Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Growing lightweight calves in North...
 Growing lightweight calves in South...
 Potential for "in-state" cattle...
 Suggestions for increasing the...
 Current pasture fertilizer recommendations...
 Grasses old and new
 Winter annual forage productio...
 Considerations in beef cattle management...
 Back Matter

Title: Beef cattle field day.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075777/00003
 Material Information
Title: Beef cattle field day.
Series Title: Beef cattle field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Range Cattle Experiment Station.
Publication Date: 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075777
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143648503

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Growing lightweight calves in North Florida
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Growing lightweight calves in South and Central Florida
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Potential for "in-state" cattle feeding: Finishing cattle in North Florida
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Suggestions for increasing the cattle feeding industry in Florida
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Current pasture fertilizer recommendations for flatwoods soils of Southwest Florida
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Grasses old and new
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Winter annual forage production
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Considerations in beef cattle management to improve production
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Back Matter
        Page 50
Full Text
AN 1 4 1974


/- --^- -----^ ---=-- z--------



OCTOBER 26,1973


Grateful appreciation is expressed to the companies
and the people that have supported the research
program at the Ona Agricultural Research Center by
their grants, gifts and assistance. These are listed
alphabetically as follows:

Amchem Products, Ambler, Pennsylvania
Armstrong Ranch, Moore Haven, Florida
Asgrow Florida, Wauchula, Florida
Bruce Blount, Lake Placid, Florida
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Michigan
Dupont Company, Wilmington, Delaware
Fields Equipment Company, Wauchula, Florida
Florida Fertilizer Company, Wauchula, Florida
Florida Seed and Feed Company, Ocala, Florida
Fulton Cole Seed Company, Alturas, Florida
Haile Dean Seed Company, Orlando, Florida
Hardee County Cattleman's Association
Hardee County Commissioners
Hardee County Sheriff's Office
Johnny Cake Ranch, High Springs, Florida
Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals, Tampa, Florida
Lykes Brothers Ranch, Okeechobee, Florida
Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri
Peace River Electric Coop, Wauchula, Florida
Superior Fertilizer Company, Tampa, Florida
Sun Oil Company, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
U. S. Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida

A number of other ranchers and persons have assisted
in forage testing programs and/or field tests of various
types. To them and others who have supported the Ona
Research program, grateful appreciation is acknowledged.



October 26, 1973

8:00 Registration.

8:30 Welcoming comments.

8:40 Panel: Potential for "In-State" Cattle Feeding.

Growing light weight calves in north Florida.

Growing light weight calves in south and
central Florida.

Finishing cattle in north Florida.

Observations on feeding cattle in Florida.

10:00 Suggestions for increasing the cattle feeding
industry in Florida and summarizing comments.

10:20 Coffee break.

10:40 Current pasture fertilizer recommendations.

11:00 Grass varieties, old and new.

11:20 Winter annual forage production.

11:40 Suggested management practices for beef
cow herds.

12:00 Questions and answers.

12:15 Lunch, served by Hardee County Cattleman's
Association. Dutch treat.

1:15 Field Tours.

4:00 Adjourn.


Chapman, Jr.

Baker, Jr.



C. L. Dantzman

E. M. Hodges

Paul Mislevy

F. M. Peacock

This report was promulgated at an annual cost of $120.77, or 17.2 cents per copy, to inform cattlemen
of recent beef cattle research.


F. S. Baker, Jr.

J. E. Bertrand

H. L. Chapman, Jr.

T. J. Cunha

C. L. Dantzman

E. M. Hodges

D. E. McAteer

P. Mislevy

F. M. Peacock

Animal Husbandman, Quincy Agricultural
Research and Education Center.

Associate Animal Nutritionist, Jay
Agricultural Research Center.

Center Director, Ona Agricultural
Research Center.

Chairman, Department of Animal Science,

Assistant Soils Chemist, Ona Agricultural
Research Center.

Agronomist, Ona Agricultural Research

Lykes Brothers, Brooksville.

Assistant Agronomist, Ona Agricultural
Research Center.

Associate Animal Scientist, Ona
Agricultural Research Center.


J. E. Bertrand2/

There is a year-round demand for Florida lightweight calves and

feeder cattle. However, the supply of calves in Florida is largest in the

fall and the price of these calves is normally lowest at that time. The

price for all weights of cattle is normally highest in the spring. This

situation favors the growing of lightweight calves in the state during

the cool season of the year. These calves can then be marketed as

feeders in the spring when the price is highest.

Small grain crops (triticale, wheat, rye, and oats) produce quality

grazing when rotationally grazed by growing calves during the cool season

in north Florida. Beef production with calves grazing small grain crops

varies considerably from year to year, depending largely upon weather

conditions (cold, moisture, sunlight, etc.).
A mixture composed of a small grain crop, ryegrass, and crimson

clover for rotational grazing by growing calves offers a longer period
than a pure stand of a small grain crop and a good potential for beef

production in north Florida. The small grain crop, if planted early

enough in the fall, should be ready for grazing in November, while the

ryegrass and crimson clover should extend the grazing period into late

spring or early summer.
Grain crop silage (corn and sorghum) is a feed that has a good potential

for growing calves in north Florida. When grain crop silage is supple-

mented with a concentrate mixture, containing protein (the major portion

1/ Presented at the Beef Cattle Field Day, Agricultural Research Center,
Ona, Florida, October 26, 1973.

2/ Associate Animal Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Jay, Florida.


as natural protein), vitamin A, minerals, salt, and a low-level

antibiotic, good gains with growing calves can be obtained. Even

though good grain crop silage is a good source of energy, the

addition of grain will substantially increase gain. Corn silage

has a higher nutritional value for growing calves than forage or

grain sorghum silage.

Small Grain Crops, Alone and in Mixtures with Ryegrass
and Crimson Clover, for Growing Beef Calves ARC, Jay

The over-all performance of growing beef calves grazing pure

stands of triticale and wheat was better than that of calves grazing

a pure stand of rye (Table 1). The average daily gain per head daily

for calves grazing triticale was 1.85 lb. compared to 1.70 and 1.50 lb.

for calves grazing wheat and rye, respectively. However, due to a

higher stocking rate, calves grazing wheat produced more gain per

acre than calves grazing triticale (392 and 382 lb., respectively).

Calves grazing rye had a high stocking rate, but due to a short

grazing period and a low daily gain they produced the lowest gain per
acre (260 lb.).

Growing beef calves grazing a mixture of triticale, ryegrass, and

crimson clover gained faster than similar calves grazing a mixture of

rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover (1.90 vs. 1.72 lb./head/day) (Table 1).

Calves grazing the mixture containing triticale also produced more gain per

acre (554 and 469 lbs.).

The addition of ryegrass and crimson clover in a mixture with a
small grain crop (triticale or rye) for grazing by growing beef calves

produced a longer grazing period, increased the average daily gain and

beef gain per acre, increased the stocking rate, reduced the cost of

gain, and increased the net return per acre over that obtained with a
pure stand of triticale or rye.

Unrolled and Rolled Corn and Forage Sorghum
Silage Rations Formulated for Maximum Gain
with Growing Beef Calves by the Addition of
Ground Corn and a Concentrate Supplement -
ARC, Jay (1972-73)

Growing beef calves fed forage sorghum silage rations formulated
for maximum gain by the addition of ground corn and a concentrate

supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) gained significantly

(P<0.05) more than calves fed corn silage rations (2.08 vs. 1.89
lb./head/day) (Table 2). The gain of calves fed both the corn and

forage sorghum silage rations exceeded the gain predicted for such

rations in the NRC (National Research Council) publication (Nutrient

Requirements of Beef Cattle, No. 4, Fourth Revised Edition, 1970).

Larger amounts of ground corn and concentrate supplement were used

to formulate the forage sorghum silage rations than the corn silage

rations. This was done in order that each ration would have the

same nutrient composition using the values listed for each feed

ingredient. The cost of gain was lower and the net return per head
was higher for calves receiving the corn silage rations.

Calves fed rolled corn and forage sorghum silage rations gained
slightly faster than those fed unrolled corn and forage sorghum silage
rations (2.01 vs. 1.97 lb./head/day) (Table 3). The feed required per

unit of gain and the cost of gain were lower for calves receiving the

rolled silage rations. Therefore, calves receiving the rolled silage

rations had a higher net return per head.

Table 1. Performance of Growing Beef Calves Grazing Small
Alone and in Mixtures with Ryegrass and Clover -

Grain Crops,
ARC, Jay (1972-73)

Triticale Wheat Rye Triticale Rye
+ +
Item alone(a) alone(b) alone(c) mixture(d) mixture(e)
Initial no. of calves 12(f) 12(f) 12(f) 12(f) 12 )
Avg length of grazing, days 130 125 99 147 145
Avg initial wt, lb. 377 380 378 382 377
Gain/acre, lb. 382 392 260 554 469
Animal days/acre 207 231 173 292 272
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.85a** 1.70a,b 1.50b 1.90a 1.72a,b
Stocking rate/acre (g) 1.60 1.85 1.75 1.99 1.88
Gain/acre/day, lb. 2.96 3.15 2.63 3.78 3.23
Pasture cost/cwt gain(h) $ 16.02 $ 13.86 $22.65 $ 11.08 $ 12.22

Calf cost/acre(i) $322.71 $376.11 $353.90 $406.70 $379.19
Pasture cost/acre(h) $ 61.20 $ 54.32 $ 58.93 $ 61.39 $ 57.36
Total cost/acre (j) $383.91 $430.43 $412.83 $468.09 $436.55
Final animal value/acre(k) $485.21 $539.29 $453.84 $647.23 $580.05
Net return/acre(j) +$101.30 +$108.86 +$ 41.01 +$179.14 +$143.50

(a) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of triticale (South Blend).
(b) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of wheat (Wakeland).
(c) Rotational grazing of a pure stand of rye (Wren's abruzzi).
(d) Rotational grazing of a triticale (South Blend), ryegrass (Gulf), and
crimson clover (Dixie) mixture.
(e) Rotational grazing of a rye (Wren's abruzzi), ryegrass (Gulf), and
crimson clover (Dixie) mixture.
(f) Two groups of six steer calves each. Three 1.25 acre plots (3.75 acres)
of the respective pastures for each group initially containing six calves.
(g) Additional grazer animals were added and removed as needed to keep the
forage uniformly grazed.
(h) Pasture cost = $61.20/acre for triticale; $54.32/acre for wheat; $58.93/acre
for rye; $61.39/acre for the triticale, ryegrass, and crimson clover
mixture; and $57.36/acre for the rye, ryegrass, and crimson clover mixture.
(i) Calf cost = $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
(j) Does not include labor involved in caring for the calves.
(k) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.
** Denotes statistical significance at the 1% level. Means followed by
letter "a" are significantly different from those means not having "a"
and those followed by "b" are significantly different from those having "b".

