Citation
Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1916
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
- 1916.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with 1914/15.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report for the fiscal year ending June 30.
General Note:
Description based on: 1915.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
46380724 ( OCLC )
2001229380 ( LCCN )

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Full Text







Cooperative Demonstration Work
IN

Agriculture and Home Economics
University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDING JUNE 30th, 1916


MARCH, 1917










CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA ..................................... 3
BOARD OF CONTROL........................................................................................ 4
EXTENSION STAFF ..... ......................... ... ............. .. ...................... 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL..................... 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR...................... ....................... ........ ........ 7
Introduction ................................. ......... 7
Financial Statement....................... .................. 12
Negro W ork ....................................................................... ................. 12
Publications ............ ... ...... ............................... ................... 13
REPORT OF STATE AGENT...... ...................... .................. ..... ............ 15
Field Meetings ................. .............................. 16
Hog Cholera Inoculation ............................... ................... 18
Bankers' Scholarship ....................................... 19
Activities of Extension Workers (tabulated).................................. 20
Negro W ork .... ... .... ...... ................................................ 25
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH........................................ 28
Character of Work .................................................................. ................ 29
Demonstrations in Truck........................................... 30
Demonstrations in Citrus Groves........................ ....... .......... 31
Demonstrations in Pineapple Culture........................ ................. 32
Financial Support from Counties .............................................33
Farmers' Cooperative Associations ......... .............. ..... .......... 34
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST..................................... 36
Cotton .................... ..... ......................... ....... .................... 36
Velvet Beans ................... ............ ............... 36
Livestock .......................................... 37
Dipping Vats ............................................................... .... .. 38
REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT............................................ 39
Summary of Corn Club Work.................... ......................... 40
Pig Club W ork................................................ ........... ... 41
Boys' Club Meetings.................... ....................... 43
County Contests ............................. ...................... 44
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT............................. ........ 47
Organization ............ ............................ 47
Girls' Club Work ........- -.......... ...................49
Fall Contests, Summary .......... .... ......................... 50
Women's Work........................ ... ....... ............. 53
Short Courses........ ...................................... ...54
State Meeting.......................................... 57
Statistical Report ...................... ........... .......... 58
Publications ...................................................... 59
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT........... .......... .................. 61
FARMERS' INSTITUTES ...................................... ............ ............... 63
County Agents' Institutes............ ......... ................. 64
Field Institutes .... ........... .. .. .. ........................ ......... 64
W omen's Institutes ......... .. ............. ........... ................. 64






















Hon. Sydney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of
the Director of the Extension Division of the University of
Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







4 Florida Cooperative Extension

BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.
P. E. JENNINGS, Jacksonville, Fla.
J. G. KELLUM, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
O. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge Demonstration Club Work.
I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.

COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND
HOME ECONOMICS STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. McQuARRIE, State Agent.
A. P. SPENCER, Assistant Director. (Since Nov. 1, 1916.)
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent, Home Demonstration Work.
H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for East and South Florida. (Since Jan.
1. 1917.)
E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and West Florida. (Since Feb.
15, 1917.)
G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Agricultural Club Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent.
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent for East and South Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Agent for North and West Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S.D.A.
C. L. WILLOUGHBY, Specialist, Silo Construction.
JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry.
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
O. W. WEAVER, Editor.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua........................... ....W E. Brown ...............................Gainesville
Baker..................................... S. S Johns.................................M acclenny
Brevard ............................. A. R. Nielson.............................. Melbourne
Calhoun................................ J. E. Yon .................................... Blountstown
Citrus ..................................W E. Allen ............................... Lecanto
Clay........................................W T. Nettles..............................Green Cove Springs
Dade....................................... F.J. M cKinley...........................M iam i
Duval..................................... W L. W atson...........................Jacksonville
Escambia..............................C. A. Fulford..............................Pensacola
Gadsden.................................M N. Smith................................River Junction
Hernando.............................. J. T. Daniel................................Brooksville
Hillsboro...............................R T. Kelley.........-----.........Plant City
Holmes.................................. J. Sechrist.............................. Bonifay
Jackson .................................. S. W Hiatt ................................. M arianna
Lake....................................... W m. Gomme ...............................Tavares







Annual Report, 1916 5

Lee......................................... J. M Boring ..............................Ft. Myers
Leon (colored)....................Frank Robinson......... ............Tallahassee
Levy..D.................................... D. P. Coffin ...........................Bronson
Liberty............................ .. W.,Turier ...................Bristol
Madison........ ...............C. W. Gunn............ :...................Madison
Manatee................................U. C. Zeluff................................. Bradentown
Marion.................-----......-...R. W. Blacklock.............:..-........Ocala
Nassau------...........................-.... James Shaw.....................-----.......... Hilliard
Orange............ ...... ......... .H. Baker...........-.................. Orlando
Osceola......................-.....B. E. Evans....... .................Kissimmee
Palm Beach-...... -- .....R. N. Wilson...........:-.................. West Palm Beach
Panco ............. ..... ..R. T. 'WVc- Dade City
Poll;... .... .... .. A.A. Lcwie linthleen
Putnam ..... ...L. C trel .Palatka
Santa PRoa .; ..E. Manning ................. Milton
Serninoae .. .. .. .-,Brr- ........---......-- ..-...Sanford
u' v.nnrr ... ..-:-. .,. ,' .0. W Cas,'ell .Live I :a
St. John... ..J.E. Ch-eatham Hantings
St. Lucie ... .Alfre Warrtn .Ft.Pierce
Tn lor ..... ..... R.I. M atth ws, ....:-.... .......Perry
oaluia .R. E. Lenfest.... DL. DLnd
Wal.ulla .... .... 'V. T. Green rran
Wa-4iington ....... "..-... 0. McQuacee ...Chipley

COUNTY iION E DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY -AGENT ADDRESS
Baker:.... .. .... .Miss Belle Davis:. ....................Macclenny
Bay .. ....... ... ....M r. Ettie M. Matthews...........Panama City
Bradford ...:.'.....-Mrs. T. E. Waldrup.................Lake Butler
Broward... ........... Mrs. Virginia D. Bryan............Ft. Lauderdale
Brevard..............................Mrs. W. W. Gay ....... ................Melbourne
Dade....-.............................. Miss Genevieve Crawford-....:...Miami
DeSoto-............................... Miss Allie Stribling..................Arcadia
Dual....................................Mrs. Effie Wellington...............Jacksonville
Escambia............................. Miss LonnyLandruni ...-.....- Pensacola
Gadsden........:...........-..........Miss Ruby McDavid................. Hinson
Hernando ............... ............. Miss Kate Townsend................Brooksville
Hillsboro-.............................. Miss Isabelle M. Story..............Tampa
Holmes.................................Miss Connie Robert DeVane....Bonifay
Jackson.................................Mrs. Ivey Tavlor Turnbull.......Marianna
Jefferson..............................Miss Jennie Carter...................Monticello
Lee.....................................Mrs. Enid Axtell Parker..........Ft. Myers
Leon...................................Mrs. Lillian Roberts..................Tallahassee
Madison................................Miss Edna Alethia'Smith.......Madison
Manatee-............................. Miss Eloise McGriff.................Bradentown
Marion.. ... Mrs. Caroline Moorhead...........Ocala
Oka:nlo-sn. .. .... Miss Margaret Cobb................-Milligan
Orange ....... rs. Nellie Wilson Taylor......Orlando
Oseola .......... .................. Miss Albina Smith -......-......... Kissimmee
Palm Beach-..--.............-.... Miss Elizabeth A. Hopkins......West Palm Beach
Pinellas............................... Miss Mary Ellen Keown-...-.....Clearwater
Polk.---....I.....-........ ...:..... .Mrs. Dora Russell Barnes-.......Lakeland
Putnam..-.....................- Miss Josephine Sipprell... ...... Florahome
Saata- Rosa-................... --Miss Janie Stroud..... ...............Milton
St.? Johns:........................- Miss Lois Godbev .....- ........ .. n A stine
Volusia--......-.....................Miss Mary K. Summers-......... DeLand
Walton-- --......................... Miss Winne Warren................ DeFuniak Springs
Washinecon .. ii- Siusie Sapp..........:............ Chipley









































Fig. 1.-Demonstration agents assembled on University campus, Gainesville.












Report for the Fiscal Year Ending

June 30, 1916


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work and condition of the Extension Division of the University
of Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, and I
respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance
with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.


INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of
Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and
practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to
persons not resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agri-
cultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the
State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additional sum
of $11,892.73 became available, July 1, 1916, on condition that
an equal amount be appropriated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was ap-
proved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting
these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The
Act provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges
in the several states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
A quotation from it will show the general purposes of this Act:
That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving
of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home econo-
mics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several
communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects
through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work
shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed upon by the
Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges re-
ceiving the benefits of this act. "






Florida Cooperative Extension


In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-
Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appro-
priated the sum of $23,800.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county
cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home
demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is
allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to
cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the
county appropriates an equal or larger amount for this same
purpose. In the home demonstration work, each new county
cooperating is allotted $300 for the year provided an equal or
larger amount is appropriated by the county for augmenting
this work. In counties where home demonstration work has
made favorable progress, $400 is made available under the
condition that the county provides an equal amount. Provision
is made for carrying on the county demonstration work in the
general revenue bill (Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more
than one-half of one mill for the encouragement and protection
of agriculture. The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833)
an act authorizing county boards of education to make appro-
priations for home demonstration work.
Reports of the various departments or projects of the exten-
sion work are attached hereto and will show the work in detail.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever Act calls for the appointment of a director
as the head of this work. He is responsible to the Board of
Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the
mutually agreed plans. Reports of the work are made directly
to the Board of Control and to the United States Department
of Agriculture as to the policies and work pursued.
The state agent has direct supervision over the details of the
work in the counties. His work calls him to all parts of the
state and he is in contact with all the agencies employed in
the extension division. He has supervision also of farmers' in-
stitutes and farmers' gatherings arranged by county agents.
The state agent for home demonstration work has direct
charge of girls' clubs and women's rural clubs and is located
with the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee.
District agents are employed to assist the state agent; assist-
ant agents work under the direction of the state agent for home
demonstration work among rural women. These agents visit
the counties to direct the plans and to assist the county agents.






Annual Report, 1916


It is their duty to see that the county agents are giving proper
direction to the agricultural extension work in the counties.
The boys' agricultural club agent has headquarters at the
University of Florida. He supervises the plans for carrying
forward the work.of boys' corn and pig clubs thruout the state.
These clubs are organized by the county agents or, where no
county agents are employed, by county home demonstration
agents, with the cooperation of the school boards and county
superintendents. -His special mission is to demonstrate correct
agricultural practices to the -members of these clubs, and to
encourage the study of agriculture in rural schools.
The county cooperative demonstration agent usually has his
headquarters at the county seat, with his office in the court
house. His principal work is conducting demonstrations on
small areas to establish by demonstration the best farming prac-
tices. The county agents work cooperatively with three differ-
ent classes of farmers. The first are known as demonstrators;
they each agree to take a small area, usually one to five acres,
and on this follow explicitly the directions of the county agent,
tilling the remainder of the farm in the usual way. Farmers
of the second class are known as cooperators; these follow the
general directions of the county agent but do not set aside any
special portion for demonstration. The third class of farmers
seek the advice of the county agent under special stress as in
the case of an outbreak of diseases, insect pests, severe drouth,
etc. The county agent acts here simply as an adviser.
The county home demonstration agents work toward organ-
izing and fostering girls' and women's clubs. Many of the home
demonstration agents have had special training for teaching
either in schools or in the home economics department of the
College. Their training has fitted them specially for this new
work.
All the county agents are required to make weekly reports
both to the Department of Agriculture and to the head of their
respective departments. Home demonstration work has proven
unusually attractive.
PLAN OF THE WORK
The whole work is being carried forward in several separate
lines, known as projects. These special lines of work are pro-
vided for by the law creating the fund, and the annual state-
ment as to the sources of the funds and the direction in which
they were expended will be found herewith.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Project I is designed to carry out the provision of this act.
It provides for the carrying on of the administrative part of
the work.
Under Project I-A are grouped salaries for clerical help and
expenses not directly chargeable to special projects. A total
of $4,286.15 was used for this purpose.
Under Project I-B are the expenditures for publications. The
law provides that not more than five percent of the Smith-
Lever fund shall be used for printing and distribution of pub-
lications. The amount used for this purpose was $594.54.
Project II is the demonstration work with adult farmers.
This project carries on demonstrations in all the principal crops
produced in the state, special attention having been given to
the improvement of staple crops. Close study is given to special
crops and their adaptability to conditions wherever such crops
seem promising. This project includes nearly the entire range
of activities on the farm, from the production of the crops and
stock to the improvement of the home. The expenditure under
this project from all sources was $49,946.25.
Project III includes the organization of boys' agricultural
clubs, and is confined to corn and pig clubs. This year's work
in corn clubs as herewith reported is especially noteworthy in
that a number of boys have produced more than 75 bushels, and
in a few cases more than 100 bushels of corn to the acre. The
average cost a bushel for the entire crop raised by the corn club
boys was 38 cents. The work in the pig clubs has been equally
successful. These clubs work in cooperation with the schools
of the counties. The county superintendent and teachers have
given generous and unstinted assistance. All of the agencies
connected with the extension work have cooperated to make this
project successful. The amount expended for this work was
$2,088.01.
Project IV has been called the home demonstration project.
This includes two lines of club work in rural districts, one for
women's clubs and the other for girls' clubs. The women's
clubs are organized to study the needs of the home, its sur-
roundings and improvement and sanitary measures for the
preservation of the health of the family. Girls' clubs are or-
ganized in all counties having home demonstration agents. This
part of the project works toward cooperation with the rural
schools. Girls' canning clubs are well organized in Florida,
as indicated by the excellent reports submitted herewith. The
amount spent for this work from all sources was $31,269.15.






Annual Report, 1916


Project V concerns itself with educational work in the best
methods of preventing and controlling hog cholera. A specialist
assigned to Florida from the Bureau of Animal Industry gives
it his full time and attention. This work is carried on cooper-
atively with the extension division of the University of Florida
in practically every county, but more especially in those counties
having agelits. The total expense of this project is borne by
the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Project VI concerns itself with the instruction of negro boys
and girls living on farms. It is carried on in cooperation
with the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, at
Tallahassee. A special agent, with headquarters at the negro
College, gives his entire time.to the direction of home makers
clubs, which train negro boys and girls in better farming meth-
ods. His activities were confined principally to those counties
having the largest negro farming population. The expenditure
for this work during the last fiscal year was $1,182.49.
Project VIII deals with silo construction. This is a special
project designed to encourage the construction of silos. A
special agent was employed for only a portion of the year. The
farmers are especially interested in silo construction, or may
have them underway, just prior to the time when the silo crops


Fig. 2.-Stave silos on demonstration farm, Marion county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


are about to mature. It seems from this that the agent could
employ his time most profitably when the farmer is most in
need of his services. The expense of this project has been
$598.55.
SUPERVISION
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever act are strictly trust
funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws gov-
erning the appropriation. The. specific plans are spoken of as
projects. The method of accounting and the plans for the work
must be submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture be-
fore the year's work is begun. A Federal officer audits the
accounts .and inspects the .work underway. All of the funds,.
however, that have been used to supplement the Smith-Lever
fund have been expended and accounted for in the .same way
as the Smith-Lever fund.
Specialists from the United States Department of Agriculture
are sent to the state from time to time to aid in special work
and render valuable assistance in carrying out cooperative
demonstration work.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
The following table gives in tabulated form the sources of all
moneys and the purposes for' which they were expended. It
shows that the total expenditures from all sources for the ex-
tension work was $91,449.35.
STATEMENT
TABLE 1.
Smithi Lever ..
U.S.D.A. Feeral State College State County -Total

RECEIPTS ........ $25,000.00 $16,486.94 $6,486.94 $9,286.72 $5,000.00 $29,188.75 $91,449.35
EXPENDITURES
Administration .. ............... 3,815.63 470.52 .. ........ ...... .. 4,286.15
Printing, etc. ... ....... .. 94.54 ...... .. ............... .... 9454
County Agents .. 19,170.00 5,230.46 2,452.96 ......... .. 4,999.08 18,093:75 49,946.25
Home Economics 4,500.00 4,601.76 3,268.96 7,803.43 ......... 11,095 00 81,269.15
Boys' Club Work 1,300.00 604.17 147.84 .......... .. ......... .. .. 2,088.01
Negro Boys' W k 30.00 1,005.83 146.66 ................ ........... .... 118249
Silo Construction .:5............... 598.55 _...... .. 598.55
Balance .............. ...... ...... ..... ........... ... 1,483. *
Totals................. $25,000.00 $16,486.94 $6,486.94 $9,286.. i..... 1 i
. . . .


NEGRO ORK.
The negro work in Florida has been conducted in seven coun-
ties. Two agents have been employed, one in charge of the
home makers clubs, whose work has been chiefly with the boys.
The direction of this *is similar to the agricultural- clnbs for
white boys, but working with a different unit of acreage. This






Annual Report, 1916


agent reports to the boys' agricultural club agent and makes
his headquarters at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for
Negroes at Tallahassee, Florida.
A negro local agent is engaged in farm demonstration work
in Leon county. His work has been directed toward improved
farming for colored farmers in that county. His reports indi-
cate that he has been active in the organization of clubs for
rural betterment. 'He works cooperatively with the Agricultural
and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee, and reports
to the state and district agents for farmers cooperative demon-
stration work.
PUBLICATIONS
Five bulletins have been published and distributed by the
Extension Division of the University of Florida.
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
4. Dipping Vats for Hogs.................. .... ................................ 8,000
5. Subirrigation ................. ......................... 13,100
6. Peanuts in Florida............................................ ............ 30,000
7. Hog Pastures and Feeds....:... --....................-- 5,500
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30th, 1915.
SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
4. Concrete Dipping Vats for Hogs and Calves.-This bulletin is an
eight-page folder prepared especially for the convenience of the county
agents and distributed chiefly to the hog raisers who are cooperating with
the county agents. It contains a diagram, specifications for building con-
crete dipping vats for hogs and calves, also recommendations for preparing
solutions for filling the vats.
5. Subirrigation.-This bulletin is the description of the subirrigation
system in use in the vegetable growing sections of Florida. It contains
diagrams, cuts and specifications, also statement of the conditions under
which such a system may be profitably installed. It also explains the
system as a drainage system and names the crops for which subirrigation
is best suited.
6. Peanuts in Florida.-This bulletin is a description of the best prac-
tice in growing peanuts in Florida and the best use of the Florida crop;
varieties, methods of cultivation, harvesting, place in rotation and its value
as stock feed. This bulletin also contains the description of curing sheds
for peanut hay, used successfully for two seasons in Florida.
7. Hog Pastures and Feeds.-This bulletin is a revision of No. 2 and
is an eight page folder, printed on heavy card board for the convenience
of the county agents to hang in office for reference. It specifies the crops,
date and methods of planting, stage of growth for feeding and the num-
ber of hogs an acre will support, with additional notes on hog raising.
CHANGES IN STAFF
Very few changes in the personnel of the staff have occurred,
the main changes being additions to the working force. On
October 1, 1915, G. L. Herrington assumed the duties of boys'
agricultural club agent, and on the same date A. A. Turner
(negro) began work under Project VI, instruction of negro
youth.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dr. A. H. Logan succeeded Dr. G. F. Babb as veterinary in-
spector, hog cholera control work.
As the number of counties cooperating is constantly increas-
ing, there was an increase of both farm and home county dem-
onstration agents. County agents have also been transferred
from one county to another.


MAP or FLORIDA

MS indicates counties
having Farmers Cooperative
Demonstrotrio Work
during the fiscal year ending
June 30,1916.


Fig. 3.-Map of Florida showing counties employing county demonstration agents.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
This report shows that the interest in farmers' cooperative
demonstration work is being maintained and, in a large meas-
ure, increased. This is verified by the increased appropriations
from county sources made to supplement the salaries of the
county agents. The total appropriations from county sources
for next year's work has increased $11,660 over the amount
appropriated for the period covered in this report.
The increased appropriations were made largely thru efforts
to secure better equipped men who can command higher salaries
than were formerly paid to county agents. A few of the older
men in the work have resigned, and in most instances where
this has occurred, they have been replaced by men of better
training and who are able to enlarge the scope of the work
in their counties.
The average yield of staple crops for the state has increased,
notwithstanding the continued drouth that prevailed in the
spring and early summer, or the growing season for farm crops.
Where farmers prepared the land and planted according to
demonstration methods they suffered very little from this dry
weather. This provided an excellent demonstration of what
could be accomplished to overcome unfavorable weather condi-
tions by adopting the improved methods that the demonstration
work teaches.
On the 5th, 6th and 7th of July a West Indian hurricane














Fig. 4.-Cowpeas on a demonstration farm in Lake county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 5.-Field meeting county agents. Polk county.
prevailed in the western counties. The wind attained a velocity
of 140 miles an hour, followed by heavy rainfall in all the terri-
tory west of the Apalachicola River, destroying or damaging
practically all crops. Corn was damaged from fifty to seventy-
five percent, and other crops similarly. In fact, some farmers
lost all their crops, and in several cases sustained a heavy loss
of livestock. Prompt assistance to these flood sufferers was pro-
vided in furnishing seeds to replant their damaged fields. The
agents in Walton, Jackson, Washington, Calhoun and Holmes
counties distributed sufficient seed to plant several hundred
acres to field and garden crops, which relieved the distressed
situation in a large measure.
FIELD MEETINGS
The agents' group field meetings were held this year as usual.
The west Florida county agents met at Chipley, Washington
county, February 28, and at Bonifay, Holmes county, February
29, visiting farms where winter cover crops and good livestock
could be seen. At Bonifay, the milling company's plant was
inspected, this being a new enterprise paying cash for farm
produce. It was interesting to study their methods of doing
business and to learn to what extent it could be adopted in
other counties. At Chipley an inspection was made of the
ginning company's plant.
March 1 was spent at Tallahassee in joint session with the
home demonstration agents .at the Florida State College for
Women, and later, visiting farms in Leon county.
March 2 was spent at Madison, Madison county, visiting dem-
onstration farms and assisting in the agricultural program of
the chautauqua.
March 3 was spent at the State Prison Farm, Raiford, where






Annual Report, 1916


the clearing of land, pulling stumps, breaking and farming land
with tractors and other modern implements is underway on
an extensive scale. We were entertained by the superintendent
and the visit proved interesting and valuable to all.
The agents of middle Florida met in Lake county on March
6 and 7 and visited farms and groves in the vicinity of Eustis,
Leesburg and Tavares to investigate Natal hay fields and citrus
groves sprayed under demonstration methods.
March 8 was spent in Seminole county studying the intensive
trucking system practiced in growing winter vegetables, chiefly
celery and lettuce. Subirrigation is practiced on nearly all of
the farms. The land has improvements of $1,000 an acre or
more, consequently an extensive system is necessary.
A special meeting of the agents in the citrus belt was called
at Lakeland June 2, under the auspices of the State Plant Board
to study the methods of applying pure cultures of whitefly
fungus (Aschersonia Aleyrodis) prepared and distributed by
the Board.
The annual meeting of the directors and state agents in the
farmers' cooperative demonstration work was held in Wash-
ington from November 10 to 14 inclusive, and was attended
by the director and state and district agents. The state agent
read a paper on "What Has Been Worth While in My State
in 1916."
The annual meeting of agricultural club agents was held in
Washington in December and was attended by the Florida club
agent and state agent in home economics.
Owing to the increased interest in livestock in Florida, the
.state and county agents are shaping plans to bring about the
best possible development in beef and dairy cattle and hogs,
and the building of dipping vats has made good progress in
nearly every county. Hog cholera control occupies a big share
of all county agents' time, but the results obtained have justified
the efforts. Systematic tick eradication, as conducted by the
Bureau of Animal Industry, is in charge of Dr. E. M. Nighbert,
and all plans for this work are directed from his office.
SILO WORK
Owing to the lack of funds we were not able to conduct very
lengthy campaigns on silo building. A specialist in silo con-
struction was employed for a short period and assisted in silo
construction work in Osceola, Seminole and Leon counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


From his efforts a total of seven wood and two concrete silos
were built.
HOG CHOLERA INOCULATION WORK
The cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal Industry,
U. S. D. A., and extension division of the University of Florida,
for educational work, project C, has continued thruout the year.
Dr. A. H. Logan, field veterinarian in charge of hog inocula-
tion work, has devoted his time to educational lectures and
demonstrations in sanitary methods in hog management and
administering hog cholera serum and virus. This work has
been valuable in getting the proper information before the
farmers of Florida for the control of hog cholera and has added
materially to the efficiency of county agents' service.
During the year this work has been conducted in practically
every county in Florida. Dr. Logan's report shows that one
hundred thirty-eight farmers' meetings have been held, with a
total attendance of 12,406. Twenty-six demonstrations of serum
alone and seven simultaneous treatment demonstrations were
made. Four hundred fifty-two people attended these demon-
strations and 746 hogs were treated. Two hundred sixty-one
visits were paid to farms during the year for the purpose of




















Fig. 6.-County agents receiving instructions in spraying pure cultures of
Whitefly fungus into citrus trees. Operator wearing the uniform
of citrus canker inspectors.






Annual Report, 1916


1ig. 7.--emonstrations: Uorn in background; sweet potatoes in fore-
ground. Clay county.
diagnosing hog cholera or observing conditions and giving ad-
vice, 2,989 farmers and hog raisers were personally interviewed,
and 87 individually instructed and equipped to properly ad-
minister the serum preventive treatment. Of this number 56
were hog owners.
COUNTY FAIRS
The state and district agents judged exhibits at each of
the thirteen county fairs held in Florida. These and similar re-
quests are complied with in so far as they do not interfere
with regular demonstration work.
FIELD MEETINGS BY COUNTY AGENTS
Field meetings arranged by county agents are proving to be
a satisfactory means of reaching farmers. The state or district
agents usually assist the county agent, also agents from ad-
joining counties assist in the discussions. This gives county
agents in adjoining counties an opportunity to exchange ideas
and to benefit from each other's results.
BANKERS' SCHOLARSHIPS
The State Bankers' Association is manifesting a keen interest
in the boys' club work. At their annual meeting in Daytona,
they voted a scholarship of $200 in the Agricultural College at
Gainesville for a member of the corn club producing the highest
yield of corn per acre.






