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Secretary of State
CLAUDE R. KIRK, JR.
Director of Conservation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal 2
Division of Administration 9
Division of Water Resources 19
Division of Geology 29
Division of Salt Water Fisheries 53
Division of Waterways Development 83
Division of Beaches and Shores 95
\. 4 7
Florida Board of Conservation
March 15, 1969
Honorable Claude R. Kirk, Jr. Chairman
Florida Board of Conservation
Dear Governor Kirk:
I herewith submit biennial report of the Florida Board of Conservation
covering activities of the six 'divisions during the years 1967-1968.
The Florida Board of Conservation is a statutory agency (Section
370.02), the members of which are the Governor, Secretary of State, At-
torney General, Comptroller, State Treasurer, Cpmmissioner of Education
and Commissioner of Agriculture, the seven elective administrative officers
who make up the Cabinet.
Under law, the duties of the Board are to conserve and develop the
natural resources of the State and to administer the provisions of Chapters
370, 371, 373, 377 and 378. In addition, the Board administers Chapters
161 and 537 and has specific responsibilities under Chapter 253.
The Board of Conservation is organized into six divisions: Admin-
istration, Salt Water Fisheries, Water Resources and Conservation, Water-
ways Development, Geology and Beaches and Shores.
The Director of Conservation acts as the agent of the Board in coor-
dinating and directing its activities in the discharge of its responsibilities.
The activities of the six divisions during calendar years 1967 and 1968
in the discharge of the duties imposed by statute are summarized in this
II i p
One of the portable exhibits used at fairs and meetings.
Surf fishing is popular along both coasts of Florida.
Surf fishing is popular along both coasts of Florida.
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Statement of Actual Expenditures
For the Fiscal Year 1967-68
Education and Information ......................
Salt Water Fisheries
Licensing and Motorboat Registration ....
01 Marine Research
Survey and Management
Purse Seine Activities
Water Resources and Conservation ...............
Beaches and Shores Preservation ....................
U. S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Central and Southern Florida Flood
Southwest Florida Water Management
Contributions to Waterways Development ......
Erosion Control Account
TOTAL 1967-68 $
r Social Security) Personal
Matching Services Expenses
$ $ $
Debt Grants Special
Service and Aids Activities Total
$ $ $ $
2,090,942 $ 92,045 $ 1,176,956 $ 395,559 $ 957,680 $ 4,481,079
L'M'88"Ig 606'g68'L1t Lg0'9L8 $ 06'86g $ Ut4'IgI'I $ 980' $ fL9'G6 $ 6L'009'1 L9-9961 IVLOJL
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FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Statement of Actual Revenues
Non Resident Wholesale Dealer's Licenses ...................... 1,
Retail Dealer's Licenses 51,
Non Resident Retail Dealer's Licenses
Alien Retail Dealer's Licenses
Wholesale Dealer's Permit Stamps 1,
Bait Shrimp Permits
Live Bait Shrimp Dealers
Fish Camp Operators
Alien Sponge Licenses
Total Licenses and Permits $ 93,
Leases, Rentals and Fees
Oyster Leases $ 5,
Fees for Drilling and Plugging Wells
Total Leases, Rentals and Fees $ 6,
Sale of Publications and Mineral Samples $ 4,
Other-Old Appropriation Refunds 4,
Total Miscellaneous $ 8,
TOTAL GENERAL REVENUE
BEFORE ADJUSTMENTS $108,
Less: Returned Checks
Total Adjustments $
TOTAL GENERAL REVENUE $108,
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Statement of Actual Revenues
MOTORBOATING REVOLVING TRUST FUND
Motorboat Registration Certificates
Commercial Boat License
Non Resident Commercial Boat License ..................
Non Resident Commercial Fishing License ............
Purse Seines Tax
Change of Ownership
Change of Classification
Duplicate Title Certificate
TOTAL MOTORBOATING REVENUE
Less: Returned Checks
Counties Share of Registration Certificates ....
TOTAL MOTORBOATING REVOLVING TRUST
- FUND REVENUE
MARINE BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH TRUST FUND
Royalties from Sale of Dead Shell
Revenue from Federal Grants
Revenue from Biological Studies
Less: Tampa Port Authority's Share of Royalties
TOTAL MARINE BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
783.00 $ 94,170.00
764.50 $ 6,059.62
,379.50 $ 6,579.62
072.50 $ 6,159.71
,781.34 $ 36,005.19
418.50 $ 1,063.75
$ 1,322,348.70 $ 1,764,134.94
$ 789,812.86 $ 945,598.63
$ 532,535.84 $ 818,536.31
$ 247,000.17 $ 226,553.93
Licenses and Permits
WhnlP Dralpr'r T L
SFLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Statement of Actual Revenues
SALTWATER PRODUCTS PROMOTION
Wholesale Dealer's License $
Revenue from Federal Grant
Transfer from Marine Biological Research
TOTAL SALTWATER PRODUCTS PROMOTION
TRUST FUND $
YACHT AND SHIP BROKER'S TRUST FUND
Broker's Original License $
Broker's Renewal License
Broker's Branch Office License
Salesman's Temporary License
Transfer of Salesman's License
Substitution of Name in Licence
TOTAL YACHT AND SHIP BROKERS
BEFORE ADJUSTMENTS $
Less: Returned Checks $
Total Adjustments $
TOTAL YACHT AND SHIP BROKERS
TRUST FUND $
U. S. COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TRUST FUND
Revenue from Cooperative Agreements .................. $
TOTAL U. S. COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS
TRUST FUND REVENUE $
324,136.55 $ 315,664.45
3,900.00 $ 2,925.00
15,050.00 $ 25,72250
355.00 $ 645.00
14,695.00 $ 25,077.50
213,487.50 $ 361,425.00
213,487.50 $ 361,425.00
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Statement of Actual Revenues
GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST FUND
Revenue from N.S.F. Grants $
Revenue from Federal Grants
TOTAL GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST
FUND REVENUE $
BEACHES AND SHORES OPERATING
TOTAL BEACHES AND SHORES OPERATING
TRUST FUND REVENUE $
EROSION CONTROL RESEARCH TRUST FUND
Revenue from City or County Grants ................ $
Transfers from Erosion Control Account ...............
TOTAL EROSION CONTROL RESEARCH
TRUST FUND $
30,820.00 $ 53,490.00
1,700.00 $ 1,700.00
1,700.00 $ 1,700.00
284,180.00 $ 20,186.00
DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATION
Section 370.02(4) charges the Division of Administration with the duty
and responsibility of rendering any services required by the Board and the
several divisions that can advantageously and effectively be centralized.
It also is responsible for carrying out any duties of the Board not
specifically assigned by law to some other division.
The duty of administering and enforcing Chapter 537, the Yacht and
Ship Brokers Act, and Sections 373.261-373-391, weather modification is
also assigned by law to the division.
The Director of Conservation is designated by law as Director of the
Division of Administration.
Water skiing is enjoyed all year in many areas of the state.
Centralized under the Division of Administration are the fiscal, per-
sonnel, purchasing, legal and education and information services of all
divisions of the Board.
The personnel office has been separated from the fiscal department
and a personnel officer appointed to head that department. This move
was necessary because of the substantial burden of work placed upon the
fiscal office by the disbursement of funds from the Water Resources De-
velopment Account, the increase of approximately 10 percent each year
of the biennium in boat registrations, the administration of the Yacht and
Ship Brokers Act, and the increase in routine fiscal activity.
The personnel director is responsible for the heavy volume of work
involved in employment procedures governed by the State Personnel Board.
The fiscal office has the duty of auditing all accounts receivable from
the sale of dead oyster shells. This is the primary source for financing of
the biological research program of the Division of Salt Water Fisheries.
Net returns to the State from the sale of dead oyster shells dredged
from state-owned submerged lands totaled $334,252.53 for fiscal 1966-67
and $256,377.26 for fiscal 1967-68. The Tampa Port Authority receives
50 percent of the revenue from sale of dead oyster shells from waters
under its jurisdiction. During fiscal 1966-67, the Tampa Port Authority
received $87,252.36 from the dead shell revenue and during fiscal 1967-68,
a total of $74,209.85.
The fiscal office also is responsible for distribution of boat registration
certificate tax revenue to the several counties. Under the provisions of
Chapter 371, $2.50 of each boat registration certificate tax is earmarked
for the State's Motorboat Revolving Trust Fund, from which the Legislature
appropriates a fixed sum for administration of Chapter 371. The balance
of the boating revenue is returned to the several counties on the basis
of the number of boats registered in each.
The Board of Conservation distributed among the 67 counties a total
of $784,458.10 in boating revenue during fiscal 1966-67. The counties
derived a total of $939,085.08 from boat registration taxes during fiscal
1967-68. Under law, each county's share is divided, two-thirds to the County
School Board and one-third to the Board of County Commissioners.
Funds accruing to the State's Motorboat Revolving Trust Fund over
and above the amount appropriated by the Legislature for administration
of the boat registration and safety act are paid into the land acquisition
fund of the Outdoor Recreation Program. During the past two years, the
recreation program has received a total of $500,000 from boat registration
certificate tax revenue.
During 1967 and 1968 the Division continued to purchase liability and
workmen's compensation insurance on the basis of competitive bids. Since
July, 1962, the Board of Conservation has acted as a self-insurer of auto-
motive, marine and other equipment. As during the previous three years,
losses during 1967 and 1968 were less than premiums formerly paid to
casualty insurance companies.
All purchases for the Department are made through the purchasing
agent. Every effort is made to abide by the spirit as well as the letter
of state purchase laws. No emergency field purchases have been permitted
without expressed approval of the purchasing agent and the issuance of
a purchase order number by the purchasing agent. All proposed expendi-
tures of capital outlay must have the prior approval of the Director.
Education and Information
The Education and Information Department was strengthened in 1968
with the promotion of an Administrative Assistant to Director of Education
and Information and the hiring of an assistant director. Further strength-
ening of the department is urgent if the public support so necessary for
the success of any program for development and preservation of natural
resources is to be generated.
Far too many Floridians still have not fully grasped the strain being
placed upon our natural resources by the state's constant growth pattern,
and the necessity for positive action to assure wise resource use programs
that will leave these invaluable assets for the benefit of future Florida
citizens. Only through an adequately-financed, aggressive campaign of
education and information can the public be made aware of the problems
of conserving natural resources and aroused to backing programs to sup-
Florida is basically a tourist-oriented economy, and the Department
of Education and Information is taking steps to coordinate its activities
with other state agencies to further this image and strengthen the assets
given to tourism by the state in the realm of boating, waterways, salt water
sportfishing, and water recreational pursuits.
In past years, Florida has received criticisms from conservationists
in other states over waterways practices and land developments in regard
to natural resources. This criticism stemmed, in the main, from a lack of
knowledge as to procedures and programs in Florida. A more concise
nationwide program of education and information was needed.
To this end, the department has established a firm program of national
publicity concerning the state's waterways and boating recreational acti-
vities. Since September, 1968, the E&I Department has had articles pub-
lished in such national publications as YACHTING, MOTOR BOATING,
BOATING, SPORTS AFIELD, THE ENSIGN, GULF COAST SPORTS-
MAN, FISHING WORLD, MECHANIX ILLUSTRATED, GONDOLIER,
SPORTFISHING, FLORIDA WILDLIFE and ALL-FLORIDA.
Additionally, the department has beefed up its news presentations to
all Florida media, particularly in the field of water resources, research,
marine biology, salt water fishing and boating and waterways development.
The Education and Information department has averaged about 30
letters a day in the past two years seeking answers to questions about the
State's conservation and recreation programs plus requests for informational
A comprehensive guidebook for salt water sports fishermen was pro-
duced by the department, a guidebook that has proven to be one of the
most oft-requested publications of the Board of Conservation.
The Education and Information Department has produced several
educational pamphlets aimed at school-age youngsters in the past two years.
The department produces one of Florida's most widely read monthly
publications, the Florida Conservation News. This publication, an eight-
page tabloid, reports on the activities and plans of the various divisions of
the board. It replaced the Florida Water News, which was published for
several years by the Division of Water Resources.
Distribution has increased from 1,700 to 7,000 since the first issue
was published. It is anticipated that circulation will reach 10,000 during
the 1969-71 biennium.
In January, 1966, the E&I Department initiated weekly salt water
sports fishing reports. The reports tell what fish are being caught, where
they are being taken, and what baits are proving most successful. The
reports are compiled from information supplied by conservation officers
in each of the 11 law enforcement areas and are used as part of the con-
tinuing process of providing useable information for visiting as well as
native fishermen in keeping with Florida's tourist image.
The initial fishing report was sent to three outlets wihin the State.
By 1966 some 185 radio and television stations and newspapers through-
out the Southeast were disseminating these reports to the public. Two
national outdoor magazines also are publishing quarterly Florida salt water
fishing reports especially prepared for their use.
In 1967-68 the Department compiled a list of charter and party fishing
boats in Florida, and in 1968 ten television stations in the State aired 30-
second boating safety film clips prepared by the E&I Department.
In the past two years members of the education and information de-
partment worked diligently to develop friendly relations with the various
conservation groups. Staff members attended, when possible, meetings of
Isaac Walton leagues, the Florida Wildlife Federation, Audubon Society
chapters, the Florida Conservation Council and other conservation groups.
This has bettered communications between the Board and these organi-
zations. Many times it was found that opposition to Board policies and
programs was because of misunderstanding of the Board's aims by the
During the biennium, members of the Education and Information staff
made a total of 234 speaking appearances before conservation and civic
clubs to discuss the programs, progress and goals of the Board. There
were 23 appearances on television shows in 1967 and 27 in 1968.
Films from the Education and Information library were shown on
TV stations in New York, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles and Dallas as well
as in several provinces of Canada. These films were shown on 16 Florida
television stations, and film showings to school groups and clubs averaged
two a week during the two year period.
The Director proved to be one of the Administration Division's more
valuable educational tools. He made 57 speeches during 1967 and 52 in
1968. In each appearance he outlined the responsibilities of the Board and
the programs through which they are carried out.
The display of educational exhibits at various fairs and expositions,
trade shows and conventions is a major activity of the Education and
Regular exhibitions are made at the Pensacola Interstate Fair, North
Florida Fair at Tallahassee, the Bay County Fair at Panama City, the
Putnam County Fair at Palatka, the Pasco County Fair at Dade City, the
Dade County Youth Fair at Miami, the Manatee County Fair at Palmetto,
the South Florida Fair at West Palm Beach, the Florida State Fair at
Tampa, The Kissimmee Valley Livestock Show and Fair at Kissimmee,
the Central Florida Fair at Orlando, the Hernando County Fair at Brooks-
ville, the Martin County Fair at Stuart, the Miami Sport, Travel and
Vacation Show, the Jacksonville Travel and Vacation Show, the Monroe
County Fair at Key West, the Bradford County Fair at Starke, the Levy
County Fair at Williston, the Florida Forestry Festival at Perry, the Nassau
County Fair at Callahan, and the Pinellas County Fair at Largo.
Department displays also have been exhibited at the annual Florida
Conservation Week Headquarters each of the past three years, and mem-
bers of the Boating Safety team have participated in national boat and
sports shows in New York, Chicago and New Orleans.
Yacht and Ship Brokers Act
The Legislature gave a new responsibility to the Division of Admin-
istration when it enacted the Yacht and Ship Brokers Act of 1965.
The law requires the licensing of all persons, firms or corporations
engaged in yacht brokerage. Yacht brokerage is defined by law as the
buying, selling, chartering, renting or leasing for others, vessels of more
than 25 feet in length.
Under the statute the licenses are issued on a calendar year basis
and the first licenses were issued for 1966. The law limited expendi-
tures for administration and enforcement to the revenue received from
licenses. During 1967, licenses were issued to 137 brokers and 262 yacht
salesmen. In 1968, licenses were issued 175 brokers and 298 salesmen. The
fee fixed by law for an original broker's license is $100. The fee for an
original salesman's license was raised by the 1967 Legislature from $10
to $25. The 1967 Legislature also raised the renewal fee for a broker's
license from $50 to $100, and the renewal fee for a salesman was raised
from $10 to $25.
Even with the increase in fees, the revenue realized is still so limited
that only a field representative and a secretary can be paid from the Yacht
Brokers Trust Fund. In order to carry out the responsibilities placed upon
the Division of Administration by Chapter 537, it is necessary for the
Director of Education & Information to handle the administrative work.
In the interest of necessary economy and practical administration, the
ministerial function of issuing yacht and ship brokers' and salesmen's
licenses is handled by the licensing division of the Division of Salt Water
Florida Boating Council
The Florida Boating Council was established by executive order in
1961, and was given sanction by law in 1963. Since that time it has been
recognized as one of the finest statewide boating organizations in the
Because of the outstanding work being done, a full feature on the
Florida Boating Council and its Safety Patrol was presented in the Feb-
ruary, 1969 issue of THE ENSIGN, the national publication of U. S. Power
Squadrons. This article was prepared and edited by the Department of
Education & Information.
One of the highlights of the programs developed by the Council
to promote safe boating in Florida is the Junior Boatman's Safety Course,
aimed at youngsters in the 10-14 age bracket.
The motorboat safety program is carried out under guidelines recom-
mended by the Boating Council.
The Junior Boatman's program is designed to educate the youngsters,
who will be the boat owners of the future in Florida's fastest growing
outdoor recreational activity, in the basic rules of protecting life and prop-
erty when boating. It does not attempt to make skilled boat handlers of
the youngsters, but is designed to instill in them recognition of the necessity
for protecting themselves by safe practices when on the water.
Statistics issued by the U. S. Coast Guard show that most accident-
prone boat operators are in the 18-25 age group. It is our hope that by
teaching the 10-14 age group primary principles of water safety we can
develop safe boaters of those who in a few short years will be among what
is now the most dangerous group using our waters for recreational purposes.