Table 2. Corn and Forage Sorghum Silage Rations
Gain by Growing Beef Calves ARC, Jay

Formulated for Maximum

Corn silage Forage sorghum
Item ration(a) silage ration(b)

No. of calves 27(c)(d) 32(c)
Length of trial, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 330 329
Avg final wt, lb. 606 633
Avg gain/calf, lb. 276 304
Avg daily gain, lb. 1.89 2.08*

Feed/cwt gain 1501 1282
Silage 1286 856
Ground corn 144 344
Concentrate supplement 71 82
Feed/calf/day, lb. 28.4 26.8
Silage 24.3 17.9
Ground corn 2.7 7.2
Concentrate supplement 1.4 1.7

Feed cost/cwt gain
Silage(e) $ 8.52 $ 5.24
Ground corn(f) $ 5.04 $ 12.04
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 7.51 $ 8.67
Total $ 21.07 $ 25.95
Avg cost/head(h) $176.55 $176.02
Avg feed cost/head $ 58.15 $ 78.89
Total cost/head(i) $234.70 $254.91
Final animal value/head(j) $298.46 $311.75
Net return/head(i) +$ 63.76 +$ 56.84

(a) As-fed basis---85.7% corn silage, 9.6% ground corn, and 4.7% concentrate
supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(b) As-fed basis---66.8% forage sorghum silage, 26.8% ground corn, and 6.4%
concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins).
(c) Four groups of eight calves each.
(d) Five calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sick-
ness; the data for these animals were disregarded.
(e) Corn silage cost = $13.00/ton unrolled and $13.50/ton rolled; forage
sorghum silage cost = $12.00/ton unrolled and $12.50/ton rolled.
(f) Ground corn cost = $70.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) cost = $211.41/ton.
(h) Calf cost = $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
(i) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
(j) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.
Significant at the 5% level.

Table 3. Evaluation of Rolled Corn and Forage Sorghum Silages for Growing
Beef Calves ARC, Jay. (1972-73).

Item Unrolled Rolled(a)

No. of calves 30(b)(c) 29(b)(d)
Length of trial, days 146 146
Avg initial wt, lb. 328 331
Avg final wt, lb. 618 624
Avg gain/calf, Ib 290 293
Avg daily gain, lb 1.97 2.01

Feed/cwt gain 1403 1350
Silage 1069 1028
Ground corn 255 246
Concentrate supplement 79 76
Feed/calf/day, lb. 27.9 27.2
Silage 21.2 20.7
Ground corn 5.1 5.0
Concentrate supplement 1.6 1.5

Feed cost/cwt gain
Silage (e) $ 6.68 $ 6.68
Ground corn(f) $ 8.93 $ 8.61
Concentrate supplement(g) $ 8.35 $ 8.03
Total $ 23.96 $ 23.32
Avg cost/head(h) $ 175.48 $ 177.09
Avg feed cost/head $ 69.48 $ 68.33
Total cost/head(i) $ 244.96 $ 245.42
Final animal value/head(j) $ 304.37 $ 307.32
Net return/head(i) +$ 59.41 +$ 61.90

(a) The silages were rolled in order to crimp (crush) the kernels of grain.
(b) Four groups of eight calves each.
(c) Two calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sickness;
the data for these animals were disregarded.
(d) Three calves had to be removed during the course of the trial due to sicknes
the data for these animals were disregarded.
(e) Corn silage cost = $13.00/ton unrolled and $13.50/ton rolled; forage sorghum
silage cost = $12.00/ton unrolled and $12.50/ton rolled.
(f) Ground corn cost = $70.00/ton.
(g) Concentrate supplement (protein, minerals, and vitamins) cost = $211.41/ton.
(h) Calf cost = $53.50/cwt (includes cost of calves, hauling, veterinary costs,
(i) Does not include labor involved in feeding and caring for the calves.
(j) Based on an animal value of $49.25/cwt at the end of the trial.


H. L. Chapman, Jr.

Over 700,000 calves were shipped out of state during 1973. Since

60% of Florida cattle are located :in the southern 25 counties of the
state- it is estimated that over 400,000 of these calves originated

in the southern portion of the state. The cattle industry in this
area of the state is comprised predominantly of cow-calf herds. These

cattlemen are continually faced width having to make decisions about the

best time to market their calves. Should they market a light weight

calf that will bring a high price per pound, but a relatively low

total income? Should they wean early and manage their calves so they

can be slaughtered as fat calves, or should they carry them through and

develop them for feeders? Should they wean a heavy calf to go directly

into the feedlot? It is obvious that no one answer will be the same for

everyone. Also, the different programs are not necessarily compatible.

For example, calves that are fed to be slaughtered as 450 to 500 pound

fat calves may have too much finish at that weight to allow them to be
economically carried on into the feedlot to be finished at 950-1050
pounds. Calves that are grown out to fatten at the heavier weights may

not have the finish desired in the slaughter calf. Decisions must be

made concerning how to market calves to realize the greatest return.

The cost of gain for calves from weaning to 650-700 pounds is

cheaper than those made by larger animals. If the calves that are

being shipped out of state could be economically grown out in Florida

to feeder size it would provide additional income for the Florida

cattlemen. If many of the calves 'rom the southern part of the state

1/ Florida Department of Agricultural Livestock Statistics.

could be economically developed to feedlot size and fattened in the

feedlots of north Florida it would offer still further potential income

to the Florida cattle industry.

Calves can be managed in a.number of ways. In southwestern United
States calves go directly into the feedlot with as much as 80% alfalfa

in their rations, and this roughage is reduced to 10 to 12% in the

finishing ration. In the Jay area excellent results are obtained

from small grains pastures prior to going into the feedlot. In mid-

western United States corn silage is the major component in calf

rations. For the Florida cattleman to be competitive with cattlemen

elsewhere he should fully exploit the resources found within the state.

In south Florida the major source of feed for beef cattle is still

pasture, and it is still mostly permanent pasture. Calves need more

than just pasture to make rapid gains. We have high-energy feed

ingredients such as cane and citrus molasses and citrus pulp available

in south Florida that are relatively economical, as compared to corn,

sorghum, and similar ingredients used elsewhere.

Based on these facts a series of experiments have been initiated

at the Ona ARC to determine if economical programs can be developed to

grow out calves in south Florida, to calf slaughter weights, or to

feedlot weights. Information is still in the preliminary stage, but

results to date have emphasized some important facts.

Experimental Results

During the winter of 1970-71 one hundred fifty (mostly Angus
and Angus x Hereford)- 3 to 4 month old heifer calves and twenty

2/ Angus x Hereford calves were obtained from Collier Cattle Co.,


lightweight crossbred calves from the Ona ARC were used to evaluate

different levels of supplement feed. The calves with an average weight

of 221 lbs were divided into five equal groups of 34 each on the basis

of origin, breed and weight. Four groups each were placed on 10-acre

lots of pangolagrass pasture and one group was fed in drylot. The

five treatments were as follows (the first 4 groups were on pasture):
1--Fed concentrates at the rate of 0.5 percent of body weight.
2--Fed concentrates at the rate of 1.0 percent of body weight.

3--Fed concentrates at the rate of 1.5 percent of body weight.
4--Fed concentrates at the rate of 2.0 percent of body weight.
5--Full fed concentrate in drylot.

Hay was fed animals in drylot and also to animals on pasture when

a pasture became short of grass. Aureomycin was fed to animals in

each group for the first 10 days. All calves received the same concen-

trate ration which consisted of 683 pounds of citrus pulp, 683 pounds of

hominy feed, 195 pounds of blackstrap molasses, 97 pounds of 17% dehy-
drated alfalfa pellets, 293 pounds of cottonseed meal (old process) and

49 pounds of mineral (Ona #2).
The calves were sold as slaughter calves to Mid State Packers at
Bartow as they reached approximately 425 pounds in weight. Initial

cost of calf, feed costs, labor, overhead, taxes and interest on capital

outlay were charged against gross income to determine net return per


These calves were tail-end calves and did not gain well. However,

the groups receiving 1.5 and 2.0 percent of their body weight in feed

both made a small net return, while all other groups lost money. The

calves on the two lower concentrate feed levels obtained more of their

nutrition from the pasture forage. They used their pasture up and

3/ Economic comparisons were made by Dr. R. E. L. Greene, Department

of Food and Resource Economics, University of Florida.


had to be fed supplemental hay which increased their total feed cost

per calf, and their gain was less than the groups receiving higher

levels of concentrate feeds. The calves on the two lower levels of

concentrate intake did not have the finish desired in fat slaughter

calves. The cattle on fullfeed in drylot had the highest rate of

gain, feed cost and net loss per calf.

