The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.
Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Range c fe 1A5ation
Range CM nation
RANGE CATTLE EXPERIMENT STATION
Dr. E. M.
, Coker, Farm Foreman
Miss Jackie Johns, Typist
Mr. F. .M Peatosk* 4. Animal Husb.
Range Cattle Station is
University of Florid
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
a. Visitors are welcome.
OUTLINE OF WORK*
treatments on Range
gras s es---- -----------.----------------------------
legumes- .-- _-na--------------------------------
Combination of improved and native pasture---------------- -
source pastures-------------------------- ---------------------
Hay production---------------------------- -- -- -- ---- --------------
program- --------------------------------- ----- -------
1952---. ------ -- --------------
Average weight of
cows and heifers--------------------------
* .L - -
ryr -. _-^*
and Fertilizer Treatments on
Range Cattle Station Pastur
1 & 31
Carpet-Louisiana White Clover,
5 & U
9 & 10
11 & 15
13 & 2h
16 & 23
Carpet and Carpet-Hairy
Mixed grass-clover, P-K,
Suwannee Benrmuda (#99),
Rhodes & Joint Vetch
Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-Hubam,
Suwannee Bermuda (#99)-Hubam,
1W thru 5WP
'ce pastures, see
native land plus
bined with 6
Pangola and Nati
Brahman and crossbreeding
, 80 and 98
Pensacola Bahia and Native,
Pensacola Bahia and Para,
Giant Pangola, N
on the range,
pasture for herd maintenance
and manganese sulfate,
sulfate and on clovers,
Plant improved grasses
Establish only as much pasture
best land available,
needed and can be properly
growth and prepare land
starting 6 to
Plant productive and
and Improved Bermudas.
Use more than one variety,
in a pur
when large areas are planted.
Plant when land is moist and use a
moisture and smooth
at planting time.
Fence new pastures and
planting or until grass
protect from grazing
Refertilize high producing pastures
4CO pounds per acre of
8-8-8 or a similar mixture.
Apply additional nitrogen when
Maximum production depends on
proper rate of
undergrazed will produce more and better
A pasture slightly
effi ciently to be profitable.
or irrigation is necessary for white clover.
exacting in moisture requirements.
Louisiana White and
Hubam are best
of Hairy Peruvian alfalfa ar
7 0 is
required for clover.
500 pounds per acre 0-14-14 each fall. Most n
ements. Sixty to 120 pounds additional K20 as
h is needed on vigorous white clover in late
- -I -- -
require minor el
0-8-24 or muriate of potas
1l pay. Up to 5
nt seed as soon a
against drying after
Leave ungrazed for 90 to
120 days after planting or until
3 to 4 divisions
times the manufacturers
s treated and guard
the early blossom
available in a
occurred in Florida
separate pasture may reduce
bloom moderately while grazed.
Cattle do not
grazing value when properly managed.
but once accustomed
there is no
Range Cattle Station.
for 60 to 90 days.
grass pasture and
have developed in
cattle grazing Hairy
the pasture during
Recovery was rapid when affected
just above the hoofs
continued wet weather
when a free choice of Indigo and grass
Indigo that accumulates
growth during mid-summer provides high quality forage
fall when grass pastures
or a moderate
low in feeding value.
ing Indigo during both
sumner and fall.
lizer annually at
300 pounds of 0-14-14 or
Indigo should be
or in sods
on most acid
2 to 3 tons of
care in inoculation
Hubam loses value if
ungrazed until full bloom is
but grass miAcd with
the clover or
A swelling and
animals were moved
4 year intervals
Indigo if treated
planting time or in May or
5 pounds per acre on newly prepared land
ton per acre of
OTHER LEGUMES: Common and Kobe lespedeza have been in grazing trials with
Carpet grass. Benefits were obtained but irregular in nature and of limited
value. Sericea lespedeza has failed in local plantings. Alyce clover made
excellent growth on upland soils. It is damaged by rootknot on higher lands
and will not tolerate the wetness of flatwoods. Crotalaria and Beggarweed grow
on soil of above-average fertility but are not of general value. The poisonous
Spectablis crotalaria is widely distributed and should be guarded against in
pastures. Big Trefoil has been seeded in many places with limited success. A
small area at the Range Cattle Station in its second year grew well in spring
and summer, 1953. A native legume, Joint Vetch or Aeschynomene, has made
vigorous summer growth.