The junior program is carried on in cooperation with the sheriffs of
the several counties, U. S. Power Squadrons, particularly the ladies auxiliary
units, the U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary flotillas, the American Red Cross and
local school authorities.
During 1967 and again in 1968, better than 100,000 youngsters partici-
pated in the Junior Boatman's Safety Program. It has proven to be such
a success that many counties are now requesting Boating Council officers
to present the program in their area, and school districts in Hillsborough
and Broward counties, two of Florida's more active boating locales, have
instituted the program as part of the regular physical education program
in their school districts.
The Board of Conservation furnishes, as part of the overall boating
safety program, instructional materials for the junior safety courses. Each
youngster taking the course receives a certificate signed by the Governor,
and a sweater patch designating him as a junior safe boatsman.
The activities and programs of the Florida Boating Council are con-
ducted and supervised by the Education & Information department of the
Board of Conservation. The Council is composed of the Director of the
Board of Conservation as Chairman, the Director of the Florida Game &
Fresh Water Fish Commission, a representative of the Governor's office,
a representative of the Attorney General's office, a representative of the
Florida Sheriffs Association, and a representative of the .U. S. 7th District,
U. S. Coast Guard, in an advisory capacity. The Council is assisted by an
advisory committee of five members, one each from the Florida Con-
gressional Districts as existed in 1941.
Six two-man teams, authorized by the Legislature, are assigned ex-
clusively to boating safety education work. Their prime responsibility is to
inspect pleasure boats for legally-required safety equipment. They also
appear before various organizations to speak on boating safety, and make
frequent television appearances to help convey educational information
on the Florida water safety program.
The safety officers also handle boating safety exhibits at major boat
shows in Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa and St. Petersburg, and upon request
handle policing of boatacades and regattas. The officers also assist in
promotional boating programs with the Department of Education and In-
formation and other state agencies, primarily the Florida Development
Though the Safety Patrol activities encompass many areas of endeavor,
in 1968 greater emphasis has been placed on the safety instructional pro-
grams in the schools.
In spite of this increased emphasis on instruction, however, the safety
patrols continue their inspection of pleasure craft, and in 1968 better than
12,000 boats were boarded and inspected.
The motorboat safety program is producing results. Whereas in 1963
a total of 79 persons were known to have lost their lives in boating accidents
in Florida waters, only 39 were reported in 1968. This decrease is shown
in spite of the fact that in the past five years pleasure boat registrations
in Florida have increased better than 20% per year, and the number of
visiting boatmen to Florida has increased proportionately.
The legal department was established in November, 1965. The attorney
serves as resident attorney on advice and consent of the Attorney General
and also is a special assistant to the Attorney General.
The department plans, organizes and directs the implementation of
all legal procedures for the divisions within the Board such as: civil and
criminal litigation, law enforcement, public relations and education pro-
The attorney provides legal advice and counsel to the Divisions of
the Board in developing agency programs and regulations, and in inter-
preting state and federal legislative acts and court decisions.
The attorney prepares and drafts major leases, agreements, legislative
bills and administrative regulations and represents the Board at state,
national and international conferences on legal matters.
The Director of the Board of Conservation, in addition to his respon-
sibilities to coordinate the activities of the several divisions to assure that
the directives and policies of the Board are executed properly and effi-
ciently, serves by statute as Chairman of the Florida Boating Council, a
member of the Interagency Outdoor Recreation and Land Acquisition
Advisory Committee and one of three Florida representatives on each the
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission and the Atlantic States Marine
He is also a member of the National Advisory Council to the National
Rivers and Harbors Congress and is active in the affairs of the American
Waterways Association and the Mississippi Valley Association.
He is, by designation of the Cabinet, Chairman of the Interagency
Committee on Submerged Lands Management, and in December, 1968
was designated Director of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
in addition to his duties as Director of the Conservation Department.
As the agent of the Board, the director has been called upon frequently
in the past two years to represent the State in Washington at conferences
with officials of the Federal Bureau of the Budget and the Florida Con-
gressional delegation relating to the State's water-related public works.
He is the Board's agent in dealing with the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers at the district, regional and national level. He also is the Board's
agent in exercise of its supervisory responsibility over Central and Southern
Flood Control District, Southwest Florida Water Management District, the
Canal Authority of Florida and the several navigational districts.
In 1968 the Director was afforded national recognition on two fronts.
He was named "Man of the Year" in the field of salt water fisheries con-
servation by the National Fisheries Institute, and in November, 1968, he
was initiated into the International Fishing Hall of Fame in Chicago when
he was presented the Dolphin Award by the Governor on behalf of the
Hall of Fame.
The director was also honored in 1968 when the Citizens' Council
of Monroe County and the Florida Bay Research Council cited him for
his interest and dedication to the conservation of our country's resources.
I NORTHWEST FLORIDA
2 SUWANNEE ST. MARYS
5 ST. JOHNS
4 SOUTHWEST FLORIDA
5 KISSIMMEE EVERGLADES
The five river basins into which the state has been divided for study.
DIVISION OF WATER RESOURCES
J. V. Sollohub
The Division of Water Resources is charged with the administration,
coordination and enforcement of the Florida Water Resources Law, Chapter
373, Florida Statutes. It has the duty to manage Florida's water resources
for their conservation and maximum beneficial utilization. It also has the
duty of coordinating and enforcing the provisions of Chapter 378, Flood
Control, which involves guiding the water management districts.
To accomplish these responsibilities, the Division is engaged in water
resources planning in cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies.
It collects and analyses data from the cooperating agencies, makes studies
of water use and water needs and conducts practical field research to
determine the best methods of water resources conservation and develop-
Keeping state and local officials, legislators and the people of Florida
informed on the status of Florida's water resources is another responsibility
of the Division. It maintains constant liaison with the water management
districts to maintain unity of effort and coordinates budget preparation for
and withdrawals from the Water Resources Development Account. It
monitors enforcement of the artesian well control law and control of salt-
water intrusion and minimum water flows and well levels. Coordination
within the state of flood-plain studies by the Corps of Engineers and the
US Geological Survey is another responsibility of the division, as is the
monitoring of the state Soil and Water Conservation Board and the small
water shed program of the USDA Soil Conservation Service.
Weather and Water
Rainfall for the past two years has been slightly below average to
considerably below average with the exception of the Southeast Everglades
area and the lower east coast which showed above normal rainfall for 1968.
Lake levels and ground water levels generally fell as streamflow decreased
during the past two years. A summary of surface water and ground-water
conditions for the 1967 and 1968 water years is presented in Figure 1.
Statewide rainfall in 1967 averaged 86 percent of normal, with an
average of 47.5 inches reported. However, this is misleading because the
worst spring drought experienced in Florida since 1945 occurred in the
southern peninsula and along the east coast. The 1967 spring drought was
much more uniform statewide than the 1945 drought. Much needed rain-
fall was brought to all the drought stricken areas of Florida in June of 1967
with much above normal rainfall along the Keys and lower east coast. These
heavy rains were a result of squalls which developed over the Florida
In 1968, most of Florida had below normal rainfall. Only the South-
east Everglades and lower east coast divisions reported above average.
Rainfall in the state as a whole was slightly less than average with 53.5
inches reported. Even though near average rainfall was recorded for 1968,
the northwest part of Florida had drought conditions at the end of the year
due to much below normal rainfall. The central part of the state experienced
another severe spring drought in 1968 until summer rains prompted by
hurricanes and tropical storms once again relieved the situation.
Rainfall was very deficient in the northwest division during the year
with total rainfall the lowest reported this decade.
A comparison of the long-time average rainfall and the amounts re-
ceived by divisions over the past two years may be seen in Table 1.
Florida escaped the brunt of hurricanes during the 1967 hurricane
season but suffered the effects of two hurricanes in 1968. Hurricane Abbey
brought the wettest month for 1968 in June as several stations on the east
coast recorded in excess of 20 inches of rainfall. Abbey moved inland on
the southwest coast near Punta Gorda with minor local flooding and wind
damage. She exited Florida near Titusville. After exiting the peninsula, she
looped back southerly to Vero Beach and again moved on out into the
ocean. The second hurricane, Hurricane Gladys, visited Florida in mid-
October near Homosassa. Total rainfall from Hurricane Gladys ranged
from two to four inches, although total storm rainfall in a few locations
did exceed six inches. However, rainfall flooding was not a significant
contributing factor in total storm damage.
At or near the beginning of the 1967 water year (October 1966-
September 1967), lakes, in general, started declining. This trend continued
into mid-1968 and in some cases it is still continuing. At the end of the
1968 water year on September 30, most lake levels were normal or below.
The lakes in the southern part of the state have generally shown a rise
even though many were still below normal at the end of the 1968 water year.
Much the same can be said for streamflows in Florida for the past two
years. Many streams began declining in the early part of the 1967 water
year and continued to decline through 1968. Many numerous streams in
north and northwest Florida reported the lowest flow in the past 33 years.
Several streams have reported record low flows or are approaching record
lows. However, a few record highs were reported in the St. Johns River
Basin and on Fisheating Creek during the year.
Ground-water levels generally fell during the past two years and at
the end of the 1968 water year most of the state was reported below normal
levels. By the end of the 1968 water year, ground-water levels in many of
the large metropolitan areas were experiencing well below average levels.
At Jacksonville, new monthly lows were recorded every month since Feb-
ruary. In addition, in April, May, and August, Tampa had new monthly
lows most of the year along with a record low in April. Orlando, together
with Jacksonville and Tampa, set new monthly lows for six months of this
year along with record lows in April and June. Ground-water levels have
declined at Pensacola due to deficient rainfall until at the end of the water
year the level was 9% feet below normal, which is a new monthly low for
STREAMFLOW GROUND WATI
MEDIAN AVERAGE Q
Ik, 5 W- ~
Figure 1. Surface water and ground-water conditions in Florida for the 1967 and 1968
Southwest & Evergla
Lower East Coast
Table 1, Rainfall by Divisions for 1967 and 1968
Compared with Average
Average Inches Percent I
58.55 52.71 90
52.65 47.22 90
53.25 44.46 84
52.33 43.57 83
des 53.15 42.75 80
61.28 55.38 90
Water Resources studies and planning efforts, supervision of water
management districts and the control of artesian wells were the principal
areas of Division activity during the biennium.
Water Resources Planning
To provide a basis for regional and state-wide water resources planning
and management, the Division of Water Resources has designated five
study areas (Figure 2). Local, state and federal agencies interested in water
and related land resources cooperate in the furnishing of data. The studies
consist of a two phase program. Phase one is the basin inventories of water
available and water needs and phase two will be the state water resources
management plan. The St. Johns River Basin Study, the second inventory,
has been completed and the publication is being prepared. This study and
the earlier Southwest Florida Study were undertaken cooperatively with
Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and incorporate
input from other federal, state and local agencies as well. The two agencies
are now engaged in a similar study of Kissimmee-Everglades with studies
of the remaining Northwest Florida and Suwannee-St. Marys areas planned
to start in the next biennium.
During this biennium the first effects of the Federal Water Resources
Planning legislation were realized. The planning staff was increased sub-
stantially and the scope of the basin studies was expanded. The Division
applied for federal grants for water resources planning to augment its
planning effort and to develop a competent, trained staff. An initial federal
grant of $26,240 was received for Fiscal Year 1967, followed by a grant
of $45,000 for Fiscal Year 1968. Grant funds matched an equal amount of
added state planning funds. Figure 2 summarizes the status of the river
Supervision Of Water Management Districts
The Water Resources Division's survey of water-oriented organizations
in the state provided key information to be used for coodinating facilities
and exchanging information. Supervision of the Soil and Water Conser-
vation Board and the water management districts by the State Board of
Conservation gives unity of purpose to Florida's water resources develop-
Management of the Water Resources Development Account funds
was a major responsibility of the Division of Water Resources. The Central
and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the Southwest Florida
Water Management District shared in the funds from this account. Navi-
gation Districts, including that for the Cross-Florida Barge Canal, also
received funds from this account. During Calendar Years 1967-68, the
water management districts received approximately 15 million dollars from
the State Water Resources and Development Account for construction and
State Soil And Water Conservation Board
The watershed planning activities of the State Soil and Water Con-
servation Board are under the supervision of the Board of Conservation.
The Division of Water Resources served as the liaison agency and met
regularly throughout the biennium with members of the Board. Work plans
were developed for Brooker Creek, California Lake and Pond Creek small
watershed projects. Preliminary investigations were approved for Carter
Creek and the South Florida Conservancy District.
Surveys and planning for small watershed projects received a set back
when state funds for the second planning party were deleted from the
state appropriation. The work load for small watershed projects is so heavy
that the second planning party is badly needed to supplement the planning
party provided from Federal funds by the U. S. Soil Conservation Service.
Southwest Florida Water Management District
The Southwest Florida Water Management District serving Southwest
Florida and the Tampa Bay area, has been acquiring water storage lands
for the Lower Hillsborough, Green Swamp and the Little Withlacoochee
Reservoirs. Major construction included the Moss Bluff Lock and Dam
and levees on the Oklawaha River, the Tampa Bypass Canal, and com-
pletion of the Lake Tarpon Outflow Canal.
Continued drawdown of ground water resulting from excessive with-
drawals caused Hillsborough County to establish a water conservation
district. Developing ground water problems in Polk, Pasco and Hillsborough
counties prompted the Southwest Florida Water Management District to
establish a water regulatory district for its entire area on October 30, 1968.
The Board of Conservation recognized with the award of a plaque,
the cooperative effort of the American Cyanamid Company in releasing
to the state the Pleasant Grove Reservoir Site for the water resources and
recreation purposes of the Southwest Florida Water Management District.
This was the first public recognition of industry cooperation in conser-
Central And Southern Florida Flood Control District
This multi-purpose, multi-million dollar project is approximately 50
percent complete. Congressional authorization totalling more than 90 million
dollars was secured for modification of the project to improve water con-
servation and flood protection for areas south of Lake Okeechobee and for
Construction started on the levees in the Upper St. Johns River Basin
and continued on the Caloosahatchee River and on channel straightening
and locks and dams on the Kissimmee River and its connecting lakes. In-
creased canal conveyance capacity for delivery of water to the Everglades
National Park was provided and an additional control structure was placed
in C111 in South Dade to assure protection of the eastern tip of the Ever-
glades National Park from possible salt-water intrusion from the canal.
Drought seasons of both 1967 and spring of 1968 and the flood con-
ditions of 1968 required close coordination of the releases of water from
the District to the Everglades National Park.
Southeast Basin Interagency Committee
The Southeast Basin Interagency Committee (SEBIAC) is a regional
organization for water resources planning in the Southeast United States.
Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North and South Carolina are
the state members, cooperating with the federal Departments of Agriculture,
Army, Health, Education and Welfare, and Interior and the Federal Power
SEBIAC accepted responsibility for coordinating preparation of a water
resources framework study for the South Atlantic Gulf Region, if federal
funds are provided.
Water Resources Research Projects
The Division of Water Resources is a member of the User Committee
of the Water Resources Research Center at the University of Florida. This
newly organized committee provides a nonacademic voice on proposals for
water research projects. The committee reviewed proposed research projects
for development of knowledge of the water resources of Florida.
A gazetteer of the lakes of Florida has been completed and is scheduled
for publication. This is the first time that a complete listing of all lakes
in Florida 10 acres or larger in size has been prepared. It will provide useful
information on each of 7,711 lakes, including name, location, size, elevation
and accessibility for recreational purposes.
The high water lines of some Florida lakes were established by field
investigation during the biennium. The study, begun in 1966, identified
through a study of soil deposits and vegetation the location of the average
high water line. In a second study, a simplified classification of lake shore-
lines by natural types and physical characteristics was proposed.
The Division of Water Resources is continuing to be active in deter-
mining the boundaries between state and privately owned land in state
owned lakes. Because of the small staff and limited funds the work is
done only when requested by governmental agencies.
Flood Plain Identification
A flood plain identification report of the Corps of Engineers for Char-
lotte and North Lee Counties, the second such study in Florida, was dis-
tribute. These studies outline areas subject to flooding. The report for
Duval County, the third of such studies, is completed and the report is being
published. All counties on the St. Johns River have requested similar studies
and priority will be given to urban areas in the basin. A study of Lake
Jackson at Tallahassee is underway. In addition the U. S. Geological Survey
has completed flood hazard maps for three areas.
Priorities for all flood plain identification studies are determined by
the Division of Water Resources. The Little Wekiva River Basin in Orange
County and the coastal areas of Palm Beach County are now under study,
and requests for studies have been received from Volusia and St. Lucie
A research project comparing tree rings from sections of trees in the
Tallahassee area with precipitation records is nearing completion. This
project will form the basis for possible long-range extension of rainfall
records, if the correlation of annual tree ring widths and amount of annual
precipitation is successful.
The Division is in the process of making a detailed evaluation of
salt-water intrusion in the state. This study includes both lateral encroach-
ment of sea water in coastal areas and vertical intrusion of highly minera-
lized water in certain parts of the interior of the state. The study will result
in a report containing maps, charts, and text presenting a clear and concise
picture of our mineralized water situation.
Ground-water levels are dropping in many places in the state because
of excessive withdrawals. This problem probably can be solved in some
of the areas by diverting surface water into the underground. Artificial
recharge experience in other areas and use of drainage and disposal wells
are being reviewed with the Geology Division and the Bureau of Sanitary
Engineering of the State Board of Health to develop a program for increased
ground water recharge.
Suwannee River Experimental Dam
The Suwannee River Experimental Dam at Suwannee Springs, all but
concluded its six years of existence when sections of the dam were removed
to facilitate small boat passage. There are no current plans for replacing
it with a permanent structure.
