The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
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site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range Cattle Station
Mimeo Report 62-1 *-*
15TH FIELD DAY OUTLINE
Range Cattle Experiment Station
October 20, 1961
1. G. Kirk, Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Agronomist
F. M. Peacock, Asst. Animal Husbandman
J. E. McCaleb, Asst. Agronomist
C. L. Dantzman, Asst. Soils Chemist
Mr. W. C. Hines, Farm Foreman
Miss A. F. Evers, Stenographer
Mrs. J. C. Moye, Typist
The Range Cattle Station is a part of the Florida
and University of Florida.
Agricultural Experiment Station
OUTLINE OF WORK
I. Introduction ....... .... .. .... 2
II. Grazing Trials. ....... ......... 2
III. Temporary Winter Pastures . . .. .. .* .* 3
IV. Forage Crop Nursery . . . . # a 4
-. Pasture Legumes * a * * a 4
VI. Irradiation of Pangolagrass and Pensacola Bahiagrass. 5
VII. Herbicides. .. ...... . 5
VIII. Pasture Insects . . a 6
IX. Phosphorus Source Pastures. . . . 6
X. Additives to Pangolagrass Silage.. e . .. 7
XI. Hay and Silage .. . . ... .. 7
I. Fertilizer Ratios on Pangolagrass . . . 7
XIII. Corn and Sorghum Trial. ...... ......... . 8
XIV. Fertility of Flatwoods Soils as Affected by Pasture Management. .. 9
XV* Pasture Irrigation. . . . . .. 10
XVI. Fall Mechanical Practices on Permanent Pasture. . . 10
XVII. Cattle Program. .. . . . . 11
XVIII. Effect of Breeding and Nutrition on Production. . 11
XIX. Calf Crop .. . . . . . 12
XX. Mineral Consumption . . .* .* a a e 13
XXI. Supplemental Winter Feeding ..... . ..-r 13
XXII. Fattening Cattle:
Pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations. / 1 .
Sugarcane bagasse in cattle fattening rations.. 15-
Level of roughage in calf fattening rations.. *.N .;~ .. l
Factors affecting slaughter and carcass grade of cattle. . 15
Effect of gain during winter on feed lot performance .\ 16
XXIII. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Publications \ .. 17
New lines of work started during the past 2 years include: effect of herbicidal
control of palmetto on yield of native grass; lateral movement of fertilizer
elements in flatwoods soils; minor element retreatment on pangolagrass-whiteclover
pasture; Charbray, Charolais-Brahman and Charolais-Shorthorn crosses for beef
production; irradiation of pangolagrass stems and Pensacola bahiagrass seed.
Hurricane "Donnan passed over the Station on September 10, 1960, with winds of
hurricane force from the northeast from 3:00 until 7:30 p.m., accompanied by
6.60 inches of rainfall. Damage to buildings was not extensive, but all roofs
needed repair. Plastic covers on silos were damaged with increased surface
There were 14 frosts in 1960 with a minimum temperature of 270 F. at 54 inches
above ground and a ground level reading of 220 F., both occurring on January 24.
Rainfall for 1960 was 69.67 inches, 12.89 inches above the average for the last
18 years with 62% falling July through September.
The last privately owned land, 10 acres, within the confines of the Station was
purchased in November 1960. Sections of 2 canals, dug in 1916, and having no
attention since, were cleaned to give better drainage in periods of excessive
The cattle herd as of June 30, 1961, consisted of 451 cows and 2-year-old heifers;
5 yearling bulls and 22 bulls over 2 years old; 214 yearling steers and heifers
and 311 calves, a total of 1,003 cattle. A Shorthorn bull and 6 Charbray cows
and heifers were purchased.
II. GRAZING TRIALS
Grass Varieties: Three grass varieties were grazed during 1960. Fertilization
was uniform on all varieties applied at 4 dates and consisted of alternate
10-10-10 and ammonium nitrate treatments. The nitrogen rate was 50 pounds per
acre per application and treatment totalled 200N-100P205-100K20. Production
data appear in the following table:
Beef Gain Av. Daily Av. Daily
Grass Variety Per Acre Gain Mineral Eaten
lbs. lbs. lbs.
