasons. Cities and towns should have municipal forests , both for profit, playgrounds, and watersheds. The cities can afford it and for similar . reasons as for the State. The farmer who owns 160 acres or more of average land can grow trees on half his land and raise stock in connection while he cultivates that portion best suited for farming. He needs about 2 000 feet of lumber per year to keep up his place to say nothing of fire wood. Eighty acres carefully looked after will easily produce 40,000 feet annually and soon be a source of revenue to the farm er. The owner of large tracts of denuded forest lands can afford to practice forestry, provided the people want him to, and support their wish by fixing a fair tax rate on the land while the timber is growing and thus making it possible for him to expect a profit from a long time venture . He can afford it for the reason that the land is of doubtful value and if he can afford the luxury of owning a large tract, he must surely have enough means to develop it. A lumber manufacturer can afford to grow timber easier than even the government, provided again that the question of taxation was settled and the State required him to handle his lands under approved forestry methods. But unfortunately the states and counties are

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74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE more interested in getting what taxes they can now than a reasonable tax for all times. They compel him to m a ke a desert of the forest. For if he leaves seed trees and saplings on the land the taxing authorities force him to pay a higher tax rate. He is penalized for trying to per petuate the forest. Some one will say, Mr. Hardtner, you are practicing forestry on 50,000 acres of forest lands. How can you afford to? And I answer-First, the State of Louisi a na fixed a valuation on forest lands, if set aside under con tract with the State and under State regulation, of one dollar per acre for forty years and full value after that and a severance tax in addition . The lowest rate now is $3.00. Second, I owned 25,000 acres that I was convinced was suitable only for forest purposes and I accepted the con tract offered by the State. Third--Some years later I had denuded 25,000 acres more which I commenced to reforest and was assessed at a valuation of $5 . 50 per acre, or an average value of $3.25 per acre on 50,000 acres, or about 1 0 cents per acre per year. F ourth-1 was operating a saw mill and making enough profit to pay taxes and supervision on these lands which were of doubtful value for any purpose except forestry. I am now setting aside a sinking fund from the profits of my business to take care of the property especially taxes after all of my virgin forests have been cut until the new forest will take care of itself. Fifth-It is a great pleasure to work along forest lines and assist nature in regenerating a new forest. The work is pleasant but costly for it means six to ten thousand dollars annually being paid out for at least 20 years with out any returns. But of course as I see the trees growing inch by inch, I realize that the property is enhancing in value at least more rapidly than money invested in United States bonds. I have made a success of my venture which was strict ly business, for every acre of the fifty thousand acres has a thrifty growth of young trees coming on and bids fair to yield a harvest twice as great as the original forest. We have many head of cattle and hogs which we find pays in connection with forestry.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 75 Anyone can grow trees. There are no difficult problems to overcome. Trees will grow anywhere. -and they grow night and day, winter and summer-drought and flood. It is a sure crop. Now the question-What must the state-The Nation -the people do in order to get the millions of acres re forested? And as a man experienced along forestry lines I reply: Sharpen your pencil and figure interest, ta xe s , and supervision on a given investment-if the cost is too great, your investment and taxes or inter e st rate is too high. Experienced government foresters will tell you just how much timber or cord wood you can grow in 2 0 to 40 years. If you cannot figure a profit under conditions around you do not worry about forestry-let the St at e do it. What do I consider corre c t values in order to grow trees in the average county in the South? Two Dollars and fifty cents per acre value for the forest land-taxes not exceeding seven cents per acre annually and a sever ance tax of ten p e r cent on the value of the timber when cut. I do not advocate any tax exemptions nor does any experienced foresterwe ask only for the actual cash value to be placed on the forest lands for the full period in which it takes to grow timber or cordwood and then a sever ance tax on the products when harvested . If the people want forests they can have them, but must first make it possible for the landowner to go into the business. Until you do this, you have no right to complain about the complete disappearance of your once magnificent forests and heap censure on the head of the lumber operator, for after all he only carries on a business under the methods which you permit and encourage. Give the forest land owners a chance and millions of acres will s oon r e produce a new forest. Remember, no sound business man , for es ter or thinker, recommends or asks for bonuses or exemptions. Forestry as a business must yield a profit and when the Govern ment takes up the problem of regeneration of denuded

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76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE forest lands in earnest, forestry will become an attractive business in which millions of dollars will be invested and the second crop and succeeding crops of timber will be a thousand-fold greater in value than the first which was so carelessly exploited. At the conclusion of his paper Mr. Hardtner was ques tioned on various points in his address by Messrs. McCarthy, Pace, and Cary. President Tyler called on Mr. J. H. Jones, of the Alger Sullivan Lumber Co., to describe the work in thinning longleaf pine which his company has been doing. Mr . Jones stated that I 000 acres of small second-growth had been thinned to an approximate spacing of eight or ten feet at a cost of about 20c an acre. This included a cer tain amount of limbing. The trees cut were too small to utilize, and were left flat on the ground to rot .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 77 ADDRESS THE FORESTRY WORK OF THE GREAT SOUTHERN. By J. K. JOHNSON, Superintendent of Forestry Department, Great Southern L,1mber Co., Bogalusa, Louisiana. It has more and more occurred to me as I have studied personally this question of forestry in the South, the ques tion of the necessity of conserving the powers of the land to produce continuously, and I am sure that that is the inner convictions and feelings of a great many other men who are interested in conservation, that we really and truly approach the question from the wrong angle. It seems to be the thing uppermost in the mind of every landowner, be he farmer or lumberman, as to .. Can I afford to do it?" Can we afford to do it? I said that I believe that is the conviction of every man who had given this matter progressive thought, that we approached it from the wrong angle. I believe that we are fast com ing to the place as Southern men, farmers, lumbermen and men in all walks of life, where we are going to say "Can we afford not to do it'?" I just felt like making that little statement before I undertook to go into some minor details as to what my company is trying to do in forestry matters. I heard an old college professor one time make an illus tration I thought was good and I have thought of it often in my limited experience in affairs. He was talking to a class of students and he said .. Boys, always remember that there will always be coming to you if you do right more than you are looking for, more than you are actually figuring for, when it comes to a cold calculation of dol lars and cents. ..Now," he said, .. I will give you an illus tration. For instance, the blacksmith, he has an objective, that objective is a horseshoe. He has the horse there and he labors faithfully and earnestly and joyously at shaping and fitting a horseshoe to that horse's foot, and when that is completed his objective has been reached. But that blacksmith receives a subjective benefit that is surprising sometimes, in the strong brawny arm that he has developed in doing the righteous thing." Before going on and referring to what my Company has done and is trying to do I feel like reading just two

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78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE or three-not all of this paper, because I did not write it--but two or three short paragraphs which will show the background, the backing that I as a simple employe have in the enthusia!!m I really think I have in the work I am trying to do. This is a paper that was written by the president of the Great Southern Lumber Company that happened to fall into my hands a few days ago. It is an expression , and really the first expression that I have seen from him, which was given to the press. "The Chief Forester of the United States has recently said that 'our national forest policy should recognize that a real solution of the timber supply problem of the United States will come only as business men see their way clear to embark upon the growing of timber as a business under taking.' I wish that this truth might have found an earlier lodg ing in the minds of our lawmakers and our government officials. It is only recently, and even now only in a few states, that the tax laws . have permitted the grow ing of timber by private owners. Today in those states which have adopted a proper plan for the taxation of timber, business men are beginning to see their way clear to this undertaking and I agree with Colonel Greeley that on this basis, a real solution of the timber supply problem of the United States is at hand. The owners of the Company with which I am connected believe in the growing of timber, and we practice that belief. We have embarked definitely up,)n a policy of leavin g our cut-over land in a productive condition and protecting it against the two great enemies of the young growth in the South-hogs and fires. Our policy is not the product of impractical idealism. It is the healthy offspring of business necessity. An adopted child , if you like-but adopted because it pays. Some two years ago we began to take n,otice of the fact that our timber supply was diminishing,. We were not ready for the undertaker by any means, but we did need medicine. We made a diagnosis-an ii-.westigation. We found that where fires had not burned cwt-over lands in our neighborhood that certain kinds of pine had es tablished themselves in an abundant growth. and where hogs had been kept out as well, that all kr.nds of pine would grow. The rate of growth varied, of ,course, with conditions of soil and stand, but it app~ i[l. n:<1 1 that on the ' ,.,

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 79 average, without thinning or special care, our cut-over lands would grow timber of sufficient size for pulp wood in from fifteen to twenty years . We had found the dis ease and began to apply the remedies. We found that it was possible at a very slight addi tional expense to so conduct our logging operations as to l eave sufficient seed trees standing to produce almost a carpet of seedlings on the ground which we had cut over. We have put a ho gproof fence around this land and we have kept the fires out of it . On some areas cut over two years ago, we have sown seed and planted seedlings, some taken from the forest, some grown in seed beds. We are trying different kinds of pine in different soils and loca tions. We are experimenting to find the best trees for various conditions. But we know, without experimenting, that Southern Pine can be grown on our lands and we are going to grow it." Those are word s from Colonel A. C. Goodyear, Presi dent of the Great Southern Lumber Company. It has doubtless been told to a number of the gentle men present-it is no new thing-that the Great South ern Lumber Company, in advance of the turpentine or logging operations, goes into the forest and marks the small trees, from ten inches at least and under and down , with paint. It is done quickly a " nd easily. That points out to the loggers, to the sawyers, those trees they are re quested to do all' they can to prevent from damage and destruction , caused by falling trees and by the skidder lines in pulling logs up to be loaded on the cars. The forestry department has men, one man, that stays with each skidder. He is not an expensive man and he cleans the slash from around these little trees and makes a check of them daily. That check goes into the office. It gives us the number of the skidder that is operating, the num ber of seed trees or small trees that are marked, the number damaged , and at the end of the month those figures are compiled, and we are able to show the management just exactly how many seed trees have been left on the area cut over for that month, and what percentage dam age d and de s troyed. The Great Southern has been prac t ici ng that now some two years. We have not found that it pi;iid to leave the large trees; to the contrary, we have tried that some, and found they did not survive. It is the little thrifty tree that will stand it and in years to come will be there to do the work. I am sure that

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80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE every one whom I have taken through our cut-over lands marks with pleasure the line on the cut-over lands which shows the difference between the old way when the Com pany had no notion of forestry and where we are cut ting now. It leaves the woods in quite a different con dition, it looks like there is some life left in the woods and our officials seem to be very well satisfied with the undertaking. We are quite sure that these seed trees we leave will be sufficient to restock the land where it has not already had some young growth in the grass that will come along in years to come. I think it might be well for me to say that our goal is not more than twenty-five per cent of damaged trees. The Department of Forestry feels if we can get seventy five per cent of the little trees left in our woods undamaged that we have done pretty fine, but we don't get it. In one or two instances we have been able to show the damage at 2 5 % , but generally it is about thirty to thirty-five per cent . So much for seed trees. That is the practice in the virgin forest. The big undertaking we have in forestry is on cut-o _ ver lands. There is a large percentage of the cut-over lands we have now under operation for forestry purposes that was cut over years ago, where it was logged off without leaving the seed trees, and that we are try ing to plant artificially, both to the seed and to the seed ling. In 1920 we had, as most of you know, a great seed year . It was a wonderful gift to the South-that seed crop-and we did not know it, some of us. The South really as a w)lole did not take advantage of it. If we could have gotten the seed fall of 1920 on the timber lands of the South, especially in Louisiana and Mississippi-I do not know so much about what it was in Alabama and Florida, although I understand that 1920 was generally a good seed year-we would have been rich in the South today, in the longleaf belt especially. But we did not catch it except in a few places. We tried to catch some of it and did. That year the department of forestry for the Company organized some crews that fell right in behind the logging operation and picked up the cones and hauled them out to every old shed and place we could store them. If I had known then what I know now we would have harvested a great deal of slash as well as longleaf and loblolly. We planted those seeds, most of them. At first we went into the open woods where it had been logged

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 81 years ago and where the foresters tell us there appears to be no hope of natural reproduction , -hope all gone I You know that reminds me of a passage of scripture; you know when hope is gone there is a great deal gone. I told one of our officials one time that when I was a boy I used to hear a piney woods preacher and he preached from this text, and I looked it up one time in the bible to see wpat it did say. I recommend you all to look it up when you go home, if you have bibles. Here is the scripture: "There be hope of a tree if it be cut down that it will sprout up again." I thought about that and I told my folks that the trouble with the pine tree is that it did not sprout from the stump or wood, it came only from the seed, and when we cut the pine trees off hope is gone if we don't leave any seed trees. In the winter of 1920-21 we went into the woods where it had been logged over several years ago and broadcasted the seed, scattered about a pound to the acre-and there we m,issed it. We sowed sparingly, and that reminds me of an other scripture, we sowed sparingly and we are going accordingly to reap sparingly. We planted about 2800 acres in longleaf by the broadcasting method, but we have got something to show, and as time goes on it is showing up better every year. At first I thought we had hardly anything, but we have. I was out there the other day trying to pick out a place to plant some nursery stock this season and had a party with me, we thought we would take a fenced place where we had broadcasted this longleaf seed, and began to look around. Lo and behold, we would occasionally see a longleaf seedling that I knew was from the 1920 seed, and we decided we would make a more careful check. We paced off a quarter acre at ore place and at another place where the soil was different we paced off half an acre, and we sp , ent almo~t half a day on ' ~his area finding ' out what we had to show from that seed scattering that we did in 1920-21, when we sowed sparingly. Our check and estimate is that we have got an average on that land of 45 longleaf seedlings to the acre. Now, that is a small amount. Remember, however, we made this check in the unburned woods, but the 45 is what we actually saw and counted. I believe that we can figure on an other subjective benefit there. At any rate, that piece of land has been seeded. It is not thoroughly seeded, I mean it has not come up thoroughly, _ but it is coming.

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82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE So much for broadcasting longleaf seed in the piney-woods cut-over lands. That same year we fenced a piece of ground and plowed it in rows at intervals of eight feet, just a few acres for experimental purposes, and threw loblolly seed on this broken sod, and there we have something to , show for . our work. We again sowed the seed sparing ly; I am sorry we did not put out more seed . We would change our methods some in that respect if we were to do it again, but there is enough to encourage us and I think to warrant us in protecting it. Those seedlings, from the loblolly seed planted in 1920-1921, some of them are getting up like that now, (indicating by gesture 1 5 inches above floor) up above the ground. We have been fortunate in protecting it from fire. We have a fire patrol system, trying to cover a certain area in a definite way. We also in 19 21-22 planted certain terri tory in wild stock seedlings that we took out of the nat ural nursery, dug them up out of the woods and planted them. Our method in that case was to mark the ground off with a: plow at intervals of ten feet and try to plant the seedlings six feet in the drill. It is a very easy matter for you who are familiar with Southern soils in old cut over lands to take a mule and steel beam turning plow and turn the sod over, and we did that thinking that the seedlings would probably grow better to put them in this plowed broken sod ; also it served about the cheap est way we could make a mark for the planters to follow. We had a check of that last summer. This was plant ing done in 1921-22, a year ago now, and I think that we have in the neighborhood of seventy-five per cent sur viving, some of them growing good, some of them planted in sour, crawfish soil not doing good. That is another thing we learned, that soil conditions have to do with these things, and we have to know about that. We took some seed that we harvested in 1920 and put in a little nursery bed in cooperation with the De partment of Conserva t ion in this State, and in this small bed we grew nearly half a million seedlings (lob lolly), and we have just finished planting those to the permanent orchard. In just a little while longer we will have fin ished planting one million seedlings this season. We plant ed all the nursery stock and from that we went on into the woods where we have quantities of natural-grown seed lings and we are taking these up and carrying them over

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 83 to the cut-over lands and putting them in what we think is good soil for the class of timber. I might say that all things considered we feel that we have about 3800 acres that is well and partially restocked by artificial means, which we are observing and protecting. So much for seed planting. Before I leave that I just want to ask right here and now if there is anybody in this building who knows where we can get some seed for next year. We would like to have it, we want to plant our nursery right now. We have written everywhere and cannot find any seed in the South . Now, we all know about the piney woods hogs, the razorbacks. They are a great menace to longleaf and they are not the only menace by any means, but they are a menace just the same. The Great Southern con ceived the idea of fencing some of their cut-over lands and we follow that policy every two or three years. We now have under fence nearly 20,000 acres and are under taking to fence about 15,000 additional acres this sea son. Personally and as a native of the South and a native of the parish in which the Great Southern operations exist, I think it is one of the biggest things my Company is doing , fencing that land, not only because of the bene fit I believe they are going to get out of it, but because of the benefit it is going to be to that country as a whole. It costs money, yes, and yet if you can get a large block of land under one fence the cost per acre is small. k costs, I would say, about $200.00 per mile to build a good fence, posts about 12 feet apart. It gives oppor tunity not only to get rid of hogs but it gives better opportunity in patrolling that territory, patrolling it against fire, and it gives an opportunity for improved grazing. It inspires confidence in the community as to the value of property of that class and such confidence is not a bad company asset. I suppose when it comes to taxation that maybe that would not be so for a time, but anyway you know our farming class of i:,~ople , l..,ave lots of cut-over lands right on their own farms, lots' of them. Now, we get cooperation from the farmers that live in the com munity contiguous to our lands; in fact, I think they rather approve of and rejoice in the fact that the Company is fencing in these lands. As in the past we still let th e m have free use of this land for grazing purposes, although some of them are doubtful about it at first, but when we put in gates where:vt: r ther w si nt them, without any locks

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84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE -put a simple latch on them and tell them the latch string is on the outside , and to turn in their cattle and their horses and sheep, all we want you to do is to keep goats and hogs out and fire, help us do that and the pasture is yours-we . have had absolutely no trouble about keeping the gates closed. Now, we may want to pasture some ourselves some day. There is certain of this area that has not burnt over in three winters, and I can hear the stockmen who have put their stock in there already talking; "I have never seen my cattle come through the winter in as good condition as they have this year." I have been in there personally and looked at the sheep and little lambs and they are absolutely in fine condition right now, the lambs growing and playing over these rough woods , and it is my humble opinion that the fencing question will help in fire prevention and will revolutionize this question with reference to the stock industry . I believe it will. Now, of course these conditions would not apply everywhere, but in my community it happens that the Company owns great quantities of land, and it is very well blocked in places , and we are thus able to put in these fences. I think by a system of fire prevention and of grazing that we will reduce the fire hazard. Mr. Greene told us how that was done, and I agree with him that if we keep the fire out of the woods long enough we will have other grasses and growths on the land that will take the place of the sage grass, which is the greatest fire hazard known to the South, I suppose. Gentlemen, I might go on at length discussing what we are trying to do in this way. One more thing I would like to say a few words about, and that is our fire pre vention work and how we are coming out. We have tried to approach that in two ways; first, we have tried to do educational work in cooperation with our Depart ment of Conservation, and to show as far as possible in the community where we live the advantage of pro tection and protective measures. We have tried that in various ways. In this definite area that we are trying to patrol from fire we have had no bad fires this sea son. The patrol covers about I 03,000 acres . The Com pany does not own all that land ; I don't know just what per cent of it it does own. However, I don't think we have lost more than two or three thousand acres of the

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 85 part we have been patrolling, notwithstandin g a very haz ardous season. There are various ways in which we c an harness the powers that exist for doing things. For : , inst a n ~. we fence our land. I knew that a certain class of hunter w a s going to hunt there, and they say that hunt e rs . are a fire hazard-a certain class of them (a good sport is not) -but there are lots of them don"t know, and I posted the land _ : '"Hunting on this land prohibited except by special permit, apply to the Department of Forestry ," etc. Big signs all over it, and I put it in the local p a pers. I issued I expect 150 to 200 permits to hunt over that c ut over area , and you enjoin them strictly in the permit you give them to help keep fire out and when they ac cept this permit they have accepted a contract with you that they will do it. You have thereby turned what w a s a hazard, into a protection, as it were. There is another great hazard in our community, the hewers of ties and the hewers of wood. You can do it the same way, we are trying at least , and I am sure it has been partially successful. I have recently made a recommendation to the Company that we call on all th e men who have contracts to get ties and haul wood through our lands, especially after we had some pretty bad fir e s in a certain territory-this territory happened to be wh e r e we were not patrolling in a definite way-to call on these fellows, and say : "Here, your contract is up , especi a lly on this burnt over area. Now there is a place over there where you can haul wood until it burns over, and when it burns over you cannot haul any more wood until next summer .' " You start that kind of propaganda and you will see they will not only refrain from setting the fire out themselves but they are going to tell the other fellow and they will make good patrolmen for you. You know the wood haulers and the tie men are not especially against the woods burning, I , suspect some of you know that ; in fact, they want it burnt off so they can see the knots . The long grass and straw you know make the bottoms of the shoes slick and it is a little harder to get about . That was true of the turpentine tappers we discussed yes terday. But they can walk through the burnt wood s , and when they begin to scent the fact that their job is gone if it burns they will make good patrolmen.

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86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADDRESS By W . K. WILLIAMS, Forester, Cross e tt Lumber Co., Crogsett, Ark. Gentlemen of the Southern Forestry Congress: I am a stranger here, but I come as one who is vitally interested in the cause of forestry. I am glad to attend this meeting as a representative of the Crossett Lumber Company, which is located at Crossett, Arkansas. We are intensely interested in the conservation of our timber resources and we are encour aged greatly to see that people in other states are think ing along the same lines. The State Legislature of Ar kansas is now in session and I expect you will be interested to know that there are tWb penalty fire laws and a bill providing for the establishment of a forestry department, before that body of men. The lumbermen of Arkansas are heartily behind these bills and we believe they will be passed. Arkansas has not been very progressive in conservatipn up to this time, but we are awakening to the great need of it. We have a Forestry, Fish, and Game Association i~ the State which was organized in December and at the present time it has a membership of 70 and a paid secretary who carries on the business of that organization. That Association is endeavoring to protect fish and game and conserve all natural resources through legislation and propaganda. Private landowners and lumbermen in Arkansas are gradually seeing the li g ht of a new era in conservation. Private landowners are asking for advice as to methods of cutting timber and putting out plantations. Lumber men are wanting foresters to work in that capacity and to work into the industry. People of reason are de manding help in the protection of timber land from fire, as they realize the great depletion of raw material which is being brou g ht about by that agent. States are crying out for laws which will conserve and protect our timber and other resources . Forestry associations are being formed, and everybody seems interested and eager to learn more about forestry. G ent lem e n , I am l ed to belie ve that we are entering into a new era of con serva tion. Forestry is coming to the forefront.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 87 The Crossett Lumber Company has been interested in forestry for years but it has not been until just recen"tly that they have entered into it actively. We plunged into the problem last September and immediately decided to regulate our cutting of timber and to follow out some systematized methods. As a result of some study on the matter the Logging Department and the Forestry Depart ment came to an agreement regarding the methods to be employed. At the present time we have two practical men who have been taught the necessary forestry princi ples involved in the marking of timber. Briefly we are using two methods: ( 1) In old stands leaving scattered seed trees and ( 2) in young stands leaving enough trees on the ground which form the basis for a second cut in 20 years from now. In carrying out the first method we are leavin~ about two genuine seed-bearing trees per acre. These trees are carefully protected during log . ging by all the flatheads. They have been instructed not to throw any trees into the tops of the seed trees, bruise them, or throw tops within I O feet of their bases. This method we have found works out very well, and the sawyers are cooperating with us to the best of their ability. When trees happen to get topped up, they are cleared away. The second method of cutting is that of leaving a second cut. This method is applied only in localities where we will be about to block up a large area. At the present time we are leaving a second cut in an old field of about 1 5 00 acres. All trees left are distributed evenly over the area so that they can put on the fastest growth possible during the next 20 years. After the c1,1tting has been made our two men who do the m11.rking take a sufficient number of men and clean out around all trees to a radius of 6-1 0 feet. Stumps are being cut low and limby top logs are being taken out. Our cutting methods are of no avail if we do not keep out the fires and this is wh a t we are working hard to do. All 12 locomotives have been turned into oil burners and the three loaders will be so equipped to burn oil by March 1st. The logging operation keeps down all their own fires and any others which may come in where they are working. Propaganda is being spread and a fire pro tection organization consisting of a chief fire warden and 10-12 assistants is being formed. These men will have regular beats to patrol during our dangerous seasons.