20 Florida Cooperative Extension

Requests to appear before city and county boards of trade
are liberally complied with and the advantages to be gained in
keeping the commercial bodies in touch with the agricultural
educational work are fully appreciated.
These bodies are taking a deep interest in every phase of
cooperative demonstration work for both men and women and
are making a concerted effort to improve the farmer's position.
Their influence has been helpful in raising county appropria-
tions, as they fully appreciate the necessity of paying good sal-
aries when important undertakings are to be accomplished.

SCHOOL VISITS
Several visits to schools were made during the year. Speeches
were made at commencement exercises and lectures were given
to pupils studying agriculture. Visits were made to rural
schools to interest the children and teachers in club work.
Advantage is taken of opportunities to address teachers' insti-
tutes, to interest teachers and superintendents, all of which has
materially increased the interest of educational forces in dem-
onstration work.
A tabulated statement, covering the year's activities, is here-
with appended:
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of visits by county agents.................... -... --... 22,624
to demonstrators ....-----...--------..................- 6,900
cooperators .............-------------------------- .2,486
other farmers ---......... -------..------- -------. 7,134
business men.........~.-........ ....... -------.--- 2,681
boys' and girls' clubs members....... -----............... 3,423
Number miles traveled............151,904 Conference ............................ 9
Railroad .. ...... ---------..... .. 21,676 Miscellaneous ............... 3
Team ..--.............------------------- 77,323 Percent time in field work.... 81
Otherwise -..............------------ 52,905 Supervising demonstra-
Number calls on agents ....... 13,481 tions ..........-.... 34
Personal ..............-----....-... 9,601 Other farm visits........... 33
Telephone ..............------ 3,880 At meetings.................. 1
Percent time in office............ 19 Assisting short courses..... 6
Correspondence .........---...... 7 Organization ................ 7
EDUCATIONAL WORK
Farmers' meetings held.......... 399 U. S. D. A............................. 21,851
Meetings all kinds addressed 616 Univ. of Fla......................... 6,035
Attendance ............-.... 32,725 School visits relative to work 552
Field meetings held by agents 197 Schools, agrl. courses out-
Attendance ..... ...... 2,868 lined ................. ............. 37
Official letters written............ 12,039 Extension schools or short
Agri'l articles published...... 518 courses assisted................... 10
Circular letters mailed......... 970 Days engaged............... 56
Bulletins distributed................ 27,886 Attendance ...... ......... 835







Annual Report, 1916


MISCELLANEOUS
Farmers attending college Demonstrations truck or fruit
short courses as result Farmers keeping full cost
agents' efforts...................... 12 records ................................
Boys attending agri'l schools Part record ......................
or colleges result club work 47 Farmers induced to fall plow
County fairs held.................... 13 Farmers selecting seed..........
Demonstrators, cooperators No. growing improved seed
and club members exhib- for sale..........................
iting --..................-...-.... 3396 No. raising breeding stock for
sale .... ............................
IMPROVEMENTS SUPERVISED BY COUNTY AGENTS


Buildings erected......................
New building plans furnished
Farm buildings improved......
Buildings painted or white-
washed ...-- .......
Home water systems installed
or improved........... .........
Lighting systems installed....
Systems before work started
Number now ... ...........
Home grounds improved........
Sanitary conditions improved
Sanitary privies erected..........
Telephone systems installed..
Farmers adopting systematic
crop rotation .................
Acreage ...----................
New pastures established......
Old pastures renovated..........
Acreage -----...........................


61
25
80

68

21
27
3
31
50
144
93
69

54
2,283
116
24
608


Drainage systems established 43
No. draining farms.................. 197
Acres drained........................ 2,629
Farmers induced stump land 553
Acres stumped .-----........- 6,888
Average cost per acre........... $15
Total cost........................$103,320.00
Farmers terracing lands........ 45
Acres terraced...................... 480
No. home gardens planted.... 812
No. saving surplus produce.... 206
Road demonst's assisted in.... 14
No. miles improved.............. 391
No. sowing green manure
crops ................................. .. 388
Acreage ............................ 7,209
New implements bought......... 1,041
Approximate average cost.. $10


DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATION


CORN
Number of demonstrators...... 443
Number reporting.............. 274
Total acreage........................ 2,520
Average yield, bu........... 34.3
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, bu...................... 10
Total increase, bu............ 30,970
Value at 90e bu...............$2,787.30
Increased acre yield over
State average, bu........... 19
Total increase, bu............... 54,206
Value at 90c bu...............$48,785.40
Total value of increase, 90c
bu .... ...............$51,572.70
Number of cooperators.......... 225
Total acreage................. 1,657
Average yield, bu................. 18.6
Increased yield over State
average ............................. 3.6
No. planting improved seed.... 187
Percent who will next year.... 43
No. induced to select seed...... 527
Amount seed selected, bu... 1,047
No. that fall plowed--......... 169
Percent ........................... 39


No. turned under cover crops 90
SPercent ................................ 20
Acres harvested for silage...... 452
Average yield, tons.............. 8
Value silage, $4 a ton....$14,464.00
Acres hogged down............... 391
Acres treated diseases, pests 211
Farmers using better meth-
ods this year................. 1,219
Total No. using better meth-
ods ..... ........................... 2,834


COTTON
Number demonstrators..........
Number reporting ..............
Acreage grown....................
No. planting selected seed......
No. to plant select seed..........
No. doing fall plowing............
No. turning under cover crops
Number cooperators.............
Acreage grown...................
Acres treated diseases, pests
No. using better methods......
Farmers using better methods


101
40
423
80
51
42
22
26
112
311
572
1,535







Florida Cooperative Extension


RYE
Number demonstrators.......... 42
Number reporting............ 28
Acreage grown.............. 328
Number cooperators -..........- 56
Acreage grown--............ 101
Acres grazed off................ 299
Acres turned under for soil
improvement -----.................. 213
No. farmers induced to plant 370

OATS
Number demonstrators.......... 105
Number reporting......-......... 80
Acreage grown................. 2,325
Average acre-yield, bu....... 22.8
Increased acre-yield over old
m ethods, bu.......................... 9
Acres threshed..................... 1,591
Acres cut for hay................... 626
Average yield, tons.............. 11/2
Increase over old methods,
tons ........---------.......................
Acres grazed off ...............- 265
Acres turned under for soil
improvement ....................... 122
Number cooperators................ 54
Acreage grown................... 217
No. farmers induced to plant 108
No. farmers planting ........ 776
Percent using better methods 27.5
Increased number bushels due
to agent's service............. 20,825
Value at 70c a bushel....$14,577.00
Value increased tonnage oats
and hay at $20................$-- 6,260.00
Total value of increase due
to improved methods......$20,837.00

MIXED HAY
Number demonstrators.......... 280
Number reporting........... 162
Acreage grown................ 2,064


Acres cut for hay................. 1,148
Average yield, tons............. 1
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, tons........................
Value increase at $20 T. $10,320.00
COWPEAS, VELVET BEANS
Number demonstrators.......... 331
Number reporting.............. 89
Acreage grown.....-.......-... 3,490
Number cooperators........... 139
Acreage grown---- .......... 2,570
Acres threshed for seed...... 480
Acres cut for hay.......... 420
Average yield, tons hay...... 2
Increased acre-yield over old
methods, tons................. %:
Value increase at $20 T. $52,350.00
Acres turned under for soil
improvement ........................ 3,070
IRISH POTATOES
Number demonstrators.......... 35
Number reporting................ 11
Total acreage grown....... 94
Average yield, bu............... 90
Average yield, old methods, bu. 70
Value increase at $1.50 bu...$1,128.00
Acres treated for diseases,
insects and pests........ ......... 245
Acres under improved methods 105
SWEET POTATOES
Number of demonstrators...... 78
Number reporting.. ........... 27
Total acreage grown--.......... 142
Average yield, bu................ 150
Average yield old methods, bu. 80
Value increase at 60c bu.....$5,994.00
No. acres treated for dis-
eases, insects and pests,
due to agent's influence...... 52
Number acres worked by im-
proved methods, due to
agent's advice........................ 292


PEACH ORCHARDS AND CITRUS GROVES

Demonstration orchards........ 140 I Orchards sprayed............. 170
Trees ..131,500 Trees ....................................161,202
Orchards inspected................ 373 Peach orchards wormed.......... 34
Trees .. -........ ............... 185,161 Trees .......................... 1,259
Orchards pruned.............. 69 Orchards planted ............. 40
Trees .............................. 42,923 Trees ...-- .................... 14,900
Number commercial orchards assisted in caring for, 131.
NOTE.-An important result was accomplished in Lake county in control
of citrus scab. In one ten-acre grove, 700 trees, the owner lost 75% of a
crop due to citrus scab. By systematic spraying, the grove had a full crop
in 1916 and practically clean, high-grade fruit. It required spraying
some months in advance of the crop to get such results. Hence, in this
particular case the demonstration began the previous year.







Annual Report, 1916.


DAIRY CATTLE
Purebred cattle bought.......... 172
Purebred bulls...................... 65
Value $75 each..................$4,875.00
Purebred cows or heifers.... 107
Value $100 each..............$10,700.00
Grade cows bought.................. 35
Value $75 each..................$2,625.00
Number purebred bulls when
work started.......................... 16
Number now.......................... 104
Percent increase................ 650
Number purebred cows when
work started.......................... 130
Number now.......................... 328
Percent increase.................. 250
Cows tested for butter fat
production ............................ 50
Farmers feeding bal. rations. 61
Number fed.......................... 947

BEEF CATTLE
No. purebred cattle bought.... 173
Purebred bulls...................... 89
Value $100 each..............$8,900.00
Purebred cows or heifers.... 84
Value $100 each................$8,400.00
Grade cows bought for breed-
ing .........----............................... 159
Value $50 each---....-..... $7,950.00
Breeding herds started.......... 10
Feeding cattle bought............ 600
Value $30 each..............$18,000.00
No. feeding demonstrations. 2
Number cattle...................... 118
Cattle fed under agent's ad-
vice ........................................ 2,090
Breeders' associations formed 3
Number members.................... 100
Number purebred bulls when
work started......................... 35
Number now.......................... 400
Percentage increase............ 1,140
Number purebred cows.......... 71
Number now.......................... 351
Percent increase.................. 500
HORSES AND MULES
Purebred stallions bought...... 7
Jacks bought ............................ 6
Brood mares bought....----.... 88
Demonstrations in feeding.... 3
Number fed .......................... 98
FERTILIZER
Farmers directed in its use.. 2,146
Number demonstrations........ 294
Tons used.............................. 1,145
Number associations buying
cooperatively ..................... 15
Value so bought..................$74,923
Amount saved to farmers $13,628


No. farmers home-mixing...... 288
No. farmers top-dressing oats
with nitrate of soda ......... 550
MANURE
Farmers induced, save manure 577
Number providing sheds........ 133
Number composting manure
and waste ........................ 716
Manure spreaders bought...... 73
Farmers reinforcing manure
with phosphate rock............ 567
Tons manure being saved......548,210
Value at $3 a T ............$1,644,630
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND
PESTS
Stock treated for ailments.... 65,287
Cattle dipped, ticks and lice.. 16,981
Hogs treated for cholera........ 48,090
Value of hogs saved..........$192,320
Sheep treated for worms....... 25
Horses treated for various
ailments ......---.......-- --......... .. 191


POULTRY
Poultry demonstrations..........
Number chickens grown........
Number turkeys grown..........
Farms under improved meth-
ods .................--------------
Number birds-..---.......--..
Number f a r m s producing
non-fertile eggs...............
HOGS


2
677
47
41
2,782
11


Purebred hogs bought............ 710
Number boars................---- 208
Value $12 each.................... $2,496
Number sows or gilts.......... 502
Value $15 each..................- $7,530
Grade sows bought.................. 643
Value $8 each...................... $5,144
Number herds started............ 321
Feeding demonstrations.......... 68
Number hogs........................ 183
Farmers keeping records........ 42
Hog pastures started.............. 158
Farmers rotating grazing
crops .............. 580
Hogs raised, improved meth-
ods .............................-- ---- 6,715
Purebred boars when work
started ..................-............... 121
Number now..................... ... 672
Percentage increase............ 555
No. hogs when work started 32,566
Number hogs now................ 68,963
Percentage increase........ 211
Value of increase................$223,813






Florida Cooperative Extension


DIPPING VATS AND SILOS Percent increase, 2d year........ i00
Vats built, agent's influence.. 74 Percent increase, 3d year........ 50
Value vats, $100 each........ $7,400 ORGANIZATION
Vats filled, agent's direction 66 Farmers' clubs organized...... 46
Solutions tested for strength 61 Total membership.............. 1,551
Estimated cattle dipped.......... 65,855
Percent increase, 1st year.... 500 LIME ROCK
Percent increase, 2d year........ 100 Farmers applying lime.......... 500
Percent increase, 3d year........ 50 Tons ground limestone used.. 5,525
Silos built this year........... 44 Cost at $2.50 a ton..............$13,812
Value silos at $200 each.... $8,800 Acres limed (approx.).......... 3,567
Percent increase, 1st year.... 500 Applied per acre, tons...... 1%

VALUE OF COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK TO FARMERS
BY INCREASED CROP PRODUCTION
Increase of corn at 90c a bushel..................................$51,572.00
Increase of silage crop at $4 a ton............................. 14,464.00
Increase of hay at $20 a ton................................ 10,320.00.
Increase of oats at 70c a bushel...----..................... 20,837.00
Increase of cowpeas and velvet beans at $20 a ton 52,350.00
Increase of Irish potatoes at $1.50 a bushel ........... 1,128.00
Increase of sweet potatoes at 60c a bushel.............. 5,994.00
Total ............................-.. ....... $ 156,665.00
BY LIVESTOCK ADDED TO FARMS OR SAVED FROM DISEASE
Purebred dairy bulls at $75 each....................... 4,875.00
Purebred dairy cows or heifers at $100 each.......... 10,700.00
Grade dairy cows brought into counties.............. 2,625.00
Purebred beef cows or heifers at $100 each............ 8,400.00
Purebred beef bulls at $100 each............................ 8,900.00
Grade cows at $50 each..................................... ....... 7,950.00
Feeding cattle at $30 each........................................ 18,000.00
Hogs saved by treatment..................................192,320.00
Boars at $12 each.............................. .. ........... 2,498.00
Sows or gilts at $15 each................................................ 7,485.00
Grade sows at $8.00 each................................ .. 5,144.00
Increased number hogs owned by cooperating
farmers valued at..............................................223,813.00

Total ....................... ..... ..... .. .. 492,710.00
BY IMPROVEMENTS TO FARMS
Cost of stum ping.................................... ....................103,320.00
Value of improved implements and tools............. 10,410.00
Value silos at $200 each............... .................................... 8,800.00
Value dipping vats at $100 each-........ ...................... 7,400.00

Total .................................. .....129,930.00
BY FERTILIZER OR MANURE APPLIED
Value fertilizer bought cooperatively.--.................... 74,923.00
Amount saved to farmers.............................................. 13,628.00
Value manure at $3 a ton..........- -.................... ..1,644,630.00
Value ground limestone applied at $2.50 a ton.......... 13,812.00

Total ....................................... .... 1,746,993.00
Grand Total of Values......................................................... ...... ........$2,526,298.00






Annual Report, 1916


NEGRO WORK
The cooperative demonstration work for negroes has been
conducted under two divisions, the farm and home makers clubs
and demonstration work for negro farmers. As the Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College for Negroes is located at Talla-
hassee, headquarters for both divisions of the negro work have
been maintained in that institution. Both of these branches
are under the direct supervision of the extension division of
the University of Florida and weekly reports are made to the
state agent.
The farm demonstration work for negroes is conducted in
Leon county, under the supervision of a local agent. His work
has been similar to that conducted by county agents and his
report shows that practically all the crops used by the county
agents for demonstrations have been taken up in Leon county
by the local agent. This agent gives four days' time to farm
demonstrations and two days to the A. & M. College.
REPORTS
A report for the year's work shows that demonstration work
for negroes has been conducted with corn, cotton, tobacco, sweet
potatoes, oats, peanuts, velvet beans, cowpeas and a few small
plots of alfalfa and kudzu. In all, approximately one hundred
and fifty demonstrators were enlisted, with about one-half that
number reporting. These reports indicate that the average
yields are an increase over the usual productions, due largely
to the better farming methods, such as soil preparation, seed
selection, proper cultivation and harvesting.
This agent reports some difficulty in carrying out the plan
as fully as is desired, because most of the farmers with whom
he works are tenants, working on a share basis with landlords,
and must follow the landlord's instructions.
In livestock, the report indicates that an effort has been made
to increase the .value of hogs owned by negro farmers. Six
purebred breeding hogs have been purchased and the agent
has arranged with the Florida A. & M. College for negro farm-
ers to cross their sows with the pureblood boars owned by that
institution. Some fifty farmers have taken advantage of the
opportunity.
Considerable work also has been done in the control of hog
cholera. The local agent has administered the serum and has
instructed farmers in the sanitary methods for keeping their
hogs healthy. He has given instruction on rotation of pastures






Florida Cooperative Extension


for hogs and has provided the necessary feeds so that they may
keep a larger number than usual.
The work in dairying has been undertaken largely with the
object of inducing farmers to use the purebred dairy sires
owned by the A. & M. College and the keeping of better dairy
cattle and providing feed for them has been advocated.
This local agent has advocated the building of silos wherever
negro farmers can use them economically. One is constructed
on the A. & M. College grounds and three have been built in
the county at the instigation of the county agent. An effort
is being made to have every interested farmer inspect these
silos to determine the advantages.
SHORT COURSES
The A. & M. College, Tallahassee, held a short course for
negro farmers. The local agent and the agent for home makers
clubs assisted in this short course and were able to induce co-
operating farmers to bring in farm exhibits and livestock,
which gave a creditable farm display from negro farmers.
An appropriate program was arranged, in which the state,
district and boys' club agents gave lectures. During this short
course, and in the regular work of the local agent, twenty-seven
hundred agricultural bulletins were distributed among the
farmers of Leon and adjoining counties.
During the year this local agent traveled approximately 4,400
miles, conducted twelve field meetings, with a total attendance
of 2,000, lectured in county schools to a total attendance of
170, and assisted in demonstrations and contests arranged by
the agent in home makers clubs.
The following enrollment in negro boys' and girls' clubs is
reported from Leon county: Corn clubs, 22; tomato clubs, 18;
poultry clubs, 20; pig clubs, 14.
Farm and home makers clubs for the purpose of teaching
practical agriculture and home economics to negro boys and
girls was begun this year. The managing agent of this work
has his headquarters at the Agricultural and Mechanical College
for Negroes, Tallahassee, but works directly under supervision
of the extension division of the University of Florida.
The work has been assigned to seven counties, as it seemed
advisable to get the work well established in a few counties
before attempting to cover a large territory. These counties
were Leon, Gadsden, Jackson, Jefferson, Washington, Alachua
and Marion.






Annual' Report, 1916


The plan of work in negro boys' clubs is to have each member
select and cultivate one acre, half of it is planted to corn, one-
fourth to peanuts, and one-fourth to sweet potatoes. Systematic
records of the work are kept and at the end of the season
the managing agent collects and tabulates these reports. The
report forms, badges, and emblems are different from those used
by the white boys in the agricultural club work. This organ-
ization for the negro boys is known as the farm makers club.
The plan of work among negro girls is to have each one
grow one-tenth acre in vegetables, usually tomatoes. They are
also given instructions in canning and preserving and in
housekeeping. Their report forms, badges and emblems are
different from those used by the white canning club girls.
This organization for negro girls is known as the home makers
club.
Four hundred boys and girls were enrolled in the farm and
home makers clubs this year and reports were collected from
196.
Meetings and demonstrations were held for the purpose of
teaching the negro people the general methods and purposes of
the work. The results show that a good start has been made.
As the work grows, the boys will be instructed in raising
pigs and the girls in raising poultry, but until they become
familiar with the work as outlined, they will not take up new
lines.
Assistant agents have been appointed for the coming year
in each county where the farm and home makers clubs have
been organized. The work will continue to be organized
thru the negro schools, and a greater effort will be made
to have the teachers fully acquainted with the general plans
in order to secure their cooperation. The assistant agents are
teachers whose schools will close the first of March, 1917,
when they will assume their duties and continue during the
spring and summer, devoting all their time to the farm and
home makers clubs.
There is a great need for training of this kind among the
negro people. It will enable many of the boys to become
familiar with the better methods of producing farm crops.
It will teach the girls how to grow garden crops, raise poultry
and learn the fundamentals of household work.
Respectfully,
C. K. McQUARRIE,
State Agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH
FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent
for East and South Florida for the fiscal year ending June
30, 1916.
The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the district
of East and South Florida has been conducted in eighteen
counties during the past year. The work, with two exceptions,
has progressed, without serious interruption. The work in
Alachua county was without an agent from November 15, 1915,
until April 1, due to the agent's resignation, which seriously inter-
fered with the demonstration work in spring crops and in
the preparation for the season's planting. Consequently no
demonstrations in spring planted crops were possible and the
work was more or less unorganized. The Alachua county
agent again resigned November 1, leaving the work unfinished.
The accomplishments were only of a general nature, chiefly
the treatment of hogs with serum against cholera, and general
advisory work among farmers. A good part of the agent's
time was also taken up with plans for the Alachua county
fair, consequently many essentials were neglected.
In St. Lucie county the agent began work January 1 and
resigned after six months. This was the first year's work in
the county, therefore every phase of it was new. At the end
of this period the agent was just beginning to become estab-
lished and to get some demonstration work well in line. Leav-
ing the work at this period without an agent for three suc-
cessive months had a demoralizing effect that interfered se-
riously with the entire year's work. However, a new agent
was appointed October 1, who took up the work started by the
former agent and was able to make some progress even after
this interruption. In this county, the main agricultural in-
come was from the pineapple crop, where there are many new
people and a variety of agricultural problems.
In all the counties there has been steady progress from the
first, and at the close of the year an increased interest was
manifested when reappointments and appropriations for the'
coming year were necessary.
During the year, the district agent was able to make 105
official visits to the county agents in his district, spending
an average of one and three-fourths days at each visit. The






Annual Report, 1916


newer agents received more attention than did those of longer
experience in the work. It was possible to visit 237 farmers
accompanied by county agents. These farmers were repre-
sentatives of their communities and counties, and I was able
to see average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to
the county agent for his general work.
The enlargement of the work in each county and its intro-
duction into new counties has brought the agents face to face
with some definite problems that will require some time to
systematize from the demonstration standpoint.
CHARACTER OF THE WORK BY COUNTY AGENTS
The general diversification, particularly of staple crops, has
been urged by every county agent, also diversification of truck
and fruit crops wherever it is practicable. Most of the county
agents have been able to satisfy the demands of the farmers
and to meet the situation in a good way. Interest in staple
farm crops is not difficult to arouse among most of the pro-
gressive land owners, and business interests; but a large num-
ber of farmers, truckers and grove owners operate on such
a small scale and are so dependent on immediate returns from
their crops that their acreage is not sufficient to warrant the
equipment required to diversify farm crops or to undertake
livestock production to any appreciable extent. Many are
without means to clear land and buy the necessary improve-
ments and equipment to develop their farm operations even on
a reasonable scale. Where corn and forage crops are grown
by such farmers they must necessarily follow winter truck
crops and on a small acreage. These growers are urged to
follow winter crops with corn, sorghum, velvet beans, and
hay crops and some of the best yields in Florida have been
grown under such conditions. The agents' work has had
quite a marked effect on this and more farmers are planting
staple crops after winter truck than heretofore, and increased
acreages of corn are being grown in all of the doubtful corn
counties due largely to the county agents' influence.
The corn crop of this district shows a great increase. Farm-
ers are able to harvest twenty-five to forty bushels an acre on
lands that formerly produced fifteen bushels or less. This in-
crease is got largely thru better preparation of the soil and the
addition of vegetable matter to it, which has given a larger
average yield at a lower cost a bushel. Consequently good corn
is being produced at a profit on most of the demonstration plots.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents have been more successful in getting farm-
ers and truckers to plant velvet beans than any other legume
crop. The shorter season varieties, which are less subject to
the attacks of insects and which can be removed from the land
in time to prepare for winter crops, fit into the system of crop-
ping and can be grown at comparatively small expense with a
far greater degree of certainty. The importance of a summer
crop to follow a spring crop has become more generally recog-
nized by farmers who follow the advice of the county agents.
Cowpeas and beggarweed also are more extensively grown.
Oats proved quite unsatisfactory last year in nearly every
county, due largely to the continued drought during March and
April. Consequently, oats are considered doubtful both by
agents and farmers and are recommended only as a winter
cover crop or pasture crop.
Rotations in pasture crops for hogs proved satisfactory in
the work of most of the county agents. The increased interest
in hog raising has brought pasture crops more forcibly to the
attention of the farmers. Pasture crops are also planted for
cattle which assists materially in cutting down the feed bill for
dairy herds, or it provides quick pastures for young stock that
would otherwise be pastured on the range and become badly
infested with cattle ticks.
Ensilage crops, chiefly corn, Japanese cane and sorghum,
have increased in acreage and importance in proportion to the
other improvements and the number of silos in use.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN TRUCK AND VEGETABLE CROPS
Demonstration work in vegetable crops has been chiefly con-
fined to the control of insects and diseases. A new and import-
ant project was introduced into Seminole county, at the sug-
gestion of the entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station,
that promises much for that section. The presence of root-
knot in celery and lettuce beds has been a serious problem for
many years. In two cases where demonstration work was
carried out, the plant beds had become so thoroly infested
with nematodes that more than fifty percent of the plants
were either killed or weakened so as to make them useless, and
the remainder were so badly infested that their growth was
slow and many required resetting, thus making the cost of
planting very expensive and the probability of getting a profit-
able crop quite uncertain. The treatment recommended for
the control of this insect is sodium cyanamid, applied to the





Annual Report, 1916


soil before the seeds are planted. If this remedy continues to
prove as satisfactory as it has this past season, it will save the
growers many thousands of dollars annually. The county
agent is one of the most successful growers and realizes the im-
portance of this, consequently, he is able to undertake the work
in a systematic way and bring many growers to him for sug-
gestions along other lines.
Other demonstrations for the control of aphids in water-
melons, cucumbers, and eggplant; worms in tomatoes; bordeaux
spray for Irish potato blight; fungus diseases of tomatoes,
celery, and eggplant; and the proper rotation of crops to pre-
vent bacterial diseases of tomatoes and eggplant, were con-
ducted. In the vegetable growing areas of South Florida much
of the county agents' time was taken up with advising truck
growers on the best methods of planting, fertilizing, cultivating
and packing for market.
SUMMER CROPS TO FOLLOW WINTER VEGETABLES
Wherever practicable, county agents have urged the growing
of summer feed crops on the highly fertilized truck lands to
take up the waste of worthless crops. In the Sanford area the
county demonstration agent has been able to arouse interest in
the erection of silos, these to be filled with corn that follows
the winter truck crops. Heretofore, the production of corn on
these lands has not been considered very profitable altho it was
generally practiced. The need of stable fertilizer for that sec-
tion is quite apparent, consequently, the use of silage for fat-
tening steers would mean profit from the sale of cattle and the
additional profit from the stable manure. This stable manure
is generally sold at $6 or $7 a ton in that section.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CITRUS GROVES
In the citrus growing counties the agents are endeavoring to
improve the grade and quantity of fruit by systematic spraying
and pruning. Whitefly, scale and rust mites are the chief in-
sect pests; citrus scab, withertip, and melanose, the principal
fungus diseases.
When groves are placed under the supervision of the agent
a survey of the needs of the grove is made and definite plans
are outlined for a full season's spraying, to be modified accord-
ing to the variations caused by the weather or other influences.
to the variations caused by the weather or other influences.
Many groves are sprayed only once or twice a year to overcome






Florida Cooperative Extension


a single pest. The county agent is able to advise the best spray
and the best time to make the application. Foot-rot, gummosis,
etc., on trees are treated; budding, culture, and fertilization re-
ceive attention from the county agent.
Keeping tree records for the purpose of locating unprofitable
trees in the citrus groves was undertaken by the agent in
Osceola county. Two year records from one grove are avail-
able. Trees are numbered and the yield of every tree recorded.
LANDSCAPE WORK IN SCHOOLS
In Lake county the school board has sought the cooperation
of the county agent in laying out the school grounds with
concrete walks and planting shrubbery and trees to improve
the school property. This opens a useful field of service for
county agents who are qualified for such service.