Pensacola bahiagrass 386 0.95 0.13
Tifhi bahiagrass 455 1.00 0.12
P.I. 224152 Starr bermudagrass 346 0.98 0.13
Slender pangolagrass was planted in rows in 1959 but failed to produce a sod
suitable for grazing in 1960. Higher per-acre gains on the Tifhi bahiagrass
resulted mainly from increased stocking rate, daily gain being very similar for
all 3 grasses.
Supplemental Feeding Steers on Pasture: Nine groups were placed on pangolagrass
and 3 on Pensacola bahiagrass pastures in April 1960. Supplemental feeding for
3 groups on each grass was begun June 15 and for 3 additional groups on pangola-
grass on August 10. Three groups on pangolagrass went without supplement. A
37.5-37.5-25 mixture of ground snapped corn, dried citrus pulp and 41% cottonseed
meal was fed at 4 pounds per head daily to all supplemented cattle. Average daily
gain by periods and for the season together with average beginning and final
slaughter grades are shown below.
Pangola,No Pangola,Fed Pangola,Fed Pensacola,Fed
Grazing Period Supplement After 8-10 After 6-15 After 6-15
Daily gain, pounds:
Period 1, ending 6-15 1.85 2.13 2.18 1.60
Period 2, ending 8-10 .76 .62 1.51 1.07
Period 3, ending 10-18 .46 1.29 1.09 .77
Season average .93 1.35 1.53 1.16
Average slaughter grade:1
Beginning 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.2
Final 4.6 5.5 7.0 5.7
i. Slaughter grades: 4, Utility; 5, High Utility; 6, Low Standard; 7, Standard.
III. TEMPORARY WINTER PASTURES
The first trial to determine the value of supplementing Floriland oats pasture
with an energy feed started in 1960. Four bushels of oats per acre were planted
October 21, 1960. Fertilization per acre was as follows: initial, 400 pounds
10-10-10; 50 pounds N, 11-28-60; 40 pounds N, 12-19-60. Grazing started 12-8-60
with 9 long-yearling steers on supplemented pasture and 6 on check. The 9 steers
each received 4 pounds of corn meal daily. The results are summarized below.
Pasture Plus 4# Pasture Without
Ground Corn Daily Supplement
No. steers continuously on pasture 9 6
Length of grazing trial, days 95 95
Initial 705 698
Final 915 871
Average daily gain 2.19 1.83
Steer gain per acre 249 145
Warm 500 464
Cold 488 452
Percent carcass shrink 2.40 2.60
Total pasture days per acre 114.0 84.8
Average sale value per steer $186.46 $166.11
_ ____ __ ____ ___ _
IV. FORAGE CROP NURSERY
Plant introductions in 1960 included 25 warm season legumes and 83 grasses. Grass
or legume introductions to date have not proven more productive than those now
used in improved pastures in this area. More study, however, needs to be given
to the influence of geographical and climatic factors on production. The
following table shows the yield in tons of green herbage per acre for grass
varieties in 2 areas and air-dry yields of clover in tons per acre at Range
La. Strain I
V. PASTURE LEGUMES
Whiteclover is the best cool season pasture legume available for central and south
Florida. It is frost-resistant but subject to damage by severe cold. Having a
high water requirement, whiteclover is a reliable crop only under irrigation.
Variety tests show that Louisiana S-1 and Nolin's Improved White are vigorous,
free-blooming southern types and more uniform than commercial Louisiana white.
Ladino whiteclover is an excellent forage producer but does not seed adequately.
in this area. It may be seeded in a 50-50 mixture with southern whiteclover when
seed costs make this desirable.
Sweetclover is tall, coarse-stemmed legume that has a higher lime requirement and
less water tolerance than whiteclover. It makes quicker growth during cool mid-
winter periods but is less palatable and drops out of production more rapidly in
the spring months. Sweetclover reseeds abundantly if allowed to bloom, but fall
germination of this seed is uncertain. Floranna sweetclover, selected in north
Florida, is more productive than Hubam.