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88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Another forestry operation is that of carrying on a forest survey which will cover 300,000 acres. We are finding out: (I) Estimate on all cut-over lands. ( 2) Maps showing locations of farm land, severely burned lands, areas where insufficient seed trees have been left for a second cut and location of areas where we can get a second cut in 15-20 years from now. ( 3) Our data is being taken so that we can correlate it with growth studies. The Crossett Lumber Company wants to know how much our timber lands are growing every year so that we can limit our cut to growth being put on and thus eventually put the forest on a sustained yield basis. We have now three men working on this problem and during the summer we expect to have on eight crews or about I 6 men. We have established one permanent sample plot in order to study the growth of loblolly and shortleaf pine which has come in naturally on cut-over lands in Ar kansas. The Crossett Lumber Company has great faith in forestry and we are directly opposed to the old idea of cutting out and getting out. We believe in conserva tion and continuation.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS CONSERVATION FROM A HARDWOOD MANUFACTURER'S STANDPOINT. By C. H. SHERRILL, 89 President, Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute, New Orleans, La. It is indeed a pleasure to be here today, and I am grate ful to your officers for the invitation to address this dis tinguished gathering . It would be interesting under al most any conceivable conditions to meet such a splendid body of men. The pleasure of this meeting is inten sified by the belief that our views and purposes are in entire harmony respecting the subject which brings you together in this meeting. From what I have learned of your purposes and your plans, I take it that among other things you are primarily interested in the preservation and prolongation of the life of our forests. You are looking into the future for your children and your children's children; for those who will indefinitely succeed you as directors, stockholders , super intendents and man ag ers of the business institutions you repr e sent. You are interested that not only the present generation, but future generations shall have as adequate a supply of timber and lumber as it is possible for in telligent planning and constructive measures to assure them. As lumber manufacturers we are as profoundly interested in this as you can possibly be. You are interested, as we are interested, in the con servation of our forest resources, and we are therefore, in common , interested in the means and measures by which it may be most wisely and effectively accomplished. I will pass by for the present such important topics as reforestation, fire prevention, the fighting of insects and other causes of blight and go directly to a subject of even greater interest, if possible, than these, because of the timeliness of the discussion, in view of developments in the lumber industry within the last year, and because also of its vast significance to the cause of conservation. I desire to speak of the tremendous saving possible through more economical manufacture, merchandising and utiliza tion of our timber resources-and I speak especially of hardwoods, for the conditions I speak of do not obtain,

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90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE generally speaking, in respect to the lumber industry as a whole, to the same extent as in respect to hardwoods alone. Hardwood lumber is largely re-manufactured or fab ricated into commodity articles. In this respect it differs generally from soft woods, which are largel:x prepared at once for utilization, for example in construction work of various kinds. In reducing hardwood trees into fin ished products made of hardwood lumber there proba bly will always be at best a very large shrinkage in volume. In this process at the present time under grade rules which have obtained in the industry for a quarter of a century the shrinkage in volume reaches an almost unbelievable figure. The quantity of lum'oer which takes its place in finished articles such as ordinary articles of furniture in terior trim, music cabinets, chairs, hardwood flooring and so forth, is such a small percentage of the gross volume of the hardwood trees cut as to be startling. William A. Durgin, Chief, Division of Simplified Prac tice, of the Department of Commerce, addressing an assem blage of lumbermen in July last, speaking of waste, said: "It is in this most serious situation that the Depart ment of Commerce hopes to be of vital assistance. Re sponding to Secretary Hoover's question, 'What can the Department do to help~• many business leaders have urged the great promise of material reduction of costs all along the line through waste elimination, and the elimination they have in view is quite a different thing from the 'con s er vation' you lumbermen have heard very possibly ad nauseam. It happens that this subject of waste has long been a primary interest to Hoover. Some two years ago when he was president of the Federated American En gineering Societies, the organization undertook a careful survey of the wastes in six major industries-boots and shoes, clothing, textiles, printing, metal trades and build ing construction. The results are published by the McGraw Hill Book Co. in 'Waste in Industry,' and would well repay your detailed reading, but the outstanding fact for the moment is: this report shows that on the average, these six industries are being operated with a waste of 40 per cent -40 % of the capital, material labor, mental effort just thrown away with nothing to show for it! Of course, it's an engineer's report and some of you may want to discount the technical man's findings, but surely you'll admit these en gineers are at least half right and that would mean a waste of

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 91 20 per cent-$1 out of every $5 destroyed. Assuming that something similar applies in your special field, this means an absolute waste of at least $1,000 ,0 00,000 and very probably much more in lumber last year. At least a half billion dollars wasted already this year, even al lowing for decreased production.'' If the figures given are correct for the six industries treated, undoubtedly they are conservative for the hard wood branch of the lumber industry, for there the in formed know the waste is unusually heavy . Competent authorities estimate that there is in the hard wood industry a loss and waste of at least 500,000,000 feet annually of hardwood lumber, because lumber grades are not so formulated as to make possible proper econo mic utilization of hardwood lumber; in other words grades are such that fabricating consumers cannot avoid enor mous waste in the utilization of the lumber which they are compelled to accept under present grade specifications and merchandising methods. It is not my purpose to discuss this subject with you today in a technical way. I assume that while many of you no doubt know lumber ml . es quite as well as the aver age, that some of you are not so informed and it would hardly be proper at this time to undertake to discuss what might be termed the technical phases of grade rules under which such a condition has so long been possible and continues with us at the present. I will endeavor however, to indicate the general character of the situation. A cer tain grade of lumber, for illustration, is determined as to its grade classification by specific defects such as knots for instance, without any regard to the location of such defects in the board, or piece of lumber and without any regard to the actual net yield of the piece in any fabri cated sizes that may be required by the different indus tries using lumber of that general character. Not only is the situation thus with respect to the defects, but the grade taken for illustration includes a varying number of the defects with respect to the wid~h and length of the board. Furthermore, the grade embraces boards in re apect to width from 3 inches on up without limit. Such a condition of grade structure in its practical ap plication exhibits facts which should have careful con sideration . Some of these boards can be used to con siderable advantage by, say a table manufacturer requir

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92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ing good long wide cuttings with a smaller percentage of shorter cuttings, but this class of manufacturer could not use without enormous waste, the boards which would pro duce only long narrow strips or rippings . On the other hand, certain classes of manufacturers such, for instance, as the manufacturers of hardwood floor ing and chair manufacturers, can use with greater economy and to better advantage, the boards producing the long narrow rippings than the wide boards producing the com paratively short cuttings. And the boards thus capable of economical use by such manufacturers would to a marked degree, be unsuited to the other classes of manufacture . rs. These illustrations will provide you with the key thought to the basic inadequacy of present grade rule specifica tions in the hardwood lumber industry. There is no mys tery about the matter. It is simplicity itself-although the remedy may not be simple or easy of accomplishment. When we reflect that some of the boards falling with in a given grade at the present time may be used by one class of manufacturer with only 1 0 or I 5 per cent of waste, and when we reflect that other manufacturers us ing the same identical boards could not use them without as much as 70 or 80 per cent of waste, and when we further reflect that no particular consuming industry can use to advantage all of the boards that fall within present grade definitions of any grade, and that every industry experiences a vast variation in the waste that obtains in working different boards which fall within the present grades, and that under present grade specifications any user, whatever his line of manufacture , would have to accept all of these boards in one grade and pay the same price for them, we will realize fully that there is impera tive need for fundamental treatment of this subject, be cause rules which permit such a condition are antiquated, crude and unscientific and make imperative an enormous waste of lumber. I do not mean gentlemen, merely to say that under these rules a large amount of waste is possible; I mean to make it much stronger. I mean to say that under these rules a vast amount of unnecessary waste is inevitable because they have not been based on production possibilities ar.d consumption requirements with a sensible common sense effort to fit the one to the other in the best way possible in order to consume the maximum amount of the lumber

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 93 produced from the tree with the minimum amount of waste. There are those who contend that the rules which are commonly used a re relatively perfect It is daircf"d for them that they are the result of evolution during a period of twenty-five years. On this subject I would like to quote a distinguished writer, Mr. Hugh Farrell the , Financial Editor of the New York Commercial. He says: "Opponents of grading reforms in the hardwood branch of the lumber industry contend that existing rules have been arrived at in the course of "evolution," and that upon the basis of the principles of evolution in general they must be accepted as the best that the human mind can devise. As a matter of fact, so far as we can see, there ' is nothing in the rules that suggests evolution; to our untrained eye they appear to have been standing still for the entire term of their life." Mr. Farrell's observation is essentially just. The question will naturally arise in your mind and you may desire to inquire of me why such a condition came about in respect to hardwood lumber grading rules, and why, if it did come about, it was allowed to continue and to persist to the present day. Such an inquiry would embarrass me to some extent only for the reason that I could not truthfully answer it without seeming to criticize, and I would prefer, if pos sible, to avoid entering a controvertial field. However, I am sure that I may, with propriety, state a few facts about which there can be no real controversy, and I think I can do this by making a brief quotation from an address recently delivered by a gentleman who is an authority on the subject of which he speaks. On this subject he said in part: "Originally inspection rules were provided purely for the purpose of having some arbitrary measure by which the log run product could be separated into parts. Lumber at that time was very cheap, the cost of fabricating because of labor costs and low overhead was materially less than it is now; the average quality of lumber was better and therefore the . percentage of waste was correspondingly lower. In addition to all this the average factory utilizing hardwoods made a greater variety of articles than are being manufactured today at any one plant, and could

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94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE utilize a greater variety and a greater number of different size cuttings. "That method of grade construction, which had for its purpose purely the determin a tion of the average value of the log run product, has never been departed from. From time to time slight c hanges have been made, but these changes have usually b e en dictated by the whims of s0me interested individual, and have never had any re lation to the needs of consumption. In this respect the hardwood industry differs from all other branches of the lumber business. In all other kinds of lumber, a study has been made of the consumer's needs , with the result that in these woods there are available to the consumers standardized grades that will answer their specific require ments with a minimum of waste, and at the same time the operators are provided with a ready market for the entire product of the log. "There are several reasons why hardwoods have not made the progress in this respect that has been made in other lines of lumber manufacture. One reason is that the problem is much more difficult because we have so many different kinds of woods to consider, and a vastly greater number of utilization problems. Another reason, and I believe really the controlling reason, is that the hard wood manufacturing units represent in the main an in significant individual production, and operate on a very meager capital. Originally, or when grade specifications were first provided, practically all hardwood saw mills were very small institutions. Their operators had no op portunity to study market conditions, knew nothing about merchandizing their products, and sold their lumber al most exclusively through middlemen or jobbers on such terms, prices and conditions as were dictated by the latter. In the beginning, therefore , the sawmill man had practical ly no voice in the formulation of grading rules, and while lately there has been in evidence a greater disposition to assert his rights , it is a deplorable fact that the standards by which the sawmill man sells his products have always been fixed by the dealer.' Supplementing what was here stated, I may say that the historical development and control of the grade mak ing functions by those who are responsible for the pres ent grades came to be such that no comprehensive , con structive changes in grade rules have been possible , if we may judge the possibility by actual accomplishment .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 95 The manufacturers and the consumers in submitting to the continuance of a condition where they can be dominated, and any constructive action they desire taken can be de feated, is an absurd and intolerable condition. The situation in this regard in the hardwood industry is entirely different from all other branches of the industry. In these other branches the manufacturers have made their grade rule definitions, naturally doing so after consulta tion with and taking in full consideration the desires of the consumers. Why hardwood producers and consumers have not made their wants and desires known and asserted their rights to the extent of securing proper grade formulation in the hardwood lumber industry in the years past is a question which will always be a source of wonder if not of mystery to many of us. Be that as it may, many hardwood lumber manufacturers have seen with clearness for a long time the vice of the present situation, and at least, some consumers have realized the inadequacy of the present rules. A well known writer, writing from the standpoint of consuming industries, criticized severely present rules as not taking into consideration the question of utility,-that is , the purpose to which the lumber is intended to be put. This writer asked the question,-"What is the matter with the National Hardwood inspection rules?" and he says that the answer can be put into a few words and then he gives the answer as follows: "The National Hard wood inspection rules send to the junk pile at least four boards out of every ten that fall from the saw . " Others who are qualified to speak have declared that actual tests show that from 30 to 40 per cent of the current waste experienced . by fabricating manufacturers can be avoided by proper and thorough practical adaptation of the lumber to the requirements of the particular fabricator, by means of properly formulated specifications. It is easy to realize that there is need of such adaptation when we reflect that these antiquated rules largely took their form years before the advent of specialized wood working; be fore, for instance the automobile industry became a fac tor in American industrial life , and before the days of specialized manufactures such as we have now where a great plant or group of plants may be confined to the manufacture of one or two items of similar character.

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96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE In other words, these rules never based on any practical consideration of factory needs, have become more and more inadequate because of the character of specialized factory work, which has taken place. In the factories of twenty years ago where a great multiplicity of articles were made in the same shop it was possible to use the grades with less waste than at present where one factory will be devoted entirely to the manufacture of tables, an other to the manufacture of chairs, another to the manu facture of flooring and so forth. These brief and somewhat disjointed observations I trust have given you some little insight into the character of the condition which needs to be remedied. The Hardwood Manufacturers' Institute and the hard wood manufacturers with which I am associated, believe that the proper way to approach the remedying of this condition is to consider the facts of utility, and this must be done by making the determining factor of every grade of lumber the net yield that can be obtained in as near ly the fabricated sizes as practicable . In other words, the net yield is the clear or good or usable material in the piece as the case may be that should determine its grade classi fication. In no other way can the consumer know that cost holds a logical relation to the quantity yield o.f his lumber and in no other way can the consumer reckon with any de gree of confidence on the approximate yield for his pur pose for any given quantity of lumber. It is furthermore the belief of these manufacturers, and I may say that it seems to be equally emphatically the belief of the con sumers of the lumber who have given attention to this sub ject, that such formulation of grades can be made only after an actual ascertainment in reasonable detail of the needs and requirements of the consumers and the possi bilities of production of the producers. There are elements involved in this matter which cause uneasiness on the parts of some who are interested in the subject, especially the manufacturers. Since we have been laboring with this problem which is very positively and directly a phase of the general lumber standardization and simplification program inaugurated at the suggestion of Mr. Hoover, we have had many producers to say in sub stance this: "All of this sounds very nice from the stand point of the consumer who would, of course, like to have

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 97 hardwood lumber cut into the exact dimensions to fit his every need, but as there are some eight or nine thous and hardwood consumers using various kinds of hard wood lumber, and using these in various sizes, etc., it io impossible and absurd to expect the producer to cut up his logs into any such numbers . and kinds and sizes of commodities and no one but an impractical theorist would advocate anything of the kind.' Of course those who have had such thoughts and have voiced such criticism have not understood what is really aimed at. We have at all times pointed out that it is impossible to make grades in the number and variety and with the varying specifications to exactly fit the needs of every consumer because no hardwood producer could man ufacture and assemble and separate his production into any such number of grades or lots. The practical limitations of the small, as well as the large hardwood lumber manufacturers constitute conditions which must at all times be kept in view in any solution of this matter. Furthermore, the practical requirements of the consumers must be likewise duly considered and given full play, for as it has been well stated, it would be absurd for producers to attempt to standardize what consumers cannot use, and consumers cannot standardize what manufacturers cannot produce, and in order for one to be commensurate with the other, grade rule spec ifications should be the result of the joint or united judg ment of the producers and the consumers. One of the fundamental troubles with the situation in the past is that the jobbers have endeavored to a degree to usurp functions which properly belong to the manu facturers and the consumers, and in making this state ment I do not desire to be understood as imputing any deliberate wrong motives to anyone. I merely mean to point out that in my judgment such has been the effect of the historical development of the grade rule and mer chandising situation in the hardwood lumber industry. There has been much effort expended to misrepresent the position of the Hardwood Manufacturers Institute on this question. It has been represented as opposed to the fob bers; it has been stated and reiterated that it was the purpose and plan of the Institute to eliminate the whole saler-meaning by the wholesaler, the jobbers-in the industry.

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98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Notping could be further from the fact. A very large part of the output of the hardwood lumber industry is merchandised through the intermediate dealers and there is no purpose or desire on the part of anyone so far as I know to eliminate them from the trade, but on the con trary we desire the most cordial and helpful relations to subsist between them and the manufacturers, but we think that they should occupy the position in the hardwood lumber industry that jobbers and dealers occupy in other industries. They should in the first place not seek to usurp the rightful functions of the consumers or the manu facturers and they should be willing to function as merchant3 and distributors, and they should whole-heartedly join the manufacturers and the consumers in accomplishing the realization of the constructive policies such as providing guarantees to the public and consumers of the quantity and the quality of lumber purchased. There are so many reasons why there should be uni formity in the names and designations, not only of trees and woods, but of grades and i kinds and qualities of lumber, as well as sizes-so far as that is practicable that I will not undertake to go into detail. I may men tion however, in passing, that if there were so far as possible, uniformity in size of competitive woods it would make for the interest of the ultimate consumer, for in stance, the builder, because he would have a large variety of kinds to choose from in filling his requirements. There is no reason whatever why various kinds of. hardwood grades should not compete with soft woods in certain localities and under certain conditions for many purposes, such, for instance, as framing, sheathing, and so forth. I have already indicated that the problem of remedying a wide-spread fundamentally wrong condition by com prehens~ve treatment was undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. Hoover. I have not however, given an adequate idea of the comprehensiveness of this movement because I have spoken principally of hardwoods. The program contemplates every kind and character of lumber. There are some thirteen or fourteen lumber manufacturers associations in the United States, having to do with practically every variety of wood manufactured, such for example as Southern Pine Association, Southern Cypress Manufacturers Associ ation, North Carolina Pine Association, California Red

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 99 Wood Association and so forth. These lumbermen upon the initiative of their administrative organiz a tion the National Lumber Manufacturers Association-of the United States, initiated this comprehensive moveme;nt pursuant to Mr. Hoover's suggestion, and in order that the matter might be given the best and most t , horough consideration and that the conclusions reached should be as nearly just and satisfactory to ev e ryone as possible-consumers, re tailers and whole s alers, architects and engineers a nd others have joined in the plans for thoroughly working out a program whi c h will remedy the entire situation . These various elements thus brou g ht to g ether created what has been for convenience termed th e C e ntral Committee on Lumber Standards , and is pres s ing its work particul a rl y in respect to four phase s of the general problems: First : With a view to simplification of lumber grades and grade names. Second: The st a ndardization of lumber sizes . Third: Adequate and practical g uarantee to the buy ers and users of lumber; for the proper delivery of both quantity and quality, and Fourth: Improvement and extension of lumber inspec tion service as an aid to the maintenance of the established grade standards. This has been declared to be by all odds the most far reaching and ambitious program th at has been undertaken by any major American Industry. The lumber industry of the United States ranks third in respect to labor employed, using over 700,000 men and third in the value added b y manufacture, and ninth in respect to value of its production. One of the first acts of the Hardwood Manufacturers Institute after the Lumber Conference held at Mr. Hoover's suggestion at Washington in May, was to emphatically approve the action taken and the plans made by the con ference, and to pledge itself in all practical wa y s to aid the speedy accomplishment of the program thus outlined. With that end in view it immediately began through the instrumentality of its Standardization and Grading Rules Committee to secure the cooperation of, and to offer its cooperation to consumers in ascertaining their wishes , ne e ds and requirements. As a part of this program it or g ani ze d an Engineering Department and began the m a kin g of sur veys, in cooperation with consumers, in order to provide

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100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE the essential basic data upon which proper grade rules might be formulated in order in the most perfect fashion possible to fit production to consumption needs. The industry as a whole as organized through the Cen tral Committee on Lumber Standards, is having the full cooperation of the Department of Agriculture and the De paTtment of Commerce. A development of the greatest moment in this connection has been the enlistment of the services of the Forest Pro ducts Laboratory for the purposes of making the essential surveys and helping to formulate a system of grade rules scientifically arrived at, and based upon the substructure of facts in respect to both production and consumption, as the same may be disclosed by the surveys determined upon. The Hardwood Manufacturers Institute has placed at the disposal of the Forest Products Laboratory all of its facilities in order to aid it in the work which it has under taken, and is proceeding in thorough cooperation with all of the other elements of the lumber industry, pursuant to the comprehensive plans which have been made and an nounced by the Central Committee on Lumber Standards . To my mind after all, the great basic underlying thought of the whole situation is summed up in the word CONSER V A TION. I have always believed that the enlightened manu facturer is the most enthusiastic conservationist in the world. There are some faddists and impractical theorists who regard all kinds of utilization as "wanton destruction." This is not only unfair , but it is worse-it is demagogic. Utilization is one thing and destruction is another. And if, as we have every reason to believe Mr. Hoover's vision for simplification and standardization in the lumber in dustry is measurably achieved by the industry itself through the constructive program going forward under the guid ance of the Central Committee on Lumber Standards, millions of feet of hardwood lumber, to say nothing of the other varieties, will be saved and conserved annually for the future. When we appreciate the fact that it is reliably estimated that such a reform as is contemplated respecting grade rules, will result in the annual saving of 500,000,000 feet of hardwoods alone, and will save more th a n a billion dollars annually in waste in the industry as a whole, a nd when we remember that authorities tell us that a billion feet of lumber can be in this way saved at less cost than a million feet can be grown, it is easy to appreciate

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS IOI that in striving for the practical ideals to which the Hard wood Manufacturers Institute is committed, in cooperation with the other lumbermen of the United States, and with the Department of Commerce and the Department of Agri culture, it is one of your most helpful and we hope you will esteem us to be one of your most valued allies in the cause of conservation. I would like in a brief word before closing to give you assurance of the fact that the hardwood manufacturers realize the importance of such measures as fire preven tion and reforestation. In respect to the latter there are naturally as you know, differences of opinions as to the wisest and most effective means of accomplishment. The Lumbermen will always be found willing and anxious to counsel with others as to the wisest course to be pur sued. There are other subjects of great importance which I would like to discuss, but I feel that I have already taken too much of your time. One is the subject of taxation of timber and timber resources. Generally speak ing, the policies of practically all of our states in this re gard are such as to make directly against and not in aid of the cause of conservation. A taxation policy which tends to force the timber owner to cut and remove the trees and which makes it a losing financial proposition to hold and conserve a forest for a considerable period of years, is short-sighted and indefensible in any view of the matter. It certainly is antagonistic to the cause of conservation. There are other subjects upon which such organizations as yours and ours can cooperate to the great advantage of ourselves and the public. For example, there is need of a campaign of education of the public in respect to many subjects which have a direct, and, if indirect, at least a most important bearing on the con servation of _ our forest resources. I may illustrate this thought by calling attention to an editorial in a recent issue of American Forestry. Remarking upon the enormous waste in hardwoods, this publication very serviceably ipoints out that much of this waste results from the "finicky" demands of cus tomers and cited in support of this indictment of the public that thirty per cent of certain lumber perfectly suitable fol." spools is wasted because it is off color . It is perfect ly good and perfectly sound, but it is not pure white. For spool stock we must have pure white until all white is gone -then proba.blY we will be glad to have nice sound red

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102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE heart-but in the meantime millions of feet of the wood 1s w as ted bec a use it is off color. On such points there 1s a need of the development of a national conscience. The time will come when future generations will criti cize us for such short-sightedness and wastefulness which d e prived them of, or made unnecessarily expensive, natural resources which are so difficult of replac~ment. If there has ever been any suspicion lurking in any of your minds that lumber manufacturers have not reflected upon and given most serious thought to subjects of this character, and if you have ever doubted their desire to aid in all practical ways the accomplishment of the iden tical things which you are primarily interested in seeing accomplished, I . am sure such thoughts do the rank and file of the industry an injustice. We are your friends and are genuinely interested in the causes you represent and we desire to aid you in all reasonable ways. Possibly there has not been the close contact and the fraternalization which is the most desirable and ou g ht to be very pelpful, but I am sure that condition will progressively improve as the years go by, and that the spirit of cooperation between such organizations as yours and ours, will be developed and our friendship will become more firmly cemented as we come to have a bet ter understanding of our respective plans and purposes. I hope to have the Institute board . of directors at an early date authorize a committee set up to function, as a Forestry Committee. The development of cooperation is, I think, in its in fancy. It would be surprising to you to know of the startling lack of cooperation between lumber manufac turers themselves. There have been some , who, while ap proving our plans and policies have in substance said, we would like to see the time come when you will have fully accomplished and made real the ideal of the policies for which you are working. We wish you success, but we do not care to exert ourselves to help you attain it. We would

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 10 3 like to see you overcome every objection and every ob s t acle and hope your efforts will be completely crowne d with accomplishment. When that time comes, let us know and we will be glad to go along with you , but in the mean time we will continue to jog along in the same old way. A condition of such long standing, filled with so many obstacles and intrenchments of error, aided by selfishness and mi s understanding, cannot be corrected in a day and to help us speed the day of complete accomplishment re qui res not only th e a pproval o f its poli cies, but actual co op e ration in our undertakin g.

