Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1936
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text











1936 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL Ex. .-'NSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1936















1936 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME.

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30,1936







BOARD OF CONTROL

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland R. P. TERRY, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUDY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialis J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2 HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman2 D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Managemen R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management MYRON M. VARN, B.S.A., Asst. Farm Management Specialist D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing,
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent LucY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent ANNA MAE SIXES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.












CONTENTS
PAGE

isT oF A GENTS . ------------- . . 5

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR . _ -_----_----_- . 7

Financial Statem ent . ----------- . 13

Statistical R eport . ---------------------------------------------------- 14

PUBLICATIONS, N Ew s, RADIO . . . 19

,OUNTY A GENT W ORK . -----------------_ -- --------------------------------------- 23

SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM ---------------------------- ------------------_-_ ---- . 30

Boys' 4-H CLUB W ORK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 35

DAIRYING . . 41

ANIMAL H USBANDRY . . ------------------------------------------------------- 46

CITRUS CULTURE ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------ 52

POULTRY W ORK . 58

AGRICULTURAL E CONOM ICS ------------------------------------------------------ _ _-------_ ------------ 66

Farm M anagem ent . ------------------------------------ . 66

M arketing -------------- . - ------------------------------------------ _ . 71

HOM E D EMONSTRATION W ORK . -----_ ----_-------------- __ ------- 74

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION . . 87

FOOD, N UTRITION AND H EALTH . . 90

IOM E IM PROVEMENT . . 94

"LOTHING AND TEXTILES . . 97

qEGRO M EN'S W ORK . -------- __ . 102

4EGRO H OME D EM ONSTRATION W ORK ---------- ----------------------------------------- _----_ - 108

qEGRO STATISTICAL REPORT . ------------------_ . . . 113





[31




















Hon. Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1936, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1936.
Respectfully,
GEo. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TiGERT, President, University of Florida








* COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Iachua . Fred L. Craft .Gainesville . Mrs. Grace F. Warren iker .M. D. Futch.Macdlenny . . )y. John G. Hentz, Jr.-,Panama City . radford. T. K. McClane.Starke . revard .T. L. Cain .Cocoa. . Mrs. Eunice F.Ga roward . . --------Ft. Lauderdale .Miss Olga Kent
ilhoun--. -J. G. Kelley .Blountstown. .iarlotte.,. N. H. McQueen.---Punta Gorda . trus . Inverness. Mrs. Elizabeth W.Mor
--y-_---_---------.*. Green Cove Springs .Miss Beulah Felts
ljumba.Guy Cox . Lake City. 'de.C. H. Steffani .Miami. Miss Pansy Norton de (st) J. L. Edwards.Miami.
Soo.E. H. Vance.Arcadia.
xi.D. M. Treadwell.---Cross City .
va.A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville.--_---Miss Pearl Laffitte val (Asst.) Frank M. Dennis . Jacksonville.
camibia.------E. H. Finlayson .Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson
gler. .--Fred Barber .Bunnell. dsden . R. P. Howard .Quincy . Miss Elise Lafitte christ. A. S. Laird .Trenton-. if.-------------------Wewahitchka . Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield
milton .J. J. Sechrest .Jasper---:. . rde.e.H. L. Miller .Wauchula . . rnando .B. E. Lawton.Brooksville . lands .L. H. Alsmeyer.---Sebring._. Isboro . Alec White.Tampa."" Isboro (West).----. . Tampa. Miss Allie Lee Rush Isboro (East) . Plant City.----------Miss Irene Riley
Inies .D. D. McCloud.----Bonifay .Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
kson .J. W. Malone.Marianna. Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter erson. P. R. McMullen.---Monticello . Miss Ruby Brown ayette . D. H. Ward .Mayo.-------. . .
:e. C. R. Hiatt.Tavares . Mrs. Lucie K. iller . C. P. Heuck .Ft. Myers . n. G. C. Hodge.Tallahassee . Miss Ethyl Holloway y.--------T. D. Rickenbaker.Bronson.--- ----Miss Wilma Richardson
erty. F. D. Yaun .Bristol.-------.
lison . S. L. Brothers .Madison . Miss Bennie F. Wilder iatee.-------John H. Logan .Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb
non ._ .Ocala . Miss Tillie Roesel loosa.E. R. Nelson .Crestview._.echobee.C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee.-------nge. K. C. Moore.Orlando. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor eola .1. R. Gunn.Kissimmee .Miss Albina Smith n Beach .M. U. Mounts.-----West Palm Beach.-----Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
co.--------J. A.McClellan, Jr---.Dade City .----------.
allas . Win. Gomme .Clearwater. .Mrs. Joy Belle Hess . W. P. Hayman .Bartow . Miss. . Lois Godhey nam . H. E. Westbury.Palatka . Miss Josephine Nimmo Johns -- . Loonis Blitch.St. Augustine . ---Miss Anna E. Heist Lucie. . Ft. Pierce.------_Miss Bertha Hausmnan ta Rosa .John G. Hudson .Milton .Miss Eleanor Barton mnole .C. R. Dawson.-----Sanford .Miss Josephine Boydston
sota .W. E. Evans .Sarasota.---.

Iter. W. J. Platt, Jr .Bushnell. Miss Evelyn Ltin Iannee.------S. C. Kierce.Live Oak . Miss Eunice Grady
,or. K. S. McMullen.Perry. Miss Floy Moses n.-----_. L. T. Dyer .Lake Butler . .
sia. F. E. Baetzman.D n. ead-------_---Mrs. Marguerite Norton
ulla.-.N. J. Albritton .Crawfordville .Mrs. Pearl Penuel .on.-------Mitchell Wilkins.--DeFuniak Springs .Miss Eloise McGriff
hington .Henry Hudson.Chipley.----------. .
This list correct to December 31. 1936
[5]










AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Administrative Officer in Charge. . . Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation
Committee . . Gainesville Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman . . Marianna Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman . . Sanford James J. Love, State Committeeman . _ . Quincy R. S. Dennis, Assistant District Supervisor -------------------------------- . Gainesville
Aubrey E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Supervisor -------------_-------- Gainesville
W. T. Nettles, District Supervisor . Gainesville J. Lee Smith, District Supervisor. . . . Gainesville E. Owen Blackwell, Assistant Field Officer ------------------------------------------ Gainesville
C. A. Lyle, Principal Clerk ---------------- . . Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION*
COUNTY, NAME ADDRESS
Alachua . Lamar Hatcher . Gainesville Columbia . Gussie Calhoun . . . Lake City Escambia. . Bryan C. Gilmore . . Pensacola Hamilton . J. W. Mitchell ----------------------- * ----------------------- Jasper
Holmes . __ ---------------- . Clarence DeMasters . . Bonifay
Jackson . R. C. Peacock_ . . Marianna Jefferson -------------------------------------- E. J. Albritton. . Monticello
Lake . R. E. Norris . . Tavares Leon . . . A. C. Spilled . . Tallahassee Madison --- . __ . J. E. Donald . . Madison Okaloosa . _ . --_---------- ------- M. B. Miller ----------- . Crestview
Santa Rosa ------------- ------------------- Dan G. Allen" --------- ---------_--- . Milton
Suwannee_ . . Grover C. Howell . Live Oak Walton. . A. G. Hutchinson . . DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua ----------- . . F. E. Pinder . Gainesville
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee -------------- E. S. Belvin . . . Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee --------------- N. H. Bennett ------------ --------------------- White Springs
Hillsboro . Elliott Robbins . . Tampa Jackson-_. . . J. E. Granberry . Marianna Jeff erson . M. E. Groover . Monticello Leon . . Trolley Wyer, Jr . . Tallahassee Marion . W. B. Young_ . Ocala

COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua --------------------- ----------_----- Mary Todd McKenzie. --------------- --------- Gainesville
Duval . Ethel M. Powell ------------------------- - ------- Jacksonville
Gadsden . . . Diana H. Bouic . Quincy Hillsboro . . Floy Britt . __ . . . Tampa Jefferson . _ . Lorena Shaw** . _ . Monticello Leon --------- . . Alice W. Poole . Tallahassee
Madison . . Althea Ayer . . . Madiso Marion . . Idell R. Kelley. . Reddic
*This list correct to December 31, 1986.
"Resigned effective December 31, 1936.



6














PARTI-GENERAL

REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1936, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1936.
Respectfully,
WILMoN NEwFLL,
Director.


Extension programs of the past year have been carried on as usual. Additional duties required because of agricultural adjustment and cooperation withother federal programs have added considerably to both administrative and field work.
More equipment has been needed, and more clerical persons employed. The usual purchases for stationery and supplies have naturally 'increased, with added programs and additional calls on this office.

PRINTING AND PUBLICITY.
The printing of bulletins has been restricted to a limited number of Extension publications. Experiment Station publications are used liberally by county and home agents and there has been a liberal supply constantly going out to the county offices.
The Service has used one farm hour daily on the radio and this is handled by the Editorial office. These programs are made up from contributions by persons in the Extension Service, Experiment Station, Agricultural College and others visiting the University, county agents, home agents and others. We have contributed special T)rograms during the county agents' week and also from the 4-H club members. A short period is given each day to current -news affecting agriculture. These radio programs are transmitted over state radio Station WRUF, located at Gainesville. Various announcements of programs go out constantly with the outgoing mail.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work has been carried on under handicaps due to the overload on county agents. Where assistants are employed they help, but the usual educational programs expected of county agents were necessarily reduced because of other programs that could not be set aside. The usual 4-11 club projects were carried out. There has been difficulty in getting appropriate programs for much of the horticultural sections. Programs have been carried out in the citrus groves and an attempt has been


REPORT FOR 1936







Florida Cooperative Extension


made to establish programs in economics. This has met with difficulties due to the fact that programs designed for areas in horticultural sections where many boys of club age who would be classed as farmers do not live on the property and therefore do not have intimate contact with the farm as is the usual case in the general farming area.
There has been liberal support.from outsiders by contributions to scholarships, educational trips and provision for 4-H camps. Two 'permanent 4-H camps are operated between June 15 and September 10. These camps have a capacity in excess of 100 4-H club members each. The camps are well equipped as to housing and recreational facilities. They are directed by the state club agent. County and home agents are responsible for the conduct of campers from their respective counties.
Annual 4-11 club week programs were held at the University of Florida for boys and at the Florida State College for Women for girls. The facilities of the colleges are made available on such occasions and the programs make considerable contributions to educational work as carried on under the direction of the College of Agriculture.

LIVESTOCK PROGRAMS
Animal industry programs are carried out under three main divisions: animal husbandry, which includes beef cattle and hogs, dairy husbandry, and poultry husbandry.
Beef Cattle.-Animal husbandry work deals primarily with improvement of cattle under semi-range conditions. For the most part, ranges are fenced and little can be done in areas not fenced. Problem of greatest importance is improvement of range cattle, and several carloads of bulls have been purchased through the efforts of the Extension Service and on the advice of the specialist in charge. The program deals with the improvement of females by culling and by selection. Consideration is given also to the matter of over-stocking the ranges. To overcome this, 'Progress has been'made in the marketing of stock unfit for breeding purposes, and in locating markets for veal calves. These calves are usually ready for veal during the summer months. Car-lot shipments are made to Easterr markets. Facilities for handling these are being installed by the railroads and livestock men are finding it profitable to market calves of this age ir preference to holding them for two or three years, which is the usual agE for marketing grass-fed cattle. '
Winter feeding received particular attention in the farm areas and silos of the cheaply constructed type have been put into use to supply roughage to the semi-range area where practically no farm operations are carrie( on, and the cattle are carried through the winter seasons on pastures witl some losses.
The 'problem in cattle breeding has been the matter of getting a norma calf crop and the marketing of veal will go a long way toward improving this condition. Since the calves are weaned when six months old or younger it permits the cows to go into winter carrying a fair amount of fies Under such conditions, a larger calf crop is the result.
Relatively few cattle are finished in the feed lot. However, a few, par ticularly in the tobacco area, are fed each year on a ration consisting largely of corn and cottonseed meal. The primary purpose of this is t secure manure used ip the growing of tobacco. The growers through the Extension Service have been able to secure cattle of better grade tha they usually find on the ranges.
An infestation of screw worm flies in this state in 1934 has presented a problem for livestock owners. However, by an appropriation from Co







Annual Repo?-t, 1936


gress, also from the State Legislature, an'active campaign to combat the screw worm has been in effect since 1935. The Extension Service has had an active 'part in this program and the beef cattle specialist has served as adviser with those employed in the counties to carry on the program.
To promote permanent pastures has been a part of the program and this has been handled in various ways. One item of particular interest is the mowing of. pastures. During the summer seasons the rains promote growth of weeds in many areas. When these are mowed, the grass makes good growth and the carrying capacity of many pastures has been doubled where this has been wisely carried out.
Hog Programs.-During the period of low prices for hogs, many farmers discontinued raising them and the sale of hogs in 1934 and 1935 was reduced to below the normal amount.
Since the 'price of pork now makes hog raising profitable, interest in hog raising has revived. The program of the Extension 'Service in this connection has largely dealt with the improvement of quality and the production of suitable feeds. A third and interesting phase of this has been the establishment of local markets. These have been established at shipping stations and the railroads have provided loading pens. Prices compare favorably with those in the more important hog centers and in areas where corn and peanuts are generally raised. The production of hogs under such conditions is one of the most profitable things that the farmers can undertake.
Florida hasproblems in the control of parasites affecting livestock, particularly hogs. This requires rotation of pastures, feed lots and the constant application of methods that will hold in check the effects of communicable diseases and internal parasites. The screw worm has also been a menace to hog raisers but the campaign carried on has demonstrated that these pests can be controlled or at least held in check to such an extent that no serious damage will result if reasonable care is given in the management.
An important part of the hog program has been the introduction of the process for the home curing of meats and several cold storage plants have installed facilities for chilling and curing the meat for farmers. As5istance in handling this by K. F. Warner of the United States Extension Service has been a valuable aid to the county agents and specialists in
-his project.
Dairying-Commercial dairying in this state is confined largely to the marketing of whole milk in cities. The establishment of creamery and utter factories has not been *profitable, so practically all of them have been discontinued. Therefore, the main dairying enterprises are nearer the arger cities and are subject to city regulations and sanitary measures. his has involved a program of extensive feed production and high labor ost, since most of the feed is purchased.
The problem therefore is the selection of dairy cattle that can be profitbly kept under these intensive programs. There is also a problem of sur]us milk during the summer season, when winter tourists have returned to heir homes.
Parasites in young calves have been prevalent in practically all dairies f importance and it has been necessary to keep young calves from pasturg on infested ground.
Replacement amounts to 20 percent of the average herd each year.
any cows are purchased from adjoining states and because of this transr there has been considerable difficulty in holding diseases of cattle in eck. During the past 12 months the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry as conducted an active campaign for the control of Bang's disease, and







Florida Cooperative; Extension


the Extension dairyman has given active cooperation. Other problems such as exchange of dairy sires, construction of silos, selection of suitable silage crops, and fertilization of pastures have been dealt with by the Extension Service in this project.
Poultry Husbandry-The Extension poultry work was modified in 1935 due to the specialist being assigned the responsibility for conducting research and'teaching in the College of Agriculture. Because of this arrangement an assistant was appointed who has taken over a large part of the extension field work.
The Florida Extension Service maintains a National Egg-Laying Contest with 100 pens. It is financed by an appropriation from the legislature and from sales. The contest handles pens of birds from several other states. This is aside from the regular Extension program but contributes its part for a better poultry practice.
The poultry- industry of Florida has made substantial growth in numbers and has made progress in methods. Flocks have been managed to prevent the spread of parasites, reduce expenses, and provide a better market.
There has been an interest in poultry exhibits, particularly for 4-H club members. The Experiment Station has one veterinarian giving his major time to investigation of poultry diseases. This harmonizes with the Extension program and contributes in a substantial way toward keeping poultry raising on a substantial and economical basis.
In 1935 a study and demonstration of the management of turkeys was undertaken. This part of the program offers considerable promisee .
Poultry work isalso a very important part of the home demonstration agents' work, and in many counties it is the most important programcarried on by home demonstration agents.
. The University of Florida has recently installed additional equipment
for the teaching of poultry husbandry and these facilities will considerably add to the opportunity for service by the Extension Service throughout the state.
CITRICULTURE
Florida citrus production is gradually increasing. The 1936-37 crop is estimated to produce 38 million boxes of fruit. This is the largest crop in the history of Florida and is an increase of 10 million boxes over the crop of 1935. This large crop is the result of extensive acreage being planted in citrus groves and in a normal year the production of from 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 boxes of fruit will not be unusual. . This large production involves the question of marketing in much greater degree than at any. time in the past. It is apparent that unusually high prices are a thing of the past and crops that are not managed economically will become a liability to the owner. The big problem, therefore, is reduction of costs in production, and on this are centered the efforts of specialists and county agents. Problems in fertilization, cultivation, and varieties are involved, and to a considerable extent the production of high quality fruit which necessitates a system of spraying for the control of insects and diseases of the fruit and the tree.
The soil conservation program will also aid in this phase of Extension work, since the need of organic matter in the soil is apparent but frequently misunderstood. It encourages growers to produce cover crops.
Due to the large production of citrus fruits, canning factories to handle surplus grapefruit have been established and encouragement has been given to canning and preserving methods by the Florida Experiment Station.







Annual Report, 1936


The Citriculturist has given special attention to irrigation practices. In a large number of groves, irrigation is of secondary importance. However, in periods of drouth or in the higher, sandy lands, trees often wilt and lose their fruit because of a lack of moisture in the soil. To remedy this special attention has been given to the construction of portable irrigation outfits. Portable irrigation plants can serve a larger area than a stationary plant, and at small cost.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
The agricultural economics section is set up under two divisions, marketing and farm management. Since the beginning of the agricultural adjustment. program both of these have been disturbed because of 'personnel needed for economics problems during the depression and because of the demands made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture on the personnel of the economics section of the Extension Service.
During 1934 and 1935 until June 1936, the Marketing Specialist has assisted in the A.A.A. program in Washington. However, in spite of this, economic studies were made, particularly in poultry and citrus. This project was carried on by grove owners under the supervision of county agents. This department is also furnishing much information important in handling adjustment in agriculture.
AGRONOMY
The agronomy problems have dealt largely with cultural practices in the production of corn, cotton and peanuts and green crops, also with crops used for hay, silage, and crops in connection with the soil conservation program. Particular attention has been given to winter legumes and for the current year large quantities of vetch and Austrian peas have been purchased by farmers in the general farming area.
Suitable cover crops to be used in citrus groves and vegetable areas are principally crotalaria and native grasses. These crops determine to a large extent their usefulness. This phase of agronomy has also been a part of'the Citriculturist's program, since such cover crops must be used in connection with commercial fertilizer.in the economical production of citrus fruit.
The Annual Outlook Report has been published each year. This report is assembled by the specialists and supervisors in Extension work and is used by district and county agents.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK.
This has made progress along all lines during the year, as evidenced by reports of the State Home Demonstration Agent and her specialists found elsewhere. They have served rural homes through both women's and girls' clubs.
NEGRO WORK
The Negro work of Florida has been carried along in the usual way. Negro agents have assisted county agents in handling the soil conservation program among Negroes. There is an mere I asing demand for Negro Extension work and much more could be done.

FINANCIAL COOPERATION IN COUNTIES
The average appropriation has increased in 1936 and additional counties have been added. Additional counties have made appropriations for the support of both county and home agents and at present 58 of the 67 counties are cooperating and only three counties of agricultural importance remain






Florida Cboperative Extension


to be supplied with county agents, but a larger number are without home demonstration agents. .
There is some tendency for the counties to financially, support the Negro work, principally home demonstration work.
The agricultural adjustment program has added considerable equipment to the county offices and this has been a substantial improvement.
The* counties have supplied clerical services and equipment in limited amounts but not sufficient to supply all the needs.
The Rural Resettlement administration in Florida has loaned the Extension Service equipment assigned to them for their offices, This has been used by the Negro agents to considerable advantage.
For the most 'part the boards of county commissioners supply the cooperating funds. In a few counties the school boards contribute in part.
MOST IMPORTANT UNDERTAKINGS
The home demonstration program has not been materially changed except to add duties and responsibilities, particularly in reference to county planning and home supplies. During the period of depression this work arose of necessity and the home agentswere able to render very substantial assistance. During the same period home demonstration workers stressed increases for the home income. This has been an important advantage to theprograms of 1936, for on many farms a substantial addition has been made to the income of the home on account of the sale of home 'products, primarily canned foods, meats, vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products.
The county planning program has made little progress and seems to be more acceptable in the general farming area of Florida than in the specialized products area. It is planned to utilize these committees to the greatest extent in 1937 in regular Extension work and also in soil conservation programs.
The agricultural conservation program has been a large undertaking throughout the entire year. The county agents' offices have been the central offices in each county. The county programs have necessarily required lots of attention on the -part of agents. County and community committees have served in a limited way but the responsibility is expected to emanate from the county agents' offices. This has required additional space and additional personnel and a large amount of correspondence.
During 1936 the agricultural adjustment program affected the Norther and Western counties of Florida where basic crops were produced. The present soil conservation program involves all of Florida and brings up questions of vital importance that are peculiar to this sub-tropical state.
Negro agents have assisted in the soil conservation program in the counties. Usual duties pertaining to agricultural enterprises, fairs, meetings, and contacts with other Federal and state organizations have bee taken care of in the usual way.
The Agricultural Extension Service calls on the Florida Experimen Station for assistance in subject matter and in other ways that make mor complete the Extension program in the counties. Florida has a State Citru Commission dealing with the marketing of citrus fruits. It has various or organizations directly and indirectly related to the marketing of fruits and vegetables. The Extension Service takes no part in the management of thes but offers its services wherever such service can be used advantage.







Annual Report, 1936 13


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1936
RECEIPTS
Federal Smith-Lever ------ . . __ . 63,968.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ----------------- __ . 20,716.14
Baikhead-Jones, Federal . . 83,987.69 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative, Federal . . 23,500.00 State. Appropriation for Off-Set . 66,141.98 County Funds for Off-Set . 15,614.29 State and College Funds . 28,646.00 County Funds . . ---------_--_------------- - . 90,235.71

$419,365.65
EXPENDITURES
A dm inistration . _ . 13,908.55 Publications, printing . 11,732.48 County Agent Program . 185,529.32
4-H Club Program (Boys) . 6,309.35
Home Demonstration Program ---_-------------- . 124,935.92
Dairy and Animal Husbandry . 7,192.68 Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) . 25,946.79
Citriculfure . . . 4,839.09 Poultry Husbandry . . 4,633.09 Extension Schools ------------------------------------------------------------ 152.35
Agricultural Economics . 12,627.14 Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . . 5,559.16
Balance Bankhead-Jones, Federal . 6,934.72 Balance State Appropriation Carried Over ---------------- 99065.01

$419,365.65







14 Florida Cooperative Extension


STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN
Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Days service rendered by county workers . 27,072 D ays in offi ce . 11,987.5 D ays in field . . . 15,084.5 Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ------ 2,370
Number paid employes assisting Extension program . 569
Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 338
M em bers in such clubs . . 8,366 4-H Clubs . 680 4-H Club members enrolled . . 13,601 Different 4-H club members completing . 8,356 4-H club team s trained . - 516 Groups other than 4-11 clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older ------------ 19
Members in these groups . . 379 Farm or home visits made ------------------------------------------------------------ 54,196
Different farms or homes visited . . 23,940 Calls relating to Extension work . -- . 314,474 News articles or stories published and circular letters . - . 10,251
Number individual letters written . 97,500 Bulletins distributed ---------------------------------------------------------- . 104,662
R adio Talks . . . 132 Extension exhibits shown ---------------------------------------------------------- -. 390
'Training meetings held for local leaders . . 488 (Attendance . 4,875
Method demonstration meetings held . 10,391 (Attendance . 147,659
Meetings held at result demonstration . . 3,201
(Attendance . 38,253
Farm tours conducted . . 208 (Attendance ------------- . 5,759
A chievem ent days held . . 151 (Attendance . 110,510
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) . 54
(Attendance . 5,734
Other m eetings ----------------------- . ----- - . - --------------------------------- 5,354
(Attendance . 154,556

CEREALS

.Communities in which work was conducted . 403
Result demonstrations conducted . 308 M eetings held ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 188
News stories published and circular letters . 176 Farm or home visits made . 1,165 Office calls received ---------- ------------------------------ ------------------------------ 7,043
4-H Club members -------------------------- ----------------------------------------- 820
4-H Club members completing . . 399 Acres projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 468
Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 11,591.5 Bu
Farmers following better practices recommended . 8,426

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,064
Result demonstrations conducted . 783 M eetings held --------------------------------------------------- ----------- -------------- 413
News stories published and circular letters . . 495 Farm or home visits made . --- . . . 2,199







Annual Report, 1936 15

Number office calls received . 17,563 4-H Club members enrolled ------------------ 468
4-H Club members completing . . 167 Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing(Seed, pounds . - 147,618 (Forage, tons . 124.65 Farmers following better practice recommendations . 11,018

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in -,vbich work was conducted 502 211 75
Result demonstrations . 196 88 12
Meetings held -------------- . . . 218 168 56
News stories published and circular
letters written . . 308 263 62
Farm or home visits made -------------------------- 1,857 935 310
Office calls received . 6,759 15,783 4,769 4-H Club members enrolled . 343 202 9
4-H Club members completing . 147 77 7
Acres in projects by 4-H Club members
com pleting . 101.85 77.5 6.5 Yields by 4-H club members completing 13,199 Bu. 65,987 Lb. 6,448 Lb.
Farms following better practices . 5,930 9,056 2,364

FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted --------- - . . 2,282
Result demonstrations conducted . . ---- 10,162 M eetings held . 3,430 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,949 Farm or home visits made . 12,310 Offi ce calls received . 32,305 4-H Club members enrolled . 8,378 4-H Club members completing . . 5,286 Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 920%
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 30,984% Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices . . 38,901

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

esult demonstrations conducted . 293 meetings held . . 379 ews stories published and circular letters issued . 156
arm or home visits made . - . 1,082 ffi ce calls received . . 4,250
-H Club members enrolled . 82 H Club members completing --- ------------------------------------ . 51
arms on which new areas were reforested by planting with sm all trees . . . 265 ommunities in which work was conducted . . 332 cres reforested . 7,609 arms adopting better forestry practices . 1,360 ,arms adopting soil conservation practices . 764 cres involved . . 29,010 %, and clearing . 91
cres involved . . 2,244 farmers adopting better machine practice . . I . 985 umber machines involved . 672 farmers adopting better building and equipment practices . 3,223
building and items of equipment involved . . 2,811 "',







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in -which work was conducted . 706
Result demonstrations conducted . . 1,943 M eetings held . . 1,223 News stories published and circular letters issued . 588
Farm or home visits made . . . . . 3,565 Office calls received . __ . . . . 10,119 4-H Club members enrolled . . 1,965 4-H Club members completing . . 1,121
Number chickens raised . 40,283 Number colonies of bees ---------------------------------------------------------------- 258
Families following improved practices in poultry raising .--. 12,008
Families following improved practices-bees . . 1,198
DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted . 1,220
Result demonstrations conducted . 1,364 M eetings held ------- __ . _ ---------------------------------- 1,070
News stories published and circular letters issued . . 856
Farm or home visits made . 10,685 Office calls received -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31,421
4-H Club members enrolled ------_----- . --1 . 1,489
4-H Club members completing . . 688 Animals in projects conducted by 4-11 club members completing --- . -1 . 1,120 Farmers obtaining better breeding stock . ---------_----_ 2,275
Farmers using other improved live stock practices . . 28,862

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted . ---- 1,739
Result -demonstrations conducted . . 1,112 M eetings held . . . _ . 1,363 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,482
Home or farm visits made . . 6,296
Offi ce calls received . _ . 83,432 4-H Club members enrolled . . . 1,722 4-H Club members completing . . _ . 1,622 Farmers keeping account and cost records . 2,454
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts . 747
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments . 4,304
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year 112
Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys . I . 75,659 Families assisted in getting established . -------------------- 1,134
Marketing groups organized or assisted . 90
Individuals affected by marketing 'program . 11,089
Organizations assisted with problems . . 392 Individuals assisted with problems . 7,766 Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted ---- $2,606,425.47 Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) $3,723,903.36 Value of supplies purcliased-all associations . $ 982,045.31 Value of supplies- purchased by individuals . $ 223,734.24

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted . 994
Result demonstrations conducted . . 8,708 M eetings held . . ------------------------------------- 3,872
News stories published and circular letters issued . - . - 1,086
Farm or home visits made ---- . --_---------_- 4,225
Office calls -received . ----------------- ------------------------------------ --------- , 10,563
4-H Club*members enrolled _____- ___ . _ . 8,534







Annual Report, 1936 17

4-H Club members completing . .--------------------5,896
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 218:870 Families adopting better practices as to foods ------------------ 13,050
Shool following recommendations for school lunch . 91 'Children in schools following lunch recommendations---------.21,187 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs-.2,131,187 lValue of all products canned or otherwise preserved------.$ 401,749.61 amilies readjusting family food supply---------.------ -----5,380

CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
ommunities in which work was conducted-------------------. 182
esult demonstrations conducted---------------------------. 805
eetings held------------------------------------------. 359
ews stories published and circular letters issued--------------. 76
arm or home visits made--------------------------------. 355
Mele calls received--------------------------------------. 787
-H Club members enrolled-------------------------------. 512
-H Club members completing .---------------------492
dditional 4-H club members participating-------------------. 220
amilies following child-development plans-----------------. __ 1,768
ifferent individuals participating in child-development program . -. 2 ,2 7527 hildren involved in child-development program------------. 17,891

CLOTHING
ommunities in which work was conducted------------------. 537
esult demonstrations conducted------------------.-----2,872
eetings held . -------------------------------------------------- 2,592
ews stories published and circular letters issued-------------. 366
arm or home visits made--------------. .---------------- . 1,629
ce calls received------------------------------------. 3,667
-H Club members enrolled------------------------------. 7,945
-H Club members completing----------------------------. 5,820
rticles made by 4-H club members completing-------------.44,542
dividuals following better clothing practices--------------.18,165
amilies assisted in determining how best to meet clothing requirements---------------------------- . 260
avings due to clothing program---------------------.$ 58,254.05

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
ommunities in which work was conducted-----------------. . 1,046
esult demonstrations conducted-------------------------. 5,877
eetings held-----------------------------------------. 2,140
ews stories published and circular letters issued-------------. 347
arm or home visits made------------------------------. 2,005
ce calls received------------------------------------. . 3,909
H Club members enrolled------------------------------. 4,066
H Club members completing . 3,218 ojects conducted by 4-H club members completing---------.20,986
milies following better home-management practices . 14,682
timated savings due to home-management program.----$ 28,382.50
milies improving household furnishing-------------------. 9,970
vings due to house-furnishings program--------------.$ 27,297.55
milies following handicraft practices--------------------. 3,161

HOME HEALTH AND - SANITATION
mmunities in which work was conducted-------------------. 371
sult demonstrations conducted-------------------------. _ . 1,650
etings held ---------------.-.-.-.--------------- 578
ws stories published and circular letters issued--------------. 112







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farm or home visits made ------------------------------------------------------------ 995
Office calls received . 2,368 4-H Club members enrolled . . 1,899 4-H Club members completing . 2,071 Additional 4-H club members participating . . 3,594
Individuals having health examination . ---- _ --- 4,255
Individuals adopting health measures . . _ 11,628 Families adopting health measures --------------------- -------------------_ 3,693

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted . 781
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ---------------- 644
Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or comm itteem en . - . 1,443.5 M eetings held . . 1,104 News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,265
Farm or home visits made ------------------------------------------------- __ . 2,456
Office calls received . . _ ---- ----------------------- 5,638
Communities assisted with community problems . 1,030
Country life conferences . --- 98 Families following recommendations as to home recreation 1,952
4-H Clubs engaging in community activities . 267
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or
other relief agency . 612







Annual Report, 1936


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Informational work reflected and supplemented practically all activities ,of the Agricultural Extension Service during the year. County and home demonstration agents utilized facilities at hand, such as radio stations, newspapers, circular letters, posters, moving pictures, and other vehicles in making noteworthy accomplishments along these lines. The state Editorial Office printed and distributed bulletins and other supplies needed by the agents and prepared and distributed hundreds of news and radio releases containing reports of progress and suggestions for better farming and home making.
It is but natural that considerable attention was paid to the important national agricultural conservation program as conducted in Florida. This set-up touched the entire agricultural area of the state, and consequently was of more widespread interest than the old agricultural adjustment prograny.

BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED
Subject matter material printed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1936, included four new bulletins and two old ones reprinted, four new circulars and one reprint, the Annual Report for 1935, a 1936 educational Calendar, the 1936 outlook report, final report of the Florida National Eggaying Contest, and two folders on Florida's egg quality program sugyestions for consumers and producers.
Although the Extension Service does not print as many bulletins'as .night be desired, the total outlined above is a considerable increase over ?receding years. New bulletins amounted to 196 pages of printed material, ind a total of 64,000 copies were issued. New circulars comprised 28 pages, ith 33,000 copies printed.
Record books, wall cards, covers for mimeographed studies, monthly
-eport blanks, short course programs, work sheet and other materials contituted the supplies printed, Following is a list of materials edited and printed under the supervision of the Editorial Office.

Pages Edition
ul. 81. Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm . 40 12,000 ul. 82. Feeding for Milk Production . 40 20,000 ul. 83. Pickles and Relishes . . 64 20,000 ul. 84. Native and Exotic Palms of Florida . - . . 72 12,000 ul. 55. Rejuvenating Furniture (reprint) . 12 7,500 ul. 65. Club Work and the Farm Boy (reprint) ---------- . 20 15,000
ire. 38. Questions on the Dining Room to Make You Think 4 7,500
ire. 39. Questions on Bedrooms to Make You Think . 8 7,500 ire. 40. Making and Using Sauerkraut . . 1. 8 12,500 ire. 41. Cotton Rat Control . . 8 ire. 33. The Canning Budget (reprint) . . . 6 15,000 Annual Report, 1935 . 104 2,000 Calendar, 1936 . . . . 12 11,500
P. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint) . 12 15,000 P. 10. Livestock Club Record Book . 12 6,000 P. 11. The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1936 . 40 3,000
P. 12. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for
the Consumer ---------------_---------- -------- ------------_-------- 8 25,000







20 Florida Cooperative Extension

M. P. 13. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for
the Producer . . 8 12,000 M. P. 14. Boy's Agricultural Club Secretary's Record Book 20 1,500
Screw worm fly placard. 1 12,000
Final Report, Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying
Contest._. __. 20 1,500
Announcement and Rules, Eleventh Florida
National Egg-Laying Contest. . 6 1,500
Cover f or mimeograph, Florida Citrus Costs and
Returns.------. . 4 2,000
Form 5. Monthly Report Blank (for use by agents) .2 17,50,0
Program, 20th Annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course 12 500
Chick Mortality Records cards . 1 1,000
Requirements and Records of Home Improvement
for 4-H Club Girls. 12 10,00( Form S. R. 1. 1936 Soil Conservation Program Work Sheet 1 25,00(
FARM NEWS SERVICE
Farm news and informational articles were supplied to weekly an daily newspapers and farm papers in increasing quantity during the year The clipsheet, direct mailings, and press agencies were utilized in distribut ing news to the newspapers, and these papers were generous in the us of the material. A considerable increase in interest in farm news durn the year was noted, the agencies and papers requesting more and mor from this office and from agents in the counties.
The weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, continued to be th vehicle through which weeklies and semi-weeklies were served. It has no been running for 20 years, and is an established institution among th Florida Press. It carried from eight to 12 separate articles each wee and these concerned the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College o Agriculture, State Plant Board, or related agency.
Dozens of special releases were supplied to the dailies, through direct mailings from the Editorial Office and through both mail and wire servic of the Associated Press. Both these and the clipsheet articles were widel printed, and served to carry information regularly to readers.
Farm papers continued to print larger numbers of articles from the A ricultural Extension Service. The Editors themselves prepared 55 differe articles amounting to 1,096 column inches which were printed in 10 far magazines. Probably more than this amount written by various other me bers of the staff and submitted by the Editors was printed also. Florid papers requested and were supplied large numbers of articles based on radio talks made during the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF.
Records show that material 'prepared by the Editors was used as follo during the year ending November 30, 1936: Five Florida papers printe 87.articles amounting to 858 colunin inches; one Southern journal took articles for 134 inches; and four national magazines used. eight artici amounting to 104 inches.

FARM RADIO SERVICE
Radio is assuming a place of wider and wider importance in the educ tional field, and farm programs are, among the most popular information programs in Florida. The Florida Farm Hour, over WRUF each .week day noon is the principal radio activity of this office, but farm flashes a special programs over other stations blanket the entire state with far information.'
Florida Farm Hour: This program wa's on the air each week day from to 1 p.m. Approximately one-half of the hour was. devoted to, music and t







Annual Report, 1936


Ather half to talking, with three or more speeches going on the air each lay. Weather and market reports daily rendered additional service to isteners.
Regular features presented by the editors included a review of farm )ews highlights daily for 312 days, and radio's weekly farm newspaper for il weeks, and the farm question box for 51 weeks. Staff members and hers, presented a total of 434 talks during the year. Of these the Editors )repared and delivered 19. Farm flashes from the USDA were read 106 imes. Thus the grand total of talks on the Florida Farm Hour during he year amounted to 954.
The Editors arranged the programs for this hour and supervised them aily. Speakers included workers of the Experiment Station, Extension ;ervice, State Plant Board, College of Agriculture, Department of Socilogy, Pharmacy School, State Department of Agriculture, State Forest ervice, State Marketing Bureau, State Health Department, club boys and irls, students, farmers, county agents, and others. Special musical pro'rams were rendered by Choral Club of the College of Agriculture, Bill Iryan of WRUF staff, and others.
Special programs, such as for the Beef Cattle Field Day on March 27, oys' Club Short Course, Negro 4-H club program, and others, were arranged ring the year.
Farm Flashes: This office continued to cooperate with the United States epartment. of Agriculture in distributing farm flash programs to comiercial radio stations throughout Florida. Enough material for 7 to 8 mlutes each day for five days in the week was sent to radio stations located
Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Orlando, and Miami. During the first part of e year they were sent also to Pensacola, (discontinued in June), and benning later in the year they went to Lakeland (May) and West Palm each (September). Similar material was supplied to a station in St. tersburg, but was used only once a week. In most cases county and home demonstration agents assisted in selecon and presentation of the flashes.
The USDA supplied this office with daily flashes, but due to the fact at most of Florida's agriculture is highly specialized, many of these were placed with more adapted material prepared in this office. On 39 occans it was necessary to send two different sets of flashes, and on one three ts, to assure that material would be suitable for all stations. Other Radio Work: Florida participated in the National 4-H Club hievement Day program the first Saturday in November, as usual. Three C stations carried this program of which 30 minutes came from Washgton and 30 minutes from each local station. This office arranged the al programs.
The Land Grant College program of the National Farm and Home Hour s broadcast from the University of Florida on September 16, and this ice rendered some assistance in arrangements. A special 4-H club broadcast was staged from a Tallahassee station ring the 4-H Girls' Short Course at State College for Women in June.

MISCELLANEOUS WORK
Cooperation was rendered various units of the Unitedl States Department Agriculture, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil nservation Service, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and RaService. The Editors assisted with informational material for the proed marketing agreement with citrus, which was later adopted. Conerable help was given in the screw worm control campaign conducted







22 Florida Cooperative Extension

cooperatively by the Extension Service and the Bureau of Entomolog and Plant Quarantine.
Bulletins and other materials and supplies were distributed from .tI Mailing Room, and mimeographing work for the entire organization w done here. This was extremely heavy during the past year, partly becau of the agricultural conservation program.
The Editors made talks before county and home demonstration agen in annual conference, held three news writing classes for 4-H club reporte from five counties, and participated in the programs of the American Ass ciation of Agricultural Editors meeting at Madison, Wisconsin. This ass citation accepted the invitation to come to Florida for its meetingin tI summer of 1937.
A study to determine likes and dislikes of radio listeners was inaugurate with the assistance of two students assigned to this office by the Nation Youth Administration.
The three Editors and two Mailing Clerks gave approximately half their time to work for the Extension Service and the other half to the E periment Station. One stenographer used the larger part of her time work for the Extension Service.







Annual Report, 1936


PART 1I-MEN'S WORK


COUNTY AGENT WORK

A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and
County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent

The past year has been one of progress, with increasing demands made all branches of the service. There were 57 counties cooperating in the Drk, the largest number ever directly interested. Of these, 54 had county ,ents and 38 home demonstration agents. The program as carried out in counties by Extension agents varies to wide extent and is dependent on the prevailing types of agriculture. Proams in the counties are necessarily governed by prevailing sources of come and these are in turn governed by soil types, marketing facilities, Dps grown, etc.
At the beginning of 1936 the agricultural adjustment program was panded to deal with all 'phases of Florida agriculture. This has extended activities of agents in the sub-tropical areas. Response to the soil conrvation program in areas not affected by the original program has exaded expectations.
The supervision of Extension work in the' counties has been modified that the work must now he handled with groups of people and to a lesser tent with individuals.

PERSONNEL AND SUPERVISION
There has been no material change in the organization during the year. signations, transfers and appointments were slightly more numerous a usual. As far as permitted by funds for the purpose from the AAA, istant agents have been appointed to supervise office work, assist with bicultural conservation activities, and aid the agents with 4-H club work. New agents and assistants appointed have been college graduates, most them from the University of Florida College of Agriculture. Of the 55 nts and assistants working at the end of the year, 35 were Florida duates and 13 from other institutions. No special provision was made for fessional improvement of agents, aside from personal contacts with earch and other workers at the University of Florida. County office and field equipment remains inadequate, but the situation eing gradually improved. Materials supplied by the Agricultural Adtmnent Administration for use in the agricultural conservation program Iling a pressing need in many counties. Clerical service in county offices also is still limited. Approximately agents are supplied with stenographers from county funds. Necessary ks and stenographers conducting agricultural conservation work assist terially in routine details of the offices, and keep offices open while nts are in the field.
To obtain better supervision and more assistance in subject matter, cialists have been given some supervisory duties, and in some cases rict agents have rendered subject matter assistance. This has worked to advantage.







Florida Cooperative Ex tension


DETERMINING COUNTY PROGRAMS
Data available are used by district supervisors and specialists in setting up county programs. These data are compiled by the Economics section and taken from outlook reports and United States Census reports. In area of limited agriculture programs cannot well be fully determined fron such data, since the information is incomplete. In such cases the distric and county agents outline their programs and are governed by condition existing locally, using materials prepared by subject matter specialist of the college and experiment station.
County committeemen play an important part in shaping programs County planning councils have contributed to the improvement of programs and have given moral support to the work.

COOPERATION WITH STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES

Other agencies having had cooperation of the Extension Service to th fullest extent possible include the following:
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, in closing out its 1935 cro control work and in conducting the agricultural conservation program this State.
By cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantin( an intensive campaign has been carried through to reduce damage by th screw worm in all livestock counties of Florida. County agents' offices hay been headquarters for the county screw worm control supervisors appointe by the federal bureau.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State DepartmentC Agriculture; the State Live Stock Sanitary Board; Florida Milk Inspectio Service; Florida State Marketing Bureau; Vocational Agriculture Teacher working under the supervision of the Department of Education; Stat Board of Health; Farm Debt Adjustment Commission; Rural Rehabilit tion Administration; Soil Erosion Project, located At Graceville, Florid Florida Citrus Commission; the Citrus Control Board, operated in cooper tion with the Florida Citrus Commission.
In addition, the Extension Service has had a close working cooperati agreement with the State Plant Board and other regulatory institutio affecting agriculture.

PLANNING COUNCILS
This service has featured the organization of planning councils in organized effort to encourage rural people to make plans and recommend tions governing their farming operations that can be approved in sta and federal programs. This program was sponsored by the Agricultur Adjustment Administration.
These councils were organized under the leadership of Extension agen and were composed of men and women who operate farms and live in rur communities. Committees were selected to represent principal commoditi in each county. Representatives of civic clubs, school boards, boards ,county commissioners, vocational agriculture teachers, and individu farmers and farm women directly concerned with the business oft farming communities participated.
County and home agents directed the county planning councils a through their offices the councils functioned.
The main purpose of the councils was to study economic data pe taming to Agricultural enterprises and to develop an appropriate agric tural program fitting in the respective communities. These councils ha







Annual Report, 1936 25

;erved more effectively in some areas than in others, due largely to leader;hip interested in the purpose and outcome of the improvement. These !ouncils serve as advisory committees to the county and home agents in ;haping their future programs and with the Extension Service to foster ;uch programs as will promote the welfare of the community as a whole.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
A few of the major activities of the year may be summarized as follows: 1. Cooperation with the producers of citrus fruit for the purpose of educing cost of production and setting up a better system of fertilization.
2. Increased shipments of veal calves to Eastern markets. This provides n additional outlet available to the range cattle owners of Florida.
3. Improvement in handling range grazing lands by mowing to keep own weeds and permit succulent growth of grass.
4. Poultry sanitation and improvement in quality and marketing.
5. More diversity in farm crops for sa'e, particularly in cotton growg areas; especially of livestock, poultry, small fruits and vegetables for cal consumption.
6. Greater community consciousness and cooperation. This paves the ay for constructive work in the future and will simplify carrying out the mmunity and county programs.
7. Home demonstration agents have been able to direct a program iat has increased the incomes of farm homes. This has been carried out rough the sale of local products, poultry in particular, home-made articles, iry products, flowers, and the conservation of fruits and vegetables that ye been grown for home use and sold locally.
8. Improved facilities for conducting 4-H camps. While this has been der the direction of the 4-H club agents, funds necessary to carry out ch a program have been provided by local interests, with the assistance projects fostered by the federal government.
9. An effective program for the control of screw worms has resulted a definite reduction in infestations. For handling this work, a state apopriation made available to the Extension Service was used cooperatively
*th a similar appropriation from the -U. S. Bureau -of Entomology and ant Quarantine. The educational program carried out has contacted pracally every livestock owner, with the definite result that stockmen and rmers are now in a position to control screw worm infestations in the ture.
10. A special drive was conducted in 17 northern and western Florida unties to increase plantings of winter legumes. Farmers in these 17 nties secured through cooperative purchase 111,450 pounds of vetch d Austrian pea seed. This was planted on 3,787 acres. Sea Island Cotton: A decided effort on the part of farmers to promote ewed Sea Island cotton production was made. By cooperation with the periment Station and the Cotton Section of the U. S. Bureau of Plant ustry, a definite effort was made to secure a supply of seed suited to s area and to encourage the control of boll weevil and other factors portant in the growing of Sea Island cotton. In this effort to renew the a Island cotton industry, the Federal Bureau and the Experiment Station d the Extension Service are cooperating, to safeguard the important tures of the program that would determine its success or failure. Corn Demonstrations: County agents have conducted 92 corn fertilizan demonstrations and 88 variety demonstrations. Approximately 4,000







Florida Cooperative Extension


acres of corn were selected as demonstration areas in which winter legumf were used for soil-building purposes. Corn yields in northern and wester Florida have been consistently low. Therefore, cover crops and soil-buil' ing practices have entered largely into methods recommended for increase yields. Varieties selected have been recommended by the Agronomy flepar ment of the Experiment Station' which has determined by test varietil best suited to the various soil types of this state.
The growing of corn in central and southern Florida has also been project for 4-H club boys and in many instances the yields have been rel; tively high. But field corn is of secondary importance in that area.
Peanuts: The Extension Service has encouraged thicker planting peanuts. This practice has enabled growers to increase yields. Demonstr tions under the direction of county agents have been carried out principal in the Jackson County commercial 'peanut area.
Extension agents have recommended that peanuts be interplanted wi corn, since this interferes to a very small extent with the corn and pr vides an additional crop with relatively small additional expenses. Repoi show that 210,000 acres were interplanted with corn and peanuts in 19 in areas where this program was encouraged by the county agents.
There is a direct relationship between peanut production and hog pr duction. Improved market conditions for livestock have resulted in ad cided increase of marketable hogs during 1936. Most of these hogs we fed out in the area best suited to 'peanut production, consequently the p nut crop is encouraged as a source of fattening for livestock, and cou agents have included that in their program as a direct source of reven to farmers.
Feed aad Pastures: Feed and pasture work enters into general farni practices and crop rotation. With increased interest in livestock because better markets, the Extension Service has continued the program of p ture and feed improvement. A larger acreage than usual has been gro during 1936.
Studies are being made of the adaptability of grasses and forage cr for feed and soil improvement. Particular attention has been given to cr that can be -used for silage-corn, sorghum, sugarcane-and to a les extent the ordinary legumes. Agents have helped to introduce new variet of sugarcane suitable for silage purposes, since cane produces a lar tonnage than either soybeans or corn, particularly on light sandy so There has been increased interest in finishing cattle in feed lots which quires a liberal supply of forage crops. These varieties of cane conver into silage have pointed the way to supply the necessary feed for winter feeding of cattle.
Attention is also given to the planting of small grains for win grazing and to a limited extent to supply grain for livestock.
County agents have conducted demonstrations for pasture lots, rec mending grasses suitable for grazing work stock in preference to keep these animals in dry lots.
County agents have conducted 19 demonstrations to determine meth for the improvement of pastures.
Tobacco: .Since flue-cured tobacco has been an important cash c much interest is centered in this crop in 10 North Florida counties. Pr tices for. growing tobacco having been fairly well established according to best information available. Efforts have been made to hold production line with consumption needs. Stress has been placed on methods of fertili tion and curing that will produce best quality. By growing legumes and lowing soil improvement practices, yields can he increased, but the qua is impaired.