Hairy Indigo has wide soil adaptation, but requires moderate drainage. It grows
on upland soils with little soil treatment but needs lime, phosphate and potash
on most flatwoods locations. Hairy Indigo is low in palatability, but cattle
learn to accept it. Grass response is excellent to the nitrogen fixed by this
VI. IRRADIATION OF PANGOLAGRASS AND PENSACOLA BAHIAGRASS
Pangolagrass stems were irradiated in the cobalt 60 reactor at Gainesville at
10,000 and 15,000 roentgens. Radiation effect and field mortality eliminated 90%
of the original sprigs; 400 survivors space planted on 8 by 8-foot centers showed
no visible mutant forms to 9-15-61. Additional vegetative material was irradiated
in 1961 at 10,000 to 25,000 r rates to check tolerance of radiation levels and
produce a larger survival population.
Commercial Pensacola bahiagrass seed was exposed to a 20,000 r treatment and
planted for seed production. Establishment was excellent in a row planting and
in broadcast plots. Seed produced by the plants which had been irradiated in the
embryo stage were broadcast at 2 pounds per acre on well-prepared land. Seedlings
from this planting will be managed to encourage production of individual plant
sods. These will be observed for any visible change in plant behavior or appearance.
All the herbicides listed below except pelleted 2,4-D are translocated through the
leaves; therefore, thorough wetting is essential. They are normally ineffective
when placed in the soil. Pelleted 2,4-D, after dissolving in soil is absorbed by
the roots. It is recommended that air temperature at time of application be 700 F.
or above. Suggested rates and materials in pounds of active ingredient per acre
are as follows:
Common black rush
No known control
Foliage should be
wet thoroughly with
given to application
to buds and new
4.0 75% kill in 18 months.
4.0 + 4.0 (60 days) Cives 95% kill in
3.0-4.0 On sandy soils.
6.0-8.0 On mucky soils.
4.0 Results uncertain.
other than soil sterilants.
1. Observe label warnings as to proper use and limitation.
2. Oil is not recommended for use in the carrier for these species.
3. Mix in 100 gallons water for handspraying.
VIII. PASTURE INSECTS
Insect infestation and damage was negligible in 1960. Pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi)
caused damage to whiteclover in small areas in 1959 and 1960. This aphid is
green in color, approximately twice the size of the yellow sugar cane aphid and
faster in movement. Recommended insecticides in pounds of active material as a
spray for controlling common pasture insects are as follows:
Insect Material1 Lbs./Acre Treatment and Grazing
Pea aphid Parathion 0.30-0.35 7 days
Grass aphid Parathion 0.15-0.20 7 days
Grassworms Parathion 0.15-0.20 7 days
DDT 1.00 21 days
Toxaphene 1.00 14 days
1. Florida Agricultural Extension Circular 193A.
IX. PHOSPHORUS SOURCE PASTURES
These pastures were established in 1947-49 and have been maintained in pangola-
grass with different phosphatic fertilizers used on the various treatments. All
easily soluble forms of phosphorus treatment were discontinued at the end of
1958, and the last rock phosphate was put on in 1953. Current annual fertilization
on all pastures totals 100 pounds per acre N and 50 pounds of potash, the N being
put on in 2 applications and the K20 in one. A number of the cows placed in this
trial in 1947-49 remain, and the rest of those now on the trial are grade Brahman
replacements. Supplemental feeding of a low-phosphorus ration of cottonseed
hulls and molasses containing 3% urea was practiced to remedy emergency shortages
of forage. Cattle production records for 1960 are summarized in the following
Total Calf Beef Gain
Forage Yield Calving Slaughter Per Acre
Treatment Tons/Acre Percentage Grade2 Pounds
No phosphorus 4.13 80 11 84
Superphosphate 5.72 86 11 136
Superphosphate + lime 6.65 50 9 159
Rock phosphate 5.36 83 10 152
Colloidal phosphate 6.05 100l 11 130
Triple superphosphate 6.02 71 10 133
Basic slag 7.31 86 12 133
1. No calves in preceding year.
2. Grades: 8, High Standard; 9, Low Good; 10, Good; 11, High Good; 12,
X. ADDITIVES TO PANGOLAGRASS SILAGE
A second trial to determine the effect of additives on (1) silage keeping quality
and (2) feeding value of the silage, was completed in February 1961. The silage
made in August 1960 was of good quality in all treatments, including the no
additive check. Long-yearling Brahman steers were fed for an 85-day period in
dry lot on rations consisting of cottonseed meal at 3 pounds daily per head plus
full-feeding of silage. Results are summarized below.
Additives to Pangolagrass
Citrus Ground Citrus
None Pulp Snapped Corn Molasses
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.
