Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1937
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text










1937 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE F OR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1937














1937 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND

HOME ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30, 1937







BOARD OF CONTROL R. P. TERRY, Acting Chairman, Miami THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. M. PALMER, Ocala H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Like Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RuBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NErTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialistl HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman' D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economistl D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist1
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY McDAvID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

'Part-time.













CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF D IRECTOR AND V ICE-D IRECTOR ----------------------------- . 7

4Financial Statem ent . . 11

Statistical Report . . . 12

EDITORIAL AND M AILING . 17

A GRICULTURAL CONSERVATION -------------- ------------------------------------------------ . 23

COUNTY A GENTS' A CTIVITIES ------------------------------------- ------------- -------------------------- 30

A GRONOMY D EM ONSTRATIONS . 32

Boys' 4-H CLUB W ORK . . . - 36

CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE . 42

A NIMAL H USBANDRY . . . 45

DAIRYING . -------------------------------------------------------- -- . -------- ------- 49

POULTRY K EEPING . . 52

A GRICULTURAL ECONOM ICS . . 58

Farm M anagem ent D ivision . . 58

M arketing F arm Products . 61

H OME D EM ONSTRATION A CTIVITIES ----------- - ------------------------------------------------------- 63

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION . 72

FOOD, N UTRITION AND H EALTH . 76

IM PROVING FLORIDA RURAL H OM ES . 80

CLOTHING AND TEXTILES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . 83

N EGRO M EN'S W ORK ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86

H OME D EMONSTRATION A M ONG N EGROES . 90

N egro Statistical Report --------------------------------------------------------- . 93






3


















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1937, including a fiscal report for the year ended June 30, 1937.
Respectfully,
R. P. TERRY,
Acting Chairman, Board of Control




Hon. R. P. Terry,
Acting Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JoHN J. Tz=T,
President, University of Florida







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua . Fred L. Craft . Gainesville . Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker . M. D. Futch . Macclenny . Bay . John G. Hentz, Jr. Panama City . Bradford . T. K. McClane . Starke . Brevard .T. L. Cain . Cocoa . Mrs. Eunice F. Gay
8roward . Ft. Lauderdale . Miss Olga Kent
alhoun . J. G. Kelley . Blountstown . Miss Eloise Chapman harlotte . N. H. McQueen . Punta Gorda . citrus . Inverness . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore lay . Green Cove Springs . Miss Beulah Felts Folumbia . Guy Cox . Lake City . Miss Ruth Durrenberger ade . C. H. Steffani . Miami . Miss Eunice Grady )ade (Asst.) . J. L. Edwards . Miami . DeSoto . E. H . Vance . Arcadia . Dixie . D. M. Treadwell . Cross City . Duval . A. S. Lawton . Jacksonville . Miss Pearl Laffitte )uval (Asst.) . Frank M. Dennis .Jacksonville . ,scambia . E. H. Finlayson . Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden . Henry Hudson . Quincy . Miss Elise Laffitte ilchrist . A . S. Laird . Trenton . 'lades & Hendry .G. C. Hodge . Moore Haven . . . .
,ulf . Wewahitchka . Mrs. Pearl Whitfield fam ilton . J. J. Sechrest . Jasper . lardee . H. L. Miller . Wauchula .
fernando . B. E. Lawton . Brooksville . highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer . Sebring .
tillsborough . Alec White . Tampa . lillsborough (West) . Tampa . Miss Allie Lee Rush lillsborough (East) . Plant City . Miss Irene Riley Iolmes . D. D. McCloud . Bonifay . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle 'ackson . J. W. Malone . Marianna . Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter Jefferson . P. R. McMullen . Monticello . Miss 'Ruby Brown
afayette . D. H. Ward . Mayo .
,ake . R. E. Norris . Tavares . Mrs. Lucie K. Miller ,ee . C. P. Heuck . Ft. Myers . eon . K. S. McMullen .Tallahassee . Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe ,evy . T. K. Rickenbaker Bronson . Miss Wilma Richardson liberty . F. D. Yaun . Bristol . . . .
viadison . S. L. Brothers . Madison . Miss Bennie F. Wilder anatee . Ed L. Ayers . Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb arion . R. A. Stratford . Ocala . Miss Kathryn Riddle 4assau .J. Raymond Mills .-Iilliard . )kaloosa . E. R. N elson . Crestview . )keechobee . C. A. Fulford . Okeechobee . )range . K. C. Moore . Orlando . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor )sceola . J. R. Gunn . Kissimmee . Miss Albina Smith 'alm Beach . M. U. Mounts . West Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus lasco . LA.McClellan, Jr. Dade City . linellas . J. H. Logan . Clearwater . Miss Tillie Roesel lolk . W. P. Hayman . Bartow . . . Miss Lois Godbey lutnam . H. E. Westbury . Palatka . Miss Josephine "Nimmo
;t. Johns"._.Loonis Blitch . St. Augustine . Miss Anna E. Heist
lanta Rosa . John G. Hudson . Milton . Miss Eleanor Barton eminole . C. R. Dawson .Sanford . Mrs. Gladys Kendall
arasota . W. E. Evans . Sarasota .
umter . W. J. Platt, Jr . Bushnell . Miss Martha Briese
uwannee . S. C. Kierce . Live Oak . Miss Louise Taylor
aylor . Tom U. Green . Perry . Miss Floy Moses
union . L. T. Dyer . Lake Butler . olusia .F. E. Baetzman .DeLand . Mrs. Marguerite Norton akulla . N. J. Albritton . Crawfordville . Mrs. Pearl Penuel alton . Mitchell Wilkins .DeFuniak Springs . Miss Eloise McGriff ashington . Hans Andersen . Chipley .
[5)







AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension . . Gainesville H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge . Gainesville James J. Love, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee . Quincy Walter B. Anderson, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee . . Greenwood
Ralph B. Chapman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee . Sanford
Harry C. Brown, State Agricultural Conservation Committee . Clermont E. Owen Blackwell, Accountant . Gainesville
Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant . . Gainesville R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent . Gainesville A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent ----------- . Gainesville
J. Lee Smith, District Agent . Gainesville W. T. Nettles, District Agent . -------------------- Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION

COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua . Benjamin L. Gittings -------_-------------- Gainesville
Columbia ----------- . Gussie'B. Calhoun . . Lake City
Escambia . Bryan C. Gilmore . Pensacola
Hamilton . Joseph W. Mitchell ------ . Jasper
Hillsborough . Marshall 0. Watkins . . . Plant City
Jackson . . . Richard C. Peacock . Marianna
Jefferson . . . Elbert J. Albritton . Monticello Lake . Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr . . Tavares Madison . . . Aubrey J. Hudson . Madison
Orange . Lewis S. Maxwell . . Orlando
Okaloosa . . Milford B. Miller . Crestview Polk . Myron M. Varn . Bartow Santa Rosa . Frederick W. Barber . Milton Suwannee . Hans 0. Andersen . Live Oak*
Walton . . . . . . . Arnold G. Hutchinson . DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua . F. E. Pinder . . Gainesville
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee . E. S. Belvin . . Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee . N. H. Bennett . White Springs
Hillsborough . Elliott Robbins . . . Tampa
Jackson . . . J. E. Granberry . Marianna
Jefferson . M. E. Groover . . Monticello Leon . . . Trolley Wyer, Jr . . . Tallahassee
Marion . . . W. B. Young . Ocala

LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua . . . . . . . Mary Todd McKenzie . . . Gainesville
Duval . Ethel M. Powell . . . Jacksonville
Gadsden . . . . . . . . . Diana H. Bouie . . . Quincy
Hillsborough . Floy Britt . . Tampa
Leon . . . Alice W. Poole . Tallahassee Madison . . . Althea Ayer . Madison
Marion . . . . . Idella R. Kelley . Reddick
Putnam . . . Fannie G. Browning . Palatka
*Resigned December 10.














PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1937, and a summary of the activities for the calendar year 1937.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities between December 1, 1936, and November 30, 1937, did not include any important changes in the relationships and duties of the principal officers.
Headquarters for the home demonstration work continued to be provided at the Florida State College for Women and of the Negro work in the Agricultural and Mechanical College, both in Tallahassee.
Cooperation from boards of county commissioners was maintained, with relatively few personnel changes or modifications in financial agreements.
Relations with the University of Florida colleges, under policies established by the Board of Control, as heretofore provided offices and covered a mailing room, mailing list and administrative employees serving also the State Agricultural Experiment Station.
State agencies giving cooperation included the Departments of-Agriculture and Public Instruction, Board of Health, Inspection Service, Livestock Sanitary Board, Marketing Bureau and Milk Control Board. Commodity associations, especially in citrus fruit growing, dairying, cold storage and truck crop fields, received advisory assistance when requested.
Exhibits educational in nature dealing with agricultural economics and 4-H clubs were shown without special appropriations therefor or incurring large expenses, composed mostly of bulletins, charts and demonstration materials which staff members handled.
Federal agencies operating in Florida with which cooperative relationships existed comprised 'principally the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Bureaus of Animal Industry, Dairying, Entomology, Home Economics and Plant Industry and the Farm Security Administration. Offices of the Florida coordinator under the Soil Conservation Service are located in Gainesville for contacts with the Extension Service and Experiment Station.
Specialists on the Extension Service staff-, both men and women, carried on the educational work through county agents' offices under approval from. supervisory members who had passed on the plans pursued.
Revenue sources remained without material modification, in addition to Federal funds consisting of appropriations by the State Legislature, boards of county commissioners and education, and continuing ones from
[ 7 ]


REPORT FOR 1937








Florida Cooperative Extension


the Florida treasury. State and county amounts mostly were unchanged, no counties recording decreases and a few making increases ranging from
3 to 10 percent.
Offices were increased in number to no important extent but county agents have been supplied needed filing cases, miscellaneous equipment and typewriters and added space at most points to accommodate the Agricultural Conservation extra personnel required.
Assistants have been promoted to county agents in several cases. Additions when called for are selected from graduates of the Agriculture College at the University. Duties assigned the new workers largely related to the Agricultural Conservation activities or 4-11 clubs.
A Soil Conservationist appointed by the College of Agriculture, Dr. R. V. Allison, also was assigned the same work in the Extension Service, without compensation or travel allowance.
Appointment of Miss Mary Keown as State Home Demonstration Agent succeeding Miss Flavia Gleason, resigned, made before December 1, 1936, left one district agent's office vacant until after the fiscal year began, July 1, 1937, supervision in the territory meanwhile having come from other district agents or specialists.
Extension Service policies in selecting agents seek the qualifications given by knowledge concerning agriculture and home economics and familiarity with farming in the areas where the work is to be done. Differences between sections in Florida are so pronounced that capacities must be considered aside from scholastic training.
Education in Florida institutions or those of adjoining states is preferred, so far as persons having it are available. County agents and assistants at present are 85 percent graduates from agricultural colleges, 29 percent the output of the Florida College at Gainesville. Others employed have been in service 10 to 20 years, and practically successful.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Major undertakings of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service applying to the work in counties on lines allied with the predominant farming conditions and which are fully described by the subsequent more detailed outlines from district agents, specialists and like staff members, may be briefly summarized thusly:
Agricultural Conservation-encouraging cover crops production for Soil improvement.
Agricultural Economics---dealing especially with the costs of growing, handling, marketing and transporting field and grove output.
Citriculture-cultural methods, disease and insect control, fertilization practices, picking and packing economies, selling efficiency and like factors.
Dairying-primarily to furnish a farm home milk supply and secondarily for assistance in making commercial production profitable, largely through improved breeding, feeding and pasturage practices.
4-H Club Work for Boys-Placing emphasis on organization and summer camps, with the greatest accomplishments in localities where county agents have been in position to make major projects of these aims, cooperating with community groups wherever feasible. (Girls' 4-H club work is reported on by the State Home Demonstration Agent.)
Home Demonstration-encouraging food products conservation, home improvement, better nutrition and studies of clothing and textiles, with increased farm income constantly stressed and youth training conducted







Annual Report, 1937


through the girls' 4-11 clubs. Organizations among women also are sponsored as the means whereby special objectives can be attained.
Hog and Beef Cattle Cooperative Sales-establishing local associations
-wherever supplies warrant for assembling the animals so that carload buying becomes practicable. Turkeys and other poultry also have been disposed of in like manner to the much greater profits of producers. Livestock cooperative sales have contributed to provision of better marketing facilities by packers, meanwhile fixing grades and stabilizing prices.
Livestock Feed and Pasture Betterment-joined in by the Extension Service agronomy and animal husbandry divisions-through greater farm feeds production, rotation of crops in enlarged degree, using silage more freely and turning idle lands to grazing and feeds raising.
Truck Crops and Vegetables-applying 'principally to central and southern Florida, except as regards two areas in the northern part of the state where Irish potatoes are grown during winter. Difficulties experienced in making the endeavor efficient are intensified by weather and marketing hazards, production costs and crop specialization. "Live at home" practices sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service in a major degree are based on home gardens, and possess great importance in the staple farming sections.
Negro Agricultural Extension-Corresponding as to subject matter and general procedure in large measure with that among white people but differing because confined within counties having relatively large populations composed of Negroes. Recommendations on which the plans are based come from the regular staff specialists in the main organization. Boys' 4-H club work among Negroes has registered improvement since younger agents were appointed who possess better educational qualifications.

SPECIALIZED UNDERTAKINGS
Planning Councils-Organizations attempted in accordance with recommendations from the Federal Agricultural Extension Service and Adjustment Administration. A favorable reception generally has been given the idea but the development thereof was delayed by the multiplicity of conflicting or duplicating activities. Committees selected for local work represent civic clubs, "dirt" farmers, school boards and vocational agriculture teachers, the county farm and home demonstration agents usually having been included.

SEA ISLAND COTTON INDUSTRY RESTORATION
Under way in some 20 counties formerly growing long staple but where the production was discontinued owing to boll weevil. Efforts for revival have been enlarged, under joint direction from the Extension Service, Experiment Stations, State and United States departments of agriculture, with the local campaigns almost everywhere supervised by county agents. Prospects are considered good for further substantial progress.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Soil erosion projects at Graceville and Monticello, federally operated, use the state agencies' recommendations as a basis. A Florida Soil Conservation District law J)assed by the 1937 legislature is administered by a state committee comprising the Agricultural Experiment Station Director, the Agricultural Extension Service Vice-Director, and the College of Agriculture Soil Conservationist.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SWEET POTATO WEEVIL CONTROL
This is a local problem in a few areas. Clean-up methods representing but a small cost to producers were instituted through the county agents, who also made the arrangements for securing suitable slips after theState Plant Board had placed quarantine regulations in effect. Results so far have been satisfactory.

TOBACCO BLUE MOLD CONTROL
Plant beds in the counties comprising the Florida flue-cured tobacco belt underwent serious injury in the spring of 1937 from the blue mold disease. Pending results from investigations provided for by the last legislature, Extension Service, Experiment Station and State Plant Board personnel has been collaborating on control demonstrations which use spraying and fumigation.
EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS
Meetings of an educational nature have been conducted in practically every Florida community, with relation to one or more of the activities hereinbefore described. Interest that farmers exhibited who attended centered around revenue crops and the Agricultural Adjustment Act. Subjects also found popular included lessening citrus production costs, cooperative organizations in commodity growing and selling, cover crops, dairy-. ing, 4-11 clubs, and livestock breeding and feeding.








Annual Report, 1937


FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1937

RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever . -- ------ i ------------- * . $ 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Leve . iedera . 15,537.10
Bankhead-Jones, Federal . 93,102.75 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative, Federal . 20,200.00 State Appropriation . . . 86,639.98
County Appropriation . 108,485.63 Screw Worm Control, State Appropriation . 18,928.76
Egg Laying Contest, Sales . 5,500.55 Continuing Appropriations . 5,000.00
$443,918.61


EXPENDITURES
Administration . $ 16,329.81
Publications, printing . 14,363.66
County Agent Program . 184,353.20
4-H Club Program (Boys) . 6,286.31
Rome Demonstration Program . . 125,520.92
Dairy and Animal Husbandry . 10,750.95 Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) . 30,083.52
Citriculture . . . 4,669.73 Poultry Husbandry . 4,369.02 Extension Schools . I --------- * ------ -* . 37.35
Agricultural Economics . w . 16,426.58 Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . . . 9,546.00
Balance Federal Funds returned, authority Secty.
of A gr . . 2,252.80 Screw Worm Control . 18,928.76
$443,918.61








12 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers . 27,669
D ays in office . *11,111,111,11, 12,503.5 D ays in field . . . 15,165.5 Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily . 1,944
Number paid employes assisting Extension program . * . 434
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 322
Members in such clubs . . 7,736 4-H Clubs . 743 4-H Club members enrolled -------- . . 14,622
Different 4-H club members completing . 9,279 4-H club team s trained . - . 660 Groups other than 4-11 clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older . 14
Members in these groups . 495 Farm or home visits made . 48,196 Different farms or homes visited . 26,420 Calls relating to Extension work . 296,115 News articles or stories published and circular letters . 11,358
Number individual letters written . . 94,623 Bulletins distributed . ----------- . . 112,268
R adio Talks . * . 223 Extension exhibits shown . . 382 Training meetings held for local leaders . 483 (Attendance . 4,762
Method demonstration meetings held . 10,120
(Attendance . 141,156 Meetings held at result demonstration . 3,178 (Attendance . 25,400 Farm tours conducted . . . 227 (Attendance . 5,412 Achievement days held . . ------- -.1 . -- . 1- 120
(Attendance . 120,995
Encanipments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) . 90
(Attendance . 5,132
Other m eetings . . 3,687 (Attendance . 179,891


CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted . 581
Result demonstrations conducted . 4- . 340 Meetings held . 208
News stories published and 197
Farm or home visits made . 1,286 Office calls received . 4,644 4-H Club m em bers . 855 4-H Club members completing . 515
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 803
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 16,831.4 Bu.
Farmers following better practices recommended . 80858







Annual Report, 1937 13

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,338 Result demonstrations conducted . 1,012 M eetings held . 425 News stories published and circular letters . . . 466 Farm or home visits made . 2,553 Number office calls received . 15,094 4-H-Club members enrolled . . . 395 4-H Club members completing . 177 Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing (Seed, pounds . 21,482
(Forage, tons . 55
Farmers following better practice recommendations . 16,246

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was
conducted . 358 275 98
Result demonstration . 109 278 25
Meetings held . 140 257 58
News stories published and
circular letters written . 211 471 98
Farm or home visits made . 1,022 861 473
Office calls received . 4,800 15,715 4,738
4-H Club members enrolled . 307 304 19
4-H Club members completing . . 161 161 12
Acres in projects by 4-H
Club members completing . 147.5 196 19.5
Yields by 4-H club members completing .10,776.5 Bu. 137,269 Lb. 16,860 Lb. Farms following better practices . 5,287 13,257 2,773

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted . . . 2,571 Result demonstrations conducted . 8,992 M eetings held . 3,239 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1t717
Farm or home visits made . 10f719 Office calls received . 28,998 4-H Club members enrolled . 9#730 4-H Club members completing . *-""*" 6,188 Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,178.5
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 33,502.5 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices . . . 43,265

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted . 420
Result demonstrations conducted . I . 496 M eetings held . . . . . 438 News stories published and circular letters issued . 249
Farm or home visits made . . . 1,249 Office calls received . 4,502 4-H Club members enrolled . . . . . 261 4-H Club members completing . 131 Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting
with sm all trees . 80 Acres reforested . . . 3,788 Farms adopting better forestry 'practices . 1,759







Florida Cooperative Extension


Farms adopting soil conservation practices .
Acres involved -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Land clearing . ---------------Acres involved -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Farmers adopting better machine practice .
Number machines involved ------------------------------------------------------Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices . Building and items of equipment involved .

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted .
Result demonstrations conducted .
Meetings held ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------News stories published and circular letters issued .
Farm or home visits made .
Office calls received . ------------------ ------4-H Club members enrolled .
4-H Club members completing .
Number chickens raised . .
Number colonies of bees . -------------------------------------------Families following improved practices in poultry raising . Families following improved practices- bees .


1,478
64,001
156
9,407 1,011 1,119
4,551 4,171


739 1,729 1,086 593 3,907 10,875 2,195 1,302
40,811
139
14,450
996


DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,455
Result demonstrations conducted . 1,528 M eetings held . ------------------------------------- 1,373
News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,196
Farm or home visits made . 9,526 Office calls received . 29,448 4-H Club members enrolled . . 1,780 4-H Club members completing . 970 Animals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members
com pleting . . 1,735 Farmers obtaining better breeding stock . 2,079 Farmers using other improved live stock practices . 30,890

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work wag conducted . 4 . . 1,449 Result demonstrations conducted . 909 M eetings held . . 1,131 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,037
Home or farm visits made . 2,742
Office- calls received . . 30,471 4-K Club members enrolled . 797 4-H Club members completing . 494 Farmers keeping account and cost records . 1,552 Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts . 541
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustment . 3,159
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year . 4
Farmers. makiria business changes resulting from economic
surveys ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . . 14,130
-Families assisted in getting established . . 1,135 Marketing groups organized or assisted . . 96 Individualsaffected by marketing program . . 14,092
Organizations assisted with problems . . 286 Individuals assisted with problems . 9,964 Value of products sold by, all groups organized or assisted . $9,425,461.16 Value of, products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 9,234,081.64 Value of' supplie's purchased-all associations . 1,081,564.04 Value of supplies purchasedby all individuals . . 3,571,291.72







Annual Report, 1937


FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,104
Result demonstrations conducted . . . 8,584 M eetings held ----------- . . 3,930
News stories published and circular letters issued . . 903
Farm or home visits made . 3,492 Office calls received . 10,051 4-H Club members enrolled . . 7,713 4-H Club members completing . __ . 5,555 Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members . 109,673
Dishes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and fruits
stored and dried . 69,003 Families adopting better practices as to foods . 10,886
Schools following recommendations for school lunch . 89
Children in schools following lunch recommendations . 24,142
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ---------_ 433,368
Value of products canned or otherwise preserved . $317,545.09 Families readjusting family food supply . 3,804
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted . 182
Result demonstrations conducted . 623 M eetings held ---------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . 238
News stories published and circular letters issued . 61
Farm or home visits made . 235 Office calls received . _ . 641 4-H club members participating . 191
Families following child-development plans . 1,558
Different individuals participating in child-development
program . _ . . . 1,066
Children involved in child-development program . 2,000
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted . 602
Result demonstrations conducted ----_-----------_- . 2,607
M eetings held . 3,134 News stories published and circular letters issued . 381
Farm or home visits made . 1,506 Office calls received . . . 4,762 4-H Club members enrolled . . 8,554 4-H Club members completing . . . 5,481 Articles made by 4-11 club members completing . 37,609
Individuals following better clothing practices . 26,251
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
requirem ents . 1,743 Savings due to. clothing program . . 60,455.99
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted _. . 1,184
Result demonstrations conducted . 4,532 M eetings held . . . 1,929 News stories published and circular letters issued . 453
Farm or home visits made . . . . 1,900 Office calls received . 3,746 4-H Club members enrolled . . 4,718 4-H Club members completing . 3,317 Projects conducted by 4-11 members completing . 16,470
Families following better home-management practices . 15,269
Estimated savings due to home-management program . $ 22,359.00
Families improving household furnishings . . . . 11,072
Savings due to house-furnishings program . $ 19,838.50
Families following handicraft 'practices . . 2,240






16 Florida Cooperative Extension

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted . 473
Result demonstrations conducted . 1,177 M eetings held . 655 News stories published and circular letters issued . 122
Farm or home visits made . . . 712 Office calls received . . 1,997 4-H Club members enrolled . . . 2,983 4-11 Club members completing . . -2,189 Additional 4-H club members participating . 3,619
Individuals having health examination . 4,012 Individuals adopting health measures . 17,498 Families adopting health measures . . . . 2,725

.EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted . 920 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting . 889
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen . 1,979
M eetings held . 1,086 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,725 Farm or home visits made . . . 2,365 Office calls received . 7,003 Communities assisted with community problems . 1,334
Country life conferences . . . 88
Families following recommendations as to home recreation . 1,800
4-H Clubs engaging in community activities . 272 Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross
or other relief agency . 905







Annual Report, 1937


EDITORIAL AND MAILING

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Bulletins, cards, circulars, leaflets and related forms of information were printed to a markedly expanded degree, with corresponding increase in mailing and direct distribution. A series of small leaflets for enclosure in all outgoing letters was added.
Editorial and mailing activities for the Experiment Station and Extension Service are handled from the same offices by three editors and three mailing clerks, with assistance rendered occasionally by other persons on the clerical force. Estimates regarding division of time give 60 I)ereent to 75 for the Extension Service; between 25 percent and 40, Experiment Station.

BULLETINS AND OTHER PRINTED MATTER
Bulletins printed during the fiscal year almost doubled the customary allotment, with more than twice as many copies issued, the editions having been large and seven new issues added. Pages in the latter numbered 424, from 10,000 copies each to 30,000 were ran, totaling 145,000. Three on which demand had exhausted the supply, -requiring new editions, contained IM pages and included 55,000 copies. Bulletins all told comprised 528 pages with 200,000 copies printed. Four circulars additional, two new and two reprints, added 34,000.
Cuts in color used for the first time the United States Agriculture Department furnished for Bulletin 86, Screw-worms in Florida. Comment throughout the state and the South was highly favorable and a reprint issued by one commercial concern gave credit to the Department and the Extension Service.
Following is a list of bulletins, circulars, folders, calendars, record books, cards and other materials edited and printed during the year.
Pages Edition
Bul. 85. Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida
Fruits . . 92 10,000 Bul. 86. Screwworms in Florida . 28 20,000 Bul. 87. M eat Canning . 44 20,000 Bul. 88. Citrus Insects and Their Control (Revised) . 136 20,000 Bul. 89. Herbaceous Perennials (Revised) . 36 30,000 Bul. 90. Florida Vegetables (Revised) . 68 30,000 Bul. 91. Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural
Homes (Revised) . 20 15,000 Bul. 60. Culling for Egg Production (Reprint) . 16 20,000 Bul. 69. Buy Health with Your Food Dollar (Reprint) . 48 15,000 Bul. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida
(Reprint) . 40 20,000 Cire. 42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing . 28 10,000 Cire. 43. The Florida'4-H Club Uniform . 20 10,000 Circ. 15. How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club
(Reprint) . 8 4,000 Cire. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop (Reprint) . 4 10,000
Calendar, 1937 . 12 12,500
Announcement and Rules, 12th National EggLaying Test . 5 1,500
Final Report, 10th National Egg-Laying Contest 20 1,500
Misc. Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and Record Book _-___ . 24 20,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


Pages
4-H Club Baking Guide and Record Book .--- 20 The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937 40 Poultry Club Record Book (Revised) . 16 Record Book for Secretary of 4-H Clubs
(girls) . 40 4-11 Club Girls Canning Guide and Record
B ook . . 16 Record Book, Garden and Perennial Plant. . 20
Record. Book for Demon-
stration W ork . 16 Record Book for Secretary of Home Demonstration Clubs . 40 Citrus Grove Record Book (Revised) . 48 Florida Poultry Record Book for Commercial
Flocks (Reprint) . 48 Florida Poultry Record Book for Small
Flocks (Reprint) . 28 Livestock Club Record Book (Revised) . 12 Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing (Reprint) 16 Florida Dairy Farm Account Book . . 52 Florida Citrus Costs and Returns (printed
covers) .
Agricultural News Service (42 weekly issues
-Plant Board paid for 10 more) each . I The Home Fruit Orchard in North and West
Florida (printed covers) . . The Home Fruit Orchard (mimeographed) . 10 window cards, crops and 'practices, each . 15 card signs for county fairs, each . Daily Food Habits (Wall Chart) . __ 2 Florida Improved Farming Messages, five
folders each . 4 Covers for bound volume, Ornamental Gardening in Florida .
Farm Radio Program, Monthly, each . 4


Edition 15,000 3,000 15,000 2,500 10,000
20,000 10,000 2,500 1,000
500 500 10,000 10,000 350
2,600
850
3,500 3,500
500 25
20,000 6,500
300
3,000


Misc. Pub. 16. Misc. Pub. 17. Misc. Pub. 18. Misc. Pub. 19. Misc. Pub. 20. Misc. Pub. 21. Misc. Pub. 22. Misc. Pub. 23. Misc. Pub. 1. Misc. Pub. 2. Misc. Pub. 4. Misc. Pub. 10. Citrus AE 6.


LETTER ENCLOSURE FOLDERS
Folders stressing outstanding Extension Service accomplishments initiated February 1, 1937, contain four pages each, are issued monthly and copies inserted in all correspondence going out from headquarters, agents' offices, the Experiment Station and the State Plant Board.
Under the general name, "Florida Improved Farming Messages", the titles of five folders printed to June 1937, were as follows:
No. 1. Good Comes from Evil, Even the Boll Weevil No. 2. Showing How to Grow Profits on the Farm
No. 3. Results of Research Applied on the Farm No. 4. Showing How Florida Can "Live at Home"
No. 5. Training Comes to Farm Boys and Girls

DISTRIBUTION OF BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES
Extension Service bulletins, record books and general supplies are distributed from Gainesville and State Home Demonstration offices in Tallahassee. Bulletins go to county agents, libraries, vocational agriculture .teachers and officials having related duties, from comparatively small mailing lists. They are sent to the public only on special request but the demand usually is so brisk that supplies become quickly exhausted. Distribution during the year approximated 100,000.







Annual Report, 1,937


Mailing room duties include storage and transmission to county agents as needed of charts, mimeograph stencils, paper, pencils, rubber bands, stationery and like supplies. Growth of the work in recent years has materially increased the volume of these functions.
Mimeographing for the Extension Service, Experiment Station and in large part that of the Resident Teaching division is done in the mailing room. Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil Conservation work added to the already heavy volume during the past year. Stencils run aggregated 2,406---only a small proportion of which were cut in the room
-requiring over 630,215 sheets of paper, or 200 stencils and 52,000 sheets monthly.
Weekly cIipsheets, known as the Agricultural News Service, folded and mailed, comprised 800 each week. Calendars for 1937 also, were distributed from the mailing rooms, to addresses furnished by county farm and home demonstration agents.

SPECIALIZED EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGNS

Information regarding the celery, citrus, watermelon and related farming industries was circulated as assistance to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Marketing agreement movements required development of fundamental facts concerning the crops affected. Agricultural Conservation activities had stories released to newspapers and material furnished radio stations.
District and county agents of northwestern Florida conducted a campaign for inducing farmers to 'plant peanuts with corn, since demonstrations had shown that in alternate rows the grain output was nearly as great as when planted solid, the peanuts growing additional hog feed. Meetings'were supplemented with circular letters and placards. Farmers in five counties who answered questionnaires reported solid corn plantings reduced 41.8 percent and acreage devoted to corn, or corn and velvet beans, alternated with peanuts increased 145 percent.
Results similarly satisfactory came from endeavor for inducing farmers to plant peanuts closer in drills, thus greatly increasing the -yields. Cards used in this campaign included 10 of window card size, 11x14, and 15
-which were 11x28. Two of the smaller and all the larger had been designed primarily for display at fairs, while eight in the lesser size could be so shown or otherwise.

NEWS RELEASES

News stories in dailies and weeklies, farm magazines and sundry publications remained a major method for disseminating information, Newspapers continued according considerable attention to farm news, man . y carrying special columns contributed by county Extension Service workers and most using farm and home demonstration material whenever available.
Clipsheets containing eight to 11 news stories each week went to all weekly papers, the contents chiefly covering Extension Service performance but also dealing with the Experiment. Station, the State Plant Board and the Resident Teaching Division, College of Agriculture. Payment for every fifth issue was made by the Plant Board. Stories from the clipsheet frequently received first page position or inclusion among editorials and at least one rural paper largely made up therefrom a special agricultural section. Farm and home demonstration agents reported 6,300 -news items published in their local papers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Reports concerning activities of particular importance went at irregular intervals to daily newspapers usually at least once or twice weekly and mostly through the Associated Press wire service, filed by the Gainesville representative, and occasionally the weeklies received similar material. Use of Extension Service information was liberally made by a monthly farm and grove section carried in about 50 weekly and small daily papers.
Farm journals again liberally used articles written by Florida Extension Service editors. Two publications having national circulation published 15, totalling 44 column inches. One Southern agricultural magazine printed 26, amounting to 197 inches. Four periodicals published in the state utilized 39, the space aggregating 861 inches. Material prepared by other staff members, forwarded by the editors, also received generous acceptance from Florida farm magazines. Radio talks, running around 40 percent of those given on the Florida Farm Hour, reworked into farm paper articles, have not been included in the above tabulations.
Home demonstration celebration honoring the 25th anniversary of that undertaking in Florida created news that many papers carried, the Extension Service editors cooperating in the preparation and presentation.

RADIO BROADCASTING
Use of the airwaves in putting out data and facts valuable to farmers included the Florida Farm Hour each week day over WRUF and brief scripts sent five other stations for broadcasts five days in every seven.
Florida Farm Hour presentations, featured on WRUF since the Station opened in 1928, included 313 during the year. Talks comprising the programs numbered 1,009, some in the form of dialogues using two speakers. Extension Service personnel appeared 359 times; Experiment Station, 139; teaching faculty, 35; students, 34; county agent, 29; farmers and farm women, 21; club boys, 21; home demonstration, 19; prominent visitors, 18; Plant Board, 2; club girls, 2.
In addition to supervising the program, the editors presented 18 scheduled talks, which the authors could not give personally, and prepared five dialogues between farmers and staff members, and nine in which they themselves participated with the latter. Dialogues having other authorship were offered twice. A daily review of news affecting agriculture gained credit from outside sources as the most widely heard "home made" feature on any Florida station.
Featured during the year were Farm Hours principally supplied by Alachua County Negro boys, Christmas music from the Gainesville Episcopal Church Choir, Dairy Field Day and programs by farm agents and others representing Columbia, Lafayette, Levy, Pasco and Sumter counties.
Market reports and music occurred daily, Radio's Weekly Farm Newspaper every Saturday and the farm question box each Tuesday. United States Agriculture Department farm flashes given numbered 129. Florida Farm Hour printed schedules distributed each month were in editions of 3,000.
Agricultural and farm home broadcasts over WRUF, arranged by the editors, other than for the Florida Farm Hour period, included: April 14, Florida Horticultural Society Golden Jubilee Convention, Ocala; May 1, Little International Livestock Show, College of Agriculture, Gainesville; June 25, Camp McQuarrie, Ocala National Forest.

RADIO THROUGH COOPERATING STATIONS
Stations which are furnished farm flashes in some cases build around them additional talks using allied material. Flashes intended to occupy







Annual Report, 1937


seven minutes went out from the editorial rooms on 261 days. Duplicates sometimes became necessary, to suit stations in different sections.
A grand total of 304 flashes were supplied other stations than WRUF, 179 from the United States Agriculture Department and 125 which the editors had prepared. County farm and home demonstration agents who cooperated in the presentation themselves made 223 talks.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING
Instruction was given to three different groups. A class having 23 members was taught daily by the Editor at the annual Girls' Club Short Course in Tallahassee during June, bringing out fundamentals.


Fig. I.-Miss Teresa Dagley, Volusia 4-H girl, took advantage of the training in news writing offered by the Extension Editor and learned to be not only a 4-H club reporter but also community correspondent for papers in the county.

One member of the previous year's class, Teresa Dagley, Volusia county, otherwise without experience, secured employment as community correspondent for a group of newspapers, earning money to buy clothes during her senior year in high school.
Boys attending the yearly 4-H short course at the University in June received assistance on a mimeographed newspaper, Daily Doings, and were given pointers concerning news gathering and writing.
Home demonstration members in Marion County, mostly 4-H club girls, had one day's instruction about writing news and making radio talks, 17 attending.
A similar two day course for women in western Hillsborough county had present 29 home demonstration women, public health nurses and others interested.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NATIONAL RECOGNITION
Florida was sel&ted for the 25th annual convention, American Association of Agricultural College Editors, this state's members serving as hosts. Registrations aggregating 52 represented 20 states and the.United States Agriculture Department.
Three days devoted to talks and round-table discussions on editorial problems and improvement in practices kept the delegates in Gainesville, August 17-19. A following five-day trip through southern Florida was taken advantage of by 19 visiting editors.
Formation of an editorial section in the Southern Agricultural Workers. Association was completed during the Gainesville session. Chairman .chosen is F. H. Jeter, North Carolina, while Whitney Tharin, Georgia, serves the group as secretary.
Florida Editor J. Francis Cooper was elected president of the Ameri,can Association of Agricultural College Editors for 1937-38. Service also was rendered by him as Florida Press Association director during the year covered by this report.

ASSISTANCE TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
As a member of the publicity committee, the Extension Editor handled most of the publicity in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jacksonville during March. Suggestions were released concerning the feeding of steers, in October and early November when ' animals for the show were being placed in feed lots, and news of the show was released preceding and during the event.
The Editor also served on the faculty advisory committee for the Florida College Farmer, a magazine published four times during the 4ichool year by students. He supervised the editorial make-up and business management of the paper.







Annual Report, 1937


AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION
H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge

Functioning under an act of the United States Congress, a State Agricultural Conservation office is located at Gainesville and county units in the farm agents' headquarters, wherever they are employed.
Counties have conservation associations, composed of participating farmers, which elect community committeemen. County committee members compose the directing board, three members constituting an executive committee. Farm demonstration agents usually are the local administrative officials. Associations have operated under budgets determined by the directors, since March 1, and the treasurers are bonded. I Work sheets filled out by farmers wishing to benefit from government subsidies for soil-building practices and diversion of lands from fertilitydepleting crops, give basic information concerning the history of the farms. Farm agents, local committeemen and clerical workers at county offices assisted in preparing them, State headquarters analyzed, audited and tabulated the documents.
Committeemen and supervisors operating locally, directed by county farm agents, measure acreage and obtain information regarding the soilbuilding practices carried out, for later transfer to performance records. Training schools throughout the state instructed the county workers. Plane table maps were made of participating farms in 14 counties and nine were mapped by aerial photography under government contracts.
Applications for grant payments are based on compliance records. Work sheet final adjustments had been completed in most counties by December 31 and payments will be made during the early part of 1938. Applications are audited, computed and vouchered at State headquarters, then forwarded for pre-audit to a Federal General Accounting Office branch at Athens, Georgia, the disbursing offices in Atlanta thereafter receiving them for writing the checks which individual producers finally get.
On 20,619 Florida farms applying for Class II payments, the 691,746 acres devoted to soil-building products constituted 55.8 percent of the total croplands. Grain food and feed requirements were determined in 1936 for the first time on 13,255 farms containing 258,534 acres, excluding lands raising citrus fruits and truck crops commercially. , Associations organized within the counties, numbering 59, selected community committeemen, boards of directors, administrative officers and so on as has been described. County committee members received $4.00 per day for the time actually employed and community committeemen $3.00.

WORK SHEETS FOR 1937
Taking work sheets for 1937 began in March, after meetings with county farm agents and assistants, to discuss and study the new regulations. Features not previously required had among them a base for conserving crops, 1936 acreage in commercial truck fields, orchards and groves and fenced non-crop pastures. Under the latter division, many cattlemen established perennial grasses on owned or leased lands, for which they were allowed 25 cents per acre on pastures not exceeding one-half the total cropland, and $3.00 per acre for permanent pasture.
Execution of work sheets was completed in the county offices by May 20. State offices handling forced return for correction 3,586 of 28,882, or 12.4 percent. - - -










TABLE I.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED To GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936
PROGRAM.


$4


00
0
A

$44,093.99
1,454.81
354.92 2,433.65
4,440.23 5,774 . 11 1,238 . 10
775 . 25
2,457.80 1,100.30
51,414.33 18,749.53
9,412.60 1,991.89
784.04 16,418.56
2,764.44 41,644.34 7,566.31
81,454.08 96.43 32,269.41 14,466.36 824.70
1,808.83
10,286.04 24,453.11 34,878.40 13,775.01 72,503.45 24,356.13 12,555.55 29,374.60 7,530.70 20,551.25 19,033.86 215.51
47,828.74 3,465.25 19,841.57 318.50
00
45.00 19,010.82 724.65 30,029.95
4,584.73 35,992.13


Florida Cooperative Extension


C*= 0

PU 00
W'3 vp
r.


606
50 32
125 130
142 70 27 13 6
508 172
407
30
21
469
49 2S5 100 23
6
401 554 45 120 408 1,127
631
437 1,375
476 199 1,215
240 863 298
13
719
93 379 11 0 1
412
41 844 199 226


County




Alachua .
Baker .
Bay .
Bradford .
Brevard .
Calhoun .
Charlotte -------Citrus -------------Clay . Collier .
Columbia .
Dade -----_-------DeSoto _---------Dixie .
Duval .
Escambia, . Flagler .
Gadsden .
Gilchrist .
Glades .
Gulf . Hamilton .
Hardee -----------Hendry .
Hernando .
Highlands .
Hillsborough . Holmes -----------Indian River .Jackson .
Jefferson .
Lafayette .
Lake .
Lee .
Leon -------------
Levy .
Liberty ----------Madison ---------Manatee .
Marion -----------Martin .
Monroe .
Nassau .
Okaloosa ---------Okeechobee Orange .
Osceola -----------Palm Beach .


$28,740.92
677.39 206.25 1,640.35
4,435.30

1,238.10
719.60
2,457.80 1,100.30 31,792.41 17,799.40 8,779.90 1,801.16
741.60
1,630.93 2512.75 5:922.03 5,492.79
445.50
75.80 12,609.63 10,174.85 824.70
1,634.25 10,158.68 19,805.94 3,069.35 8,172.50
4,864.68 8,018.48 6,729.56 29,247.98 7j530.70 7,516.96 13,372.69 136.00 21,552.93
3,203.40 14,162.14 318.50
00
45.00
1,194.41
724.65. 29,757.84
4,475.40 34,606.70


834 116
64 213 167 257 72 51
22 6
(326
247 429 31
24 643 55 367
114 38 30 530
646 45 160
421 1,189 725
453 1,849 537 265
1,243 272 919 331 30 860 106
452 12 1 1
495 71 859 208 233


787
54 32 126 130
149 70 27
14

5156 172
407 31
22 470 49 283
104 23
6
417 555
45 126
408 1,127
649 439 1,401 530
211 1,242 240 865
324 13 728
94 82 11 0 1
425 41 847 199 231


$15,353.07
777.42
148.67 793.30
4.98 4,559.54 00
55.65
00 00
19,621.92 950.13 632.70 190.73
42.44 14,787.63 251.69 35,722.31 2,073.52 81,008.58 20.63 23,659.78
4,291.51
00
174.58 127.36
4,647.11 . 31,809.05 5,602.51 67,638.77 16,337.65 5,825.99
126.62
00
13,034.29 5,661.17
79.51 26,275.81 261.85
5,679.43
00 00 00
17,816.41 00
272.11 109.33
1,375.43


WOO
00 w Etr ?
0 ;3 C?
a $.
P4


P
74 4 It
-0 00
-2.
aw
9S Q z Q)
;= -1 ;.








Annual Report, 1937


TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED, NUMBER OF, APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED To GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936
PROGRAM-Continued.



County g'c . I4-0

Paso.19 194 194 5,00 00 5,071
Pinellas. 25 244 244 66.0.2 6611


Putam.2396 224 21 8,907.850 1,3. 57,307.90

St. Johns . 167 165 165 8,916.96 1,503.56 7,413.40
St. Lucie . 236 235 235 6,551.20 00 6,551.20
Santa Rosa . 524 493 482 27,952.77 26,199.81 1,752.96
Sarasota ----- 96 66 66 2,904.33 28.13 2,876.20
Seminole ----- 743 635 635 14,053.92 802.43 13,251.49
Sumter---------- 359 347 341 12,369.18 3,953.46 8,415.72
Suwannee ----- 963 868 748 54,530.20 27,699.39 26,830.81
Taylor . 158 119 119 3,522.22 864.16 2,658.06
Union----------. 262 126 126 5,331.51 754.30 4,577.21
Volusia. 255 248 247 6,294.80 00 6,294.80
Wakulla - . -1 32 23 22 1,113.56 308.06 805.50
Walton ---------556 481 480 23,269.04 13,667.23 9,601.81
Washington 440 228 224 5,999.45 5,106.40 893.05


TOTALS .-----23,523 21,288 20,647 1,032,301.62 1491,618.29 1540,683.33


MAPPING PROCEDURE
Plans for obtaining accurate and permanent maps of cropland divided themselves into aerial photography and plane table work. This is the first year that aerial photography has been used for this purpose in Florida, and Table 3 gives 'pertinent figures on this work.

PERFORMANCE IN 1937
Requirements of the federal authorities were more exacting than in the past. Meetings at which instruction was given included three district conferences and 22 schools throughout the state. Counties in most cases commenced their activities immediately after the schools for supervisors had ended. Costs dropped to a minimum where plane maps were available, with the results particularly satisfactory. A county which used aerial photographs found them accurate and economical. Chain systems of measuring performance revealed wide variations as to expense, due to sundry factors.

EXPENSE INCURRED IN 1937
In part, expenses were budgeted by county associations as local administrative outlay totaling -not to exceed 10 percent of payments within the territory. Rates for subsidies are on a 110 percent basis, so no farmer lost. Costs of operation otherwise were borne through the state offices.









TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS.


County


,a ,
OC)
z
tou


Alachua . 735 90,216 Baker ---- 135 6,088
Bay----------. 54 1,623
Bradford .- 154 7,357
Brevard . 339 9,385
Broward ---- 71 20,291
Calhoun ---- 228 13,305 Charlotte . 83 1,736
Citrus . 55 3,114
Clay . 40 6,623
Collier . 10 10,560 Columbia . 597 78,802 Dade---------. 302 39,353
DeSoto . 454 12,094 Dixie . 67 6,057
Duval . 55 2,139
Escambia --- 382 15,759 Flagler . 62 4,522
Franklin.
Gadsden . 424 43,980 Gilchrist . 257 29,587 Glades . 78 24,752 Gulf . 12 448
Hamilton 440. 52,223


hoo




HAcres


z




Acres

1,993 135
64
40.5
0 0
1,303
0 0 0 0
4,887.5
0 0
28
0
4,933
25
318.0 193
0
21 6,591


1,079.9
78 0 130.9
0 0
29
0 0 0 0 588.8
0 0 0 0 0 0

120.8
21
0 0 1,226 .6


E-4
Z



IAcres

805.9 2,748.9 652.9 0
0 0
745.9 0
0 0
.0 0
740.2 871.2
0 0
0 1

725.6 1,963
0 0
0 0
0 6 3
0 0
0 0
0 0

571.1 778.9
820 443
0 0
0 4
797 382. 3


600.8
0
0
0
0 0 656.1
0 600
0 0 645.7
0 0 650
0 0 0

574 596.5
0 500 615


O-0


;4041

o


owI 02 M4 .3


54.5 45,341 68.7 2,611 59.1 356
69.8 3,498 5.8 1,680 83.3 10,725 85.6 4,285 40.0 1,114 35.0 606
35.0 2,650 40.3 3,680 53 43,400
55 27,089
14.3 6,904 56.4 3,124 50.3 1,486 86.6 1,960 89.5 3,864

76.6 16,951 56.8 16,326 77.7 6,140 78.6 177
56.1 15,149


,C
r. 4
00C
V2

C)p0


55,104 21,904 8,513 5,000 19,798 2,981 6,727 115,970
137 20,098
0
20,3,85
2,464 70,180 67,507 9,200 1,732 7,865

11,240
0
180,188
126
5,131


220


5
7,571
1,634 157 963 997 968
143 81 3,838 8,315
0
345 1,074 106

773
0 8 10 0


Q~O




4,709
100
84
455
549 ( 17,390
0 i
662 ~
0
390 tj 2,612
147 19,601
901
3
386 276 3,325

251 388 1,681
0
351


118.6
142.19 176.6
140
0 0
153
0 0 0 0
122.3
0 0
151.3
0
153.4 200

152.6 106.2
0
134.3 125.3




TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHxrn DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYsS-Continued.