Annual Report, 1936


Citrus Demonstrations: This program involves special practices dealing ith production, quality and costs. The increased production of citrus has suitedd in lower prices to producers and an important part of the program, Lerefore, has been to reduce costs. The program as carried out by the Punty agents has for its purpose primarily demonstrations in reducing ists of fertilization and cultivation and in some instances the abandonment groves so situated as to make them unprofitable regardless of method of rndling.
Much interest has been centered on fertilizer applications, particularly ~th grapefruit and tangerines, when returns to growers have been below oduction costs. In these cases growers are being guided by cost studies ducted by the Economics Division. Growers are advised as to costs of eir operations and receive recommendations governing fertilization, cover ps, cultural practices, disease and insect control-all of which enter into oduction costs.
The Agricultural Conservation program this year was applicable to the rus area. It encouraged the planting of cover crops such as crotalaria, ggarweed and -native grasses and the best uses for these to 'improve ality and production in the groves.
Vegetable Demonstrations: This program applies 'particularly to cen1 and southern Florida and to home gardens in the general farming area d to the market gardens adjacent to the larger cities. The Extension Dgram in vegetable production has dealt largely with cover crops and soil provement practices and summer cropping to grasses or legumes for soil provement. It has also taken into consideration cooperative marketing vegetables in the large producing areas. An attempt was made to establish market agreements for vegetable strawberry growers but on account of the many interests involved in h a 'program this effort did not meet with general approval and was put into effect except in a very limited way.
County agents are watching results of tests made by the Experiment tion to determine varieties, dates of planting and packages. The usual ention to home gardens entering into the live-at-home program has been en by county and home agents in all sections of this State. For the past 10 years- the commercial vegetable areas. have had a tenicy to shift to central and southern Florida territory, but in particular the Everglades. This calls for a program of greater diversification in vegetable growing areas of central and northern Florida. Marketing ters to supply vegetables to trucks, established by the State Department Agriculture, have met with favorable response. Extension agents have ommended 'planting dates, varieties and soil types for vegetables to ply the trucks.
Cooperative Sales and Purchases: The Surplus Commodity Corporation the Agricultural Adjustment Administration purchased 67,797 gallons ugarcane syrup, returning $23,293 to a relatively small group of farmers northern and western Florida. Extension agents located this surplus up for which there was no local demand, helped assemble it at car-lot ing points, inspected it for quality, certified to the shipments and coned it to the Surplus Commodity Corporation according to their instrucA* canvas was made as to the possibility of buying for the same coration any surplus sweet potatoes, pears, corn and hay that the farmers ht have on hand. However, it was determined that the quantity of e surpluses was not sufficient to warrant the collection of car-lot shipts.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents in this area were able to pool orders for farmers fc the purchase of seeds, containers, cooperative purchase of dairy and bec cattle, principally breeding stock, feeder pigs, hogs and poultry for bre& ing stock and the use of 4-11 club members. The total value of these prc ducts can only be estimated because of the variety of conditions unde which they were purchased and because of the number of persons partici rating. These cooperative purchases in 1926 exceeded $2,000,000.
Cooperative Hog Sales: In every important hog-producing area 'Ll county agents have conducted cooperative hog sales. For the most pa these were the first cooperative hog sales in several years. In the peani growing area of northern and western Florida, where the sales hai been especially successful, the county agents have secured the suppa of farmers and hogs sold have exceeded in number and value those so'. in any other recent year, and have returned to the farmers more mon( and profit than any other crop or kind of livestock. This cooperative mov ment has not only improved the price, because of the greater number , buyers, but has 'presented an opportunity for an improved quality of hol and feeding methods which will establish hog production on a better has for the future and will further encourage livestock management and feedir practices that are intended to result in larger returns to farmers.
Cooperative sales have also extended to poultry, eggs, and turkeys. this the Extension Service has a working cooperative program with t State Marketing Bureau.
Sweet Potato Weevil Control: In Gadsden County it was determined t a number of fields were infested with sweet potato weevils. The coun agent interviewed the State Plant Board as to methods farmers sho adopt for control or eradication of the pest. This effort resulted in arouse the interest of sweet potato growers in' that section to follow practi that were intended to eliminate weevils by destroying all sweet pot plants on the farms that had been infested and securing 'plants from be where sweet potato weevils did not exist. These plant beds were arrange for by the county agent and farmers were provided with the necessa ,stock, so that purpose of the program could be effectively carried o In this the Board of County Commissioners and the State Plant Board operated throughout the entire season with the result that there was pr tically complete eradication on most of the farms of that area.
The county agent secured signed agreements from farmers and insi)ector from the State Plant Board visited the fields, potato banks seed beds to determine the amount, if any, of sweet potato weevils t could be found. By this method it is hoped that farmers can prod ample sweet potatoes in the future for local needs and markets by obser the precautions to keep their places free from sweet potato weevils.
The labor for handling this was supplied by the W. P. A., which f wished funds for managing the sweet potato beds and inspection of properties, About 25,000 bushels of sweet potatoes were grown under supervision of the county agent to fulfill a promise to farmers that th would be a supply of seed and planting stock for future planting. A re inspection shows that only two known infestations have occurred in t area. This indicates a very definite clean-up in Gadsden County.
Educational Meetings: On account of the Agricultural Adjustment p gram, there has been an increased interest in Agriculture generally. The tension Service, through the county agents and supervisory staff, has c ducted farmers' meetings in practically every community in Florida dur the past year. In the general farming area the interest was centered aro the soil conservation program, since it involved practices that must







Annual Report, 1936 29

Lfderstood by the farmers that they might participate to the full extent of )ayments made available to them because of this program. Coupled with his were the usual Extension activity programs. Greatest interest was :entered around the following subjects: Soil conservation; cover crop pracices; beef cattle purchases for breeding purposes; feeds and silo construcion; milk sales as affecting producer returns; citrus program for cost re[uction and better fruit campaigns; 4-H club work; cooperative organizaions and commodity production involving minor commodities affecting farm income.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Soil Conservation Committee
On February 29, 1986, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act was approved by the President to replace the adjustment programs which operated in 1934 and 1985.
Under this program the United States was divided into five regions foi administrative purposes. Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkan. sas, Texas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina constitute the Southery Region.
This program is handled within the State under the administration ol the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service. A State Agricultura Conservation Committee was designated by the Director of Extension ani consisted of W. B. Anderson of Greenwood, Jackson County, farmer; Jame J. Love of Quincy, Gadsden County, farmer; Ralph B. Chapman of Sanford Seminole County, farmer; and H. G. Clayton, District Agent of the Agri cultural Extension Service of Gainesville, as Chairman and Assistant Ad ministrative Officer.
A state office was set up in Gainesville in the Experiment Statio building to handle the program. In each county the county agent, assiste by a county committee of three farmers, together with community commi teemen and necessary clerical help, handles the program locally. Distri agents of the Extension Service have direct supervision over this progra as well as the regular Extension work.
Main provisions of the program are: (1) To improve the land by adop ing and putting into operation soil building practices on crop land; (2 to divert acreage from certain soil-depleting crops such as cotton, tobace peanuts and general crops to soil-conserving crops for the purpose of proving land and to improve prices by thus reducing surpluses and the tot supply in line with demand conditions; and (3) to improve net farm come in line with income of 'persons not on farms, due regard being giv to maintaining a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commoditi adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers a consumers.
HOW THE PROGRAM WAS HANDLED
Each producer who participated in the program executed a work she covering his farm and in which was set forth basic information regardi the crop history and production of the farm. The committeemen, coun agent and county clerical help assisted producers in filling out the wo sheets.
The County Committee then studied the work sheets of the individu producers and made such adjustments as necessary to get these on a co parable basis and in line with county quotas of acreage and products established by the Secretary.
The state office tabulated and worked out a county analysis of the wo sheets from each county in accordance with procedure prescribed by t Secretary in order to determine the percentage of the county quota to whi the work sheet signers were entitled.
To assist the county agents and the county committees, assista in soil conservation were appointed in 14 counties where assistance most needed.
After the work sheets were all in, compliance was secured on each fa upon which a work sheet was filed. Compliance consisted of measuring soil-depleting crops and conserving acreage for which payment was to made. The total crop land, as well as idle land and waste land, was mapp


































Fig. 1. Realizing that the soil is fundamental to successful agriculture, and is the basis of all life, Florida farmers, encouraged by Extension agents, are saving their soils. Above, running terraces is easy for these farmers who have attended a terracing school. Left below, terraces will prevent washing such as this. Right below, two pieces of an old saw blade attached to the moldboard enable a farmer with one horse to plow a good terrace.







32 Florida Cooperative Extension

Following compliance an application for grant was submitted by the prc ducer and this application was checked and approved by the compliance supervisor, the county committee and the county agent.
The applications were forwarded to the State office in Gainesville f( review, computations of payments, vouchering and certification to t General Accounting Office located at Athens, Georgia. Here the doci ments were audited and approved for payment. The Disbursing Office f( this region is located at Atlanta, and the individual checks are written Atlanta. The checks are mailed in lots to the respective county agen who have charge of the distribution to 'producers and the securing receipts for the individual producers.
In 1936, 23,518 work sheets were submitted and it is estimated th application for grant will be filed by 22,000 of these producers. The tot payments will approximate $950,000. The work sheets covered appro) mately 75% of all the crop land in the state.
On farms where there are tenants or share-croppers the total payme to the farm is divided as follows. The class I payment for diverting acreal from soil-depleting crops to soil-conserving crops is divided as follows:
37 'h 5o to the producer who f urnishes the land.
12 % to the producer who furnishes work stock and equipment.
50% is divided as the crop was divided.
The class II payment for putting into operation on the farm soil-buildi practice is paid to the producer who incurred the expense in carryi out these practices, except that if two or more producers incurred t expense the payment is divided equally among them. On tobacco farms p vision was made whereby a different diversion of the class I payment co be made.
In all applications the names and shares of the interested persons set forth and a separate check is issued to each person.
In handling a program of this kind a great deal of educational w is required. Group meetings of county agents; assistants in conservati
TABLE 1.-STATE SUMMARY OF PAYMENTS TO PRODUCERS UNDER AGRIC
TURAL ADJUSTMENT PROG.3AMS JULY 1, 1933, To NOVEMBER 30, 1936.

Program Amount


Cotton, Rental and Benefit Payments. $ 848,081.36 Tobacco, Rental and Benefit Payments . 510,907.94 Corn and Hogs, Rental and Benefit Payments . 478,449.59
Sugar, Rental and Benefit Payments . 1,449,376.14 Peanuts, Rental and Benefit Payments . . 1 110,708.29 Bankhead Pool (Cotton) Sale of Certificates. 18,211.92 Cotton Options-from sale of options. __ --- 18,963.90 Cotton Participation-from Trust Certificates .-------- 84,490.00
Cotton Price Adjustment Payments--._. . 128,967.18 Cotton Ginners Adjustment Payments . . 6,474.75

Sub-total . . $3,654,631.07


Cane Syrup Benefit Payments . . 23,589.93


Total.----------. - . $368210


$3,678,221.00







Annual Report, 1936


ind committeemen pursue study of the regulations and provisions of the )rogram in order that a clear understanding is had by the persons. respon;ible for handling the program locally. These persons in turn with assistiace from the state office conduct community and county meetings of )roducers to acquaint them with the program.I
Contacts and conferences are also had by the state leaders of the program vith the Washington office and with leaders from other states in order o adapt the program to conditions within the several states.
Table 1 gives a summary of payments received by Florida farmers ince the Agricultural Adjustment Act took effect in the summer of 1933.

1935 COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT PLAN
The objective of this plan was to assure producers, insofar as possible, return of 12 cents per pound, basis %/-inch middling, for their 1935 otton crop sold prior to August 1, 1936. This plan was to replace the 10 and
2 cent cotton loan programs of 1933 and 1934.
Producers eligible to participate in the benefits of the plan were those ersons by or for whom cotton was produced in 1935. The adjustment ayment per pound to each eligible producer making application was the mount per pound by which the official average price of % -inch middling ot cotton on the 10 designated spot cotton markets was below 12 cents r pound on the date of sale of the eligible cotton, but in no case could e payment per pound exceed 2 cents. In case a producer had cotton under e 1935 10 cent loan, and had not sold this cotton prior to August 1, 1936, e rate of the cotton price adjustment payment on such cotton would be e difference between the average of the designated spot markets on this Lte and 12 cents.
Lint cotton not in excess of the producer's 1935 allotment of tax-exempt tton under the Bankhead Act, was eligible for the price adjustment payent, except in cases where some eligible producers on a farm produced ss than their allotment, then the farm production up to the full allotent was eligible cotton and producers on the farm were permitted to ceive payment pro-rata on any excess production up to the total farm lotment.
The producer who made the Bankhead application or his successor ade the application for the cotton price adjustment payment. If there was ore than one person on the farm interested in the cotton price adjustment tyment, the applicant acted as trustee in such cases to properly distribute proceeds of the payment to these persons and secure a receipt for paynt from each such person. Share-tenants and share-croppers received eir part of the payment to the farm based upon their interest in the crop.
Funds to meet the expenses of the plan were appropriated by Congress.
The general 'procedure in handling the program was as follows:
The producer when he sold cotton would secure from the purchaser a es certificate. A separate form was made out for each different day's es. On this the name of purchaser, name of seller, date of sale and



unds of lint sold were indicated. At the time of filing his application for sales certificates. The county committee reviewed the applications and hheld any poundage in excess of the producer's Bankhead allotment of
-exempt cotton.
Applications were transmitted from the county offices to the state ofe. Here the papers were checked for correctness and certified for paynt. Vouchers were prepared for the certified applications and these were
arded to the Athens Branch of the General Accounting Office for audit.







Florida Cooperative Extensioni


After audit the vouchers were sent to the Atlanta Regional Disbursin office for checks to be issued. Checks were sent direct from Atlanta to thi county agents for delivery to producers. The producer signed a receipt foi his check, and in case there was more than one person interested in thi check thd applicant signed a trustee agreement for proper handling of thi proceeds of the check. The applicant would then distribute the proceed! among the interested persons and secure a receipt. These forms were re turned through the county offices to the State office where they were audited for correctness and when. in proper form served to complete the trustee agreement for the applicant.
While this program applied to the 1935 cotton crop, applications and pay ments were made in 1936.

GINNER'S PAYMENTS UNDER THE COT ITON PRICE ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM
As a part of the Bankhead cotton control program,' ginners wer required to furnish records of each bale ginned to the Internal Revenue Co' lector, and this necessitated special accounting work which was an adde expense to their usual operations. Provision was made whereby ginnei would be reimbursed to the extent of 25 cents per bale for each bale ginne from the 1935 crop to compensate for the extra expense they had incurre on account of the program.
Applications from ginners were handled through county and state fices and by the General Accounting and Disbursing Offices under the sa general procedure as followed for cotton producers.I








Annual Report, 1936


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK

R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent
For several years club work was an integral and essential part of every ounty agent's program. Club work was found in every county where an Lgent was employed. With increasing demands upon the county agents o direct agricultural adjustment work and supervise other emergency Lctivities many former well conducted programs including 4-H club work necessarily have received less attention.
Where the 4-H program has continued without serious interruption here has been an increase in membership. The work is better and more favorably known than ever before. The addition of training in organization nd leadership to the club program has been a wonderful aid to agents in curing members. In 1935 the counties with well organized clubs produced early all completions.
There has been a most decided improvement in the socializing results the club program. The organization of standard clubs and the adding of creation has helped make 4-H work a vital force in developing the social aptability of its members. During the depression the only "good times"~ e boys and girls in some communities enjoyed were those in connection ith their club work. This was shown by the stories written by new memrs in which they answered the question as to why they joined the club. he majority said it was because of the good times the club boys and rAs were having.
A feature which has been a stimulus 'to club work is the summer camp ogram. Two well equipped district camps have made it possible to give mal boys a real vacation at small expense and to fill them with 4-H thusiasm to carry on their work without much supervision from county ents.
DISTRIBUTION OF CLUB WORK
Counties of central, northern and western Florida are best adapted to Club work. In other parts of Florida 4-H1 club work is difficult. In the uthern area club work is limited to small projects with poultry, gardening d home beautification. Some isolated areas, such as about Plant City, ow corn after winter truck crops, and the families live on their farms. The following table shows enrollment for 1936 as compared with 1935
districts.
Enrollment Gain
1935 1936 Number Percent
strict 1 .1569 1975 405 25
strict 2. 421 494 73 1s.
strict 3. 956 1550 595 62
2946 4020 1074 36
Full benefits from club work come only to the boy who completes his r's work and turns in a record book. Only 44%l reports were secured
1936, but it is hoped to raise this to at least 60%/ as soon as possible.

CLUB ORGANIZATION
Organization into local community clubs, and having these following tamn standard requirements, is a great aid to successful club work. At beginning of the year a goal of 30 new local clubs was set, which was








36 Florida Cooperative Extension

exceeded by 50% by the close of the year. The number of local clubs increased from 171 to 216.
The issuance of charters to local clubs during recent years has stimulated interest and efficiency in the work. To obtain a charter a club must meet the following standards: Have a membership of five or more an adult local leader, a club organization with a constitution, and a car fully worked out program for the year. Twelve new charters were issue to standard clubs in 1936.
County councils of boys' 4-H club work, with representatives from eact local club, assist the agent in making plans for and conducting club work The boys themselves take an important part in formulating plans and seen that they are carried through. During 1936 councils were organized i Suwannee, Madison, St. Johns, Pasco, Alachua, and Palm Beach counties.
A State Boys' 4-1H Council was organized at the 1936 short course Thirteen counties were represented. Officers were elected and plans mad, for starting some definite moves to improve boys' club work in the state
.The president and vice-president entered college in September. Thes two went before the county agents at their annual meeting and explaine what the State Council wished to do and how the county agents can hel The agents agreed to give their cooperation.

LEADERSHIP TRAINING
Leadership training and better local club organizations are the two mo important needs of boys' club work at this time. More meetings for leade ship training were held than -in 1935, but they were for recreation, wor Florida was given more time by Mr. John Bradford and the Nation Recreation Association.
CLUB CAMPS
A WPA project brought to completion all buildings planned at Ca McQuarrie. Three more cottages to house 10 boys or girls each were bui A new water tower was erected and water tank moved. New concre foundations were put under and galvanized iron roof over -dining room a engine house. A two-car garage was built.
The equipment was increased by the addition of a. range boiler in k* chen. and sanitary top on dining tables. The WPA donated 120 mattress The girls bought a piano.
The grounds were improved by clearing more ground and setting o grass. The second dock was completed; two official spring boards install four new boats bought, and a diamond ball field clayed and grassed. A n sand-clay road was built from the highway to camp.
Equipment at the West Florida 4-H Camp was improved by a new of storage batteries for the light plant and 140 mattresses donated byt WPA. Some additions were made to kitchen equipment.
A hurricane hit the camp July 30. No one was injured and a sm amount of damage was done to the buildings; $65 put all buildings b in good shape. The most serious damage was done to the trees, of wW some 200 were blown down. The CCC detailed men to help with cleani up debris about camp.
During the 1936 camp season 1,939 boys and girls attended the twod trict camps. In addition to boys' and girls' camps, two adult meetings w held. Over 500 men and women used the equipment during the year.
All counties but two with 10 or more club boys took part in a sumn camp in 1936. The camping period in each case covered the major p of a week. Aubrey Dunscombe served as director of the West Florida Ca in 1936. He was assisted the last three weeks by Wilmer Bassett, a for







. Annual Report, 1936


4-H club boy. George T. Huggins, a former 4-H club boy, now a junior in the College of Agriculture, helped at Camp McQuarrie. These men gave efficient service and did much to make the 1936 season the most successful we have had in Florida.

VALUE OF 4-H CLUB CAMPS
Of all methods tried, the 4-11 summer camp has proven the most efficient way and time to give club boys 4-H enthusiasm, The training in cooperation, leadership, and good sportsmanship, which are a big part of the camp program, seem to set forth the real values of club work in a way that makes an impress on the boys. County agents consider the camp as their greatest aid in holding club enthusiasm at a high pitch.

STATE CLUB EXHIBITS
A state pig club exhibit was put on at the West Florida Exposition at Tallahassee November 3 to 7, and 60 club pigs were exhibited. Every minimal was a credit to club work.
A state baby beef show was held in connection with the Florida Fat Rock Show in March, 1936. Twenty-two fat steers were shown at the conm :est. It was the first showing of fat steers fed out by club boys. All aninals shown were not up to the 4-H standard but some were very good, ts several 4-H club steers placed in open competition. Madison County led n numbers shown. The exhibit in 1937 should be larger and better as more oys have steers on feed at this time.
A state poultry exhibit will be staged in connection with the Central 'lorida Exposition in Orlando in February, 1937. A similar exhibit was eld several years ago with great success but had to be discontinued when ie county fair which sponsored the show quit. A state exhibit of poultry nd eggs will be made by the poultry club members and a poultry judging contest will be held.
JUDGING CONTESTS
The confidence and poise which club members get from taking part in a ,ate judging contest makes such contests worth while.
A judging contest was held in connection with the Florida Fat Stock how in 1935. Five counties were represented. The second one was held L 19H and nine counties competed. Alachua County won in 1936.

SCHOLARSHIPS TO COLLEGE
Club work encourages better boys to strive for college training. The ork should offer opportunity for a boy to -get that which it makes him ant. College scholarships offered each year enable more boys to secure college education.
The Florida Bankers' Association for 17 years has offered three $100 !holarships to the College of Agriculture. The bankers have agreed to connue this off er.
The Model Land Company offers a $100 scholarship each year to a 4-H
boy in St. Johns County. The Hastings Potato Growers' Association planning to offer a $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture annually a 4-H club boy in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns County.
A $100 scholarship will be awarded at the State Poultry Judging Contest
March. There were seven scholarships offered for the year 1936,








Florida Cooperative Extension


OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
The trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Washington is the highest hward a club boy can win in Florida. Thanks to Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, two Florida boys attended the National Camp in 1936.
The trip to Chicago and the National 4-H Club Congress and International Live Stock Show is a wonderful inspiration. Two boys were sent to Chicago this year.
STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE
The annual short course is the big event of the club year. At thal time the county club champions come to the University of Florida fox a week of fun, instruction and inspiration.
At the 20th annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course June 8-13, 1936, 282 boys from 23 counties were enrolled.

RECREATION SCHOOLS
In cooperation with the National Recreation Association training school for leadership in recreation have been held in the state for 10 years. Mr John Bradford has represented the association. Considerable progress ha been made. The state has been covered in the 10 years. Almost every count with club work has been touched. Organized recreation councils have bee functioning for several years in some counties due to the schools.

RADIO
The radio has been used in promoting 4-H club work in Florida. It making 4-H club work better and more favorably known. Station WRU at the University put on at least one 4-H1 talk a month. During the Boy Short Course a 4-H program went on the air each day.
On National Achievement Day in November a 4-H program was put o at WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD chain stations. WRUF also put on a speci 4-H program that day.
Two talks on club work were made over WDBO at Orlando during t year.
OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS
Best Club Work by a County Agent: To James A. McClellan, Jr., an o 4-H club boy, goes the credit for having the best boys' 4-H club work Florida for 1936. With an estimated 412 boys available for 4-H club wo he enrolled 263 boys with 319 projects the first year he was in the count He got reports from 218 boys on 267 projects, or an average of 82 perce reports. There were 11 well organized local clubs in the county with working county council which functions in many ways to make the cI program effective.
Pasco County has done everything suggested for a good club progra Ten hoys attended the short course and 36 went to club camp. A judgi team competed in the state beef cattle judging contest and won fourth pla Although the State Pig Club Show was held 275 miles away, Pasco Coun had the largest number of pigs of any county exhibiting. Two demonst tion teams were trained and put on public demonstrations. A club ra was held and the club contest was made a county-wide affair.
The first loan from the Production Credit Association for 4-H club p poses in Florida was promoted by McClellan and 26 Jersey heifers w brought in from Tennessee. Also 25 purebred pigs were brought into county by club boys.







Annual Report, 1936


Club work was used to put on some demonstrations in swine production, featuring rotation of pastures. Trench silos to keep feed for winter use were built by the dairy club boys. Mr. McClellan is striving to make his 4-H club projects real demonstrations of doing the job as it should be done.
Club work is a vital force in the lives of Pasco County 4-H club boys.
Best Local Club: It seems that the Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County has a claim on the honor of being the best local club in Florida. This club has functioned so long and so well that it has become a local institution.
Located in an area restricted as to numbers by its physical surroundings, the Lake Worth Boys' 4-H Club has enrolled every boy available in its neighborhood. The club meets the first Sunday in every month at a vegetable packinghouse and has not missed a meeting in years. The boys start at 10 years. and leave with regret when they are 21.
When the president of the club was accidentally killed the club assisted with the services and made a 4-H club wreath. Club work to the members of his club means something.
The club record for 1936 was 12 business meetings and 4 recreational meetings. In addition, the boys 'promoted two Sunday dinners for the parents and members of club boys' families with an attendance of 196 t the 2 meetings. Gardening is a favorite project. Some take up poultry, airing and pineapples. One boy has a herd of six cattle valued at $275. )ne boy netted $180.35 from his dairy project and one sold $137.35 worth f products from his poultry project. Two boys started in the pineapple ,rowing business with a few slips about 3 years ago and now have deeloped their plantings to where they sold $127.60 worth of T)ineapples ist year and kept all slips to increase their planting. One boy netted 73.41 from his vegetables.
The same man has served as local leader since the club was organized.

STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK
Meat Production: Leroy Fortner won the gold watch offered by Thomas Wilson for best project work in livestock. Leroy reported that he carried 3 projects and that at the end of the year he had $500 worth of livestock nd crop products on hand and bank account of slightly over $200. He has

ounty.
Leroy lost one arm in an accident some years ago, but has not allowed
'at to interfere in his activities. In the 1936 short course he was given notable mention as the best first baseman in the diamond ball tournament. e is one of the outstanding 4-H club boys in Florida. Baby Beef: Francis Beach of St. Johns County showed the champion by beef at the State Show in 1936. He won the trip to Chicago offered







,beef herd of five Herefords which he is trying to develop in Alachua
Fat Barrow: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed the grand campion fat barrow at the State Pig Club Show in 1936. Eugene won the ip to Chicago. He took his fat barrow to Chicago and while he did not win
proved that Florida can raise good hogs.
Breeding Pig: Howell Bell of Lafayette County showed the grand chainon breeding pig at the State Pig Club Show. He won the $100 scholarship
the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville. .







Florida Cooperative Extension


STATE WINNERS IN LEADERSHIP
Washington Trip: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County and Donaldson Curtis of St. Johns County represented Florida 4-H boys at the 1936 National 4-H Camp. Donaldson Curtis entered college in September, while Eugene has another year in high school.
Bankers' Scholarships: Percy Davis of Okaloosa County, Donaldson Curtis of St. Johns County, and Mitchell Hope of Pasco County won the 3 bankers' scholarships for 1936. All entered the University of Florida in September.
CONTRIBUTORS TO BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville donated $250 to club work. This money was used to send one boy to the National 4-H Camp and to pay for a trip to Chicago and for a scholarship to the University.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 'paid for one trip to the National 4-H Club Camp.
The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three $100 scholarshipE to the College of Agriculture.
The Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a $100 scholarship tc a St. Johns County club boy. Walter Badger won this scholarship for 193( and entered college in September.
The Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Fat Stock Show, and thE West Florida Exposition contributed to club work by sponsoring state clu shows.
Service clubs throughout the state, appreciating what 4-H club wor is trying to do, have given many scholarships to the short course and hav contributed to the building of camps.
The boards of county commissioners of the various counties contribute many scholarships to the short course and have helped with pn*zes for t I county club contests.
For all of this help the boystheir agents and leaders are grateful.







Annual Report, 1936 41


DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy Extension work in Florida in 1936 has been conducted along similar lines to those of previous years, and has had a working program in practically all counties where county and home agents are employed.
Dairy information was carried to farmers through personal visits, farmers' meetings, news stories and radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations, method demonstrations with adults and juniors, result demonstrations, circular letters, county and state dairy meetings, and personal letters.

DAIRY SITUATION
Florida has long been regarded as a dairy cattle and milk deficiency area. The 1929 United States Census shows 73,966 cows being milked on 22,615 farms, while the 1934 Census shows that 86,360 cows were being milked on 28,518 farms, an increase of practically 6,000 farms. The increase in numbers of dairy cows was largely in rural sections, being family cows purchased to supply milk for the home rather than for the building of larger commercial dairies. The number of farms in Florida increased approximately 13,000 during the five-year period so that the number of cows has not kept pace with the number of farms.
Feed production is the outstanding problem in improving dairy conditions in the state. The present acreage of hay crops in Florida is approximateIy 100,326 acres, with a production of 58,902 tons. Florida needs an additional 230,000 acresin hay to produce the amount of forage required. However, with proper amounts of ensilage, 20,648 acres of hay would be efficient.
FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The Agents in Animal Husbandry and Dairying have coordinated their ,ork in the field of feeding and pastures, since the same kinds of grasses, ilage, hay, and other forage crops are adapted to both beef and dairy attle.
Cane and Forage: The agent in Duval County has a definite soil adapation program and dairymen have moved from small farms located on Norolk sandy soils out to larger farms with types of soils best suited for growng forage. Cane was introduced as a forage to produce large yields. More han 50% of the hundred dairies located in Duval County are growing cane o supplement grazing crops and several dairymen use the surplus cane o store in trench silos for winter feed. The work has extended to 22 counies in 1936 that have introduced cane as a forage crop.
Volusia County, with 12 demonstrations, reports yields this year of as iuch as 50 tons per acre from the first year's planting of Cayana 10 and 0. J. canes. It is recognized that the silage from cane and Napier grass not of as good quality as corn. There is probably about 6017o as much feeding value in a ton of these crops as in a ton of corn ensilage. However, he very great difference in yields is an important factor in establishing he use of forage cane. This year seven counties conducted demonstrations rith high yielding forage canes.
Pastures: The present improved pasture acreage is approximately 844 acres, with some 14,000 to 15,000 acres of this being mowed regularly. airmen stack the surplus grass mowed in these pastures and during asons of scant pastures, the cows feed from these stacks and the seed is batteredd back on the fields.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Results from the Florida Experiment Station have proven that mowing is a great aid in spreading the sod grasses such as Bermuda, carpet, and Bahia, and in keeping down weeds.
Silos and Silage: One hundred and forty-eight trench silos and 57 upright silos were constructed in Florida in 1936 to 'provide stored forage for winter feeding for cattle.
The trench silo has done more to popularize silage feeding than any other one thing in Florida. Trench silos have been constructed in all but about 16 of the 55 counties having agents. Ten counties constructed their first trench silos in 1986.
Farmers in Pasco County, under the leadership of the agent in his first year's work, dug the first trench silos adapted to the family cow. Thirtynine of these family cow silos were dug and 90%l were a financial success. Club boys took the lead in these demonstrations. Corn, sorghum, Napier grass, and cane were the forages used in these small silos. The forage was placed in layers in these trenches and they were filled without the use of ensilage cutters.
As a result of the first trench silo built in Manatee County in 1985, farmers of that area put in five trench silos, three metal silos, two concrete silos, and one wooden hoop silo in 1936. Where these farmers had previously stored 275 tons of silage annually, this year they had 2,150 tons.
Mineral Supplements: These are desirable on practically all farms essential on some where forage crops. grown are deficient in mineral ele ments. Two mineral mixtures recommended are: Steamed bonemeal, parts, and salt, 1 'part, in one end of the trough; and salt, 100 parts, re oxide of iron, 25 parts, and pulverized copper sulphate, 1 part, in the othe end of a double covered trough available to all cattle on the farm. Thi is essential on farms producing forage for family cows and where mil by-products are sold. On dairy farms where large amounts of concentrat feeds are fed, there, is less danger of mineral deficiencies but the practic of making these minerals available on all farms is recommended. Report from county agents indicate a greatly increased interest in the use of min eral supplements.
Citrus By-Products: As a result of recent investigations carried on b the Florida Experiment Station and citrus canning plants, some 5,000 t 10,000 tons of dried citrus pulp is being made available for dairy feedin purposes in 1936. Dairymen in the citrus growing area have been using th fresh pulp for a good many years. However, the irregularity in cannin citrus fruits makes it difficult to secure this fresh pulp on a satisfactor basis. The period when citrus pulp is not available reduces the milk fib considerably.
THE FAMILY COW

Thirty-two county agents report giving the family cow first consider tion in their dairy programs. Health authorities report that there ar large numbers of families having pellagra in some of our largest agricu tural counties. This condition can be controlled by proper diets, and it the belief of county agents and Extension workers that there is a pla for the family cow on a large number of farms that are without cows this time.
. The Pasco County agent, with one of his farmers, accompanied t State Dairy Extension Agent on a trip to Middle Tennessee to purchase grade and registered Jerseys to be placed on farms of the county with o purpose in mind, the supplying of milk to the home. It is thought tha as the increased herd accumulates, surplus cows may be marketed to t







Annual Report, 1936


market milk dairy centers nearby as a further source of cash income on the farm.
Demonstrations established in Madison County over a period of 10 years show that it is practical to interest farmers in improving the class of dairy ows on the farm, even where no milk market other than the farm family s available., Several thousand dollars in cash are returned to the farms of
-his county each year from the marketing of Jersey cows to the market milk fairies of southern Florida.
In the last four years, the county agent has placed some 350 grade heifers ni Hernando County to be used as family cows. In 1986 he reports the ale of $3,700 worth of cows, the herd increase from initial purchases of rade heifers.
Some agents have an active program outlined for the establishment of nderground silos, the growing of Napier grass, cane, and other adapted orages. During the year, some 365 cows were brought into Florida and laced on farms for family use by county Extension workers. Many hunreds of others were introduced as a result of the program.

MILK PRODUCED FOR BY-PRODUCTS PLANTS

Economic conditions for the last' six or seven years have been unfavrable for the development of milk by-products plants. However, the outok for 1937 is more favorable.
A cheese plant at Thomasville, Georgia, for the last two years purased milk from some farms in Jefferson and Leon counties, Florida. A rge portion of this milk was produced by Negro farmers.

RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS

The intensive Bang's disease eradication program has been the occasion r slaughtering many cows in Florida, and has changed conditions for getig herd replacements for Florida dairies. Market milk dairymen are purasing registered bulls and raising heifers to replace the cows formerly .rchased.
The upward trend'of prices in dairy heifers has created a great deal of terest in sections of the State in the growing of surplus heifers.

4-H1 DAIRY CLUBS

Club members developed 167 calves and completed their record books in 36.
Cooperative arrangements were made with the Production Credit Corration of Plant City for financing the 4-11 club members in Pasco County.
is work will be extended in 1937 as an approach for enlarging the proam. The Pasco County Agent organized a trained group of his 4-H Club mbers to put on a calf feeding demonstration at community meetings
roughout the county.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES

There were 96 registered sires placed with farmers and dairymen in rida in 1936 through the cooperation of county agents. Duval County practically reached the 100%/ goal in dairy farms headed by registered
ry sires. Plans are made to place at least one registered sire with each cows distributed in these counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


EDUCATIONAL TRIPS AND FARM TOURS
Field Day in Flagler County: Some 55 Flagler and Volusia. county dai rymen and business men assembled at Homer Miller's farm to see the first trench silo in that area. Mr. M iller also had three concrete silos.
University of Florida Dairy Day: In coperation with Dr. A. L. Shealy and Dr. R. B. Becker and other dairy leaders in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, the first University of Florida Dairy Day was held at Gainesville.
Dr. Becker presented a fine demonstration of registered Jersey bulls and their daughters from the Experiment Station and College dairy herd, giving the results of breeding abilities of these sires, with charts showing the increase or decrease of production of daughter over dam.

STATE AND COUNTY DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 16 county and one state dairy associations in Florida. Th( Miami Home Milk Producers' Association is a cooperative marketing -associa. tion with 18 dairy farmer members. This cooperative owns a milk distribut. ing plant in Miami capitalized at $100,000 that markets 2,000 to 3,000 gallon of milk per day as fluid milk and milk by-products such as cream, buttermilk chocolate milk, ice cream, and cottage cheese. The -plant is also equipped With machinery for condensing purposes.
The Tampa Home Milk Producers' Cooperative is another marketing association. Practically all producers in the Tampa area and some producer distributors belong to the Association. The cooperative owns a sma dairy 'plant with pasteurizers, cream separators, a small drum type mi powder plant, churn can washers, sterilizers, and other equipment neede in utilizing surplus milk. This plant has been very serviceable in stabilizin milk prices in the Tampa area.
About 1,000 gallons of skimimilk a day was being converted into mil powders in late November, 1936. Some of the cream from this milk w shipped to other towns in South Florida and other portions went into manufacture of ice cream and butter. The milk powders were marketed bakeries, sausage plants, and candy 'plants and for various other purpos in the Tampa area.
The two cooperative plants were the outgrowth of organization a marketing work fostered by the Agricultural Extension Service. The Mia organization has been functioning for seven years and the Tampa pla for four years.
The county dairy associations are chiefly concerned with production pro lems. However, marketing problems are adjusted through these county o ganizations. The State and county dairy organizations have given valuab aid to the county and State extension workers in developing county State dairy programs.
MISCELLANEOUS
Cooperation with the Milk Control Board in the Marketing of Fluid Mil The Dairy Extension Agent has cooperated with the Milk Control Board three milk 'production cost surveys in Duval, Hillsborough, and Dade cou ties. Mr. Bruce McKinley of the Economics Department of the Experime Station also cooperated in these studies. The producer-distributor marketi his milk direct to the consumer and the distributing plants had deny many benefits from the Milk Control Board in the adjustment of trade pr tices and in the marketing of milk. In many sections of the state, mn prices had been raised.






Annual Report, 1936 45

One dairyman in the Jacksonville area made the statement that his pay check was increased over $500 a month as a result of this survey and all the producers in these areas received, increased pay checks each month as a result of the better proportioning of the consumer's dollar to the milk producers. The price range in cost of producing milk to the dairy house was from 31c to 35c per gallon.
The Miami Home Milk Producers' Association was given aid in securing a cooperative loan from the National Bank for Cooperatives.
United States Bureau of Animal Industry and State Livestock Sanitary Board: The county agents of Florida have given whole-hearted support to

the Bang's Disease Eradication Program as conducted through the offices of Dr. T. W. Cole, Federal Building, Jacksonville. The November 1936 reort shows 884 herds numbering 17,582 cattle had 574 reactors, approximately 301o. The 1934 report shows approximately 250/c reactors, thus m Iarked progress is being made.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman
The Extension Animal Husbandman and county agents have undertaken project work with' beef cattle, hogs, meat curing, sheep, and work stocl improvement.
At the request of the manager, the Animal Husbandman visited thq Indian Reservation and made recommendations for pasture improvement

WORK WITH BEEF CATTLE
The U. S. Department of Agriculture reported 788,000 cattle in Florid. on January 1, 1936. About two-thirds are under, fence and one-third ol open ranges.
Beef projects concern largely cattle production and fitting cattle fo market. Both juniors and adults participate in the two phases. For adult the ultimate goal is to locate purebred bulls for commercial herds, to hav the majority of beef cattle in the state of high quality, and to produce an sell each year a maximum calf crop, thus insuring a profitable industry.
CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
One of the main problems has been to secure sufficient good bulls for her improvement. Purebred breeders within the state are insufficient to suppl the demand. Purebred beef cattle breeding centers are far removed frol Florida, making it difficult for Florida cattlemen to secure good bulls. Thi office has supplied information to county agents and cattlemen as to wher good bulls could be purchased.
One breeder sold all his Florida raised bulls as yearlings. A pack offered to take old bulls and any other livestock in payment for good bul which he brought in from outside, and placed more than two carloads this manner. He also sold 200 bulls in addition.
One dealer has sold 100 purebred and another 100 high grade Brah bulls to range cattlemen in Florida.
Records show that inore than 700 purebred and a large number of hi grade bulls, as well as 1,075 high grade and purebred cows, have been plac in Florida during the year.
HERD MANAGEMENT
Controlled Breeding: Controlled breeding and the getting of a larg early calf crop is becoming more popular with cattlemen. Bulls have be put on winter feed in 15 counties.
By good management good calves will weigh from 400 to 500 poun as compared with common range calves weighing 200 to W pounds. 0 farmer in 1935 produced 80 calves sired by common bulls that sold for $8 In 1936 the same 80 cows dropped calves sired by purebred bulls that sold $1,375. The cows were wintered well and the calves were dropped early.
High grade calves brought 5c to 6c per pound when buyers refused take common calves at 4c.
Northern and eastern areas are potential markets for Florida fat calv stocker and feeder cattle. In the past Florida cattle have been discrimi ated against in these areas because of poor breeding and finish. In 19 for the first time on record, about 7,000 Florida calves were good enough sell on these markets.







Annual Report, 1936


More than 16,000 Florida calves have been sold to the packers this'season, many of these calves going to the East. Good, growthy calves dropped early, sired by good bulls, and out of the best cows brought good prices.
As a result of a field day in Osceola County on November 5, 1935, when ,attle owners from many nearby counties saw yearling heifers and spring calves sired by purebred beef bulls (on the ranges of H. 0. Partin and Irlo Bronson) and observed particularly the size and quality of these calves and yearlings, many purebred bulls have gone into the counties of Highlands, glades, Hardee, Charlotte, and Okeechobee. Parker Brothers, after seeing the cattle (on the Partin and Bronson ranges) stated, "We can raise the "lame kind of cattle." In 1936 Parker Brothers sold more than 1,000 calves.
Dehorning: Cattlemen have been thoroughly informed that steer feeders demand dehorned animals. Recommendations are to dehorn animals when .hey are young, and during cool weather, regardless of the method used. Chis season 300 calves in Osceola County were dehorned by the use of a 'hot" iron. This method, on check-up, showed about 95%/ efficiency.
Castrating: Due to screw worm infestation, the emasculator for bloodss castration has been used extensively throughout the state. With this strument during the year 8,588 bulls were castrated, with 41/% slips. 'his is a very creditable showing.
STEER FEEDING
Efforts have been continued on more economical methods of steer feedg. This work has been carried on as a part of the farm operation. The shade tobacco men in Gadsden and Madison counties secured 1,400 ,eers from the West, this season. We have advised with these men on the handling and feeding of local farm grown feed including sugarcane. Attention of cattle feeders has been called to results of steer feeding
-ials at both Quincy and Gainesville experiment stations in the comparison Isilage from sorghum, Napier grass, and sugarcane, and with different )ughages.
Although the 1935-36 steer feeding period was not as profitable as the ar before, still there are more steers on feed this year than last-3,000 ad-and more cattle in bean fields this year than last-9,598. The trend in steer feeding is to finish out younger cattle on home-grown eds.
The steer feeding work is almost wholly confined to the counties of Mar,Levy, Alachua, St. Johns, Lafayette, Columbia, Suwannee, Madison, iferson, Leon, Calhoun, Jackson, Washington, and Okaloosa.
PASTURE WORK
Records show that around 15,000 acres of pasture have been mowed d that 6,500 acres have been run over with a weed cutter. Interest has also been aroused in des troying the scrub palmetto. Demstrations with a new cutter for destroying palmettoes have been held the counties of Osceola, Polk, Highlands, and DeSoto. These demonstrans are being watched very closely by cattlemen. A reliable estimate shows now that Florida has about 77,000 acres of land improved pasture.
SILO WORK
Fifty trench and three upright silos have been filled with sorghum, sugare, and corn for feeding and Wintering cattle. One beef cattle man in Levy nty erected two upright silos this year after using a trench last -year. Marion County man, after 20 years, again put up and filled a cypress ye silo.