IV. PASTURE IRRIGATION
FOUR-ACRE AREA: Irrigation with a small perforated pipe system was begun on this
area in January, 1950. Louisiana White is the principal clover, growing with a
number of grasses. A native sedge, commonly called "watergrass" has become a
pest in this pasture. Potash deficiencies following fall fertilization of
the clover have led to increased treatment rates on this type of pasture.
Records have been obtained with two-year old steers and yearling heifers. A
summary of results follows:
Year 1950 1951 1952 1953
Weather Very dry Med. dry Moist Variable
Irrigation, acre-inches 16.5 14.0 10.0 15.0
Began grazing 1-21-50 1-6-51 12-18-51 1-22-53
Finished grazing 9-21-50 10-27-51 11-4-52
Beef gain per acre, lbs. 492 1050 889 664 (May 21)
Cattle days per acre 440 584 696 --
Daily gain per head, lbs. 1.18 1.79 1.28
HERD AREA: A large-scale irrigation trial was begun in the 1951-52 winter, using
a nest of shallow wells with a centrifugal pump and rotary sprinklers. White
clover was established in Pangola-Carpet sod but water supplies were inadequate
for the 25-acre area. A 781-ft. deep, 10 inch well was finished in early 1953.
Equipped with a 5-stage turbine and 30 HP electric motor, this installation
delivers 30,000 gallons per hour with a sprinkler pressure of 50 pounds.
The clover is grazed in rotation with Pangola pastures to maintain 60 cows
year-round and their calves to 6-8 months of age on a total area of 80 acres.
This herd is described on page 9, paragraph G.
V. GRAZING TRIALS
Data on the spring and summer grazing value of several pasture grasses were
obtained from 1945 through 1951. These pastures were paired in most instances,
two 5-acre areas being grazed in a 7 to 10 day rotation. Lime and minor elements
were added as needed and 500 pounds per acre of 6-6-6 fertilizer applied annually
in March. Average gain per acre per year was as follows:
Variety Gain in pounds
Common Bahia 83
Pensacola Bahia 145
Coastal Bermuda (#35) 130
Suwannee Bermuda (#99) 159
The Suwannee Bermuda was in a single field where the soil was slightly mr e
fertile than elsewhere in the area. The sod had to be reworked in 1951 because
heavy grazing had permitted invasion of less productive grasses.
The annual fertilization plan was changed on these pastures at the end of
1951. Three separate applications of 9-6-6, made in March, May and August, 1952
produced the following figures in pounds of gain per acre: Carpet 182; Common
Bahia 138; Torpedo 206; Native 144; Pangola 362; Pensacola Bahia 224;
Argentine Bahia 236; Coastal Bermuda 211. Four different rates of 9-6-6
fertilizer were applied to Pangola in 1952, all except the lowest rate being in
split applications. The per-acre rates of fertilizer were 300, 900, 1700 and
2900 pounds with respective per acre gains of 252, 362, 710 and 895 pounds.
Beef gains were high for most pastures during 1952, due partly to moderate
moisture conditions during most of the growing season.
VI. COMBINATION OF IMPROVED AMD NATIVE PASTURE FOR A BREEDING HERD
A herd of approximately 70 grade Brahman and English bred cattle have been
maintained since 1949 on a 400-acre experimental area without supplemental feed.
The area is composed of 320 acres of native range and 80 acres of improved
pasture. These cows have an average calf crop of 80%, the calves when weaned
at 6 to 8 months of age have an average weight of over 425 pounds.
The 80 acres of improved pasture are divided into four fields, Variety,
fertilization and management are as follows:
No. 61. Pensacola Bahia with some Common Bahia and Carpet, topseeded to
Hairy Indigoe Lime and minor elements. Spring application of
500 pounds per acre of 0-14-14. Reserved in summer to permit
growth of Indigo.