DEMONSTRATION WORK IN PINEAPPLE CULTURE
Demonstration work in pineapple culture is confined to St.
Lucie county. During the last five years unsatisfactory yields,
due apparently to many causes, have been rapidly reducing the
pineapple acreage. After a survey of the situation, and con-
sultation with the best growers, the plant pathologist and en-
tomologist of the Experiment Station, the state, district and
county agents, mapped out a plan for the direction of the grow-
ers of pineapples. The county agent was advised to make the
following recommendations:
(a) The application of cyanamid to the soil before setting
the plants, to control root-knot.
(b) Modification in general planting and cultivation.
(c) Variation in the application of fertilizers.
(d) Turning under old vegetable plants to add organic mat-
ter to the soil before resetting the old fields.
(e) Selection of slips from healthy fields.
As it requires two seasons to produce a crop after planting,
it will be two years before definite results can be observed. If
by improved methods the pineapple soils of the East coast can
be brought back into profitable bearing it will re-establish the
pineapple industry that formerly provided the most important
money crop in St. Lucie county. Pineapple lands are usually
unsuited to general farming and trucking, or to citrus culture.
It is therefore very desirable that they should be brought back
to successful pineapple culture if possible.






Annual Report, 1916


FAIRS
The county and district agents have assisted in judging the
exhibits at county fairs. The agents of Duval, Clay, and
Alachua, had complete management of the fairs in their re-
spective counties; those of Lake and Osceola assumed complete
charge of the county exhibits at the Orlando and Tampa fairs.
This has added considerably to the ordinary duties of these
agents, nevertheless it has strengthened the agent in his work
and has stimulated interest and support from influential citizens.
Other county agents assisted in judging and in securing and
planning exhibits, and cooperated in every way that would stim-
ulate interest and promote agricultural development.

LIVESTOCK
There is a persistent demand on all agents to stimulate the
production of better livestock. The most effective work has
been in the distribution of purebred hogs thru the pig clubs,
control of hog cholera and parasites thru the use of serum and
sanitary methods of handling hogs; introduction of purebred
and grade breeding cattle; building of dipping vats, planting
pastures and food crops and the erection of silos.
FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM COUNTIES
The appropriations from the county sources have made sub-
stantial increase each year. For the coming year six counties
appropriated the same amount as for the previous year; eleven
increased their appropriations; one reduced the appropriation;
and six made appropriations for the first time. The total ap-
propriations from the county sources are $24,450; average to
the county for 1916-17, $1,014.66, against an average of $790
for 1915-16.
All of the supplementary funds, with two exceptions, have
been appropriated by county commissioners when part of the
expenses of the county agents have been borne by boards of
trade. In several counties the total of one-half mill (maximum
permitted by law) was appropriated by the county commis-
sioners for the agricultural development. The part that was
not used for county agents' work was used for building dipping
vats, providing scholarships for agricultural students, prizes
for club work or support of the home demonstration work,
practically all of which was due to the influence of the county
agent.
f.c.e.-3






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS
The county agents have made an effort to organize farmers'
clubs and cooperative organizations in almost every county.
Such organizations have been difficult to effect or to hold after
organization. Some have organized chiefly for cooperative mar-
keting of truck crops; these have been effective in securing
better prices by enabling truckers to ship collectively in carlots,
and reach a wider range of markets. Of these the most effective
has been the Lee county truckers' association, the agent being
one of the chief beneficiaries. Most of the truckers in Lee
county are trucking on a small acreage, growing early eggplant,
peppers and tomatoes and following them with winter Irish
potatoes. This association turns over its entire output to a
responsible commission firm on a commission basis who diverts
their products according to market demands. All shipments
are pooled. They are also enabled to purchase seed, insecticides,
fungicides, and part of their fertilizers, collectively, which not
only reduces the cost of materials, freight rates, etc., but se-
cures supplies well in advance of the time actually needed. This
organization has eighty percent of the truckers of the county
in its membership.
In Marion county an effort was made to establish a single
breed of hogs in the county. After a conference with the bank-
ers who loaned the money for the project, Hampshires were
selected, chiefly for the pig club boys. However, of the two
carloads of breeding stock purchased, about twenty were
bought by farmers.
Lake county has an organization known as the Lake county
chamber of commerce. It is organized for the general agricul-
tural development of the county, in which the agent takes an
active part. Thru the influence of the county board of trade,
the commissioners were induced to levy a half-mill to be used
for agricultural development and this money was turned over
to the board for expenditure. The plan submitted by this
board of trade is working toward tick eradication, encourage-
ment of dairies, erection of silos, distribution of purebred
breeding hogs, and the standardization and marketing of Natal
hay.
HOG CHOLERA
Hog cholera control still occupies an important part in all
the county agents' work. In the northern counties it takes
more time than any other single problem. The effects, how-





Annual Report, 1916


ever, from the past educational work are now quite appreciable
in that practically every hog raiser depends largely on the use
of hog cholera serum to prevent the spread of the disease. He
has also learned the importance of better sanitary methods so
that bad or negative results are seldom reported following the
use of serum. The losses of good hogs has been materially
reduced. The county agents are recognized as experts in hog
cholera control.
Virus has been used by many of the county agents with re-
markably good results. Explicit instructions given to the
county agents have been carefully followed and every precau-
tion taken to avoid errors.
When the free serum supply was exhausted it seemed prob-
able that the call on the agents to vaccinate would diminish but
on the contrary there has been no appreciable change in the
demand for their services in hog cholera control.

DIPPING VATS
Considerable progress has been made in the construction of
dipping vats in the entire district, but as the general super-
vision of all tick eradication work is directed from the Bureau
of Animal Industry, the agents have not attempted systematic
tick eradication. Thru their influence, however, dipping vats
have been built in nearly every county. The agents are called
upon to pick out a location for the vat and supervise its con-
struction, secure materials for making the dip, and fill the vat
for the first time to see that it is properly done.
Respectfully,
A. P. SPENCER,
District Agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND
WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for
North and West Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916.
The severe tropical storm beginning July 5 and followed by a
period of excessive rainfall was very destructive to all crops in
West Florida. Agricultural interests were demoralized and at
that time the outlook for results in the year's work in those
counties was far from encouraging. However, all agencies
united to overcome the damage as far as possible. Seed fur-
nished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture was distributed
thru this territory by county agents. Farmers were urged to
use this and any other seed obtainable to replant the drowned
out lands. These late planted crops, consisting mostly of for-
age crops, helped very materially toward making up for the
shortage of those damaged by the storm. Demonstration plots
in most crops were badly cut up and many were abandoned.
COTTON
The cotton crop suffered from the wet weather conditions
and conditions that followed' probably more than any other
crop with which demonstrations were being conducted. The
rainfall was heaviest thru that portion of the district west of
the Apalachicola River. This was also the territory having the
heaviest infestation of boll weevils, the river being the eastern
boundary of the area having had the weevil two years or more.
Until the early part of July the outlook for the cotton. crop in
this territory was good. The farmers as a rule had learned
the methods necessary to make cotton in spite of the weevil and
were putting these methods into practice. The excessive and
continued rainfall caused the almost total shedding of squares
and bolls on the plants at the time. This wet weather, which
was so unfavorable for cotton, furnished almost ideal condi-
tions for the multiplication of boll weevils, so that when
weather conditions again became favorable and the cotton
plants began to put on new fruit, the weevils were present in
large enough numbers to puncture nearly all the squares set.
VELVET BEANS
The velvet bean has, for a number of years, been recognized
as a valuable crop for Florida, both as a soil builder and as a
forage crop. Within the .last few years the bean as a grain
feed has been coming more and more into prominence.






Annual Report, 1916


In a number of towns in West Florida feed mills have been
installed for the purpose of making mixed feed of velvet beans,
corn, and other products. Mixtures of equal parts by weight
of velvet beans in the pod and corn in the shuck ground to-
gether make an excellent feed for horses and cattle. This is
being sold to the trade from the mills, which indicates the be-
ginning of an important industry to take the place of cotton
growing. Large quantities of beans are fed whole, on farms
or in feed lots, in the pods either dry or after soaking for a
half day, and there is an increasing demand for such feed.
Thus, the bean is coming to be a staple article and farmers
bringing wagon loads to town find a ready market on the street.
County agents have done effective work both in getting an
increased acreage of velvet beans grown and in getting a
better utilization of the crop. Farmers are shown that they
get much better returns from their beans and vines and avoid
the usual waste when their large fields are divided by cross
fences so that the livestock are required to clean up one portion
of the field before being turned into another. Thru coopera-
tion with the Experiment Station a number of new promising
varieties are being distributed.
LIVESTOCK
Quite a large part of the activities of all county agents has
to do with fostering the production of more and better livestock.
The need of such work is very evident. Three factors are
materially aiding the agent in this work. These are: The
continued spread of the boll weevil; the ready sale for hogs
and cattle, due largely to the establishment of nearby packing-
plants; and the good prices being obtained for all classes of
livestock.
The work of the agents for the improvement in livestock pro-
duction includes the introduction of better blood by the use of
purebred males, the production of larger supplies of feed, and
the control of diseases.
HOGS
The demonstration work with pig clubs is aiding in the im-
provement of hogs. Agents have arranged for parties of
farmers to visit packing-houses where the different classes and
grades of hogs are being marketed. As this method of market-
ing is new to most farmers these visits are helpful; they em-
phasize the importance of good stock and proper feeding to
meet market demands. Due to the agents' influence, several
groups of farmers have sold their hogs cooperatively, enabling






Florida Cooperative Extension


those having less than a car-lot to load together and obtain a
carload of marketable hogs on the same day, and the county
agent arranges for buyers to purchase them at tMie shipping
point.
HOG CHOLERA
All agents give a good part of their time to the control of
hog cholera. Thru the assistance of the hog cholera specialist
they have full instructions and information on diagnosis of the
disease, and the use of serum and virus has consequently added
materially to the value of the herds in the district by preventing
or controlling hog cholera outbreaks. Farmers are instructed
in the use of the serum and are shown the advantage of equip-
ping themselves with outfits for administering it. The agent,
frequently having other engagements, is prevented from getting
to an outbreak as quickly as may be necessary to avoid the loss
of a good part of the herd, whereas, if the farmer has the outfit
he can administer the treatment promptly and avoid unneces-
sary losses.
DIPPING VATS
Demonstration agents are working with other forces in the
educational campaign leading to the eradication of the cattle
tick. This work has consisted in pointing out and explaining
the loss caused by the tick, also in giving aid in the construction
of dipping vats. Most of the dipping vats constructed under
agents' supervision this year are community vats. By means
of such vats some of the most effective tick eradication educa-
tional work is accomplished. The cattle owners in a community,
or within a radius of a few miles, join in constructing a central
vat, each one contributing either money or labor. Such citizens
thus feel that the vat belongs to them, they use it freely and
take pride in telling others of the merits of dipping cattle. The
sentiment thus created is much more wholesome than that which
sometimes follows the installation of a county or public vat
before the necessary educational work has been done. In the
latter case, the cattle owners sometimes resent the seemingly
outside interference into personal matters.
I have traveled 18,243 miles by rail and 2,890 miles by auto-
mobile, making a total number of'miles traveled 21,133. I have
attended 69 meetings, with a total attendance of 4,497. I have
paid 95 visits to agents and 112 visits to farmers.
Respectfully,
E. S. PACE,
District Agent.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural
club agent for the year ending December 31, 1916.
The boys' corn club work extended into 41 counties with a
total membership of 1,191. Reports were, collected from 450
boys and the average yield to the acre was 42.1 bushels. The
corn was produced at a cost of 38 cents a bushel, or $15.99 an
acre. Rating it at 90 cents a bushel, the average net profit an
acre was $21.90. The total net profit from the 450 acres was
$9,850.00.
Several demonstrations created much interest in the commu-
nities where they were conducted. The highest yield was 119.6
bushels, produced at a cost of 26 cents a bushel. This was on
a fine sandy loam soil in Nassau county. The land was well
prepared, good seed corn was used and intelligent methods of
fertilizing and cultivating practiced.
The second best yield was 115 bushels, produced in Marion
county. This was on a muck soil, and naturally very, produc-
tive. No fertilizer was used, and the corn cost only 13 cents a
bushel.
A third best yield of 100.6 bushels was obtained in Hernando
county. This corn cost 31 cents a bushel. The land was a


Fig. 8.-Twelve boys at the short course who made more than
75 bushels of corn an acre.






40 Florida Cooperative Extension

dark sandy loam. The work on these three acres is mentioned
because yields of 100 bushels are seldom produced.
The following table gives details of the corn club work in
counties from which reports were obtained:

SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK




COUNTY "
a): Oi MW 3Incu 5 5



Hillsboro .................... 40 43.33 $0.31 97.50 $0.15
Hernando ................... 37 50.00 .33 100.60 .31
Madison ...................... 34 42.20 .28 96.85 .17
Nassau ........................ 30 50.84 .33 119.60 .26
Marion ........................ 28 34.07 .37 115.00 .13
Polk .............................. 25 48.08 .32 82.00 .13
Washington ................ 20 43.43 .43 87.30 .45
Suwannee .................... 18 27.03 .65 52.04 .52
Taylor ........................ 16 32.90 .35 85.00 .14
Citrus .......................... 16 39.73 .44 75.49 .27
Sumter ........................ 15 54.83 .34 94.50 .24
Liberty ........................ 15 42.42 .36 57.35 .26
Putnam ........................ 14 39.30 .32 77.14 .16
St. Johns .................... 12 43.90 .34 71.00 .27
Clay .............................. 12 42.81 .37 71.00 .20
Escambia .................... 12 28.87 .52 72.85 .17
Duval .......................... 11 46.84 .52 88.00 .33
Leon ............................ 11 37.05 .32 63.25 .16
Holmes ........................ 11 30.20 .46 55.20 .27
Hamilton .................... 8 50.43 .43 72.00 .38
W alton ......-................. 8 45.30 .44 85.00 .35
W akulla ...................... 8 24.00 .49 36.00 .37
Jefferson ...................... 7 50.89 .36 81.00 .41
Calhoun ...................... 5 42.12 .27 76.10 .16
Pasco .......................... 5 35.94 .40 58.00 .26
DeSoto ........................ 5 32.50 .43 41.80 .42
Osceola ........................ 5 29.47 .59 40.00 .73
Volusia ........................ 4 51.80 .39 79.50 .27
Baker .......................... 4 45.64 .35 52.75 .33
Lake ............................ 4 40.04 .46 84.84 .23
Bradford .................... 2 65.17 .23 80.35 .16
Jackson ........................ 2 45.11 .34 46.22 .38
Columbia ...........-...... 2 31.85 .30 45.70 .21
Orange ........................ 1 42.07 .67 42.97 .67
Brevard ...................... 1 31.00 .75 31.00 .75

The club members realize the value of good seed corn, and 52
percent of the reports indicate that improved varieties were
used. The exhibits at the county contests and fairs show that
much progress has been made in selecting better corn for plant-
ing and for show purposes. Some have selected seed in the
field and -sold it for good prices.






Annual Report, 1916


Fig. 9.-Prize-winning exhibit in Marion county corn club contest.
We advise the planting of cowpeas or some other legume with
the corn for the purpose of building up the soil and furnishing
feed for livestock. More boys followed the instructions than
ever before. Valuable demonstrations in fall breaking and
planting winter cover crops have been conducted by club mem-
bers.
A few boys had adopted a two-year system of crop rotation.
While one acre was in corn this year another acre was being
prepared for a better crop of corn next year. Velvet beans
and cowpeas were grown and turned under in the fall. Oats or
rye was then sowed and used for winter pastures. In the
following spring when the winter crop is turned under the land
will be in ideal condition for a good crop of corn. The good
results of the club work are due to these painstaking efforts of
some of our most intelligent farmer boys.
THE PIG CLUB WORK
The plan of the boys' club work is to broaden and instruct
boys along all lines of farming activities. The pig clubs were
taken up as a new feature this year. Three hundred and thirty-
six boys have raised pigs. The general plan is for club mem-
bers to purchase purebred pigs about three months old and
care for them according to the rules of the club and under the
personal instruction of the county agents. The results of the
first year's work are even better than we had expected.
One hundred and two pigs were exhibited at county contests
and fairs and accurate reports were secured. They made an
average daily gain of three quarters of a pound, costing 4.7
cents a pound. This does not include the cost of labor. It was
not advisable in some counties to have the pigs exhibited, owing
to the danger from cholera and injury in transit.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 10.-Crop rotation. Velvet beans and cowpeas in foreground. Corn
club acre in background. Nassau county.

The pig club work in Suwannee county was quite successful.
Thirteen Poland Chinas made an average gain of 1.04 pounds
a day, at a cost of four and one-third cents a pound. Ten
Durocs made an average daily gain of 1.24 pounds and the
cost of production was four and one-third cents a pound. The
pigs were purchased when about three months old and had been
cared for five months when the records were compiled.
In Marion county 23 boys purchased bred gilts at a cost of
$40 each. These gilts farrowed an average of six pigs, and
all could have been sold at weaning time. If they had all been
sold at the average price paid for those that were sold, the net
profit over the cost of the sow and all other expenses would
have been $21.30 for each boy.
Hillsboro and Hernando were among the leading counties in
the pig club work. Other successful counties were Duval, Es-
cambia and Broward. The following table gives details of the
work in counties from which reports were obtained:

SOME PIG CLUB RESULTS


0 "a
Z I aS Cs
a U E-

Number of Pigs................ 30 9 2 23 8 24 6 102
Average daily gains, lbs. .66 .57 .58 1.24 .65 .65 .70 1 .75
Average cost per lb., cts. 4.1 8.6 6 4.3 4 4.5 5.1 4.7






Annual Report, 1916


It was not an easy matter to find pigs enough in the State to
supply the demand. The number of pigs of the different breeds
used are as follows: Durocs 182, Poland Chinas 38, Berkshires
35, Hampshires 33, Yorkshires 3, Tamworths 3, and grade
Berkshires 42.
The county agents have given very careful attention to the
pig club work. They assist the boys in making up balanced
rations, and require them to provide pastures or green feeds.
The pigs are kept free from lice and precautions are taken to
avoid the spread of contagious diseases.
We are fortunate in having the cooperation of the bankers
thruout the State. Any boy who complies with the rules can
borrow money from his local banker for a year and a half at
six percent interest and purchase a well-bred pig. This gives
time to carry it to maturity, raise a litter of pigs and sell
enough to pay the note by the time it is due. This plan affords
opportunities for many boys to join the pig club who would be
unable to do so otherwise. The following form is used as a
contract between the banker and club member:

,COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK
in
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
State of Florida
AGREEMENT BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE PIG CLUB
AND.................................................................TRUSTEE.
-........................ ............. ......191.........
This is to certify that................................. ..has joined the
Pig Club in.....................................County, and has agreed to follow the
advice and instructions of the County Demonstration Agent with respect to
the care of one pig which has been purchased by..................... ............... .....as
Trustee for certain banks in.................................... ..................
If the club member fails to follow the instructions of the County Dem-
onstration Agent or neglects the pig in any way that will impair proper
growth and development, the County Agent may take the pig and dispose
of it in the best way to refund the banks.
In consideration of the confidence placed in me, I agree to pay............
................................. ..................Trustee, within 18 months from date
$................. ...... with interest at............% from date.
(Signature of club member)
This agreement, when properly signed by any club member selected by
the County Demonstration Agent, becomes an order for the amount named
therein.
............................................. ........Trustee.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
One hundred and thirty-three boys' club meetings were held,
with a total estimated attendance of 9,191. This includes school






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 11.-Marion county Hampshires.
visits. In some counties regular monthly meetings were held
during the spring and summer in which the boys took an
active part. They presented papers on their work and other
subjects of interest to farmer boys.

COUNTY CONTESTS
The county contests were held in the fall. The corn club
work was judged according to the following scale: Yield 30%,
profit 30%, exhibit 20%, essay and record 20%. The rules
require that two disinterested parties measure the land and corn
and sign the boy's report. The pig club work was judged as
follows: Best pig 40%, lowest cost of production 25%, daily
gains 15%, record and essay 20%. The records were examined
and attested by two disinterested parties. By following these
rules every boy is protected and the results are accurate.
It is a custom to award prizes to the boys who make a suc-
cess of their work. The State Bankers' Association -gave as a
prize a $200 scholarship to the University. The Florida Fed-
eration of Women's Clubs gave $50 for the highest percentage
made in the corn club. The Florida East Coast Railroad gave
16 scholarships to the boys' short course in agriculture. Man-
dalay Farm, Middleburg, gave 28 purebred Duroc-Jersey pigs
in as many counties. Other valuable prizes in every county
were contributed by business men, railroads and county com-
missioners. The best prizes are scholarships, livestock, mer-
chandise, and implements.
BOYS' SHORT COURSE
Corn club boys have been attending the farmers' short course
in agriculture at the University heretofore, but the increased
attendance this year made it necessary to provide a separate






Annual Report, 1916


course for them. The boys' short course in agriculture was
held for one week in December when 73 successful and enthus-
iastic club members came from 31 counties. Lectures were
given every morning, and the afternoons were spent in the
laboratories of the Agricultural College and Experiment Sta-
tion studying and judging livestock. The entire meeting was
interesting and full of life. The Gainesville bankers gave the
boys a banquet the last night, and every one was given a
diploma, or certificate of honor and merit. The state prizes
were also presented at that time.
The boys' club agent made 122 visits to county agents and
gave much time to counties that have no agents. Three hun-
dred and eighty-three farms were visited. The distance trav-
eled by rail was 16,765 miles, by automobile and team 2,884
miles.
miles. Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.


Fig. 12.-Boys who attended the short course in agriculture at the University.






Florida Cooperative Extension


MAPo FLORIDA
M indicates counties
having Cooperative
Home Demonstration
Work during the fiscal
year ending June30,1916.