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104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Tuesday, January 30 Afternoon Session, 2 :30 P. M. The Congress proper did not convene until after a joint session of the Alabama legislature, at which both Senate and House met in the Senate chamber at the State Capitol to hear the following addresses by delegates to the Con gress. ADDRESS By J. G. PETERS, Before the Senate and House of Representatives, Alabama Legislature. Members of the Alabama Legislature, Ladies and Gentle men: We are a wood-using people; we need wood, we are compelled to have it, and we are going to have it. Wood is absolutely essential to our agricultural and industrial devel9pment. Can you picture agriculture without wood~ The farmers as a class are the greatest users of wood. They consume something like thirty-five per cent of the annual cut of lumber and fifty per cent of the annual cut of wood of all kinds. Timber is needed in coal mining and in the manufacture of steel. Our newspapers are made of wood. There is scarcely an industry that has to do with things we eat in which wood does not play an important part. For example, our orchards, bakeries, cit rous fruit growers, abattoirs. I wonder if you have ever thought of the extensive part wood plays in the produc tion of that highly appreciated commodity.the American beef steak. The cowboys out on the plains round up the calves; they will ride on saddles the structure of which is made very largely of wood, and perhaps having wooden stirrups; to brand the animals they will build a fire out of wood; their own meals will be cooked over a fire of wood. When next they come to round up a steer that is going to make our beef steak, they will cut him out of the herd and run him into a corral made of wood; and urged on by wooden prod poles he will go up a gang plank of wood into a car made of wood, which will be drawn over ties of wood to one of the large packing house centers. There he will go down a wooden gang

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 105 plank onto an unloading platform of wood and into a cattle pen of wood; and while he is undergoing the fat tening process they r.1ight feed him some sawdust, be cause the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wis consin, tells us that cattle not only like sawdust but will do well on a little of it. Well, when the day of reckon ing comes for our animal he will go through the various processes in a slaughter house built partly of wood, and come out materially transformed . Again, this time as a carcass, he will be loaded into a car made of wood and drawn over ties of wood, finally reaching the retail store, the corner store if you please. The housewife will phone her order, and the butcher will take out the side, lay it on a big wooden block, and cut it with a cleaver and knife having a wooden handle. He will wrap with paper made of wood, and the errand boy will carry our steak across a floor of wood out into a delivery wagon or perhaps a jitney made partly of wood. Mr. Ford, you know, has a forest up in Michigan, which he is cutting on a sustained yield basis for his wood products. Well, our steak reaches the housewife, and , she puts it into a stove heated by a fire started with wood. When cooked, she walks across a wooden floor in shoes tanned with a wood product, and places the steak on a wooden table in front of you, and if you are so inclined, you can have a plank steak. This product we call wood is getting scarcer every day, due to the process of timber depletion that began in the northern part of the country in the days of the early settlers and has progressed through New England, New York, Pennsylvania, the Lake states, and down into the South, where the center of lumber production now is. While the center of lumber production may be here to day, all the signs point to its shifting to the Pacific coast, which contains our last big body of timber. New York has not grown timber enough for its own needs since shortly after the Civil war. Pennsylvania does not grow enough timber to supply the needs of the Pittsburgh dis trict alone. These states are importing states, as are most of the other Northeastern states. They have to go out side for the larger part of their lumber needs. Michigan, once the leading white pine State, is now an importer, and Wisconsin has nearly reached that stage. The South is more fortunate, but will it continue to be so? Only i, few are importing states as yet, but it is generally con ceded that within a period of about fifteen years most

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106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE all of the large mills in the South now cuttin g vir gi n tim ber will be closed down. This process of depletion means that the sources of supply are moving steadily into more in accessible places; it means that the cost of lumber is bound to increase, because there is involved the matter of transportation, which in turn means an increase in frei g ht rates and therefore an increase in lumber prices. I would like to give you some forest statistics concern ing Alabama . A recent Federal report estimates the total forest area of Alabama as 20,000,000 acres, of which fifteen and a half million is pine. Let us consider me re ly the pine acreage alone. Of these fifteen and a half million acres of pine w e are told that only one a nd a half million acres of old g rowth timber remains, and th a t there are something like six and a half million acres prac tically idle-that is, non-productive. The remaining acre age is made up of seco . nd-growth of various sizes. Lum ber production in this state is probably at its peak now. In 1919, the cut was 1,800,000 , 000 feet of lumber of all kinds. In 1920, it dropped to 1,500,000,000 feet . For the past year , as a result of the greatly increased de mand, there will probably be an increase, perhaps to the figure of 1919. But the situation certainly looks as though your lumber production had about reached its peak . The annual growth of saw timber in this state is some thing like 350,000 , 000 feet, we are told, so that when you cut a billion and a half fe e t in 1920 you can see that you are cutting your timber about four times as fast as 1t 1s growing. The price of yellow pine lumber F.O.B. mills in Alabama increased during the period I 9 1 0 to 1920, 128 % ; oak lumber, 135 % ; and gum, 150 % . The amount of lumber consumed in 1920 by Alabama was about 519,000,000 feet, or a p e r capita of 220 feet. I doubt if it is possible with a per capita as low as 220 feet for your people to reach their gre atest effectiveness in agricultural or industrial development. We cannot very well do that much under a per capita of 300 feet. Let us take for example what might be the lumber require ments of your farmers alone. There are 256,000 farmers in this state, and if we reckon the average annual need of the efficiently run farm at 2000 feet a year, the needs of your farms alone would be in the neighborhood of 512,000,000 feet, or approximately the equivalent of your present lumber consumption.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 107 Now, what are the causes of timber depletion. It can be laid principally to forest fires . This is so obvious that I feel no argument is necessary to convince you of the fact. Of course, over cutting has played its part and has of course hastened the condition in which we find our selves with reference to our timber resources at the pres ent time. But, it makes no difference whether a forest is cut conservatively or not, if you do not have protection, fires will destroy the young reproduction, which is the basis for our future forests and the very reason for con servative cutting; and in the end, no matter how long de ferred, our efforts at conservative cutting will be futile. The timber owner in this state, and I am sorry to say in a number of other Southern states , who wants to protect his forest and may be willing to expend time and money in the effort, has no assurance whatever that he will not be burnt out by fires coming over from interior or ad joining holdings whose owners may have no interest at all in protecting their properties . Under the circumstances what can he do? The forest owner who plays a lone hand in the fire protection game is more than likely to lose. The simple answer is that the public, State and the Federal government, has a big responsibility in this mat ter. The individual owner ' s re s ponsibility is localized; he is concerned with protecting his property alone . The State and the Federal government have a much broader responsibility, much more far reaching. It makes a great deal of difference to the people of northern Alabama whether they can secure the longleaf pine from southern Ala bama for their building construction purposes; it makes a great deal of difference to the people of the southern part of this state whether they c an secure the hardwoods of North Alabama for chairs, vehicles and other products for which hardwoods are commonly used; it makes a great deal of difference to all the people of this state whether your lands are allowed to be eroded, as a result of over cutting and forest fires , and the soil washed into your streams to interfere with water power development and the navigability of your rivers. It makes a great deal of difference to the people of this State whether your game resources are to be depleted, and whether your recreation al possibilities are to be decreased; it makes a great deal of difference to the hotel proprietors and resort keepers all over the state, who are inviting people from near and far to enjoy your salubrious climate and your marvelous

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108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE recreational resources, whether these are to be protected and conserved. Ladies and gentlemen, this is a business proposition. It is no child"s play, but a man's size job. The way to solve the problem of stamping out forest fires is through organized effort, by establishing a forest fire protective system in this state that will educate the people as to the need of preventing forest fires. It can only be done through organized effort by the State. The State cannot expect the private owner to do it unless the State itself takes the initiative, and if the State does this it can secure the cooperation of the Federal government. The Federal government does not reach out its strong arm and tell the State "You must do this." Not at all. It is up to the State to take the initiative, and if the State wants the cooperation of the Federal government we are prepared to give it. We are offering cooperation in fire protection to all the states that have not yet availed themselves of it. The Federal Congress appropriates $400,000 a year for this kind of cooperation. Twenty-six states are re ceiving annually an allotment of funds from this appro priation. There is no reason at all why Alabama should not receive her share of that fund. Next year it is hoped that this fund will be increased to $1,000,000. I have just come from an inspiring trip through the South country. Starting out in Missouri and Oklahoma, I headed this way through Arkansas, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. I shall return to South Carolina next week to attend a hearing on a forestry bill which is before the legislature. All of these States, in addition to South Caro lina, are considering forestry bills in their legislatures. Tennessee and North Carolina already have forestry de partments, the others have not, but they are considering very seriously creating such departments as a step they should take at this time. Based on the experience of the thirty-two states with established forestry departments, the formula for effective organized effort in forestry is, first of all, that the work should be removed from politics. If it is located under a board or commission, experience has shown that the most satisfactory results may be expected where the board is composed partly of ex-officio mem bers representing the state government and partly of repre sentatives of industries concerned with forest products or of associations interested in forestry. Authority should be given to appoint a state forester, a technically-trained for

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' SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 109 ester of experience; to establish a forest fire protective sys tem with wardens and patrolmen, who would educate the public in the need of preventing fires; to cooperate with private owners; to do investigation work; and to further the forestry movement througout the State, largely by edu cational means. You see, forestry is largely a matter of education. State forestry work, like most undertakings that are worth while, requires money, and I presume that there would be some question in your minds as to how the money is to be obtained? Most States pay for the work out of general treasury funds; some levy a special tax for the purpose on the land or the timber. Some of the Southern States are considering increasing their taxes on wood-manufacturing and wood-using plants and using the receipts for maintaining forestry departments and fire protective systems. In closing , my friends, I want to leave with you one thought chiefly: Don ' t defer until another four years tak ing action to prevent forest fires. After you have investi gated the situation, I think you will agree with me that the promiscuous burning of your forest lands is one of the biggest economic problems facing this state today.

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110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADDRESS By M. L. ALEXANDER, B e fore the Senate and House of Representatives, Alabama Legislature. Mr. Sp e aker, Mr. Ch a irman of the Senate, Gentlemen of the Senate , and Council of Representatives of the great state of Alabama: I want to assur e you, g entlem e n, that I appreciate the privile g e a s an offi c ial of an adjoining state of having the opportunity of talkin g to you briefly on a question s o important as the question of conservation. You have ass e mbled here in your City, gentlemen, a congress of conservationists, the Southern Forestry Congress, an organi zation of Southern men who are devoting their time, energy and thoughts, the best thoughts in them, to this great question of conservation. Your Go,vernor, in his eloquent address of w e lcome to this Congress yesterday, said that Alabama was the g reatest state in the Union . I am willing to con c ede to you that Alabama is one of the great states of the Union, for I am partly Alabamian myself. My mother w a s from this state and I spent my boyhood days here; and now I a m an official of your sister state, the g reat state of Loui s ian a . Let m e tell you briefly wh a t Louisiana's Conservation Department is: Louisiana's Dep a rtment of Conservation is a department of state, so written into its constitution, its last constitution of 1920. This department is headed by a commissioner appointed for a period of four years by the Governor, and is removed as far as possible from politic s . The Conservation Commission is charged with the care a nd responsibility of enforcing the conservation laws of the state for the protection and upbuilding of tne state's natural resources. This, gentlemen , includes its mines and minerals, its forests, its game, its fish, and its oyster and sea food resources. We have appropriated for that purpose, at the disposal of the commissioner , a total amount of $360,000 a year. $60,000 of this is specifically appropriated for the administration of our for estry department; $75 , 000 is specifically appropriated for the administration of our mineral department, and then $225,000 , (ff we collect that amount of money from our own resources) we are permitted to spend in the general conservation work of the state.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS How do we derive this fund? The Conservation De partment and its administration do not cos . t the tax payer of the state a single cent; it doesn't cost the farmer a nickel, it doesn't cost the manufacturer, the banker or the bond holder or anyone else in the state of Louisiana a cent, because we are supported by specific revenues. The law specifies that the Conservation Department in its administration may have the funds that accrue from the sale of hunting licenses. We charge $1 . 00 for resident and $ 1 5. 00 for non-resident licenses. We will sell this year 120,000 of the dollar hunting licenses. That goes into our Conservation fund. ls that a tax? It is not . The man who hunts gets a proper and adequate return. If you buy a dollar hunting license-and less than five per cent of the population of the state buy these licenses -and you go out and kill one pllir of birds, are you not recompensed in the actual food value of those birds, ducks let us say, for the dollar expended? And still you can hunt for three months in the year, you can hunt within the letter of the law, you can hunt ducks, squirrels, rabbit, turkey and deer, and that money is used for the protection of those resources, in the upbuilding of those resources, so that you will always have game to hunt. And so it is in our fisheries, we do not charge the in dividual anything to fish, but we charge the man who drags our rivers and lakes and bays and gathers up large quantities of fish and sells them for his own profit. The law declares that everything in the water belongs to the people of the state, as well as the wild life of the state, and we charge him a tax for that seine, those shrimp seines, and that money we use for the protection of the fishery resources of the state. We are building fish hatch eries and are stocking our str'eams and making the con ditions as favorable as possible for the citizens of the state. And so it is with the oyster resources of the state. Where a man goes out to gather oysters to sell for his own profit, we charge him a reasonable tax upon the oysters that he harvests, and from that tax we get $30,000 or $40,000 a year. From our fishing licenses we get approximately the same amount. That gives us this fund under which we operate and it is a great thing for the . state and its people.

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112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Now, we are here to discuss a question which I feel and believe means more tb the South, that means more to the people of the South, that means more to the future prosperity and industrial development of the South than any one thing we can do, and that is the protection of our forests and our forest areas. I say to you gentlemen of Alabama, you origin~lly had in the state of Alabama, as I understand, between fifteen and sixteen millions of acres of virgin timber . Your Governor said in his speech that Alabama was once in the proud position of stand ing I think second or third in the production of lumber, but that Alabama today has dropped down to seventh place. Why is it? Because you are gradually and rapid ly cutting your forest areas away. Today , of the fifteen or sixteen million acres of virgin forests that stood in this great state of Alabama, you have approximately only a million acres left, and you have something like four teen million acres of denuded timber lands. Much of that timber land can be brought back, a large percent age of it can be brought back. Much of that denuded land is suitable for agriculture, and we believe in agri cultural development as far as the agricultural develop ment of this country can possibly go. We believe that every acre should be developed agriculturally that it is pos sible to so develop, but I do not know what your agri cultural experience is in the State of Alabama. But I say to you that the State of Louisiana, settled for two hundred years in the valley of the great Mississippi river, with the most fertile land under the sun , today, after two hundred years, has developed agriculturally less than five million acres of land, and it has twenty-nine million acres of land. And Louisiar.a today has over twelve million acres of cut-over lands. What are we going to do with these cut over lands unless we can develop them agriculturally and make them count for something in the progress and development of our state? In our section and in your section there is only one crop I see that we can grow on them, and that is a crop of trees. And it is a simple proposition, my friends. It is not such a hard proposi tion to encourage forestry. We do not believe in, nor do we advocate, compulsory measures or laws as appertaining to the development of the forest. We be lieve that it is a matter strictly of cooperative effort. Of course, some laws are necessary. In Louisiana we have tried, have been working on it for the past ten years, and

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 113 we have come to what we think is nearly a perfect for estry law. We require that the woods should be pro tected frorn fire. We have provided a forestry fund which enables us to put out state fire wardens in those areas likely to burn and we are policing the state; but that is only a small portion of it. We are carrying on an educational campaign in the state, starting in the schools, trying to educate the people that it is proper these areas should be protected, that fire is simply a devastator and destroyer , and that if these fires are permitted to sweep year after year over the cut-over lands it is only a short time before they will become barren of every vestige of vegetation, sunbaked and eroded, and that unless we do protect them they will become one vast area of devastated land that will mean nothing to our people, or a basis of taxation. And so it is that we assembled in this Congress; we assemble in this Congress to counsel with each other, to advocate sane and sensible measures, sane and sensible laws, laws that will induce a man to go into cooperation with you and to handle these denuded lands that he pos sesses so that they will be made to produce . You can not do that, my friends, by drastic measures; you can not do that by compulsory laws. You can do it by pass ing reasonable laws, by passing a reasonable law that will induce a man to go into the growing of this crop of trees. Such laws are necessary because of the long period of time it takes to grow trees. We usually make tre es in eighteen to twenty years of sufficient size to supply the paper mills, and I say to you that if we give the encouragement it is only. a question of time before the South will be the great paper producing section of this country. In fifteen to eighteen years you can grow the trees for wood pulp; in twenty to forty years you can reproduce trees sufficient in size for the saw logs in the mill. These lumber com panies that have come in here with their vast holdin gs h ave meant much to the industrial development of the South. They have cut the timber under the law ; they have been good law-abiding and

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114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE patriotic citizens. We should encourage them still further . We should encourage them by soliciting their support, which we have done in Louisiana, to upbuild those conditions which they perforce had laid waste. This crop was mature and it was ready for harvest; it was proper that the trees should be cut, but we must pass laws that require cer tain restnctlons. We must pass a law requiring that seed trees be left upon the ground so that God Almighty will send his winds and waft the seeds over the land. All we have to do is to pass proper laws and enforce them reasonably, educating the people to keep the fires out of the woods, and our reforestation is assured.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS By HENRY E. HARDTNER, Before the Senate and House of Representatives, Alabama Legislature. 115 Mr. Speaker and Members of the Legislature, Ladies and Gentlemen: While I feel grateful for the honorable distinction shown me on this sublime and interesting occasion in being per mitted to address the Legislature of Alabama I cannot but express the conscious feeling which I at the same time entertain of my want of ability to do justice to the subject of forestry and conservation. However, in my plain, blunt business way, dealing in cold calculating facts, which business men always want to have, I shall endeavor to present my view of the subject in as short and concise a manner as possible. I was born in the pine forests of North Louisiana, above Alexandria, and entered the sawmill business thirty two years ago, and have grown up with the trees and the people. Not inheriting any money or any acres I am today the owner of 50,000 acres of forest land, be cause of the laws that permitted me to acquire property and because of hard and earnest work on my part, and I can speak to you in a practical way. In 1906 a conference was held at the White House known as the White House Conference of Governors, called by President Roosevelt. I attended that conference and there sat at the feet of the Gamaliels of forestry, President Roosevelt , Champ Clark, and Gifford Pinchot. Return ing home, Governor Sanders decided that Louisiana should have a conservation commission, and by legislative en actment Louisiana was the first state that created a con servation commission as a department of state. Notwith standing the fact that I had been a bitter opponent of Governor Sanders, supporting Wilkinson for Governor with all my might, when the commission was created he sent me a telegram asking if I would accept the office of chair man of the conservation commission. I thought "to the victors belong the spoils," although there was no salary attached to the office, but I said, "Governor, if you are such a big man as to offer your enemy such an important position, I will accept," and I immediately went to work

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116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE with all my might to solve the various problems of con servation. A few years later the commission was ready to report, and at that time I had been elected a mem ber of the Legislature of Louisiana, so I introduced the acts in the Le g islature that I h ad myself recommended as chairman of the conservation commission. The Governor made them administration measures and in Louisiana when the Governor makes an administration measure out of an act to be introduced it is pretty apt to pass, and we put twenty-nine laws on the statute books prov-iding for the conservation of all the natural resources of the state. was next a member of a constitutional conventi on and was able to assist in writing into the constitution, Con servation and Forestry, requiring the State of Louisiana through the commission of forestry to practice forestry for all time to come. Naturally , t a kin g such an important part in the organic laws of the state, I cou ld not afford to fail; I could not afford to preach forestry without practicing it; 1 could not afford to tell the other man what to do and not do anything myself. So as early as possible I commenced to practice fore s try on every acre of land that I denuded. I felt that it was not right for me to destroy unless it was po ss ible for me to replace, and therefore I alway s left my land in as g ood condition , or in g ood condition to replace what I had taken from it. There were al ways seed trees and saplin gs left , so should I happen to drop off at any time I feel satisfied of being able to say-and my friend s wilL tell you the same-that I am leavin g my property in as good condition as I found it, or in as good condition to reproduce, as it ought to be . So I could not afford to fail. There are some men who cannot fail, and therefore a man who is conscientious with himself and . preaches a certain doctrine must prac tice it, a nd therefore mu st not fail. I wish you c ould see the various experiments that I started at Urania, experiments in forestry, seedlings six months, twelve months, ten years, twenty-six years old. We hav e several that are very, very interesting, and every one of them a succ ess ; but it would take too long for m e to t e ll you of the beauties of the work and of the money that I hope to get out of my work. This morn ing, in a ddressing th e Southern Forestry Congres s, I dealt in cold calculating facts, because captains of industry want

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 117 you to tell them in plain figures and plain language just exactly what they can expect if they engage in hazardous or uncert a in work of reforestration. I figured this morn in g that if a man owns 50,000 acres-and a great many people own 50,000 acres. (Here Mr. Hardtner read from his prepared address of the previous morning, which ap~ pears elsewhere.) Now, Members of the Legislature, I want to tell you something. The people sent you here expecting you to do their thinking largely for them; they have not the time to think about these great subjects of state and they em ploy you, they honor you, to do that thinking for them some times, and it is up to you to solve the s e problems of forestry and conservation and not pass it on to your successors or to successive generations. You have your problems to solve now, you cannot pass them on to others. You remember the story of the talents, how a wise man before departing on a journey to foreign parts called his three servants together and gave to one five t a lents, to another two, and to the other one talent. Returning later he summoned the servants and asked for an accounting. The one to whom he had given five talents had handled the property in such a way as to double it, likewise the 011e to whom he gave two talents. But the one to whom he had given the one talent, he hid it, he sneaked around and said he was afraid to try and solve that little problem of how to handle the one talent that he was capable of handling, and he handed it back to the master. And you remember what happened to that unwise servant. You also remember the blessing that came to the two servants that had done their duty. Let me apply that also to yourselves as servants of the people. I am not going to tell you to follow in the steps of Louisiana; your conditions may be different here in Ala bama. We work out our problems in Louisiana without going to France, Germany or New York; we work them out our own way, you can work yours out your own way, and that is my advice to you, the Legislature in Alabama now in session, to handle these problems and solve them i9. a right way, bringing blessings to yourselves and to your children's children. Fallowing the legislative hearing the Congress re-con vened at its customary meeting place, with President . Tyler presiding.