Florida Cooperative Extension


One cattleman in Madison County is feeding about 600 head of steer from three trench silos 16 feet wide at the top, 14 feet at the bottom, nini feet deep, and 200 feet long.
Many small trench silos were dug in Levy, Madison, Lafayette, St. Johns Alachua, and Holmes counties.
One drawback has been the cost of the cutter and the power to operat, it. One farmer uses the engine of an old automobile, attaching a pulley and using it for a power plant.

MARKETING WORK

To aid in the marketing of beef cattle and demonstrate that Florida be( cattle would feed out well, in 1934 the Jacksonville Fat Stock Show an Sale was organized. The first sale was held in March 1935. At the 193 sale 638 head of ca tle were soldE against 147 for 1931 VVm there were 71 e hibits against 1 18 4-H club calvi against none; nii teams in the 4judging against flyi 10 cars of catt were bought to outside of the sta as against none; a 18 Florida counti furnished the cat in 1936 as compar with 9 in 1935.
The outstandi feature of the sh was a Florida ye ling steer's winni grand champions and selling for a pound. This st was bred and ished by Mr. Fig. 2. This grand champion steer at the 1936 Queen Chaires Fat Stock Show and Sale was bred and raised in Dixie County. Florida by a Dixie County cattleman. This show
resulted i n mn other Florida calves and cattle being put on feed this year. Cattle Madison and Alachua counties are heing fed under sheds to protect manure.
Fifteen counties report the sale of 9,600 steers, some going to out-of-st buyers. Scales and pen facilities have been installed. The Extension Ani Husbandman cooperated very closely in getting these pens established Ft. Meade and at Arcadia.
There was established at Gainesville in October 1935 an auction mar under private supervision. The Extension Service and county agents operated with this market in making their first birthday a feeder cattle when 400 head of cattle were sold. During the first year this auction ket operated, it handled more than half million dollars worth of lives







Annual Report, 1936


FAIRS
In 1936 the Florida State Fair had an exhibit of out-of-state cattleAngus, Shorthorns, and Brahmas-with a few Florida breeders represented. In 1937, the Florida Cattlemen's Association will sponsor the cattle show at Tampa. This agent assisted the Florida Cattlemen's Association to work out a premium list and plans for a representative show.

LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS
The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is becoming a factor in livetock development. County agents have been instrumental in organizing 21 ounty livestock associations that function through the state organization.

HOGS AND MEAT CURING
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
The main hog industry is confined to the peanut producing areas.
During the year, records show that "421 purebred boars and 1080 high,rade sows and gilts were placed on farms, and comparatively few good sows tnd gilts are reaching the cooperative markets.
Improving Quality: To improve the type and quality of hogs, a study )f type and quality of meat and market hogs has been carried to the farmer ,hrough the county agents, who pointed out advantages of selection and )reeding.
Feed Production: A "complete yearly cycle" of feed and pasture is necesary for economical hog production. Feed and pasture work is linked with he parasite control by a rotation of crops, having the sows farrow in arasite free fields and pastures, and keeping them from infested hog allows and lots.
To be profitable, hogs must graze on maintenance crops and fattening ops.
Cooperative Hog Marketing: Ten years ago, the Gulf Coast Cooperative og Marketing Association was formed at Trenton and has functioned ,ntinuously even during the depression. Their sales are: Season No. Hogs Money received Price per hog
134-35 .8,465 $ 64,935.55 $ 7.56
35-36.---------14,444 164,155.74 11.35
irst of season, 12/1/35 . 4,500
irst of season, 12 /1/36 ---- 8,4000 120,000.00 15.00

Regular cooperative hog marketing has increased this year, seven new operative sale places being established, one each in the counties of Escama, Walton, Washington, Jefferson, Taylor, Suwannee, and Sumter, making total of 13 in the state with the old established cooperatives in Levy, Giltrist, Gadsden, Calhoun, Jackson, and Holmes counties. At these cooperative markets the hogs are weighed and graded accordg to market demands. These sales are used by county agents and .rmers to market finished hogs, exchange breeding animals and purchase id sell feeder pigs.
MEAT CURING FOR HOME USE

Meat curing, in cold storage and ice boxes, is generally practiced by
rmers in hog producing counties. To aid in insuring a bountiful supply
delicious home cured meats, meat cutting and curing demonstrations
ye been held in many sections of the hog producing area.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In the cutting work, clean-cut, uniform work has been the aim. In the curing, the 8-2-2 formula has been recommended for a mild cure; i.e., for 100 lbs. 'of meat, 8 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of sugar, and 2 oz. of saltpeter.
,Bulletin No. 81, "Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm," has bee generally called for.
Six privately owned cold storage plants have been constructed in 1936 One plant at Madison doubled its capacity. There are now 47 cold storag( plants in 21 counties curing meat, most of them using the brine cure.
Last season, 1935-36, reports show meat cured as follows:
In cold storage houses. 5,763,813 lbs.
In ice boxes . 107,000 lbs.
County Agents' reports show assistance to 328 farm families in hom curing meats.
A number of home cured meat exhibits were displayed at county an state fairs. These meat shows presented a good appearance and carrie the lesson of "delicious home cured meat"!

WORK STOCK
With the majority of work stock approaching the age limit of usefulnes~ and with a considerable annual outlay of money for replacement of far horse power, it seems well that projects be initiated for producing a few far mules and horses. This work has met with some appreciation and indication are that it will increase with the coming year.
County agents and farmers have been supplied with information o prices and locations of mares and jacks and have been put in touch wit breeders and dealers of jacks, stallions, and mares.
Reports show 11 jacks, 13 stallions, and 400 mares bought by farmer

CORN-HOG WORK FOR AAA (1935 and 1936)

The Extension Animal Husbandman has continued to represent t Extension Service in handling the 1935 corn-hog control work, adjustin discrepancies in contracts and transfers, and closing out county corn-h control associations. This work has progressed satisfactorily and is almo completed.
A trip was made to a regional meeting in Atlanta for instruction handling the 1936 corn-hog control program.
With representatives of the Agricultural conservation program, whi replaced the AAA, the Extension Animal Husbandman arranged for a mee ing of cattlemen at Kissimmee to discuss plans, ways, and means where cattlemen might participate in the range and pasture phases of the progra

SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
This agent has acted in the capacity of contact man for the StateaScr Worm Control Committee, working in cooperation with count agn state and county livestock associations, and representatives of the Feder Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Aid has been extended in finding and selecting field men, in the appron work, and in arranging for schools of instruction. This office furnish suggestions on methods of handling livestock under screw worm infestati
In cooperation with Mr. W. G. Bruce, regional director of screw wo control, material was prepared for Extension Bulletin 86, "Screwworms Florida".







Annual Report, 1936


4-H CLUB WORK
Club boys have carried projects with both hogs and beef cattle. With )etter market prices for their animals, the boys have revived interest in dig and barrow clubs, and have shown considerable interest in cattle raisng.
The ultimate goal in junior project work with beef cattle is to develop n boys a good understanding and appreciation of the best practices in beef !attle production and management, and to develop leadership in livestock )roduction.
Progress has been made towards the goal. In 12 counties junior )reeding 'projects were started. Twenty-three boys were furnished with wo grade Hereford cows each and two boys were furnished with one cow ch, with the understanding that they would breed these animals to ipproved bulls. These boys have, with their parents, agreed to keep records d use the animals as a nucleus for a high grade herd, following sugges*ons and instructions given by the county agents and this office on breeding, ceding, and herd management.
The Jacksonville 1936 Fat Stock Show and Sale furnished an impetus Dthe 4-H fat calf work, when 18 boys led their calves into the ring and 'rancis Beach (St. Johns County) won a trip to the International Live tuck Show in Chicago. Madison County boys won seven of the 10 prizes ered on 4-H fat calves. This Show, coupled with the good work of the )unty agent, .is having an excellent effect on the club work in' Madison ounty.
This year 22 Madison County boys are feeding calves. Many of these )ys bought their calves with money from tobacco sales.
County agents reports show that 66 4-H club members completed beef ejects.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE

E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist,

CONDITIONS THAT DETERMINE THE PROGRAM
Citrus fruits produced in Florida compete in the domestic and foreig markets with citrus fruits produced in other states and countries, as we as with other competing fruits. Thus production and marketing problem have a very real national aspect. On a per-capita basis, production of citrlu fruits in the United States has increased about 48 percent during the la decade; while the population has increased about 6 percent. Consequent market prices have declined to the point of dangerously low net returns Florida citrus growers.
The chief problem of the Florida citrus industry directly confrontii the Extension Service is to bring about still further reductions in cost producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price within reach more consumers in the low income groups and that will return to the pr ducers a profit; and, at the same time, improve the quality of the fruit: as to give it a stronger consumer appeal and thereby increase demand a] consumption. Three-fourths of the resident citrus fruit growers of the sta are being reached by our citrus program. The greatest part of the wo was carried on in 20 central and southern Florida counties.
The county agents and citriculturist have been assisted in carrying the program by district agents, the Professor of Soils in the College Agriculture, members of the Experiment Station staff and specialists of t United States Department of Agriculture Extension Service. Very c structive cooperation has been received from the Florida Citrus Commissi and the commercial insecticide interests.

GROVE MANAGEMENT
An endeavor is made to bring together the best known practices different 'phases of citrus culture into a consolidated grove managem program and set it up in a demonstration grove. This plan has encoura some county agents to purchase or lease citrus groves and use them demonstration groves. It is a recognized fact that the county agent assumes a share of the responsibilities in the management of a dem stration grove becomes more practical in coordinating the different gr operations into an efficient and economical grove management progr and thereby wields a greater influence in converting growers to bet cultural practices.
Sixty-one g roves are now listed as demonstration groves in the m citrus-producing counties. One county agent estimates that through influence of his demonstration groves, the profits to citrus growers of county have increased $140,000 annually.

SOIL MANAGEMENT
The work under this major project includes fertilizing,, cultivat cover crops, irrigation and soil amendments.
Fertilizing: The fertilizer cost constitutes 3001 to 600% of the total of maintaining a citrus grove. The fact that successful citrus fruit gro depends in a large measure upon proper fertilization is brought out in following table of data compiled from a summary of grove cost records the Assistant Extension Economist.









TABLE 2.-REX-ATION OF FERTILIZER USED TO COST AND RETURNS OF 220 GROVES. CROP YEAR 1933-34.
Groups




N o. groves . 60 66 94 No. acres . 420.5 1325 1548 Average age . 19 17 19 Percent grapefruit . 40 30 24
Cost per box . . 32 30 24
Fertilizer costcents per box . 12.3 11.6 .14.1
per 100 trees . . 1 $19.28 $33.65 $56.10 Lbs, plant food* per 100 trees es 275 485 767
Pro auction, boxes per 100 tre 157 291 399
Net returns per 100 trees . . 1 $12.80 $55.00 $88.03 Returns per box . 45 .59 .67


RELATION OF INCREASED OUTPUT To RETURNS
Percent Increase
Plant Fert. Other Net
Groups Food Cost Costs Yield Returns

1 to 3 176 190 107 154 588
1 to 2 76 74 51 85 330
2 to 3 58 67 38 37 60

*AV. ratio of N-P-K, 5-21/2-4.
Those growers represented by Groups II and III of the table have adopted the better methods of fertilizing as taught by the Extension Service. A total of 207 demonstrations of better fertilizing practices were conducted this year.
Cultivation: Improper cultivation of bearing citrus groves has been attacked from the standpoints of both waste of money and adverse effect on quality of the fruit'by too much cultivation. Fourteen counties have taken part in this project and 5,200 acres are in demonstrations of proper grove cultivation. Proper cultivation practices have resulted in a saving on the operation of $3 to $8 per acre over improper practices. Improvement in quality of fruit has resulted, in some instances, in a value increase of 10 to 20 percent.
Cover Crops and Organic Matter: The predominating soil types on which citrus is grown being of a sandy character, low in natural fertility, presents the dominant problem of supplying organic matter. Consequently the value of manures and various forms of waste vegetable matter has been brought out in 211 demonstrations. In 37 groves the grass and/or legume cover crop yields were increased 10 to 20D percent by the use of 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre of untreated phosphate. In 105 demonstrations the cover crop yield was increased 10001o to 15001o by the use of $1.00 worth of nitrogen fertilizer per acre. In addition to increasing the organic matter by this increase of cover crop grown during the rainy season, research has shown that the leaching'of plant nutrients is reduced and the soil is desirably shaded, thus giving protection to tree roots during this hot season. . .


Annual Report, 1936







Florida Cooperative Extension


Crotalaria is the best planted cover crop, but getting a stand is very uncertain. With the cost of seed around 10 cents the pound or 50 cents to $1.00 per acre, our demonstrations encourage growers to reseed in early spring where the chances of a crop are even only fair. If the crop fails the grass cover crop comes during the rainy season.
The AAA Soil Conservation program greatly stimulated interest in grove cover crops this year, even though it was put into effect late in the season. This program is directly in line with what the Extension Service has been teaching for many years. From the grower's standpoint the fact that the Agricultural Adjustment Admifiistration recognizes our cover crop practices as sound and is willing to remunerate him for carrying them out greatly emphasizes the importance of the whole program of cover crops and soil building. In one large county it is reported that 926/o of the citrus acreage participated in the Soil Conservation program this year. Every citrusproducing county has taken part in this cover crop program.
Irrigation: Less time was devoted to this phase of the project this
-year than last, owing to the fact that the drought periods were shorter and less intense. However, assistance was given to 70 growers in either the installation of plants or improvement of the methods of applying irrigation water. The portable irrigation plant developed in 1934 and described in the Annual Report of 1935 is proving to be very useful and very practicable. One of the largest dealers in irrigation equipment has donated one of these portable irrigation plants for demonstration purposes.
The records of a cooperating grower show that his grove produced an average annual yield of 9,600 boxes of fruit for the 5-year period last before installing his irrigation plant. For the 5-year period under irrigation the grove has produced an average of 11,800 boxes. He says irrigation has for him "taken some of the gamble out of citrus fruit production."
Soil Amendments: Dolomitic limestone applied at the rate of 200 to 300 pounds per acre continues to prevent and correct "bronze leaf" of citrus in the 16 demonstrations started four years ago. The number of- demonstrations has been increased to 50 this year. This work is being carried on in 17 citrus-producing counties. One county agent reports: "Growers are sold on the use of dolomite. One caretaker has used 650 ions. Ninety percent of the groves of this county have been treated with dolomite or some other carrier of magnesium." The results are attributed to demonstrations started four years ago.
County agents report having made 510 tests for soil acidity, phosphorus and calcium. The results of these tests are used as basis for soil treatments in many cases.
Zinc for Frenching: The effectiveness of zinc sulphate in soil applicat.ions for wrenching has been demonstrated in 11 groves this year., While foliage applications are quite generally used and have been effective in producing quick results, soil applications, when made on a mulch of vegetable matter under the trees, produce more lasting results. One to two years are
-required to show results from soil applications, while results may be seen in one to two months following a foliage application. The desirability of a combination of the two methods will be demonstrated next year.
Splitting of Valencia oranges results in a loss of many thousands of Dollars annually. Results with soil amendments during the last four years point rather definitely to the conclusion that this trouble is due to nutrient deficiencies often accelerated by soil moisture deficiency. A marked reduction in splitting of Valenclas was noted in demonstration 'Plots where zinc sulphate was applied primarily to correct wrenching, where dolomite was applied for "bronze leaf" and where copper sulphate was applied for am-







Annual Report, 1936


moniation. This is shown in part in Table 3. The good results of all of these special treatments have been ampiffied when applied on a mulch or when used in conjunction with an ample supply of irrigation water.

TABLE 3.-DEMONSTRATIONS IN REDUCING SPLITTING OF VALENCIAS.
Number IPercent Split and Dropped Percent
of Dem-t Materials Lbs. I Reduced
osr- Used per -,Treated Untreated Av. All
______ Tree IRange IAv. IRange I Av. IPlots
2 Zinc
Sulfate 1 to 3 4.9- 7.9 6.2 12.5-49 28.5 80

4 Copper
Sulfate 1 to 3 4.5-21.5 12 16.6-44 27.1 55.5
21 Zinc andI
____ICopper I to 1/2 7.0-15 11 j15 -45 26 51.5

DISEASE CONTROL
Citrus diseases of most economic importance are melanose of oranges, stem-end rot and blue mold decay. In view of the fact that a rapidly increasing proportion of the grapefruit crop is being canned, and the canners are not paying a 'premium for fruit free of surface blemishes like melanose and scab, interest in the control of diseases of grapefruit has reached a low ebb and the Extension program has declined accordingly.
Melanose: Largely through the cooperation of the Florida Citrus Commission on the Better Fruit Program, grower interest in melanose control of oranges has been greatly stimulated. While the program was launched too late in the season for much'spraying, increased interest resulted in more than the usual effort along lines of prevention. Double the amount of pruning over the previous year was done. Five hundred growers have adopted citrus culture programs designed to prevent melanose by reducing to the minimum, the production of dead wood. This is done by maintaining higher vitality in trees by more adequate fertilization, by less injury from improper cultivation, and by an ample supply of water. Some splendid results were obtained in 17 spraying demonstrations with 1 % -1 % -50 bordeaux. Weather conditions in the spring did not generally favor melanose development on the fruit. Consequently the crop as a whole is unusually free of melanose blemishes this year.
Blue Mold Decay: Owing to extra non-project activities, very little time could be devoted to this phase of the, work this year. Some time was devoted to packing companies, assisting in improving methods in the use of borax.
INSECT CONTROL
In the early part of this year the Florida Citrus Commission, a body authorized by an act of the Legislature of)1935, appointed an advisory committee to direct the efforts of the Commission in matters of better fruit production. The Extension Citriculturist was made a member of that committee. The first thing the committee did was to compile a set of spray and dusting schedules for citrus diseases and insects. The next thing was to put on an educational campaign to acquaint the growers with provisions of the program and put it into effect as soon as possible. This task was delegated to the Extension Service and the work was well done.







Florida Cooperative Extension


A series of educational meetings covered every important citrus-)?roducing community in the state. Spray and dusting schedules were thoroughly discussed and the importance of greater effort in the production of better fruit was appropriately emphasized. It took six weeks to cover the state, holding as many as three meetings some days, using every available man. A copy of the Better Fruit Program was either mailed or handed to every accessible grower. The meetings were followed by radio talks on the program, and many newspaper and magazine articles on the subject were published. The campaign was climaxed by a presentation of the Better Fruit Program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society by a member of the Commission and the Extension Citriculturist.
Rust Mite: The best job of rust mite control on any crop in the history of the industry amply repays all for the efforts put forth on this project and special program.
Scale and Whitefly: The importance of scale and whitefly control by spraying depends largely upon the copper spraying done for melanose and scab control. Natural control is usually effective where the balance is not disturbed by fungicidal sprays. The control of these insects, therefore, becomes largely a problem in the individual grove management. Aside from keeping before growers certain fundamentals in both natural and artificial scale and whitefly control by the use of 2 to 6 well placed demonstrations in each county, no great amount of time has been devoted to this phase of the work this year. Of course the use of red aschersonia cultures in whitefly control is always timely stressed. Six hundred cultures were used in demonstrations this year, covering 1,000 acres. The saving is $10 per acre.

MARKETING
The Extension Service began to assist in marketing problems this year. In March assistance was rendered in the grower referendum on the citrus marketing agreement, covering the whole citrus belt with 31 meetings in less than two weeks. At these referendum meetings a copy of the marketing agreement and summary was handed to each grower present. The working provisions of the agreement were explained, all questions answered and ballots cast. The vote was about 6 to 1 in favor of the agreement.
Representatives of the Extension Service. have lj een present at most meetings of the Control Committee and have rendered service in instances where opportunities were presented. The fact has been constantly stressed that quality production is an important and fundamental factor in successful marke mg.
NON-PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Meetings and Tours: During the year 303 meetings were held in 19 counties, at which citrus culture problems and various perplexing phases of the industry were discussed. Seventeen tours were conducted to demonstrations and to the experimental plots at the Citrus Experiment Station. These tours were made very educational. At the close ' of one tour a large grower remarked: "What I have seen and heard today is worth $1,000 to me."
Grove Visits: Demand made upon Extension workers during the year for special service was very heavy. Numerous requests came from growers for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove problems. This type of service consumes considerable time, and constitutes a very important part of our year's work, from the grower's standpoint at least. During the year 3,000 grove visits were made in 19 counties going into all phases of citrus production.







Annual Report, 1936 57

Growers' Institute: Nine counties participated in a four-day growers' institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in August. The citrus program was the main feature of the institute. All major phases of citrus culture were discussed by Extension workers, members of the College of Agriculture teaching division, and Experiment Station staff. Method demonstrations in irrigation were given. Two hundred growers enrolled for the courses.
MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES
The AAA Soil Conservation program has taken a large part of the county agents' time during the last six months. Consequently certain other phases of the work have been pushed aside temporarily. As the work becomes better organized less time will be required to administer the program. It promises to greatly strengthen soil management projects.
One hundred growers were assisted in making better finance plans.
Assistance was rendered the federal and state frost protection service in conducting grower meetings and in establishing field stations.
News Articles and Radio Talks: Five hundred news articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by county agents and the citriculturist and published in local and state papers and magazines. Eighty-geven radio talks on citrus culture were delivered from six Florida stations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK

Norman R , Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Dan F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
E. F. Stanton, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
The poultry extension 'program for 1936 was enlarged to include three additional projects: (1) The Florida Egg Quality Program, (2) turkey management, and (3) The National Poultry Improvement Program. The Florida Egg Quality Program has a very distinct place in the development of the state's poultry industry. It deals with the production, marketing and consumption of Florida eggs. The breeding and disease control program i most important, as it tends to increase the quality of poultry in the state and reduce losses. Until last year very little had been done with turkeys but with the industry growing and developing the project known as turke; management was inaugurated. This program should bring about better production methods, lower costs and greater returns.
Other long-time programs considered vital to the industry are: Growing healthy chicks and pullets and the Calendar Flock Record program. These programs include baby chicks, the production of broilers, the development of pullets, and the feeding and management of the laying flock. In both programs studies are made which would include cost of production factors as feeding, management, housing, vaccination, growing green feed, and adoption of a rigid sanitation program.

FEED PRICES
The commercial poultry producer in Florida buys practically all feed used for chicks, broilers, growing pullets, and laying birds. A study of poultry farming has revealed the fact that feed is a most important item, representing approximately 50,1o of the total cost of egg production. If only cash costs were used it would be considerably higher.
Theprice that poultry producers pay for feed varies not only from farm to farm in the same year but from year to year-and the relationship of poultry feed prices to poultry products prices has a direct bearing on extension work.
A basic poultry ration generally used is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds of meatscraps, 5517o protein, and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat). The average yearly price of this ration for the base period (1926-1929) was $2.80 per 100 pounds; in 1934 it was $2.05; in 1935 $2.24; and in 1936 (11 months) $2.24.

PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
The average yearly price of No. I (Grade A, 24 ounce) white eggs was 41.1 cents per dozen (1926-29); 29.3 cents in 1934; 32.6 cents in 1935; and 28.7 cents in 1936 (11 months). Prices were highest during the months of October, November, and December and lowest during March, April and May.
The average yearly price of heavy hens was 26.7 cents per pound (192629); 16.1 cents in 1934; 18.9 cents in 1935; and 20.2 cents in 1936 (11 months).
The average yearly price of heavy fryers was 36.6 cents per pound (192629); 21.2 cents in 1934; 23.2 cents in 1935; and 24.1 cents in 1936 (11 months).












June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.


104 112 113 109 90 82 99

90 96 97 95 96 103 99

78 84 88 85 85 84 81




June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
C4


TABLE 4-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX To EGG, HEN, FRYER, INDICES.
1935"


Ratio Jan. Feb.


Eggs to feed . . 92 ill Hens to feed . . 82 80 Fryers to feed . --- . 67 74




Ratio Jan. Feb.


Eggs to feed ------------------------ 94 119

Hens to feed . 96 96 Fryers to feed . . 86 86


1936
1
Apr. I May


Mar.







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO
. EGG, HEN, AND FRYER INDICES
To illustrate the importance of changing feed prices and poultry products prices upon returns that may be expected and upon the type of 'Poultry extension work conducted Table 4 gives the relationship of feed to poultry products for 1935 and 1936. The base period is the 3 year average 19261929. Since July 1936 the feed-poultry products ratios have become more f favorable.
BABY CHICK AND PULLET MANAGEMENT
Florida poultrymen know that healthy pullets are necessary for profitable egg production. They are finding that the nearer they meet the requirements of the six points included in the Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program the more successful they are in growing these pullets.
During the past year extension recommendations were followed by 1,769 families in purchasing baby chicks, 2,936 in chick rearing, 2,047 in production and feeding, and 2,872 in sanitation.

GREEN FEED
Florida records show that the most successful poultry producers f6ed succulent green feed throughout the year. Practically all agents have emphasized the importance of succulent green feed, and have furnished poultrymen with information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, and cultural methods.
The green feed and sanitation programs have been worked out by means of the multiple yarding system. By-rotating the birds at regular intervals, contamination of the yards is reduced, and a supply of green'feed is more easily obtained. Because of soil type some producers found it more practical to grow green crops outside the yards and cut them for -poultry feed.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Many Florida poultrymen are familiar with the cost of culling. Culling demonstrations have been held throughout the state. The importance of the poultryman doing his own culling and adopting a systematic culling schedule has been emphasized. Poultrymen have been advised to grow healthy pullets which are bred to lay for replacing culled stock. During the past year 640 families have followed an organized improved breeding plan.
CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
The program of poultry record keeping has been increasing in value and scope since 1925 when first inaugurated. These 12 years of records have demonstrated their value and importance. Studies of these-records and dissemination of data obtained to various poultry interests has resulted in greater poultry efficiency.
The Calendar Flock Record Program has been developed to take care of two groups of poultry raisers, the individual with the small flock and the commercial producer. Two different books are in use at present.
Each month a report is sent to all cooperators and to the press giving a summary of the records tabulated, together with poultry, egg and feed prices and indices and poultry news and"timely,,T)oultry information.
All poultry records start October I And are completed September, 30.
During the year just ended poultry raisers from 20 counties kept complete records, 4 more counties than during the previous year.







Annual Report, 1936 61

Table 5 gives the results obtained for the past two years.
TABLE 5.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY, OCTOBER 1, 1934SEPTEMBER 30, 1936.

Items, 1934-35 1935-36


Num ber of farm s . . 37 49
Average number of birds . 17,410 22,132
Average number of birds per farm . . 1 470 452
Average number of eggs per bird per year . 163.04 180.18
Average percent culled . __ . 49.25 41.07
Average percent mortality . 20.38 17.13


Average egg production during 1935-36 was considerably higher than in 1934-35, and there was a reduction in percentage of culling and mortility, indicating better management practices.
Table 6 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average number of eggs per bird for the past yeax by groups.
The highest egg production per bird was obtained by the group averaging 943 birds to the flock. The average size of the commercial or large flock was increased by 125 birds per farm.

TABLE 6.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.

10-250 251-500 Over. 500
birds birds birds


Total number of flocks . --- 21 11 1 17
Average size of flock . . ---- 110 344 943
Average number eggs per bird . . 168.71 173.96 183.31


The 13th year of record keeping was started October 1, 1935, with increased numbers. Records are now being summarized f or the year 1935-36, showing in detail the cost of production and factors affecting returns.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
Poultry raising is one of the most popular phases of 4-H club work. 'There were 2,634 boys and girls enrolled in poultry projects during the year. Poultry was taught at both the Boys' Short Course and the Girls' Short Course. The club members were divided into beginners and advanced groups, and -subject matter was presented accordingly. Instruction in poultry was given at summer 4-11 camps and at other 4-11 meetings during the year.
Club poultry exhibits were judged in six county fairs and demonstrations .in judging were given.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Plans have been made for a state-wide 4-H poultry and egg show- and! poultry judging contest at the Central Florida Exposition in Februaryi 1937.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association has been very activein promoting the poultry industry, and has been of great assistance in the. development of the poultry extension program. The state association is: composed of county poultry associations.
During the year the extension specialists have helped with the organization and perfection of two new county associations.
A poultry magazine, The Florida Poultryman, has been sponsored bythe state association. The State Egg Show was sponsored by the stateassociation and has now become an annual eveht. Poultry talks and demonstrations have been given at meetings of county poultry associations. These, associations are assisting county and home demonstration agents in analyzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the counties.

FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL
The Florida Poultry Council was organized two years ago. The purposeand aim of the organization is to develop and protect the poultry industry of the state.
The Council is quite different from other poultry organizations in that it is a fact-finding group and representatives of the various phases of the, industry are selected as members.
The council's membership is composed of representatives of the followinggroups: Poultry producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial and breeder), poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultrydealers, packers, feed dealers, the poultry press, State Department of Agriculture (Marketing and Inspection Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board,, Poultry Division of College of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service,. State Health Department, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers. of vocational agriculture and home economics, and delegates from the, Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Baby Chick Associa-tion, and American Poultry Association of Florida.
Work of the council is accomplished in the main by various committees. The following committees were appointed for the year 1936: Marketing, Breed Improvement, Research and Education, Disease Control, PoultryShows, Organization, and Legislation and Legal Advice.
The Council has been most active during the past year sponsoring and' developing the Florida Egg Quality Program and the Natioanl PoultryImprovement Program.
EGG QUALITY PROGRAM
The Egg Quality Program, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council,. has been put on with the cooperation of the State Marketing Bureau, theInspection Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, county and home demonstration agents, vocational agriculture and home economics teachers and the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association. The purpose of' this program is to call to the attention of all persons concerned with the production, sale, and consumption of eggs in Florida, factors affecting egg quality that the prevailing quality of all eggs sold may be improved and that nearby producers having a proper knowledge of the facts maystrengthen their present position in the market.
The following plan of organization was outlined as a guide for each. county in the state.







Annual Report, 1936 63

A. The use of the various educational, regulatory, marketing, and civic agencies which may contribute to the success of the program.
B. Group Meetings.
1. Producers: Producers meetings to be held in county and in.communities in the county. County agent, home demonstration agent, vocational teacher and home economics teacher cooperating in planning and advertising meetings, aided by the, Extension Poultryman, the Market Bureau Specialist and the Egg Inspector, county poultry association, and representatives of feed companies.
Instruction on subjects such as: Handling eggs on farm; proper cooling; correct packing; grading and candling; good production practices.
2. Retailers: Meetings or personal calls on merchants in interest of proper care of eggs in stores, to preserve good quality.
3. Consumers: Solicit their cooperation and instruct them in buying Florida eggs. Teach them to know good quality eggs as indicated by the grades set up under the Florida Egg Law.
Points of Consumer Contact
Through 4-H* club boys and girls.
Vocational agricultural boys and girls.
Parent-teachers clubs.
Home demonstration clubs.
Girls in home economics classes in city schools.
Women's clubs.
Business and professional women's clubs.
Personal contacts supplemented with meetings, newspaper stories, radio talks, and other mediums. At meetings the program was discussed and recommendations were adopted.
C. Survey at end of year to check up on effectiveness of the program.
D. Compilation of survey, including results and recommendations for
-revising the program.
Three pamphlets were published, one each for the producer, the retailer and the consumer. Information pertaining to egg quality has been ,dispersed also by means of radio, -news stories, circular letters and -group meetings. The first Florida State Egg Show, held atthe 1936 Florida State Fair, has promoted interest in egg grading and candling demonstrations.
-Egg grading and candling were taught at 4-H club camps.

NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
This program sponsored by the United States Department of Agri-culture is under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board in
-this state. The Agricultural Extension Service is cooperating and assisting in the development of the program. Reports thus far this year show that more breeders and hatcheries are in the plan than ever before.
This program will result in better Rocks with high egg production and lower mortality.
Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian, has assisted in Extension J)oultry meetings during the year and with the testing work at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.

CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Practically all commercial producers vaccinate pullets for chickenpox, .and the practice is becoming more common among small flock owners each







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

year. Agents throughout the state report satisfactory results from demonstrations given. Reports indicate at least 100,000 pullets were vaccinate(I this year with the assistance of county and home demonstration agents.

USE OF LIGHTS ON LAYERS
The use of artificial lights, to keep the early hatched pullets out of a molt, and to increase the fall and winter egg production of both pullets and hens, is a common practice in Florida.
All-night and morning are the two systems of lighting recommended. The all-night system is most popular in communities where electricity is not available and oil lanterns are used. Both systems have given good results.
EGG MARKETING SURVEY
At the request of the Florida Poultry Council, an egg marketing survey of the Tampa -market was made. '
With the cooperation of the Agricultural Economist in' Marketing, the State Marketing Bureau, and the National Youth Administration of Tampa, data were collected in 1,150 consumer studies, 125 retailer studies, 15 wholesaler studies and 12 hotel and restaurant studies. These data are beingsummarized and the results published early in 1937.

TURKEY MANAGEMENT
Florida has six counties in which turkey production is one of the majorfarm enterprises. In view of the fact that blackhead has been a serious menace in these counties a system of sanitary management was outlined. and presented to turkey producers. Group meetings and news letters were used in developing the program.
I Two hundred turkey record books were distributed to farmers. Thesebooks will be summarized to ascertain the cost of production and to obtain. definite information on management practices used by Florida turkey producers.
I Reports from producers who had blackhead in their 1935 flock state, that their flocks have been free of blackhead this year and that they intendto continue the program. The program will be further expanded in 1937 because of its success this year.

MARKETING
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with countyand home demonstration agents and with the Gainesville office.
F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and. home agents in locating markets for eggs and poultry meat. He hasattended meetings of poultry associations, discussing marketing problemsIn cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection. Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and data are collected from the district egg and poultry inspectors to studymarketing conditions in the state.
During the 'past year 1,307 families have followed marketing recommendations. In 1936 the agents assisted in selling $238,158.22 worth ofpoultry and eggs.
FARM PLANNING COUNCILS
A member of the Poultry Extension Staff has met with the poultry committee of the Farm Planning Councils in several counties, and acted &s an adviser in the formulation of county plans.








Annual Report, 1936


Fig. 3-High pen in the Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. Ten of these S. C. White Leghorns laid 2,906 eggs and were credited with 3,000.85 points.

FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest was started October 1, 1935, and came to a close September 21, 1936. For the first time in the history of the Contest 100 pens were entered. Birds came from 23 different states and 10 different counties in Florida.
The highest production since the contest was started was obtained during the Tenth Contest, the average egg production being 212.1 eggs per bird for a value of 210.2 points. Thirty-three birds produced over 300 eggs (luring the 51 weeks' period.
A complete report of this contest is printed in a special bulletin.







Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

F. W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist in Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The major projects in farm management in 1936 included the summarization of citrus accounts; the making of farm surveys; and assisting the organization and operation of county agricultural planning councils. A larger number of citrus accounts were closed for the crop year 1935-36 than for any year since the work was started in 1930-31. In cooperation with the Planning Section of the A.A.A., farm surveys were made in 17 counties. County agricultural planning councils were organized in 44 counties.
Minor projects and miscellaneous activities were carried on during the year. Many farm management meetings were held at which the results of farm surveys, cost accounts or other economic data were discussed. Assistance was given before 4-H club camps and the Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie. Plans were made for the summarization of poultry accounts during the winter of 1936-37. Members of the department also assisted with the educational meetings pertaining to the watermelon and citrus marketing agreements. With the cooperation of other agricultural workers at the University of Florida, the Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937was prepared. These projects and activities will be discussed in detail.

CITRUS ACCOUNTS
The citrus account project has been carried on for the past six years and is now in the beginning of its seventh year. The purposes of this project are:
1. To provide growers with a simple yet complete record book in which to keep grove expenses and receipts of a year's operations.
2. To encourage the record keeping by assisting growers with their books and summarizing their records to determine costs of production and returns.
3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, costs of production, fertilizer practices, prices of fruit received by kinds, and net returns on similar groves.
1 4. To provide data covering a long period of years that may be studied to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits.
Each grower who furnished his grove records for the 1933-34 crop year was furnished a copy of the state summary together with a summary of his record which included data for the current and past.years. This enabled the cooperators to compare their costs and returns for different years as well as with other groves. In addition to the individual summary of costs and returns furnished the grower cooperators, the amount and kind of available 'plant food applied per 100 trees and average price received for fruit by varieties was shown in their grove summary. Approximately 2,500 copies of the state summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer companies and their salesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico, packinghouses, different government agencies, and business men upon request.








Annual Report, 1936


There will be about 342 citrus accounts closed for the year 1935-36. All fruit returns for these cost records will not be available until the crop produced during the year is sold, which will be about August 1937.
The specially prepared citrus record book was revised before starting the 1936-37 accounts,

FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Facts concerning the organization and operation of farms are needed by farmers and agricultural workers in each type-of-farming area. The supply of such information was greatly increased during 1935 and 1936.
Prior to the summer of 1935, such information was available in only 22 Florida counties. During the summer of 1935, the Extension Service and Department of Agricultural Economics of the Florida Experiment Station cooperated in making surveys in 8 counties. During the winter of 1935-36, 572 additional records were secured in 17 counties by the Extension Service in cooperation with the Planning Section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
These surveys showed great variation in income between different Areas. Some of the areas in southern Florida were affected by adverse weather conditions while others received more favorable weather and relatively high prices. In spite of great improvement in financial returns to farmers in general farming areas in western Florida since 1931, the average labor income for farmers in these areas is still considerably below what it should be.
Results of these surveys were made available to farmers and agricultural workers in many ways during 1936. Mimeographed reports were prepared for 12 areas. Farm meetings were held in 15 communities for the purpose of discussing the results of the surveys with the cooperators and other farmers. Individual visits were made to the farmers from whom records were secured in 9 counties.
Flue-Cured Tobacco Area: Farm management survey records were secured from 110 farmers in the flue-cured tobacco producing areas of Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton and Madison counties. The average labor income varied from $40 per farm in Columbia County to $274 in Hami'ton County. The percent of cash receipts from tobacco and from crops was highest in Hamilton County, whereas the percent of cash receipts from cotton was highest in Madison County. Livestock accounted for over 60 percent of the cash receipts in Columbia County.
Records for 24 farms located in Suwannee County were also obtained in a similar study made for the year 1931. Due to a more favorable growing season and higher prices, the average labor income for the 24 farms in 1935 was $158 compared with a minus $437 in 1931. A large percentage of the increase in the cash receipts was due to higher prices received for tobacco and hogs. The average income per farm from the sale of watermelons was considerably less in 1935 than in 1931.
In addition to the net income received by the farmers in the four counties, they also had the use of farm 'products consumed in the home. . Jefferson County Area: Records were obtained from 40 Jefferson County general farmers located mainly between Florida highways 1 and 19. The average cash receipts on these farms amounted to $999 and were comprised of $4 ' 67 from crops, $278 from livestock, $103 from livestock products, $71 from A.A.A. payments, and $80 from miscellaneous sources. The average farm expenses amounted to $689 which, when subtracted from the cash receipts, gives a cash farm income of $310. Seven percent Interest on average investment of $5,554 amounted to $389. When this and olher







Florida Cooperative Extension


non-cash expenses were deducted from the farm cash income, it resulted in a minus $135 labor income.
Leon County Area: Survey records were also obtained from 33 farmers located in the north and northeastern part of Leon County. Approximately one-third of the farms were operated by the owners, one-third by -renters, and one-third by farmers who rented land in addition to that which they owned, Of the total number of 33 farms, 27 were operated by colored farmers.
Total farm receipts averaged $270 per farm, of which approximately 50 percent was comprised of crops and 50 percent livestock and livestock products. After deducting cash farm expenses of $156, there remained $114 cash farm income. Non-cash expenses such as unpaid family labor, decrease in capital and interest on investment amounted to $229. When these were deducted from the cash farm income, the operator's labor income was a minus $115.
Washington, Holmes and Walton Area: A total of 113 farm survey records were obtained from farmers producing chiefly cotton and peanuts in Washington, Holmes and Walton counties. The percent of the total cash receipts from crops ranged from 61.9 percent in Washington County to 74.8 percent in Walton County. Hogs amounted to 16 percent and eggs 14 percent of the cash receipts in Washington County. In Holmes County,,cotton accounted for 43 percent of the cash income compared with 50 percent in Walton. The farms in Washington and Walton counties failed to pay all farm expenses and 7 percent interest on the capital, and had minus labor incomes of $62 and $45 respectively.
The value of food products furnished the home by the farm averaged $294 in Washington, $332 in Holmes, and $331 in Walton. Every farm surveyed in the three counties had a farm garden and cured their own pork for home use. Milk was available for home consumption on all farms in Walton and Washington counties. Sweet potatoes were produced on about 80 percent of the farms in the three counties.
Truck Farming Areas: Eight areas were surveyed in southern Florida. They included five truck crop areas, poultry farms located in two counties, and citrus groves in another county.
The farms in Seminole County were very profitable for the season studied, but the other ardas experienced rather unfavorable crop years. The most profitable farms in each area except Lee County received a higher percent of their cash income from the most important crop in the area than was received by the average farmer.
Enterprise Study of Dade County White Potatoes: During the )ast year, the study of the early white potato area of Dade County was repeated. The data covered 24 growers' records which represented approximately 69 percent of the total acres harvested. The data thus obtained for the two crop seasons were summarized and an attempt was made to determine some of the more important factors affecting cost of production and returns. The findings were returned to growers in this area as a mimeographed report entitled, "An Economic Study of White Potatoes in Dade County, Fla., 1935-36 with Some Comparative Data for the 1934-35 Season". Each grower who cooperated with the Agricultural Economics Extension Service was furnished his individual summary. This enabled the growers to compare their costs and returns as a basis for checking their efficiency in farm organization and management.
A potato growers' meeting was'held in Dade County in cooperation with the county agent, at which time the results and findings of this study were discussed. There were about 45 potato growers at this meeting.







Annual Report, 1936


COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
This project began in the fall of 1935 and was continued through 1936. It was supervised by a state directing committee composed of the director and members of the Extension staff, and the Department of Agricultural Economics. District agents assisted materially in organizing the councils.
The purpose of the project was to organize a county agricultural planning council in each important agricultural county having a county agent and to provide this council with all available information concerning the agriculture of that county. The functions of these county councils would be as follows: First; to serve as an advisory committee to the county and home demonstration agents in helping them develop a strong, well rounded county agricultural program. Second; To assume part of the responsibility for thinking through the agricultural problems of the county, the state and the nation. In other words, they would serve as a group of agricultural leaders that county, state and federal officials might call upon for farmer consideration of proposed plans affecting the agriculture of the country and from which would come suggestions for formulating sound county, state and national agricultural programs.
The time and efforts of those working on the agricultural planning project in Florida during the past year were divided among the following items: 1. Preparation of county agricultural data. 2. Organization of county agricultural 'planning councils. 3. Securing of answers from the councils to questions prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. 4. Making of farm management surveys in 17 counties covering the crop year 1935. 5. Summarizing and returning the results of the surveys to farmers. 6. Tabulating of census data by the same areas as were used in tabulating the farmers' answers to the questions prepared by the A.A.A. 7. Assisting in the preparation of county soil maps for the use of county agricultural workers and the county councils.
1. One of the first transactions in the project was to summarize all available county agricultural statistical data for the use of the county councils. Such data were prepared in mimeographed form. for 50 counties.
2. A total of 44 county planning councils were organized. At that time 52 counties had agents. Three of these agents 'were appointed during the period when the councils were being organized; and the group of farmers called together by five agents preferred not to organize councils.
3. One purpose for which the councils were organized was to secure answers to the following questions: (1) What would be the probable production of the various farm products in 1936, assuming normal weather conditions, present farming practices and prospective prices but without either production or marketing control programs? (2) What would be the probable production of the various farm products in 1936 under the same assumptions as in (1), but if farm practices were adjusted to maintain soil fertility and control erosion? The answers to these two questions for 30 counties in northern and northwestern Florida were secured by March 1.
4. During the months of December and January farm organization, or type-of -farming, surveys were made in 17 counties covering 572 individual farms. This work was financed cooperatively by the State Extension Service and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The purpose was to collect information regarding type of farming, yields, and income resulting from farming in counties for which such information was lacking prior to the surveys. The results of this work were discussed in detail earlier in this report.







Florida Cooperative Extension


5. Results of the surveys secured during the winter were tabulated and brief summary reports prepared for 12 areas. The results were
discussed with farmers and county agricultural workers in farm meetings, and individual summaries showing the weak and strong points of each farmer's business were returned to cooperating farmers,
6. The farmers' answers to questions (1) and (2) were tabulated by five areas. While the agriculture of these areas is not uniform in all re aspects, there are a number of predominant characteristics of the agriculture in each area. To study the history of agriculture in each of these areas and to compare the farmers' answers with the acres of crops and number of livestock products in these areas, tabulations were made from reports of the United States Census of Agriculture for the period 1900 to date.
7. Only a small number of Florida counties had been surveyed by the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the U.S.D.A. and maps for many counties already surveyed are out of print. County agricultural planning councils and county agents need soil maps for use in studying the agricultural problems of their counties. To fill this need, a portion of the clerical help on this project was used in making tracings of generalized soil maps for 54 counties. The original maps classifying the soils in these counties were prepared by the Agronomy Department of the College of Agriculture, in cooperation -with the Resettlement Administration and the Florida Experiment Station.
FAIR EXHIBITS
During the year exhibits were made at four county fairs on request. Two of these were in Lake and Orange counties where a fairly large sample of records had been furnished on groves for a period of 5 years. The respective county data were used in chart form at these fairs. About 400 copies of these statistical summaries were passed out to growers and others requesting them at each of these exhibits.
Displays were also made atthe Volusia and Pinellas fairs. Approximately 200 copies of the statistical summary were given to growers and others requesting them at each fair.

POULTRY ACCOUNTS
In the fall of 1935, over 250 poultry account books were distributed to poultrymen. These books will be summarized during the winter of 1936-37 for all poultrymen who desire this service. Present indications are that the number of books to be summarized will exceed 100.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
Citrus Institute: At the annual Citrus Institute held at Camp McQuarrie beginning the latter part of August, assistance was given during the four days in arranging entertainment and details of management. An analysis of the long-time citrus costs of production and -returns, some factors affecting costs and returns, and other miscellaneous information were discussed with growers who attended the citrus program.
Thirty-one of the 1935-36 citrus accounts were closed with the grower cooperators who attended the Institute during the week. There were six new cooperators who asked for a citrus record book.
4-H Club Camps: Two weeks were spent in two 4-H camps in which farm management subjects were taught, The program consisted of four 30-minute periods daily for 4 days. Subjects taught included:. farm -and







Annual Report, 1936


home records, their value and how to keep them; enterprise records, with particular emphasis on 4-H club projects; how to write a project story, what it should include, and sequence of story; and organization of farm and home.
Watermelon Marketing Agreement: The Assistant Farm Management Specialist attended most of the Watermelon Control Committee meetings prior to the tentative approval of the 1936 marketing agreement. He also attended the growers' and shippers' hearing on this proposed marketing agreement. After the hearing with Florida growers and shippers, four district educational meetings were held in the more concentrated and important producing area. Principal'features of the proposed marketing agreement were discussed by a representative of the Special Crops Section and the economic background and outlook for the future crop was discussed by this department, At the close of these meetings a vote was taken from growers as to whether they favored or opposed the agreement. As a whole, the growers of Florida favored the agreement. South Florida growers as a group were opposed to it, however.
The watermelon marketing agreement was designed to aid the growers in more orderly marketing of the crop that they might realize larger net returns. It appears that the agreement was of help to growers primarily, and to a lesser extent to shippers.
I Citrus Marketing Agreement: Assistance was given at 14 of the growers' educational meetings pertaining to the provisions of the agreement and economic situation of the citrus industry. About 600 growers attended these meetings, most of whom voted upon the proposed agreement. In general, both the growers and the shippers favored a control marketing agreement.
Outlook Information: Current information relating to the production and prices of Florida agricultural products and statistical data pertaining to business conditions are regularly filed in the office of the Agricultural Economists. This information is readily available to other members of the Extension staff at all times.
Following the national Outlook Conference held in Washington in October and in cooperation with other members of the Florida Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, the Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937 was prepared and published.