The second trial, conducted during the 1971-72 winter was to
compare different types of calves.- One hundred-fifty calves with

an average weight of 323 Ibs were divided into five groups of 30 each.

Four groups each were placed on 10-acre lots of pangolagrass pasture

and one group was fed in drylot. The calves on pasture were fed

concentrates at the rate of 1 2/3 percent of body weight. The calves

in drylot were full fed concentrates and plus pangolagrass hay. The

five treatments were as follows:

1--Brahman heifers fed concentrates on pasture.

2--Brahman steers fed concentrates on pasture.

3--Brahman bulls fed concentrates on pasture.

4--B x A steers fed concentrates on pasture.

5--B x A steers fed concentrates and hay in drylot.

Animals on pasture and in drylot were fed the same concentrate ration

consisting of 890 pounds of corn meal, 494 pounds of dried citrus pulp,

50 pounds of 17% dehydrated alfalfa pellets, 396 pounds of 41% cottonseed

meal, 148 pounds of blackstrap molasses (standard) and 20 pounds of

mineral mixture. All other experimental procedures were similar to the

first trial.

During the second trial gains were higher than during the first.

Crossbred steers made greater gain and net return than Brahman steers

on pasture. All of the pasture fed groups had a positive net return,

while the drylot cattle lost money. At the conclusion of the trial the

4/ Calves were obtained from Lykes Brothers, Inc., Okeechobee.


drylot cattle were too fat to do well in the feedlot phase.

The third trial was conducted during the winter of 1972-73.

There were 90 Brahman steer calves averaging 378 Ibs and 90 English-

Brahman crossbred steer calves averaging 428 Ibs used in this study,
divided into six groups of 30 each.- Four groups were fed on Pangola

grass pasture to compare concentrate feeds containing either cotton-

seed meal or urea as a source of supplemental nitrogen. Two groups

were full fed in drylot. The treatments were as follows:

1--Brahman, fed on pasture, cottonseed meal nitrogen.

2--Brahman, fed on pasture, urea nitrogen.

3--Crossbred, fed on pasture, cottonseed meal nitrogen.

4--Crossbred, fed on pasture, urea nitrogen.

5--Brahman, fed in drylot, cottonseed meal nitrogen.

6--Crossbred, fed on pasture, cottonseed meal nitrogen.

Experimental rations composition varied because of using urea,

but they contained approximately 40% dried citrus pulp, 7.5% standard

cane molasses and the balance was comprised of corn meal, mineral, salt,

cottonseed meal or urea, wheat bran and 17% alfalfa pellets. The drylot

ration contained 15% bagasse pellets and were bulkier and contained more

roughage than during the second trial. Cattle on pasture received

approximately 1 2/3% of their body weight as feed while drylot cattle

were full fed.

Four groups were sent on to Lykes Brothers on April 17. The two

groups of Brahman steers being fed on pasture did not go into the

feedlot until June 19, 1973.

The same general trend was experienced in trial three as during

the second trial. Good quality crossbred steers outperformed good

Brahman steers both on pasture and in the feedlot. More net return was

made on pasture than in the feedlot. Brahman steers were difficult

to keep on a full feed in drylot and were easy to founder. No difficulty

5/ Calves were obtained from Lykes Brothers, Inc., Okeechobee.

was experienced with the crossbred cattle, in this respect. Calves were

heavier during the third trial and the pangola pastures were unable to

adequately support three head per acre for the entire grazing period and

it was necessary to provide supplemental hay to the calves. This increased

feed cost and was also very hard on the pastures. Gains were slightly

lower in drylot than during the second trial, due to the higher roughage



Results to date indicate that calves can be economically grown

out to feeder size in south Florida on permanent pastures. However

several precautions must be observed.

1. Pasture should be good quality. Permanent grass pastures may not be

adequate during winter months. More information is needed concerning

the value of legumes, ryegrass, and other temporary forages for

calf growing programs.

2. Grade Brahman calves will not do as well as crossbred calves on

growing out or fattening programs.

3. Calves need concentrate feed to grow out well on grass pasture.

The amount needed appears to be 1.5 to 2.0% of their body weight.

in combination with good quality pangolagrass pasture but this will

be affected by the quality of pasture or other supplemental roughage

that is available. More information is needed about the level of

supplemental feed needed with various forages.

4. Lightweight calves that are fed in the feedlot should be fed

according to the slaughter weight desired. If they are slaughtered

as a 450-500 lb fat calf they should be fed high-energy, low roughage

rations from the time of weaning. If they are to be grown out to

1000 Ibs they should be on a growing program until they are about

650-700 Ibs and then should go on a high energy-low roughage ration.




F. S. Baker, Jr.

In the past, farm feedlots have fed most of the cattle finished in

North Florida, South Georgia, and South Alabama. Locally produced grain

was supplemented with citrus feeds, and additional corn was brought in

from the Midwest only by the larger feeders. For several years trucks

transporting produce backhauled Midwest corn to the Southeast, or trucked

in corn of Midwest origin from barge unloading points on the Tennessee

River. However, in recent years since large hopper cars have been

available, more corn is brought in by rail.

Most of the cattle fed in the area have been grazed between weaning

and feedlot weights of 700-750 pounds, either by the cattle feeder or by

farmers primarily engaged in growing stockers to feedlot weights. Many

of the latter have confined their operations to small grain pasture,

although a few have utilized warm season pastures, also.

Generally cattle have been fed in dry lot for relatively short

periods of 90-120 days, because most feeders have been producing pasture

gains at lower cost than feedlot gains. Cattle have been kept in the lot

for only the minimum length of time needed to attain acceptable finish,

and since the cattle were heavy and fleshy when started on feed, poor

feed conversion and high cost of gain made it necessary to have a 3 to 5

cent-a-pound margin between cost of feeders and sale price of finished

cattle. Moreover, overall gains (pasture + feedlot) were slow from

weaning to slaughter, with 12-15 months needed to graze and finish a calf

to 1000-pound finished weight.


Needless to say, increases in costs of stocker-feeder cattle, feed

and pasture, as well as much greater non-feed costs, have made it unpro-

fitable to feed cattle in the manner previously described. However, by

taking advantage of know how developed in recent years, it appears that

cattle can be profitably fed in the Southeast. Several operations, both

farmer and commercial feeding, now finishing cattle in North Florida,

South Georgia and South Alabama support this opinion.

Following are factors which are becoming more important for profitab]

cattle feeding:

1. Improved animal performance, including both rate of gain and

efficiency of feed utilization from weaning to slaughter. -

Faster gains both on pasture and in the feedlot are needed to

reduce the time required to grow and finish a calf. The shorter

grazing and/or feeding period will reduce non-feed costs

(investment, interest, labor, etc.) per head, and permit an

increased volume of cattle because of faster turnover. Many

Florida crossbred calves have the capability of gaining rapidly

and efficiently from weaning to slaughter without producing

excessively fat carcasses.

With calves, high quality feed is needed to produce fast, economical

gains. Not only should adequate levels of concentrates and the best

available forages (pasture or harvested forages) be fed, but also, the fe

should be processed so as to obtain maximum utilization. For example, fe

conversion with either steam flaked or ensiled high moisture grain is

greatly improved over that of ground dry grain. At AREC Quincy, feeding





ensiled high moisture corn has reduced feed per pound of gain 12 to 18%

compared to feeding dry corn.

Feeding a well-balanced ration with an adequate level of energy

(TDN) is highly important. Calves do not make fast efficient gains on

forage alone.

2. A well-planned program for combating disease is becoming more

important because of increased incidence of feedlot respiratory

disorders. Timely vaccinations and prompt treatment of disease

are not only necessary to prevent death loss, but also, to

prevent damage to animal tissue that may result in chronic

poor-doing cattle. Facilities should be provided for teaching

new cattle to eat in a comfortable confined place with shade,

clean water, and shelter from cold rain. A nearby sick pen is

needed for isolation and retreatment of sick individuals.

3. Lots,pastures, and other facilities should be planned for ease

of handling and comfort of cattle, and for saving labor in

handling and feeding cattle. In the Southeast, particular

attention must be given to minimizing the mud problem. Feed

storage, feed processing, and feed delivery facilities should be

adequate, but to reduce repair and permit efficient use of labor,

they should be as simple as possible.

4. Financing must be adequate. The biggest development in cattle

feeding in recent years has been the rapid expansion of commercial

cattle feeding in the High Plains and Southwest, with a decrease

in relative importance of farmer feeding in the Midwest. This


increase in commercial feeding has no doubt been largely due to

planned industrial type feedlot operations which operate with

such efficiency that it is possible to obtain adequate financing,

much of which comes from non-agricultural sources. To compete

with these western feedlot operations, it will be necessary to

have adequate financing to take advantage of modern cattle

feeding technology developed through recent research and experience.

Florida and the remainder of the Southeast have two principal advantages

for feeding cattle: (1) a huge surplus of stocker-feeder cattle, most of

which are shipped out for finishing in other areas at an estimated cost of

about 2 to 3 cents per pound (freight to High Plains and Southwest), or

$8 to $12 per head for a 400-pound calf, not including sickness and death

loss costs; and (2) a deficit of fed beef, most of which is brought in

either live or dressed at a freight cost of about $15 per head. Florida

feeders should enjoy a market advantage of about $23 per head ($8 + $15)

in buying a calf and selling the finished steer because of the saving of


Florida and the other southeastern states have a deficit of feed

grain, and the local crop will not support an increase in cattle feeding.