Fig. 13.-Map of Florida showing counties employing home demonstration agents.
Total Square Miles in Florida................. ......... .......... 54,861
Total Square Miles in 32 Counties that have Home Demonstration
Work during the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917.............. 40,522
State of Florida Distance, North and South ............................. 402
State of Florida Distance, East and West................................. 383
Canning Clubs for Girls........................................ 422
Home Demonstration Clubs for Women..................... ....................... 104
Poultry and Special Clubs for Women and Girls.......................... 85






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the State agent for
Home Demonstration Work for the fiscal year ending Decem-
ber 31, 1916.
During the year there were twenty-eight county home dem-
onstration agents at work, and the following is a summary of
their reports:
County Agents employed...................................... ............. '28
M iles traveled by rail.......................... ..................................... 34,128
Miles traveled by auto or team................. ....................... 61,330
Total m iles traveled.................................... ........ ........................ 95,458
Visits to club members...... .............................. ...... 7,043
Schools and plots visited....................................................... ..................... 2,539
Visits to homes..... .... ............. ......... ...... ....... .......... 6,496
Letters written ............... .................... 19,651
Bulletins distributed ........... ................ ........ ..... ...... .... 20,325
Meetings held --... ............................... ............ 2,104
Number attending meetings...................................... 49,484
Fireless cookers made................. ................... .111
Iceless refrigerators m ade................... ....... .......................................... 275
Houses screened .............................. ........................ 79
Fly traps made.................. ......................... ..................... ..... 32
Canners purchased..................................... ................ 274
W after works systems installed................. ................ ................ 16
Days worked ...................-..... ...... ................ 5,046
Demonstrations given (food, 488; canning, 758; preserving, 406).... 1,652
STAFF CHANGES
The following changes in the home demonstration staff were
made at the end of the fiscal year:
The girls' club organizer resigned because of ill health. The
extension field instructor resigned to work nearer home. Five
county agents gave up their work to marry; two were promoted
to district agent positions; one resigned to accept another po-
sition; one to take a year of study; one because the county
board failed to make the necessary appropriation; one because
of poor health; and two because they were unprepared for the
work, leaving only sixteen county agents to continue work an-
other year.
ORGANIZATION FOR THE YEAR
Due to the state elections, June 6, no definite appropriation
could be secured from counties until after that date. Between
June 6 and 24, the assistant state agent visited the county
boards of public instruction of 19 counties with which there had
been correspondence concerning the work.
As a result of. this trip, and the work done previously in the
counties, appropriations for the salaries of home demonstration






Florida Cooperative Extension


agents were made in 32
counties by July 1. This
was followed by visits
from the newly ap-
pointed district agents,
who made the appro-
priations definite, and
secured support from
one additional county
to conduct the work
without state aid. These
appropriations amount-
ed to$16,075.50. Thirty-
two county agents were
employed ;4 began work
in August; 16 on Sep-
tember 1; 7 on October
1; and 5 on January 1.
All will continue to
work thru June 30. The
average term of em-
Fig. 14.--Winter garden, January. Walton county. ployment f o r Florida
h o m e demonstration
agents is nine and two-fifths months, with an average salary of
$100 per month.
Because of the increased term of employment, well-trained
women were willing to take up this work. Seventeen are grad-
uates of college or normal schools; 9 have taken short courses
in home economics, and 7 have life or state teachers' certifi-
cates. All are well prepared for county work. Twenty of
these agents own and run their automobiles, two others are
supplied by the county board of public instruction in each
county.
It has been our constant endeavor to employ as county agents
brave, strong women who believe in home demonstration work,
who have initiative, and possess unusual ability as leaders and
organizers of rural people. Since the county agent work re-
quires traveling long distances over sandy country roads, fre-
quently during bad weather, it is the belief of those in charge
that the Florida county agents have unusual strength and have
'been most self-sacrificing in their interest and enthusiasm to
'accomplish results.






Annual Report, 1916


SUPERVISING STAFF
Beginning July 1, the position of girls' club organizer and
extension field instructor were discontinued. Two district
agents and one agent for poultry clubs were employed.
The district agents have the supervision of the work in
counties; one supervising the work of seventeen county agents
in North and West Florida, the other in charge of the sixteen
county agents in East and South Florida. The agent for poultry
clubs works thruout the state with the women and girls of the
canning clubs and home demonstration clubs. This new line of
work has come about thru a demand on county agents for as-
sistance in poultry work.
GIRLS' CLUB WORK
The girls' club work, begun in 1912, has had a substantial
growth and continues to demand much of the county agents'
time. The general plan of the work is carried out.
1. Organization of girls of the counties thru the schools,
into canning clubs.
2. Instructing the girls in the following work:
A. Selecting and planting a one-tenth acre garden to
vegetables; tomatoes for first year girls; tomatoes and
beans for second year girls; and varied crops for third
and fourth year girls.
B. Keeping a record and costs of all work done.
C. Canning, preserving and pickling surplus vegetables.
D. Entering the contest with exhibit of products, essay
of the work, record book kept thru the year, and wearing
a uniform dress, cap and apron made by the club girl.


Fig. 15.-First prize winner (center), on her strawberry
plot. Osceola county.


f.c.e.-4






50 Florida Cooperative Extension

The county agent plans the final contests, solicits premiums,
receives and awards the prizes which are voluntarily offered,
and arranges a suitable program.

FALL CONTESTS
Of the twenty-eight counties organized, well-attended contests
were held in twenty-six of them. The girls are putting up bet-
ter products and are using better containers. The exhibits
showed marked improvements over those of previous years.
Greater interest is inspired in the work, not only in the club
girls, but in all of those who attend the contests.
SUMMARY
Number Counties organized ...... ............................................................. 28
Number girls enrolled .............................. ................ 1,736
Number girls reporting................ .................................. 742
Pounds tomatoes produced on 1/10 acre gardens..............-............. 442,685
Pounds other vegetables produced on 1/10 acre gardens............... 71,248
Number cans tomatoes put up by club girls from 1/10 acre-......... 60,514
Number cans other vegetables put up by club girls from 1/10 acre 11,685
Total value club gardens............--.. .... ................$15,628.80
Expense of producing gardens.................................... ...... $ 5,932.05
Total profit from 1/10 acre gardens................................ ..........$ 9,522.88
Average profit from 1/10 acre gardens..........................................$ 14.22
Total cans vegetables and fruits put up by girls and women........ 178,954
THE HIGHEST TEN YIELDS IN POUNDS
Faith Robinson...-...... .....St. Johns County.......... ................ 5,072
Bessie Brackin....-.............Walton County........- ............. ... 4,103
Bertha Moore...................Bradford County....................................... 3,964
Cora Landrum .... ....... ....Citrus County...................:... .............. 3,928
Margaret Bell................Hernando County ................................- 3,895
Jewell Standley.....................Alachua County......................... 3,825
Junia Rodgers.........................DeSoto County.......................... 3,739
Emma Vandergrift.................St. Johns County.................................. 3,675
Ollie Long........................Jackson County............................. 3,484
Winifred Cannon..................Putnam County ................................ 3,329
Average yield ....................................... ..... .......... .. ... 3,901.4
THE HIGHEST TEN PROFITS
Emma Vandergrift..................St. Johns County................. ...............$151.16
Lillian Thompson..................Santa Rosa County-........................... ... 138.55
Bessie Brackin.........................W alton County............ ... ................ ... 115.20
Junia Rodgers.......................... DeSoto County...................................... 110.50
Margaret Bell..........-...Hernando County ............................... 94.22
Bertha Moore...................Bradford County............................... 90.52
Cora Landrum...... ....................Citrus County.............................................. 83.10
Jewell Standley .................. Alachua County............................... .... 77.90
Abbie Howell........................ W alton County......... ..... .................. 75.22
Ruby Lanz..-........................ Brevard County........................................ 68.62
Average' profit...... ..................................... .. ............................$100.50
THE HIGHEST TWO RECORDS
Cora Landrum, of Citrus county, won the state -prize of
$115, offered by the Bankers' Association to the girl who had
been in the club more than one year, and made the highest
record.






Annual Report, 1916


Fig. 16.-Family canning at home. Columbia county.

Margaret Bell, of Hernando county, won the $50 prize of-
fered by the State Federation of Women's Clubs to the first
year club girl who made the highest record. Their records
follow:
HIGHEST TWO RECORDS IN DETAIL
Cora Margaret
Landrum Bell
Number pounds tomatoes produced............................ 2860 3895
Value of other vegetables................................. $ 50.00
No. 2 cans tomatoes................... ............ 391 735
No. 3 cans tomatoes......................... .. ......... ...... .... 148....
Number jars and bottles of preserves, vegetables and
fruits ........... ........ .......................... 48 132
Cost of production.................... ..... .. ..................... 9.35 $ 8.94
Cost of canning, including cans, jars, etc......................... 21.14 39.22
Receipts from fresh vegetables.................................. 41.79 11.90
Estimated value canned vegetables................................ 57.43 59.29
Estimated value vegetables used at home................... 7.51 34.76
Total value all products................. .............. ... 106.73 126.41
Expenses ............................. ..... .................. 30.49 48.17
N et profit........... ........................ ................... 78.23 78.24
HOME CANNING
That the canning work begun by the county agents in 1912
has been of great value to the state was plainly shown this
year. There are now 2,000 or more home canners in use, and
county agents report that the consumption of home-caiih ed
-






Florida Cooperative Extension


products in farm homes has been greatly increased and they
now form an important part of the diet.
One of our 1912 club girls who stayed in the work for three
years, supervised the construction and management of a can-
ning factory in Manatee county, where canning was success-
fully done.
The Manatee county agent reports that more than 36,000
cans were filled by her club girls and their families. One firm
in Hillsboro county sold 200,000 containers and estimates that
60,000 of these were sold to farmers in that county.
The local demand for these home-canned products is greater
than the supply, each girl disposing of her surplus readily;
consequently no definite work toward marketing has been nec-
essary.
PRESERVING
The making of fancy preserves and jellies for home use only
has been carried on by many of the club girls. In a number
of counties, county agents are giving very definite help by
assisting factories in the manufacture of preserves and jellies
from Florida products, and a number of women working under
the supervision of the county agents are selling fancy products
made from Florida fruits.


Fig. 17.-Suggested equipment for farm kitchen. Escambia county fair.







Annual Report, 1916


WOMEN'S WORK
The organization of home demonstration clubs for the
women was undertaken by the county agents in January.
Four communities were selected in each county where the
agent organized the women into home demonstration clubs to
receive instruction in poultry raising, the making of household
conveniences, the study of nutrition and home improvements.
As a result of this work, many clubs were organized among
women, and meetings were held regularly thruout the year.
At the agents' meeting in Gainesville in October, a suggested
form of constitution and by-laws was adopted for Florida, also
a minute book in which the records of attendance, minutes,
etc., can be kept.
The following list of subjects were suggested for study by
the clubs:
1. Organization 9. Poultry
2. Nutrition 10. Home Dressmaking
3. Breads 11. Canning and Pickling.
4. Care of Infants 12. Laundry: Cleaning of Clothing
5. Household Sanitation and Household Linen
6. Household Equipment 13. Preserves, Jellies and Marma-
7. Home Gardening lades
8. Butter Making 14. Home Work and Play
State and United States bulletins were furnished by the
state office for further study by club members.
There are now 104 home demonstration clubs holding reg-
ular monthly meetings, under the direction of the county
agents. The following history of one club indicates the kind
of work being done:
"HISTORY OF THE 5-H CLUB OF HOMESTEAD, FLORIDA
"In Homestead, as well as in all other fruit packing and shipping
centers (every year during the packing season from November to May),
load after load of fruit, especially tomatoes, are hauled off and thrown
away. It required only a second visit to the packing house, where I found
so much beautiful, fine fruit culled out, to impress upon me that so great
a loss could easily be converted into a big gain to the community.
So it was that we met, seven in number, at the Homestead school
house Saturday afternoon, March 11, 1916, to can tomatoes and to organize
a permanent Home Economics Club.
"At first a Treasurer was not thought necessary, since there were to be
no dues, but with the canning finances, one became necessary, so at the
next meeting, a treasurer was elected.
Upon suggestion from our county agent, membership was limited to
fifteen, simply for lack of more space in the high school domestic science
room, to which the trustees gave us the key every second Saturday after-
noon of each month.
"At the second meeting in April, the list of members was complete, and
eight new names enrolled. The name adopted was 5-H Club, correspond-
ing to the 4-H club for girls, with an extra H to represent the home.
This name naturally aroused some curiosity, and with an enthusiastic
membership, the county agent to help and direct us, it was not long until







Florida Cooperative Extension


we had won for ourselves the reputation of doing something worth while.
We canned 1,250 cans of tomatoes. The tomatoes were culls from the
packing houses. The cost to the members was 2% cents a can for No. 2
cans, plus .0078 cents a can for material. Now the same can is selling
here for 15 cents a can.
"Canning, however, is only a part of the club work. At the beginning,
the county agent presented a twelve-months' course of study, which was
adopted, and each lesson has been exceedingly helpful and enjoyable, al-
ways with some practical demonstration.
The club members have openly and on various occasions expressed
their interest in the work, and have cooperated with fine spirit to make the
club a success. As a result, we have had good papers and talks on the
lessons. The only non-members invited to take part in the programs, were
Mr. C. M. Fisher, who gave a drawing and explained the home water
works system under home sanitation; and Mr. J. B. Tower, who gave
valuable information on disinfectants and bandaging in the personal
hygiene lesson.
Growth being inevitable, the 5-H club went to work in September
with a committee on membership to expand. It was not hard to get the
full membership for a new circle which was organized in October by Mrs.
Fisher, acting for the county agent. Now both circles have applicants on
the waiting list, and it seems very probable that a third circle can be
organized with the new year.
The full membership of the club is kept up by electing new members
to fill vacancies. Recently, several members from the two circles have
accepted heartily the idea proposed by the county agent, of taking part in
the county fair, held at Miami in February of 1917. There are so many
special products to work with that we hope to help make the best exhibit
that the county agent has ever had.
The 5-H Club of Homestead is glad indeed, that the opportunity of
the home demonstration work is extended to the women-the home keepers.
We feel that these clubs will have a more direct influence for good upon
the home life, than any other modern organization. We are, therefore,
eager to see the work pushed forward and finally, to be a part of the
Home Demonstration Association of Florida.-MRs. CHAS. M. FISHER,
President Homestead 5-H Club."
COUNTY SHORT COURSES
There is no feature of the work standing out as giving bet-
ter results than the county short courses. These correspond to


Fig. 18.-Canning club girls of Orange county attending a
three-day short course.







Annual Report, 1916


the home economics
movable school, so gen-
erally carried on in the
North and West. Of the
28 county agents at
work, 15 held county
short courses with a
total attendance of 391;
7 were held in the
spring at the county-
seats and 8 were held
in the fall just preced-
S ing the fall contests.
In planning these
short courses, the county
agent secured the coop-
eration of school boards,
club, and church society
women of the towns, of
Fig. 19.-Rural school supervisor, and state prize the chambers of com-
winner on her plot in June. Citrus county. merce and boards of
trade. The necessaryex-
penses, which are not great, are usually paid by the county
boards of education. The women entertain the girls in their
homes, and the men furnish some special entertainment feature.
The instructors for these short courses are the county agent,
state and district agents, the state poultry club agent, a dis-
trict nurse from the State Board of Health, various members
of the high school faculty, and frequently a local deritist or
doctor. Laboratory work, talks, and lectures on food prepara-
tion, table manners, methods of caring for the sick, the infants
and old people, and personal hygiene, constitute the program.
The enthusiasm for the short course renews interest in club
work and proves an inspiration to work for better results.

STATE SHORT COURSE
The Florida State College for Women offered its fifth short
course for prize-winning canning club girls. The district
agents had charge of this course. Thirty-nine girls from 27
counties attended. The expenses of travel and expenses while
in Tallahassee were paid from appropriations by banks, wom-
en's clubs, county boards of education, county commissioners,






Florida Cooperative Extension


and fair associations. The total value of these scholarships is
estimated at $845.
Owing to a full attendance at the Florida State College there
was no space available in the dormitories for the short course
students. The recreation hall was fitted up with nineteen
double beds and furniture necessary for the comfort and hap-
piness of the girls, providing attractive and comfortable quar-
ters. The girls occupied them in good spirit. Not a single
case of illness developed and every girl attended classes reg-
ularly, making an exceptionally good record.
The girls attending the short course were sufficiently mature
to get the best from the instruction offered, being from 15 to
18 years old. The instruction consisted of laboratory work,
cooking and sewing in the forenoon, manual training, poultry
raising and one other lecture every afternoon. Miss Layton,
the district agent, gave two two-hour lessons in food prepara-
tion at the close of the course; the students served a dinner
to the wife of the Governor of Florida, the president of the
College and his wife, accompanied by other distinguished
guests.
Ten lessons were given in manual training and the girls
made appropriate picture frames for selected pictures. Fol-
lowing two two-hour lessons in sewing, a canning club apron


Fig. 20.-Fall contest exhibit. Hillsborough county.






Annual Report, 1916 57

was cut and made. Six lessons in home nursing were given
by Miss Sherman, district nurse from South Florida.
The short course girls were entertained by the college girls.
The ladies of Tallahassee tendered them an automobile ride,
and on another occasion visited interesting places around Tal-
lahassee.
On the last night of the short course, the girls were formally
presented with diplomas" as a recognition of faithful study
during the two-weeks' course.

STATE MEETING
The annual meeting of county and state agents was held at
the Florida State College for Women during February, for in-
struction and conferences. This provided an opportunity for
the county agents to come in touch with the state and Federal
leaders who assisted in formulating plans for future work.
The instructors and lecturers were:
U. S. Department of Agriculture:
States Relations Service:
Bradford Knapp, Chief, Demonstration Work in the South.
O. B. Martin, in charge Girls' and Women's Work.
Mary E. Creswell, Assistant in Girls' and Women's Work.
Ola Powell, Assistant in Girls' and Women's Work.
Bureau of Chemistry:
Dr. M. N. Straughn.
Bureau of Animal Industry:
J. H. McLain, Specialist in Dairy Division.
D. J. Taylor, in charge Poultry Club Work, Georgia.
Bureau of Markets:
Lewis B. Flohr.
University of Florida:
College of Agriculture:
P. H. Rolfs, Dean and Director.
W. L. Floyd, Vice-Dean.
J. R. Watson, Entomologist, Experiment Station.
C. K. McQuarrie, State Agent.
A. P. Spencer, District Agent.
During. the same period the department of home economics
held a two-weeks' short course for the women with an attend-
ance of forty-five. Farm demonstration agents from Leon
and the adjoining counties visited the home demonstration
agents' meeting.
Twelve newly appointed agents were assembled at the Uni-
versity of Florida to attend the annual meeting of the county
cooperative demonstration agents, October 2 to 9. This was
especially beneficial in obtaining instruction in agricultural
problems and it also gave them an opportunity to gain an
insight into the demonstration work of the state.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL PRODUCTS WORK
Following the state meeting in February, a specialist from
the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. D. A., was assigned to the
home economics division for one week to continue experiments
in citrus marmalades and jellies, and the crystallization of
kumquats, grapefruit peel and other fruits. Three of the coun-
ty agents remained to assist and to receive special instruction.
This work was continued during September by this specialist,
assisted by the district agents, who conducted experiments
with guava jelly and guava paste. Very definite instructions
for the production of these two products were formulated.

POULTRY CLUB WORK
The work in poultry clubs among the women. and girls has
been undertaken in seven counties, namely, St. Johns, Es-
cambia, Duval, Hillsboro, Polk, DeSoto, and Leon. For the
first six months in which this work has been conducted, I
refer you to the report of the state poultry club organizer,
which covers the work from July 1 to December 31, 1916.

STATISTICAL REPORTS OF THE STATE WORKERS


STATE DEMONSTRATION
AGENT
No. of miles traveled................20,027
By rail ............................... 17,627
By automobile ................... 2,400
No. meetings held ................. 111
Attendance ....................16,733
Club members visited............. 227
Conferences with director....... 9
Conferences with county
Agents .......................... 110
Conferences with boards of
education ............................ 32
Conferences with county
superintendents ........... 83
Contests and fairs attended.... 14
Demonstrations given .......... 42
Schools visited .................... 60
No. days in office work........... 120
Percent time on vacation........ 8
Percent time at meetings
out of state............ ........ 8
Percent time in field work...... 39
Percent time office and
college ................................ 45
GIRLS' CLUB ORGANIZER
No. of miles traveled................ 3,740
By rail .................................... 3,146
By automobile or team.......... 594
No. schools visited--........... 35
No. meetings held ................ 60
Attendance ............. ......21,431


No. county agents visited........ 10
No. talks given .................. 3
No. demonstrations ............ 17
No. fairs attended ................... 4
No. days worked ..................... 86
EXTENSION FIELD
INSTRUCTOR
No. of miles traveled.............. 6,759
By rail .................. ............ 5,703
By automobile or team.......... 1,056
No. meetings held .................. 93
SAttendance ...................... 4,528
Visits to county agents.......... 24
No. talks given........................ 17
No. demonstrations ............. 48
No. fairs attended ............... 3
No. days worked ...................... 125
DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND
WEST
No. miles traveled .................... 5,752
By rail ....................- .. 5,227
By automobile or team.......... 525
No. meetings held .................. 40
Attendance .................... 3,064
No. talks given ........ .......... 10
No. demonstrations ............ 18
Canning ......... ................... 11
Egg ............ ..--- ....-------- 3
School lunch .................... 1
Bread ........................--- 2
Marmalade ............................. 1







Annual Report, 1916


No. fairs attended .................... 13
Short courses held .................... 3
No. county superintendents
visited .................................. 8
No. schools visited .................. 15
No. homes visited .................... 34
No. days office work................ 24
DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND
EAST
No. miles traveled .................... 7,750
By rail .................................... 7,316
By automobile or team.......... 434
No. meetings held ....-............... 38
Attendance ............................ 5,413
No. conferences held ................ 77
Boards of trade ...................... 3
County agents ...................... 47
County boards ........................ 4
County Superintendents ...... 18
County school boards............ 5
Demonstrations given ............ 28


Demonstrations given .............. 28
No. schools visited ................. 14
No. letters written .................. 292
No. homes visited .................... 5
Bulletins distributed ................ 486
No. contests attended .-............ 9
No. days office work ................ 21
POULTRY CLUB ORGANIZER
No. miles traveled .................... 5,164
By rail .................................... 3,734
By automobile or team ........ 1,430
No. meetings held .................... 28
Visits to county agents........... 10
Short courses attended ............ 4
Attendance ............................ 118
Demonstrations given ............ 8
Schools, clubs visited ............ 39
Attendance ............................ 4445
No. homes visited .................... 220
Bulletins distributed .............. 475
No. talks given ........................ 60
No. days office work................ 36


PUBLICATIONS
Three bulletins have been published and distributed by the
Department of Home Economics, Florida State College for
Women.
BULLETIN NO. 4.-The Iceless Refrigerator-This bulletin states the
dimensions, materials used and approximate cost of constructing a home
made iceless refrigerator, also the methods of operating and its advantages
to homes without regular ice supply.


Fig. 21.-Canning club girls in final contest. Madison county.


I ',






Florida Cooperative Extension


BULLETIN NO. 5. This is a report for the Home Demonstration work
in Florida for the calendar year ending December 31st, 1915.
BULLETIN NO. 6. Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades-This bulletin
contains recipes and instructions for making jellies, preserves and marma-
lades that have been developed by home economic workers of the States
Relations Service and Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. D. A., and Florida State
College for Women.
DEMONSTRATION WORK PART OF SCHOOL SYSTEM
County boards of public instruction are supporting the home
demonstration work in thirty of the thirty-three counties.
County superintendents and teachers are giving valuable as-
sistance for reaching the girls in rural sections. The princi-
pals of the high schools have loaned their schools and faculties
for county short courses, and thruout the entire State the home
demonstration work is gradually becoming an important part
of the educational system.
SUMMARY
In reviewing our work for the year, we realize that definite
and well-planned instruction is being given to the girls and
women on the farms, by well-trained home economics county
agents. In the club girl we note improvement in dress, man-
ners, and health; in the woman, an interest in the study of
home-making and increased effort in improving the home. As
a result of the work, reports indicate that 4,000 homes have
definite improvements; that 1,000 girls have made and worn
the club uniform; that over 100,000 cans of home-canned prod-
ucts have been placed in the pantries of the country homes;
and that the country girl is staying in school longer.
We are sure our work has been conducted in the State for
a sufficiently long time to have been a source of definite im-
provement in home-making on the farm.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Home Demonstration Agent.






Annual Report, 1916


REPORT OF THE POULTRY CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club agent
for the half year, July 1, 1916, to December 31, 1916.
Upon taking up the home demonstration work in Florida
last August, as specialist in poultry, we found that only one
county had successfully carried on poultry club work and
was prepared to hold a contest and exhibit. This was DeSoto
county. This county held a three-days' short course and a
contest and exhibit on the last day of the short course, the
canning, poultry and corn clubs cooperating. There were
about twenty-five who kept records of the work and sent in
reports, thirteen of whom made exhibits of good breeds of
poultry.
The home demonstration agent in this county deserves
credit for the splendid work done without help along this line
from any special state worker. She has demonstrated the
possibilities of this work in Florida.
A farm woman in the same county has made the following
remarkable record: From two Barred Plymouth Rock roosters
and twenty-four hens, she raised nine hundred birds, which
she disposed of on the local market at a nice profit.
After looking the field over and consulting with the state
home and county cooperative demonstration agents, it was
decided best to undertake the work in but five counties. The
demand for the work became so strong that it has been started
in seven counties, namely Escambia, Leon, Duval, St. Johns,
Polk, DeSoto and Hillsboro.
Work among the farm women has been most strongly em-
phasized, but clubs for girls are also encouraged, and where
it seems advisable, boys are enrolled.
Local conditions determine Whether the work shall be done
thru organized clubs or with individual members. Where
practical, we have made the unit of organization among the
women in the county a membership of thirty.
Two community egg circles have been organized in Es-
cambia county. In this early development of the work, how-
ever, the question of marketing has not yet demanded serious
consideration.
The members are urged to improve their stocks, keep pure-
bred fowls, produce feed at home, produce more and better





Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry products to meet the market demands, and work to-
ward community organization and cooperation.
On the whole, the situation presents a most pleasing pros-
pect. Although there are a few adverse conditions, the fa-
vorable conditions in Florida are location, climate and soil for
production of feeds, the mild winters making possible early
hatching of pullets for fall and winter egg production when
prices are high, year-round production of broilers, etc., and
the most excellent markets.
Respectfully,
MINNIE FLOYD,
Poultry Club Agent.