MARKETING ACTIVITIES

The Extension Economist in Marketing was able to devote only five months of the current fiscal year to his regular duties in the state because of being on leave of absence with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington. While in Washington, he was assigned to the Potato Section And placed in charge of the Program Planning Unit and later in charge of the Allotment and Review Unit. After the Potato Act of 1935 was repealed, it took. some time to clear all records and get potato stamps returned. He resumed work in Florida on July 15.

VARKETINa AGREEMENTS AND FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
Because of the urgent demand on the part of the citrus industry, it has not been possible to adhere strictly to the program of work as outlined at the beginning of this year. The United States has one of the largest citrus crops on record and effort is being made in Florida by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Citrus Control Committee to cope with the







Florida Cooperative Extension


situation. This agent was requested to work closely with these organizations and give assistance in connection with their program.
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding meetings to obtain growers' votes on the proposed marketing agreement; 10 meetings were held at which approximately 300 growers were present. The programs dealt with production trends in citrus. Later it was found advisable to make certain amendments to this agreement when additional grower ballots were secured by a circular letter sent direct to growers. These ballots were collected by county agents.
This agent has assisted the Control Committee by supplying county agents, vocational agriculture teachers and secretaries of production credit associations with information on prorates, regulations and operation of the Control Committee.
Though the Florida Citrus Commission is not a part of the federal program, an attempt is being made by this Commission to closely coordinate the state program with the federal program. They have power, by state legislation, to define grades and standards and collect assessed advertising taxes and to determine how these advertising taxes are to be expended. TheExtension Economist in Marketing has worked closely with this Commission.
Proposed String Bean Marketing Agreement: Conferences were held it w h string bean growers to determine the necessity and program for a marketing agreement. However, it did not appear practicable to undertake a bean marketing agreement for the 1936-37 crop.
A request came from bean growers for the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to buy beans for relief purposes. We visited this territory and held a number of conferences with bean growers, shippers, and county agents with reference to the plan.

FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
At a meeting of the Orlando Citrus Production Credit Association, the Extension Economist in Marketing, reviewed the service that this association was rendering and the possibilities for service in future.
He also assisted in a school for directors and secretaries of production credit associations for North Florida and South Georgia. Balance sheets and operating statements of associations represented were analyzed. Also loan policies and membership relationship were discussed.
This agent has worked closely with state representatives of the National Fruit and Vegetable Exchange. This is a cooperative marketing organization for distributing agricultural products. Meetings were held at which representatives outlined the service available to growers and shippers.

CONSUMER EGG SURVEY, TAMPA
The State Poultry Association has felt for some time that some consumer marketing study should be made to obtain from consumers, hotels, retailers, and wholesalers, what in their opinion the producers could do to supply a product which would more nearly meet consumer demands. After a meeting with the Research Committee of the State Poultr- Association, it was decided that a survey of the Tampa egg market might reveal information valuable to Florida producers. Practically all eggs produced in Florida are sold within the state. Therefore, a knowledge of the state's markets would be of more importance to Florida producers than general market surveys of other markets.
Before beginning the actual obtaining of information, the Economist conferred with the Extension Poultrymen and county and home demonstra-







Annual Repoil, 1936 73

tion agents in the areas studied, as well as State Marketing Bureau representatives and poultrymen. Approximately 1,150 records were obtained from housewives, 12 from hotels and restaurants, 125 from retailers, and 15 from wholesalers. These records will be summarized and distributed.

MISCELLANEOUS
Assistance was given the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in a survey to find the cost of marketing citrus fruits. The Economist contacted motor truck carriers and obtained rates charged to Northern points. It was found that although freight rates had a considerable influence on the price trucks charged, a more important factor was competition among truckers themselves. Whether or not truckers were able to obtain return loads was also an important factor influencing the price charged.







Florida Cooperative 1 extension


PART III-WOMEN'S AND


GIRLS WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent, North Florida Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, South Florida

ORGANIZATION
The staff of the office of Home Demonstration Work consists of a state agent, three district agents, four specialists - food conservation, nutrition, home improvement, clothing-and 36 county home demonstration agents.- The Extension Service poultrymen, dairy specialists,, agricultural economists,- agricultural engineers and other agricultural specialists assist in the home demonstration program. Each district agent, in addition to supervisory duties, is responsible for a state-wide program in a specialized field including community organization, farm family living outlook, and home industries.
Miss Flavia Gleason, state agent since 1923, resigned on September 15 after 13 years of valued service to the program of home demonstration work in Florida. Miss Mary E. Keown was appointed state agent on that date, transferred from the position of district agent for East Florida which she has filled since 1927.
A specialist in textiles and clothing, Miss Clarine Belcher, was appointed in January, the first additional position to be created in the State Home Demonstration office in the past 10 years.
The position of Negro district home demonstration agent, vacant since 1933, was filled in August by the appointment of Beulah S. Shute.
Boards of County Commissioners in Putnam, Madison and Sumter counties made appropriations in October.for establishing home demonstration work in their counties and agents were placed in those counties during the month.
Records show that home demonstration work is conducted in 529 rural communities. Organized home demonstration clubs for women number 327 with a membership of 8,141. Home demonstration work for girls, known as 4-H work, has an enrollment of 9,712, working in 479 clubs, an increase of 507 over 1935.
The home demonstration agents-state, district and county-develop a plan of work which makes reliable information on agricultural and homemaking subjects available to people who want it, at the time they need it, and in the form in which it can be used by them. Specialists provide
subject-matter information on their particular 'phases of work and assist in evolving effective methods of teaching both adults and girls.

EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING OF HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Following the policy established for some years, home demonstration agents to be appointed in Florida are expected to have at least a bachelor's degree in home economics with additional training and experience in rural







Annual Report, 1936


life which will provide a satisfactory background for successful home demonstration work. In filling the positions open during the year, well trained people were secured.
Demands have been so heavy and services of agents so much needed that Extension Service workers have not had opportunity for leave from their posts of duty for additional study which many of them desire in order to render more useful service to the farm families with whom they work. Conferences of men and women agents to bring to them specific seasonal information as well as program-planning conferences for the general development of a state-wide Extension Service program have been arranged by the supervisory staff. District agents and specialists aided the agents throughout the year to keep abreast with useful professional information needed in their work.

DETERMINING THE H031E DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM
The program of Home Demonstration Work must meet the needs and desires of the rural people of Florida as recognized and expressed by the people themselves, and is determined finally by facts available on 'Present farm conditions.
Information secured from agricultural outlook material is used in developing the program. Economic data assembled. by the specialists and supervisory staff are studied and interpreted in terms of family living in Florida. Findings of research workers from the Experiment Station are applied to Florida conditions. Such information is presented to state and county workers and to individual club members, community clubs, county councils and committees who work with the agents to determine the most helpful programs to be carried on during the year.
Home demonstration -agents analyze situations affecting the farm homes in their respective counties, and confer with supervisors and specialists regarding them. County councils composed of representatives of each organized community in the county discuss with their agent the community and county needs and decide on the goals to be set f or the year ahead. Long-time as well as immediate objectives for their unified and county-wide efforts have been determined by each council and this determines the general plans for home demonstration work.
Therefore, no two counties have conducted identical programs nor expect the same results. The type of work developed in each of the 37 counties also depends on the length of time in which home demonstration work has been established-for example, many counties have conducted the program continuously for 20 years or more while others have been at work only for the past few months, and still other counties have no organized home demonstration work conducted by a county worker and must look to the state office for the assistance they secure.
The supervisory staff has studied these varying needs and with the help of the home demonstration agents guide the development of the kind of program that renders the most useful service.
Successful home demonstration work, as its name implies, is based on the establishment in the home by a member of the farm family who has the help and advice of the home demonstration agent, of a demonstration which puts into use in that home improved methods of doing the everyday home tasks or of using the agricultural resources of that home or community so that the demonstrator secures better living for herself and members of the family. By conducting this definitely planned demonstration under actual home conditions and with the facilities available, the demonstrator realizes through the simple records she keeps and the







76 Florida Cooperative Extension

results she secures, the advantages of this effort to herself and her family. She is encouraged to undertake further improvements. The demonstration not only brings satisfaction to the members of the family most concerned but it stands as an object lesson to the community and others are inspired to follow the example of their neighbor. So justifiable pride in the results of successful enterprise comes to the demonstrator and real community leadership is developed - a factor greatly needed in all rural life.
Better living for most farm families in Florida 'has required greater production or conservation at home of the food supply needed by the family so that the amount of available cash, usually limited, might be spent 'not for food which could be supplied through their own efforts but for other goods or enterprises which contribute to better living. Therefore home demonstration work in Florida encourages year round gardens, calendar orchards, farm poultry flocks, home cows, canning and preserving, all conducted as a part of a careful plan for adequate family nutrition. Productive phases of the work have contributed also to the cash income of many farm families as shown by the fact that sales from these home industries brought $199,863.14 in cash to farm women and girls in 1936. Every bona-fide 4-H club girl is required to conduct a "living, groNxing demonstration" in her own home. This demonstration may be gardening, poultry, beekeeping, or related project. In addition to production, the girl enrolled learns to use these products of the farm on the farm table. This work gives her an understanding of the relation of agricultural activities to better farm family living and at the same time, can furnish some cash income to enable the girl to realize other goals.
A well fed, healthy family, a well clothed family with the members living in a comfortable, attractive home-all this acconiplished through their own efforts by using the resources at hand-might be stated as the goal of home demonstration work in Florida. In 1936, likewise in all the 24 years since its establishment in Florida, this program of work has offered assistance to rural people in planning and securing these objectives.
The 17,853 girls and women who are members of the 806 organized clubs have become real local leaders and dynamic forces in securing community progress. So great has been the development of the capability of these leaders that 1,404 women and girls last year acted as volunteer local leaders for the agents, each one especially trained in some phase of home demonstration subject matter and serving as chairman of that particular activity in her county to which she devoted considerable time.
To meet the demands on their time and energy it has been necessary for the agents to plan their work carefully, using every available means to serve the people and to cooperate With other agencies which desire assistance from them. The agents have held 11,098 meetings this year as coiyfpared with 10,135 in 1935, but it is interesting to note that 213,529 people attended these meetings in 1936,as against 141,270 in 1935. This increase of 72,359 shows that interest of the general public is increasing.
At the same time, the agents have had 42,642 calls at their offices, answered 24,894 inquiries made over the telephone, and 2,838 -news stories were written for the local press-other means of reaching people with timely information they desire.
The success of home demonstration work depends on the agent having first-hand information of the home situations and the confidence of the women and girls enrolled. Therefore, each agent allowed time in planning her schedule to make visits to the homes and farms. Last year the agents made 18,493 home visits to 7,939 homes in addition to all other organized work.







Annual Report, 1936 77

RESULTS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to develop a wider use of the agricultural resources of the state and to improve farm family living, naturally its plan of work emphasize ' s food for the family properly produced, used and conserved. When fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry and dairy products are produced at home, the result is economical, well-balanced meals and healthy, well-nourished families.
To contribute to the family food supply, maintain the health of the family, and increase the family income, particular attention has been given to the following phases with results as stated -below:
Poultry: Fundamentals emphasized were growing healthy chicks and pullets, growing green feed, culling, calendar flock records, junior poultry work, and the egg quality program. Reports show that 1,753 women and 1,235 girls followed recommended practices in the management of poultry looks which included 25,863 standard-bred chickens. Eggs and poultry products were sold to the amount of $95,337.27.
Home Dairying: Herein the aim has been to improve the quality and increase the quantity of milk used at home through better management and with a view to better nutrition. Club'members have bought 701 dairy cows, and 2,167 families report using a quart of milk for each child and " pint for each adult.
Gardening and Perennial Plantings: Under this heading was emphasized " year-round supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the health of the family, increasing the income by lowering cash expenditures and planning for the sale of surplus products, improvement and beautification of the home through planting useful ornamentals and native shrubs and flowers, including county flowers both annual and perennial.
Vegetable gardens were grown by 4,718 4-H club girls and 4,178 women; 3,354 all-year gardens were grown by women and girls.
Conservation: Food conservation through canning and preserving has assured a more varied diet for many families and eliminated waste of fruits and vegetables in the garden, fields, groves and packinghouses. It has promoted the use of Florida products and furnished a means for increasing the family income. Club members have made canning budgets. The program of conservation deals with serving economical, well balanced, satisfying, attractive meals from the garden and orchard, farm, grove, meats, poultry, fish and other Florida products. A total of 1,815,980 quarts of good food were saved by women and in addition 127,852 quarts of foods were canned by 4-11 girls; 420,281 pounds of meat were cured by home demonstration families.
If these 1,794,684 quarts of fruits and vegetables are valued at only 10 cents a quart and the 149,148 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, the farm women and girls have saved more than $254,042 through home canning.
Utilization-Food, Nutrition and Health: Utilization of Florida farm foods in the state has increased, and women and girls are greatly interested in the value of different foods needed by the farm family to )protect health and prevent disease. Careful planning, producing, utilizing and wise buying of the family food supply safeguarded the health and insured satisfactory distribution of the cash income to meet the needs and desires of hundreds of Florida families. For example, 3,696 women were enrolled as demonstrators; 3,498 girls completed demonstrations in 35 counties; 1,863 families in 32 counties planned, produced and preserved a home food supply, and 2, 365 families followed food buying recommendations in 25 counties. Home







Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration women adopted better methods of food preparation in 23 counties as follows: In baking, 1,550 women; meat cookery, 1,171; vegetable cookery, 2,008; dairy products, 687; poultry products, 1,169, and 5,997 families in 34 counties reported serving better balanced meals.
Clothing for the Family: Meeting the clothing needs of the farm family with the related problems of buying and construction of clothing has been the basis of the clothing work accomplished. Assistance has been given in planning, selecting, constructing and caring for clothing in the home, with the goal of saving money and time and enabling members of the family to be well dressed at low cost. Showing their interest in this instruction 10,817 girls and women were enrolled for clothing construction and 1,672 method demonstrations were given on clothing subjects.
Rome Engineering: Objectives in home engineering have been to save the health and strength of women by having water and lights put in the home; to have some means of sewage disposal; to build new homes after a plan which will save time and strength and protect the health of the family and which will be well constructed and beautiful; to protect the life of equipment on hand through proper care. It is reported that 636 houses were painted and 61 whitewashed; 1,771 kitchens improved; 188 water.systems and 24 sunshine water heaters installed.
Home Sanitation and Health: Education of farm people to the dangers and sources of hookworm, the mosquito and other avoidable sources of disease has been included in all phases of home demonstration work. Protection against them through clean premises and other recommended methods has been shown so that all members of the family may be well and happy. In this phase of work the State Board of Health, physicians, sanitary engineers and nurses have given splendid cooperation in rendering more effective service in improving sanitary conditions in and around the home and in the community. One hundred twenty-five sewage disposal plants were installed; 456 homes screened; 249 sanitary toilets built.
Electrification: With power lines extending into rural areas agents have given considerable time to showing the value of electric appliances in the home and to securing information on costs and possibilities of extended service.
. Home Management: Home demonstration agents have developed the idea of management and wise planning in connection with all phases of work.
Increased interest has been shown generally in better management through use of time, energy and income. Account keeping, business centers and family councils on the family budget have increased. The home management program has emphasized improved laundry practices, rearrangement of equipment for convenience and time saving, sanitation for health,. and above all, everyday good housekeeping. Reports show that 2,119. women improved everyday good housekeeping; 961 kept home accounts; 815 budgeted their expenditures.
Consumer Education: A knowledge of their responsibilities as consumers has caused many home demonstration women to request help on purchasing. To know what standards to expect in return for an investment has been taught in connection with all 'phases of work and 1,393 women report making a study of buying methods in order to save money and know values.
House Furnishings: Emphasis has been given to furnishings which can he secured at low cost or made at home and to the wise purchasing of permanent furnishings. An attractive, economically furnished home has proved a direct source of family happiness to many Florida families







Annual Report, 1936


during 1936. In all, 2,003 women and girls repaired and remodeled. furniture and 931 refinished walls and floors.
Beautification of Home Grounds: There were 2,375 women and 1,735 girls who made definite plans for beautifying the home by suitable plantings, using native plants and useful ornamentals, with every county urged to plant the county flower.
Home Marketing-Money-Making Home Industries: Because the cash income of farm families often is too low to provide for needed purchases or to allow desired improvements in the home, farm women and girls have sought ways of supplementing that family income. They have utilized surplus products or planned to produce specific products which could be used in the manufacture of standardized quality articles for sale. Through the tourists who seek products with local color and through their own initiative in finding markets still undeveloped, home demonstration women and girls have found ready sale for quality products and in consequence have realized a considerable addition to their incomes. Sales reported by women and girls were made from the following commodities:

Baked products, using Florida marmalades, jellies, etc - ----_--------- $ 6,087.47
Canned products . _ . . __ 12,715.17 Fresh vegetables from home gardens . - . --_---_-- 25,798.50
Fresh fruits from calendar orchards ----- . . . 19,007.07 Eggs and poultry . . _ . : . . 95,337.27 Butter, milk and cottage cheese . __ --------- . _ . 21,573.96
Other articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native
products, boney, etc.) . . . 19,343.70

$199,863.14
Community Activities: Women and girls have been encouraged to show wholesome interest in community needs. All clubs have been responsible for at least one community-wide activity. Emphasis has been given to keeping up the morale of the rural people through maintenance of good health, provision of good reading material, and through in6xpensive forms of family and community recreation.
Permanent community houses have been secured in 48 communities and 49 rural libraries have been established. Special recreation schools for training leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted by the National Recreation Association and Extension workers in six counties. Community achievement programs and displays of work have been held in 114 communities with an attendance of 98,775 persons; 85 tours to established demonstrations were conducted during the year; 1,879 home demonstration members made improvements in school and church grounds.

METHODS AND PLANS FOR DEVELOPING AND STRENGTHENING THE WORK
As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions -and outlook data and discuss these facts in the light of local needs with the agent and council members to assist them in determining the most helpful service the agent can render during the year. Goals for the year are then set up.
Supervisory Program: The supervisory staff of the state office emphasized the development of the. following objectives for their work in all counties during the year:







Florida Co operative 9xtension


1. Assisting in developing the type of programs that would meet the needs of the greatest number of rural people.
2. Adapting our immediate programs to meet present conditions, at the same time carrying out and giving emphasis to our permanent and Jong-time demonstrations in the homes.
3. Serving a larger number of people in each county maintaining home demonstration work through wider use of local leaders wherever possible and by urging each home demonstration member to be responsible for passing information along and interesting at least two non-members. Older 4-H girls were urged to act as leaders for younger girls.
4. Rendering some definite assistance in unorganized counties to spread more widely the influence of home demonstration work.
5. Further development of home demonstration clubs, county and state councils, increasing number of standard clubs and councils, working with larger number of older girls, maintaining high percentage of completions, and securing better records.
6. Giving more attention to- efficient distribution of agent's time and work in county; and distribution of the time of specialists, district agents, and state agent.
7. Working out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance.
8. Emphasizing the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging records, more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations.
9. Giving preference in the employment of new agents as far as training is concerned to college graduates who.have majored in home economics and had at least two years' teaching or similar experience. Newly appointed agents have spent several days in the state office prior to assuming their duties in the county, to become move familiar with available material and methods used in development of the work.
1 10. Staff conferences regarding the development of home demonstration activities were held each month as far as practicable, in the state home demonstration agent's office, and conferences of the entire extension staff were arranged as often as the director found it advisable to call them. Farm and home demonstration agents were encouraged to work jointly in developing county agricultural councM and in county agricultural planning activities.
In conducting effective home demonstration work certain principles and methods proved valuable in all counties and the plans and programs of all agents have taken the following into consideration:
Demonstrations Established in the Homes: Home demonstration clubs for women and girls and county councils are chief avenues through which the home agent works; special events are -arranged as the, district and county agents think advisable to create interest and spread the influence.
Plans of Work: A definite program and plan of work is required of each home demonstration worker at the beginning of the year and results accomplished are checked at the close of the year, serving as a gauge of success or failure and a guide for future plans.
By having a well planned, unified program based on needs and with each worker assuming her share of responsibility and making a definite plan for doing her 'part, far-reaching results have been secured.
Clubs and Councils: All agents follow a regular schedule of organized club meetings, usually meeting with each senior and junior club once each month. The county councils usually meet quarterly. State and district agents frequently accompany the agent to club and council meetings, thus learning the situations in the county and forming a friendly and under-







Annual Report, 1936 81

standing contact with the people of the county. Specialists work in the counties according to definite plans as the assistance is needed and they also aid the agent in formulating effective methods for carrying out her work.
Records: Simple but practical record books prepared by the state staff are furnished to each home demonstration member so that she may keep an accurate -record of her own work. Statistics used in this report are compiled from such record books. These records serve as a stimulus to greater achievement and give valuable factual data on needs and op'portunities' for service which the home demonstration agent may give in rural homes.
Exhibits: Many girls and women have realized the satisfaction of showing to their friends on Achievement Day their worthwhile achievements and these have served to spread Extension information. Thirty-four counties report 300 events at which were shown educational exhibits carefully judged so that exhibitors might have quality standards and compare their improvement and quality with that of their neighbors.
Publicity: Newspapers throughout the state have been generous in the amount of space given to news stories and seasonal information of value to rural people. Thirty-five counties report 2,838 news stories published. News reporters appointed in home demonstration clubs, both girls and women, have learned to write simple reports of their activities and to submit these stories to the local papers, giving these amateur reporters excellent experience and additional contact with local business people. Eighteen agents report 38 radio talks given over WRUF and other radio stations. Florida 4-H girls and agents participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program 'presented from four stations in Florida in November.
Circular letters have been used during the year to further extend useful information to persons who may not be able to attend organized club meetings or to visit the agent's office. Reports show 1,779 different circular letters written through the year.
Tour Farm people have proved that certain home activities are valuable from an economic standpoint and are eager to share this knowledge of better living with all who are interested. Fine reports have been made by the farm people themselves of the value of the pantry tours, home improvement tours, garden tours, and other visits to these successful demonstrations. Eighty-five tours were reported with 3,462 interested persons attending. Better buying tours to business houses conducted in several counties familiarized the homemaker with local shops and their merchandise and trained the women in buying standards. Other tours to nearby counties or to the State College or University have been used as a means of education and recreation for many groups of farm people.
Bulletins and Circulars: During the year mimeographed and printed publications have been prepared on the subjects of gardening, conservation, nutrition, home improvement and clothing. Material for use in the clothing program is in preparation. Bulletins in greatest demand include those pertaining to food conservation, economical meals, and house furnishings.

SPECIAL EVENTS TO MARK ACHIEVEMENT AND TO DEVELOP PROGRAM
Achievement Days: Completion of the year's work in each community and county is observed by achievementprograms and exhibits. These events give recognition to all members for worthy endeavor, help the demon-







Florida Cooperative Extension


strator and the agent to check progress and improve quality, and allowthe public an opportunity to know more about the work in the county., . Fifty-one achievement days were held in 1936 by the women, with an attendance of 50,488, while the girls held 63 achievement programs attended by 48,287. In 1935 the total number of programs held was 93 as against 114 in 1936, but attendance rose from 12,640 to 98,775.
. Camps: The camps actually are short courses of training for the girls and women and provide a valuable means for giving instruction and recreation and generally strengthening the county home demonstration programs. During thesummer of 1936 33 camps were held for girls and 16 for women and were attended by 1,573 girls and 1,232 women. Many interested local people contributed to the success of these camps by acting as instructors, and at the same time became familiar with plans of work in their counties. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H club girls and local leaders all aided the agents. Thirteen counties held camps at Camp McQuarrie in the Ocala National Forest and seven camped at Camp Timpoochee in the Choctawhatchee National Forest, both owned by the Extension Service and equipped through the combined efforts of extension workers and club members.
A two-day farm and home institute held at Camp Timpoochee brought inspiration and recreation to adult farm people of West Florida.
Out-of-State Trips: Margaret Taylor of Escambia County and Beatrice Arnold of Dade County received awards of scholarship trips to the National 4-H Camp held in June. This camp is held annually under the direction of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. Only two 4-H girls and two 4-H boys may attend from each state and these are selected for their achievement in club work and because of their leadership ability. In addition to the educational programs participated in by the club members, directed tours to interesting places in and about Washington add to the outstanding educational advantages of the camp.
Trips to the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago at the time of the International Live Stock Show are awarded by the State office to. Florida 4-H girls who have made excellent records in various phases of club work. These scholarship trips are given by interested business firms. Winners of these awards in 1936 were Toi Strickland of Holmes, Edith McKeown of Jackson, Louise Grantham of Jefferson, Harriet Wallace of Mai-ion, and Frances Webb of Dade County.
State Short Course for 4-H Girls: The 24th Annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was held at Florida State College for Women in June. The capability and attitude of the girls themselves, their morale, the type of program and the greatly improved work seen in the counties as a result of the Short Course training, proves the wisdom of requiring tlaat those girls awarded Short Course scholarships must be county winners at least, 14 years old. There were 582 girls and 67 local leaders and 36 home demonstration agents in attendance at the 1936 Short Course.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members who earned the money for their representatives and by county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals who wished to give this opportunity to girls of their county.
Each girl who receives a scholarship is made responsible for making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing on to others the knowledge she has gained, helping younger girls with their workand acquainting girls who are not members with the purpose and results of 4-H club, work-in short, assisting the agent wherever she can. The "Short Course







Annual Report, 1936


girls" help effectively in- county camps and in special programs in their own communities. All facilities of the - Florida State College for Women
-were used during the course. Faculty, social directors, dietitians, college nurses, all gave their time and interest generously to make a successful program. Dormitories, laboratories and classrooms were used exclusively by the girls during the week.
Former 4-H club girls now in College served as leaders for the younger .girls and were given responsibility for many details.
The Junior Home Demonstration Council held its annual meeting during Short Course, electing Lorena Wetherbee of Orange County as president. The Junior Council maintains a scholarship fund to assist worthy club members to attend college.
Home Demonstration Council for Women: The Senior Home Demonstration Council representing the 28 county councils participated in the program of the Woman's Institute in June and held its annual meeting at that time. Mrs. Nellie Murphy of Dade County was elected president. State and county staff members assisted with the program and aided council members in planning their year's program of work. The Senior Council maintains a scholarship fund awarded to a worthy junior-year student at the Florida State College for Women who has been a 4-H club member and had a creditable record in club work and at college.
Training Course for Local Leaders: A training course for volunte * r local leaders was held as a part of the Short Course program, attended by 67 women, with special instruction in the history and program of home demonstration work, duties of a local leader, and methods for successfully assisting the agent in her program. The women given this course requested additional'instruction, and many similar courses have been given in the counties.
LOCAL LEADERS
The work has grown to such an extent that in most counties it is impossible for the agent to meet all demands made on her time and energy. Furthermore, if the activities have grown as they should, the agent is not the only source of the kind of information included in the home demonstration 'program; rather the rural people themselves are passing along to others the useful knowledge they have gained. Records show that home demonstration women and girls have realized their responsibility and are .serving as volunteer local leaders for the agent, strengthening work in the county and developing a -fine type of leadership among rural people 'Where it should be found. In 1936 1,472 persons acted as volunteer local leaders. Of this number 201 were older 4-H club girls helping with the girls' program.
That these project chairmen and 4-H local leaders might work effectively, 63 special training meetings were held in the counties on subjectmatter and methods.
In several counties groups of older 4-H girls or former 4-H girls now inarried or at work, have formed "Alumnae Clubs" to strengthen 4-H club
-work in their counties.
The College 4-H Club, organized at the Florida State College for Women and having a membership in 1936 of 78 former 4-H girls, has become a recognized campus organization. Members help with the annual girls ' ' Short Course and aid freshmen to become acquainted with college life. Throughout the year these girls maintain close relationship with the State Home Demonstration Office.
SPECIAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS BY GIRLS
There were 9,712 girls between 10 and 20 years of age in 479 clubs in 35 counties. The percentage of older girls doing active work with their







Florida Cooperative Extension


club program increases each year. At present 6,418 members are below 14 years of age and 3,294 are 14 years old or more.
A regular program to be executed progressively over a period of years is planned so that the girl may have the advantage of practical training in home making and agricultural duties which she naturally carried on in her own home as a member of the farm family. Each girl is expected to conduct a "productive" demon stration-poultry, gardening, beekeeping-so that she will learn the relationship of these activities to better family living and at the same time have opportunity to earn some money through applying successful business methods to these enterprises.
Records are kept on all phases of 4-H work and at the end of the year the girl must exhibit her work and write a story of her progress.
Each active club member each year conducts demonstrations in at least three phases of home demonstration work-one productive and two homemaking. Homemaking activities include different phases of home improvement, yard beautification, food preparation, nutrition and health, canning and clothing. The demonstration is conducted in the home under ordinary living conditions but these demonstrations must be well thought out to meet family needs and means must be'provided to carry them to completion. During 1936 71 percent of club girls completed their demonstrations and submitted their records for judging and scoring. . Club meetings are conducted regularly so that the girls learn how to direct an orderly program and acquire poise and confidence and pride in their own achievements. They recognize the fact that real leaders earn that title through achievement and not appointment.
National honors have come to Florida 4-H club girls this year. Frances Webb of Dade County, a fourth year girl, won first place in the clothing work competing with state winners of 42 other states. In addition to her clothing work Frances has excelled in home improvement and yard improvement as well as leadership through her club and county council.
Ruth Durrenberger, a 4-H club girl for seven years in Orange County, after graduation from a home economics course in college and a year's experience assisting in home demonstration work, was selected as winner of the Payne Fellowship which 'provides funds for a year's study in the United States Department of Agriculture. Girls from every state competed for this honor.
Records of Florida State College for Women show that former 4-H club girls to the number of 101 have received their college degrees in the past 10 years and 15 earned two-year certificates. Campus honors have been earned by college 4-H girls through the election of Margaret Delaney to membership in Omicron Nu, honorary home economics society.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES
The friendly relationships enjoyed with other organizations at work in the state has brought gratifying associations to home demonstration workers during the year and the recognition and courtesies extended by them to home demonstration work is acknowledged with appreciation.
Nine School Boards in the state cooperate with the Extension Service in maintaining a budget for home demonstration work. School authorities in nearly All counties arrange for time for the agents to conduct 4-H club meetings where such arrangement has been desirable because of consolidated schools or lack of other community centers.
The interest of the home demonstration club members, both girls and women, in community progress has made possible establishing school lunch rooms in rural schools, stimulating interest in securing departments of







Annual Report, 1936


agriculture and home economics, establishment of school libraries, beautifying school grounds and in otherwise assisting with educational institutions. For example, last year 1,879 home demonstration members made definite improvements in beautifying school grounds and 49 home demonstration clubs established community libraries.
College and university authorities have arranged scholarships or given employment for deserving 4-H girls and boys otherwise unable to secure funds for their further education.
Business Organizations of men and women throughout Florida have asin strengthening home demonstration work by gaining an understanding of its purposes and by offering scholarships or awards for achievement of women and girls. The total value of such awards in 1936 was more than $5,000.00. Fair associations have worked with the agents in arrangements for exhibits of results of home demonstration work and their award lists have encouraged its objectives,
State Board of Health: For years home demonstration agents have looked to the medical, nursing and health authorities of the state for reliable information to be used in their applied work in home and community health and sanitation. Fine assistance has been received from state and county officials and through the use of the printed bulletins and publications furnished by the State Board. Home demonstration agents understand rural conditions and needs and because of their wide acquaintance with local people have been able to stimulate intelligent interest and support of the work of the health authorities.
The State Congress of Parents and Teachers, through its state officials and particularly its home service department, keeps in touch with home demonstration agents. The program of both organizations has developed in harmony and to mutual advantage.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs maintains a Department of Home Demonstration whose chairman is a former home demonstration agent, as is the chairman of the Department of Home Economics of the Federation and the editor of the Federation publication. The president of the State Federation also has been a home demonstration agent recently, so the Federation can be expected to understand the purposes of home demonstration work. Federation members have given strong support both in counties and in the state generally. County and state workers assist with programs before local clubs, which aid in furnishing scholarships for Short Course and club camps.
National Better Homes Week: Each county home demonstration agent is county chairman of Better Homes Week and the State Home Improvement Specialist is state chairman.
Government and Emergency Agencies: Sometimes it has been a perplexing problem to know how to supply the kind and amount of cooperative assistance requested from this office by other agencies engaged in work in Florida, and at the same time to continue to develop the kind of permanent home demonstration program which renders the best service to rural people.
The program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil Conservation has affected the work of all extension agents. Home demonstration agents assumed their share of responsibility for explaining the significance of this program to the farm families and to interested civic groups. Considerable effort has been made to bring about some understanding of national and international problems and situations as they relate to agricultural adjustments and how they affect the affairs of the individual farm family,
Directors of the Resettlement Administration have been in constant touch with the home demonstration agents, both state and county. The







Florida Cooperative Extension


,state home demonstration staff advised with the state director of resettlement on the program to be conducted and furnished subject-matter assistance for its development. Recommendations for appointment of personnel were requested and given.
The Works Progress Administration, through its various divisions, has given assistance to county agents by assigning a certain number of certified local people to work under their direction. In cooperation with these agencies the office of home demonstration work has supplied them with subject-matter information, demonstration materials, exhibits, bulletins, .and trained and supervised a large number of workers for their respective duties as canning assistants, teachers, etc.
The National Youth Administration has arranged for a number of young women and girls to assist in county offices, the agents thereby training these girls to greater usefulness as a result of which numbers of these girls have been able to secure regular employment. Several former 4-H club girls have been enabled to work their way through Florida State College for Women using the NYA scholarships awarded them.
The Farm Credit Administration through its division of Family Credit presented discussions of family credit during the annual agents' conference and as a result the agents have a better understanding of the purposes and development of agencies concerned with farm debt adjustment and credit, so they can assist farm families wherever possible.
National Recreation Association: Special recreation schools for the training of leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted in six group centers of the state by representatives of the National Recreat'on Association under the direction of extension agents. Recreation Councils formed in five counties were composed of men and women, boys and girls interested in community life.

MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS
The content of this report and the miscellaneous facts quoted below substantiated by records in the state and county offices indicate considerable progress in the home demonstration program in Florida during the last year and the accomplishment of practical results. The records show the following:
An increase of three counties making financial arrangements to employ .home demonstration agents.
Number of women enrolled increased by more than 1,000.
Number of girls enrolled in 4-H clubs increased by 500.
31 more clubs organized for women than in 1935.
213,529 people attended home demonstration meetings compared with .141,270 in 1935.
42,642 calls were made by people at agents' offices compared to 31,193 last year.
Telephone inquiries made to office increased during last year by 4,132 to a total of 24,894.
Nearly 100 additional local leaders volunteered their services for the year, making the number now 1,472.
The family food supply increased-amount of food canned doubled from 1;023,817 quarts in 1935 to 2,366,532 in 1936.
Number of lighting systems installed increased from 98 in 1935 to 224 in 1936.
Number of water systems increased from 107 to 188.
956 homes remodelled by demonstrators compared with 662 in 1935.
Women and girls added to the family cash income by sales of home
-produced articles totaling $199,863.14.







Annual Report, 1936


GARDENINGAND FOOD CONSERVATION

Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation
The entire program of home demonstration work in Florida carries the ideal of "the more abundant life for every family", a higher standard of living, better housing, better food, better clothes, labor-saving equipment, leisure and facilities for travel, education, recreation, and the development of cultural and spiritual values ever before the workers. That part dealing with gardening and food conservation, forms the basis of a well conceived plan for family nutrition and at the same time furnishes the medium for securing a substantial part of the funds that will enable the Florida rural family to realize the ideals set forth above.
However, owing to extent, topography, the variation in soils, climate, seasons and drainage, and the many types of occupations by which Florida people earn their livelihoods, the "live-at-home" program must be modified to meet varying conditions and situations in different parts of the state.
Nevertheless, it is believed that the majority of families living in rural sections can produce much of the food that is needed in the home, and can add greatly to their food supply and family income.
The promotion, therefore, of year-round gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings and their cultivation, the preparation and utilization of surplus products according to the newest knowledge of canning technology, that the family shall have a balanced and healthful food supply, composes a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conservation.
In addition, the income obtained through lowering cash expenditures for food and by the sale of surplus fruits and vegetables, both fresh and canned, is an item of increasing importance and promotes thrift and economy in the home. Also, the improvement and beautification of the farm home through the increased plantings of not only the "economic ornamentals" but also of native shrubs and flowers, particularly the "county" flower, all tend to develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional values of Florida fruits and vegetables, and the part they play in making a finer farm life.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Records submitted on gardening activities show 3,354 year-round gardens with a cash valuation of $42,711.80 for vegetables sold, and 4,178 part-time gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase of 367 in the number of year-round gardens made this year. Club girls to the
number of 4,784 enrolled in gardening in 1936.
Florida home demonstration families not only supplied their homes with fresh vegetables but in many instances, high grade, well- standardized canned goods are achieved from the planned surplus of the farm and home garden. The gardens are grown with that idea in mind and one county alone reports an estimated value of $22,000 for vegetables grown by club members. Out of this $2,500 worth of canned vegetables were sold.
Home -demonstration records for 1936 show that gardens have been worth from $150 to $1,375 to each family reporting. From the standpoint of health, they are worth infinitely more. A record shows that one family in a north Florida county spent only $45 for food and enough fresh vegetables were exchanged to pay this bill. The fresh vegetables pay for many things. They buy food not 'produced on the farm, household comforts* such as rugs, radios, cook stoves and curtains, They defray doctors' bills







88 Florida Cooperative Extension

and make contributions to the preacher. All this is due to better farm and garden management as worked out in the home demonstration program.

CALENDAR ORCHARDS
Many home demonstration agents report that the canning budget has exerted a stimulating influence for more and varied plantings of fruit trees.
For the year 1936, the number of calendar orchards planted is given as 486, Plantings were made of 24,966 fruit trees, 69,783 berry vines, and 4,422 grape vines. Fresh fruit having a cash value of $19,007.07 was sold from 4,018 homes.
FOOD CONSERVATION
Making a budget of the canned food needs of the family and canning according to that budget as well as a surplus for emergencies and barter has still been the project of greatest interest and progress in the home demonstration program of work. As stated before- food conservation logically follows production in the live-at-home progQm and cannot well be separated. Likewise, food conservation and the canning budget are inseparable and the counties have responded well to what is planned to be not only an asset to the family health, but a creative and a remunerative program.
Reports indicate that the majority of club members still figure that 600 containers or more of canned foods are'needed to meet Florida conditions in nearly all sections of the state. In fact, many fill considerably more than that amount and convincingly justify their budgets. Canning projects enrolled 3,624 4-H club girls who filled 107,852 containers. The total amount of canning done by women in 1936 has more than doubled over the amount canned in 1935; the women canned 2,366,532 quarts of fruits, vegetables, meats and fish.
Since recent research tends to prove that where fine fresh foods only are used for canning and the latest information on processing procedures is used in selecting, preparing, precooking, processing, cooling and storing, the final products serve admirably in place of the same products freshly cooked. For this reason, many club members feel that it is far more 'Practical and less expensive to can abundantly of certain vegetables during the season of their best growth and nutritive value and discontinue the struggle against climatic conditions, pests, and other ills that menace production in Florida at certain times in the year.

CANNING CONTESTS
A total of 871 women from 27 counties entered three jars each in the Three -Jar-Can -f or-Quality Contest featured for 1936. This consisted of one choice vegetable, one fruit, and a fine meat. This contest created in the participants a desire for improvement in their canning practices. Scoring of the containers submitted is done by the women themselves under the direction of a home demonstration agent. Through the judging of their own handiwork and that of their neighbors, women learn to recognize not only what constitutes high grade products as to nutritive value, but develop and fix standards of workmanship which are guides and incentives toward further achievement in the newer knowledge of canning technology.
The Canning Budget with its achievement days, concluding tours and pantry displays is stimulating and worthwhile as may be determined from the records, stories and publicity material received. That this contest has influenced the building of better, more convenient and efficient storage places so greatly needed in rural homes, is also learned from county reports.







Annual Report, 1936 89

The many minor phases of the productive program of home demonstration work-beekeeping, growing and using herbs, utilizing native material, standardizing fancy packages of canned and preserved products, baked articles such as orange breads and citrus cakes, all delicious and distinctive-continue to serve not only to promote Florida products, but also to increase the income of farm families.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program for 1936 in general emphasized the importance of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply necessary to meet nutritional needs of the farm family. It was developed from factual information collected over a period of years and was based on the Outlook for Farm Family Living as adapted to meet the needs of Florida farm families. Through the cooperative planning of the entire Extension Staff it was possible to furnish interested farm people with reliable information and to assist them to recognize their own problems and in this way help them to develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual family needs, and conditions. During 1936, 4,793 families reported the use of timely economic information as a basis for readjusting their plans for the family food supply.
In making a practical plan the several types of farming areas were considered because the game conditions that determine types of farming influence farm tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs, standards of living, and ways of thinking of the people of the farm.
Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food, modified plans for the food supply to fit various conditions were made: first, for farm families with very small cash income and little opportunities for producing the food supply; second, for large trucking areas where it is possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit but little possibility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; third, for sections as on the coast, in flatwoods or grazing'areas where much of the soil is sandy or sub-marginal; and fourth, for families who have considerable capital and good possibilities for food 'production.
The ultimate goal of the food, nutrition and health program is to have every farm family benefit itself and others in the community by emphasizing, (1) the necessity of balanced diet for health, (2) the plan for a family food supply, (3) the production, conservation and utilization at home of dairy and poultry products, vegetables, fruits, meats, and honey with the surplus developed into standardized quality products for sale;
(4) food storage under the temperature and humidity conditions characteristic of the area; (5) the principles of food preparation with special emphasis on quality standards; (6) meal planning, including attention to special needs of mothers and children; and (7) intelligent buying of foods that are not produced.
Demonstrations were established in the homes by the 3,696 women and 8,498 girls completing their work in 1936 to meet some individual or family need in food, nutrition and health. These women and girls benefitted from improved farm and home nutritional practices and at the same time served as demonstrators for teaching and inspiring other families of the community to adopt similar plans in their homes. The home demonstration agents, extension nutritionist and other specialists assisted, advised and stimulated these demonstrators by home visits, conferences, letters, bulletins and other material. Two hundred and three meetings were held at these result demonstrations in 16 counties.
The food, nutrition and health program has been divided into two phases: "Feeding the Family Program" for the adults enrolled, and the "Healthy Living 'Program" for the girls enrolled.








Annual Report, 1936


WORK WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN
The general purpose of the nutrition program for women has been to promote careful planning, producing, utilizing and wise buying of the family food supply essential for good nutrition and health, and to develop a sense of responsibility of the home-maker for the health of the individuals of her family and the community.
EFsentials for Good Nutrition: In many counties this demonstration was begun by emphasizing the factors necessary for good nutrition (milk or fresh air, sunshine, happiness, rest, food and posture); adequate food and preparation and uses of the classes of foods. Instruction was given about foods necessary for building, repairing, and protecting the body as well as furnishing energy. Every individual enrolled was encouraged to learn how to select food, thus understanding the value of food, the body requirements and protection against dietary diseases through proper food selection and preparation. A simple record in the form of a score card showing daily food babies and suggested goals for achievement was kept in connection with this demonstration by each woman enrolled.
This demonstration on meal planning and preparation of foods essential for good nutrition was established in many communities and counties. The "Feeding the Family" record card was used by women enrolled for checking food selection, health of the family members, table service, and hospitality.


HN PRODUCTEN N A VEU OWN110 TV Fogg UPLY


Fig. 4.-Food supply budgets for the year enable farm families to grow
and preserve enough products for their own needs, and some to spare.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Method demonstrations on kinds of food needed in a balanced diet, meal planning, table service, diets for overweight and underweight, posture, and invalid cookery were given to individuals and groups when the need of such work was found through analyzing the general food habits and health situations in the homes and community. A total of 5,997 families reported they had served better planned meals as a result of the nutrition program. Also 2,196 girls and women reported improving their posture according to teachings of the home demonstration agents, and 2,435 girls and women in 24 counties reported improved health practices.
Planning, Providing and Utilizing the Family Food Supply Essential For Good Nutrition: Planning a yearly, weekly, and daily food supply, meal planning, food buying, child feeding, school lunch, special diets, and entertaining in the home were features of this program.
Two thousand homemakers report they packed the school lunches of their children according to recommendations of the home demonstration agents in 31 counties. Ninety schools in 16 counties followed recommendations for a hot dish added to the school lunch or established a school lunch.
The record kept by the demonstrators was the "Yearly Farm Food Supply". Annual achievement exhibits, tours and meetings were held where the demons " traitors showed and discussed their achievements and gave reports on the results as shown by their records. The exhibits consisted of displays in homes, stores, fairs, or achievement day group meetings.