However, corn can be brought in by rail to North Florida at a freight cost

of about $0.19 to $0.20 per bushel from the Midwest. Even if all the 50

bushels of grain needed to grow and finish a calf has to be imported at

a freight cost of $0.20 a bushel, the grain would cost only $10 per head

more than in the Midwest. If we deduct this $10 from the $23 estimated

market advantage, we still have a $13 per head net feeding advantage.


By utilizing .the local corn crop for partial grain requirements, using

local citrus feeds and cane molasses, plus the greater use of pasture possible

in the Southeast, the net feeding advantage might be increased $2 to $3 per

head to a total of $15 to $16.

Feeding cattle in Florida would complement a stocker grazing operation.

Facilities for feedlot finishing (either on the farm or on a custom basis)

would give the stocker operator the option to retain ownership of his

cattle, take advantage of compensatory gain in the feedlot, and offset

financial losses in poor pasture seasons when gain is disappointing or

market conditions are unfavorable for selling off of pasture.

Finally, Florida feeders could well consider taking advantage of

feeding heavy crossbred calves which may not be in great demand by western

lots. Recent trials at AREC Quincy indicate that many of these calves can

be placed directly in the feedlot at weaning and fed with fast efficient

gains to 1000-1100 pounds slaughter-weights in 6 to 7 months. It would

be difficult to devise a system of producing beef mo efficiently than

this, especially if the calves are fed a ration with a high level of

ensiled high moisture corn similar to that used at AREC Quincy, where

weaning to slaughter feed conversion in 1973 ranged from 5.75 to 6.50

pounds of feed per pound of gain, chilled dressing percentage was 62%,

and carcasses were very desirable with high cutability.



T. J. Cunha

There is,no doubt that Florida has considerable potential for

increasing the number of cattle being fed and finished in the state.

This undeveloped potential has occurred because most cattlemen in Florida

feel more comfortable with a cow-calf program which they understand and

in which they can compete favorably with anyone else in the country.

Only in the past few years, has much interest occurred in winter grazing

and developing calves to feedlot weights. This phase of the cattle

industry has considerable potential in Florida, providing a back-up

source of feed is available in case the moisture conditions are such

that forage production is low. In situations where water is available

for irrigation, this limitation does not exist. An increase in developing

calves to feedlot weights has not occurred much during the past two

years because the price paid for feeder calves by out-of-state buyers

has made it difficult for cattlemen in Florida to compete. In most

cases, these calves are going directly into the feedlot in other areas

of the country. They are fed high roughage rations (such as corn silage,

sorghum silage or alfalfa hay) until they weigh 600-700 pounds. Then

they are switched to high concentrate rations.

During the past 25 years Florida has developed its cow-calf programs

to the point where the best producers can do as well as anyone in the

country. The next phase to be developed in Florida will be programs on

pasture or in the feedlot to develop weaned calves to feedlot weights


of 600-700 pounds. The third phase will be an increase of feedlot

finishing of cattle to slaughter weights. Some of the lower grade

cattle will also continue to be fed to slaughter weights on pasture

with limited concentrate feeding. This will require excellent quality

pastures, however, for it to be successful.

Florida has the following advantages which are very important in

developing more cattle feeding:

1. In 1972, Florida shipped about 700,000 stocker-feeder calves to

other areas of the U.S. to be developed. Therefore, the calves

needed for feeding in Florida are already here.

2. Florida produces only about 20 per cent of the quality beef

which it consumes. Therefore, the market for beef fed to

slaughter weights is already here. Moreover, it is a rapidly

expanding market with the fast population growth and increasing

tourism in Florida.

3. Florida has a mild climate and a long pasture growing season.

These are helpful in feeding cattle and in producing forage

for them. Observations by F. S. Baker at the Agricultural

Research Center at Quincy have shown that cattle finished on

ensiled high moisture corn had gains and feed conversion

comparable to cattle fed anywhere else in the U.S. To attain

this, however, requires good rations, good management and the

use of modern technology.


Florida has the following disadvantages in cattle feeding:

1. It does not produce all the grain it needs. However, F. S.

Baker has estimated that the freight cost to bring in the corn

needed to finish a steer costs only $8.50 to $10.00. This cost

is more than made up by the cost of $7.50 to $19.50 to ship a

250 or a 650 pound animal out-of-state. Moreover, there is the

added freight cost of $15.00 to bring back to Florida a 600

pound carcass or a 1000 pound finished steer. This should give

the Florida feedlot operator a $22.50 to $34.50 market advantage

in buying a calf in Florida and selling a finished animal here -

as compared to the Southwest feedlot buying the calf here and

shipping the carcass or the live finished animal back. If

$10.00 for bringing in corn is subtracted from the $22.50 to

$34.50 market advantage, it still leaves a $12.50 to $26.00 net

advantage for the Florida feedlot feeder.

2. Florida has to combat the mud problem. However, this is a

problem in most areas of the country except the low rainfall

areas of the Southwest and West. Mud in the feedlot can cut

down on rate of gain and feed efficiency. Therefore, the mud

problem needs to be minimized or eliminated by the type of

feeding facilities used. The mud problem is being counteracted

in Florida by feedlot feeders in the following ways:

(a) The Lykes Bros. feedlot being managed by Derrill McAteer

at Brooksville is set-up on an abandoned airstrip. The

concrete helps in eliminating the mud problem. So using

concrete floors is one way to do it providing the cost is

not too high.

(b) The A. Duda & Sons feedlot about 10 miles south of Ocala

is located on real deep sand. They allow about 700 to 800

square feet per steer in the feedlot. This compares to

100 to 150 sq. ft. in most confinement feedlots. With a

large area per steer plus the deep sand which absorbs the

excreta readily, they have not had a mud problem with their

cattle. They have been in this feedlot for about 5 years

and even after a heavy rain there is no mud problem. The

water disappears quickly. There are plenty of deep sand

areas in Florida. Therefore, this is one method of feeding

cattle in Florida without a mud problem.

(c) The feedlot feeders in the Quincy area have fed cattle for

over 25 years in low cost sheds with a roof over them.

They use peanut hulls on the floor to absorb the moisture

of the excreta and allow the manure to accumulate during

the time the cattle are on feed. The pens are cleaned

after each group of cattle are fed and the manure is used

in shade tobacco fertilization. Mud has not been a problem

in these sheds.

(d) A new development being watched is the use of concrete

slotted floors. A number of these are already being used

in Arizona, California, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas

and other states. Don Kaplan is planning a slotted floor

feedlot at Mid-State Packing Company near Bartow. During

the Florida Bankers Feedlot tour in Arizona a number of us

visited a slotted floor feedlot at Arlington Cattle Company.

They were just getting their feedlot underway and were


experimenting with the use of 13 to 23 square feet per

steer. This is a small area but many people think that

somewhere between 18 to 25 square feet per animal is

adequate. This is a question which needs more study and

the area needed may vary depending on the kind of cattle,

temperature, humidity, ration and other factors in the area.

These slotted floors have shallow pits underneath them and

scrapers to take the excreta off frequently. The excreta

goes to a location at the end of the feedlot where the

solid matter can be separated from the liquid portion.

The liquid portion can be pumped and used on crop land as

fertilizer. The solid material can be used for fertilizer

or in other ways. The General Electric Company is experimen-

ting with a microorganism which can grow on the manure and

utilize it completely and produce a protein supplement.

Their type of installation could be used to utilize the

manure from a slotted feeding floor feedlot. This type of

feedlot is still new and many answers regarding its use are

still unknown. The cost is not known for all these units

since some may have a roof or just a simple shade. Some

may be open and others may require varying degrees of

enclosure depending on the climate. Some may have the

slotted floors permanently in place whereas others may have

individual slats which can be taken out if the cable or

scraper underneath breaks down. Square footage allowed

per animal would influence cost. If a mist sprinkler

system for cooling the animals is used this vould influence


the cost. The area and cost of labor and materials there

would greatly influence cost. The slotted floor feedlot

needs careful watching since it may be a good method to

use in certain areas and especially where mud may be a

problem in feeding cattle.

In summary, I feel optimistic about the future of developing calves

to feedlot weights and in finishing cattle for slaughter in Florida.

These are complex cattle operations, however, and to be successful, one

needs to apply the latest technology to them. Much of this technology

is already available in Florida and IFAS research is underway to develop

more information in this area of cattle production.


C. L. Dantzman

An ideal pasture program should provide enough feed for cattle

throughout the year. However, seasonal variations cause shortages

of feed periodically. Therefore, cattle needs and weather conditions

must be considered in a pasture fertilization program.

Grass Pasture Fertilization. In the early months of the year

(January to March) permanent grass growth is generally limited. During

the time from March to June grass pastures need to be fertilized with

a complete fertilizer that provides 50 to 60 pounds per acre of each N,

P205, and K20. Properly fertilized grasses should provide forage

through the summer months as long as the pasture is not overstocked.

Another application of 50 to 60 pounds of nitrogen should be applied

along in late summer to early fall (September to October). Applications

later than October may produce reduced yields, although the protein

content of the forage may be higher. If the pasture is grazed too soon

after fertilization, a high percentage of the nitrogen is removed and

a shortage of growth will occur later in the season. Wait 4 to 6

weeks after fertilization to graze pastures. An alternate practice

for the year could be a spring (March June) application of 400 to 500

Ibs per acre of a 12-6-6 or equivalent fertilizer, and a repeat of this

amount in the fall (September October). There is some recycling of the

elements under pasture conditions. The best soil pH is from 5.5 to

6.5 with a minimum CaO of 600 lbs per acre and 100 pounds MgO. Lime

should usually be applied at a ton per acre, once each 4 years, alter-

nating with calcic and dolomitic limestone after an initial application

of a ton per acre of dolomite. This rate may need to be adjusted if


soil test results so indicate. When possible, it is very desirable

to distribute the lime into the first six inches of soil. This can

usually be done prior to planting a field. Micronutrients (minor

elements) should be included in the initial application of fertilizer.

