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Cattle and forage field day. October 14, 2004.

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Title:
Cattle and forage field day. October 14, 2004.
Series Title:
Cattle and forage field day.
Alternate title:
Research report - Range Cattle Research and Education Center (Ona) ; RC-2004-3
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Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Florida
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Ona, Fla.
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Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Florida
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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University of Florida
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Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
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0 UNIVERSITY OF UFLORIDA
Agricultural Experiment Station Institute of Food and Agicultural Sciences


Range Cattle REC, Research Report RC-2004-3

Cattle and Forage

Field Day
October 14, 2004
Ona, Florida













Range Cattle REC Field Day 2004


The University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (LIF/IFAS) extends a cordial welcome to all ranchers, forage producers and industry representatives attending the 2004 Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Day.

The importance of research and the extension of information is never more evident than what has occurred during the five week period in August and September 2004 in which three major hurricanes made landfall on Florida shores. LJF/IFAS has evaluated and released grasses that perform well in wet areas. The importance of animal identification and record keeping becomes most helpful in sorting out animal ownership and herd make-up. The importance of developing and evaluating breeding seasons such that calves are born, raised, weaned and marketed during periods least impacted by summer and early fall hurricanes, and torrential rains common to south Florida.

It is the purpose of LJF/IFAS to help Florida expand domestic and international business, enhance natural resources, provide consumers with a wide variety of safe and affordable food, support community development, maintain a sustainable food and fiber system, conserve and improve environmental quality, and improve the quality of life.

It is the purpose of LJF/IFAS to develop and distribute research information that will keep Florida agriculture profitable and sustainable. The information presented at this field day emphasizes this commitment.








Findlay Pate
Center Director










- Range Cattle REC Field Day
Table of Contents





S c h e d u le o f E v e n ts . 3


Cow and Calf Gains on Creeping Signalgrass and Bahiagrass
R o b K ahn ba ch er . . . 4


Effects of Liming and Nitrogen Fertilization on Bahiagrass Decline
M a r tin A dj e i . 1 3


Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Slash Pine - Bahiagrass Silvopasture
Ik e E z e n w a . 1 9


Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage
John A rth ing ton . 2 5


Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils
P a u l M isle vy . 3 0










- Range Cattle REC Field Day Schedule of Events


A.M.
8:30 - 9:30 9:30

9:40 10:00



10:20 10:40 11:00



11:20 11:40 P.M.
12:00 1:00 3:00


Registration and Coffee

Welcome - Findlay Pate

Extension / Research Interface: Where the Rubber Meets the Road
Larry Arrington

UF / IFAS, Range Cattle REC Importance to Florida's Cattle Industry Mike Milicevic

Cow and Calf Gains on Creeping Signalgrass and Bahiagrass Rob Kahnbacher

Effects of Liming and Nitrogen Fertilization on Bahiagrass Decline
Martin Adjei

Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Slash Pine - Bahiagrass Silvopasture Ike Ezenwa

Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage John Arthington

Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils Paul Mislevy


Steak Lunch

Field Tour

Adjourn










COW AND CALF GAINS ON CREEPING SIGNALGRASS AND BAHIAGRASS

R.S. KaImbacher, J.D. Arthington, and F.M. Pate

The Florida cow-calf industry has historically been based on relatively large pastures with minimal input. While several perennial grasses are commonly grown in pasture, bahiagrass fits well in a system of extensive management and is the major perennial pasture grass with 2.5 million acres state-wide. However, the loss of almost 100,000 acres of bahiagrass in the mid-1990s to tawny mole cricket highlighted the need to identify other grasses with qualities similar to bahiagrass.

Brachiaria grasses have greatly increased the productivity of grazing lands on the infertile, acid soils that cover up to 170 million acres in Brazil. They are high-yielding grasses with reasonable nutritive value. Creeping signalgrass (Urochloa humidicola, syn. Brachiaria humidicola ), a highly stoloniferous species, is sown on about 3% of that area where low soil fertility, imperfect drainage, and extensive management predominate. It shares many of the desirable characteristics of bahiagrass: produces moderate yield with low soil fertility, establishes from seed, and persists with frequent, close grazing. Although creeping signalgrass does not tolerate the wide range of soil conditions and temperatures that bahiagrass does, it is adapted to the wet, infertile soils of the warmer central and south Florida, where the majority of the state's cattle are produced.

Creeping signalgrass was tested in clipping and mob-grazing trials at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) and further south at the Immokalee REC. However, there has been no measurement of livestock production on creeping signalgrass.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

In June 1998, three of six, 5-acre pastures were randomly selected and sown to either creeping signalgrass (Naterra Seed Co., Brazil) or Pensacola bahiagrass at 10 and 20 lb seed/acre, respectively. During the trial, grasses were fertilized once annually with 50 lb N/acre in the spring. Beginning in May 2000 to May 2003, each pasture was stocked with five, pregnant Brangus cows and their calves (1 cow-calf pair/acre). Cattle were rotated weekly among four, 1.25 acre paddocks in each of the six, 5-acre pastures from May to October.

Cows and calves were weighed the first week of August when calves were weaned and removed. Each group of five cows returned to their previously assigned pastures where they remained until the end of October when they were weighed again.

Calf weights were adjusted for sex and mean age at the respective weigh dates. At May, August, and October weigh dates, cows received a body condition score (BCS).










Scores were visual evaluations based on a range of I to 9 with I = very thin cows and 9 very fat cows.

Forage production was determined every 28 d from May to October and available forage was measured weekly from May to October on the day cattle were rotated into successive 1.25 acre paddocks. Hand-plucked samples of grass, which simulated what cattle were eating, were taken for crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestion (IVOMD) determination.


RESULTS

Climatological

Rainfall during the grazing season and temperature in the winter preceding each grazing season varied widely over the 4 yr (Table 1). The driest year on record (62 yr) at the Range Cattle REC was 2000, which was preceded by a relatively warm winter. In contrast, May to October 2001 was the wettest of the 4 yr, and it was preceded by a very cold winter. There were 17 instances of frost from 22 Nov. 2000 to 19 Apr. 2001 with a minimum 230 F, and signalgrass was severely injured. The remaining 2002 and 2003 had more rainfall than that of the 62-yr mean with winter temperatures similar to the norm.

Table 1. Rainfall in the May to October grazing periods, and number of incidences of frost and minimum temperatures in the November-April period before each grazing season.

Rainfall Temperature
Year May June Luly Aug. Sept. Oct. Total Frost Minimum
------------------------- inches --------------------------- -- no.-- --OF-2000 0.05 3.78 4.50 5.25 8.03 2.23 23.84 3 30
2001 1.30 10.58 14.26 10.11 17.76 2.38 56.39 17 23
2002 1.28 13.85 11.05 12.25 5.46 3.14 47.03 7 28
2003 5.36 15.80 4.51 10.09 11.04 1.14 47.94 6 28
62-yr 3.71 8.58 8.51 8.10 7.34 3.10 39.34 8.9 27
Number of instances.
Minimum temperature recorded in each of 4 yr compared with the mean annual minimum temperature over 62 yr.











Cattle
Cows

At weaning in August, cow weight and BCS tended to be greater on creeping signalgrass compared with bahiagrass pastures (Table 2). At the end of grazing in October, cow weight depended on both grass and year (Table 2). For creeping signalgrass, cow weight in October was affected by year while there were no year effects for final cow weights on bahiagrass. With the exception of 2001 when the grazing season was shortened to allow creeping signalgrass recovery after the freeze, cows from signalgrass pastures weighed more than cows from bahiagrass. Cows grazing creeping signalgrass had higher BCS in October compared with cows grazing bahiagrass (Table 2).

Calves

At weaning in August, calf weights and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be greater on signalgrass than bahiagrass (Table 2). Mean age of calves at weaning was 261, 262, 267, and 273 days for 2000 to 2003, respectively. Average daily gain from May to August was affected by year with the ranking: 2000 = 2002 > 2001 = 2003. Note that 2000 was the driest year (Table 1).

Table 2. Effect of grass pasture on various cow and calf responses. 4-year means.


Response
Cow weight, May (lb) Body conditions, May Cow weight, August (weaning) (lb) Body condition , August Cow weight, October (lb)
2000 2001 2002 2003
Body condition , October Calf weight , May (lb) Calf weight#, August (weaning) (lb) Calf average daily gain (lb/day)


Signalgrass
1136
4.8 1139
5.3


1309 a 1179 b
1310 a 1165 b
5.7 433 549
0.66


Grass
Bahiagrass
1132
4.9
1085
4.7


1140 a 1151 a 1173 a 1079 a
4.7 434 519 0.48


tProbability of a difference between grasses.
* Body condition score 1= very thin cows, 9= very fat cows. � Grass x year interaction (P=0.01). Within grasses, means over years followed by the same letter are not different (P>0.05, LSD). # Adjusted for sex and mean age.


pt
0.82 0.52 0.07 0.06


0.0001
0.37
0.0006
0.01 0.01 0.94 0.13 0.07











Forage Production and Available Forage


Bahiagrass forage production exceeded that of signalgrass from May to June, but the reverse was true for July to October (Fig. la). The greatest incremental increase in production for creeping signalgrass was 2700 lb DM/acre which occurred between June (1220 lb DM/acre) and July (3920 lb DMlacre). Much of this was from stems and seed heads. The comparable increase in accumulation for bahiagrass was 1100 lb DMlacre. Between August and October, month to month production was similar between grasses. Annual production was greater for creeping signalgrass (8740 lb DM/acre) than bahiagrass (7520 lb DMlacre).

Available forage was similar for grasses in May and June, but for July through October, there was more available forage in creeping signalgrass than bahiagrass pastures (Fig. lb). After July, much of the forage from creeping signalgrass was stem which formed a residual stubble layer. During the 1-wk grazing periods, cattle ate mostly leaves that had regrown on the stubble layer during the 21-d rest periods.

Nutritive Value

Crude protein in bahiagrass was 11% in May, and it increased above 12% in June followed by a decline to < 10% in September (Fig. 2a). There was a trend for crude protein in bahiagrass to increase in October. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was always significantly lower than that in bahiagrass. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was highest in June (11%) and lowest in September (< 8%).

Creeping signalgrass IVOMD was always greater than that of bahiagrass (Fig. 2b). Greatest IVOMD for creeping signalgrass was 57% in June and lowest IVOMD was to 53% in October. Bahiagrass IVOMD reached a maximum of 50% in July, then declined to 45% in October.

Ground Cover and Insects

Following the 2001winter freeze, signalgrass live-plant cover in April averaged 52%. By late-June 2001, creeping signalgrass ground cover had increased to 85%. Except for the freeze, signalgrass maintained relatively good ground cover throughout the trial. Bahiagrass was the major weed in creeping signalgrass pastures followed by common bermudagrass. Weed presence was more obvious in dry spring months, but following rain in June and the resumption of creeping signalgrass growth, weeds contributed essentially nothing to available forage.

Spittlebug larvae and their spittle masses were found from June to October on creeping signalgrass. Their occurrence was patchy, and populations varied with year. No










insects pests were noted above ground on bahiagrass, but mole crickets were found in traps in pastures of both grasses.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION

Cattle

The comparatively good weight gains of cows grazing signaigrass in the 3-month period after weaning is important because of the need for cows to regain body condition prior to calving, which can be difficult to achieve on bahiagrass in late summer. Body condition at calving is the determining factor influencing return to estrus and pregnancy in beef cows. Abundant rain coupled with mature bahiagrass tend to lower cow-weight gain in late summer and early fall. Creeping signalgrass, a low-input grass on a par with bahiagrass, may have an advantage over the less nutritious bahiagrass and the more nutritious grasses requiring costly management.

Mean calf weaning weights from creeping signalgrass were not substantially greater than bahiagrass. The difference between grasses was minimized because of the relatively short time calves were on trial. Also, a nursing calf is buffered by milk from the cow, so nutritional aspects of pasture prior to weaning may affect cows more than calves.

The difference in calf ADG between grasses for the period these calves were on trial favors creeping signalgrass. Provided cows are in good body condition (BCS > 5), which signalgrass cows were in August, fall-calving cows could nurse calves for an additional 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months. In years when calf prices are high, keeping cows and calves on creeping signalgrass for an additional 60 days could be profitable. This assumes calf ADG would continue at the same rate after early August, however the decline in protein in creeping signalgrass could limit calf growth in August to September. Also, calf ADG may be lower in years with high rainfall.

Forage Production

Annual production on both grasses was abundant, but there were problems with rate and time of growth and the composition of grass growth. In one of the early publications from the Range Cattle Station, Dr. Elver Hodges declared that the major problem with bahiagrass as 'inefficient use of the rapidly-maturing forage'. In this regard, creeping signalgrass intensifies the rate and timing problem because 30%o of annual growth came in a 30-day period beginning with the start of summer rain. Much of this is low-quality reproductive growth that is difficult to utilize under grazing. A stiff, residual, straw-like stubble-layer formed by August, and remained for the duration of the grazing season.










To utilize the flush of growth, stocking density on creeping signalgrass should be temporarily increased at the start of the rainy season. Bahiagrass also has a variable growth rate that creates a problem with proper grazing management, but cattlemen can overlook it. However, it is not likely that creeping signalgrass will meet rancher expectations with set-stocked pastures. Where signalgrass is in commercial use, such as at Deseret Cattle & Citrus, underutilization of early summer growth is a major problem.

While neither grass is really productive in April and May, bahiagrass has an advantage with about 12-18% of annual production in these months. Bahiagrass will respond to a little rain, but signalgrass is essentially nonproductive in April and early May.

Persistence and Adaptability

The greatest impediment to signalgrass persistence will be cold. Based on 62-yr means at the Range Cattle REC, the 230 F freeze we experienced in 2001 has occurred in lof 6 yr. While a winter freeze may not eliminate creeping signalgrass due to the strong stoloniferous habit of growth, cold will render a pasture unproductive and open to weed growth until mid-summer. The first pasture sown to signalgrass was 300 acres at Deseret in 1996, and that pasture has persisted for 8 yr. We suggest that planting of creeping signalgrass pasture be restricted to the Florida peninsula south of Orlando.

While signalgrass is noted to be tolerant of intermittent flooding, we found it had little more tolerance of flooding than bahiagrass. Signalgrass did not grow in ditches and depressions where water (2 inches) remained for several weeks. Signalgrass is not adapted to dry sites.

Spittlebugs could almost always be found somewhere in signalgrass pastures throughout the rainy season. While signalgrass is tolerant, it is not resistant to spittlebugs. The possibility remains that spittlebug could weaken signalgrass pasture just as it does for limpograss pasture in central Florida.

CONCLUSIONS

Although creeping signalgrass has nutritional advantages over bahiagrass, lack of cold tolerance, limited growth prior to June, and excessive growth in July are the main problems that render signalgrass inferior to bahiagrass. Creeping signalgrass could be a valuable part of a bahiagrass-based pasture program on ranches south of Orlando because signalgrass can provide for greater cow weight gain between weaning and calving. It offers the possibility of providing good grazing for fall-calving cows nursing calves for up to 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months of age.











Fig. 1. (a) Cumulative forage production of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass and
(b) Available forage. Means of 2000-2003.






May June July August September October
IIII I

F Fig. la

10000 .1


0 CU ~~8000

0
6000

0
Q
(.
M 4000 CU
0
LL
2000



0





5000



CU 4000



T 3000
o
-0
CU = 2000 CU


1000



0


0-- Signalgrass
- " - Bahiagrass


-V


7- -


I I I I I I
May June July August September October
I I I I II


Fig. lb

- Signalgrass
- -- Bahiagrass
















I I I I II
May June July August September October

Month











Fig. 2. Nutritive value of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass (a) Crude protein and (b) In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Means of 2000-2003.


May June


July August September October


4L4'
May June July August September October

Month


Fig. 2a

-0--- Signalgrass N? 1 - 1 Bahiagrass 11/


\ %%% /


July August September October


Fig. 2b


-- Signalgrass
- -v - Bahiagrass


1/


May June









NOTES:









EFFECTS OF LIMING AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON BAHIAGRASS DECLINE

Martin B. Adjei

Bahiagrass decline, a major problem with our premier pasture grass, usually begins with yellowing of pasture in small or big patches. Later, affected areas turn brown and die and are normally associated with the borrowing and tunneling activity of mole crickets. On damaged areas with high mole cricket population, the surface 6 to 10 inches of soil layer is honeycombed with numerous mole cricket galleries and the ground feels spongy when stepped on. Severely damaged pasture has virtually no root system and is easily pulled from the soil by cattle or foot traffic in a pasture. Research and surveys conducted throughout south central Florida implicate pasture and grazing management factors in mole cricket induced bahiagrass decline.

Nutritional Factors

Soil acidity (pH): Soil acidity refers to the concentration of active hydrogen ions (H ) in the soil. It is measured by an index called pH. The lower the pH, the more active hydrogen ions are present and the more acid the system. A pH of 7 (as is the case for distilled water) is neutral (H+ OHF), and for soil, a pH of 7 is too high for most forages grown in Florida. A pH of 5 to 6 is slightly acidic and satisfactory for most Florida forages to grow. A pH of 4 is too low or very acid and will result in poor root growth or function of most Florida forages.

Nitrogen (N) Fertilization: Soil acidity tends to increase with repeated use of N fertilization, and liming with calcium or calcium/magnesium compounds capable of reducing soil acidity becomes necessary. For example, it requires 60 pounds (lb) of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium nitrate and 1 10 lb of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium sulfate. Increasing soil acidity to pH less than 5 can reduce the availability of boron, molybdenum and sulfur in the soil, reduce pasture production by more than a third, regardless of N fertilization, and predispose grass to yellowing and damage by soil-born insects.

Experiment

In one of our multi-county trials, the Range Cattle Research and Education Center decided to evaluate the long-term combined effect of liming and N-fertilization on bahiagrass pasture performance. We applied three types of fertilizer and a control (no fertilizer) annually to portions of bahiagrass pasture that were either limed to maintain a pH of 5.0 or not limed at a pH of about 4.3. The four fertilizer treatments applied every spring from 1998 to present were: 1) 60 lb/A of N from ammonium sulfate (N), 2) 60-2560 lb/A of N-P205-K20 from ammonium sulfate, triple super phosphate and muriate of potash (NPK), 3) 60-25-60 lb/A of N-P205-K20 plus 20 lb/A of a Frit Industries Inc. micro-nutrients mix which contained B, Cu, Mo, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn (NPKM), 4) no fertilizer control (Cont.). About a ton of lime was applied every two to three years to









maintain a pH of 5 on limed areas. Bahiagrass performance was measured by dry matter yield, crude protein content, forage digestibility, and condition of bahiagrass ground cover in spring.

Dry Matter Yield

Effect of Lime

On one of the pastures at Ona (pasture 71A) and in Pasco and Manatee sites, forage yield was not affected by liming to a pH of 5 throughout the 3-5 years (Fig. 1). The no-lime plots at these sites retained a pH of about 4.5 for the entire period. However, lime treatment increased bahiagrass forage yield by 2400 across all fertilizer treatments on pasture 87 at Ona where the no-lime, fertilized plots showed a pH decline to about 4.3 (Fig. 1).

Effect of fertilizer

Yield increase from fertilizer application compared with non-fertilized control ranged from 18%o on the Manatee site to 3 10% on the Pasco site with the Ona (Hardee) sites in the middle. However, we hardly noticed any clear differences in forage yield among the N, NPK and NPKM fertilizer treatments on the two Hardee pastures and on the Manatee pasture (Fig. 1). On the other hand, forage DM yield increased by 10o when the NPK and NPKM treatments were applied compared with the N only treatment on the deep sandy soil at the Pasco site.

Nutritive Value

Lime application had little to no effect on seasonal average crude protein content or digestibility (IVOMD) of bahiagrass forage but seasonal crude protein content increased by about 2%o units (12%o vs. 10%) with the application of any fertilizer containing N. This protein enhancement attribute of N was greater immediately after N application in spring and diminished with time through the season. Forage IVOVID for the no-fertilizer control was always among the lowest (470%) although improvement with N application varied from site to site.