County


Hardee.---- 725 Hendry --. 80 Hernando . 187 Highlands - 551 Hillsborough 1,474 Holmes . 622 Indian River 485 Jackson .1,080 Jefferson . 621 Lafayette . 127 Lake --------- 2,371
Lee.---280
Leon. 948 Levy. 480 Liberty . 58 Madison .681 Manatee ----340 Marion .1,197 Martin . 33 Monroe.---Nassau . . 4
Okaloosa . 427 Okeechobee 72
Orange .1,040 Osceola . 250


20,496 2,993 5,746
16,641 35,281 37,361
13,234 85,633 77,241 13,202 47,036
9,415 56,670 53,285 2,586 86,797 12,527 91,271 2,967

166
20,604 20,496 38,304
5,447


0 0
11.5
0 0 10,963
0 15,159
4,669
691
2 .6
0 6,850.0 597.4
0 7,208.0
0
17.8
0

0 7,135
0 0 0


0 0
114.2
0 0 139.2
0
148.1 116.3 130.8 100
0 118.2 133.2
0 118.1
0 130
0

0
147.6
0
0
0


0 C) " &a

W i W i Acres


E4



Acres

0 0 0 0 0 33.6
0 95.3 95.2 166.7
0 0
14
8.6
0 671.9
0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0


*0




0
0

0 772.4
0



0
0

0
0


Z5,




Acres

0 0 0 0 0
4,161.1
0 17,292.5
731.3 263.1
0 0
82
1,845.7 10
326.0
0
735.1
0

0
283.3
0 0 0


35.8 63.3 35.0 5.0
43.9 90.0 28.5 89.7
56.4 51.7 16.7 39.7 62.0 55.7 68.1
64.3 54.2 52.0 57.3

65.5 92.0
74.4 9.6 21.6


Q)


P.,


0 j









12,782
1,241 877
8,491 20,849 10,314 10,103
24,336 12,870 6,645
5,471 4,250 16,236 30,570 1,078 36,760 10,166 38,976
1,541

114 4,118 1,656 9,602 1,607


P. 0

0






101,001 167,0 12
366 393,060
36,446 2,781 3,850 5,208
9,467 8,479 1,411 4,873 1,315
28,420 3,779
319 38,773 60,958 21,791

621
121 53,169 12,165 238,995


- 0 .,wa)
Ua)a)


63


2,228
14,694 14,012
93
8,987
714 2,297
0
33,596 5,105 109 25
5 0
4,264 8,050 1,092

20
292 176 12,165 3,892


2,945 L 1,786 Z2 174
627 10,338
155 0
1,333 (b
607 1,700 ~
32
2,307 ~' 3,113
290 *1,164
0 0
5,990 6,061 1,679

38
3
1,'463 2,353
474


0 0 0 0 0 714.7
0 577.6
472.5 616.3
0 0 618.1 595.8 600 648.9
0 600.3
0

0 615
0
0
0







TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS-Continued. to
'4 ,0 'm
t a W-Gj 44
Cd 4.1 4j
County F4 cd a) Q) G U WA U " "
C 'C O - E4 - . -.4' ) ' - m-o oC)
~~w~ C6 4) a)) 0~) ~ 5 .
Acres __ Acres ___ Acres " Qo. Q

Palm Beach 327 54,955 0 0 0 0 0 0 94.3 40,000 3,213 910 51,317
Pasco .431 13,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 27.0 10,160 4,874 6,674 108
Pinellas . 381 11,753 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.1 2,286 1,840 10,717 516 C'
Polk-------.3,107 88,289 0 0 0 0 ! 0 0 12.5 27,390 87,440 76,284 2,735 �
Putnam . 304 12,351 25.1 89.7 0 0 0 0 55.4 6,565 12,472 3,264 4,991 '
St. Johns . 177 10,333 0 0 0 0 0 0 89.5 8,095 13,493 155 7,077
St. Lucie . 383 12,526 0 0 0 0 0 0 22.2 9,000 9,125 8,469 2,896
Santa Rosa 423 22,640 9,270 163.9 0 0 479.1 737.9 90.0 3,529 0 263 0
Sarasota . 101 4,462 0 0 0 0 0 0 38.6 3,587 53,759 2,042 1,632
Seminole . 1,079 14,585 0 0 0 0 0 0 51.8 12,568 36,015 6,717 7,380
Sumter .585 29,891 135.7 125.3 0 0 0 0 56.5 15,429 25,119 1,517 3,686
Suwannee . 700 75.672 5,732 108.6 1,173.6 788.8 1,286 590.1 52.6 35,670 1,640 187 1,240 ~
Taylor . 157 10,336 313 123.4 0 0 0 0 57.5 3,862 0 0 0
Union . 201 19,184 118 130.1 58.6 772 49.3 600 64.7 9,605 28,052 101 498 2.
Volusia . 554 15,666 0 0 0 0 0 0 17.5 2,975 25,463 11,576 993
Wakulla . 74 6,926 117 102.7 0 0 55.6 508.3 55.3 1,564 439 0 0
Washington J 167 8,029 1,323 154.5 0 0 241.3 605.7 86.6 9,033 5,559 280 21
Walton . 564 24,300 5,142 143.6 0 0 477 670.4 86.0 2,333 643 12 121
0








TOTALS .28821,653,412 9601. xx 5,592.5 xx 135,573.0 xx xx 529012,135,776 302,079 18,0

T-62 T-45 (Tobacco)
Gadsden. . 2,259.7 1,020.1 624.8 1,140
Madison . .351.0 975.9 - -








Annual Report, 1937


TABLE 8.-AREA IN ACREs, CROPLAND IN COUNTY, NUMBER OF FARMS IN
COUNTY, FARMs UNDER WORK SHEET, AND CROPLAND UNDER WORK
SHEET FOR THOSE COUNTIES FLOWN UNDER 1937 CONTRACTS.


County


Alachua.

Columbia.
,T .i +n,


Area
of
county


581,760 506,880 337 Qqn


Holmes. 302,720 Jackson. 600,960 Jefferson . 339,200 Leon. 457,600 Madison . 495,360 Suwannee. 442,880


TOTALS. 4,065,280


Number farms in county (Census)

2,155

712 856

1,811 3,958 1,398

1,647 1,305 1,810


15,652


Total Cropland in county (Census)

95,568 66,496 57,881

65,141 174,430 70,928 69,097 79,857
130,444


809,842


Number of farms Work Sheets

735 597
440 622

1,080

621

948 681 700


6,424


Acres Cropland on Work Sheets

90,216 78,802 52,223 37,361 85,663 77,241 56,670 86,797 75,672


640,645


DATA SUITABLE FOR OTHER USES
Study has been given to utilization of Agricultural Conservation records by the Extension Service or related agencies, with evidences that interesting possibilities exist for usefulness therefrom.

COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT
Information supplied to county farm agents covered the cotton price adjustment plans announced during August and the facts received general circulation in the areas producing the staple.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART 11-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent H. G. Clayton, District Agent
R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent
A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent

Shortage of clerical assistance, which has been a serious handicap to Agricultural Extension Service in Florida, partially was overcome during the past year through personnel supplied by federal Agricultural Conservation authorities, primarily for their own duties.
Cooperative undertakings also entered into included the joint endeavor with the federal Farm Credit Administration, which plan selects borrowers behind in their payments and recommends practices intended to assist them concerning financial success in their farming.
Farm Security Administration forces, formerly Resettlement, dealing with loans to tenants for land purchases and related effort, which comprise supervising and home economics agents, likewise have been worked with closely by the Extension Service. Rural Electrification Administration activities within the state did not become of noteworthy extent during the year.
DISTRICT OPERATIONS
Extension Service operations in North and Northwest Florida were still handicapped by limited personnel. Farm demonstration agents worked in every county except Franklin and Gulf, where the agriculture is too limited to justify their employment. Jackson, Jefferson, Leon and Suwannee counties, with their large Negro populations, each had an agent of that race. Agents in numerous cases required unusually close supervision because of youth, though comparatively few personnel changes took place.
Resignations tendered by the former farm agents in Leon and Gadsden counties caused transfer thereto of the men then serving Taylor and Washington, respectively, both University of Florida Agriculture College graduates. In the entire district are employed only three agents who are not college men, and each of these has had lengthy 'practical experience.
Demonstrations which covered interplanting of corn with peanuts had an important part in the year's activity for this district. Terracing to avoid erosion constituted another significant item, including 21,594 acres on 725 farms in 12 small counties. Marketing received major attention, through cooperative hog sales, poultry routes, creamery establishment and like methods. Seeds of legumes also were purchased cooperatively by numerous dealers, through inspiration from Extension Service sources. Sea Island cotton kept several agents extremely busy, 5,000 acres in the state's 17,800 located through the district producing some 800 bales, or 25 percent of the Florida output. Livestock had representation in a beef cattle field day at the North Florida Experiment Station. Two institutes had a combined attendance exceeding 1,100.
Central and Southern Florida Districts cover the state eastward and southward from Hamilton, Columbia, Gilchrist and Levy counties. Dade county was given an assistant farm agent, materially increasing the scope








Annual Report, 1937


of the work, a dairying association having been formed, dairy recordskeeping taken up, a lime growers' organization perfected and 4-H club membership increased to 238 from 54. Personnel revisions elsewhere were relatively unimportant.
Farmers receiving low incomes had special attention from agents in several cases. Volusia County affords an excellent instance, through sale of deer tongue, which grows wild, to tobacco manufacturers. Deman , d was learned, supply investigated, harvesting, maturing and selling methods studied, public interest aroused and ultimately more than $50,000 distributed among farmers during summer time when work was slack and little if any other money coming in.
Beef cattle in the southern section vie with the hogs of the northern areas regarding livestock industry relative to agriculture. Extension Service endeavor on beef cattle covers better grades introduction through bringing in purebred bulls and culling the poorer cows, improved herds management and pasturage development. Demonstrations in the district for the year applying to beef cattle numbered 4,022 and on hogs 11,845. Hog sales on a cooperative basis proved highly successful in Gilchrist, Levy and neighboring counties.
District agents made 151 visits to county offices of the Extension Service and 16 in counties having no local units, when they went for consultation with agricultural committees. They held 61 public meetings, attended by 3,400 farmers, and 15 with boards of county commissioners. Radio addresses delivered by the district agents aggregated 11. Cooperation was extended to county farm agents in conducting seven farm tours and holding group outlook meetings. Extension Service aims and achievements the district agents presented before 21 civic and service clubs. Assistance on 4-H club camps they gave in 25 counties. A district agent was director of the four-days Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS
J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist

If the soils are to be conserved, where rainfall is heavy and temperatures high, rolling lands must be protected by terracing, contour tillage adopted as the 'practice, vegetation kept growing through so much of the year as is possible and turned under for both holding moisture and adding porosity. Agricultural Extension Service agronomy soil demonstrations have been with these purposes in view.
Terracing and contour cultivation previously had been engaged in to some extent by the best farmers of the areas where mostly needed. Engineers received Extension Service training in terracing during the past year throughout the territory. Power machinery was used in some counties and elsewhere long-wing horse drawn plows were utilized. Terracing in large acreages was called for at but few points, seldom if ever justifying the purchase of tractors and terraces, and some county commissioners rented to farmers equipment employed on the roads during other periods.
Lands terraced amounted to 21,594 acres on 725 farms, distributed among counties thusly:
Counties No.Farms No. Acres
1. Escam bia . _,_ . 16 . 324 2. Santa Rosa . 16 . 500 3. Okaloosa . 73 . . 1477 4. W alton . 450 . . 6000 5. H olm es . . . _ 9 . 520 6. Jackson . . 77 . . 3128 7. W ashington . 8 . 150 8. Gadsden . . 24 . 2400 9. Calhoun . 5 . 233 10. Leon . . 12 ----------- * ------------ 5000
11. Jefferson . . 4 ------------------ * . 424
12. M adison . __ . 31 . 1437
In addition to the foregoing, directly by county farm agents, approximately 20,000 acres were terraced under Federal Soil Conservation auspices, in northeastern Holmes County and northwestern Jackson, a-round Graceville. A project adding to this government activity for Florida has been established in Jefferson County, near Monticello, which contains about 18,000 acres.
CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS
Corn, peanuts and velvet beans in combination have been more generally grown throughout the northwestern counties than usual and on nearly 70 percent of the lands at least one legume was raised. Yet corn yields were small on the 69.6 percent of the peanut-velvet bean section already devoted to the grain, and efficient commercial fertilizers seemingly did not exist. Averages had been ascertained as 10.7 bushels when grown in every row, 10.2 bushels if corn and peanuts were alternated and 9.8 bushels when velvet beans constituted an addition.
Labor costs ran much the same for the three different systems on the 36,000 farms that grow corn as a foodstuff or for feeds. Peanuts interplanting was only 9 percent in one county and nowhere became greatly larger. Hogs made the combination a cash crop by feeding down the output, farmers having obtained at least 150 pounds of pork 'Per acre.
Combination planting campaigns therefore were initiated with 30 meetings in 17 counties, held by district and local agents and attended by nearly







Annual Report, 1937


3,000 corn growers. Literature distributed has been described in the editorial and mailing room report. Results in part are indicated by the table which follows:

I row corn
and I row Corn and
Year Number Acres solid peanuts or velvet beans
farms corn peanuts and 1 and I or 2
velvet beans and I

1936 -_--------------- 139 393 240 705
1937 . 139 231 650 601
Decrease 162 Increase 320 Decrease 104

It is seen here that the land grown to solid corn was reduced 162 acres or a little better than 41 percent-the acreage of corn interplanted with velvet beans only was reduced 104 acres or something over 17 percent, and that planted with peanuts showed an increase of 1331/ percent on these farms.
Questionnaire letters mailed to 100 Madison County farmers brought 58 replies, showing a 1937 corn crop of 3,528 acres against 3,518 the previous season. Acreage solidly in corn underwent a 43 percent reduction, while that of a combination output, principally peanuts and velvet beans, if grown between the rows fell 10 percent but when alternately planted increased 50.5 percent. Hogs sold in Escambia County during 1937 averaged 176 pounds against 159 for the previous year, a gain the farm agent attributed solely to the feed obtained from the corn and peanuts interplanting.

SURVEYS CONCERNING FERTILIZERS AND RELATED SUBJECTS Corn was found by the district agent and the farm agents in northwestern counties to be fertilized by 84 percent of the growers. Demonstrations on a comparative basis yielded -results as follows:
300 lbs. of 3-8-5 alone gave an average of 21.4 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 3-8-5 plus 60 pounds nitrate of soda gave an average of 26.5 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 4-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.2 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 6-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.8 bushels per acre.
300 lbs. of 2-8-5 plus 60 pounds soda gave an average of 26.5 bushels per acre.
The side-dressing and soda gave a good account of itself alone. Zinc sulfate gave some results on land affected with a deficiency of zinc. Austrian peas as a manure did well and were used by a number of farmers throughout the northwest Florida area.
Peanut planting more closely in the rows and with less spacing became the subject of meetings among farmers. Placards and circular letters also were employed to 'publicize the same data. Madison County farmers numbering 100 received requests to report on their practices.
1. Of the 58 returning them 40 reported growing peanuts alone both
years.
2. Of the 40 growers reporting growing them this way, 10 or 25%
spaced them as we recommended both years.
3. 30 or 75% were not in line with the Extension recommendations.
4. 13 or 43.317o of those not following the closer spacing in 1936 did
so in 1937.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Very similar results were obtained in Escambia County, but in other counties where similar checks were made the results were not as good but the trends were in the same direction.
The spacing result demonstrations conducted indicated an increased yield of 2517o or better this year over the wider spacing used generally by the farmers. There were also conducted by the agents in northwest Florida peanut fertilizing demonstrations by the use of landplaster and colloidal phosphate as well as complete fertilizer.
Development in permanent pastures, assisted by the Federal Agricultural Conservation plans, has been limited only through lack of seed. Farm visits and circular letters entered into the Extension Service activities on this line. Lespedeza demonstrations have been partially established throughout northwestern and eastern Florida. Others deal with oats and rye for winter grazing, at which field meetings will be held next spring in several counties.
The Extension agronomist and the tobacco marketing division, United States Agriculture Department economics bureau, conducted 11 meetings in the six principal flue-cured tobacco counties, which some 800 growers attended. Grading was demonstrated and methods shown for preparing leaf to go on the markets.
Studies in upland cotton production yielded results thusly
1. Two out of every 3 acres grown was some strain of Cook's Wiltresistant. This has been the cotton recommended by the Extension workers. It is undo btedly the most profitable.
2. It has appeared that 18,000 to 20,000 stalks per acre was a good stand and ordinarily would give larger yields than less. This survey shows many farmers are leaving too many stalks on the land-25,000 to 30,000.
3. 8001o of the growers are using approximately 300 pounds 3-8-5 fertilizer per acre. Those who used this with 100 pounds of nitrate soda or sulfate of ammonia as a side-dressing at chopping time were growing more economically.
It was thought best at the beginning of the year to conduct a series oi comparative fertilizer demonstrations also. This was done using at the rate of approximately 400 pounds peracre each the following complete fertilizers, and with the following results:
400 pounds of 6-8-4 gave an average :acre yield of 869 pounds.
400 pounds of 3-8-5 and 120 pounds soda side-dressing gave an average acre yield of 929 pounds.
400 pounds of 3-8-5 alone gave an average yield of 838 pounds.
400 pounds of 4-8-4 alone gave an average yield of 758 pounds.
400 pounds of 4-10-7 alone gave an average yield of 883 pounds.

In the campaign for restoring the Florida Sea Island cotton industry farm agents were called upon to accept, distribute and supervise applications of the boll weevil treatment except for Madison, Lafayette and Jefferson counties. Assistance also was rendered by them in organizing Sea Island cotton improvement associations in the 11 counties which formerly were the main producers of long staple.
A meeting called by the Extension Service director demonstrated to agents the methods for applying the mixture with which Sea Island plants are mopped every week from just prior to squaring until July 1. County agents in turn conducted approximately 40 demonstrations with groups







Annual Report, 1937 35

of growers. Estimates carefully made indicated that 80 'percent of the acreage was mopped from one to five times. Weevils of the migratory type nevertheless took toll from the 1937 crop.
Gins operating the previous season appearing inadequate for handling the anticipated output, outfits were added bringing the total number to 18. Operators called together by Extension Service officials formed the Sea Island Cotton Ginners' Association. Quality of the output was not uniformly good, only about one-third of the samples submitted for examination having been "normally" prepared. Planters were urged in circular letters and otherwise from Extension Service offices to pick cotton dry, throw out rotten and stained locks, bleach the product by sunning and furnish drying for any that was wet.
History of the crop the Extension Service also undertook to obtain, in collaboration with a federal agency, including seed sources, acreage and soil types, wid ' th between rows and how the plants had been spaced, fertilizers, weevil control and so on, the concluding item having been gross yields and receipts. Information secured previous to picking covered some 75 percent of the plantings and letter questionnaires mailed later sought the facts from the remainder.
Maintenance of staple length and fineness plus ginning efficiency the Extension Service considered essential, taking these matters up with the cotton marketing divisions, economics and plant industry bureaus, United States Agriculture Department. Agreements finally entered into again gave classification, grading and stapling service to Sea Island cotton. Representatives from the federal agencies came to Florida and the Extension Service agronomist helped get them in contact with all winners.
Influences unfavorable to the plan discouraged winners from sending in samples. Keeping on the job resulted in 1,525 bales of the 3,100 grown having been received and classed at the last report. Staple length ranged from 11/2 to 17/ inches. Grades 1, 2 and 3 were attained by nearly all the product, but 849 bales were roughly prepared.
Cotton bagging for wrapping 6,000 to 8,000 bales, furnished by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, was used in part only, despite earnest efforts by Extension Service workers and other interested factors. Success was more satisfactory pertaining to warehouse facilities and insurance and marketing arrangements, including credit at 16 cents per pound. A state statute, known as the Sea Island Cotton law, under which elections are held determining whether or not long staple shall be exclusively grown in specified territories, already has been affirmatively passed on in three counties, farm agents and other Extension Service personnel contributing materially to that end. Cottons cannot be mixed if this law is enforced where adopted, assuring purity in Sea Island seed strains. .

DEVELOPING AGRONOMY IN THE EXTENSION SERVICE
Spring planning meetings took 'place at 30 points in 17 northern Florida counties, nearly 3,000 farmers attending. Farm tours were directed by county agents on many occasions, showing the outcome of improved practices and 1,717 demonstrations conducted showing results in the fields.
Placards posted through farm agents' offices and otherwise explained exhibits, gave slogans and carried messages to producers. Newspaper stories, farm visits and like contacts continued to be utilized, with a great many field meetings. Agronomy division circular letters numbering 23 had 146,405 copies distributed through county agents, who prepared and mailed numerous ones additional. Roguink Sea Island cotton and grading of tobacco led to method and like demonstrations. Instructions in one-page form furnished copies for all 4-H club field demonstrations.










BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

Florida enrollment in 1936 reached the highest figure yet attained, 4,039, -representing a 36 percent increase over the previous year. Reporting members decreased, on the other hand, to 42.8 percent from 47 percent, principally because county farm agents found themselves too busily engaged with federal and other work to devote the customary time to boys' club activities. In 1936, the general average so applied was but 7.3 percent and but four agents gave 15 percent, these securing 76 percent reports. One-fifth of the agents attempted no endeavor with boys, explaining that soil conservation and like duties must be given preference.
Boys' 4-H organization in the state reached its peak on December 1, 1936, with 205 clubs. Counties having the best records in this respect obtained the best results and accomplished the best all-around work. Projects prosecution generally was at -a low point as regards quality, average yields low and record books not up to standard. Lack of attention to the boys caused these consequences, since they did not receive definite instructions and were not given needed assistance. In counties where local clubs functioned and farm agents gave them time in reasonable amounts, the outcome was normal. Revival of state exhibits in the beef calf, pig and poultry fields greatly aided the attainment of improved work on these projects.
TABLE 4.-COUNTIES IN WHICH 60 PERCENT OR MORE OF THE Boys
ENROLUD IN 4-H CLUB WoRx REPORTED ON THEIR Pmims.

Number Number
ur6l,
led Percent
County Boys Available Reporting Percent
I Availab Enrolled 1937 Reporting
Bay . 68 50 73 41 -80
Escambia . 563 143 25 '92 64
Jefferson . 148 81 54 53 65
Madison . 285 148 52 103 70
Okaloosa . . 322 64 20 42 67
Walton . . 434 158 35 96 60
Baker . 139 64 45 40 62
Columbia . . . 321 38 11 26 69
Dade . 317 58 18 41 70
DeSoto . 87 105 120 96 91
Duval . 340 108 30 69 68
Gilchrist . 172 20 11 20 100
Hardee . 300 73 26 45 61
Palm Beach . . 2G7 108 52 78 72
Pasco . 412 409 96 382 93
Putnam . 269 25 9 24 96
St. Johns . . _ 157 55 35 55 100
Sumter . . 309 li8 38 100 84
Union . . 174 45 26 31 70
Charlotte . 30 16 50 12 75
Hillsborough . 789 125 15 84 67
Orange . 620 70 11 55 78
T-OTALS . 6,463 1 2,081 15 1 1,585
Average number available boys per county . 293 Average number enrolled per county . 94 Average percent available enrolled . 32 Average number reports per county ----------------_------------ 72
Average 01o reports per county . 76


Florida Cooperative Extension







Annual Report, 1937


Table 4 shows the boys available in each county, enrollment last year and this, and percentage of gain or loss. Basis adopted for arriving at the boys available figure is purely arbitrary and may or may not be correct. Counties have been separated into districts according to the administrative plans now effective.
Experience has shown that in Florida attempts at boys' club work are unwise except in territories where county farm agents are engaged. Last year, 53 had agents throughout the 12 months, six enrolling no boys and four less than 10 each. County areas remaining, 43 in number, averaged 95 members apiece and 51 reports.
Counties securing 40 reports each or more averaged 1,363 farms while the ones obtaining less than 40 recorded 1,315 each. Average of farms was 1,100 in counties which returned over 90 reports apiece. In counties furnishing below 20 each, the farms averaged 901.
Clubs increased to 217 from 205. Reports ran an average of 10 per club. Pasco County was best organized with 18 clubs supplying 21 reports each. Madison registered six clubs averaging 17 reports. In Palm Beach County four clubs yielded 19 reports each, Sumter six clubs and 16% reports apiece, Walton six and 16.
County councils are actively maintained in the foregoing best organized territory. Organization of a State Council took place in June 1936 to assist and help the local clubs.

COOPERATION FROM OTHER SOURCES
District agents of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service again were responsible for 4-11 club activities, directing and encouraging the county representatives. Specialists on the staff at headquarters supplied subject material covering club projects, requests for which have been disappointingly small. Club ramps were attended for two weeks by each


Fig. 2.-In Lake County one boys' club conducts a cooperative 4-11 garden project.







Florida, Cooperative Extension


specialist, who rendered valuable help. Poultry show at the Central Florida Exposition was efficiently directed by the assistant Extension poultryman.

TABLE 5.-TABULAR REPORT OF 1937 GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.


Problem Goal


To increase enrollEnrollment ment from 4020 to
5,000 or 980 increase.

To secure 60%7 reReports ports. Raise % reports from 47% to
60%.


Project work





Club
organization


Club Camps



State Club Exhibits


Judging Contest 4-HScholarships1 to College
Out-of-State Trips
Boys' 4-H Short Course'I


To improve quality of project work.


(a) Have 90%
members in organized clubs.
(b) Have at least
30 county
councils.
(c) Start some
work in leadership training.
(a) Improve
grounds and
add equipment.
(b ) Have better
camp programs.
Have state exhibits in pig, poultry and baby beef projects .

Develop two


Secure five


Secure five

Have every county doing club work represented.


W 4C


43 43 43 43


Results


Secured 115 increase. 22 counties had an increase-21 a decrease.

JSecured 53% ,reports. 25 counties showed an increased .%' reports and 13 showed a decrease.'
In. crop, projects as shown by yield per acre there was a very decided drop. In livestock clubs as shown by animals exhibited, there was an improvement.


(a) Reached the goal.
(b) Have 23 county councils.
(c) Started some but did not reach goal.


(a) Exceeded goal as a new camp was
begun.
(b) Reached goal at one camp - not quite at the other.
Reached goal but number of counties taking I part not satisfactory.
Reached goal but not enough counties having teams.

Got'seven


Got ten

Had boys from 36 out of 43 counties.







Annual Report, 1937


Goal for 1937 of 5,000 members was not reached, though 115 boys more enrolled than for 1936. In part, the small gain and the failure to reach expectations may have been accounted for by the greater care that county farm agents exercised in reporting enrollments. A boy is not considered a 4-H club member until he has started work.

ENROLLMENT SOUGHT FOR 1938
Conditions indicate that the present enrollment is likely to be greatly exceeded only as new county farm agents are appointed who formerly were 4-H club boys. Increases are anticipated during 1938, but fear is felt that the 5,000 figure will not be reached.
Goals set for the next year also include more counties making 60 percent reports. Records completed constitute the standard by which county farm agents are judged concerning 4-H club performance with 60 percent reports acceptable, 65 to 80 fair and over 80 percent excellent.
Recovery of project quality sustained since agricultural adjustment began also will be attempted. Yields per acre must remain the basis on which 4-H club achievements are judged.

PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR
The average yield of some 4-H crop projects in 1935-36 and 1937 are as follows:
1925 1936 1937
Corn, average yield . 27.4 bu. 24.7 bu. 21.2 bu.
Cotton, average yield .-_ 711 lbs. 751 lbs. 700 lbs.
Sweet potatoes . 101.4 bu. 139 bu. 64.8 bu.
Peanuts . 682 lbs. 717 lbs. 401 lbs.
The weather was not enough different to - aff ect the state average . in any great degree. Lack of care in seed selection, planting and fertilization must be the factors which have lowered the average yield. The boys are not getting the same type of supervision as when the state average in corn was 37.5 bushels per acre.
Livestock projects have shown improvement. County farm agents in numerous cases secured better pigs for club boys. A state pig club contest furnished incentive to endeavor. A wildlife investigation project, added during 1937, led to a special camp which was a decided success.
Club organization aims include having 90 percent of members in local clubs, at least 30 county councils and starting effort for leadership training. Minor problems relate to improvement of the grounds at camps and preparing better programs therefor.

CLUB CAMPS
Camp McQuarrie had 85 assorted trees planted and land grubbed by the boys for an acre of citrus grove to be set during the 1938 spring. At Camp Timpoochee concrete footings and foundations were laid for the muchly-needed auditorium, a bedroom and bath added that the cooks will occupy, and a kitchen hot water boiler installed.
Boys from 40 counties and girls representing 24 spent a week at the two camps. Meals served numbered 22,919. Farmers and their wives visiting the camps during the summer increased the population by 800.
Conditions became so crowded at Camp McQuarrie that a location was secured for a third district assembly place, on Cherry Lake, in Madison







Florida Cooperative Extension


County. Lumber was donated from an abandoned rural resettlement enterprise and the National Youth Administration has undertaken to tear down the old buildings and erect new structures, though roofing must be supplied.

CONTESTS AND AWARDS
State contests in bal>y beef, pig and poultry projects are other goal purposes. Baby beef displays in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show, Jacksonville, March 10, contained 32 fattened steers exhibited by 21 4-H club boys. Pig club exhibits appeared this year, at the West Florida Exposition, Tallahassee, November I to 6. Club boys from 11 counties showed 87 pigs, each a highly creditable animal. Central Florida Exposition state poultry exhibit, Orlando, February 15 to 20, produced 250 birds from 50 club members in 10 counties. Judging contests on beef cattle, eggs and poultry again will be featured, that in beef cattle at Jacksonville, with seven counties taking part having been won by Liberty,
-and the poultry and egg competition in Orlando bringing out 11 teams from 10 counties.
Five scholarships open to the state are the 1938 goal-seven were awarded this year. Florida Bankers' Association will continue the three in the College of Agriculture, at $100 each, which it has given for 17 years. Fat Show authorities have offered one of like value for baby beef judging. Model Land Company provides one each year for a St. Johns County boy. Members of the Hastings Potato Growers' Association plan yearly awards valued at $250 each, to 4-H club members in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns.
Trips goal is three to the National 4-H Club Congress and two for the country-wide 4-H club camp. Five boys from Florida attended the former and two the latter during 1937.

MISCELLANEOUS UNDERTAKINGS
Representation from every county doing 4-H club boys' work at the State Short Course for them will be sought. That for 1937, the 21st held annually at the University College of Agriculture, enrolled 307 boys from 36 counties.
Training schools for recreational leadership have been held for 10 years past, in cooperation with the National Recreation Association. In the period, the state has been covered, almost every county touched that had club work, several counties having since maintained organized recreation councils. Schools during the current year comprised five for white boys and one attended exclusively by Negro youths.
Florida Farm Hour periods have averaged about one boys' 4-H club talk a month, over Station WRUF, Gainesville. Broadcasts also were given every day during the Short Course.
On National Achievement Day, November 6, three national -network stations, WIOD, Miami, WJAX, Jacksonville and WSUN, Clearwater, featured 4-H work, as did WRUF. Station WDBO, Orlando, presented two talks on 4-H club lines in the 12 months. Radio highlight of the year, however, was the half-hour broadcast from Camp McQuarrie, June 25, over WRUF offering a 4-H club campfire program, probably the first ever originated in a National Forest for airwaves transmission.
A wildlife camp sponsored by a cartridge company, which contributed $400, took place at McQuarrie, August 2-7, 80 boys and agents attending. United States Forest Service, State Conservation, Forest and Park agencies cooperated with the sponsors, the Extension Service and the Experiment Station.








Annual Report, 1937 41.

State winners in project work were as follows: Baby beef, Joe Vara, Holmes County, silver cup.
Breeding pig, Charles McCormick, Baker County.
Fat barrow, Robert Reeves, Leon County, trip to Chicago awarded by the State Club Department.
Meat production, M. C. Leslie, Madison County, gold watch from Thomas E. Wilson Company.
Outstanding pig club member, Connie McCormick, Columbia County, trip to Chicago awarded by Armour and Company.
Leadership winning members who were awarded trips to the 4-H National Camp, Fred Goetter, Escambia, and Adin Maltby, St. Johns, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad furnished transportation for one.
Scholarships from the Florida Bankers' Association, Gayle Diamond, Brevard County, Eric Mills, Marion, and Billie Mowat; Bay.
Poultry judging, $100 scholarship from Central Florida Exposition, Milton Mingonet, Lake County; three trips to Chicago, contributed by Florida Chain.Store Association, Robert Douglass, Dan Roberts and Stanley Rosenberger, Alachua.
Short Course scholarships were given by numerous boards of county commissioners, civic and service clubs, and several individuals.








Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
Activities of the Extension Service citriculturist were conducted in association with district and farm agents of Brevard, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, 'Putnam, Sarasota, Seminole and Volusia counties. Cooperation was received from the Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Exchange, the State Plant Board and United States Agriculture Department.
Problems confronting grapefruit, orange and tangerine growers chiefly relate to still further reductions in producing and marketing costs which will permit the output's sale on an increased scale among low-income consumers, meanwhile improving quality so far as economically is possible, that demand will be, retained and enlarged. Sub-projects carried through the year in the Extension Service citriculture endeavor consequently included the following: fertilizing, cover crops, cultivation, irrigation and dieback, wrenching, bronze leaf, melanose, scale and rust mite control.
Fertilizer costs have been found to constitute 30 to 60 percent of the aggregate labor and materials production outlay. Records available to the Extension Service indicate that less than 50 percent of the Florida groves receive adequate plant food. Growers who get into reduced fertilizer and low-production habits during years when 'prices are unsatisfactory, find emergence therefrom difficult even when conditions have improved.
Since 1932, Extension Service endeavors in citrus counties largely have been devoted to devising effective fertilizer plans for individual growers, and during 1937 2,642 groves received visits, 2,020 of the owners following the recommendations made, involving approximately 10,000 tons. A typical grower wrote his county agent, "I have saved a great deal of money by following your ideas concerning an economical system of fertilizing, also fertilizer supplements." Grove tours were promoted in 20 counties and 102 result demonstrations witnessed by 1,942 growers.

COVER CROPS AND ORGANIC MATTER
Organic matter in adequate supply is the dominant question wherever citrus fruits are raised by Florida growers. If lacking, the results appear in low efficiency of the commercial fertilizers applied, poor tree conditions and inferior fruit. Interest in proper cover crop practices has been greater during the past year than for a quarter century.
Growers had assistance from Extension Service agents and specialists in 126 communities,- located throughout the citrus belt. Tree conditions that had improved, fruit produced in heavier yields and net returns enlarged were pointed out time after time, as the direct result of the recommended practices. In 146 groves, with soil not favorable to legume cover crops, $1.00 per acre in cheap nitrogen, used as a top-dressing during June and July, enlarged the grasses and weeds output for cover crop purposes between 100 and 150 percent. Leaching of plant nutrients'was correspondingly reduced, organic matter conserved, root growth and tree health advanced.
CULTIVATION OF GROVES
Waste due to the improper cultivation of groves, the Extension Service has continued to emphasize, in 15 counties. Savings as to operating costs, plus improved tree conditions and better fruit quality, may be obtained








Annual Report, 1937


by less cultivation, it has been shown, in at least 25 percent of the Florida groves. Cultivation that is deep has been found usually to destroy the root system in part, weakening the trees and rendering them more susceptible to diseases.
Meetings, press articles and radio talks have been utilized in the educational work for proper cultivation. Respecting the non-bearing trees, the recommendation is made that strips be cultivated along the tree rows, throughout the growing season. In bearing groves, cultivation in the fall is advised, sufficient to incorporate the cover crop with the soil so that fire hazards may be eliminated. Adjustment in the spring is suggested to seeding and protection of the cover crop, always avoiding the deep cultivation that destroys tree roots.
Irrigation also has received no inconsiderable attention, in nine years of every 10 the water supply by rainfall having been found insufficient. Fruit drops in consequence, sizes are small, tree vitality becomes lowered., dead twigs and branches result, followed by increased melanose infections and stem-end rot. Growers received assistance in installing 17 -new plants and 21 were given help on changes rendering old ones more efficient, and 18 grove owners helped to obtain and operate proper rain gauges, though rainfall was so well distributed demand for irrigation was less than usual.

DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL
Wrenching, a zinc deficiency disease, found in over 75 percent of the groves, causes lower commercial fertilizer efficiency whenever the tree
-foliage is 10 percent or more affected. Instructions printed by theAgricultural Extension Service have been mailed or handed to above 10,000 growers and many others reached through newspaper articles or radio talks. Results were little short of marvelous when the affected trees received spray applications in these proportions: hydrated lime 2V2 pounds, zinc sulfate 5 pounds, and water 100 gallons. Lime-sulfur and bordeaux sprays also have been helpful.
Demonstrations by the hundred were given, 20 counties taking part. Materials and a small sprayer were carried by numerous Extension Service workers, who made applications to trees here and there. Results became clearly evident within four to six weeks, whereupon many cooperating growers immediately sprayed the remainder of the groves. Foliage demonstrations gave action more quickly and were 95 percent effective. Soil treatments act slowly but are more lasting. A combination of the two seemingly promises well.
Dieback in young trees and ainnioniation of young fruit, definitely classed 4as copper deficiency diseases, have been overcome through one to three applications using copper sulfate, one-fourth pound to one pound per tree for the first-named and one pound to three pounds on account of the latter, followed by one-fourth that amount once annually during two or three years thereafter. Bordeaux applied for nielanose control has supplied copper sufficient to cause disappearance of ammoniation.
Except in a few communities the foregoing facts concerning copper generally are understood among citrus 'producers, but 39 demonstrations were staged. Otherwise, the task was to keep growers from forgetting and advise newcomers in the industry, through timely newspaper stories and radio talks. In this sub-project, 17 counties had a part.
Bronze leaf, arising from deficiencies in magnesium, during the past years cut yields heavily. In the last two seasons demonstrations showing how to use dolomite and magnesium sulfate have made the remedy known among growers in 20 counties.








44 Florida Cooperative Extension

Soil acidity tests made last year -numbered 1,323. Recommendations including the use of dolomite aggregating 1,106, covered 15,635 acres. Dolomite demonstrations for bronze leaf continued from previous years totaled 51. Treatments of a corrective nature were unknown until a few seasons ago when several county farm agents and the Extension Service citriculturist, cooperating with Agriculture College and Experiment Station specialists, discovered that dolomite did the job and that the corrective agent therein was magnesium.
Melanose, the most important grade-lowering factor in Florida citrus culture, prevails principally through the old groves. Inone county, of 94 crops, low-grade fruit due thereto included oranges 28 percent and grapefruit 35 percent. Research has shown that successful control begins with preventive measures going back.into the general cultural practices. Extension Service recommendations followed by 693 growers lessened melanose to a minimum by reducing deadwood, fertilizing properly, cultivating conservatively and supplying ample water. Control proved satisfactory with 150 grove owners who pruned out dead-wood as thoroughly as possible, during the winter. Spraying demonstrations with 3-3-100 bordeaux and wettable sulfur afforded good results. Melanose control endeavor covered 18 counties.
Scale control with oil sprays depends largely upon the copper spraying for melanose and scab. Method demonstrations conducted at seven points had present more than 10,0 pest control leaders. Growers with whom Extension Service workers came in contact indicated the importance of friendly fungi in keeping scale down.
Rust mites, second in importance among the grade-lowering factors, have been more nearly offset by the methods used during recent years and the Extension Service citriculturist served on a state committee, which revised the spray and dust schedules early in 1937. Through his office and 20 county agents copies were distributed to approximately 15,000 growers. A central meeting at the Citrus Experiment Station had 117 present, representing widely varied interests.

ACTIVITIES IN RELATED FIELDS
Grove visits in 20 counties made by the Extension Service citriculturist were at the request of 2;642 growers.
Growers' Institute held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, and devoted entirely to citrus, on which the Extension Service had Agriculture College and Experiment Station aid, enrolled more than 300, with the daily attendance averaging 195. Production and marketing were followed through with a dozen local cooperative associations. In one, with the manager of which the Extension Service citriculturist has collaborated for two years to demonstrate the value of 100 percent cooperation concerning both growing and marketing, an Agriculture College-trained production manager has been employed, a fertilizer factory built, spraying machines and other equipment necessary to giving service purchased. Of 120 members, 99 percent are using the facilities, at savings ranging between 15 percent and 50 percent, and financing themselves with 3 'percent money.
Sales effort on an association brand, concentrated on one dealer in a Southern market, started with supplies of strictly uniform quality fruit, followed by local newspaper and radio advertising, maintaining dealer service and so on. Success attained has been so pronounced that this season another market was added. Thus the organization is extending its service from the soil to the consumer, and several other associations are planning similar undertakings.







Annual Report, 1937


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
Extension animal husbandry work is closely correlated with kindred activities in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and is supervised by the head of the department. Beef cattle received the principal attention from the Everglades to Escambia. County; hogs through the peanut-producing area northward and westward from Sumter and Marion. .
Adult and junior efforts both were divided under two main aims-production and fattening for market. Goals immediately in sight on cattle are distribution of purebred bulls and appreciation that annual calf crops have great economic value. In more or less direct consequence, many carloads of registered bulls were brought in, among them Angus, Braford, Brahma and Hereford animals, altogether aggregating more than 800, valued at nearly $100,000 and able to sire not less than 30,000 calves yearly. Osceola County in addition is raising Brahmas, bulls sold numbering 300 and highgrade cows 250.
Farmers' herds usually start small. In Okeechobee County, as an example, 68 farmers owned 10 or more beef cattle during 1936 but for 1937 the number had increased to 105. Herds established in the state aggregated 47, including 334 purebred and 589 high grade cows. Breeding control gives a calf crop running 60 percent to 85 -as compared with about 35 percent from the open range method, the higher figures having been reported by 165 owners, producing 6,148 select heifers for herd replacement. One county agent conducted 14 demonstrations in this work. .
Calves raised under the herd 'practices advocated by the Extension Service sell much better than range stock, in northwestern Florida the well-bred specimens, averaging 431 pounds, bringing 7 cents a pound or $30.17 each against common yearlings' average of 325 pounds which sold for 4 cents or $13.00 apiece. Culling of barren and shy-breeding cows is'called for, and more than 7,000 went to market grass-fat, one ranchman furnishing eight carloads. Dehorning young calves proved extremely successful and materially reduced screw worm infestations.

PASTURE IMPROVEMENT
Farm tours, letters, the radio and visits have been utilized in urging farmers to give the grass a chance, killing out weeds, bushes and briers, alike in pastures and on the range. Mowing machines and we d cutters are recommended. At a field meeting with 50 farmers present, L. K. Edwards, Irvine, Marion County, stated he had doubled the grazing value of his 2,000 acre pasture in three years by using the mower, without sowing a seed or adding acreage. In another meeting at Brighton, attended by 60 cattlemen representing 100,000 head, Thomas Lykes asserted his concern normally grazed and fattened 1,200 to 1,500 steers before cutting weeds and myrtle but now can run between 4,000 and 5,000 on the same area.
Weeds have been cut this year on more than 19,000 acres. Palmetto cutters have killed the bushes and other growth except grass over some 15,000. Disking has taken place on above 14,000 preparatory to sowing grass. Para grass was set on much moist land southward from Gainesville. . A 'pasture improvement campaign was inaugurated by the Jacksonville Commerce Chamber, in connection with which the Extension Service animal husbandman inspected conditions in Alachua, Clay, Hernando, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Polk and St. Johns counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SILO BUILDING
Trench silos for beef cattle feeding, essentially an Extension Service accomplishment, were non-existent in 1930 but now are found all, the way from Okaloosa to Levy and Alachua counties. Additions this year numbered 78, compared with 53 last, a 49 percent gain.

PAIRS AND SHOWS
Cooperation was extended in the exhibition of seven Florida herds at the Florida Fair in Tampa. Bulls shown from other states-were bought for numerous Florida farms and ranges.
Florida Fat Stock Show in Jacksonville, sponsored by the local commerce chamber but largely developed through Extension Service activities, was a greater success than for any year since the beginning, during 1935. Table herewith tells the story:
TABLE 6.-REPoRT or THIRD ANNuAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE,
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, MARCH 9 AND 10, 1937.
(With Comparisons to 1935 and 1936 Shows.)

1937 1936 1935


Number cattle sold . ----------- 535 638 147
Total weight (lbs.) . 445,180 461,245 126,830 Average price per pound ---------- .0972 .0712 .0899
Average weight per steer . 832 pounds 722.9 pounds 862 'pounds Average price per head ------_---- $80.94 $51.50 $77.56
Total sales ------------------------------------ $43,302.77 $32,860.93 $11,402.63
Number exhibitors ---------------------- 50 71 15
Number Georgia exhibitors ------ 2 3 1
Number club boys exhibiting ---- 21 18 0
Number 4-11 club calves . 32 18 0
Number 4-H judging teams ------ 7 9 5
Number cars bought by
out-of-state exhibitors ---------- 10 10 0
Grand champion steer price ------ 32 1/ c 32c 21c
Number Florida counties
sending cattle -----_------------------ 16 18 9

Winner of 4-11 judging teams: 1st, Liberty; 2nd, Sumter; 3rd, Pasco; 4th, Alachua; 5th, Madison; 6th, Columbia; 7th, Suwannee.

FINANCING, STEER FEEDING, ETC.
Farm Credit Administration plans for financing did not fit the Florida cattle situations. Ranchmen held a meeting, submitted recommendations, followed by numerous conferences, in all the Extension Service animal husbandmen taking part, including one at the Columbia headquarters. Relations thus were established on a more satisfactory basis and a few loans have been granted.
Steer feeding, received a great impetus from the Florida Fat Stock Show and Experiment Station activities, and this office printed an instructive circular, copies having been furnished all county agents and interested farmers. Silage became increasingly important in steer rations. Feeding field meetings furnished helpful demonstrations, conducted by the animal husbandman and county agents, Tendencies grow toward winter feeds







Annual Report, 1937


for the breeding herds and steps were taken under which the nearest cottonseed oil mill, at Valdosta, Georgia, agreed to make cake for Florida buyers.




















Fig. 3.-Florida steers like these are becoming more and more in evidence throughout the state, as the cattlemen advance with their programs of cattle improvement and feed production. This group was among the prize winners at the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale.

IMPROVING HOG OUTPUT
Type and quality improvement messages have been carried to farmers through circular letters, county agents, market-place tours, meat cutting and curing demonstrations and tours. A circular has been in great demand pointing out wherein raising big litters of healthy pigs is profitable.
Hogs marketed have been of much better grades, principally due to these Extension Service activities. A late 1937 sale in northwestern Florida showed 58 percent grading No. 1, 180 pounds and up, against 29 percent almost exactly one year before. In another case, well-bred -and well-fed hogs sold at $10.40 'per hundredweight; poorly-bred animals three months older for only $7.00. Four of the big packers now have hog buyers in Florida.
Meat cutting and curing demonstrations, with both beef and pork, were held in various sections. One in Jefferson County, sponsored by the farm and home demonstration agents, had cooperation from farmers, the Monticello Kiwanis Club and Swift and Company.
Meetings, regional in character, held at four points during May had assistance from the United States Agriculture Department senior extension meat specialist. Conducted somewhat as schools for county agents, these occurred in Kissimmee, Marianna, Monticello and Wauchula.
November 4 all home demonstration agents were called to Gainesville for a school at which the Extension animal husbandman collaborated with Experiment Station specialists in demonstrations. Campaigns have been carried on throughout the hog raising territory for home supplies meat curing.
Cold storage meat plant managers' conference at Gainesville November 12 had 21 of 52 plants represented by some 26 officials. In one case, the








Florida Cooperative Extension


statement was made that advice from this office at a similar meeting three years ago had caused savings which aggregated more than $4,000. Exhibits displaying products cured in the various plants composed the first meat show of its kind in the United States.
Rules and regulations for judging meats at the Florida Fair this office prepared, with federal agency and Experiment Station cooperation.