Copper should be applied to new soils at the rate of 4 pounds per acre

calculated as copper oxide (CuO). Where research or experience has

shown zinc, manganese, or iron has been of benefit, they should be

applied at the following rates: manganese 4 pounds per acre MnO,

zinc 4 pounds ZnO, and iron 5 pounds per acre Fe2 0 3. Reapplications

of each should be made at the same rates and on the same basis at 5
to 10 year intervals (shortened when a deficiency is confirmed). These

elements may be applied as oxides, sulfates, or frits (slowly soluble

form). If a legume is included in the pasture, use boron at 2 pounds

per acre B2 3 initially and 1 pound B203 every 3 to 4 years (borate

form usually borax or a fritted material).

If fritted trace elements are used, an application of 20 pounds

per acre of FTE 503 is suggested (it contains the equivalent of 3.8%

CuO, 8.7% ZnO, 9.7% MnO, 9.6% B203, 25.6% Fe203, and 0.3% MoO3).
Fritted trace elements containing only one of each of the micronutrients

are also available.

Pastures at the ARC, Ona station generally have copper or a comb-

ination of copper, manganese, and zinc applied at planting time on a

new field. For a legume, boron is added. After this is done is has

been very difficult to get a growth response to further additions of

micronutrients. Cattle provided with minerals further add to the soil

supply of some necessary plant micronutrients.

Many ranchers are now using higher analyses fertilizers such as
a 16-8-8 for their pastures. These fertilizers are good sources of

needed N-P-K but sulfur will usually be lacking in high analysis

fertilizers. The soils contain a sulfur reserve and some is added in
rainfall and in irrigation water from deep wells. At present we don't


know whether these sources will continue to supply the plant needs or

if supplemental sulfur may be needed in the future. Should sulfur

deficiency be suspected, a source of sulfate (SO4) in some form

should be included in the fertilizer at a rate equal to that of

phosphate (P205).

Grass Hay Fields. Lime, pH, and micronutrient requirements are

the same as for grass pastures except that the interval for retreatment

may be shortened for micronutrients. An application of 500 to 600

pounds per acre of a 10-10-10 or equivalent fertilizer applied from

February to April is needed to produce a hay crop before June 1.

Growth of perennial grass starts slow in the spring, especially

pangolagrass. Therefore an additional 50 pounds per acre of nitrogen

a month after the complete fertilization may be needed to accelerate

In general, fertilization for hay production depends on the

ranchers' needs and the conditions of the grass. If a fall hay crop

is planned and the grass has been grazed short, it will be necessary

to add 50 to 60 Ibs each of N, P205 and K20 per acre by August 15.

This may be followed September 15 with 50 to 60 Ibs per acre of nitrogen

if a rapid growth is needed. However, should the grass not be grazed

short at this date, the complete fertilizer may be added anytime

in September and the extra nitrogen be omitted.

Harvested hay contains a considerable amount of the elements.

Assuming pangolagrass hay contains 1.0% N, 0.26% P, and 2.0% K, 5

tons of hay would contain 100 Ibs N, 26 Ibs P, and 200 Ibs K. Appli-

cations of greater amounts of fertilizer elements can produce higher

yields. Pangolagrass has been reported to utilize as much as 400 Ibs

per acre of nitrogen along with increases in phosphorus and'potassium.

Excessive rains however are a hazard to heavy applications especially

nitrogen due to possible loss. Also, common Bermudagrass may be

encouraged by high rates of fertilization.


Soil testing is a valuable tool and is available through your

county extension agent. Results of soil testing can give a more exact

recommendation for the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potash needs

of your forage plants. This could result in a savings in fertilizer-

lime costs.

. Cool Season Legumes(Including Whiteclover) With Grass. Dolomitic

lime should be applied at the rate of 3 tons per acre on new plantings.

When the seed-bed is in good condition, the lime should be incorporated

into the surface 6 inches of the soil. Reapplications of lime should

be made at the rate of a ton each third year or as the need is indicated

by soil tests. Alternate applications of high calcic or dolomitic

lime. Clovers grow best when the pH range is between 6.0 and 7.0 and
when there is at least 900 Ibs per acre of CaO and 100 Ibs per acre of

MgO. On new clover fields an application of 300 Ibs per acre of an

0-10-20 is desirable at time of planting. Have the materials so

formulated as to include sulfate at about the same rate as the phosphate

in the fertilizer. No nitrogen need be applied since nodules on the

clover roots have nitrogen fixing ability. Some ranchers prefer a

starter supply of approximately 25 Ibs per acre of nitrogen and report

g ood results. Too much nitrogen may cause competition from the grass,

add to the costs, and interfere with early nitrogen fixation by the clover.

A spring application of 60 Ibs per acre of K20 (100 lbs per acre of KC1)

should supplement the clover plants. On established fields an application

of 300 Ibs per acre of an 0-8-24 should be made when the clover plant

appears or when the field is reseeded to clover. A spring application
of 60 Ibs per acre of K20 is also needed for good growth. The micro-

nutrient treatments are essentially the same as for the grass pastures,

being sure to include boron at the rate of 2 Ibs per acre of B203 at

planting and a retreatment at one-half this rate every three to four



Hairy Indigo. A June application of 300 Ibs per acre of an

0-8-24 is recommended. Micronutrients should be included in the

fertilizer or lime materials at the same rate as for whiteclover.

Hairy indigo is a summer legume and usually does not germinate until

hot weather arrives.

Aeschynomene is usually planted from March through June. It

prefers a relatively moist soil. The desired soil pH range is 6.0

to 7.0 and the soil should have a minimum of 900 pounds per acre of

CaO and 100 pounds MgO. New lands should have an application of 500

pounds per acre of a 0-14-14 or a mixture containing the equivalent

P205 and K20. Where aeschynomene has been established, 300 pounds

per acre of an 0-8-24 should be applied.
Oats and Ryegrass.. Each of these crops are usually planted in

October and often incorporated in a renovation program. An application

of 500 Ibs per acre of a 6-12-12 (or fertilizer supplying the equivalent

amounts) should be applied at planting time with additional applications

of 150 pounds per acre of NH NO3 applied at 6-8 weeks intervals. Micro-

nutrients and lime needs are usually satisfied by residual nutrients

from the previous crop. However, the soil pH should be from 5.5 to 6.5,

and have at least 600 lbs per acre CaO and 100 Ibs per acre MgO.


1. Space pasture fertilizations to help provide the feed when needed.
2. Be sure to fertilize 4 to 6 weeks before grazing the pasture.

3. Do not overfertilize with micronutrients to prevent toxic

4. Whenever possible rely on soil test results for the field's

needs for calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus.-

See your county agent.



E. M. Hodges

Grasses available when pasture improvement work was begun in

south central Florida included common bahiagrass and carpetgrass.

Common bahiagrass had broad, dark green leaves, and was very cold-

sensitive. Seed germination was slow and gave rise to the recommendation

that you plant and come back in two years to see how it was doing.

Carpetgrass was the most popular item in those days. Not so tempera-

mental as bahia, it was easier to establish and would grow on poorer

land. Since these early days a number of better grasses have become

available to the rancher. These are discussed below.


Pangola digitgrass was tested in the mid 1940's and by 1950 was

widely planted. There were no flaws in Pangola in those early days!

Though frost sensitive, it grew well from vegetative plantings, and

cattle did the best ever when grazing on Pangola. Even mature grass

was valuable as hay or for winter grazing. The good days were soon

over and winterkill, spittlebug damage, and bahiagrass invasion have

shown Pangola less than a perfect grass.

Slenderstem digitgrass was released in 1969 after a long period

of testing. This digitgrass grows off faster after planting than

Pangola and has value in areas where other perennial grasses are a

problem in competing with Pangola.

Transvala digitgrass, released in 1973, resembles Slenderstem

and is most important as a reserve for use in case of the introduction

of Pangola stunt virus. This disease is not known to be in the

United States but is serious in South America. Transvala has nematode

resistance but does not grow off as fast as Slenderstem, and both are

hard hit by frost.


Pensacola bahiagrass covers more acres than any other improved

grass in Florida. It is adapted to a wide range of soils and tolerates

close grazing with no damage to the stand. Response to fertilization

is strong at lower rates but tops out quickly at 50-100 pounds nitrogen

annually in a 2-1-1 pattern. Pensacola stays green under 2 to 4

degrees of frost but growth is slow in the November to March period.

Rapid maturity of forage reduces palatability and reduces gains of

young cattle. The same factor limits the hay and reserve pasture

value of Pensacola.

Argentine bahiagrass has become a prime sod source. It has a

wide leaf and a darker green color than Pensacola and does not produce

as many seed heads. Argentine is subject to ergot, a fungus attacking

the seedheads and capable of causing abortion in grazing stock. This

is not a common problem but should be considered to a limited extent.

Argentine has found favor as pasture on many shallow muck lands where

drainage is good. It does not stand frost as well as Pensacola but

warm season forage growth is greater.

Paraguay or Texas bahiagrass is a fine-leafed type, rather hairy

and makes limited growth. Little is planted now and it is of no

economical importance.