Spring Vegetative Ground Cover

Effect of lime and Fertilizer

At the beginning of grazing in spring of 1998, all the newly established bahiagrass plots at Ona had an excellent stand of nearly 100%o green ground cover (Fig. 2). Two years later (2000), color of bahiagrass ground cover on plots started to sort out into lime vs. no-lime sections, where all limed plots were completely green in the spring but the color of no-lime plots depended on fertilizer treatment. This interaction between lime and fertilizer treatment became even more pronounced with passage of time. In 2002, five years into the experiment, minimum spring color change or damage to bahiagrass









sward (14% ground cover) was noticed for plots limed to pH 5 whether or not they received fertilizer or for no-lime plots that were not fertilized on both Hardee sites (Fig 2). Damage was most severe (20-69%0 of ground cover) when bahiagrass was not limed but received yearly application of any N-containing fertilizer. The combination of acid soil conditions (pH less than 4.5) and repeated N fertilization seemed to weaken bahiagrass root-stolon system, cause severe yellowing in the early spring growth and made it easier for mole cricket damage to occur.

Effect of Sludge:

Some livestock producers apply lime-stabilized sludge to pastures to reduce the cost of fertilizer and lime. Lime is added in the processing of sludge primarily to control pathogens, insect vectors and odor which makes limed-sludge an excellent source of slow-release plant nutrients (especially N and P), organic matter and lime. During application, the pH of limed-sludge could range between 7 and 11, N content between 300 and 50% of dry sludge , and P content between 200 and 40% of dry sludge. Four years repeated application of limed-sludge at the Range Cattle REC, Ona has shown that, when used at recommended agronomic rate (200 lb N/A), bahiagrass forage production responds well to sludge organic fertilizer and there is no damage to the sward. In those studies, we applied sludge up to 160 lb N yearly and improved annual dry matter yield from 2 T/A where no sludge was applied to 5 T/A. There was no excessive build up of plant nutrients or trace metals in the soil from sludge application and soil pH only increased from 5.0 to 5.3 in 4 years. However, bahiagrass roots cannot function properly to absorb sufficient iron, manganese and other micronutrients when the soil pH approaches 7. Several bahiagrass pastures in Polk, Pasco and Hardee counties where excessive amounts of sludge were applied repeatedly attained a soil pH of about 7 and lost substantial portions of the grass stand to weeds similar to symptoms of bahiagrass decline. It was easy to identify the strips on those pastures where sludge was dumped.

Conclusions

Under grazing conditions in south-central Florida, bahiagrass forage DM yield and crude protein content on typical flatwoods soils improve substantially with N but not with P or K fertilizer application. The situation may be different on the deep sandy soils where the addition of some P and K to N fertilizer could make a difference. Repeated N fertilization without adequate lime application to bahiagrass pastures induces widespread early spring yellowing and eventual stand loss to weeds. In acid soil situations, you are better off first liming to raise the soil pH to 5 or greater before applying N fertilizer. As precautions to using limed-sludge, apply material uniformly over pasture at recommended agronomic rate, monitor the soil p1H every 2-3 years, and alternate limedsludge use with inorganic N-fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate or nitrate in order to stay within the optimum pH range of 5.0 to 6.0.












6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0






4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0


No-lime


Lime


Hardee (87)

Figure 1. The effect of fertilizer and lime application on bahiagrass forage production in south central Florida. Bars represent 3-yr means for Manatee and Pasco sites and 5-yr means for Hardee sites.



17


Hardee (71A) Manatee Pasco

Location





a N
rziNPK a N P K-M-mCant
a
a a
"" axx /
>00 b
>00 b


a N
abe b 2;2N
ZZZ2 NPK k NPKM c r Cont
a

b b a
c b


c










130
(A) Hardee 71A N
120 -777 NPK
� X NPKM
> 110 Cont
C-)
-0 ns ns ns
C 100 a
0
0)b
90 b b

c 80
.M C b


n70

60 x

' 50 x

4 0 -/ .,.,I/ "
All No lime Lime No lime Lime
1998 2000 2002
Year


130 (B) Hardee 87 N
120 - NPK
� NPKM
> 110 M
L) ns a ns C o tns
-o 100 a a
0
90
0)
80 b

c 70 b
~ b
60 ) 50

a 40
> C
-j 30
20
All No lime Lime No lime Lime
1998 2000 2002
Year
Figure 2. The interaction between fertilizer, lime and year on percentage spring live, green bahiagrass ground cover (damage consisted of yellow, brown and weedy cover).









NOTES:









FORAGE/COW-CALF PRODUCTION IN SLASH PINE-BAHIAGRASS SILVOPASTURE

Ike Ezenwa

Grazing of cattle under pines is an age-long tradition in Florida. Under the old practice of forest grazing, cattle ate native grasses, forbs, shrubs and other vegetation. With high cost of land, taxes, and increased production costs, cattlemen are forced to consider new ways of increasing returns from their ranches. In this regard, silvopasture is promising. Silvopasture is a form of agroforestry in which cattle graze sown pastures under planted trees. Greater return from silvopasture could result from diversification as well as intensification of operations on the land. In addition to beef and forage, silvopasture will also yield timber, pine straw, and hunting leases. Thus, overall profitability of silvopasture may be superior to open pasture. There are also environmental benefits of improvement of water quality, soil conservation, and wildlife habitat that are more difficult to quantify in economic terms.

Silvopasture is more complex than open pasture. Successful management demands a good understanding of the interacting components. Forage yields are not significantly depressed by trees the first 10 years after tree planting or in areas that are more than 7 ft from the nearest tree row. Ten to 15 years after planting the tree crowns close and forage yields decline. During this period, tree thinning is desirable, depending on site productivity, target product, and landowner objectives. The double-row configuration in which trees are planted in double rows spaced 8 ft apart with 4 ft within the rows, and 40 ft between double-rows addresses deficiencies of square and rectangular planting patterns in traditional forestry. The double-row configuration maintains the same tree density and timber volume as traditional configurations, but the wider alley between the tree rows maintains open areas for grazing and easier access for application of management practices.

Many silvopasture studies in the Southeast were conducted on soils with better production potentials than the sandy acid soils of south and central Florida. Whereas some locations in the southeast produce better quality timber, and are closer to the mills and timber markets, south and central Florida are in a unique circumstance as cattle are a more important component of silvopasture than timber. There is a lack of information on cattle productivity in silvopasture, and the dynamics of forage production in the system under grazing. The objectives of our study were to determine cattle and forage production in a pine-bahiagrass silvopasture at a critical stage of tree growth (10 to 15 years after tree establishment) and the beneficial effects of thinning tree stands when herbage yields are expected to begin to decline due to tree canopy closure.

Experimental Procedure

The study was conducted on a 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture (pasture 48) at Ona. The trees were established in December 1991 on an I 1-year-old 'Pensacola' bahiagrass pasture at the density of 454 trees/acre in the 4 ft x 8 ft x 40 ft, double-row









configuration. The silvopasture was sown to 'Florida' carpon desmodium (Desmodium heterocarpon) in 1994 and 'Shaw' vigna (Vignaparkeri) in 2001. By 2002, tree survival was 44% or 200 trees/acre after 9 years of grazing. To quantify cow-calf production and the effect of thinning of tree stands, we cross-fenced the 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture into two 20-acre blocks. In the winter of 2002-2003, about 75 inferior trees/acre were cut and removed from one 20-acre block (thinned) leaving about 125 merchantable trees/acre. The remaining 20-acre block (unthinned) contained an average of 200 trees/acre. A 20-acre open pasture (pasture 53 W), also of Pensacola bahiagrass (> 20-year-old) with Florida carpon desmodium and Shaw vigna served as a control. All pastures were fertilized in March with 300 lb/acre of a 16-4-16 fertilizer. All pastures were grazed similarly from March to May 2003.

On 1 June 2003, Braford cows (4-12 years of age) and calves (avg. 112 days of age) were assigned at 1 cow-calf pair/acre to each of the three pastures. Before the cows and calves were placed on the pastures, they were weighed and given a body condition score (BCS). Weights and cow BCS were again obtained in September when cows were removed from pasture and calves were weaned. Calf weights were adjusted for sex and mean age at weaning. Cows had free-choice access to a loose mineral mixture yearround.

Forage production was measured every 42 days during the grazing period. Available forage was determined every 28 days by harvesting forage from a strip of grass from center of alleys to between double-tree rows in each silvopasture and at random in open pasture.

Forage Production and Available Forage

Forage production was greater in open pasture (9090 lb dry matter (DM)/acre) than in the two silvopastures which were not different (avg. = 6685 lb DMlacre) (Table 1). The trends in forage production during the grazing period differed among the pastures. In the two silvopastures, production declined linearly, while in open pasture forage production increased from 27 May to 21 July, then declined through 29 September. On average, more forage was available in the open pasture (2000 lb DM/acre) than in silvopastures (avg. 1220 lb DM/acre) (Table 1).









Table 1. Total forage dry matter production and average available forage (28-days)
on bahiagrass-slash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no
pines). Pastures were stocked with 1 cow-calf pair/acre from 1 June to 15
September.

Pasture Production� Available

- -----------lb (DM)/acre-----Thinned (125 trees/acre) 6270 b 1230 b
Unthinned (200 trees/acre) 7100 b 1210 b
Open (no trees) 9090 a 2000 a

Means in columns followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05).
� For the period 27 May to 29 Sept. 2003.
Means of four, 28-day periods from 27 May to 15 Sept. 2003.



Cow weights and BCS

There were no differences among pastures for cow weights and BCS at the start of the grazing period on 1 June, but at the end, on 15 September all pastures were different from each other for both responses (Table 2). On average, cow weight in the thinned silvopasture decreased from 1096 to 884 lb, from 1150 to 975 lb in unthinned silvopasture, and from 1120 to 1074 lb in open pasture. Body condition scores of the cows decreased 0.3, 1.2, and 1.5 units for cows in open, unthinned, and thinned pastures, respectively. More rainfall was received over the 1 June to 15 September period (36 in) than the 62-year mean (28 in) for this period. In June, pastures were saturated with frequent periods (1-2 week) of standing water (- 1 in).









Table 2. Cow and calf weights and cow body condition scores (BCS) on bahiagrassslash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no pines) from 1 June
(start) to 15 Sept. (end) 2003.

Silvopasture

Thinned Unthinned; Open pasture

Cow weight at start (lb) 1096 a� 1150 a 1120 a
Cow weight at end (lb) 884 c 975 b 1074 a
Cow BCS at start 5.0 a 5.2 a 5.2 a
Cow BCS at end 3.5 c 4.0 b 4.9 a
Calf weight at start (lb) 315 a 317 a 326 a
Calf weight at end, weaning (lb) 392 b 396 b 466 a
Avg. daily gain (lb/day) 1.6 b 1.6 b 2.9 a

* 125 trees/acre.
; 200 trees/acre.
�Means in a row followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05).

Calf weights and daily gains

Pastures were not different for calf weight at the start (1 June, 2003), but at weaning (15 Sept. 2003), calf weight was greater on open pasture (466 lb) than that of calves on thinned (392 lb) and not-thinned (396 lb) silvopastures, which were not different. Calf average daily gain was also greater on open pasture with 2.9 lb/day than on the silvopastures with an average of 1.6 lb/day.

Discussion

Calf weaning weight on the 12-year old silvopasture was 15% lower and cow weight loss was 4 times more than that on open pasture. These represented drastic reductions in livestock production compared with production when the trees were younger. Between March and October 1994 to 1997, when pines were 3 to 7- years old, Drs. Findlay Pate and Rob Kalmbacher measured calf weaning weights on this silvopasture. Stocked at 1 cow-calf pair/acre, the 4-year average weaning weight of calves was 451 lb, which is similar to that of open pasture in the present study. The marked reduction in cattle performance in the silvopasture over the years can be attributed to reduced forage production due to increasing tree growth so that animal demand exceeded the ability of the silvopasture to supply forage. In general, lower forage yields of bahiagrass are obtained under pines than when bahiagrass is grown in open areas.

Thinning pines did not increase forage production or animal output. It is possible that more thinning is required at this stage to further reduce the impact of the trees on forage production. Perhaps, in our region, it may be best to target production of fence









posts or pulpwood, which would mean shorter rotations of 10-15 years, coinciding with the period when trees reduce forage production the most. In this way, trees are harvested for target products and reduction in livestock production is curtailed. The rotation may then be repeated.

Conclusion

If silvopasture is to be an economically viable management option for land owners in central Florida, then increasing value of timber beyond 12 year of age and income from other sources, such as sale of hunting leases, must offset declining returns from cattle.









NOTES:









LIMPOGRASS OPTIONS FOR SOUTH FLORIDA CATTLEMEN:
STOCKPILED FORAGE, HAY, AND ROUND-BALE SILAGE

John Arthington and Findlay Pate

Introduction

Limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) is the second most utilized pasture forage in south Florida. Over the past 30 years, south Florida Cattlemen have benefited from the high dry matter yields, appreciable digestibility, and persistence of limpograss. One important production characteristic of limpograss relates to its superior winter yield, compared to other warm-season perennial grasses. In south Florida, limpograss can be expected to produce as much as 30 to 40 % of its annual growth in the winter months. This unique quality differs from most all other sub-tropical, perennial forages.

At the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (RCREC), we have completed three complete production years investigating the performance of cow-calf pairs grazing winter stockpiled limpograss. Two treatments were compared; 1) 0.75 acres of limpograss and 1.50 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair, or 2) 1.80 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair with supplemental winter hay. All pastures were spring fertilized with 60 pounds N per acre. Limpograss pastures received an additional fall application of fertilizer (60 pounds N per acre). During September, October, and November, cows assigned to the bahiagrass/limpograss combination treatment were grazed primarily on bahiagrass alone allowing the limpograss to stockpile for winter utilization. Cows assigned to the bahiagrass only treatment were provided adequate winter hay to support an average body condition score of 5.0 (moderate condition). Cows assigned to the winter stockpiled limpograss received no supplemental winter hay. All cows were provided five pounds of supplemental molasses (16% crude protein) daily from November 1 to mid-April. A 90-day breeding season was initiated on January 1.
In this study, cows grazing winter limpograss pastures were provided with no winter hay; however, cows grazing the bahiagrass pastures consumed an average of 1400 pounds of hay per cow during each winter season (January to late March). Cows assigned to the stockpiled limpograss pastures experienced a slightly greater loss of body weight during the winter months, but a greater gain in body weight during the summer months, compared to cows grazing bahiagrass pastures and winter hay (Table 1).

Grazing treatment had no effect on calf weaning weight (average weaning weight
547 pounds; SEM = 8.2). Pregnancy rates were also not affected by grazing treatment (average over all three years = 92.2 and 91.6 % for cows grazing bahiagrass and bahiagrass/limpograss pastures, respectively).









Table 1. Effect of pasture forage treatment on cow body weight change during the winter and summer seasons.


Season a Bahiagrass + Hay Stockpiled Limpograss SEM
--------------------- pounds --------------------Winter -88 -115 14.7
Summer 47 65 12.7


aSeasons extend from October to April and April to August for winter and summer, respectively.

This initial 3-year study suggests that 0.75 acres of stockpiled limpograss can be substituted for approximately 1400 pounds of stored hay for wintering lactating beef cows. Considering an average hay cost of $70 per ton along with a standard wastage of 15%o, the value of this stockpiled limpograss would be approximately $110 per acre. Considering these values, stockpiled limpograss may or may not be economically advantageous for south Florida cattlemen. An economic analysis of both pasture systems is appropriate for each individual ranch. Calving seasons that differ from those used in this study may have a significant impact on the value achieved from the limpograss. As well, persistence of stand will greatly impact economic return, as the high-cost of establishment is spread over greater or fewer production seasons.

The current study only investigated the use of limpograss as a winter stockpiled forage source. Although 30 to 4000 of the annual growth of limpograss occurs during the winter months, the remainder is realized during the summer. The greatest portion of this summer growth occurs at a time when producers have adequate available forage on bahiagrass pastures. Realizing opportunities for further utilization of limpograss during the late spring and summer may increase the overall value of this forage resource.

Current Limpograss Evaluations for Cow-Calf Production in South Florida

Using the same limpograss establishment utilized in the 3-year study described above, we are now investigating the value of harvesting late spring hay followed by midsummer round-bale silage. In this system, we will continue to allow for fall accumulation for winter stockpiled grazing.

fiay

In the first year (spring 2004), we fertilized 60 acres of limpograss on March 23 (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Eight weeks later, the pastures were cut and hay harvested. A total of 97 tons of hay dry matter was harvested (1.6 tons dry matter per acre). The average total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein of this hay was 51 and 900, respectively, on a dry matter basis.











Limpograss contains long thick stems, requiring as many as 5 to 7 days of drying to achieve > 85% dry matter for hay harvest. Once the rainy season begins, we have less than a 20% probability of obtaining 3 consecutive drying days (mid-June through August) for hay making. This is an unfortunate situation for our limpograss grazing program, as substantial dry matter yield can be expected during these summer months. This excess summer forage accumulation must be utilized prior to preparation for fall stockpiling. Production of round-bale silage may be an interesting alternative to summer grazing of this material. There are multiple systems available for harvesting and storing forage silages. Dr. Bill Kunkle prepared a review of these systems. This paper is available in the Proceedings of the 12th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium (www.animal.ufl.edu).

In our system, we fertilized the limpograss pastures on May 25 for production of summer round-bale silage (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Coordination of custom harvest and the summer hurricanes kept us from harvesting during this current summer; however, adequate dry mater yield was achieved by eight weeks following fertilization. Clipping estimates suggest that we would achieve six to seven tons of round-bale silage per acre (65% moisture). This would equate to a total of about 2.4 tons of dry matter per acre. Our estimate for custom harvesting this material was $135 per acre or $57 per ton of dry matter harvested. Re-fertilization of this crop immediately after round-bale silage harvest will allow plenty of time for fall forage stockpiling prior to winter grazing, which should begin in late December or early January.

Table 2. Estimated annual harvest of limpograss forage' Item Production, tons per acre Cost, $ per ton
b
Spring hay 1.6 $92
Summer round-bale silage b 2.4 $72
Winter stockpiling and re-growth b,, 3.0 $12
aFertilizer applied prior to hay harvest, round-bale silage harvest and winter stockpiling; (400 pounds per acre of 20-5- 10; $184 per ton; includes custom application). b Custom hay harvest includes $15 per 900 pound bale (85% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. Custom round-bale silage harvest includes $15 per 1500 pound bale (35% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. 'Estimated for a 1000 pound cow provided 0.75 acres for 90 days of grazing (25 pounds of dry matter intake per day).

This limpograss management system allows for the potential production of 7 tons of dry matter per acre (Table 2). The majority of this is harvested during the summer months, when continued accumulation of limpograss is often difficult to utilize. The most efficient use of this forage base occurs over the 90 d of stockpiled winter forage harvest by the cow. This estimated 3 tons of dry matter harvested per acre is realized with only the input of fertilizer. Since the cow is harvesting the material through grazing, the cost of custom harvest is saved. In comparison, the costs for producing spring hay and summer silage depend predominantly on the dry matter yield of this material. Considering


Round-Bale Silage









approximately 5 1 % TDN, these forage products provide us with a cost of $0.09 and $0.07 per pound of TDN. Using these figures, each are reasonable-cost feed sources for cows.

In the hierarchy of use, we would first utilize all the fall stock-piled forage, followed by the round-bale silage and lastly the hay. The stockpiled forage has no sale value. Similarly, the round-bale silage has little sale value due to the difficulty of transporting this high-moisture material. Alternatively, the hay does provide an opportunity for the producer to market excess material not needed to feed the cowherd.

Summary

This production system is currently being evaluated at the Range Cattle REC. This evaluation will continue over the next three production cycles. The value of this system may be realized by both large extensive ranches and smaller intensive production operations. In the scenario described above, it may be possible to produce as much as 7 tons of usable forage dry matter per acre annually. Using a 1000 pound cow at 2.5% annual forage dry matter intake (% body weight) as an example, this forage system may support as much as 1.3 cows per acre. This is a clear advantage in terms of stocking rate; however, intensive management is required. At a minimum, three management inputs are needed, 1) three annual applications of a complete fertilizer, 2) hay and round-bale silage storage, and 3) equipment for handling and feeding the stored forage. In addition, producers that do not own their own hay and silage harvesting equipment are very dependent upon scheduling of custom harvesters. Considerable planning and coordination will be required for the successful implementation of this management system.









NOTES:









INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND PERSISTENCE OF
RHIZOMA PEANUT ON FLATWOOD SOILS

Paul Mislevy, A.R. Blount, K.H. Quesenberry, and M.J. Williams

There is a need in peninsular Florida for a long lived, persistent, warm season perennial legume that will tolerate somewhat poorly drained soils. In central Florida consistent establishment of warm season annual legumes has been difficult due to inconsistent moisture at seeding. In addition, establishment and persistence of many perennial legumes have not been satisfactory due to climatic extrems. Dr. Buddy Pitman tested hundreds of legumes over a 12 yr period at Ona and found one legume [Vigna parkeri (Shaw vigna)] that would persist under grazing in a bahiagrass sward. Growers are reluctant to buy seed of Shaw Vigna because seed costs are about $13/lb and must be imported from Australia. Legume research has been conducted at Ft. Pierce for over 30 years and more than 1000 entries were tested with only one long term persistent cultivar (Florida carpon desmodium) in use today. These examples indicate the difficulty in developing a legume that will persist in central Florida with or without a grass. Rhizoma peanut (Arachis), currently being tested at Ona is a long-lived, warm season, persistent perennial legume, adapted to well drained soils.