PROGRAM FOR GIRLS IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The general purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living Program" is to develop with each of the 3,498 girls completing their demonstrations an understanding of and a desire for positive health through the recognition of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparation to her normal growth and development; to stimulate her interest in school lunches; and to create a feeling of responsibility in the girl towards securing an adequate sanitary and economical food supply for family and community through home production and home consumption. This 'program is divided into the four demonstrations: Health Improvement, Food Preparation and Meal Planning, Baking, and Judging Baked Goods.
Health Improvement: At the beginning of this demonstration, each girl enrolled made a check on her health, using a chart to show where improvements should be made, and listed means that she could use to improve her health. Afiother check was made at the end of the year to note improvements as a result of following the health program.
This result demonstration included right selection of food, good posture, care of teeth and eyes, cleanliness, and mental and physical health improvement. Some activities of this demonstration were physical examination given through the cooperation of 'physicians, health units and county nurses; monthly health and posture programs composed of demonstrations, songs, stunts, playlets, etc.
A health improvement and posture handbook and records were supplied for develop ng this program. Emphasis was placed on improving the health as well as maintaining good physical condition of the girl enrolled.
Food Preparation and Meal Planning: Under this demonstration each 4-H girl checked her food and health habits during the year to note improvement and need for further improvements and at the end of the year oil Achievement Daymade an exhibit of her food preparation work. This food preparation work included the selection and preparation of vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meats and cereals, meal planning and preparation of breakfast, dinner, and supper. As a final achievement the girl took complete charge







Annual Report, 1936


of the family cooking for at least two weeks, planning, preparing and serving three balanced meals each day.
The girls report they planned and served 9,273 meals during the year and prepared 43,017 food dishes for their families.
Baking and Judging Baked Products: This demonstration was planned for girls who had been enrolled for some time in food preparation work and were 14 or more years old. Each member checked her own food and health habits. She showed an exhibit of required baked products with record and story for the year in which she -was enrolled and made a recipe box containing recipes used.
Individual and team demonstrations were developed in connection with this phase of nutrition work on the preparation and judging of breads, cakes, pies and making of recipe files and community, county and state contests.
A 4-H club baking guide and record with mimeographed supplement giving general directions and recipes was supplied to the 4-H club members enrolled.
The Young Homemaker: The Young Homemaker program for older 4-11 club members included planning and preparing family foods, school lunch, meals, and parties for special occasions, invalid cookery, helping with marketing, making recipe files, gift boxes, etc., and assisting with younger members of the family. These club members also assisted with the family food supply demonstration in planning of food budgets and keeping records.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
In addition to regular county activities, special work was done in food,
-nutrition and health by girls attending the Annual 4-H Club Short Course and at camps. Special method demonstrations were given in food selection, and preparation, baking, meal planning, posture, self-improvement, and health. These especially trained girls returned to their counties and assisted in further development of the "healthy living program" by acting as demonstrators in the different activities.

RESULTS OBTAINED
In summing up the year's results it has been evident that families who have adopted the food supply plan are realizing a more satisfying life by living on more home produced commodities and less cash. This was an important point, since prices of many of the food commodities formerly purchased by farm families had increased in price, thus making it almost impossible to supply family needs and have any desirable standard of living
-unless these commodities were produced for family use on the farm. Pro,ducing at home many foods formerly purchased, such as breads, cereals, canned products, and cured meats, was a means of raising health standards and conserving cash income,








94 Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT

Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
The limited cash income of many rural families in Florida is a factor which must be considered in planning home improvement. Better incomes mean better homes. The Activities of the. entire farm with its soils, its farm enterprises, its farm crops and livestock, its production of food for thefamily, enter into any plan for home improvement. Therefore, the establishment of a demonstration in home improvement is valuable to the community as well as the individual and the 2,464 farm women and 1,958, girls who -have conducted such demonstrations in 1936 have contributed to, the economic as well as esthetic wellbeing of the community.

POINTS EMPHASIZED
Home improvement work for home demonstration girls has been planned, to furnish definite instruction and assistance to the girls enrolled in 4-11 clubs. The demonstrations have been outlined definitely to cover work. which a girl may accomplish in one year and follow a progressive plan for' improving the entire home over a number of years. The demonstrations. include the following: ,
Better Housekeeping--empbasizing definite home tasks performed dailyin the home; care of rooms.
Porch Improvement-care of porch; room improvement.
Heme Sanitation-emphasizing the possibilities of cleaning up the home premises and trying to induce others in the neighborhood to do the same.
Beautification of Home Grounds-starting with simple foundation planti ngs of periwinkles and leading on to more extensive beautification of yar(I with grass, shrubbery, flowers, vines, trees, and stepping stones.
The Home Improvement program for women has been divided into the 'phases of home management, rural engineering, home furnishings, thrift, home sanitation, beautification of home grounds, electrification, and planningthe entire home site.
In this way definite assistance is given to the demonstrator along the lines in which she wishes to conduct her home demonstration. The slogan. used in home improvement work is: "Health and Comfort for the Farm Family and Beauty and Orderliness in the Farm Home".
Planning the program to meet the needs of the family as a whole has received emphasis during the year. Making a house plan on paper has inspired many people in their thinking about the new home they-plan to build or the old one which might be remodeled. Home demonstration members have given thought to the various types of roof most suited to. the use in sections of Florida where they live, also of all building material,. insulation; heating and cooling devices; good lighting, both natural and artificial, for comfort as well as to encourage more night reading; storage space; larger and more private sleeping areas; and a7 dining room for rural families so they may assemble together to enjoy social contacts with. other members of the family, also where the growing children may get. admonition and inspiration from their parents.

'HOME MANAGEMENT

The home management program presents the idea that the farm womam has a responsibility for being interested and for having information in,







Annual Report, 1936


-matters of the farm which pertain to the general wellbeing of the family. Emphasis in the home management program has been given to the value
-of planning for food production, food conservation, clothing conservation
-and adequate storage spaces because these factors influence better family living. In many of the farm enterprises the farm women must Participate .actively, and in most of them she needs to take an intelligent interest.
Farm families have been encouraged to set definite goals for home improvement. Some of the goals can be achieved without cash expenditures .while for others, money is required.
"Time" and its expenditure has been given a larger consideration;
-"living rich" is also being stressed more, thus bringing about more appreciation of the esthetic things of life, starting with the beautiful flowers and fruits about the farm home; the joy of harmonious and healthful living; nature study of insects for 4-11 club members; time for a "hobby"; time for more love and consideration in the family and in the neighborhood, and ,time to contemplate and meditate.
A larger viewpoint has come to the family because of the radio, and libraries which are being established in the rural communities and in many homes where books are bought for the family reading; reading centers with electric lights or brilliant lamps for night reading; business centers Jor keeping the family up with economic data. Home demonstration families report they subscribe to 4,008 magazines and newspapers. All this shows a healthful growth and change. It seems the family old and young enjoy staying at home more because of this new emphasis and the added comfort they find there.
The limited capital income of the rural family is a great handicap in .normal times, and it is necessaryto consider carefully ways and means for the accomplishment of desired improvements in the home. Adoption of a family budget or account keeping has helped many families to find the money for the needed home improvements. In 1936, 453 families kept home .accounts and 470 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to ,avoid unwise buying.'
HOME ENGINEERING
Pop ular goals for the year in home engineering are those built upon
-the findings of the Farm Housing Survey as applied to the local community and itshouses. These facts have served as a measuring rod for the thinking ,of the men in the family and for discussions at community meetings.
Demonstrators have made a list of needed improvements with an estimated cost for same. With a knowledge of the expected income, the family is then able to set a home improvement goal for the year or longer which can be successfully carried out with all the family working and planning together. Remodeling, repairing and drawing on paper the kind of home they would like-to have, and studying good house plans so that they will know and appreciate a comfortable, convenient and healthful home has helped many families. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 1738 on Farm House Plans and Bulletin 1749 on Modernizing Farmhouses have been invaluable in getting people to think and to "want" improvements.
'Reports I show that 956'homes were -remodeled according to plans furnished by home demonstration agents, 294 more than in 1935, an increase of 30%. More than twice as many lighting systems were purchased in 1936 as in 1935, and the number of water systems nearly doubled.
'Definite goals for home improvement which will be enjoyed by all ,members of the family are set by the demonstrator after an analysis has
-been made of the needs and desires of the family. Consideration is given to income and the possibility of productive and conservation activities so







96 Florida Cooperative Extension

that the goals set for accomplishment may not be beyond the possibility of accomplishment.
A bathroom with running water has been a popular goal; 1,791 families report they bought or made practical labor-saving equipment for their homes during 1936; 108 kitchens were completely -renovated.

HOME S-ANITATION
The home sanitation project has emphasized clean, well kept premises and conditions that promote the health of the family. Breeding places of the mosquito often cause losses of hundreds of dollars to Florida families because of time necessarily lost from work by "chills and fever" (malaria), or from unnecessary doctor bills and medicine.
The State Board of Health has cooperated with home demonstration agents in demonstrations of sanitary toilets and septic tank systems.
In 1936 333 sanitary toilets were built and Ill sewage disposal plants were installed. The work done under the direction of the State Board of Health, in cooperation with Rural Rehabilitation and P. W. A. programs, has been valuable in arousing hundreds of 'people to the work of home sanitation through building outdoor toilets.
The Malaria Catechism, issued by the State Board of Health, has shown many a "doubting Thomas" the cause of malaria. Demonstrators screened 536 homes against mosquitoes and flies in 1936.
Special instruction on home sanitation was given to the 600 4-H girls attending the State Short Course. Good -results all over the state are seen following this leadership training.

HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Many families who have furnished their homes by the "thrift route" since 1924 now are buying good furniture and gradually furnishing their homes with better quality furnishings. More intelligent purchasing of furnishings is evident where the income is limited; a 'growing' room is stressed where certain essential pieces of furniture of good quality are purchased first and for the balance box furniture that is artistic and comfortable is used, looking forward to the purchase of other permanent units when money is available. Better treatment of walls and floors has been taught with the result that 1,526 women and girls reported they bad refinished walls, woodwork or furniture. Wallpaper has been used extensively and insulation has been studied and installed in some homes. Homemakers 1,393 strong have followed better buying practices in their shopping. Playrooms for their young children were made by 165 mothers.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME GROUNDS
The men of the family have seen that beautifying the home grounds and painting the house and out-buildings enhances the value of the rural home.
Women and girls have studied good pictures of 'plantings; they have referred to Florida publications and the nursery catalogs to find out what should be planted in certain locations; they are studying the native shrubbery, also vines and trees, and are learning the names of Florida flowers.
Reports of 1936 show that 923 lawns have been improved or planted; 1,500 families planted trees, vines or shrubbery; 674 stepping-stone walks were made, mostly by 4-11 club girls.







Annual Report, 1936 97


CLOTHING AND TEXTILES

Clarinet Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles
Clothing demonstrations have been established in the homes which would serve the needs of the rural families, and 10,817 women and girls were enrolled for clothing instruction in 1936. The program has been planned to be a growing and long-time endeavor, with an ever-enlarging goal for the provision of adequate clothing and textiles for the family and for the home.
Factors considered in developing the clothing program were the growing interest in the always popular subject of clothing, the varied economic situation of the families enrolled, the physical and climatic conditions of a Southeastern area, and the great diversity of practices and habits of rural families within the state.
A definitely outlined clothing program for 4-11 club girls has been conducted throughout the state since the beginning of home demonstration 'work in 1912, but the program for women's work had -not been unified for the state as a whole until this year, although practical and far-reaching activities for women enrolled always have been conducted in all of the counties.

PROGRAM WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN AND GIRLS
The clothing supply for the Florida farm family, with special emphasis on meeting wardrobe needs for the members of the family, is the basis of the clothing program for women. At present there are two definitely outlined demonstrations recommended for the women's work; one on construction of clothing and the other on better buying. Both of these demonstrations were planned so that the woman demonstrator might improve her personal wardrobe. It is the plan later to add further demonstrations for the wardrobes of various members of the family as well as the buying of household textiles and remodeling and renovation of clothing on hand.
The 'purpose of the junior program is to help the 4-H club girl under,stand the contribution to the family living she may make through understanding her own wardrobe needs, how best to meet these needs, and to realize her responsibility to other members of the family and home in supplying clothing for the family and textiles for the home.
The junior program has been increased in scope this year with additional subject matter especially to suit girls' needs and suggested activities which are included in the following six demonstrations: Fundamentals in home sewing, the Florida 4-H club uniform and cap, the well dressed club girl for school, the well dressed club girl for "best wear", the well dressed club girl for street and travel, and the well dressed club girl for informal J)arty wear. The clothing demonstrations are developed through teaching the construction of the required articles, the understanding of related subject matter and activities, achievement exhibits, and team demonstrations.

THE WARDROBE DEMONSTRATION
The clothing program for women, "The Clothing Supply for the Florida Farm Family" with special emphasis on the mother's personal wardrobe, was begun in April 1936 in nine representative counties. These counties represented all types populated with persons with decided differences in social and economic needs.
This demonstration included information on the articles needed for an economical and becoming wardrobe, and included the use of commercial







98 Florida Cooperative Extension

and guide patterns, the fitting and finishing of outer garments, the selection of accessories and underclothing, the care of clothing, and personal grooming.
Since the demonstrations are still under way in most of the -nine counties selected, the accomplishments as shown in actual figures are small but the interest and appreciation which has been manifested are encouraging.
Reports show that 75 women have made inventories of personal clothing on hand. Personal clothing has been put in wearable condition by 62 demonstrators; some improvement in personal appearance by the use of correct diet, good posture, exercise and better fitting garments has been noted by every woman enrolled.
Sixty-five women planned and provided at least a part of adequate personal wardrobes. Clothing account records have been kept for a period of six months during the warm season of the year. The results of the improvement of clothing storage space this year were small but included building new closets, remodeling and adding equipment to others and the building of improved storage spaces by some families either because of low incomes or because the women lived in rented houses; all the women who were developing the wardrobe demonstration reported making garments at home, usually the greater number of which were used by the members of the family; a remarkable spirit expressed in terms of service to others prevails among the women in this special group. Fifty-one women entered the dress revue, many for the first time, as a conclusion of the wardrobe demonstration.
All 35 counties having home agents have conducted clothing programs with 4-H club girls for the year 1936. The revised program for girls was introduced at the annual Agents' Conference in October 1936, so the achievements reported are'results of the previous program.
Planning, selection, construction and care are the points receiving eniphasis in this year's clothing program.

PLANNING THE CLOTHING SUPPLY
Meeting -the clothing needs of various members of the family has been the goal of the clothing work developed in the counties. Thus planning, a fundamental need in all programs for achieving better rural life, is being encouraged and some results can be noted.
At the annual State Short Course held in Tallahassee in June, "Planning the. 4-H Club Girl's Wardrobe", was presented to 532 girls. This demonstration series included selecting and exhibiting suitable designs and materials for the various garments and accessories needed in the entire wardrobe of, a 4-H club girl, and costs at current prices were checked by the girls themselves.
Thus the practicing of planning clothing expenditures which resulted in wiser purchasing has been followed by 1,118 individuals who have budgeted clothing expenditures, and 2,453 families who -have been assisted in using timely economic information in meeting clothing requirements,

CLOTHING SELECTION
Quality of articles of clothing selected and their artistic aspects were ,emphasized in the selection of clothing in the home. . . i
Information on buying fabrics for outer and under wear, especially stressing cotton .;and synthetic materials, ready-made outer and under garments, hose and shoes, have been included in the clothing information made available to women and kirls. Cooperation of the retail merchants ever. the entire state, has. been. of great assistance in conducting educational.


































Fig. 5-4-11 club girls learn to sew a fine seam and to make useful, practical, and attractive clothing.




Full Text

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1936 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL Ex.....:NSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1936

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1936 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME_ ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING '\VILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1936 WITH . FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1936

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BOARD OF CONTROL GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares THOMAS w. BRYANT, Lakeland R. P. TERRY, Miami J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialis J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S . , Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2 HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman2 D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Managemen R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management MYRON M. VARN, B.S.A., Asst. Farm Management Specialist D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing! COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent 1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A. 2 Part-time. [ 2]

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CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF AGENTS 5 REPORT OF . DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECT O R . .. . .. . .. .... . . ..... .... .. .... ... .. .. . . . . .... .... . . . .. 7 Financial Statement . ... .. . ..... . . . ... . . ...... .. ..... . ... ... . .. ..... .. .... . ... . ...... . .... . ..... .. .. . . 13 Statistical Report .. .. . . ...... . .. . . . ... . . ... ... . ... .. . . . ... .... . . . . .... . . . ..... .... .. .. . . .... ... . . . . . . . . 14 PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO 19 COUNTY AGENT WORK 2 3 SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. .... ... . . . . . ... .. . ... ... . . ....... . .. .. . . . ... . . ...... . ... 30 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK 35 DAIRYING 41 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . .. . . . .. .. ..... . . .. . . . . ... . . ...... .. . ........ . .. ..... . . ...... . .. . .... ... . . .... . . . .. . ...... 46 CITRUS CULTURE 5 2 POULTRY WORK 58 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS •..... . . . . . ....... . ... . ........ . ....... .. . . . . .... .. . .... ....... ... ....... .... ... 66 Farm Management ... ... .... .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . ... . ... .... .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. 66 Marketing . ..... .. ... . .. . .... . . ......... ..... . .. . .... . .. .. . .. .... . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. .. ... . .. . .. .. . . 71 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ... .. . . .... . . ..... .... .. .. ... .. . : . .. ........ .... ......... ... ..... ....... .. 74 GARDENING AND FOOD CON S ERVATION . ... ..... . . ... ......... ... ........ . .......... . . . ........ ..•.• 87 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH 90 OME IMPROVEMENT ... . . ..• . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . ... .. . . .. . ..... ... .. . . .. .. .. . . ...... . ... .. . . . . . .. . ..... . . . .. .. 94 LOTHING AND TEXTILES ... ......... . .. . ....... . . . ...... . .. . .. . ..... .. .. .. ...... . . .. .... .... ....... ... . ... .. 97 EGRO MEN'S WORK 102 EGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .... ... ...... . . . . : . ..... . ... .. . .. .. ... . ... . . . . ......... . .. .... . 108 EGRO STATISTICAL REPORT ..... ... .. .. .... . .. .. .... ...... .. .. . . . . . .. . ..... . . . .... . .. .. ..... . : ........... . . 113 [ 3 ]

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Hon. Fred P. Cone, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1936, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1936. Hon . Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Board of Control Respectfully, GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Board of Control. Sm: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture; University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida [ 4]

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS lachua ... . .......... . ..... Fred L. Craft .. . ....... Gainesville .................... Mrs. Grace F. Warren aker ........................ 1\1. D. Futch ............. Macclenny ..... .. .......... . ........... .. ...........• '. ....... ..... ...... . y ..................... . ...... J-0hn G. Hentz, Jr ... Panama City ....................................................... . adford ... . ............... T. K. McClane ......... Starke ............................................... . ................... . evard ..................... T. L. Cain ........ . ....... Cocoa .................................. Mrs. Eunice F. Gay oward .... .... ...... . . .. ..... .. . .. ....... . ........... ..... ... Ft. Lauderdale ........................ Miss Olga Kent lhoun ... .. ............... J. G. Kelley .............. Blountstown .............. .. ......................................... . arlotte ............ .... .. N. H. McQueen ....... Punta Gorda ... ........ . ........ ..... .................... ... ..... .. . trus ...... : .. ........ . ........ .. . ..... ..... ..... ....... . . . ..... Inverness .. .. ..... .... , .. Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore ay . . .............................. . ............................. Green Cove Springs .. ......... . Miss Beulah Felts lumbia .................. Guy Cox .................. Lake City .... . . . ................... .. ........... . ......... . ..... , .... . . de ... .. .. .. .. ......... ... ... C. H. Steffani... ... .... Miami... . . . . ...... ... ....... .. .. . ...... Miss Pansy Norton de (Asst.) ...... . .... J. L. Edwards ......... Miami ........................ . .......................................... . Soto ...................... E. H. Vance ............. Arcadia ........ . . ... ......... . ......... .. ..... , .... . .................... . xie ......................... D. M. Treadwell ..... .Cross City ..................................... ....... . .. . .... . ...... . val... ... ... ......... .... .. .A. S. Lawton .......... J acksonville ... . .................... Miss Pearl Laffitte val (Asst.) ..... . .... Frank M. Dennis .... Jacksonville ......................................................... . cambia .. ......... ... .... E. H. Finlayson ...... Pensacola ...... ....... ..... .... .. Miss Ethel Atkinson gler .... ... ......... . ..... Fred Barber .... . ....... Bunnell ................................................................. . dsden .................... R. P. Howard •......... Quincy ... .. ............................. Miss Elise Laffitte christ ... .... . .. ... . ..... A. S. Laird .. ... .... ..... Trenton ..... ....... .. ....... .... ....... ... . . ..... . . ........... . . .. ...... . Jf .............................................................. Wewahitchka .... Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield milton: ... , ............. J. J. Sechrest .......... Jasper ...... : ..... . ......... , . ... . .................. . .......... . ......... . rdee . . . .. .. . .. ...... .. .... H. L. Miller .... ... ... . ... Wauchula .... .... . ... .... . . .... ... ..... ......... . .. ........ .. . .. ...... . rnando .. ................ B. E. Lawton ... . ....... Brooksville ..... ... .................. ... .............................. . hlands ................. L. H. Alsmeyer ....... Sebring . ......... .. ..................... . ........ .. .......... ... ........ . lsboro . . ... ..... . .. . .... .Alec White .............. . Tampa ..... ... . : ........ ............... ..... ....... .. . .. .... ........ ... . . . lsboro (West) ........................................ Tampa ........... . ........... . ...... Miss Allie Lee Rush lsboro (East) ........................................ Plant City ..... ... .......... . ......... .... Miss Irene Riley Imes ..... . .......... ... .. . D. D. McCloud ..... .... Bonifay .......................... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle kson ..................... J. W. Malone ........... Marianna .................... ... . Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter erson ................... P. R. McMullen ... .... Monticello ..... ...... ................. Miss Ruby Brown ayette ... .. . ...... . .. ... D. H. Ward ...... .. ... . .. Mayo . . .... .. .. . . .. . ... ... .. .. ..... ....... . ........ ..... ......... .. .. . .... . e .. ....... ... ........ ... ... C. R. Hiatt ........ .. ..... Tavares . . . .................... .. ... Mrs. Lucie K. Miller ... ........ . ................. C. P. Heuck. ..... . ....... Ft. Myers ...... ... ........ .... ..... . . ... ....... . .................... . . . n ...... ... . . . ......... ..... G. C. Hodge ............. Tallahassee . . . .... . ... . . ..... . . Miss Ethyl Holloway y ......... ..... ..... .... ... T. D. Rickenbaker .. Bronson .......... .... ........ Miss Wilma Richardson erty ...................... F. D. Yaun ....... . ...... Bristol . .. ......... . . ... .................. .... ...... . . . ................... . ison ... . .......... . ..... S. L. Brothers ... ... . ... Madison ... ........... . . .. ... . . . Miss Bennie F. Wilder atee ... ... ....... .. ..... John H. Logan .. .....• Bradenton ...... .. .......... .. .... Miss Margaret Cobb ion ..... . .................... ... ........ .. .................. Ocala .............. .. ............ . ....... .. Miss Tillie Roese! loosa . , . .. ........ ... .. . E. R. Nelson ... . .. .. .. .. Crestview .... ...... .... .. . . . ... ....... . .... .. ... ... .. . . .. .. : .... .... .. . echobee ............... C. A. Fulford ........... Okeechobee .......................... , .............. .................. . nge .... .. .......... . ..... K. C. Moore ............. Orlando ........... . ......... ... .. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor eola .... . ... .. ..... . . .... J. R. Gunn ............... Kissimmee .... . . . ......... .... .. . .. . Miss Albina Smith n Beach .............. M. U. Mounts .......... West Palm Beach ..... .... . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus co ......... . ............... J. A. McClellan, J r .... Dade City ...... ... ......... . ........ .... ....... . .. ... ................. . llas ................. . ... Wm. Gomme ............ Clearwater .. .. ........... ..... .... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess .. . ...... .. .. . ............. W. P. Hayman ...... ,.Bartow .................................. Miss Lois Godbey am ... .. ................ H. E. Westbury ....... Palatka . ....................... Miss Josephine Nimmo ohns .................. Loonis Blitch ........... St. Augustine .................... Miss Anna E. Heist Lucie ... Pierce ...................... Miss Bertha Hausman ta Rosa .............. John G. Hudson ...... Milton . ... ......... .. .......... ... .. Miss Eleanor Barton inole ................... C. R. Dawson ..... ..... Sanford . ...... ...... ....... l\1iss Josephine Boydston sota . .. . ...... .... ..... W. E. Evans ............ Sarasota ........ ... ........ ..... ...... .. .......... .. ......... . : ........ . ter ...... . .......... ... .. W. J, Platt, Jr ........ Bushnell .......... .... ................ Miss Evelyn Loftin annee ................. S. C. Kierce ..... . ....... Live Oak. ...... .. .. . ....... .. .. .. ... Miss Eunice Grady lor ....................... K. S. McMullen ....... Perry .............. ... .................... . .. Miss Floy Moses n ....... .. ........ ... : ... L. T. Dyer ...... .. ....... Lake Butler .... .. ........ .. ....... ... ......... ... .. , ................ . sia ...................... F. E. Baetzman ....... DeLand ... ........ .. ...... . . . Mrs. Marguerite Norton ulla .................... N. J. Albritton . .... ... Crawfordville . .. ......... . ......... Mrs. Pearl Penuel on ...................... Mitchell Wilkins ..... DeFuniak Springs ... ... .... Miss Eloise McGriff hington .............. Henry Hudson ......... Chipley ................................................................. . This list correct to December 31, 1936 [ 5]

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AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION A. P. Sp.encer, Administrative Officer in Charge ................................ Gainesville H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Agricultural Conservation Committee .. . ... ...... ................... . ......... .. : . . ............. , .. . ...................... ...... Gainesville Walter B. Anderson, State Committeeman .............................. : ............. Mairianna Ralph B. Chapman, State Committeeman . . .................... .............. .............. Sanford James J. Love, State Committeeman ............................................................ Quincy R. S. Denni s, Assistant District Supervisor ................. ........... . .... ....... Gainesville Aubrey E. Dunscombe, Assistant District Supervisor ........................ Gainesville W. T. Nettles, District Supervisor ........................................ ..... ............. Gainesville J. Lee Smith, District Supervisor ......... , . . .. .. ... ............. . . ............... ..... . ... Gainesville E. Owen Blackwell, Assistant Field Officer .......................................... Gainesville C. A. Lyle, Principal Clerk. . ...................... ........ .................... ...... ............ Gainesville ASSISTANTS IN AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION'' COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Alachua ..... ..... . ............ ..... .... . ...... Lamar Hatcher ... . .................................. Gainesville Columbia ..................................... Gussie Calhoun ........................................ Lake City Escambia ............. ................ .... .... Bryan C. Gilmore ................. . .... ..... ......... Pensacola Hamilton ..................................... J. W. Mitchell .................... .... ........................ Jasper Holmes ......................................... Clarence DeMasters ...... ...... ...................... Bonifay Jackson ........................................ R. C. Peacock. ......................................... Marianna Jefferson ........ . ............... ........ ... ... E. J. Albritton ........................................ Monticello Lake ........... .. .. ........ ... ............... . . .. R. E. Norris ..................... . .... . ..................... Tavares Leon ......... ....... ......................... . ... A. C. Spiller .. . ..... .. .. . .. ..... ........ ... . .......... Tallahassee Madison .................. ..... .. .. . . . .. .. .... . J. E. Donald .......................... .... .................. Madison Okaloosa ................ .......... . . .... . .. ... M. B. Miller .............................................. Crestview Santa Rosa .......... .... .......... .. ....... Dan G. Allen** ..................... .. ....................... Milton Suwannee .. . . ....................... . ........ Grover C~ Howell.. ............. . .. ..... ............... Live Oak Walton ............... ........... ......... ...... A. G. _ Hutchinson ....... _. ........... DeFuniak Springs NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua ..... .. ................ , ............... F. E. Pinder .......................................... Gainesville Columbia and . Southern Suwannee .............. E. S. Belvin ............................................... Lake City Hamilton and Northern Suwannee ... : ...... ... N. H. Bennett ........................ . '. ... : .... White Springs Hillsboro ......... .. ...................... . ... Elliott Robbins .............................................. Tampa Jackson .... ..... ... ... . ......... . ......... .... .J. E. Granberry ........................................ Marianna Jefferson . ... .. ..... ..... ......... ......... .... M. E. Groover ........................................ Monticello Leon ......... .. ... ....... .................. ..... . Rolley Wyer, Jr .................. ..... ............ Tallahassee Marion ......... .... ................. . .... ....... W. B. Young .... ..................... ..... ...................... Ocala COUNTY LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua ................ : ............... ... .... Mary Todd McKenzie .......... . ............... Gainesville Duval... . ..... . ........... ............ ...... . .. . Ethel M. Powell. ................ ... . ... .......... Jacksonville ~!M:;ifa :::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::: : ::: :::fit~:~~~~:i:::::::::::::::::::: ::::::: ::::::::::::~:~1~Eri; Leon .......... .... ............................... Alice W. Poole .................... .. .............. Tallahassee Madison ................. .......... .... ... ..... Althea Ayer ..... ....... ........ .......... . ...... .......... . Madison Marion ................................ . .. ..... . Idell R. Kelley ...... ......... ........ ...... .... ......... . . Reddick *This list correct to Decemb e r 31, 1936. **Resign ed effective December 31, 1936. [ 6]

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REPORT FOR 1936 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF DIRECTOR AND VICE-DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Flor ida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1936, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1936. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. Extension programs of the past year have been carried on as usual. Additional duties required because of agricultural adjustment and cooper ation with . other federal programs have added considerably to both admin istrative and field work. More equipment has been needed, and more clerical persons employed . The usual purchases for stationery and supplies have naturally ' increased, with added programs and additional calls on this office. PRINTING AND PUBLICITY The printing of bulletins has been restricted to a limited number of Extension publications, Experiment Station publications are used liberally 1 by county and home agents and there has been a liberal supply constantly 1 going out to the county offices. 1 The Service has used one farm hour daily on the radio and this is handled by the Editorial office. These programs are made up from con tributions by persons in the Extension Service, Experiment Station, Agri cultural College and others visiting the University, county agents, home agents and others. We have contributed special programs during the county agents' week and also from the 4-H club members. A short period is given each day to current news affecting agriculture. These radio programs are transmitted over state radio Station WRUF, located at Gainesville. Various announcements of programs go out constantly with the outgoing mail. 4-H CLUB WORK The 4-H club work has been carried on under handicaps due to the overload on county agents. Where assistants are employed they help, but the usual educational programs expected of county agents were necessarily reduced because of other programs that could not be set aside. The usual 4-H club projects were carried out. There has been difficulty in getting ppropriate programs for much of the horticultural sections. Programs have been carried out in the citrus groves and an attempt has been [ 7]

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension made to establish programs in economics. This has met with difficulties due to the fact that programs designed for areas in horticultural sections where many boys of club age who would be classed as farmers do not live on the property and therefore do not have intimate contact with the farm as is the usual case in the general farming area. There has been liberal support from outsiders by contributions to schol arships, educational trips and provision for 4-H camps. Two 'permanent 4-H camps are operated between June 15 and September 10. These camps have a capacity in excess of 100 4-H club members each. The camps are well equipped as to housing and recreational facilities. They are directed by the state club agent. County and home agents are responsible for the conduct of campers from their res pective counties. Annual 4-H club week programs were held at the University of Florida for boys and at the Florida State College for Women for girls. The facili ties of the colleges are made available on such occasions and the programs make considerable contributions to educational work as carried on under the direction of the College of Agriculture. LIVESTOCK . PROGRAMS A'nimal industry programs are carried out under three main divisions: animal husbandry, which includes beef cattle and hogs, dairy husbandry, and poultry husbandry. Beef Cattle.-Animal husbandry work deals prima,rily with improve ment of cattle under semi-range conditions. For the most part, ranges are fenced and little can be done in areas not fenced. Problem of greatest importance is improvement of range cattle, and several carloads of bulls have been purchased through the efforts of the Extension Service an . d on the advice of the specialist in charge. The program deals with the im provement of females by culling and by selection. Consideration is given also to the matter of over~stocking the ranges. To overcome this, 'progress has been made in the marketing of stock unfit for breeding purposes, and in locating markets for veal calves. These calves are usually ready fo veal during the summer months. Car-lot shipments are made to Easter markets. Facilities for handling these are being installed by the railroad and livestock men are finding it profitable to market calves of this age i preference to holding them for two or three years, which is the usual ag for marketing grass-fed cattle. W,inter feeding received particular attention in the farm areas and silo of the cheaply constructed type have been put into use to supply roughag to the semi-range area where practically no farm operations are carrie on, and the cattle are carried through the winter seasons on pastures wit some losses. The 'problem in cattle breeding has been the matter of getting a norma calf crop and the marketing of veal will go a long way toward improvin this condition. Since the calves are weaned when six months old or younge it permits the cows to go into winter carrying a fair amount of fies Under such conditions, a larger calf crop is the result. Relatively few cattle are finished in the feed lot. However, a few, par ticularly in the tobacco area, are fed each year on a ration consistin largely of corn and cottonseed meal. The . primary purpo s e of this is t secure manure used in the growing of tobacco. The growers throug the Extension Service have been able to secure cattle of better grade tha they usually find on the ranges. An infestation of screw worm flies in this state in 1034 has presente a problem for livestock owners. However, by an appropriation from Co

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1936 9 gress, also from the State Legislature, an active campaign to combat the screw worm has been in effect since 1935. The Extension Service has had an active part in this program and the beef cattle specialist has served as adviser with those employed in the counties to carry on the program. To promote permanent pastures has been a part of the program and this has been handled in various ways. One item of particular interest is the mowing of. pastures. During the summer seasons the rains promote growth of weeds in many areas. When these are mowed, the grass makes good growth and the carrying capacity of many pastures has been doubled where this has been wisely carried out. Hog Programs.-During the period of low prices for hogs, many farm e rs discontinued raising them and the sale of hogs in 1934 and 1935 was re duced to below the normal amount . Since the price of pork now makes hog raising profitable, interest in hog raising has revived. The program of the Extension Service in this I connection has largely dealt with the improvement of quality and the pro duction of suitable feeds. A third and interesting phase of this has . been the establishment of local markets. These have been established at ship ping stations and the railroads have provided loading pens. Prices compare favorably with those in the more important hog centers and in areas where corn and peanuts are generally raised. The production of hogs under such conditions is one of the most profitable things that the farmers can under take. Florida has problems in the control of parasites affecting livestock, par ticularly hogs. This requires rotation of pastures, feed lots and the con stant application of methods that will hold in check the effects of com municable diseases and internal parasites. The screw worm has also been a menace to hog raisers but the campaign carried on has demonstrated that these pests can be controlled or at least held Jin check to such an ex• tent that no serious damage will result if reasonable care is given in the management. An important part of the hog program has been the introduction of the process for the home curing of meats and several cold storage plants ave installed facilities for chilling and curing the meat for farmers. As istance in handling this by K. F. Warner of the United States Extension ervice ha s been a valuable aid to the county agents and specialists . in his project. Dairying.-Commercial dairying in this state is confined largely to the arketing of whole milk in cities. The establishment of creamery and utter factories has not been profitable, so practically all of them have been iscontinued. Therefore, the main dairying enterprises are nearer the arger cities and are subject to city regulations and sanitary measures. his has involved a program of extensive feed production and high labor ost, since most of the feed is purchased. The problem therefore is the selection of dairy cattle that can be profit bly kept under these intensive programs. There is also a problem of sur lus milk during the summer season, when winter tourists have returned to heir homes . Parasites in young calves have been prevalent in practically all dairies f importance and it has been necessary to keep young calves from pastur g on infested ground. Replacement amounts to 20 percent of the average herd each year. any cows are purchased from adjoining states and because of this trails r there has been considerable difficulty in holding diseases of cattle in eek. During the past 12 months the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry as conducted an active campaign for the control of Bang's disease, and

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Florida Cooperative , Extension the Extension dairyman has given active cooperation. Other problems such as exchange of dairy sires, construction of silos, selection of suitable silage crops, and fertilization of pastures have been dealt with by the Extension Service in this project. , ' . Poultry Husbandry.-The Extension poultry work was modified in 1935 due to the specialist being assigned the responsibility for conducting re search and teaching in the College of Agricui _ ture. Because of _ this arrange ment an assistant was appointed who has :taken over a . large part of the extension field work. The Florida Extension Service maintains a National Egg-Laying Con test with 100 pens. It is financed by an appropriation from the legislature and from sales. The contest handles pens of birds from several other states. This is aside from the regular Extension program but contributes its part for a . better poultry practice. The poultry . industry of Florida has made substantial growth in numbers and has made progress in methods. Flocks have been managed to prevent the spread of parasites, reduce expenses, and provide a better market. There has been an interest in poultry exhibits, particularly for 4-H club members. The Experiment Station has one veterinarian giving his major time to investigation of poultry diseases. This harmonizes with the Ex tension program and contributes in a substantial way toward keeping poultry raising on a substantial and economical basis. In 1935 a study and de . monstration of the management of turkeys was undertaken. This part of the program offers considerable promise. Poultry work is also a very important part of the home demonstration agents' work, and in many counties it is _ the most important program ,carried on by home demonstration agents. The University of Florida has recently installed additional equipment for the teaching of poultry husbandry and these facilities will considerably add to the opportunity for service by th,e Extension Service throughout the state. CITRICULTU . RE Florida citrus production is gradually increasing. The 1936-37 crop is estimated to produce 38 million boxes of fruit. This is the largest crop in the history of Florida and is an increase of 10 million boxes over the crop of 1935. This large crop is the result of extensive acreage being planted in citrus gr.aves and in a normal year the production of from 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 boxes of fruit will not be unusual. This large production involves the question of marketing in much greater degree than at any . time in the past. It is apparent that unusually high prices are a thing of the past and crops that are not managed economically will become a liability to the owner. The big problem, therefore, is reduction of costs in production, and on this are centered the efforts of s pecia1ists and county agents . Problems in fertilization , cultivation, and varieties are in volved, and to a considerable extent the production of high quality fruit which necessitates a system of spraying for the control of insects and dis eases of the fruit and the tree . The soil conservation program will al s o aid in this phase of Extension work, since the need of organic matter in the soil is apparent but fre quently misunderstood. It encourages growers to produce cover crops. Due to the large production of citrus fruits, canning factories to handle surplus grapefruit have been established and encouragement has been given to canning and preserving methods by the Florida Experiment Sta tion.

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Annual Report, 1936 11 The Citriculturist has given s ' pecial attention to irrigation practices. In a large number of groves, irrigation is of secondary importance. However, in periods of drouth or in the higher, sandy lands, trees often wilt and lose their fruit because of a lack of moisture in the soil. To remedy this special attention has been given to the construction of portable irrigation outfits. Portable irrigation plants can serve a larger area than a stationary plant, and at small cost. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS The agricultural economics section is s e t up under two divisions, market ing and farm management. Since the beginning of the agricultural adjust ment program both of these have been disturbed because of personnel needed for economics problems during the depression and because of the demands made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture on the personnel of the eco nomics section of the Extension Service. During 1934 and 1935 until June 1936, the Marketing Specialist has a s sisted in the A.A.A. program in Washington. However, in spite of this, economic studies were made, particularly in poultry and citrus. This project was carried on by grove owners under the supervision of county agents. This department is also furnishing much information important in handling adjustment in agriculture. AGRONOMY The agronomy problems have dealt largely with cultural practices fo the production of corn, cotton and peanuts and green crops, "also with . crops used for hay, silage, and cro"ps in connection with the soil conservation program. Particular attention has been given . to winter legumes and for the current year large quantities of vetch and Austrian peas have been purchased by farmers in the general farming area. Suitable cover crops to be used in citrus groves and vegetable are~s are principally crotalaria and native grasses. These crops determine to a large extent their usefulness. Tl;iis phase of agronomy has also been a part of'the Citriculturist's program, since such cover crops must be used in con nection with commercial fertilizer .in the economical. production of citrus frd . . . _ . The Annual Outlook Report has been published each year. This re ' port is assembled by the specialists and supervisors in Extension work and is used by district and county agents. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK. This has made progress along all lines durin:g the year, as evidenced by reports of the State Home Demonstration Agent and her specialists found elsewhere. They have served rural homes through both women's and girls' clubs. NEGRO WORK The Negro work of Florida has been carried along in the usual way. Negro agents have assisted county agents in handling the soil conserva tion program among Negroes. There is an increasing demand for Negro Extension work and much more coul _ d be done. FINANCIAL COOPERATION IN COUNTIES The average appropriation has increased in 1936 and additional counties have been added. Additional counties have made appropriations for the support of both county and home agents and at present 58 of the 67 counties are cooperating and only three counties of agricultural importance remain

PAGE 13

12 Florida Cboperative Extension to be supplied with county agents, but a larger number are without home demonstration agents. There is some tendency for the counties to financially support the Negro work, 'principally home demonstration w _ ork. The agricultural adjustment program has . added considerable equipment to the county offices and this has been a substantial improvement. The counties have supplied clerical services and equipment in limited amounts but not sufficient to supply all the needs. The Rural Resettlement administration in Florida has loaned the Exten' sion Service equipment assigned to them for their offices. This has been used by the Negro agents to considerable advantage. For the most part the boards of county commissioners supply the co operating funds. In a few counties the school boards contribute in part. MOST IMPORTANT UNDERTAKINGS The home demonstration program has not been materially changed except to add duties and responsibilities, particularly in reference to county planning and home supplies. During the period of depression this work arose of necessity and the home agents were able to render very substantial assistance. During the same period home demonstration workers stressed increases for the home income. This has been an important advantage to the programs of 1936, for on many farms a substantial addition has been made to the income of the home on account of the sale of home 'products, primarily canned foods, meats, vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy pro ducts. The county planning program has made little progress and seems to be more acceptable in the general farming area of Florida than in the special ized products area. It is planned to utilize these committees to the greatest extent in 1937 in regular Extension work and also in soil conservation pro grams. The . agricultural conservation program has been a large undertaking throughout the entire year. The county agents' offices have been the central offices in each county. The county programs have necessarily required lots of attention on the part of agents. County and community committees have served in a limited way but the responsibility is expected to emanate from the county agents' offices. This has required additional space and additional personnel and a large amount of correspondence. During 1936 the agricultural adjustment program affected the Northern and Western counties of Florida where basic crops were produced. The present soil conservation program involves all of . Florida and brings up questions of vital importance that are peculiar to this sub-tropical state. Negro agents have assisted in the soil conservation program in the counties. Usual duties pertaining to agricultural enterprises, fairs, meet ings, and contacts with other Federal and state organizations have been taken care of in the usual way. The Agricultural Extension Service calls on the Florida Experimen Station for assistance in subject matter and in other ways that make more complete the Extension program in the counties. Florida has a State Citrus Commission dealing with the marketing of citrus fruits. It has various or ganizations directly and indirectly related to the marketing of fruits and vegetables. The Extension Service takes no part in the management of thes but offers its services wherever such service can be used t
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Annual Report, 1936 FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1936 RECEIPTS Federal Smith-Lever .... .... .......... . . ..... ... .. . . .. . ... .. . . ... ... ...... . $ 63,968.10 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ........ . . ... . .. .......... 20,716.14 Bukhead-Jones, Federal ................ . ............ .. . .. ............. . 83,987.69 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . ...... . .... ... ......... . . . . ...... . . ....... . . . 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative, Federal ........ . . .. .. . . ....... . . ..... . . . . 23 , 500 . 00 State Appropriation for Off-Set ... . .. .. .. . . . . : .. ..... . . . . ...... .. . . 66,141.98 County Funds for Olf-Set ............ ... ............ . . . . . .... . ......... 15,614.29 State and College Funds . ......... . .. ... ........... . .. ..... ............. 28,646.00 County Funds . ..... . ... .... . .. ... .. .. . ... .. ... . .. .. . .. . . . ........... . .... . .... . .. 90,235.71 EXPENDITURES Administration ...... . ... . .. .... ... . ... . . .... . . . .. ........ . ..... .. ... . ..... . . .. . . Publications, printing ....... .. . ... ... . .. . . . . . .. . . ..... .. . .... . . .. . . . .... . . . County Agent Program . . .. ........ .... .. . ........... . . .... . .. .......... . 4-H Club Program (Boys) ....•..... . . . ............... : . . . .. ........... . Home Demonstration Program . . .... .. .......... ...... .. . .......... . Dairy and Animal Hu s bandry . . .. . .. . ....... . .. ...... .. . .. . ... . . . .. . . Farm and Home-Makers' Program (Negro Work) ... . Citriculfure . .. .. . . ... ... . .... . . .. . . .............. . . .. ......... . . . .. ... . .. ......... . ~~~~~;ro~~~hio1? . . :::: : : : :: : :::::::::::::: : :: : ::;::::::: :::: :::::::::::::::: Agricultural Economics . . .. ...... . ... . . ... . . ..... . ... ... . ...... . . . . .. . . . . Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . .. . .... ..... .. ... . . . .. . Balance Bankhead-Jones, Federal . . .. ...... . . .... . .. . . .. . ....... . Balance State Appropriation Carried Over . . ............. . 13 , 908 . 55 11,732.48 185,529.32 6,309.35 124,935.92 7,192.68 25,946.79 4,839.09 4,633.09 152.35 12,627.14 5,559.16 6,934.72 9,065.01 13 $419,365.65 $419,365.65

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]4 Florida Cooperative Extension STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports GENERAL ACTIVITIES Days service rendered by county workers ................................. . Days in office ................................................................................... . Days in field .................................................................................... . Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ..... . Number paid employes assisting Extension program ........... . Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work Members in such clubs ., ................................................................. . 4-H Clubs ......................................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled ........................................................... . Different 4-H club members completing ................................... . 4-H club teams trained ................................................. , ................. . Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work with rural young people 16 years of age and older ........... . Members in these groups ............................................................... . Farm or home visits made ........................................................... . Different farms. or homes visited ............................................... . Calls relating to Extension work ............................................... . News articles or_ stories published and circular letters ........... . Number individual letters written ........................... . ................... . Bulletins distributed ....................................................................... . -Radio Talks ............................................................ . ....................... . Extension exhibits shown ............................................................. . Training meetings held for local leaders ................................... . . (Attendance ..................... . Method demonstration meetings held ................. ..................... . (Attendance ..................... . Meetings held at result demonstration ............ , ... , ............. : ...... . (Attendance ..................... . Farm tours conducted ................................................................... . (Attendance ..................... . Achievement days held _. ................................................................ . (Attendance ..................... . Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ....... . (Attendance ..................... . Other meetings ( Attendance ..................... . CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted ............................. . •Result demonstrations conducted ................................................. . Meetings held ................................................................................... . News stories published and circular letters ............................... . Farm or home visits made ........................................................... . Office calls received ....................................................................... . 4-H Club members ....................... , ................................................. . 4-H Club members completing ................................................... . Acres in 'projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yield of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended ................... . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS 27,072 11,987.5 15,084.5 2,370 569 338 8,366 680 13,601 8,356 516 19 379 54,196 23,940 314,474 10,251 97,500 104,662 132 390 488 4,875 10,391 147,659 3,201 38,253 208 5,759 151 110,510 54 5,734 5,354 154,556 403 308 188 176 1,165 7,043 820 399 468 11,591.5 Bu 8,426 Communities in which work was conducted .............................. 1,064 Result demonstrations conducted ................................................ 783 Meetings held .................................................. , .............................. 413 News stories published and circular letters . .............................. 495 Farm or home visits made........................................................... 2,199