Artesian Well Control
The Florida Legislature historically has recognized the value of the
artesian water of the state. The existing statute, which requires that flowing
wells be controlled to the amount necessary for ordinary use, was amended
in 1965 to require the plugging of wells which were causing deterioration
of the ground-water resources.
Deterioration of the ground water is caused by intrusion of more highly
mineralized water from some portions of the Floridan aquifer system into
over-lying better quality aquifers. This problem is a result of failure of
individual well construction or condition and therefore must be evaluated
on an individual well basis.
The Division of Water Resources has assisted well owners and affected
parties in determining the condition of questionable wells and has recom-
mended the plugging of more than 100 wells during the biennium. The
condition of each of these wells was determined by electric logs of the wells
through the cooperation of the'Division of Geology. The program of flowing
well control is applicable to two-thirds of the counties of the state with the
intrusion problem being most prevalent from Tampa Bay south on the west
coast and from Brevard County south on the east coast.
The flowing well control program was accelerated during the latter
part of the biennium by the use of summer personnel to inventory wells
for location, condition and quality of water. This program was extended
at the end of the biennium by the addition of two part-time people for this
inventory on a more of less year-around basis. This will permit a more
organized approach to the control of flowing artesian wells.
Supervision of Weather Modification Activities is a responsibility of
the Board of Conservation. Only one license has been issued, and this lapsed
in 1968 after several years of operation. Records do not prove whether or
not the activity to alleviate drought conditions in the citrus region met with
other than random success.
The increase in the water resources planning effort made possible by
the State Legislature and the federal water resources planning grant must
be continued so that Florida can be prepared to meet the water manage-
ment challenges of tomorrow. It should be supported adequately so that
possible termination of the federal grant program will not destroy the state
Data collection is the foundation upon which intelligent planning is
built and interpretative studies are important to the decision making process.
The current program is insufficient, since the cooperative Board of Con-
servation-U. S. Geological Survey Water Resources program is financed
at the same level as in 1959-10 years ago! A substantial increase is needed.
There is a need too for completing the topographic mapping of the state
because water management planning and control cannot be done efficiently
and economically without adequate topographic maps. Some sections of the
state have no topographic maps of any kind while maps of other areas must
be updated to reflect changes in the rapidly developing state.
Fu 1. inkoleinBarowre
Figure 1. Sinkhole in Bartow Area
DIVISION OF GEOLOGY
Robert O. Vernon,
The duties, responsibilities, and organization of the Division of Geology
are set forth in Sections 373.011, 373.012, 370.02(8) and 377.07, Florida
Statutes. The Division is required to:
1. Conduct surveys and explorations of minerals, water supplies, and
other natural resources of the State.
2. Collect, maintain, and display specimens illustrating the geological
and mineral resources of the State.
3. Prepare and publish reports of surveys and special papers.
4. Administer the laws regulating the search and drilling for oil and
gas, and controlling the production.
The Division of Geology has acquired large collections of vertebrate
and invertebrate fossil remains, and rock and mineral collections which
are displayed, in part, at the Geology Department, Florida State University.
Although charged with this responsibility, space considerations prohibit the
complete display of this material at the Division office building.
The preparation and production of geologic reports and special papers
are performed within the Division.
Of great importance is the Division's responsibility to disseminate in-
formation other than through formal Survey publications. This is in a
myriad of forms, such as preparation and distribution of Florida rock and
mineral sets for school children; the identification of rocks, minerals and
fossils; speeches to groups; counseling of any citizen with respect to geologic
and hydrologic questions; and general evaluations to the citizen of his
possible mineral resources and the expected remuneration to him by industry.
A recently developed responsibility is in land reclamation. Since there
is no statutory requirement for reclaiming of mined lands, the Division has
endeavored to encourage land reclamation both by individual contact with
Florida's mining industries and on a national level through participation
in the creation of an Interstate Mining Compact Commission. It is hoped
that the Florida Legislature will permit the State to join the Mining Com-
pact Commission, now composed of Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and New York.
Florida Statutes 373.011 requires the Division of Geology to make
annual reports of,
"surveys and explorations of minerals, water supply and other
natural resources of the state" Recording the "location of
mineral and other deposits of value, surface and subterranean
water supply and power and mineral waters, and the best and
most economical method of development ."
These responsibilities are being met by providing the data covering
the geology of Florida including 1) Stratigraphy; 2) Land forms; 3) Struc-
ture; 4) Water resources; 5) Guide fossils and paleontology; and 6) The
economic resources. These data are made available in printed reports, open
file reports, and file data.
Studies may be developed to cover each of these major sub-divisions by
specific units. For instance, the stratigraphy, paleontology, water resources,
and economic deposits may be a part of a county study. Sometimes a
particular resource, such as the limestones of Florida may be highlighted,
or a particular life-form, the Mollusks of the Ocala Group, or a particular
sequence of sediments-The Oligocene of the Panhandle. Ultimately, a re-
source reference, composed of several volumes separated essentially as
above, will be developed.
There is now being developed a comprehensive "Water Atlas of
Florida," that will consist of about 40 maps that give a description and
highlight a specific water parameter. These will include 1) Geology; 2)
Land forms; 3) Top of artesian aquifer; 4) Equipotential; 5) Availability;
6) Use; 7) Aquifer distribution; 8) Run-off; 9) Rainfall; 10) Evaporation;
11) Quality; and many others.
These studies have been the subject of ten (10) books, four (4) maps,
and about fifteen (15) open-file reports. The geologic, mineral and water
resource data also has been made available to the public in conferences,
informal talks, exhibits and lectures. Several lectures have been given to
the elementary and high schools of the Big Bend area.
The well drillers maintain a close cooperation with the Division,
supplying rock cuttings and well data, and receiving geologic logs and
estimates of formational thicknesses, water levels and casing depths from
the well sample library.
Well Sample Library
Number of wells in our files as of January 1, 1969
January 1, 1967, through June 30, 1968
Oil Well Samples 6,218
Core Boxes 303
Water Well Samples 13,113
Total Samples Processed: 19,634
Total Wells (W-7798 to W-8570) processed:
July 1, 1968, through December 31, 1968
Oil Well Samples 3,609
Core Boxes 188
Water Well Samples 6,092
Total Samples Processed: 9,889
Total Wells (W-8571-W-8783) Processed
Estimate: January 1, 1969, through June 30, 1969 212
TOTAL REPORTED FOOTAGE DRILLED
January 1, 1967, through June 30, 1968
Total depths of all wells in feet 291,762
Total depths of all oil wells 141,464
Total depths of all water and test wells 150,298
July 1, 1968, through December 31, 1968
Total depths of all wells in feet 134,814
Total depths of all oil wells 78,000
Total depths of all water and test wells 56,814
In the late spring of 1967 the State Cabinet requested the Division of
Geology to investigate recently-developed sinkholes in the vicinity of Bar-
tow, Florida. (See Figure 1.) The greatest concern centered around Richland
Manor Subdivision, a residential development to the northeast of downtown
Bartow, where sinkholes had caused the collapse of four houses. These
houses were adjudged to be total losses and subsequently were burned,
buried, and the land surface restored to its original contour.
Regretably, losses from this form of disaster are not covered by any
form of insurance now available in Florida, thus the property owner would
legally bear the full financial loss. In this instance, however, the property
owners lost only their equity as the Federal Housing Authority released
the owners from the remainder of the mortgage obligation and absorbed
the loss. This settles the financial obligations. However, there remains the
dilemma as to the utilization of the restored land. There is no way at
present to determine if the restored land is stable. The initial collapse is
nature's way of creating a stable condition from an unstable condition. In
filling the sinkhole it is entirely possible to recreate the physical environ-
ment of instability to reoccur.
Two problems of greater magnitude than those associated with the
immediate disaster area revolve around (1) abandoned houses in the vicinity
of the sinkholes, and (2) proposed new developments in the general vicinity
of Bartow. In Richland Manor Subdivision and two adjacent subdivisions,
approximately twenty homes have been vacated because the occupants
feared for their safety. The Federal Housing Authority is in no position
to assume the mortgage obligation as it has not been demonstrated that the
houses are safe or unsafe. Regardless of who will ultimately bear the
financial obligation the question remains as to what can be done with the
land and the house thereon.
In light of these problems outlined above, the Federal Housing Author-
ity has shown reluctance in assuming financial responsibilities in proposed
new developments in the area unless or until sinkhole probability studies
can be carried out or developed.
Another aspect of sinkhole development concerns insurability. To this
end the Insurance Commissioner requested from the Division of Geology
a statewide appraisal of sinkhole probability in order that the commission
could present to insurance companies data to encourage the development
of a realistic insurance program.
The Division of Geology has completed its detailed program of study
in the Bartow area and in addition has furnished the Insurance Commission
generalized maps of sinkhole probability for the State. This report is pre-
pared for limited distribution to the State Cabinet, the Insurance Commis-
sion, the Federal Housing Authority and Polk County officials. At a later
date this study is to be expanded to embrace other areas having different
geologic and hydrologic conditions and will be published for general dis-
tribution in the Division of Geology's Bulletin series.
The purposes of this study can be categorized as follows:
1) Develop data on the mechanics of sinkhole formation; how, where,
2) Develop the possibility of varying hydrologic or geologic parameters
to inhibit sinkhole formation.
3) Develop the possibility of predicting specific areas of imminent
4) Develop sinkhole probability estimates for the entire State.
From the above it can be seen that initially a detailed analysis of sink-
hole formation must be accomplished before the other possibilities can be
explored. Without knowing fully the mechanics of sinkhole formation in a
specific area it is inadvisable to suggest methods of prediction or programs
to inhibit sinkhole development. For instance, in one type of sinkhole, col-
lapse accomplishes permanent stability so that it can be filled and the new
surface utilized. In other types of sinkholes, collapse accomplishes stability
only because of the lack of sediments to be engulfed. In these cases the
filling of the sinkhole recreates a potential condition of instability.
The following gravity and resistivity stations were established by the
Division of Geology in Florida:
Gravity 774 788
Resistivity 161 181
CLASSIFICATION WELL SERI C CHLORIDE ELECTRIC
...CLASSIFICATION 0C L SRE CONTENT/PPM LOG FLOW CALIPER
SHELL HASH with
MARL and SAND
GREEN and GRAY
and CLAYEY SAND
LIMESTONE and SAND
FORAM SHELL HASH
with HARDand DENSE
STREAKS BELOW 1990
(VELOCITY x BORE SIZE I
SUGAR CANE GROWERS CO-OP, No.2 DISPOSAL WELL
Linear Traces on Aerial Photographs
In 1951, the Division demonstrated a close relationship of linear traces
upon aerial photographs and the geologic structure and occurrence of the
sediments in Florida.
Further study has shown an important relationship between lineations
and ground water occurrence and movement. For instance, in areas where
contamination of the upper aquifer is occurring from depth, this contami-
nation or upward movement of water is most pronounced along major
fractures or lineations. Of equal importance is the utilization of lineations
or fractures to develop wells of optimum yield. Solution is normally more
pronounced along fractures creating a zone of increased permeability in
which wells can be developed with higher than average specific yields.
Also, well construction can be designed and completed with greater control
of water quality.
Specific areas where this research has been conducted with very
promising results have been DeSoto County, Sarasota County and Alachua
County. Several other projects are presently being conducted in these three
counties, and in Volusia County, Collier County, Charlotte County, Orange
County and Hillsborough County.
The Boulder Zone
A zone of extreme transmissivity, penetrated by oil test wells over much
of Florida, has been found to occur in carbonate aquifers throughout much
The information developed from numerous wells drilled in the search
for oil and gas indicates the artesian system of South Florida consists of
fresh and brackish waters that rest upon and have depressed a dynamic,
pulsating body of heavily mineralized salty water. An enormously cavernous
area with broadly developed horizontal permeabilities has been found ap-
proximately along the contact of the two bodies of water. Dense dolomite
rock forms the top and sides of these caverns, and probably is a fairly
effective aquiclude that separates the water of the boulder zone from those
of the overlying Floridan aquifer. Well-drillers record the free fall of the
bit for distances of up to 90 feet, "lost circulation," cavities, and boulders.
Apparently cave-debris and fragments dislodged into the caves in drilling
cause difficult drilling and the zone has become known as the "boulder
From information available in the files of the Division of Geology,
this zone appears to respond as a part of the Floridan aquifer. It is best
developed along the Atlantic Coast, but has been penetrated particularly
in oil and water wells through south Florida. Cavernous zones were pene-
trated in more than 50 wells throughout Florida, and cavernous areas vary
in depth from 350 to more than 5,530 feet, but the Boulder Zone is present
generally in eastern and southern Florida below 1,200 feet.
The well penetrations reveal a zone of dense dolomite that is cut by
cavities generally less than 8 feet high, but little is known about the hori-
zontal distribution of these caves. While extremely large transmissibilities
are suspected (in the order of several million gallons per day per foot), no
pumping tests are available. The water quality and pressure heads present
in the Floridan aquifer are revealed in some detail by a well drilled at Belle
Glade for the Sugar Grower's Cooperative, under the control of Black
Laboratories, Gainesville, in cooperation with the State Board of Health
and the Division of Geology, State Board of Conservation. This well provides
the most definite and segregated data on the Boulder zone of the Floridan
aquifer. Black Laboratories Project Report No. 386-65R, December, 1965
(p. 3), records several zones of pressure, generally contained in porous
limestones and separated by dense dolomites. See Figure 2.
Observed drops in pressure in the zones: 1105-1420, 1610-1900, and
1900-1945, of 20, 18, and 14 pounds per square inch corresponds to increases
in salinity chloridess) and represents the adjustment of the hydrostatic head
to the increased density of the column of water in the well bore. These
differentials are eliminated if an adjustment is made to give an equivalent
head in feet of fresh water. Adjusting for salinity, there is a gradient toward
the ground surface in the Boulder zone, and the development of a large
cone of depression in the upper part of the aquifer could cause the ultimate
movement of water from the Boulder zone toward the ground surface, unless
1) the large part of the water needed to maintain the flow of the wells is
obtained through the spread of the cone of depression up gradient to inter-
sect less mineralized water, 2) the horizontal permeability is large in respect
to the vertical permeability, and 3) there is an effective aquiclude that
covers the Boulder zone.
Only a limited amount of information is available on the Floridan
aquifer in the distal part of the Peninsula, since ground-water use and
studies have been limited to shallow sources and to areas where the artesian
water is potable. This is particularly true of the base of the aquifer (the
Boulder zone), which may range in depth from 1,200 to more than 5,500
However, the Floridan aquifer is known to be composed of a thick
section of carbonates (limestones and dolomites), which vary in perme-
ability, generally decreasing upward from the cavernous, extremely perme-
able, Boulder zone. The zones of permeability are separated by zones of
.dense, impermeable rock, although an irregular permeability may be present
along fractures and in favorable geologic facies within these aquicludes.
If the data developed from the Belle Glade Sugar Grower's Cooperative
well by Black Laboratories and the Division of Geology, Figure 2, can be
considered to be widely representative of the aquifer throughout Southern
Florida, a thick section of carbonates is separated into at least three general
zones of permeability that may be poorly connected. At the base is a zone
of extreme high permeability, filled by highly saline waters (up to 19,000
ppm chlorides) and separated by denser sediments from a moderately high
permeability containing water of about 1,000 to 3,000 ppm, and grading
upward to zones of moderately low permeabilities containing water of 1,000
ppm or less. Many cavities in the Boulder zone produce copious flows of
Use Of The Boulder Zone As A Water Reservoir
There are only limited areas where water can be stored upon the flat
terrain of Florida, generally requiring a rectangle of levee-fences. In South
Florida, this storage is self defeating, because the evaporation and seepage
rates to the ocean nearly equal the rainfall. However, the Boulder zone
has an enormous unused storage capacity. This highly permeable zone could
be used to store bubbles of fresh water during times of surface flooding
by depressing the salt water contained in the zone. Recovery could be by
natural flow but storage would require pumping. It is anticipated that the
efficiency of such an operation would increase with use until almost com-
plete recovery of stored water could be made.
If wastes are also to be injected into the Boulder zone, perhaps a
detailed study would reveal zones of high transmissivity. In this case the
deepest zone with the lowest quality of water and nearest the coast could
be used for injection of wastes and conversely the higher, better waters
reserved for fresh storage.
Israel has found that the underground storage of water is possible and
necessary. An unlimited supply could be made available in South Florida
by constructing a series of large injection wells into which the large part
of any excess water could be pumped during wet seasons and released
during the dry.
Because of space and flat topography in Florida, storage underground
provides many advantages over surface storage that include:
1. Decreased evaporation losses.
2. Better use of land areas.
3. Little construction and maintenance costs.
4. No recovery (pumping) costs in artesian flow areas.
5. No siltation of reservoirs.
6. Stable water quality and temperature.
7. No flooding.
The disadvantages include the loss of recreation, transportation, and
The Mineral Industry-1967-68'
Mineral production in Florida totaled $319 million in 1968, and $310
in 1967, $14 and $23 million above the previous record in 1966. The trend
in production has been steadily upward since 1962, the gain being largely
in increased sales value. Florida led the nation for the 75th consecutive
year in the production of phosphate rock, and production set new records
both in tonnage and value.
Nonmetallic resources accounted for 94 and 95 percent of the State's
total value of production of 1967 and 1968. In order of value, these resources
were phosphate rock, stone, cement, clay, and sand and gravel. The pro-
duction of phosphate rock increased 6 percent over the 1967 record. Crushed
limestone production increased 2 percent, but oystershell decreased 13 per-
cent below the 1959 record. Portland and masonry cement shipments in-
creased 12 and 14 percent, respectively. Total clay output increased 4
percent with a slight increase in value; fuller's earth production decreased
2 percent, but kaolin increased 8 percent, and miscellaneous clay 11 percent.