Fig. 22.-At the corn club contest in Madison county.





Annual Report, 1916


FARMERS' INSTITUTES
P. H. ROLFS, Superintendent.
C. K. McQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent.
Farmers' Institutes have been conducted in all agricultural
sections of Florida. The total attendance was 35,593, or an
average of 89 at each session. Most of these institutes were
held in country school houses, churches or at farmers' picnics,
where the attendance was from 20 to 60, nearly all of which
was farmers and their families. Other meetings were held
in country towns and cities where the attendance ran from
100 to 500. These meetings were held under the auspices of
groups of farmers, who had special agricultural matters to
discuss or by business men having farming interests. The
meetings were advertised by posters issued by the extension
division of the University and local newspapers, which gave
this advertising free. The arrangements were usually com-
pleted by the county agents.
The lecturers were the regular farnpers' institute staff from
the extension division, the experiment station and the college
of agriculture of the University of Florida; specialists from
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who have given con-
siderable assistance to the county agents and extension work-
ers; successful farmers, truckers or citrus growers and rep-
resentative business men having farming interests.
As Florida has a diversity of agricultural interests, the
programs were made to conform with the agricultural interests
of the community. In West Florida the lectures have been
confined to farming under boll weevil conditions; money crops
to supplant cotton; legume crops for feed and soil improve-
ment; breeds and care of hogs and cattle; feeds that can be
grown on West Florida lands for this livestock. In Middle
and North Florida where the boll weevil has not yet gained
entrance, many farmers are planting cotton for the first time,
and these have called for discussions on varieties and methods
of growing cotton. In Middle and South Florida, trucking,
citrus growing, but more especially the planting of feed and
staple crops, led to a greater variety of topics.
Thruout the State, corn, feed crops, hog cholera control and
better livestock have been discussed in nearly every county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY AGENTS' INSTITUTES
County cooperative demonstration agents have held many
meetings where truckers would come together to make plans
for growing a special crop so that by combining their products
they could ship in car lots, which would require the planting
of the same variety about the same date, making the produc-
tions uniform and of sufficient quantity to make up car lots.
Where such plans required the advice of specialists, this was
supplied thru the office of the Superintendent of Farmers' In-
stitutes. In other cases meetings were held to discuss plans
for cooperative marketing of livestock by farmers having less
than car lots of marketable animals.
FIELD INSTITUTES
County agents have conducted field institutes in their respec-
tive counties from time to time. The agent generally selects a
well-cultivated corn demonstration and requests other farmers
cooperating with him to meet in the field and go over the
demonstration, calling attention to the points that have been
especially emphasized in this demonstration. When there is a
dipping vat just completed he may request stockmen of the
community to come at a stated time and assist in putting the
cattle thru this vat for the first time. This is followed by dis-
cussions and comments by the farmers, usually led by the
agent or someone designated to handle that meeting. Meetings
have also been called in a similar way to emphasize hog cholera
control. Farmers are requested to gather in some convenient
place and assist in the vaccination of hogs where both the
single and the simultaneous treatment are administered. This
is usually under the direction of the veterinary field agent,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
Boys' corn and pig club meetings have been held to discuss
subjects of vital interest to the clubs. These are arranged by
the county agents and are usually attended by either the boys'
club agent, the district or state agent. Many of these have
been combined with the girls' club meetings. These institutes
are held at school houses or at the home of one of the club
members, where the crops and stock can be seen and discussed.
WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' INSTITUTES
Women's and girls' club institutes have been conducted
under the leadership of the home demonstration agents. The






Annual Report, 1916


county agent selects the time and place for these so that the
interest in her work can be aroused. As these clubs are or-
ganized for uniform methods of production, it is desirable to
bring the women and girls together as frequently as possible.
As the girls work chiefly with vegetable crops, the methods of
planting crops and the handling of diseases and insects that
interfere with the crops must be understood by the girls. Spe-
cialists who can discuss insect pests and diseases have given
lectures and demonstrations so that the girls are able to combat
outbreaks.
Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest
in poultry raising. At these meetings the topics for discus-
sion are planned sometime in advance. The state poultry club
agent arranges a series of topics and the county agent follows
this plan thru a succession of meetings so that at the end of
the term systematic lecture courses have been given and bul-
letins supplied to correspond with each lecture.
In the women's institutes, rural sanitation, home con-
veniences, home gardening and canning and preserving of
waste vegetables and fruits are systematically discussed, fol-
lowed with suitable literature for home study. In many com-
munities it is advisable to bring the people in the community
together and have both men and women lecturers. In such
cases, joint meetings are held during the forenoon and sep-
arate meetings in the afternoon.
LIVESTOCK FIELD INSTITUTES
Livestock field meetings have been conducted chiefly for
the purpose of demonstrating the methods of applying hog
cholera serum and virus. These are arranged for by the
county agent and the demonstration is led by the specialist in
hog cholera control. During these demonstrations hogs are
inoculated with both serum and virus, when farmers have an
opportunity to use the needle and make the application under
the supervision of the specialist in charge. In these meetings,
sanitation in hog raising and the use of hog wallows and dip-
ping vats to rid hogs of external parasites is specially em-
phasized.
FARMERS' INSTITUTES
(Calendar Year Ending December 31, 1916)
Number of sessions........... ................... ............ 399
Total attendance .... ....... -.. ............... .... ............ ....... 35,593
Average attendance ........................................... .. ..89
Number of addresses................ .....................- ........... 616
Number of counties entered..................... .......... ....... .... ...... 40
f.c.e.-5







Florida Cooperative Extension

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED AT INSTITUTES


Farm Demonstration Work and
What It Stands For
Sugar Cane
Peanuts
Rotation of Crops
Soil Improvement
Fertilizers
Safe Farming
Diversified Farming
Standardizing and Marketing Crops
Home Demonstration Work
What Women's Clubs Stand For
Club Work
Organization


Saving Waste Products on the Farm
Preserving Fruits
Legislation for Farmers
Agricultural Education
Hog Raising
Livestock and Silos
The Dairy Cow
Hog Cholera Control
Home Curing of Meats
Landscape Gardening
Insect Pests
Boll Weevil
Diseases of Truck Crops
Lime for Flatwoods Soils








INDEX


Activities, extension workers, 20, 58
Agents, character of work, 29
general activities, 20, 58
group meetings, 16
improvements by, 21
Appropriations, 7, 8
Associations, farmers', 34
Bankers' scholarship, 19
Beef and dairy cattle, 23
Boys' corn clubs, 39
club meetings, 43, 64
short courses, 44
Bulletins published, 13, 59
Canning, 51
Cattle, 23
Changes in staff, 13, 47
Cholera control, 18
Citrus demonstrations, 31
groves, 22
Club, 5-H, 53
Clubs, corn, 39
farm and homemakers', 26
girls', 49
negro children, 26
pig, 41
poultry, 58
subjects for study, 53
womcn's, 53
Cooperations and demonstrations, 21
Corn, 21, 29
Corn clubs, yields, 39
boys', 39
summary, 40
Contests, county, 44, 50
Cotton, 21, 36
County agents' institute, 64
County contests, 44, 50
fairs, 19
financial support, 33
Cowpeas, 22
Dairy and beef cattle, 23
Demonstration work in schools, 60
Demonstrations and cooperation, 21
Demonstrations, citrus, 31
pineapples, 32
truck, 30
Dipping vats, 24, 35, 38
Dipping vats and silos, 24
Director, report of, 7
Diseases, livestock, 23


District agent, east and south, 28
home demonstration,
58, 59
north and west, 36
Educational work, 20
Extension, appropriations, 7, 8
changes in staff, 13, 47
legislation, 7
organization, 8
plan of work, 9
publications, 13, 59
purposes of, 7
supervision of, 12
Fairs, 33
Fairs, county, 19
Farm and home makers' clubs, 26
Farmers' associations, 34
institutes, 63, 65
Fertilizer and manure, 24
Fertilizers, 23
Field institutes, 64, 65
Financial statement, 12
support, county, 33
Floyd, Minnie, report of club agent, 61
General activities, agents', 20, 58
Girls' club organizer, 58
Girls' clubs, work of, 49
best records, 50
yields, 50
Groves, citrus, 22
Harris, Agnes E., report of state de-
monstration agent, 47
Hay, 22
Herrington, G. L., report of club
agent, 39
Hog cholera, 34, 38
Hog cholera control, 18
Hogs, 23, 37
Hogs, inoculation of, 18
Home canning, 51
Home demonstration agent, 47
short courses,
54, 55
organization,
47
special prod-
ucts, 58
state meeting,
57
supervision, 49







Florida Cooperative Extension


Horses and mules, 23
Improvements by agents, 21
value of, 24
Inoculation of hogs, 18
Institutes, county agents, 64
farmers', 63, 65
subjects, 66
field, 64
livestock, 65
women's and girls', 64
Landscape work, 32
Legislation, extension, 7
Lime rock, 24
Livestock, 33, 37
Livestock, diseases and pests, 23
field institutes, 65
value of, 24
Manure and fertilizer, 23
McQuarrie, C. K., report of state
agent, 15
Meetings, agents' field, 16
agents' special, 17
annual, 17
boys' club, 43, 64
field, 19
state, 57
Mules and horses, 23
Negro clubs, 26
work, 12, 25
Oats, 22
Orchards, peach, 22
Organization of extension, 8, 47
Organizations, farmers', 24, 34
Organizer, girls' club, 58
Pace, E. S., report of district agent, 35
Peach orchards, 22
Pig clubs, boys', 41
hote given, 43
results, 42
Pineapple culture, 32
Plan of extension, 9
Potatoes, sweet, 22
Irish, 22
Poultry, 23
Poultry club agent, 61
organizer, 59


Poultry clubs, 58
Preserving, 52
Prizes, boys' club, 44
Projects, 10
Publications, 13, 59
Reports, agricultural club agent, 39
director, 7
district agents, 28, 36
negro agent, 25
poultry club agent, 61
state agent, 15
state demonstration agent,
47
Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7
Rye, 22
Scholarships, bankers', 19
School visits, 20
Schools, demonstration work in, 63
Short course, club boys', 44
county, 54
home demonstration,
54, 55
negro, 26
state, 55
Silo work, 17
Silos and dipping vats, 24
Smith-Lever Act, 7
Special products work, 58
Spencer, A. P., report of district
agent, 28
Staff changes, 13, 47
State agent, 15, 47
demonstration agent, 58
meeting, 57
Statement of finances, 12
Subjects for institutes, 66
Summary of bulletins, 13, 59
Summer crops, 31
Supervision of extension, 12, 49
Tick eradication, 17
Truck demonstrations, 30
Value of extension, 24
Velvet beans, 22, 30, 36
Women's and girls' institutes, C4
Women's clubs, 53




Full Text

PAGE 2

Cooperative Demonstration Work IN A gr iculture and Hom e Economics University of Florid a Division of Agricuhural Extension and United States Dep artment of Ag ri culture Cooperating P. H . ROLFS, Dlrect0r REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30th, 1916 MARCIi, 1?17

PAGE 3

CONTENTS Fin a n e l a l Statem en 1 2 ~ri:.:: k ! i R.tOIIT 0 1"8 T A~AC~ 15 Fi e ldM~r 16 llor Chol•ra looc"l a tlon 1 8 Banker 8 ' Scholarship ..... . .... . . . . . ....... . . .. . rn ActMtlu of E:1ta1111ion Worlwor 1 ( t abulated) 20 Negro Work 25 Rl:l'OR1' O P OU3"1"'11CT ACllNT, EIJIT AND S0 28 Ch.aracterofWork 29 Demonnration.o In T S O Oentonstratlont l.nCitn1 1 Gro S I SZ Fin a ncial Support from Count.i n 3 3 Farm e n' Cooperati .,. A ...,cl ation s S4 Rl:PQRT OP Olll"l'IIICT AGENT, NORTH ANO Wt:l!T 36 Cotton 36 Vel•et B e an $ S 6 Li Yeo toc k 3 7 D i p p ing Y ata 38 Ru-o&-r Of" Bo n ' ACKL CII LTU RA L Cl.u ~ ACENT -39 Summa ry o ! Cor n C lub W o r 4 0 Pi &: C l ub WO 41 Boyt' ClubM ee t i n p. . '3 Count y Con test 0 RE POIIT OP S T ATt: Hor,u; 0Cat O N8TRATJO~ AGENT ,1 Org a nlution .... . 47 GM , ' Ch>b Wor 4 9 F a ll Contest,,, Summ a ry ..... 60 Wome n ' , Wor 6 3 S M>rt Cou 64 Sta te M 5 7 Sta t istica l R ePO rlMl Rr. l'OIIT ru o: , ~ =Y ~ c, ,--a ., C::. -=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=:_-=._--! ~ F ARM&RS' I N STlTVTtll 63 Co unty Agent ,., ln 1t it11 ta l<'ield l n 1 tit11te 1 . .. Women' In1titu te1 ... " " "

PAGE 4

Hon. Sydney J, Catts, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee , Fla . Srn: I have the honor to transm i t herewith t h e report of the Director of the Extens i on Division of the Unh ers i ty o f F l orida for the fisca l year endingJ une 30, 1916. R es p ectfully, P, K . YONGE, Chairm(ln of the Board of Control.

PAGE 5

Flori da Co opera t ive Exten$ ic n BOAJlll o~ CONT ROL P. K. YoNm:, Chairman, P enw.col.a, Fl:t. . T. B. Kl1"6, Arcadia, Fla. E. L . W ART14ANN, C i tra , Fla. W. D. FINl.-
PAGE 6

Annual Re1)fJrt, 1916

PAGE 8

Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1916 Hon. P. K. Yonge, Chairman, Board of Control. Sra: I have the honor to submit herewith my re1>0rt on the work and condition of the Extension Division of the University of Florida for the tisea l year ending June 30, 1916, and I :respectfully request that you transmit the same, in a~ordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida. R()Spedfully, I NTRODUCT IO N P.H. ROLFS, Director. Th e Agricultural Extension Divi sion o[ the University of Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical demonstrations ih ngrlcu l ture and home economics to persons not resident on the campus . The Smith-Lever Agri cultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida ~ives annua ll y $ 10,000. An additional sum of $11,892.73 became available, July 1, 1916, on condition that an equa l amount be appropriated by the State. The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was ap proved by the Govemor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting these fund s and the provisions of the Smith Le\re r Act. The Act provides for cooperation between the agr i cultural colleges in t h1.1 several states and the U. S. Department of Agr i culture. A quotation from it will show the genoral purposes of this Act: "That coopen,tive agricultural extenolon work •hall cong igt of th 11 giving of inotruction and practical de01on.stration, in agrlcultul'
PAGE 9

Florida CooPerative Extension. I n addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith Lever Fund, the U . S. Department of Agriculture has appro priated the sum of $23,800. The prineipal work carried on with these funds ls the county cooperative demonstration work among fanne~ and the home demonstration work i n fann homes . The sum of $600 is allotted to each oou n ty availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates an equa l or larger amount for this same purpose. I n the home demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted $-.'!00 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appropr i nted by the county for augmenting this Work. In countfo.
PAGE 10

An nual Report, 1916 It Is their duty to sec that the county agents are giving proper direction to t he agric u l tural exte nsion wo rk in the counties. The boys' agricu ltura l c lub agent ha.II headquarteni at the University of Florida. H e stlpervisca the plans fo r ca rrying orw11rd the V.'Ork of boys' co rn a nd pig clubs thru o u t the s tate. Th ese clubs ar e orga ni zed by the county age nta or, where n o county agents are empl oyed, by 0 county home demo n strat ion agents, with the cooperat i on o f the schoo l boards and cou nty s u pe rintendents . . J-li s specia l mission i s to dem onstrate co rrect agric u ltura l p ractices to the em bers of these clubs, and to encourage t h o st udy of agriculture in rura l schools. The county cooperative d emons tratio n agent u sua ll y h as hi s headquarteni at th e county seat, wi th his oflkc in the cou rt house. Hi s principal work is conducting de monatrationS on small areas to establis h b y demonstration t he best fanning p rnc Uc cs . The county agents work coo per ativel y with three differ ent clas.ses of f a rmers. The f irst are known as dem o n s trators; they each agree to take a s m a ll area, usually o ne to five acres. and o n this follow exp l ici tl y the d i rection s of the co un ty agent; till ing the re m ainder of tho farm i n t h e usua l way. Fa nn ers of tho seco nd cl ass are kn ow n as c oopern t ors ; the se fo ll ow the g e neral dire ctio n s of the cou nt y agent bu t do not set Ii.side an y special portion for demonstration. The third cl ass o f farmeni seek the ad\"ice of the cou n ty age nt under specia l IJt:reM as in th e case of an ou t brea k of diseases, in sec t pests. severe dro uth. etc. The county age nt acts here simply B9 an adv iser, '.}'he county h ome dem onetrati on agents work t oward organ h:inaand fostering gi rl s ' and women's clubs. Many of the h ome demongtration agents ha,•e had special tra.i n in g for teaching either in schoo l s o r in t h e h ome economics departm ent o f th e College. Their t r ain ing has ftttcd them ~pedally for this new wo rk . All tho cou nt y nge n ts are re q uired to make w ee kl y reports both to the Department of Agricu l ture an d to th e hea d of the ir respective d epartme n ts. H ome demonstration work has proven unusua ll y att r acti ve. Th e whole work is being car ried forward in se,•eral sep arate li nes, know n as projects. These spec ial Jin Cll of work arc p ro vided for by tho l a w creating the f und, and the a nn ua l stale m cnt as to the so urces of tho fund s and the direct i o n ln which th ey we re expended will be fo und herewiih.

PAGE 11

10 Florida C oopera ti ve E3:=temiion Project I i s designed to carry out the pro vi sion of thia act. It pro vi des for the carrying on of the administrative part of the work. Under Project J .A are grouped sal ar ies ior clerical help and expenses not directly chargeable to special projocta. A total of ,4.286. 16 was used for this purpose. Under Project J. B are the expenditures for publications. The Jaw provide s that not m o re than five perc e nt of the Smith• Lever fund &ha ll be used for printing and di s tribution of pub lication s. The amount u sed fo r thi s p urpoae wa s $594.64. Project ti i s the demon s tration work with adu lt farmers. Thi s project ca rri es on demonstrations in all the principa l crops produced in th e state, special attention havingbeen give n to th e Improvement of stap l e crops. Close study Is give n to speci al crops and their adaptability to eonditions wherever such crop s 8Cem promising. Thi s project includea nearly the entire range of activitie s on the farm, from the production of the crops and stoc k to the improveme n t of the home. The expenditure unde r thi s project from all sources was $49,946.25. Proj ec t I ll includ es th e organization of boy s ' agricultura l clu bs, and is co nfin ed to corn and pig clubs. T h is year's wo r k i n corn clubs as herewith reported is especia ll y noteworthy in that a number of boys hn ve produced more than 76 bushels, and in a few ease s more than 100 bW!hels of corn to tho acre. The a vcrn se costa bushel f o r the entire crop rai sed b y th e corn club boys w u 88 cents. Th e w o rk In t h e pig clubs h aa been equall y auecesii ful. These club s wor k in cooperation with the schools or t ti e co unties. The co unty s uperintendent a nd teachers have gh'en gen e rous and urnrtlnted a1111i s t.ance . All o f the ageneiea conn ec ted with the extension work h ave cooperated to make this project successfu l. The amount expended for this work was $2 , 088.01. Proj ec t IV has been called the h ome demon s tration project. Th is includ es two Jine s o f club work in ru r al di s tricts , one for women' s clubs and th e o ther for girls' clu bs . The women' s clu bs a re organized to a tudy the need!!, of the home, it.a sur roundin gs and improvem en t an d sanitary . m eas ures for the prcsenation of the health of the family. Girls' clubs are or ganized in all counties having ho m e demon stration agents. This part of tho project workK toward cooperati on w(th the rural school!. Girls' canning clubs o.re well organl:red In Florida, a s indicated by the excellent reports submitted herewith. The amount s pent for this work from all aourcea wa.s $81,269. 15.

PAGE 12

Ann11al ReJJ(}rt, 1916 Project V concerns itaelf with educational work in the best methods or preventing and controlling hog cholera. A specialist a8!1ig'ned to Florida from the Bureau of Animal Industry gives it his full time and attention. This work is carried on cooper. ntively with the extension division of the University of 1''\orida in practically every county, but more especially in those counties having agent.II. The total expense of this project is borne by the Bureau of Animal In dustry. Project VI concerns itaelf with the instruction o! negro boys and girls l h-ing on farms. It is carried on in cooperation with the Agricultural and l\lechanical Colle&'@ for Negroes, at Tallahassee. A spec i al agent, with headquartens at the negro College, gives his entire time to the direction or home makers clubs, which train negro boys and girls in better farming meth ods. lli s activities were confined principally to those counties having the largest negro farming population. The expenditure for this wo r k during the last fi11cal year was $ 1 ,182.49. Froject. YUi deals with silo construction. This is a specia l project designed to encourage the construction of silos. A special agent was employed for only a portion of the year. The farmers are especially interested in silo construction, or may havethemunderway,justpriortothetimewhen the silo crops Fir. l . -St..-e •H.,. o• de111otWratio11 fum, Marion co.inly .

PAGE 13

12 FWri d a Cooperotive Extfflllion are about to ma ture. I t seems from this that the agent cou l d emp l oy his t ime mo st p rofita bl y when the far mer i s mo st ln neod of hi s services. . Tho expense of this project has been $598.55. Tho funds ari si ng fr om the Smith-Lever act are s trictly trust funds that must be emp l oyed in accordance with tfie lnwa gov erninathe appropriation. T h e . specific plans are spo ken o f as pro ject.s. The method of acco un ting and t he plnns for the w ork m ust be subm i tted to t h e U. S. Dep artment of Agricult u re be fore the year's wo r k is begun. A Federal offi~r audits t,he accounts _a nd in spects lho wprk un d etw ay . All o f the fund s, how ever, that have b(!en use d to suppl emen t the $mi t~Lev ,e r fund have been expended and accounted f or in the same w ay as the SmithLev er fund. . , . . Specia li sts f ro m . the United States Departm ent of Agriculture are se nt tp th e state from time to time to aid In specia l . wor}:t and render valuable ass istance i n carryi n g out coo perative d emonstra tion work. 1'lN ANCIAL STATEMENT The following table gives In tabulated form the sources of all money s and t he purp Ollcs for' wh i ch they were expended. It s how s tha t the tota l expen ditures from all sources for th e ex tensio n wo rk was $9 1 ,4 49. 35, STA TEMENT T AllL . u,.,,.,,,,,_ , :I :I I fl~ i ~i i : ~i~ l~~i} ~ ,:ifj u,.-. .. 1 1t. tu c "-'''-'• J su1f..n 1 1 1.-." I ' . " ~•~ !'.~ " -" . . NF.GIIOWORK , ,::,.~1(,:.f'? The nc g ro work in F lor i da h ii.11 , boo~ co n ducted I n sii\l eft co~n tie s. Two agents have bee n emp l pyed, Q Jl e in -d1a'rg11, or _ th e home makers clu bs, wh ose work has been ch i efly With tlie .. boys. The direction o f th is is siniila r , to th e ngriCulturn ~ clubs fo r white boys, but wo rk i n g with s diffe'rent unit of ACrenge. This

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Annual Report, 1916 1 3 agent reports to the boy;i' agricultura l club age n t and m akes his headquarters at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroe;i at Tallahassee, Florida. Anegro local agent is engaged in form demonstration work i n Leon county. Hi s work has been directed toward improved fanning for colored farmers in that county. His reports indi cate that he has been active in the organization of clubs for rural betterment . He w6rks cooperatively with the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee, and rcJXlrts to the state and district agents for farmers cooperative demonstration work. Five bulletins have _ been published and distributed by the Extension Division of the University of Florida. CRANGES IN STAF1'' Very few changes in the personnel of the staff have occurred, the main changes be in g additions to the working force. On October 1 , 191 6, G. L. Herrington assumed the duties of boys' agricultural cl ub agent, and on the same date A. A. Turner (negro) began work under Project V I, instruction of negro youth.

PAGE 15

FWritla Cooperative EJxtensiun Dr. A. I-1. Logan succeeded Dr. G. I<'. Babb as veterinary in spedor, hog cholera control work. As the number of countie~ cooperating is constantly increm1ing, there was an increase o! both farm and home county dem onstration agents. County agents have also been transferred fromonecountytoanother. MAP., FLORIDA ISfilm ,adOO /,,,ol .140, .}Q,1~11;, Fig.3 .MapofFloridasho,.ingcoun1iesemploylogcouotyd~mon,trationagent1.