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I 18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADDRESS FORESTRY AND HOMES. By C. B. HARMAN, Secretary, Southern Sash, Door and Miilwork Manufacturers' Assn., Atlanta, Ga. In dealing with my subject it shall not be my purpose to give you my views as to how or what should be done to conserve our timber or to reforest our land, but rather to show that this much-talked-of subject of FORESTRY and the humblest shack to the finest mansion are so closely related as to make the matter of Forestry the most im portant economical problem before the United States pub lic today and that as the years encroach upon us, unless something is done quick, the problem will reach such proportions as to make it the harder to master. I am not dealing on theory, fancy or anything imaginary, what I am going to tell you is from my thirty years contact with the woods and lumber, and a"s a manufacturer of wood building material, such things as are required to build homes and houses. I have selected this subject as all who are present are interested in Homes, at least as a rentor if not as an owner, and as they will better understand the subject of Fores try if directly applied to something with which they are familiar and can understand. Forestry, in the sense of which we have been trying so hard to present to our Southern people, seems to be one of many misgivings and far fetched to the average per son and is not receiving that careful attention which it so richly deserves. I hope therefore, in bringing a mes sage to you, more as a layman r~ther than as a Forester, that I may be able to place the subject before you so that you may see the situation in a plain every day way. A hue and cry is heard everywhere, that lumber and building material is costing too much, that the cost of building a home is excessive and that the cost is more than the average person can afford, take it from me please, ladies and gentlemen, that the cost hasn't reached but a mere fraction of what it is going to be unless we be gin something right now to conserve what timber we now

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 119 have , to avoid waste in the use of lumber in every de gree and form and to reforest our cut-over and idle land. If the cost of building a home today is out 9f the reach of the average person, it will be still further beyond his reach within the next ten years, if we continue to pursue an unconcerned policy towards protecting our present stand of timber and reforestation. I speak not of shade trees and shrubbery, but timber that will produce lumber . When I began lumbering in 1 889, the timber in the South was practically untouched and everywhere virgin lumber could be had at from six to ten dollars per M . B. M. Carpenters Mouldings at from 15c to 30c per 1 00 lin. ft. of 1 "x 1 "', Yellow Pine Doors, avg. size, at about $1.00 with glazed windows at from 75c to $1.50 per opening. Yellow Pine timber was bought at from 20c to $1.50 per acre for land and timber. In fact many of the saw mill operators paid nothing for timber when bought with the land as the land would sell for more for farm pur poses with the timber off. The Cost of Homes in those days was from a thousand dollars or less to up to about $3500.00 which would erect something very attractive . Now what have we today? Lumber of a poorer quality, selling from $35.00 to $75.00 or more per M. ft. Mouldings at from 75c to $1.25 per lin. ft. of ]'"xi"' . Yellow Pine Doors, avg. size , at $3.50 to $4 . 00. Glazed Windows, avg. size, at $3.50 to $4.00, And everything else in about the same proportion. More than 50 % of these advances are unquestionably on account of our present timber shortage, for lumber forms 50 % or more of the Cost of all wood building material and because our factories must secure their supply of raw lumber from a great distance beyond our Southern States confines, or have our Southern States ship it to an other at a great distance which means at a high freight rate. I am conversant with every woodworking factory in Alabama and all are sending away for raw material of various kinds and the same applies to every other South ern State. YOU ARE GOING TO CONSERVE AND REFOREST SOME DAY, so why not begin now~

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120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I I 5 wood-using factories, members of the Southern Sash, Door and Millwork Manufacturers Association, the organization which I represent, have gone on record as favoring a State-wide and also National policy for For estry, we have joined hands with the Southern Forestry Congress to assist in bringing it about, but my good people, this matter of Forestry is of your concern, it is the public who must make it a fact-we shall make our profit even though we have to haul all of our lumber from the Pacific Coast and although we may have to go further for it. Our profits are no greater today than 20 years ago, that is percentage on the dollar and that is what counts. The question is, are you going to stand still and do noth ing to keep down the cost of home building? If you are, then please quit talking about high prices. Another thing I want to suggest-you should become more familiar with lumber, you should know the various grades, sizes and uses. Why pay $75.00 per M. for some thing when you can get something for $50.00 which will answer as well . When you know as much about lumber as of Shoes, Hats, Clothing, Hay, Corn, Oats, Bacon, Lard, Brick, Lime and Cement, etc., you will be able to save huge sums. For instance , Shortleaf or Sap Pine Lumber is just as suitable for many purposes, as is Longleaf or Heart Pine and the same for lumber containing blue stain or mildew-Blue Stain is not decay and is not objection able when properly painted or covered up when used where not continuously exposed to extreme dampness. If we are to continue Home Building and Building gen erally at a reasonable cost, the cost must go no higher, and my message to you today is, that it is going higher if you continue to let your idle lands go to waste and if you sit quiet and expect the sawmills and woodworking fac tories to keep down the cost for you-they are willing to do their part and have already gone as far as the laws will permit, so if you want cheap lumber and cheap wood :. work, you must do your part. My people are working, having set up gradings, standards and bettered their facili ties and have improved their machinery. We are not ( with a few exceptions) timber or large landowners, you must grow the trees for us or assist others to do it for us . We are going to continue charging you the Cost, plus our fair profits, and the cost will be of your making.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 121 The same will a pply to your Furniture, everything you eat, drink, wear or sleep upon as lumber fi g ures in the cost of all. Do you see the point? As stated before, I shall not attempt to tell you how to solve the problem as my message is more especially to urge you to study and consider the situation and to then take such action as you consider best after hearing what the array of distinguished experts will tell you during the various sessions of this Congress. I desire however, to inform you that the State of Georg ia i s now wide awake to its condition and is on the eve of passage of such legislation as will save the situation in our State. Through the efforts and advice of this Congress, the State of Georgia created a State Forestry Board which has already made an extended report and has definite plans before the people and its legislators. We have a Georgia Forestry Association which is State wide organization including many of its most intellectual and prominent men and women, through which the people are being constantly informed and reminded regarding every phase of Forestry. I 79 people have contributed $2476.00 to support this Association during the year 1922 and most all of the daily papers have opened their columns to us and are working hard with us . Many of the schools have made Forestry one of their subjects of study and in reality the State of Georgia is up and doing. Our Association is well officered and maintains an office at a paid rental. in charge of an Executive Secretary assisted by a Forester, through which it furnishes information all . over the State and distributes Forestry literature to a very wide extent. The Association has District Chairmen and is organiz ing Forestry Clubs at the most convenient points and is putting the matter of Forestry squarely before all of the Civic Clubs and all other organizations in the State-it being one of the objects of the Association to maintain its

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122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE organization indefinitely or until the entire State is again standing "green in timber" sufficient at least to meet our State demand or more. Now my good people-it behooves you to do something. l am not going to ask you to contribute any money, that is, right now, but I am going to ask you for something else, equally as valuable at this moment. Will you not give me your promise to assist me in "keeping down the cost of building homes?" Will you not promise to begin right now, to look closely into the matter of your timber supply and to use your moral influence towards bringing Forestry to the attention of others. I thank you-May the Good Lord bless you.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 123 ADDRESS HOW SOME SOUTHERN BUSINESS MEN VIEW FORESTRY. By AUSTIN CARY, Logging Engineer, U . S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. The subject on which I am to speak is not of my own choosing. When yesterday morning I first read the speci fic topic assigned, the idea struck me that its treatment should be started with a little consideration of terms, "forestry" for one. I think now that we can let those matters develop as we go along. Later, as I listened to the papers already presented, this morning s especially, the thought arose in my mind that the ground laid out for me was being covered in advance. A number of southern business men or their representa tives have in fact already testified here on this head . Not all the ground has been covered, however; then it is true that greater clearness and better perspective are some times arrived at through review by a detached mind. Review , in fact, constitutes a large part of what I plan for this address. It has special justification in that, because of the pressure of our schedule discussion this morning had to be shut off. Mr. Hardtner, for instance , we all here know is a south ern business man and for years he has been expressing views about forestry. Another man can, however, tell how those views and the business course that has attended them appeal to him. Before I ever saw him or came into the South, I had heard and read some little about Mr. Hardtner. Judging by the reputation of certain Northerners identified with forestry, I had conceived of him as much of a philanthro pist, a man submerging his own interest in that of the pub lic. Our first contact shook that out of me, however. That occurred at New Orleans just about 5 years ago . At once on our meeting Mr. Hardtner began to tell how easy it was in his country to reproduce pine timber and how prom ising of returns ;-a little brush disposal and care about fire was all that was necessary and it didn't cost much. I came back with the inference that of course he was do ing it behind his logging operation. He said "No," how

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124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ever, that that sort of business was indeed well enough, but he had more profitable uses for money he h ad at command; it was 2500 acres especially dedicated to the purpose, with some small acres adjo inin g, on which he was carrying out his forestry work. So far so good. A littl e l ate r I went to Urania. Th e re I saw the demons tra tions of timber reproduction and tim ber growing that have becom e so famous; also I went out into the logging works and learned as much as I could in a general way. One thing that Mr. Hardtn er had done particularly impressed itself on me. Se t tlers had for years been moving out of that country on to b e tter soils and when they moved Mr. Hardtner had bought their farms, pretty largely covered with grown or growing timber. A big area had been acquired with enough on it to run the mill quite a number of years when they got around to it, and when I learned the prices paid for those l ands I near ly fell in a faint. From time to time in the pre cedi n g 15 years, I had myself bought small tracts of second-growth timber in New England, but I didn"t think I had ever struck such a snap as that. Thus I revised my first idea about Mr. Hardtner and his relation to forestry. I do not say that disappointment was involved in that. Certainly n e ither then, nor at any time, has there been lack of candor on his part. This morni~g, for instance, he told us h e expected 8 7o com pound interest on his money for all investments and ex penditures involved in timber-growin g and on top of that $4.00 a thousand "profit" which amounts to anot h er big percent. All right. This country must hav e timber and to get it must expect to pay for its production in some form. It's a good thing to have a proposition clearly made by any competent and representative party. The final stumpage price in this case do es not look unreasonable -$10.00 per M. feet. A feature of the proposition is that taxation should be settled in advance and on a plan suited to the nature of the enterprise . One thing on which no guarantee is asked or could be give n is selling price of the product. Competition is in fact free and open to competent men of all classes . Mr. Hardtner thinks the stumpage value of timber now started when mature is likely to be $20 rather than $1 0 a thousand; on the other hand he would have no recourse if other men should go into the enterprise in such numbers or with greater ad

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 125 vantage, and supply the commodity needed at a lower price than suited him. But more specifically, how about this matter in the other aspect, the reaction of a business man to the idea of for estry? About 15 years ago Mr. Hardtner acquired an idea that looked to him like a big one. He didn't go wild with it, striking out blindly, perhaps wrecking him self. Nor did he go crusading with it, simply telling other men what they could and ought to do. One or two pol icies of whose advantage it seemed there could be no ques tion he put in force at once . Over and above that, cau tiously and on a scale at first on which he could easily afford failure, he went to trying things out. With grow ing assurance, he has expanded. Nobody could discour age him; throughout he has told what he was doing to all who would listen, glad to confer either public or pri vate benefit . These things, I will say for myself, I would not h av e otherwise. They speak for solidity, lead the way to further actual achievement. Decidedly, as I think, the South has been fortunate in the first of her business men to take up with the forestry idea. The s e cond feature of our morning program was staged by the forester of the South's largest lumber and paper mill Company, the Great Southern Lumber Company at Bogalusa. One of the strongest impressions Mr . John son :m ade upon me was with his quotation from Mr. Good year, president of the Company, expressing the solid con fid e n ce he has in the tree-growing enterprise on which they are embarked. That from the man whose money i s ac tually engaged is to my mind the most hopeful possi ble sign. Mr. John so n had a lot of other things to say too. These were not altogether new or unexpected, for the Forest Service throughout has been in occasional touch with this enterprise. It is 5 or 6 years since the Great Southern Lumb er Company gave us the first indication of h~ving something of this kind in mind by writing us to that ef fect and as king if we had any suggestions to give them. For some 3 years for various reasons things didn't move ver y fast, but 2 years ago the way became clear for action; at that time the company asked the Forest Ser vice to recommend a man to take charge of the work they contemplated.

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126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE I suppose we surprised them mightily by the advice we gave, for th e y were evidently expecting to be put in touch with some forester of technical training. That course was indeed open and the most natural one, but after think ing over the work ahead and the conditions we made the suggestion that they first look around in their own organization for a man, a lready identified with them, whom they knew to be generally capable, a man if possible al ready interested in the timber growing idea and who knew and understood the local people. Such a m a n, we thought, stood a good chance of servin g them better than one of the other description. For one thing his heart would be in the work as that of no outsider could be; then it looked probable that he could post himself on the tech nique involved full better than the other type of man could adjust himself to the situation a nd people. The work in which Mr. Johnson is engaged is pecu liar in th a t, more than in most lines, success has to be judged by results in the long run; but at this early day, it is clear, he has a g reat deal behind him of real achieve ment. If I review from my own st a ndpoint some aspects of the work in which he is chief ag e nt, it is with the pur pose of bringing some points of instructional value into relief and of securing for him credit to which he could not perhaps with due mode s ty himself lay claim. First , Mr. Johnson, aided by St a te forces, has secured what amounts to a revolution a ry ch a n g e in respect to fire in his territory. That, as it appears, he has been able to do through his understandin g of the resident people, their interests and w a ys of thinking . A truly liberal pol icy on the part of the company behind him is involved also; at no point, a s far a s I can le a rn , have the y be e n inconsiderate. In particular the people have been invited to share in the timber-growin g enterprise. S e condly, to leave the seed trees of which he has told us, in the case of skidder lo g gin g such as is employed in this concern, involved a great deal in the way of co operation from the lo gg ing crews. Much difficulty might easily have risen at that point-has in other instances. Backed again by the company, Mr. Johnson appears to have a tt a ined notable success . Third, Mr. Johnson fi g ured from the st a rt that fenc i ng ought to b e a feature of the reforestation plan and results to date seem to justify him.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 127 Further than that, I think I see features in the actual reforestation work carried out, effective and desirable fea tures, that originated in the fresh view of a non techni cal man and from Mr. Johnson's country training. Thus his early familiarity with the plow seems to have sug gested to his mind the use of furrows spaced some feet apart .as a substitute for the usual method of seed spot ting and planting, also as useful in the way of fire pro tection. Then the idea of saving as much as was done of the great mast of 1920, preserving it through the pro cess of logging, seems to have originated with him. A school-trained man, it is true, might have thought of these measures. I think I know this, however,-that they were not considered in the discussions of technical men previous to their demonstration. Another useful idea can, I think, be drawn from this experience . Generally in discussions of forestry in the past, men have shied away from the idea of sowing or planting; thought this method of securing a stand too cost ly to be considered. Here, however, is a business concern largely employing these methods of reforestation and it be hooves us, I think, to take particular note of the fact. For my part, I am not sure but that, if it is worked at persistently with the idea of ascertaining the most ef fective methods, the cost of artificial stocking will com pare with that of natural reproduction. Time required, extra years of protection, and disturbance of logging oper ations are involved here. Then relative results from the two must be taken into account-natural reproduction un even , absent here and too dense there, while the other method when successful spaces the trees evenly, in the best position to grow rapidly and fully utilize the ground. Volume of production is thus increased and the period of years required to produce a crop brought down. In view of these facts, future values as we expect them, and the rapidity at which timber grows in the South, what indeed does a cost of a few dollars an acre expended to procure the most desirable stand amount to? Figuring in advance has its limitations, I know, is sub ject to revision from results and capable of manipulation thru temperament or interest. But this I remember, that I figured once myself on this very proposition, after methods employed by foresters, using $5 an acre as cost of stock ing the land, allowing liberal figures for protection, and

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128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE applying compound interest. With time and expected yield as near as I then knew I came out with a cost per cord somewhere around $1.25, a figure that I was bound to compare in my own mind with stumpage price current on pulpwood in New England, which is around $5.00 a cord. I do not ask anyone to set great store by these fi g ures, or to consider as settled the question of policy brought up. I do insist, however, that a bold policy may be the best one and that when a new enterprise is entered into men do wisely to consider its features with fresh and independent minds. That seems to be exactly what the Great Southern Lumber Company is doing in the present instance. I have felt freer to say what I did about Mr . Johnson and his work because immediately after him a school trained forester, representing another southern business con cern of the very highest standing, spoke to us, telling of achievements and plans of the most interesting and hope ful kind. With the development at Crossett, Arkansas, I am not personally familiar, but I am well ac quainted with another operation of the same people, The Jackson Lumber Company at Lockhart in this State. I think it is some 3 years ago that I first went to Lock hart. I had read of the Company in the lumber journals and more lately heard of it as successful and efficient in its main business, enterprising too and carrying out a variety of development on its cut-over land . So I dropped in there one time, told the people who I was, of my train ing and business. I had a pleasant time with them for a few days, lookii:ig over the country and their operation, made a little study on rate of growth of timber that I hoped might be useful, and went off. At that time, as for years before, the Company was cutting to a I 6 inch stump limit with a view to a second cut after added growth. They had territory and timber adapted to that, and though realizing that there were some drawbacks believed it was the best business policy for them. I was very glad they felt that way, couldn't see it any different myself. Rare as it is, however, to find any thing of that kind in the South, it was clear that the men behind that operation had done some thinking. About twice a year since then I have gone back to Lockhart. It was a handy place to reach and I felt at tracted. Here is the main point about these visits that

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 129 will interest those in my hearing,-that nearly every time I have gone there, the management has had something in the way of progressive timber policy that they wanted to show me. The first time it was a section of middle• aged timber that they had thinned with much care, set• ting the assistant logging superintendent to mark it. An• other time they had set a "scrap saw," by the day in• stead of the piece, to work behind the regular saw crews, salvaging odds and ends, cutting the wounded trees, get• ting a large part of their tie requirement out of other• wise waste material. Still again, warned by a fire that got out in the specially dry times of I 9 2 1, they had set a crew of 2 men and a pair of mules to pulling tops away from the trees left standing as a matter of protection: The cost at which they found they could do enough of this work to really serve their purpose was an agreeable surprise, 55c an acre, the last information I had. Nor was this all by any means. I could in fact, if there were time and need, mention several other progressive and co• operative things carried out by this Company. There are perhaps men who would say that all this has nothing to do with forestry. If so, I do not agree with them. Every saving that is economically sound, also every form and degree of utilization of the power of growth, to my mind are comprehended in the term when em• ployed to cover what is at once practicable and worth while. From this standpoint these men, as I look at it, have very much to their credit already. As to the full program, a settled policy toward land owned, plans for maintenance of output at a stated volume, these are diffi• cult matters, not to be dealt with otherwise than after mature consideration. This is true and to be freely ad• mitted,-that financial soundness is the only solid and en• during basis for such plans; ~rther, that they are not practicable or even called for in every instance. In the present one I, myself, feel no impatience. Men competent, alert and progressive can be counted on to deal with such matters in their own good time, that not too long de layed, and to take into consideration all material factors in the case. There is much more in the same line that I could bring in, and would like to,-instances of really progressive ac• tion or policy on the part of one and another concern that I could tell of confidently by reason of personal knowl• edge. One more su~h must suffice, however, The Alger

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130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Sullivan Lumber Company, represented here by its head woodsman and General Manager. One might , in fact, say much more in reference to forestry in that concern than I now plan to, which is just to elaborate a little on the thinking work of which Mr. Jones told us this morn mg. For a sum something less th a n $300 . 00 this Company has thinned more than 1,000 ac r e s of y oun g lon g leaf tim ber and plans to continue th a t work wher e ver on its property young timber reache s th e s tage at which it may be done effectively and at least c o s t. That young timber will grow faster for . being thinn e d i s familiar enough to technical men and probably to a ll, but there is another point here. A dozen or so ye ars fr om now the expecta tion is that The Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company will be found working that young timb e r for naval stores and deriving revenue from it, a thing that would not be practi cable at nearly as early a d a te if no thinnin g had been done . Further than that , if the y follow the idea now in their minds , they will not do that work destru c tively but constructively, on a portion of the trees only , with the design of again thinning the stand so a s to promote rapid growth of the trees left standing and unworked . Good business as well as good forestry it looks like, does it not? It is so meant anyway and subject to c riticism from that standpoint . Foresters, it may be well to say here, or some at any rate, are studying on just this for one thing-how to put the men who repose a degree of confidence in them in the way of making money, through greater production and fuller use . The above, it is hoped , will qualify under the title as signed . It amounts, so i t is considered, to this-that a number of competent and successful Southern concerns, believing in timber now as probably they never did be fore, are studying on the question how they may prolong their business life, if indeed there need ever be an end to it , -or else they have already reached a positive con clusion on the point. The conditions the y are coming to understand clearly and are meeting them in the same way that past business problems have been met. Foresters, one may be allowed to say, are intensely interested in that and cooperating as they may, believing the movement on the other side a good thing for the country, in fact as far as it avails the easiest and most American way to solve the broad problem of timber production which is

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 131 considered so vital at this time. For the same reasons it is a satisfaction to note that the movement is extend ing. Every little while from one or another section of the , South, comes information that men are acting on those lines or at least thinkin g pointedly. To the technical men in line for it come more and more freely calls from lum bermen and landowners telling what they are doing or want to do, and welcoming collaboration. The above relates to some Southern business men. There are, we all know, others, who are not sharing in this movement. Their reasons it would be natural for them to prefer to state for themselves or through authorized representatives. Those identified with forestry, however, may well make themselves clear on some points. Not every business man can be expected to be attracted by this particular kind of business; nor have all the talent or the resources. Further, we recognize a vast difference in situation among different men and concerns, in respect to tree species at hand and their rate of growth connected with soil, relation of specific properties to population and its attitude toward fire, the all important matter of taxa tion. A tremendous range of conditions in all these re spects is one of the strongest impressions I gain as I travel over the South . There are regions where, as it seems to me, men must have more than the usual courage to own property or do business at all. On the other hand I know of sections where tax and other conditions are as favorable as could reasonably be asked for. No good arises but much harm oftimes, from foolish, unbased optimism . On the other hand there is all the more reason, individual and public, because of this diversity, for pushing things in the regions where conditions favor. To illustrate what I mean, I may tell of the reaction of a prominent Alabama lumberman to suggestion of the idea that national and state forests should be established in the South. Surprising me, he came back with the state ment that he didn't want to see it because the field for private enterprise was too attractive. Looking at the mat ter more broadly, however, he recognized that conditions about hiin were usually favorable in many ways, that there probably was a legitimate and necessary field for the other thing. This I think true and a fact to be given weight in all our calculatiqns-that nothing probably will pro mote action on the part of the public favorable to tim

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132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE her-growing (fire and taxation of course chiefly referred to) like the actual existence of enterprises of this nature, demonstrating what can be done and the utility of it. So much under the topic assigned and relating to the general and most familiar territory. Mr. Forbes, however, has desired from me a specific report on the naval stores industry, the eastern division of it , working for the most part not ahead of sawmills but on second growth. The number of producers in this field is very large; one still is the most common unit of production . Most opera tors work on timber leased for 3 or 4 years, not such as they own themselves. While there are some strong and capable concerns run by men in the business as a main live lihood, there are also numerous men not really committed to it, in and out according to the promise of the market, trading, drifting around from place to place. These last are not on the business level of the others. In fact, the capacity of many for steady, closely run, productive, en terprise in competitive c onditions, especially with any tech nique involved , is by no means clear. The question naturally arises how this condition comes about. That, as I see it, arises largely from the peculiar organization of the industry, from the fact that a group of concerns detached from production, the factorage houses, have from early times financed prospective operators who by any means could assure them of reasonable security in regard to loans. I know of no other industry in which entrance into business through borrowed money is so easy. The effects of this system are readily apparent . In the first place , as already stated , many men are in the busi ness who have no real justification for running a business of any kind. Secondly, leasing is promoted instead of the ownership of land and timber. With these 2 things goes a laxity in the conduct of operation that has proved to be very hard on the resource behind the industry, the timber itself. That on one side. On the other, I know many capable men among turpentine operators, men more or less studious of their methods, good at labor control, shrewd in marketing, their general competence shown not alone by steady profit but by the fact that while growing in volume of production they have worked themselves out of debt. It is in these latter, to my mind , that the hope of the future lies, industrially and for conservation. In fact among

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 133 them numerous signs of a: progressive stirring can be see n . Here are some thin gs by way of advance that are taking place at this time _ : , F actors and dealers tell me that smaller hacks are be ing used yearly. The remnant of the old boxing method that still exists is shrinking. I think of 2 men (doubtless there are many others) who, having grasped the advantage of not workin g too small timber and but one face at a time, are now employ ing those methods. I think of 3 operators, who lately, with evidence of much interest and pride, showed me slash pine reproduction on their own land that they had either secured or found, and that they meant to protect and utilize. More significant, however, than all these things is a tendency on the part of these stronger operators to ac quire land of their own. This has not so far resulted in a revolution of ideas and methods, but it is the foundation on which such revolution may be based . In the circum stances of the case I . look on it as the best possible sign, perfectly willing, thinking it preferable in fact, that changes to come should be of the nature of evolution rather than revolution. Some idea of the natural conditions in which these men work, it will be appropriate to convey to you. In what I say southeast Georgia and northeast Florida will be in mind mainly. That is the district with which I am most familiar, broadly representative of the rest, certainly as good as any of it. The main tree species are longleaf and slash pine. The characteristics of both are fairly well known; the latter especially we are coming to recognize, with its ease of production, rapid growth, high quality both for naval stores and . for timber, as one of the most valuable trees on the earth's surface. With these two strings to his bow, there fore, naval stores and lumber, the landowner in this re gion has double reason for keeping his forest productive. With a prospect of final timber value equal to that of men in other sections, he has the opportunity of getting revenue from turpentining in addition, previous to final cutting and from the growing stand as well. All this, I want to say, I believe to be thoroughly practicable. Pros pective rewards for really skillful management of wood

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134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE land I look on as full g r ea t e r in this than m a n y other southern territory. Let us look at this matter in a littl e detail , how e v e r. Take for instance what I s a w re c ently in compan y with the owner of the land, several hundred ac r e s of s la s h pin e reproduction, knee high at 2 years o f a g e. Some w e found that was 2 years older was up to 1 0 feet hi g h; in a dozen or 1 5 years it will be very fair turpentine tim ber. One thing , however, may greatly interfer e with that -too g re a t density . I bel i eve, th ere for e, th a t thinnin g su c h st a nd s when the trees h a ve l a r ge ly clear e d th e fi re s btit are not yet s o large but that on e blow o f a n ax w ill kill them, will richly pay the l a ndown e r. Th a t mi g ht leave them 8 to 1 0 f e et apart, 5 00 or so to an ac r e . At th a t spacing a lar g e share will g row to 7 to 1 0 inches diam eter rapidly and without crowin g. Immediate value at that time, 20 y e ars of a g e say , on a lease value basis, is considerable; fi g ured at 1 0 to 1 5 cents a face, the present current prices. But we here at any rate have an outlook on this matter th a t is l a rger than that. On the statistical facts available w e believe in hi g h future values both for naval stores and for lumber. Ther e fore we are prepared to consider on its app a rent merits any plan of operation that aims a t realiz a tion a t a future time. Something like the following may do perhaps. Sup pose that, instead of completely working out that stand and destroying it, the owner bleeds out a portion only and utilizes or kills the trees so treated. That would yield generous rev e nue from naval stores; a whole lot mo r e if there were a market for pulpwood. Then if purposely and effectively done it would thin the s tand, le a vin g it in shape again to grow a t its utmo s t. We mi g ht in this way take out some of the trees, leaving them spaced 16 to 20 feet, with room enough to g row to s a w-log size rapidly. At that rate th e y would st a nd around 100 to the acre. Nor have we to wait until th e c utting st ag e is r e ached before securing further revenue. Worked one face at a time for 3 or 4 years, with a year's rest between work ings, somewhat as the French manage, the timber left standin g should produce 3 crops of n a val store s with no kill i ng sacrifice of wood producing power . At the e nd , at 3 5 to 40 years of age, after having yielded many hun

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 135 dred turpentine fac e s to the acre, a generous crop of saw timber should be ready to harvest. No pi c ture of relapse and despair that; quite the con trary, in fact. Yet I would not minimize difficuties, for get the chances that always lie between conception and realization, overlook the great variety in producing power among different types of ground, or the time required to get an area into producing shape. All that allowed for, however, I can see it no other way but that that region is one favored like few others in respect to natural facili ties for timber-growing that the country ought to be able to look to it for generous future supplies , that the busi ness of production here holds out strong inducements for the application of money and brains. For these the cap able local operators and landowners are first in line. To those from outside who may be attracted or think they have the capacity, one may truthfully _ say, I think, that there is abundant room. Before closing this address I would like to note one more thing. Yesterday when we gathered for the first time it struck me at once that the atmosphere was a little dif ferent from what it had been on previous occasions; we seemed more business-like, somehow more on the ground. With succeedin g sessions that impression has strengthened and I for one have been glad of it; believe it a good thing . About 3 weeks ago I he a rd the chief forester of the United States remark that in his opinion the low point for forestry in this country has been passed, that we are now on the upward turn, and it strikes me that we here may justly encourage ourselves with the thou g ht that the South in that respect is in line with other sections. There is an other side to that too, desirable to bring out here-the fact that right at this time decisions are being made and business courses mapped out, connected with timber pro duction, that are of vital moment to those directly con cerned, of much significance also to the American publ i c.