No. 62. Pangola. Lime and minor elements. Fertilized in spring with
N-P-K and fall nitrogen topdressing, reserved during fall for
mid-winter feed. Grazed rotationally during spring and summer.
No. 63. Pensacola Bahia seeded to Hubam clover. Heavy lime and minor
elements. Chopped and reseeded to Hubam in fall ci -1 1 Y
application of 250 pounds per acre of 0-8-24 if lover makes
good growth. Clover grazed intermittently from February to
May. Grass grazed rotationally May to October.
Lime and minor
one application N-P-K and
served in late summer for
Grazed intermittently during winter,
- early winter grazing.
The native range,
but alternate bur
to which the
cattle have year-round access receives no treatment
* SOURCE PASTURES
pastures are now in
evaluate the phosphate sources in a
per acre, r
rate of 100
of P205 per acre.
1, are applied ev
*. Lime is added
their sixth year of production in a
, are applied
'ery three years at 2000 and 2400 pounds
to one superphosphate treatment at the
every three years,
to approximate the amount
calcium added in the rock phosphate.
Through 1950 all pastures
after which the N
anganese and zinc
rate was increased
sulfates were applied at
15 pounds per acre,
potash K20at 2
per acre annually.
pounds per acre was reapplied in 1953,
six years after initial minor element
Each treatment is
made up of
or N-K and
3-3/4 acre areas,
other two with nitrate
two being treated
soda. In the fall
each area receives alternate N-P-K,
and nitrate of
being reserved in
the fall for winter grazing.
A small br
times to c
eluded in t!
feeding herd is
cattle receive no
salt and modified
the year on
to 8 months of
the pastures of
s at all
their weights in-
he total gain for the treatment.
to 1950 and 1951
gains per acre on
to 1952* are given in
treatments for the periods
the following table:
82 and 90
83 and 86
81 and 85
84 and 87
89 and 91
88 and 94
Superphosphate plus lime
Raw Rock Phosphate
VIII. PASTURE INSECTS
An aphid, known as the yellow sugarcane aphid, has caused extensive damage
to Pangola grass pastures. The insect is about one eighth of an inch in length
and bright yellow in color. It was first believed that aphid damage was con-
fined to the fall months, but in the past two years much damage has been done in
the spring. Both summer rainfall and cool winter weather adversely affect this
pest. In most instances, recently fertilized pastures are more readily attacked.
The first indication of aphid damage on Pangola pastures is the yellowing of
leaves and in later stages the color becomes purple. Infested areas are usually
more or less circular in shape and enlarge as the insects work outward. At
the station the aphid was controlled by spraying pastures with a mixture of 1
pound of 15% wettable parathion to 100 gallons of water applied at the rate of
75 gallons per acre* CATTLE SHOULD NOT BE PERMITTED TO GRAZE TREATED PASTURES
FOR AT LEAST ONE WEEK FOLLOWING TREATMENT.
A grass worm, erroneously called Fall Armyworm, has caused considerable damage
to pastures. This is a looper, or measuring type worm, and varies in color
from a tannish gray to dark green or black, usually having a striped appearance
down the back. This is a chewing insect and eats notches from the sides of the
leaves. In severe infestations, the plants may be completely defoliated. These
may be controlled with DDT, Toxaphene, Chlordane, or Parathion.
IX. HAY PRODUCTION
Limited quantities of hay have been made at the Range Cattle Station ever since
itb establishment. Some of this was from grass cut especially for hay and
some resulted from mowing to prepare for clover planting.
Hay is a means of carrying feed from time of plenty to periods of need* Its
production in central Florida has been stimulated by introduction of grass
varieties suitable for the purpose. Wet weather, common when the grass is
available, and lack of storage space hinder more extensive production.
Similar areas of Pangola, Suwannee Bermuda and Giant Pangola were set aside
for hay production at the Range Cattle Station in early 1953. The fertilization
program on all three grasses was as follows:
February 17 - 00 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
March 19 - - 25 lbs. N per acre from mixed sources
April 5 - -- 300 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
April 20 - - 300 lbs. per acre 9-6-6
May 1 - - 100 lbs. per acre nitrate of soda
Weather was increasingly dry after May 1 and the grass was cut on May 11.