Paraguay 22 bahiagrass is wide-leafed like Argentine but produces

more seed and tolerates more frost. Paraguay 22 is valuable for pasture,

sod, and seed purposes.

None of the bahiagrasses grow well in cool weather and all suffer

loss of forage value with maturity. Since the forage matures rapidly

under normal conditions, it follows that daily gains of young cattle

are comparatively slow on such pasture.


Common bermudagrass was actually the first improved pasture in

this area, coming in on "cowpenned" garden or farm area and thus


furnishing some good grazing. One of the earliest complaints about

pasture went thusly "I grew up fighting bermudagrass in the garden

and now I'm planting the stuff".

Coastal bermudagrass became available in the 1940's from Georgia

- USDA planting breeding program. It grew in favorable locations in

south-central Florida but lacked vigor and found no general place in

the Ona program. The same was true of a sister line known as

A wide variety of coarse-stemmed bermudagrasses have been grown

in southern Florida for many years some being given local names.

A group of introductions were obtained by this Station from the USDA

in 1955-56. One of these was selected and planted in trial pastures

in 1959 and grazed for several years under the names Starrgrass and

Bermuda 52. Cattle gains per acre of Bermuda 52 were intermediate to

those of Pangola and Pensacola. A good sod of Bermuda 52 was maintained

at the same time digitgrasses were severely damaged by cold and insect

attack. Fertilizer requirement is high on this grass and grazing

quality is lost with maturity. The coarse stemmy growth is not used

well when frosted and this type may be best suited to locations having

less frost than is common in the Ona area.

Another large-stemmed bermudagrass is currently being evaluated

in grazing and plot trials (UF 4 Rhodesian). It resembles Bermuda 52

and may prove to be a better grass. Both of these bermudagrasses

spread by long above-ground runners and they can spread into cultivated

land adjoining the pasture.

Alicia bermudagrass has lately received much attention but has

not been observed at Ona. Reports from northern Florida indicate it is

not outstanding in yield or digestibility.

Coastcross 1 bermuidqqrs.'; hn:i been planted in many places and

with varied success. Early results at Ona were unfavorable but

plantings since 1970 show promise. It was selected in Georgia for

high digestibility and is making vigorous growth in trial pastures

at Ona. Persistence under grazing on flatwoods in this area remains

to be measured.

Limpograsses Hemarthria altissima

The limpograsses came to the Ona center in a large group of

grass introductions known as the Oakes collection. Given the common

name "limpograss", these introductions were rather quickly scattered

over southern Florida. There were three types of limpograss planted

and all grew well on plots on newly broken land where lime and fertilizer

had been added. Two of the limpograsses are fine-stemmed and sometimes

referred to as "red" and "green", respectively, because of color

differences visible during growth. These two have some cold tolerance

and grow during February and March.

The third limpograss has a much larger stem, may grow to four

feet in height, and is quite easily damaged by frost. The big limpo-

grass seems to be grazed more readily than the small-stemmed ones.

Limpograsses grow best on moist land with above-average organic

content but excellent establishment and growth have been obtained

on upland sites. Extreme variations in response to similar planting

and fertilization procedures have delayed evaluation of these grasses.

They grow well at times and fail at others creating confusion as to

how to handle them. Additional information on response to soil type,

handling of planting material, and fertilization needs may open the

way to extensive use of the cold tolerance of the limpograsses.

Some old-time grasses have fallen by the wayside and are used no

more. Common bahiagrass is only a remnant and carpetgrass, while present

on many acres has not been planted to any extent for 20 years. Natal-


grass and crabgrass hay are still cut but on only a minor scale.

All the bahiagrasses are now "old-timers" and their importance can

be measured by the increasing acreages being grazed and harvested

for seed and sod. Pangola digitgrass has gone from a peak of

popularity in the early 1950's to the present realization that it

has problems as well as values. Loss of stand through cold and

insect damage combined with overgrazing and lack of renovation has

hit thousands of acres of Pangola.

The present trend to more intensive handling of pastures will

upgrade the attention to chopping and warm season legume treatments

on bahia pasture. It will also encourage the use of renovation and

rotation practices to keep Pangola sods in production.

I have no expectation that the new grasses we are looking at

will take the place of those now in use. Rather than replacement,

we are looking for supplementation and diversification. For instance

- the forage need of longest standing in this area is quality grazing

during the cool season. The new digitgrasses and bermudagrasses make

more cool season growth than Pangola or Pensacola. The limpograsses

have a potential for frost tolerance not present in other perennial

grasses. Another improvement Slenderstem establishes more rapidly

than Pangola and may be very useful in upgrading pastures where less

desirable grasses have established. A word of warning thorough

seed bed preparation during hot weather is needed to give Slenderstem

a chance to make a stand.

The coarse-stemmed bermudagrasses seem to be free from spittlebug

damage and to hold a stand better than the digitgrasses. They may

provide us some pasture which is of good quality and easier to main-

tain than Pangola. New grasses teamed with those of already-proven

value will help us avoid the situation of having "too many eggs in one

basket" which occurs when all the pasture is in one or two varieties.
This broadened variety base combined with fertilization and rotation
will be an important part of the cattle business of the future.



Paul Mislevy

Winter annuals provide a very important segment in a year-round

livestock grazing program. Winter annuals (ryegrass, small grains

and clovers) can provide excellent forage over a 4-5 month winter

period. However, to be successful in winter annual forage production

one must follow good management practices. The following points

should be considered.

1. Selection of variety or species

Choosing a variety or species is important and should

coincide with forage needs.

Ryegrass varieties

NK tetrablend 444, Gulf, Florida Rust Resistant,

Magnolia and Wintergreen yield quite well. However,

common ryegrass should not be planted because of its

susceptibility to rust.

Small grain varieties

Wheat Wakeland, Coker 68-19

Oats Fla. 501, Elan

Barley Fla 102 (poor yielder)

Rye Wintergrazer 70, Wrens Abruzzi, Gator and

Vita-Graze, yield quite well. However Florida Black

yielded poorest and headed earliest of all varieties.

Legume varieties

Berseem clover makes early growth but is frost sensitive

and will not tolerate standing water. Requires high fertility.


White clover adapted to moist soils throughout the state.

Will provide good grazing during mid and late winter.

Sweet clover will grow on drier soils than white clover

and will not tolerate flooding. Its palatability is

much less and grazing season shorter than that of

white clover.

2. Soil test

One month prior to preparing a seed bed for a winter annual

a soil test should be taken to determine the status of major

plant nutrients (N, P and K) in addition to MgO, CaO and pH. This

is an important consideration especially if vegetables were grown

recently on that land.

3. Seed bed preparation

Good seed bed preparation is recommended. Winter annuals may

be seeded directly into freshly prepared soil or into an established

perennial grass sod. When seeding into a sod it is necessary to

graze or mow closely in order to remove excess forage and thus

decrease competition for young seedlings. When seeding in either

situation it is desirable to pack the seed bed with a cultipacker

to get good seed to soil contact.

4. Seeding date and rate

Winter annuals should be seeded when mean temperatures range

from 60 to 700F or lower. This corresponds to October November

temperatures in central Florida. Seeding rates of ryegrass are

20 lbs/A; wheat, rye, oats and barley 3 bu/A; berseem clover

20 lbs; white clover 4 Ibs and sweetclover 15 Ibs/A. Be sure to

purchase the proper strain of bacteria for the legume you are

going to plant.

5. Fertility

Following a successful establishment of winter annuals, apply

recommended amounts of fertilizer. If no soil test has been taken

apply 500 Ibs of 10-10-20/A when plants are 1 to 2 inches tall.

Following each grazing or every 30-40 days apply 50 Ib of actual


nitrogen/A. This will depend somewhat on the amount of forage


6. Grazing management

Ryegrass and berseem clover should be grazed each time plants

attain a height of 10 to 12 inches. Small grains should be grazed

when plants attain a height of 12-15 inches and new developing

tillers are 1 to 3 inches tall.

It is recommended to graze all winter annuals rotationally.

This results in both additional yield and higher quality forage

per acre. High stocking rate is also advisable allowing cattle to

consume all forage rapidly, then moving on to a new pasture.

7. Estimated costs and returns

Outlined in the following table are basic costs and returns

per acre for ryegrass production at two fertilization levels.


Land preparation and seeding

Seed 20 Ib/A @ $.45

Fertilizer 500 lb 0-10-20

400 Ib 12-6-6

50 Ib actual N/A

250 Ib actual N/A

Total expenses


Yield T/A (D.M.)

Value @ $75.00/T


$ 7.50








$ 7.50







prepare a

In conclusion, select the proper variety or species,

good seed bed, follow good fertilizer practices and graze



F. M. Peacock

Good management includes all those things that contribute to the

well-being of the herd and the greatest financial returns. This

incorporates the use of all the technical knowledge, experience and

wisdom of the man in making decisions.

Nutrition is an important item contributing to production and

for the beef herd under pasture conditions. The wide variability in

quality and quantity, of forage throughout the year, and different

phases of the cow, makes it difficult to maintain the herd on a

constant nutritional basis unless special consideration is given

to the problem. The kind and amount of supplement provided cows on

pasture should be relative to the needs of the cows and pasture.

Close observation of cows as to their condition and available feed

throughout all their productive phases is necessary to recognize

the problems. The cows' condition and available forage supply will

indicate the supplement needed.

Loss of calves due to calving problems, sickness and accidents

are a major loss of income. Most deaths due to accidents cannot be

foreseen but careful and thoughtful handling of cattle and having

calving pastures free of areas where calves can drown or get cut off

from the cow will help. Working cattle and crowding in pens during

the hot period of the day can cause heat stress, and if the pens are

dry and dusty calves can get sick from breathing this dust. Death

loss in calves due to sickness is usually from pneumonia which usually

occurs shortly after birth. Calving pastures free from standing water

and with roughs to get into from the cold can help this problem.