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A11111rol Repo,t, 1916 UEPORT OF THE STATE AGENT P.H. Rolfs, Director. 15 Srn: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916. This report shows that the interest in farmers' cooperative demonstration work is being maintained and, in a large meas ure, increased. This is verified by the increased appropriations from county sources made to supplement the salarie11 o{ the county agents. The total appropriations from county sources for next year's work has increased $11,660 over the amount appropriated for the period covered in this report. The increased appropriations were made largely thru efforts to secure better equipped men who can command higher salaries than were formerly paid to county agents. A few of the older men in the work have resigned, and in most instances where this has occurred, they have been replaced by men of better trainlng and who are able to enlarge the scope of the work in their counties . The a\'erage yield of staple crops for the state has increased, notwithstanding the continued drouth that prevailed in the spring and early summer, or the growing season for farm crops. Where farmers prepared the land and planted according to demonstration methods they suffered very little from this dry weather. This provided an excellent demonstration of what could be accomplished to overcome unfa\"orable weather condi tions by adopting the impro\"ed methods that tlie demonstration work teaches. On the 5th, 6th and 7th of July a West Indian hurricane

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16 floridri Coopcmtivc Extension Fi1r.S.-FiddmC
PAGE 18

An nut.il Report, 1916 17 the clearing o t land, pu lli ng stumps, b reaking a nd tanning land with tract.ors a nd other modern imp l eme n t.II i s underway o n an exte n sive sca l e. We we re entert:lined by the superi ntend ent and the v i sit pro\"00 in teresti ng an d va l uable to all. The agents of middle F lorid a me t in Lake coun t y on M arch 6 an d 7 n nd vis ited farms nnd groves in the vici ni ty of Eusti s, Leesburg an d Ta va re s to investigate Nntol ha y fie ld s nnd citru~ groves sprayed under demonstration methods. March. 8 w as spe nt in Semino l e c ou nt y st udying the i n te n sive tru ck i ng sys t.em pra c t i c ed in growing winter vegetables , c hiefl y celery and lettuce. S ubirrigat i on is p racticed on nea rly n il of the farms. The l a nd hna impro~: ements of $ 1 ,000 an ac re or more, coT!l!eQuen tl y an extensive syste m Is necessary. A spec i a l m eeting of the agents in the cit ru s be lt waa ca ll ed at Lakeland Jun e 2, under the auspicea of the State Plant Board to study the methoda o f applying pure cultures o f w hi tefly fungu s ( }\a cheraoxia. Alevrodia) prepared and dis tributed by the Board. The annual meetin g of the directors and state aients In the -fa rm ers' cooperative de m onst ration work wa s he ld in W ash ington fro m November 1 0 to 14 inc l usive, and wa s attend e d b y tl 1e d irector a nd sta te and di st rict age n ts. Th e sta te agent read n pnper on "What Hns Been Worth Whll e in My S tate i n 1916." The annual meeling of agricult u r al club agents was he l d in Wash in gton i n December a nd was attended by the Flor i da club age nt and s late a gent i n home economics. Owing to the lnerense d interest i n livestock in Fl orid a. the state and cou n ty agents are shaping pla n s to bring abou t the bes~ J)O!!Sib l e development i n beef and dairy catt l e and hogs, and the bui l ding o f dipping vats has made good J)I"Oi"rcsll in nearly every county . H og cho l era contro l occupies ,;_ big share of all county agents' time, but the results o bta ined have justified the efforts. Systema t ic ti c k eradicati o n, tu! conducted by the Bureau of Ani ma l Indu stry , is in charge of Dr. E. M. N i ghbert. and all plan s for this work a re directed fr o m h is office . Owing to t h e J ack of funds w e w ere not ab le to co nduc t very le n gth y campaips on silo buildin g. A specialist in s il o e-:m structio n was emp lo yed for a sh ort period an d aas iated in s ilo con st ru c ti on work i n Osceola, Semino l e a n ~ Leo n cou n ties. r.~ .... -2

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18 Florido. Cooperative Extern,Wn From his efforts a total of seven wood and two concrete si l oa were built. The cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A., and extem!ion division of the University of Florida, !or educational work, project C, has continued thruout the year. Dr. A. 1-:1. Logan, field veterinarian in charge or hog inocula tion work, has dernted hia time to educational lectures and demonstrations in sanitary methods in hog management and administering hog cholera serum and virus. This work has been valuable in getting the proper information before the formers of Florida for the control of hog cholera and has added materially to the efficiency of county agents' service . During the year this work has been conducted in practically every county in Floridu. Dr. Logan's report shows that one hundred thirty-eight farmers' meetings have been held, with a total att.endance of 12.406. Twenty-six demonstrations of serum alone and seven simulta n eous treabnent demonstrations were made. F our hundred fifty-two people attended the11e demon strations and 746 h ogs were treated. Two hundred sixty-o n e vis i t!! w ere paid to Iarms during the year for the purpose of I'll, i . -C<>oTil)' OJCDI> rtt-eMni ln11roction• 01>r1ylnl P""' cultures of WbUefl~ fuoiu• 10 1 0 elm" 1,.,..,., O~r110, ..-c,,rl111 lhe uniform ofci,r,...,.nktrln!petl0<$.

PAGE 20

Annual Report, 1916 19 Fig. i.-D ~ mon$lrationo: Com in backirround: sweet p0ta1oe , in fore ground. C ! ayeounty . diagnosing hog cholera or observing conditions and giving ad vice, 2.!189 farmers and hog raisers were personally interviewed, and 87 individually instructed and equipped to properly ad minister the serum preventive treatment. Of this number 56 were hog owners. COUNTY FAIRS The 11tate and district agents judged exhibits at each of the thirteen county fairn held in Florida. These and similar re quests are complied with in so far as they do not interfere with regular demonstration work. FIEl,D ~rnt:TJ!\"GS BY COUNTY AGENTS f,'ield meetings arranged by county agent!! are proving to be a satisfactory means of reaching farmers. The state or district agents usually W1sist the county agent, also agents from ad joining counties aSllist in the discu1J.Sions. This gives county agents in adjoining counties an opportunity to exchange ideas and to benefit from each other's results. H.ANKt;11.s SCHOLAKSIIIPS The State Bankers' Association hi manifesting a keen interest in the boys' club work. At their annual meeting in Daytona, they voted a scholarship of $200 in the Agricultural College at Gainesville for a member of the corn club producing the highest yieldofcornperacre.

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20 Florida C oo JHJTlltive Ext 1ma ion Reque s ts to appear before city and county boards of trade nre libera ll y complied with and the advantages to be gained i n keeping the commercia l bodies i n touch with the agriculturnl educationa l work are fu ll y appreciate d. These bod ie s are taking a deep in terest ln eve ry phase o r cooperative demonstration work for both men and women and are making a concerted effort to improve the farmer' s position. Their influe n ce h as beN&nA I , ACTIVITI ES N wra be r ol v isita b y ~ountJ agen 1.o demonllt.ra tor ~wn ot herf a rme r i:2 ~ b 1U1l n .,. ml)n .. ..... .......... . ... ... .. . boy• ' ndgirl a' du b 1 m e m be r Number mi lu traveled . ... 1 ~ 1,00.1 I Conferen ce RT a llroad .. . .. ... . 21,676 M 1 ,cell11ncou 1 77,3211 P~r,ent time in fi e ld wor k. 62 905 Sup~n l d ng cl o mon s tr& 13,1 8 1 uon 1 _. 9, 6 01 Oth o r f a nn vl e l ta. 8 ~ ~ !..= 11 fl. 'ort wur-. _ 7 ____ 7,1 34 2, 68 1 S,4 28 ' ' " " " ' ' '

PAGE 22

Annual Report, 1916 21 crops ___ _ Acffago Newimpl e menbbought ........ . . Approxima te aveni.geeost .. DEMO NSl'lwn . ..• 423 No. planting se\cctcdftffd. .... 80 No.toplant9'Jleetaeed .. ........ 61 t.. 0 :~i:~~s~~~~~~ ~;:;;p ; ti Number cooperato rs 26 Ae Na g e gtown 112 .. t~t~~"".::h~J':~ m F arrnuou, ingbettermetho>d 1,5 35

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22 Florida Co operf!tive E :i:tenaion Number demonstn.ton .. Nu mber reportlnll' Acn,a~ r . Nu mbe r roupeu.c.o ........... . --• ~~ri;:!1~; ~; :: ;:: = :;; N~~r .. r;:;;:; .'1~ diiccd to vi;;,:1 m OATS Numbe r d emonatrato" 280 Numbt• "port i ng . . _. __ 1 62 Aert" l&Q irrown _ .. 2,064 Nwnber demon1tr11ton..33 1 Numbel" reportlnr .. . 89 Acn,a~ grown....... 3 ,490 Number coopcrntor1 . ... ..... 139 !!~!~tifel~:r~ r ;;;;;;j . . . . . . 2 !i& (',,~ ~~c;~~ ~iif!:f; ::~i d 42 ~ method 1 , % Val...,inc n, aoeat'20 T. Jr;2,350 .00 Acn, 1 tu•nfll under for ao il i mprovemtnt 3,070 ! R I S H PO TA TOES Nu mber demonatraton ... . . --. S5 Number n,porUnr-•11 A1 rr:.~~i~1r:~~~t.•praying , thell'Oveh.dafu llc rop i n 19 1 6 and practlc11ly c~1111, bigh•v•de f ruit. It required spraying 90me In advance of the crop to ce t wc h reoulta. D e n ce, in this particula.r c,,i,e the demonrtrat>On be-gan t he P""iDIII )' tar.

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Annual R eport, 1916 23 DAIRY CATTLE Pur:1:.1:,OII -----60 F.r111u ,1 61 Number fe,L .... ----9-17 HORSES AND MULES fa~k .b 1!u~~ ~ 1 . '.~~ ~ .. ~!~ . '. ::: B roodmar ea b o ughl .. ... . .. ... . . De;;:::.: : ~ .! .~ .. FF.RT I L IZER No.f1nne.rahome.-mlxlnf -wi t h n itra t e o f .. . ___ . 6 77 Num be r providing 133 Number eomposting M:::re~~ -~ ~&hL .. : nin!o r dng manure w i t h p h DB ph a t.! rock ... 5 6 7 Ton 1 manurebe i ng1ued .. _ .. 548,2 1 0 '3 LIVESTOC K DISEASES AN D P E STS Stock tn ated. fo r ai lmen U.-. 65,287 dipped , tie:k 11 od I ke .. 1 6,981 U~ l~ ::~~ o~ 0 sr -~~~:~~:::=. 1 ::1: g __ 2 5 Horen treated f or d lment. -------' 677 "

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24 Florida. Cor>perative Eztenaion DI P PIN G VATS AND SILOS P e roentlncreu e ,2dyear ...• .. . 100 Vata built, agent'• Influenc e.. 74 Percc n tincrea s e , 3dyear .• _. .. liO Value ..-a ta , $ 100 each ........ $ 7 ,400 Vata flll,e,I,agent' a din<:tion 06 Solution• te oted t or strcengt h 61 E sti mated ca~tle dipped . 65,851; Pen:ent incn,asc, h t year .... 600 Pcrcentincrea11<>,2dyear..... 100 P~rcent increas,,, 3d year.... fiO S1I011bu!ltth!g~ar ...• . ... .. .... . 44 Value silos at $200 each .... is ,800 I' ercent !nen,asc, let year .... WO V A J,U f 1 O F COO P E ilATI VE DE.'tlO NS TilA T J O:,. WORK TO FA RM E R S fncrea"" of corn at 9 0., a bushec---~51,57 2 . 00 I ncreaseo l siln~cropat$4aton ... -. ... . ... 14,464.00 lncreaseo!hay11t $ 20a to"cc-----10,320.00 I ncreaseofoa tsat 70e abu hel.. .. .. .. .... . _ .. . . . . ...... . .... . 20,837 . 00 Increase o1 cowpea• and v e lv e t bean at $20 a ton 52,350 . 00 l ncreaseo f lrishpotatooant $1. 50abuohel 1,128 . 00 l ncreaSII o! gwecl potato,, ~ nt 60c a bu s hd fi,OOd . 00 Total _______ _ P urebred datry hull ~ nt $ 75 ea.: h.. .. . . .... . ... ..... . . .. 4,875 . 00 Purebred dairy cow s or heife rs at $1 00 each. ...... . 10 , 700.00 Grade dairy cows b rought into countiES ..•.......... 2 , 626.00 Purebred beef co,. •s or heifers a t llOO each . ... . 8,400.00 Purebred bee!bulls11t$lOOeach. . . .. . .. 8 , 900.00 Gr a de cows at , so eac 7,950 . 00 Feed i n.i: cattle at $30 eac 18,000.00 Hogg " "ved by b'eatm e n .. 192,320.00 Boa r a at $ 12 ."ch .. , . ..... 2,498.00 Sowso r giltsat $15 eac,,~---~ 7,485. 00 f~"~;;r : ~~~zo f~ . ; ~~~~;cb/ ro<>pe~~t;-;;g 22::::~::: Total -----0.-t of •tumping ... . .... ... .. ~ -... ... 10ll,ll20.00 Value of improved implement eud toot. .. . . ...... 10,UO.OO Value si loaati2ooeac . S,800.0 0 Valuedlpplngvnt,iat $100eae 7,400 . 00 Total _ __ ____ _ V a l ue ferti!i,:er bought cooperatively... . .•. 74,928 . 00 Amount Mved to fnrmer s. .. _ l-'.1,628.00 Va\u e manureat'3aton .................. ... .... . . .. . ..... _.J ,644,630 .00 Valuegroundlimestoneapplied..t $ 2.50aton .... _ .lll,812,00 $ 156,665.00 492 . 7 1 0 .00 129,930.00

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Anmial Report, 1916 25 NEGRO WO H K The cooperat i ve demonstration work !o r negroes has been conducted under two divisions, the farm and home makers clubs and demonstration work for negro !arme r s . As the Agricul tural and Mechanic a l College for Negroes is located at Talla hassee, hendquarters for both divisions of the negro work ha\e been maintained in that institutiun. Both of these branches arc under the direct supervision of the extension division of the University of F l orida and weekly report s are made to the st.ate agent. The farm demonstration work for negroes is conducted in Leon county, under the supervision of a local agent. His work has been similar to that conducted b y county agents and his report shows that practically all the crops used by the county agents for demonstrations ha\'e been taken up in Leon county by the loea l agent. This agent gives four days' time to farm demonstrations and two days to tho A. & M. College. A report for the year's work shows that demonstration work for negroell ha s been conducted with corn, cotton, tobacco, sweet potatoes , oats, peanuts, velvet beans, eowpeas and a few smnll plots of alfalfa and kudzu. In all, approximat.ely one hundred a n d fifty demonstrators were enlisted, with nl)out one.half that number reporting. These reports indicate that the average yields are an increase over the usual productions, due l argely to the better fanning methods, such as soil preparation, seed selection, proper cultivation and harvest i ng. This agent reports some difficulty i n carrying out lhe plan as fully as i s des i red, because most of the farmers with whom he works are tenants, working on a share basis with land l ords, and must follow the landlord's instructions . In livestock, the report I ndicates that an effort has been made to i ncrease the va l ue of hogs owned by negro farmers. Six purebred breeding hogs have been purchased and the agent has arranged with the Florida A . & M. College for negro farm ers to cross their sows with the pureblood boars owned by that institution. Some fifty farmers have taken advanta1te of the opportunity. Considerable work a l so has been done i n the control of hog cholera. The local agent has admi n istered the serum an d has instructed farmers in the sanitary methods for keeping their hogi:1 hea l thy. H e has gi\'cn instruction on rotation of pastures

PAGE 27

26 Florida Coope-n:ititt e Extension for hogs and has prov ide d the necessary feeds so that they may keep a l aryer number than usua l . Tlie work in dairying h RII been undertaken ia ra-eli with the ob jee t of inducing formers to use the purebred da iry 11iree owned b y th e A. &:: M . College a.nd th e ke
PAGE 28

Ann!UU Re'f}Ort, 1916 27 The plan of work i n n cgro boys' clubs i :;i to ha ve each membe r select and cu ltivate one acre, hal f of it i:;i planted t.o corn, one fourt h to peanuts, and one -fourt h to s weet potat oes . Systematic records of the work ore kept and at th e end of the season the m anaging agent collects nnd tabulate!! th ese reports. The report forms, badges, and emb l ems an! different from those used by the white boys in t h e agricultural club v.,irk. This o r gan ization for the negro boy11 i s known as the fnrm m akers club . The plan o f work among negro girl.!I is to h ave each on e grow one-tenth acre in ,,egetabl~ usually to matoes. Th ey are also given in structions in canning and preserving and in hou se k e
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28 FloridaCooperative Eztmai oK REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs , Director. Sm: I submit he r ewith the report of the district agent for Eaat and South Florida for the f i scal year ending J une 80, 1916. . The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the distriet of East and South Florida hrus been co n ducted in eighteen counties during the past year. The work. with two exceptiortll, hrus progressed without !!Crious interruption. The work in Ala c hua county was with ou t an agent from November 15, 1915, until April 1, due to t h e agent'11 resignation, which se ri ously inter fered with the demonstrotion work in spring crops and in the preparation for the seaso n's pla nting. Consequen tly no demonstrations in spring planted crops were possible and the work was more or Iese unorgani?.ed. The Alachua county agent again resigned November 1 , leaving the work unfin i shed. The accomplishments were only of a genera l nature, chiefly tho treatment of hogs with eeru m agailll!t cho l ern, and general advisory work among !armers. A good pnrt of the agent's time was also taken up with plans for the A l ac hua county fair, conseque ntly man y essentials were neglected. In St. Lucie county the agent began work Jan uary 1 and resigned after si,i: month a . This w as the firs't year's work in the county, therefore every phase of it was new. At the end of t his period the agent WAS just begin n ing to become estab lished and to get some demon s tration wo r k well in line. Leav ing the work at this period without an a~nt for three suc cessive months had 11 demoralizing effect th at interfered se riously with the entire yea r '11 work. Ho wever, a new agent was appo in ted October 1. who took up the work starred by the former agent and was able to make some progre SII even a f ter thi s interruption. In this county, the main agricultura l in come waa from the pineappl e crop, where there nre many ne w people and a ,•ariet y of agricultural problems. In a ll the counties there ha s been steady progr ess from the first. and at the c l ose of the year an increa sed Interest was manifested when reappointments and appropriations for the coming year were neccs~ary. During the year, the district agent wns ablo to make 1 05 otricial visit.a to the county agents in hia district, spen ding an nvert1ire of one and t hree-fourths da ys at each vi!lit. The

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Annual Report, 1916 "' n ewe r arents recei~ecl m ore a ttention than did those of longe r cxpcricnoo in the work. I t was po!!S ible to visi t 237 farmers accompanied by county agehts. These faT!llera were repre senlatives of their communities and counties, nnd I was able to see average condition s and to give the greatest nssistnnce to t he county agen t for hi s ge n e ral work. The enla r gement o f the work in each county and its intro duction int.o n ew counties hru! brough t the agents f ace to f ace w i th some definite probl ems that w ill require some t i m e t o system.ntite from the demonstration sta ndpoint. C IIARACTER OF THE WORK BY COUNTY AGF.NTS The general diversification, pa rticularly of sta pl e crops, has been urged by e\•ery c ounty age nt. also diver sifica ti on o! truck and fr ui t crops where v er it I s procticable. Most or the county agenta ha\'C bee n able to sa t isfy the deman ds ot t he !aT!llera a n d to meet the situati on i n a good w ay . I nterest in sta ple farm cro p s is not diffic ult to arouse amo n g most of the pro gress i ve l a nd owneni, and businesa i nterests; but a large num ber of !armers, truckera and grove owners opernte on su ch u small sca l e and are so dependent on imm ediate returns from t heir crops that their acreage i11 not sufficient t o warrant the eq ui1 ,mc nt req uired to d iversify fa rm crops or to undertake li\ estock production t o any apprec iabl e exte nt. M any arc w ithout means to clear l and and buy t he neccSllary improve ments and eq u ip ment to develop t heir farm operations even on a reaso n ab l e scale. Where com and fora ge. crops are g ro wn by s uch fa rmers they mu st necessarily follow w i nter truck crops n n d on a sma ll acre age. T h ese grow en are urged to fo ll ow winter c r ops with corn, sorgh um, , ,c i ve t beans, and h ay crops a nd some o! th e beat yiel ds in Florida h av e been grow n under s uch conditions. The agent s ' work has ha d quite a marked effect on thi s and more fanneni n rc plantin g sta p le c rops after win te r truck tha n h eretofore, a n d I n creased acreages of com are being grown in a ll o ! the doubtfu l corn counties due largely to th e county agents' in fl u ence. The cor n cro p of thi s di strict sho ws a great Inc rease . Farm ers arc ab l e to harvest twenty.five to forty bu she l s an ac re on Jand a th at formerly produc e d fifteen bushels o r less. This i n crease is got l argely thru belter preparation of the so il a nd U 1 e addition of vegetable ma tter to it, w hi c h h a s g iven a larg er a\cragc yield at a l ower cost a bu11he l. Conseq u ent l y good com i s bei n g produced at a profit o n most of th e demonstration p l ots.

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SO Florida Cooperativ e Ezternrion The county agents h ave been more success ful i n getti ng !arm ers and truckera to plant velvet beans than any other legu me crop. The s h ort.e r season varieties, which are l ess subject to the attacks of in sects and which can be removed from the l a nd in time to prepare for winter crops, fi t Jnto the s ystem of crop pi ng and can be grown at comparative l y sma ll experu,;e with a far greater degrco of certainty. The importance of a summer crop to follow a spr ing crop has become more genera lly recog nized by fnrmers who fo llow the advice of th e county agents. Cowpens and begga rweed also are more extensive ly grown. Oats proved Quite unsatisfactory last ye.ar in nearly e,•ery county, due l argely to the continued drought during March and April. ConBequently, oats are considered doubtfu l both by agents and tanners and are recommended on l y as a winter co,-e r crop or pa!!ture crop. Rotations in pasture crops for hop proved satisfactory in the work of moat of the county age n ts. The increased interest i n hog rai s ing haB brought pasture crops more forcibly to the attention of the farmers. Pasture crops are also planted f or catt l e wh ich assists materially in cutting down the feed bill for dairy herd s, or i t provides quick pasture s tor young stock tha t would other w ise be pastured on the ranife a nd become badly infested w ith cattle ticks. En si l age crops, chiefly corn, J apanese cane and so rghum , ha,•e increased in acreage and importance In proportio n to the othe r improv e m e nts an d the number or s ilo s in use. J.IJ::MO:-ISTKAT I OSS IN TRUCK AN D Vl:-:GETADLE C ROPS Demon stration wo r k in vegetable cropa has been chiefly con fined to the control or insecta and diseai,es_ A n ew and import ant project WM introduced into Seminole co unt y, at the sug• gestion or the entomologist o( th e norida Experiment Station, that prom! Bell much for that section. The presence of rootknot ln celery nnd le ttuce beds h as been a serious problem for many yenrs. In t wo cases where demonstration work wa.s carried out, th e plant beds had become so t h oro l y infested with nematode& that more than fifty percent of th e plants Were either killed or weake n ed so a.a to make them u seless, and the nmainder were so badly infested that their ~wth wBK slow and many required resett in g, thua maklnr the cost of p l anting ve r y expensi\'e and the probability of ,etting a profit able crop qu i te uncertain. The treatment recommended for the control ot this i n sect i& sodium eyanamid, applied to the

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Annual Report, 1916 31 110 il before the seeds an p l anted. I! this remed y continues to pro,e as sa ti sfactury as it has this past season, it will save the growers many thou!lnnds of dollars annually. The county agent Is one of the most succcss!ul growers and realizes the im portance oft.his, comequently , h e is ab le to undertake the work in a systematic way and bring many growers to him for sug gestions a l ong other lines. Other demonstrations for t.he contro l of aphids in water me lons, cucumbers, and eggp l ant; worms in t.ornatoes; bordeaux spray for Irish potat.o b li ght; fung u s di seases of tomatoes, celery, and eggplant; and t he proper rotation of crops to pre vent bacterial disease s of tomatoes and eggplant, were con ducted. In the vegetable growing areas of South Florida much of the county agents' time was taken up with advising t ruck growers on the best methods of planting, fertilizing , cultivating and packing for market. SUMA tER CROPS TO FOLLOW WINTER VEGETABLES Wherever practicable, county agents have urged the growing of summer feed crops on the highly fertilized truck lands to take up the waste of worthle !lll crops. I n the Sanford area the county demonstration agent has been able to arouse interest in the erection of silos, the se to be filled wit h com that follows the winUlr truck crops. H eretofore, the production of corn on these lands has not been considered very profitable altho it was ' generally practiced. The need of stab l e fertilizer for that sec tion Is quite apparent, coruiequenUy, the use of silage for fat tening steers would mean profit from the sale of catUe and the additional profit from t.he stable manure. This stab le manure is generally so ld at $6 or $ 7 a ton in that section. DEMO:SSTRATIONS IN CITRUS GROVES In the citrus growing counUes the agents are endeavoring to impro\e the grade and quantity of fruit by sys te matic 11 praying and prun i ng. Whitefly, scale and rus t mites are the chJef in i;ect pest!!; citrus scab, withertlp, and melanose, th e principa] fungus di11eases. When groves a re placed under the supervision of the agent a survey of the needs of the grove is mad e and definite plans are outlined for a full season's .spray ing, to be modified accord ing to the variations caused by the weather or other Influences . to the variations caused by the weat h er or other in0uences. Many groves are sprayed only once or tv.'lce a yea r to overcome

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32 Florida Cooperative E:l:Urniion a single pest. The county agent is able to advise the best spray and the best time to make the application. Foot-rot. gwnmosis, etc., on trees are treated; budding, culture, and fertilfaation re ceive attent i on from the county agent. Keeping tree records for the purpose of locating unprofitable trees in the citrus groves was undertaken by the agent in Osceo l a county. Two year records from one grove are avail• able. Trees are numbered and the yield of every tree recorded. LANDSCAPE WOUK IN SCHOOLS In Lake county the schoo l board hns sought the cooperation of the count; agent i n laying out the school grounds with concreW walks and planting shrubbery and trees to improve the s chool property. This opens a useful field of service for county agents who are qualified for such service. DEMONSTRATION WORK IN l'l!'i'EAPl'LE CULTUUE Demonstration work in pineapple culture is confined to St. Lucie county. During the last five years unsa.tisfaetory yields. due apparently to many causes, have been rapid l y reducing the pineapple acreage. After a survey of the situation, and con sultation with the best growers, the plant pathologist and en• tomologist of the Experiment Station, the st.ate, district and county agents, mapped out a plan for the direction of the grow ers of pineapples. The count; agent was advised to make the following recommendations: (a) The application of cyanamid to the !:!Oil before setting the plants, to control root.knot . (b) Modification in general plant i ng and cultivation. (c) Variation in the application of fertilizers. (d) Turning under old vegetable plants to add organic mat ter to the soil before resetting the old fields. (o) Selection of slips from healthy fields. As It requires h1,o seasons to produce a crop after planting, it will be two years before definite results can be observed. IC by improved methods the pineapple soils of the East coast can be brought back into profit.able bearing it will re-establish th e pineapple industry that formerly provided the most important money crop in St. Lucie county. Pineapple lands are usually unsuited to general fanning and trucking, or to citrus culture. It is therefore very deslmble thnt they 11hould be brought back to successful pineapp l e culture if possible.