Drying conditions were ideal and curing rapid. The grasses were raked at least
once during each day they lay in the field.
Variegt Pangola Bermuda Pangola
Water content when mowed 70% 59% 72%
Time from cutting to baling 94 hrs. 27 hrs. 52 hrs.
Water content when baled 12% lh% 11%
Hay yield per acre 3 T. 1 T. 2 T.
Protein content of baled hay, y / L
12% moisture% a% 12%
', t cows,
have been mated to
are back-crossed to
Brahman-l/4 Shorthorn cows
L6 Crossbred cows
of the parental breeds.
six 3/4 Shorthorn-i/h Brahman heifers.
Brahman and Shorthorn bulls mentioned in Section A are
Commercial herd consists of
Shorthorn and Angus cows
in 1 to generations.
in this program,
In 1950 an Angus
a Santa Gertrudis was used with a
Shorthorn bulls have
small herd of
back to the native cow
been used extensively
a Hereford bull,
1952 and 1953
of the value of
weighed every 3 months,
and productivity of
each animal for beef production.
graded at weaning
and all fat
feeding trials more frequently.
fattening cattle on pastur
The first trial with
been completed. The
a study was made of
value of Florida by-prod act feeds for
are in progress throughout
se cattle were slaughtered
and fed a
standard ration has
the Main Station,
included a detailed record of the
and quality characteristics of prime rib roasts from each animal.
April 1; w
at 6 to
and internal parasit
feeding of calves
no continuous ove
and Nutrition on Production:
to be kept on pasture
1- on native range.
Herd 3- on improved pasture.
ten purebred Brahman,
on a combination of native and improved pasture.
Each herd will
consist of the following
ten 3/h Brahman-1/h Shorthorn,
ten 3/4 Shorthorn-1/h Brahman and ten purebred Shorthorn.
and oradI brahman and 10 of the crossbred cows will
be bred to
XI. WEIGHT OF CALVES BORN IN 1952
Average Weight at 180 Days and Slaughter Grade at 200 Days of Calves
Sired by Different Bulls and Out of Various Groups of Cows
No. Av. Weight Av.Slaughter Pasture
Sire Dam Calves at 6 Mos. Grade Conditions
Shorthorn Brahman 16 450 Good Good
Brahman Crossbred* 17 438 Good Fair to
Shorthorn Crossbred* 7 411 Good Good
Hereford Gr. Brahman 20 414 Good Fair to
Brahman Gr.Brah., Devon Fair to
and St. Gert. 38 400 Good- Good
Brahman Gr.Brah. Hete. Fair to
and Devon 31 414 Good- Good
Brahman Gr.Brah. and
Shorthorn 27 352 Commnw Native
Crossbred* Gr. Brahman 32 417 Good Good
Average -- 408 Good
* 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman
The average weight at 6 months of age of 167 calves born in 1950 was 429
pounds, 205 calves born in 1951, 380 pounds and 188 calves born in 1952, 408
- 10 -
Gr. Brahman 53
Gr. Brahman &
Gr. Shorthorn 60
Gr. Brah., Devon,
Hereford & X-bred 78
Gr. Brahman &
S. Gert. 15
in 1950 57
Heifers born in
XII. AVERAGE WEIGHT OF COWS AND HEIFERS
Dec. March June Sept. Dec. Calf Crop Feed
Le 1951 1952 1952 1952 192 1955 Condition
1035 987 997 990 993 93 53 Good
1065 935 979 980 1081 60 66 Good
777 871 876 883 825 47 72 Native
898 867 894 913 935 78 81 Good
933 825 883 895 905 87 93 Native
723 758 845 922 960 86 Good
Al 706 705 Good
- 11 -
L)j~ jl( VI/
XIII. WINTERING BEEF COWS ON THE RANGE
Feeling Citrus Products and Cottonseed Meal
The object of this project is to determine the supplemental value of citrus feeds,
with and without cottonseed meal, in terms of calf crop and weight and grade of
calves at weaning. In November 1948, 60 grade cows from two to five years of age
were divided into five lots of 12 cows each. From November to April each lot is
confined to 160 acres of native range but the 60 cows run together the rest of
the year. One-half of each pasture is burned during the winter. The three-year
results, 1949-50, 1950-51 and 1951-52 are as follows:
fed each winter
per cow, lbs,
Percent calf crop
Grade calves at weaning
Yearly calf production
per cow, lbs.