Calf loss from calving problems can be major under some systems.

Some of this can be eliminated by close management during the calving

season and selecting bulls according to the age and type of the

particular cow herd. Size of calf is associated with difficult calving.

However, size itself is not the whole problem. The physical structure,

whether long keen bodied or large in the head, shoulders and hind

quarters, will determine to a high degree the problems at parturition.

Selecting bulls that produce calves small in these areas, even if

total size is large, will eliminate many of the problems.

The well being of an animal includes health and comfort. Certain

breeds of cattle are more adapted to heat than others. Cattle standing

in ponds, mud holes and around water troughs, panting hard from the

sunshine and humidity are not comfortable. These animals are using

excess energy and do not have the proper appetite to consume enough food

for desired production. Research has shown that shade increased

production both in cow-calf herds and steers fattened on pasture. Shade

should be considered when establishing a new pasture before all the

trees have been removed. In some instances artificial shade might be


Pregnancy testing is a management tool. It is a management aid

for wintering and in culling cows to make room for replacements. An

important aspect of pregnancy testing and selling open cows is the

elimination of poor doing cows whether it be from parasites, old age,

disease or just cattle that fail to adapt. This area of management if

conducted properly does a good job of cleaning up the herd because

pregnancy indicates that both genetic and environment factors are in

harmony and if not, something is wrong.


Semen testing of bulls, especially in single sire herds, can be

a form of insurance against a low or total loss of an entire calf

crop. A complete physical examination of bulls might be considered

because of the responsibility the bull has for the calf crop. This

would eliminate the poor semen producers and cripples, especially

older bulls that might cause trouble.

Parasites are present at all times. During periods of ample

feed parasitism might not show damage but during periods of nutritional

stress parasites take over. Individuals that show signs of internal

parasites should be wormed. Spraying the herd for lice and horn flies

periodically and especially in the fall will help in better utilization

of winter feed. Having a clean herd during nutritionally low periods

will help it weather the hard times.

Records are useful in making decisions. Records, if studied,

give one a better understanding of his cattle as they show the wide

variations that occur within a given population. The use of records

along with actual appraisal of cow results in knowledge of the cattle

relative to their production and assists in culling and selection for





During 1972 research was conducted under 17 active projects,
covering work with beef cattle breeding and nutrition, forage
evaluation and soil fertility. In addition, cooperative studies
were conducted with the Department of Entomology in Gainesville.
Emphasis was placed on expanding forage and field crop variety
tests at the Ona and Immokalee research centers, as well as on
ranches in Manatee, Collier and Orange Counties. Additional
pastures were established to evaluate the effect of animal
grazing on new forage varieties. Two projects were terminated.
Forage research was continued under statewide research projects.

Rainfall totaled 49.03 inches during 1972, which was 5.83 inches
below the last 30-year average. Temperatures ranged from a low
of 320 on December 28 to a high of 101F on July 3.



State Project 1167. Evaluation of Introduced and Native Plant
Species for Pasture, Forage and Other Uses.

A perennial grass experiment was established at Immokalee to study
the effects of stubble height, species, and irrigation on total yield,
seasonal distribution, and forage digestibility. Another experiment
was established at Ona to study the effects of 4 initial harvest
stages and 3 aftermath treatments on yield and digestibility of 4

In addition, an experiment was initiated to determine the effect of
mob grazing animals on 36 different grasses and legumes. Measurements
include yield, digestibility, plant height, and percent forage removal.
Thirty two acre pastures were established to study the effects of
management on 4 perennial grasses and siratro in terms of yield,
digestibility, legume persistence, and cow grazing days.

Establishment of American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana) was
improved by cultivation of sod prior to seeding but drought prevented
response to fertilization and seeding rates. Wide variations were
observed in a nursery of Digitaria and Hemarthria accessions. Twenty-
two grasses were compared in a replicated trial, fertilized at 33, 67
and 100 pounds nitrogen per harvest. Highest total yields for six
warm season harvests were obtained on bermudagrasses and digitgrasses.
Average oven dry yield per acre was 5.2 tons for Pensacola bahiagrass
(Paspalum notatum), 7.5 for Coastcross bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon),
and 7.7 tons for Pangola digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens). Limpograss
(Hemarthria altissima UF 8) increased in percentage composition against
bermudagrass and bahiagrass when given a long regrowth period.

** **

State Project 1241. Herbicides in Forage Production.

Three rates of commercial dowpon were applied at 2, 4 and 6 Ib/A with
0, 1, 2 and 4 gal. of Sunoco 11E oil/A to study their effects on
smutgrass (Sporobolus poiretti) control. Following herbicidal appli-
cation mowing (mow vs non-mowed) and nitrogen (none vs 100 Ib/A) treat-
ments were applied. Four and 6 pounds of Dowpon M (commercial product)
gave similar control of smutgrass. Clipping smutgrass 5 weeks after
treatment and applying 100 lb N/A resulted in 500% increase in the ground
cover of Pangola and significant smutgrass control. When treatments were
non-fertilized and non-clipped, only slight increases in Pangola were

* * *


State Project 1358. Pasture Grass and Legume Variety Evaluation Under
Varied Fertilization and Management Practices.

Commercial corn, silage sorghum, millet, and sudangrass-sorghum hybrids
variety experiments were conducted at the Ona ARC. Forage corn variety
experiments were also conducted in Orange, Manatee and Hendry counties.
Silage sorghum varieties, Pioneer 931 and Pennsilage, produced the
highest D.M. yields, averaging 16 and 14 T/A in 2 harvests. The S-S
hybrids produced in 3 harvests 9 tons D.M./A as compared to 5 T/A for
millets which contained rust on all harvests. Corn silage production
averaged 5.1 tons D.M./A at Orange County, 3.8 T/A at Manatee County,
and 6.8 T/A at Ona. Forage D.M. yields of small grains at Immokalee
were not significantly different, ranging from 1.6 to 1.9 T/A. However,
at Ona significant differences in winter annuals were observed, ranging
from 2.7 tons for ryegrass to .96 tons for triticale. Significant
differences in ryegrass at Immokalee were also observed. No significant
differences in ryegrass D.M. yields were found among slow release N

State Project 1368. Yearlong Grazing on Grass and Grass-Legume Varieties.

Weaned calves were grazed yearlong on Pensacola bahiagrass (Paspalum
notatum) pastures to test the effect of intensive management practices
on daily gain. The pasture was fertilized at three dates with 50-25-25
pounds per acre of N, P205 and K 0, respectively. Mowing, chopping and
seeding warm season annual legume were added to the fertilizer treatment.
Cool season (October-April) daily gains, with concentrate feed added,
averaged .34 and .37 pounds on grass only and grass plus legume treat-
ments, respectively. Warm season gains, with no feed and limited legume
growth, averaged .70 and .67 pounds for the grass and grass plus legume

Warm season grazing on UF1 experimental digitgrass (Transvala) produced
374 pounds gain per acre and 1.06 pounds daily gain. A tall growing
bermuda-like grass (UF 4 Rhodesian) produced 339 pounds per acre and
daily gain of 1.26 pounds. Cattle grazing Limpograss (UF 8) averaged
237 pounds per acre and 0.98 pounds daily gain.

.A. ht* .A. *J-
j\ ^\ j ^^


State Project 1403. Management Systems for Beef Cows.

Eight herds of cows of European-Brahman breeding were grazed on 40-
acre pasture units to evaluate different forage and supplement systems
in terms of production. The basic pasture for each herd consisted of
four units of ten acres each of Pangola digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens)
and mixed grasses receiving equal fall and spring applications of 50-25-25
pounds per acre of N, P205 and K20. Forage variables included Hubam
sweetclover (Melilotus alba), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana),
rust-resistant annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and irrigated
whiteclover (Trifolium repens). One herd on all-grass pasture received
five pounds per day per head of urea-fortified blackstrap molasses from
December 1 to May 1. Warm and moist winter and spring weather eliminated
the need for hay feeding. Forage production conditions were exceptionally
favorable for perennial grasses, annual ryegrass, and Hubam, while joint-
vetch and whiteclover made little growth. Weaned calf percentages on
all treatments were higher than the average of the proceeding three years.

Palpation in August 1972 showed 188 out of 204 females to be pregnant with
not less than 85% pregnant in any group. Weaned calf production per cow
unit averaged 400 pounds or above on all treatments except two in which
legumes failed. Calf production per pasture unit was highest on the
molasses supplemented and the mixed grass-whiteclover-ryegrass programs.
This project is being revised.

State Project 1590. Field Crop Variety Testing.

Commercial corn and grain sorghum variety testing was conducted at Ona
ARC. The experimental design was a randomized complete block replicated
3 times. No significant differences were found among the corn grain
yields of 14 hybrids. However, McNair x 210 did yield 140 bu/A of 15%
moisture corn. There were significant lodging differences among hybrids
with Funk G 5757 and Dekalb 1214 exhibiting the best lodging resistance
and Pioneer 3009 and McNair x 210 being most severely lodged. Of the
grain sorghum varieties, Bird-Go produced the highest grain yield per
acre averaging 7,000 pounds/A for 1 harvest. However, this variety
lodged most severely. Br-64 was also a good yielder with excellent
lodging and bird resistance.

* *A *



State Project 1120. Charolais, Brahman, Angus and Their Crosses
for Beef Production.