BOYS' WORK AND MARKETING
Personal visits, meetings and instruction comprised the animal husbandry contribution to 4-H club work. A week each was spent at Camp Timpoochee and Camp McQuarrie. Short Course instruction was supplied all interested junior club members. Fat Stock Show boys' exhibits numbered 21, -and included 32 calves. Pigs from 11 counties, aggregating 87, went on display at the Tallahassee annual show. In both cases the boys' animals were considerably better than previously.
Markets for livestock opened at several Florida points, recognizing the success attained by the Extension Service livestock industry efforts. Sales on a cooperative basis which farm agents promoted and conducted became even more helpful to farmers. In Trenton, Gilchrist County, the Gulf Coast Hog Marketing Association sold 20,539 animals for $251,623.75, averaging $12.25 each, compared with 8,465 two years before, bringing $64,935.55, an average of $7.56 apiece. Grading uniformity in the Southeast was sought at a Moultrie, Georgia, meeting which the Extension Service animal husbandmen attended.







Annual Report, 1937


DAIRYING
Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
The extension program in dairy husbandry is closely correlated with dairying work in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and is supervised by the head of the department. . , Dairying in the Agricultural Extension Service presents the county farm agents as leaders in their respective territories and the added responsibilities they have been given on Soil Conservation lines caused extraordinary efforts by the Extension Dairyman for cooperation through helping organize dairying associations and like agencies. Aid of value came from the district agents.
A 4-H club dairy plan of work was prepared. Radio talks prepared by the Extension Dairyman numbered 23. Assistance rendered the home demonstration agents consisted of mimeographed information concerning family cows and record books for 4-H club girls engaging in dairy projects. Soil classification and crop adaptation studies were conducted in connection with forage production.
Activities devoted to dairying took place in 45 counties having farm agents and some were carried on with farmers in four others. Demonstrations, both method and result, alike among adults and juniors, constituted the principal factors and a secondary group comprised meetings, state, county, community and field. Letters were utilized freely, in personal and circular forms, motorcades to the demonstrations promoted, personal visits made among farmers, radio talks employed, and stories in newspapers utilized.
FORAGE PRODUCTION ENDEAVOR
Forage production as the limiting factor, causing Florida to be regarded as a milk deficiency area, has received continuing attention, since even market milkmen have only about 35 percent of the required permanent pasturage and make not over 20 percent the silage they need. Bang's disease eradication carried on cooperatively with federal agencies has reduced the infections below 11/2 percent from 27 percent, since 1933. Texas fever tick eradication in most sections has been succeeded at some points by anaplasmosis, a similar disease which several species of ticks carry-and probably other insects-causing concern among dairymen.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS AND SILOS
Increase in the farms showing fertilization of crops for forage and silage supplied the outstanding feature, Alachua, Bay, Dade, Duval, Hernando, Leon and Palm Beach counties taking the lead.
Alachua County reported 39 farmers who fertilized pastures and silage crops, increasing output 15 percent. In Bay, the county farm agent succeeding in having fertilizers for 316 acres purchased cooperatively. Dade had six farmers conducting fertilizer demonstrations. Ensilage crops fertilized on 875 Duval acres produced some 7,000 tons.
Sugarcane for forage that Duval farmers gave complete fertilization yielded 2,500 tons from 120 acres. Pastures fertilized include about 3,000 acres. Hernando increased forage and grazing tonnage 12 percent on 235 acres. Leon fertilized around 2,000 acres. In Palm Beach County this was the third year of demonstrations, using calcium and magnesium carbonates and superphosphate with 'potash and nitrogen.







50 Florida Cooperative Extension

Trench silos were erected in three counties for the first time, the total construction on Florida dairy farms during the year including 123 of that type and 42 upright. A paper form introduced during the year may supply the need for cheap silos.

RATIONS, PASTURES, AND BY-PRODUCTS
Seeding of pastures on flatwoods land was limited by the carpet grass seed available. Bermuda plantings on dairy farms increased throughout the state.
In 35 counties farm agents reported 115 demonstrations with mineral supplements, steamed bone meal supplemented with calcium carbonate and salt principally added to the dairy rations.
Volusia County agent cooperation was extended other agencies in experiments with adding cobalt to the standard salt, iron and copper salt sick mixture, for animals on Norfolk sandy soils, pronounced results having been obtained with farm cows.
Dairymen were urged by farm agents to profit by the Experiment Station findings concerning the values which citrus cannery waste possesses when made into cattle feed. Savings in cost ranging between 15 cents per hundredweight and 50 cents received stress as a means for securing demonstrations.
PROMOTING THE FAMILY COW
Placing family cows on farms had cooperation from practically all county agents, whose work further was of great value respecting homeproduced feeds in greater quantities. Agents for Charlotte, Hardee, Hernando, Holmes, Jackson, Lafayette, Marion, Okeechobee, Pasco, St. Johns, Sarasota, Sumter, Suwannee, Union, Volusia, and Washington earned special commendation.
In all counties the agents conducted method demonstrations, especially where the population is sparse and much personal work was required with sick animals and regarding feed practices, Dixie, Glades, Hamilton, Levy, Liberty and Wakulla afford excellent examples.
Purchases of 78 and 42 heifers and registered sires were made by the Jackson and Suwannee county agents, respectively. In five years the Hernando agent has procured 34 registered bulls and 364 cows for his farmers. Dairymen from Pinellas he interested in purchasing Hernando farms this year. A trailer holding some 20 baby calves has been used for bringing in high-grade stock from Duval county.

BOYS' 4-H CLUBS IN DAIRYING
Dairying by boys' 4-H clubs serves as one of the best approaches to the family cow program. Usefulness of this agency is greatest in the rural counties composing northern and western Florida.
Dade, Duval, Marion, Pasco and Suwannee county demonstration teams competed in a contest at the College of Agriculture in Gainesville; the prize, a trip to the National Dairy Show, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded the Pasco County team.

BREEDING AND PRODUCTION RECORDS
Farms in about 16 percent of the counties exclusively use registered sires. County agents reported 152 introduced during 1937, also 3,500 grade and purebred cows for herd replacements in the Bang's disease








Annual Report, 1937 51

eradication. Duval County alone added 31 sires, the farm agent having sought bulls with ancestors that had records of 400 pounds butterfat minimums.
Herd improvement associations organized in three instances had 16 counties cooperating and represented 1921 cows.
Dairy record books were placed with 56 farmers in 16 counties.

MARKETING FACILITIES IMPROVEMENT
Farm agents in Washington and Adjacent counties cooperated wit h feeding suggestions and otherwise in establishing the creamery now operating in Chipley.
Marion County revived the milk market at Ocala, which will specialize in by-products manufacture, the farm agent assisting.
Extension Service collaboration with the State Dairymen's Association and Florida Milk Control Board led to public meetings in 17 counties.
Field meetings in Leon County numbered four, the Extension Dairyman receiving aid from the white and Negro agents.

DISEASE CONTROL
In addition to the campaign for Bangis disease eradication, cooperation has been given the Experiment Station in studies of hemorrhagic septicemia, anaplasmosis, trichomonads and white scours among calves.
County agents assisted the federal authorities in screw worm control until they discontinued it and since have carried on the endeavor,

BUILDING SAFETY PENS
Calf pens as suggested by V. C. Johnson, a successful Duval dairyman, are proving effective in keeping young heifers free from intestinal parasites.
Safety bull pens construction received an impetus through demonstration teams of 4-1-1 club boys.
Sheds for feeding and shade were erected in seven instances, and 15
-barns and 12 dairy houses remodeled or built through Extension Service and county agent activities.

TRIPS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES
Trips made by the Extension Service Dairyman during 1937 included one to Tennessee, accompanied by the'Suwannee County agent, no cost accruing against the state organization, another into North Carolina and South Carolina, with the Volusia agent and a dairy operator, and one covering portions of Alabama made at personal expense.

MISCELLANEOUS MEETINGS
Outlook conferences in seven northwestern Florida counties had an attendance of 800 farmers. University of Florida Dairy Day, August 5 and 6, held in cooperation with the State Dairymen's Association, attracted some 87 people.
Marketing and production methods improvement received emphasis in 17 county conferences, the Extension Dairyman assisting the Association
-president.
A state meeting with Negro county agents convened in Lake City and another at Fessenden Academy brought together almost 200 racial leaders. Alachua County had a similar conference attended by 47 Negro farmers.







52 Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY KEEPING

Norman R. Mehrhof , Extension Poultryman
Dan F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest

Pullets of superior quality, efficient management for laying flocks, improved marketing methods and breeding birds selection, trapnesting and pullorum disease control constituted the Extension Service poultry activities possessing major importance during the year covered by this report. These activities are tied in closely with related ones in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station.
Production of healthy.chicks and pullets, also laying flock management and better methods therein, went ahead on a long-time basis under the Calendar Flock Record designation. Breeding Rocks building and disease control were conducted as a part of the national poultry improvement plan. Egg quality undertakings inaugurated during 1936 were continued, on a state-wide basis, with the Extension Service an important participating factor. Poultry extension specialists visited 42 counties and assisted the agents. Turkey management again was carried on, principally in Alachua, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Levy and Suwannee.

FEED PRICES AND POULTRY EXTENSION
Relations between feed prices and poultry products returns have a direct bearing on Extension Service poultry endeavor, since most commercial producers buy all the materials they use as feeds. A poultry ration illustrating -pribes comprises a mash mixture including 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal, 100 'pounds each bran, fine ground oats, meatscraps-55 percent protein-shorts and yellow corn meal plus a grain combination containing 100 pounds each yellow cracked corn and wheat.

TABLE 7-MONTHLY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION*.

Base
Month Period 1934 1935 1936 1937
1927-29

October . 2.78 2= 2.18 2.43 2.28
November . 2.72 2.25 2.16 2.48 2.12
December . 2.72 2.32 2.14 2.57
January . 2.73 1.89 2.34 2.12 2.77
February . __ 2.77 1.90 2.32 2.10 2.67
March . 2.78 1.90 2.32 2.12 2.62
April . 2.78 1.91 2.31 2.11 2.71
May . . 2.81 1.90 2.32 2.11 2.76
June . . 2.85 1.97 2.28 2.10 2.72
July . 2.90 2.00 2.22 2.23 2.65
August . 2.87 2.12 2.15 2.42 2.51
September . . 2.84 2.22 2.13 2.43 2.37
Average . 2.80 2.05 2.24 2.27 2.56**

*Price based on quotation Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.










POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICE LEVELS
Prices for eggs and poultry meat, over a period of years, have been tabulated by the Extension Service and sent to cooperating floek owners as an assistance in making plans for the future.

TABLE 8.-MONTMY PRICES OF NO. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS*.
(Cents per dozen.)


38.0 39.3 38.4 38.1
40.0 37.0 41.9 39.6
40.0 40.6 43.4
.28.7 35.8 33.5 29.4
25.6 31.8 31.2 27.5
19.2 23.0 23.5 25.1
19.8 24.9 22.9 25.5
20.1 26.3 24.1 24.2
23.5 26.8 25.7 25.8
28.0 31.5 31.9 30.1
31.6 35.6 34.0 33.0
36.8 39.0 37.5 37.2
29.3 32.6 32.3 30.5**


*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

TABLE 9.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAvy HENS*.
(Cents per pound.)

Base
Month Period 1934 1935 1936 193.7
1926-29


October . 28.1 17.2 21.0 19.6 18.7
November . 26.9 17.8 21.7 19.6 20.3
December . 26.5 17.5 20.6 18.7
January . 26.6 14.3 17.5 20.0 18.7
February . 27.1 15.5 17.8 19.9 19.3
March . 27.9 16.0 18.3 19.5 18.6
April . 27.6 15.5 18.0 20.3 18.5
May . * ---------- 27.0 15.8 18.0 20.8 19.0.
June . 25.7 16.0 18.7 20.5 19.5
July . . 24.5 15.7 18.2 20.9 16.8
August . 25.2 14 -, 18.4 20.7 16.0
September -------- 27.0 16.6 19.3 20.2 17.5.
Average . 26.7 16.1 18.9 20.1 18.5**


Annual Report, 1937


Month



October .
November .
Decem ber .
January .
February .
M arch .
April .
M ay .
June .
July .
August .
September .
A verage . ---------


1936


Base Period 1926-29


56.4 57.0 52.0
45.9 34.3 31.0
29.4 28.8 32.3 36.6
42.1 47.5 41.1


1934


*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau,
**11 months' average.


Jacksonville, Florida.





























*Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida.
**11 months' average.

Changes in feed prices and returns from poultry products affect expected profits and correspondingly influenced extension work bearing on the industry. Table 11 shows the relationship of feed to poultry products for the years 1935, 1936 and 1937. The base period is the three year average 1926-1929.
During the first part of 1937 the feed-poultry products ratio was relatively poor but as the season developed a more favorable ratio existed. This was due primarily to a reduction in feed prices and a slightly higher price for fryers. Both egg pricesand hen prices were slightly less in 1937 than for the same period in 1936.
TABLE 11-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX To EGG, HEN, FRYER INDICES.

1935


Ratio ri
1 z P
I Q, I , 11 0

Eggs to feed . 92 111 88 102 109 104 1112 113 109 90 82 99 Hens to feed . .82 80 80 78 81 90 96 97 95 96 103 99 Fryers to feed -.1 67 74 76 73 79 78 1 84 88 85 85 84 81
1936
1
Eggs to feed ------ 94 119 100 103 109 108 113 99 92 78 81 87 Hens to feed . 96 96 92 '97 100 108 110 98 87 80 80 75 Fryers to feed . 86 86 87 84 83 85 92 87 81 72 65 58 1937

Eggs to feed . 66 83 86 93 86 84 90 90 94 83 8 8 Hens to feed --d 72 74 71 71 71 80 1 70 72 78 82 96 Fryers to feed .1 60 64 63 67 6i 72 87 92 95 99 99


Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 10.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS*.
(Cents. per pound.)


Base Period 1926-29

33.8
34.9 36.2 38.3 39.1
41.0 42.7 39.9 37.2
32.4 30.8 32.7 36.6


1936 1937


21.2 27.1
20.5 26.7
20.0
25.5 22.3
25.6 24.3
27.0 24.1
27.2 27.0
25.7 24.1
23.5 25.3
23.1 25.5
22.6 24.5
22.3 25.8
23.7 25.2**


Month


October . . November . December January . February .-. . M arch . A pril . . M ay . June . __July . August ------_-----September . Average . _


1934


20.0 20.5 20.5 17.6
20.2 23.9 25.2
24.9 22.5
20.1 18.7 19.7
21.2










BABY CHICK AND POULTRY MANAGEMENT
Growing healthy chicks has been presented, with emphasis upon clean brooder houses and land, in collaboration with the State Livestock Sanitary Board which is supervising the national poultry improvement plan in Florida.
Recommendations from the Extension Service were followed by 1,659 families when purchasing baby chicks, 2,513 in chick rearing and 2,271 as regards sanitation. Green feeds production was adopted by 1,959 families.
Culling demonstrations held throughout the state caused 911 families to follow improved breeding plans.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Poultry records keeping began during 1925 as an Extension Service enterprise. Record books are made available which suit poultry raisers having small flocks and others meeting the requirements of commercial producers. Summaries from the figures they have submitted go monthly to the cooperators, which also contain other data and likewise are mailed to the press. In 1937, records completed represented poultry raisers in 25 counties against 20 the year before and 16 for 1935.
TABLE 12.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY OCTOBER 1, 1934, TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1937.

Items 1 1 1934-35 1935-36 1 1936-37

Number of farms ------------------------------ 37 49 43
Av. number of birds . 17,410 22,132 19,987 Av. no. of birds per farm --- - ------- 470 452 465
Av. no. eggs per bird per year ----- 163 . 04 180.18 168.86
Av. percent culled . 49.25 41.07 45.27 Av. 'percent mortality ---------------------- 20.38 17.13 17.56
1 1

Table 13 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average number of eggs per bird for the past two years by groups. During the 1935-36 poultry year the largest size flock had the greatest egg, production per bird but the reverse was true during the 1936-37 poultry year.

TABLE 13.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.

10-250 251-500 Over 500
birds birds birds


Total number of flocks 1935-36 21 11 17
1936-37 18 10 15

Average size of flock 1935-36 110 344 943
1936-37 138 303 965

Average number of eggs 1935-36 168.71 173.96 183.31
per bird 1936-3, 183.95 163.05 167.50


Annual Report, 1937








56 Florida Cooperative Extension

The fourteenth year of record keeping was started October 1, 1937.
A brief summary of the records analyzed for the 1935-36 year is tabulated in the following table.
TABLE 14.-SumMARY OF PouLTRY BuSINESS, 60 FARMS, OCTOBER 1, 1935-SEPTEMBER 30, 1936.
Poultry capital per farm . _ . . $2357.00 Total receipts per farm . . 3108.00 Total expenses per farm . 2295.00 Receipts less expenses . . 813.00 Poultry labor income . 648.00 Poultry labor earnings . 698.00
Management factors
Eggs per bird per year . 169.5 M ortality in percent . . 16.4 Culling. in percent . 32.3 Pullets in flock percent . 61.0 Value of eggs over feed cost 'per bird . $ 1.99 Feed cost per bird . $ 2.05 Feed cost per dozen eggs . $ .147 Price per dozen eggs sold . . $ .288
Net cost per pullet raised . $ .96

JUNIOR POULTRY EFFORT
Poultry demonstrations enrolled 2,162 boys and girls. Teaching took place at both the Boys' and the Girls' Short Courses. Instruction was given at summer camps and other 4-H club meetings, and a state-wide show and judging contest held during the Central Florida Exposition, Orlando.
Club poultry exhibits were judged at eight county or regional fairs.
Turkey. keeping became a major aim -in several counties.

POULTRY ORGANIZATIONS
Plans for educational activities supervised by Extension poultry specialists were adopted by five county units affiliated with the Florida Poultry Producers' Association, and they assisted in forming one new one.
Egg quality improvement, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council, is largely sought through county farm and home demonstration agents. Egg candling demonstrations have been given at six group meetings. Agricultural Extension Service cooperation also has been extended to the State Livestock Sanitary Board in directing the national improvement proposals.
Vaccination demonstrations in which county agents assisted handled at least 80,000 pullets.

EGG MARKET SURVEY
Egg marketing survey, undertaken at the Florida Poultry Council's request in the fall of 1936, had the data summarized during early 1937. Facts had been collected in 1,150 studies with consumers, 125 affecting retailers, 15 involving wholesale houses and 12 concerning hotels and restaurants.
Findings indicated that consumers do not fully understand the differences in grades and quality of eggs.
Dealers, both wholesale and retail, exhibited tendencies to claim that Tampa is a "white egg shell" market, and price differentials favored that type.







Annual Report, 193.7 .57

MARKETING EGGS AND POULTRY
Marketing recommendations by Extension Service 'poultry specialists had acceptance from 2,001 families.
Poultry and egg sales in which farm and home agents assisted amounted to $516,840.89.
Cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has been close and cordial.

FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Eleventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley ran from October 1, 1936, to September 21, 1937. Pullets entered from 22 different states-including nine Florida counties-comprised 92 pens, 71 light breeds and 21 heavy.
Egg production for the 51 weeks averaged 204.2 eggs per bird, for a 203.2 value. High rank went to a Florida Single Comb White Leghorn from Pine Breeze Farm, Callahan, on 312 eggs for 326.65 points value. Florida hens in comparison with entries from outside the state had 8 percent lower mortality and laid 62 eggs more per hen.
Twelfth Contest started October 1, 1937, with 98 pens, coming from 23 states and Cuba.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist

FARM MANAGEMENT DIVISION
F. W. Brumley, Extension Economist' C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist'
R. H. Howard, Assistant Extension Economist D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist
M. M. Varn, Assistant Extension Economist'

CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT
This study was begun during 1930, before which time little information was available concerning costs as related to returns from grove operations or regarding factors affecting the success of fruit growers. It has been enlarged with each succeeding season.
Record books prepared by the Agricultural Extension Service are distributed among growers and on August 31 each year those that have been returned are used in computing the operating outlays and receipts from fruit, the cooperating grove owners receiving individual summaries. In the beginning confined to Polk, Orange, Lake and Highlands, the endeavor now embraces all the more important citrus-raising counties.
Table 15 gives a summary of the number of citrus records by years and counties for the seven years beginning September 1, 1930, used as a basis for the management study:
TABLE 15.-SumMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS, BY COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1937-38.


1930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934Counties 31 32 33 1 34 35

Lake . ------ 39 61 88 86 103 Polk -------------------------- 17 59 80 82 87
Orange ----- ---_-------- 46 42 48 44 62
Highlands -------------- 12 35 44 37 37
Miscellaneous . 5 12 8 14 35

Total ----- __ . 119 209 268 263 324


*Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1937. Fruit receipts will not be available until the crop of 1937-38 has been sold.
"Accounts started.

Reports containing the sixth annual summary, aggregating more than 2,000 copies, have been furnished upon request to grower ' s, banks, business men, credit associations, farm agent, federal officials, and libraries, the latter in the United States, Puerto Rico, Palestine and Cuba. Fair exhibits afforded another means of distribution and the data supplied material for Florida Farm Hour talks and several agricultural magazine articles were based thereon.
'Resigned September 17, 1927.
2APpointed October 1, 1937.
'Resigned June 30. 1937.


1935- 1936- 193736 37* 38**

114 103 110 81 74 80
59 63 60
41 40 40
37 33 75

332 313 355







Annual Report, 1937


COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING COUNCILS.
This project has been carried on since 1935 in association with the federal agricultural adjustment administration. Organizations have been 'perfected in 44 counties and data prepared for 30, mostly in the northern belt.
Surveys made covered 572 farms in 17 counties and soil maps were prepared for 54. Material assembled during the investigations was distributed through meetings in 12 counties, and by mimeographed summaries.

DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS
this new undertaking was begun at the request of dairymen in the Jacksonville territory, Information accurate in character concerning production costs is needed when attempts are made at regulating milk prices.
Records numbering 30 were opened in the Jacksonville section July 1, 1937, to be closed one year later, seven dairymen already having. dropped out. Visits to. the recordkeepers so far have averaged three. , Dade County accounting started September 1, 1937, under supervision from the assistant farm agent, with indications that about 15 sets may be kept.
, DADE COUNTY WHITE POTATO INDUSTRY
Figures obtained mostly from growers' books and 'packinghouse records covered three seasons and sought to develop the more important factors affecting production costs and sales receipts. Data for the past season covered approximately three-fourths of the acreage.
Findings went back to cooperating growers in individual summaries and otherwise were supplied through mimeographed circulars.
Potato growers who met with the district and farm agents numbered some 80 and the Dade County agent directed an annual field day just prior to harvesting.

FARM MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS,
Work was started among 23 Jackson County farmers during February in cooperation with the Federal Farm Credit Administration, 10 of them Land Bank borrowers and the remainder selected by the local farm agent. Purposes inspiring the effort have a broad scope but the late beginning confined the year's attainments principally to persuading each cooperator that he should keep records of his farming operations.

POULTRY ACCOUNT SUMMARIES
In collaboration with the Extension Poultryman 60 record books were summarized of 250 distributed among poultrymen during 1935. Books thus utilized cover receipts, expenses, egg production and bird mortality. Poultrymen use them who keep Calendar Flock Records.
Cooperating poultrymen received assistance in closing their books and were furnished a year's summary, showing outlay, profits if any, and the strong and the weak points in their methods.

RECORDS EXHIBITED AT PAIRS, ETC.
Citrus groves cost record exhibitions at four fairs the Agricultural Extension Service made at the request of the managements, concurred in by county agricultural agents. Statistical summaries approximating 500 distributed on these occasions were to growers and others requesting them. I A display also was shown at the Golden Jubilee Convention of the State Horticultural Society in Ocala, April 13, 14 and 15.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 4-Picture of exhibit, based on the citrus costs and returns study. made at the Golden Anniversary meeting in Ocala of the State Horticultural Society, April 12, 1937.

TEACHING AT 4-H CLUB CAMPS
Farm management was taught in two boys' 4-11 club camps over a four weeks period.
Boys divided into three groups heard these subjects discussed for 30 minutes on each of four days.

WATERMELON MARKETING AGREEMENT
District and county meetings held under Extension Service supervision selected control committee members to assist in administering the federal watermelon marketing agreement for the Southeast. Attendance of growers exceeded 200.

CONFERENCES WITH CUBAN VEGETABLE GROWERS
Committees comprising Florida and Cuba truck crop producers sought to work out their differences under the reciprocal trade agreement, that recommendations for revisions might be made to the two governments.
Assistance was extended by the Agricultural Extension Service in assigning an assistant economist for one week, to assemble information.

ECONOMIC INFORMATION AND OUTLOOK REPORTS
Florida farm outlook report in an edition of about 3,000 was distributed among farmers and agricultural workers.
Meetings to present the facts had approximately 3,000 farmers in attendance.
FARM ACCOUNT BOOKS
Farm account books from the federal agricultural adjustment administration were supplied to county agents and individuals upon request.







Annual Report, 1937


MARKETING FARM PRODUCTS
D. E. Timmons, Extension Economist in Marketing

Federal marketing agreement negotiations and execution occupied the principal portion of the Agricultural Extension Service activities under this head.
CITRUS AGREEMENTS FOR FLORIDA
Meetings were attended which related to the citrus pact for Florida and advices concerning them mailed periodically to county farm agents, vocational agriculture teachers and some growers. Summaries broadcast monthly went out through the Florida Farm Hour.
Surveys undertaken early in May on request of numerous growers and shippers, sought to determine the sentiment held by fruit producers regarding a modified agreement which would serve as a substitute for that which federal courts had declared invalid. . Conferences also were taken part in between shippers, canners and federal agency officials looking to further purchases of surplus grapefruit for relief distribution. Statistics prepared in the Agricultural Extension Service indicated higher prices through that source than when low-grade fruit was sold on auction or bought by canners.
Analyses also were made showing Florida orange and grapefruit seasonal shipments, distribution and prices for the 1936-37 crop, trends in production and prices, for both the state and the country-at-large.
Information 'procured from the Florida Canners' Association developed that higher figures have been paid for fruit recently than during earlier periods in comparison with auction prices.

CELERY, POTATO AND WATERMELON PACTS
Cooperation from the Extension Service was extended in the endeavors of celery growers and shippers which led the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to place a marketing agreement before them in a referendum. Details thereof mostly were handled by the Extension workers. Approval received by the pact caused it to be placed in effect.
Meetings held in Hardee, Hillsborough, Dade, DeSoto and Palm Beach counties by an Extension Service specialist, with cooperation from the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, explained the purposes of a referendum concerning whether potatoes should become a basic agricultural commodity.
In operation for the past three years, the watermelon agreement is a continuing one, which many Florida growers bitterly oppose. Extension Service cooperation was given the federal authorities when control committeemen were elected and in broadcasting shipping holiday dates during the Florida Farm Hour.

COOPERATIVE MARKETING AND ALLIED EFFORT
Attendance on sessions of the Florida Citrus Commission and Florida Citrus Exchange board of directors supplemented discussions devoted to cooperative marketing with numerous groups.
Dairymen were conferred with in Palm Beach County, and also Dade lime and avocado growers, DeSoto livestock raisers, northwestern Florida seed dealers and the truck crop 'producers of Charlotte and Palm Beach. Organizations have been formed among Charlotte County vegetable pro, ducers and Dade lime and avocado growers.







62 Florida Cooperative Extension

Production credit association secretaries received visits at frequent intervals and a trip to Washington brought the Extension Service marketing economist in direct touch with Farm Credit Administration officials.
Studies in motor truck transportation that have been carried on since 1931 were presented in summarized shape at the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers convention, Nashville, February 3-5.
Committees seeking additional tobacco marketing facilities, especially in the flue-cured belt, received acreage and production figures from the Extension Service, which also furnished statistics regarding a compulsory marketing federal act's operations.
Farmers' State Wholesale Markets opening festivities were attended in most cases and suggestions given ta numerous applicants for additional or improved facilities at other points.
State Milk Control Board price adjustment hearings were attended. Cooperation was extended to the Extension Poultrymen on the Tampa Egg Market survey.
Conferences held by the State Agricultural Conservation agency repeatedly were attended.







Annual Report, 1937


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS'WORK


HOME DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES
Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent, Northern and Western Florida
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, Central and Southern Florida
Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, Eastern Florida

In the quarter century ended with 1937, Florida home demonstration activities had enrolled 101,459 women and 149,159 girls. Plans of work that have come to be regarded as fundamental underwent changes during the 12 months only in better understandings that they may deal with both immediate and long-time needs and as regards unification of the specialized features.
State Office staff members remained the same, namely, one state agent, three district agents and specialists in food conservation and gardening, nutrition, home improvement, and textiles and clothing. Service of a district agent in eastern Florida commenced on October 1, the duties previously having been carried by the State Agent.
Seven new county agents also began work, and the initial supervision of their endeavors required that distrid agents and specialists should spend considerable time with them. Agricultural Extension Service headquarters personnel and Experiment Station staff members cooperated to the desired end.
District agents have been assigned specific duties additional to the supervisory endeavors which constitute their primary responsibilities. Cooperation with the editorial offices concerning news coverage, reports checking, for instance, has been placed with the eastern Florida district agent. Camp plans, contests, records, and like activities were given to other staff members.

COUNTY PERSONNEL AND PLANS
Appropriations for home demonstration 'purposes made by the boards of commissioners were maintained in the counties as heretofore except St. Lucie, where all available funds went to payments on the bonded indebtedness. Columbia County made an appropriation for establishing the work, which began October 1.
Agents appointed to replace others transferred or resigned were in Calhoun, Dade, Leon, Marion, Pinellas, Seminole and Suwannee counties. District agents assisted to keep going some home demonstration effort in counties not having agents.
Florida home demonstration staff members attended the American Dietetic and Home Economics Association annual meetings, 4-H Club National Camp and also Congress, Land Grant Colleges and Universities convention, National Honey Institute and likewise the Outlook Conference for the nation. Six county home agents went to summer schools where they registered for advanced work.







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

State and district conferences held during the year numbered nine. In the three-day subject matter meeting, the agents selected poultry, meat cookery and 'preservation, gardening and farmstead beautification for special instruction topics. University of Florida faculty members, State Agricultural Experiment Station workers and Extension Service specialists conducted the courses.
Home demonstration agents had planned their 1937 undertakings in time for the annual conference occurring during late 1936. Goals immediately in sight previously had been determined at county council meetings. District meetings held early in 1937 by the Extension Service presented the new agricultural adjustment plans and outlook information. Home demonstration agents in turn passed on the available facts to local leaders or committeewomen. Results therefrom included use of outlook material in 1,189 homes as a basis for readjusting farm and home gardening enterprises.
A study made in the fall of 1936 of travel schedules and amount of specialists' time spent in the different counties indicated that the time was not distributed equably. It was found that time spent varied from 13 days specialist assistance to one county down to no time at all given by any specialist in one county. Plans were developed for systemati7ing the travel of specialists and this year's records show that the maximum amount of total time given by all specialists to any county was 11 days, the minimum two days. Every county received help from at least three staff members.
Travel expense has not decreased materially under this plan and probably will not be lessened because of the peculiar geographic shape of Florida and the belief that for effective service and development of a statewide program, each specialist should work in each area of the state. One satisfactory result already noted is the better understanding the specialists themselves of general long-time home demonstration programs in county and state.
DEMONSTRATIONS REMAIN DOMINANT
Farm and home result demonstrations remain the keystone in the arch of the activities. Contests for both women and girls are utilized to encourage achievements and measure accomplishments. In that designated the Three-Jar Can-for-Quality competition, three counties had more than 250 women entries. State-wide, county or community contests also were conducted in baking, canning, clothing, club work generally, food preparation and poultry, plus selection of two outstanding girls to represent Florida at the National 4-11 Club Camp. Five girls making the highest scores in all the state contests, which closed with the Annual Short Course, went on an honor roll with the privilege of working through the summer to achieve state-wide honors.
County reports combined gave a state total of 21,993 families influenced by home demonstration and 17,905 women and girls definitely enrolled in demonstrations on which they kept records. Agents in the organized counties reported 68,325 farms, with 11,374 homes thereon, reached by their endeavors, or approximately 20 percent. District agents and specialists assisted with 223 county or community meetings, attended by 18,176 people.







Annual Report, 1937


CAMPS AND SHORT COURSES, ETC.
State staff members devoted 56 days to 30 camps for girls and 11 made up of women, the combined attendance totaling 4,019.
Short Course for 1937 marked the 25th anniversary. First among these events, held during 1912, had nine tomato club girls present. Attendance this year was limited to 437, representing 37 counties.
In celebrating the Jubilee Short Course, one former club girl from each county was invited as a guest. Three of those who responded were mothers of 4-H club daughters who had earned the right to attend. Music was directed by a previous club member now studying under Madame Louise Homer. Four others present are now county home demonstration agents. State College for Women students who belong to its 4-11 club numbered 39 who earlier had held membership in county or community groups.

























Fig. 5-The 1937 Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was the Silver Jubilee event of its kind. All 25 annual affairs of this group have been held at the State College for Women.

Sessions of the Woman's Institute held for the third year at the State College were jointly directed by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Home Demonstration Council and Parent-Teachers' Association. Registration of 160 included 119 home demonstration club members. Assistance also was rendered in the three Farm and Home Institutes.
Five training schools in recreation leadership represented four counties. Statistics compiled showed that 183 communities in 25 counties had developed recreation plans, 31 community houses or rooms for the purpose were established and 124 pageants or plays presented while 1,480 families developed their own systems.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Tours to result demonstrations decreased slightly in number but more persons participated, 296 for adults and girls enlisting 6,233. Meetings held by local leaders or committeemen without aid from agents aggregated 2,284 and 28,217 persons came to them.
Specialists and district agents gave 245 demonstrations, to educate both county workers and club members. One hundred two achievement exhibits were held, with attendance totalling 100,888. Local agents staged 7,600 method demonstrations. Recommendations from the staff members also served as the basis for 1,628 result demonstrations, with an attendance of 15,565. This illustrates that local 'people are assuming responsibility for extending the benefits of the program.
Home demonstration results received publicity in sundry ways, including 70 radio talks delivered by county workers. In addition to numerous mimeographed articles, material was prepared for one printed bulletin and two circulars. Distribution of the material available in these forms, new and old, made by county home demonstration agents, amounts to 51,324 copies.

UNDERTAKINGS ALONG PRODUCTIVE LINES
Home gardens were grown by more than half the women and girls enrolled, the grand total having been 8,976. Appraised at an average value of $20, these would be worth $179,520. Calendar orchards started ran to 427, with 18,306 fruit trees and 96,785 berry plants. : Poultry ranked next to gardens and orchards, home demonstration club members having raised flocks containing 137,204 birds, of which 74,235 were purebred. Fowls and eggs sold brought $84,805.55 and the quan7 titles used at home, at market prices, represented $72,028.24 in value. ,
Dairy product, cash sales aggregated $52,855.18, butter worth $13,135.14 was used at home and 2,229 families reported consuming a quart of milk 'per day for each child and a pint per adult.
Materials for canning proved in much lesser supply than usual, yet more than a million quarts of fruits and vegetables were processed, which at 15 cents each added fully $170,000 to the state's farm income. Meats and fish canned totaled 125,000 quarts and 200 tons of the first-named were cured, Valuing the product in cans at only 40 cents a quart and giving the other a 25 cents per pound rating, this item aggregates over $150,000.
Food budgets were planned and lived according to by 1,471 families who reported, 1,762 produced at home adequate food supplies and 2,013 followed improved methods in buying.
Girls and women in 29 counties received help from home demonstration agents on clothing construction. Families who sought recommendations numbered 1,846. Cash savings of $58,500 were indicated as the results from the two endeavors.
Cash sales of home industries concerning which the county agents received advices reached $205,138.81, $42,319 going to approximately 3,954 Negro women and girls.
















Gardening



Calendar Orchards

Dairying

Poultry








Food ConservationCanning






Food PreparationFeeding the
Family






Wardrobe Demonstration for Women Well Dressed 4-H Club Girl Household Textiles


Family Food Supply
(See report of Nutrition Specialist and Food
Conservation Specialist)

























Clothing and Textile Supply for Family
(See report of Specialist in Textiles and Clothing)


i - -


Annual Report, 1937


DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES


General Projects


Important Results Accomplished


Gardens grown in 552 communities. 3,982 women enrolled in 37 counties. 4,994 girls enrolled. Garden products sold for $23,351.32.
427 calendar orchards started. 18,306 fruit trees planted.
4,174 family milk cows owned. 86,382 pounds butter produced.
1,317 girls and 1,534 women enrolled,
74,235 standard bred chickens
owned.
137,204 chickens raised. 602 keeping calendar flock records. $2,479.65 spent for poultry equipment.
4 marketing associations formed. 11/,_ million dozen eggs marketed.

8,192 women and girls enrolled in
37 counties.
1,589,483 quarts fruits and vegetables conserved by women and
girls.
124,137 quarts meat and fish
canned.
$8,693.20 canned products sold.
7,799 women and girls conducted
nutrition demonstrations in 554
communities.
48,238 dishes prepared and 14,130
meals planned by 4-H club members.
1,026 families budgeted food expenditures.
;Iaked products sold for $1,015.73.
10,167 women and girls in 38 cou-nties conducted t demonstrations. 15,300 women and girls followed recommendations in construction and selection of clothing. 971 women and girls budgeted clothing expenditures. Total savings of $58,501.49 due to clothing program reported in 36 counties.
368 families adopted laundering methods.


Specific Phases
of Work







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES (Continued)'


General Projects

House and Its Surroundings
(See report of Specialist in Home
Improvement)


Specific Phases
of Work

Home Engineering









Home Sanitation







Horne Management










Beautification of Home Grounds


Important Results Accomplished


551 families assisted with household planning problems.
318 dwellings built or remodeled. 153 water systems installed. 249 lighting systems installed. 1,817 home appliances bought in
25 counties.
439 farms constructed or remodeled
buildings other than dwellings. 26 sunshine heaters installed. 37 heating systems.
36 counties report work conducted
in 472 communities of the state. 368 sanitary toilets installed. 820 houses screened. 896 homes followed recommendations in control of flies, mosquitoes, etc.
6,567 individuals improved health
as result of sanitation program.
3,199 women and girls in 33 counties conducted demonstrations. 705 kitchens rearranged for con. verrience.
1, 663 families bought labor saving
equipment.
968 families made home-made conveniences.
2,343 families practiced every-day
good housekeeping.
$13,771.00 worth labor-saving devices purchased.
4,183 women and girls conducted
demonstrations in 427 communities in state. .
1,005 homes improved lawns. 1,775 homes planted shrubbery and
trees.
890 improved exterior of houses
and outbuildings,
1,213 people other than club members improved exterior of homes.
2,149 individuals improved selection
of furnishings.
1,748 repaired furniture. 1,800 improved appearance of windows.
11,919 curtains, spreads, quilts and luncheon sets made.


I House Furnishings










DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES (Continued)


Annual Report, 1937


General Projects


Specific Phases
of Work


Important Results Accomplished


5,279 yards mill ends. and sacks
used in house furnishings.
592 barrel chairsand pieces box
furniture made.
1,606 rugs made in the homes. 673 mattresses made and 784 renovated.
Value of rugs and other articles
sold, $6,702.80.
183 communities developed recreation program.
1,480 families followed a 'home
recreation Program.
50 community pageants or plays
presented.
51 training meetings held for com. unity leaders.
$12,088.16 raised from entertainments.
26 community houses for juniors
and 15 for adults were established.
29 improved school or community
grounds.
43 assisted in establishing libraries
for which 959 books.were bought And 522 subscriptions to magazines taken.
1,076 individuals from 20 counties
assisted with marketing problems.
384 club members standardized
products for market.
Value of all'products marketedFresh Fruits and
Vegetables . $ 23,351.32 Poultry . 36,253.01 Eggs ------------------------__ . 48,552.54
M ilk ---------------------------------- 34,049.58
Butter . 5,200.20 Cottage cheese . 43.80 Other articles,
(thrift, etc.) . . 14,369.36
Total . $161,819.81


Thrift







Recreation








Permanent Community Improvements






Home Industries Crafts and
Rural Arts


Family and Community Activities















Standardization and Marketing of Florida Products







Florida Cooperative Extension


RELATIONS WITH OFFICIAL AGENCIES
Assistance was rendered by the home demonstration agents to the National Youth Administration in 504 Florida communities.
Rural resettlement and rehabilitation agencies of the federal government, lately combined under the Farm Security Administration, have maintained close contacts with the state and county home demonstration offices. In the organization as directed from Washington are included nine county workers formerly holding places of responsibility in the state groups.


Fig. 6-Programs of home demonstration work are planned by the people themselves, with advice and direction from the agent. Councils of home demonstration work for both girls and women are organized in nearly every county. This picture shows the presidents of the councils of both women and girls working with the agent on plans for the year.

A Farm Credit Administration representative discussed family finances ,and related features with county home demonstration agents during the annual conference. Soil conservation subsidies received explanation before nearly all the 317 local clubs and at the State Council of Home Demonstration Women, representing 28 counties.

GIRLS'4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS
Enrollment of Florida girls in junior home demonstration activities, according to phases, was as follows: Home gardens, 4,977 girls from 38 counties; market gardens, 131 girls, six counties; home beautification, 2,193 girls, 30 counties; tree fruits, 618 girls, 16 counties; bush and small fruits, 503 girls, 13 counties; grapes, 33 girls, five counties; poultry, 1,311 girls, 37 counties; bees, 21 girls, six counties; dairy cattle, 172 girls, 14 counties; food selection, 4,360 girls, 37 counties; food preservation, 3,295 girls, 37 counties; clothing, 8,367 girls, 38 counties; home management,








Annual Report, 1937 71

1,875 girls, 25 counties; house furnishings, 2,697 girls, 31 counties; handicraft, 783 girls, 15 counties; home health and sanitation, 2,934 girls, 22 counties.
This gives a grand total enrollment in all girls' projects of 33,670, and means that each girl engaged-in 4-11 club work conducted an average of at least three projects. In 1937, 526 clubs enrolled 10,374 girls, only 217 of whom were out of school. The year's work on at least three phases was completed by 70% of those enrolled.

HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES
Improved planning and better results are reflected in the Negro home demonstration agents' report, reciting achievements by the eight workers employed. State staff personnel gave increased attention to supervision in this field.
Negro work is financed entirely by the United States treasury or from state funds, except in two counties which make small supplementary appropriations.
Summer courses at Tuskegee Institute or elsewhere were attended by three Negro agents.
, Leon, Hillsborough and Gadsden counties are developing permanent community houses as centers of Negro home demonstration undertakings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
In Florida as well as elsewhere, sound economics of farming demand that a high percentage of the family living reproduced at home. Hence, an adequate productive program is essential. To this program the allyear garden, calendar orchard, poultry, dairy and the well canned, budgeted pantry should make generous and important contributions. ,
The promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings adapted to the particular localities, their cultivation, the preparation and utilization of the surplus products according to the latest knowledge of canning technology that the family have a balanced and healthful food supply regardless of adverse weather conditions, composes a large part of the program in food conservation. In addition, the income obtained through lowering cash expenditures for food and by the sale of surplus fruits and vegetables, both fresh and canned, is an item of increasing importance and promotes thrift and economy in the home.
Also the improvementand beautification of the farm home through these increased plantings, of not only the "economic ornamentals" but also of native shrubs and flowers particularly the "county" flower, tends to develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional value of Florida's interesting fruits and vegetables and the part they play in making a finer farm life.
Records on gardening submitted by home demonstration club members revealed that over half the girls and women enrolled managed home gardens
----:or a total of 9,876 gardens.
Needs existing for activity in the field became strikingly illustrated when local surveys were made covering one of the older counties, where farming is well diversified, showing that vegetable production was only 60 percent and fruit output but 25 percent as related to the foodstuffs required by the rural population. Gardens and common fruits were found on less than 40 percent of the farms.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS AND GARDENS
Records from many sections of the state show how the improvement and beautification of the farm home goes increasingly forward through the planting of "economic ornamentals", native shrubs and flowers, particularly the county flower. Home agents report assisting with plans for yards, rearranging plantings for more pleasing effects, supervising plantings of trees, shrubs and flowers both from the woods and from nurseries. In many instances fences were moved to make more room for lawns, shrubbery and fruit trees.
Fruit trees have been used for shade and landscape effect whenever possible. One county reports:
"Pears were planted along driveways and in groups about the
corners of the yard. Blueberry bushes were planted for hedges along the fence. Satsumas, kumquats, plums, figs and peaches were planted for landscape value as well as for fruit. . . . Better fences, gates and trellises for vines were built as a part of the plan. . . . Interest in flower growing has increased each year
with splendid exhibits at the flower shows and county fairs."
Beautification continues to extend its influence from the home to the church to the club and school grounds. Calendar orchards planted total







Annual Report, 1937 73

427. Of the plantings made, 18,306 were fruit trees, 96,785 were berries and 5,632 were grape vines. Two hundred fifty-nine homes sold fresh fruits having a cash valuation of $6,783.77.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Reports for 1937 indicate that budgeting the canned food needs of the farm family and canning the budget in addition to a surplus in many cases for marketing and barter, is a project of great satisfaction and of progress. However, it is still necessary to urge many housewives to make out a budget of the food needs of their families for theyear, the fresh vegetables they will require, the canned and 'preserved fruits and vegetables that will be necessary to keep the family health up to par. It will probably be some time before the well rounded, well budgeted and canned pantry becomes common in all counties, but eventually budgeting of the canned food supply, the entire planned food supply, will lead to the budgeting of the family income which will make for better family living. Homes reporting canning according to the needs of a family food budget number 223.
The following table summarizes results in food conservation for the year 1937.
Number of homes canning according to needs of a family
food budget . 2,231 Number of quarts of:
Fruit canned . . - ------ . - . * . . 247,707
Vegetables canned . . . . . . . . . . . 782,693
Pickles m ade . 56,535 Relishes m ade . . . . . . 36,268
M armalades made . 42,2001/2
Preserves m ade . . . . . 56,734 Jellies m ade . 62,147 Number of gallons of vinegar made . 1,693% Number of gallons of fruit juices canned . 10,184% Number of quarts of meats canned:
Pork . . . . 53,820 B eef . . . . . . . 58,143 G am e . . 328 Fish . . . . . . 3,282 P oultry . _ 8,564 Number of families that cured meats . 2,426
Pounds cured . . . . . . 334,071 Number of families that made sausage . 2,250
Pounds m ade . . 66,071 Number of families that made lard . 2,419
Pounds m ade . . . . . 140,008 Number of families that made soap . 889
Pounds m ade . . . 18,114
With the weather subjecting Florida to another cold wave this December, spreading a blanket of desolation over all garden crops, the well filled pantry has been a double satisfaction to the fortunate owners.
Successful preservation of the surplus foods to be found on and about the farm home is important, but it is equally important to know how best to utilize those foods after they are canned. Careful menu planning is essential in order to have healthful, palatable, and well balanced meals at low cost. A supply of a large variety of canned foods, in combination with fresh fruits, vegetables, poultry and dairy products on the farm, offers endless opportunities for new and interesting meals. In addition, these out-of-season foods carry with them an atmosphere of luxury in







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

which the farm family can well take pride since they were canned when the products were in season.