Sand and gravel production increased 2 percent, but was 2 percent below
the 1963 record. Production of magnesia from sea water remained about
the same. Lime production decreased 14 percent below 1967. Staurolite
production increased considerably, and kyanite production was reported
for the first time; both are recovered as by-products in titanium minerals
The production of titanium concentrates and zirconium concentrates
increased 1 percent over. 1967 but no production of the rare-earth metal
concentrates was reported.
1 Source: Bureau of Mines report and Division records.
In the fuels, crude petroleum production decreased 8 percent below
1967, but production of liquefied petroleum gas and natural gasoline in-
creased substantially. Natural gas production increased 14 percent. Peat
production increased 5 percent in tonnage but only 2 percent in value.
The value of mineral resources to the State cannot be fully appreciated
by the tabulation of the value at the mines-shown in Table 1. A more
meaningful tabulation can be made by county, Table 2. However, the value
of this production is exceeded in dollar value to the State by only agriculture
and tourism. Both industries depend upon minerals produced. Fertilizers,
soil conditioners, chemicals, pesticides, fungicides, roads, the building in-
dustries and urban-based activities are all keyed to a healthy minerals
Oil And Gas Regulations
For the most part, the State is self-sufficient in water resources and
our controls for protection of these resources from the effects of oil well
drilling can be made essentially a State responsibility. Our rules and regu-
lations governing exploration for oil and gas in Florida are designed to
encourage drilling, but at the same time to protect our valuable water
resources. It has been the policy of the State Board of Conservation to 1)
require surface casing that extends through the fresh-salt water contact,
or where this is deep, to require a cement plug with a minimum thickness
of 200 feet to span this contact, 2) to prevent the wasteful flow of artesian
water from all exploratory holes and 3) to encourage the use of some
flowing wells as relief wells where the water is notably salty and empties
into tidal waters.
Rule B-6---"Oil, Gas and water to be protected" is specific: "All fresh
waters and waters of present or probable future value for domestic, munici-
pal, commercial, stock, or agricultural purposes shall be confined to their
respective strata and shall be adequately protected. Special precautions
shall be taken in drilling and abandoning wells to guard against any loss
of artesian water from the strata in which it occurs, and the contamination
of fresh water by objectionable water, oil, or gas."
A typical plugging schedule of a deep oil test in Florida would require:
1) (A) A cement plug 200 feet in length across the fresh-salt water
contact or if casing extends below this contact, (B) Run a Halli-
burton type DC combination squeeze packer and/or bridge plug
on end of drill stem to base of the casing. Displace one-half of a
100-foot cement plug through the packer into the open hole. Pick
up the drill stem, withdrawing mandrel, and allowing back pres-
sure valves to close. Place remaining cement plug on top of packer.
2) A 15-foot cement plug must be placed at the ground surface in
pipe cut so as not to interfere with cultivation. 3) All intervals
between plugs shall be filled with heavy mud.
Florida is fortunate in having a comprehensive oil and gas regulatory
law that has proved satisfactory in both encouraging oil prospecting and
in protecting the state's water resources. The law is flexible, the rules and
regulations easily modified, and we urge the industry to increased interest
in the State.
Oil production in Florida (about 120,000 barrels/month) is gotten from
Lower Cretaceous reefal limestones with porosity pinchouts. The oil is low
in gravity (18 to 240 A.P.I.) and all production is by the Humble Oil and
Refining Company from the Sunniland Oil Field, Collier County, Florida
and by Sun Oil Company from the Sunoco-Felda Field, Hendry and Collier
Counties. A marginal field at forty-mile bend on the Tamiami Trail was
operated for a short time and every well drilled south of Latitude 27 degrees
North has encountered shows of oil. Although the depth of wells make
wildcatting expensive, the low decline rate of the Sunniland Field has en-
couraged added exploration.
Geological And Geophysical Regulations
The Division administers the rules and regulations (Chapter 115B-
2.34 of the Administrative Rules) under which geological and/or geophysical
explorations are made upon submerged lands adjacent to Florida. This
supervision includes federal lands under an agreement with the Secretary
of Interior, as published in the Federal Register on April 3, 1956 and
August 16, 1960. In practice, a permit is required from the Board of Con-
servation to take geologic samples, cores or to conduct a survey of the
subsurface by gravity, shock or magnetic characteristics.
The Board requires that a Conservation Agent be on board all ships
or drilling platforms where explosives are used or where the public interest
is such that an agent will help assure that no damage will occur to beaches,
marine waters, or the life it contains.
The oil and gas companies test the subsurface formations for structure
or for their inclination to form oil traps. This may be done by measuring
slight differences in the pull of gravity, in magnetic fields, or by introducing
a shock wave into the water and recording the different velocities as the
shock wave passes through the formations or measuring the travel time that
each formation transmits or reflects these waves. Some instruments use
sparker (the ignition of gas in a chamber open to the water), vibroseis
(vibration) and do no damage to marine life. However, where explosives
are used to make the wave (5 to 100 pounds) some fish kills are inevitable.
These kills are insignificant when compared to the productivity of the Gulf
or Ocean, but nevertheless a few fish on someone's beach becomes a public
relations problem for the Board and the seismic company. Therefore, an
agent is required to record all kills, to estimate the number of fish killed
and where these are significant he may require the company to recover
the fish at sea, or bury them where they wash up on the beach. Detailed
forms are provided for reporting.
Sunoco-Felda Oil Field
The Sunoco-Felda oil field, the newer of Florida's two currently pro-
ducing fields, was discovered by the Sun Oil Company on October 9, 1964.
It is located in southern Florida mainly in Hendry County, with the southern
edge extending into Collier County. On December 31, 1968, this field con-
tained 28 pumping wells drilled on 160-acre spacing.
In 1967 and 1968 two producing wells (table 3, part A) were completed
as offsets to the Sun, No. 1 Red Cattle Company "B" well, which was com-
pleted as a producer in 1966, and is located 3,2 miles west of production in
the Sunoco-Felda field proper. Future control may reveal that these three
producers are part of a new field, rather than occurring as an extension
of the original Sunoco-Felda field. Another offset to the north of the Sun,
No. 1 Red Cattle Company "B" well resulted in a dry hole which defines
the limit of production in that direction. At the present time the company
has a permit to drill yet another offset to the south, to production in this
area. This well will be the Sun, No. 28-3 Lee-Cypress "A-1"; it will be
located on acreage under lease to the Humble Oil and Refining Company.
Drilling of the test should commence in the early part of 1969.
The Sunoco-Felda field produces on pump from the microfossiliferous
limestone of the Roberts Zone, which is reached at a depth of about 11,460
feet, and which occurs about 60 feet below the top of the Sunniland Lime-
stone of Lower Craeceous Trinity Age. It appears that a permeability trap
is responsible for the oil accumulation in the field. The producing interval,
in upgradient wells to the north, is tight and produces a large percentage
of salt water.
The yield of the better wells in the field ranges from 172 to 305 BOPD
(barrels of oil per day). Table 4 shows that production in 1967 was 982,807
barrels of oil; and 1968 production through November 31 of this year was
820,657 barrels of oil. Currently salt water amounts to about 55 percent
of the total fluid produced in the field. Cumulative oil production from
the field since its discovery through November 31, 1968, was 3,506,588
barrels of oil with a gravity of 24.5 degrees API.
Sunniland Oil Field
The Sunniland oil field, discovered in 1943, and operated by the
Humble Oil and Refining Company, is located in Collier County about
18 miles south of the Sunoco-Felda field. Table 4 shows that the 18 pumping
wells in the field produced 585,374 barrels of oil in 1967, and 1968 produc-
tion through October 31 of this year was 465,711 barrels of oil. Cumulative
production from the field through October 31, 1968 was 10,978,969 barrels
of oil with a gravity of 19 to 26 degrees API.
Production in the Sunniland field is obtained from calcareous rock
containing disoriented macrofossils (rudistids), which is reached at a depth
of about 11,550 feet. Productive zones begin at the top of the Sunniland
Limestone and extend to a depth about 75 feet lower in the section. The
lowermost of these zones is correlative with the productive Roberts Zone
of the Sunoco-Felda field.
During the biennium Humble completed their No. 25 Gulf Coast
Realties Corporation well (Table 3, part B) with an initial production of
27 BOPD, plus 320 barrels of salt water per day. Currently the company
is scheduled to commence drilling their No. 26 GCRC test in the early part
of January, 1969. This well is located as an offset to the No. 21 GCRC
well, which is one of the better producing wells in the field.
At the present time Humble is conducting pumping tests with down-
hole Reda electric pumps to determine if this equipment is appropriate and
economically feasible for use in the field. These submersible pumps may
be capable of more than doubling the rate of production from the field.
The exploratory footage for 1967-68 (table 5) totalled 173,160 feet
drilled in 19 holes grouped under the following exploratory well classifi-
cations after plugging and abandonment.
Footage No. of Wells
Dry wildcat wells 138,492 16
Dry outpost wells to be abandoned
Forty Mile Bend field 23,113 2
Dry Sunoco-Felda field outpost wells ...... 11,555 1
A permit for the drilling of an additional test, the Bradley, No. 1 Carey
Niblack Hagen well, to be located in southern Columbia County, northern
Florida, was granted July 30, 1968. As of December 31, 1968, however, the
drilling of this hole had not commenced.
The interest in Florida offshore geophysical activity began rather slowly
in 1963-64 (with 12 permits), gathered momentum in 1965-66 (with 22
permits), and continued at an intensified pace in 1967-68 (with 42 permits).
The 42 permits issued in the present biennium were for geophysical work
in State and Federal waters offshore from almost the entire west coast of
Florida, as well as for a smaller amount of work in State and Federal waters
offshore from the east coast of the State. Work performed consisted mostly
of reflection seismograph surveys (some conventional, some vibroeseis, some
sparker, and some experimental), with a minor amount of gravity and
magnetic measurements. The Chevron, Continental, Gulf, Humble, Mobil,
Shell and Texaco companies are known to have participated in the geo-
physical evaluation of submerged areas surrounding the State.
New Rules and Regulations
State Board of Conservation Order No. 10 approved the Pooling Agree-
ment for the unitization of the Sunoco-Felda field, as submitted by the Sun
Oil Company, owner of all of the working interest in the Unit Area.
As provided by the Order No. 10 and associated documentation, the
terms of which became effective October 1, 1968, Sun will inject salt water
into the Roberts Pool of the Sunoco-Felda field to conserve reservoir energy.
The Roberts Pool is defined as occurring between 11,420 feet and 11,570 feet
subsurface in the Sun, No 1 Red Cattle Company well. To accomplish this
two and perhaps three dry or marginally productive wells will be converted
into injection facilities in the near future. These new facilities will supple-
ment a single injection well for pressure maintenance as authorized in 1966
by State Board of Conservation Order No. 4; this original facility was
installed without a unitization agreement.
The unitization accomplished by Order No. 10 was ratified by more
than 94 percent of the royalty owners in the Unit Area, which contains 22
producing wells in the field. Not included are 6 wells located to the west
of the Sunoco-Felda field proper. Humble has an interest in 3 of these
westerly wells; and the remaining 3 wells may prove to be part of a new
field, rather than occurring as an extension of the original Sunoco-Felda
In connection with this unitization for the Sunoco-Felda field, separate
ownerships within the Unit Area will be combined, with each royalty owner
in the unit to receive an equitable share of the unitized substances produced.
Unitization as authorized by Order No. 10 will prevent waste of the
oil and gas resources underlying the field, avoid the drilling of unnecessary
wells, and protect the correlative rights of interested parties.
COOPERATIVE WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS
The program of water resources investigations in Florida during the
1967-68 biennium was continued in cooperation with the Water Resource
Division of the U. S. Geological Survey. Financial support for the cooper-
ative program is shared equally by the Division of Geology and the U. S.
Geological Survey. Participating in the financial support through the Division
during part of all of the biennium were the following agencies:
Southwest Florida Water Management District
Reedy Creek Improvement District
West Coast Inland Navigation District
Indian River County
City of Clearwater
City of Cocoa
City of Dunedin
City of Jacksonville
City of Pensacola
City of Sarasota
The broad objective of the cooperative program with the Water Re-
sources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey is to determine and evaluate
the quantity and quality of Florida's water on the surface and underground;
whether under natural conditions or under conditions of present or potential
development and use. The program involves systematic collection, analysis,
and interpretation of data, continued research to improve the understanding
of physical laws, processes, and mechanics of various phases of the hydro-
logic cycle; and publication of the findings. Hydrologic studies made in
cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey provide fundamental infor-
mation needed for locating, planning, designing and constructing water
resource projects, highways, bridges, and other structures at or near water
bodies; and for water management and regulation.
During the biennium cooperative areal water-resources studies and
hydrologic investigations which were in progress for all or part of the period
are given in the following list.
Projects During 1967-68 Period
Water resources of Myakka River Basin
Water resources of Mid-Gulf area
Fluoride studies, Peace and Alafia Rivers
Water use study, statewide
Geohydrology of the Venice well-field area
Preparation of a water atlas
Water resources of Volusia County
Hydrologic studies, Cocoa well-field area
Water resources of Okaloosa County
Water Resources of Lee County
Lake hydrology studies
Water resource of Indian River County
Low-flow characteristics of Florida streams
Hydrology of upper Tampa Bay area
Chemical quality of Florida's surface waters
Water resources of upper St. Johns River Basin
Hydrology of the Clearwater area
Hydrology of the Dunedin area
Water resources of western Collier County
Water resources of Duval County
Water resources of Lake County
Geohydrologic studies of the Lakeland area
Water resources of Charlotte County
Model study of the Hillsborough River basin
Deep-well injection study of industrial wastes
Urban hydrology study, Bay Lake area
Water resources of Walton County
In addition to the above areal studies the cooperative water resources
program included several continuing projects consisting of the collection of
basic hydrologic records as a part of a statewide network. These records
include: stream discharge; stream and lake stage, chemical quality of water
collected from a network of surface water and ground water sites, and
ground-water levels. The statewide basic-data network (of which the Divi-
sion of Geology's projects are an integral part) consisted of about 175
stream discharge stations, about 250 stream and lake stage stations, about
350 surface water sites for chemical quality, about 1,000 observation wells
for chemical quality of ground water, and about 750 observation water-
The product of the cooperative water resources program are informative
and definitive reports so necessary for an understanding of complex hydro-
logic situation and essential in the developmental plans for the maximum
beneficial use of Florida's water resources-now and in the future. During
the biennium approximately 75 formal hydrologic reports were prepared
for release by the U. S. Geological Survey.
Fifty-five of these reports have been published or are in press and in-
clude 32 book-type reports, 7 hydrologic maps, 15 articles for scientific or
technical journals, and one brochure. The other 20 reports included adminis-
trative releases to cooperating agencies and bridge-site reports to the State
The Division of Geology has published some of these reports which
are available to the general public at a small nominal charge (except maps,
which are free). These reports are listed below and grouped by the series
in which published.
REPORT OF INVESTIGATION
No. 46-Fluoride in Water in the Alafia and Peace River
No. 47-Hydrologic Effects of Area B Flood Control Plan
on Urbanization of Dade County, Florida
No. 48-Analysis of the Water Level Fluctuations of Lake
Jackson near Tallahassee, Florida
No. 49-Hydrologic Effects of Ground-Water Pumpage in
the Peace and Alafia River Basins, Florida
No. 50-Water Resources of Orange County, Florida
No. 51-Chemical quality of waters of Broward County,
No. 52-Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of
Baker County, Florida
No. 53-Low streamflow in the Myakka River Basin,
No. 51-Groundwater in the Immokalee area, Collier
No. 52-Water levels in Artesian and Non-Artesian Aquifers
No. 53-Ground-water resources data of Charlotte, DeSoto,
and Hardee Counties, Florida
No. 56-Test-well exploration in the Myakka River Basin
No. 57-Water resource records of the Econfina Creek
Basin Area, Florida
No. 58-Production and utilization of water in the
metropolitan area of Jacksonville, Florida
No. 59-Seepage tests in the L-D1 Borrow canal at Lake
No. 61-Water levels in artesian and nonartesian aquifers
of Florida, 1965-66
No. 25-Temperature and chemical characteristics
St. Johns River
No. 26-Groundwater-Escambia and Santa Rosa counties,
No. 27-Water resources of Orange County, Florida
No. 28-Drainage Basins in Florida
No. 29-Water in Broward County, Florida
No. 30-Surface drainage characteristics in Volusia County,
During 1967-68 the demand for water information and solutions to
complex water problems continued to increase, and to alleviate the situation
additional matching funds are needed to enlarge the cooperative water re-
sources program. The funds which have been appropriated for this purpose
have remained the same for the past decade and has resulted in an increas-
ingly greater amount of funds being secured from counties and cities and
used to meet local needs for hydrologic information. This approach, while
temporarily satisfactory, fails to provide an overall water resources program
which will adequately fill the needs of the state.
Volumes Added 87
Volumes Bound 943
Library Users 4,256
Book Collection 2,035
Bound Periodicals 5,659
Subject, State and Foreign Files 5,166
During 1967, the Librarian indexed the Florida publications, prepared
bibliographies of works of staff geologists, organized and catalogued the
water-resources library, prepared a topographic map inventory, prepared
a shelf list of the state minerals, and began a check of the catalog, and
prepared and processed a binding order.
During 1968, the Librarian continued checking the catalog, prepared
two bibliographies for the Director, processed a binding order, continued
maintenance of the water-resources library, supervised installation of new
shelves, reorganized the collection, researched the photograph file for a
publisher, researched Florida publications for a bibliographer, prepared
an index for the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies with a con-
sultant geologist, prepared an inventory of topographic maps, furnished a
set of topographic maps and Florida publications for a new staff geologist,
and prepared an inventory of the reference collection.