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136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Tuesday, January 30 Evening Session, 8:00 P. M. Three reels of motion pictures on forestry, produced by the United States Forest Service, were shown in the audi torium by Mr . W. R. Mattoon, Forest Examiner of the Forest Service. The results of a contest, inaugurated at the afternoon session by Mr. Harman in behalf of the Southern Sash, Door and Millwork Manufacturers Association, and in which a handsome jackknife was offered to the person who wrote the best definition of a tree, were announced by Mr . Peters, chairman of a committee appointed to judge the large num ber of definitions submitted . The prize winner was Mr. Roy L. Hogue, president of the Fourth Congress, whose definition follows: "A tree is a woody plant, being or capable of becom ing of a size exceeding that of a shrub , characterized above ground by an upright stem surmounted by a vegetative crown.''

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS Wedl)esday, January 31 Morning Session, 10 :00 A . M. President Tyler m the chair. ADDRESS 137 THE DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE PROTECTION IN TEXAS. By PAGE S. BUNKER, Assistant State Forester, College Station. The Texas Department of Forestry has felt that under the present conditions protection of the woodlands against fire comprises the chief field of forestry practice . So far as this can be expressed quantitatively it seems to us that protection constitutes at least 85 per cent of forestry. Prior to 1922 work in forest protection in Texas was confined chiefly to educational measures with such inci dental fire suspension work as the patrolmen were able to undertake. On account of the enormously large dis tricts the proportion of fires extinguished by the patrol men necessarily was very small. In 1921, however, the State Legislature made available materially increased funds for this work . The number of patrolmen were increased from 9 to 19. The average area of tqe districts, however , was still excessively large, being about 330,000 acres per man. The Department feels strongly that the chief element in the solution of forest protection problems is the quality of the field per sonnel. In other words , it is better to have one man who is 90 per cent efficient than several men each of whom is 45 per cent efficient. Following this policy, ex treme care has been taken in the selection of the patrol men and in the development of their individual qualities with reference to fire suppression and to getting the local public behind them in the protection work. We recog nize that the latter achievement must be practically real ized before there can be any rational forest protection program put into effect in the piney-woods section of East Texas . .

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138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE The farmers, sto c kmen and other residents of the pine woods region are of s trongly individualistic trend of mind , and no new doctrine or formula c a n be forced upon them from the outside. We feel that it is well to a void th e didactic and patronizing attitude toward the lo c al resi dents into which an enthusiast easily may permit him self to fall. While many of the woods dwellers h a ve not had the opportunity of vi e wing a very wide hori z on , and have lived under many obvious disadvantages, close con tact with them discloses that many a man walkin g bare foot e d in the woods may and does possess the qu a lifi c a tions of a good citizen and a gentleman . B y s e le c t i ng a patrolman from men of standing in the communit y a considerable part of whose incentive, in most cases, is the public welfare, we believe we are on the ri g ht tra c k toward establishing the proper sort of contact with the people whose traditions and customs as fo w9ods and range burning , etc. , constitute one of the great e st factors of the fire hazard. We have made numerous converts of men who formerly were confirmed range burners, and the number of persons who intentionally set fire to the woods and range is rap i dly becoming less. Even though the number of fires intentionally set may be brought to a very low minimum, the Forestry De partment recognizes that with education and prevention must go aggressive and efficient suppression work . In fact , it seems to us that too much care can not be d e voted to the development of this e s sential branch of pro tection. The patrolmen are all mount e d and supplied with tak e down tools. Last spring a week's patrolmen ' s school was held, during which much of the time was devoted to methods of detection and suppression. Each patrolman has been furnished with a Manual of Instruction which he is required to study . The patrolmen report directly to the office of the State Forester on a regular daily r e port form mailed at the end of each week. We fe el i n Texas that the man in direct contact with the forest and

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 139 the local public is second to none in importance. Just so long as it is practicable with a force which may be expected to increase from year to year, it is intended to keep the channels between the State Forester and the patrolmen as unobstructed by intermediaries as possible. The reports and other information from the field are checked by inspectors, and exceptional care is taken to ascertain actual conditions. Thus far the personnel methods referred to have been successful, there having been only two personnel failures during the past year. We are not hampered by divided responsibility, the only political body in control of public forestry work being the State itself. "' We feel especially gratified at the progress the patrolmen have made in the securing of volunteer assistance in fire suppression . In 1921 about 280 citizens engaged in forest fire extinction work without pay. In 1922, how ever, this number increased to over 2400 . Texas does not practice the system of hiring fire fighters other than the regularly appointed patrolmen . The lumbermen of Texas are cooperating with the For estry Department in various ways. The greatest mutual confidence exists between the Department and the !um• ber industry. A pending bill providing for the use of spark-arresting equipment on locomotives and other engines was sponsored by both interests and undoubtedly will become a law. Altogether, we feel that forestry is making steady pro gress in Texas. The comparative results of the protection work during the past two years is particularly gratifying. In 1921 we patrolled about 6,500,000 acres and in 1922 about 6,800,000 acres. In 1921 about 700,000 acres burned over, while in 1922 only 357,000 acres burned over, notwithstanding that the latter season was much more hazardous than that of 1921. The relative percentage of patrolled area burned over were IO 4-5 per cent for 1921 and 5 per cent for 1922. The average acreage per fire in 1 9 2 1 was 5 5 0 acres, while in 1 9 2 2 it was only 182 acres per fire. Of the 1967 fires occurring in the patrolled area during the year just closed, 5 5 per cent were extinguished by fire fighting, 33 per cent were short

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140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE lived fires and burned out before reached, and the re maining I 2 per cent were extinguished by rain. The prosp ' ects for the future are encouraging. The State Board of Control has approved the Department bud get for about $50,000 per annum for the next biennial period. Whether this approved budget will pass the Leg islature, of course, remains to be seen. It is more than double the current appropriation and may suffer some re duction on account of this comparison. The press of the State is uniformly behind the forestry movement. The editorial columns of the leading dailies frequently con tain matter favorable to forestry progress and these columns are open almost at any time for strong editorials endorsing this movement in Texas. We believe that with the amount and quality of public support which forestry is receiving the development of a sound and rational forestry pro gram for Texas is well under way.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 141 ADDRESS DEVELOPMENT OF FORESTRY IN THE ST ATES. By J. G . PETERS , U . S. Fore s t Service, Washington, D. C. The adoption of a forest policy by the States has fol lowed in general the cutting out of large regional sup plies of timber, or the mountin g of the fire damage where it has become so great as to warrant the establishment of a protective system in order primarily to protect stand ing timber. Thus it is that the first States to take steps to solve their forest problems were those in the Northwest, shortly followed by the Lake States. California, due to enlightened public sentiment, proved an exception and was also among the first . The Northern Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast States , where the terrific fire hazard was the compelling incentive, were next to fall in line, while the Southeast has lagged behind, although the progress of timber depletion there is much farther advanced than in the far West. The Southe a st e rn States have yet to do anything on an adequate s c ale or in some instances to make even a beginning . This is due to a combination of circumstances , chief among which is the fact that the Southeast is not susceptible to the kind of forest fires which destroy standing timber on a large scale and create spectacular losses , and further that it is still the center of lumber production in the country , by reason of which the pinch from dwindling timber supplies has not . yet been seriously felt. The progress in State forestry, though the effort as a whole is far from adequate, is nevertheless remarkable for the extent of ground covered in a comparatively brief period. Within the space of little more than three de cades, and largely within the last fifteen years , small and obscure organizations created mainly for investigative purposes have develop~g __ i.n!o ._ admi~trative bodies of com manding importance having large duties , to perform. If the amount of annual appropriation may be taken as the . practical measure of the progress of forestr y , in the States, some , idea of the accomplishment is indicat~ by the in oi:.e.ase from appropriations aggregating about , $65,000 i;i "-.' 1890, to more than $4,000,000 at the present ._ l ime.

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142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE There are 32 States which have inaugurated forestry or forest fire work, the majority through the establishment by law of forestry departments. These include Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Conn ecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, ( tempo rarily discontinued) , Tennessee, Louisiana, Texas, Ohio, In diana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kan sas, Colorado, South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington. Oregon and California. Some have thought chiefly of protecting their present timber resources until harvested; the majority, however, have realized in varying measure their responsibility for seeing to it that State and private lancb, which under present economic conditions are bet ter suited to timber-growing than any other use, are kept in a condition of constant productiveness, in order that the States may supply the forest needs of their citizens for all time. Twenty-two States employ technically-trained foresters; 2 7 of the 39 States where it is necessary to protect pri vate and State lands from forest fires have established protective systems, although these systems are not, in every instance, State-wide, nor do they, with a few exceptions, furnish adequate protection; 7 States have made an attempt, through legislation, to solve the forest taxation problem; 19 States have established State Forests, totaling about 5,500,000 acres; some 86,000 acres of State Forest lands have been planted with young trees, and this area is be ing increased at the rate of about 7,000 acres yearly; 12 of the States maintain forest tree nurseries, which grow in addition to the stock for planting on State-owned lands 1 I to 12 million trees for distribution yearly to private owners; most of the States having forestry departments offer assistance to private owners in the management of their forest lands; and practically all of them conduct, very effectively, in some instances, educational and pub licity work to further the general forestry movement. By far the greatest advance in State forestry has been in the organization and dev.elopm~nt of fire protection. The early systeny. r--W:e re a lmost exclusively ex-offi cio , where the town or c6unty officials acted also in the capacity of fire warden;~. The first protective system paid by the S,t.ate was tha tt of New York in 1885, but it applied only ,,, _r t o the State : Forest Preserve. To Minnesota belongs the distinction ., -;,f establishing, in 189 5, the first State -wi de

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 143 protective system paid by the State. From these earlier sy s tems have developed the organizations of today, a num ber of which are highly technical, are equipped with look out stations and other improvements, and operated by an efficient personnel. Within this period considerable regulatory legislation has been enacted, conspicuous in this class being the laws requiring railroads to safeguard their train equipment against the scattering of fire, to keep the rights-of-way clear of combustible materials, and to fight fires adjacent to their rights-of-way; lumbermen to dispose of slash after logging; and private owners to patrol their forest holdings . Compulsory patrol in Oregon, for example, the first State to adopt it, has been the means of bringing private forest owners into the joint organized effort of fire protection, and has resulted in adding year ly to the State appropriation an amount of private funds equivalent to four times that sum. But, notwithstanding the really great strides which have been made in preventing and controlling forest fires, about one-half of the privately owned forest lands, or 166,000,000 acres, receive no pro tection whatever and on many other . areas the protection is far from adequate. The Federal Government, recognizing its responsibility in this matter, is cooperating with 26 States, and will co operate with all that can qualify, in protecting from fire the watersheds of navigable streams. The only quali fications are that a State must establish a system of forest fire protection and be prepared to expend for the purpose at least as much as it desires the Government to spend. These States are spending yearly $I, 900,000; the Federal Government, $400,000; and private owners, approximate ly $1,000,000. The total of $3,300,000 is only a little more than one-third, however, of the amount needed to protect the forest lands of the country outside of Federal holdings, and of this $3,300,000 about 40 % is spent in the Northeast, 20 % in the Lake States, 30 % in the far West, _ and I O % in the South. In the matter of encouraging private owners to practice forestry through a readjustment of the general property tax, so as to provide an equitable method of forest taxa tion, the accomplishment has been practically nil. A num _ ber of States have offered tax inducements, such as boun ties, rebates and exemptions, but only in a few instances have these met with any success. Seven States, includ ing Michigan, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ver

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144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE mont, Massachusetts , and Maine, have passed laws em bodying the correct principle of a yield tax, by which the land only is taxed each year and the timber not taxed until cut . These laws are optional, however, and have been availed of to only a very limited extent. Beyond fire protection, co-operation to a limited ex tent with private owners in encouraging them to practice forestry and educational and publicity work in furthering the general forestry movement, practically nothing has been done by the States to keep private forest lands pro ductive and save them from becoming waste and idle areas. Louisirana and New Hampshire have attempted to regulate cutting on private lands, through the enact ment of laws which require the leaving of seed trees after lumbering. Legislation to regulate the cutting, and also in the South the turpentining , of timber may be generally anticipated. Bills introduced in State Legislatures to ac complish the purpose are increasing in number and severi ty. This is particularly so in the southern pine States, where the reckless turpentining of small trees followed by increased fire hazard and destruction of the trees, is having its effects on public sentiment to the extent that very rigid measures are constantly being proposed. In general, regulatory forest legislation may be expected in the States wherever timber mining . has reached the stage of conflict ing with the best interests of the public. The leader in State forestry has been New York whose laws have furnished the basis for much of our State for estry legislation. As early as 1885 New York provided for a forest commission to manage and protect the "for est preserve," which was at that time established from wild lands still owned by the State, and aggregating over 700,000 acres. An ex-officio fire warden system was also established, and forest fire regulations were imposed on railroads. This marked the beginning of the several stages of organization and development through which the State's forestry work has passed, achieving as it has among other things at the present time a forest preserve of nearly 2,000,000 acres, a system of forest fire protection which, in the forest preserve sections , as measured by its results in general has no superior, and a program of cooperation with private owners which includes assistance in the man agement of forest properties on the basis of continuous production and the distribution of small trees for forest planting. New York was the first _ State to adopt the bond

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 145 i ss ue plan of raising funds for the purchase of forest land s , whi c h it did m 1916 through an authoriz e d i ss ue of $7 , 500 , 000. Pennsylvania followed New York ver y closely in taking steps to meet its forestry needs . In I 88 7 it establish e d an investigative organization, which in 1901 became ad ministrative and undertook an ambitious program of land acquisition for timber production . Upwards of 1 , 000 , 000 acres have been acquired, largely through purchase , and organized into State Forests. Pennsylvania is in the pro cess of establishing a system of forest fire protection that promises to place the State in the forefront with other leading States in this activity; this is bein g accomplished through an appropriation of $1 , 000,000 fo r the curr e nt two years, which exceeds th a t of any other State for the same purpose, e v en where supplem e nted by private ex penditures required by State Law. Pennsylvania's re forestation program has developed to the extent of dis tributing to pri v ate owners free of charg e about 4,000 , 000 trees annually. Forest research is being conducted for the benefit of those who desire to c ut their timber con servatively , establish forest plantations , or engage in other cultural methods . New York and Pennsylvania , with New Hampshire , Vermont , Massachusetts , Connecticut , New Jersey , Mary . land, and Minnesota, are the leaders in the adoption of a broad-gauge forest policy for producing within their own borders an adequate timber supply. They can point to sub stantial achievement in the establishment of technical forest departments, and in the major activities of organizing a pro tective system , acquiring State Forests , rendering assist ance to private owners , and conducting effective propa ganda concerning the Forest movement as a whole. Ohio has undertaken work on similar lines . A number of other States have gone as far or even further in certain directions . For example , Maine, Oregon, and Washington were the first States to place responsibility directly upon forest owners for the cost of fire protection . To Maine belongs the further distinction of establishing the first lookout system for detecting forest fires. Michigan , for more than a decade, has had an established policy as to State Forests, where by all lands belonging to the State, which cannot be put to any higher economic use than timber-growing, are be ing set aside as State Forests as rapidly as un . its of ad ministrable size can be formed . Idaho , Montana and South

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146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Dakota have also set aside lands for the State Forest purposes , and be it said to the credit of Arizona and New Mexico that although they have no forestry organization , they t oo , have taken similar action . It i s thus seen that some of the States have a record of substantial accomplishment in forestry, yet , the States, taken colle c tively, are still far from measuring up to their responsibility. Their effort has not been commensurate with the size and importance of th e problem needing solu tion . Many States , for e x ampl e, have not sufficiently safeguarded their forestry work a ga inst political influence or provided for the employment of technically-trained foresters to direct it; their fire protection systems are inade quate ; they have been backward in trying to remedy the inequitable general property tax as applied to forest lands; they have given little or no consideration to checking the devastation of private forests and providing continuous supplies of timber ; their program for establishing State Forests is not comprehensive and the area of lands set a side or acquired for this purpose is relatively very small; their forest planting activities have been practically neg ligible; the assistance they have given the private forest owner has not been commensurate with the demand for it; nor have they yet succeeded in developing a healthy public sentiment for forestry and against forest depletion .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS FORESTRY IN ALABAMA. By JOHN L. KAUL, President, Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham, Ala. 147 I have been thinking back over the forty years or more of my active connection with the lumber industry, and it seems to me that during all of that time I have been hearing discussed the very problems that are presenting themselves here for solution . I have taken part in a hun dred conferences dealing with the subject of forestry as a state and national question of economics, and of course in my own business I have had to give it careful con sideration. Nowhere have I heard it dealt with in a more interesting or intelligent manner than in these sessions I have had the privilege of attending during the last three days. One thing that impresses me as a hopeful and favor able sign is that we seem at last to be getting away from the impractical and sentimental viewpoints which we have clung to in the past, and are turning to the working out of the problem along practical lines, with a full under standing of all that is involved, and of the necessity of going slowly that we may not have to retrace our steps. The matter is purely one of practical economics, so far as the individual citizen is concerned , whether he be timber owner or lumber consumer. The business of con serving timber or growing timber is just like any other if it costs more than it produces 1 it fails. The southern lumbermen have for a number of years been giving earnest study to ways and means of reforest ing cut-over land which is not suitable for farming. Ex periments have been made, results have been noted, and we are gradually coming to an understanding of what can be hoped for. It is clear that the South can grow all the timber she needs, with a handsome surplus for less favored sections; it is only necessary that we cooperate with Nature a little, to bring about the desired result. How and to what extent to supply this cooperation is the point to be decided now. The fundamentals are few in number, and simple in their nature; because of this, any discussion of the subject must of necessity go over and over the same ground.

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148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE As a beginning, it is largely a matter of the elimina t i on or control of fire , of keeping hogs out of lon g leaf see d l i ngs, of providing for a system of taxation which will make it possible to set aside lands for timber-growing. All this points to the need of educating the people of our section to the economic value of commercial trees, and of awakening in them a sense of their responsibilities . It is not a matter for the lumbermen alone, although they also need education, but for all the people. Our first steps must be along the line of providing for organization , for observation and investigation, for a me a ns of inform ing our citizens on the subje c t , and enlisting their interest and support . It i s unfortunately th e fact that we cannot organize timber-growing companies and sell stock to produce funds with which to plant and cultivate trees as might be done with wheat or cotton; the crop is too slow in maturing, the cost too great, the results too uncertain, to make such an investment attractive . There is not a man in th i s room who would buy stock in such an enterprise, at least, not as a business proposition. We must therefore proceed along lines th a t are pr a ctical. We must learn to walk be fore we try to run, in this matter as in every other. I have known every United States Forester since the De . partment was organized , and ha ve be e n in touch with the activities and efforts of the government , directed to ward the establishment of a national forestry policy. I believe I am correct in saying that each succeeding ad ministration has been more firmly convinced that any am bitious tree-growing enterprise must of necessity be a func tion of the national and state governments with the cost distributed over the en t ire body of ta x -payers. The;e is nothing about such a proposition to commend it to pri vate capital. I have long believed t h at the Federal and State govern ments should take over the larger bodies of cut-over land at a fair valuation , payi n g for these with lon g time bonds drawing a low rate of interest, and conduct thereon such practical forestry as th e situation permits, not only for the benefit of coming g enerations, but for the guidance of the present generation in handling their own private holdings. It is probable that in the course of a few y ears such reserves may be made to pay into the State an in come equal to the amount of taxes lost through with

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 149 drawing lands from private ownership. The nation and the states are in position to disregard the matter of time required to mature timber, and, therefore, are in better position to give protection to timber growth; they can do effectively many things that the individual and cor poration could not do at all. In the meanwhile, all of the people benefit through the protection of soil from erosion, the better regulation of rainfall and streamflow, and in many other ways. The day still seems , distant when the Southern States will take up forestry in a comprehensive and adequate way, first because of the financial consideration, and second because our people have not yet realized the importance of the subject. Nevertheless, they can and should with out further delay, lend such assistance and encouragement to the private owner of lands fit only for timber-growing as will enable him to make a start . I am speaking not only of the cut-over lands held by lumber companies, but of the wooded land owned by farmers , and the num erous small bodies of timber scattered all over the state. The total stand of such timber is astonishing-in many counties in Alabama the aggregate is far in excess of the quantities held by the lumber companies operating in those counties. Any plan which . does not take into consideration this kind of timbered land will fail of its purpose . In dealing with private forestry, the first and most seri ous problem encountered is that of taxation. No pri vate owner can undertake the growing of timber on any scale worth while, if he must pay taxes on the usual basis, and face the possibility of rates and; ~valuations being increased from year to year, according to the views of successive assessors, or as may be dictated by the finan cial needs of the State. Tax exemption is not the remedy, and I know few lumbermen who expect or desire exemp tion. For Alabama, some scheme looking to the taxation of the land itself, on the basis of its actual earning power for other purposes than tre e growing, can perhaps be worked out, this tax to be paid annually as now, with the land-owner protected against increased rates or valu ations for the timber-growing period. At the outset, there is little or no timber value present. We hope also to offer a plan for deferring payment of taxes on the tim ber crop, until it is matured, the tax then to be paid on a basis equal to what would have been paid year by