THE FARM MEAT SUPPLY
Every thrifty farm family now recognizes that canning meat at home plays an important part in efficient farm management. Meats, when purchased on the market, tend to be the most expensive items in the list of dietary essentials, and for that reason often only people with generous income can enjoy them. But the farmer who produces and conserves his own meat supply on his own farm can provide finer foods for his family and in larger quantities than his income might allow him purchase.
Demonstrations in better methods of butchering, curing and canning meats, beef, pork, veal, kid and similar products go hand in hand with the program of production of better finish. The more universal use of the steam pressure cooker has already played a big part in eliminating waste and spoilage and contributing to the needed variety of meats for the farm family table.
Reports for the current year indicate that women of 33 counties canned 124,137 quarts of meats. This meat valued at the very low price of 40 cents per quart reaches a total of $49,654.80. In 31 counties women cured 400,142 pounds of meat. In addition, 140,008 pounds of lard were rendered and 18,114 pounds of soap made from the by-products.

MARKETING AND EXHIBITS
Fancy packages of honey, citrus marmalades, preserves and candies, guava jellies and now canned guavas, and many other interesting products such as only Florida can supply, meet with ready sale, from both the home trade and the tourists.
The following record of sales at a, roadside market owned and operated in one county by a home demonstration woman represents an average for the state, whether in larger or smaller amounts.
50 gallons guava juice @ .75 . $ 37.50 48 quarts guavas @ .50 . . . __ . . 24.00 24 quarts guava jelly @ .75 . 18.00 24 quarts orange marmalade e .75 . . 18.00 24 pints guava jelly @ .40 . 9.60 24 pints orange marmalade @ .40 . 9.60 2,300 2% ounce jars assorted marmalade @ .10 . 230.00
1,200 8 ounce jars assorted marmalades and
jellies @ .25 . . . . 300.00
600 16 ounce jars assorted marmalades and
jellies @ 3 for $1.00 . 200.00
Total . . . $846.70
The utilization of native materials, sub-tropical foliage, grasses, fruit and berries in wreath making is also assuming worthwhile proportions. Two counties state that Christmas wreaths have brought the largest income of any of the home industries and that wreaths of native material are shipped into many Northern and mid-Western states in season. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals are reported as making specific plantings for use in Christmas wreaths.
Flower shows and - fair exhibits afford county home demonstration agents opportunity for demonstrating the values of gardening and food conservation. Citrus displays shown at the Florida Orange Festival,







Annual Report, 1937


Winter Haven, for the fourth, successive year enlisting cooperation from 17 agents.
Honey received enlarged attention and recipes calling for its use were distributed at the Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven,' and Central Florida Exposition, Orlando, while the Florida Fair, Tampa, made, plans for featuring honey-made baked goods.

GIRLS' 4-H CLUB PROGRESS
Enrolled in gardening were 4,994 girls, with 3,397 completions recorded.
Girls' canning enrollment reached 3,397, and reports showed 73,085 quarts of fruits, vegetables and meats canned, also 23,867 containers filled with jellies and preserves. Canning contests as carried on in previous years were repeated without change, and terminated by the required exhibits and records at the State Short Course held annually during June.
Winner of the trip to the National 4-H Club Congress, Almena Rogers, had to her credit at the age of 15, the completion of 25 projects; six in gardening, five in canning, six in poultry, six in clothing and two in food preparation. During her five years of club work she has canned 3,453 quarts of berries, tomatoes, pears, peaches, soup mixture, peas, beans, meats, relishes and marmalades. During the same time she has won $24.32 on work exhibited and has a total sales return on her projects of $1,251.57. In addition, this current summer, Almena canned 14 cases of vegetable products and sold them for $64.01.








Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

The food, nutrition and health work for 1937 emphasized the importance of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs. This program was developed from factual information collected over a period of years and based on the outlook for farm family living adapted to meet the needs of Florida farm 'families. To develop a unified program for better family living the nutritionist worked in close cooperation with extension specialists, county and home demonstration agents, individuals, and other agencies. Through such cooperative planning it has been possible to furnish interested farm people with reliable information and assist them in recognizing their own problems and thus help them to develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions. I In developing the food, nutrition and health program in Florida it was necessary to consider the several types of farming areas because the same conditions that determine the types of farming areas influence the farm tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs, standards of living, and ways of thinking.
Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food, modified diets for the food supply to fit various conditions were planned
(1) for farm families with very small cash income and little opportunities for producing the food supply, (2) for large trucking areas where it is possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit, but little possibility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; (3) for sections as on the coast, in flatwoods or grazing areas where much of the soil is sandy or sub-marginal; and (4) for families who have considerable capital and good possibilities for food production.
By analyzing the agricultural situation and the food and health needs of individuals and families in various areas,'and by means of program planning meetings with district, county and community agricultural planning councils, county councils, home demonstration and 4-H club groups, and individual members, the following goal was determined: That every farm family benefit itself and others by considering: (1) What the farm family should eat to maintain high standards of nutrition and health;
(2) how the farm family could obtain this food supply, involving both production and buying; (3) planning the food supply from an economic standpoint, including what foods to use, buy or sell; (4) how foods may be kept for future use, including preserving, processing and storage under characteristic temperatures and humidity conditions of the area; (5) bow food should be prepared for the family, including standards of meal planning, 'preparation or cookery, and use of a variety of foods.
To realize this goal the food, nutrition and health program was divided into two phases, for adults and juniors. The "Feeding the Family Program" for adults included three demonstrations each establishing a background for the next, thus resulting in a long-time food supply program. These were: (1) Essentials for good nutrition; (2) meal planning and food preparation; (3) planning, providing and utilizing the family food supply. The purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living" program is to develop an understanding of and a desire for positive health, through the recognition of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparation to normal growth and development; to stimulate an interest in school lunches and to create a feeling of responsibility towards receiving adequate sanitary







Annual Report, 1937


and economical food supply for family and community through home production and home consumption. This program was divided into the following four long-time demonstrations: (1) Health improvement; (2) food preparation and meal planning; (3) baking and judging baked products;
(4) the young homemaker.


Fig. 7.-Bread baking, being demonstrated by the 4-H club girls shown above, is an important part of the food, nutrition and health program throughout the state.

DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT
In 12 counties the situation received intensive handling, through training of agents and volunteer local leaders, with special assistance for demonstrations. Expansion of the activities took place in eight counties where the endeavor the year before had been along like lines. Survey of 10 counties were made in planning intensive effort for next year.
Home demonstration club members reported adoption of improved food preparation practices as follows: baking, 1,583 women in 34 counties; balanced meals, 5,672 families in 38 counties; dairy products, 935 women in 27 counties; meat cookery, 1,414 in 30; poultry, 949 in 27; vegetables, 1,736 in 29; school lunches, home-packed, 2,118 families in 32 counties; hot dish, 89 schools in 16.
Child feeding recommendations 1,351 families followed in 31 counties; corrective foods utilization, 2,124 individuals in 29; food budget suggestions 1,026 families in 26 counties; foodstuffs buying, 2,013 in 27; foods storage, 1,052 in 35; food supplies readjustment, 2,572 in 31; health habits, 3,116 individuals in 27 counties; home nursing methods, 626 in 21; preventive means for preserving health, 2,273 in 27; posture improvement, 3,625 in 29.
Junior phases consisted of enrolling 4,386 girls 4-11 club members in 37 counties, two units of projects having been completed by them in 35. Food Products prepared aggregated 48,238 dishes, 14,130 meals were








Florida Cooperative Extension


planned and served and 572 girls from 37 counties attended method demonstrations in healthful living at the State Short Course held annually.

"LIVE-AT-HOME" STILL GOOD POLICY
County surveys and analyses, covering food supplies for families, livestock feeds and farm output that may be'turnod into cash, which continued to be made, showed conclusively the now well established "live-at-home" plans originally outlined as a Florida Agricultural Extension Service policy should be maintained, in practice providing -rural families with nutrition and health.
Discussions at the agents' annual conference, relating to methods, problems and solutions, were followed by illustrated talks from home demonstration agents telling how they obtained and measured results. Production and conservation of the year's food supply, taking into account nutritional requirement, received major consideration. Meats were accorded a high place in planning the three-day training school which immediately preceded the conference.

COOPERATION WITH NUMEROUS AGENCIES
Information and materials were exchanged with the State Agriculture and Education departments. Home economics and vocational agriculture teachers used data from the food, nutrition and health specialist for reference purposes, as did the Florida State College for Women in teacher training classes.
Health units, state and county, gave assistance. through lectures in communities during health contests, making physical examinations and furnishing recommendations for corrective measures. Nurses at camps also were supplied, who not only cared for the health of those present but gave instruction regarding proper 'practices and home care for the sick. Statistical data were forthcoming from the State Board of Health.
Coo operation with Parent Teachers' Association endeavor principally took the form of assistance in summer round-up clinics for pre-school children. Service was rendered by the Extension Nutritionist as news-gatherer and program committee head, State Home Economics Association, and community health chairman, Florida branch, American Dietetics Association.
Arrangements with.the National Youth Administration made college girls available for clerical work. Preparation of illustrative material, including charts, graphs, maps and posters, was a helpful outcome, for use in developing demonstrations.
United States Agriculture Department bulletins and mimeographed circulars -have aided in developing plans, especially home economics bureau charts and posters. American Child Health and Dental Associations and Dairy Council literature also has been used.

REVIEW OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Food, nutrition and health activities have been reported from 64 percent of the counties employing home demonstration agents. Buying wisely was the major effort in 13 percent, health and nutrition needs chiefly engaged 15 'percent, while foods selection with meals planning and preparation principally occupied 21 percent.
In 46 percent of 29 counties the adult goals were exceeded, 42 percent having fallen below the standards and 12 percent meeting these. Junior workers went above the expectations in 31 percent of the 29 counties, reached these for 25 percent while 44 percent failed fully to achieve them.







Annual Report, 1937 79

Feeding the family and healthful living practices received attention in all the reporting counties and not less than 39 percent of the families kept records. Work was under way on at least two food supply phases and 54 percent of the persons with whom contacts were made showed improvement, home-makers utilizing a plan aggregating 75 percent.
Food, nutrition and health endeavors which 4-H club girls enrolled in were completed by 77 percent. Counties having home demonstration agents entered one girl in each of the four demonstrations under this head conducted at the Short Course for the year.
Exhibits educational in nature, at fairs and elsewhere, and tours on. which achievements were observed proved efficient means for stimulating increased interest. Charts, graphs and 'posters also proved helpful.







Florida Cooperative Extension


IMPROVING FLORIDA RURAL HOMES
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

In 1937, the Florida home demonstration system's endeavor for rural homes improvement, exterior and interior, again was based on the findings disclosed by the farm housing survey made during 1934. Plans of work adopted for the period stressed the aims outlined as follows:
I. Better Home Management ina. Time
b. Income and expenditures (Home accounts)
c. Equipment
1. Selection (buying)
2. Care
d. Storage spaces
1. For conservation of food
2. For clothing
3. For business centers, movable and built-in 11. Home Surroundingsa. Exterior beautification of the yard
b. Home site
1. Yard
2. Grazing lots
3. Garden (year-round)
4. Orchard (calendar)
5. Fences, out-buildings
6. Trees, vines c. Home sanitation























.
Fig. 8-Permanence of home demonstration work in the communities, and the desire of rural women for beautiful surroundings, is shown by the establishment of permanent club rooms or buildings such as that pictured above. In 1937 18 were built.







Annual Report, 1937


III. The Housea. Planning new house
b. Remodeling old houses
c. Water in
1. Kitchen
2. Bathroom
3. Heating facilities
Girls holding membership in the 4-H clubs are started during the# first year, with better housekeeping projects. Home improvement practices required for the second 12 months consist of demonstrations as to porches and their surroundings, including foundation planting. In the third year, planting plans for the yard are made and carried out, while during the fourth year improvement of one or more rooms is undertaken.
Exterior beautification performance by women is through units; first, foundation planting; second, the yard as a whole; third, the entire premises. Under the last-named head are included drives and walks, with due thought for soil erosion and related factors, fences and outbuildings. Home sanitation is demonstrated only in healthy and prosperous families.

WHAT WAS DONE DURING 1937
Beautification and sanitation achievements reported for the year, by home demonstration club members and 4-H girls, were as follows:

Number of houses (a) whitewashed . . . . . 27
(b) painted . . . 471 Number of out-buildings to be (a) whitewashed . 7 . 74
(b) painted . 183
-Number of fences (a) whitewashed . . . 24
(b) painted . . . 83 Number of homes to make complete improvement of grounds according to plans . . 748 Number of people, not club members, influenced to paint or whitewash,
or to plant grass, or start foundation plantings . 1,213 Number of homes installing sanitary closets or out-houses according
to recom mendations . 354 Number of homes screened according to recommendations . . 712 Number of homes following other recommended methods of controlling .
Ries, mosquitoes and other insects . . . 896 Number who have studied the life cycle of flies, mosquitoes and hookw orm . 841 Number of homes in which special efforts have been made to improve
the sanitation on Inside . . . . 1,049 Outside . . 1,115

MAKING FARM HOUSES MORE LIVABLE
Repairing of walls, roofs, foundations, doors and windows, chimneys land so on home demonstration women regard as among the things that should be first given attention. Facilities for running water, in bathrooms or kitchens, laundering equipment, additional sleeping rooms or porches and like interior improvements proved extremely )popular aims during the current year.
Trends are indicated by the statistics for 1935, 1936 and 1937, in com'parative form as below:







82 Florida Cooperative Extension

1935 1936 1937
Buildings remodeled, repainted, repaired . 501 1,003 569
All buildings constructed . 89 184 146 Farm homes electrified . 41 158 339 Home equipment bought . 979 1,658 1,094 Dwellings- constructed according to plans
furnished . 52 107 96 Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished . . ------------ 300 23 222
Sewage systems installed . 100 125 248 Water systems installed . . . 107 188 153 Heating systems installed . 23 22 38 Lighting systems installed . 98 224 249 Home appliances and machines . 1,350 2,619 1,817 Dairy buildings . . . 9 317 5 Poultry houses . . . 55 189 138 Home equipment purchased by clubs or
groups . . $975.00 $1,160.06 $1,590.00 Home equipment purchased by individuals . 3,082.00 11,115.00 12,671.00 Number of kitchens improved according to
recommendations . . 538 771 705 Families buying labor-saving equipment . 1,603 1,791 1,663
Families adopting recommended laundry
practices . 458 573 688 Families making soap at home . 350 2b 2 215
Families adopting recommended material in
better housekeeping . 1,798 1,341 2,274 Families making box furniture, conveniences
and equipment . . . 978 881 563 Number of women making time schedule for
home duties . 463 553 694 4-H club members keeping accounts . 496 650 584
Families keeping home accounts per recomm endations . 355 453 424 Families developing home industries to supplement income . 514 789 551







Annual Report, 1937


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
Clarinet Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles

Health, good posture and correct weight are recognized as factors correlating other home demonstration activities with the clothing and textiles work. Purchasing, construction and care of clothing and household textiles are among the home management phases included. Demonstrations through 4-H clubs seek development of the girls no less than expansion in their knowledge.
. Clothing and textile needs of Florida rural families and the homes in which they live constitute the primary purposes. Plans are made for the undertaking to be a growing affair, one demonstration leading to the next, with ever-enlarging goals. Resources limitations which govern most farmers and climatic conditions affecting materials both are kept constantly in the foreground.
RESULTS ATTAINED IN THE YEAR
Clothing meetings held under home demonstration sponsorship numbered 3,133, having increased 11.8 percent over the preceding 12 months and reached 58 more communities. March, April, September and October proved to be the most timely months for these gatherings. Assistance from former 4-H club members greatly aided local leaders and county agents.
Wardrobe demonstrations for adults at present are built around making women's clothing and buying personal garments. Records compiled in connection therewith indicate that participants average less than $50 annually to spend on clothing.
Home sewing methods improvement saved cash for other uses. Dress revues for women, encouraged as achievement exhibits alike for adults and juniors, were reported from eight counties, with 270 entries.
Six clothing demonstrations in her home over as many years are offered every 4-H club girl. Fundamentals of home sewing come first, then the Florida 4-H uniform, cap and apron, followed by the approved attire for schools, "best" wear, street, or travel and parties.
Leaders volunteering for local work, numbering 355, gave 1,442 days, afforded much relief for county agents. Girls conducting clothing work altogether aggregated 8,518 of 10,374 enrolled and they established 5,481 result demonstrations in their homes.'
Silver Jubilee exercises commemorating the 25th year of, home demonstration work in Florida, at which 36 counties were represented, presented opportunity for clothing and textiles emphasis among the 572 girls attending.
STATE STYLE REVUE FOR GIRLS
Discrimination in selecting county winners was greater this year than previously, and reflected itself in the improved appearance of contestants. Only 40 girls modeled of 415 entering the 20 county revues, which for 1936 were composed of 147 contestants with 45 chosen to seek state-wide honors.
Clair Alice Warfield, a Hillsborough County girl, won the trip to the National 4-H Club Congress with an inexpensive school dress of cotton print.
Meetings of 4-H clubs had explained to them the state plans of the home demonstration forces and were shown the clothing exhibits prepared in the Tallahassee offices. Adults' conference displays were on more. advanced lines.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Recommendations in construction of clothing were reported as having been followed by 8,948 individuals, the 4-H club members making 5,740 dresses and 41,959 other articles. Children's clothing was improved by 2,501 persons, a 21.4 increase over last year.


Fig. 9.-Girls who have been trained in 4-H clubs naturally enroll in home demonstration clubs for women as they establish homes of their own. Shown above are four former 4-H girls with their children in a meeting with the home demonstration agent discussing clothing for youngsters.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE YEAR IN BRIEF
Women and girls in rural Florida have been helped with the selection, construction, and care of suitable clothing and house furnishings, from the standpoint which stresses both durability and attractiveness. Home demonstration agents received assistance in basing their clothing and textile activities on the economic and physical situations prevailing over Florida, that they might meet the people's need.
Field work occupied 101 days of the specialist's time, during which she made contacts with 3,535 persons. Office duties as summarized below indicate more fully the purposes and the scope of the clothing and textiles effort:


Activity
Program Planning


Method
1937 clothing and textile plan of work written for entire state.
Office and field work to be accomplished, planned.


Conference of State Staff Attended ten conferences of state home demonstration workers.







Annual Report, 1937


Activity




Subject Matter Materials

Adult work Junior work






State Clothing Contests Record Judging Publicity Correspondence Illustrative Material
Posters




Photographs


Exhibits




State and Sectional Meetings Miscellaneous


Method
Monthly work including itineraries planned and
approved.
Attended two joint conferences of state staff of
Agricultural Extension workers.
Revised outline and record for Wardrobe Demonstrations.
Issued two skits, one on buying and the other
on care.
Issued two subject matter bulletins for Demonstration I and II.
Prepared and issued State Style Dress Revue and
clothing judging requirements.
Prepared and issued subject matter materials for
two courses at Short Course.
Issued style dress revue )playlet adapted from
State Style Dress Revue program.
Conducted State Style Dress Revue contest and
entered state winner in National Style Dress
Revue.
Conducted state clothing judging contest.
Judged and scored 15 county council record books. Judged and scored 12 4-11 Club girls' records for
trip to National 4-11 Club Camp.
Judged and scored 35 4-H Club girls' records for
trip to National 4-H Club Congress.
Two radio talks.
One news letter.
Five news articles. Program for State Style Dress Revue.
General for development of work.
Clothing selection, good and poor buys. Quality guides in buying. Artistic principles of dress. Wardrobe plans.
Home Sewing.
Color wheel and harmonies.
Clothing course at State Short Course. Honor group of state clothing contest. Winner of state clothing contest.
Complete exhibit of 26 required articles to be
constructed in junior clothing work. Household textiles (towels). Children's clothing. Men's clothing (shirts).
Planned and presented a clothing program at
annual 4-11 Club girls' Short Course, Woman's Institute, annual Agents' Conference of Agricultural Extension Workers, at two district 4-H Club camps, and annual 4-H Club Short Course and Agents' Conference of Negro Home
Demonstration Work.
Preparation of material on clothing for the
Outlook for Farm Family Sewing for 1938. Annual report.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PART W-NEG1110 PHASES OF


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


MEN'S GROUP
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
In the farm demonstration division of Agricultural Extension Service among Negroes, the 22nd year ended November 30, 1937. Negro local agents remained the same, eight men serving nine counties-Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, HilIsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion and Suwannee. Supervision was supplied by the local district agent, working directly under plans made in the Extension Service headquarters at Gainesville.
Instruction was given the field men and arrangements completed in a conference at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, December 1-4, 1936. Tours among Negro farmers conducted by the federal Soil Conservation Service during May and June received full cooperation.
Boys' and girls' 4-H club nineteenth annual short course convened at the Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4. State Farm and Home Institute for Negroes in second yearly session at Fessenden Academy, Martin, Marion County, August 25-27, assembled more than 200 men and women.
Stockholders' meeting of the Federal Land Bank, Orlando, September 13, was attended on invitation by the local district agent and two representatives from the State Negro.Farmers' Cooperative Association.
Extension Service conference of workers from six states at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, January 18, also found the local district agent for Florida present by special request.
National Federation of Colored Farmers' eighth annual convention, in Forsyth, Georgia, October 28-30 the local district agent went to with the Florida delegation, expenses incurred having been borne by the cooperative association.
PROJECT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES
Assistance to the farm agents from the local district agent helped in locating satisfactory sources of supply for fertilizers, seeds and similar supplies. Meetings in the active counties planned the demonstrations that farmers would find profitable.
Corn production endeavors took 277 days of the local farm agents' time, during which 54 adult result demonstrations were held. In Alachua County, as a typical instance, 51 reporting Negro farmers more than doubled their corn yields per acre by turning under cowpeas and field peas.
Oats and rye received 50 days work from farm agents, to the end that farmers could have winter grazing. Planting of small plots for home poultry flocks also was urged and to some degree practiced. A cheese company at Thomasville, Georgia, donates 50 cents to the Leon County Negro Council on account each member of. a community club who sowed oats for grazing or to be harvested as dairy cattle feed.
Cotton is the major cash crop among Negroes in seven of the nine counties worked by farm agents, so they placed great emphasis on economical production and marketing, spending 155 days time. Diversion of







Annual Report, 1937


land to other crops was encouraged and practiced in considerable measure. Sea Island cotton projects were carried out in five counties.
Areas are restricted in which tobacco can be successfully grown, and the crop was worked on by only six agents, who devoted 72 days thereto. Six method demonstrations on treating the blue mold disease in tobacco beds were given by the Columbia County agent.
Peanuts as a cash crop are important only in Jackson among the cou-nties having Negro farm agents. Elsewhere the farmers principally plant the crop to be "hogged off".
Truck crops for commercial purposes 'had 64 days time from agents in six counties, the others stressing home gardens. Marion County reports indicated gross sales by Negro farmers as follows: Snap beans, $12,680.00; tomatoes, $900.00; okra, $2,118.60; squash, 1$685.00; watermelons, $22,350.00; black eye peas, $900.00; lettuce, $295.00; cabbage, $95.00; total, $40,023.60.
In Alachua, the farm agent reported that $11,976.50 worth of beans
-were sold, over $5,625 worth of watermelons, and $3,875 worth of cucumbers.
Beef cattle have been scarce among Florida Negro farmers but with the situation regarding them materially improved through the work of local farm agents in assisting to secure purebred males for crossing on the native stock. Six counties report the sale of livestock as follows: Jackson, $10,580.50; Marion, $10,100; Alachua, $6,800; Leon, $5,148.81; Hamilton, $4,222.40; and Jefferson, $3,192. A Hamilton County Negro operates a dairy equipped with all modern conveniences, owning 14 purebred Jersey cows and one bull. In the remaining counties the farmers were encouraged to have at least one milk cow for the family.
Pork is popular among Negro farmers and most of them butcher between one hog and six hogs a year f or family use. Local farm Agents .spent 167 days on swine projects during 1937. Jefferson County carried projects which started with 211 pigs at the beginning of the year, in September 180 hogs having been sold for $2,810.24.
Poultry marketing locally and in urban centers by Negro farmers is increasing rapidly, and nearly all of them raise some birds for home consumption. Breeds selection, disease and parasite control, grading eggs and selling methods occupied the local farm agents for 122 days.

FLORIDA NEGRO 4-11 CLUBS FOR BOYS
Organized 4-H club activities are prosecuted by 108 units, which enrolled 1,584 boys, of whom 1,083 completed the work for the year. . Corn projectsenlisted 720, and were finished by 527. On the 527 acres they cultivated, with over 12,000 bushels output, yields per acre mostly increased materially because green manure crops had preceded the grain, as the local farm agents recommended.
Cotton enrolled boys in six counties as indicated below, two-thirds of them going through for more than an acre each and nearly 31,000 pounds production:
No. No.
County Enrolled Completing No. Acres Total Yield
Jackson . 40 20 20 7,000 lbs.
Columbia . 26 21 21 6,678 lbs.
Jeff erson . . . 21 15 28 5,840 lbs.
Hamilton . . 12 6 6 4718 lbs.
Alachua . . 4 4 4 3:600 lbs.
Leon . 2 2 3 3,000 lbs.
Totals (State) 105 58 821/2 30,836 lbs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Peanuts proved the major interest with 310 boys, 177 of whom completed the projects which included 293% acres and yielded 141,643 pounds.
Sweet potato enrollment included only 125 boys but 68 hung on to the end, harvesting 30,836 pounds from 82% acres.
Home and market gardens, producing truck crops for the family food supply or to sell, interested 76 and 55 boys respectively, under the firstnamed projects having been completed by 60 while in the latter classification only 10 finished the undertakings, involving considerable risk as they did.
Swine effort enrolled 98 boys, 69 having gone to the end with projects involving 236 hogs, principally of the Poland China, Hampshire, Essex, Duroe-Jersey and kindred breeds.
Poultry was taken up by the boys on an extensive scale for the first time this year, and local farm agents assisted many of them in acquiring purebred fowls. Members who registered for this work numbered 122 and 59 completed it.

EVENTS AND ASSEMBLAGES
State Negro 4-H Club Annual Short Course at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, June 1-4, was attended by 142 boys and leaders, and the eight local farm agents. Instruction assistance was rendered by Agricultural Extension Service specialists and College faculty members, and the four days period devoted to agronomy, dairying, farming shop work, gardening, poultry and swine husbandry.


Fig. 10-County exhibits arranged by Negro farm agents and displayed
at the Florida State Fair depicted progress of Negro farmers.








Annual Report, 1937 89

Alachua, Hillsborough, Leon and Marion county local farm agents held encampments for the Negro 4-H club boys within their territories, ranging in length from three to seven days and with an attendance aggregating 129. In seven counties, the Negro 4-H club boys received assistance from the local farm agents in preparing exhibits for achievement days, showing what had been accomplished. Ribbons and small prizes which were awarded in many cases had been donated by the business and professional men of the community.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES
Beulah Stephens Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

Negro local home demonstration agents are employed in Alachua, Hillsborough, Leon, Duval, Madison, Gadsden, Putnam and Marion counties, whose work is supervised by the local district agent in this field, under directions from the State Home Demonstration Agent's headquarters.
Agents' annual conference, December 1-4, 1937, at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, made "better home living" the theme, discussing the needs of the Negro farmers and their families as to food and its conservation, bringing dairy, garden and poultry yards into the foreground as sources therefor, and also dealing with clothing, residence surroundings and like factors. Staff members and specialists of the Agricultural Extension Service who attended offered many helpful suggestions.
State Negro Boys' and Girls' Short Course in annual session at the Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4, gave agents training in thesame subjects as the girls. Extension Summer Short Course, held at Tuskegee Institute, in Alabama, was attended by three of the local home agents. In a one day agents' meeting at Lake City, two district representatives from the Agricultural Extension Service assisted the local district agent for Negro home demonstration effort in planning the proceedings that specially related to this undertaking.
Agents operating within counties had assistance from the local district agent for Negro home demonstration in planning their work, committeemen and community leaders taking active part in the councils. Leaders of neighborhood and county endeavors who were busy during the year numbered 116. Farm and home visits made by the local district agent in company with the county workers aggregated 415.

THINGS NEGRO WOMEN ACCOMPLISHED
Incomes of Negro farm families received material additions from foods conserved, valued at $11,994.20 and through poultry and eggs sold by home demonstration club members. Handicraft articles made from natural resources, including baskets, dresses, hats, luncheon cloths, rugs, whisk brooms and so on, likewise increased family revenues.
Camps in Hillsborough, Duval and Putnam counties, the latter two holding theirs jointly, provided both instruction and recreation. Child care endeavor produced good results almost everywhere, Alachua and Hillsborough holding healthy baby shows. Hillsborough also staged a flower exhibition, which over 500 people attended, awards for excellence in displays going to 28 women.
Food and nutrition studies everywhere stressed balanced meals and school lunches with noticeable improvement following. Home management sought greater efficiency and more comforts, the club activities in several instances leading directly to installation by individuals of electric lights, irons, refrigerators and washing machines, running water and related kitchen conveniences.
Clothing projects proved successful in numerous cases. Gardens were quite generally planted both for home supplies and market purposes. Health and sanitation endeavors, including observance of Negro National Health Week, attained achievements worth while from a permanent viewpoint.








Annual Report, 1937


Short Course statistics reflect the appeal to Negro women and girls eld by this annual event, as follows:

ENROLLMENT (Girls and Women)


County


Agent Girls


Leaders
7 10 13
6 1 3
2 1
43


A lachua . 1 13
Duval . 1 29
Gadsden . 1 33
H illsborough . 1 21
Leon . 1 53
M adison . 1 16
M arion . 1 19
Putnam . . . 1 6
Totals . 8 190


HOMEMAKERS' AND GIRLS' 4-H CLUBS SUMMARY
Negro women belonging to homemakers' clubs in the eight counties lumbered 1,474 and 2,479 girls were members of organized 4-H clubs, 1,958 of the latter completing their projects begun during the year. A summaryy of the united accomplishments follows:
1. Food conservation:
Canned 59,971 containers of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry,
relishes, jams, marmalades, preserves and juices.
Cured 85,877 pounds of meat.
Made 919 pounds of sausage.
Made 12,613 pounds of lard.
Made 37,060 pounds of soap.
Sold preserved products valued at $3,631.15.
2. Poultry:
Raised 17,884 chickens.
Produced 72,118 eggs.
Sold poultry products valued at $4,761.61.


3. Thrift:
1,123 women and girls used discarded materials
make useful articles.
16 made chairs of barrels.
104 made furniture of wooden boxes.
600 made rugs at home.
209 articles were sold amounting to $265.


and sacks to


4. Sanitation:
191 sanitary privies were installed according to recommendations.
100 individuals improved home grounds.
129 homes were screened.
718 homes follow recommended methods for controlling the
mosquito, flies and other insects.
5. Community work:
1,016 club members assisted in improving school, church and
cemetery grounds.
6. Food, nutrition and health:
1,113 individuals improved health habits according to recommendations.
1,135 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive
measures to improve health.







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

1,216 individuals had complete health examinations during the
year.
7. Child care:
1,278 homes are adopting better adult habits with respect to
the development of children.
8. Dairying:
6,255 pounds of butter were sold, valued at $2,116.15.
177 families are using 1 quart of, milk per day per child and
one pint per adult.
9. Home management:
322 homes were assisted in making adjustments to gain more
satisfactory standards of liv*g.
649 kitchens were rearranged for convenience according to
recommendations.
322 homes following recommended buying methods.








Annual Report, 1937


STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
(Men and Women)


GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Total days service rendered . 4,598 Members in Extension Associations or Committees . . 558
Communities in which Negro Extension program s been
planned . . . 323
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work . . . . . 94 Members in such clubs or groups . . . . . . 1,475 4-H clubs . . . 237 4-H club members enrolled . . . 4,063
4-H club members completing . . . 3,046
4-H club te-ams trained . . . . . 64 Farm or home visits . . 7,353 Different farms or homes visited . 2,923 Calls relating to extension work . . . 11,458
News articles or stories published and circular letters issued . 179
Letters written . . . . . . . . . 5,875
Bulletins distributed . . . 6)456
Extension exhibits . . . 67
Meetings held . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,685
(Attendance . 7,500 Achievement days and encampments . 39
(Attendance . 9,050 Homes and farms influenced by program . . . 4,591
Homes with 4-H club members enrolled . 2,443


CEREALS

Communities in which work was conducted . 297
Result demonstrations conducted . . . 61 Meetings held . . . . . . . . . . . 123
News stories published and circular letters issued . 38
4-11 club members enrolled . 1,003
4-H club members completing . . . . . 780
Acres in projects conducted by 4-11 club members completing . 683
Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . 13,557


LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS

Communities in which work was conducted . 446
Result demonstrations conducted . . . . . 73 Meetings held . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
News stories published and circular letters issued . . . . . 47
4-H club members enrolled . . . 401
4-H club members completing . . . 241
Acres in project conducted by 4-H club members completing 429
Bushels of crops grown by 4-11 club members completing . 2,175








94 Florida Cooperative Extension

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS

Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted ---- 168 94 40
Result demonstrations conducted . . _ 9 22 14
Meetings held . 9 71 32
NeAArs stories published and circular letters . 13 29 14
4-H club members enrolled . . . 128. 125 105
4-H club members completing . 75 68 6
Acres in project conducted by 4-H members ---- 79 82 17
Yield of crops grown by 4-H members . 3,234 bu. 30,836 lb. 11,235 lb.

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted . 633 Result demonstrations conducted . 711 M eetings held . . . . . 545 News stories published and circular letters issued . 58
4-H club members enrolled . . . 2 895 4-H club members completing . . . . . 1,584 Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . 229.5
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing . 1,901 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted . 73
Result demonstrations conducted . . . 46 M eetings held . . . 47 News stories published and circular letters issued . 7
4-11 club members enrolled . . . 20 4-H club members completing . . . . . 8 Terracing and drainage, farms . 39 A cres . . 1,689 Land clearing practices . 10
A cres . . . . . . 75 Better equipment practices . . 272 Buildings erected or improved . 251

POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted . 157
Result demonstrations conducted . 220
M eetings held . . . . . 174 News stories published and circular letters issued . 28
4-H club members enrolled . 642 4-11 club members completing . . . 440 Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . . . 10,549 Families following better practices for poultry . . . 2,687

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted . . . 321
Result demonstrations conducted . 101 M eetings held . . . . . . . 154 News stories published and circular letters issued . . . 41
4-H club members enrolled . . . 311 4-H club members completing . . 297 Animals project conducted by 4-H club members completing . 474








Annual Report, 1937 95

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

Result demonstrations conducted . . 3 M eetings held . . . . 67 News stories published and circular letters issued . . 42
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments . 385
Families assisted in getting established . 30 Individuals affected by marketing program . 298
Organizations assisted with problems . ill Individuals assisted with problems . 859 Value of products sold by associations . . . $93,443.75 Value of supplies purchased by organizations . $44,872.05

FOODS AND NUTRITION

1"ommunities in which work was conducted . 2,88 Result demonstrations conducted . 549 24eetings held .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
News stories published and circular letters issued . 22
4-H club members enrolled . 3J99 4-H club members completing . 2,268
Families adopting improved food practices . 3,323 Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 35
Children involved . . 1,133 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-11 clubs . 38,714 Value of products canned or otherwise 'preserved . $8,661.79

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION

Communities in which work was conducted . . . . 90 Result demonstrations conducted . 84 M eetings held . . . . 105 News stories published and circular letters issued . 9
4-H club members enrolled . 242 4-11 club members completing . . I . 155
Other 4-11 club members who participated . 57 Families adopting better child-development practices . 1,325
Individuals participating in child-development program . 650
Children involved . 1,346

CLOTHING

Communities in which work was conducted . 149
Result demonstrations conducted . . . 410 M eetings held . . . . . . . . . 336 News stories published and circular letters issued . . 51
4-H club members enrolled . 1,895 4-11 club members completing . . . 1,362 Articles made by 4-H club members . - 7,608
Individuals following better clothing 'practices . 8,862 Savings due to clothing program . . . $4,696.00

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted . . . . 300
Result demonstrations conducted . . . 721 M eetings held . . . . . . 470 News stories published and circular letters issued . . . . 116
4-H club members enrolled . 3,141 4-11 club members completing . . . . 2,309 Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . 7,801







96 Florida Cooperative Extension

Families adopting improved home-management practices . 5,426 Saving due to home-management program . . . $5,596.00
Families making improvements in house furnishings . . . . . 2,885 Savings due to home-furnishings program . $3,686.50
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft . 1,006

HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted . . . 185 Result demonstrations conducted . . . . 399 M eetings held . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
News stories published and circular letters issued . . 106 4-H club members enrolled . 2,277 4-11 club members completing . . . . . 1,773 Individuals having health examinations . . . 2,011 Other 4-11 club members who participated . 1,295 Individuals adopting better health habits . . . 6,394 Families adopting better health habits . . . 2,732

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
M eetings held . . . . . . . . . 227 News stories published and circular letters issued . 59 Communities assisted with community problems . 369 Training meetings conducted for community leaders . 103 Families following recommendations as to home recreation . 272
4-H clubs engaging in community activities . . 156 Families aided in obtaining assistance from,Red Cross or other
relief agency . . . . . 546







Annual Report, 1937


INDEX


Crafts, rural, 69 Cuban tariff conference, 60 Cultivation, citrus, 42

Dairy farm accounts, 59 Dairying, 8, 14, 49, 66, 67, 92, 94 Dieback, citrus, 43 Director's report, 7 Disease control, citrus,.43
dairy, 51
Dress revue, 83

Editorial work, 17 Egg-Laying Test, 57 Egg market survey, 56 Engineering, agricultural, 13, 94
home, 68
Exhibits, 7, 59, 74

Fairs, 46, 59 Family cow, 50 Farm account books, 60 Farm management, 58 Fat Stock Show, 22, 46 Feeding children, 77
dairy cows, 50
steers, 46
Fertilizers, 33, 49 Financial statement, 11 Folders, letter, 18 Food and nutrition, 15, 66, 67, 76,
90, 91, 94
conservation, 72, 90, 91 Forage demonstrations, 49
crop statistics, 13, 93 Forestry, 13, 94 Wrenching, citrus, 43 Fruits, 13
Furnishings, house, 15, 68, 95

Gardens, 66, 67, 72 Girls' club work, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83 Grove management, 58

Health, home, 16, 76, 91, 96 Hog demonstrations, 47
sales, 9
Home demonstration work, 8, 63
improvement, 80 industries, 66, 69
management, 15, 92, 95 Honey, 74
Horses, 94
House furnishings, 15, 68, 95


Aerial mapping, 25 Agencies, cooperation of, 7, 70, 78 Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural conservation, 8, 23 Agricultural economics, 8, 14, 58, 95 Agricultural engineering, 13, 94 Agronomy, 32 Ammoniation, citrus, 43 Animal husbandry, 45 Arts, rural, 69

Baby chick management, 55 Beautification, home, 13, 68 Beef cattle sales, 9, 87
statistics, 14, 94 Bees, 14, 94 Blue mold control, 10 Boys' 4-11 club work, 36, 47, 50,
56, 60
Negro, 87
Breeding, dairy, 50 Bronze leaf, citrus, 43 Bulletins, 17 Bull pens, 51 By-products, dairy, 50

Calendar flock records, 55
orchards, 67
Camps, club, 39, 65, 90 Canning, 66, 67 Cattle sales, 9, 87
statistics, 14, 94
Celery marketing agreement, 61 Cereals, statistics, 12, 93 Chick management, 55 Child development, 15, 92, 95
feeding, 77 Circulars, 17 Citriculture, 8, 42 Citrus grove management, 58 Clothing, 15, 66, 83, 90, 95 Club work, boys', 8, 36, 47, 50, 56, 60
girls, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83
Negro, 86, 87
Community activities, 16, 69, 91, 96 Conservation, agricultural, 8, 23
food, 72, 90, 91
soil, 9
Contests, 4-H, 40 Corn, 32, 33, 34, 86 Cotton, Sea Island, 9, 34
statistics, 13, 94
County agents' activities, 30 Cover crops, citrus, 42








Florida Cooperative Extension


Improving homes, 80 Institutes, 44, 65 Irrigation, citrus, 43

Legumes, statistics, 13, 93 Livestock markets, 47

Mailing bulletins, supplies, 17 Markets, dairy, 51
egg, 56
livestock, 48
Marketing agreements, 60, 61 Marketing home products, 74 Meat cutting and curing, 47 Meat supply, home, 74 Meetings, 10, 88 Melanose, citrus, 44 Mold control, blue, 10

Negro extension work, 9, 86
home demonstration, 71, 90 News releases, 19
writing training, 21 Nutrition, 15, 76, 91, 95

Oats, 86
Orchards, home, 67, 72 Organizations, poultry, 56 Outlook, 51, 60

Parent education, 15, 95 Pastures, 34, 45, 50 Peanuts, 32, 33, 87 Planning councils, 9, 59 Pork, 87
Potatoes, economic study, 59
marketing agreement, 61
statistics, 13, 94
Poultry, 14, 52, 66, 67, 87, 91, 94
economic study, 59 feed prices, 52 organizations, 56 products prices, 53 records, 55 Printing, 17


Radio, 20, 40 Rations, dairy, 50 Records, citrus, 58
dairy, 50
poultry, 55
Recreational work, 40, 69 Rust mite control, 43


Sanitation, 16, 68, 91, 96 Scale control, 44 Sea Island cotton, 9, 34 Sheep, 14, 94 Short courses, club, 40, 65 Shows,46
Silo building, 46, 49 Soil conservation, 9 Statistical report, Negro, 93
white, 12
Steer feeding, 45 Style dress revue, 83 Sweet potato weevil, 10 Swine, 14, 94

Tariff conference, 60 Terracing, 32 Textiles, 67, 83 Thrift work, 69, 91 Tobacco, 34, 87
blue mold, 10
statistics, 13, 94 Trips, 51
Truck crops work, 9, 13, 60, 87

Vegetable conferences, 60
statistics, 13
work, 9, 87 Velvet beans, 32

Wardrobe demonstrations, 67 Watermelon marketing agreement,
60 61
Weevil" sweet potato, 10 Wildlife conservation, 40 Wreath making, 74




Full Text

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1937 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1937

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1937 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS , AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA '. ( FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN " AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, DIRECTOR REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1937 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1937

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BOARD OF CONTROL R. P. TERRY, Acting Chairman, Miami THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland W. M. PALMER, Ocala H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Like Oak J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc . , Director A; P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S . A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE . BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg~Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialistl HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR . , Poultrymanl D. F. SOWELt, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economistl D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management R. V, ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationistl COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., St~te Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE , M.A., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M:S., Clothing Specialist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent lPart-time. [ 2]

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CONTENTS PAGE REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR ......... .. ..................................... .... .... 7 •Financial Statement ....................... .. ........... . ......... . ............. . .. .. .......... ... ... .. . 11 Statistical Report 12 EDITORIAL AND MAILING 17 AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION . . . ........ ......... : .... ..... ........................ .. .... .. .. ... . .. ...... 23 COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES . ... .............. . ........... . ............. .... ...... ...... ......... ... .....• 30 AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS ... .. ...... ... . .. ......... .. . .. ....................... . . ....... ..... . . . .. . .... 3? BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK 36 CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE 42 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY : 45 DAIRYING . 49 POULTRY KEEPING 52 AGRICULTURAL EcoNoM1cs , ...................... .,...... . . .. . . .......... . ....................... . ...... . ... 58 Farm Management Division ....... . ............. .. ............. . ......... . ................ .. ..... 58 Marketing Fann Products ......................... . .......... . . . ......... . .. . . .. ............ . . , .. .. 61 HOME DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES ...... . ..........................•.... .,...... ... ................... 63 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION .. ............ . ............ .. ............................•.... 72 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ........... .. .......................... . .................................. 76 IMPROVING FLORIDA RURAL HOMES ................... . .......................... . ............ .. ... . ... 80 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES •.••............ , ................... ... ........ .. : ..... .... ... . .... ....... .. . .. ....... 83 NEGRO MEN'S WORK• 86 HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES ...................... . . .. .. ... . . . .. . ... . . ... . . ... .. . . . ... 90 Negro Statistical Report ............. . ............ : .......................... ... ........... . .. . ..... 93 [ 3]

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Ron. Fred P. Cone, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida SIR: I have the honor to . transmit herewith the report of the Agricul tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1937, including a fiscal report for the year ended June 30, 1937. Respectfully, R. P. TERRY, Acting Chairman, Board of Control Ron. R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Board of Control SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida [ 4]

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Alachua ... . . ... .......... Fred L. Craft ........ Gainesville ........... . .... Mrs. Grace F. Warren aker ... . ..... . ..... . ...... M. D. Futch ......... . Macclenny ..................... . . .. ...... . ........ ... ...... . ......... . ay G. Hentz, Jr. Panama City ....................................................... . radford ... . ........... . T. K. McClane ...... Starke .. ....... . .... .... . . ....... . .................... . ...... . ......... . revard .................. T. L. Cain ............ Cocoa .. .. ........ .. .................. Mrs. Eunice F. Gay roward .... : . ................. .. ................ . .......... Ft. Lauderdale ..... .... .. . ... ..... .. Miss Olga Kent alhoun .................. J. G. Kelley ........ . . Blountstown .............. Miss Eloise Chapman harlotte ................ N. H. McQueen .... Punta Gorda ........ . ........................... . ....... . .......... . itrus .. Inverness . ........... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore lay .......................................................... Green Cove Springs Miss Beulah Felts olumbia .. . ............. Guy Cox .................. Lake City ............ Miss Ruth Durrenberger ade ........................ C. H. Steffani ........ Miami ........ .... ...... .. . .. ....... Miss Eunice Grady ade (Asst.) .... . ..... J. L. Edwards ........ Miami ..................................... . ....... . ......... ..... .... . . eSoto .... .... ... .. . . ..... E. H. Vance ......... . . .Arcadia .... .. . . ....................................................... . ixie ........... . ..... . ...... D. M. Treadwell .... Cross City ... . ........................... . ........ ... ................ . uval ........ .. ..... .. ..... A. S. Lawton .... . ... Jacksonville ...... .. ... . ........ Miss Pearl Laffitte uval (Asst.) ..... ... Frank M. Dennis .. Jacksonville ......................................................... . scambia ................ E. H. Finlayson .... Pensacola ................ . ..... Miss Ethel Atkinson adsden .... .... .... . ..... Henry Hudson .. . ... Quincy . ........ ... ...... ....... ... . . Miss Elise Laffitte ilchrist ........... . ..... .A. S. Laird ......... .. . Trenton .............. . ................................................ . lades & Hendry .. G. C. Hodge ....... . .. Moore Haven .. . ............ .. ...... .. ......... . ................. . . ulf .......................... . ........ ... . . ........... .. . . .. . Wewahitchka ........ . ....... Mrs. Pearl Whitfield amilton ........... . .... J. J. Sechrest ........ Jasper ........... . ............... . ......... . ....... ... ......... . ...... . . ardee . . ... . ....... ... .... H. L. Miller ...... .... .. Wauchula ....................... .. .... ... .. . ............. . .......... . ernando ......... ... .... B. E. Lawton ........ Brooksville ........... . ................ .. ........ .. ....... .. ........ . fn~l~~i~gh:::: : :::::Xie~J~i~e~~~ .. ::::~!~~:g .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ::::::::: : ::::::: : :::::::::: illsborough (West) .............................. Tampa ............................ Miss Allie Lee Rush illsborough (East) .. ... ... . ..... .. . .. ........... Plant City ... .. .. . .... . .. . . . .. ... . Miss Irene Riley olmes D. McCloud . . . . Bonifay .. . .............. . ...... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle ackson ... . ....... . ..... .J. W. Malone ...... . ... Marianna .............. . ..... Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter efferson . ... ... . . ... .... P. R. McMullen .... Monticello ............ . .......... . .. Miss 'Ruby Brown afayette ................ D. H. Ward .......... Mayo ........... . ........ . ........ . .......................... .. ......... . ake E. Norris ...... . ... Tavares .. ........ . .... . .......... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller ee .........................• C. ' P. Heuck .......... Ft .. Myers ... . ....................................................... . eon S. McMullen .... Tallahassee ................ Miss Rosalie L. Wolfe evy .. ............... . ...... T. K. Rickenbaker Bronson .......... . ...... . .. Miss Wilma Richardson iberty .................... F. D. Yaun ............ Bristol ................................................................. . adison ... . .............. S. L. Brothers . .. ... Madison ....... . ....... . .... Miss Bennie F. Wilder anatee ..... . ............ Ed L. Ayers .......... Bradenton ..... .. ............. Miss Margaret Cobb arion .................... R. A. Stratford ...... Ocala ... . .......................... Miss Kathryn Riddle assau ..... . . . ........... . J. Raymond Mills . . Hilliard ................................... . .......................... . . kaloosa ................ E. R. Nelson .......... Crestview ............ .. ....... . .................. . ......... .. ....... . keechobee ..... . ...... C. A. Fulford ........ Okeechobee . . ...... .. ...... .. ......... . . . ... ... .. . ............. . .... . range ...... . ............. K. C. Moore ............ Orlando ................... . .. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor sceola ..... . ............ J. R. Gunn ....... . .... Kissimmee ............ . ........... Miss Albina Smith alm Beach . . .......... M. U. Mounts ... .. ... West Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus asco ...................... .J. A. McClellan, Jr. Dade City ............................... . ................. .. ........ . inellas ........... ... .... J. H. Logan ............ Clearwater .. . ...... ... .... . . . ..... Miss Tillie Roese! olk . ....................... W . P. Hayman ...... Bartow . . ........................... . .. Miss Lois Godbey utnam .... . ............. H. E. Westbury .... Palatka . ................... Miss Josephine Nimmo t. Johns -Loonis Blitch ........ St. Augustine ....... . ....... . Miss Anna E. Heist anta Rosa ............ John G. Hudson .... Milton .......................... Miss Eleanor Barton eminole . . .. .. .......... C. R. Dawson ........ Sanford .......... .. .... . . ... ... Mrs. Gladys Kendall arasota ........... . ...... W. E. Evans .......... Sarasota ..... . ..... .. . .. ......... . ....... ......... . .................. . umter ..... . .............. W. J. Platt, Jr ....... Bushnell ............... . ........ Miss Martha Briese uwannee . . ............ S. C. Kierce ........ . ... Live Oak .... .. ......... . ...... .. Miss Louise Taylor aylor .................... Tom U. Green .... ... . Perry .................................... Miss Floy Moses nion ......... . ............ L. T. Dyer .......... . ... Lake Butler ....................................................... . olusia .................. ,.F. E. Baetzman ... . DeLand .. . .... ..... ..... .. . Mrs.Marguerite Norton akulla .................. N. J. Albritton .. .. .. Crawfordville ....... .. ........... Mrs. Pearl Penuel alton . .. .. . ....... ..... .. Mitchell Wilkins .. DeFuniak Springs .. .. .... Miss Eloise McGriff ashington ............ Hans Andersen .. .. Chipley ............... .... ................ . ........................... . [5)