TABLE I. Mineral production in Florida1
Mineral Quantity (thousands) Quantity (thousands)
Clays thousand short tons 756 $ 11,574 789 $ 11,588
Lime do 155 2,425 136 2,126
Natural gas million cubic feet 123 18 18 21
Peat short tons 22,180 155 24,000 159
Petroleum (crude) ...................... thousand 42-gallon barrels 1,568 W 1,450 W
Sand and gravel thousand short tons 6,912 6,479 7,083 6,753
Stone3 do 33,971 38,723 34,467 39,541
Value of items that cannot be disclosed:
Cement, kyanite concentrates (1968), magnesium compounds,
natural gas liquids, phosphate rock, rare-earth metal concentrates
(1967), staurolite, dimension stone, titanium concentrates and
values indicated by symbol W XX 250,423 XX 258,750
Total XX 309,797 XX 318,938
Total 1957-59 constant dollars 284,579 p292,976
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed." XX Not applicable,
p. preliminary. Source U. S. Bureau of Mines
1/ Production as measured by mine shipments, sales or marketable production (including consumption by producers).
2/ Estimated from producers' reports and other sources.
s/ Excludes dimension stone; included with "Value of items that cannot be disclosed."
'/ Data may not add to totals because of independent rounding.
Table 2. Value of mineral production in Florida, by counties1
Indian River ........
Palm Beach ..........
St. Lucie ................
W akulla .................
W ashington ..........
Minerals produced in 1967 in order of value
Total ............ 295,447,000 309,797,000
W Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data; included with
1The following counties are not listed because no production was reported. Calhoun, Char-
lotte, DeSoto, Dixie, Franklin, Hardee, Highlands, Holmes, Jefferson, Liberty, Madison,
Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa, Okeechobee, Osceola, Pasco, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Seminole,
Includes value of natural gas liquids, and counties indicated by symbol W.
Sand and gravel.
Limestone, sand and gravel.
Limestone, phosphate rock, miscellaneous
Ilmenite, zircon, sand and gravel, staurolite,
miscellaneous clay, peat.
Cement, limestone, sand and gravel.
Oystershell, monazite, zircon.
Sand and gravel, miscellaneous clay.
Fuller's earth, sand and gravel, miscellaneous
Sand and gravel.
Magnesium compounds, lime.
Petroleum, sand and gravel.
Cement, phosphate rock, oystershell, sand and
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Limestone, fuller's earth, phosphate rock,
sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel, peat.
Limestone, sand and gravel.
Oystershell, sand and gravel.
Phosphate rock, sand and gravel.
Kaolin, sand and gravel, peat.
Sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Oystershell, sand and gravel.
Sand and gravel.
Table 3. Field Wells Drilled in Florida, 1967 and 1968--Total Field Footage 46,304
Well Pumping Test
County Company No. Lease Total Depth (feet) (Sunniland Limestone)
A) Sunoco-Felda field') (operated by Sun)
Hendry Sun 28-1 Lee-Cypress 11,522 105 BOPD-) w/88 BWPDb)
Hendry Sun 21-4 Red Cattle "B" ........... .. 11,488 23,010 92 BOPD w/165 BWPD
o Hendry Sun 21-2 Red Cattle "B" 11,589
Total, Sunoco-Felda field 34,599
B) Sunniland field (operated by Humble)
Collier Humble 25 GCRCE) 11,705 27 BOPD w/320 BWPD
Total, Sunniland Field 11,705
Total Field Footage, 1967 and 1968 46,304
1. These wells, along with the Sun, No. 1 Red Cattle Co. "B" producer completed in 1966, are mutual offsets located 3 miles west of present pro-
duction in the Sunoco-Felda field proper. Future control may prove that the three producers are part of a new field, rather than occurring as an
extension of the original Sunoco-Felda field.
2. Abbreviations: a) BOPD is barrels of oil per day, b) BWPD is barrels of water per day, c) GCRC is Gulf Coast Realties Corporation.
Table 4. Florida Petroleum Production, 1967 and 1968
Has 28 pumping wells)
Dec. 31, 1966 1,703,124
Has 18 pumping wells)
1967 (thru 10-31-68)
Table 5. Exploratory Footage Drilled in Florida, 1967 and 1968 Total Exploratory Footage 173,160
A) Dry Wildcat wells)
Chambers, et al
1 Babcock Ranch "A"
1 FSL-) 224-B
I-A FSL 224-A
1 Anchor Investment
1 Collier Development Co.
1 Alico Oil Unit
1 Brunswick P and P')
1-C FSL 224-A
Total Depth (fee)
Hernando Thayer-Davis 1 Hill 1,404
Hernando Thayer-Davis 2 Hill 6,209
c Palm Beach Amerada 1 Connecticut Sugar Corp. 10,905
Santa Rosa Kirby 1 Findley-Ard 6,510
Santa Rosa Young Oil 1 Thomas 6,610
Total f6otage, dry wildcat wells 138,492
B) Dry Outpost Wells to the (abandoned) Forty Mile Bend Fieldl)
Dade R-K Petroleum 1 FSL 1939-1939S 11,510
2 FSL 1939-1939S
Total footage, dry Forty Mile Bend outposts
C) Dry Sunoco-Felda Outpost Welll)
Hendry Sun 26-1 Lee-Cypress
Total footage, dry Sunoco-Felda outposts
Total Exploratory Footage, 1967-68
Tight Sunniland Limestone
Permitted depth, 17,000
Primarily a Tuscaloosa test
Sunniland Limestone test
Planned as Sunniland Limestone
and deeper test. Set 51/2" casing
in 121/" hole at 12,305'
Much heavy dead oil and slight stain
in tight Sunniland Limestone
Sunniland Limestone test
Upper Cretaceous sand test
Upper Cretaceous sand test
Cretaceous test; reached weathered
quartzitic sandstone at 67201
Fredericksburg and Sunniland Limestone test
Cored shell reef, 11,356-358' and
11,366-278' with good perm. Stain
in upper interval
Tight Sunniland Limestone
Sunniland Limestone test
1. These classifications are after Lahee, Frederich H. (American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1944, vol. 28, Table 1, p. 709)
2. Abbreviations: a) FSL is Florida State Lease, b) TIIF is Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund, c) Brunswick P and P is Brunswick Pulp
and Paper Co.
This a portion of the three building complex of the Marine Laboratory in St. Petersburg.
DIVISION OF SALT WATER FISHERIES
The Division of Salt Water Fisheries is charged by Section 370.02(5),
Florida Statutes, with the duty to perserve, manage and protect the ma-
rine, crustacean, shell and anadromous fisheries resources of Florida.
The division also is charged by statute with the duty:
To regulate the operations of all fishermen and vessels of this state
engaged in the taking of such fishery resources within or without the
boundaries of state waters,
To issue licenses or provide for the issuance of licenses, prescribed
by the Legislature, for the taking of the products of any or all such
fisheries and the processing at sea or on shore within the state,
To secure and maintain statistical records of the catch of each such
species by various gear, by areas and by other appropriate classifications,
To conduct scientific, economic and other studies and research, and
to enter into contracts for such studies and research.
The duties and obligations of the Division of Salt Water Fisheries,
enumerated above, by mandate of the Legislature shall be directed to
the broad objective of managing the salt water fisheries in the interest
of all the people of Florida to the end that they shall produce the max-
imum sustained yield consistent with the preservation and protection of
the breeding stock.
The division also is charged by law with the administration, coordi-
nation and enforcement of Chapter 371, Florida Statutes, the state motor
boat registration and safety law.
The Marketing Department promotes Florida seafood by creating tasty dishes such as these.
Significant advances have been made in the past two years by the
Florida Conservation Patrol, the uniformed police force charged with
enforcement of salt water fisheries conservation laws and the Florida
A new law enforcement district was created in extreme West Florida
in 1966, with headquarters in Pensacola. This district was created to meet
the heavy population growth and resultant increase in fisheries activities
embracing Escambia, Santa Rosa and Okaloosa counties.
The other ten area offices are located in Panama City, Tallahassee,
St. Petersburg, Inglis, Ft. Myers, Marathon, Miami, West Palm Beach,
Titusville and Jacksonville. Each of the 11 law enforcement areas is headed
by a lieutenant, and each area headquarters is equipped with a short wave
radio transmitter to provide a statewide network for instantaneous com-
Secretaries in each office double as radio operators, speeding the
preparation of the increased volume of work generated by population
growth. This also provides full-time service to the people of the area,
particularly those engaged in the fisheries industry.
In addition to their basic duties of enforcing general salt water fisheries
conservation laws, the officers have an additional task of enforcing the
approximately 250 special acts applicable in one or more counties within
With a better than 12% increase per year in pleasure boating over the
past biennium, enforcement of the boat registration and safety law has
become an increasingly important phase of the conservation officer's work.
As an example, on the busy Fourth of July week-end last year, conservation
officers issued 314 citations to owners of boats that were not properly
The Conservation Officer
The duties of the conservation officer are many and varied.
He is first a police officer, whose prime responsibility is to enforce
the laws enacted by the Legislature for the preservation of Florida's vast
This entails checking shrimp, oyster, crawfish, and stone crab catches
to see that they are in compliance with the law. The conservation officer
also enforces the length limits fixed by law for the taking of such fin
fishes as blue fish, pompano, mackerel, sea trout, red fish, and snook.
The wilful and chronic violator of Florida's conservation laws finds
the conservation officer a hard man. Patrol officers made 3,029 arrests
in 1967-68. A first offender, however, who convinces the patrol officer
he was not fully informed of the law, will find the officer a reasonable
person. The conservation officer emphasizes preventive law enforcement,
and in so doing seeks to inform and educate the commercial and sports
fishermen of the conservation laws.
r~ --s -'
~ZIm m 4 '~~b ? 3~
Checking a crawfish trap.
Boats are inspected regularly for undersized crawfish.
Knowing most citizens are law abiding and will obey the law when
informed of it, the officers issued a total of 5,777 official warnings in
1966-67 and 4,773 in 1967-68.
He protects the game fishes-snook, sailfish, tarpon, and striped bass
-by enforcing the bag limits set by statute. He guards the Florida lobster
(crawfish), oyster, stone crab, and sea turtles against poachers during
the closed season on these invaluable marine animals.
He is responsible for enforcing the requirements that all wholesale
and retail seafood dealers rust be licensed, and that all pleasure boats
propelled by machinery in excess of 10 horsepower pay a registration
certificate tax and have a title of ownership.
The conservation officer protects the public health by enforcing the
prohibitions against taking of shellfish from waters closed by the State
Board of Health because of pollution.
Pleasure boating has increased in the state each year. Enforcement
of Florida's boating safety laws has become an increasingly important
phase of the conservation officer's work.
The conservation officer is a water policeman, and can generally
be found on the water. The Patrol logged 70,748 hours on water in 1966-67
and 67,679 hours in 1967-68.
The conservation officer also investigates all dredge and fill operations
and coastal construction in his area and makes sure that the operators
have valid permits.
As a full partner in Florida's civil defense organization, the Conser-
vation Patrol plays a major role in the protection of the people during
natural disasters, particularly hurricanes and tornadoes.
Conservation officers, each a skilled handler of small boats and
equipped with a powerful, heavy-duty boat, have the responsibility during
hurricanes and accompanying floods of evacuating low-lying shoreline
areas and offshore islands when threatened by tropical storms. They also
assist other state law enforcement agencies and local police authorities
in securing storm-damaged property from thieves and looters.
One of the least-heralded, but more vital activities of the Conser-
vation Patrol is search and rescue. The patrol logged 1,679 hours in public
service in 1966-67, and 1,306 in 1967-68.
Many a fishing party, stranded far offshore by motor failure, often
without food or fresh water, has been saved from possible disaster by
a Conservation Patrol search boat.
A sudden shift of wind bringing with it high waves and squalls often
has rendered a small boat helpless. In a number of cases, conservation
officers, working under adverse conditions, have scoured the area where
a missing boat was last known to be, located the craft, given what aid
those aboard might need, and towed the boat safely to shore.
Applicants for the job of conservation officer first take an examination
from the State Personnel Board. After passing this examination, the appli-
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cant is investigated as to his qualifications and interviewed by a screening
An applicant must be 21 years of age, in sound physical condition,
a bona fide graduate of an accredited high school, or its equivalency,
as determined by the State Board of Education. He must be a citizen of
the United States and a resident of the State of Florida for at least two
years. He must be of good moral character and habits, and be willing to
accept assignment anywhere in the State of Florida.
Candidates selected for law enforcement training report for a pre-
service training and orientation session. They are then assigned to a con-
servation officer to travel and work with, observing different phases of
enforcement work. At the completion of this training period, he is assigned
an area and begins to work as an officer.
The starting salary of a conservation officer is $500 per month with
a yearly increase based on merit until a top of $634 per month is reached.
A superior officer may obtain top pay of $680 per month under existing
Personnel Board rules.
Conservation officers bear appropriate titles based on Navy equiva-
lency. The "Commander" is the chief law enforcement officer. The "Lieu-
tenants" are area supervisors and operate in eleven different areas. The
"Officers" are the law enforcement men and as a group, are called the
The conservation officer is also a friend and helper to the fisherman,
commercial and sports. He devotes many hours to advising the sports
fisherman of not only the laws, but where the fish may be biting, the
bait that is proving successful on a given day, where launching ramps are
located, where public parks and campsites can be found and the best
way to reach them. He tows to shore those fishermen and pleasure boaters
who run out of gas or have a minor breakdown. He gives tips on proper
boat handling and proper safety equipment.
The work of a conservation officer is far from dull. He encounters
many strange problems, and solves them, as he patrols the shores of
Florida. For example, a school of between 50 and 60 whales was found
beached on the shallow flats along a 20-mile stretch between Grassy Key
and Marathon in Monroe County. An alarm was raised and conservation
officers took to their boats. Ropes were thrown around the whales and
pulled taut. One by one, the floundering sea mammals were towed to
deep water and freed. Not more than a half dozen of the whales failed
To further implement work on quality seafood control and to establish
liaison with the sport fishing industry, a special assistant to the Director
was named in 1968.
Primary duties consist of coordinating programs with various research
organizations with prime concern resting with development and main-
Officers make sure the catch is kept under sanitary conditions.
A Conservation Officer working with a class in conservation.
tenance of sound programs of quality control as well as processing pro-
cedures. Additionally, the assistant meets with conservation and wildlife
organizations to discuss administrative policies.
A new program of education and information has been instituted
with conservation officers with a special talent for the work to meet with
news media throughout the state and present programs being undertaken
by the Department.
These officers advise news media of activities of local interest in their
specific areas, attend civic club meetings as guest speakers, tape radio
shows and appear on local television stations. Additionally, the officers
present education programs in local school areas and assist the Quality
Control aide in his projects.
Section 370.021, Florida Statutes, vests in the Board of Conservation
authority to adopt rules and regulations necessary or convenient to carry
out the duties, obligations, powers and responsibilities.
These rules have the effect of law and their violation is defined by
statute as a misdemeanor.
One of the most important and far-reaching rules ever established
under the Board of Conservation was the adoption in 1968 of the Florida
Seafood Quality Control Code.
The Director set as one of his principal goals in 1961 the establishment
of a state marketing and promotion program. The ultimate results of the
program depended upon public confidence in the quality of Florida sea-
At the request of the Director, the State Cabinet, sitting as the Florida
Board of Conservation, created in 1965 an Advisory Committee on Quality
Control and Promotion of Florida Seafood. After 18 months of diligent
effort, the committee developed the Quality Control Code, and it was put
into effect in 1968.
The code assigns to the Florida Board of Conservation the duty of
inspecting primary seafood producers, those who harvest the fish and
secondary producers, those who receive the fish and prepare them for
delivery to the processing plants or the fresh seafood retail outlets.
November 7, 1967, the Board adopted a rule designed to control the
landing at Florida ports of food fish taken in extraterritorial waters with
a purse seine, purse gill net, or other net using rings or other devices
through which a purse line is drawn or a lampara net.
The rule to control use of these tremendously efficient nets was
deemed necessary because of a ruling by the Leon County Circuit Court,
upheld by the First District Court of Appeal, that Section 370.08(3) pro-
hibiting the taking of food fish with purse seines and similar nets applied
only to territorial waters. This provision of the law previously had been
interpreted by the department to ban the taking of food fish with purse
seines, regardless where taken.
It was the determination of the Board that uncontrolled purse seining
by Florida fishermen in extraterritorial waters would do serious harm to
the food fish population, particularly kingfish, Spanish mackerel and mullet,
which are schooling fish and particularly vulnerable to purse nets.
The rule requires that any person, firm or corporation desiring to
take food fish with purse nets in extraterritorial waters must obtain a permit
from the Board of Conservation, and post a bond in the amount of $10,000
to assure compliance with terms of the permit.
To protect the population of the species most amenable to purse
seining, the Board set quotas on the pounds of kingfish, Spanish mackerel
and mullet that could be landed in Florida if taken with purse seines
outside the territorial limits of the State.
The initial quotas fixed were: kingfish 387,000 pounds; Spanish
mackerel 1,140,000 pounds, and mullet 1,725,000.
Five applications were received and the quotas were allocated equally
among them. However, only four of the permits were activated, and only
one permitted did more than token fishing with a purse seine.
The quotas were revised November 12, 1968, with the kingfish allow-
ance fixed at 419,000 pounds; Spanish mackerel 1,111,500 pounds, and
On the basis of the experience of the previous year when only one
permitted engaged actively in extraterritorial purse seining, the Board
determined, upon recommendation of the Director of Conservation, to
abandon the policy of sharing.quotas equally among applicants for permits.
Instead, a total quota was set for each of the three species, which when
produced would automatically cancel all permits.
Only one permit was issued for the current purse seining season.