PAGE 16

Annual Report, 1936 Number offi c e calls recei v ed . ... ....... . . ..... . . ......... .. . . .. . .. .. ..... . ... . .. . .. . 4-H Club m e mber s enrolled . .. . .. .. . ... ... .. . .. . . .. . .. ... ... . .... . .. . . . .. .... ... . ..... . 4-H Club members completing . . ..... . . ......... . .. .... . . . . ....... ...... . . ........ Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing(Seed , pounds .. . .... . . .. . .. . . . . (Forage, tons ... ...... . .. . .. . . . F a rmers following b e tter practice recommendations ... ..... ... . 17,663 468 167 147 , 618 124,65 11,018 15 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Oth e r Crops Communities in which work was conducted 502 Result demonstration s ... . ........ .. . .. . .. . . . .... . . . . . . . 196 Meetings held . .... ..... ....... .... . .. . ....... ... . . . .. ,. . . . . .. 218 News stories published and circular l e tters written .... . . .. . ... ........... . . . . . . . . . .......... 308 Farm or home visits made ...... . .. .... . . ........... 1,857 Offi c e calls received . ....... . ..... .... ... . . . .. . .. . . .. .. ... .. 6,759 4-H Club member s e nrolled . . . .. ..... . ... .... .. . . .. 3 43 4-H Club members completing . .. . . . .. ........ . . 147 Acres in projects by 4-H Club m e mbers completing ........ .. . . . . . . . . .......... .. ... . .. .. ......... . Cotton Tobacco 211 75 88 12 168 56 263 62 935 310 15,783 4,769 202 9 77 7 77.5 6.5 Yields by 4-H club members completing 101.85 13 , 199 Bu. 5,930 65,987 Lb. 6,448 Lb. Farms following b e tter practic e s ... . .. ... . .. . . 9 , 056 2,364 FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS C o mmunitie s in whi c h work was conduct e d . . . .. . . . . ........ . .. .. .... . .. . Result demonstrations conducted . .... ...... .. . .. . . . . . ... . . .. . . .... . . . .. .. .. ... . . Me e tings held . ... .. . . . . ..... ... .... . . . . . .. ... ...... . . ..... .. .. .. . .. . ... . . .. . .. .. . ... ... . .. .. . . . News stories published and circular letter s i s sued . ... ... . .. ......... . Farm or home visits made ......... . . . .... . ....... .. . . . .. ........... . .. ... . . ... . ..... . Office calls re c eived .. . . . ... .... .. .. . .. .. ... ...... . . ..... . . .. .... . . .. .. . .... . . .... . . .. . .. . .. . . 4-H Club members enrolled . .. . . . .. . .... . . .... . . .. ... .. . . . ....... . .. . . ...... .... . ... . -H Club members completing . . . . ... ..... .... . .... ... .. . ......... . ... .. . . ......... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing arms and homes adopting improved practices : ... .... . .. . . ... ...... . . 2 , 282 10,162 3,430 1,949 12,310 32 , 305 8,378 6,286 920% . 30,984% Bu. 38 , 901 FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING ommunities in which work was conducted .. . ... .......... .... . . ......... . esult demon s trations conducted .. ... ... .. . ... . ... . .... .... . .... .. .. . .. ........ . eetings held .. ... . . . ..... ..... . .. .. . . . .... ... . . .... . . . ... . . . , . . . . . .... .. . .. . .... ... . . . . . ...... . ews stories published and circular letters issued .... . .. . .. ..... . arm or home visits made ......... .. . . ............ . . .. ................ . . , ........... . ffice calls received . ....... ......... . . ... . . .. . ........ . . . . . . . . . . ....... . . ... .. . . .......... . -H Club members enrolled .. ... . .. . . . . ... . . .... ........... ..... . ...... . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. . -H Club members completing ... ........ .... .. . . . . . .. . .... .... . . .. . . .. . .. . ..... . .. . arms on which new areas were reforested by planting with small trees ........... ... ..... . ............ .. ................. .. ................ .. .......... . cr es reforested ...... . ... ... .. . ............ .. ... . ........ .. . . .. ... ............ . . .. .. . . . ..... . arm s adopting better forestry practices .. . . .. .. .. ... .. . ... .. .. . .. ..... . . . arms adopting soil con s ervation practi c es . ... . . .... . . . ... . ... . . .. . . . . ... . cres involved ............ ... ... . .............. ... . ... ........... .. . .. ...... .. ..... . . . .. . .. .... . and clearing .. ............ .. ................ . .. . ............ .. . ... . .. . . ....... . .. . .. . . . ........ . cres involved ............. . .. .. ............ . .. .. ........... . .. ... . . .. . ........... .. .. . ........ , . armers adopting better machine practice . ........ .. . . ...... . . ..... . ... . . umb e r machines involved .. .. .. . . . . .. ... . .. .... . .. .. .. . ... ... . .... . .. ........ .. . : . : . . armers adopting better building and equipm e nt practices ... . uilding and items of equipment involved ... .............. .. ... . ........ . 332 293 379 156 1,082 4,250 82 51 265 7,609 1,360 764 29,010 . 91 2,244 . . 985 672 . . 3,223 2,814

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY AND BEES Communities in which work was conducted ...................... : ........ . Result demonstrations conducted ............................................... . Meetings held ................................................................................... . News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . Farm or home visits made Office calls received ....................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled ........................................................... . 4-H Club members completing ..................................................... . Number chickens raised ................................................................. . Number colonies of bees ............................................................... . Families following improved practices in poultry raising ... . Families following improved practices-bees ......................... . 706 1,943 1,223 588 3,565 10,119 1,965 1,121 40,283 258 . 12,008 1,198 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ................................. : ............... . l\lleetings held ................................................................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ................. . Farm or home visits ma:de ............................................................. . Office calls received ......................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled ..................• ...................................... . 4-H Club_ members completing ..................................................... . Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing .................................................................................... .... . Farmers obtaining better breeding stock ................................. . Farmers using other improved live stock practices ............... . AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Communities in which work was conducted .................... : .......... . Result• demonstrations conducted ............................................... . Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued ............... . Home or farm visits made ........................................................... . Office calls received ....................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled 4-H Club members completing ..................................................... . Farmers keeping account and cost records ............................... . Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts ................... . Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ....... . Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year Farmers making business changes resulting from economic 1,220 1,364 1,070 856 10,685 31,421 1,489 688 1,120 2,275 28,862 1,739 1,112 1,363 1,482 6,296 83,432 1,722 1,622 2,454 747 4,304 112 surveys ........................................................................................ 75,659 Families assisted in getting established .................................... 1,134 Marketing groups organized or assisted .................................... 90 Individuals affected by marketing 'program .............................. 11,089 Organizations assisted with problems ........................................ 392 Individuals assisted with problems .............................................. 7,766 Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted .... $2,606,425.47 Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) $3,723,903.36 Value of supplies purchased-all associations .......................... $ 982,045.3;1. Value of supplies. purchased by individuals ................................ $ 223,734.24 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted ............................. . Result demonstrations conducted ............................................... . Meeting~_ held ............................................................................... , ... . News sto-ries published and circular letters issued ............... , .. Farm or home visits made ............................................................. . Office calls:received ......................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled ........................................................... . 994 8,708 3,872 1,086 4,225 10,563 8,534

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Annual Report, 1936 4-H Club members completing .............................. . ..................... 5,896 Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 218,870 Families adopting better practices as to foods ........................ 13,050 Schools following recommendations for school lunch .............. 91 Children in schools following lunch recommendations ............ 21,187 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ........ 2,131,187 alue of all products canned or otherwise preserved ... : .......... $ 401,749.61 amilies readjusting family food supply . ................................... 5,330 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION ommunities in which work was conducted ...... .... ........... . ....... . esult demonstrations conducted ............ ... ......... . ........... . : . .. ...... . eetings held .. .. . . : . ........... .. ......... . . . . . ......... .. ........... . . ...... ... . . . . .. .. . . .. . . ews stories published and circular letters issued ......... ..... .. . . arm or home visits made ............ . ............... . ............ . ......... . . .. . . .... . ffice calls received ........... . ........... .. ......... .... .. .... .......... ... ..... .... . . ..... . -H Club members enrolled ......... ... ............ . ............. . ........ .... : ..... . -H Club members completing . .. . .. ........... . ............. . ......... ...... . . .... . dditional 4-H club members participating ........ .. ............ .. ..... . amilies following child-development plans ... . . . . .. .. . . . ..... . ... .... . ifferent individuals participating in child-development pro~ gram .. .. ........ ..... .............. . ........ . .............. .. .. .. ........ . ........... .. ....... . hildren involved in child-development program ........... . ....... : CLOTHING ommunities in which work was conducted ...... . .. .. ....... ..... .... . esult demonstrations conducted .... ... . ... ... . .. ...... . ... .. .................. . eetings held ...... ... ........... . . ... ......... ..... ...... ... ............. .... ...... ........ .... . ews stories published and circular letters issued ........ ...... ... . arm or home visits made ......... .. ............. . .......... . . ... .......... . ........ . ce calls received ...... . .............. . ........... . ........... .. ... . . ... .. . .... . . ... . . .... . -H Club members enrolled ....................... .. .... . ....... . ..................... . -H Club members completing .... .. .......... .. .......................... ..... .... . rticles made by 4-H club members completing .. ... ....... ... ...... . dividuals following better clothing practices . . .. . ..... . .. . . .... .... . amilies assisted in determining how best to meet clothing requirements ...................................................... .. ..................... . avings due to clothing program ............. . .................................. $ 182 805 359 76 355 787 512 492 220 1,768 2,275 17,891 537 2,872 2,592 366 1,629 3,667 7,945 5,820 44,542 18,165 2,603 58,254.05 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS ommunities in which work was conducted ....... .... ......... ...... ... . esult demonstrations conducted ..... . ........ ..... .. .. ... .. . .. . .... ...... . ... . . eetings held ..... .... ........................ .. ............ .. .......... . ... . ........ . . ... ...... . ews stories published and circular letters issued ..... . ......... . arm or home visits made ......... .. .. . ........ .. ......... . ..... .. .. . ..... .. ........ . ce calls received ......... ..... ......... ... .. . . . ......... . .. , ..... . . .. . ..... .... ...... .... . H Club members enrolled ......... .. ......... ..... ......... . ...................... . H Club members completing ..... . ......... .. ............ ... .. .. ...... . . . . . ...... . ojects conducted by 4-H club members completing .. .... ..... . milies following better home-management practices ... .... . timated savings due to home-management program ..... ..... $ milies improving household furnishing ........... .. , .......... .... ..... . vings due to house-furnishings program ........ . .............. ... ... .. . $ milies following handicraft practices . . .. ........... .. .......... . . ..... . . HOME HEALTH ANDSANITATION 1,046 5,877 2,140 347 2,005 3,909 4,066 3,218 20,986 14,682 28,382.50 9,970 27,297.56 3,161 mmunities in which work was conducted . .. ....... . ....... . . . ......... 371 suit demonstrations conducted ............. . ....................... . . .. ....... 1,650 etings held ...... ... ........... .. ............ . , . .. ......... . . .. ....... . .. ........ ..... ....... .. 578 ws stories published and circular letters issued .. .... .. .. .. ...... 112 17

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension Farm or home visits made ........................................................... . Office calls received ........................ , .............................................. . 4-H Club members enrolled ........................................................... . 4-H Club members completing ..................................................... . Additional 4-H club members participating ........................... : .. Individuals having health examination ..................................... . Individuals adopting health measures ....................................... . Families adopting health measures ........... , ............................... . 995 2,368 1,899 2,071 3,594 4,255 11,628 3,693 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Communities in which work was conducted ........................... . Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ............... Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen ................................................................................. . Meetings held ................................................................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ................. . Farm or home visits made ........................................................... . Office calls received ......................................................................... . Communities assisted with community problems ................... . Country life conferences ............................................................... . Families following recommendations as to home recreation 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ........................... . Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other relief agency ................................................................... . 781 644 1,443.5 1,104 1,265 2,456 5,638 1,030 98 1,952 267 612

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Annual Report, 1936 . PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO J. Francis Cooper, Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor 19 Informational work reflected and supplemented practically all activities of the Agricultural Extension Service during the year. County and home ,demonstration agents utilized facilities at hand, such as radio stations, news papers, circular letters, posters, moving pictures, and other vehicles in mak ing noteworthy accomplishments along these lines. The state Editorial Office printed and di s tributed bulletins and other supplies needed by the agents and prepared and distributed hundreds of news and radio releases containing reports of progress and suggestions for better farming and home making. It is but natural that considerable attention was paid to the important national agricultural conservation program as conducted in Florida. This set-up touched the entire agricultural area of the state, and consequently was of more widespread interest than the old agricultural adjustment program-. BULLETINS AND SUPPLIES PRINTED AND DISTRIBUTED Subject matter material printed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1936, included four new bulletins and two old ones reprinted, four new cir culars and one reprint, the Annual Report for 1935, a 1936 educational Calendar, the 1936 outlook report, final report of the Florida National Egg aying Contest, and two folders on Florida's egg quality program .c... sug~ estions for consumers and producers. Although the Extension Service does not print as many bulletins as ight be desired, the total outlined above is a considerable increase over receding years. New bulletins amounted to 196 pages of printed material, nd a total of 64,000 copies were issued. New circulars comprised 28 pages, ith 33,000 copies printed. Record books, wall cards, covers for mimeographed studies, ni.onthly eport blanks, short course programs, work sheet and other materials con tituted the supplies printed. Following is a list of materials edited and rinted under the supervision of the Editorial Office. ul. 81. til. 82. ul. 83. ill. 84. ul. 55. ul. 65. 38. 39. 40. 41. 33. Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm .. . .... . ...... .. Feeding for Milk Production . ... .. . .. ...... :: .. .... .......... ...... . Pages 40 40 64 72 12 20 Pickles and Relishes . . . . .... . . . . .. .... ......... .. .. . . ....... . . . ... . ...... . Native and Exotic Palms of Florida ..... . .. . ............... .. Rejuvenating Furniture (reprint) . . ...... . ................... .. Club Work and the Farm Boy (reprint) ................. . Questions on the Dining Room to Make You Think Questions on Bedrooms to Make You Think ........... . Making and Using Sauerkraut . ..... ..... . ....................... . Cotton Rat Control' .......... . ........ .. ........... .. .................. .. The Canning Budget (reprint) .... .. ... ....................... .. Annual Report, 1935 . .. ... .. ...... ....... .... .. .. . .................. .. . Calendar, 1936 .. .. ...... . ....... . ...... .. . .... .. ... ........... .. .......... .. 4 8 8 8 6 104 . P. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint) . . ...... . .. . ...... .. 12 12 12 40 . P. 10. Livestock Club Record Book .. .. .... .. . ........ ... . .. .. . ......... . . P. 11. The Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1936 .. . . .. . ... .. . P. 12. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for the Consumer .. . ..... . . . ... .... ..... . . , ..... . . . . ... ..... .. ..... .. ... . .. .. 8 Edition 12,000 20,000 20,000 12,000 7,500 15,000 7,500 7,500 12,500 5,000 15,000 2,000 11,500 15,000 6,000 3,000 25,000

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20 Florida Cooperati v e Extension M. P. 13. Florida's Egg Quality Program-Suggestions for the Producer . ... .. . ............ .. .. ... .. . ................... ... . ......... . 8 12,000 M. P. 14. Boy's Agricultural Club Secretary's Record Book Screw worm fly placard . . .. . . . . . .......... .. . ...... ..... .. ..... . .. . 20 1,500 1 12,000 Final Report, Ninth Florida National Egg Laying Contest ..... . .... . ...... . . . . ......... . . . .. . . ... . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . ........ . .. . . .. . 20 1,500 Announcement and Rules; Eleventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . .. .............. ... .. .. .. . . . . 6 1,500 Cover for mimeograph, Florida Citrus Costs and Returns .. . ... ... .. . . . . ... . . .......... .. . . . . . ...... . . . .. . . ...... .. . . . . .. ...... . . Form 5. Monthly Report Blank (for use by agents) .. . ....... . . 4 2,000 2 17,50 . 0 Program, 20th Annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Cour s e Chick Mortality Records cards . . .. . . . .... . .. . .. ... . : . . . . .. ... . . . 12 50 1 1,00 -Requirements and Records of Home Improvement for 4-H Club Girls . .......... . .. .. . ...... .. .. ............ . .. .. .... .. . . 12 10,00 Form S. R. 1. 1936 Soil Conservation Program Work Sheet 1 25,00 FARM NEWS SERVICE Farm news and informational articles were supplied to weekly an daily newspapers and farm papers in increasing quantity during the year The clipsheet, direct mailings, and press agencies were utilized in distribut ing news to the newspapers, and these papers were generous in the us of the material. A considerable increase in interest in farm news durin the year was noted, the agencies and papers requesting more and mor from this office and from agents in the counties. The weekly clipsheet, Agri c ultural News Service , continued to be th vehicle through which weeklies and semi weeklies were served. It ha s no been running for 20 years, and is an established institution among th Florida Pre s s. It carried from eight to 12 separate articles each wee and these concerned the Extension ServiceJExperiment Station, College o Agriculture, State Plant Board, or related agency. Dozen s of special releases were su pplied to the dailies, through direc mailings from the Editorial Office and through both mail and wire servic of the Associated Press. Both these and the clipsheet articles were wide! printed, and served to carry information regularly to r e aders : Farm papers continued to print larger numbers of articles from the A ricultural Extension Service. The Editors themselves prepared 55 differe . articles amounting to 1,096 column inches which 'were printed in 10 far magazines. Probably more than this amount written by various o ther me hers of the staff and submitted by the Editors was printed also. Florid pape:r;s reque s ted and were supplied large numbers of articles based on radi talks made during the Florida Farm Hour over WRUF. Records show that material 'prepared by the Editors was used as folio during the year endh1g November 30, 1936: Five Florida papers print 37 . articles amounting to 858 column . inches; one Southern journal took articles for 134 inches; and four national magazines used eight articl amounting to 104 inch es . FARM RADIO SERVICE Radio is assuming a place of wider and wider importance in the educ tional field, and farm programs are among the most popuiar information programs in Florida. The Florida Farm Hour . over WRUF . e ach . week day noon i s the principal radio activity of this office, but farm flashes a special programs over other stations blanket the entire s tate with far information. Florida Farm Hour: This program was on the air each week day from to 1 p.m. Approximately one-half of the hour w3:s : . devoted t /r music and t

PAGE 22

Annual Report, 1936 21 ther half to talking, with three or more speeches going on the air each ay. Weather and market reports daily rendered additional service to isteners. Regular features presented by the editors included a review of farm ews highlights daily for 312 days, and radio's weekly farm newspaper for 1 weeks, and the farm question box for 51 weeks. Staff members and thers, presented a total of 434 talks during the year. Of these the Editors repared and delivered 19. Farm flashes from the USDA were read 106 imes. Thus the grand total of talks on the Florida Farm Hour during he year amounted to 954. The Editors arranged the programs for this hour and supervised them aily. Speakers included workers of the Experiment Station, Extension ervice, State Plant Board, College of Agriculture, Department of Soci logy, Pharmacy School, State Department of Agriculture, State Forest ervice, State Marketing Bureau, State Health De partment, club boys arid iris, students, farmers, county agents, and others. Special musical pro rams were rendered by Choral Club of the College of Agriculture, Bill ryan of WRUF staff, and others. Special programs, such as for the Beef Cattle Field Day on March 27, oys' Club Short Course, Negro 4-H club program, and others, were arranged ring the year. Farm Flashes: This office continued to cooperate with the United States epartment of Agriculture in distributing farm flash programs to com ercial radio stations throughout Florida . Enough material for 7 to 8 inutes each day for five days in the week was sent to radio stations located Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Orlando, and Miami. During the first part of e year they were sent also to Pensacola, (discontinued in June), and he nning later in the year they went to Lakeland (May) and West Palm each (September). Similar material was supplied to a station in St. tersburg, but was used only once a week. In most cases county and home demonstration agents assisted in selec on and presentation of the flashes. The USDA supplied this office with daily flashes, but due to the fact at most of Florida's agriculture is highly specialized, many of these were placed with more adapted material prepared in this office. On 39 ocea ns it was necessary to send two different sets of flashes, and on one three ts, t~ assure that material would be suitable for all stations. Other Radio Work: Florida participated in the National 4-H Club hievement Day program the first Saturday in November, as usual. Three C stations carried this program of which 30 minutes came from Washgton and 30 minutes from each local station. This office arranged the al programs. The Land Grant College program of the National Farm and Home Hour s broadcast from the University of Florida on September 16, and this ice rendered some assistance in arrangements. A special 4-H club broadcast was staged from a Tallahassee station ring the 4-H Girls' Short Course at State College for Women in June. MISCELLANEOUS WORK Cooperation was rendered various units of the Unitea States Department Agriculture, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil nservation Service, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and RaService. The Editors assisted with informational material for the pro ed marketinf agreement with citrus, which was later adopted. Con erable help was given in the screw . worm control campaign conducted

PAGE 23

22 Florida Cooperative Extension cooperatively by the Extension .Service and the Bureau of Entomolog and Plant Quarantine. Bulletins and other materials and supplies were distributed from t Mailing Room, and mimeographing work for the entire organization w
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Annual Report, 1936 PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader H. G. Clayton, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent 23 The past year has been one of progress, with increasing demands made all branches of the service. There were 57 counties cooperating in the rk, the largest number ever directly interested. Of these, 54 had county ents and 38 home demonstration agents. The program as carried out in counties by Extension agents varies to ide extent and is dependent on the prevailing types of agriculture. Pro ams in the counties are necessarily governed by prevailing sources of ome and these are in turn governed by soil types, marketing facilities, ps grown, etc. At the beginning of 1936 the agricultural adjustment program was panded to deal with all phases of Florida agriculture. This has extended activities of agents in the sub-tropical areas. Response to the soil con vation program in areas not affected by the original program has ex ded expectations. The supervision of Extension work in the counties has been modified that the work must now be handled with groups of people and to a lesser ent with individuals. PERSONNEL AND SUPERVISION There has been no material change in the organization during the year. signations; transfers and appointments were slightly more numerous n usual. As far as permitted by funds for the purpose from the AAA, istant agents have been appointed to supervise office work, assist with icultural conservation activities, and aid the agents with 4-H club work. New agents and assistants appointed have been college graduates, most them from the University of Florida College of Agriculture. Of the 55 nt s and assistants working at the end of the year, 35 were Florida duates and 13 from other institutions. No special provision was made for fessional improvement of agents, aside from personal contacts with earch and other workers at the University of Florida. County office and field equipment remains inadequate, but the s ituation eing gradually improved. Materials su pplied by the Agricultural Ad tment Administration for use in the agricultural conservation program Hing a pressing need in many counties. Clerical service in county offices also is still limited. Approximately agents are supplied with stenographers from county funds. Necessary ks and stenographers conducting agricultural conservation work assist terially in routine details of the offices , and keep offices open whiie nts are in the , field . To obtain better supervision and more assistance in subject matter, cialists have been given some sup e rvisory duties, and in some cases rict agents have rendered subject matter assistance. This has worked to advantage.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension DETERMINING COUNTY PROGRAMS Data available are used by district supervisors and specialists in settin up county programs. These data are compiled by the Economics sectio and taken from outlook reports and United States Census reports. In area of limited agriculture 'programs cannot well be fully determined fro such data, since the information is incomplete. In such cases the distric and county agents outline their programs and are governed by condition existing locally, using materials prepared by subject matter specialist of the college and experiment station. County committeemen play an important part .in shaping program County planning councils have contributed to the improvement of program and have given moral support to the work. COOPERATION WITH STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES Other agencies having had cooperation of the Extension Service to th fullest extent possible include the following: Agricultural Adjustment Administration, in closing out its 1935 cro control work and in conducting the agricultural conservation program i this State. By cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantin an intensive campaign has been carried through to reduce damage by th screw worm in all livestock counties of Florida. County agents' offices hav been headquarters for the county screw worm control supervisors a'ppointe by the federal bureau. The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Department Agriculture; the State Live Stock Sanitary Board; Florida Milk Inspectio Service; Florida State Marketing Bureau; Vocational Agriculture Teacher working under the supervision of the Department of Education; Sta Board of Health; Farm Debt Adjustment Commission; Rural Rehabilit tion Administration; Soil Erosion Project, located at Graceville, Florid Florida Citrus Commission; the Citrus Control Board, operated in cooper tion with the Florida Citrus Commission. In addition, the Extension Service has had a close working cooperati agreement with the State Plant Board and other regulatory institutio affecting agriculture. PLANNING COUNCILS This service has featured the organization of planning councils in organized effort to encourage rural people to make plans and recommend tio:ns governing their farming operations that can be approved in sta and federal programs. This program was sponsored by the Agricultur Adjustment Administration. These councils were organized under the leadership of Extension agen and were composed of men and women who operate farms and live in rur eommunities. Committees were selected to represent principal commoditi in each county. Representatives of civic clubs, school boards, boards eounty commissioners, vocational agriculture teachers, and individu farmers and farm women directly concerned with the business of t farming communities participated. ' County and home agents directed the county . planning councils a through their offices the councils functioned. The main purpose of the councils was to study economic data pe taining to Agricultural enterprises and to develop an appropriate agric tural program fitting in the respective communities. These councils ha

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Annual Report, 1936 25 erved more effe<:tively in some areas than in others, due largely to leader hip interested in the purpose and outcome of the improvement. These ouncils serve as advisory committees to the county and home agents in haping their future programs and with the Extension Service to foster uch programs as will promote the welfare of the community as a whole. PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS A few of the major activities of the year may be summarize _ d as follows: 1. Cooperation with the producers of citrus fruit for the purpose of educing cost of production and setting up a better system of fertilization. 2. Increased . shipments of veal calves to Eastern markets. This provides n additional outlet available to the range cattle owners of Florida. 3. Improvement in handling range grazing lands by mowing to keep own weeds and permit succulent growth of grass. 4. Poultry sanitation and improvement in quality and marketing. 5. More diversity in farm crops for sa'.e, particularly in cotton grow g areas; especially of livestock, poultry, small fruits and vegetables for cal consumption. 6. Greater community consciousness and cooperation. This paves the ay for constructive work in the future and will simplify carrying out the mmunity and county programs. 7. Home demonstration agents have been able to direct a program at has incre::ised the incomes of farm homes. This has been carried out rough the sale of local products, poultry in particular, home-made articles, iry products, flowers, and the conservation of fruits and vegetables that ve been grown for home use arid sold locally. 8. Improved facilities for conducting 4-H camps. While this has been der the direction of the 4-H club agents, funds necessary to carry out ch a program have been provided by local interests, with the assistance projects fostered by the federal government. 9. An effective program for the control of screw worms has resulted a definite reduction in infestations. For handling this work, a state ap opriation made available to the Extension Service was used cooperatively th a similar appropriation from the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and ant Quarantine. The educational program carried out has contacted prac ally every livestock owner, with the definite result that stockmen and rmers are now in a position to control screw worm infestations in the ture. 10. A special drive was conducted in 17 northern and western Florida unties to increase plantings of winter legumes. Farmers in these 17 nties secured through cooperative purchase 111,450 pounds of vetch d Austrian pea seed. This was planted on 3,787 acres. Sea Island Cotton: A decided effort on the part of farmers to promote ewed Sea Island cotton production was made. By cooperation with the periment Station and the Cotton Section of the U. S. Bureau of Plant ustry, a definite effort was made to secure a supply of seed suited to s area and to encourage the control of boll weevil and other factors portant in the growing of Sea Island cotton. In this effort to renew the a Island cotton industry, the Federal Bureau and the Experiment Station d the Extension Service are cooperatingto safeguard the important tures of the program that would determine its success or failure. Corn Demonstrations: County agents have conducted 92 corn fertiliza n demonstrations and 88 variety demonstrations. Approximately 4,000

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension acres of corn were selected as demonstration areas in which winter legum were used for soil-building purposes. Corn yields in northern and weste Florida have been consistently low. Therefore, cover crops and soil-buil ing practices have entered largely into methods recommended for increas yields. Varieties selected have been recommended by the Agronomy Depa ment of the Experiment Station, which has determined by test varieti best suited to the various soil types of this state. The growing of corn in central and southern Florida has also been project for 4-H club boys and in many instances the yields have been rel tively high. But field corn is of secondary importance in that area. Peanuts: The Extension Service has encouraged thicker planting peanuts. This practice has enabled growers to increase yields. Demonstr tions under the direction of county agents have been carried out principal in the Jackson County commercial 'peanut area. Extension agents have recommended that peanuts be interplanted wi corn, since this interferes to a very small extent with the corn and p vides an additional crop with relatively small additional expenses. Repo show that 210,000 acres were interplanted with corn and peanuts in 19 in areas where this program was encouraged by the county agents. There is a direct relationship between peanut production and hog p duction, Improved market conditions for livestock have resulted in a cided increase of marketable hogs during 1936. Most of these hogs we fed out in the area best suited to 'peanut production, consequently the p nut crop is encouraged as a source of fattening for livestock, and cou agents have included that in their program as a direct source of reven to farmers. Feed and Pastures: Feed and pasture work enters into general farmi practices and crop rotation. With increased interest in livestock because better markets, the Extension Service has continued the program of p ture and feed improvement. A larger acreage than usual has been gro during 1936. Studies are being made of the adaptability of grasses and forage er for feed and soil improvement. Particular attention has been given to er that can be -used for silage--corn, sorghum, sugarcane-and to a les extent the ordinary legumes. Agents have helped to introduce new variet of sugarcane suitable for silage purposes, since cane produces a lar tonnage than either soybeans or corn, particularly on light sandy so There has been increased interest in finishing cattle in feed lots which quires a liberal supply of forage crops. These varieties of cane conver into silage have pointed the way to supply the necessary feed for winter feeding of cattle. Attention is also given to the planting of small grains for win grazing and to a limited extent to supply grain for livestock. County agents have conducted demonstrations for pasture lots, rec mending grasses suitable for grazing work stock in preference to keep these animals in dry lots. County agents have conducted 19 demonstrations to determine meth for the improvement of pastures. Tobacco: . Since flue-cured tobacco has been an important cash c much interest is centered in this crop in 10 North Florida counties. Pr tices for growing tobacco having been fairly well established according to best information available. Efforts have been made to hold production line with consumption needs. Stress has been placed on methods of fertili tion and curing that will produce best quality. By growing legumes and lowing soil improvement practices, yields can be increased, but the qua is impaired.

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Annual Report, 1936 27 Citrus Demonstrations: This program involves special practices dealing ith production, quality and costs. The increased production of citrus has suited in lower prices to producers and an important part of the program, erefore, has been to reduce costs. The program as carried out by the unty agents has for its purpose primarily demonstrations in reducing sts of fertilization and cultivation and in some instances the abandonment groves so situated as to make them unprofitable regardless of method of ndling. Much interest has been centered on fertilizer applications, particularly th grapefruit and tangerines, when returns to growers have been below oduction costs. In these cases growers are being guided by cost studies nducted by the Economics Division. Growers are advised as to costs of eir operations and receive recommendations governing fertilization, cover ps, cultural practices, disease and insect control-all of which enter into oduction costs. The Agricultural Conservation program this year was applicable to the rus area. It encouraged the planting of cover crops such as crotalaria, ggarweed and native grasses and the best uses for these to improve ality and production in the groves. Vegetable Demonstrations: This program applies particularly to cen1 and southern Florida and to home gardens in the general farming area d to the market gardens adjacent to the larger cities. The Extension gram in vegetable production has dealt largely with cover crops and soil provement practices and summer cropping to grasses or legumes for soil provement. It has also taken into consideration cooperative marketing vegetables in the large producing areas. An attempt was made to establish market agreements for vegetable strawberry growers but on account of the many interests involved in h a 'program this -effort did not meet with general approval and was put into effect except in a very limited way. County agents are watching results of tests made by the Experiment tion to determine varieties, dates of planting and packages. The usual ention to home gardens entering into the live-at-home program has been en by county and home agents in all sections of this State. For the past 10 years. the commercial vegetable areas. have had a ten cy to shift to central and southern Florida territory, but in particular the Everglades. This calls for a program of greater diversification in vegetable growing areas of central and northern Florida. Marketing ters to supply vegetables to trucks, established by the State Department Agriculture, have met with favorable response. Extension agents have ommended 'planting dates, varieties and soil types for vegetables to ply the trucks. Cooperative Sales and Purchases: The Surplus Commodity Corporation the Agricultural Adjustment Administration purchased 67,797 gallons ugarcane syrup, returning $23,293 to a relatively small group of farmers northern and western Florida. Extension agents located this surplus up for which there was no local demand, helped assemble it at car-lot ing points, inspected it for quality, certified to the shipments and con ed it to the Surplus Commodity Corporation according to their instrucs. A canvas was made as to the possibility of buying for the same cor ation any surplus sweet potatoes, pears, corn and hay that the farmers ht have on hand. However, it was determined that the quantity of e surpluses was not sufficient to warrant the collection of car-lot ship ts.

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension The county agents in this area were able to pool orders for farmers fo the purchase of seeds, containers, cooperative purchase of dairy and be cattle, principally breeding stock, feeder pigs, hogs and poultry for bree ing stock and the use of 4-H club members. The total value of these pr ducts can only be estimated because of the variety of conditions und which tihey were purchased and because of the number of persons partic pating. These cooperative purchases in 1936 exceeded $2,000,000. Cooperative Hog Sales: In every important hog-producing area t county agents have conducted cooperative hog sales. For the most pa these were the first cooperative hog sales in several years. In the pean growing area of northern and western Florida, where the sales ha been especially successful, the county agents have secured the suppo of farmers and hogs sold have exceeded in number and value those so in any other recent year, and have returned to the farmers more mon and profit than any other crop or kind of livestock. This cooperative mov ment has not only improved the price, because of the greater number buyers, hut has ' presented an opportunity for an improved quality of ho and feeding methods which will establish hog production on a better bas for the future and will further encourage livestock management and feedi practices that are intended to result in larger returns to farmers. Cooperative sales have also extended to poultry, eggs, and turkeys. this the Extension Service has a working cooperative program with t State Marketing Bureau. Sweet Potato Weevil Control: In Gadsden County it was determined th a number of ifields were infested with sweet potato weevils . Th~ coun agent interviewed the State Plant Board as to methods farmers sho adopt for control or eradication of the pest. This effort resulted in arousi the interest of sweet potato growers in that section to follow practi that were intended to eliminate weevils by destroying all sweet pot plants on the farms that had been infested and securing 'plants from be where sweet potato weevils did not exist. These plant beds were arrang for by the . county agent and farmers were provided with the necessa stock, so that purpose of the program could be effectively carried o In this the Board of County Commissioners and the State Pfant Boa-rd operated throughout the entire season with the result that there was pr ticaJly complete eradication on most of the farms of that area. The county agent secured signed agreements from farmers and inspector from the State Plant Board visited the fields, potato banks a seed beds to determine the amount, if any, of sweet potato weevils t could be found. By this method it is hoped that farmers can prod ample sweet potatoes in the future for local needs and markets by observi the precautions to keep their places free from sweet potato weevils. The labor for handling this was supplied by the W. P. A., which f nished funds for managing the sweet potato beds and inspection of properties. About 25,000 bushels of sweet potatoes were grown under supervision of the county agent to fulfill a promise to farmers that th would be a supply of seed and planting stock for future planting. A rec inspection shows that only two known infestations have occurred in t area. This indicates a very definite clean-up in Gadsden County . Educational Meetings: On account of the Agricultural Adjustment p gram, there has been an increased interest in agriculture generally. The tension Service , through the county agents and supervisory staff, has c ducted farmers' meetings in practically every community in Florida dur the past year." In the general farming area the interest was centered aro the soil conservation program, since it involved practices that must

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Annual Report, 1936 29 nderstood by the farmers that they might participate to the full extent of ayments made available to them because of this program. Coupled with his were the usual Extension activity programs. Greatest interest was entered around the following subjects: Soil conservation; cover crQp prac ices; beef cattle purchases for breeding purposes; feeds and silo construc ion; milk sales as affecting producer returns; citrus program for cost re uction and better fruit campaigns; 4-H club work; cooperative organiza ions and commodity production involving minor commodities affecting farm come.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAM H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Soil Conservation Com:m:ittee On February 29, 1936, the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotmen Act was approved by the President to replace the adjustment program which operated in 1934 and 1935. Under this program the United States was divided into five regions fo administrative purposes. Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkan sas, Texas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and South Carolina constitute the Souther Region. This program is handled within the State under tihe administration o the Director of the Agricultural Extension Service. A State Agricultura Conservation Committee was designated by the Director of Extension an consisted of W. B. Anderson of Greenwood, Jackson County, farmer; JamEo J. Love of Quincy, Gadsden County, farmer; Ralph B. Chapman of Sanfor Seminole County, farmer; and H. G. Clayton, District Agent of the Agri cultural Extension Service of Gainesville, as Chairman and Assistant Ad ministrative Officer. A state office was set up in Gainesville in the Experiment Statio building to handle the program. In each county the county agent, assiste by a county committee of three farmers, together with community commi teemen and necessary clerical help, handles the program locally. Distri agents of the Extension Service have direct supervision over this progra as well as the regular Extension work. Main provisions of the program are: (1) To improve the land by adop ing and putting into operation soil building practices on crop land; (2 to divert acreage from certain soil-depleting crops such as cotton, tobacc peanuts and general crops to soil-conserving crops for the purpose of i proving land and to improve prices by thus reducing surpluses and the tot supply in iine with demand conditions; and (3) to improve net farm i come in line with income of 'persons not on farms, due regard being giv to maintaining a continuous and stable supply of agricultural oommoditi adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers a consumers. HOW THE PROGRAM WAS HANDLED Each producer who participated in the program executed a work she covering his farm and in Wlhich was set forth basic information regardi the crop history and production of the farm. The committeemen, coun agent and county clerical help assisted producers in filling out the wo sheets. The County Committee then studied the work sheets of the individu producers and made such adjustments as necessary to get these on a co parable basis and in line with county quotas of acreage and producti established by the Secretary. The state office tabulated and worked out a county analysis or the wo sheets from each county in accordance with procedure prescribed by t Secretary in order to determine the percentage of the county quota to whi the work sheet signers were entitled. To assist the county agents and the county committees, assista in soil conservation were appointed in 14 counties where assistance w most needed. After the work sheets were all in, compliance was secured on each fa upon which a work sheet was filed. Compliance consisted of measuring t soil-depleting crops and conserving acreage for which payment was to made. The total crop land, as well as idle land and waste land, was mapp

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Fig. 1.-Realizing that the soil i s fundamental to successful agriculture, and is the basis of all li fe, Florida farmers, e n couraged by Extension agents, are saving their soi l s. Above, running terraces is easy for these farmers _ who hav e attended a terracing school. Left below, terrace s will prevent washing such as this. Right below, two pie ces of an old saw blade attached to the moldboard enable a farmer with one horse to plow a good terrace.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension Following com pliance an application for grant was submitted by the pr ducer and this application was checked and approved by the coniplian supervisor, the . county committee and the county agent. , The applications were forwarded to the State office in Gainesville f review, computations of payments, vouchering and certification to t General Accounting Office located at Athens, Georgia. Here the doc ments were audited and approved for payment. The Disbursing Office f this region is located at Atlanta, and the individual checks are writtep, Atlanta. The checks are mailed in lots to the respective county ag en who have charge of the distribution to 'producers and the securing receipts for tihe individual producers. In 1936, 23,518 work sheets were submitted and it is estimated th application for grant will be filed by 22,000 of these producers. The tot payments will approximate $950,000. The work sheets covered appro mately 75% of all the crop land in the state. On farms where there are tenants or share-croppers the total payme to the farm is divided as follows. The class I 'payment for diverting acrea from soil-depleting crops to soil-conserving crops is divided as follows: 37 % to the producer who furnishes the land. 121/2% to the producer who furnishes work stock and equipment. 50% is divided as the crop was divided. The class II payment for putting into operation on the farm soil buildi practice is paid to the producer who incurred the expense in carryi out these practices, except that if two or more producers incurred t expense the payment is divided equally among them. On tobacco farms p vision was made whereby a different diversion of the class I payment co _,, be made. In all applications the names and shares of the interested persons set forth and a separate check is issued to each person. In handling a program of this kind a great deal of educational w is required. Group meetings of county agents; assi _ stants in conservati TABLE 1.-STATE SUMMARY OF PAYMENTS TO PRODUCERS UNDER AGRIC TURAL ADJUSTMENT PR0GJAMS JULY 1, 1933, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1936. Program Cotton, Rental and Benefit Payments ........ . .. ... ................ .. Tobacco, Rental and Benefit Payments ..... .... .. .. ..... ... . .. ... . Corn and Hogs, Rental and Benefit Payments ........ . .. .. . . . Sugar, Rental and Benefit Payments ............................ ..... . Peanuts, Rental and Benefit Payments ........................ , .. . Bankhead Pool (Cotton) Sale of Certificates .............. . . .. .. Cotton Options-from sale of options ....... .. ..... . ..... ........ . . Cotton Participation-from Trust Certificates .............. . . Cotton Price Adjustment Payments ............................ ..... . Cotton Ginners Adjustment Payments ........................... . Sub-total . ........... . .. .. .............. .. . . ............ . . .. ................. . . . .. , Amount $ 848,081.36 510,907.94 478,449.59 1,449,376.14 110,708.29 18,211.92 18,963.90 84,490.00 128,967.18 6,474.75 $3,654,631.07 Cane Syrup Benefit Payments ... .. ................. .. ................. . .. .. 1 . :3•~~9.93 _ Total I I . . . .. ............. .. ..... ... ......... . ..... . ....... .. ....... . . . ......... . . .. .. .. . ! I $3,678,221.00 _ I

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Annual Report, 1936 33 nd committeemen pursue study of the regulations and prov1s1ons of the rogram in order that a clear understanding is had by the persons respon ible for handling the program locally . These persons in turn with assist nee from the state office conduct community and county meetings of roducers to acquaint them with the program. Contacts and conferences are also had by the state leaders of the program vith the Washington office and with leaders from other states in order o adapt the program to conditions within the several states. Table 1 gives a summary of payments received by Florida farmers ince the Agricultural Adjustment Act took effect in the summer of 1933. 1935 COTTON PRICE ADJUST.MENT PLAN . The objective of this plan was to assure producers, insofar as possible, return of 12 cents per . pound, basis 3/s-inch middling, for their 1935 otton crop sold prior to August 1, 1936. This plan was to replace the 10 and 2 cent cotton loan programs of 1933 and 1934. Producers eligible to participate in the benefits of the plan were those ersons by or for whom cotton was produced in 1935. The adjustment ayment per pound to each eligible producer making application was the mount per pound by which the official average 'price of %-inch middling ot cotton on the 10 designated spot cotton . markets was below 12 cents r pound on the date of sale of the eligible cotton, but in no case could e payment per pound exceed 2 cents. In case a producer had cotton under e 1935 10 cent Joan, and had not sold this cotton prior to August 1, 1936, e rate of the cotton price adjustment payment on such cotton would be e difference between the average of the designated spot markets on this te and 12 cents. Lint cotton not in excess of the 'producer's 1935 allotment of tax-exempt tton under the Bankhead Act, was eligible for the price adjustment pay ent, except in cases where some eligible producers on a farm produced ss than their allotment, then the farm production up to the full allot ent was eligible cotton and producers on the farm were permitted to ceive payment pro-rata on any excess production up to the total farm lotment. The producer who made the Bankhead application or his successor ade the application for the cotton price adjustment payment. If there was ore than one person on the farm interested in the cotton price adjustment yment, the applicant acted as trustee in such cases to . properly distribute e proceeds of the payment to these persons and secure a receipt for paynt from each such person. Share-tenants and share-croppers received eir part of the payment to the farm based upon their interest in the crop. Funds to meet the expenses of the plan were appropriated by Congress. The general procedure in handling the program was as follows; The producer when he sold cotton would secure from the purchaser a es certificate. A separate form was made out for each different day's es. On this the name of purchaser, name of seller, date of sale and unds of lint sold were indicated. At the time <;>f filing his application for yment with the county agent the producer executed the form -and attached sales certificates. The county committee reviewed the applications and hheld any poundage in excess of the producer's Bankhead allotment of -exempt cotton. Applications were transmitted from the county offices to the state of e. Here the papers were checked for correctness and certified for pay nt. Vouchers were prepared for the certified applications and these were arded to the Athens Branch of the General Accounting Office for audit. 2

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension After audit the vouchers were sent to the Atlanta Regional Disbursing office for checks to be issued. Checks were sent direct from Atlanta to the county agents for delivery to pioducers. The producer signed a receipt fo i! his check , and in case there was more than one person interested in th check the ' applicant signed a trustee agreement for proper handling of th proceeds of the check. The applicant would then distribute the proceed among the interested persons and secure a receipt. These forms were re turned through the county offices to the State office where they were audite for correctness and when in proper form served to complete the truste agreement for the applicant. While this program applied to the 1935 cotton crop , applications and pay ments were made in 1936 . GINNER'S PAYMENTS UNDER THE COTTON PRICE ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM As a part of the Bankhead cotton control program, ginners wer required to furnish records of each bale ginned to the Internal Revenue Co lector, and this necessitated special accounting work which was an adde expense to their usual operations. Provision was made whereby ginne would be reimbursed to the extent of 25 cents per bale for each bale ginne from the 1935 crop to compensate for the extra expense they had incurre on account of the program. Applications from ginners were handled through county and state o fices and by the General Accounting and Disbursing Offices under the sa general procedure as followed for cotton producers.