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AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director of Extension ........... ... ...... ... ............ .... . Gainesville H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge ............................ Gainesville James J. Love, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee ....... ......... ..... ...... .. .. .. ............. .. . .... ... .. . .. ....................... ............ .. Quincy Walter B. Anderson, State Agricultural Conservation Committee .......................................................................................... Greenwood Ralph B. Chapman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee .... Sanford Harry C. Brown, State Agricultural Conservation Committee ........ Clermont E. Owen Blackwell, Accountant .......................................................... Gainesville Minnie P. Carr, Statistical Assistant .................................................. Gainesville R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent ........................................ . ... Gainesville A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent ..... . ... . ....... ...... ..... . ..... . . Gainesville J. Lee Smith, District Agent ....... . ......... ... .......................... . ............. . ... Gainesville W. T. Nettles, District Agent ............................................................ Gainesville ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Alachua .. .. ........................ .. ........ Benjamin L. Gittings .... ....... ......... . ... Gainesville Columbia ........... ... ............ . ....... Gussie 'B. Calhoun .............................. Lake City Escambia .................................. Bryan C. Gilmore ..... . ................ .. . . ......... Pensacola Hamilton .................................. Joseph W. Mitchell ..... ............... : ............... Jasper Hillsborough ...... . ..................... Marshall 0. Watkins Plant City Jackson C. Peacock ....................... . .... Marianna Jefferson J. Albritton .......... . .. ... . .... ........ . Monticello Lake ....... ..... ......... . ...................... Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr ......................... Tavares Madison J. Hudson .................................. Madison Orange S. Maxwell ...... .. . . . .. . . . ...... .. . .... .. .. ... Orlando Okaloosa B. Miller .................................. Crestview Polk ....... .. ................................... Myron ;M. Varn . . . ...... .................. ..... ........ Bartow Santa Rosa ................................ Frederick W. Barber ..... . . ..... ........ ....... ..... Milton Suwannee 0. Andersen .......................... .. .. Live Oak* Walton G . Hutchinson . ..... .. DeFuniak Springs NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua .................................... F. E. Pinder ........ .. ........ . .. .... ...... . ... . .. Gainesville Columbia and Southern Suwannee ... ... ...... E. S. Belvin ........................................ Lake City Hamilton and Northern Suwannee ............ N. H. Bennett .............................. White Springs Hillsborough .... . ....... .. ...... .... .... Elliott Robbins Tampa Jackson Granberry .................................... Marianna Jefferson .................................... M. E. Monticello Leon Wyer, Jr ................... . ............. Tallahassee Marion B. Young ... .. .. .... .... . ..... .... ............. . ......... Ocala LOCAL HOME DEMONSTiu\TION COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua ..... Mary Todd McKenzie Gainesville Duval M. Powell ..... , .................... Jacksonville Gadsden H. Bouie Quincy Hillsborough ............................ Floy Britt Tampa Leon W. Poole .................................. Tallahassee Madison .............. lthea Ayer ............................................ Madison Marion R. Kelley ........................................ Reddick Putnam G. Browning ....... . ........... .. . : ......... Palatka *Resigned December 10. [ 6]

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REPORT FOR 1937 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. SIR: I submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Exten sion Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1937, and a summary of the activities for the calendar year 1937. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. Florida Agricultural Extension Service activities between December 1, 1936, and November 30, 1937, did not include any important changes in the relationships and duties of the principal officers. Headquarters for the home demonstration work continued to be pro vided at the Florida State College for Women and of the Negro work in the Agricultural and Mechanical College, both in Tallahassee . . Cooperation from boards of county commissioners was maintained, with relatively few personnel changes or modifications in financial agreements. Relations with the University of Florida colleges, under policies estab lished by the Board of Control, as heretofore provided offices and covered a mailing room, mailing list and administrative employees serving also the State Agricultural Experiment Station. State agencies giving cooperation included the De'partments ofv Agri culture and Public Instruction, Board of Health, Inspection Service, Live stock Sanitary Board, Marketing Bureau and Milk Control Board. Com modity associations, especially in citrus fruit growing, dairying, cold stor~ age and truck crop fields, received advisory assistance when requested. Exhibits educational in nature dealing with agricultural economics and 4-H clubs were shown without special appropriations therefor or incur ring large expenses, composed mostly of bulletins, charts and demonstra tion materials which staff members handled. Federal agencies operating in Florida with which cooperative relation ships existed comprised principally the Agricultural Adjustment Admin istration, Bureaus of Animal Industry, Dairying, Entomology, Home Eco nomics and Plant Industry and the Farm Security Administration. Offices of the Florida coordinator under the Soil Conservation Service are located in Gainesville for contacts with the Extension Service and Experiment Station. Specialists on the Extension Service staff, both men and women, car ried on the educational work through county agents' offices under approval from. supervisory members who had passed on the plans pursued. Revenue sources remained without material modification, in addition to Federal funds consisting of appropriations by the State Legislature, boards of county commissioners and education, and continuing ones from [ 7]

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension the Florida treasury. State and county amounts mostly were unchanged, no counties recording decreases and a few making increases ranging from 3 to 10 percent. Offices were increased in number to no im portant extent but county agents have been supplied needed filing cases, miscellaneous equipment and typewriters and added space at most points to accommodate the Agricultural Conservation extra personnel required. Assistants have been promoted to county agents in several cases. Ad ditions when called for are selected from graduates of the Agriculture College at the University. Duties assigned the new workers largely related to the Agricultural Conservation activities or 4-H clubs. A Soil Conservationist appointed by the College of Agriculture, Dr. R. V. Allison, also was assigned the same work in the Extension Service, without compensation or travel allowance. Appointment of Miss Mary Keown as State Home Demonstration Agent succeeding Miss Flavia Gleason, resigned, made before December 1, 1936, left one district agent's office vacant until after the lfiscal year began, July 1, 1937, supervision in the territory meanwhile having come from other district agents or specialists. Extension Service policies in selecting agents seek the qualifications given by knowledge concerning agriculture and home economics and fa miliarity with farming in the areas where the work is to be done. Differ ences between sections in Florida are so pronounced that capacities must be considered aside from scholastic training. Education in Florida institutions or those of adjoining states is pre ferred, so far as persons having it are available. County agents and assistants at present are 85 percent graduates from agricultural colleges, 29 percent the output of the Florida College at Gainesville. Others em ployed have been in service 10 to 20 years, and practically successful. PROJECT ACTIVITIES Major undertakings of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service applying to the work in counties on lines allied with the predominant farming conditions and which are fully described by the subsequent more detailed outlines from district agents, specialists and like staff members, may be briefly summarized thusly: Agricultural Conservation-encouraging cover crops production for soil improvement. Agricultural Economics--dealing especially with the costs of growing, handling, marketing and transporting field and grove output. Citriculture--cultural methods, disease and insect control, fertilization practices, picking and packing economies, selling efficiency and like factors. Dairying-primarily to furnish a farm home milk supply and second arily for assistance in making commercial production profitable, largely through improved breeding, feeding and pasturage practices. 4-H Club Work for Boys-Placing emphasis on organization and sum mer camps, with the greatest accomplishments in localities where county agents have been in position to make major projects of these aims, co operating with community groups wherever feasible. (Girls' 4-H club work is reported on by the State Home Demonstration Agent.) Home Demonstration-encouraging food products conservation, home improvement, better nutrition and studies of clothing and textiles, with increased farm income constantly stressed and youth training conducted

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Annual Report, 1937 9 through the girls' 4-H clubs. Organizations among women also are spon sored as the means whereby special objectives can be attained. Hog and Beef Cattle Cooperative Sales--establishing local associations wherever su pplies warrant for assembling the animals so that carload buying becomes practicable. Turkeys and other poultry also have been disposed of in like manner to the much greater profits of producers. Live stock cooperative sales have contributed to provision of better marketing facilities by packers, meanwhile fixing grades and stabilizing prices. Livestock Feed and Pasture Betterment-joined in by the Extension Service agronomy and animal husbandry divisions-through greater farm feeds production, rotation of crops in enlarged degree, using silage more freely and turning idle lands to grazing and feeds raising. Truck Crops and Vegetables-applying 'principally to central and south ern Florida, except as regards two areas in the northern part of the state where Irish potatoes are grown during winter. Difficulties experi enced in making the endeavor efficient are intensified by weather and marketing hazards, production costs and cro'p specialization. "Live at home" practices sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service in a major degree are based on home gardens, and possess great importance in the staple farming sections. Negro Agricultural Extension-Corresponding as to subject matter and general procedure in large measure with that among white people but differing because confined within counties having relatively large popula tions composed of Negroes. Recommendations on which the plans are based come from the regular staff specialists in the main organization. Boys' 4-H club work among Negroes has registered improvement since younger agents were appointed who possess better educational qualifications. SPECIALIZED UNDERTAKINGS Planning Councils-Organizations attempted in accordance with recom mendations from the Federal Agricultural Extension Service and Adjustment Administration. A favorable reception generally has been given the idea but the development thereof was delayed by the multiplicity of con flicting or duplicating activities. Committees selected for local work rep resent civic clubs, "dirt" farmers, school boards and vocational agriculture teachers, the county farm and home demonstration agents usually having been included. SEA ISLAND CO'ITON INDUSTRY RESTORATION Under way in some 20 counties formerly growing long staple but where the production was discontinued owing to boll weevil. Efforts for revival have been enlarged, under joint direction from the Extension Ser vice, Experiment Stations, State and United States departments of agri culture, with the local campaigns almost everywhere supervised by county agents. Prospects are considered good for further substantial progress. SOIL CONSERVATION Soil erosion projects at Graceville and Monticello, federally operated, use the state agencies' recommendations as a basis. A Florida Soil Con servation District law 'passed by the 1937 legislature is administered by a state committee comprising the Agricultural Experiment Station Direc tor, the Agricultural Extension Service Vice-Director, and the College of Agriculture Soil Conservationist.

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension SWEET POTATO WEEVIL . CONTROL This is a local problem in a few areas. Clean-up methods representing but a small cost to producers were instituted through the county agents, who also made the arrangements for securing suitable slips after the State Plant Board had placed quarantine regulations in effect. Results so far have been satisfactory. TOBACCO BLUE MOLD CONTROL Plant beds in the counties comprising the Florida flue-cured tobacco belt underwent serious injury in the spring of 1937 from the blue mold disease. Pending results from investigations provided for by the last leg islature, Extension Service, Experiment Station and State Plant Board personnel has been collaborating on control demon s trations which use spraying and fumigation. EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS Meetings of an educational nature have been conducted in 'practically every Florida community, with relation to one or more of the activities hereinbefore described. Interest that farmers exhibited who attended cen tered around revenue crops and the Agricultural Adjustment Act . Sub jects also found popular included lessening citrus production costs, coop erative organizations in commodity growing and selling, cover crops, dairy~ ing, 4-H clubs, .and ljvestock breeding and feeding.

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Annual Report, 1937 FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1937 RECEIPTS Federal Smith-Lever ...................................................... $ 63,968.10 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ........................ 15,537.10 Bankhead-Jones, Federal ................................................ 93,102.75 Capper-Ketcham, Federal .............................................. 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative, Federal .................................... 20,200.00 State Appropriation 86,639.98 County Appropriation ...................................................... 108,485.63 Screw Worm Control, State Appropriation ................ 18,928.76 Egg Laying Contest, Sales ............................................ 5,500.55 Continuing Appropriations ............................................ 5,000.00 EXPENDITURES Administration .................................................................. $ 16,329.81 Publications, printing .................................................... 14,363.66 County Agent Program ................................................ :. 184,353.20 4-H Club Program (Boys) ............................................ 6,286.31 Home Demonstration Program 125,520.92 Dairy and Animal Husbandry........................................ 10,750.95 Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) .... 30,083.52 Citriculture . 4,669.73 Poultry Husbandry .......................................................... 4,369.02 Extension Schools ............................................................ 37.35 Agricultural Eeonomics .................................................. 16,426.58 Florida National Egg-Laying Contest 9,546.00 Balance Federal Funds returned, authority Secty. of Agr. ........................................................................ 2,252.80 Screw Worm Control ...................................................... 18,928.76 11 $443,918.61 $443,918.61

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12 Florida Cooperativ e Extension STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Days service rendered by count y workers . . . ..... ........ .... .. .. ... ... Days in office ............. .. .. . ........ ... ... . ... . . .. . . . . . . . .... ... . ..... . . . . .... . . . .... .. . . . . . . . Days in field .... . ...... . ...... . .... . .......... . . . ............. . Number people assisting Exten s ion program voluntarily ....... . Number paid employes assisting Extension program .. . ........ . Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work Members in s uch clubs ........ . .. . ....... . . . .......... .. . .. ... .. .... . ... ... ........... . .. . 4-H Clubs ...... . . . ..... . ........ . .. . ...... ..... ..... . ......... .. .. . ... .. . . ... .. . .. .... .. . ... ...... . . . 4-H Club members enrolled ....... ... .............. . ... . ............... .. ............. . Different 4-H club members completing . ... . . .. .... .... . .. . .. .......... ... . 4-H club teams trained ......... . ... . . . .... . . .. ... . . . .. ..... . .. ........ . . .. ........... .... . Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work with rural young people 16 years of age and older .. .. . . . . Members in these groups .. . . . . .. .. . .......... . .... . . . ... . ........... .. .............. . . Farm or home visits made .... . .. . ... . . . ......... . ... ... ... . .......... . .. . ........... .. . Different farms or homes visited .. ... .. . ... .. .... ... ... .... . . .. ... .. . . .......... . . Calls relating to Extension work ... . . .. . ... . .. . .. . . .. . . . . ... . ... ...... . . .. ..... . News articles or stories published and circular letters .. ......... . Number individual letters written ....... ..... ........... , ....................... . Bulletins distributed .. . .............. . . . ... . ....... . . . . .. . . ............ . ................... . Radio Talks .. . ... . ........ ... . ... . . .... .. .. ... . . . . . . . .. . . . ... ... .... ... .. . .... . .... . . . . .... .. .. .. . Extension exhibits shown ..... .. . .. . .... . ..... . .. .. .. . . . .. .... . ... . . .. .. . .. . .. . .... . ... . Training meetings held for local leaders . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . ..... . .. . (Attendance . .. .. .... .......... . . . Method demonstration meetings held . . .... ..... . ...... . . . .. . .. . ............ . (Attendance .... .. . . . ......... . .. .. . Meeting s held at re s ult demonstration ... . .... .. .. .... .. . .. .. .. ....... ... . . .. . (Attendance . . ..... ... . . ....... .. .. . Farm tours conducted . . ............. . ... ... ........... . . . . . ............ .. ... ... ........... . (Attendance ...... ... .............. . Achievement days held .... ... .. .... ... . . . . .... .. ... ... .... ... ...... . ... ... ... .. ...... . . . . . (Attendance . . . . . .. .. . .. .. .. ..... . Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc . ) ... . ... . (Attendance ..... . ............... . Other meetings .... ... .. . ................ . . . . . .. . ........ . ... . . ........... . . . . . . . .. . ............ . (Attendance .. .. ......... . ....... . . . CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted . . . . . .... . .. .. ... . . .. . .. ... . Result demonstrations conducted ... .. ... .. .. . .. .... .. .. . . . . ... .. . . ... .. . , . .. ... . Meetings held ............................ . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. .. . ..... .............. . . . ............ . News stories published and circular letters .......... .. . . ..... . ......... . Farm or home visits made ..... . ... . .... . .... .. ... ..... . . ....... .. .. . . . . . ......... . .. . Office calls received .. ....... ... ..... . .. . ......... ...... . . . . . .. . ..... . . . ... , . . .. . .... . . .... . 4-H Club members ... . . . ... . ... . ...... . .. .. .. . . . .... . . ... . .. ..... . . .. . . ...... . . . ........ . . ... . 4-H Club members completing .. .......... ..... . . ..... . ... . . . .. .. ... . . . .......... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended ... .. . .. . .. . .. . .... . 27,669 12,503.5 15,165.5 1,944 434 322 7 , 736 743 14,622 9,279 560 14 495 48,196 26,420 296,115 11,358 94,623 112,268 223 382 483 4,762 10,120 141,156 3,178 25,400 227 5,412 120 120,995 90 5,132 3,587 179,891 581 340 208 197 1,286 4,644 855 515 803 16,831.4 Bu. 8,858

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Annual Report, 1937 LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ............................................... . Meetings held ......................... .. ........................................................ . News stories published and circular letters Farm or home visits made .......................... . ................................ . Number office calls received ....................................................... : 4-H Club members enrolled 4-H Club members completing .............. . .... . ...... . .......... . ...... . ........ . Yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing (Seed, pounds ................... . (Forage, tons ................... . Farmers following better practice recommendations ........... . 1,338 1,012 425 466 2,553 15,094 395 177 21,482 55 16,246 13 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Other Crops Cotton Communities in which work was conducted ........................................... . Result demonstration ............................. . Meetings held .............................. .. ........... . News stories published and 358 109 140 circular letters written ........ . ........... 211 Farm or home visits made ...................... 1,022 Office calls received ................................ 4,800 4-H Club members enrolled ... . .... .. .......... 307 4-H Club members completing ................ 161 Acres in projects by 4-H 275 278 257 471 861 15,715 304 161 Club members completing ............ 147.5 196 Tobacco 98 25 58 98 473 4,738 19 12 19.6 Yields by 4-H club members completing 10,776.5 Bu. 137,269 Farms following better practices ........ 5,287 13,257 Lb. 16,860 Lb. 2,773 FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was Result demonstrations conducted ................................................... . Meetings held ............ .. ..... . ........................... . ..................................... . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ............................................................... . Office calls received .................................................................. . ...... . 4-H Club members 4-H Club members completing ......................................................... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farms and homes adopting improved practices 2,571 8,992 3,239 1,717 10,719 28,993 9,730 6,188 1,178.5 33,502.5 Bu. 43,265 FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued Farm or home visits made Office calls received ................... . ................................... ; . ................... 4-H Club members enrolled 4-H Club members completing ................ .. ................................... . . . Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with small trees ......................... . ... . .............. . .......... ................ . . Acres reforested ...... . .................. . ....................................................... . Farms adopting better forestry practices ..................................... . 420 496 438 249 1,249 4,502 . 261 131 80 3,788 1,759

PAGE 15

14 Florida Cooperative Extension Farms adopting soil conservation practices .......... .. ........ . . ... ...... . . . Acres involved .................... . .............. .... ............................................. . Land clearing ...................................................... . .................. . Acres involved . ................................... ... ............... . .................. ........... . Farmers adopting better machine practice ...... . .......... ... ............... . Number machines involved ............ .... .................. . ........... .. .. .. . .... ...... . Farmers adopting better building and equipment practices ... . Building and items of equipment involved ................................... . POULTRY AND BEES Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ....................................... .... ........ . Meetings held ....................... . .... . ............................................... . .......... . News stories published and circular letters issued .... . .............. . Farm or home visits made ............... . .................... .. ............. ... ......... . Office calls received ...... . .. .... .............. ... ........... .... . . .................. . ......... . 4-H Club members enrolled ..................................................... . ......... . 4-H Club members completing ......................... . ............................. . Number chickens raised ....................................................... . . , ......... . Number colonies of bees ..................... . .............. ....... ........... ....... . .. ... . Families following improved practices in poultry raising ....... . Families following im'proved practices-bees ............................. . 1,478 64,001 156 9,407 1,011 1,119 4,551 4,171 739 1,729 1,086 593 3,907 10,875 2,195 1,302 40,811 139 14,450 996 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted .. .. ............... . ........... . Result demonstrations conducted . ...... .............. .. .......... , ................. . Meetings held . .................................. . . ..... ........................................... . News stories published and circular letters issued ..... ...... ........ . Farm or home visits made ....... .. ... . .. . .............. .. ...... . .......... . ..... .. ... . .. . Office calls received ........................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled .............................. .. ................. . ......... . 4-H Club members completing .. : .................................................... . Animals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ................... . .... . ..... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... . .. .. ............ . ... . ........ . Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ........... : ....... : ............... . Farmers using other improved live stock practices .......... . ........ . AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Communities in which work was conducted ................ , .... .... ........ . Result demonstrations conducted . Meetings held .. .. ..................................................................... :, .......... . News stories published and circular letters issued ......... . ......... . Home or farm visits made . ........................... . Office ' . calls received .. : , ... . . . ........ , ...... , .................................................. . 4-H Club members enrolled ............. . . .. ............................................ . 4-H Club members completing ... :: .................... , .................. . .......... . Farmers keeping account and cost records ................................... . Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ......... .. ........... . . Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustment ........... . Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year ... . Farmers;_rnakirig lmsiness changes resulting from economic 1,455 1,528 1,373 1,196 9,526 29,448 1,780 970 1,735 2,079 30,890 1,449 909 1,131 1,037 2,742 30,471 797 494 1,552 541 3,159 4 suryeys .... .. . . .......... . ... . .... ....................................... 14,130 Families assisted in getting established ......... . ... . ..... .. ........ . .......... 1,135 Marketing groups organized or assisted 96 Individuals .affected by marketing program .................................. 14,092 Organizations assisted with problems ..................................... ,...... 286 Individuals assisted with problems ................................................ 9,964 Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted .... $9,425,461.16 Value of . _ products sold by individuals (not in organizations) 9,234,081.64 Value of supplies purchased-all associations ............ ... ......... 1,081,564.04 Value of suppliEis purchased .bY all individuals .................... , ... 3,571,291.72

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Annual Report, 1937 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted ........ .. .. . .. . .............. . . 1,104 Result demonstration s conducted 8,584 Meetings held . .. ..... . ..... .. . .... . ..... .. ... ... . . . ..... . ........ . . . .... . . . ... .. ... .. .. . .. .. ..... 3,930 News stories published . and circular letters issued .. . ............... . . 903 Farm or home visits made .. .. ..... . ... . ........ . .............. . ........ .. ............. . .. 3,492 Office calls received ..... . .............. .. . . . .... .................... . . . ........................ 10,051 4-H Club members enrolled ....... . . . ... . ....................... . ...................... 7,713 4-H Club members completing . . . . ... ....................... .... ................... . .. 5,555 Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members .... 109,673 Di s hes of food prepared, meals served and vegetables and fruits stored and dried , . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . ... .... .. ... ..... . ....... .... ... .. .................... . .. 69,003 Families adopting better practices as to foods ... .... .. . ....... . ......... . 10,886 Schools following recommendations for school lunch ............... . 89 Children in schools following lunch recommendations ................ 24,142 Containers of food sa ved by non-members of 4-H clubs ............ 433,368 Value of products canned or otherwise preserved .... , ............. .. $317 ,545.09 Families readjusting family food supply .......... . . . . .. .. . . . ........... . . . . 3,804 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conducted .... . .. . .... .. .... . ................. 182 Result demonstrations conducted ... . . . ..................... . ..................... . .. 623 Meetings held ................................ . . .. ..... . ............... . ............ . ................ 238 News stories published and circular letters issued . . .................. 61 Farm or home visits made ..... . .. . . ..... . .. ..... . .... .. . . ... . .... . .... . . , .... . .. . ....... . 235 Office calls received . . ... . . .. ... . . .. .. . .. ... . . . .. ........ . . . ... . . .... ... .. ..... .. ... . .. . ...... . . 641 4-H club members participating . ... .... .. .. . ... . . . ... .... .. .. .. . . . . . .... . .... , . . . . . 191 Families following child-development plans .. . . . .. . . . . ........ . ............ 1,558 Different individuals participating in child-development program 1,066 Children involved in child-development program ....... . ................ 2,000 CLOTHING Communities in whi c h work was conducted . . .......... .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. . . Result demonstrations conducted ... . . .. . . . ..... . .. . .. .. ....... . . . . : . . .............. . M e etings held .................................... . .. . . . ............. . .... . . . ..................... . . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ............ .. ......................... . .. . .. . ................. . Office calls received .. . ..................... . ... . ...... . ................ .. .... . .. . ............. . 4-H Club members enrolled .... . ... ... . . ... .. . . ............ . . . ... . . .. ... . . .. ............ . 4-H Club members completing Articles made by 4-H club members completing . . ....... .. . . . . . . .......... . Individuals following better clothing practices . ... . . . ........ . ... , . .. . Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing requirements . . . . .. . ............... . ....... . .. . ................... . .. . .... . ................. . Savings due to clothing program . ..................... . ..... . .. . .. . ................ . 602 2,607 3,134 381 1,506 4 , 762 8,554 5,481 37,609 26,251 1,743 60 , 455.99 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS Communities in which work was conducted .... . . . ... .... ... .......... .. ... 1,184 Re s ult demonstrations conducted . ........... . ........ ... . .... ....................... 4,532 Meetings held 1,929 News stories published and circular letters issued . . .................. 453 Farm or home visits made 1,900 Office calls received ........ . ...... . . . . . ...... .. ... ... . . ................ . ... . ................. . . 3 , 746 4-H Club members enrolled ....... .... . . . . . . ... .. ...... . ... . . . .. . ........ . ...... . .. .. .. .. 4,718 4-H Club members completing ... . . .. . . .. . .... . .... . .. . .. . .... . . . . . ................... 3,317 Projects conducted by 4-H members completing .. .................... . . 16,470 Families following better home-management practices ....... . .. . . 15,269 Estimated savings due to home-management program ............ $ 22,359.00 Families improving household furnishings 11,072 Sa v in g s due to house-furnishings program .. . .... ... .. . ................... $ 19,838.50 Families following handicraft practices . ...... .... ... ... ... ... . . . ... .. . . ... .... 2,240 15

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ................ . ....................... '. . .. ..... .. . Meetings held ............... .. ..... . .......................... ... ........ News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made Office calls received , ..................................... . ...................... .. ............ . 4-H Club members enrolled 4-H Club members completing .................. , .................................... . Additional 4-H club members participating ............................... . Individuals having health examination . .. .. ..................................... ; Individuals adopting health measures .... ... .................................... . Families adopting health measures 473 1,177 655 122 712 1,997 2,983 ,189 3,619 4,012 17,498 2,725 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 920 Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting.................... 889 Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen 1,979 Meetings held . ......... ............ . ................. ............................................. 1,086 News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 1,725 Farm or home visits made 2,365 Office calls received ...................................... .... .................................. 7,003 Communities assisted with community problems ........................ 1,334 Country life conferences ........................ . . ... ................................... 88 Families following recommendations as to home recreation .... 1,800 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ................................ 272 Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other relief agency ........................ .. .................................... 905

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Annual Report, 1937 EDITORIAL AND MAILING J. Francis Cooper, Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor 17 Bulletins, cards, circulars, leaflets and related forms of information were printed to a markedly expanded degree, with corresponding increase in mailing and direct distribution. A series of small leaflets for enclosure in all outgoing letters was added. Editorial and mailing activities for the Experiment Station and Exten sion Service are handled from the same offices by three editors and three mailing clerks, with assistance rendered occasionally by other persons on the clerical force. Estimates regarding division of time give 60 percent to 75 for the Extension Service; between 25 percent and 40, Experiment Station. BULLETINS AND OTHER PRINTED MATTER Bulletins printed during the fiscal year almost doubled the customary allotment, with more than twice as many copies issued, the editions having been large and seven new issues added. Pages in the latter numbered 424, from 10,000 copies each to 30,000 were run, totaling 145,000. Three on which demand had exhausted the supply, requiring new editions, contained 104 pages and included 55,000 copies. Bulletins all told comprised 528 pages with 200,000 copies printed. Four circulars additional, two new and two reprints, added 34,000. Cuts in color used for the first time the United States Agriculture Department furnished for Bulletin 86, Screw-worms in Florida. Com ment throughout the state and the South was highly :favorable and a reprint issued by one commercial concern gave credit to the Department and the Extension Service. Following is a list of bulletins, circulars, folders, calendars, record books, cards and other materials edited and printed during the year. Pages Bui. 85. Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits .......... ............................................................... 92 Bul. 86. Screwworms in Florida ................................................ 28 Bul. 87. Meat Canning .................................................................. 44 Bui. 88. Citrus Insects and Their Control (Revised) ............ 136 Bui. 89. Herbaceous Perennials (Revised) .............................. 36 Bul. 90. Florida Vegetables (Revised) ...................................... 68 Bul. 91. Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural Homes (Revised) ...................................................... 20 Bui. 60. Culling for Egg Production (Reprint) ,..................... 16 Bui. 69. Buy Health with Your Food Dollar (Reprint) ........ 48 Bul. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida (Reprint) .................................................................... 40 Circ. 42. Fundamentals in Home Sewing ................................ 28 Circ. 43. The Florida 4-H Club Uniform ................................ 20 Circ. 15. How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club (Reprint) ............ .............. ....................................... 8 Circ. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop (Re'print) .............. 4 Calendar, 1937 ................................................................ 12 Announcement and Rules, 12th National EggLaying Test ................................................................ 5 Final Report, 10th National Egg-Laying Contest 20 Misc. Pub. 15. 4-H Club Food Preparation Guide and Record Book .......................................................... 24 Edition 10,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 30,000 30,000 15,000 20,000 15,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 4,000 10,000 12,500 1,500 1,500 20,000

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension Pages Misc. Pub. 16. 4-H Club Baking Guide and Record Book .... 20 Misc. Pub. 17. The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937 40 Misc. Pub. 18. Poultry . Club Record Book ('Revised) ............ 16 Misc. Pub. 19. Record Book for Secretary of 4-H Clubs (girls) 40 Misc. Pub. 20. 4-H Club Girls Canning Guide and Record Book 16 Misc. Pub. 21. Record Book, Garden and Perennial Plantings 20 Misc. Pub. 22. Record , Book for Women in Home Demonstration Work ............. .... ... .... ........................ 16 Misc. Pub. 23. Record Book for Secretary of Home Demonstration Clubs ............... . ................................ 40 Misc. Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Revised) ............ 48 Misc. Pub. 2 . Florida Poultry Record Book for Commercial Flocks (Reprint) .................................... .. ...... 48 Misc. Pub. 4. Florida Poultry Record Book for Small Flocks (Reprint) .......................................... 28 Misc. Pub. 10. Livestock Club Record Book (Revised) ........ 12 Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing (Reprint) 16 Florida Dairy Farm Account Book .... ..... . ,..... 52 Citrus AE 6. Florida Citrus Costs and Returns (printed covers) ......................... . ................................ . Agricultural News Service ( 42 weekly issues .:.....Plant Board paid for 10 more) each .... 1 The Home Fruit Orchard in North and West Florida (printed covers) ..................... , ....... . The Home Fruit Orchard (mimeographed) ... . 10 window cards, cr , ops and practices, each ... . 15 card signs for county fairs, each ........ . .... . Daily Food Habits (Wall Chart) .................... 2 Florida Improved Farming Messages, five folders each .................................................... 4 Covers for bound volume, Ornamental Gardening in Florida ... .. . ... ................................ . Farm Radio Program, Monthly, each .... . ....... 4 LETTER ENCLOSURE FOLDERS Edition 15,000 3,000 15,000 2,500 10,000 20,000 10,000 2,500 1,000 500 500 10,000 10,000 350 2,600 850 3,500 3,500 500 25 20,000 6,500 300 3,000 Folders stressing outstanding Extension Service accomplishments initiated February 1, 1937, contain four pages each, are issued monthly and copies inserted in all correspondence going out from headquarters, agents' offices, the Experiment Station and the State Plant Board. Under the general name, "Florida Improved Farming Messages", the titles of five folders printed to June 1937, were as follom=;: No. 1. Good Comes from Evil, Even the Boll Weevil No. 2. Showing How to Grow Profits on the Farm No. 3. Results of Research Applied on the Farm No. 4. Showing How Florida Can "Live at Home" No. 5. Training Comes to Farm Boys and Girls DISTRIBUTION OF BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES Extension Service bulletins, record books and general supplies are distributed from Gainesville and State Home Demonstration offices in Tallahassee. Bulletins go to county agents, libraries, vocational agriculture teachers and officials having related duties, from comparatively small mailing lists. They are sent to the public only on special request but the demand usually is so brisk that supplies become quickly exhausted. Distribution during the year approximated 100,000. ,

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Annual Report, 1937 19 Mailing room duties include storage and transmission to county agents as needed of charts, mimeograph stencils, paper, pencils, rubber bands, stationery and like supplies. Growth of the work in recent years has materially increased , the volume of these functions. Mimeographing for the Extension Service, Experiment Station and in large part that of the Resident Teaching division is done in the mailing room. Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil Conservation work added to the already heavy volume during the past year. Stencils run aggregated 2,406--only a small , proportion of which were cut in the room -requiring over 630,215 sheets of paper, or 200 stencils and 52,000 sheets monthly. Weekly clipsheets, known as the Agricultural News Service, folded and mailed, comprised 800 each week. Calendars for 1937 also were dis tributed from the mailing rooms, to addresses ' furnished by county farm and home demonstration agents. , SPECIALIZED EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGNS Information regarding the celery, citrus, watermelon and related farm ing industries was circulated as assistance to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Marketing agreement movements required development of fundamental facts concerning the crops affected. Agricultural Conser vation activities had stories released to newspapers and material furnished radio stations. District and county agents of northwestern Florida conducted a cam paign for inducing farmers to 'plant peanuts with corn, since demonstra tions had shown that in alternate rows the grain output was nearly as great as when planted solid, the peanuts growing additional hog feed. Meetings , were supplemented with , circular letters and placards. Farmers in five counties who answered questionnaires reported solid corn plantings reduced 41.8 percent and acreage devoted to corn, or corn and velvet beans, alternated with peanuts increased 145 percent. , Results similarly satisfactory came from endeavor for inducing farmers to plant peanuts closer in drills, thus greatly increasing the yields. Cards used in this campaign included 10 of window card size, llx14, and 15 which were llx28. Two of the smaller and all the larger had been designed primarily for display at fairs, while eight in the lesser size could be _ so shown or otherwise. , NEWS RELEASES News stories in dailies and weeklies, farm magazines and sundry pub lications remained a major method for disseminating information. _ News papers continued according considerable attention to farm news, many , carrying special columns contrbuted by county Extension Service workers .and most using farm and home demonstration material whenever available. Clipsheets containing eight to 11 news stories , each week went to , all weekly papers, the contents chiefly covering Extension Service perform• :a.nee but also dealing with the Experiment Station, the State , Plant Board and the Resident Teaching Division, College of Agriculture. Payment for every fifth issue was made by the Plant Board. Stories from the clip sheet frequently received first page position or inclusion among editorials .and at least one rural paper largely made up therefrom a special agricul tural section. Farm and home demonstration agents reported 6,300 news items published in their local papers.

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension Reports concerning activities of particular importance went at irregular intervals to daily newspapers usually at least once or twice weekly and mostly through the Associated Press wire service, filed by the Gaines ville representative, and occasionally the weeklies received similar material. Use of Extension Service information was liberally made by a monthly farm and grove section carried in about 50 weekly and small daily papers. Farm journals again Jiberally used articles written by Florida Exten sion Service editors. Two publications having national circulation pub lished 15, totalling 44 column inches. One Southern agricultural maga zine printed 26, amounting to 197 inches. Four periodicals published in the state utilized 39, the space aggregating 861 inches. Material pre pared by other staff members, forwarded by the editors, also received generous acceptance from Florida farm magazines. Radio talks, running around 40 percent of those given on the Florida Farm Hour, reworked into farm paper articles, have not been included in the above tabulations. Home demonstration celebration honoring the 25th anniversary of that undertaking in Florida created news that many papers carried, the Exten sion Service editors cooperating in the preparation and presentation. RADIO BROADCASTING Use of the airwaves in putting out data and facts valuable to farmers included the Florida Farm Hour each week day over WRUF and brief scripts sent five other stations for broadcasts five days in every seven. Florida Farm Hour presentations, featured on WRUF since the Sta tion opened in 1928, included 313 during the year. Talks comprising the programs numbered 1,009, some in the form of dialogues using two speak ers. Extension Service personnel appeared 359 times; Experiment Station, 139; teaching faculty, 35; students, 34; county agent, 29; farmers and farm women, 21; club boys, 21; home demonstration, 19; prominent visitors, 18; Plant Board, 2; club girls, 2. In addition to supervising the . program, the editors presented 18 sched uled talks, which the authors could not give personally, and prepared five dialogues between farmers and staff members, and nine in which they themselves participated with the latter. Dialogues having other author ship were offered twice. A daily review of news affecting agriculture gained credit from outside sources as the most widely heard "home made" feature on any Florida station. Featured during the year were Farm Hours principally supplied by Alachua County Negro boys, Christmas music from the Gainesville Epis copal Church Choir, Dairy Field Day and programs by farm agents and others representing Columbia, Lafayette, Levy, Pasco and Sumter counties. Market reports and music occurred daily, Radio's Weekly Farm News paper every Saturday and the farm question box each Tuesday. United States Agriculture Department farm flashes given numbered 129. Florida Farm Hour printed schedules distributed each month were in editions of 3,000. Agricultural and farm home broadcasts over WRUF, arranged by the editors, other than for the Florida Farm Hour period, included: April 14, Florida Horticultural Society Golden Jubilee Convention, Ocala; May 1, Little International Livestock Show, College of Agriculture, Gainesville; June 25, Camp McQuarrie, Ocala National Forest . . RADIO THROUGH COOPERATING STATIONS Stations which are furnished farm flashes in some cases build around them additional talks using allied material. Flashes intended to occupy

PAGE 22

Annual Report, 1937 21 seven minutes went out from the editorial rooms on 261 days. Duplicates sometimes became necessary, to suit stations in different sections. A grand total of 304 flashes were supplied other stations than WRUF, 179 from the United States Agriculture Department and 125 which the editors had prepared. County farm and home demonstration agents who cooperated in the presentation themselves made 223 talks. TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING Instruction was given to three different groups. A class having 23 members was taught daily by the Editor at the annual Girls' Club Short Course in Tallahassee during June, bringing out fundamentals. Fig. 1.-Miss Teresa Dagley, Volusia 4-H girl, took advantage of the training in news writing offered by the Extension Editor and learned to be not only a 4-H club reporter but also community correspondent for papers in the county. One member of t h e previous year's class, Teresa Dagley, Volusia county, otherwise without experience, secured employment as community corre spondent for a group of newspapers, ea1ning money to buy clothes during her senior year in high school. Boys attending the yearly 4-H short course at the University in June received assistance on a mimeographed newspaper, Daily Doings, and were given pointers concerning news gathering and writing. Home demonstration members in Marion County, mostly 4-H club girls, had one day's instruction about writing news and making radio talks, 17 attending. A similar two day course for women in western Hillsborough county had present 29 home demonstration women, public health nurses and others interested.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension NATIONAL RECOGNITION Florida was selected for the 25th annual convention, American Associa tion of Agricultural College Editors, this state's members serving as hosts. Registrations aggregating . 52 represented 20 states and the. United States Agriculture Department. Three days devoted to talks and round-table discussions on editorial problems and improvement in practices kept the delegates in Gainesville, August 17-19. A following five-day trip through southern Florida was taken advantage of by 19 visiting editors. Formation of an editorial section in the Southern Agricultural Workers. Association was completed during the Gainesville session. Chairman chosen is F. H. Jeter, North Carolina, while Whitney Tharin, Georgia, serves the group as secretary. Florida Editor J. Francis Cooper was elected president of the Ameri can Association of Agricultural College Editors for 1937-38. Service also was rendered by him as Florida Press Association director during the year covered by this report. ASSISTANCE TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS As a member of the publicity committee, the Extension Editor handled most of the publicity in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jacksonville during March. Suggestions were released concerning the feeding of steers, in October and early November when . animals for the show were being placed in feed lots, and news of the show was released preceding and during the event. The Editor also served on the faculty advisory committee for the Florida College Farmer, a magazine published four times during the school year by students. He supervised the editorial make-up and business man agement of the paper.

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Annual Report, 1937 23 AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION H. G. Clayton, Administrative Officer in Charge Functioning under an act of the United States Congress, a State Agricultural Conservation office is located at Gainesville and county units in the farm agents' headquarters, wherever they are employed. Counties have conservation associations, composed of participating farm ers, which elect community committeemen. County committee members compose the directing board, three members constituting an executive committee. Farm demonstration agents usually are the local administrative officials. Associations have operated under budgets determined by the directors, since March 1, and the treasurers are bonded. Work sheets filled out by farmers wishing to benefit from government subsidies for soil-building practices and diversion of lands from fertility depleting crops, giv e basic information concerning the history of the farms. Farm agents, local committeemen and clerical workers at county offices assisted in preparing them, State headquarters analyzed, audited and tab ulated the documents. Committeemen and supervisors operating locally, directed by county farm agents, measure acreage and obtain information regarding the soil building practices carried out, for later transfer to performance records. Training schools throughout the state instructed the county workers. Plane table maps were made of participating farms in 14 counties and nine were mapped by aerial photography under government contracts. Applications for grant payments are based on compliance records. Work sheet final adjustments had been completed in most counties by December 31 and payments will be made during the early part of 1938. Applications are audited, computed and vouchered at State headquarters, then forwarded for pre-audit to a Federal General Accounting Office branch at Athens, Georgia, the di s bursing offices in Atl a nta thereafter receiving them for writing the checks which individual producers finally get. On 20,619 Florida farms applying for Class II payments, the 691,746 acres devoted to soil-building products constituted 55.8 percent of the total croplands. Grain food and feed requirements were determined in 1936 for the first time on 13,255 farms containing 258,534 acres, excluding lands raising citrus fruits and truck crops commercially. Associations organized within the counties, numbering 59, selected com munity committeemen, boards of directors, administrative officers and so on as has been described. County committee members received $4.00 per day for the time actually employed and community committeemen $3.00. WORK SHEETS FOR 1937 Taking work s heets for 1937 began in March, after meetings with county farm agents and assistants, to discuss and study the new regula tions. Features not previously required had among them a base for con serving crops, 1936 acreage in commercial truck fields, orchards and groves and fenced non-crop pastures. Under the latter division, many cattlemen established perennial grasses on owned or leased lands, . for which they were allowed 25 cents per acre on pastures not exceeding one-half the total cropland, and $3.00 per acre for permanent pasture. Execution of work sheets was completed in the county offices by May 20. State offices handling forced return for correction 3,586 of 28,882, or 12.4 percent.

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24 Florida Coop e rative Extens i o n TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS RECEIVED , NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED TO GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936 PROGRAM, . i "d I'll ,,, _ I 11) "' ...., i:: tsSq:: 0 11) 11) 0 ~:c rn ,....5,,:, "',.c: Y-4+)"?:! -i... "d..., ...., County 11),,, 11) tsS 11) Poll)< 1= 11) i:: -1]00 "1=1-1 i:: 11)00 ..c .,Q <) >00 p, <) 00 q:: 11) 00 ::s 11) q::,:,:, E~"t:S s ~ ~ eo tsS,,,do:, ] ::s.~ [eo 0 gJ [•,-.t CfJ 0 E ~ 1 'a~~ i:l I 0...., I s~ E ....,"" ::s O 11) ' ~P,11) I Oo 0 '7 oS~.A ... -
PAGE 26

Annual Report, 1937 25 TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF WORK SHEETS FILED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS RECEIVED, NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS CERTIFIED TO GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE, AND PAYMENTS MADE DURING 1937 BY COUNTIES ON THE 1936 PROGRAM-Continued. County -----------Pasco 196 194 194 5,907.10 00 5,907.10 Pinellas ---------252 244 244 6,666.02 4.92 6,661.10 Polk --------------726 1,565 1,550 56,844.55 1,292.30 55,552.25 Putnam ............ 239 223 221 8,940.85 1,632.95 7,307.90 St. Johns ........ 167 165 165 8,916.96 1,503.56 7,413.40 St. Lucie 236 235 235 6,551.20 00 6,551.20 Santa Rosa .... 524 493 482 27,952.77 26,199.81 1,752.96 Sarasota .......... 96 66 66 2,904.33 28.13 2,876.20 Seminole -------743 635 635 14,053.92 802.43 13,251.49 Sumter 359 347 341 12,369.18 3,953.46 8,415.72 Suwannee ........ 963 868 748 54,530.20 27,699.39 26,830.81 Taylor .............. 158 119 119 3,522.22 864.16 2,658.06 Union 262 126 126 5,331.51 754.30 4,577.21 Volusia ----------255 248 247 6,294.80 00 6,294.80 Wakulla 32 23 22 1,113.56 308.06 805.50 Walton 556 481 480 23,269.04 13,667.23 9,601.81 Washington ---440 228 224 5,999.45 5,106.40 893.05 TOTALS 121,288 120,647 11,032,301.621491,618.291540,683.33 MAPPING PROCEDURE Plans for obtaining accurate and permanent maps of cropland divided . themselves into aerial photography and plane table work. This is the first year that aerial photography has been used for this purpose in Florida, and Table 3 gives 'pertinent figures on this work. PERFORMANCE IN 1937 Requirements of the federal authorities were more exacting than in the past. Meetings at which instruction was given included three district conferences and 22 schools throughout the state. Counties in most cases commenced their activities immediately after the schools for supervisors had ended. Costs dropped to a minimum where plane maps were available, with the results particularly satisfactory. A county which used aerial photographs found them accurate and economical. Chain systems of meas uring performance revealed wide variations as to expense, due to sundry factors. EXPENSE INCURRED IN 1937 In part, expenses were budgeted by county associations as local admin istrative outlay totaling not to exceed 10 percent of payments within the territory. Rates for subsidies are on a 110 percent basis, so no farmer lost. Costs of operation otherwise were borne through the state offices.