The Conservation Director, by administrative order, closed the waters
of Sound Bay lying in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties between the
Sound Bridge on the west and Narvarre Bridge on the east to the taking
of scallops by means of mechanical devices. This action was taken when
investigation disclosed that the mechanical devices were destroying the
bottom grasses in the area, which is among Florida's most productive
(Following comprehensive biological and ecological studies, the Board
on January 14, 1969, adopted a rule permitting the use of mechanical
devices for the taking of scallops from these waters only from sunrise to
sunset each year between January 15 and March 31 inclusive, provided
that use of such devices is prohibited within 100 yards from the water's
edge as it exists from day to day.)
Other rules adopted by the Board upon recommendation of the
Director in the past two years include:
115A-2.11 A rule prohibiting the transporting of fresh headless shrimp
in unsanitary containers. Provides penalty for violation. This rule is in
compliance with the requirements of the U. S. Food and Drug Admini-
station, and is necessary to prescribe a sanitary standard of conduct for
the shrimp industry in the public interest.
115A-2.12 A rule providing legal hours for catching shrimp in certain
waters in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties to implement Chapter 67-634,
Laws of Florida 1967.
115A-6.01 Extension and minor amendments for the so-called Rule
20 fixing commercial fishing areas in Pinellas County waters.
115A-6.14 A rule providing regulatory guidelines in the use of nets
that are extremely effective in catching fish. This is necessary to secure,
for future generations, a basic breeding stock of certain species of migratory
food fish while harvesting the maximum sustained yield of food fish suitable
for human consumption.
115A-6.15 A rule to allow conversion of otherwise illegal gear into
legal stone crab traps, and also, identify the permittees and owners of the
traps. It provides trap entrance specifications, buoys for locating, permits
with identifying numbers and penalty for violation.
115A-10.01 A rule to provide notice to seafood dealers of a specific
date for making reports required by law.
115C-1 This rule fulfills the requirements of Chapter 120.33, Florida
Statutes, which provides that each agency shall adopt appropriate rules
of procedure for notice and hearing. It establishes minimum requirements
for the adjutication of any party's legal rights, duties, privileges or im-
munities by the Florida Board of Conservation.
RESEARCH VESSEL HERNAN CORTEZ
The systematic sampling program, Project Hourglass, which has
occupied most of the vessel's time since August of 1965 was terminated
in November of 1967. Following this, the vessel involved primarily in ex-
ploratory fishing for several species which appeared to have commercial
potential (as determined from Hourglass catches). The vessel also made
occasional cruises into the Yucatan Straits area.
This project is one of the most important programs and is supplying
vast quantities of data to many different projects. From these data we
are gathering information in the growth rates, size ranges, spawning periods
and areas of seasonal occurrence and abundance of a large number of
species, many of which are commercially important, and more of which
may become commercially important. The termination of sampling in
November 1967 allowed project leaders to complete back samples and
the analysis and preparation for publication has continued.
The Florida Board of Conservation Marine Laboratory publishes the
results of these explorations in a new series entitled "Memoirs of the
Hourglass Cruises." The information is published (as it is completed) as
Some idea of the amount of production derived from the new Sun Ray Venus Clam
fishery near Apalachicola can be obtained from the above photograph. Here an endless
belt carries the residual shells out of the shucking plant to create small mountains. This
material will later be used as reef building substrate in the oyster planting project.
Twins? Not really; a close inspection will show enough difference to separate into two
species. The fish at the top is the Alabama shad while the one on the bottom is the
American shad (East Coast). Studies on both began during 1968.
parts of a volume. When a volume is filled it is bound and a new volume
Utilizing cornmeal feeding and glycogen analysis, laboratory tests to
determine optimum temperature and salinity ranges are continuing. These
studies are expected to provide useful information regarding thermal effects
of electric power generating plants.
Feasibility studies on fattening of oysters with cornmeal under nearly
commercial conditions (pilot plant) have been concluded. Large tanks
containing 2,000 or more oysters were used. The study provides information
on costs and practicality of such an operation. Publication of results is
expected during 1969.
(b) Fungal parasites
"Dermocystidium" studies have been expanded and updated under
Dr. J. G. Mackin's advice and direction. These studies will be directed
toward establishing data on the species and occurrence of the Labyrin-
thulales in Florida waters.
(c) Artificial oyster reefs
Artificial oyster reefs are being constructed in Apalachicola to provide
additional commercial oyster-producing areas. This is a fifty-fifty federally
subsidized project under PL 88-309. Plans have been completed to extend
this planting to Bay County during 1969.
Another PL 88-309 project, with 75% federal funding, was initiated
during the biennium to study the effects of a commercial hydraulic clam
dredge on various bottom types (sand, grass beds, mud and shell). A
specially designed dredge was obtained for use throughout the three-year
life of the project.
Observations on the new fishery for Macrocallista nimbosa are con-
tinuing. Exploratory fishing began on the upper west coast.
Two research projects, sponsored in part by Federal funds, were begun
in the Apalachicola and St. Johns Rivers.
(a) Red grouper
Studies on age, growth, and reproduction have been completed and
the results are currently being prepared for publication.
(b) Hourglass fish
In conjunction with the samples received from Project Hourglass, an
ecological analysis of offshore bottom fishes along the lower west coast
of Florida is under way. This project will provide indications of population
size, growth rate, seasonality and spawning activity of many common
The fish reference collection is still being expanded and specimens
are available for loan to interested scientists and institutions. Also in progress
are studies dealing with: the spawning times of Florida's shore fishes; the
age, growth, and reproduction of the black sea bass on the west coast of
Florida; and the age, growth, and reproduction of the porgy, Pagrus sedecim.
Studies of larval leptocephalids were concluded. Publications have
recently been released on the tarpon, bonefish, ladyfish and several other
A new study dealing with larvae of some commercial pelagic fishes
(primarily Spanish Mackerel, Kingfish, Tuna, Pompano and Thread Her-
ring) has been initiated. The objectives will be to determine areas of
spawning, growth rates, and migration of some of these important fishes.
This will be supported with plankton and nekton samples and aerial obser-
vations in the appropriate areas.
A publication was brought out dealing with studies of the production
of fish meal from various commercial fish wastes.
Studies on the comparison of the effects of natural vitamin A (from
shark livers) and synthetic vitamin A were continued.
Investigations into several methods of inhibiting rancidity in stored
mullet were completed. Results were published.
Tests on the effectiveness of various waste fish products as fertilizer
for tomatoes and lima beans have been completed. Chemical analyses of
the soil and plants have been finished and the results will be prepared for
The invertebrate reference collection is still growing rapidly and now
contains over 5,750 specimens. This represents some 1,200 species of which
molluscs (685 species) and decapod crustaceans (300 species) are dominant.
The Hourglass program is the largest contributor to the collection.
With this systematic sampling, it will be possible to determine seasonal
periodicity, depth ranges, spawning seasons, growth rates, and other bio-
logical patterns of many invertebrates. This processing and record keeping
still dominates the activities of the invertebrates section. The Hourglass
cruises were completed in November of 1967. Analysis of the catches has
begun and publications will follow.
STUART FIELD LABORATORY
Spiny lobster studies on larval and postlarval periodicity, habitat
preference, salinity tolerance, age, and growth rate have continued and
results have been analyzed and prepared for publications.
Further studies on some of these aspects are continuing and a project
on the best method for transportation of live spiny lobsters has been
KEY WEST FIELD LABORATORY
Spiny lobster research on postlarval periodicity and growth rates is
continuing and will be compared with the results found at Stuart, Florida.
In addition, work is in progress to determine seasonality and geographic
occurrence of postlarvae in the Miami and Keys areas.
Studies also include work on the protection, tagging, and release of
green turtles and observations on the biology and growth rate of the
(a) Puffer toxins
Studies are currently in progress to determine what species of puffers
are toxic and which part of the body is most poisonous. Comparison of
this toxin will also be made with ciguatera.
In Florida, barracuda are most often reported as causing ciguatera
poisoning. Tests have been made to find poisonous barracudas and to
ascertain salient features of the occurrences. Studies have been made to
learn as much as possible of the poison, its origin, and its effects.
(c) Toxin from the Red Tide organism
This toxin, isolated from mass cultures of Gymnodinium breve, is
being compared to the above toxins. Studies are also being made to
determine: how long shellfish must be exposed to G. breve before becoming
toxic; how long it takes them to rid themselves of the toxin; and how high
the toxin concentration can become before it kills the shellfish.
Plans are complete for another toxic dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax monilata,
to be examined as soon as the G. breve toxicity investigations are complete.
DRIFT BOTTLE STUDIES
Studies on currents as determined from drift bottle and seabed drifter
return data are continuing. Since most of this has been done in conjunction
with the Hourglass cruises, we plan to publish the results in that series.
Studies on the dinoflagellates occurring in conjunction with the Red
Tide organism G. breve (also a dinoflagellate) are continuing. "A Key to
the Marine Dinoflagellate Genera of the West Coast of Florida" has been
published. Following the completion of the Hourglass cruises, the dino-
flagellate data was analysed in preparation for publication.
These important unicellular algae are being treated much like the
dinoflagellates. A publication on the results of the first year's diatom
collections from the Hourglass cruises was completed.
ARTIFICIAL CULTIVATION OF DIATOMS
This will be done to provide the mass cultures needed in the toxin
studies. Research will also be done to determine some of the basic physical
and nutritional needs of some locally important forms, including G. breve.
During the last half of the biennium, large scale investigations were
begun to determine the effects of warm water discharge from electric
power generating plants. These huge installations pump in water, fresh or
salt, and pass it through condensers to cool used turbine steam for recycling.
In the face of very little actual research into the matter, there has
been much speculation concerning possible damage. The program of re-
search presently under way will provide much needed data and will permit
administrators to make policy decisions consonant with actual conditions.
Marketing and Promotion
Florida, with a vast coastline and unique coastal environment, is
endowed with an abundant and varied supply of high quality seafoods.
In spite of this abundant and valuable resource and its importance to
the economy of the State, Florida's commercial fishery began a decline
during the depression years of the early thirties.
The Board of Conservation recognized its responsibility to reverse
this trend, and on the recommendation of Conservation Director Randolph
Hodges the 1963 Legislature authorized the use of a portion of the receipts
from the sale of dead oyster shells to be used for marketing research and
Many changes have occurred since 1963. The wholesale fish dealers
in Florida voluntarily doubled their license fee from $50.00 per year to
$100.00 per year with the $50 increase earmarked for a Florida salt water
products promotion fund. The Congress of the United States enacted PL
88-309, which made possible Federal participation in state programs for
research and development in fisheries. The marketing program of Florida
Board of Conservation receives 75 per cent of its funding from the Federal
Government. The remaining 25 per cent comes from the salt water products
promotion fund and a portion of the receipts from the sale of dead oyster
The staff consists of a Marketing Director, a Fisheries Marketing
Specialist and eight home economists. In addition to the headquarters
office in Tallahassee, branches are maintained in St. Petersburg, Miami,
Jacksonville, Pensacola, Atlanta, Georgia and Pascagoula, Mississippi. The
home economist stationed in Pascagoula is assigned to research and works
with the Federal Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research home economist
in facilities provided by the Bureau. All other offices are equipped with
complete kitchens for research and demonstration purposes.
J .. k ., .
Broiled Red Snapper Broiled Spanish Mackerel
Marketing Department Home Economists prepare refreshment tables featuring Florida
seafoods at many functions.
In order to maintain eligibility for PL 88-309 funds and to properly
administer the program, it was necessary to obtain an independent evalu-
ation of the Program. In 1967 a contract was let to the Bureau of Economic
and Business Research of the University of Florida to conduct a thorough
survey and evaluate the program. The survey covered prime wholesalers
who handle more than 62% of Florida landings, about 85% of the State's
retail grocery trade and 212 restaurant firms representing 3,200 individual
restaurants and/or cafeterias.
Space does not permit the inclusion of that report. However, the full
text is available for review by interested persons at the Board of Conser-
vation Office in Tallahassee.
The report said ". the study demonstrated the promotional program
undertaken in the period from 1965 to 1967 did in fact attain its objective
of sustaining and widening the market for Florida and Gulf seafood at
a time when the market for seafood generally was erratic." The study
compliments the Board of Conservation and its Director when it states,
"The administrative support given by the staff and members of the Florida
Board of Conservation, apart from the promotional programs themselves,
was found to be instrumental in the success of the programs."
Another criteria for measuring the effectiveness of the program is a
look at some of the actual figures in relation to seafood prices. The whole-
sale price index for November, 1968 showed an overall increase of 11.6%
over the same month a year earlier. These are comparative prices from
the New York market report for the week ending December 27, 1968 as
compared to the same week in 1967: King mackerel up Mlc, mullet steady
at an average of 18c per pound, red snapper up 20c, Spanish mackerel up
Ic, jumbo lump crab meat up $2.00, shrimp (26-30) up 7c, shell oysters
up 50c bushel, schucked oysters up 50c to $1.00 gal.
In order to accomplish these results two major activities are utilized
by the marketing personnel. The prime responsibility is to increase the
demand for Florida seafood products. The second responsibility is to keep
the industry informed of market trends, consumer demands, new processes,
packaging, distribution, etc. The program also is concerned with develop-
ment of new resources and attraction to Florida of related industries such
as canneries and food processors and distributors.
Increasing consumer demand requires not only increasing public
awareness of seafoods, but education in the uses of these products. In
cooperation with our Federal counterparts the department produced six
different recipe booklets and leaflets, five full color posters, seven table
tents, and a variety of placemats, banners and cards. In the past two years
four and one half million copies of educational materials have been dis-
In the use of communications media no space or time is purchased.
Coverage through these media is achieved by development of interesting
materials that will be printed or broadcast. Several three minute color
films demonstrating seafood cookery have been distributed to 200 tele-
vision stations nationwide. The films have brought viewer response in
the form of requests for recipe booklets. In this biennium the department
responded to more than 26,000 requests. In addition to films, marketing
personnel have appeared on 269 radio and television shows and have been
responsible for 226 articles in newspapers ranging from 1 column inch to
full pages and covering most of the major dailies in the Southeast as well
as many in other parts of the nation.
Another major education activity is the cookery demonstration both
to consumers and to institutional users such as schools and hospitals.
During the period covered by this report our home economists have
presented 231 cooking demonstrations.
The marketing department produced a 14, minute color film entitled
"Mullet Country." This film has been distributed to film libraries through-
out the country and reports indicate an exceptional demand. It has evoked
enthusiastic response from the many Florida audiences who have seen it.
A continuous flow of information to Florida fish and shellfish producers,
processors and distributors, and large scale buyers is an essential element
of marketing. The marketing department uses several methods to accomplish
Contact is maintained with producers and processors through attend-
ance and participation in the activities of such organizations as South-
eastern Fisheries Association, Organized Fishermen of Florida, Florida
Frozen Food Seminar, Gulf States Marine Commission, National Fisheries
Institute, and American Commercial Fisheries Exposition. Personal con-
tact, correspondence, and telephone communications with the industry
are an almost daily occurance.
Additional contact is maintained with buyers through participation
in trade shows. Examples are: National Restaurant Association Convention
and Trade Show, Chicago; National Hotel and Motel Show, New York;
Pan American Hospitality Show, Miami; World Food Expo, Milwaukee;
American School Food Service, Detroit; Florida School Food Service,
Miami; Florida Dietetic Association Show, Miami. In addition, personal
calls are made on buyers for large chain stores, including A&P, Safeway,
Acme, Food Fair, and Publix. Restaurant chains including Morrison's,
Howard Johnson, Hotte Shoppe, Davis Bros., and S&W also are contacted.
This liaison provides Florida industry with up-to-date information
on activities in the market place. It provides buyers with current infor-
mation on supplies. It gives the marketing department warning when a
particular species is about to be in trouble from over production, high
inventories or faltering price. A constant watch is kept to anticipate trouble
spots and avoid them through special promotions.
Several established producers and processors have expanded facilities
or installed more modern equipment. A fascinating new venture is Akima
International, a shrimp farming operation in Panama City. From an initial
stock of 400 egg-bearing females Akima returned to Florida waters approxi-
mately 2,000,000 fingerling shrimp and held an equal number for further
The Sun Ray Venus Clam of the north west Gulf Coast is being
harvested and used in a seafood pattie made by Allen Kirkpatrick Co. of
Delaware. Kirkpatrick is in the process of moving to Apalachicola.
Harvesting has begun on a vast resource of calico scallops off the
east coast in the vicinity of Cape Kennedy, and negotiations are underway
to establish a seafood cannery in the Panama City area.
Looking to the future: A full schedule is planned in the way of
conventions and trade shows. A special promotion for mullet took place
in the Washington-Baltimore area in January 1969 with 288 stores featuring
Florida mullet for a two week period.
The Kohl Stores chain in Wisconsin is featuring fresh Florida seafoods
flown in weekly.
Other producers are contemplating new processing forms and pack-
ages and will look to the department for marketing aid. The Howard
Johnson Restaurant chain has decided to use Spanish mackerel nationwide,
and additional new recipe leaflets, posters and table tents have been de-
signed and will soon be ready for distribution.
The License Department of the Division of Salt Water Fisheries
registers all commercial fishing vessels and pleasure boats propelled by
machinery in excess of 10 horsepower, processes all applications of trans-
fers of registration due to change of boat ownership and issues wholesale
and retail seafood dealer licenses.
It also is the responsibility of the License Department to compile and
forward to the U. S. Coast Guard reports on boat registration figures and
boating accident reports filed with the Board of Conservation. These
reports are required by Federal law.
During the 1966-67 fiscal year, the License Department issued 756
wholesale and 5,118 retail seafood dealer licenses. During the 1967-68 fiscal
year, wholesale dealer licenses totaled 732 and retail licenses numbered
Commercial boat registrations totaled 31,858 during fiscal 1966-67 and
decreased to 30,542 in fiscal 1967-68. Pleasure boat registrations totaled
149,663 in fiscal 1966-67 and rose to 166,146 in 1967-68.