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Annual Report, 1916 33 FAIRS The county and district agents have assisted in judging the exhibits at county fairs. The agents of Duval, Clay, and Alachua, had complete mana geme nt of the fairs in their re spective counties; those of Lake and Osceola assumed complete charge of the county exhibits at the Orlando and Tampa fairs. This has added considerably to the ordinary duties of these agents, nevertheless it has strengthened the agent in his work and ha s stimulated interest and support from influential citizens. Other county agents assisted in j udging and in sceuring and planning exhibits, and cooperated in every way that would stim ulate interest an d promote agricultural development. LIVESTOCK Thero is a persistent demand on all agents to stimulate the product ion of better livestock. The most effective work has been in the distribution of purebred hogs thru the pig clubs, control of hog cholera and parasites thru the use of serum and sanit.ary methods of handling h ogs ; introduction of purebred and grade breeding cattJe; building of dipping vats, planting pastures and food crops and the erection of silos. FINANCIAL SUPPOltT FROM COUNTIES The appropr i ations from the county sources have made sub stantia l increase each year. For the roming year six counties nppropriated the same amount as for the previoils year; eleven increased their nppropriations; one reduced the appropriation; and s ix made appropriations for the first time. The total ap propriations from the county sources are $24,450; average to the county for 1916-17, $1,014.66, ngainst an average of $790 for1915-16. AH of the sup pl emenfury funds, with two exceptiom, have been appropriated by rounty commissioners when part of the expenses of the county agents have been borne by boards of trade. In several counties the total of one-half mill (m aximum permitted by law) was appropriated by the county CQmmis sioners for the agricu ltural development. The part that was not used for county agents' work was used for building dipping vats, providing scholarships for agricultu~l students, prizes fo r club v.-ork or s upp ort of the home demonstration work, practically all of w hi c h was due to the influence of the county agent. f. e. ,.-3

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34 Flori~ Cooperative Ea:tensi01 i FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS Th _e county agents have made an effort to organh:e farmers' clubs and cooperative organizations in almost every county. Such organizations ha ve been difficult to cffeet or to hold after organization. Some have organized chiefly for cooperative mar keting of truck crops; these have been effective in securing better prices by enabling truckers to ship collectively in carlots, and reach a wider range of markets. Of thege the most clfcetive has been the Lee county truckers' associatio n, the age nt being one of the chief beneficiaries. Most of the truckers in Lee county are trucking on a small acreage, growing early eggplant, poppers and tomatoes and following them with winter Irish potatoes. This associatlOJl turns over its entire output to a responsi bl e commisa.ion firm on a commission basis who diverts thoir produ cts according to market demands. All shipments are pooled. They are also enabled to purchase seed, insecticides, fungicides, and part of their fertilizers, collectively, which not only reduces the cost of materia l s, freight rates, etc., but se cures supplies well in advance of the time actually needed. This organization has eighty percent of the truckers of the county in its membership. In Mar ion county an effort was made to establish a single breed of hogs in the county. After a conference with tl1e bank ers who loaned the money for the project, Ha mpshires were selected, chiefly for the pig club boys. However, of the two carloads of breeding stock purchased, about twenty were bought by farmers. Lake county has an organization known as the Lake county chamber of commerce. It is organized for the general agricul tural development of the county, in which the agent takes an active part. Thru the i nfluence of the county board of trade, the comm i ssioners were induced t.o levy a half-mill to be used for agricultural development and this money was turned over to the board for expenditure. The plan submitted by this board of trade is working t.owan.'l tick eradication, encourage ment of dairies, erect ion of silos. distribution of purebred breeding hogs, and the standard ization and marketing of Nata l hay. , Hog cholera contro l sti ll occupies an Important part in all the county agents ' work. In the northern counties It takes more time than any other single problem. The effects, bow

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Annual Report, 1916 36 e,,er, from the past educationa l work are now quite appreciable in that practica ll y every hog r.iiscr depends largely on the use of hog cholera serum to prevent the spread of the diSCMc. H e has also learned the importance of better sanitary methods so that bad or negative results are seldom reported following the use of serum. 'l'he losses of good hogs has been materially reduced. The county age n ts are recognized as experts in hog cholera control. V i rus has been used by many of the county agent.s with re markably good results. Explicit instructions g i ven to the county age n ts have been carefully followed and every precau tion taken to avoid errors . When the free serum supp l y was exhausted i t seemed prob able that the ca ll on the agents to vaccinate would diminish but on the contrary there has been no appreciable change in the demand for their services in hog cholera contro l . DIPPING V A T S Considerable progress h as been made in the construction of dipping vats in the entire district, but as the general super vision of all tick eradication work is directed !rom the Bureau of Animal Industry , the agents have not attempted systematic tick eradication. Thru t h eir i nfluence, however, dipping vats have been built i n nearly every county. The agents are called upon to pick out n location for the vat and su~rvlse jt.~ co n struction , sec u re materials fo r making the dip, nnd fill the vat for the first time to see that it is properly done. Respectfully , A. P. Sn:NCEK, District Agent.

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36 Florida Cooperative E:rtenswn REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P, JI. Rolfa, Director. Sm : I submit herewith the report of the district agent fol' North and Weat Florida for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916. The severe tropical storm beginning July 5 nnd followed by a period of excessive rainfall was very destructive to ull crops in West Florida. Agricultural interests were demoralized and at that time the outlook for resu l ts in the year's work in those Counties was far from encouraging. However, all agencies united to overcome the damage as far as possible. Seed fur nished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture was distributed thru this tertitory by county agents. Farmers were urged to use this and any other seed obtainable to replant the drowned out lands. These late planted crops, consisting mostly of for age crops, helped very materially towaTd making up for the shortage of those damaged by the storm. Demonstration plots i n most crops were badly cut up and many were abandoned. COTl'ON The cotton crop suffered from the wet weather conditions and conditions that followed probably more than any other crop with which demonstrations were being conducted. The rainfall was heaviest thru that portion of the district west of the Apa l achicola River. This was also the territory having the heaviest infestation of boll weevils, the river being the eastern boundary of the area having had the weevil tv.o years or more. Until the early part of July the outlook foT the cotton crop in this terrirory ,vas good. The farmers as a rule had learned the methods necessary to make eotton in spite or the weevil and were putting these methods into practiee. The cxeesslve and continued rainfall caused the almost total shedding of squares and bolls on the plants at the time. This wet weather, which was so unfavorable for cotton, furnished almost ideal condi tions for the multiplication of boll weevils, so that when weather conditions ngnin became favorable and the cotton plants began to put on new fru i t, the weev il s were present in large enough numbers to puncture nearly all the squares set. VELVET BEANS The velvet bean has, for a number of years, been recognized as a va lu able crop for Florida, both as a soil huildeT and as a forage crop. Within the .last few yea.rs the bean as a _grain feed has been coming more and more inW prominence .

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Annual Report, 1916 37 In a number of towns in West Florida feed mills have been in s talled for the purpose of . making mixed feed of velvet beans, oorn, and other products. Mixtures of equal parts b y we igh t of ve l vet beans in the pod and oorn in the shuck ground to gether mnke an excellent :feed for horses and cattle . This is being sold to the trade from the mills, which indicates the be ginning of an important indu s try to tak
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38 FWrida Coo'Pff'(ltive E~trn.ti
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Annual Report, 1916 39 REPORT OF THE BOYS' AG RI CULTURAL CLUB AGf-;NT P.H. Rolfe, Director. Sm: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricu ltural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1916. The boys' corn club work extended into 41 counties with a total membership of 1,191. Reports were collected from 450 boys and the average yield to the aci-e was 42.1 bushels. The corn was produced at a cost of 38 cents a bushel, or $15.99 an acre. Rati n g it at 90 cents a bushel, the average net profit an acre was $21.90. The total net profit from the 450 acres was $9,860.00. Se\'eral demonstrations created much interest in the comm u nities where they were conducted. The highest yield was 119.6 bushels, produced at a cost of 26 cents a bushel. Thia was on a fine 11andy loam soi! in Nassau county. T he land was well prepared, good seed corn was used and intelligent methods of fertilizing and cultivating practiced. The second best yield was 115 bushels, produced in Marion county. This was on a muck soil, and naturally very produc tive. No fertilizer was used, and the corn cost or1Jy 13 cents a bushel. A third best yield of 100.6 bushels wa~ obtained in J l ernando county. This corn cost 31 cents a bushel. The land was a fi e. 8. -T,,, e lve boy, 3\ th~ hor l courMO who m ode mo,., 1h10 75b u.he l so foorn n •cre.

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40 Florida Cooperative ExtenaWn dark sandy l oam. The work on these three acres is mentioned because yie l ds of 100 bushe l s are seldom produced. The following ta ble gives detai l s of the corn club work in c ount ies from which reports were obtailled : SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK The club members realize the value of good seed corn , and 62 percent of the reports indicate that improved varietieg were used. The exhibits a t the coun ty contests and fairs s h oW that much progress has been made in selecting better com for plant ing and for show purpo ses. Some have se lected seed in the fie ld a nd -so l d it for good pricel!.

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Annual Report, 1916 4l r '1 l \ ( Ii( \ 1/1 H i I \ I I I i \ l, We advise the planting of cowpea11 or some other legume with the corn for the purpose of building up the soil 1ind furnishing feed for JiveBtock. More boys followed the instructions than ever before. Valuable demonstrations in fnll breaking and planting winter cover cropa have been conducted by club mem beffl. A few boys had adopted a two-year syst('m of crop rotation. \Vhile one acre was in corn this year another acre was being p repared for a better crop of corn next year. Velvet beans and cowpeas were grown and turned under in the full. Oats or rye wiu1 then sowed and used for winter pastures. In the fo ll owing spring when the winter crop is turned under the land will be in ideal condition for a good crop of corn. The good results of the club work are due to these painstaking cff'orts of .110me of our most intelligent farmer boys. T II E P IG CLIJH WORK The plan of the boys' club work is to broaden and instruct boys along all l ines of fanning activities. The 1>ig c l u~ were taken up as a new feature this year. Three hundred and thirty six boys have raised pigs. Th e general plan is for club mem bers to purchase purebred pip about three months o l d and care for them according to the rules of the club and under the persona l instruction of the county agents. The result..s of the firat year's work are even better than we had expected. One hundred and two pigii were exhibited at ~-ounty contel!t..s 11n d fairs and accurate reports were secured. They made an average d11ily gain of three quarters of a r,ound, costing 4.7 cents a r,ound. This does 11ot include t-he cost of labor. It was not ad\isable in some counties to hiwe the pig11 exhibited, owing t.o the danger from cholera And injury in transit.

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42 florida Cooperative E:,;ten;Jio11 FiJ. 10.----Cmp ro,,,ion. Vch-ct beoos and eowpcM in fore-ground. Corn club1creinbackgrou11<1. Nassaucounly. The pig club work in Suwannee county was quite successful. Thirteen Poland Chinas made an average gain of 1.04 pounds a day, at a coat of four and one-third cents a pound. Ten Durocs made an average daily gain of 1.24 pounds and the co.st of production was four and one-third cents a pound. The pigs were pnrehased when about three months old and had been cared for live months when the records were compiled. In Marion county 23 boys purchased bred gilts at a cost of $40 each. These gilts farrowed an average of six pigs, and all could have been so ld at weaning time. If they had all been sold at the average price paid for those that were sold, the net profit over the cost of the sow and all other expenses would have been $21.30 for each boy. I lillsboro and I l ernando were among the leading counties in the pig c !ub work. Other successful counties were Duval, Es cambia and Broward. The following table gives details of the work in counties from which reports were obtained: ~N,~m,,.-,~,,~,.-,.11 =t~, -l--c , +' 1 Ul 1 lJ,ll Averngu daily gains, lb s. .66 1 .r.7 .68 1.24 . 65 j .ss .10 I .76 Average co;t per lb., ets. 4. l 8.6 6 ~.3 4 4.5 1 5 .1 ~.7

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Annual R ePQr t, 1916 " It was not an caay matter to fi nd pip enou a: h in the State to su pply the demand. The number of p igs of the differen t breeda used are as follows: Du roca 182, Poland Ch i na s 88 , Berksh ir es 35, H amP9hires 83, Yorkshires 3, Tamworth s 3, and grade Berkshires 4 2. The county agents ha ve giv en very carefu l a ttention to the pig club work. They assi st the boys in mak i ng up balanced rntions , und require them to pro v id e pastures or green feed s. The pigs are kept free from lice and precau t i ons are taken to nvoi d the sp read of contagious di seases . We are fortunate i n having the cooperation of the bankers t hru o ut the State. Any boy who complies with the rules can borrow money f rom his local banker for a yea r a nd a half at si x perc en t intere st and purchase a well bred pig. This gives tim e to carry it to maturity, raise a litter o f pig s and sell enough t o pay the note b y the time it is du e. This pl an 111T ords opportunities for many boys to jo in the pig club who would be unable to do so otherwise. The fo ll o wing form is u se d as n contract between the banker an d club member: , COO P ERAT I VE EXTENSION WORK " A GRI CU LT U R E AND HO ME 1-:CON O)UCS Stat. of Fl orida A GR EEM ENT BETWEEN MEMBERS O F TUE l'IG CLUB ANO , __ _ _______ TRUSTEE. -------~91.. .. Thi 1 D to cetl.ify th a a1 j oine d the P ig C lu b i County, and ha1 atr-i to tollow tho ad, ite and of t he Co u nty DeraonUration All" n t with rt ~ to ':U:f: J~/ c"e~ t~i~ b!~kh ~ ::'.."_'.'.,-'.'.'.":.'':'.'.m'.:"" '.'.'.'"' :'...'.:''====-~• If th club member t.lh to follow th e ln 1 tn>ctlon1 ef the County Dem on 1 t.n,Lion Agm,tor n tglttts p i g In any 'Wf.y that.• 111 Impai r p r oper i::rowth an d develo p ment, the Co\lnty Agent mar t. h pig and dispoac! of lt Jn th e be1 t way to Nfond th e banks. Incon ~ idoratlon of the confl deneo placed I n me, I lllfl'fll to pa ~ --~ ~-~Tr ll&tff , "ithln 18 month• from d o.te -,,.;th lntell$t aL,---$1 from date. (Signaturnof dub member) Thi s agreement, wh e n properly 1 i gned b y a ny dub m e mb&r Mled ed by I.he County Dem0n1tratlon Agent, bet,:,me1 a n order for the amount namNI t heuin . UOYS' CLUB MEb'TI NGS One hundred and thirty-three boya' club m eeti ngs were he ld, with a total estimated attendance o( 9,191. Thi s includes sc hool

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44 Florida Cooperativt Ec.i;tenaion. Fir.ll. Marloncountyll>ml'Ohl,et. visiU!. In some countle;i regular monthly meeti n l!'ll were held during the spring 11nd summe r in which the boys took un acti\e part. They prc 11ented papers on their work and other s ub ject.!! of interest to former boys. COU!\" TY 00!\" T E&"TS The county contests were held in the fall. The co rn clu b work wa!I judged according to the following l!Cllle: Yield 30%, profit 30%, exhibit 20'1-. essay and record 20 %. The rules require that two rli~intereated parties mea sui-e tho lundand corn and sign the boy'll report. Th e pig club work was judged as follows: Best pig <10 5; . lowest cost of production 2S %, daily gAims 1 5% , record und c.!!AAY 20'1. Th e records were examined and atle!!led by two disinterested parti~. By follow i ng these rules e\ery boy i s 11 rotecled and the resu l ts are accurate. I t is a custom to award prizes to the boys who make a 11uc Ce&1 of their work. The St.ate Rankers ' Association gave as a priic n $200 scholurship to the University. The Florida ~~ed omlio n of Women' s Cluba gnve $50 fol" the higheRt percentage mnde in the corn elub. The Florida Ea. ~ t Cotist Railroad lfll.VC 16 11eho larships to the boys short course in ugriculture. Man dalay Farm, Middl e b urg, gave 28 purebred Duroc-Jersey pigs in as many countiC6. Other \aluable prizes in e\ery county were cont ributed by buiiine!!II men. railroads and co unty com miSl!ioner.i. Th e bel!t priies nre scho la n
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A1unml R epm'I., 1916 45 course for them. Th e boys' short course i n agriculture was held for one week in December when 73 suece.ssful and enthus iastic club members came from 31 counties. Lectures were given every morning, and the afternoons. were spent in the laboratories of the Agricultural College and Experiment Sta tion study i ng and judging livestock. The entire meeting was interesting and full of life. The Gainesville bankers ga\e the boys a banquet the IMt night, and e>ery one WlllJ given a diploma, o r certificate of honor and merit. The state prizes were also presented at that time. The boys' club agent made 122 visits to county agents and gave much time to counties that have no agents. Three hun dred and eighty-three farms were visited. The distance trav eled by rail was 16,765 miles. by automobile and team 2,884 miles. Respectfully, G. L. II EIUUNGTON, Roy a' Club Agent. 1'11. IJ ,-Bon who am,nded !he 1hn rt course ia a1rku!ture at 1he Un!ver,i1y.

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46 Florida Cooperatil:e Ezlffllion Toi.Ill Square ~lilro in t 'lorid11 i>~.861 T otlll Sq11are lli let in 32 C<>uotleis that have Hom e Demonstration Sta~1~;t~~n;g , :i~~-~:-i .. ~::a~:dd~!1t11ne 30, 1917 4/l,~~ S t ate of ~,i ,h, Dl•t11nce, Ea , t and We8t .. 383 t ::n~nte~~~~;/:tJo~i~i ub s fo; Wome n ..... ,_.. .... P oultry •~d Spedal Clube for Wom en and Girla 8li

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Annual Report, 1916 47 REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMO~ . ST~ATION AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. Slit: I submit herewith the report 0 the St.ate agent for Home Dem onstration Work for the fiscal year ending De.::em ber 31, 1916. During the year there were t wenty -eight county home dem onstration agents at work, and the following is a summary of their reports: Lett;., ,. written ..... ...... . llulleth 111 distributed Meeting held Nurnberattendingmeetin Firel ess eook e u rnnd frele 9s refri ge,ato,.,, mad H ons,,, gereenf:d ... . Fly trap9 made .... . Canner ~ purehn....d ... _. , ........... . . . . Wa te r"or hs y•tem B inst a !l e d Daya work
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48 Flurida Cooperoti~•e Extension agents were made in32 counties by July 1. This was followed by visit.~ from the newly aP J )Ointed district agents, who made the appro priations definite, and wcured support from one additional county to conduct the work withoutstateaid. These appropriations amount cdto$16,076 . 50. Thirty two county agents were employed;4 began work in August; 16 on Sep.. tember 1; 7 on October 1; and 5 on Janua ry 1. A 11 will continue to work thru June 30. The average term of em l'ii.H ,\\in1.,,p.,den,Jonuory. Wohoncouncy . ploymcnt for Florida horne demonstration agents is nine and two-fifths months, with an average salary of $100 per month. Becau se of the increased term of emplo yment, well-trained womcn wcre willing to take up this work. Seventeen are grad uatcs of college or normal schools; 9 have taken short courses in home economics, and 7 have life or state teachers' certifi cates. All are well prepared !or county work. Twenty of these agents own and run their automobiles, two others are supplied by the county board of public in s truction in each county. It has been our constant endeavor to employ as county agents brave, ~trong women who believe in home demonstra tion work, who have initiative, and possess unusual ability as leaders and organi1,ers of rural people. Since the county agent work re quire~ traveling long distances over sandy country roads, fre quently during bad weather, it is the belief of those in charge that the Florida county agent.~ have unusua l strength and have been most self-sacrificing in their interest and enthusiasm to accompli>
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Annual ReptJtt, 1916 49 Slil'F.11\11$1/._G S'fAn' Beginning July 1, the position of girls' club organizer and extension field instructor were discontinued. Tv.•o district agent~ and one agent for poultry clubs were employed . The district agents have the supervision of the work in counties; one supervising the work of seventoon county agents in North and West Florida, the other in charge of the sixtoon county agents in East and South ~'!orida. The agent for poultry cluhll works thruout th(! st.ate with th(! women and girls of the canning c\ub.s and home demonstration club$. This new line of work has come about thru a demand on county agents for as sistance in poultry work. The girls' club work, bllgun in l!Jl2, has had a substantia l growth and continue~ to demand much of the county agtJnt.~• time. The general plan of th(! work fa carried out. l. Organization of girls of the counties thru the schools, into canni11g clubs. 2. In structing the girls in the following work: A. Selecting and planting a on(l•tenth acre garden to vegetables; tomatoes for first year girls; tomatoel'J und bllans for second year girls; and varied crops for third and fourth year girls. B. Keeping a record and costs of all work done. C. Canning. preserving and pickling AU!'plus V(lgetableA. D. Entering the contest with exhibit of products, e8say of the work. record book kept thru the year. and wearing a uniform drc:sA, cap and apron made by the club girl. f.e.e.-4 ~•ig. l5. Fir>1i,rirewinnerkcnier),ooherstni"'berry plol. 0.Ceol~oouoty.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extenaion The county agent plans the final contests, solicits premiums, recehes and awards the prizes which are voluntarily offered, and arrang'es a suitable program. Of the twenty-eight counties organized, well-attended contest s were he l d in twenty-six of them. The girls are putting up bet ter products and are using better cont .. dners. The exhibits s howed marked improYements over those of previous years. Gniater interest is inspired in the work, not only in the club girls, hut in all of those who a t tend the contests. a;:~! ~r~~~~•ro~f!J 0 ~~d ====== Pound Pounds Number Number Total value club ga en s. -~ ======= !fut; ~o~ 1 t P !';.';,'1,:e i/~o~~tngarde n~• ;;:= = ====I AverRgeprolitfrom 1 / tOaerogardcn .. Total can• vcg~•blea and frui t8 put up by !:irk snd women ... _ TJIF; Hl
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Anmwl Report , 1916 51 Mnrgarct Bell, of l l ernando county, won the $60 prize of fered by the Stale Federation of Women's Ch.tbs to the first year club girl who made the highest record. Their records follow: Number pound, tomatou pl'OdUttd ~~"; :~n~h=..:=bl.._ _ No. 3 can• tom•___________ _ Number J•n and bottM:11 or p-rvH, v~table,, and rniiuo Coototproduetion ____________ _ Cootorcanninr.induding catu,,jan,~tc. n.-tpUI from fre1h vegetab!K. ...... . Ettima~va!uecanntd...,getabl ea. ...... _ Egtimated value vegetables u""d at home Total va l ue all produdo Expen """ Net profit c,,. 1.andrum ""' "' ... .. irn 100.78 ~:t~ Mas!ijnl ''" $607~ That the canning work begun by the oounty airenl.11 in 1912 has been of gre11t value to lhe state wiu plainly shown this year. There am now 2.000 or more home canneMI in w,e, and county ageni.11 report that the consumption of home-canned

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52 Florida Cooperative Extemion products in farm homes has been greatly increased and they now form an import.ant part of the diet. One of our 1912 club girls who stayed in the work for three years, supervised the construction and mauagement of a can ning factory in Manatee county, where canning was success fully done. The Manatee county agent reports that more than 36,000 cans were filled by her club girls :md their families. One firm in ll i!!s\.loro county sold 200,000 containers und estimat~ that 60,000 of the!le were l!Old lo farmers in that county. The local demand for these home.canned products is greater than the supply, each girl disposing of her surplus readily; conRequently no definite work toward marketing has been neeThe making of fancy preserves and je!lies for home use only has been curried on by many of the club girls. In a number o[ counties, county agents arc giving very definite help by assisting factories in the manufacture of preserves and jellies from Florida products, and a number of women working under the supervision of the county agents are selling fancy 11roducts made from Florida fruits. Fla-.17.-Suncsledequlpmcotforfarmkhchco. f.
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Annual Report , 1916 53 WOMEN'S WORK The organiU1tion of home demonstration clubs for the women was undertaken by the county agents in January. Four communities were selected in each county where the agent organized the women into home demonstration c l ubs to receive instruction in pou l try ra i sing, the making of household co n veniences, the study of nutrition and home Improvements. As a result of this work, many clubs were organized among women, and meetin2"S were held regular l y thruout the year. At the agents' 'meeting in Gainesville in October, 11 suggested form of const i tution and by-laws was adopted for Florida, also a minute book in which the records of attendance, minutes, etc.,canbekept. The following li st of subjects were suggested for study by the clubs: 1. Organization Poultry i ~~::~ ~o n 11. ~::n1n~r:=rt~~fing. 4. CaN! of lnfan t,s 12. L aun dTy: Cleanin.ir of Clothing Ii. Hou .. ho!d Sanitation and Household Linen 6. Hou ., hn l d Equipment 13. l'nse,ves. Jellies and M a rma7 . Hom e G arde ning lade,i . 8. Butter Making H. Home Work ~nd Play State and United States bu ll etins were furn i shed by the state office for furU1er study by club members. There are now 1 04 home demonstration clubs hold i ng reg u l ar monthly meetings, under the direction of the county agents. The following history or one club indicates the kind of work being done: ,.]os,;e<:,uld <, asilybee<>rwcrtedintoa.biggaintothee<>mmunity. "So lt wae tha t we met. seven in number, at the H omeste a d 1ehoo l house Saturday afternoon, lllareh 11, 1 916 ,to ean tomatoes andtoori.an i ze a permanent Home Economi es Club. "At ffrst a T,-easurer wa~ not.thought necessary. since thcro we r e to b e noon of each month, "At the Sttond meeting in April, the lis t o f membcra wu complete, and f ~ ih~n1h e n;:"t{ \t"b 0 }~;\l"iJ~ .c ;~h"a~d:~:-! Jt\t::!,P~~~t;'".e"ro:t Thi B nMme naturally aron "" d Mm e curio s ity, and 'l\'ith 11n enthugia .t ie membe n, hip , the <"
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54 FI-Orida Cooperativ e Extensian we h11d won for our..,Jve• the reputation of doing BOmething worth while,. We canned 1,25() cans of tomatoe,. The tomatoe, wen cull• from the packing house a. The cost to the mem~r 3 was 2~ cenh a can tor No . 2 cans, pluo .0078 cents a can for material. Now the 811me can i s .11elling her~ tor 1~ Cfln ta a can ._ COU!'iTY S HO R T COURSES There is no feature of the work st.anding out as giving bet ter results than the county short courses. These correspond to FI J. 18.-C~nninJ duh aids of O r; o, gc counly ouendinr a 1h rce-da)• !to ,1co u rsc.