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TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS. I ~"d ..!tl 0,!tl ..!tl ~..!tl I Vl H Q H rn H rn i:: H H P. i:: 0 Cl) o rn 0 OH SJ Cl) H !:: SJ -o eo ,!.I !::~ Cl) < !::Cl) Cl) Cl) P. H H H l:l.O H i;::.;; Hi:: CJ p:i H i CJ E-1 H i CJ H rn .......... 'r Cl) 0 Z o.~ O"d 0 o.~ po.~ 0~ rn rn +> County ...... fl] a) CJ Cl) Cl) i-..-..c:
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TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSIS--Continued. County Hardee ....... . Hendry ... . ... . Hernando ... . Highlands Hillsborough Holmes ....... . Indian River Jackson ... .. . Jefferson .. . . Lafayette ... . Lake ..... . . . ... . Lee . ....... . .... . Leon .... . ...... . Levy Liberty ....... . Madison Man{ltee ..... . Marion ....... . Martin Monroe ....... . Nassau .. .. ... . Okaloosa Okeechobee Orange . . . . . . . . Osceola . . .... . . i... QI ,Q "' E"t ::l QI l z-;j I 725 80 187 551 1,474 622 485 1,080 621 127 2,371 280 948 480 58 681 340 1,197 33 4 427 72 1,040 250 20,496 2,993 5,746 16,641 35,281 37,361 13,234 85,633 77,241 13,202 47,036 9,415 56,670 53,285 2 586 86:797 12,527 91,271 2,967 166 20,604 20,496 38,304 5,447 0 0 11.5 0 0 10 , 963 0 15,159 4 , 669 691 2.6 0 6,850.0 597.4 0 7 , 208.0 0 17.8 0 0 7,135 0 0 0 0 0 114.2 0 0 139.2 0 148.1 116 . 3 130.8 100 0 118.2 133,2 0 118.1 0 130 0 0 147.6 0 0 0 Acres 0 0 0 0 0 33.6 0 95.3 95.2 166.7 0 0 14 8.6 0 671.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 772.4 0 739 736 676 0 0 810 750 0 713.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Acres 0 0 0 0 0 4,161.1 0 17 , 292.5 731.3 263.1 0 0 82 1,845.7 10 326.0 0 735.1 0 0 283.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 714.7 0 577.6 472.5 616.3 0 0 618.1 595.8 600 648.9 0 600.3 0 0 615 0 0 0 35.8 63.3 35.0 5.0 43.9 90.0 28.5 89.7 56.4 51.7 16.7 39.7 62.0 55.7 68.1 64.3 54.2 52.0 57.3 65.5 92.0 74.4 9.6 21.6 12,782 1,241 877 8,491 20,849 10,314 10 , 103 24,336 12,870 6,645 5,471 4 , 250 16,2 3 6 30,570 1,078 36,760 10,166 38,976 1,541 114 4,118 1,656 9,602 1,607 101,001 167,012 366 393,060 36,446 2,781 3 , 850 5,208 9,467 8,479 1,411 4,873 1,315 28,420 3,779 319 38,773 60,958 21,791 621 121 53,169 12,165 238,995 9,080 631 2,228 14,694 14,012 93 8,987 714 2,297 0 33,596 5,105 109 25 5 0 4,264 8,050 1,092 20 292 176 12,165 3,892 2,945 1,786 174 627 10,338 155 1,333 607 1,700 32 2,307 3,113 290 1,164 0 0 5,990 6,061 1,679 38 3 1,463 2 , 353 474

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TABLE 2.-A SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL 1937 WORK SHEET DATA AS PERMITTED BY THE ANALYSis--Continued. County Palm Beach Pasco Pinellas Polk . .. .. . ..... . Putnam .... . . .. St. Johns . . . . St. Lucie ... . Santa Rosa Sarasota . . ... . Seminole Sumter ....... . Suwannee ... . Taylor ......... . Union Volusia .. ..... . Wakulla Washington Walton "" a, ,.Q"' s~ ::s a, z~ 327 431 381 3,107 304 177 383 423 101 1,079 585 700 157 201 554 74 167 564 I 54,955 13,545 11,753 88,289 12,351 10,333 12,526 22,640 4,462 14,585 29,891 75,672 ,336 19,184 15,666 6,926 8,029 24,300 T-62 Gadsden .......................... 2,259.7 Madison .......................... 351.0 Acres 0 0 0 0 25.1 0 0 9,270 0 0 135.7 5,732 313 118 0 117 1,323 5,142 0 0 0 0 89.7 0 0 163.9 0 0 125.3 108.6 123.4 130.1 0 102.7 154.5 143.6 1,020.1 975.9 Acres 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,173.6 0 58.6 0 0 0 0 a, "" CJ .., "" Q) p. "d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 788.8 0 772 0 0 0 0 I Acres 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 479.1 0 0 0 1,286 0 49.3 0 55.6 241.3 477 xx 135,573.0 I T-45 (Tobacco) 624.8 1,140 a, "" CJ .., "" a, p. "d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 737.9 0 0 0 590.1 0 600 0 508.3 605.7 670.4 xx 94.3 27.0 6.1 12.5 55.4 89.5 22.2 90.0 38.6 51.8 56.5 52.6 57.5 64.7 17.5 55.3 86.6 86.0 xx 40,000 10,160 2,286 27,390 6,565 8 , 095 9,000 3,529 3,587 12,568 15,429 35,670 3,362 9,605 2 , 975 1 , 564 9,033 2,333 3,213 4,874 1,840 87,440 12,472 13,493 9,125 0 53,759 36,015 25,119 1,640 0 28,052 25,463 439 5,559 643 910 6,674 10,717 76,284 3,264 155 8,469 263 2,042 6,717 1,517 187 0 101 11,576 0 280 12 51,317 108 516 2,735 4,991 7,077 2,896 0 1,632 7,380 3,686 1,240 0 498 993 0 21 121 \692,920 \2,135,776 \ao2,079 j184,104 00

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Annual Report, 1937 29 TABLE 3.-AREA IN ACRES, CROPLAND IN COUNTY, NUMBER OF FARMS IN COUNTY, FARMS UNDER WORK SHEET, AND CROPLAND UNDER WORK SHEET FOR THOSE COUNTIES FLOWN UNDER 1937 CONTRACTS. Number Total Number Acres Area farms in Cropland of farms Cropland County of county in county Work on Work county (Census) (Census) Sheets Sheets I Alachua -581,760 2,155 95,568 735 90,216 Columbia 506,880 712 66,496 597 78,802 Hamilton 337,920 856 57,881 440 52,223 Holmes . .. . . . . . ...... 302,720 1,811 65,141 622 37,361 Jackson -600,960 3,958 174,430 1,080 85,663 Jefferson ... ... ...... 339,200 1,398 70,928 621 77,241 Leon 457,600 1,647 69,097 948 56,670 Madison --495,360 1,305 79,857 681 86,797 Suwannee ... .... .. . 442,880 1,810 130,444 700 75,672 TOTALS ~l 4,065,280 . ) 15,652 809,842 l 6,424 640,645 DATA SUITABLE FOR OTHER USES ' Study has been given to utilization of Agricultural Conservation records by the Extension Service or related agencies, with evidences that interest ing possibilities exist for usefulness therefrom. COTION PRICE ADJUSTMENT Information supplied to county farm agents covered the cotton price adjustment plans announced during August and the facts received gen eral circulation in the areas producing the staple.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENTS' ACTIVITIES A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent H. G. Clayton, District Agent R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Agent A. E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Agent Shortage of clerical assistance, which has be e n a serious handicap to Agricultural Extension Service in Florida, partially was overcome during the past year through personnel supplied by federal Agricultural Con servation authorities, primarily for their own duties. Cooperative undertakings also entered into included the joint endeavor with the federal Farm Credit Administration, which plan selects bor rowers behind in their payments and recommends practices intended to assist them concerning financial success in their farming. Farm Security Administration forces, formerly Resettlement, dealing with loans to tenants for land purchases and related effort, which com prise supervising and home economics agents, likewise have been worked with closely by the Extension Service . Rural Electrification Administration activities within the state did not become of noteworthy extent during the year. DISTRICT OPERATIONS Extension Service operations in North and Northwest Florida were still handicapped by limited personnel. Farm demonstration agents worked in every county except Franklin and Gulf, where the agriculture is too limited to justify their employment. Jackson, Jefferson, Leon and Suwan nee counties, with their large Negro populations, each had an agent of that race. Agents in numerous cases required unusually close supervision because of youth, though comparatively few personnel changes took place. Resignations tendered by the former farm agents in Leon and Gads den counties caused transfer thereto of the men then serving Taylor and Washington, respectively, both University of Florida Agriculture College graduates. In the entire district are employed only three agents who are not college men, and each of these has had lengthy 'practical experience. Demonstrations which covered interplanting of corn with peanuts had an important part in the year's activity for this district. Terracing to avoid erosion constituted another significant item, including 21,594 acres on 725 farms in 12 small counties. Marketing received major attention, through cooperative hog sales, poultry routes, creamery establishment and like methods. Seeds of legumes also were purchased cooperatively by numerous dealers, through inspiration from Extension Service sources. Sea Island cotton kept several agents extremely busy, 5,000 acres in the state's 17,800 located through the district producing some 800 bales, or 25 percent of the Florida output. Livestock had representation in a beef cattle field day at the North Florida Experiment , Station. Two in stitutes had a combined attendance exceeding 1,100. Central and Southern Florida Districts cover the state eastward and southward from Hamilton, Columbia, Gilchrist and Levy counties. Dade county was given an assistant farm agent, materially increasing the scope

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Annual Report, 1937 31 of the work, a dairying association having been formed, dairy records keeping taken up, a lime growers' organization perfected and 4-H club membership increased to 238 from 54. Personnel revisions elsewhere were relatively unimportant. Farmers receiving low incomes had special attention from agents in several cases. Volusia County affords an excellent instance, through sale of deer tongue, which grows wild, to tobacco manufacturers. Demani} was learned, supply investigated, harvesting, maturing and selling methods studied, public interest aroused and ultimately more than $50,000 distributed among farmers during summer time when work was slack and little if any other money coming in. Beef cattle in the southern section vie with the hogs of the northern areas regarding livestock industry relative to agriculture. Extension Ser vice endeavor on beef cattle covers better grades introduction through bringing in purebred bulls and culling the poorer cows, improved herds management and pasturage develo'pment. Demonstrations in the district for the year applying to beef cattle numbered 4,022 and on hogs 11,845. Hog sales on a cooperative basis proved highly successful in Gilchrist, Levy and neighboring counties. District agents made 151 visits to county offices of the Extension Ser vice and 16 in counties having no local units, when they went for consulta tion with agricultural committees. They held 61 public meetings, attended by 3,400 farmers, and 15 with boards of county commissioners. Radio addresses delivered by the district agents aggregated 11. Cooperation was extended to county farm agents in conducting seven farm tours and holding group outlook meetings. Extension Service aims and achievements the district agents presented before 21 civic and service clubs. Assistance on 4-H club camps they gave in 25 counties. A district agent was director of the four-days Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRONOMY DEMONSTRATIONS J. Lee Smith, Extension Agronomist If the s oils are to be con s erved, where rainfall is heavy and tempera tures high, rolling land s must be protect e d by terracing, contour tillage adopted as the 'practic e , vegetation kept growing through so much of the year as is pos si ble and turned under for both holding moi s ture and add i ng porosity . Agricultural Extension S e rvice agronomy s oil demonstrations have been w ith these purposes in view. Terracing and contour cultivation previously had been engaged in to some extent by the b e st farmers of the ar e as where mostly needed. En gineers re c eived Extension Service training in terracing during the past year throu g hout the territory . Power machinery was used in some coun ties and el s ewhere long-wing horse drawn plows were utilized . Terracing in large acr e ages was called for at but few points, seldom if ever justifying the purchase of tractors and terracers, and some county commissioners rented to farmers equipment employed on the roads during other periods. Lands terraced amounted t o 21,594 acres on 725 farms, distributed am o ng counties thusly: Counties No. Farms No. Acre s 1. Escambia . .... ...... .. . . , .. ... . ....... .. 16 ....... . .... .. .... . ..... 324 2. Santa Rosa .. . . .. . . . . ... . ....... .... .. . .. . . 16 ... . ... .. ... .. .. . . .. . .. . 500 3. Okaloosa .. ........... . .. ... .. . ......... . . ... 73 .. ... .. . . . .......... . ... 1477 4. Walton . .. ............... .. .. .... .......... . . .. 450 ... .. . .... ............ .. 6000 5. Holmes .. . ... ........ .. .... . .. ... . . ... . . . .. .... 9 .. .. . . .. .. . . . . ....... ... 520 6. Jackson .. . .. .. . .. . . . ..... .. . .. . ..... . .. ,..... 77 .. ..... .. ..... .... . . . . . . 3128 7. Washington . .... . . . . .. .. ... . .. . ...... . . . ... 8 . .. . .. .... ... ... ....... . 150 8. Gadsden . . ........... . . . .. . .. . .. .............. 24 .. . ..... .. .. .. .......... 2400 9. Calhoun .. ... . ......... . . .. ... .. ......... . .. .. 5 ...... . .. . .......... . ... 233 10. Leon .. ....... . ... .. . .. ... . .. ... .... . . .. . .. .. ... . 12 .... . .. ... . . .. .. . . . .. . .. 5000 11. Jefferson .... ...... .. ....... . . . ..... . . . .. .... 4 . . .. . ... ..... . . . .... ... . 424 12. Madison . ... .. .. . ... ... .. . . . ... . . . ......... . . . 31 .. .. .. .. ................ 1437 In addition to the foregoing, directly by county farm agents, ap'proxi mately 20,000 acres were terraced under Federal Soil Conservation auspices, in northeastern Holmes County and northwestern Jackson, around Grace ville. A project adding to this government activity for Florida has been established in Jefferson County, near Monticello, which contains about 18,000 acres. CORN, PEANUTS ' AND VELVET BEANS . Corn, peanuts and velvet beans in combination have been more generally grown throughout the northwestern counties than usual and on nearly 70 percent of the lands at least one legume was raised. Yet corn yields were small on the 69.6 percent of the peanut-velvet bean section already devoted to the grain, and efficient commercial fertilizers seemingly did not exist. Averages had been ascertained as 10.7 bushels when grown in every row, 10.2 bushels if corn and peanuts were alternated and 9.8 bushels when velvet beans constituted an addition. Labor costs ran much the same for the three different systems on the 36,000 farms that grow corn a s a foodstuff or for feeds. Peanuts inter planting was only 9 percent in one county and nowhere became greatly larger. Hogs made the . combination a cash crop by feeding down the out put, farmers having obtained at least 150 pounds of pork per acre. Combination planting campaigns therefore were initiated with 30 meet ings in 17 counties, held by district and local agents and attended by nearly

PAGE 34

Annual Report, 1937 33 3,000 corn growers. Literature distributed has been described in the editorial and mailing room report. Results in part are indicated by the table which follows: I I 1 row corn and 1 row Corn and Year Number l Acres solid peanuts or velvet beans farms corn peanuts and 1 and 1 or 2 velvet beans and 1 I 1936 -139 393 240 705 1937 --139 231 650 601 Decrease 162 Increase 320 Decrease 104 It is seen here that the land grown to solid corn was reduced 162 acres or a little better than 41 percent-the acreage of corn interplanted with velvet beans only was reduced 104 acres or something over 17 percent, and that planted with peanuts showed an increase of 1331/2 percent on these farms. Questionnaire letters mailed to 100 Madison County farmers brought 58 replies, showing a 1937 corn crop of 3,528 acres against 3,518 the pre vious season. Acreage solidly in corn underwent a 43 percent reduction, while that of a combination output, principally peanuts and velvet beans, if grown between the rows fell 10 percent but when alternately planted increased 50.5 percent. Hogs sold in Escambia County during 1937 averaged 176 pounds against 159 for the previous year, a gain the farm agent attrib uted solely to the feed obtained from the corn and peanuts interplanting. SURVEYS CONCERNING FERTILIZERS AND RELATED SUBJECTS Corn was found by the district agent and the farm agents in north western counties to be fertilized by 84 percent of the growers. Demon strations on a comparative basis yielded results as follows: 300 lbs. of 3-8-5 alone gave an average of 21.4 bushels per acre. 300 lbs. of 3-8-5 plus 60 pounds nitrate of soda gave an average of 26.5 bushels per acre. 300 lbs. of 4-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.2 bushels per acre. 300 lbs. of 6-8-4 alone gave an average of 25.8 bushels per acre. 300 lbs. of 2-8-5 plus 60 pounds soda gave an average of 26.5 bushels per acre. The side-dressing and soda gave a good account of itself alone. Zinc sulfate gave some results on land affected with a deficiency of zinc. Aus trian peas as a manure did well and were used by a number of farmers throughout the northwest Florida area. Peanut planting more closely in the rows and with less spacing became the subject of meetings among farmers. Placards and circular letters also were employed to publicize the same data. Madison County farmers num bering 100 received requests to report on their practices. 1. Of the 58 returning them 40 reported growing peanuts alone both years. 2. Of the 40 growers reporting growing them this way, 10 or 25% spaced them as we recommended both years. 3. 30 or 75% were not in line with the Extension recommendations. 4. 13 or 43.3% of those not following the closer spacing in 1936 did so in 1937. 2

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension Very similar results were obtained in Escambia County, but in other counties where similar checks were made the results were not as good but the trends were in the same direction. The spacing result demonstrations conducted indicated an increased yield of 25% or better this year over the wider spacing used generally by the farmers. There were also conducted by the agents in northwest Florida peanut fertilizing demonstrations by the use of landplaster and colloidal phosphate as well as complete fertilizer. Development in permanent pastures, assisted by the Federal Agricul tural Conservation plans, has been limited only through lack of seed. Farm visits and circular letters entered into the Extension Service activi ties on this line. Lespedeza demonstrations have been partially established throughout northwestern and eastern Florida. Others deal with oats and rye for winter grazing, at which ttield meetings will be held next spring in several counties. The Extension agronomist and the tobacco marketing division, United States Agriculture De'partment economics bureau, conducted 11 meetings in the six principal flue-cured tobacco counties, which some 800 growers attended. Grading was demonstrated and methods shown for preparing leaf to go on the markets. Studies in u'pland cotton production yielded results thusly,: 1. Two out of every 3 acres grown was some strain of Cook's Wilt resistant. This has been the cotton recommended by the Extension work ers. It is undoubtedly the mm,t profitable. 2. It has appeared that 18,000 to 20,000 stalks per acre was a good stand and ordinarily would give larger yields than less. This survey shows many farmers are leaving too many stalks on the land-25,000 to 30,000. 3. 80% of the growers are using approximately 300 pounds 3-8-5 fer tilizer per acre. Those who used this with 100 pounds of nitrate soda or sulfate of ammonia as a side-dressing at chopping time were growing more economically. It was thought best at the beginning of the year to conduct a series or comparative fertilizer demonstrations also. This was done using at the rate of approximately 400 pounds per. acre each the following complete fertilizers, and with the following results: 400 pounds of 6-8-4 gave an average acre yield of 869 pounds. 400 pounds of 3-8-5 and 120 pounds soda side-dressing gave an average acre yield of 929 pounds. 400 pounds of 3-8-5 alone gave an average yield of 838 pounds. 400 pounds of 4-8-4 alone gave an average yield of 758 pounds. 400 pounds of 4-10-7 alone gave an average yield of 883 pounds. In the campaign for restoring the Florida Sea Island cotton industry farm agents were called upon to accept, distribute and supervise applica tions of the boll weevil treatment except for Madison, Lafayette and Jefferson counties. Assistance also was rendered by them in organizing Sea Island cotton improvement associations in the 11 counties which formerly were the main producers of long staple. A meeting called by the Extension Service director demonstrated to agents the methods for applying the mixture with which Sea Island plants are mopped every week from just prior to squaring until July 1. County agents in turn conducted approximately 40 demonstrations with groups

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Annual Report, 1937 35 of growers. Estimates carefully made indicated that 80 'percent of the acreage was mopped from one to five times. Weevils of the migratory type nevertheless took toll from the 1937 crop. Gins operating the previous season appearing inadequate for handling the anticipated output, outfits were added bringing the total number to 18. Operators called together by Extension Service officials formed the Sea Island Cotton Ginners' Association. Quality of the output was not uniformly good, only about one-third of the samples submitted for examina tion having been "normally" pre pared. Planters were urged in circular letters and otherwise from Extension Service offices to pick cotton dry, throw out rotten and stained locks, bleach the product by sunning and furnish drying for any that was wet. History of the crop the Extension Service also undertook to obtain, in collaboration with a federal agency, including seed sources, acreage and soil types, width between rows and how the plants had been spaced, fertilizers, weevil control and so on, the concluding item having been gross yields and receipts. Information secured previous to picking covered some 75 percent of the plantings and letter questionnaires mailed later sought the facts from the remainder. Maintenance of staple length and fineness plus ginning efficiency the Extension Service considered essential, taking these matters up with the cotton marketing divisions, economics and plant industry bureaus, United States Agriculture Department. Agreements finally entered into again gave classification, grading and stapling service to Sea Island cotton. Rep resentatives from the federal agencies came to Florida and the Extension Service agronomist helped get them in contact with all ginners. Influences unfavorable to the plan discouraged ginners from sending in samples. Keeping on the job resulted in 1,525 bales of the 3,100 grown having been received and classed at the last report. Staple length ranged from 1 1 /2 to 1 inches. Grades 1, 2 and 3 were attained by nearly all the product, but 849 bales were roughly prepared. Cotton bagging for wrapping 6,000 to 8,000 bales, furnished by the Agri cultural Adjustment Administration, was used in part only, despite earnest efforts by Extension Service workers and other interested factors. Success was more satisfactory pertaining to warehouse facilities and insurance and marketing arrangements, including credit at 16 cents per pound. A state statute, known as the Sea Island Cotton law, under which elections are held determining whether or not long staple shall be exclusively grown in specified territories, already has been affirmatively passed on in three counties, farm agents and other Extension Service personnel contributing materially to that end. Cottons cannot be mixed if this law is enforced where adopted, assuring purity in Sea Island seed strains; . DEVELOPING AGUONOMY IN THE EXTENSION SERVICE Spring planning meetings took 'place at 30 points in 17 northern Flor ida counties, nearly 3,000 farmers attending. Farm tours were directed by county agents on many occasions, showing the outcome of improved practices and 1,717 demonstrations conducted showing results in the fields. Placards posted through farm agents' offices and otherwise explained exhibits, gave slogans and carried messages to producers. Newspaper stories, farm visits and like contacts continued to be utilized, with a great many field meetings. Agronomy division circular letters numbering 23 had 146,405 copies distributed through county agents, who prepared and mailed numerous ones additional. 1 Roguing Sea Island cotton and grading of tobacco led to method and like demonstrations. Instructions in one-page form furnished copies for all 4-H club field demonstrations.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Biacklock, State Boys' Club Agent Florida enrollment in 1936 reached the highest figure yet attained, 4,039, representing a 36 percent increase over the previous year. Report ing members decreased, on the other hand, to 42.8 percent from 47 percent, principally because county farm agents found themselves too busily en gaged with federal and other work to devote the customary time to boys' club activities. In 1936, the general average so applied was but 7.3 percent and but four agents gave 15 percent, these securing 76 percent reports. One-fifth of the agents attempted no endeavor with boys, ex plaining that soil conservation and like duties must be given preference. Boys' 4-H organization in the state reached its peak on December 1, 1936, with 205 clubs. Counties having the best records in this respect obtained the best results and accomplished the best all-around work. Projects prosecution generally was at -a low point as regards quality, average yields low and record books not up to standard. Lack of atten tion to the boys caused these consequences, since they did not receive definite instructions and were not given needed assistance. In counties where local clubs functioned and farm agents gave them time in reasonable amounts, the outcome was normal. Revival of state exhibits in the beef calf, pig and poultry :fields greatly aided the attainment of improved work on these projects. TABLE 4.-COUNTIES IN WHICH 60 PERCENT OR MORE OF THE BOYS ENROLLED IN 4-H CLUB WORK REPORTED ON THEIR PROJECTS. County I I Number I Percent I Number I Boys Enrolled Available Reporting Percent Available 1937 Enrolled 1937 Reporting Bay 68 50 73 41 80 Escambia 563 143 25 '92 64 Jefferson ................. 148 81 54 53 65 Madison .................. 285 148 52 103 70 Okaloosa 322 64 20 42 67 Walton 434 158 35 96 60 Baker 139 64 45 40 62 Columbia ---~----------321 38 11 26 69 Dade ........................ 317 58 18 41 70 DeSoto ..................... 87 105 120 96 91 Duval 340 108 30 69 68 Gilchrist .................. 172 20 11 20 100 Hardee ------------------300 73 26 45 61 Palm Beach .. ........ 207 108 52 78 72 Pasco ...................... 412 409 96 382 93 Putnam 269 25 9 24 96 St. Johns ................ 157 l',5 35 55 100 Sumter 309 118 38 100 84 Union ----------------174 45 26 31 70 Charlotte ................ 30 16 50 12 75 Hillsborough -------789 125 15 84 67 Orange 620 70 11 55 78 TOTALS ................ ! 6,463 2,081 15 1,585 1 Average number available boys per county .................. 293 Average number enrolled per county ....................... , ... .,. 94 Average percent available enrolled .................................. 32 Average number reports per. county .............................. 72 Average % reports 'per county ......... ,...... . ....................... 76

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Annual Report, 1937 37 Table 4 shows the boys available in each county, enrollment last year and this, and percentage of gain or loss. Basis adopted for arriving at the boys available figure is purely arbitrary and may or may not be correct. Counties have been separated into districts according to the administrative plans now effective. Experience has shown that in Florida attempts at boys' club work are unwise except in territories where county farm agents are engaged. Last year, 53 had agents throughout the 12 months, six enrolling no boys and four Jess than 10 each. County areas remaining, 43 in number, averaged 9-0 members apiece and 51 reports. Counties securing 40 reports each or more averaged 1,363 farms while the ones obtaining less than 40 recorded 1,315 each. Average of farms was 1,100 in counties which returned over 90 reports apiece. In counties furnishing below 20 each, the farms averaged 901. Clubs increased to 217 from 205. Reports ran an average of 10 per club. Pasco County was best organized with 18 clubs supplying 21 reports each. Madison registered six clubs averaging 17 re ports. In Palm Beach County four clubs yielded 19 reports each, Sumter six clubs and 16% reports apiece, Walton six and 16. County councils are actively maintained in the foregoing best organized territory. Organization of a State Council took place in June 1936 to assist and help the local clubs. COOPERATION FROM OTHER SOURCES District agents of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service again were responsible for 4-H club activities, directing and encouraging the county representatives. Specialists on the staff at headquarters supplied subject material covering club projects, requests for which have been dis appointingly small. Club camps were attended for two weeks by each Fig. 2.-In Lake County one boys' club conducts a cooperative 4-H garden project.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension s pecialist, who rendered valuable help. Poultry show at the Central Florida Exposition was efficiently directed by the assistant Extension poultryman. TABLE 5.-TABULAR REPORT OF 1937 GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Problem ----Enrollment Reports Project work Club organization Club Camps State Club Exhibits ~ ' !,, "'-o J..ft/2~ Goal <:V.~ (l) (l).~,... Results ,.Q. ..c .,_,
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Annual Report, 1937 39 Goal for 1937 of 5,000 members was not reached, though 115 boys more enrolled than for 1936. In part, the small gain and the failure to reach expectations may have been accounted for by the greater care that county farm agents exercised in reporting enrollments. A boy is not considered a 4-H club member until he has started work. ENROLLMENT SOUGHT FOR 1938 Conditions indicate that the present enrollment is likely to be greatly exceeded only as new county farm agents are appointed who formerly were 4-H club boys. Increases are anticipated during 1938, but fear is felt that the 5,000 figure will not be reached. Goals set for the next year also include more counties making 60 per cent reports. Records completed constitute the standard by which county farm agents are judged concerning 4-H club performance with 60 percent re ports acceptable, 65 to 80 fair and over 80 percent excellent. Recovery of project quality sustained since agricultural adjustment began also will be attempted . Yields per acre must remain the basis on which 4-H club achievements are judged. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF YEAR The average yield of some 4-H crop projects in 1935-36 and 1937 are as follows: 1935 Corn, average yield ...... . . 27.4 bu. Cotton, average yield ... . 711 lbs. Sweet potatoes ................ 101.4 bu. Peanuts ....... .... ................... 682 lbs. 1936 24.7 bu. 751 lbs. 139 bu. 717 lbs. 1937 21.2 bu. 700 lbs. 64.8 bu. 401 lbs. The weather was not enough different to affect the state average .in any great degree. Lack of care in seed selection, planting and fertiliza tion must be the factors which have lowered the average yield. The boys are not getting the same type of supervision as when the state average in corn was 37.5 bushels per acre. Livestock projects have shown improvement. County farm agents in numerous cases secured better pigs for club boys . A state pig club con test furnished incentive to endeavor. A wildlife investigation project, added during 1937, led to a s pecial camp which was a decided success . . Club organization aims include having 90 percent of members in local clubs , at least 30 county councils and starting effort for leadership train ing. Minor problems relate to improvement of the grounds at camps and preparing better programs therefor. CLUB CAMPS Camp McQuarrie had 85 assorted trees planted and land grubbed by the boys for an acre of citrus grove to be set during the 1938 spring. At Camp Timpoochee concrete footings and foundations were Jaid for the muchly-needed auditorium, a bedroom and bath added that the cooks will occupy, and a kitchen hot water boiler installed. Boys from 40 counties and girls re ' presenting 24 spent a week at the two camps. Meals served numbered 22,919. Farmers and their wives visiting the camps during the summer increased the population by 800. Conditions became so crowded at Camp McQuarrie that a location was secured for a third district as s embly place, on Cherry Lake, in Madison

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension County. Lumber was donated from an abandoned rural resettlement enter prise and the National Youth Administration has undertaken to tear down the old buildings and erect new structures, though roofing must be supplied. CONTESTS AND AW ARDS State contests in baby beef, pig and poultry projects are other goal purposes. Baby beef displays in connection with the Florida Fat Stock Show, Jacksonville, March 10, contained 32 fattened steers exhibited by 21 4-H club boys. Pig club exhibits appeared this year, at the West Florida Exposition, Tallahassee, November 1 to 6. Club boys from 11 counties showed 87 pigs, each a highly creditable animal. Central Florida Exposition state poultry exhibit, Orlando, February 15 to 20, produced 250 birds from 50 club members in 10 counties. Judging contests on beef cattle, eggs and poultry again will be featured, that in beef cattle at Jacksonville, with seven counties taking part having been won by Liberty, .and the poultry and egg competition in Orlando bringing out 11 teams from 10 counties. Five scholarships o'pen to the state are the 1938 goal-seven were awarded this year. Florida Bankers' Association will continue the three in the College of Agriculture, at $100 each, which it has given for 17 years. Fat Show authorities have offered one of like value for baby beef judging. Model Land Company provides one each year for a St. Johns County boy. Members of the Hastings Potato Growers' Association plan yearly awards valued at $250 each, to 4-H club members in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns. Trips goal is three to the National 4-H Club Congress and two for the country-wide 4-H club camp. Five boys from Florida attended the former and two the latter during 1937. MISCELLANEOUS UNDERTAKINGS Representation from every county doing 4-H club boys' work at the State Short Course for them will be sought. That for 1937, the 21st held annually at the University College of Agriculture, enrolled 307 boys from 36 counties. Training schools for recreational leadership have been held for 10 years past, in cooperation with the National Recreation Association. In the period, the state has been covered, almost every county touched that had club work, several counties having since maintained organized recrea tion councils. Schools during the current year comprised five for white boys and one attended exclusively by Negro youths. Florida Farm Hour periods have averaged about one boys' 4-H club talk a month, over Station WRUF, Gainesville. Broadcasts also were given every day during the Short Course. On National Achievement Day, November 6, three national network stations, WIOD, Miami, WJAX, Jacksonville and WSiU.N, Clearwater, featured 4-H work, as did WRUF. Station WDBO, Orlando, presented two talks on 4-H club lines in the 12 months. Radio highlight of the year, however, was the half-hour broadcast from Camp McQuarrie, June 25, over WRUF offering a 4-H club campfire program, probably the first ever originated in a National Forest for airwaves transmission. A wildlife camp sponsored by a cartridge company, which contributed $400, took place at McQuarrie, August 2-7, 80 boys and agents attending. United States Forest Service, State Conservation, Forest and Park agen cies cooperated with the sponsors, the Extension Service and. the Experi ment Station.

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Annual Report, 1937 State winners in project work were as follows: Baby beef, Joe Vara, Holmes County, silver cup. Breeding pig, Charles McCormick, Baker County. 41 Fat barrow, Robert Reeves, Leon County, trip to Chicago awarded by the State Club Department. Meat production, M. C. Leslie, Madison County, gold watch from Thomas E. Wilson Company. Outstanding pig club member, Connie McCormick, Columbia County, trip to Chicago awarded by Armour and Company. Leadership winning members who were awarded trips to the 4-H Na tional Camp, Fred Goetter, Escambia, and Adin Maltby, St. Johns, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad furnished transportation for one. Scholarships from the Florida Bankers' Association, Gayle Diamond, Brevard County, Eric Mills, Marion, and Billie Mowat; Bay. Poultry judging, $100 scholarship from Central Florida Exposition, Mil ton Mingonet, Lake County; three trips to Chicago, contributed by Florida Chain . Store Association, Robert Douglass, Dan Roberts and Stanley Rosen berger, Alachua. Short Course scholarships were given by numerous boards of county commissioners, civic and service clubs, and several individuals.

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42 Florida Cooperative Exten[Iion CITRUS FRUIT CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist Activities of the Extension Service citriculturist were conducted in association with district and farm agents of Brevard, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Sarasota, Seminole and Volusia counties. Coo peration was received from the Experiment Station, Florida Citrus Commission, Florida Citrus Exchange, the State Plant Board and United States Agriculture Department. Problems confronting grapefruit, orange and tangerine growers chiefly relate to still further reductions in producing and marketing costs which will permit the output's sale on an increased scale among low-income con sumers, meanwhile improving quality so far as economically is possible, that demand will be retained and enlarged. Sub-projects carried through the year in the Extension Service citriculture endeavor consequently in cluded the following: fertilizing, cover crops, cultivation, irrigation and dieback, frenching, bronze leaf, melanose, scale and rust mite control. Fertilizer costs have been found to constitute 30 to 60 percent of the aggregate labor and materials production outlay. Records available to the . Extension Service indicate that less than 50 percent of the Florida groves receive adequate plant food. Growers who get into reduced fertilizer and low-production habits during years when prices are unsatisfactory, find emergence therefrom difficult even when conditions have improved. Since 1932, Extension Service endeavors in citrus counties largely have been devoted to devising effective fertilizer plans for individual growers, and during 1937 2,642 groves received visits, 2,020 of the owners fol lowing the recommendations made, involving approximately 10,000 tons. A typical grower wrote his county agent, "I have saved a great deal of money by following your ideas concerning an economical system of fer tilizing, also fertilizer supplements." Grove tours were promoted in 20 counties and 102 result demonstrations witnessed by 1,942 growers. COVER CROPS AND ORGANIC MATTER Organic matter in adequate supply is the dominant question wherever citrus fruits are raised by Florida growers. If lacking, the results appear in low efficiency of the commercial fertilizers ap'plied, poor tree conditions and inferior fruit. Interest in proper cover crop practices has been greater during the past year than for a quarter century. Growers had assistance from Extension Service agents and specialists in 126 communities, located throughout the citrus belt. Tree conditions that had improved, fruit produced in heavier yields and net returns en larged were pointed out time after time, as the direct result of the recom mended practices. In 146 groves, with soil not favorable to legume cover crops, $1.00 per acre in cheap nitrogen, used as a top-dressing during June and July, enlarged the grasses and weeds output for cover crop purposes between 100 and 150 percent. Leaching of plant nutrients was correspondingly reduced, organic matter conserved, root growth and tree health advanced. CULTIVATION OF GROVES Waste due to the improper cultivation of groves, the Extension Service has continued to emphasize in 15 counties. Savings as to operating costs, plus improved tree conditions and better fruit quality, may be obtained

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Annual Report, 1937 43 by less cultivation, it has been shown, in at least 25 percent of the Florida groves. Cultivation that is deep has been found usually to destroy th,, root system in part, weakening the trees and rendering them more sus ceptible to diseases. Meetings, press articles and radio talks have been utilized in the educa tional work for proper cultivation. Respecting the non-bearing trees, the recommendation is made that strips be cultivated along the tree rows, throughout the growing season. In bearing groves, cultivation in the fall is advised, sufficient to incorporate the cover crop with the soil so that fire hazards may be eliminated. Adjustment in the spring is sug gested to seeding and protection of the cover crop, always avoiding the deep cultivation that destroys tree roots. Irrigation also has received no inconsiderable attention, in nine years of every 10 the water supply by rainfall having been found insufficient. Fruit drops in consequence, sizes are small, tree vitality becomes lowered , dead twigs and branches result, followed by increased melanose infections and stem-end rot. Growers received assistance in installing 17 new plants and 21 were given help on changes rendering old ones more efficient, and 18 grove owners helped to obtain and operate proper rain gauges, though rainfall was so well distributed demand for irrigation was less than usual. DISEASE AND PEST CONTROL Frenching, a zinc de'ficiency disease, found in over 75 percent of the groves, causes lower commercial fertilizer efficiency whenever the tree foliage is 10 percent or more affected. Instructions printed by the . Agri cultural Extension Service have been mailed or handed to above 10,000 growers and many others reached through newspaper articles or radio talks. Results were little short of marvelous when the affected trees received s ' pray applications in these proportions: hydrated lime 2 pounds, zinc sulfate 5 pounds, and water 100 gallons. Lime-sulfur and bordeaux sprays also have been helpful. Demonstrations by the hundred were given, 20 counties taking part. Materials and a small sprayer were carried by numerous Extension Service workers, who made applications to trees here and there. Results became dearly evident within four to six weeks, whereupon many cooperating growers immediately sprayed the remainder of the groves. Foliage dem onstrations gave action more quickly and were 95 percent effective. Soil treatments act slowly but are more lasting. A combination of the two seemingly promises well. Dieback in young trees and ammoniation of young fruit, definitely dassed as copper deficiency diseases, have been overcome through one to three applications using copper sulfate, one-fourth pound to one pound per tree for the first-named and one pound to three pounds on account of the latter, followed by one-fourth that amount once annually during two or three years thereafter. Bordeaux applied for melanose control has supplied copper sufficient to cause disappearance of ammoniation. Except in a few . communities the foregoing facts concerning copper generally are understood among citrus 'producers, but 39 demonstrations were staged. Otherwise, the task was to keep growers from forgetting and advise newcomers in the industry, through timely newspaper stories and radio talks. In this sub-project, 17 counties had a part. Bronze leaf, arising from deficiencies in magnesium, during the past years cut yields heavily. In the last two seasons demonstrations showing how to use . dolomite and magnesium sulfate have made the remedy known among growers in 20 counties.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension Soil acidity tests made last year nqmbered 1,323. Recommendations including the use of dolomite aggregating 1,106, covered 15,635 acres. Dolomite demonstrations for bronze leaf contimied from previous years totaled 51. Treatments of a corrective nature were unknown until a few seasons ago when several county farm agents and the Extension Service citriculturist, cooperating with Agriculture College and Experiment Station specialists, discovered that dolomite did the job and that the corrective agent therein was magnesium. Melanose, the most important grade-lowering factor in Florida citrus culture, prevails principally through the old groves. In one county, of 94 crops, low-grade fruit due thereto included oranges 28 percent and grape~ fruit 35 percent. Research has shown that successful control begins with preventive measures going back into the general cultural practices. Ex tension Service recommendations followed by 693 growers lessened melanose to a minimum by reducing deadwood, fertilizing properly, cultivating con servatively and supplying ample water. . Control proved satisfactory with 150 grove owners who pruned out deadwood . as thoroughly as possible, during the winter. Spraying demonstrations with 3-3-100 bordeaux and wettable sulfur afforded good results. Melanose contr<;>l endeavor covered 18 counties. Scale control with oil sprays depe~ds largely upon the copper spray ing for melanose and scab. Method demonstrations conducted at seven points had present more than 100 pest control leaders. Growers with whom Extension Service workers came in contact indicated the importance of friendly fungi in keeping scale down. Rust mites, second in importance among the grade~lowering factors, have been more nearly offset by the methods used during recent years and the Extension Service citriculturist served on a state committee, which revised the spray and dust schedules early in 1937. Through his office and 20 county agents . copies were distributed to approximately 15,000 growers. A central meeting at the Citrus Experiment Station had 117 present, representing widely varied interests. ACTIVITIES IN RELATED FIELDS Grove visits iri 20 counties made by the Extension Service citriculturist were at the request of 2;642 growers. Growers' Institute held at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, and devoted entirely to citrus, on which . the Extension Service had Agriculture College and Experiment Station aid, enrolled more than 300, with the daily at tendance averaging 195. Production and marketing were followed through with a dozen local cooperative associations. In one, with the manager of which the Extension Service citriculturist has collaborated for two years to demonstrate the value of 100 percent cooperation concerning both grow ing and marketing, an Agriculture College-trained production manager has been employed, a fertilizer factory built, spraying machines and other equipment necessary to giving service purchased. Of 120 members, 99 percent are using the facilities, at savings ranging between 15 percent and 50 percent, and financing themselves with 3 percent money. Sales effort on an association brand, concentrated on one dealer in a Southern market, started with supplies of strictly uniform quality fruit, followed by local newspaper and radio advertising, maintaining dealer service and so on. Success attained has been so pronounced that this season another market was added. Thus the organization is extending its service from the soil to the consumer, and several other associations are planning similar undertakings.

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Annual Report, 1937 45 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman Extension anini.al husbandry work is closely correlated with kindred activities in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and is supervised by the head of the department. Beef cattle received the prin cipal attention from the Everglades to Escambia County; hogs through the peanut-producing area northward and westward from Sumter and Marion. Adult and junior efl;orts both were divided under two main aims-produc tion and fattening for market. Goals immediately in sight on cattle are distribution of purebred bulls and appreciation that annual calf crops have great economic value. In more or less direct consequence, many carloads of registered bulls were brought in, among them Angus, Braford, Brahma and Hereford animals, altogether aggregating more than 800, valued at nearly $100,000 and able to sire not less than 30,000 calves yearly. Osceola County in addition is raising Brahmas, bulls sold numbering 300 and highgrade cows 250. . Farmers' herds usually start small. In Okeechobee County, as an example, 68 farmers owned 10 or more beef cattle during 1936 but for 1937 the number had increased to 105. Herds established in the state aggregated 47, including 334 purebred and 589 high grade cows. Breeding control gives a calf crop running 60 percent to 85 as compared with about 35 percent from the open range method, the higher figures having been reported by 165 owners, producing 6,148 select heifers for herd replace ment. One county agent conducted 14 demonstrations in this work. Calves raised under the herd practices advocated by the Extension Service sell much better than range stock, in northwestren Florida the well-bred specimens, averaging 431 pounds, bringing 7 cents a pound or $30.17 each against common yearlings' average of 325 pounds which sold for 4 cents or $13.00 apiece. Culling of barren and . shy-breeding cows is called for, and more than 7,000 went to market grass-fat, one ranchman furnishing eight carloads. Dehorning young calves proved extremely successful and materially reduced screw worm infestations. PA STU RE IMPROVEMENT Farm tours, letters, the radio and visits have been utilized in urging farmers to give the grass a chance, killing out weeds, bushes and briers, alike in pastures and on the range. Mowing machines and weed cutters are recommended. At a field meeting with 50 farmers present, L. K. Edwards, Irvine, Marion County, stated he had doubled the grazing value of his 2,000 acre pasture in three years by using the mower, without sowing a seed or adding acreage. In another meeting at Brighton, at tended by 60 cattlemen representing 100,000 head, Thomas Lykes asserted his concern normally grazed and fattened 1,2.00 to 1,500 steers before cutting weeds and myrtle but now can run between 4,000 and 5,000 on the same area. Weeds have been cut this year on more than 19,000 acres. Palmetto cutters have killed the bushes and other growth except grass over some 15,000. Disking has taken place on above 14,000 preparatory to sowing grass. Para grass was set on much moist land southward from Gaines ville . . . A pasture improvement campaign was inaugurated by the Jackson ville Commerce Chamber, in connection with which the Extension Service animal husbandman inspected conditions in Alachua, Clay, Hernando, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Polk and St. Johns counties.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension SILO BUILDING Trench silos for beef cattle feeding, essentially an Extension Service accomplishment, were non-existent in 1930 but now are found all . the way from Okaloosa to Levy and Alachua counties. Additions this year numbered 78, compared with 53 last, a 49 percent gain. FAIRS AND SHOWS Cooperation was extended in the exhibition of seven Florida herds at the Florida Fair in Tampa. Bulls shown from other states were bought for numerous Florida farms and ranges. Florida Fat Stock Show in Jacksonville, sponsored by the local com merce chamber but largely developed through Extension Service activities, was a greater success than for any year since the beginning, during 1935. Table ' herewith tells the story: TABLE 6.-REPORT OF THIRD ANNUAL FAT STOCK SHOW AND SALE, JACKSONVILLE; FLORIDA, MARCH 9 AND 10, 1937. (With Comparisons to 1935 and 1936 Shows.) Number cattle sold .. . ................ . Total weight (lbs.) ... . ..... , .. ........ .. Average price per pound ......... . Average weight per steer ..... , .. Average price per head .......... .. Total sales ................................... . Number exihibtors .................... .. Number Georgia exhibitors . .... . Number club boys exhibiting .. .. Number 4-H club calves .......... .. Number 4-H judging teams .... . . Number cars bought by out-of-state exhibitors ... ... ... . Grand . champion steer price .... .. Number Florida counties sending cattle ........ .. ....... . ...... .. 1937 535 445,180 .0972 832 pounds $80.94 $43,302.77 50 2 21 32 7 10 32c 16 1936 638 461,245 .0712 722.9 pounds $51.50 $32,860.93 71 3 18 18 9 10 32c 18 1935 147 126,830 .0899 862 'pounds $77.56 $11,402.63 15 1 0 0 5 0 21c 9 Winner of 4-H judging teams: 1st, Liberty; 2nd, Sumter; 3rd, Pasco; 4th, Alachua; 5th, Madison; 6th, Columbia; 7th, Suwannee. FINANCING, STEER FEEDING, ETC. Farm Credit Administration plans for financing did not fit the Florida cattle situations. Ranchmen held a meeting , submitted recommendations, followed by numerous conferences, in all the Extension Servi<;e animal husbandmen taking part, including one at the Columbia headquarters. Relations thus were established on a more satisfactory basis and a few loans have been granted. Steer feeding received a great impetus from the Florida Fat Stock Show . and Experiment Station activities, and this office printed an instruc tive circular, copies having been furnished all county agents and inte~ested farmers. Silage became increasingly important in steer rations. Feeding field meetings furnished helpful demonstrations, conducted by the animal husbandman and county agents. Tendencies grow toward winter feeds

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Annual Report, 1937 47 for the breeding herds and steps were taken under which the nearest cottonseed oil mill, at Valdosta, Georgia, agreed to make cake for Florida buyers. Fig. 3.-Florida steers lik e these are becoming more and more in evi dence throughout the state, as the cattlemen advance with their programs of cattle improvement and feed production. This grou p was among the prize winners at the Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale. IMPROVING HOG OUTPUT Type and quality improvement messages have been carried to farmers through circular letters , county agents, market-place tours, meat cutting and curing demonstration s and tours. A circular has been in great demand pointing out wherein raising big litters of healthy pigs is profitable. Hogs marketed have been of much better grades, principally due to these Extension Service activities. A late 1937 s ale in northwestern Florida showed 58 percent grading No. 1, 180 pounds and up, against 29 percent almost exactly one year before. In another case, well-bred and well-fed hogs so ld at $10.40 'per hundredweight; poorly -b red animals three months older for only $7.00 . Four of the big packers now have hog buyer s in Florida. Meat cutting and curing demonstrations, with both beef and pork, were held in various sections. One in Jefferson County, spo n sored by the farm and hom e demon st ration agents, had cooperat ion from farmers, the Monticello Kiwani s Club and Swift and Company. Meetings, regional in character, held at four points during May had assistance from the United States Agriculture Department senior exten s ion meat s pecialist. Conducted somew hat as schools for county agents, the se occurred in Kissimmee, Marianna, Monticello and Wauchula. November 4 all hom e demonstration agents were called to Gainesville for a sc hool at which the Extension animal hu sb andman collaborated with Experiment Station specialists in demon s trations. Campaigns have been carried on throughout the hog raising territory for home supplies meat curing. Cold storage meat plant managers' conference at Gainesville November 12 had 21 of 52 plants repr ese nted by some 26 officia l s . In one c ase, the

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension statement was made that advice from this office at a similar meeting three years ago had caused savings which aggregated more than $4,000. Exhibits displaying products cured in the various plants composed the first meat show of its kind in the United States. Rules and regulations for judging meats at the Florida Fair this office prepared, with federal agency and Experiment Station cooperation. BOYS' WORK AND MARKETING Personal visits, meetings and instruction comprised the animal hus bandry contribution to 4-H club work. A week each was spent at Camp Timpoochee and Camp McQuarrie. Short Course instruction was supplied all interested junior club members. Fat Stock Show boys' exhibits num bered 21, and included 32 calves. Pigs from 11 counties, aggregating 87, went on display at the Tallahassee annual show. In both cases the boys' animal s were considerably better than previously. Markets for livestock opened at several Florida points, recognizing the success attained by the Extension Service livestock industry efforts. Sales on a cooperative basis which farm agents promoted and conducted became even more helpful to farmers. In Trenton, Gilchrist County, the Gulf Coast Hog Marketing Association sold 20,539 animals for $251,623.75, averaging $12.25 each, compared with 8,465 two years before, bringing $64,935.55, an average of $7.56 apiece. Grading uniformity in the South east was sought at a Moultrie, Georgia, meeting which the Extension Service animal husbandmen attended.