Studies were conducted over a 4-year period at Ona to determine the influence of rhizoma peanut entries and stubble height (SH) on forage yield, nutritive value, and persistence on a poorly drained soil. Peanut entries consisted of Arbrook, Arbrook Select, Florigraze, Ecoturf, PI 262826, PI 262833, and PI 262839. Peanuts were clipped at 1 and 4 inch SH. Annual fertilization consisted of 300 lb/A 0-10-20 + 0.5% Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe (sulfate form), 0.05% B and 1% S.

Results

Higher dry matter yields were obtained when peanuts were harvested at a 1 inch SH (5.1 ton/acre) compared with the 4 inch (SH 3.4 ton/acre). However differences between SH disappeared after 3 years of clipping resulting in similar dry matter yields between both SH. Yield decreased an average of 68% for Arbrook and Arbrook Select between the initial and 3rd year of clipping and increased 36% for PI 262833 during the same time period (Table 1).









Table 1. Influence of perennial peanut entry on total dry yield over years.

Year
Peanut entry 1 2 3 Change
----------------- Ton/acre 0-- -Arbrook Select 8.3 3.8 2.6 -69
Arbrook 8.3 3.5 2.8 -67
P1 262839 6.3 3.3 3.4 -45
P1 262826 6.2 3.3 4.5 -28
Florigraze 5.4 3.5 3.6 -34
Ecoturf 4.1 3.2 4.0 -1
PI 262833 3.2 2.8 4.4 +36



Forage Nutritive Value

Generally no difference was found in crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestion between the 1 and 4 inch SH. Crude protein averaged 1800 and digestibility 69%o over two SH and a 3 year clipping period.

Persistence

Perennial peanut is more persistent when plants are clipped back to a 4 inch SH compared with a 1 inch stubble. Average peanut ground cover after 4 years of clipping was 91%o for the 4 inch stubble and 66%o for the 1 inch SH. These data suggest taller stubble have better persistence. Plants clipped at the tall stubble were always above the water level regardless of the rain event. Some peanut entries were more water tolerant regardless of SH. PI 262833 averaged 96 and 100%o ground cover and Ecoturf averaged 76 and 100%o ground cover for the 1 and 4 inch SH, respectively.

Root mass was measured at the end of the study to determine if the 4 inch SH had a greater root/rhizome density than the 1 inch stubble. Data indicate harvesting perennial peanut over a 4-year period, at a 1 inch SH decreased root mass by 4400 when compared with the 4-inch SH. This would indicate clipping peanut plants at a 4-inch SH allows plants to continue top and root growth even under poorly drained soil conditions.

In summary harvesting rhizoma peanut at a 4-inch SH will generally produce lower forage yields for about 2 years after establishment. However, after 2 years of clipping above ground yields were similar for both the 1 and the 4 inch SH. Forage quality is generally similar for both SH, however, persistence and root mass are always in favor of the taller SH.









NOTES:




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'22299' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPUY' 'sip-files00004.pro'
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e0534105d8f6d7a5b2c1ade80080cf187fc12fed
describe
'13730' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPUZ' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
27dabcf6f514aafcd13533d59d98e33d
4837a0a0b25ca262b06fe8f0424ea2ed10c33209
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVA' 'sip-files00004.tif'
b317bf4e4586014aad1468b96a0b4221
27b1df28178c5177c151bc4e9adbf39b83b0428c
'2016-06-17T14:02:31-04:00'
describe
'954' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVB' 'sip-files00004.txt'
0fea9b3d6fce6225ed5c9757e3bf24d2
d3e55d0bd19f2d3b378607fbc79792b30a4e88f1
'2016-06-17T14:02:29-04:00'
describe
'4964' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVC' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
eff8f8f7fc5551eff37bd119d69a65a7
5f0ead0ab1acfc50d49b20ca6d44dace951f39a7
'2016-06-17T14:02:50-04:00'
describe
'1051954' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVD' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
1f14b8ffb4f38ff7e254b34c2b3be61c
c4e2540e793093d5f56887e37988a2f9bdd46b48
describe
'110010' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVE' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
783f4c82cefe6506b6a42bb337a5518b
eb46dc92fb8c172ca72e476b978ff0f129aa3144
'2016-06-17T14:02:46-04:00'
describe
'71074' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVF' 'sip-files00005.pro'
f9990ebfe610559fd6040b972b6d4377
379afc10c7800567f23e19bde4100317de3b3afb
describe
'29796' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVG' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
65284876f29cfebc050961b5afabccd0
2a53410c79c816e6061763965b58b7aeadc0dd34
'2016-06-17T14:02:58-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVH' 'sip-files00005.tif'
44d40c5e579e52352c34bffcfd646595
07e6dca2a12b797d8bad3e5769641a43116097e4
describe
'7417' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVI' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
3db3ee833c093efe1e6ea4a77d8135c4
90d2d0ff0ccdfcdb2b768dd510a4f515996e12fe
'2016-06-17T14:03:06-04:00'
describe
'1032353' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVJ' 'sip-files00006.jp2'
55dfc1ceeaba8417a5f05f070a9c08c3
c8c7396b790c458e24b1671e046b9b493dc4c4a6
'2016-06-17T14:02:21-04:00'
describe
'79726' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVK' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
53b0e7b96e36106a125ad717ab0559d6
51b065af3e812b2618332c4ae7d5eee97e509d5c
describe
'49416' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVL' 'sip-files00006.pro'
d11aeff4a1df66662ce47b631fb05bb0
a86168d4a0c8091b3e2c38b8ed6832ad026f0c38
'2016-06-17T14:02:00-04:00'
describe
'21508' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVM' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
442945bd4c3f54c0db804a4e192304e8
c4a072480bf629b69c635279d7de53411a8030ca
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVN' 'sip-files00006.tif'
43d2c3f318f8fbd1bcf0dee2bb690b1c
0898589544ac47ea9e865fdc612e4a3a0bafa1af
'2016-06-17T14:02:53-04:00'
describe
'2113' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVO' 'sip-files00006.txt'
905f3250d80807f271f771c382fb22d3
a2a973622e2b9a588f216767953ebba884ca985e
'2016-06-17T14:02:36-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
'5916' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVP' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
7e03e6c915eca717b39788cbc4692984
e0d3df32a927e138c05d0123336dd60509f7193d
describe
'1051885' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVQ' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
58a32e893c76eda6df650c081093c2a2
2c3597bcba63850eb0fa7cd54f75bf1bfba6c071
describe
'84560' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVR' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
b0c9ede410e247307dfb8a91a3044e73
3fafd875dbab3e8e38827d7334bdcd617c353db0
'2016-06-17T14:03:03-04:00'
describe
'51835' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVS' 'sip-files00007.pro'
10143c13b02f6055c396453a6ea3cbb0
47049e523e6610774bbd4307d5b22624df28a86f
describe
'21995' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVT' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
180a1fd7e111889e5f350b6351e73413
5ac958c1f9ba86b6114920ecc22d65aef1924dc3
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVU' 'sip-files00007.tif'
d3122418c7f053f334e1e9a177bfcce6
a0d7129f4ba0d80b16db69f3b99c56e22716930d
describe
'2136' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVV' 'sip-files00007.txt'
a5bfc8de6ebe5e6e403e4feb824a241c
94b31d5896d4a63b9d373c9d390f5ca66f119837
'2016-06-17T14:02:44-04:00'
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'5921' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVW' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
609909ab8229ecdecc13f38e5809a73b
aaebdc3c4af03125c960ac5cb2d22ea19d7237a8
describe
'104757' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVX' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
41030b3871de75421779745d63304853
9d18e006971a590691ee830a3468fe515ef8000c
describe
'65764' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVY' 'sip-files00008.pro'
b6a8ddb9a127fb8b000a33e8f0a74337
7a60c38edf123750af69e47e898ec089a17b8cfc
'2016-06-17T14:03:00-04:00'
describe
'27457' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPVZ' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
8d8149f677c37fa84b95b47093ab90c3
462a187f3026fd2c36a5378d41c95dc74f71ae2a
'2016-06-17T14:03:01-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWA' 'sip-files00008.tif'
b5c8348407d64571673bb2196bfb6e4f
7f49c45ec2dbdf4c7ed3109d52558eade4addc5b
'2016-06-17T14:02:32-04:00'
describe
'2665' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWB' 'sip-files00008.txt'
95fc40f12c9cad0e469063182305d32c
fddab1f933f0e277d2f4a88a53309e55062e9116
describe
'6875' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWC' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
3eadbcd7f96771e9cf346511c13d7c6d
10f9bb58e28969364a4f7b028dda2c2100ff049e
describe
'1051971' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWD' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
886a411ae953d317b93810c9bea20f81
ff64b9bda308fe9d6e7f75d9aa4792d918754d18
describe
'106570' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWE' 'sip-files00009.jpg'
9617bd7054019b341c4ce3224a7b47a2
c884f62f52d29414f46d97d5f391a450d467b16f
'2016-06-17T14:01:59-04:00'
describe
'67757' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWF' 'sip-files00009.pro'
eddbe237bf04701ad1fda72768c875f2
c321785a08b62ef5ce50d61a82cd9c1c97684417
'2016-06-17T14:02:48-04:00'
describe
'26889' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWG' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
9578d17af5dd385e14f967f45a77abe3
f238418e6aef6fe34f39893e537bc9bf746a5f68
'2016-06-17T14:02:05-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWH' 'sip-files00009.tif'
9cb2a9ba6e0c26965f36a09de2eda7cc
948225094f1775e5caab512741cdfc428668f2db
'2016-06-17T14:02:57-04:00'
describe
'2707' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWI' 'sip-files00009.txt'
224981b833eeb7d252fb8326520d84d8
c36505bb88ae5253e17e25d2ce08f67b526bfce5
describe
'7054' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWJ' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
39d036e7ec672ff00d2b4c37fae186eb
97273d5411d0491c758c74ac30c3f9632628e1eb
'2016-06-17T14:02:41-04:00'
describe
'1051931' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWK' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
d81d150838b69cd1a7d3dbaef8bc5174
d6f5faf04a8530ddfab499c328c356c3c7a13dcb
'2016-06-17T14:02:49-04:00'
describe
'105949' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWL' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
a4cc479958a669591a4afb2ab42db6e2
d5190962552e493eb43eef1672f1b6c002bcc447
describe
'68495' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWM' 'sip-files00010.pro'
1b4d89cf1237676890ab10ded4b534f4
97940a7cf6d4da64f44025d556f2cccfe5a37ba6
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWN' 'sip-files00010.tif'
bfa8b09caba26808a7055834ce2a3109
271aeb814b98a890f20a3d5b29dd76eab3236afb
'2016-06-17T14:02:38-04:00'
describe
'2718' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWO' 'sip-files00010.txt'
32cc665f0f165188e0f939b33314dc09
f21ad079eb2b3406ba01c8979f2dd7177f5edb0f
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'6957' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWP' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
8ce4dad851de31ec6bf72f9a9f7843a8
ac882052c9e463006558a955723eb226c8626974
describe
'405352' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWQ' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
b791b02393d84b13e81823876b3ac80d
03a9f87767380c08bbe8bacc64535e5b00d7d5e0
describe
'39399' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWR' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
b2a04312fd3642ac4a96fb3908684595
23ec6c04daffc0451ad1fefc16fcfb7a666d8e4c
describe
'13852' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWS' 'sip-files00011.pro'
8b1102e7cdaf3136f736a9dd31880d8f
ffa6ade2172e7f98d61863934bb0867a3881b06c
describe
'13391' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWT' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
f3a638832fde35cef782415f5208f0a2
2d9905dca01c8794b8b1b1e2c9428820f167698d
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWU' 'sip-files00011.tif'
0434e5a421a04eb289ba334d9bd3f5f6
604d67585f024aabcb9743d09a64d298503012ea
describe
'796' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWV' 'sip-files00011.txt'
4216afed2b3110070b8d3b00a444c6bf
f666ae17aa6270733b20ed2fcc7f3fd03368e1c1
describe
'4252' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWW' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
e4449e86190a437cfd79f3166630828f
9dd2d05576242b9a76713701ae69b751fdda32a7
describe
'380083' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWX' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
331659f6f4295bf4d29ff6a0e903a0ac
13b4d12cf97f5c91ca19543f91cf7217f147f677
describe
'37316' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWY' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
df44ee90503010b047df2a2ea8a1f70d
3623a158723bfef064dbceb2d2aa3d572929889e
describe
'13284' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPWZ' 'sip-files00012.pro'
a6462be64f064b646a8d98147561e0fd
cab5048e2e117893fd3e1ffac9555d505598a930
describe
'12543' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXA' 'sip-files00012.QC.jpg'
b31064ef9d4dd468011250d7858c1da5
ecb0f72bc00c33a1ae1d9088c3a52a26aa0afe73
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXB' 'sip-files00012.tif'
04108d0f7dab77df96e70a7dc02257d5
899f8ba93cd949d48383a403e86563ed23eee05b
describe
'747' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXC' 'sip-files00012.txt'
39621da4b278e3076869022c7cb14ae0
4b60178518b07d3f20484753140a1a7ef0410a03
'2016-06-17T14:02:40-04:00'
describe
'27041' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXD' 'sip-files00003.pro'
4cff67596e9b49121481afa37a1d9771
ad387860284dc28f66b14e03e347eaf0c596d05d
describe
'2804' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXE' 'sip-files00005.txt'
e79c3d87564aad7a8a52a02972ea769e
97551797c93a4aa41f1e5c43c8f02ad013fd7100
describe
'1051975' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXF' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
96fc56bd38d138aff4a8caeba2685d69
54e57d1ac7b4dfb22037f0c8fae5d5b3ef7e417c
describe
'26986' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXG' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
d3d7ad176281644ea55c10b0f4eefee8
e2f79d0a49703fbcf660925423276425ac410e30
describe
'100398' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXH' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
2132b57215940ce39e697660a4f41e11
00b9a476664dc3b1d4d847d2e77abec041a2b53c
'2016-06-17T14:02:56-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXI' 'sip-files00017.tif'
35e3783b3a54c7ef401c8d6432015c25
290eb9a03e0381767759b5b10988658672843bed
describe
'1289' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXJ' 'sip-files00019thm.jpg'
075c7485e1a72d922f43e97c28d93b02
5a6a8c7b63f3f53b79d1aaedb7886aa746835f6d
describe
'36766' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXK' 'sip-files00022.pro'
f63fad7f83ae4968a96f500add4203d3
9417a389781bae3dfb74dc6e84c5881a802fe15e
describe
'591' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXL' 'sip-files00024.txt'
6463256cb1dabe1446e2f2065ac73a43
69fa801bce6c7cdd3b4af13de1a4bb67501e5982
'2016-06-17T14:02:01-04:00'
describe
'1051935' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXM' 'sip-files00027.jp2'
307af4650432ee202878b43a45f190f4
af28366120f6e11c902bb7ab2c9d081620c17663
describe
'19093' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXN' 'sip-files00029.QC.jpg'
029c73a7ecd64bc0db8e26aadb919bb0
3edcb328c222b86a9dfba054ed74aa3eb1d07262
describe
'4191' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXO' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
e59b0236196a64b1643d9156775f0f2e
394d049936cde0d38108e7fbfb319b8482c7f54e
describe
'15838' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXP' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
ecd58dfc881a2ce61079e8596e57c4ab
efce1a8f23afe95b6c3f62924a123fb9f1e737df
describe
'9373' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXQ' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
fa4b8939f7de5a406a8c016fc12c9126
4776ee3e2f9e93758cb0a6f7fac733cefcf0bdfe
'2016-06-17T14:02:35-04:00'
describe
'436' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXR' 'sip-files00013.pro'
546eeea7f74b1f688c7553170667c788
01b75d546b9b8dc0565ffa80d83a5d28e002542c
describe
'3014' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXS' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
f2beb094757be500e5a33a0c1f4086b4
ad3759925def7f667afb4f5c4cba993725dc64c9
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXT' 'sip-files00013.tif'
d65d1743900351a4def6bee3683f429a
f41d7d98476c05e724a3dc515e07f5e4a21352a4
'2016-06-17T14:02:59-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXU' 'sip-files00013.txt'
33e9ad4c20b8df3b3a3359c4ae4787c8
2da682fff9c990d04b3391cbec51f83b20f1fd9b
'2016-06-17T14:02:26-04:00'
describe
'1288' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXV' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
f26ce6860475762c32641c9ec733f25e
e08e8ac595789894c142d69336e10d0a69e5ecb4
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXW' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
56a38a9b525c03524828c69fd93f3a9b
26b9aeefafffd47a70550451f02848691c36229e
describe
'118758' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXX' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
c1c3c7b09951e465f96116a12ebfebe7
366e0bb780725165dd76d11ef12270bdfb50f503
describe
'78133' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXY' 'sip-files00014.pro'
445c448a68fe579d1c7ca8132d01dc4c
f1db5942b10f0dba8546f57ccfa57b452c9e24fb
describe
'30120' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPXZ' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
b366efe11a84501fdacd58db03ba6f36
b610edde656b3dd158100912950671ab2ce0f543
'2016-06-17T14:02:06-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYA' 'sip-files00014.tif'
2763be65e6df42c0ef9a7ce17c348797
a3547e92f69e58b389d44ee66121ed53f5296225
'2016-06-17T14:02:20-04:00'
describe
'3089' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYB' 'sip-files00014.txt'
3a3b5a087c46bf64d61fde5315745894
74feb2468f3574717b1a57def09809008d6d0e57
describe
'7580' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYC' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
b004ee6220cff7c3e257790df954c606
30418569cd202b38d8341e77bffb2abd5f9015d5
describe
'1051968' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYD' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
a435f7d4c0590d6ec534f8365586c8be
e6a37508d58903604911f664ed2ba2aae85cb8aa
describe
'65531' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYE' 'sip-files00015.pro'
0893acdb466e035e384a79c61d886cdf
0ea78a21ec99959db8c187ea2d032138055ebd33
describe
'26170' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYF' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
f505cfbb040be4d2893994a12b083267
95ba3142545247f4879bd9de7d88eb58bb54ed54
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYG' 'sip-files00015.tif'
e9f8cebe0d6a50a5cc28d36fc9a223b0
e3771e7448b19e458dde68e4a6f2c45cc69b6cb2
describe
'2564' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYH' 'sip-files00015.txt'
0215b03813e8375fa30971dcee98c416
b1d51e34b911569774813efad1a0e73c1ec0aac7
describe
'6952' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYI' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
67627a9cb398b60be669caa2ce75ecfe
9e7d92b98735a61ff6525f596e06737f5f202df3
describe
'1051958' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYJ' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
461fb21aead61a78bff90321f1d85fe9
b9dfb860e2c284bc08fe01f23d1cc7644b454b36
describe
'122813' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYK' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
b5a79bd1e9ffb20ec3699687aca75311
993b1e1d6c508865f1de2a1a0b1f2961e0ed311b
'2016-06-17T14:02:23-04:00'
describe
'80277' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYL' 'sip-files00016.pro'
a319dcaa261ff41ddedfd766b0760f87
f130e5cbdac718d9f4dfd0a933f8472e18c46557
describe
'30609' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYM' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
979bd7e29d9820e1641eaff6e8345f5f
f23998f40d0293b42b27e6ab7d76dafc1a58da57
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYN' 'sip-files00016.tif'
c578c3f9c311e723ff37f5a1ab034a20
241350b4379c7c664e3c8f64abf3201f879dac13
describe
'3117' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYO' 'sip-files00016.txt'
69255f6cc27984a9890f0bcc94d68460
5427c5c8e548d928e00ba14eb532c19af14804ce
describe
'7378' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYP' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
fda96b066409a8845910b91e36d0b014
71d287d55132f2d53367af7f5ba3b3aa610236a6
describe
'870379' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYQ' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
aed09c2847e60cc6dc7ba2045611189f
d7ec6605e4477a0d3ed4278324d9baf252c4a398
describe
'68669' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYR' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
8c43372c1303e27ab6844a9112d2ba31
c47d150e9c3c5c0b690dee24faacb7193d422cf1
describe
'16788' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYS' 'sip-files00017.pro'
50268fe51fcba05164b3b5c50238747b
1f5f177496b11561c3f68f5cfeadf5e910d1260b
describe
'18426' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYT' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
adaad293b9b15861ff025d48fc879607
f6b6054dde1285c942661d49f672ffb3b0560e60
describe
'1160' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYU' 'sip-files00017.txt'
3f1c237888469fa848b614fa66804f75
13cc012b865f98ca0b2375e6117b58e2be81ac61
describe
'5130' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYV' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
cbfc850c86b8b6208e9d2c67b1187c7d
8068e3bbc1a72cb8939463445ebde4b1513693bb
describe
'827519' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYW' 'sip-files00018.jp2'
1ef119ec0d385ce98398f6ce0c149a35
5ba6b1cc2dcc330ff020c877e49f6c2c80a6585f
describe
'66120' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYX' 'sip-files00018.jpg'
5e40aeaaaf9dc1c4ef36da11dc49160a
a70cebea5b84dda8d113adb80a337587e2cf541e
describe
'25385' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYY' 'sip-files00018.pro'
72962e2a95b2bf1772e54b966cb574ee
0ee422885ac7734081bca97d1bffc0d9599f3dbf
describe
'19242' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPYZ' 'sip-files00018.QC.jpg'
b3101f91b9206b39f3932e540c7547a8
481eebec3fe6b5d12ed57da9566755b1bce7b80e
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZA' 'sip-files00018.tif'
921e8436bb8bb8256100e3fe058ce27d
14dce80c05f8a8d57c30e7ea170724fa350741df
describe
'1521' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZB' 'sip-files00018.txt'
c4c772adf21648bf4b64478173b3941c
5b982dd98758df554641a56919561b987bcf3bc1
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'5433' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZC' 'sip-files00018thm.jpg'
aba801b58182102430eafa97ce5db2a3
a50700b4a21c3229ec0c99bc1e701cd2da37f25b
describe
'15918' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZD' 'sip-files00019.jp2'
14c535661979f139a64175049a268a33
2591d1aa48ed066718c181ad612712d2bf855d3a
describe
'9371' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZE' 'sip-files00019.jpg'
71fb742dbbc324257e4a453e3134eff3
12e58198ffa13c31ba790564b5a10246233074b4
'2016-06-17T14:02:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZF' 'sip-files00019.pro'
32d87701cd1a86e0b61a478c5fd3fcff
ac42aacd893f7e0c63892b41331721bf6b48d566
describe
'3003' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZG' 'sip-files00019.QC.jpg'
a6a8bf9e09cf365970a6e3455f77358c
af70c30a766c4e3c9ba0f4df5f6700b6d3d034f2
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZH' 'sip-files00019.tif'
de1e678727a8ae781be9cc80ee8c4cf5
ec4645cd6f9440918dddd8a34aa13d88b538d97d
describe
'1051927' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZI' 'sip-files00020.jp2'
a698126287a29f882dde7c22748b80a2
ec7ff43dba4ec749ac4d5a04703b7e129b5784da
describe
'123746' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZJ' 'sip-files00020.jpg'
679c78eac4a947daa954e64a4f9996d3
fc4d37e55922eac77f8ddc6daafbfbdd80bd9b8d
describe
'82318' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZK' 'sip-files00020.pro'
18b6b349b89116129fb768ac4e01a450
abfb5ac8e1642d8b71cb8fc599ce91d7fa7a58d1
describe
'31768' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZL' 'sip-files00020.QC.jpg'
e6dc01ab9e85ce5f7990418e18541b26
7be03f28ec05b40110bd308455bd29d07bde48d3
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZM' 'sip-files00020.tif'
1a9fcb935ad2a8e4b48c2bb5058712c3
026536dbf3bbe8a2cbccaf5f98c34cf64bc3753e
describe
'3271' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZN' 'sip-files00020.txt'
cfb77f2a7c83da0085778a9b9753cca2
d87af01199cb40f20b1d83e1e2362e4b1d772e9e
describe
'7815' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZO' 'sip-files00020thm.jpg'
ec64cfa2f9724b189f94507cbd655525
01bb34b9bd1ab04c5d92f1dc35f521bc0c6b7f5a
describe
'1051945' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZP' 'sip-files00021.jp2'
218a710ba12d2621c539a36242ded37b
1bdf30836caee058ff52b441e53be26bfbd2067f
describe
'94007' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZQ' 'sip-files00021.jpg'
f6d0169982bcab5b7d4b0e3608fab30e
1098920902e2092897ae124a2792ab5e9aca8c3c
'2016-06-17T14:02:04-04:00'
describe
'59502' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZR' 'sip-files00021.pro'
01afca9c012d057b829b4fd52a84f668
1c8e8af35f18628ce5022d7cf0e823047e03da7e
describe
'24530' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZS' 'sip-files00021.QC.jpg'
d68ddb07fe0437575acc3fbb9196c428
1b6b9577d5f141182d7b8351e8659db202f6f1e5
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZT' 'sip-files00021.tif'
28db20b587d9599ed441b2a65f870622
28cb034cca5d25a54ac853f82db3d0e27afcbf94
describe
'2336' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZU' 'sip-files00021.txt'
ce9caaaecbdb482f898787e526e05ebf
7d2ef10e02a225fec925200478660c6be4b29a6a
describe
'6275' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZV' 'sip-files00021thm.jpg'
a11dee526dbb97383c8a8a7dded79997
d1d2c4b2c0e39ad44076567502da734d41f2a625
describe
'793350' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZW' 'sip-files00022.jp2'
88ee570310a4c31275f50525b360c004
00c1e24effac3b7e6b46f9163577d93e78bb3184
describe
'62168' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZX' 'sip-files00022.jpg'
271e8dfa34823c0d7cca7d98635a6464
1a362f173ab74bfdaad5cb2c623124484e9d52e0
describe
'17840' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZY' 'sip-files00022.QC.jpg'
9c1cadc19528bdb49f192888c95b68ff
2b8ffc70f3f167a74f1006a051d86cc6862574dc
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADPZZ' 'sip-files00022.tif'
c5dbe5cbfa5ac5d6ece0c243746195d1
509bef5b9edcab107bf464874ce3446a3ba2ad83
'2016-06-17T14:02:02-04:00'
describe
'1627' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAA' 'sip-files00022.txt'
8fc67e1bccd36db39b4b18b28f1950ea
dbe075fdf3b76b15fdb783655aebbf279574ece1
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'4915' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAB' 'sip-files00022thm.jpg'
2f32688d00461a371f48330f77418910
56a42ee9a99209c5eed04227c9e433c49fc8cc94
describe
'1051985' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAC' 'sip-files00023.jp2'
848a08b1c13a245a832d43cee759bc8f
38a37586e7e4af747250fb41a428dcc8411d7175
describe
'94606' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAD' 'sip-files00023.jpg'
35e6e18a1262ac5101e49ec0e4c7f7c8
c93c9514b699c58fcc927a8a39b80c9e54d97cc2
describe
'63419' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAE' 'sip-files00023.pro'
691fb97611067c53d09d8ebd20270039
e50a06ad489d07cae0788a132bf962a8a51c7894
describe
'26557' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAF' 'sip-files00023.QC.jpg'
10f9f8a1c0fa558204f1803bcefe7a2c
7b11dab8749b7d4cd432f48e56bc5a2a8c25dfdf
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAG' 'sip-files00023.tif'
67153703a90bb7893559432fc78eba44
2550f05b6141aedcc50ab221d5ca74b25be8e024
describe
'2713' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAH' 'sip-files00023.txt'
d1322229738fb0223978667ef207b4a4
d688c5958a711adfae87e426e4b24021004b50fd
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7015' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAI' 'sip-files00023thm.jpg'
6af7eacf53c7727dfdd93e93e6ae4c3b
733b638b2ed00eabba23f6bcb7995b947d2f6364
describe
'326838' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAJ' 'sip-files00024.jp2'
aca24e3ecad51cd0b69479c89d9d142c
ab06513f6790a33dd151d9249b6407219d7036e4
describe
'28996' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAK' 'sip-files00024.jpg'
73e5bad3b64d26eb2461c903c54e345d
f5f1695957f1367750b665daab640eaf351725c5
describe
'14830' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAL' 'sip-files00024.pro'
31543de2a7f184306b21eb4393658aed
d479693e3651d5fccd5906f36ac08a158f720f14
describe
'8179' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAM' 'sip-files00024.QC.jpg'
cdce1972bf061f55a10b19d3173387a0
e527518e5d3bee0f1d710f9c34db1ba19afd7d2f
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAN' 'sip-files00024.tif'
f3cee00ff6587e1651b26c8135d4b656
c556bee2c255c3b1fb116f95065a6cbd8db42e76
describe
'2681' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAO' 'sip-files00024thm.jpg'
af111060a849897a13574e054a0c5644
bf5bc1e6d7332d43a554435717509350b4a831a0
describe
'16262' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAP' 'sip-files00025.jp2'
5df5a5f7b45eff8f05ee887a009c5f6c
85b66cb2ddce0aa594e8c55cbc976b8011218b81
'2016-06-17T14:02:19-04:00'
describe
'9377' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAQ' 'sip-files00025.jpg'
358612a6873ed08291097b389c596360
430355f99fe5dc1fcb59b94c8276ea5876205616
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAR' 'sip-files00025.pro'
017a36a1450540e1b5b6d6099ca7b807
ec9addb526664453532ae5da0612c4d2acd24ac2
describe
'3013' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAS' 'sip-files00025.QC.jpg'
6aebc86b93a1e8d7d7011004de16a697
35b1e43629ebaadf78a470ebe943f8e34f001026
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAT' 'sip-files00025.tif'
3c4a07d9ebe5177e6e04375d2e4c982b
528dfd1a81d6970720169cf77f88afd1d33cd9b0
describe
'1291' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAU' 'sip-files00025thm.jpg'
79ad2ac463ca9b184fe833467269f02b
0d3bf5919d323fcac1cd518cf28c5622f4d0d329
describe
'1051966' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAV' 'sip-files00026.jp2'
7a43df8fca3f6095cfd1bc2f84c6b147
bf6e382bd35b14f2c65e0bc66069e2b1d8b361fd
describe
'111058' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAW' 'sip-files00026.jpg'
f9eaaf414f39b165caba3db98f126d5c
deb570ae984e5b42d225f475c2742d50d3609eba
describe
'70689' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAX' 'sip-files00026.pro'
58ddb4cc73d0958fd123949c0096f741
7b3690313a6293ee7000b86c3264098bead0e383
describe
'28621' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAY' 'sip-files00026.QC.jpg'
8be0609793f805a3efe36dcb110bbac2
8721a8ad9798b6970a47181665c42c0e0c8c563f
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQAZ' 'sip-files00026.tif'
1f35cea7953730419d40e1f6ca135346
6c8d6d3a3841c487fdc71db10fdcb8bb7634c0fb
'2016-06-17T14:02:22-04:00'
describe
'2808' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBA' 'sip-files00026.txt'
d18740181482777cbf9417f2eb6b4f72
720956ee292f67f610bd8191459bbd7be3771fd2
describe
'7006' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBB' 'sip-files00026thm.jpg'
43b74956aa3c6614e642420b34c7b566
80e3577818ff4a5b8785baebce1a3e7a445bba72
describe
'101225' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBC' 'sip-files00027.jpg'
8257e7c4a5f65ce1df0f8bf5e63d159e
fb9ffc1d1eea8015deceee65c7cc737aa54bf6f6
describe
'66495' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBD' 'sip-files00027.pro'
7f1428a74061f6bcd528360096d93db9
f946b320ce2ee7c76d2f4ae92cf62c280a8bc9a1
describe
'26987' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBE' 'sip-files00027.QC.jpg'
85007066f47b85dacca03babf7d491bf
d1b034116a6a01e21d521556dfac2f63ff72bfc7
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBF' 'sip-files00027.tif'
a76f807a0a6c99c8ef3a117c2c188248
803d390a1f8a30107d59daddbfedbf2b13265aac
'2016-06-17T14:03:04-04:00'
describe
'2699' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBG' 'sip-files00027.txt'
4c20025d47ee0790a72fbdcf92f089f4
19a5a86d184b10b1d50ae0184fd2c9779545159b
describe
'6986' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBH' 'sip-files00027thm.jpg'
e36e96158fc9aed09f0fe783480a24a8
baf68efe2e31a28b649a4e00b28a4fb6561cba96
describe
'1051919' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBI' 'sip-files00028.jp2'
5a3ec1bc164690d872f57c8e700d3150
883ada897bdc7b9a57cdea06bec49a7fffde0936
describe
'127145' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBJ' 'sip-files00028.jpg'
660ac922c64a5fc17dee6253ebdfc0b3
3b106a7dcbc7308a881120d2b26a6eb3e416cac4
describe
'86127' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBK' 'sip-files00028.pro'
266cb23785c9569bcf720aa12d4d2f77
c73a8d54b0fa6de5b820fbab579e22e9a03bf856
describe
'32710' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBL' 'sip-files00028.QC.jpg'
1ea659d083d78f4703d23167e9644ad7
3fca93b433d9f340beccb9a873610ef7fe81eba9
describe
'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBM' 'sip-files00028.tif'
a5fb707d88f6380333ac31ed5ace72a9
1089823e77e89abf14bfd8d499156528415fee83
describe
'3436' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBN' 'sip-files00028.txt'
2a55df4e84632e6044c80b8b8cec2b66
581bde20068aabf3ecc2f0f105ba375da82e3715
describe
'7856' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBO' 'sip-files00028thm.jpg'
6e2a80a1005a0c6b54d6a52e001cbcb7
7f760ea0a0d00925adc8dcab6f5f8b9fdb0703cf
describe
'983697' 'info:fdaE20090716_AAAAOKfileF20090716_AADQBP' 'sip-files00029.jp2'
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PAGE 1