Additive per ton 0 150 150 80
Average daily ration:
Cottonseed meal, 41% 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Silage 47.1 48.6 48.6 47.5
Feed per 100 pounds gain:
Cottonseed meal 260 169 186 222
Silage 4213 2736 3012 3520
TDN per 100 pounds silage 14.0 18.8 18.7 15*8
Av. daily steer gain 1.12 1.78 1.61 1.35
XI. HAY AND SILAGE
Hay: Three mowing methods gave the following yields per acre of field-dry pangola-
grass hay: conventional sickle mower 2.5 tons; flail-type forage harvester
throwing a swath straight back 2.2 tons; rotary mower with single rotor and
high clearance 1.5 tons. Pangolagrass cut with a sickle mower and conditioned
by crimping through corrugated rollers dried to baling condition 24 hours ahead
of grass that was tedded with a reversible rake.
Silage: Black polyethylene 6 mil plastic sheeting has been effective in reducing
surface spoilage on stack and bunker silos. A stack silo was covered in August
1961 with a 4 mil sheet to test its durability. Damage to plastic covers during
silage feeding has prevented their re-use except as scrap material. Self-feeding
of silage from stack and bunker silos required regular attention for efficient
utilization, particularly for weaned calves and small yearling cattle.
XII. FERTILIZER RATIOS ON PANGOLAGRASS
The fourth trial was completed in 1960. Equal amounts of plant food were applied
in spring and fall. Bermudagrass infestation was serious in plots receiving 100
or more pounds of N per year. These trials are summarized for 1958-59-60 in the
N P K
0 0 0
XIII. CORN AND SORGHUM TRIAL
Fifteen commercial and breeder selections of corn and 7 sorgos were planted March
1, 1960. Fertilization of corn and sorgos was 500 pounds of 8-8-8 at planting
and at 7 weeks. The following table gives yield per acre of shelled corn for
the 7 highest producers and tons of green forage for all sorgos for 1 harvest,
June 15, 1960.
_ __ __ _
- -- --- ---- ----- -- -
XIV. FERTILITY OF FLATWOODS SOILS AS AFFECTED BY
YEARS OF PASTURE MNAMAEMNNT
Numerous fertilizer practices have been applied for different periods of time to
improved pastures at the Range'Station, some beginning in 1942. The pastures
are located on Immokalee, Leon, and Ona fine sand. A summary of fertilizer
practices for the various pasture treatments is as follows:
Native pastures untreated.
Native plus rock phosphate received only 1 ton rock phosphate
followed by chopping and planting to carpetgrass in 1946.
Improved grass pastures of 4, 7, and 14 years duration received
annually 500# 9-6-6 in spring and 150# NH4NO3 in fall or vice
Hairy indigo-grass pastures had an annual spring application of
450# 0-14-10 until 1954, after which time a spring treatment
of 250# 0-8-24 was applied.
Whiteclover-grass pastures were irrigated by either overhead or
seepage methods. Before 1954, 500# 0-14-10 were applied each
fall. After 1954, 250# 0-8-24 were applied once or twice a
year plus additional KC1 in most years.
All pastures were grazed rotationally. The improved grass pastures received an
initial treatment of Cu, Mn and Zn followed by 0.1 unit per acre CuO every 5
years; whiteclover-grass pastures had Cu, Mn, Zn and B initially and a 0.1 unit
per acre CuO every 5-7 years and boron irregularly. One ton per acre of calcic
or dolomitic lime was applied to the improved grass pastures each 4-6 years;
the clover had an initial lime treatment of 2 tons per acre plus 1 ton per acre
each 3-5 years.
The soil of each pasture was sampled to the depth of 6 inches in the spring
seasons of 1959 and 1960. The samples were analyzed by standard soil testing
methods and results are presented below.