This project was designed to evaluate the three breeds and their
crosses for beef production in central and south Florida. Each breed
of sire was bred to cows of the three breeds and F1 cows of the three
breeds. Calves by the Charolais sires had weaning weight as follows:
x Charbray cows 540 Ibs; x Angus cows 509 Ibs; x Brahman cows 560 Ibs;
x Angus-Charolais cows 555 Ibs; x Angus-Brahman cows 583 Ibs; x Brahman-
Charolais cows 574 Ibs. Calves by the Brahman sires had weaning weights
as follows: x Brahman cows 415 Ibs; x Angus cows 460 Ibs; x Charbray
cows 505 Ibs; x Angus-Brahman cows 526 Ibs; x Angus-Charolais cows 525 Ibs;
x Brahman-Charolais cows 506 Ibs. Calves by the Angus sires had weaning
weights as follows: x Angus cows 438 Ibs; x Brahman cows 450 Ibs;
x Charbray cows 493 Ibs; x Angus x Charolais 470 Ibs; x Angus x Brahman
cows 524 Ibs; x Brahman x Charolais cows 496 Ibs. Charbray cows produced
the highest and Angus lowest of the straightbred while the Angus x Brahman
produced the highest of the crossbreds.

State Project 1261. Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics
of Brahman, Angus, Charolais, and their Crosses.

This project is designed to evaluate the relative performance of the
three breeds and their crosses when fed in drylot for 180 days. The
animals had the following daily gain and grade by breed: Charolais x
Charbray, 2.20 pounds Low Good; Charolais x Angus, 1.99 pounds -
Low Choice; Charolais x Brahman, 1.91 pounds Low Good; 3/4 Charolais
- 1/4 Brahman, 2.21 pounds Good; 1/2 Charolais 1/4 Angus 1/4
Brahman, 1.70 pounds Low Good; 3/4 Charolais 1/4 Angus, 2.33 pounds
- Low Good; Angus x Angus, 2.21 pounds High Good; Angus x Brahman,
1.94 pounds High Good; Angus x Charbray, 2.10 pounds Low Good; 3/4
Angus 1/4 Brahman, 1.99 pounds Low Choice; 3/4 Angus 1/4 Charolais,
1.82 pounds Choice; 1/2 Angus 1/4 Brahman 1/4 Charolais, 1.93 pounds
- Good; Brahman x Brahman, 1.93 pounds Low Good; Brahman x Charbray,
2.08 pounds Good; Brahman x Angus, 2.53 pounds Good; 3/4 Brahman -
1/4 Angus, 1.93 pounds Good; 3/4 Brahman 1/4 Charolais, 1.88 pounds
- Low Good; 1/2 Brahman 1/4 Brahman 1/4 Angus, 2.38 pounds Good.

* * *



State Project 1386. Post-Weaning Management for Beef Calves.

One hundred-fifty calves having an average of about 320 Ibs. initial
weight were divided into 5 groups of 30 each to compare fattening
crossbred calves on pangola pasture and in drylot and to compare the
relative performance of Brahman steers, bulls and heifers on pasture.
After the growing phase the calves were placed in a commercial feedlot
and finished for slaughter. During the growing phase the Brahman heifers,
steers and bulls gained 1.23, 1.48 and 1.55 pounds a day, and had a
net return of $7.11, $11.96, and $6.87 per head, respectively. Cross-
bred steers fattened on pasture had an average daily gain of 1.59
pounds and a net return of $22.22 per head as compared to 2.00 lbs a
day and a loss of $8.86 per head for the calves fattened in drylot.

State Project 1565. Utilizing Sugarcane Products in Ruminant Rations.

Thirty-six crossbred steers were divided into 4 equal groups on the
basis of weight and grade. The groups were randomly allotted to
treatments to determine if 3 mg/head/day of methionine hydroxy analogue
would affect the utilization of bagasse pellets. No significant effects
were related to experimental treatment.

State Project 1578. Nutritional Value of Vitamin E for Brood Cows.

The second year of a study initiated during 1971 was conducted to see
if injected vitamin E would affect the reproduction performance of
Brahman, Santa Gertrudis or Charbray cows. This study will be terminated
with the current calf crop. To date injected vitamin E has had no
significant effect on reproduction.

* 1 *


State Project 1583. Supplemental Amino Acids for Beef Cattle on

Two experiments were conducted with weanling calves on pasture to
study the effect of 3 mg of methionine hydroxy analogue on rate of
gain. The experimental rations were comprised of dried citrus pulp,
corn meal, cane molasses, 17% dehydrated alfalfa, mineral and supple-
mental nitrogen from either urea or cottonseed meal. The experimental
rations contained 14% crude protein. Results from treatment effect
on gain were variable.


State Project 404. The Maintenance of Soil Fertility Under Permanent

A study was made to evaluate the effect of time of application of
phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on Pangola digitgrass-white clover on a
Myakka fine sandy soil. Total annual oven-dry forage yields ranged from
10.7 tons per acre for plots fertilized in October to 12.7 tons per
acre for plots fertilized in December. The plots were harvested four
times per year. Annual fertilizer applications included 200 Ibs of
N, 50 Ibs of P205, and 100 Ibs of K20 per acre rate. A check area
receiving no P or K yielded 7.6 tons per acre from the formerly native
soil area. The year was marked by a mild winter season.

Levels of lime and micronutrients on Pangola-white clover were evaluated
on a Myakka fine sand. No nitrogen was applied during the trial. Total
annual oven-dry forage yields ranged from 4.95 tons per acre for plots
receiving 1 ton per acre of lime and no micronutrients to 7.60 tons per
acre for plots receiving 3 tons per acre of lime and 30 lbs per acre
rate of micronutrient mixture of elements as FTE 503. Average clover
coverage ranged from 8 to 52% as the rates of lime increased to 3 tons
per acre and micronutrients increased to 30 pounds per acre FTE 503.

-tf -I 1.


State Project 989. TDng-Range Effects of Pasture Management on the
Fertility of Flatwoods Soils.

Lime levels from 0 to 4 tons per acre were ( as calcic lime and as
dolomitic lime) applied and rototilled to a depth of 6" to a Myakka
fine soil containing native average level of calcium and magnesium.
The plots were harvested five times during the year. Fertilizer
applications consisted of the equivalent of 500 pounds per acre of a
12-6-6 after each harvest. The winter weather was mild. Average soil
values one-year after application of the lime ranged from 218 ppm
calcium for the 0 level to 447 for the 4 ton level of lime. Magnesium
values ranged from 76 ppm to 11.2 ppm for the same treatments, respectively.
Annual total yields of oven-dry Pangola digitgrass varied from 12.5 tons
for 0 level of lime to 15.4 tons per acre for 4 tons of lime.

On areas of Myakka fine sand receiving 1 ton per acre of lime as calcic
or dolomitic, or ton per acre of each, the calcium ranged from 240
to 300 ppm and magnesium from 43 to 109 ppm. Average yields of oven-dry
materials varied from 13.1 to 14.6 tons per acre.

State Project 1361. Salt Tolerance of Pasture Plants.

Greenhouse trials were made to evaluate the effects of lime treatments
on the growth of Pangola digitgrass irrigated with toxic levels of
NaC1 (1600 ppm). Plants receiving no lime did not survive as long or
produce as much yield as plants receiving from 2 T/A to 8 T/A of lime.
There was little difference in oven-dry yield of Pangola when treated
with different lime levels in the absence of toxic levels of NaCI in
irrigation waters.

A' 4% l', 4


State Project 1367. Response of Pangolagrass to Potassium.

Pangola digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens) response to different levels
of residual potash (K) was measured by means of grazing and hay
production. A field divided into six lands was last treated with K
in 1970. Soil test plus fertilization was calculated to total 25,
75 and 125 pounds per acre K20 in the soil. The area was fertilized
in August 1972 with 67 pounds N per acre and harvested 75 days later.
Hay yields, calculated on a 12 percent moisture basis, averaged 1.04,
1.55 and 1.82 tons per acre on the residue of the 25, 75 and 125 pounds
per acre K20 treatments. Yields were low indicating a fertility
limitation but were affected by the previous fertilization differences.

State Project 1382. Measurement of Elements Deposited from Atmosphere.

Six streams located in southwest central Florida were sampled at inland
locations at approximately 1 month intervals. The sizes of the water-
sheds above the sample locations are as follows: Peace River, 640,000
acres; Manatee River, 50,000 acres; Horse Creek, 45,000 acres; Fish-
eating Creek, 26,000 acres; Big Paynes Creek, 25,000 acres; and Gum
Slough (cowpens), 4,000 acres. The average value range for the
chemical measurements of the streams were as follows: Ca 2.4 to 44.7
ppm; Cl 10.4 to 26.1 ppm; F 0.20 to 1.30 ppm; Fe 0.01 to 1.66
ppm; Mg 1.3 to 13.2 ppm; N03 1.2 to 4.0 ppm; P 0.03 to 2.16 ppm;
K 0.5 to 3.3 ppm; Na 6.5 to 18.7 ppm; soluble salts 12.9 to 83.1
ppm; and pH 5.7 to 7.9. In many cases the higher average values were
associated with the stream draining the largest watershed, Peace River
(Ca, F, Mg, N03, P, and soluble salts), while the lower average values
were associated with the stream draining the smallest watershed in
the study, Gum Slough (Ca, F, Fe, Mg, P, K and soluble salts).

. 4 4.

Ralph S. Durrance retired from the Ona Agricultural
Center on July 31, 1973, after twenty years of
service. One of a number of long time career
employees at the center he has been a dedicated,
valuable employee and will be missed. We give our
sincerest thanks to Ralph for his efforts in behalf
of agriculture and extend best wishes to him for a
long, happy retirement.

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