Boat ownership transfers processed during fiscal 1966-67 totaled 32,112.
This figure dropped to 30,106 during fiscal 1967-68 due to the fact that
tax collectors were permitted to accept applications for transfer which
were actually accepted in their offices in May and June but were not
issued until July by this department and therefore will show up in the
LICENSES ISSUED IN BIENNIUM
1966-1967 1967-1968 1968-1969
Pleasure Boat Registrations 149,663 166,146 183,848
Commercial Boat Registrations 31,858 30,542 31,000
Documented Pleasure Yacht Registrations .... 687 839 991
Non-resident Commercial Boat License ........ 505 586 650
Non-resident Sponge Dealer License .............. 14 9 10
Commercial Fishing Licenses-
Non-resident-382 384 390
Alien-101 483 163 547 175 565
Purse Seine License 21 30 40
*Pleasure Boat Registration Transfers ........... 32,112 30,106 37,000
Commercial Boat Registration Transfers ...... 2,811 2,646 2,700
Wholesale Seafood Dealer's Licenses .............. 756 732 735
Non-resident Wholesale Seafood
Dealer's Licenses 14 18 25
Wholesale Dealer's Permit Stamps .................. 749 726 730
Retail Seafood Dealer's Licenses .................... 5,118 5,276 5,475
Non-resident Retail Seafood Dealer's Licenses 9 6 10
Alien Retail Seafood Dealer's License ............ -
Duplicate Boat Certificates 1,602 1,742 1,850
Change of Classification on boats .................... 230 201 200
Yacht & Ship Brokers Licenses 137 175 213
Yacht & Ship Salesman Licenses .................... 262 298 334
Yacht & Ship Salesman Temporary Licenses.. 39 35 35
Titles January Ist through September 26th.... 137,143 56,702
Titles transferred through September 26th.... 7,493 30,000
Number of Liens recorded on Titles .............. 24,526 8,505
Number of Liens satisfied 3,037 20,000
GRANTED DURING 1967
Number of Number of
County Leases Acres
Bay 2 48.50
Brevard 5 101.70
Martin 2 (Clam Leases) 280.00
Pinellas 2 32.51
St. Johns 2 39.59
Santa Rosa 1 138.45
Volusia 2 5.76
Walton 1 81.00
Totals 17 727.51
GRANTED DURING 1968
Number of Number of
County Leases Acres
Brevard 33 508.376
Indian River 5 101.92
Levy 4 31.902
Volusia 2 7.75
Walton 1 9.617
Totals 45 659.565
Crawfish Permits 2,544
Stone Crab Permits 62
Dade County Bait Shrimp 59
Duval County Bait Shrimp 25
Escambia County Bait Shrimp 27
Okaloosa County Bait Shrimp 6
Santa Rosa County Bait Shrimp 24
Sound Bay Bait Shrimp 20
Atlantic Coast Bait Shrimp 13
Dade County Silver Mullet 13
Volusia and Flagler Counties Bait Mullet 2
Special Permits 378
Home Aquaria 130
Oyster Planting 55
Oyster Dredge 4
Shell Stock Shipping 35
Bait Shrimp Statewide 202
Shrimp Landing Permits 2,014
Bay County 81
Brevard County 5
Charlotte County 3
Citrus County 1
Clay County 1
Collier County 6
Dade County 20
Duval County 195
Escambia County 439
Franklin County 161
Gadsden County 1
Gulf County 5
Hillsborough County 147
Lee County 59
Leon County 7
Levy County 1
Manatee County 10
Monroe County 172
Nassau County 99
Okaloosa County 122
Pasco County 5
Pinellas County 12
Polk County 1
St. Johns County 83
Santa Rosa County 39
Sarasota County 1
Volusia County 5
Wakulla County 13
Walton County 42
Out of State 328
New York 1
North Carolina 58
South Carolina 26
Pinellas County Net Permits 200
Pinellas County Commercial Fishermen 508
Foreign Crawfish Importation 131
TOTAL PERMITS ISSUED DURING 1967-68 6,322
Frozen Stone Crabs
Stone Crab Claws
Stone Crab Meat
CRAWFISH AND STONE CRAB
CRAWFISH AND STONE CRAB
Frozen Stone Crabs
Stone Crab Claws
Stone Crab Meat
785,671 1/2 Pounds
County No. of Arrests
Hillsborough ............ 82
Pinellas ........................ 242
Palm Beach .............. 239
Orange ................. 6
Volusia ................. 44
Escambia .................. 192
Broward .................... 107
Alachua ...............-..... 4
Manatee .................. 63
Sarasota ..................... 33
Seminole .................... 10
Brevard ...................... 87
St. Johns ................ 74
Putnam .................. 12
St. Lucie ............ ... 30
Jackson .................. 2
Osceola .................. 3
Indian River ............ 23
Santa Rosa ............... 61
Walton ...................... 29
Monroe ........................ 482
Hernando ................... 4
Okaloosa .................... 84
Jefferson ................ 3
Washington .............. 1
H olm es ........................ 1
Charlotte ................. 19
Gilchrist ...................... 3
Hamilton .................. 3
Okeechobee ................ 11-
Franklin .................... 102
Lafayette .................... 1
Wakulla .................... 20
ARRESTS AND DISPOSITIONS
Guilty Est. Bond No
ARRESTS FOR PERIOD
July 1, 1967 through June 30, 1968
Palm Beach ................
Broward .......... .....
St. Johns .....................
St. Lucie ......................
Indian River ..............
Santa Rosa .................
of Arrests Guilty
Commercial landings of fish and shellfish at Florida ports in 1967
were 196.4 million pounds with a dockside value of almost $30.8 million.
This was an increase of 4.1 million pounds, but a decrease of $1.7 million
from 1966. Lower landings of shrimp and mullet were offset by increased
landings of other fish and shellfish. The lower shrimp landings and price
decreases for medium and small shrimp was the principal cause of the
decrease in total value. Over 70 percent of the total landings was used for
Shrimp: Landings of shrimp, 28.4 million pounds (heads-on weight)
were 5.5 million pounds less than the previous year and the lowest recorded
since 1950. A major factor in this decline of landings was the disappointing
season on the Tortugas grounds, where landings were 14.3 million pounds
compared with 20.6 million pounds in 1966. Landings in 1967 were valued
at $13 million, $2 million under that of 1966.
Mullet: Landings of mullet (lisa), Florida's leading volume foodfish,
were 26.2 million pounds, lowest since 1934.
Other finfish: Contrasted to mullet, pompano, one of Florida's most
expensive fish, established record landings of almost 1.3 million pounds.
Despite the heavy landings, the price averaged over 60 cents per pound
due to a strong market. King mackerel also was landed in record quantities
as 6.1 million pounds were caught, a gain of almost 2 million pounds over
1966. Spanish mackerel dropped off, however, with 7.7 million pounds
landed revealing a drop of 1.5 million pounds from 1966.
Both Atlantic and Gulf coast fisheries had normal snapper landings,
but there was a drop in grouper. There were 6.8 million pounds of groupers
and 5.9 million pounds of red snapper in total landings for both coasts.
Yellowtail snapper was the only major species of foodfish landed in Florida
in greater quantities than in 1966. Landings amounted to slightly less than
1 million pounds valued at almost $300,000.
Landings through 1967 showed 196,367,740 pounds of all species in-
cluding fin and shellfish for a total value of $30,778,615.
The golden crop of the Florida fishery, shrimp, showed a slight in-
crease over 1966 landings. The 1967 totals showed 28,383,664 pounds, rated
at a value of $12,975,625. The 1966 figures revealed a landing of slightly
better than 26,000,000 pounds.
Blue crab landings were 23,295,962 pounds for a value of $1,450,794.
This is a slight drop from the previous year. Most of the decline was on
the west coast, as the east coast landings revealed an increase of 2 million
Landings of oysters improved again in 1967 as 4.8 million pounds were
produced, a catch surpassed only by the record landings of 1962. In the
major producing area (Apalachicola and East Point), sampling indicated
that good quantities of small oysters remained on the reefs and should
grow to legal size for the 1968-69 season.
There was an increased interest in scallops. Nearly 21,000 pounds
were landed in 1967, and further expansion forestalled a profitable oper-
ation due to a lack of suitable equipment to completely automate the
Landings of clams were nearly four times greater than 1967. Though
nowhere near the record production year of 1962 when 1.1 million pounds
were harvested, the 1967 figure of 21,000 pounds showed substantial in-
crease in a fishery that had almost dropped out of sight.
Figures on 1968 commercial landings were not available at time of
publication of this report.
SURVEY AND MANAGEMENT
The Survey and Management Department was established following
enactment by the 1967 Legislature of the so-called Randell Act, which
requires that the Board of Conservation conduct biological and ecological,
and when it deems necessary hyrographic, surveys of areas for which
applications have been filed for establishment of bulkhead lines or permits
for dredge and/or fill projects to determine what, if any, effect the pro-
posals would have on marine resources.
Ken Woodburn, a veteran staff biologist and recipient of a 1968
American Motors Company national award for his dedicated work in the
field of marine conservation, was designated chief of the new department.
Woodburn is aided by two field biologists, one stationed at St.
Petersburg and one at Miami, in carrying out the Department's lawful
Prior to enactment of the Randell Act, similar studies were carried
out by the Research Department upon request of the Trustees of the
Internal Improvement Fund. From January 1, 1967, through July 1, 1967,
an estimated 85 surveys were made by research staff members.
From July through December, 1967, the Survey and Management
Department made a total of 112 ecological surveys and reports in the
Florida coastal counties. Of these 22 were made in Monroe, 13 in Sarasota,
12 in Brevard, 10 in Pinellas, seven each in Dade and Palm Beach, six in
Lee, three each in Collier and Volusia, two each in Pasco and Citrus, and
one each in Bay, Escambia, Gulf, Indian River, Nassau, Okaloosa and
In 1968 a total of 147 ecological surveys and reports were made. Of
these 34 were made in Monroe, 16 in Lee, 14 in Brevard, 13 in Dade,
11 in Palm Beach, nine each in Sarasota and Pinellas, seven in Duval, four
in Manatee, three each in Indian River, Okaloosa, St. Lucie, and Char-
lotte, two each in Volusia, Collier, Escambia, Martin, Broward, Hillsborough
and Santa Rosa, and one each in Bay, Pasco, Charlotte and Citrus Counties.
The Conservation Patrol in the past two years has performed out-
standing service to the state and nation working as full partners in the
nation's civil defense organization. The Patrol plays a significant role in
the protection of people and property during times of national disaster,
particularly in periods of hurricanes and tornadoes.
Each conservation officer is a skilled handler of small boats. Equipped
with a powerful, heavy duty boat, they have the responsibility during
hurricanes and accompanying floods of evacuating low-lying areas and
offshore islands when threatened by tropical storms. They also assist other
state law enforcement agencies and local police authorities in securing
storm-damaged properties from thieves and looters.
Hurricane Gladys struck the west coast of the state in October, 1968,
creating extensive damage in the areas of Bayport, Crystal River and
Homosassa.The conservation patrol dispatched 15 men to the area prior
to the hurricane's inland strike, and after the tempest had passed the
patrol officers remained to conduct an extensive clean-up campaign. Prior
to the storm's arrival, a constant alert was kept via the patrol's state-wide
radio network as officers notified shore and offshore island residents of
impending danger and assisted in evacuation.
The year 1968 found conservation officers being called for riot duty
on six different occasions. A total of 38 men were alerted and posted for
duty in Gainesville in April and were a vital force in quelling the dis-
turbances there. The same force was dispatched to Live Oak two days
after the Gainesville disturbance to handle a situation in that city. This
force then moved to Jacksonville the day after the Live Oak affair to quell
another civil disobedience situation.
The patrol dispatched a squad of four men to Gainesville in May
on an alert in that city after a request from local police authorities to the
In August the conservation patrol had 60 men on duty in Miami for
the National Republican Convention, working with Miami police officials
in maintaining order and security throughout the convention period. At the
end of the convention, 40 men were dispatched to a riot area in Miami
and assisted local authorities in subduing that uprising.
Two weeks after the Miami convention, a task force of 60 men went
to St. Petersburg to assist local police in quelling a disturbance there,
remaining on duty for a three-day period. A total of 683.35 man hours
were spent in riot duty in 1968.
The patrol maintains a constant tour of the Tortugas shrimp grounds
when closed by law during high count periods. The patrol is maintained
at all times in the nursery areas that are permanently closed. In order to
maintain these surveillance patrols with maximum efficiency, the conser-
vation patrol has requested a 95-foot patrol craft.
When the Director of Conservation was appointed also as Director
of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund January 1, 1969, the
patrol assumed additional duties of enforcement of dredging filling oper-
ations throughout the state.
Search and Rescue
Of all the many and varied duties of the Conservation Patrol, none
is more vital than search and rescue. Public service calls answered by
conservation officers totaled 1,538 in 1967 and 1,427 in 1968. Of these
calls 314 in 1967 and 232 in 1968 involved search and rescue missions.
With the ever-increasing activity of pleasure boating in Florida waters,
the patrol has received a corresponding number of calls to assist stranded
boatmen from possible disaster. In many of these cases the officers have
been at sea in highly adverse weather searching for lost boatmen far from
home with a balky motor or empty gas tank. In many cases, assistance is
rendered by the officer in helping a motor get started, but the majority
of calls result in the patrol boat towing in the stranded boatman.
Department airplanes perform yeoman service in search and rescue
missions. The single engine Cessna 210, used primarily for law enforce-
ment patrol work, frequently is called upon to assist surface craft in locating
missing boats. More often than not, the pilot will spot the missing boat and
radio its position to searching surface vessels so that rescue is effected.
The twin-engine Cessna 310, which has the multiple duty of law en-
forcement patrol, research survey and executive transportation, also partici-
pates in search and rescue work.
The conservation patrol, in order to carry out its responsibilities as
Director Hodges feels the people of the state want them carried out, is in
need of additional manpower. As a result, an additional 90 patrol officers
have been requested.
At the end of 1968, the patrol numbered 117 officers, including super-
visors. These uniformed men are responsible for patrolling a 7,700-mile
shoreline extending from the Florida-Alabama line west of Pensacola along
the Gulf of Mexico to Dry Tortugas and Key West, then up the Atlantic
to the Georgia-Florida line north of Fernandina Beach.
Conservation officers are required to work a five-day week and the
average work day extends more than 10 hours. Despite this, law enforce-
ment is not as effective as the need for protecting one of the world's
greatest fisheries demands because available manpower is spread too thin.
During the closed season on sea turtles it is necessary to send officers
regularly assigned to the west coast to the east coast for temporary duty
to prevent extinction of the great turtles from the raids of poachers on
egg-filled nests. Officers also have to be shifted into the Keys during the
closed season on crawfish to protect the animals from illegal trappers.
Enforcement of special netting regulations during the peak tourist season
in Tampa and Boca Ciega Bays requires beefing up of local conservation
manpower by drawing men from other enforcement areas. The same is
true during the closed season on oysters in Apalachicola Bay.
When law enforcement personnel must be drafted from one area to
meet emergencies in another, conservation suffers in the depleted area.
The patrol also assists other state agencies in various functions carried
out by them. The conservation patrol works closely with the Florida
Development Commission in promotional programs, especially in regard
to boating, water development and similar programs. Members of the
patrol have received high praise from visiting writers and photographers
for their unstinting efforts in the tasks at hand, and on more than one
occasion, patrol officers have been called Florida's finest corps of public
Conservation Officers aid many stranded whales such as this one.
DIVISION OF WATERWAYS DEVELOPMENT
The overall mission of the Division of Waterways Development is to
create an integrated statewide commercial and recreational system of water-
ways. Fundamentally, this involves production of a master plan for water-
way development, maintaining a continuing program of orientation and
promotion to gain public acceptance and support that will ensure timely
local, state and federal financing and execution of the plan, and within
the framework of Florida Statutes and instructions from the Board of Con-
servation provide state level supervision and coordination during execution
of the plan.
Much of the phosphate produced in Florida is sent to other parts of the nation and to
foreign countries by ship. A freighter lies beside the loading mechanism at a phosphate
terminal near Tampa.
The unified program of development of Florida's commercial and
recreational waterway system involves the cooperative efforts of federal,
state and local interests working toward mutually agreed upon objectives.
To an extent the framework for such a program has been the outgrowth
of the annual conference on Water Resources Development held in late
January each year. The results of this conference, in a large part, are in-
tended to form a basis for seeking federal authorization and funding of
navigational projects. However, a more comprehensive long range program
of waterways development that gives full recognition to the state's com-
merical, industrial, recreational, agricultural and municipal requirements is
urgently needed to provide the detailed guidance for future development
that will result in wise use of our natural resources.
The sharp cutback in federal funding during the past two years has
seriously curtailed progress of projects under construction. Additionally,
there are strong indications of postponement of the start of new projects
that are vital to Florida's economic development.
Cross Florida Barge Canal
Because of the reduction in federal funding work on the Cross Florida
Barge Canal which was started in 1964 has not progressed as anticipated.
Construction valued at approximately $36 million is underway or complete
for this $162 million, 104 mile project. Near the eastern end of the canal
the St. Johns Lock and Rodman Dam are complete. The Inglis Lock and
excavation westward to the Gulf of Mexico are essentially complete. Eureka
Lock and Dam are under construction with completion anticipated in the
summer of 1969.
Principal elements yet to be placed under construction are the R. N.
Dosh Lock at Silver Springs, a lock at Dunnellon, railway and highway
bridges and approximately 82 miles of excavation extending from the Inglis
Lock to near the Rodman Dam.