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Annual Report, 1936 35 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W . Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent For several years club work was an integral and essential part of every ounty agent's program. Club work was found in every county where an gent was employed. With increasing demands upon the county agents o direct agricultural adjustment work and supervise other emergency ctivities many former well conducted programs including 4-H club work ecessarily have received less attention. _ Where the 4-H program has continued without serious interruption ere has been an increase in membership. The work is better and more vorably known than ever before. The addition of training in organization nd leadership to the club program has been a wonderful aid to agents in curing members. In 1935 the counties with well organized clubs produced early all completions. There has been a most decided improvement in the socializing results the . club program. The organization of standard clubs and the adding of creation has helped make 4-H work a vital force in developing the social aptability of its members. During the depression the only "good times" e boys and girls in some communities enjoyed were those in connection ith their club work. This was shown by the stories written by new mem rs in which they answered the question as to why they joined the club. he majority said it was because of the good times the club boys and rls were having. . A feature which has been a stimulus ' to club work is the summer camp ogram. Two well equipped district camps have made it possible to give ral boys a real vacation at small expense and to fill them with 4-H thusiasm to carry on their work without much supervision from county ents . DISTRIBUTION OF CLUB WORK Counties of central, northern and western Florida are best adapted to club work. In other parts of Florida 4-H club work is difficult. In the uthern area club work is limited to small 'projects with poultry, gardening d home beautification. Some isolated areas, such as about Plant City, ow corn after winter truck crops, and the families live on their farms. The foilowing table shows enrollment for 1936 as compared with 1935 districts. Em-ollment Gain 1935 1936 Number Percent trict 1 1569 1975 405 25 trict 2 421 494 73 18 . trict 3 956 1550 595 62 2946 4020 1074 36 Full benefits from club work come only to the boy who completes his r's work and turns in a record book. _ Only 44% reports were secured 1936, but it is hoped to raise this to at least 60% as soon as possible. CLUB ORGANIZATION Organization into local community clubs, and having these following tain standard requirements, is a great aid to successful club work. At beginning of the year a goal of 30 new local clubs was set, which was

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension exceeded by 50% by the close of the year. The number of local clubs in creased from 171 to 216. The issuance of charters to local clubs during recent years has stim ulated interest and efficiency in the work. To obtain a charter a clu must meet the following standards: Have a membership of five or more an adult local leader, a club organization with a constitution, and a car fully worked out program for the year. Twelve new charters were issue to standard clubs in 1936. County councils of boys' 4-H club work, with representatives from eac local club, assist the agent in making plans for and conducting club work The boys themselves take an important part in formulating plans and seein that they are carried through. During 1936 councils were organized i Suwannee, Madison, St. Johns, Pasco, Alachua, and Palm Beach counties. A State Boys' 4-H Council was organized at the 1936 short cours Thirteen counties were represented. Officers were elected and 'plans mad for starting some definite moves to improve boys' club work in the stat The president and vice-president entered college in September. Thes two went before the county agents at their annual meeting and explaine what the State Council wished to do and how the county agents can hel The agents agreed to give their cooperation. LEADERSHIP TRAINING Leadership training and better local club organizations are the two mo important needs of boys' club work at this time. More meetings for leade ship training were held than in 1935, but they were for recreation . wor Florida was given more time by Mr. John Bradford and the Nation Recreation Association. CLUB CAMPS A WPA project brought to completion all buildings planned at Ca McQuarrie. Three more cottages to house 10 boys or girls each were bui A new water tower was erected and water tank moved. New concre foundations were put under and galvanized iron roof over dining room a engine house. A two-car garage was built. The equipment was increased by the addition of a range boiler in k' chen and sanitary top on dining tables. . The WP A donated 120 mattre s s The girls bought a piano . The grounds were improved by clearing more ground and setting o grass. The second dock was com ' pleted ,' two official spring boards install four new boats bought, and a diamond ball field clayed and grassed. A n sand-clay road was built from the highway to camp. Equipment at the W e st Florida 4-H Camp was improved by a new of storage batteries for the light plant and 140 mattresses donated by t WP A. Some additions were made to kitchen equipment. A hurricane hit the camp July 30, No one was injured and a sm amount of damage was done to the buildings; $65 put all buildings b in good shape. The most serious damage was done to the trees, 0 w.h' some 200 were blown down. The CCC detailed men to help with cl e ari up debris about camp. During the 1936 camp season 1,939 boys and girls attended the two trict camps. In addition to boys' and girls ' camps, two adult meetings w held. Over 500 men and women used the equipment during the year. All counties but two with 10 or more , club boys took part in a sum camp in 1936. The camping period in ' each case covered the major p of a week. Aubrey' Dunscombe served as ' director of the West Florida Ca in 1936. He was assisted the last three week s by Wilmer Bassett, a fer

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Annual Report, 1936 37 4-H club boy. George T. Huggins, a former 4-H club boy, now a junior in the College of Agriculture, helped at Camp McQuarrie. These men gave efficient service and did much to make the 1936 season the most successful we have had in Florida. VALUE OF 4-H CLUB CAMPS Of all methods tried, the 4-H summer camp has proven the most efficient way and time to give club boys 4-H enthusiasm . The training in coopera tion, leadership, and good sportsmanship, which are a big part of the camp program, seem to set forth the real values of club work in a way that makes an impress on the boys. County agents consider the camp as their greatest id in holding club enthusiasm at a high pitch. STATE CLUB EXHIBITS A state pig club exhibit was put on at the West Florida Exposition at allahassee November 3 to 7, . and 60 club pigs were exhibited. Every nimal was a credit to club work. A state baby beef show was held in connection with the Florida Fat tock Show in March, 1936. Twenty-two fat steers were shown at the cone est. It was the first showing of fat steers fed out by club boys. All ani als shown were not up to the 4-H standard but some were very good, s several 4-H club steers placed in open competition. Madison County led n numbers shown. The exhibit in 1937 should be larger and better as more oys have steers on feed at this time. A state poultry exhibit will be staged in connection with . the Central lorida Exposition in Orlando in February, 1937. A similar exhibit was eld several years ago with great success but had to be discontinued when he county fair which sponsored the show quit. A state exhibit of poultry nd eggs will be made by the poultry club members and a poultry judging ontest will be held. JUDGING CONTESTS ' The confidence and poise which club members get from taking part in a ate judging contest makes such contests worth while. A judging contest was held in connection with the Florida Fat Stock how in 1935. Five counties were represented. The second one was held 1936 and nine counties competed . . Alachua County won in 1936 . . SCHOLARSHIPS TO COLLEGE Club work encourages better boys to strive for college training . The ork should offer opportunity for a boy to get that which it makes him ant. College scholarships offered each year enable more boys to secure college education. The Florida Bankers' Association for 17 years has offered three $100 holarships to the College of Agriculture. The bankers have agreed to con ue this offer. The Model Land Company offers a $100 scholarship each year to a 4-H ub boy in St. Johns County. The Hastings Potato Growers' Association planning to offer a $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture annually a 4-H club boy in Flagler, Putnam or St. Johns County. A $100 scholarship will be awarded at the State Poultry Judging Contest March. There were seven scholarships offered for the year 1936.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS The trip to the National 4-H Club Camp in Washington is the highest award a club boy can win in Fl-0rida. Thanks to Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad , two Florida boys at tended the National Camp in 1936. The trip to Chicago and the National . 4-H Club Congress and Interna tional Live Stock Show is a wonderful inspiration. Two boys were sent to Chicago this year. STATE BOYS' SHORT COURSE The annual short course is the big event of the club year. At tha time the county club champions come to the University of Florida fo a week of fun, instruction _ and inspiration. At the 20th annual Boys' 4-H Club Short Course June 8-13, 1936, 28' boys from 23 counties were enrolled. RECREATION SCHOOLS In cooperation with the National Recreation Association training school for leadership in recreation have been held in the state for 10 years. Mr John Bradford has represented the association. Considerable progress ha been made. The state has been covered in the 10 years. Almost every count with club work has been touched. Organized recreation councils have bee functioning for several years in some counties due to the schools. RADIO The radio has been used in promoting 4-H club work in Florida. It i making 4-H club work better and more favorably known. Station WRU at the University put on at least one 4-H talk a month. During the Boy Short Course a 4-H program went on the air each day. On National Achievement Day in November a 4-H program was put o at WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD chain stations. WRUF also put on a speci 4-H program that day, Two talks on club work were made over WDBO at Orlando during t year. OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS Best Club Work by a County Agent: To James A. McClellan, Jr., an o 4-H club boy, goes the credit for having the best boys' 4-H club work Florida for 1936. With an estimated 412 boys available for 4-H club wo he enrolled 263 boys with 319 projects the first year he was in the count He got reports from 218 boys on 267 projects, or an average of 82 perce reports. There were 11 well organized local clubs in the county with working county council which functions in many ways to make the cl program effective. Pasco County has done everything suggested for a good club progra Ten boys attended the short course and 36 went to club camp. A judgi team competed in the state beef cattle judging contest and won fourth pla Although the State Pig Club Show was held 275 miles away, Pasco Coun had the largest number of pigs of any county exhibiting. Two demonst tion teams were trained and put on public demonstrations. A club ra was held and the club contest was made a county-wide affair. The first loan from the Production Credit Association for 4-H club p poses in Florida was promoted by McClellan and 26 Jersey heifers w brought in from Tennessee. Also 25 purebred pigs were brought into county by club boys.

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Annual Report, 1936 39 Club work was used to put on some demonstrations in swine production, featuring rotation of pastures. Trench silos to keep feed for winter use were built by the dairy club boys. Mr. McClellan is striving to make his 4-H club projects real demonstrations of doing the job as it should be done. Club work is a vital force in the lives of Pasco County 4-H club boys. Best Local Club: It seems that the Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County has a claim on the honor of being the best local club in Florida. This club _ has functioned so long and so well that it has become a local institution. Located in an area restricted as to numbers by its physical surroundings, the Lake Worth Boys' 4-H Club has enrolled every boy available in its neighborhood. The club meets the first Sunday in every month at a vege table packinghouse and has not missed a meeting in years. The boys start at 10 years and leave with regret when they are 21. When the president of the club was accidentally killed the club assisted with the services and made a 4-H club wreath . Club work to the members of his club means something. The club record for 1936 was 12 business meetings and 4 recreational eetings. In addition, the boys 'promoted two Sunday dinners for the arents and members of club boys' families with an attendance of 196 t the 2 meetings. Gardening is a favorite project. Some take u p poultry, airying and pineapples. One boy has a herd of six cattle valued at $275. ne boy netted $180.35 from his dairy project and one sold $137.35 worth f products from his poultry project. Two boys started in the pineapple rowing business with a few slips about 3 years ago and now have de eloped their plantings to where they sold $127.60 worth of pineapples ast year and kept all slips to increase their planting. One boy netted 73.41 from his vegetables. The same man has served as local leader since the . club was organized . . . STATE WINNERS IN PROJECT WORK Meat Production: Leroy Fortner won the gold watch offered by Thomas . Wilson for best project work in livestock. Leroy reported that he carried 3 projects and that at the end of the year he had $500 worth of livestock nd crop products on hand . and bank account of slightly over $200. He has beef herd of five Herefords which he is trying to develop in Alachua ounty. Leroy lost one arm in an accident some years ago, but has not allowed at to interfere in his activities. In the 1936 short course he was given norable mention as the best first baseman in the diamond ball tournament. e is one of the outstanding 4-H club boys in Florida. Baby Beef: Francis Beach of St. Johns County showed the champion by beef at the State Show in 1936. He won the trip to Chicago offered Frank E. Dennis. Fat Barrow: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed the grand ampion fat barrow at the State Pig Club Show in 1936. Eugene won the ip to Chicago. He took his fat barrow to Chicago and while he did not win proved that Florida can raise good hogs. Breeding Pig: Howell Bell of Lafayette County showed the grand cham on breeding pig at the State Pig Club Show. He won the $100 scholarship the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville.

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40 Florida Cooperati v e Extension STATE WINNERS IN LEADERSHIP Washington Trip: Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County and Donaldson Curtis of St. Johns County represented Florida 4~H boys at the 1936 Na tional 4-H Camp. Donaldson Curtis entered college in September, while Eugene has another year in high school. Bankers' Scholarships: Percy Davis of Okaloosa County, Donaldson Cur tis of St. Johns County, and Mitchell Hope of Pasco County won the 3 bank ers' scholarships for 1936. All entered the University of Florida in Sep , tem ber. CONTRIBUTORS TO BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK Frank K Dennis of Jacksonville donated $250 to club work. This money was used to send one boy to the National 4-H Camp and to pay for a trip to Chicago and for a scholarship to the University. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad paid for one trip to the National 4-H Club Camp. The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture. The Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a $100 scholarship t a St. Johns County club boy. Walter Badger won this scholarship for 193 and entered college in September. The Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Fat Stock Show, and th West Florida Exposition contributed to club work by sponsoring state clu shows. Service clubs throughout the state, appreciating what 4-H club wor is trying to do, have given many scholarships to the short course and hav contributed to the building of camps. The boards of county commissioners of the various counties contribute many scholarships to the short course and have helped with prizes for th county club contests. For all of this help the boys, their agents and leaders are grateful .

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Annual Report, 1936 4j DAIRYING Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman Dairy Extension work in Florida in 1936 has been conducted along similar lines to those of previous years, and has had a working program in prac tically all counties where county and home agents are employed. Dairy information was carried to farmers through personal visits, farm• ers' meetings, news stories and radio talks, motorcades to demonstrations, method demonstrations with adults and juniors, result demonstrations, cir cular letters, county and state dairy meetings, and personal letters. DAIRY SITUATION Florida has long been regarded as a dairy cattle and milk deficiency area. The 1929 United States Census shows 73,966 cows being milked on 22,615 farms, while the 1934 Census shows that 86,360 cows were being milked on 28,518 farms, an increase of practically 6,000 farms. The in crease in numbers of dairy cows was largely in rural sections, being family cows purchased to supply milk for the home rather than for the building of larger commercial dairies. The number of farms in Florida increased approximately 13,000 during the five-year period so that the number of cows has not kept pace with the number of farms. Feed production is the outstanding problem in improving dairy condi tions in the state. The present acreage of hay crops in Florida is approx imately 100,326 acres, with a production of 58,902 tons. Florida needs an additional 230,000 acres in hay to produce the amount of forage required. However, with proper amounts of ensilage, 20,648 acres of hay would be ufficient. FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS The Agents in Animal Husbandry and Dairying have coordinated their ork in the field of feeding and pastures, since the same kinds of grasses, ilage, hay, and other forage crops are adapted to both beef and dairy attle. Cane and Forage: The agent in Duval County has a definite soil adap ation program and dairymen have moved from small farms located on Nor olk sandy soils out to larger farms with types of soils best suited for grow ng forage. Cane was introduced as a forage to produce large yields. More han 50% of the hundred dairies located in Duval County are growing cane o supplement grazing crops and several dairymen use the surplus cane o store in trench silos for winter feed. The work has extended to _ 22 coun ies in 1936 that have introduced cane as a forage crop. Volusia County, with 12 demonstrations, reports yields this year of as uch as 50 tons per acre from the first year's planting of Cayana 10 and . 0. J. canes. It is recognized that the silage from cane and Napier grass not of as good quality as corn. There is probably about 60% as much eeding value in a ton of these crops as in a ton of corn ensilage. However, e very great difference in yields is an important factor in establishing e use of forage cane. This year seven counties conducted demonstrations ith high yielding forage canes. Pastures: The present improved pasture acreage is approximately ,844 acres, with some 14,000 to 15,000 acres of this being mowed regularly. airymen stack the surplus grass mowed in these pastures and during asons of scant pastures, the cows feed from these stacks and the seed is attered back on the fields.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Results from the Florida Experiment Station have proven that mowing is a great aid in spreading the sod grasses such as Bermuda, carpet, and Bahia, and in keeping down weeds. Silos and Silage: One hundred and forty-eight trench silos and 57 up right silos were constructed in Florida in 1936 to provide stored :forage for winter feeding for cattle. The trench silo has done more to popularize silage feeding than any other one thing in Florida. Trench silos have been constructed in all but about l6 of the 55 counties having agents. Ten counties constructed their first trench silos in 1936. Farmers in Pasco County, under the leadership of the agent in his first year's work, dug the first trench silos adapted to the family cow. Thirty nine of these family cow silos were dug and 90% were. a financial success. Club boys took the lead in these demonstrations. Corn, sorghum, Napier grass, and cane were the forages used in these small silos. The forage was placed in layers in these trenches and they were filled without the use of ensilage cutters. As a result of the first trench silo built in Manatee County in 1935, farmers of that area put in five trench silos, three metal silos, two concrete silos, and one wooden hoop silo in 1936. Where these farmers had previously stored 275 tons of silage annually, this year they had 2,150 tons. Mineral Supplements: These are desirable on practically all farms essential on some where forage crops. grown are deficient in mineral ele ments. Two mineral mixtures recommended are: Steamed bonemeal, parts, and salt, 1 part, in one end of the trough; and salt, 100 parts, re oxide of iron, 25 parts, and pulverized copper sulphate, 1 part, in the othe end of a double covered trough available to all cattle on the farm. Thi is essential on farms producing forage for family cows and where mil by-products are sold. On dairy farms where large amounts of concentrat feeds are fed, there is less danger of mineral deficiencies but the practic of making these minerals available on .all farms is recommended. Report from county agents indicate a greatly increased interest in the use of min era! supplements. Citrus By-Products: As a result of recent investigations carried on b the Florida Experiment Station and citrus canning plants, some 5,000 t 10,000 tons of dried citrus pulp is being made available for dairy feedin purposes in 1936. Dairymen in the citrus growing area have been using th fresh pulp for a good many years. However, the irregularity in cannin citrus fruits makes it difficult to secure this fresh pulp on a satisfactor basis. The period when citrus pulp is not available reduces the milk flo considerably. THE F AMIL COW Thirty-two county agents report giving the family cow first consider tion in their dairy programs. Health authorities report that there ar large numbers of families having pellagra in some of our largest agricu tural counties. This condition can be controlled by proper diets, and it the belief of county agents and Extension workers that there is a pla for the family cow on a large number of farms that are without cows this time. The Pasco County agent, with one of his farmers, accompanied t State Dairy Extension Agent on a trip to Middle Tennessee to purchase grade and registered Jerseys to be placed on farms of the county with o purpose in mind, the supplying of milk to the home. It is thought tha as the increased herd accumulates, 1.urplus cows may be marketed to t

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Annual Report, 1936 43 market milk dairy centers nearby as a further source of cash income on the farm. Demonstrations established in Madison County over a 'period of 10 years how that it is practical to interest farmers in improving the class of dairy ows on the farm, even where no milk market other than the farm family s available. Several thousand dollars in cash are returned to the farms of his county each year from the marketing of Jersey cows to the market milk airies of southern F:lorida. In the last four years, the county agent has placed some 350 grade heifers n Hernando County to be used as family cows. In 1936 he reports the ale of $3,700 worth of cows, the herd increase from initial purchases of :rade heifers. Some agents have an active program outlined for the establishment of nderground silos, the growing of Napier grass, cane, and other adapted orages. During the year, some 365 cows were brought into Florida and laced ori farms for family use by county Extension workers. Many hun reds of others were introduced as a result of the program. MILK PRODUCED FOR BY-PRODUCTS PLANTS Economic conditions for the last' six or seven years have been unfav rable for the development of milk by-products plants. However, the out ok for 1937 is more favorable. A cheese plant at Thomasville, Georgia, for the last two years pur ased milk from some farms in Jefferson and Leon counties, Florida. A rge portion of this milk was produced by Negro farmers. RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS The intensive Bang's . disease eradication program has been the occasion r slaughtering many cows in Florida, and has changed conditions for get g herd replacements for Florida dairies. Market milk dairymen are pur asing registered bulls and raising heifers to replace the cows formerly rchased. The upward trend of prices in dairy heifers has created a great deal of terest in sections of the State in the growing of surplus heifers. 4-H DAIRY CLUBS Club members developed 167 calves and completed their record books in 36. . Cooperative arrangements were made with the Production Credit Car ration of Plant City for financing the 4-H club members in Pasco County. is work will be extended in 1937 as an approach for enlarging the proam. The Pasco County Agent organized a trained group of his 4-H Club mbers to put on a calf feeding demonstration at community meetings oughout the county. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCllANGE OF DAIRY SIRES There were 96 registered sires placed with farmers and dairymen in rida in 1936 through the cooperation of county agents. Duval County practically reached the 100% goal in dairy farms headed by registert)d ry sires. Plans are made to place at least one registered sire with each cows distributed in these counties.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension EDUCATIONAL TRIPS AND FARM TOURS Field Day in Flagler County: Some 55 Flagler and Volusia county dairy men and business men assembled at Homer Miller's farm to see the first trench silo in that area. Mr. Miller also had three concrete silos. ' University of Florida Dairy Day: In coperation with Dr. A. L. Shealy and Dr. R. B. Becker and other dairy leaders in the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, the first University of Florida Dairy Day was held at Gainesville. Dr. Becker presented a fine demonstration of registered Jersey bulls and their daughters from the Experiment Station and College dairy herd, giving the rt!sults of breeding abilities of these sires, with charts showing the in crease or decrease of production of daughter over dam. STATE AND COUNTY DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS . There are 16 county and one state dairy associations in Florida. Th Miami Home Milk Producers' Association is a cooperative marketing assocfa tion with 18 dairy farmer members. This cooperative owns a milk distribut ing ' plant in Miami capitalized at $100,000 that markets 2,000 to 3,000 gallon of milk per day as fluid milk and milk by-products such as cream, buttermil chocolate milk, ice cream, and cottage cheese. The . plant is also equippe with machinery for condensing purposes. The Tampa Home Milk Producers' Cooperative is another marketin association. Practically all producers in the Tampa area and some producer distributors belong to the Association. The cooperative owns a sma dairy plant with pasteurizers, cream separators, a small drum type mil powder plant, churn can washers, sterilizers, and other equipment neede in utilizing surplus milk. This plant . has been very serviceable in stabilizin milk prices in the Tampa area. About 1,000 gallons of skimmilk a day was being converted into mil powders in late November, 1936. Some of the cream from this milk w shipped to other towns in South Florida and other portions went into t . manufacture of ice cream and butter . . The milk powders were marketed bakeries, sausage plants, and candy plants and for various other purpos in the Tampa area. The two cooperative plants were the outgrowth of organization a marketing work fostered by the Agricultural Extension Service. The Mia organization has been functioning for seven years and the Tampa pla for four years. The county dairy associations are chiefly concerned with production pro lems. However, marketing problems are adjusted through these county o ganizations. The State and county dairy organizations have given valuab aid to the county and State extension workers in developing county a State dairy programs. MISCELLANEOUS Cooperation with the Milk Control Board in the Marketing of Fluid Mil The Dairy Extension Agent has cooperated with the Milk Control Board three milk 'production cost surveys in Duval, Hillsborough, and Dade cou ties. Mr. Bruce McKinley of the Economics Department of the Experime Station also cooperated in these studies. The producer-distributor marketi his milk direct to the consumer and the distributing plants had deriv many bene , fits from the Milk Control Board in the adjustment of trade pr tices and in the marketing of milk. In many sections of the state, m prices had been raised.

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Annual Report, 1936 45 One dairyman in the Jacksonville area made the statement that his pay eheck was increased over $500 a month as a result of this survey and all the producers in these areas received . increased pay checks each month as a result of the better proportioning of the consumer's dollar to the milk pro ducers. The price range in cost of 'producing milk to the dairy house was from 31c to 35c per gallon. The Miami Home Milk Producers' Association was given aid in securing' a cooperativeIoan from the National Bank for Cooperatives. United States Bureau of Animal Industry and State Livestock Sanitary Board: The county agents of Florida have given whole-hearted support to the Bang's Disease Eradication Program as conducted through the offices of Dr. T. W. Cole, Federal Building, Jacksonville. The November 1936 re port shows 884 herds numbering 17,582 cattle had 574 reactors, approxi mately 3%. The 1934 report shows approximately 25% reactors, thus arked progress is being made.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Walter J. Sheely, Animal Husbandman The Extension Animal Husbandman and county agents have undertake project work with' beef cattle, hogs, meat curing, shee'p, and work stoc improvement. At the request of the manager, the Animal Husbandman visited th Indian Reservation and made recommendations for pasture improvement WORK WITH BEEF CATTLE The U. S. Department of Agriculture reported 788,000 cattle in Florid on. January 1, 1936. ~bou~ two-thirds are under fence and one-third o open ranges. Beef projects concern largely cattle production and fitting cattle fo market. Both juniors and adults participate in the two phases. For adult the ultimate goal is to locate purebred bulls for commercial herds, to hav the majority of beef cattle in the state of high quality, and to produce an sell each year a maximum calf cro'p, thus insuring a profitable industry. CATTLE IMPROVEMENT One of the main problems has been to secure sufficient good bulls for her improvement. Purebred breeders within the state are insufficient to suppl the demand. Purebred beef cattle breeding centers are far removed fro Florida, making it difficult for Florida cattlemen to secure good bulls. Th' office has sup pHed information to county agents and cattlemen as to whe good bulls could be purchased. One breeder sold all his Florida raised bulls as yearlings. A pack offered to take old bulls and any other livestock in payment for good bul which he brought in from outside, and placed more than two carloads this manner. He also sold 200 bulls in addition. One dealer has sold 100 purebred and another 100 high grade Brah . bulls to range cattlemen in Florida. Records show that inore than 700 purebred and a large number of hi grade bulls, as well as 1,075 high grade and purebred cows, have been plac in Florida during the year. HERD MANAGEMENT Controlled Breeding: Controlled breeding and the getting of a larg early calf crop is becoming more popular with cattlemen. Bulls have be put on winter feed in 15 counties. By good management good calves will weigh from 400 to 500 poun as compared with common range calves weighing 200 to 250 pounds. 0 farmer in 1935 produced 80 calves sired by common bulls that sold for $8 In 1936 the same 80 cows dropped calves sired by purebred bulls that sold f $1,375. The cows were wintered well and the calves were dropped early. High grade calves brought 5c to 6c per pound when buyers refused take common calves at 4c. Northern and eastern areas are potential markets for Florida fat calv stocker and feeder cattle . In the past Florida cattle have been discrimi ated against in these areas because of poor breeding and finish. In 19 for the first time on record, about 7,000 Florida calves were good enough sell on these markets.

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Annual Report, 1936 47 More than 16,000 Florida calves have been sold to the packers this ' sea son, many of these calves going to the East. Good, growthy calve s dropped arly, sired by good bulls, and out of the best cows brought good '()rices. As a result of a field day in Osceola County on November 5, 1935, when attle owners from many nearby counties saw yearling heifers and . spring alves sired by purebred beef bulls (on the ranges of H. 0. Partin and Irlo ronson) and observed particularly the size and quality of these calves and earlings, many purebred bulls have gone into the counties of Highlands, lades, Hardee, Charlotte, and Okeechobee. Parker Brothers, after seeing he cattle (on the Partin and Bronson ranges) stated, "We can raise the ame kind of cattle." In 1936 Parker Brothers sold more than 1,000 calves. Dehorning: Cattlemen have been thoroughly informed that steer feeders emand dehorned animals. Recommendations are to dehorn animals when hey are young, and during cool weather, regardless of the method used. his season 300 calves in Osceola County were dehorned by the use of a hot" iron. This method, on check-up, showed about 95% efficiency. Castrating: Due to screw worm infestation, the emasculator for blood1,s castration has been used extensively throughout the state. With this strument during the year 8,588 bulls were castrated, with 4 % slips. his is a very creditable showing. STEER FEEDING Efforts have been continued on more economical methods of steer feed g. This work has been carried on as a part of the farm operation. The shade tobacco men in Gadsden and Madison counties secured 1,400 eers from the West this season. We have advised with these men on the ndling and feeding of local farm grown feed including sugarcane. Attention of cattle feeders has been called to results of steer feeding ials at both Quincy and Gainesville experiment stations in the comparison silage from sorghum, Napier grass, and sugarcane, and with different ughages. Although the 1935-36 steer feeding period was not as profitable as the ar before, still there are more steers on feed this year than last-3,000 ad-and more cattle in bean fields this year than last-9,598. The trend in steer feeding is to finish out younger cattle on home-grown eds. The steer feeding work is almost wholly confined to the counties of Mar ' Levy, Alachua, St. Johns, Lafayette, Columbia, Suwannee, Madison, fferson, Leon, Calhoun, Jackson, Washington, and Okaloosa. PASTURE WORK Records show that around 15,000 acres of pasture have been mowed d that 6,500 acres have been run over with a weed cutter. Interest has also been aroused in de~troying the scrub palmetto. Dem strations with a new cutter for destroying palmettoes have beeri held the counties of Osceola, Polk, Highlands, and DeSoto. These demonstra ns are being watched very closely by cattlemen. A reliable estimate shows now that Florida has 'about 77,000 acres of land improved pasture. SILO WORK Fifty trench and three upright silos have been filled with sorghum, sugar e, and corn for feeding and wintering cattle. One beef cattle man in Levy nty erected two upright silos this year after using a trench last year. Marion County man, after 20 years, again put up ' and filled a cypress ve silo.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension One cattleman in Madison County is feeding about 600 head of steer from three trench silos 16 feet wide at the top, 14 feet at the bottom, nin feet deep, and 200 feet long. Many small trench silos were dug in Levy, Madison, Lafayette, St. John Alachua, and Holmes counties. One drawba ck has been the cost of the cutter and the power to operat it. One farmer uses the engine of an old automobile, attaching a pulle and using it for a power plant. MARKETING WORK To aid in the marketing of peef cattle and demonstrate that Florida be cattle would feed out well, in 1934 the Jacksonville Fat Stock Show an Sale was organized. The first sale was held in March 1935. At the 193 Fig. 2.-This grand champion steer at the 1936 Fat Stock Show and Sale was bred and raised in Florida by a Dixie County cattleman. sale 638 head of ca tie w e r e sold against 147 for 193 there were 71 e hibits against 1 18 4-H club calv against none; ni teams in the 4judging against fiv 10 cars of catt were bought to outside of the sta as against none; a 18 Florida counti furnished the cat in 1936 as compar with 9 in 1935. The outsta ndi feature of the sh was a Florida ye ling steer's winni grand champions and selling for a pound. This st was bred and ished by Mr. Queen Chaires Dixie County. This show resulted i n m other Florida calves and cattle being put on feed this year. Cattle Madison and Alachua count ies are being fed under she ds to prote'ct manure. Fifteen counties report the sale of 9,600 steers, so me going to out-of-st buyers. Scales and pen facilities have been installed. Th e Extension Ani Husbandman cooperated very closely in getting these pens established Ft. Meade and at Arcadia. There was established at Gainesville in October 1935 an auction mar under private supervis ion. The Extension Service and county agents operated with this market in making their first birthday a feeder cattle when 400 head of cattle were sold. During the first year this auction ket operated, it handled more than half million dollars worth of livest

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Annual Report, 1936 FAIRS 49 In 1936 the Florida State Fair had an exhibit of out-of-state cattle Angus, Shorthorns, and Brahmas-with a few Florida breeders represented . In 1937, the Florida Cattlemen's Association will sponsor the cattle show at Tampa. This agent assisted the Florida Cattlemen's Association to work out a premium list and plans for a representative show. LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS The Florida State Cattlemen's Association is becoming a factor in live tock development. County agents have been instrumental in organizing 21 ounty livestock associations that function through the state organization. HOGS AND MEAT CURING PRODUCTION AND MARKETING The main hog industry is confined to the peanut producing areas. During the year, records show that 0 421 purebred boars and 1080 high rade sows and gilts were placed on farms, and comparatively few good sows nd gilts are reaching the cooperative markets. Improving Quality: To improve the type and quality of hogs, a study f type and quality of meat and market hogs has been carried to the farmer hrough the county agents, who pointed out advantages of selection and reeding. Feed Production: A "complete yearly cycle" of feed and pasture is neces ary for economical hog production. Feed and pasture work is linked with he parasite control by a rotation of crops, having the sows farrow .in arasite free fields and pastures, and keeping them from infested hog allows and lots. . To be profitable, hogs must graze on maintenance crops and fattening 6ps . Cooperative Hog Marketing: Ten years ago, the Gulf Coast Cooperative og Marketing Association was formed at Trenton and has functioned ntinuously even during the depre s sion. Their sales are: Season 34-35 .. ...... , ............ ..... .. . . .. . . 35 36 .. . .. .. . ...... . ..... ...... .. . ... . . irst of season, 12 / 1/35 ... . irst of season, 12/1/36 ... . No. Hogs 8,465 14,444 4,500 8,000 Money received $ 64,935.55 164,155.74 120,000.00 Price per hog $ 7.56 11.35 15.00 Regular cooperative hog marketing has increased this year, seven new operative sale places being established, one each in the counties of Escam a, walton, Washington, Jefferson ; Taylor, Suwannee, and Sumter, making total of 13 in the state with the old established cooperatives in Levy, Gilrist, Gadsden, Calhoun, Jackson, and Holmes counties. At these cooperative markets the hogs are weighed and graded accord g to market demands. These sales are used by county agents and rmers to market finished hogs, exchange breeding animals and purchase d sell feeder pigs. MEAT CURING FOR HOME USE Meat curing, in cold storage and ice boxes, 'is generally practiced by rmers in hog producing counties. To aid in insuring a bountiful supply delicious home cured meats, meat cutting and curing demonstrations ve been held in many sections of the hog producing area.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension In the cutting work, clean-cut, uniform work has been the aim. curing, the 8-2-2 formula has been recommended for. a mild cure; i.e., fo 100 lbs. of meat, 8 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of sugar, and 2 oz. of saltpeter. . Bulleti~ No. 81, "Butchering and Curing Pork on the Farm," has bee generally called for. Six privately owned cold storage plants have been constructed in 1936 One plant at Madison doubled its capacity. There are now 47 cold storag plants in 21 counties curing meat, most of them using the brine cure. Last season, 1935-36, reports show meat cureda _ s follows: In cold storage houses ......... . .......... 5,763,813 lbs . . In ice boxes ........................................ 107,000 lbs. County Agents' reports show assistance to 328 farm families in horn curing meats. A number of home cured meat exhibits were displayed at county an state fairs. These meat shows presented a good appearance and carrie the lesson of "delicious home cured meat"! WORK STOCK With the majority of work stock approaching the age limit of usefulnes~ and with a considerable annual outlay of money for replacement of far horse power, it seems well that projects be initiated for producing a few far mules and horses. This work has met with some ap preciation and indication are that it will increase with the coming year. County agents and farmers have been supplied with information o prices and locations of mares and jacks and have been put in touch wit breeders and dealers of jacks, stallions, and mares. Reports show 11 jacks, 13 stallions, and 400 mares bought by .farmer CORN-HOG WORK FOR AAA (1935 and 1936) The Extension Animal Husbandman has continued to represent t Extension Service in handling the 1935 corn-hog control work, adjustin discrepancies in contracts and transfers, and closing out county corn-h control associations. This work has progressed satisfactorily and is alma completed. A trip was made to a regional meeting in Atlanta for instruction handling the 1936 corn-hog control program. With representatives of the Agricultural conservation program, whi replaced the AAA, the Extension Animal Husbandman arranged for a mee ing of cattlemen at Kissimmee to discuss plans, ways, and means where cattlemen might participate in the range and pasture phases of the progra SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK This agent has acted in the capacity of contact man for the State Ser Worm Control Committee, working in cooperation ' with county agen state and county livestock associations, and representatives of the Feder Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine . Aid has been extended in finding and selecting field men, in the approa work, and in arranging for schools of instruction. This office furnish suggestions on methods of handling livestock under screw worm infestati In cooperation with Mr. W. G. Bruce, regional director of screw wo control, material was prepared for Extension Bulletin 86, "Screwworms Florida".

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Annual Report, 1936 4-H CLUB WORK 51 Club boys have carried projects with both hogs and beef cattle. With etter market prices for their animals, the boys have revived interest in ig and barrow clubs, and have shown considerable interest in cattle rais ng. The ultimate goal in junior project work with beef cattle is to develop n . boys a good understanding and appreciation of the best practices in beef attle production and management, and to develop leadership in livestock roduction. Progress has been made towards the goal. In 12 counties junior reeding 'projects were started. Twenty-three boys were furnished with wo grade Hereford cows each and two boys were furnished with one cow ch, with the understanding that they would breed these animals to pproved bulls. These boys have, with their parents, agreed to keep records d use the animals as a nucleus for a high grade herd, following sugges ons and instructions given by the county agents and this office on breeding, eding, and herd management. The Jac . ksonville 1936 Fat Stock Show and Sale furnished an impetus the 4-H fat calf work, when 18 boys led their calves into the ring and rancis Beach (St. Johns County) won a trip to the International Live tock Show in Chicago. :(\iadison County boys won seven of the 10 prizes ered on 4-H fat calves. This Show, coupled with the good work of the unty ag . ent; is having an excellent effect on the club work in Madison ounty. This year 22 Madison _ County boys are feeding calves. Many of these ys bought their calves with money from tobacco sales. County agents reports show that 66 4-H club members completed beef iJjects.

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52 Florida Cooperati1)e Extension CITRUS CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist CONDITIONS THAT DETERMINE THE PROGRAM Citrus fruits produced in Florida compete in the domestic and foreig markets with citrus fruits produced in other states and countries, as we as with other competing fruits. Thus production and marketing proble have a very real national aspect. On a per-capita basis, production of citr fruits in the United States has increased about 48 percent during the la decade; .while the population has increased about 6 percent. Consequent market prices have declined to the point of dangerously low net returns Florida citrus growers. The chief problem of the Florida citrus industry directly confronti the Extension Service is to bring about still further reductions in cost producing citrus fruits so that they can be sold at a price within reach more consumers in the low income groups and that will return to the pr ducers a profit; and, at the same time, improve the quality of the fruit as to give it a stronger consumer appeal and thereby increase demand a consumption. Three-fourths of the resident citrus fruit growers of the sta are being reached by our citrus program. The greatest part of the wo was carried on in 20 central and southern Florida counties. The county agents and citriculturist have been assisted in carrying o the program by district agents, the Professor of Soils iri the College Agriculture, members of the Experiment Station staff and specialists of t United States Department of Agriculture E~tension Service. Very c structive cooperation has l;ieen received from the Florida Citrus Commissi and the commercial insecticide interests. GROVE MANAGEMENT An endeavor is made to bring together the best known practices different 'phases of citrus culture into a consolidated grove managem program and set it up in a demonstration grove. This plan has encoura some county agents to purchase or lease citrus groves and use them demonstration groves. It is a recognized fact that the county agent assumes a share of the responsibilities in the management of a dem stration grove becomes more practical in coordinating the different gr operations into an efficient and economical grove management progr and thereby wields a greater influence in converting growers to bet cultural practices. Sixty-one groves are now listed as demonstration groves in the m citrus-producing counties. One county agent estimates that through influence of his demonstration groves, the profits to citrus growers of county have increased $140,000 annually. SOIL MANAGEMENT The work under this major project includes fertilizing,, cultivat cover crqps, irrigation and soil amendments. Fertilizing: The fertilizer cost constitutes 30% to 60% of the total of maintaining a citrus grove. The fact that successful citrus fruit gro depends in a large measure upon proper fertilization is brought out in following table of data compiled from a summary of grove cost records the Assistant Extension Economist.

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Annual Report, 1936 53 TABLE 2.-RELATJON OF FERTILIZER USED TO COST AND RETURNS OF 220 GROVES, CROP YEAR 1933-34. No. groves ... .. .................................... . No. acres .... .... .................................. .. Average . age ............................. : ...... .. Percent grapefruit .......................... .. Cost per box ............ : ......................... 1 Fertilizer costi cents 'per box ...... . ...................... ! per 100 trees .............................. 1 Lbs. plant food* per 100 trees ........ ! Production, boxes per 100 trees .. .. Net returns per 100 trees ................ / Returns per box ................................ / I 60 420 , 5 19 40 32 12.3 $19.28 275 157 $12.80 .45 _____ ....,__ Groups II III . 66 94 1325 1548 17 19 30 24 30 24 11.6 14.1 $33.65 $56.10 485 767 291 399 $55.00 $88.03 .59 .67 . RELATION OF INCREASED OUTPUT TO RETURNS Groups 1 to 3 1 to 2 2 to 3 Plant Food 176 76 58 Fert. Cost 190 74 67 *Av. ratio of N-P-K, 5-2-4. Other Costs 107 51 38 Percent Increase Yield I Net Returns 154 588 85 330 37 60 Those growers represented by Groups II and III of the table have adopted the better methods of fertilizing as taught by the Extension Service. A total of 207 demonstrations of better fertilizing practices were conducted this year. Cultivation: Improper cultivation of bearing citrus groves has been attacked from the standpoints of both waste of money and adverse effect on quality of the fruit by too much cultivation. Fourteen counties have taken part in this project and 5,200 acres are in demonstrations of proper grove cultivation. Proper cultivation practices have resulted in a saving on the operation of $3 to $8 per acre over improper practices. Improvement in quality of fruit has resulted, in some instances, in a value increase of 10 to 20 percent. Cover Crops and Organic Matter: The predominating soil types on which citrus is grown being of a sandy character, low in natural fertility, presents the dominant problem of supplying organic matter. Consequently the value of manures and various forms of waste vegetable matter has been brought out in 211 demonstrations. In 37 groves the grass and/or legume cover crop yields were increased 10 to 200 percent by the use of 1,000 to 2,000 pounds per acre of untreated phosphate. In 105 demonstrations the cover crop yield was increased 100% to 150% by the use of $1.00 worth of nitrogen fertilizer per acre. In addition to increasing the organic matter by this increase of cover crop grown du:r;ing the rainy season, research has shown that the leaching of plant nutrients is reduced and the soil . is desirably shaded, thus giving protection to tree roots during this hot season.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension Crotalaria is the best planted cover crop, but getting a stand is very uncertain. With the cost of seed around 10 cents the pound or 50 . cents to $1.00 per acre, our demonstrations encourage growers to reseed in early spring where the chances of a crop are even only fair. If the crop fails the grass cover crop comes during the rainy season. The AAA Soil Conservation program greatly stimulated interest in grove cover crops this year, even though it was put into effect late in the season. This program is directly in line with what the Extension Service has been teaching for many years. From the grower's standpoint the fact that the Agricultural Adjustment Administration recognizes our cover crop practices as sound and is willing to remunerate him for carrying them out greatly emphasizes the importance of the whole program of cover crops and soil building. In one large county it is reported that 92% of the citrus acreage participated in the Soil Conservation program this year. Every citrus producing county has taken part in this cover crop program. Irrigation: Less time was devoted to this phase of the project this year than last, owing to the fact that the drought periods were shorter and less intense. However, assistance was given to 70 growers in either the installation of plants or improvement of the methods of applying irri gation water. The portable irrigation plant developed in 1934 and described in the Annual Report of 1935 is proving to be very useful and very prac ticable. One of the largest dealers in irrigation equipment has donated one of these portable irrigation plants for demonstration purposes. The records of a cooperating grower show that his grove produced an average annual yield of 9,600 boxes of fruit for the 5-year period last before installing his irrigation plant. For the 5-year period under irriga tion the grove has produced an average of 11,800 boxes. He says irrigation :has for him "taken some of the gamble out of citrus fruit 'production." Soil Amendments: Dolomitic limestone applied at the rate of 200 to 300 pounds per acre continues to prevent and correct "bronze leaf" of citrus in the 16 demonstrations started four years ago. The number of. demonstrations has been increased to 50 this year. This work is being carried on in 17 citrus-producing counties. One county agent reports: "Growers are sold on the use of dolomite. One caretaker has used 650 tons. . Ninety percent of the groves of this county have been treated with dolomite or some other carrier of magnesium." The results are attributed to demonstrations started four years ago. County agents report having made 510 tests for soil acidity; phosphorus and calcium. The results . of these tests are used as a . basis for soil treat ments in many cases. Zinc for Frenching: The effectiveness of zinc sulphate in soil appHc~ tions for frenching has been demonstrated in 11 groves this year. While foliage applications are quite generally used and have peen effective fo pro ducing quick results, soil applications, when made on a mulch of vegetabie matter under the trees, produce more lasting results. One to two years are required to show riisults from soil applications, while results may be seen in one to two months following a foliage application. The desirability of a combination of the two methods will be demonstrated next year. Splitting of Valencia oranges results in a loss of many thousands of -dollars annually. Results with soil amendments during the last four years point rather definitely to the conclusion that this trouble is due to nutrient deficiencies often accelerated by soil moisture deficiency. A marked reduc tion in splitting of Valencias was noted in demonstration 'plots where zinc sulphate was applied primarily to correct frenching, where dolomite was :applied for "bronzEr leaf" and where copper sulphate was applied for am

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Annual Report, 1936 55 moniation. This is shown in part in Table 3. The good results of all of these special treatments have been amplified when applied on a mulch or when used in conjunction with an ample supply of irrigation water. TABLE 3.-DEM0NSTRATIONS IN REDUCING SPLITTING OF VALENCIAS. Number I Percent Split and Dropped I Percent of DemMaterials Lbs. I Reduced onstraUsed 'per Treated I Untreated , Av. All tions I Tree Range I Av. I Range I Av. I Plots 2 Zinc Sulfate lto 3 4.97.9 6.2 12.5-49 28.5 80 4 Copper Sulfate 1 to 3 4.5-21.5 12 16.6-44 27.1 55.5 2 Zinc and Copper 1 to !1/2 7.0-15 11 15 -45 26 51.5 DISEASE CONTROL Citrus diseases of most economic importance are melanose of oranges, stem-end rot and blue mold decay. In view of the fact that a rapidly increas ing proportion of the grapefruit crop is being canned, and the canners are not paying a 'premium for fruit free of surface blemishes like melanose and scab, interest in the control of diseases of grapefruit has reached a low ebb and the Extension program has declined accordingly. Melanose: Largely through the cooperation of the Florida Citrus Com mission on the Better Fruit Program, grower interest in melanose control of oranges has been greatly stimulated. While the program was launched too late in the season for much spraying, increased interest resulted in more than the usual effort along lines of prevention. Double the amount of prun ing over the previous year was done. Five hundred growers have adopted citrus culture programs designed to prevent melanose by reducing to the minimum, the production of dead wood. This is done by maintaining higher vitality in trees by more adequate fertilization, by less injury from improper cultivation, and by an ample. supply of water. Some splendid results were obtained in 17 spraying demonstrations with 1-1-50 bordeaux. Weather conditions in the spring did not generally favor melanose development on the fruit. Consequently the crop as a whole is unusually free of melanose blem ishes this year. Blue Mold Decay: Owing to extra nonproject activities, very little time could be devoted to this phase of the work this year. Some time was devoted to packing companies, assisting in improving methods in the use of borax. INSECT CONTROL In the early part of this year the Florida Citrus Commission, a body authorized by an act of the Legislature of\1935, ll.ppointed an advisory com mittee to direct the efforts of the Commission in matters of better fruit pro duction. The Extension Citriculturist was made a member of that commit tee. The first thing the committee did was to compile a set of spray and dusting schedules for citrus diseases and insects. The next thing was to put on an educational campaign to acquaint the growers with 'provisions of the program and put it into effect as soon as possible. This task was delegated to the Extension Service and the work was well done.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension A series of educational meetings covered every important citrus-pro ducing community in the state. Spray and dusting schedules were thor oughly discussed and the importance of greater effort in the production of better fruit was appropriately emphasized. It took six weeks to cover the state, holding as many as three meetings some days, using every avail able man, A copy of the Better Fruit Program was either mailed or handed to every accessible grower. The meetings were followed by radio talks on the program, and many newspaper and magazine articles on the subject were published. The campaign was climaxed by a 'presentation of the Better Fruit Program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society by a member of the Commission and the Extension Citriculturist. Rust Mite: The best job of rust mite control on any crop in the history of the industry amply repays all for the efforts put forth on this project and special program . Scale and Whitefly: The importance of scale and whitefly control by spraying depends largely upon the co"pper spraying done for melanose and scab control. Natural control is usually effective where the balance is not disturbed by fungicidal sprays. The control of these insects, therefore, be comes largely a problem in the individual grove management. Aside from keeping before growers certain fundamentals in both natural and artificial scale and whitefly control by the use of 2 to 6 well placed demonstrations in each county, no great amount of time has been devoted to this phase of the work this year. Of course the use of red aschersonia cultures in white fly control is always timely stressed. Six hundred cultures were used in demonstrations this year, covering 1,000 acres. The saving is $10 per acre. MARKETiNG The Extension Service began to assist in :marketing problems this year. In March assistance was rendered in the grower referendum on the citrus marketing agreement, covering the whole citrus belt with 31 meetings in less than two weekB. At these referendum meetings a copy of the marketing agreement and summary was handed to each grower present. The working provisions of the agreement were explained, all questions answered and ballots cast. The vote was about 6 to 1 in favor of the agreement. Representatives of the E.xtension Service have been present at most meetings of the Control Committee and have rendered service in instances where opportunities were presented. The fact has been constantly stressed that quality production is an important and fundamental factor in successful marketing. NON-PROJECT ACTIVITIES Meetings and Tours: During the year 303 meetings wete held in 19 counties, at which citrus culture problems and various perplexing phases of the industry were discussed. Seventeen tours were conducted to demonstra tions and to the experimental plots at the Citrus Ex periment Station. These tours were made very educational. At the close ;of one tour a large grower remarked: "What I have seen and heard today is worth $1,000 to me." Grove Visits: Demand made upon Extension workers during the year for special service was very heavy. Numerous requests came from growers for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove problems. This type of service consumes considerable time, and constitutes a very important part of our year's work, from the grower's standpoint at least. During the year 3,000 grove visits were made in 19 counties going into all phases of citrus production.