1 Agricultural Experiment Station Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences *** Range Cattle REC, Research Report RC-2004-3 Cattle and Forage Field Day October 14, 2004 Ona, Florida

PAGE 2

2 Range Cattle REC Field Day 2004 The University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) extends a cordial welcome to all ranchers, forage producers and industry representatives attending the 2004 Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Day. The importance of research and the exte nsion of information is never more evident than what has occurred during the five week period in August and September 2004 in which three major hurricanes made landfall on Florida shores. UF/IFAS has evaluated and released grasses that perform well in wet areas. The importance of animal identification and record keeping becomes most helpful in sorting out animal ownership and herd make-up. The importance of devel oping and evaluating br eeding seasons such that calves are born, raise d, weaned and marketed during periods least impacted by summer and early fall hurricanes, and torrential rains common to south Florida. It is the purpose of UF/IFAS to help Fl orida expand domestic and international business, enhance natural resour ces, provide consumers with a wide variety of safe and affordable food, support community developmen t, maintain a sustainable food and fiber system, conserve and improve environmental quality, and improve the quality of life. It is the purpose of UF/IFAS to develop an d distribute research information that will keep Florida agriculture profitable and sust ainable. The information presented at this field day emphasizes this commitment. Findlay Pate Center Director

PAGE 3

3 Range Cattle REC Field Day Table of Contents Schedule of Events .........................................................................................................3 Cow and Calf Gains on Creepin g Signalgrass and Bahiagrass Rob Kalmbacher .........................................................................................................4 Effects of Liming and Nitrogen Fe rtilization on Bahiagrass Decline Martin Adjei ................................................................................................................13 Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Sl ash Pine – Bahiagrass Silvopasture Ike Ezenwa .................................................................................................................19 Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage John Arthington ..........................................................................................................25 Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils Paul Mislevy...............................................................................................................30

PAGE 4

4 Range Cattle REC Field Day Schedule of Events A.M. 8:30 – 9:30 Registration and Coffee 9:30 Welcome – Findlay Pate 9:40 Extension / Research Int erface: Where the Rubber Meets the Road Larry Arrington 10:00 UF / IFAS, Range Cattle REC Importance to Florida’s Cattle Industry Mike Milicevic 10:20 Cow and Calf Gains on Creepin g Signalgrass and Bahiagrass Rob Kalmbacher 10:40 Effects of Liming and Nitroge n Fertilization on Bahiagrass Decline Martin Adjei 11:00 Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Slash Pine – Bahiagrass Silvopasture Ike Ezenwa 11:20 Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage John Arthington 11:40 Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils Paul Mislevy P.M. 12:00 Steak Lunch 1:00 Field Tour 3:00 Adjourn

PAGE 5

5 COW AND CALF GAINS ON CREEPIN G SIGNALGRASS AND BAHIAGRASS R.S. Kalmbacher, J.D. Arthington, and F.M. Pate The Florida cow-calf industry has historic ally been based on relatively large pastures with minimal input. While severa l perennial grasses ar e commonly grown in pasture, bahiagrass fits well in a system of extensive management and is the major perennial pasture grass with 2.5 million acres state-wide. However, the loss of almost 100,000 acres of bahiagrass in the mid-1990s to tawny mole cricket highlighted the need to identify other grasses with qua lities similar to bahiagrass. Brachiaria grasses have greatly increased th e productivity of grazing lands on the infertile, acid soils that cover up to 170 milli on acres in Brazil. They are high-yielding grasses with reasonable nutritive value. Creeping signalgrass ( Urochloa humidicola, syn. Brachiaria humidicola ), a highly stoloniferous species, is sown on about 3% of that area where low soil fertility, imperfect drainage, and extensive management predominate. It shares many of the desirable characteristics of bahiagrass: produces moderate yield with low soil fertility, establishes from seed, and persists with frequent, close grazing. Although creeping signalgrass doe s not tolerate the wide ra nge of soil conditions and temperatures that bahiagrass does, it is adapte d to the wet, infertile soils of the warmer central and south Florida, where the majority of the state = s cattle are produced. Creeping signalgrass was tested in clip ping and mob-grazing tr ials at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) and further south at the Immokalee REC. However, there has been no measurem ent of livestock production on creeping signalgrass. METHODS AND MATERIALS In June 1998, three of six, 5-acre pastur es were randomly selected and sown to either creeping signalgrass (Nat erra Seed Co., Brazil) or Pensacola bahiagrass at 10 and 20 lb seed/acre, respectively. During the tria l, grasses were fertil ized once annually with 50 lb N/acre in the spring. Beginning in May 2000 to May 2003, each pasture was stocked with five, pregnant Brangus cows and their calves (1 cow-calf pair/acre). Cattle were rotated weekly among four, 1.25 acre pad docks in each of the six, 5-acre pastures from May to October. Cows and calves were weighed the firs t week of August when calves were weaned and removed. Each group of five co ws returned to their previously assigned pastures where they remained until the end of October when they were weighed again. Calf weights were adjusted for sex and m ean age at the respective weigh dates. At May, August, and October weigh dates, co ws received a body condition score (BCS).

PAGE 6

6 Scores were visual evaluations based on a range of 1 to 9 with 1 = very thin cows and 9 = very fat cows. Forage production was determined ever y 28 d from May to Oc tober and available forage was measured weekly from May to Oc tober on the day cattle were rotated into successive 1.25 acre paddocks. Hand-plucked samples of grass, which simulated what cattle were eating, were taken for crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestion (IVOMD) determination. RESULTS Climatological Rainfall during the grazing season and temp erature in the winter preceding each grazing season varied widely over the 4 yr (Table 1). The driest year on record (62 yr) at the Range Cattle REC was 2000, which was preceded by a relatively warm winter. In contrast, May to October 2001 was the wettest of the 4 yr, and it was preceded by a very cold winter. There were 17 instances of fr ost from 22 Nov. 2000 to 19 Apr. 2001 with a minimum 23 O F, and signalgrass was severely injured. The remaining 2002 and 2003 had more rainfall than that of the 62-yr mean with winter temperatures similar to the norm. Table 1. Rainfall in the May to October grazing periods, and number of incidences of frost and minimum temperatures in the November-April period before each grazing season. ________________________________________________________________________ Rainfall Temperature Year May June July Aug. Sept. Oct . Total FrostH Minimum I -----------------------inches --------------------------no.---F-2000 0.05 3.78 4.50 5.25 8.03 2.23 23.84 3 30 2001 1.30 10.58 14.26 10.11 17.76 2.38 56.39 17 23 2002 1.28 13.85 11.05 12.25 5.46 3.14 47.03 7 28 2003 5.36 15.80 4.51 10.09 11.04 1.14 47.94 6 28 62-yr 3.71 8.58 8.51 8.10 7.34 3.10 39.34 8.9 27 H Number of instances. I Minimum temperature recorded in each of 4 yr compared with the mean annual minimum temperature over 62 yr.