Soil Test Results
Years Available Pounds Per Acre
Pasture Treatment Treatment N0q PO2 K2O CaO MgO pH
Native -- VL1 9 40 434 129 4.7
Native + rock P 14 VL 17 41 981 127 4.7
Improved grass 4 VL 21 66 891 181 5.2
Improved grass 7 VL 27 55 1464 106 5.3
Improved grass 14 VL 28 68 1678 134 5.4
Hairy indigo-grass 11 VL 27 109 1768 83 5.4
Whiteclover-grass 15 VL 25 178 2649 178 5.5
1. Very low.
The soil analysis data are fairly consistent with the fertilizer and lime
practices. All nitrate values were low. Available P205 in pounds per acre
increased sharply with the first increments of fertilizer, but additional
applications did not cause any substantial increase. Potash levels increased
with the intensity of the fertilizer practices. Sampling date on the whiteclover-
grass pasture, coming soon after fertilization, probably contributed to the
comparatively high K20 soil test values. Available CaO figures were also in close
accord with the treatment record, while those for MgO were more erratic. The pH
values reflected the lime treatments received.
XV. PASTURE IRRIGATION
Rainfall during the 1960-61 winter and spring clover season varied by months,
from above to below normal, and irrigation was necessary at several dates to
maintain sufficient moisture for clover growth. Bouyoucos blocks located 6 inches
below the surface dropped to minimum readings in the dry part of the field, but
at too slow a rate to indicate time of irrigation. A profile study of whiteclover
root distribution showed limited penetration below the 6-inch level, with 90 to
95% of the roots being concentrated in the top 3 inches. Additional blocks will
be placed at a 3-inch depth to give readings in the zone of greatest root concen-
tration. Blocks at 12- and 18-inch levels showed little variation, even when
clover was at the wilting point. Moisture-block readings taken in a Pensacola
bahiagrass-clover pasture that was seepage irrigated while surface soil was still
moist remained at a constant high level. Seepage irrigation of dry areas for 2-
and 3-day periods failed to increase the moisture content at the 6-inch level.
Rain cut the drouth short and obscured the long-term effect of this slow pene-
tration. Sprinkler application of water on dry areas produced a prompt increase
in soil moisture content at the 6-inch level as indicated by the Bouyoucos block
XVI. FALL MECHANICAL PRACTICES ON PERMANENT PASTURE
The third trial to determine effect of fall sod treatments on yield of whiteclover,
sweetclover and grass was completed April 6, 1961. Soil moisture was inadequate
for clover throughout much of the year and yields were depressed. The results for
1959-61 are summarized in terms of tons of green forage per acre and percent
species composition estimated for each treatment.
Tons Green Yield Per Acre Percent Composition
White- Sweet- White- Sweet-
Treatment clover clover Grass Total clover clover Grass
Check 0.2 0.1 2.0 2.3 8.5 6.5 85.0
Burn 4.0 3.2 0.4 7.6 52.5 42.5 5.0
Rotary tiller 1.6 3.3 0.8 5.7 41.0 41.0 18.0
Spring-tooth subsoiler 1.2 2.4 1.0 4.6 27.5 45.0 27.5
Mowed and raked 1.6 2.2 1.4 5.2 38.0 27.0 35.0
- 10 -
XVII. CATTLE PROGRAM
Breeding: Shorthorn bulls, starting in 1942, have been mated to Brahman cows
and the crossbred heifers backcrossed to bulls of the parental breeds, giving
varying amounts of Brahman and Shorthorn blood.
A Charolais bull was mated in the 1960 and 1961 breeding seasons to Charbray,
Brahman and Shorthorn females to produce Charbray and Charolais-Brahman and
Charolais-Shorthor crossbred calves. Male calves will be used in feeding trials
and heifers as herd replacements.
The grade herd of 140 cows consists largely of Brahman and Shorthorn, all tracing
to the Florida native cow.
Management Practices Include: No continuous overstocking of pastures; rotational
and deferred grazing to provide good feed throughout the year; regular fertili-
zation of improved pasture; combination of improved and native pasture when
possible; supplemental feeding to prevent excessive weight loss; constant selection
of high producing animals; controlled breeding season of 90 days, starting in mid-
March; calves marked, castrated and dehorned shortly after birth; calves weaned
at 5.5 to 7.5 months of age, fed in corral for 10 days after weaning and on
pasture the first winter; all calves inoculated against blackleg and heifer and
bull calves vaccinated for Bangs when 6 to 8 months of age; complete mineral
available at all times; control of hornflies by regular spraying; different
classes of cattle kept separate; regular attention to all cattle.
Records: Breeding, age, type and finish score, slaughter grade and weight of
all calves at weaning; all cattle are weighed every 3 months, those on grazing
and feeding trials more frequently; carcass data are obtained on all steers and
heifers when slaughtered.