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150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE year h a d it been possible to accurately and equitably measure and assess the increasing stand. In this way the state and its counties will not lose in taxes, but will on the contrary actually gain, for no one can deny that other wise much of this sort of land will lie idle, depreciating in value through disuse and erosion until owners can not afford to pay even a nominal tax upon it . It would be difficult to say how much young timber has been destroyed in the Southern States by reason of fires set out for one purpose or another , or occurring by accident. Unless the young seedlings can be protected for a number of years against damage by fire, there is no use in attempting forestry. The state must enact laws stopping the setting out of fire in or ne a r forest lands, and must provide means for dealing with fires caused by accident . It is not going to be an easy thing to solve -a lot of educational work will have to b e done befor e we can hope for f ull cooperation, and perhaps some dras tic measures may have to be taken in the end. The razorback hog is one of the worst enemies of the young longleaf pine tree. A good active hog will no doubt account for many times his economic value each year, if measured in terms of the timber he destroys. This is another handicap which can only be over c ome by a process of education . The whole matter is one to be put on a business basis and kept there-to be handled in a practical common sense way. We must be content to go slowly, feeling our way, and making sure of cooperation and support at each step . I have never seen a full-grown , ambitious program succeed, especially where it dealt with theories and ideals instead of hard cold facts. We have the ideals, I am sure; we are developing sound theoriesif we pro ceed wisely we shall make the facts our servants and accomplish the fullest measure of success. Many of the forestry programs proposed in the past have been too elaborate, and have failed on that account; in some, poli tics have been permitted to enter , a nd that is always fatal. If we do not keep politics out, we might better not sta . rt. I predict great benefits for the states which undertake this preliminary legislation, and build upon it not too rapidly , but as fast as their citizens can be educated to the value of growing timber, and as fast as economic con ditions permit of more intensive forestry. Such states will

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 151 the more quickly come to the time when a comprehensive and adequate forestry program may be m a d e effe c tive. The Forest Service is to be commended for its position in not attempting too much at first; it has labored with the single purpose of working out practical methods of getting the best results in the long run. Alabama is to be congratulated in having a Governor who is alive to the importance of this subject , and the necessity of framing legislation along lines to insure the right start, and who expresses so earnest a desire to cooper ate with the people of his s tate . We are convinced that we shall have a pra c tical work ing forestry law on the statut e books of Alabama when this legislature adjourns. ( Mr . Kaul w a s questioned b y letter shortl y a fter the meeting, as to his idea of the way in which the stat e of Alabama might acquire th , e cut-over l a nds for i timber growing. His reply was as follows: "The State could issue long time bonds , on the basis of some fair valuation per acre . Mone y to take care of interest and administrative charges would undoubtedly have to come out of the general fund for a number of y e ars; thereafter it is conceivable that such properti e s would y ield a revenue which would take care of these c h a r g es, and finally the revenue from the marketin g of th e main crop of timber would be available for the r e t i rement of th e bond issue. This is the line of re a sonin g supportin g th e contention that the private owner of s u c h l a nds would be justified in enga g ing in such an enterprise, a nd surel y the State is in far better position to carry on such a pro j e ct than any individual or corporation could be , since it has the advantage of very low taxes a nd interest r a t e s, and even more because the State endures while indi v idual s and c orporations pass ')

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152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ADDRESS ALABAMA'S FORESTRY PROBLEMS. By I. T. QUINN, Commissioner of Consen;ation, Montgomery, Alabama. I have been a very poor attendant at this Congress be cause of the multiplicity of my duties, which have been of such nature that a great deal of my time has been re quired out of the hall on committees and at the State Capitol. I have not been able to associate with the dele gates as I had hoped I might. Alabama's problems are very similar to the problems of the other states in this latitude, and those problems are many and varied . So far as the responsibility of the Department of Con s e r vation and its relation to the forestry work in the State is c oncerned, our progress is at present almost nil. The St at e of Alabam a has never taken any steps, either as a St a te or as individuals, and there has been no policy s e t up in the State so that the State and the individual, whether he be a l a r g e timber owner or a small farm-land own e r, could cooperate. There has been no policy se t up or attempted whereby plans for cooperation of the State and the individual could be worked out and put into action. There are certain fundamentals we are all agreed on. The State has not, and does not want to assume the at titude of the Methodist divine in a north Alabama county. When the North Alabama Conference convened , it was found that there w a s a mission church on a circuit in the mountainous district of Alabama , where the preacher had always been run out a nd he never could hold divine ser vices , a s a few rou g h-ne c ks would break up the services. The bishop called for a v olunteer preacher for this mis sion chur c h . A bi g, double-jointed, friendly-looking chap volunteered; and he was assigned to the church. Came his first Sunday afternoon in the little mission church and he arrived. He was ready to enter into spiri tual relations with that little community, and proceeded w i th the usual pro g ram of song and prayer and scriptural readin g ; and at once l a unched upon his message to the communit y .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 153 Two big rough-necks had arrived and were seated in the amen corner. They conversed in audible tones to such an extent that it disturbed this servant of God. He called their attention to the fact that it was not his house, it was the Lord's house, and that the people of the com munity had invited him to preach to them; and he asked them to be quiet . They quieted down. So the preacher again launched his campaign against sin. Again the men conversed together in louder tones. The servant of God in more dulcet tones appealed to them from a sense of duty and truth and honor to rise to the occasion, and keep quiet in the house of God. Again they were quiet, and the minister proceeded. Again they disturbed him, and quietly the preacher disrobed himself , descended from the simple pulpit, and in firm tones cried: "By the living God, if I can't preach Jesus Christ into you, I will beat the devil out of you." That is not the attitude of the State of Alabama, to ram legislation down the throats of the timber-owners and the farmers. As Mr. Kaul says, a spirit of coopera tion should prevail, and I should like to emphasize his remarks. It is a part of the Government's duty to see that the denuded, idle lands a re reforested, and condi tions made such that timber can be grown for genera tions to come. Both the government and the state can do this if they have funds to operate and set up the machin ery. It would be useless on the part of the Federal or State government to proceed very far unless they have the cooperation and mutual aid and sympathy, the moral support, and the financial support, of those who are m possession of these non-arable lands . A large percentage of the timber in Alabama, as in the Southern Coastal States, is owned by the small land owner. A man who was to be present on this occasion told this story: During the war he received a communi cation from Washington asking him to submit to the War Depar tment an approximate estimate of the lumber pro duction of his County for the year previous. His first thought was that he would communicate to the Depart ment at Washington that he cut in his County over 25,000,000 feet of lumber the previous year, and that that was practically the major portion . But on further consideration, and desiring to secure an accurate esti mate, he put one of his men out in the county and after research and a careful tabulation of the results of what

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154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE the little mills had been doing, he found that a total of about 162,000,000 feet had been cut in his c ounty during the previous year. It is a fact that the small mills of this State are cutting a very larg e percentage of the timb e r in the State of Alabama. Included in his final messa g e to the Le g islature, our recent, out-going Governor said in re g ard to forestry: "Forestry in Alabama, as in many other St a tes, has furnished one of the basic industries of the State, and therefore involves an economic problem that we as citiz e ns of the State can no long e r afford to overlook. "In 19 1 0, Alabama ranked first a mon g the Southern States in the production of lumb e r , a nd Mobile claimed the distinction of first place amon g the ports of th e world in the lumber export trade. In 1920, Alabama h a d dropped to third pla c e among the Southern States in the pro duction of lumber, and Mobile had desc e nded from fir s t to sixth in the lumb e r e x port t ra de . " We are today cuttin g our timb e r more than four times as fast as w e are producin g it. Only ten per cent of what is now being cut is origin a l growth, the other nine ty per cent bein g se c ond growth and of inferior grade. " In 191 0 , the estimate showed that Alabama had thirty eight billion feet of standing longleaf pine. The estimate of 1919 showed approximately tw e nty-five billion feet, or a redu c tion durin g that decade of thirteen billion feet of pine timber alone . "1919, there w e re six hundred and thirty s a wmills m Alabama cutting pine timber . Of this number thirty had a ten year c ut, or over. In 1922, we have approximately five hundred mills cutting pine timber, with a possible fifteen with a ten year cut or over. "These figures sound appalling, and they are, but they are a s nearly correct a s t h e gov e rnment estimates can make them. The number of p e ople whose livelihood depends, directly or indirectly , upon our forests is very large. The plac e; of forest i' p ' roducts in sustaining the present industrial structure of the State is of great im portance. "Between fifty per cent and sixty per cent of the State is class e d as forest land . We have then a land problem, a question of how half of the State is to be ut i lized in the future . The problem of Alabama is to make the

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ISS forest lands of the highest service in building up the State on a permanent basis. We have approximately six mil lion acres . of cut-over land in the State with less than fifty per cent of it suitable to profitable agriculture. The remainder is practically worthless except for growing tim ber. "The lumberman claims that the present assessed valu ation of these cut-over lands will not permit reforestation because they would be forced to pay taxes on them for a long period of year:.' , before they could get any returns, and by that time the taxes would have eaten up all the profit.'' I agree with those who have spoken here and with the recommendations that have been made by the represen tatives of the different communities this morning that we must promote the work of reforestation. To reforest his denuded lands, a man may have something to bequeath his children, because they came down to him as an in heritance, and he should be willing to make it possible that he leave his holdings in as good condition as they came to him . That is the ideal situation as I see it: the State's duty then is to make it possible for that good citizen to be queath to generations to come a supply of timber; and as good citizens, I believe that they will do this if the State makes it possible for them to continue a growth or place these denuded areas in condition, with the as sistance of the State, to perpetuate this great industry. To do this the State must guarantee to the timber owner, in my opinion, an uniform assessed valuation to that de gree, as Mr. Kaul so wisely and ably said: "So that his long years of waiting have a harvest." Or for the next generation a harvest must be assured, so that they will not lose money, and that the timber can be grown pro fitably. I believe assessed valuation should be as low as possible in order to reduce the hazard of growing tim ber t::the minimum; and that the State should do every thing possible in cooperation with the timber landowner to make it possible to grow a profitable crop. If the State should enact drastic legislation, and it is possible it might, and we must guard against it, it would absolutely prohibit the large landowner and the farmer to enter into any kind of contract with the State to re produce a forest of usable, . merchantable timber.

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156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE It is needless for me to say that annual forest , fires in Alabama produces more hazard, destroys more value of potential timber than any other single agency. The aver age citizen of this State when he sees a little fire with a blaze not larger than eight to ten inches does not realize that that small flame is destroying annually hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of potential timber for the future. It should be the policy of the State to cooperate with the Federal Agency and the owners in reducing the fire hazard to a minimum. Fires in our southern woodlands do not reach the proportions of northern and western fires, but for that very reason are more insidious and waste our woodlands without the average citizen takin g cognizance of the damage. The thing for the citizens of the State to do, through their State departments and through the various organizations throughout the State, thrnugh the schools, farmer's agencies, etc., is to educate that average citizen to the enormity of the problem of the d e structiveness of forest fires. There has not been, at this present session of the Legis lature, any attempt made to enact or to secure the enact ment of forestry legislation. There has been, however, an educational campllign made throughout the State durin g the past twelve months arousing the people to the ex tent of the thing along the lines that we have been dis cussing here. I believe that before the final legislative day of our present session, especially at its adjourned session in the summer, we will be able to give to the State a real con structive program in forestry that will include that of forest fire protection . The State cannot get along without a patrol system. I hope that in the reorganization of th e Department of Conservation, giving to this State a war den system that is workable not only in wild life, game and fish protection, the system will be so or g anized that it will enable the Commissioner of Conservation to go in to the counties and select men who are especially equipped, reliable men, and assign to them without further cost to the State the burden of forest fire control. That is the best system we can find in Alabama in the control of forest fires, until the State is able to take hold in a larger way and select men whose sole duty will be to patrol forests and keep down fires, men of intelligence enough

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S OUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRE SS 157 to g o into sc hool s and t a lk to th e boys and girls, and to the t eac h ers, regarding the primary, economic phases of fore stry . I thank you. Discussion. Mr. Mattoon : Mr . Quinn in his ex c ellent paper referred to the im portance of the farm woodlands. I would like to sup plement this point. One-half of the total forest area of Alabama lies on the farm. The farmers of this State own IO million acr es, or one-tenth of the total farm forest land and farm woodlands of the South. This Alabama farm forest land would make a strip I O miles in width extending from Richmond , Va. to Galveston, Texas. It is the most productive forest land in the State for it aver ages better land than the great timber tracts. On the farm alone it is the poorest class of lands, but it is more productive than any other class of our forest lands. In 1920 the farmers averaged a yearly return in round figures of $2 an acre. This is far more than was realized off Uncle Sam's National Forests of which we hear so much. In Alabama there ar e some 260,000 small timberland owners (farmers) to deal with . The larger forest areas of the few lumbermen are more spectacular and attract more attention. The owners are more easily reached. Mr . Young : The situation here is so different from that in my State that I have been very much interested. If we heard any lumbermen talk about leaving seed trees we would fall dead of shock. As a matter of fact, it has been a " cut out and get out'' system. Henry Ford has been talking about growing forests, but he is the only one who shows signs of doing it on the ground. To get anywhere, lumber production in Michigan is a matter of right public policy . We up in Michigan have a selfish interest in what you are doing down South. We come down here to buy pine from you people and we would rather buy pine from you than get it on the Pacific Coast. The r _ apidity with which public sentiment is aroused in the right hand ling of forestry problems , the better we shall like it.

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158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Mr. Peters: Just as rapidly as the States qualify for cooperation in fire protection, the Forest Service establishes state co operative districts throughout the country and stations an inspector in each, whose job is to work in close cooperation with the States , not only in fire protection but also in other extension activitites . Such districts have been es tablished in the Lake States, with Duluth as headquarters, and in a group consisting of North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee, with headquarters at Ashe ville . Two other districts are in the making, in the middle Atlantic region and in the northeast . We are anxious to form such a district down here in the Gulf region. Two states, Louisiana and Texas, are already available, and with the addition of just one more State it would seem to me we would be justified in organizing a district and having an inspector located in this territory. I hope that the present Alabama Legislature will make this possible. Col. Pratt: To any representative here from States that have not organized a Forestry Department nor forestry associations, I wish to state that the United States Forest Service stands ready to cooperate with any such State , where the State will make it possible. The cooperation which you can get and have with the Forest Service is not simply that of agreeing to appropriate or apportion a certain amount of money to the State with which to help protect your forests from fire , it means more . You get the hearty sympathy and cooperation of men connected with the Forest Ser vice, particularly those who are in Mr. Peters ' division and those men are sympathetic. They come to you not to say you must do this , you must do that , but to advise with you and make suggestions as to how you can make more _ effective the expenditure of funds the State has, creating throughout your State a sentiment in favor of forestry measures, of legislation looking to the protection of your forests from fire . It is worth ten times over the money

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 159 you actually get from the Forest Service, because having men trained to advise with you, and give you information, makes your departi=oent stronger. The session was concluded by the reading of a request by Colonel Pratt that the following be named an Alabama Committee of the Southern Fores try Congress: Mr. E. F. Allison, Allison Lumber Co., Bellamy, Chairman; and Messrs. Ayrs, Drolet, Eddy, Hauss, LeMaistre, and Quinn, delegates to the Congress. President Tyler complied with Colonel Pratt's request, and later added to the committee the name of Mrs. J. S. Starke.

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160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Wednesday, January 31 Afternoon Session, 2 :00 P. M. President Tyler m the chair. Mr. Tyler: While we are waiting for late attendants on this session, we might hear from the auditing committee which the Secretary asked to be appointed to examine his accounts. Mr. Hogue: The ~ommittee is glad to report that it has given Mr. Forbes a "clean bill of health." Mr. J. K. Johnson: The question came up yesterday as to what is the at titude of this Congress toward the utilization of cut-over lands for agricultural purposes. Those who have stayed in touch with the work of this Congress for a few years know just what that attitude is. However, it seems to me well for us to constantly keep before the public that attitude toward the utilization of cut-over lands for agri cultural purposes. The resolutions committee thought it advisable to offer to this body a general resolution declaring ourselves on this subject. The resolution of your committee reads as follows: (See Resolution Number 4, Page 185). The resolution was put to a vote, and carried.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 161 ADDRESS WHAT THE NATIONAL FORESTS MEAN TO THE SOUTH. By JOSEPH HYDE PRATT, Director, Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. The authority for the purchase of forest lands by the Federal Government in the Southern Appalachian states, for National Forests, was only obtained after more than a decade of hard work by many agencies interested in forest conservation. In 1898 a group of far-sighted men met in conference at Asheville, N. C., to discuss the ques tion of having National Forests established in the South ern Appalachian region. An organization was perfected to try and bring about the desired result. Many obstacles were met and had to be overcome before National Forests became a reality in the South. It was necessary for states to pass legislation authorizing and permitting the Federal Government to purchase and hold forest lands in the several states and to operate them as National Forests. Congress repeatedly refused to act and it was not until 1 9 11 when the Weeks Law was passed, that it became possible f9r the Federal Government to secure forested areas in the Southern States for National Forests. The wellfare clause of the Constitution was considered authority for Congress to authorize such purchases of land in the several states inasmuch as it was deemed neces sary to acquire and conserve these forested areas in the head waters of navigable streams, in order to protect navi gation on these streams. Since the passage of the Weeks Law I believe it is now conceded that the purchase of forested areas by the Federal Government would be con stitutional even if purchased for the sole purpose of main taining them in forests, inasmuch as the very life and pros perity of this nation are actually dependent upon main taining a certain area in forests. Then again this country

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162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE must be assured of a future supply of timber and this can only be obtained by maintaining a definite area of the land of this country in forests. Since that time purchases have been made in the several Southern states as follows: National Forest Areas purchased and approved for pur chase to June 30, 1921 under the Weeks Law. Acquired Alabama ......... . . . . . ... . . .... . .... . ....... 47,127 Arkansas . . ... . . . ... . . ........... .. ......... 22,944 Georgia . ..... ..... . .. ... ..... . . . ... . . . ...... . . 134,095 North Carolina .... . ... . .. .. . . ..... . 3 13,075 South Carolina ......... . .... ..... . . 18,454 Tennessee ......... . ..... ...... ........ . .. . 213,425 Virginia . . . ............. . ........ . . ... . .. .. .... 250,362 West Virginia .............. . .... .. .. . 99,109 Total... .. .. .... . ....... .... . 1, 198,591 Approved for purchase 22,315 24,983 18,651 32,838 15 7 43,830 62,739 29,175 234,688 Total 69 , 442 47,927 152,746 345,913 18 , 611 257,255 413,101 128,284 1,433,279 Thus far the southern states only have assurance that approximately 1,500,000 acres will be maintained in for ests, nearly all of which is in National Forests, only a small part being in State Forests. This is but a small per centage of the 1 78 million acres of forest land of all sorts in the southern states , a large percenta ge of which should be permanently maintained as forest lands. How much of this area should and will the Federal Government acquire? How much should the state acquire? How much can the owners of these forested areas be induced to maintain as forest lands and cultivate trees? This ques tion of maintaining an adequate area of land in forests and protecting same so that it will grow commercial trees, is a serious problem that is confronting all of the Southern States . The National Forests mean much more to the South than just forested areas acquired by the Federal Govern ment, which will be protected and conserved, for the pro tection of the head waters of navigable streams. They mean more than areas that are open to the public for park and recreation purposes, with fishing and camping privileges, and made available by roads and trails. They mean more than areas in which game will be protected and conserved. They mean much more to the South

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 163 than these things. They mean the beginning of . the source of future timber supply for the South. These National Forests are, or should be, the guide and inspiration to the people of the South in solving their problems in regard to the protection of their forests and to maintaining an adequate area of their land in forests: If the Federal Government considers it economical to protect its forests from fire why would it not be just as economical for the states to protect their forests; for the individual and corporate owner to protect their lands? Lumbering on the National Forests is done in acc . ;;i-d ance with rules and re g ulations of forestry laid down by the Forest Service. Certain purchase areas are being lum bered by companies who are working under similar regu lations, and as far as can be ascertained, lumbering under such conditions is a paying proposition. If this is practi cal in National Forests why cannot it be made profitable in State, County, Municipal and private forest lands? There are examples of such lumbering and reforesta tion by lumber companies as that of the Urania Lumber Company at Urania, La., the Great Southern Lumber Com pany at Bogalusa, La., and certain lumber companies in Mississippi, Arkansas, etc ., but the areas represented by these companies are small as compared with the total area to be maintained in forests and protected. The four sources then which must be responsible for maintaining a sufficient area of the southern states in for ests are: 1. The Federal Government 2 . The Several States 3. Counties and Municipalities 4 . The Private Owners. These are not given in what I consider their ultimate im portance. As already stated the Federal Government . has acquired about 1 , 433,279 acres and will acquire perhaps several m i llion more acres, but it is not probable or perhaps de sirable that the Federal Government should increase its acreage much beyond this amount. It has shown the way, it has demonstrated that it is profitable to invest in such lands, that they can be pro tected and conserved, and that they can be lumbered

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164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE profitably under forestry methods. I believe that it is now time for the southern states to profit from what has been accomplished with National Forests and begin to acquire State Forests. I believe it is feasible, practicable and can be made profitable and that a state can recreate its own wealth and its future timber supply, by growing timber. Let us consider what it is possible for a state to accomplish by acquiring State Forests and growing timber. It must be borne in mind that the Southern states are favorably situated for the growth of timber; that there arc in these states at least 12 5 million acres of cut-over land that can be purchased for $ I to $ I 0 per acre; that these lands can be protected from fire and grow another crop of timber in 30 to 80 years according to location and type of tree. There is a need, and it is believed that the time is now opportune, for the Southern States to begin the purchase of cut-over timber lands and hold and conserve same as state forests. It is firmly believed that this can be done very economically and profitably to the State. Such cut over lands suitable for this purpose and which should not be considered at the present time, and perhaps for the next hundred years or more, as agricultural lands, can be purchased at an average of $5.00 per acre. Such areas can be purchased that are well stocked with second growth or contain sufficient quantity and quality of seed trees that will ensure reproduction. These areas can be effectively protected from fire at a reasonable cost, and the State can be reasonably ensured of a marketable growth of timber at the end of a definite period of years. Three hundred thousand acres of cut-over lands should not cost over $1,500,000 . If it will take 50 years to grow the crop of timber, the State should issue fifty-year bonds to pay for this land. The interest charged on this amount for the fifty-year period at five per cent would be $3,750,000. The cost of maintenance of 300,000 acres and its protection from fire would be approximately 3 to 6 cents per acre per year, or $9,000 to $18,000 per year for the entire area.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 165 For the fifty years this would make the maintenance charge $450,000 to $900 , 000. The total cost at the end of the fifty-year period for the 300,000 acres of state forests would be as follows: Bond issue to pay for land .. . . ........ . . . . . .... . .. . ..... . .... . .... . . . . . ... $1 , 500 , 000 Fifty-year interest charge . . .. . . . .. .. ............... . ... . . .. . . .. . . . .. ...... . . 3,750,000 Fifty-year maintenance charge @ 6c per acre . .. 900 , 000 Maximum Total... .. . $6, 150 , 000 At the end of the fifty-year period there should be marketable timber on this land of from 8,000 to I 5,000 feet per acre . At a low estimated value of $5.00 per thousand on th~ stump for the timber this would make the timber value per acre, estimating the lowest amount of 8,000 feet per acre, of $40 per a c re . At 15,000 feet it would be $75 per acre ; and for the 300 , 000 acres the value of the timber would be from $12,000,000 to $22,000,000. The total cost as indicated above would be $6,150,000, leaving a net profit to the State of from $5,850,000 to $16 , 350,000. In addition, the State would still own the 300,000 acres with a second growth again under way . No mention has been made of the receipts that the State might ob tain from these 300,000 acres during the fifty-year period from sale of cordwood, cattle grazing rights , etc., whi c h for a good many years of this period will probably pay the maintenance charge . It is believed that this is an economic problem that should be given serious consideration by the several states. As stated above, there are something like 179 , 000,000 acres of forest lands in the Southern States, a large pro portion of which will be and should be maintained in forests for several generations to come; and the States could well plan to buy in many million acres of these lands as cut-over lands and maintain them as state forests . It is also believed that counties and municipalities in forested sections of the State should consider the pur chase of county and municipal forests, and that they can be made just as profitable for the counties and municipali ties as for the State. In many instances municipalities need such forested areas to protect the watersheds of their municipal water supply. Counties in purchasing forested areas should do 110 not only with the idea of future sup

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166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ' plies of timber but also of protectin g the i r w a tersheds which in the future will be needed to supply water for cities and towns of the county. If the States will begin the purchase of cut-over lands and establish state forests, protect these from fire, and pass adequate legislation in regard to the protection of all forest lands from fire, cooperate with landowners in the cost of the protection of their lands from fire, and pass legislation c reating a sane, just and equitable policy for the taxation of forest lands, it is believed that then many landowners will cooperate wi t h the state and nation in maintaining an adequate area of land in forests. We do not advocate the practice of forestry on any lands that are immediately available for agriculture. Nor do we advocate any tax exemptions or bonuses as an incen tive for any one to engage in the business of growing trees. There are millions of acres of land in the South that should be growing a valuable crop of timber, that today are practically idle and have been idle for many years, and will probably remain idle for years to come, un less we can arouse the people of the state to r e alize that they have a responsibility in connection with the preser vation of our forests and the nation's future supply of timber. Following Colonel Pratt's address, Mrs. Louis A. Neill, President of the Alabama Federation of Women ' s Clubs, read a forceful paper on "Women ' s Part m Forest Conservation." {It is a very real lo s s to the value of these proceedings that the manuscript of Mrs. Neill's fine address should have been mislaid after being turned over to Secretary, and that, as no other copy has been preserved, the address cannot be reproduced here-Editor . )