PAGE 7

Cattle Cows At weaning in August, cow weight and BCS tended to be greater on creeping signalgrass compared with bahiagrass pastures (Table 2). At the end of grazing in October, cow weight depended on both grass and year (Table 2). For creeping signalgrass, cow weight in October was affected by year while there were no year effects for final cow weights on bahiagrass. With the exception of 2001 when the grazing season was shortened to allow creeping signalgrass recovery after the freeze, cows from signalgrass pastures weighed more than cows from bahiagrass. Cows grazing creeping signalgrass had higher BCS in October compared with cows grazing bahiagrass (Table 2). Calves At weaning in August, calf weights and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be greater on signalgrass than bahiagrass (Table 2). Mean age of calves at weaning was 261, 262, 267, and 273 days for 2000 to 2003, respectively. Average daily gain from May to August was affected by year with the ranking: 2000 = 2002 > 2001 = 2003. Note that 2000 was the driest year (Table 1). Table 2. Effect of grass pasture on various cow and calf responses. 4-year means. ______________________________________________________________________ Grass Response Signalgrass Bahiagrass PH Cow weight, May (lb) 1136 1132 0.82 Body condition I , May 4.8 4.9 0.52 Cow weight, August (weaning) (lb) 1139 1085 0.07 Body condition I , August 5.3 4.7 0.06 Cow weight ' , October (lb) 2000 1309 a 1140 a 0.0001 2001 1179 b 1151 a 0.37 2002 1310 a 1173 a 0.0006 2003 1165 b 1079 a 0.01 Body condition I , October 5.7 4.7 0.01 Calf weight # , May (lb) 433 434 0.94 Calf weight # , August (weaning) (lb) 549 519 0.13 Calf average daily gain (lb/day) 0.66 0.48 0.07 _______________________________________________________________________ H Probability of a difference between grasses. I Body condition score 1= very thin cows, 9= very fat cows. ' Grass x year interaction (P=0.01). Within grasses, means over years followed by the same letter are not different (P>0.05, LSD). # Adjusted for sex and mean age. 7

PAGE 8

Forage Production and Available Forage Bahiagrass forage production exceeded that of signalgrass from May to June, but the reverse was true for July to October (Fig. 1a). The greatest incremental increase in production for creeping signalgrass was 2700 lb DM/acre which occurred between June (1220 lb DM/acre) and July (3920 lb DM/acre). Much of this was from stems and seed heads. The comparable increase in accumulation for bahiagrass was 1100 lb DM/acre. Between August and October, month to month production was similar between grasses. Annual production was greater for creeping signalgrass (8740 lb DM/acre) than bahiagrass (7520 lb DM/acre). Available forage was similar for grasses in May and June, but for July through October, there was more available forage in creeping signalgrass than bahiagrass pastures (Fig. 1b). After July, much of the forage from creeping signalgrass was stem which formed a residual stubble layer. During the 1-wk grazing periods, cattle ate mostly leaves that had regrown on the stubble layer during the 21-d rest periods. Nutritive Value Crude protein in bahiagrass was 11% in May, and it increased above 12% in June followed by a decline to < 10% in September (Fig. 2a). There was a trend for crude protein in bahiagrass to increase in October. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was always significantly lower than that in bahiagrass. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was highest in June (11%) and lowest in September (< 8%). Creeping signalgrass IVOMD was always greater than that of bahiagrass (Fig. 2b). Greatest IVOMD for creeping signalgrass was 57% in June and lowest IVOMD was to 53% in October. Bahiagrass IVOMD reached a maximum of 50% in July, then declined to 45% in October. Ground Cover and Insects Following the 2001winter freeze, signalgrass live-plant cover in April averaged 52%. By late-June 2001, creeping signalgrass ground cover had increased to 85%. Except for the freeze, signalgrass maintained relatively good ground cover throughout the trial. Bahiagrass was the major weed in creeping signalgrass pastures followed by common bermudagrass. Weed presence was more obvious in dry spring months, but following rain in June and the resumption of creeping signalgrass growth, weeds contributed essentially nothing to available forage. Spittlebug larvae and their spittle masses were found from June to October on creeping signalgrass. Their occurrence was patchy, and populations varied with year. No 8

PAGE 9

insects pests were noted above ground on bahiagrass, but mole crickets were found in traps in pastures of both grasses. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Cattle The comparatively good weight gains of cows grazing signalgrass in the 3-month period after weaning is important because of the need for cows to regain body condition prior to calving, which can be difficult to achieve on bahiagrass in late summer. Body condition at calving is the determining factor influencing return to estrus and pregnancy in beef cows. Abundant rain coupled with mature bahiagrass tend to lower cow-weight gain in late summer and early fall. Creeping signalgrass, a low-input grass on a par with bahiagrass, may have an advantage over the less nutritious bahiagrass and the more nutritious grasses requiring costly management. Mean calf weaning weights from creeping signalgrass were not substantially greater than bahiagrass. The difference between grasses was minimized because of the relatively short time calves were on trial. Also, a nursing calf is buffered by milk from the cow, so nutritional aspects of pasture prior to weaning may affect cows more than calves. The difference in calf ADG between grasses for the period these calves were on trial favors creeping signalgrass. Provided cows are in good body condition (BCS > 5), which signalgrass cows were in August, fall-calving cows could nurse calves for an additional 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months. In years when calf prices are high, keeping cows and calves on creeping signalgrass for an additional 60 days could be profitable. This assumes calf ADG would continue at the same rate after early August, however the decline in protein in creeping signalgrass could limit calf growth in August to September. Also, calf ADG may be lower in years with high rainfall. Forage Production Annual production on both grasses was abundant, but there were problems with rate and time of growth and the composition of grass growth. In one of the early publications from the Range Cattle Station, Dr. Elver Hodges declared that the major problem with bahiagrass as >inefficient use of the rapidly-maturing forage=. In this regard, creeping signalgrass intensifies the rate and timing problem because 30% of annual growth came in a 30-day period beginning with the start of summer rain. Much of this is low-quality reproductive growth that is difficult to utilize under grazing. A stiff, residual, straw-like stubble-layer formed by August, and remained for the duration of the grazing season. 9

PAGE 10

To utilize the flush of growth, stocking density on creeping signalgrass should be temporarily increased at the start of the rainy season. Bahiagrass also has a variable growth rate that creates a problem with proper grazing management, but cattlemen can overlook it. However, it is not likely that creeping signalgrass will meet rancher expectations with set-stocked pastures. Where signalgrass is in commercial use, such as at Deseret Cattle & Citrus, underutilization of early summer growth is a major problem. While neither grass is really productive in April and May, bahiagrass has an advantage with about 12-18% of annual production in these months. Bahiagrass will respond to a little rain, but signalgrass is essentially nonproductive in April and early May. Persistence and Adaptability The greatest impediment to signalgrass persistence will be cold. Based on 62-yr means at the Range Cattle REC, the 23 o F freeze we experienced in 2001 has occurred in 1of 6 yr. While a winter freeze may not eliminate creeping signalgrass due to the strong stoloniferous habit of growth, cold will render a pasture unproductive and open to weed growth until mid-summer. The first pasture sown to signalgrass was 300 acres at Deseret in 1996, and that pasture has persisted for 8 yr. We suggest that planting of creeping signalgrass pasture be restricted to the Florida peninsula south of Orlando. While signalgrass is noted to be tolerant of intermittent flooding, we found it had little more tolerance of flooding than bahiagrass. Signalgrass did not grow in ditches and depressions where water (2 inches) remained for several weeks. Signalgrass is not adapted to dry sites. Spittlebugs could almost always be found somewhere in signalgrass pastures throughout the rainy season. While signalgrass is tolerant, it is not resistant to spittlebugs. The possibility remains that spittlebug could weaken signalgrass pasture just as it does for limpograss pasture in central Florida. CONCLUSIONS Although creeping signalgrass has nutritional advantages over bahiagrass, lack of cold tolerance, limited growth prior to June, and excessive growth in July are the main problems that render signalgrass inferior to bahiagrass. Creeping signalgrass could be a valuable part of a bahiagrass-based pasture program on ranches south of Orlando because signalgrass can provide for greater cow weight gain between weaning and calving. It offers the possibility of providing good grazing for fall-calving cows nursing calves for up to 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months of age. 10

PAGE 11

Fig. 1. (a) Cumulative forage production of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass and (b) Available forage. Means of 2000-2003. MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctober MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberForage production (lb/acre) 0200040006000800010000 Signalgrass Bahiagrass Month MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctober Available forage (lb/acre) 010002000300040005000 Fig. 1aFig. 1b Signalgrass Bahiagrass 11

PAGE 12

Fig. 2. Nutritive value of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass (a) Crude protein and (b) In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Means of 2000-2003. MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberCrude protein (%) 78910111213 Signalgrass Bahiagrass Month MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctober MayJuneJulyAugustSeptemberOctoberIVOMD (%) 4446485052545658 Signalgrass Bahiagrass Fig. 2aFig. 2b 12

PAGE 13

NOTES: 13

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EFFECTS OF LIMING AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON BAHIAGRASS DECLINE Martin B. Adjei Bahiagrass decline, a major problem with our premier pasture grass, usually begins with yellowing of pasture in small or big patches. Later, affected areas turn brown and die and are normally associated with the borrowing and tunneling activity of mole crickets. On damaged areas with high mole cricket population, the surface 6 to 10 inches of soil layer is honeycombed with numerous mole cricket galleries and the ground feels spongy when stepped on. Severely damaged pasture has virtually no root system and is easily pulled from the soil by cattle or foot traffic in a pasture. Research and surveys conducted throughout south central Florida implicate pasture and grazing management factors in mole cricket induced bahiagrass decline. Nutritional Factors Soil acidity (pH): Soil acidity refers to the concentration of active hydrogen ions (H + ) in the soil. It is measured by an index called pH. The lower the pH, the more active hydrogen ions are present and the more acid the system. A pH of 7 (as is the case for distilled water) is neutral (H + = OH ), and for soil, a pH of 7 is too high for most forages grown in Florida. A pH of 5 to 6 is slightly acidic and satisfactory for most Florida forages to grow. A pH of 4 is too low or very acid and will result in poor root growth or function of most Florida forages. Nitrogen (N) Fertilization: Soil acidity tends to increase with repeated use of N fertilization, and liming with calcium or calcium/magnesium compounds capable of reducing soil acidity becomes necessary. For example, it requires 60 pounds (lb) of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium nitrate and 110 lb of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium sulfate. Increasing soil acidity to pH less than 5 can reduce the availability of boron, molybdenum and sulfur in the soil, reduce pasture production by more than a third, regardless of N fertilization, and predispose grass to yellowing and damage by soil-born insects. Experiment In one of our multi-county trials, the Range Cattle Research and Education Center decided to evaluate the long-term combined effect of liming and N-fertilization on bahiagrass pasture performance. We applied three types of fertilizer and a control (no fertilizer) annually to portions of bahiagrass pasture that were either limed to maintain a pH of 5.0 or not limed at a pH of about 4.3. The four fertilizer treatments applied every spring from 1998 to present were: 1) 60 lb/A of N from ammonium sulfate (N), 2) 60-25-60 lb/A of N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O from ammonium sulfate, triple super phosphate and muriate of potash (NPK), 3) 60-25-60 lb/A of N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O plus 20 lb/A of a Frit Industries Inc. micro-nutrients mix which contained B, Cu, Mo, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn (NPKM), 4) no fertilizer control (Cont.). About a ton of lime was applied every two to three years to 14

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maintain a pH of 5 on limed areas. Bahiagrass performance was measured by dry matter yield, crude protein content, forage digestibility, and condition of bahiagrass ground cover in spring. Dry Matter Yield Effect of Lime On one of the pastures at Ona (pasture 71A) and in Pasco and Manatee sites, forage yield was not affected by liming to a pH of 5 throughout the 3-5 years (Fig. 1). The no-lime plots at these sites retained a pH of about 4.5 for the entire period. However, lime treatment increased bahiagrass forage yield by 24% across all fertilizer treatments on pasture 87 at Ona where the no-lime, fertilized plots showed a pH decline to about 4.3 (Fig. 1). Effect of fertilizer Yield increase from fertilizer application compared with non-fertilized control ranged from 18% on the Manatee site to 31% on the Pasco site with the Ona (Hardee) sites in the middle. However, we hardly noticed any clear differences in forage yield among the N, NPK and NPKM fertilizer treatments on the two Hardee pastures and on the Manatee pasture (Fig. 1). On the other hand, forage DM yield increased by 10% when the NPK and NPKM treatments were applied compared with the N only treatment on the deep sandy soil at the Pasco site. Nutritive Value Lime application had little to no effect on seasonal average crude protein content or digestibility (IVOMD) of bahiagrass forage but seasonal crude protein content increased by about 2% units (12% vs. 10%) with the application of any fertilizer containing N. This protein enhancement attribute of N was greater immediately after N application in spring and diminished with time through the season. Forage IVOMD for the no-fertilizer control was always among the lowest (47%) although improvement with N application varied from site to site. Spring Vegetative Ground Cover Effect of lime and Fertilizer At the beginning of grazing in spring of 1998, all the newly established bahiagrass plots at Ona had an excellent stand of nearly 100% green ground cover (Fig. 2). Two years later (2000), color of bahiagrass ground cover on plots started to sort out into lime vs. no-lime sections, where all limed plots were completely green in the spring but the color of no-lime plots depended on fertilizer treatment. This interaction between lime and fertilizer treatment became even more pronounced with passage of time. In 2002, five years into the experiment, minimum spring color change or damage to bahiagrass 15

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sward (1-4% ground cover) was noticed for plots limed to pH 5 whether or not they received fertilizer or for no-lime plots that were not fertilized on both Hardee sites (Fig 2). Damage was most severe (20-69% of ground cover) when bahiagrass was not limed but received yearly application of any N-containing fertilizer. The combination of acid soil conditions (pH less than 4.5) and repeated N fertilization seemed to weaken bahiagrass root-stolon system, cause severe yellowing in the early spring growth and made it easier for mole cricket damage to occur. Effect of Sludge: Some livestock producers apply lime-stabilized sludge to pastures to reduce the cost of fertilizer and lime. Lime is added in the processing of sludge primarily to control pathogens, insect vectors and odor which makes limed-sludge an excellent source of slow-release plant nutrients (especially N and P), organic matter and lime. During application, the pH of limed-sludge could range between 7 and 11, N content between 3% and 5% of dry sludge , and P content between 2% and 4% of dry sludge. Four years repeated application of limed-sludge at the Range Cattle REC, Ona has shown that, when used at recommended agronomic rate (200 lb N/A), bahiagrass forage production responds well to sludge organic fertilizer and there is no damage to the sward. In those studies, we applied sludge up to 160 lb N yearly and improved annual dry matter yield from 2 T/A where no sludge was applied to 5 T/A. There was no excessive build up of plant nutrients or trace metals in the soil from sludge application and soil pH only increased from 5.0 to 5.3 in 4 years. However, bahiagrass roots cannot function properly to absorb sufficient iron, manganese and other micronutrients when the soil pH approaches 7. Several bahiagrass pastures in Polk, Pasco and Hardee counties where excessive amounts of sludge were applied repeatedly attained a soil pH of about 7 and lost substantial portions of the grass stand to weeds similar to symptoms of bahiagrass decline. It was easy to identify the strips on those pastures where sludge was dumped. Conclusions Under grazing conditions in south-central Florida, bahiagrass forage DM yield and crude protein content on typical flatwoods soils improve substantially with N but not with P or K fertilizer application. The situation may be different on the deep sandy soils where the addition of some P and K to N fertilizer could make a difference. Repeated N fertilization without adequate lime application to bahiagrass pastures induces widespread early spring yellowing and eventual stand loss to weeds. In acid soil situations, you are better off first liming to raise the soil pH to 5 or greater before applying N fertilizer. As precautions to using limed-sludge, apply material uniformly over pasture at recommended agronomic rate, monitor the soil pH every 2-3 years, and alternate limed-sludge use with inorganic N-fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate or nitrate in order to stay within the optimum pH range of 5.0 to 6.0. 16

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Figure 1. The effect of fertilizer and lime application on bahiagrass forage production in south central Florida. Bars represent 3-yr means for Manateeand Pasco sites and 5-yr means for Hardee sites. Location Hardee (71A)ManateePasco Forage dry matter yield, T/A 0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.55.05.56.0 N NPK NPKM Cont aabbcabbcbaac Hardee (87) No-limeLime Forage dry matter yield, T/A 0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.5 N NPK NPKM Cont aaabaaab 17

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Figure 2. The interaction between fertilizer, lime and year on percentage spring live,green bahiagrass ground cover (damage consisted of yellow, brown and weedy cover).Year AllNo limeLimeNo limeLime Live green bahiagrass ground cover, % 405060708090100110120130 N NPK NPKM Cont 199820002002 Year AllNo limeLimeNo limeLime Live green bahiagrass ground cover, % 2030405060708090100110120130 N NPK NPKM Cont 199820002002nsnsabccnsnscbbansnsabbbcbba(A) Hardee 71A(B) Hardee 87 18

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NOTES: 19

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FORAGE/COW-CALF PRODUCTION IN SLASH PINE-BAHIAGRASS SILVOPASTURE Ike Ezenwa Grazing of cattle under pines is an age-long tradition in Florida. Under the old practice of forest grazing, cattle ate native grasses, forbs, shrubs and other vegetation. With high cost of land, taxes, and increased production costs, cattlemen are forced to consider new ways of increasing returns from their ranches. In this regard, silvopasture is promising. Silvopasture is a form of agroforestry in which cattle graze sown pastures under planted trees. Greater return from silvopasture could result from diversification as well as intensification of operations on the land. In addition to beef and forage, silvopasture will also yield timber, pine straw, and hunting leases. Thus, overall profitability of silvopasture may be superior to open pasture. There are also environmental benefits of improvement of water quality, soil conservation, and wildlife habitat that are more difficult to quantify in economic terms. Silvopasture is more complex than open pasture. Successful management demands a good understanding of the interacting components. Forage yields are not significantly depressed by trees the first 10 years after tree planting or in areas that are more than 7 ft from the nearest tree row. Ten to 15 years after planting the tree crowns close and forage yields decline. During this period, tree thinning is desirable, depending on site productivity, target product, and landowner objectives. The double-row configuration in which trees are planted in double rows spaced 8 ft apart with 4 ft within the rows, and 40 ft between double-rows addresses deficiencies of square and rectangular planting patterns in traditional forestry. The double-row configuration maintains the same tree density and timber volume as traditional configurations, but the wider alley between the tree rows maintains open areas for grazing and easier access for application of management practices. Many silvopasture studies in the Southeast were conducted on soils with better production potentials than the sandy acid soils of south and central Florida. Whereas some locations in the southeast produce better quality timber, and are closer to the mills and timber markets, south and central Florida are in a unique circumstance as cattle are a more important component of silvopasture than timber. There is a lack of information on cattle productivity in silvopasture, and the dynamics of forage production in the system under grazing. The objectives of our study were to determine cattle and forage production in a pine-bahiagrass silvopasture at a critical stage of tree growth (10 to 15 years after tree establishment) and the beneficial effects of thinning tree stands when herbage yields are expected to begin to decline due to tree canopy closure. Experimental Procedure The study was conducted on a 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture (pasture 48) at Ona. The trees were established in December 1991 on an 11–year-old ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass pasture at the density of 454 trees/acre in the 4 ft x 8 ft x 40 ft, double-row 20