Meat Quality: Factors affecting quality of beef are being studied in cooperation
with Main Station, Gainesville.
XVIII. EFFECT OF BREEDING AND NUTRITION ON PRODUCTION
The objective of this project is to determine the productivity of Shorthorn and
Brahman cows and crosses of these 2 breeds when kept under pasture conditions
designed to supply low, medium and high nutritional levels. The 3'herds of 60
cows each consist of 10 Brahman; 10, 3/4 Brahman-l/4 Shorthorn; 20, 1/2 Shorthorn-
1/2 Brahman; 10, 3/4 Shorthorn-l/4 Brahman; and 10 Shorthorn. In the 1959 breeding
season, the Brahman, 3/4 Brahman and 10 crossbred cows were bred to Brahman bulls;
and the Shorthorn, 3/4 Shorthorn and 10 crossbred cows to Shorthorn bulls. In the
1959-60 winter, Herd 1 on native range received an average of 442 pounds hay and
60 pounds of 41% protein pellets per cow; Herd 2, on a combination of improved
and native pasture, 29 pounds of pellets; Herd 3 on improved pasture plus clover,
498 pounds of hay.
- 11 -
Average Weaning Weight for 1960 Calves
Adjusted to 205 Days of Agel
Herd 1 Herd 2 Herd 3 Breed Group
Breeding of Calves Native Combination Improved Mean
Brahman 288 391 379 358
7/8 Brahman-1/8 Shorthorn 322 415 430 385
3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn 349 464 482 450
3/4 Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman 269 406 469 387
7/8 Shorthorn-1/8 Brahman 267 366 419 357
Shorthorn 197 11 33 281
Average 281 400 415
Percent weaned calf crop 65 73 71
1. In cooperation with Animal Science Department, Gainesville.
XIX. CALF CROP
Cattle at the Range Station are maintained on different levels of nutrition,
varying from native pasture with 13.3 acres per cow to a highly productive pasture
of pangolagrass and irrigated clover providing 1.5 acres per cow. Several herds
are on a combination of improved and native pasture. Supplemental feed is
supplied, usually from January to April, when necessary to prevent a too large
weight loss. The weaned calf crop for all cows in the herd from 1952 to 1961 is
No. No. Percent Weaned
Year Cows Calves Calf Crop
1952 236 158 67
1953 293 212 72
1954 403 214 53
1955 433 310 72
1956 453, 317 70
1957 4151 307 74
1958 410 321 78
1959 4452 280 63
1960 453 316 70
1961 485 319 64
- 12 -
1. Herd of 16 cows had no calves in 1957 as bull
2. Cows extremely thin at start of 1958 breeding
season which reduced 1959 calf crop.
XX. MINERAL CONSUMPTION
Mineral mixtures used at the Range Station for the past several years with good
results are mixed as follows:
Ona Range Modified Salt
Ingredients Station Mineral Sick Mineral
Steamed bonemeal 28.00 pounds
Defluorinated phosphate 28.00 pounds --
Common salt 31.21 pounds 100 pounds
Red oxide of iron 3.12 pounds 10 pounds
Copper sulfate 0.63 pound 2 pounds
Cobalt chloride or sulfate 0.04 pound 2 ounces
Cane molasses 7.00 pounds --
Cottonseed meal 2.00 pounds
Ona Range Station mineral contains 14.5% calcium, 8% phosphorus and 31% common
salt. Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient, prevents
spoilage of bonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mixture becomes wet.
Molasses and cottonseed meal are added to improve palatability. Modified salt
sick mineral is used along with bonemeal and common salt in all experimental
grazing trials. The average yeaily per-head consumption of Ona Range Station
mineral in a 5-year period for 3 groups of cows described in Section XVIII is
Native Native and Pangola and
Year Pasture Improved Pasture Whiteclover
lbs. lbs. lbs.
1956 18 26 15
1957 38 41 16
1958 44 42 18
1959 47 35 15
1960 L 22 24
Average 38 36 18
XXI. SUPPLEMENTAL WINTER FEEDING
Adequate roughage is essential for all classes of cattle. Fertilization of
selected pastures in early fall combined with rotational and deferred grazing
has been used to advantage to furnish more roughage for mature cattle from
December through March at the Range Station. Mature cattle have been maintained
in good condition without supplemental feeding for several years during the winter.