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS By Mrs. J. S . STARKE , 167 Chairman Committee on Con.ervation, Alabama Federation of Women's Clubs, Troy, Alabama. It is with a feeling of he si tancy that I attempt to say a few words before this "august body" of "Lords of Creation," representing the Southern Forestry Congress, and were it not that your kind invitation makes me feel that the Conservation Department of the American Feder ation of Womens Clubs should make use of this opportuni ty to speak of its hopes and pl a ns I know-I could not. I am not sure what I am exp ec ted to say unless it be to tell what the Conservation Department of the A. F. W. C. has , in its short p e _ riod o_f exist e nc e, planned to under take and carry out . Perhaps it is only the forestry de partment I am expected to speak of. But while that is the biggest and most important division of conservation, it is not all conservation as we include soil, water, water ways and water power, minerals, natur a l scenery, birds, wild animal life, and flowers . Now this may sound like a big undertaking for a beginning, but as all these come under the same head and knowing also that many women are of many minds, the differ e nt clubs are allowed to choose one or more of these subjects for study during the club year. But take what they will, they are asked to give one program to forestry. This we hope to in crease as time passes. That this will be true is indicated by letters received from district chairmen asking for helps on forestry programs and for liter a: ture to carry out these programs . Right here may I say the question of secur ing instructive liter at ure in anyt hin g lik e adequate quanti ties seems to be a very difficult matter . This hinders the work and delays advancement. As you know Conservation is a n ew department in the federation, having be e n adopted as a part of National Federation work at the biennial last June in Chautauqua, N . Y. The Federation club year begins in September or early October, so you see we have had only about three months in which to plan our work and begin carrying it out. There are in Alabama 2 5 0 federated clubs repre senting approximately I 0,000 women. I believ, ; e most of us have long been interested in many phases of con

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168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE servation, but perhaps it has been in the passive instead of the active voice. Henceforth it will be different and our interest I believe will be shown by our activities. There are two ways in which our work in conservation must be carried on; I st , legislation, 2nd, education. 1 say legislation first not without thinking, for first we must have our laws then educate up to them. A National for est policy is greatly to be desired and club women, per haps better than anyone else, can do more in strength ening public opinion and stimulating public interest in se• curing needed Federal and State legislation, necessary to put into effect a National Forest policy. At the same time we readily realize that it requires a united and continued effort. 1 am afraid many of us do . not realize how our forests are being depleted and how they will not again be forests within our generation for all the money in the world will not produce them soon. Only God can make a tree. Strictly conservation means both use and preservation. We feel that this generation has no right to use the for est, nor any of the natural resources of our state or country with no thought of those who follow us on in the ages. We may use, but we should neither waste nor destroy; and where possible improve as well as use. I have recommended to the clubs films of field and forest and mine about which they can find by writing to the Society for Visual Education, Chicago. We have recommended that the clubs arouse an enthusiasm in the community by observing a Conservation Day wherein the schools, citizens, clubs and other organizations such as Boy Scouts, Campfire Girls, Parent-Teacher Associations, etc., are invited to participate and lay definite plans for conserving, for saving from destruction, the treasures which Nature has provided. Since hearing the splendid addresses at this Conference and coming in closer contact with the Southern Forestry Congress, I feel sure it will prove a strong ally to us in our endeavors to work out something worth while. We are asking the clubs to plant trees on the school ground, along the streets and especially on the highways. Memo rial trees if you please. If each community would plant a tree for every one of its boys who paid the supreme price overseas , it would be a pretty sentiment and a living memory . This we are urging as a beginning. As yet

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 169 we have not gone into forestry as deeply as we hope to sometime in the not distant future, for everything has to have a beginning you know, so we begin with memorial trees, but we realize that no phase of conservation of our natural resources commands more attention at the pre ' ent time than the need of conserving the forests that still remain, and providing for an adequate timber supply for future years. We also realize that the facts brought out by the reports of investigations , presented in connection with legislation now pending, are sufficient to alarm thought ful citizens and to call for thorough study of present con ditions and their certain consequences. It is evident that we must develop a comprehensive forest policy which will provide for the production of timber for posterity, guard our standing forests from the fires that yearly do such immense damage and provide for reforesting the millions of idle cut-over lands. This done, we know that there has then been provided a protection of the sources of our streams, a regulation of water-flow, conservation of the soil and shelter for birds and game -to say nothing of the esthetic longing which is filled in beholding the beauty of trees. Do you know that trees soothe our nerves? We may not be conscious of the fact but they are great physicians working wonders free of charge. The reasons just mentioned are issues profoundly affect ing the economic and industrial future of our country, and we are not unmindful that their importance calls for the earnest attention of the women of the Federation Clubs . We know we cannot force legislation, but we believe that by continued expression of our thought and conviction we can hasten its coming. We are asking the clubs to give publicity to their con servation programs by reporting such meetings to the press. This will help make a new center of intelligent interest in this great movement and thus further the advancement of our undertaking . In my recommendation to the District Conventions dur ing October and November I suggested that the programs might be made more interesting by the use of the photo graphs, lantern slide sets, and traveling exhibits obtained from the Forest Service, Washington , D. C. , so I was partic ularly pleased to see some of these slides last evening. Thus am I the better prepared to recommend them .

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170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Realizing the fact that " the children of today a re th~ citizens of tomorrow" we plan to promote among the public schools-working when possible in cooperation with other interested agencies-an intelligent appreciation of our forests, and at least some knowledge of elementary forestry. The program outlines which I have planned for the use of clubs and which I invite them to write me for, if they do not care to plan their own programs, are theirs for the asking; but I am so sadly lacking in material. This I want in abundance if it is obtainable . We are asking the clubs to help bring about Federal and State legisla tion, whenever the time presents itself, by writing to repre sentatives to support a forest policy which will provide for adequate protection and development of national, state and privately-owned . forests and to cooperate with our state forestry association. You see I have not said what we have done, but what we are planning and hope to do. We are open-minded and glad to cooperate with the Southern Forestry Congress in any way we can .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS ADDRESS By MRS. JOHN D. WINTER, State Chairman, Daughters of the American Revolution, Montgomery, Alabama. 171 As a member of the National Conservation, the Ameri can Forestry Association, the National Conservation Com mittee of D . A. R., and State Chairman of the Alabama Committee on Conservation, I send this message to the members of the Southern Forestry Congress, in their great wo-rk of conservation; a subject of such vast importance, that I deem it too mighty for my feeble pen; so varied, that each one may find any interest most suited to one's taste. Especially would I interest the children in the study of trees, birds, and wild animal life, and secure the help of the teachers in their town schools , and have a con servation study class at least on Audubon Day. Grown people need education also. Few realize that birds are invaluable to man who so wantonly destroys them. The great scientist and naturalist, Mr. Jas. Buckland, of Lon don, makes the astounding statement that although man imagines himself the dominant power of the earth, he is nothing of the sort; the true lords of the Universe are the insects, and the birds eat and destroy them. Al though man obtains predominance over fierce and pow erful animals and deadly reptiles, he would be of little avail before all the insects, which include a greater num ber of species than all other living creatures combined. Time will not permit me to give you statistics, but the potato bug unchecked would develop 60,000,000 per pair in one season, and potatoes would soon be a thing of the past. What is the balancing force with which nature overcomes this menace? The bird is the force and in its marvelous and rapid digestion, it eats them and checks the insect invasion. Without the birds, man would be helpless, and few know their great value in preserv ing the forest, the meadow and the garden, and their usefulness in their preservation of health and the elimina tion of disease. There are remarkable instances of the birds ' service to man. Australia was saved from a barren land by the English sparrows and the straw-necked Ibis. In the craw of one Ibis was found 2400 grass-hoppers . Frederick, the Great, ordered all small birds killed be

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172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE cause they had picked a few of his cherries. !n two years he had no fruit, but a very large crop of insects and cater pillars; a graphic lesson to him. The Scalp Act of Pennsylvania, which paid in bounties $90,000.00 to exterminate the owls and hawks, cost the State $3,850,000 in damage to agriculture, due to the increase of the small rodents. In 19 I 2 Lord Kitchener pointed out the necessity of prohibiting the killing of Egyptian birds which keep down insects, the spreaders of disease. Since the passage of the McLean Bill on October I st , 1914, protecting the birds, especially the migratory birds, the Federal Government, through the officials of the United States Department of Agriculture , who are intrusted with the enforcement of this law, are anxious that the fact be impressed on the people. A violation . of it will be prosecuted at any time within three years of the offense. Members of the Forestry Congress , will you please have this fact widely spread in your home papers, so that no sportsman may unintentionally violate the law of the Federal government? We must try to protect the birds with lovely plumage from the guns of unsentimental hunters and sling-shots of the boys. The little grey squirrel is worth a dozen times more for other reasons, than for the trifling value of his fur, or flesh. He is worth more as poetry than prose. Few realize his value as a tree planter. Heedless eyes see the little sprite choose an acorn, pick out a soft spot for its interment, dig a hole in the earth, drop in the acorn, pat down the earth, and then spring away to other en gagements. How interesting I But few remember that millions of tall oaks owe their existence to the keen brain and deft paws of the little grey squirrel who gave them their start in life . Urge the boys to protect the natural resources of the country in small things. They will then be better pre pared to take a hand when danger threatens the country's resources in big things. Will you not all promise to feed the birds during the cold days? Encourage the children to build little bird houses in the trees, or put on a board out of the reach of cats, food for them.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 173 Will you not watch out for camp fires and have them extinguished whenever you can? Forest fires destroy lives and tangible assets averaging $50,000,000 a year. Ask the Mayor of your town to care for the shade trees on the streets. If there is anything in nature that rivals in human interest a healthy wild animal, it is a living tree. Protect the trees and take them to your heart as living things. Love and respect them as your neighbors who stand there to give you service . Cultivate them as fellow citizens. They are worth while. Remember the groves were God's first temple, and from the trees we learn history. John Muir, that wizard of the woods, tells us of a tree four thousand yea:rs' old. It keeps an accurate chart of the pulsations of climate and time. Its mem ory is more accurate than that of man. That tree re, corded the prolonged drought which affected Israel dur ing the reign of the wicked King Ahab. That tree proved the truth of the biblical record. Truly, the trees have tongues with which to tell us of these ancient things. Would that time would permit me to tell you of the romance of the trees. Will you not remember that Longfellow's Village Blacksmith is best re membered by the "spreading chestnut tree." When the body of Roger Williams was exhumed, the roots of an apple tree th.at shadowed 'hi.s grave had grown down and taken the form of the skeleton. The pertinent question was asked: " Who ate Roger Williams?" Have tree meet ings in your Chapters and study the romance of the trees. Now, gentlemen of the Conservation Congress , all that I ask is that I may awaken an interest in this great work of conservation. Your attention is what I ask, and then I know that you will apply the power of your minds to the work. Men fail often for lack of attention rather than want of ability. The profits of attention are knowl edge, mastery and success. It opens new worlds for thought, it discovers, invents, constructs. A just revenge toward

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174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE a person who fails to hold the tree in reverence ts ex pressed in the poem called "Reprisal," written by a lover of trees . REPRISAL A tree was slain one day and hauled away! I held my breath at the death And tears flowed inward, While deep thoughts that seared my soul leapt outward A~d blasphemed the hand that slew. For in its dear remembered shade, My tree had sheltered childhood ' s glee, And in and out among its leaves birds fluttered. And in cradled ease Scarce-feathered fledgings rocked on limbs a-sway. And then one day-one day, My tree that had been hauled away was fashioned, And two hands of clay, Pale, cruel hands too still to slay, Lay folded in its hardened heart All stiff and cold And doomed to mold As dead leaves on a withered tree That had been slain all ruthlessly . By Mrs. Elizabeth Winter Watts.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 175 ADDRESS THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF CUT OVER LANDS. By ROY C. BISHOP, Secretary-Manager, Alabama Farm Bureau Federation, Montgomery. You have here for discussion something of tremendous importance to the State and to the Nation . I have got ten a new vision from the addresses delivered here this . morning and it is inspmng. Conservation is not peculiar to this organization alone. We have a great conservation problem in our organiza tion-the conservation of our soil fertility. I wish I had the time to tell you of the work we are doing and are planning to do along this line. While you have been busy tearing down the forests , we have been mining our soil and taking out the elements of plant food to the im poverishment of millions of acres of land. As listened to these discussions regarding your problems , I realized that it would take a well knit or ganization to handle the situation at all effectively. The matter of developing suitable cut-over lands into farm acreage is of great common interest to our organizations. The Farm Bureau, as we have it today, started in the Central and Eastern States eleven years ago. It has not been the outcome of the planning of any one group or st a te, but is a part of a great evolutionary movement among farmers-the awakening of the farmer in which it is expected he will keep up with the great develop ment and intricate demands of our country. In this move ment we have a tremendous task. We farmers are fifty years behind in methods, with reference to the handling of soils, marketing, production, and general farm man agement. Alabama has an annual crop value of about $200,000,000; the marketing of this great quantity of crops is one of our chief problems . The Farm Bureau is attempting to build an agency that will adequately meet this demand. We now have fifty-five County Farm Bureaus in Alabama. Three state-wide marketing organizations have been set up: The Alabama Farm Bureau Watermelor;i Association, The Alabama Farm Bureau Cotton Associa tion, and The Alabama Farm Bureau Hay Association .

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176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE There has been marketed the first year eight million dol lars worth of cotton, 20,000 tons of hay, and 800 cars of watermelons. It is being demonstrated that the farmer can put his business upon the highest plane of business efficiency . There are a large number of other crops yet to be organized for marketing. With reference to cut-over lands that may be put to profitable uses ; we think that this should be taken up by organized farmers and lumbermen . There are great areas of cut-over lands in Alabama. It has been stated that 1 0 % of the cut-ov e r lands in the ' South are in Alabama. Not all of this , of course , is capable of being converted into profitable farm land s. First of all an analysis of the soil should be made to determine whether or not it is worth while for farm purposes . Their proper uses should then be clearly defined and prerequisites for settlers should be worked out and made a part of the terms of sale or rental so as to insure healthy, permanent development. Cut-over lands constitute a great fire menace. If we could develop more of these cut-over lands into real farms, it would help solve the fire hazard problem to which you refer. Utilization of these lands for farm purposes should be the result of a high-class organized effort based upon experience, professional knowledge, and business principles. One or two farmers here and there cannot do it. In the first place often twenty miles stretch be tween these development farms. This increases the fire hazard, and affords no opportunity for organized effort. Baldwin County, Alabama , is a typical cut-over dis trict. There is nothing in Baldwin County but cut-over lands . When it was first being worked over there was no railroad except one from Montgomery to Mobile. At that time there were 600 farms , just holes in the woods. Today there are two thousand splendid improved farms in Baldwin County. The per acre land value in this State was $21.24 in 1919 . For the same year in Bald win County it was $21.82. The value of livestock per farm for the State was $442: Baldwin County $620 . 00 in 1 9 19. Since I 9 I 9, these values in Baldwin have been doubled in many districts. What is needed for the development of suitable cut over lands into farms is t e chnical , highly-trained men for leadership. Dr. 0 . F . E. Winburg says that twenty years ago, these cut-over lands of Baldwin County looked like

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 177 the battle-scarred fields of Europe, presenting an appear ence of destruction. . Now , on these lands, are raised Satsuma oranges and other fruits and crops of great value. At first as cut-over acreage , these lands were low in fertility and low in organic matter-but this soil has been intelli gently handled and now some of the finest corn, soy beans, peas, vegetables and fruits in the State is grown on these lands. Oats and crops rich in nitrogen were first planted until the soil was brought to good production condition. I should like to see you appoint a committee to draw up a plan for the systemati c development of these lands, and to set up ma c hinery for the purpose of putting these plans into effect . Discussion. Mr. Cary: The gentleman preceding in my opm1on struck a good line in calling for a program, one that adjusts relations between forestry and agriculture. Foresters are in sympathy with that, in a measure pre pared for it, I think. One side of their present position may be illustrated by reference to the settlement which he has told of, so prosperous though new, built up on cut-over pine lands. I get the approximate location of it from the gentlemen privately; it is in southern Alabama, not far from Atmore, a locality with which I am somewhat familiar. One thing characteristic of that region is the possession of very high grade types of soil. There is a good deal of orangeburg there for instance, with other closely related types. Such soil, those at all familiar with soil classification know to be of excellent agricultural charac ter; success of agriculture oh it, if it is well conducted and the location is good, is assured. Foresters like other men are glad to see such soil occupied for farming pur poses. Except in a process of transition or for the occa sional woodlot found so desirable in any settled com munity they consider they have nothing to say about land of that kind. We all know, however, that not all Southern soils are of the character referred to. The history of actual settle ments proves that if there were need, in many different parts of the South great areas once cultivated have been abandoned, that apparently because people could not make a satisfactory living on them. On these areas for the

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178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE most part, forests are now growing, so nature and our country people seem to have concurred in a verdict in regard to them. Foresters and technical soil men, I sup pose, would concur in the same thing-think that tim ber production was the best and most profitable use, for the present at least, of these areas. General understand ing of these relations and concerted action along these . lines is exactly what foresters would like to see come about. As we understand it much of the basis has al ready been laid, in systematic soil surveys. All but five counties of Alabama have been covered, fo r instance , and last summer, at the Atlanta meeting of this Con gress, Mr. Bennett of the National Bureau of Soil Sur vey had a paper broadly classifying the soil types of the whole South in respect to this very point. So much for a program as such. Next naturally would come putting it in operation. That means for one thing, as I understand it, intelligent direction of new settlement. Foresters surely will applaud every effective a gent work ing in that direction; it is not work that falls to them. Securing proper treatment of the land areas not suited to agricultural development is more in their line, a mat ter in fact in which they are tremendously interested . If great areas of Southern land will produce more value for the country kept under 11 crop of trees than in any other form of use, it seems important to us that they should be utilized in that way. That, readily, may in volve withholding them from agricultural settlements . This matter having come up in the way it has, one feels justified in pointing out what seems to foresters a departure from good, economic policy as these matters are going at the present time. Great areas of Southern land that, as we understand it, would produce most value for the country under a timber crop are now in fact dom inated by the agricultural interest-not indeed by farmers in the genuine sense, but by a half wild cattle industry. Consider for a moment this picture, true of a region not so far from here, approximately representative too of vast areas in the South. The bulk of the land area i s owned by a large company that bought it with and for its timber and that would like to see it growing tim ber again to supply paper mills now in operation or that it hopes to construct. It is not so doing, cannot indeed until relations with the local inhabitants change . These are scattered through tqe territory, owning and living in

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 179 a quarter section each perhaps, but ranging their cattle and sheep over perhaps half a township around. That in itself would not be so bad if it were not for the per sistant use of fire in the supposed interest of feed for their cattle. By this means that territory is prevented from coming up to a second crop of timber that the country needs; also there is this inequity involved -that the men who pay . th e t a xe s on it are absolutely shut out from the possibility of deriving revenue from their land. The above is a situation which cannot long endure; one way or another it has got to be readjusted. For esters would like to see that readjustment made in co operative and constructive fashion, on exactly the basis suggested, of a program of effective and commercial utili zation of land. To such end they will pledge their own best efforts as these may be required. Further at this time I myself only desire to formulate a couple of rules that seem sound and u,seful, applicable in situations like that noted abo . ve. Of these the first is that the country dweller ought to produce more than he destroys. Sec ond, that he ought to get an honest living, not devastating the property of other men. Mr. Tyler: The railroads have always been deeply interested in land development along their lines. Mr. C. S. Ucker, Director of Development of the Seaboard Air Line, Savannah, Ga., was originally on our program, but last wrote that his presence was uncertain. Is Mr. Ucker by any chance on hand? Mr. Faucette: Mr. Ucker regretted his inability to be present. He is very much interested in all the subjects we have discussed. Mr. Tyler: Send greetings of the Congress to Mr. Ucker, and ad vise him that we are sorry he was not able to be present. Greetings of this Congress should be extended to Mr. Capps, Vice-President of the Seaboard, and the thanks of the Congress to the Seaboard for the interest the entire railroad has taken and is taking in the Congress; also the Norfolk and Western, the Southern, the L. & N., and other railroads. We are p~rticularly grateful this year to

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180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE the Seaboard and the Norfolk and Western, for the interest they have taken in the Southern Forestry Congress. To return to the subject of cut-over lands, we would be glad of more comments. Mr. Young: Michigan tried the development of cut-over lands. Many Michigan cut-over lands were deficient in potash and phosphorus. Lots of people were stuck. They have not all been ignorant people either. We have had an aver age of nearly three farms a day abandoned in Michigan during the past ten years, lands nobody wants. Two and three thousand acres a month are coming back to the State; going out of agriculture, coming back as a liability. The classification of lands at present is a most im portant ~uestion with us in Michigan. The issue is a most complicated and perplexing problem; we are dis cussing the development of our good lands, and it is quite a problem. We have sixteen millions of acres in Michigan on which we can't expect, certainly not for a good long time, any kind of decent agricultural develop ment. There are constantly increasing amounts of lands coming back to the State. We are trying to develop them. As one means of getting at the situation, in 191 7 the Legislature of Michigan passed a law ordering the State Geologist to begin a land-economic survey. The war started that same year-at any rate for us-so that no appropriations were available. The work did not get under way until last summer, and we covered one county in northern Michigan, part of which is good land and part of which is not. In order to see just how the methods would work out, we took an inventory of the county in regard to land resources. One map shows the soil types as determined in the field. The exact character of each type is later fixed by laboratory analysis. The classi fication is kept as simple as possible and does not con form to that of the Bureau of Soils. We have a condition map which shows the present use of the land, which shows the areas actually in farm lands, how much in forests, how much in virgin forests, how much in woods, first-growth and second-growth, how much in cut-over lands, how much in merchantable first-growth or second-growth. We have collected quite an array of economic facts, one part based on the value of that land

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 181 from the standpoint of timber production and another from the standpoint of the value of agricultural lands . Agricultural lands were developed splendidly when the lumber business was active. A man could work his farm five months out of the year, then get work in the winter in the nearby lumber camps. That helped him make a living. And then there were good local markets---the lumber towns bought lots of farm produce. If the land was low grade, a man could still get by-run his farm in summer and work in the woods in winter. When the woods-work in winter left Michigan, the men could no longer make a living farming on medium and low-grade land. He could not handle his farm on a profit-then too his local market was gone when the camps left. So you see, it is not just what the soil is that determines whether land will make good farming property, but what surrounds the farm. What you have in the way of mar kets, transportation and outside sources of income. Charlevoix was one of the better cou1-ies of northern Michigan. Out of 266,000 acres, 193,000 are non-agri cultural. Under , present conditions, some of the farmers just hang on. If you ask them about farms, they ask if you want to buy. Many are anxious to sell. The county is supported largely by the tourist business and not by the industries. The only town in the county on the up grade is the town of Charlevoix. The towns were boom ing when lumber was being logged. We propose to cover all the counties of the northern part of the State with that kind of survey. Know just what the acreage, what the soils, what the surrounding conditions are so we can develop a real land policy. If a man has cut-over lands and raises potatoes-say he has a big crop-this winter potatoes are selling at fifteen cents a bushel. What's the good of raising a crop? Alfalfa is another "boomer" crop for poor lands. I am no farmer, but alfalfa on sand only grows about six inches, and six-inch alfalfa doesn't look like a paying proposition to me. The land certification proposition is this: If you are an owner of lands like these and you want to unload and the regular survey has not covered your lands, you get a special survey made. The inspector will tell you what part of your la11ds they consider of value. And if you want to sell those parts the State will certify those lands