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configuration. The silvopasture was sown to ‘Florida’ carpon desmodium (Desmodium heterocarpon) in 1994 and ‘Shaw’ vigna (Vigna parkeri) in 2001. By 2002, tree survival was 44% or 200 trees/acre after 9 years of grazing. To quantify cow-calf production and the effect of thinning of tree stands, we cross-fenced the 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture into two 20-acre blocks. In the winter of 2002-2003, about 75 inferior trees/acre were cut and removed from one 20-acre block (thinned) leaving about 125 merchantable trees/acre. The remaining 20-acre block (unthinned) contained an average of 200 trees/acre. A 20-acre open pasture (pasture 53 W), also of Pensacola bahiagrass (> 20-year-old) with Florida carpon desmodium and Shaw vigna served as a control. All pastures were fertilized in March with 300 lb/acre of a 16-4-16 fertilizer. All pastures were grazed similarly from March to May 2003. On 1 June 2003, Braford cows (4-12 years of age) and calves (avg. 112 days of age) were assigned at 1 cow-calf pair/acre to each of the three pastures. Before the cows and calves were placed on the pastures, they were weighed and given a body condition score (BCS). Weights and cow BCS were again obtained in September when cows were removed from pasture and calves were weaned. Calf weights were adjusted for sex and mean age at weaning. Cows had free-choice access to a loose mineral mixture year-round. Forage production was measured every 42 days during the grazing period. Available forage was determined every 28 days by harvesting forage from a strip of grass from center of alleys to between double-tree rows in each silvopasture and at random in open pasture. Forage Production and Available Forage Forage production was greater in open pasture (9090 lb dry matter (DM)/acre) than in the two silvopastures which were not different (avg. = 6685 lb DM/acre) (Table 1). The trends in forage production during the grazing period differed among the pastures. In the two silvopastures, production declined linearly, while in open pasture forage production increased from 27 May to 21 July, then declined through 29 September. On average, more forage was available in the open pasture (2000 lb DM/acre) than in silvopastures (avg. 1220 lb DM/acre) (Table 1). 21

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Table 1. Total forage dry matter production and average available forage (28-days) on bahiagrass-slash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no pines). Pastures were stocked with 1 cow-calf pair/acre from 1 June to 15 September. Pasture Production Available -----------lb (DM)/acre ----------Thinned (125 trees/acre) 6270 b 1230 b Unthinned (200 trees/acre) 7100 b 1210 b Open (no trees) 9090 a 2000 a Means in columns followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05). For the period 27 May to 29 Sept. 2003. Means of four, 28-day periods from 27 May to 15 Sept. 2003. Cow weights and BCS There were no differences among pastures for cow weights and BCS at the start of the grazing period on 1 June, but at the end, on 15 September all pastures were different from each other for both responses (Table 2). On average, cow weight in the thinned silvopasture decreased from 1096 to 884 lb, from 1150 to 975 lb in unthinned silvopasture, and from 1120 to 1074 lb in open pasture. Body condition scores of the cows decreased 0.3, 1.2, and 1.5 units for cows in open, unthinned, and thinned pastures, respectively. More rainfall was received over the 1 June to 15 September period (36 in) than the 62-year mean (28 in) for this period. In June, pastures were saturated with frequent periods (1-2 week) of standing water (~ 1 in). 22

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Table 2. Cow and calf weights and cow body condition scores (BCS) on bahiagrass-slash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no pines) from 1 June (start) to 15 Sept. (end) 2003. Silvopasture Thinned Unthinned Open pasture Cow weight at start (lb) 1096 a 1150 a 1120 a Cow weight at end (lb) 884 c 975 b 1074 a Cow BCS at start 5.0 a 5.2 a 5.2 a Cow BCS at end 3.5 c 4.0 b 4.9 a Calf weight at start (lb) 315 a 317 a 326 a Calf weight at end, weaning (lb) 392 b 396 b 466 a Avg. daily gain (lb/day) 1.6 b 1.6 b 2.9 a 125 trees/acre. 200 trees/acre. Means in a row followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05). Calf weights and daily gains Pastures were not different for calf weight at the start (1 June, 2003), but at weaning (15 Sept. 2003), calf weight was greater on open pasture (466 lb) than that of calves on thinned (392 lb) and not-thinned (396 lb) silvopastures, which were not different. Calf average daily gain was also greater on open pasture with 2.9 lb/day than on the silvopastures with an average of 1.6 lb/day. Discussion Calf weaning weight on the 12-year old silvopasture was 15% lower and cow weight loss was 4 times more than that on open pasture. These represented drastic reductions in livestock production compared with production when the trees were younger. Between March and October 1994 to 1997, when pines were 3 to 7years old, Drs. Findlay Pate and Rob Kalmbacher measured calf weaning weights on this silvopasture. Stocked at 1 cow-calf pair/acre, the 4-year average weaning weight of calves was 451 lb, which is similar to that of open pasture in the present study. The marked reduction in cattle performance in the silvopasture over the years can be attributed to reduced forage production due to increasing tree growth so that animal demand exceeded the ability of the silvopasture to supply forage. In general, lower forage yields of bahiagrass are obtained under pines than when bahiagrass is grown in open areas. Thinning pines did not increase forage production or animal output. It is possible that more thinning is required at this stage to further reduce the impact of the trees on forage production. Perhaps, in our region, it may be best to target production of fence 23

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posts or pulpwood, which would mean shorter rotations of 10-15 years, coinciding with the period when trees reduce forage production the most. In this way, trees are harvested for target products and reduction in livestock production is curtailed. The rotation may then be repeated. Conclusion If silvopasture is to be an economically viable management option for land owners in central Florida, then increasing value of timber beyond 12 year of age and income from other sources, such as sale of hunting leases, must offset declining returns from cattle. 24

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NOTES: 25

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LIMPOGRASS OPTIONS FOR SOUTH FLORIDA CATTLEMEN: STOCKPILED FORAGE, HAY, AND ROUND-BALE SILAGE John Arthington and Findlay Pate Introduction Limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) is the second most utilized pasture forage in south Florida. Over the past 30 years, south Florida Cattlemen have benefited from the high dry matter yields, appreciable digestibility, and persistence of limpograss. One important production characteristic of limpograss relates to its superior winter yield, compared to other warm-season perennial grasses. In south Florida, limpograss can be expected to produce as much as 30 to 40 % of its annual growth in the winter months. This unique quality differs from most all other sub-tropical, perennial forages. At the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (RCREC), we have completed three complete production years investigating the performance of cow-calf pairs grazing winter stockpiled limpograss. Two treatments were compared; 1) 0.75 acres of limpograss and 1.50 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair, or 2) 1.80 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair with supplemental winter hay. All pastures were spring fertilized with 60 pounds N per acre. Limpograss pastures received an additional fall application of fertilizer (60 pounds N per acre). During September, October, and November, cows assigned to the bahiagrass/limpograss combination treatment were grazed primarily on bahiagrass alone allowing the limpograss to stockpile for winter utilization. Cows assigned to the bahiagrass only treatment were provided adequate winter hay to support an average body condition score of 5.0 (moderate condition). Cows assigned to the winter stockpiled limpograss received no supplemental winter hay. All cows were provided five pounds of supplemental molasses (16% crude protein) daily from November 1 to mid-April. A 90-day breeding season was initiated on January 1. In this study, cows grazing winter limpograss pastures were provided with no winter hay; however, cows grazing the bahiagrass pastures consumed an average of 1400 pounds of hay per cow during each winter season (January to late March). Cows assigned to the stockpiled limpograss pastures experienced a slightly greater loss of body weight during the winter months, but a greater gain in body weight during the summer months, compared to cows grazing bahiagrass pastures and winter hay (Table 1). Grazing treatment had no effect on calf weaning weight (average weaning weight = 547 pounds; SEM = 8.2). Pregnancy rates were also not affected by grazing treatment (average over all three years = 92.2 and 91.6 % for cows grazing bahiagrass and bahiagrass/limpograss pastures, respectively). 26

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Table 1. Effect of pasture forage treatment on cow body weight change during the winter and summer seasons. Season a Bahiagrass + Hay Stockpiled Limpograss SEM ---------------------------pounds ---------------------------Winter -88 -115 14.7 Summer 47 65 12.7 a Seasons extend from October to April and April to August for winter and summer, respectively. This initial 3-year study suggests that 0.75 acres of stockpiled limpograss can be substituted for approximately 1400 pounds of stored hay for wintering lactating beef cows. Considering an average hay cost of $70 per ton along with a standard wastage of 15%, the value of this stockpiled limpograss would be approximately $110 per acre. Considering these values, stockpiled limpograss may or may not be economically advantageous for south Florida cattlemen. An economic analysis of both pasture systems is appropriate for each individual ranch. Calving seasons that differ from those used in this study may have a significant impact on the value achieved from the limpograss. As well, persistence of stand will greatly impact economic return, as the high-cost of establishment is spread over greater or fewer production seasons. The current study only investigated the use of limpograss as a winter stockpiled forage source. Although 30 to 40% of the annual growth of limpograss occurs during the winter months, the remainder is realized during the summer. The greatest portion of this summer growth occurs at a time when producers have adequate available forage on bahiagrass pastures. Realizing opportunities for further utilization of limpograss during the late spring and summer may increase the overall value of this forage resource. Current Limpograss Evaluations for Cow-Calf Production in South Florida Using the same limpograss establishment utilized in the 3-year study described above, we are now investigating the value of harvesting late spring hay followed by mid-summer round-bale silage. In this system, we will continue to allow for fall accumulation for winter stockpiled grazing. Hay In the first year (spring 2004), we fertilized 60 acres of limpograss on March 23 (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Eight weeks later, the pastures were cut and hay harvested. A total of 97 tons of hay dry matter was harvested (1.6 tons dry matter per acre). The average total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein of this hay was 51 and 9%, respectively, on a dry matter basis. 27

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Round-Bale Silage Limpograss contains long thick stems, requiring as many as 5 to 7 days of drying to achieve > 85% dry matter for hay harvest. Once the rainy season begins, we have less than a 20% probability of obtaining 3 consecutive drying days (mid-June through August) for hay making. This is an unfortunate situation for our limpograss grazing program, as substantial dry matter yield can be expected during these summer months. This excess summer forage accumulation must be utilized prior to preparation for fall stockpiling. Production of round-bale silage may be an interesting alternative to summer grazing of this material. There are multiple systems available for harvesting and storing forage silages. Dr. Bill Kunkle prepared a review of these systems. This paper is available in the Proceedings of the 12 th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium ( www.animal.ufl.edu ). In our system, we fertilized the limpograss pastures on May 25 for production of summer round-bale silage (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Coordination of custom harvest and the summer hurricanes kept us from harvesting during this current summer; however, adequate dry mater yield was achieved by eight weeks following fertilization. Clipping estimates suggest that we would achieve six to seven tons of round-bale silage per acre (65% moisture). This would equate to a total of about 2.4 tons of dry matter per acre. Our estimate for custom harvesting this material was $135 per acre or $57 per ton of dry matter harvested. Re-fertilization of this crop immediately after round-bale silage harvest will allow plenty of time for fall forage stockpiling prior to winter grazing, which should begin in late December or early January. Table 2. Estimated annual harvest of limpograss forage a Item Production, tons per acre Cost, $ per ton Spring hay b 1.6 $92 Summer round-bale silage b 2.4 $72 Winter stockpiling and re-growth b,c 3.0 $12 a Fertilizer applied prior to hay harvest, round-bale silage harvest and winter stockpiling; (400 pounds per acre of 20-5-10; $184 per ton; includes custom application). b Custom hay harvest includes $15 per 900 pound bale (85% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. Custom round-bale silage harvest includes $15 per 1500 pound bale (35% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. c Estimated for a 1000 pound cow provided 0.75 acres for 90 days of grazing (25 pounds of dry matter intake per day). This limpograss management system allows for the potential production of 7 tons of dry matter per acre (Table 2). The majority of this is harvested during the summer months, when continued accumulation of limpograss is often difficult to utilize. The most efficient use of this forage base occurs over the 90 d of stockpiled winter forage harvest by the cow. This estimated 3 tons of dry matter harvested per acre is realized with only the input of fertilizer. Since the cow is harvesting the material through grazing, the cost of custom harvest is saved. In comparison, the costs for producing spring hay and summer silage depend predominantly on the dry matter yield of this material. Considering 28

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approximately 51% TDN, these forage products provide us with a cost of $0.09 and $0.07 per pound of TDN. Using these figures, each are reasonable-cost feed sources for cows. In the hierarchy of use, we would first utilize all the fall stock-piled forage, followed by the round-bale silage and lastly the hay. The stockpiled forage has no sale value. Similarly, the round-bale silage has little sale value due to the difficulty of transporting this high-moisture material. Alternatively, the hay does provide an opportunity for the producer to market excess material not needed to feed the cowherd. Summary This production system is currently being evaluated at the Range Cattle REC. This evaluation will continue over the next three production cycles. The value of this system may be realized by both large extensive ranches and smaller intensive production operations. In the scenario described above, it may be possible to produce as much as 7 tons of usable forage dry matter per acre annually. Using a 1000 pound cow at 2.5% annual forage dry matter intake (% body weight) as an example, this forage system may support as much as 1.3 cows per acre. This is a clear advantage in terms of stocking rate; however, intensive management is required. At a minimum, three management inputs are needed, 1) three annual applications of a complete fertilizer, 2) hay and round-bale silage storage, and 3) equipment for handling and feeding the stored forage. In addition, producers that do not own their own hay and silage harvesting equipment are very dependent upon scheduling of custom harvesters. Considerable planning and coordination will be required for the successful implementation of this management system. 29

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NOTES: 30

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INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND PERSISTENCE OF RHIZOMA PEANUT ON FLATWOOD SOILS Paul Mislevy, A.R. Blount, K.H. Quesenberry, and M.J. Williams There is a need in peninsular Florida for a long lived, persistent, warm season perennial legume that will tolerate somewhat poorly drained soils. In central Florida consistent establishment of warm season annual legumes has been difficult due to inconsistent moisture at seeding. In addition, establishment and persistence of many perennial legumes have not been satisfactory due to climatic extrems. Dr. Buddy Pitman tested hundreds of legumes over a 12 yr period at Ona and found one legume [Vigna parkeri (Shaw vigna)] that would persist under grazing in a bahiagrass sward. Growers are reluctant to buy seed of Shaw Vigna because seed costs are about $13/lb and must be imported from Australia. Legume research has been conducted at Ft. Pierce for over 30 years and more than 1000 entries were tested with only one long term persistent cultivar (Florida carpon desmodium) in use today. These examples indicate the difficulty in developing a legume that will persist in central Florida with or without a grass. Rhizoma peanut (Arachis), currently being tested at Ona is a long-lived, warm season, persistent perennial legume, adapted to well drained soils. Studies were conducted over a 4-year period at Ona to determine the influence of rhizoma peanut entries and stubble height (SH) on forage yield, nutritive value, and persistence on a poorly drained soil. Peanut entries consisted of Arbrook, Arbrook Select, Florigraze, Ecoturf, PI 262826, PI 262833, and PI 262839. Peanuts were clipped at 1 and 4 inch SH. Annual fertilization consisted of 300 lb/A 0-10-20 + 0.5% Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe (sulfate form), 0.05% B and 1% S. Results Higher dry matter yields were obtained when peanuts were harvested at a 1 inch SH (5.1 ton/acre) compared with the 4 inch (SH 3.4 ton/acre). However differences between SH disappeared after 3 years of clipping resulting in similar dry matter yields between both SH. Yield decreased an average of 68% for Arbrook and Arbrook Select between the initial and 3 rd year of clipping and increased 36% for PI 262833 during the same time period (Table 1). 31

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Table 1. Influence of perennial peanut entry on total dry yield over years. Year Peanut entry 1 2 3 Change Ton/acre % Arbrook Select 8.3 3.8 2.6 -69 Arbrook 8.3 3.5 2.8 -67 PI 262839 6.3 3.3 3.4 -45 PI 262826 6.2 3.3 4.5 -28 Florigraze 5.4 3.5 3.6 -34 Ecoturf 4.1 3.2 4.0 -1 PI 262833 3.2 2.8 4.4 +36 Forage Nutritive Value Generally no difference was found in crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestion between the 1 and 4 inch SH. Crude protein averaged 18% and digestibility 69% over two SH and a 3 year clipping period. Persistence Perennial peanut is more persistent when plants are clipped back to a 4 inch SH compared with a 1 inch stubble. Average peanut ground cover after 4 years of clipping was 91% for the 4 inch stubble and 66% for the 1 inch SH. These data suggest taller stubble have better persistence. Plants clipped at the tall stubble were always above the water level regardless of the rain event. Some peanut entries were more water tolerant regardless of SH. PI 262833 averaged 96 and 100% ground cover and Ecoturf averaged 76 and 100% ground cover for the 1 and 4 inch SH, respectively. Root mass was measured at the end of the study to determine if the 4 inch SH had a greater root/rhizome density than the 1 inch stubble. Data indicate harvesting perennial peanut over a 4-year period, at a 1 inch SH decreased root mass by 44% when compared with the 4-inch SH. This would indicate clipping peanut plants at a 4-inch SH allows plants to continue top and root growth even under poorly drained soil conditions. In summary harvesting rhizoma peanut at a 4-inch SH will generally produce lower forage yields for about 2 years after establishment. However, after 2 years of clipping above ground yields were similar for both the 1 and the 4 inch SH. Forage quality is generally similar for both SH, however, persistence and root mass are always in favor of the taller SH. 32

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33 NOTES:


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0007577900004datestamp 2008-12-08setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title Cattle and forage field day. October 14, 2004.Research report - Range Cattle Research and Education Center (Ona) ; RC-2004-3Cattle and forage field day.dc:creator Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Floridadc:publisher Range Cattle Research and Education Center, University of Floridadc:date 2004dc:type Serialdc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00075779&v=00004143662748 (oclc)dc:source University of Florida



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UNIVERSITY OF F!I FL OR I D A Agricultural Experiment Station Institute of Food and Agicultural Sciences Range Cattle REC, Research Report RC-2004-3 Cattle and Forage Field Day October 14, 2004 Ona, Florida 1

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Range Cattle REC Field Day 2004 The University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) extends a cordial welcome to all ranchers, forage producers and industry representatives attending the 2004 Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Day. The importance of research and the extension of information is never more evident than what has occurred during the five week period in August and September 2004 in which three major hurricanes made landfall on Florida shores. UF/IFAS has evaluated and released grasses that perform well in wet areas. The importance of animal identification and record keeping becomes most helpful in sorting out animal ownership and herd make-up. The importance of developing and evaluating breeding seasons such that calves are born, raised, weaned and marketed during periods least impacted by summer and early fall hurricanes, and torrential rains common to south Florida. It is the purpose of UF/IFAS to help Florida expand domestic and international business, enhance natural resources, provide consumers with a wide variety of safe and affordable food, support community development, maintain a sustainable food and fiber system, conserve and improve environmental quality, and improve the quality of life. It is the purpose of UF/IFAS to develop and distribute research information that will keep Florida agriculture profitable and sustainable. The information presented at this field day emphasizes this commitment. Findlay Pate Center Director 2

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-Range Cattle REC Field Day Table of Contents S c h e d u le o f E v e n ts .........................................................................................................3 Cow and Calf Gains on Creeping Signalgrass and Bahiagrass R o b K a h n b a ch er .........................................................................................................4 Effects of Liming and Nitrogen Fertilization on Bahiagrass Decline M a r tin A dj e i ................................................................................................................1 3 Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Slash Pine -Bahiagrass Silvopasture Ik e E z e n w a .................................................................................................................1 9 Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage J oh n A rth ing ton ..................................................................................................... 2 5 Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils P a u l M isle vy ...............................................................................................................3 0 3

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-Range Cattle REC Field Day Schedule of Events A.M. 8:30 -9:30 Registration and Coffee 9:30 Welcome -Findlay Pate 9:40 Extension / Research Interface: Where the Rubber Meets the Road Larry Arrington 10:00 UF / IFAS, Range Cattle REC Importance to Florida's Cattle Industry Mike Milicevic 10:20 Cow and Calf Gains on Creeping Signalgrass and Bahiagrass Rob Kahnbacher 10:40 Effects of Liming and Nitrogen Fertilization on Bahiagrass Decline Martin Adjei 11:00 Forage / Cow-Calf Production in Slash Pine -Bahiagrass Silvopasture Ike Ezenwa 11:20 Limpograss Options for South Florida Cattlemen: Stockpiled Forage, Hay, and Round-Bale Silage John Arthington 11:40 Influence of Management on Yield and Persistence of Rhizoma Peanut on Flatwood Soils Paul Mislevy P.M. 12:00 Steak Lunch 1:00 Field Tour 3:00 Adjourn 4