Yearly calf production
per acre, lbs.
No. calves born 1953
None Oranges G'f't
24 25 28
67 69 78
Good Good H.Conm.
253 270 311
19 20 23
7 10 9
* Citrus pellets contain 4 parts citrus meal, 35 parts
25 parts cottonseed meal. 4*One calf died at birth.
citrus molasses and
XIV. MINERAL MIXTURES
The mineral mixtures now being fed at the Station with good results are made up
Red oxide of iron
Cobalt chloride or sulfate
'The-complete mineral contains 17% calcium, 8.3% phosphorus and 31.2% common salt.
Common salt, in addition to being an essential ingredient, prevents spoilage of
.'hbonemeal, molasses and cottonseed meal if mineral becomes wet. Molasses and
-ttuonseed meal have been added to improve palatability of the mineral.
XV. SUPPLEMENTAL FEEDING OF PROTEIN
Protein is the nutrient most lacking in range forage from late fall to early
spring* The problem is to provide the feed in such a manner that all cattle have
an equal chance of getting their share of the protein feed. One method of con-
trolling the intake of cottonseed meal or other high protein feed is by mixing
with salt and complete mineral. The results of a feedingtrial with steers on
native pasture during the 1952-53 winter are given below. These cattle main-
tained their weight during the winters
Period Mixture Fed
CSM Salt Complete
10-25 to 12-17-52 68 26 6
12-18-52 to 2-7-53 67 24 9
Av. Consumption Daily per Steer
CSM Salt Complete
Ibs. Ibs. Ilbs.
0,61 0.23 0.05
0.60 0.22 0.08
0.61 0.22 0.07
Daily consumption of cottonseed meal is regulated by the amount of salt and
mineral in the mixture. It is suggested that a mixture of 2 parts salt and 1
part complete mineral be added to the cottonseed meal in the amounts needed to
control the daily intake of cottonseed meal at the desired level.
XVI. FATTENING CATTLE
Florida by-product feeds have been used in fattening trials since 1945. Four
trials in dry lot in which cottonseed meal was fed at the same protein level as
a mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts 2-6-2 (Urea) and 34.5 parts
citrus meal as protein feeds have been completed (see data below). Lot 32 was
fed citrus molasses and cottonseed meal while Lot 33 received citrus molasses
to which was added 3% 2-6-2 and one pound of citrus meal daily per steer.
Ammoniated citrus pulp with a nitrogen content equivalent to 12 percent pro-
tein has been fed in preliminary trials. Lot 35 was fed regular citrus pulp
and Lot 36 ammoniated pulp, both lots getting the same amount of nitrogen,
Ammcniated pulp is not as palatable as plain pulp. Replacing 20 parts of
ammoniated pulp with cracked corn improved the palatability of the ration.
The "standard' ration fed for 140 days to calves in Lots 37, 38, 39 and 40
consisted of 55 parts citrus pulp, 30 parts cottonseed meal, 10 parts cornmeal
and 5 parts alfalfa. All were fed hay and citrus molasses at the same rate.
The ration fed Lot 42 consisted of 70 parts citrus pulp, 25 parts cottonseed
meal and 5 parts alfalfa. Ground snapped corn replaced the pulp in the ration
fed Lot 43 and cornmeal for Lot 14, All lots were given the same amounts of
hay and citrus molasses.
- 13 -
UREA AND AMMONIATED CITRUS PULP IN FATTENING RATIONS
Feed Required for 100 lbs. Gain
Hay CSM Urea Pulp
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.
Dry Lot-Ammoniated Pulp
* Pasture not included.