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Annual Report, 1937 49 DAIRYING . Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman The extension program in dairy husbandry is closely correlated with dairying work in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, and is supervised by the head of the department. Dairying in the Agricultural Extension Service presents the county farm agents as leaders in their respective territories and the added re sponsibilities they have been given on Soil Conservation lines caused extraordinary efforts by the Extension Dairyman for cooperation through helping organize dairying associations and like agencies. Aid of value came from the district agents. A 4-H club dairy plan of work was prepared. Radio talks prepared by the Extension Dairyman p.umbered 23. Assistance rendered the home demonstration agents consisted of mimeographed information concerning family cows and record books for 4-H club girls engaging in dairy projects. Soil classification and crop adaptation studies were conducted in connection with forage production. Activities devoted to dairying took place in 45 counties having farm agents and some were carried on with farmers in four others. Demonstra tions, both method and result, alike among adults and juniors, constituted the principal factors and a secondary group comprised meetings, state, county, community and field. Letters were utilized freely, in personal and circular forms, motorcades to the demonstrations promoted, personal visits made among farmers, radio talks employed, and stories in news pa pers utilized. FORAGE PRODUCTION ENDEAVOR Forage production as the limiting factor, causing Florida to be re garded as a milk deficiency area, has received continuing attention, since even market milkmen have only about 35 percent of the required permanent pasturage and make not over 20 percent the silage they need. Bang's disease eradication carried on cooperatively with federal agencies has reduced the infections below 1 percent from 27 percent, since 1933. Texas fever tick eradication in most sections . has been succeeded at some points by anaplasmosis, a similar disease which several species of ticks carry-and probably other insects-causing concern among dairymen. FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS AND SILOS Increase in the farms showing fertilization of crops for forage and silage su pplied the outstanding feature, Alachua, Bay, Dade, Duval, Her nando, Leon and Palm Beach counties taking the lead. Alachua County reported 39 farmers who fertilized pastures and silage crops, increasing output 15 percent. In Bay, . the county farm agent succeed ing in having fertilizers for 316 acres purchased cooperatively. Dade had six farmers conducting fertilizer demonstrations. Ensilage crops fertilized on 875 Duval acres produced some 7,000 tons. Sugarcane for forage that Duval farmers gave complete fertilization yielded 2,500 tons from 120 acres. Pastures fertilized include about 3,000 acres. Hernando increased forage and grazing tonnage 12 percent on 235 acres. Leon fertilized around 2,000 acres. In Palm Beach County this was the third year of demonstrations, using calcium and magnesium carbonates and superphosphates with 'potash and nitrogen.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension Trench silos were erected in three counties for the first time, the total construction on Florida dairy farms during the year including 123 of that type and 42 upright. A paper form introduced during the year may supply the need for cheap silos. RATIONS, PASTURES, AND BY-PRODUCTS Seeding of pastures on flatwoods land was limited by the carpet grass seed available. Bermuda plantings on dairy farms increased throughout the state. In 35 counties farm agents reported 115 demonstrations with mineral supplements, steamed bone meal supplemented with calcium carbonate and salt principally added to the dairy rations. Volusia County agent cooperation was extended other agencies in ex periments with adding cobalt to the standard salt, iron and copper salt sick mixture, for animals on Norfolk sandy soils, pronounced results having been obtained with farm cows. Dairymen were urged by farm agents to profit by the Experiment Station findings concerning the values which citrus cannery waste possesses when made into cattle feed. Savings in cost ranging between 15 cents per hundredweight and 50 cents received stress as a means for securing demonstrations. PROMOTING THE FAMILY COW Placing family cows on farms had cooperation from practically all county agents, whose work further was of great value respecting home produced feeds in greater quantities. Agents for Charlotte, Hardee, Her nando, Holmes, Jackson, Lafayette, :Marion, Okeechobee, Pasco, St. Johns, Sarasota, Sumter, Suwannee, Union, Volusia, and Washington earned special commendation. In all counties the agents conducted method demonstrations , especially where the population is sparse and much personal work was required with sick animals and regarding feed practices, Dixie, Glades, Hamilton, Levy, Liberty and Wakulla afford excellent examples. Purchases of 78 and 42 heifers and registered sires were made by the Jackson and Suwannee county agents, respectively. In five years the Hernando agent has procured 34 registered bulls and 364 cows for his farmers. Dairymen from Pinellas he interested in purchasing Hernando farms this year. A trailer holding some 20 baby calves has been used for bringing in high-grade stock from Duval county. BOYS' 4-H CLUBS IN DAIRYING Dairying by boys' 4-H clubs serves as one of the best approaches to the family cow program. Usefulness of this agency is greatest in the rural counties composing northern and western Florida. Dade, Duval, Marion, Pasco and Suwannee county demonstration teams competed in a contest at the College of Agriculture in Gainesville; the prize, a trip to the National Dairy Show, Columbus, Ohio, was awarded the Pasco County team . BREEDING AND PRODUCTION RECORDS Farms in about 16 percent of the counties exclusively use registered sires. County agents reported 152 introduced during 1937, also 3,500 grade and purebred cows for herd replacements in the Bang's disease

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Annual Report, 1937 51 eradication. Duval County alone added 31 sires, the farm agent having sought bulls with ancestors that had records of 400 pounds butterfat minimums. Herd improvement associations organized in three instances had 16 counties cooperating and represented 1921 cows. Dairy record books were placed with 56 farmers in 16 counties. MARKETING F AGILITIES IMPROVEMENT Farm agents in Washington and adjacent counties cooperated with feeding suggestions and otherwise in establishing the creamery now operating in Chipley. Marion County revived the milk market at Ocala, which will specialize in by~products manufacture, the farm agent assisting. Extension Service collaboration with the State Dairymen's Association and Florida Milk Control Board led to public meetings in 17 counties. Field meetings in Leon County numbered four, the Extension Dairyman receiving aid from the white and Negro agents. DISEASE CONTROL In addition to the campaign for Bang;s disease eradication, cooperation has been given the Experiment Station in studies of hemorrhagic sep ticemia, anaplasmosis, trichomonads and white scours among calves . County agents assisted the federal authorities in screw worm control until they discontinued it and since have carried on the endeavor. BUILDING SAFETY PENS Calf pens as suggested by V. C. Johnson, a successful Duval dairyman, are proving effective in keeping young heifers free from intestinal para sites. Safety bull pens construction received an impetus through demonstra tion teams of 4-H club boys. Sheds for feeding and shade were erected in seven instances, and 15 barns and 12 dairy houses remodeled or built through Extension Service and county agent activities. TRIPS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Trips made by the Extension Service Dairyman during 1937 included one to Tenne s see, accompanied by the , Suwannee County agent, no cost accruing against the state organization, another into North Carolina and South Carolina, with the Volusia agent and a dairy operator, and one covering portions of Alabama made at personal expense. MISCELLANEOUS MEETINGS Outlook conferences in seven northwestern Florida counties had an at tendance of 800 farmers. University of Florida Dairy Day, August 5 and 6, held in cooperation with the State Dairymen's Association, attracted : some 87 people. Mark e ting and production methods improvement received emphasis in 17 county conferences, the Extension Dairyman assisting the Association president. A state meeting with Negro county agents convened in Lake City and another at Fessenden Academy brought together almost 200 racial leaders. Alachua County had a similar conference attended by 47 Negro farmers.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY KEEPING Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman Dan F. SQwell, Assistant Extension Potiltryman E. F. Stanton, Supervisor Egg-Laying Contest Pullets of superior quality, efficient management for laying flocks, improved marketing methods and breeding birds selection, trapnesting and pullorum disease control constituted the Extension Service poultry activities possessing major importance during the year covered by this report. These activities are tied in closely with related ones in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station. Production of healthy , chicks and pullets, also _ laying flock management and better methods therein, went ahead on a long-time basis under the Calendar Flock Record designation. Breeding flocks upbuilding and dis ease control were conducted as a part o{ the national poultry improvement plan. Egg quality undertakings inaugurated during 1936 were continued, on a state-wide basis, with the Extension Service an important participat ing factor. Poultry extension specialists visited 42 counties and assisted the agents. Turkey management again was carried on, principally in Alachua, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette, Levy and Suwannee. FEED PRICES AND POULTRY EXTENSION Relations between feed prices and poultry products returns have a direct bearing on Extension Service poultry endeavor, since most commercial producers buy all the materials they use as feeds. A poultry ration illustrating -prices comprises a mash mixture including 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal, 100 pounds each bran, fine ground oats, meatscraps-55 percent protein-shorts and yellow corn meal plus a grain combination containing 100 pounds each yellow cracked corn and wheat. TABLE 7._.:._MONTHLY PRICE OF POULTRY RATION*. Base Month Period 1934 1935 1927-29 October .............. 2.78 2.23 2.18 November .......... 2.72 2.25 2.16 December -----2.72 2.32 2.14 January ............... 2.73 1.89 2.34 February 2.77 1.90 2.32 March ..... ... .......... 2.78 1.90 2.32 April --2.78 1.91 2.31 May 2.81 1.90 2.32 June ........ . . . . ... . .... 2.85 1.97 2.28 July --2 . 90 2.00 2.22 August 2.87 2.12 2.15 September . . . . .. ... 2 . 84 2.22 2.13 Average I 2.80 I 2.05 2.24 I *Price based on quotation Jacksonvill e, Florida. **11 months' average. 1936 2.43 2.48 2.57 2.12 2.10 2.12 2.11 2.11 2.10 2.23 2.42 2.43 2.27 1937 2.28 2.12 2.77 2.67 2.62 2.71 2.76 2.72 2.65 2.51 2.37 2.56**

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Annual Report, 1937 POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICE LEVELS 53 Prices for eggs and poultry meat, over a period of years, have been tabulated by the Extension Service and sent to cooperating flock owners as an assistance in making plans for the future. TABLE 8.-MoNTHLY PrucEs OF No. 1 (GRADE A 24 OUNCE) WHITE EGGS*. (Cents per dozen.) I Base Month Period 1934 1935 1936 1937 1926-29 October .............. 56.4 38.0 39.3 38.4 38.1 November ----57.0 40.0 37.0 41.9 39.6 December -------52.0 40.0 40.6 43.4 January -----------45.9 28.7 35.8 33.5 29.4 February ---------34.3 25.6 31.8 31.2 27.5 March ---------------31.0 19.2 23.0 23.5 25.1 April .................. 29.4 19.8 24.9 22.9 25.5 May -------------------28.8 20.1 26.3 24.1 24.2 June .................... 32.3 23.5 26.8 25.7 25.8 July 36.6 28.0 31.5 31.9 30.1 August 42.1 31.6 35.6 34.0 33.0 September ......... 47.5 36.8 39.0 37.5 37.2 Average -----------41.1 29.3 32.6 32.3 30.5** *Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida. **11 months' average. TABLE 9.-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY HENS*. (Cents per pound.) Base Month Period 1934 1935 1936 1926-29 October .............. 28.1 17.2 21.0 19.6 November .......... 26.9 17.8 21.7 19.6 December ---------26.5 17.5 20.6 18.7 January 26.6 14.3 17.5 20.0 February ---------27.1 15.5 17.8 19.9 March ---------------27.9 16.0 18.3 19.5 April -----------------27.6 15.5 18.0 20.3 May 27.0 15.8 18.0 20.8 June .................... 25.7 16.0 18.7 20.6 July -------------------24.5 15.7 18.2 20.9 August 25.2 14.8 18.4 20.7 September -------27.0 16.6 19.3 20.2 Average -----------26.7 16.1 18.9 20.1 193.7 18.7 20.3 18.7 19.3 18.6 18.6 19.0 19.5 16.8 16.0 17.5. 18.5** *Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida. **11 months' average.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE 10 .-MONTHLY PRICES OF HEAVY FRYERS*. (Cents . per pound.) Month I Base I Period 1926-29 1934 1935 1936 October .............. 33.8 20.0 22.4 21.2 November 34.9 ., 20.5 23.2 20.5 ......... . December --36.2 20.5 23.2 20.0 January 38.3 17.6 21.5 25.5 February .... .... .. 39.1 20.2 24.3 25.6 March 41.0 23.9 26.1 27.0 April 42.7 25.2 25.9 27 . 2 May 39.9 24.9 26.4 25.7 June .................... 37.2 22.5 23.1 23.5 July 32.4 20.1 21.2 23.1 August 30.8 18.7 20.3 22.6 September 32.7 19.7 21.0 22.3 Average 36.6 21.2 23.2 23.7 1937 27.1 26.7 22.3 24.3 24.1 27.0 24.1 25.3 25.5 24.5 25.8 25.2** *Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau, Jacksonville, Florida. **11 months' average. Changes in feed prices and returns from poultry products affect ex pected profits and correspondingly influenced extension work bearing on the industry. Table 11 shows the relationship of feed -to poultry products for the years 1935, 1936 and 1937. The base period is the three year average 1926-1929. During the first part of 1937 the feed~poultry products ratio was rela tively poor but as the season developed a more favorable ratio existed. This was due primarily to a reduction in feed prices and a slightly higher price for fryers. Both egg prices and hen prices were slightly less in 1937 than for the same period in 1936. TABLE 11.-RELATION OF PouLTRY RATION INDEX TO Eoo, HEN, FRYER INDICES. 1935 ! I ..<: I I , (l) >, eii ,_; > Ratio r::: ,.ci ... i:: p. ...; (l) oS p. oS ::l :3 ::, II)
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Annual Report, 1937 55 BABY CHICK AND POULTRY MANAGEMENT Growing healthy chicks has been presented; with emphasis upon clean brooder houses and land, in collaboration with the State Livestock Sanitary Board which is supervising the national poultry improvement plan in Florida. Recommendations from the Extension Service were followed by 1,659 families when purchasing baby chicks, 2,513 in chick rearing and 2,271 as regards sanitation. Green feeds production was adopted by 1,959 families. Culling demonstrations held throughout the state caused 911 families to follow improved breeding plans. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS Poultry records keeping began during 1925 as an Extension Service enterprise. Record books are made available which suit poultry raisers having small flocks and others meeting the requirements of commercial producers. Summaries from the figures they have submitted go monthly to the cooperators, which also contain other data and likewise are mailed to the press. In 1937, records completed represented poultry raisers in 25 counties against 20 the year before and 16 for 1935. TABLE 12.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY OCTOBER 1, 1934, TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1937. Items I 1934-35 1935-36 1936-37 Number of farms .. . . . . . . ... . . ...... .. . . . ... .. . 37 49 43 Av. number of birds ... . ... .. . ... ....... . . . . 17,410 22,132 19,987 Av. no. of birds per farm 470 452 465 Av. no. eggs per bird per year ... . 163.04 180.18 168.86 Av. percent culled ..... . ..................... . Av. 'percent mortality . .............. .. . . .. . 49.25 41.07 45.27 20.38 17.13 17.56 Table 13 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average number of eggs per bird for the past two years by grou ps. During the 1935-36 poultry year the largest size flock had the greatest egg production per bird but the reverse was true during the 1936-37 poultry year. TABLE 13 . -FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE. 10-250 251-500 Over 500 birds birds birds Total number of flocks 1935-36 21 11 17 1936-37 18 10 15 Average size of flock 1935-36 110 344 943 1936-37 138 303 965 Averag e number of eggs 1935-36 168 . 71 173,96 183.31 per bird 1936-37 183.95 163.05 167.50

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension The fourteenth year of record keeping was started Oetober 1, 1937. A brief summary of the records analyzed for the 1935036 year is tab ulated in the following table. TABLE 14.-SUMMARY OF POULTRY BUSINESS, 60 FARMS, OCTOBER 1, 1935-SEPTEMBER 30, 1936. Poultry capital per farm . ....... ............. .. ........ .... ......... $2357.00 Total receipts per farm ... . .. . .... . ......... ... ........... ... .. .. .... 3108.00 Total expenses per farm .. ... . . .......... ....... ........ ..... ....... 2295.00 Receipts less expenses ........... . .................................... 813.00 Poultry labor income ......... . .. . . . ......... ..... ........ .. ........... 648.00 Poultry labor earnings . ...... . . ... . . ..... . .. .. ........ . ............... 698.00 Management factors Eggs per bird per year . .. ......... .. .. , .................... . Mortality in percent .......... . ... . . .. ........... . . . .. . ........ . Culling in percent .......... . ............. . ...................... . Pullets in iflock percent ..................................... . Value of eggs over feed cost per bird . . .......... $ Feed cost . per bird ..... ... . . .... .. .. ... .. .. ........ .. .. ... ........ $ Feed cost per dozen eggs ......... . ........................ $ Price per dozen eggs sold ........... .. ........... . ......... $ Net cost per pullet raised ......... .. ......... . . .. ........ . . $ JUNIOR POULTRY EFFORT 169.5 16.4 32.3 61.0 1.99 2.05 .147 .288 .96 Poultry demonstrations enrolled 2,162 boys and girls. Teaching took place at both the Boys' and the Girls' Short Courses. Instruction was given at summer camps and other 4-H club meetings, and a state-wide show and judging contest held during the Central Florida Exposition, Orlando. Club poultry exhibits were judged at eight county or regional fairs. Turkey. keeping became a major aim .in several counties. POULTRY ORGANIZATIONS Plans for educational activities supervised by Extension poultry cialists were adopted by five county units affiliated with the Florida Poultry Producers' Association, and they assisted in forming one new one. Egg quality improvement, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council, is largely sought through county farm and home demonstration agents. Egg candling demonstrations have been given at six group meetings. Agricultural Extension Service cooperation also has been extended to the State Livestock Sanitary Board in directing the national improvement proposals. Vaccination demonstrations in which county agents assisted handled at least 80,000 pullets. EGG MARKET SURVEY Egg marketing survey, undertaken at the Florida Poultry Council's request in the fall of 1936, had the data summarized during early 1937. Facts had been collected in 1,150 studies with consumers, 125 affecting retailers, 15 involving wholesale houses and 12 concerning hotels and restaurants. Findings indicated that consumers do not fully understand the differ ences in grades and quality of eggs. Dealers, both wholesale and retail, exhibited tendencies to claim that Tampa is a "white egg shell" market, and price differentials favored that type.

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Annital Report, 193'?' 57 MARKETING EGGS AND POULTRY Marketi~g recommendations by Extension Service 'poultry specialists had acceptance from 2,001 families. Poultry and egg sales in which farm and home agents assisted amounted to $516,840.89. Cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has been close and cordial. FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST Eleventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley ran from October 1, 1936, to September 21, 1937. Pullets entered from 22 different states-including nine Florida counties-comprised 92 pens, 71 light breeds and 21 heavy. Egg production for the 51 weeks averaged 204.2 eggs per bird, for a 203.2 value. High rank went to a Florida Single Comb White Leghorn from Pine Breeze Farm , Callahan, on 312 eggs for 326.65 points value. Florida hens in comparison with entries from outside the state had 8 percent lower mortality and laid 62 eggs more per hen. Twelfth Contest started October 1, 1937, with 98 pens, coming from 23 states and Cuba.

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist FARM MANAGEMENT DIVISION F. W, Brumley, Extension Economist' C. M. Hampson, Extension Economist' R. H. Howard, Assistant Extension Economist D. Gray Miley, Assistant Extension Economist M. M. Varn, Assistant Extension Economist' CITRUS GROVE MANAGEMENT This study was begun during 1930, before which time little information was available concerning costs as related to returns from grove o pera tions or regarding factors affecting the success of fruit growers. It has been enlarged with each succeeding season. Record books prepared by the Agricultural Extension Service are dis tributed among growers and on August 31 each year those that have been returned are used in computing the operating outlays and receipts from fruit, the cooperating grove owners receiving individual summaries. In the beginning confined to Polk, Orange, Lake and Higlilands, the endeavor now embraces all the more important citrus-raising counties. Table 15 gives a summary of the number of citrus records by years and counties for the seven years beginning September 1, 1930, used as a basis for the management study: TABLE 15.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS; BY COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1937-38. 1 1 1930-1' 1931-11932-11933-c I 1934-11935-11936-11937Counties 31 32 \ 33 \ 34 \ 35 36 37* 38** Lake -39 61 88 86 103 114 103 110 Polk 17 59 80 82 87 81 74 80 Orange -46 42 48 44 62 59 63 60 Highlands 12 35 44 37 37 41 40 40 Miscellaneous 5 12 8 14 35 37 33 75 Total .................... ! 119 I 209 I 268 \ 263 I 324 I 332 I 313 I 355 *Estimate, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1937. Fruit receipts will not be available until the crop of 1937-38 has been sold. ** Accounts started. Reports containing the sixth annual summary, aggregating more than 2,000 copies, have been furnished upon request to grower.s, banks, business men, credit associations, farm agents, federal officials, and libraries, the latter in the United States, Puerto Rico, Palestine and Cuba. Fair ex hibits afforded another means of distribution and the data supplied material for Florida Farm Hour talks and several agricultural magazine articles were based thereon. 1 Resigned September 17, 1937. 'Appointed October 1, 1937. 'Resigned June 30, 1937.

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Annual Report, 1937 59 COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING COUNCILS . . ' , . This project has been carried on since 1935 in association with the federal agricultural adjustment administration. Organizations . have been 'perfected in 44 counties and data prepared for 30, mostly in the northern belt. Surveys made covered 572 farms in 17 counties and soil maps were prepared for 54. Material assembled during the investigations was dis tributed through meetings in 12 counties, and by mimeographed summaries. DAIRY FARM ACCOUNTS This new undertaking was begun at . the request of dairymen in the Jacksonville territory. Information accurate . in character concerning , pro duction costs is needed when attempts are made at regulating milk prices. Records numbering 30 were opened in the Jacksonville section July 1, 1937, to be closed one year later, seven dairymen already having dropped out. Visits to . the recordkeepers so far have averaged three; , . . Dade County accounting started September 1, 1937, under supervision from the assistant farm agent, with indications that about 15 sets may . be kept. DADE COUNTY WHITE POTATO INDUSTRY Figures obtained mostly from growers' books and 'packinghouse records covered three seasons and sought to develop the more important factors affecting production costs and sales receipts. Data for the past season covered approximately three-fourths of the acreage. Findings went back to cooperating growers in individual summaries and otherwi s e were supplied through mimeographed circulars. Potato growers who met with the district and farm agents numbered some 80 and the Dade County agent directed an annual field day just prior to harvesting. FARM MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS. Work was started among 23 Jackson County farmers during February in cooperation with the Federal Farm Credit Administration, 10 of them Land Bank borrowers and the remainder selected by the local farm agent. Purposes ins piring the effort have a broad scope but the late beginning confined the year's attainments principally to persuading each cooperator that he should keep records of his farming operations. POULTRY ACCOUNT SUMMARIES In collaboration with the Extension Poultryman 60 record books were summarized of 250 distributed among poultrymen during 1935. Books thus utilized cover receipts, expenses, egg production and bird mortality. Poul trymen use them who keep Calendar Flock Records. Cooperating poultrymen received assistance in closing their books and were furnished a year's summary, showing outlay, 'profits if any, and the strong and the weak points in their methods. RECORDS EXHIBITED AT FAIRS, ETC. Citrus groves cost record exhibitions at four fairs the Agricultural Extension Service made at the request of the managements, concurred in by county agricultural agents. Statistical summaries approximating 500 distributed on these occasions were to growers and others requesting them. A display also was shown at the Golden Jubilee Convention of the State Horticultural S o ciety in Ocala, April 13, 14 and 15.

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60 Florida Cooperative E xten sion Fig. 4.-Picture of exhibit, based on the citrus costs and returns study, made at the Golden Anniversary meeting in Ocala of the State Horticul tural Society, April 12, 1937. TEACHING AT 4-H CLUB CAMPS Farm management was taught in two boys' 4-H club camps over a four weeks period. Boys divided into three groups heard these subjects discussed for 30 minutes on each of four days. WATERMELON MARKETING AGREEMENT District and county meetings held under Extension Service supervision selected cont rol committee members to assist in administering the federal watermelon marketing agreement for the Southeast. Attendance of grow ers exceeded 200. CONFERENCES WITH CUBAN VEGETABLE GROWERS Committees comprising Florida and Cuba truck crop producers sought to work out their differ e nces under the reciprocal trade agreement, that recommendations for revisions might be made to the two governments. Assistance was extended by the Agricultural Extension Service in assigning an assistant economist for one week, to assemble information. ECONOMIC INFORMATION AND OUTLOOK REPORTS Florida farm outlook report in an edition of about 3,000 was distrib uted among farmers and agricultural workers. Meetings to l)resent the facts had approximately 3,000 farmers in attendance. FARM ACCOUNT BOOKS Farm account books from the federal agricultural adjustment admin istration were supplied to county agents and individuals upon request.

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Annual Report, 1937 61 MARKETING FARM PRODUCTS D. E. Timmons, Extension Economist in Marketing Federal marketing agreement negotiations and execution occupied the principal portion of the Agricultural Extension Service activities under this head. CITRUS AGREEMENTS FOR FLORIDA Meetings were attended which related to the citrus pact for Florida and advices concerning them mailed periodically to county farm agents, vocational agriculture teachers and some growers. Summaries broadcast monthly went out through the Florida Farm Hour. Surveys undertaken early in May oil request of numerous growers and shippers, sought to determine the sentiment held by fruit producers re garding a modified agreement which would serve as a substitute for that which federal courts had declared invalid. Conferences also were taken part in between shippers, canners and federal agency officials looking to further purchases of surplus grapefruit for relief distribution. Statistics prepared in the Agricultural Extension Service indicated higher prices through that source than when low-grade fruit was sold on auction or bought by canners. Analyses also were made showing Florida orange and grapefruit sea sonal shipments, distribution and prices for the 1936-37 crop, trends in . production and prices, for both the state and the country-at-large. Information 'procured from the Florida Canners' Association developed that higher figures have been paid for fruit recently than during earlier periods in comparison with auction prices. CELERY, POTATO AND WATERMELON PACTS Cooperation from the Extension Service was extended in the endeavors of celery growers and shippers which led the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to place a marketing agreement before them in a referen dum. Details thereof mostly were handled by the Extension workers. Approval received by the pact caused it to be placed in effect . Meetings held in Hardee, Hillsborough, Dade, DeSoto and Palm Beach counties by an Extension Service specialist, with cooperation from the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, explained the purposes of a ref erendum concrning whether potatoes should become a basic agricultural commodity. In operation for the past three years, the watermelon agreement is a continuing one, which many Florida growers bitterly oppose. Extension Service cooperation was given the federal authorities when control com mitteemen were elected and in broadcasting shipping holiday dates during the Florida Farm Hour. COOPERATIVE MARKETING AND ALLIED EFFORT Attendance on sessions of the Florida Citrus Commission and Florida Citrus Exchange board of directors supplemented discussions devoted to cooperative marketing with numerous groups . Dairymen were conferred with in Palm Beach County, and also Dade lime and avocado growers, DeSoto livestock raisers, northwestern Florida seed dealers and the truck crop producers of Charlotte and Palm Beach. Organizations have been formed among Charlotte County vegetable pro. ducers and Dade lime and avocado growers.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension Production credit association secretaries received .visits at frequent intervals and a trip to Washington brought the Extension Service market ing economist in direct touch with Farm Credit Administration officials. Studies in motor truck transportation that have been carried on since 1931 were presented in summarized shape at the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers convention, Nashville, February 3-5. Committees seeking additional tobacco marketing facilities, especially in the flue-cured belt, received acreage and production figures from the Extension Service, which also furnished statistics regarding a compulsory marketing federal act's operations. Farmers' State Wholesale Markets opening festivities were attended in most cases and suggestions given to 1 numerous applicants for additional or improved facilities at other points. State Milk Control Board price adjustment hearings were attended. Cooperation was extended to the Extension Poultrymen on the Tampa Egg Market survey. Conferences held by the State Agricultural Conservation agency re peatedly were attended.

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Annual Report, 1937 PAR.T III-WOMEN'S ANI) GIRLS' WORI{ HOME DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITIES Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent, Northern and Western Florida Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, Central and Southern Florida Ethyl Holloway, District Agent, Eastern Florida 63 In the quarter century ended with 1937, Florida home demonstration activities had enrolled 101,459 women and 149,159 girls. Plans of work that have come to be regarded as fundamental underwent changes during the 12 months only in better understandings that they may deal with both immediate and long-time needs and as regards unification of the specialized features. State Office staff members remained the same, namely, one state agent, three district agents and specialists in food conservation and gardening, nutrition, home improvement, and textiles and clothing. Service of a district agent in eastern Florida commenced on October 1, the duties pre viously having been carried by the State Agent. Seven new county agents also began work, and the initial supervision of their endeavors required that district agents and specialists should spend considerable time with them. Agricultural Extension Service head quarters personnel and Experiment Station staff members cooperated to the desired end. District agents have been assigned specific duties additional to the supervisory endeavors which constitute their primary responsibilities. Co operation with the editorial offices concerning news coverage, reports checking, for instance, has been placed with the eastern Florida district agent. Camp plans, contests, records, and like activities were given to other staff members. COUNTY PERSONNEL AND PLANS Appropriations for home demonstration purposes made by the boards of commissioners were maintained in the counties as heretofore except St. Lucie, where all available funds went to payments on the bonded in debtedness. Columbia County made an appropriation for establishing the work, which began October 1. Agents appointed to replace others transferred or resigned were in Calhoun, Dade, Leon, Marion, Pinellas, Seminole and Suwannee counties. District agents assisted to keep going some home demonstration effort in counties not having agents. Florida home demonstration staff members attended the American Dietetic and Home Economics Association annual meetings, 4-H Club National Camp and also Congress, Land Grant Colleges and Universities convention, National Honey Institute and likewise the Outlook Conference for the nation. Six county home agents went to summer schools where they registered for advanced work.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension State and district conferences held during the year numbered nine. In the three-day subject matter meeting, the agents selected poultry, meat cookery and preservation, gardening and farmstead beautification for spe cial instruction topics. University of Florida faculty members, State Agricultural Experiment Station workers and Extension Service specialists conducted the courses. Home demonstration agents had planned their 1937 undertakings in time for the annual conference occurring during late 1936. Goals im mediately in sight previously had been determined at county council meet ings. District meetings held early in 1937 by the Extension Service pre sented the new agricultural adjustment plans and outlook information. Home demonstration agents in turn passed on the available facts to local leaders or committeewomen. Results therefrom included use of outlook material in 1,189 homes as a basis for readjusting farm and home garden ing enterprises. A study made in the fall of 1936 of travel schedules and amount of specialists' time spent in the different counties indicated that the time was not distributed equably. It was found that time spent varied from 13 days specialist assistance to one county down to no time at all given by any s'pecialist in one county. Plans were developed for systematizing the travel of specialists and this year's records show that the maximum amount of total time given by all specialists to any county was 11 days, the mini mum two days. Every county received help from at least three staff members. Travel expense has not decreased materially under this plan and prob ably will not be lessened because of the peculiar geographic shape of Flor ida and the belief that for effective service and development of a state wide program, each specialist should work in each area of the state. One satisfactory result already noted is the better understanding the specialists themselves of general long-time home demonstration programs in county and state. DEMONSTRATIONS REMAIN DOMINANT Farm and home result demonstrations remain the keystone in the arch of the activities. Contests for both women and girls are utilized to en courage achievements and measure accom plishments. In that designated the Three-Jar Can-for-Quality competition, three counties had more than 250 women entries. State-wide, county or community contests also were conducted in baking, canning, clothing, club work generally, food prepara tion and poultry, plus selection of two outs . tanding girls to represent Florida at the National 4-H Club Camp. Five girls making the highest scores in all the state contests, which closed with the Annual Short Course, went on an honor roll with the privilege of working through the summer to achieve state-wide honors. County reports combined gave a state total of 21,993 families influenced by home demonstration and 17,905 women and girls definitely enrolled in demonstrations on which they kept records. Agents in the organized counties reported 58,325 farms, with 11,374 homes thereon, reached by their endeavors, or approximately 20 percent. District agents and spe cialists assisted with 223 county or community meetings, attended by 18,176 people.

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Annual R e port, 19 37 65 CAMPS AND SHORT COURSES, ETC. State staff members devoted 66 days to 30 camps for girls and 11 made up of women, the combined attendance totaling 4,019. Short Course for 1937 marked the 26th anniversary. First among these events, held during 1912, had nine tomato club girls present. Attendance this year was limited to 437, representing 37 counties. In celebrating the Jubilee Short Course, one former club girl from each county was invited as a guest. Three of those who responded were mothers of 4-H club daughters who had earned the right to attend. Music wa s directed by a previous club member now studying under Madame Louise Homer. Four others present are now county home demonstra tion agents. State College for Women students who belong to its 4-H club numbered 39 who earlier had held membership in cou n ty or comm u nity groups. Fig. 6.-The 1937 Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was the Silver Jubilee event of its kind. All 26 annual affairs of this group have been held at the State College for Women. Sessions of the Woman's Institute held for the third year at the State College were jointly directed by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Home Demonstration Council and Parent-Teachers' Association. Registra tion of 160 included 119 home demonstration club members. Assistance also was rendered in the three Farm and Home Institute s . Five training schools in recrea t ion leader ship represented four co unties. Statistics compiled showed that 183 communities in 25 counties had de veloped recreation plans, 31 community hou ses or rooms for the purpose were established and 124 pageant s or plays presented while 1,480 families developed their own systems. 3

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension Tours to result demonstrations decreased slightly in number but more persons participated, 296 for adults and girls enlisting 6,233. Meetings held by local leaders or committeemen without aid from agents aggregated 2,284 and 28,217 persons came to them. Specialists and district agents gave 245 demonstrations , to educate both county workers and club members. One hundred two achievement exhibits were held, with attendance totalling 100,888. Local agents staged 7,600 method demonstrations. Recommendations from the staff members also served as the basis for 1,628 result demonstrations, with an attendance of 15,565. This illustrates that local 'people are assuming responsibility for extending the benefits of the program. Home demonstration results received publicity in sundry ways, includ ing 70 radio talks delivered by county workers. In addition to numerous mimeographed articles, material was prepared for one printed bulletin and two circulars. Distribution of the material available in these forms, new and old, made by county home demonstration agents, amounts to 51,324 copies. UNDERTAKINGS ALONG PRODUCTIVE LINES Home gardens w e re grown by more than half the women and girls enrolled, the grand total having been 8 , 976. Appraised at an average value of $20, these would be worth $179,520. Calendar orchards started ran to 427, with 18,306 fruit trees and 96,785 berry plants. Poultry ranked n e xt to gard e ns and orchards, home demonstration club members having rai s ed flocks containing 1 3 7,204 birds, of which 74;235 were purebrec ; L Fowls and eg g s sold brought $84,805.55 and the quan ~ tities used at home, at market prices, represented $72,028.24 in value . Dairy product cash sales aggregated $52,855.18, butter worth $13,135.14 was used at home and 2,229 families reported consuming a quart of milk 'per day for each child and a pint per adult. Materials for canning _ proved in much lesser supply than usual, yet more than a million quarts of fruits and vegetables were processed, which at 15 cents each added fully $170,000 to the state's farm income. Meats and fish canned totaled 125,000 quarts and 200 tons of the first-named wer e cured, Valuing the product in cans at only 40 cents a quart and giving the other a 25 cents per pound rating, this item aggregates over $150,000. Food budgets were planned and lived according to by 1,471 families who reported, 1,762 produced at home adequate food supplies and 2,013 followed improved methods in buying. Girls and women in 29 counties received help from home demonstra tion agents on clothing construction. Families who sought recommenda tions numbered 1,846. Cash savings of $58,500 were indicated as the results from the two endeavors. Cash sales of home industries concerning which the county agents re ceived advices reached $205,138.81, $42,319 going to approximately 3,954 Negro women and girls.

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Annual Report, 1937 67 DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES General Projects Family Food Supply ( See report of Nutrition Specialist and Food Conservation Specialist) Clothing and Textile Supply for Family (See report of Specialist in Textiles and Clothing) Specific Phases of Work Gardening Calendar Orchards Dairying Poultry Food Conservation Canning Food Preparation Feeding the Family Wardrobe Demonstration for Women Well Dressed 4-H Club Girl Household Textiles I Im'portant Results Accomplished Gardens grown in 552 communities. 3,982 women enrolled in 37 counties. 4,994 girls enrolled. Garden products sold for $23,351.32. 427 calendar orchards started .. 18,306 fruit trees planted. 4,174 family milk cows owned. 86,382 pounds butter produced. 1,317 girls and 1,534 women enrolled. 74,235 standard bred chickens owned. 137,204 chickens raised. 602 keeping calendar flock records. $2,479.65 spent for poultry equipment. 4 marketing associations formed. 1 million dozen eggs marketed. 8,192 women and girls enrolled in 37 counties. 1,589,483 quarts fruits and vege tables conserved by women and girls. 124,137 quarts meat and fish canned. $8,693.20 canned products sold. 7,799 women and girls conducted nutrition demonstrations in 554 communities. 48,238 dishes prepared and 14,130 meals planned by 4-H club mem bers. 1,026 families budgeted food ex penditures. ::laked products sold for $1,015.73. 10,167 women and girls in 38 coun ties conducted , demonstrations. 15,300 women and girls followed recommendations in construction and selection of clothing. 971 women and girls budgeted clothing expenditures. Total savings of $58,501.49 due to clothing program reported in 36 counties. 368 families adopted laundering methods.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES (Continued) General Projects Specific Phases I Im'portant Results Accomplished of Work -. -----------------, ,-----------'--House and Its Surroundings (See report of Specialist in Home Improvement) Home Engineering 551 families assisted with household planning problems. 318 dwellings built or remodeled. 153 water systems installed. 249 lighting systems installed. 1,817 home appliances bought in 25 counties. 439 farms constructed or remodeled buildings other than dwellings. 26 sunshine heaters installed. 37 heating systems. Home Sanitation 36 counties report work conducted in 472 communities of the state. 368 sanitary toilets installed. 820 houses screened. 896 homes followed recommenda tions in control of flies, mosqui toes, etc. 6,567 individuals improved health as result _ of sanitation program. Home Management 3,199 women and girls in 33 counBeautification of Home Grounds House Furnishings ties conducted demonstrations. 705 kitchens rearranged for con . venience. 1, 663 families bought labor saving equipment. 968 families made home-made con veniences. 2,343 families practiced every-day good housekeeping. $13,771.00 worth labor-saving de vices purchased. 4,183 women and girls conducted demonstrations in 427 communi ties in state. 1,005 homes im proved lawns. 1,775 homes planted shrubbery and trees. 890 improved exterior of houses and outbuildings. 1,213 people other than club mem bers improved exterior of homes. 2,149 individuals improved selection of furnishings. 1,748 repaired furniture. 1,800 improved appearance of win dows. 11,919 curtains, spreads, quilts and luncheon sets made.

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Annual Report, 1937 69 DEFINITE ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN PROJECT ACTIVITIES (Continued) General Projects Specific Phases I Important Results Accomplished of Work Family and Community Activities Thrift Recreation Permanent Community Improvements Standardization Home industries and Marketing of Florida Products 4 Crafts and Rural Arts 5,279 yards mill ends and sacks used in house furnishings. 592 barrel chairs . and pieces box furniture made. 1,606 rugs made in the homes. 673 mattresses made and 784 reno vated. Value of rugs and other articles sold, $6,702.80. 183 communities developed recrea tion program. 1,480 families followed a home recreation 'program. 50 community pageants or plays presented. 51 training meetings held for community leaders. $2,088.16 raised from entertain ments. 26 community houses for juniors and 16 for adults were estab lished. 29 improved school or community grounds. 43 assisted in establishing libraries for which 959 books . were bought and 522 subscriptions to magazines taken. 1,076 individuals from 20 counties assisted with marketing prob lems. 384 club members standardized products for market. Value of all products marketed Fresh Fruits and Vegetables .................. $ 23,361.32 Poultry ...................... . ..... 36,253.01 Eggs .................................. 48,552.54 Milk , .............................. , .. 34,049.58 Butter ... .. .... . ...... . .. . ... . .. . ... . . 5,200.20 Cottage cheese ................ 43.80 Other articles, (thrift, etc.) ........... . .... 14,369.36 Total .. . . .. .......... ... ..... $161,819.81

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension RELATIONS WITH OFFICIAL AGENCIES Assistance was rendered by the home demonstration agents to the National Youth Administration in 504 Florida communities. Rural resettlement and rehabilitation agencies of the federal govern ment, lately combined under the Farm Security Administration, have maintained close contacts with the state and county home demonstration offices. In the organization as directed from Washington are included nin e county workers formerly holding places of respons . ibility in the state groups. Fig. 6.-Programs of home demonstration work are planned by the people themselves, with advice and direction from the agent. Councils of home demonstration work for both girls and women are organized in nearly every co unty . This picture s hows the presidents of the councils of both women and girls working with the agent on plans for the year. A Farm Credit Administration representative discussed family finances .and related features with county home demonstration agents during the annual conference. Soil conservation subsidies received explanation before nearly all the 317 local clubs and at the State Council of Home Demon stration Women, representing 28 counties. GIRLS' 4-H CLUB ENDEAVORS Enrollment of Florida girls in junior home demonstration activities, according to phases, was as follows: Home gardens, 4,977 girls from 38 counties; market gardens, 131 girls, six counties; home beautification, 2,193 girls, 30 counties; tree fruits, 618 girls, 16 counties; bush and small fruits, 503 girls, 13 counties; grapes, 33 girls, five counties; poultry, 1,311 girls, 37 counties; bees, 21 girls, six counties; dairy cattle, 172 girls, 14 counties; food se l ect ion, 4,360 girls, 37 counties; food preservation, 3,295 girls, 37 counties; clothing, 8,367 girls, 38 counties; home management,

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Annual Report, 1937 71 1,875 girls, 25 counties; house furnishings, 2,097 girls, 31 counties; handi craft, 783 girls, 15 counties; home health and sanitation, 2,934 girls, 22 counties. This gives a grand total enrollment in all girls' projects of 33,670, and means that each girl engaged in 4-H club work conducted an average of at least three projects. In 1937, 526 clubs enrolled 10,374 girls, only 217 of whom were out of school. The year's work on at least three phases was completed by 70% of those enrolled. HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES Improved planning and better results are reflected in the Negro home demonstration agents' report, reciting achievements by the eight workers employed. State staff personnel gave increased attention to supervision in this field. Negro work is financed entirely by the United States treasury or from state funds, except in two counties which make small supplementary ap propriations. Summer courses at Tuskegee Institute or elsewhere were attended by three Negro agents. Leon, Hillsborough and Gadsden counties are developing permanent community houses as centers of Negro home demonstration undertakings.