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COW AND CALF GAINS ON CREEPING SIGNALGRASS AND BAHIAGRASS R.S. KaImbacher, J.D. Arthington, and F.M. Pate The Florida cow-calf industry has historically been based on relatively large pastures with minimal input. While several perennial grasses are commonly grown in pasture, bahiagrass fits well in a system of extensive management and is the major perennial pasture grass with 2.5 million acres state-wide. However, the loss of almost 100,000 acres of bahiagrass in the mid-1990s to tawny mole cricket highlighted the need to identify other grasses with qualities similar to bahiagrass. Brachiaria grasses have greatly increased the productivity of grazing lands on the infertile, acid soils that cover up to 170 million acres in Brazil. They are high-yielding grasses with reasonable nutritive value. Creeping signalgrass (Urochloa humidicola, syn. Brachiaria humidicola ), a highly stoloniferous species, is sown on about 3% of that area where low soil fertility, imperfect drainage, and extensive management predominate. It shares many of the desirable characteristics of bahiagrass: produces moderate yield with low soil fertility, establishes from seed, and persists with frequent, close grazing. Although creeping signalgrass does not tolerate the wide range of soil conditions and temperatures that bahiagrass does, it is adapted to the wet, infertile soils of the warmer central and south Florida, where the majority of the state's cattle are produced. Creeping signalgrass was tested in clipping and mob-grazing trials at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (REC) and further south at the Immokalee REC. However, there has been no measurement of livestock production on creeping signalgrass. METHODS AND MATERIALS In June 1998, three of six, 5-acre pastures were randomly selected and sown to either creeping signalgrass (Naterra Seed Co., Brazil) or Pensacola bahiagrass at 10 and 20 lb seed/acre, respectively. During the trial, grasses were fertilized once annually with 50 lb N/acre in the spring. Beginning in May 2000 to May 2003, each pasture was stocked with five, pregnant Brangus cows and their calves (1 cow-calf pair/acre). Cattle were rotated weekly among four, 1.25 acre paddocks in each of the six, 5-acre pastures from May to October. Cows and calves were weighed the first week of August when calves were weaned and removed. Each group of five cows returned to their previously assigned pastures where they remained until the end of October when they were weighed again. Calf weights were adjusted for sex and mean age at the respective weigh dates. At May, August, and October weigh dates, cows received a body condition score (BCS). 5

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Scores were visual evaluations based on a range of 1 to 9 with 1 = very thin cows and 9 = very fat cows. Forage production was determined every 28 d from May to October and available forage was measured weekly from May to October on the day cattle were rotated into successive 1.25 acre paddocks. Hand-plucked samples of grass, which simulated what cattle were eating, were taken for crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestion (IVOMD) determination. RESULTS Climatological Rainfall during the grazing season and temperature in the winter preceding each grazing season varied widely over the 4 yr (Table 1). The driest year on record (62 yr) at the Range Cattle REC was 2000, which was preceded by a relatively warm winter. In contrast, May to October 2001 was the wettest of the 4 yr, and it was preceded by a very cold winter. There were 17 instances of frost from 22 Nov. 2000 to 19 Apr. 2001 with a minimum 230 F, and signalgrass was severely injured. The remaining 2002 and 2003 had more rainfall than that of the 62-yr mean with winter temperatures similar to the norm. Table 1. Rainfall in the May to October grazing periods, and number of incidences of frost and minimum temperatures in the November-April period before each grazing season. Rainfall Temperature Year May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Total Frostt Minimum ------------------------inches ---------------------------no.---OF-2000 0.05 3.78 4.50 5.25 8.03 2.23 23.84 3 30 2001 1.30 10.58 14.26 10.11 17.76 2.38 56.39 17 23 2002 1.28 13.85 11.05 12.25 5.46 3.14 47.03 7 28 2003 5.36 15.80 4.51 10.09 11.04 1.14 47.94 6 28 62-yr 3.71 8.58 8.51 8.10 7.34 3.10 39.34 8.9 27 i Number of instances. Minimum temperature recorded in each of 4 yr compared with the mean annual minimum temperature over 62 yr. 6

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Cattle Cows At weaning in August, cow weight and BCS tended to be greater on creeping signalgrass compared with bahiagrass pastures (Table 2). At the end of grazing in October, cow weight depended on both grass and year (Table 2). For creeping signalgrass, cow weight in October was affected by year while there were no year effects for final cow weights on bahiagrass. With the exception of 2001 when the grazing season was shortened to allow creeping signalgrass recovery after the freeze, cows from signalgrass pastures weighed more than cows from bahiagrass. Cows grazing creeping signalgrass had higher BCS in October compared with cows grazing bahiagrass (Table 2). Calves At weaning in August, calf weights and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be greater on signalgrass than bahiagrass (Table 2). Mean age of calves at weaning was 261, 262, 267, and 273 days for 2000 to 2003, respectively. Average daily gain from May to August was affected by year with the ranking: 2000 = 2002 > 2001 = 2003. Note that 2000 was the driest year (Table 1). Table 2. Effect of grass pasture on various cow and calf responses. 4-year means. Grass Response Signalgrass Bahiagrass Pt Cow weight, May (lb) 1136 1132 0.82 Body conditions, May 4.8 4.9 0.52 Cow weight, August (weaning) (lb) 1139 1085 0.07 Body condition August 5.3 4.7 0.06 Cow weight, October (lb) 2000 1309 a 1140 a 0.0001 2001 1179 b 1151 a 0.37 2002 1310 a 1173 a 0.0006 2003 1165 b 1079 a 0.01 Body condition October 5.7 4.7 0.01 Calf weight May (lb) 433 434 0.94 Calf weight#, August (weaning) (lb) 549 519 0.13 Calf average daily gain (lb/day) 0.66 0.48 0.07 t Probability of a difference between grasses. Body condition score 1= very thin cows, 9= very fat cows. Grass x year interaction (P=0.01). Within grasses, means over years followed by the same letter are not different (P>0.05, LSD). # Adjusted for sex and mean age. 7

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Forage Production and Available Forage Bahiagrass forage production exceeded that of signalgrass from May to June, but the reverse was true for July to October (Fig. la). The greatest incremental increase in production for creeping signalgrass was 2700 lb DM/acre which occurred between June (1220 lb DM/acre) and July (3920 lb DM/acre). Much of this was from stems and seed heads. The comparable increase in accumulation for bahiagrass was 1100 lb DM/acre. Between August and October, month to month production was similar between grasses. Annual production was greater for creeping signalgrass (8740 lb DM/acre) than bahiagrass (7520 lb DM/acre). Available forage was similar for grasses in May and June, but for July through October, there was more available forage in creeping signalgrass than bahiagrass pastures (Fig. lb). After July, much of the forage from creeping signalgrass was stem which formed a residual stubble layer. During the 1-wk grazing periods, cattle ate mostly leaves that had regrown on the stubble layer during the 21-d rest periods. Nutritive Value Crude protein in bahiagrass was 11% in May, and it increased above 12% in June followed by a decline to < 10% in September (Fig. 2a). There was a trend for crude protein in bahiagrass to increase in October. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was always significantly lower than that in bahiagrass. Crude protein in creeping signalgrass was highest in June (11%) and lowest in September (< 8%). Creeping signalgrass IVOMD was always greater than that of bahiagrass (Fig. 2b). Greatest IVOMD for creeping signalgrass was 57% in June and lowest IVOMD was to 53% in October. Bahiagrass IVOMD reached a maximum of 50% in July, then declined to 45% in October. Ground Cover and Insects Following the 2001winter freeze, signalgrass live-plant cover in April averaged 52%. By late-June 2001, creeping signalgrass ground cover had increased to 85%. Except for the freeze, signalgrass maintained relatively good ground cover throughout the trial. Bahiagrass was the major weed in creeping signalgrass pastures followed by common bermudagrass. Weed presence was more obvious in dry spring months, but following rain in June and the resumption of creeping signalgrass growth, weeds contributed essentially nothing to available forage. Spittlebug larvae and their spittle masses were found from June to October on creeping signalgrass. Their occurrence was patchy, and populations varied with year. No 8

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insects pests were noted above ground on bahiagrass, but mole crickets were found in traps in pastures of both grasses. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Cattle The comparatively good weight gains of cows grazing signalgrass in the 3-month period after weaning is important because of the need for cows to regain body condition prior to calving, which can be difficult to achieve on bahiagrass in late summer. Body condition at calving is the determining factor influencing return to estrus and pregnancy in beef cows. Abundant rain coupled with mature bahiagrass tend to lower cow-weight gain in late summer and early fall. Creeping signalgrass, a low-input grass on a par with bahiagrass, may have an advantage over the less nutritious bahiagrass and the more nutritious grasses requiring costly management. Mean calf weaning weights from creeping signalgrass were not substantially greater than bahiagrass. The difference between grasses was minimized because of the relatively short time calves were on trial. Also, a nursing calf is buffered by milk from the cow, so nutritional aspects of pasture prior to weaning may affect cows more than calves. The difference in calf ADG between grasses for the period these calves were on trial favors creeping signalgrass. Provided cows are in good body condition (BCS > 5), which signalgrass cows were in August, fall-calving cows could nurse calves for an additional 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months. In years when calf prices are high, keeping cows and calves on creeping signalgrass for an additional 60 days could be profitable. This assumes calf ADG would continue at the same rate after early August, however the decline in protein in creeping signalgrass could limit calf growth in August to September. Also, calf ADG may be lower in years with high rainfall. Forage Production Annual production on both grasses was abundant, but there were problems with rate and time of growth and the composition of grass growth. In one of the early publications from the Range Cattle Station, Dr. Elver Hodges declared that the major problem with bahiagrass as 'inefficient use of the rapidly-maturing forage'. In this regard, creeping signalgrass intensifies the rate and timing problem because 30% of annual growth came in a 30-day period beginning with the start of summer rain. Much of this is low-quality reproductive growth that is difficult to utilize under grazing. A stiff, residual, straw-like stubble-layer formed by August, and remained for the duration of the grazing season. 9

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To utilize the flush of growth, stocking density on creeping signalgrass should be temporarily increased at the start of the rainy season. Bahiagrass also has a variable growth rate that creates a problem with proper grazing management, but cattlemen can overlook it. However, it is not likely that creeping signalgrass will meet rancher expectations with set-stocked pastures. Where signalgrass is in commercial use, such as at Deseret Cattle & Citrus, underutilization of early summer growth is a major problem. While neither grass is really productive in April and May, bahiagrass has an advantage with about 12-18% of annual production in these months. Bahiagrass will respond to a little rain, but signalgrass is essentially nonproductive in April and early May. Persistence and Adaptability The greatest impediment to signalgrass persistence will be cold. Based on 62-yr means at the Range Cattle REC, the 230 F freeze we experienced in 2001 has occurred in lof 6 yr. While a winter freeze may not eliminate creeping signalgrass due to the strong stoloniferous habit of growth, cold will render a pasture unproductive and open to weed growth until mid-summer. The first pasture sown to signalgrass was 300 acres at Deseret in 1996, and that pasture has persisted for 8 yr. We suggest that planting of creeping signalgrass pasture be restricted to the Florida peninsula south of Orlando. While signalgrass is noted to be tolerant of intermittent flooding, we found it had little more tolerance of flooding than bahiagrass. Signalgrass did not grow in ditches and depressions where water (2 inches) remained for several weeks. Signalgrass is not adapted to dry sites. Spittlebugs could almost always be found somewhere in signalgrass pastures throughout the rainy season. While signalgrass is tolerant, it is not resistant to spittlebugs. The possibility remains that spittlebug could weaken signalgrass pasture just as it does for limpograss pasture in central Florida. CONCLUSIONS Although creeping signalgrass has nutritional advantages over bahiagrass, lack of cold tolerance, limited growth prior to June, and excessive growth in July are the main problems that render signalgrass inferior to bahiagrass. Creeping signalgrass could be a valuable part of a bahiagrass-based pasture program on ranches south of Orlando because signalgrass can provide for greater cow weight gain between weaning and calving. It offers the possibility of providing good grazing for fall-calving cows nursing calves for up to 2 months beyond the standard weaning age of 7 to 8 months of age. 10

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Fig. 1. (a) Cumulative forage production of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass and (b) Available forage. Means of 2000-2003. May June July August September October I I Fig. la 10000 -4---Signalgrass 8000 -Bahiagrass 800 6000 -0 Qm 4000 CU 0 U2000 0 I I I May June July August September October I I I Fig. 1b 5000 -_-0-Signalgrass D-Bahiagrass c 4000 T 3000 CU = 2000 CU 1000 -0 I I May June July August September October Month 11

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Fig. 2. Nutritive value of creeping signalgrass and bahiagrass (a) Crude protein and (b) In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Means of 2000-2003. May June July August September October 13 | | | | | | Fig. 2a 12 -4-Signalgrass --v -Bahiagrass ~11-P 10 C)9 8 7 | | | | | My June July August September October 58 FIg. 2 b 56 54 52 -Signalgrass O --v -Bahiagrass 0 50 48 46/ 44 Ny June July August September October Month 12

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NOTES: 13

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EFFECTS OF LIMING AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON BAHIAGRASS DECLINE Martin B. Adjei Bahiagrass decline, a major problem with our premier pasture grass, usually begins with yellowing of pasture in small or big patches. Later, affected areas turn brown and die and are normally associated with the borrowing and tunneling activity of mole crickets. On damaged areas with high mole cricket population, the surface 6 to 10 inches of soil layer is honeycombed with numerous mole cricket galleries and the ground feels spongy when stepped on. Severely damaged pasture has virtually no root system and is easily pulled from the soil by cattle or foot traffic in a pasture. Research and surveys conducted throughout south central Florida implicate pasture and grazing management factors in mole cricket induced bahiagrass decline. Nutritional Factors Soil acidity (pH): Soil acidity refers to the concentration of active hydrogen ions (H*) in the soil. It is measured by an index called pH. The lower the pH, the more active hydrogen ions are present and the more acid the system. A pH of 7 (as is the case for distilled water) is neutral (H+ = OH), and for soil, a pH of 7 is too high for most forages grown in Florida. A pH of 5 to 6 is slightly acidic and satisfactory for most Florida forages to grow. A pH of 4 is too low or very acid and will result in poor root growth or function of most Florida forages. Nitrogen (N) Fertilization: Soil acidity tends to increase with repeated use of N fertilization, and liming with calcium or calcium/magnesium compounds capable of reducing soil acidity becomes necessary. For example, it requires 60 pounds (lb) of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium nitrate and 110 lb of lime to neutralize the acidity from 100 lb of ammonium sulfate. Increasing soil acidity to pH less than 5 can reduce the availability of boron, molybdenum and sulfur in the soil, reduce pasture production by more than a third, regardless of N fertilization, and predispose grass to yellowing and damage by soil-born insects. Experiment In one of our multi-county trials, the Range Cattle Research and Education Center decided to evaluate the long-term combined effect of liming and N-fertilization on bahiagrass pasture performance. We applied three types of fertilizer and a control (no fertilizer) annually to portions of bahiagrass pasture that were either limed to maintain a pH of 5.0 or not limed at a pH of about 4.3. The four fertilizer treatments applied every spring from 1998 to present were: 1) 60 lb/A of N from ammonium sulfate (N), 2) 60-2560 lb/A of N-P205-K20 from ammonium sulfate, triple super phosphate and muriate of potash (NPK), 3) 60-25-60 lb/A of N-P205-K20 plus 20 lb/A of a Frit Industries Inc. micro-nutrients mix which contained B, Cu, Mo, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn (NPKM), 4) no fertilizer control (Cont.). About a ton of lime was applied every two to three years to 14

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maintain a pH of 5 on limed areas. Bahiagrass performance was measured by dry matter yield, crude protein content, forage digestibility, and condition of bahiagrass ground cover in spring. Dry Matter Yield Effect of Lime On one of the pastures at Ona (pasture 71A) and in Pasco and Manatee sites, forage yield was not affected by liming to a pH of 5 throughout the 3-5 years (Fig. 1). The no-lime plots at these sites retained a pH of about 4.5 for the entire period. However, lime treatment increased bahiagrass forage yield by 24% across all fertilizer treatments on pasture 87 at Ona where the no-lime, fertilized plots showed a pH decline to about 4.3 (Fig. 1). Effect of fertilizer Yield increase from fertilizer application compared with non-fertilized control ranged from 18% on the Manatee site to 310% on the Pasco site with the Ona (Hardee) sites in the middle. However, we hardly noticed any clear differences in forage yield among the N, NPK and NPKM fertilizer treatments on the two Hardee pastures and on the Manatee pasture (Fig. 1). On the other hand, forage DM yield increased by 10% when the NPK and NPKM treatments were applied compared with the N only treatment on the deep sandy soil at the Pasco site. Nutritive Value Lime application had little to no effect on seasonal average crude protein content or digestibility (IVOMD) of bahiagrass forage but seasonal crude protein content increased by about 2% units (12% vs. 10%) with the application of any fertilizer containing N. This protein enhancement attribute of N was greater immediately after N application in spring and diminished with time through the season. Forage IVOMD for the no-fertilizer control was always among the lowest (47%) although improvement with N application varied from site to site. Spring Vegetative Ground Cover Effect of lime and Fertilizer At the beginning of grazing in spring of 1998, all the newly established bahiagrass plots at Ona had an excellent stand of nearly 100% green ground cover (Fig. 2). Two years later (2000), color of bahiagrass ground cover on plots started to sort out into lime vs. no-lime sections, where all limed plots were completely green in the spring but the color of no-lime plots depended on fertilizer treatment. This interaction between lime and fertilizer treatment became even more pronounced with passage of time. In 2002, five years into the experiment, minimum spring color change or damage to bahiagrass 15

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sward (1-4% ground cover) was noticed for plots limed to pH 5 whether or not they received fertilizer or for no-lime plots that were not fertilized on both Hardee sites (Fig 2). Damage was most severe (20-69% of ground cover) when bahiagrass was not limed but received yearly application of any N-containing fertilizer. The combination of acid soil conditions (pH less than 4.5) and repeated N fertilization seemed to weaken bahiagrass root-stolon system, cause severe yellowing in the early spring growth and made it easier for mole cricket damage to occur. Effect of Sludge: Some livestock producers apply lime-stabilized sludge to pastures to reduce the cost of fertilizer and lime. Lime is added in the processing of sludge primarily to control pathogens, insect vectors and odor which makes limed-sludge an excellent source of slow-release plant nutrients (especially N and P), organic matter and lime. During application, the pH of limed-sludge could range between 7 and 11, N content between 3% and 5% of dry sludge and P content between 2% and 4% of dry sludge. Four years repeated application of limed-sludge at the Range Cattle REC, Ona has shown that, when used at recommended agronomic rate (200 lb N/A), bahiagrass forage production responds well to sludge organic fertilizer and there is no damage to the sward. In those studies, we applied sludge up to 160 lb N yearly and improved annual dry matter yield from 2 T/A where no sludge was applied to 5 T/A. There was no excessive build up of plant nutrients or trace metals in the soil from sludge application and soil pH only increased from 5.0 to 5.3 in 4 years. However, bahiagrass roots cannot function properly to absorb sufficient iron, manganese and other micronutrients when the soil pH approaches 7. Several bahiagrass pastures in Polk, Pasco and Hardee counties where excessive amounts of sludge were applied repeatedly attained a soil pH of about 7 and lost substantial portions of the grass stand to weeds similar to symptoms of bahiagrass decline. It was easy to identify the strips on those pastures where sludge was dumped. Conclusions Under grazing conditions in south-central Florida, bahiagrass forage DM yield and crude protein content on typical flatwoods soils improve substantially with N but not with P or K fertilizer application. The situation may be different on the deep sandy soils where the addition of some P and K to N fertilizer could make a difference. Repeated N fertilization without adequate lime application to bahiagrass pastures induces widespread early spring yellowing and eventual stand loss to weeds. In acid soil situations, you are better off first liming to raise the soil pH to 5 or greater before applying N fertilizer. As precautions to using limed-sludge, apply material uniformly over pasture at recommended agronomic rate, monitor the soil pH every 2-3 years, and alternate limedsludge use with inorganic N-fertilizer such as ammonium sulfate or nitrate in order to stay within the optimum pH range of 5.0 to 6.0. 16

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6.0 5.5 -a _ N ab a b -Z5 5.0 -ZZZ2 NPK 4.5 -k\ NPKM C r Cont 4.0 -X_ FD 3; a 3.5 -b U) a 3.0 -c b E o 2.5 -c -00 'D 2.0 000 o 1.5 UL 1.0 0.5 0.0 Hardee (71A) Manatee Pasco Location 4.5 a aN 4.0 -aZZZ NPK c /] NPKM 3.5 -0Cnt 3.3 3.0 w0 b 0 2.5 E 2 U) 15 00 0 ID 1.0 000 0 .0 ->00 No-im Lim Harde (87 Figure 1.Teefc ffriizradlm plctono aigasfrg andPaco its ad -yrmens oHardee sites 17