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182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE and those lands only. These other lands they simply throw out. If you want to sell those other lands, you do so at your own risk. A man makes a contract with the state to sell only the lands the state guarantees to be agricultural. If he tries to skin anybody, there is a penalty attached. Michigan is trying to prevent the whole sale swindling of people. Lands in Michigan worth being farmed, are mostly farmed anyhow. Col. Pratt: This year the State of North Carolina is being asked for one and a half million dollars in settlement of lands suitable for agriculture. In the classification of the lands, the State tried to protect the settler coming into North Carolina. If he buys, he knows what he is buying. Put it in the hands of a Commission. That way, we know what land is suitable for farming, what land is suitable for certain purposes. Protect the buyer for economic reasons; do not sell him land on which to grow peaches when such land is not suitable for growing peaches. Mr. Tyler: _ Among the late arrivals at our sessions are two gentle men from the state of West Virginia, which has up to this time not been represented here . We cannot close our deliberations without a word from that great state. I there fore am going to call on Senator Colcord. Senator Colcord: I am glad to be here, the Governor appointed me. I appreciate very much the matters I have heard discussed here; and am only sorry that I was not able to be with you longer. I came here to learn , and not to instn!ct. West Virginia is working on a fire protective system, and will take the matter up with our Legislature this winter. I am glad to hear the evidence that the southern states are taking up the matter of forestry protection. Mr. Tyler: We have a considerable number of delegates at this meeting from the State of Florida, and have already heard from several. We would enjoy a word or two in addition from Mr. Fred H. Davis, representative of Leon County in the State Legislature.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 183 Mr. F. H. Davis: I did not expect to say anything. However, there is one point that has occurred to me. I was a member of the Florida Legislature of 1921, where forestry plans were brought up. I recall a certain clause in regard to tax exemption features. It struck me forcibly that one of the main inducements that might be inserted in forestry legis lation would be to give a man who owned timbered property the protection that is given a man who owns farm lands . Purchasing titles to those lands is one of the main troubles in Florida. One of the main troubles is getting a title straight. Owners of large timbered tracts have just t o chance it; you have got to fence in their lands, or improve parts of it to live on. You can ' t fence in a forest. Insert an amendment to laws, giving credit to a man who is carrying on forestry development. Another point, a large number of abandoned cut-over lands revert to the state. If the state would retain those lands and set them aside for a forestry reservation they would soon be able to have a large amount of forestry lands. The Resolutions Committee, earlier appointed by Presi dent Tyler, reported at this point. Its membership was distributed among the Southern States represented at the Congress as follows: Chairman, Mr. Stone , Georgia; Mr. Drolet, Alabama; Mr. Williams, Arkansas ; Mr. Coult , Florida; Mr. J. K. John son, Louisiana; Mr. Pfeiffer, Maryland; Mr. Morse, Miss• issippi; Mr . Holmes, North Carolina; Mr. Wrigley, South Carolina; Mr. Bunker, Texas, and Mr. Schick, Virginia. The following resolutions were read, discussed, and , after slight amendment, passed by the Congress. (Reso lution Number Four had been passed earlier in the after noon.) RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE CONGRESS. 1. Federal Forestry Legislation. Whereas, we feel that forest perpetuation is not only a State but a National problem and whereas the Federal Government is offering and planning to extend its offers of assistance to the various States; and Whereas, the Secretary of Agriculture has recommended to the United States Congress, increased appropriations

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184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE for forestry work in cooperation with the States; there fore be it resolved, ( I ) . That we hereby respectfully make request of the United States Congress, that the appropriations for co operation with States in forest fire prevention be increased to $1,000,000 per annum and that the restrictions placed by the Weeks Law, on the location of lands to be pro tected, be removed. ( 2). That the policy of cooperating with States m tree planting be inaugurated and be made applicable to all of the States. ( 3). That we heartily approve of the policy of Fed eral encouragement of timber culture on the farm, recom mended by the Secretary of Agriculture. ( 4). That we firmly believe that the acquisition of forest land by the Federal Government and by the States, for timber production and other purposes, is an import ant means of providing for our future timber needs, we therefore urge upon the United States Congress to make its next appropriation for the purchase of forest lands at least $2,000,000. ( 5). That we believe forest research to be a legiti mate and necessary government duty, and hereby urge increased appropriations for the support of the Forest Pro ducts Laboratory and the Federal Forest Experiment Sta tions and the much needed extension of these activities. 2. Army Camps. Whereas, this Congress understands that the War De. partment plans to relinquish part or all of several of the army camps throughout the South, and whereas the greater part of the area of some of these camps is forest land and especially adapted to demonstration in forestry; there fore, be it Resolved that the Federal Government is hereby re spectfully requested to transfer such lands from the ad ministration of the War Department to that of the Forest Service in the Department of Agriculture to be used as National Forests. 3. State Forest Laws. Whereas, effective State Forestry legislation must be se cured in response to a recognized need; and whereas the recognition of this need comes gradually; and whereas

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 185 the most important and first recognized need of legisla tion is for effective forest fire prevention; therefore be it Resolved that this Congress urges all States that have no forest fire protective organization to secure as soon as possible such an organization, which should include a for estry board, a state forester, and a field force, free from political influence and intelligently intere ::. ted in the work, and supported by adequate state appropriation or taxa tion. 4. Utilization of Cut-Over Lands. Whereas, the attitude of the Southern Forestry Con gress toward the utilization of idle and cut-over lands for agriculture, the growing of ordinary farm crops, as well as for the growing of another crop of trees should be well understood and kept in mind, and Whereas, the Congress, while primarily engaged in the promotion of forestry, does not concede that there is any conflict in good forestry practice and good farming. The one is closely allied and very friendly to the other. It is significant, however, that there exists in the South Atlan tic and Gulf Coast States today possibly more than I 00,000,000 acres of cut over land. This area is increas ing daily. In the majority of cases this large area in location is remote and far removed from the great centers of industry, population, and transportation. It is our great back-lying woods. It has contributed in the past to the wealth and prosperity of the South and to the world. It is a sleeping giant in possibilities today; and Whereas, cultivated or uncultivated, the power of the soil to produce has always, does now, and forever will determine the measure of prosperity of mankind, and Whereas, we believe that demand, location, and market ing and shipping facilities contribute as largely toward land values for agricultural purposes as does the character of the soil; therefore, be it Resolved by this Congress that we endorse the principle announced by the Forest Service of the Federal Govern ment that all idle and waste land, on the small and large farms, as well as in the big back out-lying cut-over woods, suitable for such purpose, be put to growing useful tim ber trees until such time as such lands are in demand for a better purpose; and be it further

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186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Resolved that the Southern Forestry Congress wants it understood that it is not the purpose to discourage the utilization and development of any land for agricultural purposes when the demand for farm products will make the farming of it profitable; but that we are chiefly con cerned that the great waste which now exists be prevented and that the cut-over lands be caused to continuously pro duce trees .better grass, cattle, sheep and wild life until that day, be it far or near, when the changing demand will justify another use; and be it further Resolved that in furtl-~erance of this end, intelligent classification of all lands is urged as a necessary step pre liminary to such development . 5. Standardization of Grades and Elimination of Waste. Resolved that we approve and endorse the work being done by all interested agencies tending toward standardi zation of grades and elimination of waste in relation both to manufacture and consumption of forest products. 6. Naval Stores . Whereas, it is a well established fact that the naval stores industry is rapidly approaching a shorfage of trees suitable for turpentining and foresters can be of assistance in developing tree growth, Resolved that the Southern Forestry Congress recog nizes this condition and will arrange a program for dis cussion of this important subject at its next meeting. 7. Hardwood Forests. Resolved that this Congress give added attention to the Southern hardwood problems, including: (I) Discus sion on closer and better means of utilization of hard woods in logging operations; ( 2) Possibilities of reforesta tion of hardwoods by means of seed trees and selective logging. 8. American Forestry Association. Realizing the need of continuous educational work and concerted action in advancing and extending the cause of forestry throughout this country and of bringing to the people of the country accurate, interesting and descriptive

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 187 information regarding forestry and b e li e vin g that the American Forestry Magazine published by the Ame r i c an Forestry Association is a means by which su c h information can be distributed to the people of this country, and that this association is a medium through which concerted action can be obtained in the interest of forestry m~asures throu g h out the country , the Southern Forestry Congress herewith approves and commends the work of the American For estry Association and pledges the support of this Con gress to the work of this association and urg e s all its m e bers to become members of this association and to aid in every way possible in increasing its membership and the distribution of its magazine. 9. Alabama Legislation. Realizing the great need for organized forest protection in each of the Southern States, we hereby wish to expre s s our thanks to the Legislature of Alabama for the greatly appreciated opportunity of laying before its members our deep interest in this work, and we desire to assure the Legislature and peopJe of Alabama our willingness to help them in every possible way in their efforts to secu r e adequate care for their forest resources . 1 O. AJ;>preciation. Resolved that this Con g ress h e reby expresses its sincere appreciation and thanks : (a) To the Honorable W. W . Brandon, Governor of Alabama, for his cord i al welcome to the members in attendance at the Fifth Southern For estry Congress, and his hearty endorsement of the prin ciples of forest conservation a nd perpetuation: (b) To the City of Montgomery, the Chamber of Commerce, and other organizations of the City , to the press, hotels and individuals for the many courtesies extended to this Con gress and its delegates during their most delightful stay in Montgomery: (c) To the musicians who have enter tained us at our sessions, and especially to Hon. I. T . Quinn, Commissioner of Conservation, who as chairman of the Alabama Committee has skilfully handled this and

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188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE other local arrangements; and (d) To our President, Mr. W. D. Tyler, and our Secretary, Mr. R. D. Forbes, for the splendid financial condition of this organization , and to all who have contributed to its support. The Committee on Nominations, as earlier appointed by President Tyler, nominated the following officers, all of whom were unanimously elected by the Congress: Officers of the Sixth Congress President :-Bonnell H. Stone, Pfister & Vogel Land Co., Blairsville, Ga. Vice-President:-P. R. Camp, Vice-President Camp Manufacturing Co., Franklin, Va. Chairman of the Executive Committee:-Colonel Joseph Hyde Pratt, Director Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. Secretary-Treasurer :-R. D. Forbes, Director S0uthem Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La . Assistant Secretary :-]. Roland Weston, H. Weston Lumber Co., Logtown, Miss. The Chairman of the Committee on Place of Meeting, Mr. Hardtner, reported that his committee favored the holding of the Sixth Congress at Savannah, Georgia. The Congress then voted unanimously to accept the committee report. On a motion from the floor Mr. Harman was named as chairman of an entertainment committee for the next Con gress, with power to select his own committee. Mr. Tyler: This brings our Congress to a close, but before we leave, I feel that I am in duty bound to say a word or two in appreciation of the efforts of those who have helped to arrange the program for this meeting. Particularly, I want to thank Mr. Forbes for his untiring efforts. I want to thank all of the speakers personally. Some of these speak

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 189 ers were selected at my special request and have come here, and I don't think there is a single one of them who has not left something worth while that we may carry away. I want to thank the delegates who have come from the various States to be }!)resent . I shall endeavor when I re turn to my office to communicate with the Governors of all of the States thanking them for securing the presence of the delegates. In closing, I want to thank the Congress for the honor conferred on me to lead the Congress this year. I trust that some mark of this year may be left and that it may be a progressive mark. The meeting then adjourned.

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190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE APPENDIX. Patrons Fifth Southern Forestry Congress On recommendation of the Executive Committee, duly approved by vote of the Fifth Congress, all who con tribute to the finances of any Congress are thereby desig nated as Patrons of that Congress. The following is the list, by states, of those who qualified as Patrons of the Fifth Congress, by contributions reaching the Secretary between February 3, 1922, and January 23, 1923. The names of those whose remittances covered merely the cost of one or two copies of Proceedings are not included. Alabama Ark-Ala Lumber Co., Wetumpka. W. M. Carney Mill Co., Atmore. Department of Conservation, Montgomery. Deal Bachtel Lumber Co . , Montgomery: Horseshoe Lumber Co., River Falls. Kaul Lumber Co., Birmingham. Lathrop Lumber Co., Birmingham. Moore-Handley Hardware Co., Birmingham. Florida Alger-Sullivan Lumber Co., Century. Bagdad Land & Lumber Co., Bagdad. Bay Point Mill Co., Bagdad. Brooks-Scanlon Corporation, Eastport. Dekle Land Co., Chipley. Florida Development Board, Jacksonville. Graves Bros. Co., Hosford. . Gress Manufacturing Co., Jacksonville. Southern States Lumber Co., Pensacola. Kentucky Guyan Lumber Co., Ashland. Louisiana Frost Johnson Lumber Co., Shreveport. Maryland A. E. Berry, Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co., Baltimore. E. E. Jackson, E. E. Jackson Lumber Co., Baltimore.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 191 Cha s . I. James, 850 Equitable Bldg., Baltimore. J. J. Nelligan, Atlantic Coast Line Railroad , BaltimOi'e, Ox Fibre Brush Co., Frederick. Daniel Willard , Baltimore & Ohio Railroad , Baltimore . Mississippi Geological Survey, Jackson. John McGrath & Sons, Brookhaven . Missouri Delta Land & Timber Co., Kansas City. Hemphill Lumber Co ., Kennett . North Carolina Carr Lumber Co., Pisgah Forest. The Champion Fibre Co., Canton. Oklahoma Prof . Christian Jensen, Stillwater. Pennsylvania Keys-Walker Lumber Co ., Philadelphia. Tennessee Bedna-Young Lumber Co., Jackson. Boice Hardwood Co., Inc . , Hartford . Bristol Door & Lumber Co ., Bristol. Geo. C. Brown & Co., Memphis. Conasauga River Lumber Co ., Conasauga. Geo. H. Evans Lumber Co ., Chattanooga. Hunt, Washington & Smith, Nashville. Little River Lumber Co. , Townsend . Love, Boyd & Co., Nashville. J . P . . Pearson, Alticrest. Pittsburgh Lumber Co ., Braemer . State Forester, Nashville. Vestal Lumber & Mfg. Co., Knoxville. Texas Wm. Cameron & Co., Inc., Waco. W. T. Carter & Bros., Camden . Kirby Lumber Co., Houston. Southern Pine Lumber Co., Texarkana. Temple Lumber Co., Texarkana. Texas Forestry Association, College Station Trinity County Lumber Co., Groveton. Wier Longleaf Lumber Co., Houston .

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192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Virginia Blackwood Lumber Co., Roanoke. H. A Cavendish, Hot Springs. Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante. C. L. Ritter Lumber Co., Inc., (Home Office, Huntington, W. Va.) W . M . Ritter Lumber Co., (Home Office, Columbus, 0.) State Forester , Charlottesville. W. D. Tyler, Dante . Virginia Hardwood Lumber Co . , Inc., Tazewell. West Virginia Norwood Lumber Co., Welch. Pocahontas Coal & Coke Co., ( Home Office, Roanoke, Va.) Regional Associations Southern Pine Association, New Orleans, La. Standard Container Manufacturers, Jacksonville, Fla. Turpentine & Rosin Producers' Association, New Orleans, La . Railroads Seaboard Air Line Railway Co . , (C. S . Ucker,) Savannah, Ga. Norfolk & Western Railway Co., Roanoke, Va .

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS List of Delegates Fifth Southern Forestry Congress 193 Alexander, M. L., Commissioner of Conservation , State of Louisiana, New Orleans, La. Allen, W. G., House of Representatives, Montgomery, Ala. Ashcroft, J. F., House of Representatives, Montgomery , Ala. Ayre, 0. L., Tenn. Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., Birmingham , Ala . Bachtel, U. M., Vice-Pres., Deal-Bachtel Lumber Co ., Montgomery, Ala. Backus, G. T., United States Forest Service, Asheville, N. C. Barnett, W . L"E., Florida Citrus Exchange, Mt. Dora, Fla . Bishop, Roy C., Sec.-Mngr., Ala. Farm Bureau Fereration Montgomery, Ala. Black, W. F., Gen. Secty. , Chamber of Commerce , Mont gomery, Ala. Boyd, James, Lumber Trade Journal, New Orleans, La. Brandon, Wm. W., Governor of Alabama, Montgomery, Ala. Brooks , A. B. , Chief Game Protector, Buckhannon , W. Va. Bunker, Page S., Ass " t. State Forester, College Station, Tex. Burleigh, Thos. D., State College of Agriculture, Athens, Ga. Burns, S. A., State Repr e sentative, Talladega, Ala. Byars , J. D . L., State Representative, Moulton, Ala . Camp, P . R. , Vice ~ Pres., Camp Mfg. Co., Franklin, Va. Cary, Austin, United States Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Cathey , John J., Tree Surgeon, I 05 E. Chestnut St ., Gads den, Ala. ~olcord, E . C . , Pres ., Southern W. Va. Fire Protection Assn . , St. Albans, W. Va. Conzet, G. M., Minn. For est Service, St. Paul, Minn. Cook, Daniel, Sr., State Representative, Camden, Ala. Coult, A. A . , Secty., Florida Development Board, Jackson ville, Fla . Craft, John, State Senator, Mobile, Ala. Cromwell, W. 0 ., Cromwell Hardwood Lbr. Co., Mont gomery, Ala. Davis, F. S., Jr., Frost & Davis Lumber Co. , 814 Bell Bldg., Montgomery, Ala.

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194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Davis, Fred H., State Representative, Tallahassee, Fla. Deal, W. W., Deal Lumber Co., Buhl, Ala. Delony, John E., State Representative, Tuscumbia, Ala. Dowdle, John W., State Representative, Carrollton, Ala. Dozier, Pat, Montgomery Journal, Montgomery, Ala. Drewett, T. J., Chief Ranger, Dept. of Conservation, Jena, La. Drolet, Mrs. George, Tuscaloosa, Ala. Drolet, George, Forest Engineer, Tuscaloosa, Ala. Eddy, J. H., Kaul Lumber Company, Birmingham, Ala. Elliott, Mrs. W. J ., 81 3 S. Court, Montgomery, Ala. Faucette, \V. D . , Chief Engineer, Seaboard Air Line, Norfolk, Va. Flowers, E. P . , E. P. Flowers & Co., Montgomery, Ala. Forbes, R. D., Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, La. Foreman, J. A., State Representative, Decatur, Ala. Gardiner, W . E., Asst. Secty., Southern Pine Assn., Jack sonville, Fla. Graves, Mrs. Bibb, Montgomery, Ala. . Greene, S. W., Supt. Coastal Plain Exp. Station, McNeill, Miss. Grove, Ed. J., State Representative , Mobile, Ala . Hardtner, Henry E., Pres. Urania Lumber Co., Urania, La. Harman, C. B., Secty., Sou. Sash, Door & Millwork Mfrs. Assn., Atlanta, Ga. Harper, R. M., Geological Survey of Ala., University, Ala. Hastings, Alfred B., Ass' t. State Forester, Charlottesville, Va. Hauss, Edward A., Pres., The Alger-Sullivan Lbr. Co., Century, Fla. Hearin, Jesse B., Mgr., Farm Section, Chamber of Commerce, Montgomery, Ala. Henley, J. H., Falco, Ala. Henry, A. M., Asst. State Chemist, Tallahassee, Fla. Hill, W. A., 70 I S . Court, Montgomery, Ala. Hine, W. R. B., Southern Forest Experiment Stat.ion, New Orleans, La. Hogue, Roy L., Mgr.., Interior Lumber Co., Jackson, Miss . Holcombe, J. B., Montgomery, Ala. Holmes, J. S., State Forester, Chapel Hill, N. C. Holroyd, H. B., Industrial Agent, L. & N. R. R., Louis ville, Ky. Hope, Robert, R., James D. Lacey & Co., New York, N. Y. Howle, W. H., Heflin, Ala.

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SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 1 9 5 Israel, Albert R., Southern Pine Association, New Orleans, La . Jackson, A. E., Banking Department, Montgomery , Ala. Jarvis, Mrs. J. Roehling , Idaho City, Idaho . Jarvis, J. Roehling, Idaho City, Idaho. Jennin g s , S. Bryan , Lawyer, Jacksonville, Fla. Johnson , J . K., Supt. Forester y , Great Southern Lumber Co., Bogalusa , La . Johnson , Joe, Meltonsville, Al a. Jones, Elsie F. , Century, Fl a. Jones, James H., Land Agt. , The Al g er-Sullivan Lbr. Co . , Century, Fla. Jones, Jesse M. , Gen . Dev . Agt . , Se a board Air Line Ry., Norfolk , Va. Lambert, W. M . , Clintwood , Va. Lee, J . G. , Dept. of Fore s try, La. State Univ., Baton Rouge , La. LeMaistre, J. W., House of Representatives , Montgomery, Ala . Letson, W . P . , State Representative, Winfield, Ala . Long, T. H ., Lumber , Uniontown , Ala. Love, F. C . , State Representative, New Market, Ala. Lufburrow , B. M ., Fore s t Supervisor, Ala . Natl. Forest, Moulton, Ala. Mattoon , E x tension Specialist , Unit e d States Forest Service, Washington, D. C. McCarthy, E . F., Appalachian Forest Exp. Sta., Asheville, N . C. Mcdaugh , Mrs . M . V ., 201 Forest Ave ., Montgomer y, Ala. McGowin , J . G. , W. T . Smith Lbr . Co , , Chapman , Ala. Metz , A. R., Norfolk , Va. Mitchell , J . A. , District Forest Inspector , U . S . Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Moncrief, E. S. , Dept. of Conservation, Greenwood , La. Morse , Roy F . , Long-Bell Lbr. Co., Quitman, Miss. Neill , Mrs. Louis A. , Pres. , Ala . Federation of Women's Clubs , Alban y, Ala . Notestine , Mrs., Birmingham Age-Herald, 221 First Nation al Bank , Montgomer y , Ala. O ' Connell , J . C . , Montgomery Advertiser , Montgomery , Ala. Oliver, Mrs. S . C., Talladega , Ala . Pace, J. G . , Pace Lbr . Co. , Pensacola, Fla. Parkes, Solan L., Ga. Forestry Assn., Atlanta, Ga.

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196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE Peters, J. G., U. S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Pfeiffer, Karl E., Asst. State Forester, Baltimore, Md. Posey, J. A., Hackleburg, Ala . Pratt, Joseph Hyde, Director, N. C. Geol. & Econ. Survey, Chapel Hill, N. C. Quinn, I. T., Commissioner of Conservation, Montgomery, . Ala. Rhodes, J. E., Sec.-Mgr., Southern Pine Assn., New Or leans, La. Rollins, L. F., 907 Highland St., Montgomery, Ala. Russell, John P., House of Repre~entatives, Montgomery, Ala. Saxton, W. E., Bristol, Va. Schick, James R., N. & W. Rwy. Co., Roanoke, Va. Scott, James E . , Asst. Dist. Forester, U , S. Forest Service, Washington, D. C. Scott, T. J., Pres., Scott Investment Co., Montgomery, Ala. Scott, Z. D., Scott-Graff Lumber Co., Duluth, Minn. Sessoms, A., Real Estate & Banking, Bonifay, Fla. Sherrill, C. H., Sherrill Hardwood Lbr. Co., New Orleans, La. Simpkin, Rev. P. A., Concatenated Order of Hoo Hoo. Arcade Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Sinclair , James, A. C. L. R. R., Waycross , Ga. Smith, B. F., Industrial Lbr. Co ., Elizabeth , La. Smith, Howard C., Editor Union Springs Herald, Union Springs, Ala. Sonderegger, V. H., State Forester, New Orleans, La. Spahr, H. G., 400 Peachtree Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. Starke, Mrs. J. S., Troy, Ala. Stone, Bonnell H., Georgia Forestry Assn., Atlanta, Ga; TenEick, C. W., James D. Lacey & Co., New York, N. Y. Thompson, J. K., Atty., Scottsboro, Ala. Tyler, Mrs. W. D., Dante, Va. Tyler, W. D., Clinchfield Coal Corporation, Dante, Va. Vredenburgh, Sellers , Vredenburgh Sawmill Co., Vredenburgh, Ala. Ward, John B., Abbeville, Ala. Watts, Mrs. T. C., 407 Farley Ave . , Montgomery, Ala. Weston, J. Roland, Forester, H. Weston Lbr. Co., Logtown, Miss. Williams, Wm. K., Forester, Crossett Lumber Co., Crossett, Ark .

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a SOUTHERN FORESTRY CONGRESS 197 Winter, Mrs. John G ., State Chairman, Daughters of the American Revolution, Montgomery , Ala. Wrigley, George, J. E. Sirrine & Co., Greenville , S. C. Young, L. J ., Fores try Dept . , Univ . of Mi c hi g an, Ann Harbor, Mich . Zuber, Osburn , The Montgomery Advertiser, Montgomery , Ala . The delegates listed above are di s tributed amon g nine teen states as follows: Alabama , 5 9 ; Arkansas, I ; Florida, 1 0 ; Geor g ia , 6; Idaho, 2; K e ntucky, I ; Louisiana , 14 ; Mar y land , 2 ; Michi gan, I ; Minnesota, 2 ; M i ssissippi, 4; Missouri, I ; N e w York, 2 ; North C a rol i na , 4 ; South C a rol i na, 1 ; Te xa s , 1 ; Virg i nia, I O ; West Virginia, 2 ; and District of Columbia , 4 .

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