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS In Florida as well as elsewhere, sound economics of farming demand that a high percentage of the family living be produced at home. Hence, an adequate productive program is essential. To this program the aII year garden, calendar orchard, poultry, dairy and the well canned, budgeted pantry should make generous and important contributions. The promotion of all-year gardens, permanent and varied fruit plant ings adapted to the particular localities, their cultivation, the preparation and utilization of the surplus products according to the latest knowledge of canning technology that the family have a balanced and healthful food supply regardless of adverse weather conditions, composes a large part of the program in food conservation. In addition, the income obtained through lowering cash expenditures for food and by the sale of surplus fruits and vegetables, both fresh and canned, is an item of increasing importance and promotes thrift and economy in the home. Also the improvement and beautification of the farm home through these increased plantings, of not only the "economic ornamentals" but also of native shrubs and flowers. particularly the "county" flower, tends to develop a greater ap'preciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional value of Florida's interesting fruits and vegetables and the part they play in making a finer farm life. Records on gardening submitted by home demonstration club members revealed that over half the girls and women enrolled managed home gardens -'or a total of 9,876 gardens. Needs existing for activity in the field became strikingly illustrated when local surveys were made covering one of the older counties, where farming is well diversified, showing that vegetable production was only 60 percent and fruit output but 25 percent as related to the foodstuffs required by the rural population. Gardens and common fruits were found on less than 40 percent of the farms. CALENDAR ORCHARDS' AND GARDENS Records from many sections of the state show how the improvement and beautification of the farm home goes increasingly forward through the planting of "economic ornamentals", native shrubs and flowers, particu larly the county flower. Home agents report assisting with plans for yards, rearranging plantings for more pleasing effects, supervising plant ings of trees, shrubs and .flowers both from the woods and from nurseries. In many instances fences were moved to make more room for lawns, shrubbery and fruit trees. Fruit trees have been used for shade and landscape effect whenever possible. One county reports: "Pears were planted along driveways and in groups about the corners of the yard. Blueberry bushes were planted for hedges along the fence. Satsumas, kumquats, plums, lfigs and peaches were planted for landscape value as well as for fruit. . . Better fences, gates and trellises for vines were built as a part of the plan. . . . Interest in flower growing has increased each year with splendid exhibits at the flower shows and county fairs." Beautification continues to extend its influence from the home to the church to the club and school grounds. Calendar orchards planted total

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Annual Report, 1937 73 427. Of the plantings made , 18 ,3 06 were fruit trees, 96,785 were berries and 5,632 were grape vines. Two hundred fifty-nine homes sold fresh fruits having a cash valuation of $6,783.77. FOOD CONSERVATION Report s for 1937 indicate that budgeting the canned food needs of the farm family and canning the budget in addition to a surplus in many cases for marketing and barter, is a project of great satisfaction and of progress, However, it is still necessary to urge many housewives to make out a budget of the food needs of their families for the . year, the fresh vege tables they will require, the canned and preserved fruits and vegetables that will be necessary to keep the family health up to par. It will prob ably be some time before the well rounded, well budgeted and canned pantry becomes common in all counties, but eventually budgeting of the canned food supply, the entire planned food supply, will lead to the bud geting of the family income which will make for better family living. Homes reporting canning acco . rding to the needs of a family food budget number 223. The following table summarizes results in food conservation for the year 1937. Number of homes canning according to needs of a family food budget .. ...... .. ..... . . .. . ... ....... . ... ..... . .. . . .... ........ . ... ... . . . . ... ........ . 2,231 Number of quarts of: Fruit canned .... .. . .. ... . ... '. ....... . .. . .. . ............................. . ... . . . ..................... 247,707 Vegetables canned 782,693 Pickles made 56,535 Relishes made 36,268 Marmalades made .. . .............. . .. ... ........... . .. . ........... . . .. .. . ... . ......... . ........ 42,200 Preserves made 56,734 Jellies made ........ . ............. . . .. . .. . . ............. . .... . ......... . .. . .... . .................... 62,147 Number of gallons of vinegar made ..... . . .... ..... . . . ... . ...... .. ..... .........•.. . .. . .. 1,693 Number of gallons of fruit juices canned .. ........ . .. . .. . . . . .... .. .. : . . .. .. . . ....... 10,184 Number of quarts of meats canned: Pork 53,820 Beef 58,143 Game .... .... ... . ... . . . . .. . .. . .. .. . ... . .... . . .. . . . . ... . .. .. ... . .. . . . .. .. . ... . .. .. .. . ..... . ... . ......... . . 328 Fish 3,282 Poultry ... . . . . .... . ... .. .. . . ... .... .. . .. .. . . ... . . ..... ...... . .. . . ........... . ... . . . ........ . .. . . . .. . . .. 8,564 Number of families that cured meats ... . . . .. .. . . . . ............... . ............... .. .. . .. 2,426 Pounds cured 334,071 Number of families that made sau s age . .. . . ..... . .. . ...... ... .. . . . . .. ... . .. .. . .. .. .... 2,250 Pound s made .. . .. .. : ... ~... . . . ...... . . . .. . ...... . . ... . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . .. . . . .... . . ... . ... ... . . . . .. 66,071 Number of families that made lard ... . . . . . ... . . . . . ....... . ..... . .... . . .. ................ 2,419 Pounds made 140,008 Number of families that made soap .......... .. . . .. . ......... . .. .. .... . ......... . ........ 889 Pounds made ' 18,114 With the weather subjecting Florida to another cold wave this Dec e ber , spreading a blanket of de s olation over all garden crops, the well filled p a ntry has been a double satisfaction to the fortunate owners. Successful preservation of the surplus foods to be found on and about the farm home is important, but it is equally important to know how best to utilize those foods after the y are canned. Careful menu planning is essential in order to have healthful, palatable, and well balanced meals at low cost. A supply of a large variety of canned food s , in combination with fresh fruits , vegetable s , poultry and dairy products on the farm, offers endl e ss opportunities for new and interesting meals. In addition, the s e out-of-season foods carry with them an atmosphere of luxury in

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension which the farm family can well take pride since they were canned when the products were in season. THE FARM MEAT SUPPLY Every thrifty farm family now recognizes that canning meat at home plays an important part in efficient farm management. Meats, when pur chased on the market, tend to be the most expensive items in the list of dietary essentials, and for that reason often only people with generous income can enjoy them. But the farmer who produces and conserves his own meat supply on his own farm can provide finer foods for his family and in larger quantities than his income might allow him to purchase. Demonstrations in better methods of butchering, curing and canning meats, beef, pork, veal, kid and similar products go hand in hand with the program of production of better finish. The more universal use of the steam pressure cooker has already played a big part in eliminating waste and spoilage and contributing to the needed variety of meats for the farm family table. Reports for the current year indicate that women of 33 counties canned 124,137 quarts of meats. This meat valued at the very low price of 40 cents per quart reaches a total of $49,654.80. In 31 counties women cured 400,142 pounds of meat. In addition, 140,008 pounds of lard were rendered and 18,114 pounds of soap made from the by-products. MARKETING AND EXHIBITS Fancy packages of honey, citrus marmalades, preserves and candies, guava jellies and now canned guavas, and many other interesting products such as only Florida can supply, meet with ready sale from both the home trade and the tourists. The following record of sales at a roadside market owned and operated in one county by a , home demonstration woman represents an average for the state, whether in larger or smaller amounts. 50 gallons guava juice @ .75 ..... ... . . ...................... , ....... $ 37.50 48 quarts guavas (ii) .50 24.00 24 quarts guava je1ly @ .75 ........................................ 18.00 24 quarts orange marmalade@ .75 ..................... . ...... 18 . 00 24 pints guava jelly @ .40 . . . . .................................. ... ... 9.60 24 pints orange marmalade @ .40 .............................. 9.60 2,300 21/2 ounce jars assorted marmalade @ .10 .... 230.00 1,200 8 ounce jars assorted marmalades and jellies @ .25 300.00 600 16 ounce jars assorted marmalades and jellies @ 3 for $1.00 .............................................. 200.00 Total .. . ........ , ................ .. .. . .......................... . ...... $846. 70 The utilization of native materials, sub-tropical foliage, grasses, fruit and berries in wreath making is also assuming worthwhile proportions. Two counties state that Christmas wreaths have brought the largest in come of any of the home industries and that wreaths of native material are shipped into many Northern and mid-Western states in season. Two hundred thirty-eight individuals are reported as making s ' pecific plantings for use in Christmas wreaths. Flower shows and fair exhibits afford county home demonstration agents opportunity for demonstrating the values of gardening and food conservation. Citrus displays shown at the Florida Orange Festival,

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Annual Report, 1937 75 Winter Haven, for the fourth _ successive year enlisting cooperation from 17 agents. Honey received enlarged attention and recipes calling for its use were distributed at the Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven, and Central Florida Exposition, Orlando, while the Florida Fair, Tampa, made , plans for featuring honey-made baked . goods. GIRLS' 4-H CLUB PROGRESS Enrolled in gardening were 4,994 girls, with 3,397 completions recorded. Girls' canning enrollment reached 3,397, and reports showed 73,085 quarts of fruits, vegetables and meats canned, also 23,867 containers filled with jellies and preserves. Canning contests as carried on in previous years were repeated without change, and terminated by the required ex hibits and records at the State Short Course held annually during June. Winner of the trip to the National 4-H Club Congress, Almena Rogers, had to her credit at the age of 15, the completion of 25 projects; six in gardening, five in canning, six in poultry, six in clothing and two in food preparation. During her five years of club work she has canned 3,453 quarts of berries, tomatoes, pears, peaches, soup mixture, peas, beans, meats, relishes and marmalades. During the same time she has won $24.32 on work exhibited and has a total sales return on her projects of $1,251.57. In addition, this current summer, Almena canned 14 cases of vegetable products and sold them for $64.01.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist The food, nutrition and health work for 1937 emphasized the importance of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs. This program was developed from factual information collected over a period of years and based on the outlook for farm family living adapted to meet the needs of Florida farm ' families. To develop a unified program for better family living the nutri tionist worked in close cooperation with extension specialists, county and home demonstration agents, individuals, and other agencies. Through such cooperative planning it has beert possible to fumish interested farm people with reliable information , and assist them in recognizing their own 'problems and thus help them to develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual and family needs and conditions. In developing the food, nutrition and health program in Florida it was necessary to consider the several types of farming areas because the same conditions ' that determine the types of farming areas influence the farm tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs, standards of iiving, and ways of thinking. Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food, modified diets for the food supply to fit various conditions were planned (1) for farm families with very small cash income and little opportunities for producing the food supply, (2) for large trucking areas where it is possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit, but little possi bility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; (3) for sections as on the coast, in fl.atwoods or grazing areas where much of the soil is sandy or sub-marginal; and (4) for families who have considerable capital and good possibilities for food production. By analyzing the agricultural situation and the food and health needs of individuals and families in various areas, and by means of program planning meetings with district, county and community agricultural plan ning councils, county councils, home demonstration and 4-H club groups, and individual members, the following goal was determined: That every farm family benefit itself and others by considering: (1) What the farm family should eat to maintain high standards of nutrition and health; (2) how the farm family could obtain this food supply, involving both production and buying; (3) planning the food supply from an economic standpoint, including what foods to use, buy or sell; ( 4) how foods may be kept for future use, including preserving, processing and storage under characteristic temperatures and humidity conditions of the area; (5) how food should be prepared for the family, including standards of meal plan ning, preparation or cookery, and use of a variety of foods. To realize this goal the food, nutrition and health program was divided into two phases, for adults and juniors. The "Feeding the Family Program" for adults included three demonstrations each establishing a background for the next, thus resulting in a . Jong-time food supply program . These were: (1) Essentials for good nutrition; (2) meal planning and food preparation; (3) planning, providing and utilizing the family food supply. The purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living" 'program is to develop an understanding of and a desire for positive health, through the recognition of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparat i on to normal growth and development; to stimulate an interest in school lunches and to create a feeling of responsibility towards receiving adequate sanitary

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Annual Report , 19 37 '77 and economical food supply for family and community through home pro duction and home consumption. This program was divided into the fol lowing four long-time demonstrations: (1) Health im provement; (2) food preparation and meal p lanning; (3) baking and judging baked products; (4) the young homemaker. Fig. 7 . -Bread baking, being demonstrated by the 4-H club girls shown above, is an important part of the food, nutrition and health program throughout the state. DETAILS OF THE YEAR'S EFFORT In 12 counties t he situation received intensive handling, through train ing of agents and volunteer local lead e r s, with specia l assi st ance for demonstration s . Expansion of the activiti es took place i n eig ht counties where the endeavor the year before had been along like lines. Survey of 10 counties were made in planning intensive effort for n e xt year. Home demonstration club members reported adoption of improved food preparation practices as follows : baking, 1,583 women in 34 counties; balanced meals, 5,672 familie s in 38 countie s; dairy products, 935 women in 27 counties; meat cookery, 1 ,4 14 in 30; poultry, 949 in 27; vegetables, 1,736 in 29; school lunche s, home-packed, 2,118 families in 32 counties; hot di s h, 89 s chools in 16. C hild feeding recommendation s 1, 35 1 families followed in 31 counties; corrective foods utilization , 2,124 i ndividual s in 2 9; food budget s uggestion s 1 ,026 families in 26 co unties ; foodstuffs buying, 2,013 in 27; foods storage, 1,052 in 35 ; food supplies readjustment, 2,572 in 3 1; health habits, 3,116 individuals in 27 counties; home nur s ing methods, 626 in 21; preventive means for preserving health, 2,273 in 27; posture improvement, 3,625 in 29. Junior phases consisted of enrolling 4,386 girls 4-H club members in 27 counties, two units of projects having been completed by them in 35 . Food products prepared aggregated 48,238 dishes, 14,130 meal s were

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension planned and served and 572 girls from 37 counties attended method demonstrations in healthful living at the State Short Course held annually. "LIVE-AT-HOME" STILL GOOD POLICY County surveys and analyses, covering food supplies for families, live stock feeds and farm output that may be turned into cash, whfoh continued to be made, showed conclusively the now weU established "live-at-home" plans originally outlined as a Florida Agricultural Extension Service policy should be maintained, in practice providing .rural families with nutrition and health. Discussions at the agents' annual conference, relating to methods, prob lems and solutions, were followed by illustrated talks from home demon~ stration agents telling how they obtained and measured results. Produc tion and conservation of the year's food su'pply, taking into account nutri tional requirement, received major consideration. Meats were accorded a high place in planning the three-day training school which immediately preceded the conference. COOPERATION WITH NUMEROUS AGENCIES Information and materials were exchanged with the State Agriculture and Education departments. Home economics and vocational agriculture teachers used data from the food, nutrition and health specialist for ref erence purposes, as did the Florida State College for Women in teacher training classes. Health units, state and county, gave assistance, through lectures in communities during health contests, making physical examinations and furnishing recommendations for corrective measures. Nurses at camps also were supplied, who not only cared for the health of those present . but gave instruction regarding proper 'practices and home care for the sick. Statistical data were forthcoming from the State Board of Health. Cooperation with Parent 0 Teachers' Association endeavor principally took the form of assistance in summer round-up clinics for pre-school children. Service was rendered by the Extension Nutritionist as news-gatherer and program committee head, State Home Economics Association, and com munity health chairman, Florida branch, American Dietetics Association. Arrangements with the National Youth Administration made college girls available for clerical work. Preparation of illustrative material, including charts, graphs, maps and posters, was a helpful outcome, for use .in developing demonstrations. United States Agriculture Department bulletins and mimeographed cir culars have aided in developing plans, especially home economics bureau charts and posters. American Child Health and Dental Associations and Dairy Council literature also has been used. REVIEW OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS Food, nutrition and health activities have been reported from 64 percent of the counties employing home demonstration agents. Buying wisely was the major effort in 13 percent, health and nutrition needs chiefly engaged 15 percent, while foods selection with meals planning and preparation principally occupied 21 percent. In 46 perc~nt of 29 counties the adult goals were exceeded, 42 percent having fallen below the standards and 12 percent meeting these. Junior workers went above the expectations in 31 percent of th~ 29 counties, reached these for 25 percent while 44 percent failed fully to achieve them.

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Annual Report, 1937 79 Feeding the family and healthful living practices received attention in all the reporting counties and not less than 39 percent of the families kept records. Work was under way on at least two food supply phases and 54 percent of the persons with whom contacts were made showed improve ment, home-makers utilizing a plan aggregating 75 percent. Food, nutrition and health endeavors which 4-H club girls enrolled in were completed by 77 percent. Counties .having home demonstration agents entered one girl in each of the four demonstrations under this head con ducted at the Short Course for the year. Exhibits educational in nature, at fairs and elsewhere, and tours on which achievements were observed proved efficient means for stimulating increased interest. Charts, graphs and posters also proved helpful.

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension IMPROVING FLORIDA RURAL HOMES Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement In 1937, the Florida home demonstration system's endeavor for rural homes improvement, exterior and interior, again was based on the findings disclosed by the farm . housing survey made during 1934. Plan s of W(!)rk adopted for the period stressed the aims outlined as follows: I. Better Home Management ina. Time b. Income and expenditures (Home accounts) c. Equipment 1. Selection (buying) 2. Care d. Storage spaces 1. For conservation of food 2. For clothing 3 . For business centers, movable and built-in II. Home Surroundingsa. Exterior beautification of the yard b. Home site 1. Yard 2. Grazing lots 3. Garden (year-round) 4. Orchard (calendar) 5. Fences, out-buildings 6. Trees, vines c. Home sanitation Fig. 8.-Permanence of home demonstration work in the communities, and the desire of rural women for beautiful surroundings, is shown by the establishment of 'permanent club rooms or buildings such as that pictured above. In 1937 18 were built.

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Annual Report, 1937 81 III. The House-a. Planning new house b. Remodeling old houses c. Water in 1. Kitchen 2. Bathroom 3. Heating facilities Girls holding membership in the 4-H clubs are started during their first year, with better housekeeping projects. Home improvement prac tices required for the second 12 months consist of demonstrations as to porches and their surroundings, including foundation planting. In the third year, planting 'plans for the yard are made and carried out, while during the fourth year improvement of one or more rooms is undertaken. Exterior beautification performance by women is through units; first, foundation planting; second, the yard as a whole; third, the entire premises. Under the last-named head are included drives and walks, with due thought for soil erosion and related factors, fences and outbuildings. Home sanita tion is demonstrated only in healthy and prosperous families. WHAT WAS DONE DURING 1937 Beautification and sanitation achievements reported for the year, by home demonstration club members and 4-H girls, were as follows: Number of houses (a) whitewashed ... 27 (b) painted 471 Number of out-buildings to be (a) whitewashed .................................... 74 (b) .. painted ......................... ............. ...... 183 Number of fences (a) whitewashed 24 (b) painted ........................................... -......................... 83 Number of homes to make complete improvement of grounds according to plans ........................................... .. 7 48 Number of people, not club members, influenced to paint or whitewash, or to plant grass, or start foundation plantings ................................ 1,213 Number of homes installing sanitary closets or out-houses according to recommendations .................................................................................... 854 Number of homes screened according to recommendations ...................... 712 Number of homes following other recommended methods of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects 896 Number who have studied the life cycle of flies, mosquitoes and hookworm .............................................................................................................. 841 Numb~r of homes in which special efforts have been made to improve the sanitation on Inside .......................................................................... 1,049 Outside ........................................................................ 1,115 .MAKING FARM HOUSES MORE LIV ABLE Repairing of walls, roofs, foundations, doors and windows, chimneys and so on home demonstration women regard as among the things that should be first given attention. Facilities for running water, in bathrooms or kitchens, laundrying equipment, additional sleeping rooms or porches and like interior improvements proved extremely popular aims during the current year. Trends are indicated by the statistics for 1935, 1986 and 1987, in com parative form as below:

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension Buildings remodeled, repainted, repaired ....... . All buildings constructed ................................... . Farm homes electrified ................. . ............. . ... . ... . Home equipment bought . .... . . . ..... . . ..... ......... . . .. .. . Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished ................................................... .. .. . Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished Sewage systems installed . ........ . .................. . .. . . . Water systems installed Heating systems installed .......... .. ................. . ... . Lighting systems installed ............................... . Home appliances and machines ....................... . Dairy buildings Poultry houses Home equipment purchased by clubs or groups Horne equipment purchased by individuals .... Number of kitchens improved according to recommendations ... . ... . ........ ...... .. . ............. . .. . Families buying labor-saving equipment Families adopting recommended laundry practices ............... . .................... .... ........... . .... . . Families making soap at home Families adopting recommended material in better housekeeping ................................... . Families making box furniture, conveniences and equipment ........ . ............. .... ............ . ...... . Number of women making time schedule for home duties ........... .. ......... .. ... ..... .............. . .. . . . 4-H club members keeping accounts ........ . ... . . : . Families keeping home accounts per recommendations ....... ... ... . .............. . . ...................... . Families developing home indstries to supplement income ........................................... . 1935 501 89 41 979 52 300 100 107 23 98 1,350 9 55 1936 1,003 184 158 1,658 107 23 125 188 22 224 2,619 317 189 1937 569 146 339 1,094 96 222 248 153 38 249 1,817 5 138 $975.00 $1,160.00 $1,590.00 3,082.00 11,115.00 12,671.00 538 1,603 458 350 1,798 978 463 496 355 514 771 1,791 573 292 1,341 881 553 650 453 789 705 1,663 688 215 2,274 563 694 584 424 551

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Annual Report, 1937 83 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles Health, good posture and correct weight are recognized as factors corre lating other home demonstration activities with the clothing and textiles work. Purchasing, construction and care of clothing and household textiles are among the home management phases included. Demonstrations through 4-H clubs seek development of the girls no less than expansion in their knowledge. Clothing and textile needs of Florida rural families and the homes in which they live constitute the primary purposes. Plans are made for the undertaking to be a growing affair, one demonstration leading to the next, with ever-enlarging goals. Resources limitations which govern most farm ers and climatic conditions affecting materials both are kept constantly in the foreground. RESULTS' ATTAINED IN THE YEAR Clothing meetings held under home demonstration sponsorship num bered 3,133, having increased 11.8 percent over the preceding 12 months and reached 58 more communities. March , April, September and October proved to be the most timely months for these gatherings. Assistance from former 4-H club members greatly aided local leaders and county agents. Wardrobe demonstrations for adults at present are built around making women's clothing and buying personal garments. Records compiled in con nection therewith indicate that participants average less than $50 annually to spend on clothing. Home sewing methods improvement saved cash for other uses. Dress revues for women, encouraged as achievement exhibits alike . for adults and juniors, were reported from eight counties, with 270 entries. Six clothing demonstrations in her hom e over as many years are offered every 4-H club girl. Fundamentals of home sewing come first, then the Florida 4-H uniform, cap and apron, followed by the ap'proved attire for schools, "best" wear, street, or travel and partie s . Leaders volunteering for local work, numbering 355, gave 1 , 442 days, afforded much relief for county agents. Girls conducting clothing work altogether aggregated 8,518 of 10,374 enrolled and they established 5,481 result demonstrations in their homes. Silver Jubilee exercises commemorating the 25th year of . home demon stration work in Florida, at which 36 counties were represented, presented opportunity for clothing and textile.fl emphasis among the 572 girls .at tending. STATE STYLE REVUE FOR GIRLS . . Discrimination in selecting county winners was greater this year than previously, and reflected itself in the improved appearance of contestants. Only 40 girls modeled of 415 entering the 20 county revues, which for 1936 were composed of 147 contestants with 45 chosen to seek state-wide honors. Clair Alice Warfield, a Hillsborough County girl, won the tri'p to the National 4-H Club Congress with an inexpensive school dress of cotton print. Meetings of 4-H clubs had explained to them the state plans of the home demonstration forces and were shown the clothing exhibits prepared in the Tallahassee offices. Adults' conference displays were on more• advanced lines.

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension Recommendations in construction of clothing were reported as having been followed by 8,948 individuals, the 4-H club members making 5,740 dresses and 41,959 other articles. Children's clothing was improved by 2,501 persons, a 21.4 increase over last year. Fig. 9.-Girl s who have been trained in 4-H clubs naturally enroll in home demonstration clubs for women as they establish homes of their own. Shown above are four former 4-H girls with their children in a meeting with the home demonstration agent discussing clothing for y oungster s. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE YEAR IN BRIEF Women and girls in rural Florida have been helped with the selection, construction, and care of suitable clothing and house furnishings, from the standpoint which stresses both durability and attractiveness. Home demon stration agents received assistance in basing their clothing and textile activities on the economic and physical situations 'prevailing over Florida, that they might meet the people's need. Field work occupied 101 days of the specialist's time, during which she made contacts with 3,535 persons. Office duties as summarized below indicate more fully the purposes and the scope of the clothing and tex tiles effort: Activity Program Planning Method 1937 clothing and textile plan of work written for entire state. Office and field work to be accomplished, planned. Conference of State Staff Attended ten conferences of state home demon stration workers.

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Activity Annual Report, 1937 85 Method Monthly work including itineraries planned and approved. Attended two joint conferences of state staff of Agricultural Extension workers. Subject Matter Materials Revised outline and record for Wardrobe Demon strations. Adult work Junior work State Clothing Contests Record Judging Publicity Correspondence Illustrative Material Posters Photographs Exhibits State and Sectional Meetings Miscellaneous Issued two skits, one on buying and the other on care. Issued two subject matter bulletins for Demon stration I and II. Prepared and issued State Style Dress Revue and clothing judging requirements. Prepared and issued subject matter materials for two courses at Short Course. Issued style dress revue playlet adapted from State Style Dress Revue program. Conducted State Style Dress Revue contest and entered state winner in National Style Dress Revue. Conducted state clothing judging contest. Judged and scored 15 county council record books. Judged and scored 12 4-H Club girls' records for trip to National 4-H Club Camp. Judged and scored 35 4-H Club girls' records for trip to National 4-H Club Congress. Two radio talks. One news letter. Five news articles. Program for State Style Dress Revue. General for development of work. Clothing selection, good and poor buys. Quality guides in buying. Artistic principles of dress. Wardrobe plans. Home Sewing. Color wheel and harmonies. Clothing course at State Short Course. Honor group of state clothing contest. Winner of state clothing contest. Complete exhibit of 26 required articles to be constructed in junior clothing work. Household textiles (towels). Children's clothing. Men's clothing (shirts). Planned and presented a clothing program at annual 4-H Club girls' Short Course, Woman's Institute, annual Agents' Conference of Agri cultural Extension Workers, at two district 4-H Club camps, and annual 4-H Club Short Course and Agents' Conference of Negro Home Demonstration Work. Preparation of material on clothing for the Outlook for Farm Family Sewing for 1938. Annual report.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension PART IV-NEGRO PHASES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION MEN'S GROUP A. A. Turner, Local District Agent In the farm demonstration division of Agricultural Extension Service among Negroes, the 22nd year ended November 30, 1937. Negro local agents remained the same, eight men serving nine counties-Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Hillsborough, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion and Suwannee. Supervision was supplied by the local district agent, working directly under plans made in the Extension Service headquarters at Gainesvi~ . Instruction was given the field men and arrangements completed in a conference at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, December 1-4, 1936. Tours among Negro farmers conducted by the federal Soil Conservation Semce during May and June received full coo peration. Boys' and girls' 4-H club nineteenth annual short course convened at the Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4. State Farm and Home Institute for Negroes in second yearly session at Fessenden Academy, Martin, Marion County, August 25-27, assembled more than 200 men and women. Stockholders' meeting of the Federal Land Bank, Orlando, September 13, was attended on invitation by the local district agent and two repre sentatives from the State Negro Farmers' Cooperative Association. Extension Service conference of workers from six states at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, January 18, also found the local district agent for Florida present by special request. National Federation of Colored Farmers' eighth annual convention, in Forsyth, Georgia, October 28-30 the local district agent went to with the Florida delegation , expenses incurred having been borne by the cooperative association. PROJECT AND RELATED ACTIVITIES Assistance to the farm agents from the local district agent helped in locating satisfactory sources of supply for fertilizers, seeds and similar supplies. Meetings in the active counties planned the demonstrations that farmers would find profitable. Corn 'production endeavors took 277 days of the local farm agents' time, during which 54 adult result demonstrations were held. In Alachua County, as a typical instance, 51 reporting Negro farmers more than doubled their corn yields per acre by turning under cowpeas and field peas. Oats and rye received 50 days work from farm agents, to the end th.at farmers could have winter grazing. Planting of small plots for home poultry flocks also was urged and to some degree practiced. A cheese company at Thomasville, Georgia, donates 50 cents to the Leon County Negro Council on account each member of _ a community club who sowed oats for grazing or to be harvested as dairy cattle feed. Cotton is the major cash crop among Negroes in seven of the nine counties worked by farm agents, so they placed great emphasis on eco nomical production and marketing, spending 155 days time. Diversion of

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Annual Report, 1937 land to other crops was encouraged and practiced in considerable measure. Sea Island cotton projects were carried out in five counties. Areas are restricted in which tobacco can be successfully grown, and the crop was worked on by only six agents, who devoted 72 days thereto. Six method demonstrations on treating the blue mold disease in tobacco beds were given by the Columbia County agent. Peanuts as a cash crop are important only in Jackson among the coun ties having Negro farm agents. Elsewhere the farmers principally plant the crop to be "hogged off". Truck crops for commercial purposes had 64 days time from agents in six counties, the others stressing home gardens. Marion County reports indicated gross sales by Negro farmers as follows: Snap beans, $12,680.00; tomatoes, $900.00; okra, $2,118.60; squash, 1 $685.00; watermelons, $22,350.00; black eye peas, $900.00; lettuce, $295.00; cabbage, $95.00; total, $40,023.60. In Alachua, the farm agent reported that $11,976.50 worth of beans were sold, over $5,625 worth of watermelons, and $3,875 worth of cucum bers. Beef cattle . have been scarce among Florida !Negro farmers but with the situation regarding them materially improved through the work of local farm agents in assisting to secure purebred males for crossing on the native stock. Six counties report the sale of livestock as follows: Jackson, $10,580.50; Marion, $10,100; Alachua, $6,800; Leon, $5,148.81; Hamilton, $4,222AO; and Jefferson, i3,192. A Hamilton County Negro operates a dairy equipped with all modern conveniences, owning 14 pure bred Jersey cows and one bull. In the remaining counties the farmers were encouraged to have at least one milk cow for the family. Pork is popular among Negro farmers and most of them butcher be tween one hog and six hogs a year for family use. Local farm agents . spent 167 days on swine projects during 1937, Jefferson County carried projects which started with 211 pigs at the begi1:ming of the year, in Sep tember 180 hogs having been sold for $2,810.24. Poultry marketing locally and in urban centers by Negro farmers is increasing rapidly, and nearly all of them raise some birds for home con sumption. Breeds selection, disease and parasite control, grading eggs and selling methods occupied the local farm agents for 122 days. FLORIDA NEGRO 4aH CLUBS FOR BOYS Organized 4-H club activities are prosecuted by 108 units, which enrolled 1,584 boys, of whom 1,083 completed the work for the year. , Corn projects . enlisted 720, and were finished by 527. On the 527 acres they cultivated, with over 12,000 bushels output, yields per . acre mostly increased materially because green manure crops had preceded the grain, as the local farm agents recommended. Cotton enrolled boys in six counties as indicated below, two-thirds of t hem going through for more than an acre each and nearly 31,000 pounds production: No. No. County Enrolled Completing No. Acres Total Yield Jackson 40 20 20 7,000 lbs. Columbia --26 21 21 6,678 lbs. Jefferson ---21 15 28 5,840 lbs. Hamilton ......... . ........... 12 6 6 4,718 lbs. Alachua ................ . ....... 4 4 4 3,600 lbs. Leon 2 2 3 3,000 lbs. Totals _ (State) 105 68 82 30,836 lbs.

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension Peanuts proved the major interest with 310 boys, 177 of whom com pleted the projects which included 293. acres and yielded 141,643 pounds. Sweet potato enrollment included only 125 boys but 68 hung on to the end, harvesting 30,836 pounds from 82 acres. Home and market gardens, producing truck crops for the family food supply or to sell, interested 76 and 55 boys respectively, under the first named projects having been completed by 60 while in the latter classifica tion only 10 finished the undertakings, involving considerable risk as they did. Swine effort enrolled 98 boys, 69 having gone to the end with projects inv olving 236 hogs, principally of the Po.land China, Hampshire, Essex, Duroc-J ersey and kindred breeds. Poultry was taken up by the boys on an extensive scale for the first time this year, and local farm agents assisted many of them in acquiring purebred fowls. Members who registered for this work numbered 122 and 59 completed it. EVENTS AND ASSEMBLAGES State Negro 4-H Club Annual Short Course at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, June 1-4, was attended by 142 boys and leaders, and the eight local farm agents. Instruction assistance was rendered by Agricultural Extension Service specialists and College faculty members, and the four days period devoted to agronomy, dairying, farm ing shop work, gardening, poultry and swine husbandry. Fig. 10.-County exhibits arranged by Negro farm agents and displayed at the Florida State Fair depicted progress of Negro farmers.

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Annual Report, 1937 89 Alachua, Hillsborough, Leon a'.l}d Marion county local farm agents held encampments for the Negro 4-H club boys within their territories, ranging in length from three to seven days and with an attendance aggre gating 129. In seven counties, the Negro 4-H club boys received assist ance from the local farm agents in preparing exhibits for achievement days, showing what had been accomplished. Ribbons and small prizes which were awarded in many cases had been donated by the business and professional men of the community.

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90 Jl'lorida Cooperative Extension HOME DEMONSTRATION AMONG NEGROES Beulah Stephens Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent Negro local home demonstration agents are employed in Alachua, Hills borough, Leon, Duval, Madison, Gadsden, Putnam and Marion counties, whose work is supervised by the local district agent in this field, under directions from the State Home Demonstration Agent's headquarters. Agents' annual conference, December 1-4, 1937, at the Florida Agricul tural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, made "better home living" the theme, discussing the needs of the Negro farmers and their families as to food and its conservation, bringing dairy, garden and poultry yards into the foreground as sources therefor, and also dealing with clothing, residence surroundings and like factors. Staff members and specialists of the Agricultural Extension Service who attended offered many helpful suggestions. State Negro Boys' and Girls' Short Course in annual session at the Florida A. and M. College, June 1-4, gave agents training in the , same subjects as the girls. Extension Summer Short Course, held at Tuskegee Institute, in Alabama, was attended by three of the local home agents. In a one day agents' meeting at Lake City, two district representatives from the Agricultural Extension Service assisted the local district agent for Negro home demonstration effort in planning the proceedings that specially related to this undertaking. Agents operating within counties had assistance from the local district agent for Negro home demonstration in planning their work, committee men and community leaders taking active part in the councils. Leaders of neighborhood and county endeavors who were busy during the year numbered 116. Farm and home visits made by the local district agent in company with the county workers aggregated 415. THINGS NEGRO WOMEN ACCOMPLISHED Incomes of Negro farm families received material additions from foods conserved, valued at $11,994.20 and through poultry and eggs sold by home demonstration club members. Handicraft articles made from natural re sources, including baskets, dresses, hats, luncheon cloths, rugs, whisk brooms and so on, likewise increased family revenues. Camps in Hillsborough, Duval and . Putnam counties, the latter two holding theirs jointly, provided both instruction and recreation. Child care endeavor produced good results almost everywhere, Alachua and Hills borough holding healthy baby shows. Hillsborough also staged a flower exhibition, which over 500 people attended, awards for excellence in dis plays going to 28 women. Food and nutrition studies everywhere stressed balanced meals and school lunches with noticeable improvement following. Home management sought greater efficiency and more comforts, the club activities in several instances leading directly to installation by individuals of electric lights, irons, refrigerators and washing machines, running water and related kitchen conveniences. Clothing projects proved successful in numerous cases. Gardens were quite generally planted both for home supplies and market purposes. Health and sanitation endeavors, including observance of Negro National Health Week, attained achievements worth while from a permanent view point.

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Annual R e port, 1937 91 Short Course statistics reflect the appeal to Negro women and girls eld by this annual event, as follows: ENROLLMENT (Girls and Women) County Agent Girls Alachua ....... . . . .............. . ........... . ...... . 1 13 Duval . . ... ..... . .. . . .. ..... . ........ . ............. . .... 1 29 Gadsden ....... . ............... .. ........ ... ....... . 1 33 Hillsborough . ....... .. . . .... . . .. ................ 1 21 Leon ... . ...... .. ........ ... ...... .... ...... ... ....... . 1 53 Madison .............. . . . ...... .. . ...... . ........ . .. 1 16 Marion ... . .. . .... . ..... .. ..... . . . .... ...... . . . . . .. . . 1 19 Putnam 1 6 Totals .. . . . .. .. . ...... .... . .... ... .... ..... .. . 8 190 Leaders 7 10 13 6 1 3 2 1 4 3 HOMEMAKERS' AND GIRLS' 4-H CLUBS SUMMARY Negro women belonging to homemakers' clubs in the eight counties mmbered 1,474 and 2,479 girls were members of organized 4-H clubs, l,958 of the latter compl e ting their projects begun during the year. A mmmary of the united accomplishments follows: 1. Food conservation: Canned 59,971 containers of fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry, relishes, jams, marmalad e s, preserves and juices. Cured 85,877 pounds of meat. Made 919 pounds of sausage. Made 12,613 pounds of lard. Made 37,060 pounds of soap. Sold preserved product s valued at $3,6 3 1.15. 2. Poultry: Rai s ed 17 , 884 chickens. Produced 72,118 eggs. Sold poultry products valued at $4,761.61. 3. Thrift: 1,123 women and g i rls used discarded materials and sacks to make useful articles. 16 made chairs of barr e ls. 104 made furniture of wooden box es . 600 made rugs at home. 209 articles were sold amounting to $265. 4. Sanitation: 191 sanitary privies were installed according to recommendations. 100 individuals improved home grounds. 129 homes were screened. 718 homes follow recommended methods for controlling the mosquito, flies and other insects. 5. Community work: 1,016 club members assisted in improving school, church and cemetery grounds. 6. Food, nutrition and health: 1,113 individuals improved health habits according to recom mendations. 1,135 individuals adopted recommended positive preventive mea s ure s to improve health.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension 1,216 individuals had complete health examinations during the year. 7. Child care: 1,278 homes are adopting better adult habits with respect to the development of children. 8. Dairying: 6,255 pounds of butter were sold, valued at $2,116.15. 177 families are using 1 quart of milk per day per child and one pint per adult. 9. Home management: 322 homes were assisted in making adjustments to gain more satisfactory standards of living. 649 kitchens were rearranged for convenience according to recommendations. 322 homes following recommended buying methods .

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Annual Report, 1937 STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK (Men and Women) GENERAL ACTIVITIES Total days service rendered .................................................................. 4,598 Members in Extension Associations or Committees ........................ 558 Communities in which Negro Extension program has been planned ................... .................. ... ......... 323 Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 94 Members in such clubs or groups 1,475 4-H clubs 237 4-H club members enrolled . 4,063 4-H club memers completing 3,046 4-H club teams trained 64 Farm or home visits .. : ................ . ..... .. ............. : ........................ :.. .......... 7,353 Different farms or homes visited .... .. .................................................. 2,923 Calls relating to extension work ............................................... '. .. 11,458 News articles or stories published and circular letters issued ...... 179 Letters written 5,875 Bulletins distributed 6,456 Extension exhibits 67 Meetings held 2,685 (Attendance .............................. 7,500 Achievement days and encampments ................................................ 39 (Attendance .............................. 9,050 Homes and farms influenced by program 4,591 Homes with 4-H club members enrolled ... . ............. ,........................ 2,443 CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted ................................... . Result demonstrations conducted Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued ....... ; ............... . 4-H club members enrolled .................................................. ' ............... . 4-H club members completing Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ... . Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ........... . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted ................................... . Result demonstrations conducted Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued 4-H club members enrolled 4-H club members completing Acres in project conducted by 4-H club members completing Bushels of crops grown by 4-H club m . embers completing ........... . 297 61 123 38 1,003 780 683 13,557 446 73 123 47 401 241 429 2,175 93

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Others Cotton Tobacco Communities in which work was conducted .... 168 94 40 Result demonstrations conducted ................ .. ...... 9 22 14 Meetings held ............................ . ............... ,........... 9 71 32 News stories published and circular letters .... 13 29 14 4-H club members enrolled 128 126 106 4-H club members completing ............................ 76 68 6 Acres in project conducted by 4-H members .... 79 82 17 Yield of crops grown by 4-H members .............. 3,234 bu. 30,836 lb.11,2351b. FRUITS, VEGETABLES ' , AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was conducted .............. . ...................... . Result demonstrations conducted ............. ......................................... . Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued ... ........... . .. .... .. . 4-H club members enrolled 4-H club members completing .... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ... . Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing ........ .... . . FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGIN!!")ERING 633 711 645 58 2,895 1,684 229.6 1,901 Bu. Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 73 Result demonstrations conducted 46 Meetings held ............ .. . .. 47 News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 7 4-H club members enrolled 20 4-H club members completing .......................... 8 Terracing and drainage, farms ............................................................ 39 Acres ........ ........................................................................ .. ....................... 1,689 Land clearing practices ................................................ ... .................. . .. 10 Acres ....... .. ............. ... .............. _............................................... ............. 76 Better equipment practices .. . ..................... . .................. .. ..................... 272 Buildings erected or improved ............................................................ 251 POULTRY AND BEES Communities in which work was conducted ....... ... ..................... . .... 167 Result demonstrations conducted .......... ..... .... .. ................................. 220 Meetings held ............ . .................. . ... 174 News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 28 4-H club members enrolled .................................................................. 642 4-H club members completing ............................. . ........ . .................... -. 440 Number units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 10,549 Families following better practices for poultry 2,687 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted 321 Result demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 101 Meetings held .................................................. 164 News stories published and circular letters issued .......... 41 4-H club members enrolled .................................. 311 4-H club members completing ................................... . ........................ 297 Animals in project conducted by 4-H club members completing.... 474

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Annual Report, 1937 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Result demonstrations conducted .... ....... ..... ..... . . ....... .. ............... .. . .. .... 3 Meetings held ...................................................................................•....... 67 News stories published and circular letters issued .... . ...... .. ........... 42 Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ..... . . .. . .... 385 Families assisted in getting established ........ . . .. ....... . .............. .. ........ 30 Individuals affected by marketing program .................................... 298 Organizations assisted with problems ................................................ 111 Individuals assisted with problems . . .................................................. 859 95 Value of products sold by associations Value of supplies purchased by organizations ................................ $44,872.05 FOODS AND NUTRITION Sommunities in which work was conducted .................................... 2 88 lesult demonstrations conducted ........ .... .... ...... ........ ..... ............. . ....... 549 l\'.leetings held . ......•....... 427 News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 22 4-H club members enrolled 3,199 4-H club members completing ............................................................ 2,268 Families adopting improved food practices .................................... 3,323 Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 35 Children involved 1,133 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs .... . ........... 38,714 Value of products canned or otherwise 'preserved ... . ...................... $8,661.79 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conducted 90 Result demonstrations conducted ... ...... . ...... .. . ....... ....... . . .... ................. . 84 Meetings held 105 News stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 9 4-H club members enrolled ............................................. . .. .... . ...... . ........ 242 4-H club members completing ....................................................... .'.... 155 Other 4-H club members who participated .. ...................................... 57 Families adopting better child-development practices .................. 1,325 Individuals participating in child-development program .............. 650 Children involved .................................................................................... 1,346 CLOTHING Communities in which work was conducted .................................... 149 Result demonstrations conducted 410 Meetings held 336 News stories published and circular letters issued .......................... 51 4-H club members enrolled . ... ..................................................... . ........ 1,895 4-H club members completing 1,362 Articles made by 4-H club members 7,608 Individuals following better clothing practices ...... . .. . .................... 8,862 Savings due to clothing program $4,696.00 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS Communities in which work was conducted 300 Result demonstrations conducted 721 Meetings held 470 News stories published and circular letters issued 116 4-H club members enrolled .... .... ......... . ............. . ............ . ....................... 3,141 4-H club members completing 2,309 Units in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ...... 7,801

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension Families adopting improved home-management practices ............ 5,426 Saving due to home-management program ' $5,596.00 Families making improvements in house furnishings 2,885 Savings due to home-furnishings program $3,686.50 Families following recommendations regarding handicraft ........ 1,006 HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work was conducted 185 Result demonstrations conducted 399 Meetings held 245 News stories published and circular letters issued 106 4-H club members enrolled 2,277 4-H club members completing 1,773 Individuals having health examinations 2,011 Other 4-H club members who participated ........... . .... . ....... .. . . ....... . .. 1,295 Individuals adopting better health habits 6,394 Families adopting better health habits 2,732 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... . Communities assisted with community problems Training meetings conducted for community leaders Families following recommendations as to home recreation ....... . 4-H clubs engaging in community activities Families aided in obtaining assistance from ; Red Cross or other relief agency 227 59 369 103 272 156 546

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Annual Report, 1937 INDEX 97 Aerial mapping, 25 Agencies, cooperation of, 7, 70, 78 Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural conservation, 8, 23 Agricultural economics, 8, 14, 58, 95 Agricultural engineering, 13, 94 Agronomy, 32 Ammoniation, citrus, 43 Animal husbandry, 45 Arts, rural, 69 Baby chick management, 55 Beautification, home, 13, 68 Beef cattle sales, 9, 87 statistics, 14, 94 Bees, 14, 94 Blue mold control, 10 Boys' 4-H club work, 36, 47, 50, 56, 60 Negro, 87 Breeding, dairy, 50 Bronze leaf, citrus, 43 Bulletins, 17 Bull pens, 51 By-products, dairy, 50 Calendar flock records, 55 orchards, 67 Camps, club, 39, 65, 90 Canning, 66, 67 Cattle sales, 9, 87 statistics, 14, 94 Celery marketing agreement, 61 Cereals, statistics, 12, 93 Chick management, 55 Child development, 15, 92, 95 feeding, 77 Circulars, 17 Citriculture, 8, 42 Citrus grove management, 58 Clothing, 16, 66, 83, 90, 95 Club work, boys', 8, 36, 47, 50, 56, 60 girls, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83 Negro, 86, 87 Community activities, 16, 69, 91, 96 Conservation, agricultural, 8, 23 food, 72, 90, 91 soil, 9 Contests, 4-H, 40 Corn, 32, 33, 34, 86 Cotton, Sea Island, 9, 34 statistics, 13, 94 County agents' activities, 30 Cover crops, citrus, 42 Crafts, rural, 69 Cuban tariff conference, 60 Cultivation, citrus, 42 Dairy farm accounts, 59 Dairying, 8, 14, 49, 66, 67, 92, 94 Dieback, citrus, 43 Director's report, 7 Disease control, citrus,. 43 dairy, 51 Dress revue, 83 Editorial work, 17 Egg-Laying Test, 57 Egg market survey, 56 Engineering, agricultural, 13, 94 home, 68 Exhibits, 7, 59, 74 Fairs, 46, 59 Family cow, 50 Farm account books, 60 Farm management, 58 Fat Stock Show, 22, 46 Feeding children, 77 dairy cows, 50 steers, 46 Fertilizers, 33, 49 Financial statement, 11 Folders, letter, 18 Food and nutrition, 15, 66, 67, 76, 90, 91, 94 conservation, 72, 90, 91 Forage demonstrations, 49 crop statistics, 13, 93 Forestry, 13, 94 Frenching, . citrus, 43 Fruits, 13 Furnishings, house, 15, 68, 95 Gardens, 66, 67, 72 Girls' club work, 56, 70, 75, 77, 83 Grove management, 58 Health, home, 16, 76, 91, 96 Hog demonstrations, 47 sales, 9 Home demonstration work, 8, 63 improvement, 80 industries, 66, 69 management, 15, 92, 95 Honey, 74 Horses, 94 House furnishings, 15, 68, 95

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension Improving homes, 80 Institutes, 44, 65 Irrigation, citrus, 43 Legumes, statistics, 13, 93 Livestock markets, 4 7 Mailing bulletins, supplies, 17 Markets, dairy, 51 egg, 56 livestock, 48 Marketing agreements, 60, 61 Marketing home products, 74 Meat cutting and curing, 47 Meat supply, home, 74 Meetings, 10, 88 Melanose, citrus, 44 Mold control, blue, 10 Negro extension work, 9, 86 home demonstration, 71, 90 News releases, 19 writing training, 21 Nutrition, 15, 76, 91, 95 Oats, 86 Orchards, home, 67, 72 Organizations, poultry, 56 Outlook, 51, 60 Parent education, 15, 95 Pastures, 34, 45, 50 Peanuts, 32, 33, 87 Planning councils, 9, 59 Pork, 87 Potatoes, economic study, 59 marketing agreement, 61 statistics, 13, 94 Poultry, 14, 52, 66, 67, 87, 91, 94 economic study, 59 feed prices, 52 organizations, 56 products prices, 53 records, 55 Printing, 17 Radio, 20, 40 Rations, dairy, 50 Records, citrus, 58 dairy, 50 poultry, 55 Recreational work, 40, 69 Rust mite control, 43 Sanitation, 16, 68, 91, 96 Scale control, 44 Sea Island cotton, 9, 34 Sheep, 14, 94 Short courses, club, 40, 65 Shows, 46 Silo building, 46, 49 Soil conservation, 9 Statistical report, Negro, 93 white, 12 Steer feeding, 45 Style dress revue, 83 Sweet potato weevil, 10 1 Swine, 14, 94 Tariff conference, 60 Terracing, 32 Textiles, 67, 83 Thrift work, 69, 91 Tobacco, 34, 87 blue mold, 10 statistics, 13, 94 Trips, 51 Truck crops work, 9, 13, 60, 87 Vegetable conferences, 60 statistics, 13 work, 9, 87 Velvet beans, 32 Wardrobe demonstrations, 67 Watermelon marketing agreement, 60, 61 Weevil, sweet potato, 10 Wildlife conservation, 40 Wreath making, 74