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130 (A) Hardee 71A E N 120 -ZZZ NPK 5XX NPKM 110 Cont 0 ns ns ns S 100 -a a 0 0) b 90 b b U) b 80 -7 -x c 70 60 50 40 All No lime Lime No lime Lime 1998 2000 2002 Year 130 -(B) Hardee 87 N 120 -rZZZ NPK 0 110 -[5 NPKM L) ns a n Cont n 100 -a a 0 90b 80 -bb 70 -b -~x b n 60 -7 50 a 40 >x c -30 20 All No lime Lime No lime Lime 1998 2000 2002 Year Figure 2. The interaction between fertilizer, lime and year on percentage spring live, green bahiagrass ground cover (damage consisted of yellow, brown and weedy cover). 18

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NOTES: 19

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FORAGE/COW-CALF PRODUCTION IN SLASH PINE-BAHIAGRASS SILVOPASTURE Ike Ezenwa Grazing of cattle under pines is an age-long tradition in Florida. Under the old practice of forest grazing, cattle ate native grasses, forbs, shrubs and other vegetation. With high cost of land, taxes, and increased production costs, cattlemen are forced to consider new ways of increasing returns from their ranches. In this regard, silvopasture is promising. Silvopasture is a form of agroforestry in which cattle graze sown pastures under planted trees. Greater return from silvopasture could result from diversification as well as intensification of operations on the land. In addition to beef and forage, silvopasture will also yield timber, pine straw, and hunting leases. Thus, overall profitability of silvopasture may be superior to open pasture. There are also environmental benefits of improvement of water quality, soil conservation, and wildlife habitat that are more difficult to quantify in economic terms. Silvopasture is more complex than open pasture. Successful management demands a good understanding of the interacting components. Forage yields are not significantly depressed by trees the first 10 years after tree planting or in areas that are more than 7 ft from the nearest tree row. Ten to 15 years after planting the tree crowns close and forage yields decline. During this period, tree thinning is desirable, depending on site productivity, target product, and landowner objectives. The double-row configuration in which trees are planted in double rows spaced 8 ft apart with 4 ft within the rows, and 40 ft between double-rows addresses deficiencies of square and rectangular planting patterns in traditional forestry. The double-row configuration maintains the same tree density and timber volume as traditional configurations, but the wider alley between the tree rows maintains open areas for grazing and easier access for application of management practices. Many silvopasture studies in the Southeast were conducted on soils with better production potentials than the sandy acid soils of south and central Florida. Whereas some locations in the southeast produce better quality timber, and are closer to the mills and timber markets, south and central Florida are in a unique circumstance as cattle are a more important component of silvopasture than timber. There is a lack of information on cattle productivity in silvopasture, and the dynamics of forage production in the system under grazing. The objectives of our study were to determine cattle and forage production in a pine-bahiagrass silvopasture at a critical stage of tree growth (10 to 15 years after tree establishment) and the beneficial effects of thinning tree stands when herbage yields are expected to begin to decline due to tree canopy closure. Experimental Procedure The study was conducted on a 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture (pasture 48) at Ona. The trees were established in December 1991 on an 11-year-old 'Pensacola' bahiagrass pasture at the density of 454 trees/acre in the 4 ft x 8 ft x 40 ft, double-row 20

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configuration. The silvopasture was sown to 'Florida' carpon desmodium (Desmodium heterocarpon) in 1994 and 'Shaw' vigna (Vignaparkeri) in 2001. By 2002, tree survival was 44% or 200 trees/acre after 9 years of grazing. To quantify cow-calf production and the effect of thinning of tree stands, we cross-fenced the 40-acre pine-bahiagrass silvopasture into two 20-acre blocks. In the winter of 2002-2003, about 75 inferior trees/acre were cut and removed from one 20-acre block (thinned) leaving about 125 merchantable trees/acre. The remaining 20-acre block (unthinned) contained an average of 200 trees/acre. A 20-acre open pasture (pasture 53 W), also of Pensacola bahiagrass (> 20-year-old) with Florida carpon desmodium and Shaw vigna served as a control. All pastures were fertilized in March with 300 lb/acre of a 16-4-16 fertilizer. All pastures were grazed similarly from March to May 2003. On 1 June 2003, Braford cows (4-12 years of age) and calves (avg. 112 days of age) were assigned at 1 cow-calf pair/acre to each of the three pastures. Before the cows and calves were placed on the pastures, they were weighed and given a body condition score (BCS). Weights and cow BCS were again obtained in September when cows were removed from pasture and calves were weaned. Calf weights were adjusted for sex and mean age at weaning. Cows had free-choice access to a loose mineral mixture yearround. Forage production was measured every 42 days during the grazing period. Available forage was determined every 28 days by harvesting forage from a strip of grass from center of alleys to between double-tree rows in each silvopasture and at random in open pasture. Forage Production and Available Forage Forage production was greater in open pasture (9090 lb dry matter (DM)/acre) than in the two silvopastures which were not different (avg. = 6685 lb DM/acre) (Table 1). The trends in forage production during the grazing period differed among the pastures. In the two silvopastures, production declined linearly, while in open pasture forage production increased from 27 May to 21 July, then declined through 29 September. On average, more forage was available in the open pasture (2000 lb DM/acre) than in silvopastures (avg. 1220 lb DM/acre) (Table 1). 21

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Table 1. Total forage dry matter production and average available forage (28-days) on bahiagrass-slash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no pines). Pastures were stocked with 1 cow-calf pair/acre from 1 June to 15 September. Pasture Production Available -----------lb (DM)/acre ----------Thinned (125 trees/acre) 6270 b 1230 b Unthinned (200 trees/acre) 7100 b 1210 b Open (no trees) 9090 a 2000 a i Means in columns followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05). For the period 27 May to 29 Sept. 2003. Means of four, 28-day periods from 27 May to 15 Sept. 2003. Cow weights and BCS There were no differences among pastures for cow weights and BCS at the start of the grazing period on 1 June, but at the end, on 15 September all pastures were different from each other for both responses (Table 2). On average, cow weight in the thinned silvopasture decreased from 1096 to 884 lb, from 1150 to 975 lb in unthinned silvopasture, and from 1120 to 1074 lb in open pasture. Body condition scores of the cows decreased 0.3, 1.2, and 1.5 units for cows in open, unthinned, and thinned pastures, respectively. More rainfall was received over the 1 June to 15 September period (36 in) than the 62-year mean (28 in) for this period. In June, pastures were saturated with frequent periods (1-2 week) of standing water (1 in). 22

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Table 2. Cow and calf weights and cow body condition scores (BCS) on bahiagrassslash pine silvopasture and open bahiagrass pasture (no pines) from 1 June (start) to 15 Sept. (end) 2003. Silvopasture Thinned Unthinnedi Open pasture Cow weight at start (lb) 1096 a 1150 a 1120 a Cow weight at end (lb) 884 c 975 b 1074 a Cow BCS at start 5.0 a 5.2 a 5.2 a Cow BCS at end 3.5 c 4.0 b 4.9 a Calf weight at start (lb) 315 a 317 a 326 a Calf weight at end, weaning (lb) 392 b 396 b 466 a Avg. daily gain (lb/day) 1.6 b 1.6 b 2.9 a 125 trees/acre. 200 trees/acre. Means in a row followed by the same letter are not different (P > 0.05). Calf weights and daily gains Pastures were not different for calf weight at the start (1 June, 2003), but at weaning (15 Sept. 2003), calf weight was greater on open pasture (466 lb) than that of calves on thinned (392 lb) and not-thinned (396 lb) silvopastures, which were not different. Calf average daily gain was also greater on open pasture with 2.9 lb/day than on the silvopastures with an average of 1.6 lb/day. Discussion Calf weaning weight on the 12-year old silvopasture was 15% lower and cow weight loss was 4 times more than that on open pasture. These represented drastic reductions in livestock production compared with production when the trees were younger. Between March and October 1994 to 1997, when pines were 3 to 7years old, Drs. Findlay Pate and Rob Kalmbacher measured calf weaning weights on this silvopasture. Stocked at 1 cow-calf pair/acre, the 4-year average weaning weight of calves was 451 lb, which is similar to that of open pasture in the present study. The marked reduction in cattle performance in the silvopasture over the years can be attributed to reduced forage production due to increasing tree growth so that animal demand exceeded the ability of the silvopasture to supply forage. In general, lower forage yields of bahiagrass are obtained under pines than when bahiagrass is grown in open areas. Thinning pines did not increase forage production or animal output. It is possible that more thinning is required at this stage to further reduce the impact of the trees on forage production. Perhaps, in our region, it may be best to target production of fence 23

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posts or pulpwood, which would mean shorter rotations of 10-15 years, coinciding with the period when trees reduce forage production the most. In this way, trees are harvested for target products and reduction in livestock production is curtailed. The rotation may then be repeated. Conclusion If silvopasture is to be an economically viable management option for land owners in central Florida, then increasing value of timber beyond 12 year of age and income from other sources, such as sale of hunting leases, must offset declining returns from cattle. 24

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LIMPOGRASS OPTIONS FOR SOUTH FLORIDA CATTLEMEN: STOCKPILED FORAGE, HAY, AND ROUND-BALE SILAGE John Arthington and Findlay Pate Introduction Limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) is the second most utilized pasture forage in south Florida. Over the past 30 years, south Florida Cattlemen have benefited from the high dry matter yields, appreciable digestibility, and persistence of limpograss. One important production characteristic of limpograss relates to its superior winter yield, compared to other warm-season perennial grasses. In south Florida, limpograss can be expected to produce as much as 30 to 40 % of its annual growth in the winter months. This unique quality differs from most all other sub-tropical, perennial forages. At the Range Cattle Research and Education Center (RCREC), we have completed three complete production years investigating the performance of cow-calf pairs grazing winter stockpiled limpograss. Two treatments were compared; 1) 0.75 acres of limpograss and 1.50 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair, or 2) 1.80 acres of bahiagrass per cow-calf pair with supplemental winter hay. All pastures were spring fertilized with 60 pounds N per acre. Limpograss pastures received an additional fall application of fertilizer (60 pounds N per acre). During September, October, and November, cows assigned to the bahiagrass/limpograss combination treatment were grazed primarily on bahiagrass alone allowing the limpograss to stockpile for winter utilization. Cows assigned to the bahiagrass only treatment were provided adequate winter hay to support an average body condition score of 5.0 (moderate condition). Cows assigned to the winter stockpiled limpograss received no supplemental winter hay. All cows were provided five pounds of supplemental molasses (16% crude protein) daily from November 1 to mid-April. A 90-day breeding season was initiated on January 1. In this study, cows grazing winter limpograss pastures were provided with no winter hay; however, cows grazing the bahiagrass pastures consumed an average of 1400 pounds of hay per cow during each winter season (January to late March). Cows assigned to the stockpiled limpograss pastures experienced a slightly greater loss of body weight during the winter months, but a greater gain in body weight during the summer months, compared to cows grazing bahiagrass pastures and winter hay (Table 1). Grazing treatment had no effect on calf weaning weight (average weaning weight = 547 pounds; SEM = 8.2). Pregnancy rates were also not affected by grazing treatment (average over all three years = 92.2 and 91.6 % for cows grazing bahiagrass and bahiagrass/limpograss pastures, respectively). 26

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Table 1. Effect of pasture forage treatment on cow body weight change during the winter and summer seasons. Seasona Bahiagrass + Hay Stockpiled Limpograss SEM ---------------------------pounds ---------------------------Winter -88 -115 14.7 Summer 47 65 12.7 aSeasons extend from October to April and April to August for winter and summer, respectively. This initial 3-year study suggests that 0.75 acres of stockpiled limpograss can be substituted for approximately 1400 pounds of stored hay for wintering lactating beef cows. Considering an average hay cost of $70 per ton along with a standard wastage of 15%, the value of this stockpiled limpograss would be approximately $110 per acre. Considering these values, stockpiled limpograss may or may not be economically advantageous for south Florida cattlemen. An economic analysis of both pasture systems is appropriate for each individual ranch. Calving seasons that differ from those used in this study may have a significant impact on the value achieved from the limpograss. As well, persistence of stand will greatly impact economic return, as the high-cost of establishment is spread over greater or fewer production seasons. The current study only investigated the use of limpograss as a winter stockpiled forage source. Although 30 to 40% of the annual growth of limpograss occurs during the winter months, the remainder is realized during the summer. The greatest portion of this summer growth occurs at a time when producers have adequate available forage on bahiagrass pastures. Realizing opportunities for further utilization of limpograss during the late spring and summer may increase the overall value of this forage resource. Current Limpograss Evaluations for Cow-Calf Production in South Florida Using the same limpograss establishment utilized in the 3-year study described above, we are now investigating the value of harvesting late spring hay followed by midsummer round-bale silage. In this system, we will continue to allow for fall accumulation for winter stockpiled grazing. fiay In the first year (spring 2004), we fertilized 60 acres of limpograss on March 23 (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Eight weeks later, the pastures were cut and hay harvested. A total of 97 tons of hay dry matter was harvested (1.6 tons dry matter per acre). The average total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein of this hay was 51 and 9%, respectively, on a dry matter basis. 27

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Round-Bale Silage Limpograss contains long thick stems, requiring as many as 5 to 7 days of drying to achieve > 85% dry matter for hay harvest. Once the rainy season begins, we have less than a 20% probability of obtaining 3 consecutive drying days (mid-June through August) for hay making. This is an unfortunate situation for our limpograss grazing program, as substantial dry matter yield can be expected during these summer months. This excess summer forage accumulation must be utilized prior to preparation for fall stockpiling. Production of round-bale silage may be an interesting alternative to summer grazing of this material. There are multiple systems available for harvesting and storing forage silages. Dr. Bill Kunkle prepared a review of these systems. This paper is available in the Proceedings of the 12th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium (www.animal.ufl.edu). In our system, we fertilized the limpograss pastures on May 25 for production of summer round-bale silage (20-5-10; 400 pounds per acre). Coordination of custom harvest and the summer hurricanes kept us from harvesting during this current summer; however, adequate dry mater yield was achieved by eight weeks following fertilization. Clipping estimates suggest that we would achieve six to seven tons of round-bale silage per acre (65% moisture). This would equate to a total of about 2.4 tons of dry matter per acre. Our estimate for custom harvesting this material was $135 per acre or $57 per ton of dry matter harvested. Re-fertilization of this crop immediately after round-bale silage harvest will allow plenty of time for fall forage stockpiling prior to winter grazing, which should begin in late December or early January. Table 2. Estimated annual harvest of limpograss forage Item Production, tons per acre Cost, $ per ton Spring hay 1.6 $92 Summer round-bale silageb 2.4 $72 Winter stockpiling and re-growthb,' 3.0 $12 aFertilizer applied prior to hay harvest, round-bale silage harvest and winter stockpiling; (400 pounds per acre of 20-5-10; $184 per ton; includes custom application). bCustom hay harvest includes $15 per 900 pound bale (85% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. Custom round-bale silage harvest includes $15 per 1500 pound bale (35% dry matter) and a single application of fertilizer. 'Estimated for a 1000 pound cow provided 0.75 acres for 90 days of grazing (25 pounds of dry matter intake per day). This limpograss management system allows for the potential production of 7 tons of dry matter per acre (Table 2). The majority of this is harvested during the summer months, when continued accumulation of limpograss is often difficult to utilize. The most efficient use of this forage base occurs over the 90 d of stockpiled winter forage harvest by the cow. This estimated 3 tons of dry matter harvested per acre is realized with only the input of fertilizer. Since the cow is harvesting the material through grazing, the cost of custom harvest is saved. In comparison, the costs for producing spring hay and summer silage depend predominantly on the dry matter yield of this material. Considering 28

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approximately 510% TDN, these forage products provide us with a cost of $0.09 and $0.07 per pound of TDN. Using these figures, each are reasonable-cost feed sources for cows. In the hierarchy of use, we would first utilize all the fall stock-piled forage, followed by the round-bale silage and lastly the hay. The stockpiled forage has no sale value. Similarly, the round-bale silage has little sale value due to the difficulty of transporting this high-moisture material. Alternatively, the hay does provide an opportunity for the producer to market excess material not needed to feed the cowherd. Summary This production system is currently being evaluated at the Range Cattle REC. This evaluation will continue over the next three production cycles. The value of this system may be realized by both large extensive ranches and smaller intensive production operations. In the scenario described above, it may be possible to produce as much as 7 tons of usable forage dry matter per acre annually. Using a 1000 pound cow at 2.5% annual forage dry matter intake (% body weight) as an example, this forage system may support as much as 1.3 cows per acre. This is a clear advantage in terms of stocking rate; however, intensive management is required. At a minimum, three management inputs are needed, 1) three annual applications of a complete fertilizer, 2) hay and round-bale silage storage, and 3) equipment for handling and feeding the stored forage. In addition, producers that do not own their own hay and silage harvesting equipment are very dependent upon scheduling of custom harvesters. Considerable planning and coordination will be required for the successful implementation of this management system. 29

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INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND PERSISTENCE OF RHIZOMA PEANUT ON FLATWOOD SOILS Paul Mislevy, A.R. Blount, K.H. Quesenberry, and M.J. Williams There is a need in peninsular Florida for a long lived, persistent, warm season perennial legume that will tolerate somewhat poorly drained soils. In central Florida consistent establishment of warm season annual legumes has been difficult due to inconsistent moisture at seeding. In addition, establishment and persistence of many perennial legumes have not been satisfactory due to climatic extrems. Dr. Buddy Pitman tested hundreds of legumes over a 12 yr period at Ona and found one legume [Vigna parkeri (Shaw vigna)] that would persist under grazing in a bahiagrass sward. Growers are reluctant to buy seed of Shaw Vigna because seed costs are about $13/lb and must be imported from Australia. Legume research has been conducted at Ft. Pierce for over 30 years and more than 1000 entries were tested with only one long term persistent cultivar (Florida carpon desmodium) in use today. These examples indicate the difficulty in developing a legume that will persist in central Florida with or without a grass. Rhizoma peanut (Arachis), currently being tested at Ona is a long-lived, warm season, persistent perennial legume, adapted to well drained soils. Studies were conducted over a 4-year period at Ona to determine the influence of rhizoma peanut entries and stubble height (SH) on forage yield, nutritive value, and persistence on a poorly drained soil. Peanut entries consisted of Arbrook, Arbrook Select, Florigraze, Ecoturf, PI 262826, PI 262833, and PI 262839. Peanuts were clipped at 1 and 4 inch SH. Annual fertilization consisted of 300 lb/A 0-10-20 + 0.5% Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe (sulfate form), 0.05% B and 1% S. Results Higher dry matter yields were obtained when peanuts were harvested at a 1 inch SH (5.1 ton/acre) compared with the 4 inch (SH 3.4 ton/acre). However differences between SH disappeared after 3 years of clipping resulting in similar dry matter yields between both SH. Yield decreased an average of 68% for Arbrook and Arbrook Select between the initial and 3rd year of clipping and increased 36% for PI 262833 during the same time period (Table 1). 31

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Table 1. Influence of perennial peanut entry on total dry yield over years. Year Peanut entry 1 2 3 Change -------Ton/acre -------% Arbrook Select 8.3 3.8 2.6 -69 Arbrook 8.3 3.5 2.8 -67 P1262839 6.3 3.3 3.4 -45 P1 262826 6.2 3.3 4.5 -28 Florigraze 5.4 3.5 3.6 -34 Ecoturf 4.1 3.2 4.0 -1 PI 262833 3.2 2.8 4.4 +36 Forage Nutritive Value Generally no difference was found in crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestion between the 1 and 4 inch SH. Crude protein averaged 18% and digestibility 69% over two SH and a 3 year clipping period. Persistence Perennial peanut is more persistent when plants are clipped back to a 4 inch SH compared with a 1 inch stubble. Average peanut ground cover after 4 years of clipping was 91% for the 4 inch stubble and 66% for the 1 inch SH. These data suggest taller stubble have better persistence. Plants clipped at the tall stubble were always above the water level regardless of the rain event. Some peanut entries were more water tolerant regardless of SH. PI 262833 averaged 96 and 100% ground cover and Ecoturf averaged 76 and 100% ground cover for the 1 and 4 inch SH, respectively. Root mass was measured at the end of the study to determine if the 4 inch SH had a greater root/rhizome density than the 1 inch stubble. Data indicate harvesting perennial peanut over a 4-year period, at a 1 inch SH decreased root mass by 44% when compared with the 4-inch SH. This would indicate clipping peanut plants at a 4-inch SH allows plants to continue top and root growth even under poorly drained soil conditions. In summary harvesting rhizoma peanut at a 4-inch SH will generally produce lower forage yields for about 2 years after establishment. However, after 2 years of clipping above ground yields were similar for both the 1 and the 4 inch SH. Forage quality is generally similar for both SH, however, persistence and root mass are always in favor of the taller SH. 32

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