The Canal Authority of Florida, operating under the supervision and
control of the Board, has procured approximately 73% of the estimated
70,000 acres required for rights-of-way. Funding of this acquisition program
has been through assessment of ad valorem taxes and allocation to the
Canal Authority of Water Resources Development Funds by the Board of
Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway
Extending southward from Fernandina to Key West this waterway provides
a 125-foot wide channel to Miami, with a 12-foot depth to Fort Pierce
and 10-foot depth from Fort Pierce to Miami. From Miami to Cross Bank
there is a 75-foot wide channel having a 7-foot depth. Thereafter the route
follows open water to Key West.
A program for construction of several highway bridges to provide
adequate navigational clearances was initiated in 1966. This work, estimated
to cost in excess of $10 million, is being performed by the State Road De-
partment on a joint cost sharing agreement with the Florida Inland Navi-
gational District, whose share is estimated at $4 million. Construction and
design of these bridges, located at Wabasso, Hollywood and Miami, is in
progress with overall completion estimated in 1972.
A recent study has recommended improvements from Miami south-
ward to Turkey Point to provide a channel 9 feet deep by 100 feet wide.
Federal funding is being sought for a restudy to determine the feasibility
of deepening the channel from Fort Pierce to Miami.
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
Originating in Brownsville, Texas, the existing 12-foot deep channel
extends eastward only as far as Carrabelle. A 9-foot deep by 100-foot wide
channel from the Caloosahatchee River northward to the Anclote River at
Tarpon Springs was completed in 1967.
The unfinished segment from Carrabelle to Tampa Bay, having an
overall estimated cost in excess of $110 million will require approximately
$15 million in non-federal funding. This project was authorized by Congress
in 1968. Federal funding to permit commencement of detailed design work
has been requested.
The Apalachicola-Flint-Chattahoochee River System provides a 9-foot
channel from the Gulf of Mexico northward to Columbus, Georgia. Channel
improvements in progress on the Apalachicola River between the Jim Wood-
ruff Dam on the Georgia boundary and the mouth of the river consist of
construction of cut-offs at certain oxbow bends, contraction dikes, and
channel dredging valued at approximately $450,000. Completion is sched-
uled for the spring of 1969. Additional improvements valued at $1 million
have been programmed.
This project, costing approximately $1.8 million, will stabilize the 12-
foot by 180-foot entrance channel and will provide protective jetties and
means for sand transfer to assist in beach nourishment. This improved
channel, to be completed in 1969, will greatly enhance charter boat and
commerical fishing operations in the Destin area.
Located between Daytona and New Smyrna Beach this project provides
a 12-foot channel protected by jetties, connecting the Intracoastal Water-
way with the Atlantic Ocean. A recreation area is planned on the north
side of the inlet. Construction of the work valued at about $3 million was
started in July, 1968 with a scheduled completion of March 1970.
Okeechobee Waterway at Ortona Lock.
Cross Florida Barge Canal Looking Eastward Over St. Johns Lock.
Entrance Channel to West Palm Beach Harbor.
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in Vicinity of Sarasota.
Consisting of the St. Lucie Canal, Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosa-
hatchee River, this waterway between Stuart on the Atlantic coast and
Fort Myers on the Gulf is a major element of the Central and Southern
Flood Control project. Navigational improvements have been incident to
the federally authorized flood control work. A study has been programmed
to determine the need for any additional navigational improvements to
include possible reconstruction of certain railway and highway bridges.
This project to deepen the St. Johns River from the present 34 feet to
38 feet upstream to mile 20 is scheduled to start construction in 1969.
Approximately $2 million of the estimated $9 million federal funding re-
quirements have been appropriated by Congress.
Projected improvements for the Miami Harbor, valued at $6.5 million,
were authorized in 1968. The work will provide a 38 feet by 500 feet
entrance channel to the beach line and a 36-foot channel in Biscayne Bay,
together with a turning basin at Fisher Island and one at Biscayne Boule-
vard Terminal. Initial federal funding of this project was requested for
fiscal year 1970.
A $10.5 million harbor improvement program, including a canal and
lock connection to the Intracoastal Waterway harbor deepening and ocean
channel improvements, is essentially complete except completion of a sand
transfer plant at the harbor entrance. An additional $1 million has been
requested in fiscal year 1970 for this purpose.
A study to determine the needed improvements to Tampa Harbor is
scheduled to be completed by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1969. This
$330,000 study will outline the extent of deepening the harbor to accommo-
date the growing fleet of deep draft bulk cargo vessels that operate into
Tampa Bay. Initial construction of Port Manatee, located in Manatee county,
just inside Tampa Bay is underway. This facility with a 40 feet channel is
being financed by Manatee County.
Panama City Harbor
A Corps of Engineers study to determine the feasibility of deepening
this harbor to accommodate 36-foot draft vessels is in progress with com-
pletion scheduled in 1970.
An $80,000 study to determine the feasibility of deepening the channels
and make other harbor improvements was initiated in 1967. Its completion
will be coordinated with a long range planning study being prepared for
the Pensacola Port Authority.
Other Investigation Studies
Additional investigation studies are authorized or underway for Clewis-
ton Harbor, Cross Bayou Canal, New River, St. Lucie Inlet, Anclote River,
Indian Pass, Joe's Bayou, Blackwater River and Charlotte Harbor as well
as numerous small navigational study projects such as channel improve-
ments at Cedar Keys, Stump Pass, and Dunedin Pass.
On January 9, 1968 the Board adopted a resolution calling for uniform
horizontal and vertical navigational clearances for all bridges over the
principal elements of the present waterway system. Basically, this will
provide a horizontal clearance of 150 feet and a vertical clearance of 65 feet
on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway from Fernandina to the St. Johns
River, the Cross Florida Barge Canal and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
from Perdio Pass at the Alabama boundary to Tampa Bay. Other segments
of the commercial waterways are to have 90 feet horizontal clearance and
65-foot vertical clearance. Future major modifications of bridges would be
required to meet these standards.
Cruise Ship in Miami Ship Channel.
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Waterways Development Division
General, Investment Studies, Navigation
Apalachicola River Basin
Miami Harbor (Dade Cty)
IWW, Fort Pierce to Miami
Crystal River Channel Imprvt. (Citrus Cty)
Escambia River Navigation Imprvt. (Escambia Cty)
IWW, St. Marks to Tampa Bay (Regional)
Pithlachascotee River Channel (Pasco Cty)
1- Santa Rosa Island-Sabine (Santa Rosa Cty)
Choctawhatchee River Channel Imprvt. (Walton Cty)
IWW, Carrabelle to St. Marks (Regional)
C & SF Navigation Study (Regional)
Tampa Harbor-Hillsboro Bay (Hillsboro Cty)
Port Everglades (Broward Cty)
Panama City Harbor (Bay Cty)
Pensacola Harbor (Escambia Cty)
Anclote River Channel (Pinellas Cty)
Cross Bayou Canal (Pinellas Cty)
Indian Pass (Franklin Cty)
Blackwater River Channel (Santa Rosa Cty)
New River Channel Improvement (Broward Cty)
(Dollars in Thousands)
1964-65 1965-66 1966-67
FY 1965 FY 1966 FY 1967
$ 123 $ 228 $ 324 $ 285 $ 310 $ 271
FLORIDA BOARD OF CONSERVATION
Waterways Development Division
Apalachicola River Channel Impvt. (Regional) $
Bakers Haulover Inlet (Dade City)
Canaveral Harbor Modification (Brevard Cty)
IWW Caloosahatchee River to Anclote River (Regional)
Atlantic IWW, Jacksonville to Miami (Regional)
Miami Harbor Modification (Dade City)
Port Everglades Harbor Modification (Broward Cty)
Garrison Bight (Monroe Cty)
Cats Point (Pinellas Cty)
Everglades Harbor (Collier Cty)
Tampa Harbor, Ybor Channel (Hillsboro Cty)
Pensacola Harbor (Escambia Cty)
Sarasota Passes (Sarasota Cty)
Largo Sound (Monroe Cty)
Pass-a-Grille (Pinellas Cty)
Johns Pass (Pinellas Cty)
IWW, Cross Florida Barge Canal (Regional)
Palm Beach Harbor Modification (Palm Beach Cty)
Key West Harbor Modification (Monroe Cty)
Jacksonville Harbor Modification (Duval Cty)
Ponce de Leon Inlet (Volusia Cty)
East Pass, Choctawhatchee Bay (Okaloosa Cty)
Gulf County Canal (Gulf Cty)
Apalachicola Bay (St. George)
Cedar Keys Harbor (Levy Cty)
Y 1964 FY 1965
(Dollars in Thousands)
1965-66 1966-67 1967-68 1968-69
FY1966 FY1967 FY 1968 FY 1969
$ 100 $ 350 $ 350 $ 100 $ 558
TOTALS ..................$ 8,858 $ 13,170
$ 19,788 $ 16,024 $ 8,818
INLAND WATERWAYS SYSTEM
,.'' :,. .... 4--
PANAA cnyIT P ARKS s"
PORT ST. JO 1AIAvSrr
CARRABELLE I gr
G .... '.""A
PRINCIPAL COMPONI H 0 ISIxi A
1. CROSS&FLORIDA BARGL CANAL Under conslructlion sin.c 1964- ST. PlETERSB i
Channel 12' deep \ 150' bottor, width .\111 5 lock,. acjll 84' \ 600'. ... -
lck 90' 600'.
4. GULF INTRACOASTALdhan WATERWAY, SI MARKS TO TAMPA E
100ND. BOCA GRAN
6. ATLANTIC INTRACOASTAL W iATLR OTAY. I1LRNANDINA TO 0
xMIAMI: existing -ha n Ie r It PHrce, 12' \ 125O : F
Pierce to Mwim, 10' \ 125'.o
PRIN( IPAL COMPONI NIS PORT
I. CROSS-FLORIDA BARGL CANAL lnder conSlrutLion SInce 1964- hI.PETERSR AMPA
Channel 12' deop 1 ISO' bottom oidlIh AIh 5 locks.cah 8Ii 4600911'.
2. PORT CANAVLRAL LOCK AND CANAL [O ATLANTI( INT[A-
COASTAL WATERWAY: I 0isting lionnol 12' 125' witlA one b.r~g SSATesE
lock 90> 600'
4. ATLA INTIC RACOASTAL TRWAY IY. MARKS TO TAMPAKEY
BAYST Existing channel-Mii to Crossd b 9k O7' 75 Cros Bank tol
Key West, open bay (Atlantic Ocean).
OKEECHOBEE WATERWAY, STUART TOONVILL 10 SANMYRS. Existing
channel with Jack ontrollo Plt h of 8' \ 80': 4 lock of controlling'
10dimensions 50 x 250 11 depth
ATLANTIC INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY ANCLOTERNANDINA TO I T. MYERS:
Existing channel 9'hnn 100'. c u Iompleed 1967. I:
10. CARRABELLE TO ANCLOTE OPEN BAY S ON U
. ATLANTI INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY Y. ARRABLLL TO KEY
PENSACOLA: Existing channelMm o r12' 125'. 7 75 C
12. APALACHICOLA. CHATTAHOOCHEE AND FLINT RIVERS, FLA.
Key West, open bay (Atlantlic Ocean)
AND OKEECHOBEE WATERWGA. Apahicoahattahoochee Rivers-existing cMYanRS 9
cha100 from Apalachiola to Columbus Ga. with 3 locks oand dams in
dimensions 509 250' \ II' depth.
GULFand Ga. (Jim Woodruff Columbia, ANCLOTer George) each 82'MYERS
450. Ftin channel 9 00' from Jim Woodruff Dampld 1967.
to CARRABELLE TO NOTE OPEN AY SEON o
II.GULF INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY. CARRABLLLL TO
PENSACOLA: xioting channel 12' s 125'.
12. APALACHICOLA. CHATTAIIOOCHEE AND FLINT RIVERS, FLA.
AND GA. Apalachicola-Chattahoocho Rivers-eoisting channel 9' 5
100' from Apalachicola to Columbus, Ga. with 3 locks and dams in
Fla. and Ga. (Jim Woodruff, Columbia. and Waller George) each 82'1
450'. Flint River-existing channel 9' s 100' from Jim Woodruff Dam'.4
to Barmbridge. Ga.
Storm devastation along Florida's beaches (top) can be rectified with proper construction
of sloping revetments (below).
-i .' -
N ~ -4A v- '
_ A I -. .
DIVISION OF BEACHES AND SHORES
W. T. Carlton
The Division of Beaches and Shores, created by the 1963 Legislature,
is charged with the responsibility of administering, coordinating and en-
forcing all provisions of law relating to preservation, conservation and
restoration of beaches and shores, including the control of beach erosion
and protection against hurricane and storm damage.
Specific duties assigned by the Legislature include:
1. To conduct, direct, encourage, coordinate or otherwise see to a
continuing program of basic research into problems of beach erosion,
shoreline deterioration and hurricane protection.
2. To prepare a comprehensive, long-range, statewide plan for erosion
control, beach preservation and hurricane protection.
3. To review all plans and activity pertinent to erosion control, beach
preservation and hurricane protection, and provide coordination in
this field among the various levels of government and among the
various areas of the state.
4. To make recommendations to the Board of Conservation relative
to the use of funds in the erosion control account.
5. To assist in the proper regulation of shoreline alteration and de-
velopment by investigating proposed work and making recommen-
dations to the Board of Conservation.
6. To promote sound planning and development of shoreline upland
by devising standards and working closely with local planning and
7. To coordinate erosion control, beach preservation and hurricane
protection activities with waterways, harbors and other water con-
trol and development projects.
8. To provide a clearing service for erosion control, beach preser-
vation and hurricane protection matters by collecting, processing
and disseminating pertinent information.
9. To assist and guide localities in the preparation and execution of
unified erosion control, beach preservation and hurricane pro-
As authorized by the 1967 session of the State Legislature the Division
is staffed by a Director, secretary and two field investigators.
The Division has just completed field work on a comprehensive sand
tracing program for shoreline segments of Martin and Palm Beach Coun-
ties. Results of this program are presently being analyzed and will be
presented in a written report about April 1. This program was authorized
by the Florida Board of Conservation in July 1966 and paid for from
Erosion Control Account funds appropriated by the 1965 session of the
In June 1968 the Board authorized a similar study for the shorelines
of Dade and Broward Counties, and unstudied segments of the Martin
and Palm Beach County shorelines.
These studies are being undertaken by the Board in an effort to gain
more knowledge about the natural processes along our shorelines and also
to determine the total influence navigational inlets have on these natural
processes. Included also is a comprehensive study of the effectiveness of
the various types of coastal protective structures such as groins, seawalls
and breakwaters. These research programs are being conducted for the
Board by the Coastal & Oceanographic Engineering Department of the
University of Florida's College of Engineering.
Statewide Plan for Erosion Control
The preparation and implementation of a comprehensive long range,
statewide plan for erosion control, beach preservation, and hurricane and
storm flood protection, in addition to being dependent on technical infor-
mation supplied by research, is contingent on organized programs, ade-
quately financed, in each coastal county adversely affected by erosion.
In Part II of Chapter 161, Florida Statutes, the Legislature has desig-
nated the Board of County Commissioners in each coastal county as the
beach erosion control authority. Further, the Legislature has provided for
the creation of taxing districts to finance county wide programs. None of
our coastal counties have fully implemented its provisions.
It is the opinion of the Division Director that there is need for some
revision of this chapter. Consideration should be given to making it more
advantageous, if not mandatory, for each county to participate in a program
of erosion control.
Coordination of a statewide plan is dependent on an active program
in each coastal county.
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has completed erosion studies in
several Florida counties. As a result of these studies the Corps has recom-
mended beach restoration programs with varying degrees of Federal
financial participation, depending on public benefit. The Federal financial
participation recommended by the Corps has been small for most of these
recommended projects due to the private ownership of upland along our
shorelines, which results in little or no direct public benefit. If the public
owns or has access to, and unrestricted use of, the beach areas to be
restored in these recommended projects, the Federal Government will con-
tribute one half the initial project cost and in addition will participate on
the same basis in project maintenance.
Erosion Control Activity
The Division has reviewed all plans and activity relating to erosion
control during the biennium. These plans, for the most part, are for recom-
mended projects resulting from studies conducted by the U. S. Army Corps
To date, none of these recommended projects have been constructed.
However, a contract has been awarded for a beach nourishment project on
Virginia Key and Key Biscayne in Dade County. Construction should begin
early in calendar year 1969. This project, previously authorized for con-
struction during 1967, was delayed because Federal funds were not avail-
able. A similar project for the shoreline in Treasure Island is ready for
construction pending release of Federal funds.
Final plans also are being made for beach nourishment projects in
St. Lucie and Broward Counties. Both are Federal aid projects. Initial
construction cost will be furnished by non-Federal interests with later
reimbursement of Federal contributions.
Pending Federal Aid Projects Subject to Future Funding
Location Total Cost Non Federal Cost
Duval County $ 4,300,000 $ 1,900,000
Palm Beach Island 3,400,000 3,070,000
Palm Beach County 3,300,000 3,080,000
Broward County 5,900,000 4,400,000
Dade County 29,500,000 17,700,000
Pinellas County 2,525,000 2,268,000
Brevard County 1,360,000 680,000
Sarasota County (Lido Key) .............. 674,000 434,100
Coastal Structures Regulation
The division received and processed all applications for State Coastal
Construction Permits as required in Part I, Chapter 161, Florida Statutes.
Most of these applications were for groins of various designs. On-the-site
inspections were made in each case by the division personnel. The Coastal
& Oceanographic Engineering Department of the University of Florida's
College of Engineering furnished technical assistance to the division in the
processing of these applications.
Shoreline Planning Activities
Many of the "man-made" causes for shoreline erosion can be attributed
to improper shoreline development. Buildings, swimming pools, seawalls