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.4.nnual Re port , 1916 55 the home economics movable school, so gen erally carried on in the North and West. Ofthe 28 cou nty agents at work, 15 held county short courses with a total attendanceof391; 7 were held in the spring at the county. seats and 8 were held in the fall jll.'lt preced hlg the fall contests. In planning these s hortcourses,thecounty agent secured the coop eration of schoo l boards, club,and church society womenofthetowns,of iiJ.l9.-Rur>lschool111rervisor,and,t111epri,e the chambers of comwinner on her plol In June. Citrus couoty, merce and boards of trade. Thenecessaryex penses, which are not great, are 11.'lually paid by the county boards of education. The women entertain the girls in their homes, and the men furnish some special entertainment feature. The instructors for these short courses are the county agent, state and district agents, the state poultry club agent, a dis trict nurse from the State Board of Health, various members of the high school faculty, and frequently a local dentist or doctor. Laboratory work, talks, and lectures on food prepara tion, table manners, methods of caring for the sick, the infant s and old people, and personal hygiene, constitute the program. The enthusiasm !or the short course renews interest in club work and proves an inspiration to work for better reimlts. STATE SHORT COURSE The Florida State College for Women offered it.s fifth short course for prize.winning canning club girls, The district agents had charge of this course. Thirty-nine girls from 27 counties attended. The expenses of travel and expenses while in Tallah!I.S!le were paid from appropriations by banks, wom en's clubs, county boards of education, county commissioners ,

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56 J<'lorida Cooperative E:i;teWJion and fair associations. The tot.al value of these scholarships is estimatedat$845. Owing to a full attendance at the l<'lorida State College there was no space available in the dormitories for the short course student.I!. The recreation hall was fitted up with nineteen double beds and furniture necessary for the comfort and haJ) piness of the girls, providing attractive and comfortable quar ters. The girls occupied them in good spirit. Not a single case of illnegg developed and every girl attended classes reg ularly, making an exceptionally good record. Tbe girls attending the short course were su!Iicient!y mature to get the best from the instruction offered, being from 15 to 18 years old. The instruction consisted of laboratory work, cooking and sewing in the forenoon, manual training, poultry raising and one other lecture every afternoon. Miss Layton. the district agent, gave two two-hour lessons in food prepara tion at the close of the course; the students served a dinner to the wife of the Governor of Florida, the president of the College aud hill wife, accompanied by other distinguished guests. Teu lesson s were gh en in manual trainiug aud the girls made appropriate picture frames for selected picture!!. Fol lowing two two-hour lessons in sewin g , a canning club apron Fi ar .20 .l'llcoo1es!exhlbil. Hill s boroughcounly.

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Annual Report, 1916 57 was eut and made. Six lessons in home nursing were given b y Miss Sherman, d i strict nurse from South F l orida. The short course girls were entertained by the college girls. The ladies or Tallahassee tendered them an automobile ride . and on an o ther occasio n visited i nteresting places around Tal Iahaesee. On the l ast night of the short course, the ,girls were formally prese n ted with "dip l omas " as a ~ognition of faithful study during the two.weeks' course . The annual meeting of county and state agents was held at the Flor i da State College for Women during February, for in struction and conferences. This provided an opportunity for the county agents to come in touc h with the state a n d Federal leaders who assisted in formu l ating plans for future work. The i nstructors and l ecturers were: U.S. Department of Agriculture: St.i,t.ea Relation $ Service : Bradford Knapp, Chief, Demcn,traticn Werk In the South. 0 . B. Martin, in oharg,, Girls' and Wom en ' ! W o rk , Mary F:. Creowtll, A i •tan t in Girl s ' and Wo-..' Work. Ola Powell, Al"S i~Uln t in Girl ' and Women•~ Wor k . B u.-eau of Chcmidry, Dr. M. N . Straughn. Bureau of A ni11U1\ Indu•try: J. H, MeLa ln, S(linli•t In Dairy Divi s ion. 0. J. Taylor , in chorg,, Po u ltr y Club W
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58 Florida Coopuatit111 ExUfl.Sion SPECIA L PRODUCl'S WORK F ollowing the state meeting in February, a specia list from the Bureau of Chemi stry, U. S. D. A., wa s assigned to the homo economics division for ono week to continue exper im ent.ii in citrus marmalades and jellies, and the crystallization or kumqua ts , grapefruit peel and other fruits. Three of the coun ty agents remained to usUl t and to receive spec ial instruction. Thia work w1,s continued during September by this specialist, B uisted by the distric t agent&, who conducted experiment. with guava jelly and guava pa s te. Very definite instructions for th e production of th e11e two products were formulated. ro ULTllY CLUB WORK 'l'he work in pou l try clubs among the women and irirls has been undertaken in seven counties, namely, St. Johns, Es cambia, Duval, Hil fflboro, Polk, DeSoto, and Leon. For the flnJt six months in wh ic h this work has been conducted, I refer yo u to the report of the s tate poultry cl u b organir.er, which covers the work from Ju l y l to Dec e mber 81, 1916. STA TISTICAL UEPORTS OF TRE STAT WORJCERS STATE D!~~~~TRATION ~:: N o. of tr a v cled. .. ... ........ 20,027 No. g; :.tmooii. ::::::::::: :=::::=:: 1 :~ ~:: NoAt'rc':J!.~~ h _e ~~ ~:: :::::::::::: 1 11.fil Cl ub member ! v[gl tM ... .. .....•. 227 Conte r en.,.,•withdirertor .. ___ " 9 Con f e renas with tt1unty Co~f::'e~e :;fth ~ ;; ;i;, ... ~f"edu~atlon . . ... N o.deya:lno ft ~wori<_ __ ___ , .... P e=nttlmeon v,iaition _. __ _ Pe=nt time at medin& outo! ltat.e. .. Per cen t time In fi e ld wo r k .. Percent time o!liee and colleire _ 411 GlltLS' CLUB ORGA N IZER N o. o l mll e11 t r a vel ed ...... --"' 3, H0 ll y rail ~-~ 3, U& llyaul.omoblleorteam.. .. ...... 69' No. 1et.ool1 rioited.... a& No. meetins s h eld __ ___ GO J.ttendanc:e ___________ .21,~3 1 EXTENSION FIF.LO INSTIIUCTOR No. of mi l"" tra•e\,.,d _________ .6, 7 69 H y rail .......... --5, 703 N!y m~!tr: :sbi ~ :1r _ 1 _~-~ ~ :::=~= : 1,0: AttendanCfl 4,628 Vi o itotocaunty aire n l.l. 24 No. ta lkt ,i:lven ...... 11 No. demon st,.tlan• 48 No. fai rs attended 3 No. day , worked ........... ___ 125 DISTRICT J.G ~ ig T NORTH AND 5,752 5,m " '""' " Nci~7:;stratlon 1 .... -l,:',, Sclioo llu nch _____ : =. ~ , ... ~.--------------

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.411nual Report, 1916 59 l)ISTR I CT AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST No. mile. trllveled 7,750 N:.~m~;~i;;~:;fle~m 7~::1 No::i:~:~~~d M~i County &gfflta '7 Countyboardt 4 CountyS11perinlendeata _ IS 0e':::,1in~lo~l :i: POU L Tln' C l, UB ORGAN IZER No. mil•• traveled &,164 llyrall. 3,734 ii{};~:~1;;~: .•,•::..;,,' ,,,_ .. :.i:: 0.monttn,tlon, 1th-en Srhoolo, cluhll ,isited Allendlo.nee No.home.vi•iled B11lletin1dlttributed No. i.llt.t [tiwen No. day , offiee work l 'UlJLIC,\TIONS Three bulletins have been publi shed and distributed by the Department of Hom e Economics, Florida State Co llege for Women. B1.!LL.l.'1u, No. 4. -Tli• JcdcH H •frig•mtorThi t bulleUn , tate 1 the dimenai.ono, m•teri•l• uoed d approximata eort. of eon1trudlng a home madeicelu1n,frlgual<>r,alaoU,.,method1ofo 1 ~••Ungandltaadwantag""' to without HgUlar lee 1upply. F,.-. ?I.-C1ulaaclub clrls in 1; .... 1 i.<>Dll:IU. ~bdi>Otl ()()UD\y.

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60 Florida Cooperative Extensfon BULLETIN No. f.i. in Florida for the B1!LLETlN No. DEMONSTRATION WORK PART OF SCHOOL SYSTEM County board., of public instruction are supporting the home de monstration work in thirty of the thirty.three counties. County superintendenL, and teachers are giving valuable as sistance for reaching the girls in rural section~ The princi pals of the high schoo l s have loaned their schoo l s and facultieii for county short courses, and thruout the entire State Ute home demonstration work is gradually becoming an Important part of the educational system . SUMMARY In reviewing our work for the year, we reali:re that definite and well-planned instruction is being given to the girls and women on the !arms, by well-trained home economic.s county agents. In the club girl we note imp rovement in dress, man ners, and health; in the woman, an interest in the study of home-making and increased effort in improving the home. As a result of the work, reportR indicate th.at 4,000 homes have definite improvements; that 1,000 girls have made and worn the club uniform; that over 100,000 cans of home-canned prod ucts have been placed in the pantries of the country homes; and that the country girl is staying in school longer. We arc sure our work has been conducted in the State for n sufficiently long time to have been a source of definite im provement in home-making on the farm. Respectfully, AGNES ELLEN H ARRIS, State /lame Demonstration Agent.

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Annual R e port, 1916 6 1 REPORT OJ. " THE POULTRY CLUB AGE NT P. H. Rolf , , Director. SrR: I submit herew i th the report of the poultry club agen t fo r the half year, J u l y 1 , 1916, to D ecember 31 , 1!)16. Upon taking up the homo demonstration work In Florida last August, as specialist in poultry, we found that only one county had successfully carried on poultry club work and WM prepared to hold a contest and exhibiL This wna DeSoto county. This county held a t hree-days' sh ort co u nse and n contCllt and exhibit o n the In st da>• of the short course, the canning, poultry and com clubs cooperating. There were about tw enty-five who kept records of t he wo r k and sent in reports, thirteen of whom mado exh i bits of good breeds of poultry. The home demonstration agent in this county desen-es credit for the s plendid work . done without help along this line from any special state worker. She has demonstrated the possibilities of this work in F l orida. A farm woman in the Mme county h as made the fo llowing remarkable record : From two Barred Plymouth Rock roosters nml twenty -fou r hens, s he rnisod nine hundred birds, which she disposed of o n the local ma r ket at a nice profit. A ft er l ooking the field over and coll!!u l ting with the sta te home and co unt y cooperative demonstration ugenb, it was decided best to undertake the work in but five counties. T h e demand for the work became so strong that i t ha, been !!tarted i n seven counties, namely Escambia, Leon, Duva l , St. J ohns, Polk, DeSoto and Hillsboro. Work among the f arm women has been most s t rongly em phasized, but clubs for gir l s are a l so encouraged, and where it seems advisab le , boys aro enro ll ed, Local conditions determine whethe r the work shall be done thru organized C lu bs o r with ind i vidual members. Where practical, we ha .. -e made the unit o f organization among the wome n In the co unty a membership of thirty. Two community egg circles ha,e been organized in Rs camb i a co unty. In thi s e arly deve l opment of the wo rk, how ever, tho quest i on of marketing has not yet demand ed serious consideration. The members arc urged to improve their stocks, k eep p ure bred fow l s, p r cxluce food at home, produce more and be t te r

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62 florida Cooperotfre Ext en8ion pou l try products to meet the market demands, an d work to ward community organi:mtion and cooperation. On the whole, the s ituation p~nb a moat pleaiii n g pl'06pect. Although there are n few adverse conditions, the fa vorab l e conditions in Florida are location, c limute and soil for production of feeds. the mild winters making poAAible early ha tehing of pullets for fall and winter egg production when prices are high, yea r -round production or broilers, ek. and the most e,ccellent markets. Respectfully, MINNIE FLOYD, Poult,r Club Agent. n.-. ll.-A, •h~ C'Ot"D club ooot,,u io M,dll-OD COUDIY,

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Annual Report, 19 1 6 FARME RS' I NS T ITU T ES P . 1:1 . ROLFS, Superinte1ident. C. K. MCQUARRIE, Aaii&ta:nt Superintendent. .. F armOrs I nstitutes ha\'e bee n cond u cte d i n a ll agricul t ural sections of r' l orida. T h e tot.a l attendance was 86,598, or an average of 89 at each scl!sion. Most of these Institutes were held in country school houses, churches or at farmers' picn i cs , where the attendance was from 20 to 60, nearly all of which was farmers and their fami l ies. Othe r meetings were held i n country towns and cities where the attendance ran from 100 to 500. Thtise meeti n gs were h e ld u nder the ausp i ces of gro up l! of !arme r s , wh o h ad specia l a gr icu lt u r a l matters to d iscuss or by busi n ess me n having farmi ng Interests . T h e meetinp were advertised by posters issued by the extension division of the Unlwrsity a n d l ocal newspapers, whic h gave this advert i sing free. The arrangements were usually com• pleted by the cou n ty agenta. The lecturers were the regu l ar f ariers' i nstitute stair from the extension d i vision, the experiment station a nd the college of agriculture of the U ni ve r sity of Flo r ida; speci11 li sU! fro m the U. S. Department of Agriculture , who h ave g i ven co n siderable ass i sta n ce to the county agents a n d extension wo r ers; suceessfu l funners, truckers or citrus growers and rep. resent.alive business men having f1mning intcresta. As F l o r ida hll8 a di\er15ity of agricu lt ural i n tereats, the programs were made to conform with the agricultural interests of the community . I n West F l o r ida the lectures have bee n confined to fa rmi ng und er bo ll w eev il con d itions ; mo n ey c rops to supplant co t ton ; l e gu me c ro ps fo r feed an d so il im pro ve ment ; breeds and care o f hop an d cattle; feeds tha t ca n be grown on West Florida lands for thi;; lh•estock. In Mi ddl e a n d North Florida where the bo ll weevi l baa no t yet ga i ned entrance, many farmers are planting co l t.on for the first ti m e, and these have called for discussions o n ,arieties and methods of growing cotto n. I n Middle and South Florida, trucking, citrus gro w ing, but more el! J leCially th e p la n ting Of fee d an d staple crops, led to n g reater variety o f top ics . Thruout the State, corn, feed crops, hog cho l era contro l a n d better liv~tock ha,e been di s cussed in nea rl y every county.

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64 1''Wrida Cooperative b'xteffl011 COUNTY AGENT'S' INSTITUTES County cooperathe demonstration agents have held many meeting , where truckeni would come together to make plans for growing a apeci1d crop so that by combining their products th ey c ould ship in car lot.,, which ~ould require the planting of the same variety nbou t the same date, making the produc t io n s unifonn and or sufficient quantity to make up car l ots. Where s u ch plans requittd the adv ice of spec i alist.,, this w as supplied thr u the office or the Superintende nt of Farmers' In stitutes. I n other cases meetinp were held to diSCUl!,8 plans for cooperative marketing or li vestock by farmera having le ss than car l ots of marketable animals. County agents have conducted lield institutes in thcir respec~ tive counties from time t.o time. The agent genera lly selects a w ell-cul til•ated eorn demonstration and requests other fanne ra cooperating with him to meet i n the field and go O\"Cr the demon s tration, calling a t tent i o n to the points that h ave been especially emphasized In thi s demonstration. When there la a dipping ,at just completed he may requ est atoc kmen of the community to come at ' a .s tated time and aS11ist In putti n g the cattle thru th is vat f o r the first time. Thi s is followed by dis c u ss ions a nd comments by the farmers, usually l ed by the agent or so m eo ne d esignated to handle that mectlng. Meetings h n,e a l so been called in a simi lar way to empha s ize hog e h olern control. Farmers a re requested to gather in some oonYenient pinc e and aS11isl in the vaeclnatlo a of ho p where both the sing le an d the simultaneous treatment are administered. This Is u sua lly under the direction of the veterinary fie l d agent, U . S . D e partme n t of Agriculture. BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS Bo y s ' eorn and pig club meetings have been h e ld to di scu!lll subjects of vital interest to the clubs. Th ese are ami. nged by the co un ty agents and are usually attended by e ithe r the boya' c lu b agent, the district o r state agent. Man y or these h ave been combi ned with the girls' club meeting s. These institutes are h e ld at school house s or at the home of one o r the club members , where the crops and stock ca n be seen and diacussed. WOMEN'S ANJl G I RLS' I NS TI TUTES Wom en's and girls' ciub institute s hav e been co nducted und er the leadership of the home de m onstration agents. The

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A11m111l R e port, 1916 65 co un ty agent selects the time and p l ace for these so lh nt the interest In her work can be nroused. As these club!! nre or. ganizcd for uniform methods of production, it is duirnble to bring the women and girh, together as fre;iuently ns possible. Ar; l!ie girls work chie f ly w i th vegetable crops, the methods of planting crops and the handling of disea ses a nd insect! that interfere with the crops must be understood by the girls. Spe cia l ists who can disc!WI insect pests nnd disease s have given lectures and demonstratio n s so tha t the girls are able to combat outbr eaks. Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest in poultry raising. At these meetings the topics for discus. sion are p l anned sometirno i n ndv1mce. The st.ate poultry club agent arr.mg-es a series of topic s and the county ug ent follows this plan thru a succession of meetings so tliat at the end of the tenn systemat ic lecture cou~ have been given and b ul. l eti n s supp li ed to correspond wit h each lecture. I n the women ' s in stitutes, roral sanitation. h ome con• ,eniences, home ganiening and can ning and pmcrving of waste vegetables nnd fruits are systematically di:M:usscd, foJ. lowed with su ituble literature for home study. I n many com• munitie a It is :1 d visable to br i n,:r t h e peop l e in the comm unity together find have both m en nnd women leeturers. I n such cusc a, joint meetings are h e ld during lhe forenoon and se p. arate mc,ctings in the a ft ernoon. Ll\'ESTOCK FIELD I SSTITUTES Livestock field meetings have bee n conducted chieny for the purpose of demonstrating the methods of 11p11lying hog cholern Merum and virus. The w arc arranged for by the county ngcnl an d t he demon st ration is l~d by the spec ialist i n hog cholera control. During these demonstrations l1ob"8 are inoculutcd with both scrum nnd virus, when fanne1'11 have sn opportunity to use the needle nnd make the applieation unde r the 11upervisio n or the speciulist in chargt>. I n these meetings, sa ni tation in hog raising am l the use of hog wallows and dip. ping vatlf to rid hogs of exlerna l parasites is 11 pccia lly em• pha sizcd. (Calendar Year Endln~ Oet
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GG Florida Cooperativfl E:rt 1J1111W n SUBJECl'S O I SCUSSt: 11 AT 1 1'i$Tll'UTF..S rm Demonl!lration Work an d SavingWasteProduct11onth e Fam1 What It Stands For l "n,ser,!ng ~ 'Tnlta Cane Lq;islation /or Parmeni AgrleulturalEducaUon H og R.nl o i nl,( Li veatocka11dSJ10 1 T'he Dairy Cow ~"W'~i. rbtln g Cl'Of) rdening Worli S ta nd ~•or 'l'n>ck Crops latwo.,ds Soil3

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IND EX Activit.ica, cxtc!lllion workera. 20, 58 Agcnu, eharaetcr or ,,,ork, 29 i;em,ralaetMtu,20 ,MI group meetinp, lG impn>Y menuby, 2 1 Appropriatlon 1, '1,8 A.._;,,,tk)n a, !arme ra',34 Bankero' uholarsh lP, 1 9 Beef and dairy cottle, 2:'.l Roy a 'eorn clubi,!19 elub m ut!ng4, 4 3, G 4 shorteounn,44 Bulh e tin apu hll1hlld,13,69 Ca n ning,51 Cattle,23 Chant')linetal'l',13,47 Chol , raeonlrol,18 Cil.nl demonttratlollll , 31 grove,:,22 Club,6 ll,t.:l Clobe,eorn,39 farm and hom e makers', 2(; ,,, 1 . •,49 n~grochild...,n,26 pi g,4 1 poultry,Gfi 1JUhJeeu for 1 t11d~•, 53 womcn'1,SJ Cooperation aa nddemon s tratklns,2 1 Corn.21,29 Corn.elub&,yltldl,39 boy,, ' ,39 omma ry, 4 0 C..nteaUl,OD11nty,44,li-O C..tton,21,36 C..11ntya~nUl'inst i t11tc,6t C..untyeonte.ta,44,l',6 !airs.JU li.nandal 1 upport, 3~ t:owpe~ s . 22 Dairynndl,.,e!eauln,23 D emortlllratlonwo r kinfl"rvi,;ionof, 1 2 Fairs,33 Fairs,county,10 Farm •nd home makers' eluba, 26 F•rm ers'a1110dntiona,3 4 IMllilutu,63,65 erl.J.lizer and manu...,, 2~ Fert itizera,28 F;.,tdinsti\ut ee,64,66 Financia l 1tate m ent, 12 uppOrt,county,33 F l oyd,,',ll n nle,roportot.clubagen t, 6 1 Genera\aotivitl011,1genUl ', 20,58 G irl ,' du borga n l1e r ,&8 Gir l ' cluM,workof,49 bMt>'ecord1,60 yi11ld1,60 Grovu,dtru s. 22 H •rrll. Agn u E,.ttp0rtol 1 latede mon1tratlonag,,11t,47 Uay,Z2 llerrini;:ton, C. L.., ...,port of club agent,39 Hogcholera,34,38 llogc h oleracontrol, 1 8 llog,,,23,37 Ho~,inoculationof,18 Homo cennini,:,51 llomcdemonetr11tion ai e nt,41 hortrourses, Ii ~ . !;5 "'!;n i .ation, 1ped11l prod cl,, '8 •~~tne"1ing, aupen-!~lon, 49

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68 Florida C-0 -0pera tive Eztemion H onea and mul N, 2.1 l mp roYcmenu by agent :,, 21 ,alueof,24 l n~uhuionorhogs,18 l n tl tu te1, crnmt y a g,,nt.s , e4 fo r mel"8 ' ,63,6Ji a ubjecto,66 fleld,64 livc o tock,GS women'• and girl '• 6~ Land SCll l)('WOrk,32 Legi•lation. e~ten•ion, 7 Llll'l('rock,2-1 LiYe 1 to,,k,33,3 j Uvutork,disea~es a n d p e, t o , 23 fiel d in• t i t utes,65 nluco! ,2 4 Manur. and f ert!li~cr . Zl :\kQuarlie, C. K. , report of 1 ta te agont,15 M ... 1ini:-,a~nta'field, 16 ag,Zntll'spe,c i a l , J j ,nnual,J; b<>y1 ' elub, 1 3, 6 1 fteld,19 1,!ulc 1a ndhoue s ,23 Ncgrodubli, 2G work, 12,25 ts ,22 Or,:,hard-.p eu h,22 Ori;:ani>111liono!uleru,.;on,8,47 Orjl'11ni>1111lon -. farm,,n',21, 34 Oriio.n!Mlr,~rl o 'olub , f,8 P ace, F:.S.,rnportu f , Hstri ctngcnt,85 f' cnth orehnrJ~, 22 Pi,td u ba, boys ' ,41 tiotegivcn,43 reoulUl,42 f'ineapp!eeulture,32 f' lanofext ens ion,O P ot111oca,awe,:l,22 lri s h,22 l' oultry,ZI Po u ltry duh agent, 6 1 org a nl,cr,60 Poult.ryduhll,1,8 Prcserving,62 l'r i ,es, boyadub, 44 l'roject s ,10 Pub li ca t ion•, 1 :J , 5 9 l te ports,a1.-r i cultura l club>tg<: n t,39 diN!ctor,7 diau-ictag,:nU,2B,3G negrongent,z:; po11 l tryduh1gent.G I a 1a1o0ai;:en1,1r; "':;'" demoMtration •~nt, Ho l !e , r . I I., rep0rt of dir~~tor , 7 R y ~ , 2 2 Schol a rships,b,inkus', 19 School,io i ta , 2(1 Sehoolll, demo n at.raUo n work in, '.l Silo wo rk , 17 county,64 home demoru,1ra ti on, 5 4 ,5ft nei:ro,26 1 ta1e, Sllosa ndd i ppi ni::vato , :U Smit hLever Act, 7 Spe,c!al produeti work, o!I Spencer, A. P.,reportofdistriet agent,28 S!atl' ~hani:ea, 13, 47 St~teagent, !G,H dcmonstr11tlo11 ai::ent, /;II meeting , 57 Statomc n tofflnancos, 12 Subject 1 forlnatltute,.66 Summaryo(bullctino, 13,5:) Summercro p o,3 1 Su~ni&ionofui.enolon, 1 2,49 T;tk cradioat>On, 17 Truck demon atnl.\ions,30 Valucofntcn aion, 2 4 Vchet h<&ns, 22,80,36 W omcn ' s 11nd 1 :irb' i n 9 t itute~,C4 W om e n ' sdu~,r,: 1