** Ammoniated citrus pulp, 12% protein.
"STANDARD" FEED*, CITRUS PULP, GROUND SNAPPED CORN AND CORNMEAL FOR FATTENING
Feed Required for 100 lbs. Gain
St d Citrus Gr.Sn. Corn- Cit.
Gain Hay_ Feed Pulp Corn meal Mol. TDN
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.
3/4 Sh.-l/4 Br.
1/2 Sh.-1/2 Br.
3/4 Br.-l/4 Sh.
- 468 82
* 55 parts citrus pulp, 30 parts cottonseed
meal, 10 parts cornmeal, 5 parts
- 14 -
1. Grade yearling cattle that are thrifty, good type, quiet disposition,
weighing from 450 to 700 pounds should be selected for feeding.
Calves should weigh at least 350 pounds. Cull out poor gainers as
soon as observed.
2. All sharp horns should be tipped. Cows and heifers kept separate from
steers. Some animals may need Phenothiazine treatment to eliminate
3. Feed cattle in groups: 10 to 40 in dry lot when fed twice daily and in
larger numbers on pasture when self-fed. Do not over-crowd animals.
4. Fattening ration must include roughage, protein, mineral, vitamins, and
energy nutrients in proper proportions if cattle are to make good use
of the feed for maintenance and gains.
5. Citrus, corn and cane products are rich in sugar and low in protein.
They can be used for maintenance aid fattening when balanced with pro-
tein-rich feeds. Citrus pulp and meal are not roughage feeds. Cattle
need hay or pasture.
6. Provide three linear feet of trough space for 600 pound animals, fed
twice daily and one-half this space for cattle self-fed.
7. Good gains can be secured with yearling cattle on an average daily
4 to 7 pounds good quality hq or equivalent pasture and
2 to 3 pounds of either cottonseed or peanut meal or' mixture of
60 parts cottonseed meal, 5,5 parts 2-6-2 (Urea) aid 34.5 parts
PLUS ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING:
8 to 10 pounds citrus pulp or ground snapped corn
5 to 6 pounds citrus pulp or snapped corn and 3 to 4 lbs. molasses
8 to 10 pounds sweet pulp
8. Give a small quantity of fattening and protein feeds at start, increasing
slowly until cattle are on full feed in 30 to 60 days*
. 9 Allow 1 pound daily of high protein feed for each 250 to 300 pounds live
weight. Feed yearling and older cattle a mixture of 2 parts citrus pulp
or snapped corn to 1 part of cottonseed meal with molasses self-fed at
the start of the feeding periods Use a 3 to 1 mixture after 40 days.
Calves require more protein, giving 2 parts of the fattening to 1 of
high protein feed from the beginning. Calves cannot utilize either
molasses or urea as well as older animals.
.10. Supply ample feed and water and keep a good mineral before them.
- 15 -
U1. Feed cattle at the same time each day. Keep troughs clean and remove
any moldy feed. A shed over feed troughs prevents feed spoilage and
reduces danger of cattle going off feed.
12. Keep cattle comfortable. Good sanitary conditions can be maintained
with less effort on pasture than in dry lot. Use spray to control
13. Do not disturb animals unnecessarily.
reduce rate and increase cost of gains,
Exciting or running animals will
14. Disposition of herdsman is an important factor in how cattle behave.
XVII. FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION PUBLICATIONS
A partial list of the available publications on pastures, cattle and re-
lated subjects follows:
Bulletin 517 -
------ Hay and Seed Drying with a Slatted Floor System
.--- Grass Pastures in Central Florida
----. Know Your Fertilizers
.----- Poisonous Plants in Florida
..- Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle
------ Maintaining Fertility in Mineral Soils Under
.---- Winter Clovers in Central Florida
---- Leaching of Fertilizer Phosphorus in Acid Sandy
Soils as Affected by Lime
.. Costs and Methods of Pasture Establishment and
---- Fertilizer Should Contain a Source of Sulfur
for Clover Pastures in Many Areas of Florida
----- Soil Reaction (pH)
- 16 -