In the last 4 winters, however, considerable hay, silage, cottonseed hulls,
cottonseed meal and pellets, citrus pulp and molasses have been fed in various
combinations to prevent serious weight loss. Suggestions for care of cattle on
pasture are outlined below.
- 13 -
1. Management of the herd.
A. Have fewest cattle when feed is scarce.
B. Separate steers from heifers and dry cows from nursing animals.
C. Start supplemental feeding a few days before it seems necessary.
D. Keep animals supplied with complete mineral.
E. Control external and internal parasites.
2. Feed only protein when there is plenty of low-quality roughage in pasture.
A. One to 2 pounds 41% cottonseed or other high-protein meal or
pellets daily, or double these amounts every second day, fed
on good sod.
B. Mixture of 75 parts cottonseed meal, 15 parts common salt and
10 parts complete mineral, self-fed. Ingredients adjusted
according to consumption, class and condition of cattle, quality
of pasture and weather.
C. Grazing clover or oats 1 or more hours daily.
3. Provide energy nutrients and protein when required.
A. Two to 6 pounds 20% pellets daily.
B. One to 2 pounds cottonseed meal plus 2 to 4 pounds pulp, ground
snapped corn or molasses daily.
C. Five pounds daily citrus or cane molasses containing 3% urea,
or double these amounts every second day. Calves do not
utilize either molasses or urea as well as older cattle.
4. Roughage is needed when pastures are exhausted.
A. Three to 10 pounds hay or 10 to 30 pounds silage daily, amount
depends upon pasture forage available. Cattle fed low-protein
hay or silage will need protein also.
B. Three to 10 pounds daily of cottonseed hulls or ground cob and
shuck meal, plus protein.
XXII. FATTENING CATTLE
Pangola Hay and Silage in Steer Fattening Rations. Three trials of 120 days have
been completed in which pangolagrass hay and silage were each fed to 2 groups of
steers. The 4 lots were given the same amount of protein feed with Lots 1 and 3'
fed cottonseed meal, 41%, and Lots 2 and 4 a mixture of 50 parts cottonseed meal,
8 parts urea and 42 parts citrus pulp. Citrus pulp was fed at the same level to
all lots, but the amount of citrus molasses varied according to the appetite,
with Lot 2 eating the least. The results are summarized below.
- 14 -
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain Feed1 Av.
Lot Daily Protein Citrus Feed Costi Carcass Selling
No. Gain Hay Feed Pulp Molasses TDN 100# Grade Priced
1 2.25 278 137 398 161 558 18.23 8 24.64
2 2.08 301 149 433 166 598 19.00 8 24.54
3 2.12 934 146 421 172 598 19.29 8 23.63
4. 2.13 869 145 422 182 591 18.66 8 24.36
i. Feed costs per ton: Hay $24.38; silage $7*50; cottonseed meal $75.00;
protein mixture $68.00; citrus pulp $38.50; citrus molasses $25.00 and
2. Based on live weight at Tampa, 2.5% shrink on warm carcass and federal
carcass grade. Shrink in hauling to Tampa, a distance of 75 miles,
was as follows: Lot 1, 3.03%; Lot 2, 3.38; Lot 3, 3.73; Lot 4, 3.87.
Sugarcane Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations. Off-color chicken litter bagasse
when ground through a 1/2-inch screen was readily mixed with other feed ingredients
in 2 trials of 120 days each. Ration fed Lot 1 contained 20 parts bagasse, 15
parts cottonseed meal, 39 parts citrus pulp, 20 parts corn meal, 5 parts alfalfa
pellets and 1 part complete mineral. The ration self-fed Lot 2 contained 7.5
parts cottonseed meal, 1.5 parts urea and 45 parts pulp; otherwise, the rations
were the same. Lot 1 fed cottonseed meal had an average daily gain of 2.66 pounds
and Lot 2 given meal and urea, 2.42 pounds. TDN requirement per 100 pounds gain
was 522 for Lot I and 584 for Lot 2.
Level of Roughage in Calf Fattening Rations. Eighteen weanling steer calves were
divided into 3 lots of 6 steers each and fed for 182 days. There were 2 calves
each of 3/4 Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman, 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman, and 3/4 Brahman-1/4
Shorthorn breeding in each lot. The ration fed Lot 1 consisted of 15 parts
cottonseed hulls, 20 parts cottonseed meal, 38 parts citrus pulp, 20 parts corn
meal, 5 parts alfalfa pellets and 2 parts mineral. Rations fed Lots 2 and 3 were
the same as Lot 1 except 10 parts cottonseed hulls replaced citrus pulp in Lot 2
and 20 parts for Lot 3, making a total of 25 parts cottonseed hulls for Lot 2
and 35 parts for Lot 3. The average daily gain for Lot 1 was 2.05 pounds, Lot 2,
2.22 pounds and Lot-3, 2.08 pounds, with a TDN requirement of 579, 576 and 573
for Lots 1, 2 and 3, respectively.
Factors Affecting Slaughter and Carcass Grade of Cattle. The third trial to deter-
mine the effect of diethylstilbestrol on gain and slaughter grade of steers fed in
dry lot and on pasture was completed in August 1960. Forty yearling steers were
divided into 4 lots of 10 steers each and fed for 144 days. The 4 lots were fed
the same amount of the concentrate ration on an animal basis with Lots 1 and 2 in
dry lot getting an average of 5 pounds of pangolagrass hay daily per steer and
Lots 3 and 4 each grazing 5 acres of Argentine bahiagrass. The results are
- 15 -
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain
- 186 150
- 165 133
1. Each steer implanted with 30 mg. diethylstilbestrol at start of trial.
2. TDN from concentrate feed.
3. Grade: 8, High Standard.
Effect of Gain During Winter on Feed Lot Performance. Forty-eight Standard grade
heifer calves were divided into 4 uniform lots on October 7, 1959, and grazed on
bahiagrass pastures for 143 days. Supplemental feeding was regulated to give 4
daily gain levels, ranging from a bare maintenance ration to full feed. At the
end of the grazing period, each lot was full-fed in dry lot for 143 days. Results
are given below.
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain
1. From concentrate ration.
- 16 -
XXIII. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXERIZENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pasture, cattle and related
Bulletin 484A..Grass Pastures in Central Florida.
502...Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control.
506R..Know Your Fertilizers.
510...Poisonous Plants in Florida.
513R..Minerals for Beef and Dairy Cattle.
515...Mantatining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under Permanent Pasture.
517...Winter Clovers in Central Florida.
523...Growing Oats in Florida.
538...Citrus Products for Beef Cattle.
541...Selecting and Using Beef and Veal,
554*..Year-Round Grazing on a Combination of Native and Improved Pasture.
575...Feeding Value of Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle.
578..,Factors Affecting Weaning Weight of Range Calves.
581...Response of Pangola Grass and Pensacola Bahia Grass to Time, Rate
and Source of Nitrogen.
597...Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades of Brahman and Brahman-
600...Cost of Clearing Land and Establishing of Improved Pastures in
603...Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the Ration of Fattening Cattle.
611...Urea Toxicity in Cattle.
613...White Clover-Pangolagrass and White Clover-Coastal Bermudagrass
Pastures for Central Florida.
616...Comparative Feeding Value of Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed Meal
and Ground Snapped Corn in Drylot.
621...Value of Pangola Hay and Silage in the Steer Fattening Ration.
623...Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in Florida Beef Cattle.
624...Genetic and Environmental Influences on Weaning Weight and Slaughter
Grade of Brahman, Shorthorn and Brahman-Shorthorn Crossbred Calves.
627...Diethylstilbestrol and Aureomycin for Fattening Beef Cattle.
628...Production of Sorghum Forage and Grain as Feed for Dairy and Beef
630...Photosensitization in Cattle Grazing Frosted Common Bermuda Grass.
In Press...Factors Influencing Winter Gains of Beef Calves.
Circular S-33..Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment and Maintenance.
S-57..Feeding Beef Cattle for Show and Sale.
S-64..Control of Some Insect Pests of Improved Pastures.
S-78..Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control with Phenothiazine and
S-89..Steer Fattening Trials in North Florida.
S-108..Self-Feeding Pangolagrass Silage to Wintering Beef Cows.
S-110..An Experimental Self-Feeding Horizontal Silo.
S-124..Climatological Records from 1942 Through 1958 at Range Cattle