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Annual Report, 1936 57 Growers' Institute: Nine counties participated in a four-day growers' institute at Camp McQuarrie, Lake County, in August. The citrus program was the main feature of the institute. All major. phases of citrus culture were discussed by Extension workers, members of the College of Agri culture teaching division, and Experiment Station staff. Method demonstra tions in irrigation were given. Two hundred growers enrolled for the courses. MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES The AAA Soil Conservation program has taken a large part of the county agents' time during the last six months. Consequently certain other phases of the work have been pushed aside temporarily. As the work becomes better organized less time will be required to administer the program. It promises to greatly strengthen soil management projects. One hundred growers were assisted in making better finance plans. Assistance was rendered the federal and state frost protection service in conducting grower meetings and in establishing field stations. News Articles and Radio Talks: Fiv.e hundred news articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by county agents and the citricul turist and published in local and state papers and magazines. Eighty-seven radio talks on citrus culture were delivered from six Florida stations.

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY WORK Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman Dan F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman E. F. Stanton, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest The poultry extension program for 1936 was enlarged to include three additional projects: (1) The Florida Egg Quality Program, (2) turkey management, and (3) The National Poultry Improvement Program. The Florida Egg Quality Program has a very distinct place in the development of the state's poultry industry. H deals with.the production, marketing and consumption of Florida eggs. The breeding and disease control program i~ most important, as it tends to increase the quality of poultry in the state and reduce losses. Until last year very little had been done with turkeys; but with the industry growing and deveioping the project known as turkey management was inaugurated. This program should bring about better production methods, lower costs and greater returns; . Other long-time programs considered vital to the industry are: Growing healthy chicks and pullets and the Calendar Flock Record program. These programs include baby chicks, the production of broilers, the development of pullets, and the feeding and management of the laying flock. In both programs studies are made which would include cost of production factors as feeding, management, housing, vaccination, growing green feed, and adoption of a rigid sanitation program. FEED PRICES The commercial poultry producer in Florida buys practically all feed used for chicks, broilers, growing pullets, and laying birds. A study of poultry farming has revealed the fact that feed is a most important item, representing approximately 50% of the total cost of egg production. If only cash costs were used it would be considerably higher. The price that poultry producers pay for feed varies not only from farm to farm in the same year but from year to year-and the relationship of poultry feed prices to poultry products prices has a direct bearing on exten sion work. A basic poultry ration generally used is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds of meatscraps, 55% protein, and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat). The average yearly price of this ration for the base period (1926-1929) was $2.80 per 100 pounds; in 1934 it was $2.05; in 1935 $2.24; and in 1936 (11 months) $2.24. PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS The average yearly price of No. 1 (Grade A, 24 ounce) white eggs was 41.1 cents per dozen (1926-29); 29.3 cents in 1934; 32.6 cents in 1935; and 28.7 cents in 1936 (11 months). Prices were highest during the months of October, November, and December and lowest during March, April and May. The average yearly price of heavy hens was 26.7 cents per pound (192629); 16.1 cents in 1934; 18.9 cents in 1935; and 20.2 cents in 1936 (11 months). The average yearly price of heavy fryers was 36.6 cents per pound (192629); 21.2 cents in 1934; 23.2 cents in 1935; and 24.1 cents in 1936 (11 months).

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TABLE 4.-RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN, FRYER, INDICES. 1935" Ratio l Jan._ I Feb. I Mar. ! Apr. ) May ) June ) July I Aug. J Sept. \ __ __ Nov. L Dec._ ----.-----~~Eggs to feed 92 111 88 102 Hens to feed 82 80 80 78 Fryers to feed 67 74 76 73 Ratio I Jan. ( Feb. ( Mar. ( Apr. -----------------~----Eggs to feed -----------------------94 119 100 103 Hens to feed ........................ 96 96 92 97 Fryers to feed 86 86 87 84 I I I 109 104 112 i 81 90 96 I I 79 78 84 I I 1936 I 113 I I 97 88 109 95 85 90 96 85 82 103 84 99 99 81 I May I June / July I Aug. / Sept. \ Oct: I Nov. I Dec. -----------------------------------~ -~---:1 109 108 113 99 ) 95 78 81 100 108 110 I 98 I 90 80 80 83 85 92 87 84 72 65

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension RELATION OF POULTRY RATION INDEX TO EGG, HEN, AND FRYER INDICES To illustrate the importance of changing feed prices and poultry pro ducts prices upon returns that may be expected and upon the type of poultry extension work conducted Table 4 gives the relationship of feed to poultry products for 1935 and 1936. The base period is the 3 year average 19261929. Since July 1936 the feed-poultry products ratios have become more favorable. BABY CHICK AND PULLET MANAGEMENT : Florida poultrymen know that healthy pullets are nec~ssary for profitable egg production. They are finding that the nearer they meet the require ments of the six points included in the Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program the more successful they are in growing these pullets. During the past year extension recommendations were followed by 1,769 families in purchasing baby chicks, 2,936 in chick re;aring, 2,047 in produc tion and feeding, and 2,872 in s anitation. GREEN FEED Florida records show that the most successful poultry producers feed succulent green feed throughout the year. Practically all agents have em phasized the importance of succulent green feed, and have furnished poultry men with information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, and cultural methods. . The green feed and sanitation programs have been worked out by means of the multiple yarding system . By . rotating the birds at regular intervals, contamination of the yards is reduced, and a supply of green reed is more easily obtained. Because of soil type some producers found it more prac tical to grow green crops outside the yards and cut them for poultry feed. CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS Many Florida poultrymen are familiar with the cost of culling. Culling demonstrations have been held throughout the state. The importance of the poultryman doing his own culling and adopting a systematic culling schedule has been emphasized. Poultrymen have been advised to grow healthy pullets which are bred to lay for replacing culled stock. Duril).g the past year 640 families have followed an organized improved breeding plan. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS The program of poultry record keeping has been increasing in value and scope since 1925 when first inaugurated. These 12 years of records have demonstrated their value and importance. Studies of these -records and dissemination of data obtained to various poultry interests has resulted in greater poultry efficiency. The Calendar Flock Record Program has been developed to take care of two groups of poultry raisers, the individual with the small flock and the commercial producer. Two different books are in use at present. Each month a report is sent to all cooperators and to the press giving a summary of the records tabulated, together with poultry, egg and feed prices and indices and poultry news and timely __ poultry information. All poultry records start October 1 and are completed September 30. During the year just ended poultry raisers from 20 counties kept com plete records, 4 more counties than during the previous year.

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Annual Report, 1936 61 Table 5 gives the results obtained for the past two years. TABLE 5.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY, OCTOBER 1, 1934SEPTEMBER 30, 1936. Items• Number of farms ......................................................... . Average number of birds ......................................... . Average number of birds per farm ......................... . Average number of eggs per bird per year ....... . Average percent culled ................................................ \ I Average percent mortality ....... _. ............................... 1 1934-35 37 17,410 470 163.04 49.25 20.38 1935-36 49 22,132 452 180.18 41.07 17.13 Average egg production during 1935-36 was considerably higher than in 1934-35, and there was a reduction in percentage of culling and mor tality, indicating better management practices. Table 6 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks, and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups. The highest egg production per bird was obtained by the group averaging 943 birds to the flock. The average size of the commercial or large flock was increased by 125 birds per farm. TABLE 6.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE. 10-250 251-500 Over 500 birds birds birds ------Total number of flocks ........................ 21 11 17 Average size of flock ... , ........................ 110 344 943 Average number eggs per bird ........ 168.71 .. 173.96 183.31 The 13th year of record keeping was started October 1, 1935, with increased numbers. Records are now being summarized for the year 1935-36, showing in detail the cost of production and factors affecting :returns. JUNIOR POULTRY WORK Poultry raising is one of the most popular phases of 4-H club work. There were 2,634 boys and girls enrolled in poultry projects during the year. Poultry was taught at both the Boys' Short Course and the Girls' Short Course. The club members were divided into beginners and advanced groups, and subject matter was presented accordingly. Instruction in poultry was given at summer 4-H camps and at other 4-H meetings during -the year. Club poultry exhibits were judged in six county fairs and demonstrations .in judging were given.

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62 Florida Cooperativ e Extension Plans have been made for a state-wide 4-H poultry and egg show and'. poultry judging contest at the Central _ Florida Exposition in February , 1937. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association has been very active in promoting the poultry industry, and has been of great assistance in the development of the poultry extension program. The state association is: composed of county poultry associations. During the year the extension specialists have helped with the organiza tion and perfection of two new county associations. A poultry magazine, The Florida Poultryman, has been sponsored by the state association. The State Egg Show was sponsored by the state association and has now become an annual event. Poultry talks and demon strations have been given at meetings of county poultry associations. These associations are assisting county and home demonstration agents in anal yzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the counties. FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL The Florida Poultry Council was organized two years ago. The pur'pose and aim of the organization is to develop and protect the poultry industry of the state. The Council is quite different from other poultry organizations in that it is a fact-finding group and representatives of the various phases of the industry .are selected as members. The council's membership is composed of representatives of the following . groups: Poultry producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial and breeder), poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultry dealers, packers, feed dealers, the poultry press, State Department of Agriculture (Marketing and Inspection Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board,. Poultry Division of College of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Service, . State Health Department, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers . of vocational agriculture and home economics, and delegates from the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Baby Chick Association, and American Poultry Association of Florida. Work of the council is accomplished in the main by various commi t tees . . The following committees were appointed for the year 1936: Marketing., Breed Improvement, Research and Education, Disease Control, Poultry Shows, Organization, and Legislation and Legal Advice. The Council has been most active during the past year sponsoring and developing the Florida Egg Quality Program and the Natioanl Poultry Im ' provement Program. EGG QUALITY PROGRAM The Egg Quality Program, sponsored by the Florida Poultry Council,. has been put on with the cooperation of the State Marketing Bureau, the Inspection Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, county and home dem onstration agents, vocational agriculture and home economics teachers and the Florida State Poultry Producers' Association. The purpose of this program is to call to the attention of all persons concerned with the production, sale, and consumption of eggs in Florida, factors affecting egg quality that the prevailing quality of all eggs sold may be improved and that nearby producers having a 'proper knowledge of the facts may strengthen their present position in the market . The following plan of organization was outlined as a guide for each . county in the state.

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Annual Report, 1936 63 A. The use of the various educational, regulatory, marketing, and civic agencies which may contribute to the success of the program. B. Group .Meetings. 1. Producers: Producers meetings to be held in county and in . com munities in the county. County agent, home demonstration agent, vocational teacher and home economics teacher cooperating in planning and advertising meetings, aided by the Extension Poultryman, the Market Bureau Specialist and the Egg Inspector, county poultry association, and representatives of feed companies. Instruction on subjects such as: Handling eggs ori farm; proper cooling; correct packing; . grading and candling; good pr(?duction practices. 2. Retailers: Meetings or personal calls on merchants in interest -of proper care of eggs in stores, to preserve good quality. 3. Consumers: Solicit their cooperation and instruct them in buying Florida eggs. Teach them to know good quality eggs as indicated by the grades set up under the Florida Egg Law. Points of Consumer Contact Through 4-ff club boys and girls. Vocational agricultural boys and girls. Parent-teachers clubs. Home demonstration clubs. Girls in home economics classes in city schools. Women's clubs. Business and professional women's clubs. Personal contacts supplemented with meetings, newspaper stories, radio talks, and other mediums. At meetings the program was discussed and _recommendations were adopted. C. Survey at end of year to check up on effectiveness of the program . D. Compilation of survey, including results and recommendations for Tevising the-program. Three pamphlets were published, one each for the producer, the retailer and the consumer. Information pertaining to egg quality has been . dispersed also by means of radio, news stories, circular letters and . group meetings. The first . Florida State Egg Show, held at the 1936 Florida State .Fair, has promoted interest in egg grading and candling demonstrations; . Egg grading and candling were taught at 4-H club camps. NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM This program sponsored by the United States Department of Agri eulture is under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board in this state. The Agricultural Extension Service is cooperating and assisting in the development of the program. Reports thus far this year show that more breeders and hatcheries are in the plan than ever before. This . program will result in better flocks with high egg production and lower mortality. Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian, has assisted in Extension ])oultry meetings during the year and with the testing work at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. CHICKENPOX VACCINATION Practically all commercial producers vaccinate pullets for chickenpox, .and the practice .is becoming more common among small flock owners each

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension year . Agents throughout the state report satisfactory results from demon strations given. Reports indicate at least 100,000 pullets were vaccinated. this year with the assistance of county and home demonstration agents. USE OF LIGHTS ON LAYERS The use of artificial lights, to keep the early hatched pullets out of a. molt, and to increase the fall and winter egg production of both pullets and hens, is a common practice in Florida. All-night and morning are the two systems of lighting recommended. The all-night system is most popular in communities where electricity is not available and oil lanterns are used. Both systems have given good results. EGG MARKETING SURVEY At the request of the Florida Poultry Council, an egg marketing survey of the Tampa market was made . With the cooperation of the Agricultural Economist in ' Marketing, the State Marketing Bureau, and the National Youth Administration of Tampa, data were collected in 1,150 consumer studies, 125 retailer studies, 15 whole saler studies and 12 hotel and restaurant studies. These data are being summarized and the results published early in 1937. TURKEY MANAGEMENT Florida has six counties in which turkey production is one of the major farm enterprises. In view of the fact that blackhead has been a serious. menace in these counties a system of sanitary management was outlined. and presented to turkey producers. Group meetings and news letters were used in developing the program . Two hundred turkey record books were distributed to farmers. These, books will be summarized to ascertain the cost of production and to obtain definite information on management practices used by Florida turkey pro ducers. Reports from producers who had blackhead in their 1935 flock state that their flocks have been free of blackhead this year and that they intend. to continue the program. The program will be further expanded in 1937 because of its success this year. MARKETING The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with county and home demonstration agents and with the Gainesville office. F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and . home agents in locating markets for eggs and poultry meat. He has attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing marketing problems .. In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and data are collected from the district egg and poultry inspectors to study marketing conditions in the state. During the past year 1,307 families have followed marketing recom mendations. In 1936 the agents assisted in selling $238,158.22 worth of poultry and eggs. FARM PLANNING COUNCILS A member of the Poultry Extension Staff has met with the poultry com mittee of the Farm Planning Councils in several counties, and acted as an adviser in the formulation of county plans.

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Annual Report, 1936 65 Fig. 3.-High pen in the Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. Ten of these S. C . White Leghorns laid 2,906 eggs and were credited with 3,000.85 points. FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CO TEST The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest was started October 1, 1935, and came to a close September 21, 1936. For the first time in the hi story of the Contest 100 pens were entered. Bird s came from 23 different states and 10 different counties in Florida. The highest production since the contest was started was obtained during the Tenth Contest, the average egg production being 212.1 eggs per bird for a value of 210.2 points. Thirty-three birds produced over 300 eggs during the 51 weeks' period. A complete report of this contest is printed in a s pecial bulletin.

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66 Florida Cooperative Extensien AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS F. W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist in Farm Management D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing FARM' MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES The major projects in farm management in 1936 included the summariza tion of citrus accounts; the making of farm surveys; and assisting the organization and o'peration of county agricultural planning councils. A larger number of citrus accounts were closed for the crop year 1935-36 than for any year since the work was started in 1930-31. In cooperation with the Planning Section of the A.A.A., farm surveys were made in 17 counties. County agricultural planning councils were organized in 44 coun ties. Minor projects and miscellaneous activities were carried on during the year. Many farm management meetings were held at which the results of farm surveys, cost accounts or other economic data were discussed. Assistance was given before 4-H club camps and the Citrus Institute at Camp McQuarrie. Plans were made for the summarization of poultry accounts during the winter of 1936-37. Members of the department also assisted with the educational meetings pertaining to the watermelon and citrus marketing agreements. With the cooperation of other agricultural workers at the University of Florida, the Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1937 was prepared. These projects and activities will be discussed in detail. CITRUS ACCOUNTS The citrus account project has been carried on for the past six years and is now in the beginning of its seventh year .. -The purposes of this project are: 1. To provide growers with a simple yet complete record book in which to keep grove expenses and receipts of a year's operations. 2. To encourage the record keeping by assisting growers with their books and summarizing their records to determine costs of production and returns. 3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, costs of production, fertilizer practices, prices of fruit received by kinds, and net returns on similar groves. 4. To provide data covering a long period of years that may be studied to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits. Each grower who furnished his grove records for the 1933-34 crop year was furnished a copy of the state summary together with a summary of his record which included data for the current and past. years. This enabled the cooperators to compare their costs and returns for different years as well as with other groves. In addition to the individual summary of costs and returns furnished the grower cooperators, the amount and kind of available plant food applied per 100 trees and average price received for fruit by varieties was shown in their grove summary. Approximately 2,500 copies of the state summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer com panies and their salesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico, packinghouses, different government agencies, and business men upon request.

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Annual Report, 1936 67 There will be about 342 citrus account s closed for the year 1935-36. All fruit returns for these cost records will not be available until the crop produced during the year is sold, which will be about August 1937. The specially prepared citrus record book was revised before starting the 1936-37 accounts. FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS Facts concerning the organization and operation of farm s are needed by farmers and agricultural workers in each type-of-farming area. The supply of such information was greatly increased during 1935 and 1936. Prior to the summer of 1935, such information was available in only 22 Florida counties. During the summer of 1935 , the Extension Service and Department of Agricultural Economics of the Florida Experiment Station cooperated in making surveys in 8 counties. During the winter of 1935-36, 572 additional records were secured in 17 counties by the Extension Service in cooperation with the Planning Section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. These surveys showed great variation in income between different areas. Some of the areas in southern Florida were affected by adverse weather conditions while others received more favorable weather and relatively high prices. In spite of great improvement in financial returns to farmers in general farming areas in western Florida since 1931, the average labor income for farmers in th es e area s is still con s iderably below what it should be. R e sults of these surveys were made available to farmers and agricul tural workers in many ways during 1936. Mimeographed reports were prepared for 12 areas. Farm meetings were held in 15 communities for the purpose of discu s sing the results of the surveys with the cooperators and other farmers. Individual visits were made to the farmers from whom records were secured in 9 counties . Flue-Cured Tobacco Area: Farm management survey records were secured from 110 farmers in the flue-cured tobacco producing areas of Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton and Madison counti e s. The average labor income varied from $40 per farm in Columbia County to $274 in Hami".ton County. The percent of cash receipts from tobacco and from crops was highest in Hamilton County, whereas the percent of cash receipts from cotton was highest in Madison County. Livestock accounted for over 60 percent of the cash receipts in Columbia County. Records for 24 farms located in Suwannee County were also obtained in a similar study made for the year 1931. Due to a more favorable growing season and higher prices, the average labor income for the 24 farms in 1935 was $158 compared with a minus $437 in 1931. A large per centage of the increase in the cash receipts was due to higher prices received for tobacco and hogs. The average income per farm from the sale of water melon s was con s iderably less in 1935 than in 1931. In addition to the net income received by the farmers in the four coun ties, they also had the use of farm 'products consumed in the home. Jefferson County Area: Records were obtained from 40 Jefferson County general farmers located mainly between Florida highways 1 and 19. The average ca s h receipts on these farms amounted to $999 and were comprised of $4 . 67 from crops, $278 from livestock, $103 from livestock products, $71 from A.A.A. payments, and $80 from miscellaneous sources . The average farm expenses amounted to $689 which, when subtracted from the cash receipts, gives a cash farm income of $310. Seven percent interest on average investment of $5,554 amounted to $389. When thi s and o '. her

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension non-cash expenses were deducted from the farm cash income, it resulted in a minus $135 labor income. Leon County Area: Survey records we1 e also obtained from 33 farmers located in the north and northeastern part of Leon County. Approximately one-third of the farms were operated by the owners, one-third by renters, and one-third by farmers who rented land in addition to that which they owned. Of the total number of 33 farms, 27 were operated by colored farmers. Totai farm receipts averaged $270 per farm, of which approximately 50 percent was comprised of crops and 50 percent livestock and livestock products. After deducting cash farm expenses of $156, there remained $114 cash farm income. Non-cash expenses such as unpaid family labor, decrease in capital and interest on investment amounted to $229. When these were deducted from the cash farm income, the operator's labor income was a minus $U5. Washington, Holmes and Walton Area: A total of 113 farm survey records were obtained from farmers producing chiefly cotton and peanuts in Washington, Holmes and Walton counties. The percent of the total cash receipts from cro ps ranged from 61.9 percent in Washington County to 74.8 percent in Walton County. Hogs amounted to 16 percent and eggs 14 percent of the cash receipts in Washington County. In Holmes County, cotton accounted for 43 percent of the cash income compared with 50 percent in Walton. The farms in Washington and Walton counties failed to pay all farm expenses and 7 percent interest on the capital, and had minus labor incomes of $62 and $45 respectively. The value of food products furnished the home by the farm averaged $294 in Washington, $332 in Holmes, and $331 in Walton. Every farm surveyed in the three counties had a farm garden and cured their own pork for home use. Milk was available for home consumption on all farms in Walton and "'ashington counties. Sweet potatoes were produced on . about 80 percent of the farms in the three counties. Truck Farming Areas: Eight areas were surveyed in southern Florida. They included nve truck crop areas, poultry farms located in two counties, and citrus groves in another county. The farms in Seminole County were very profitable for the season studied, but the other areas experienced rather unfavorable crop years. The most profitable farms in each area except Lee County received a higher percent of their cash income from the most important crop in the area than was received by the average farmer. Enterprise Study of Dade County White Potatoes: During the past year, the study of the early white potato area of Dade County was repeat e d. The data covered 24 growers' records which represented approximately 69 percent of the total acres harvested. The data thus obtained for the two crop seasons were summarized and an attempt was made to determine some of the more important factors affecting cost of production and returns. The findings were returned to growers in this area as a mimeographed report entitled, "An Economic Study of White Potatoes in Dade County, Fla., 1935-36 with Some Comparative Data for the 1934-35 Season". Each grower who cooperated with the Agricultural Economics Extension Service was furnished his individual summary. This enabled the growers to compare their costs and returns as a basis for checking . their efficiency in farm organization and management. A potato growers' meeting was held in Dade County in cooperation with the county agent, at which time the results and findings of this study were discussed. There were about 45 potato growers at this meeting.

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Annual Report, 1936 COUNTY AGRICULTURAL PLANNING 69 This project began in the fall of 1935 and was continued through 1936. It was supervised by a state directing committee composed of the director and members of the Extension staff, and the Department of Agricultural Economics . District agents assisted materially in organizing the councils. The purpose of the project was to organize a county agricultural planning council in each important agricultural county having a county agent and to provide this council with all available information concerning the agriculture of that county. The functions of these county councils would be as follows: First; to serve as an advisory committee to the county and home demonstration agents in helping them develop a strong, well rounded county agricultural program. Second; To assume part of the responsibility for thinking through the agricultural problems of the county, the state and the nation. In other words, they would serve as a group of agricultural leaders that county, state and federal officials might call upon for farmer consideration of proposed plans affecting the agri culture of the country and from which would come suggestions for formu lating sound county, state and national agricultural programs. The time and efforts of those working on the agricultural planning project in Florida during the past year were divided among the following items : 1. Preparation of county agricultural data. 2. Organization of county agricultural planning councils. 3. Securing of answers from the councils to questions prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Adminis tration. 4. Making of farm management surveys in 17 counties covering the crop year 1935. 5. Summarizing and returning the results of the s urveys to farmers. 6. Tabulating of census data by the same areas as were used in tabulating the farmers' answers to the questions prepared by the A.A.A. 7. Assisting in the preparation of county soil maps for th e use of county agricultural workers and the county councils. 1. One of the first transactions in the project was to summarize all available county agricultural statistical data for the use of the county councils. Such data were prepared in mimeographed form for 50 counties. 2. A total of 44 county planning councils were organized. At that time 52 counties had agents. Three of these agents were appointed during the period when the councils were being organized; and the group of farmers called together by five agents preferred not to organize councils. 3. One purpose for which the councils were organized was to secure answers to the following questions: (1) What would be the probable production of the various farm products in 1936, assuming normal weather conditions, present farming practices and prospective prices but without either production or marketing control programs? (2) What would be the probable production of the various farm products in 1936 under the same assumptions as in (1), but if farm practices were adjusted to maintain soil fertility and control erosion? The answers to these two questions for 30 counties in northern and northwestern Florida were secured by March 1. 4. During the months of December and January farm organization, or type-of-farming, surveys were made in 17 counties covering 572 individual farms. This work was financed cooperatively by the State Extension Service and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The purpose was to collect information regarding type of farming, yields, and income resulting from farming in counties for which such information was lacking prior to the surveys. The results of this work were discussed in detail earlier in this report.

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension 5. Results of the surveys secured during the winter were tabulated and brief summary reports prepared for 12 areas. The results were discussed with farmers and county agricultural workers in farm meetings, and individual summaries showing the weak and strong points of each farmer's business were returned to cooperating farmers. 6. The farmers' answers to questions (1) and (2) were tabulated by five areas. While the agriculture of these areas is not uniform in all respects, there are a number of predominant characteristics of the agri culture in each area. To study the history of agriculture in each of these areas and to compare the farmers' answers with the acres of crops and number of livestock products in these areas, tabulations were made from reports of the United States Census of Agriculture for the period 1900 to date. 7. Only a small number of Florida counties had been surveyed by the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the U.S.D.A. and maps for many counties already surveyed are out of print. County agricultural planning councils and county agents need soil maps for use in studying the agricultural problems of their counties. To fill this need, a portion of the clerical help on this project was used in making tracings of generalized soil maps for 54 counties. The original maps classifying the soils in these counties were prepared by the Agronomy Department of the College of Agriculture, in cooperation with the Resettlement Administration and the Florida Experi ment Station. FAIR EXHIBITS During the year exhibits were made at four county fairs on request. Two of these were in Lake and Orange counties where a fairly large sample of records had been furnished on groves for a period of 5 years. The respective county data were used in chart form at these fairs. About 400 copies of these statistical summaries were passed out to growers and others requesting them at each of these exhibits. Displays were also made at .the Volusia and Pinellas fairs. Approxi mately 200 copies of the statistical summary were given to growers and others requesting them at each fair. POULTRY ACCOUNTS In the fall of 1935, over 250 poultry account books were distributed to poultrymen. These books will be summarized during the winter of 1936-37 for all poultrymen who desire this service. Present indications are that the number of books to be summarized will exceed 100. MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES Citrus Institute: At the annual Citrus Institute held at Camp McQuarrie beginning the latter part of August, assistance was given during the four days in arranging entertainment and details of management. An analysis of the long-time citrus costs of production and returns, some factors affecting costs and returns, and other miscellaneous information were discussed with growers who attended the citrus program. Thirty-one of the 1935-36 citrus accounts were closed with the grower cooperators who attended the Institute during the week. There were six new cooperators who asked for a citrus record book. 4-H Club Camps: Two weeks were spent in two 4-H camps in which farm management subjects were taught.. The program consisted of four 30-rnirtute periods daily for 4 days. Subjects taught included:.farm -and

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Annual Report, 1936 71 home records, their value and how to keep them; enterprise records, with particular emphasis on 4-H club projects; how to write a project story, what it should include, and sequence of story; and organization of farm and home. Watermelon Marketing Agreement: The Assistant Farm Management Specialist attended most of the Watermelon Control Committee meetings prior to the tentative approval of the 1936 marketing agreement. He also attended the growers' and ship ' pers' hearing on this proposed marketing agreement. After . the hearing with Florida growers and shippers, four district educational meetings were held in the more concentrated and important producing area. Principal features of the proposed marketing agreement were discussed by a representative of the Special Crops Section and the economic background and outlook for the future crop was discussed by this . department. At the close of these meetings a vote was taken from growers as to whether they favored or opposed the agreement. As a whole, the growers of Florida favored the agreement. South Florida growers as a group were opposed to it, however. The watermelon marketing agreement was designed to aid the growers in more orderly marketing of the crop that they might realize larger net returns. It appears that the agreement was . of help to growers primarily, and to a lesser extent to shippers. Citrus Marketing Agreement: Assistance was given at 14 of the growers' educational meetings pertaining to the provisions of the agree ment and economic situation of the citrus industry. About 600 growers attended these meetings, most of whom voted u pon the proposed agree ment. In general, both the growers and the shippers favored a control marketing agreement. Outlook Information: Current information relating to the production and prices of Florida agricultural products and statistical data pertaining to busin . ess conditions are regularly filed in the office of the Agricultural E:eonomists . This information is readily available to other members of the Extension staff at all times. Following the national Outlook Conference held in Washington in October . and in cooperation with other members of the Florida Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Experiment Station, the Florida Agri cultural Outlook for 1937 was prepared and published. MARKETING ACTIVITIES The Extension Economist in Marketing was able to devote only five months of the current ,fiscal year to his regular duties in the state because of being on leave of absence with the Agricultural Adjustment Adminis tration in Washington. While in Washington, he was assigned to the Potato Section and placed in charge of the Program Planning Unit and later in charge of the Allotment and Review Unit. After the Potato Act of 1935 was repealed, . it took some time to clear all records and get potato stamps returne . d. He resumed work in Florida on July 15. :MARKETING ' AGREEMENTS AND FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION Because of the urgent demand on the part of the citrus industry, it has not been possible to adhere strictly to ' the program of work as outlined at the beginning of this year. The United States has one of the largest citrus crops on record and effort is being made in Florida by the Florida Citrus Commission and the Citrus Control Committee to cope with the

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension situation. This agent was requested to work closely with these organiza tions and give assistance in connection with their program. The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding meetings to obtain growers' votes on the proposed marketing agreement; 10 meetings were held at which approximately300 growers were present. The programs dealt with production trends in citrus. Later it was found advisable to make certain amendments to this agreement when additional grower ballots were secured by a circular letter sent direct to growers. These ballots were collected by county agents. This agent has assisted the Control Committee by supplying county agents, vocational agriculture teachers and secretaries of production credit associations with information on prorates, regulations and operation of the Control Committee. Though the Florida Citrus Commission is not a part of the federal pro gram, an attempt is being made by this Commission to closely coordinate the state program with the federal program. They have power, by state legislation, to define grades and standards and collect assessed advertising taxes and to determine how these advertising taxes are to be expended. The. Extension Economist in Marketing has worked closely with this Com mission. Proposed String Bean Marketing Agreement: Conferences were held with string bean growers to determine the necessity and program for a marketing agreement. However, it did not appear practicable to undertake a bean marketing agreement for the 1936-37 crop. A request came from bean growers for the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to buy beans for relief purposes. We visited this territory and held a number of conferences with bean growers, shippers, and county agents Vlith reference to the plan. FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION At a meeting of the Orlando Citrus Production Credit Association, the Ex\ension Economist in Marketing reviewed the service that this associa tion was rendering and the possbilities for service in future. He also assisted in a school for directors and secretaries of production credit associations for North Florida and South Georgia. Balance sheets and operating statements of associations represented were analyzed. Also loan policies and membership relationship were discussed. This agent has worked closely with state representatives of the National Fruit and Vegetable Exchange. This is a cooperative marketing organiza tion for distributing agricultural products. Meetings were held at which representatives outlined the service available to growers and shippers. CONSUMER EGG SURVEY, TAMPA The State Poultry Association has felt for some time that some con sumer marketing study should be made to obtain from consumers, hotels, retailers, and wholesalers, what in their opinion the producers could do to supply a product which would more nearly meet consumer demands. After a meeting with the Research Committee of the State Poultry Associa tion, it was decided that a survey of the Tampa egg market might reveal information valuable to Florida producers. Practically all eggs produced in Florida are sold within the state. Therefore, a knowledge of the state's markets would be of more importance to Florida producers than general market surveys of other markets. Before beginning the actual obtaining of information, the Economist conferred with the Extension Poultrymen and county and home demonstra

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Annual Report, 1936 73 tion agents in the areas studied, as well as State Marketing Bureau repre sentatives and poultrymen. Approximately 1,150 records were obtained from housewives, 12 from hotels and restaurants, 125 from retailers, and 15 from wholesalers. These records will be summarized and distributed. l\IISCELLANEOUS Assistance was given the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in a survey to find the cost of marketing citrus fruits. The Economist con tacted motor truck carriers and obtained rates charged to Northern points. It was found that although freight rates had a considerable influence on the price trucks charged, a more important factor was competition among truckers themselves. Whether or not truckers were able to obtain return loads was also an important factor influencing the price charged.

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74 Florida Cooperativf3 F)xtension PART III-WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' WORI( HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Mary E. Keown, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent, North Florida Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, . South Florida ORGANIZATION The staff of the office of Home Demonstration Work consists of a s ta t e agent, three district agents, four specialists food con se rvation, nutrition, home improvement, clothing-and 36 county home demonstration agents. The Extension Service poultrymen, dairy specialists, . agricultural economists; agricultural engineers and other agricultural specialists assist in the home demonstration program. Each district agent, in addition to supervisory duties, is responsible for a state-wide program in a specialized field including community organization, farm family living outlook, and home industries. Miss Flavia Gleason, state agent since 1923, resigned on September 15 after 13 years of valued service to the program of home demonstration work in Florida. Miss Mary E . Keown was appointed state agent on that date, transferred from the position of district agent for East Florida which she has filled since 1927. A specialist in textiles and clothing, Miss Clarine Belcher, was appointed in January, the first additional position to be created in the State Home Demonstration office in the past 10 years. The position of Negro district home demonstration agent, vacant since 19 3 3, was filled in August by the appointment of Beulah S. Shute. Boards of County Commissioners in Putnam, Madison and Sumter counties made appropriations in October for establishing home demon stration work in their counties and agents were placed in those counties during the month. Records show that home demonstration work is conducted in 529 rural communities. Organized home demonstration clubs for women number 327 with a membership of 8,141. Home demonstration work for girls, known as 4-H work, has an enrollment of 9,712, working in 479 clubs, an increase of 507 over 1935. The home demonstration agents-state, district and county-develop a plan of work which makes reliable information on agricultural and home making subjects available to people who want it, at the time they need it, and in the form in which it can be used by them. Specialists provide subject-matter information on their particular phases of work and assist in evolving effective methods of teaching both adults and girls. EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING OF HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS Following the policy established for some years, home demonstration agents to be appointed in Florida are expected to have at least a bachelor's degree in home economics with additional training and experienc e in rural

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Annual Report, 1936 75 life which will provide a satisfactory background for successful home dem onstration work. In filling the positions open during the year, well trained people were secured. Demands have been so heavy and services of agents so much needed that Extension Service workers have not had opportunity for leave from their posts of duty for additional study which many of them desire in order to render more useful service to the farm families with whom they work. Conferences of men and women agents to bring to them specific seasonal information as well as program-planning conferences for the general development of a state-wide Extension Service program have been arranged by the supervisory staff. District agents and specialists aided the agents throughout the year to keep abreast with useful professional information needed in their work. DETERMINING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM The program of Home Demonstration Work must meet the needs and desires of the rural people of Florida as recognized and expressed by the people themselves, and is determin e d finally by facts available on 'present farm conditions. Information secured from agricultural outlook material is used in developing the program. Economic data assembled by the specialists and supervisory staff are s tudied and interpreted in terms of family living in Florida. Finding s of research workers from the Experiment Station are applied to Florida conditions . Such information is presented to state and county workers and to individual club members, community clubs, county councils and committees who work with the agents to determine the most helpful programs to be carried on during the year. Home demonstration -agents analyze situations aff e cting the farm homes in their respective counties, and confer with supervisors and specialists regarding them. County councils composed of representatives of each organized community in the county discuss with their agent the community and county needs and decide on the goals to be set for the year ahead. Long-time as well as immediate objectives for their unified and county-wide efforts have been determined by each council and this determines the general plans for home demonstration work. Therefore, no two counties . have conducted id e ntical programs nor expect the same results. The type of work developed in each of the 37 counties also depends on the length of time in which home demonstration work has been established-for example, many counties have conducted the program continuously for 20 years or more while others have been at work only for the past few months, and still other counties have no organized home demonstration work conducted by a county worker and must look to the state office for the . assistance they secure. The supervisory staff has studied these varying needs and with the help of the home demonstration agents guide the development of the kind of program that renders the most useful service. Successful home demonstration work, as its nam e implies, is based on the establishrpent in the home by a member of the farm family who has the help and advice of the home d e mon s tration agent, of a demonstration which puts into use in that home improved methods of doing the everyday home tasks . or of using the agricultural resources of that home or com munity so that the demonstrator secures better living for herself and members of the . family. By conducting this definitely planned demon stration under actual home . conditions and with the facilities available, the demonstrator realizes through the simple records she keeps and the

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension results she secures, the advantages of this effort to herself and her family. She is encouraged to undertake further improvements. The demonstration not only brings satisfaction to the members of the family most concerned but it stands as an object lesson to the community and others are inspired to follow the example of their neighbor. So justifiable pride in the results of successful enterprise comes to the demonstrator and real community leadership is developed a factor greatly needed in all rural life. Better living for most farm families in Florida has required greater production or conservation at home of the food supply needed by the family so t!;iat the amount of available cash, usually limited, might be spent not for food which could be supplied through their own efforts but for other goods or enterprises which contribute to better living. Therefore home demonstration work in Florida encourages year round gardens, calendar orchards, farm poultry flocks, home cows, canning and preserving, all conducted as a part of a careful plan for adequate family nutrition, Pro ductive phases of the work have contributed also to the cash income of many farm families as shown by the fact that sales from these home industries brought $199,863.14 in cash to farm women and girls in 1936. Every bona-fide 4-H club girl is required to conduct a "living, groVl(ing demonstration" in her own home. This demonstration may be gardening, poultry, beekeeping, or related project. In addition to production, the girl Emrolled learns to use these products of the farm on the farm table. This work gives her an understanding of the relation of agricultural activities to better farm family living and at the same time, can furnish some cash income to enable the girl to realize other goals. . A well fed, healthy family, a well clothed family with the members living in a comfortable, attractive home-all this accomplished through their own efforts by using the resources at hand-might be stated as the goal of home demonstration work in Florida. In 1936, likewise in all the 24 years since its establishment in Florida, this program of work has offered as sistance to rural people in planning and securing these objectives. The 17,853 girls and women who are members of the 806 organized clubs have become real local leaders and dynamic forces in securing com munity progress. So great has been the development of the capability of these leaders that 1,404 women and girls last year acted as volunteer local leaders for the agents, each one especially trained in some phase of home demonstration subject matter and serving as chairman of that particular activity in her county to which she devoted considerable time. To meet the demands on their time and energy it has been necessary for the agents to plan their work carefully, using every available means to serve the people and to cooperate 'with other agencies which desire assistance from them. The agents have held 11,098 meetings this year as com'pared with 10,135 in 1935, but it is interesting to note that 213,529 people attended these meetings in 1936. as against 141,270 in 1935. This increase of 72,359 shows that interest of the general public is increasing. At the same time, the agents have had 42,642 calls at their offices, answered 24,894 inquiries made over the telephone, and 2,838 news stories were written for the local press-other means of reaching people with timely information they desire. The success of home demonstration work depends on the agent having first-hand information of the home situations and the confidence of the women and girls enrolled. Therefore, each agent allowed time in planning her schedule to make visits to the homes and farms. Last year the agents made 18,493 home visits to 7,939 homes in addition to all other organized work.

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Annual Report, 1936 77 RESULTS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to develop a wider use of the agricultural resources of the state and to improve farm family living, naturally its plan of work emphasize,s food for the family properly produced, used and conserved. When fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, poultry and dairy products are produced at home, the result is econom:ical, well-balanced meals and 'healthy, well-nourished families. To contribute to the family food supply, maintain the health of the family, and increase the family income, particular attention has been given to the following phases with results as stated -below: Poultry: Fundamentals emphasized were growing healthy chicks and pullets, growing green feed, culling, calendar flock records, junior 'poultry work, and the egg quality program. Reports show that 1,753 women and 1,235 girls followed. recommended practices in the management of poultry flo::ks which included 25,863 standard-bred chickens. Eggs and poultry products were sold to the amount of $95,337.27 . . Home Dairying: Herein the aim has been to improve the quality and increase the quantity of milk used at home through better management and with a view to better nutrition. Club members have bought 701 dairy cows, and 2,167 families report using a quart of milk for each child and . a pint for each adult. Gardening and Perennial Plantings: Under this heading was emphasized a year-round supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the health of the family, increasing the income by lowering cash expenditures and 'planning for the sale of surplus products, improvement and beautification of the home through planting useful ornamentals and native shrubs and flowers, including county flowers both annual and perennial. Vegetable gardens were grown by 4,718 4-H club girls and 4,178 women; 3,354 all-year gardens were grown by women and girls. Conservation: Food conservation through canning and preserving has assured a more varied diet for many families and eliminated waste of fruits and vegetables in the garden, fields, groves and packinghouses. It has promoted the use of Florida products and furnished a means for increasing the family income. Club members have made canning budgets. The program of conservation deals with serving economical, well balanced, satisfying, attractive meals from the garden and orchard, farm, grove, meats, poultry, fish and other Florida products. A total of 1,815,980 quarts of good food were saved by women and in addition 127,852 quarts of foods were canned by -H girls; 420,281 pounds of meat were cured by home demonstration families. If .these 1,794,684 quarts of fruits and vegetables are valued at only 10 cents a quart and the 149,148 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, the farm women and girls have saved more than $254,042 through home canning. Utilization-Food, Nutrition and Health: Utilization of Florida farm foods in the state has increased, and women and girls are greatly interested in the value of different foods needed by the farm family to 'protect health and prevent disease. Careful planning, producing, utilizing and wise buying of the family food supply safeguarded the health and insured satisfactory distribution of the cash income to meet the needs and desires of hundreds of Florida families. For example, 3,696 women were enrolled as demon strators; 3,498 girls completed demonstrations in 35 counties; 1,863 families in 32 counties planned, produced and preserved a home food supply, and 2,365 families followed food buying recommendations in 25 counties. Home

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension demonstration women adopted better methods of food preparation in 23 counties as follows: In baking, 1,550 women; meat cookery, 1,171; vege table cookery, 2,008; dairy products, 687; poultry products, 1,169, and 5,997 families in 34 counties reported serving better balanced meals. Clothing for the Family: Meeting the clothing needs of the farm family with the related problems of buying and construction of clothing has been the basis of the clothing work accomplished. Assistance has been given in planning, selecting, constructing and caring for clothing in the home, with the goal of saving money and time and enabling mem bers of the family to be well dressed at low cost. Showing their interest in this instruction 10,817 girls and women were enrolled for clothing con struction and 1,672 method demonstrations were given on clothing subjects. Horne Engineering: Objectives in home engineering have been to save the health and strength of women by having water and lights put in the home; to have some means of sewage disposal; to build new homes after a plan which will save time and strength and protect the health of the family and which will be well constructed and beautiful; to protect the life of equipment on hand through proper care. It is reported that 636 houses were painted and 61 whitewashed; 1,771 kitchens improved; 188 water . systems and 24 sunshine water heaters installed. Horne Sanitation and Health: Education of farm people to the dangers and sources of hookworm, the mosquito and other avoidable sources of disease has been included in all phases of home demonstration work. Protection against them through clean premises and other recommended methods has been shown so that all members of the family may be well and happy. In this phase of work the State Board of Health, physicians, sanitary engineers and nurses have given splendid cooperation in rendering more effective service in improving sanitary conditions in and around the home and in the community. One hundred twenty-five sewage disposal plants were installed; 456 homes screened; 249 sanitary toilets built. Electrification: With power lines extending into rural areas agents have given considerable time to showing the value of electric appliances in the home and to securing information on costs and possibilities of ex tended service. Horne Management: Home demonstration agents have developed the idea of management and wise planning in connection with all phases of work. Increased interest has been shown generally in better management through use of time, energy and income. Account keeping, business centers and family councils on the family budget have increased. The home management program has emphasized improved laundry practices, re arrangement of equipment for convenience and time saving, sanitation for health,. and above .all, everyday good housekeeping. Reports show that 2,118 women improved everyday good housekeeping; 961 kept home ac counts; 815 budgeted their expenditures. Consumer Education: A knowledge of their responsibilities as con sumers has caused many home demonstration women to request help on purchasing. To know what standards to expect in return for an invest ment has beei:i taught in connection . with all phases of work and 1,393 women report making a study of buying methods in order to save money and know values. House Furnishings: Emphasis has been given to furnishings which can be secured at low cost or made at home and to the wise purchasing of permanent furnishings. An attractive, economically furnished home has . proved a direct source of family happiness to many Florida families

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Annual Report, 1936 79 during 1936. In all, 2,00 3 women and girls repaired and remodeled furni ture and 931 refinished walls and floor s . Beautification of Home Grounds: There were 2,375 women and 1,735 girls who made definite plans for beautifying the home by suitable plant ing s , u s ing native plants and u s eful ornamentals, with every county urged to plant the county flower. liome Marketing-Money-Making Home Industries: Because the cash income of farm families often is too low to provide for needed purchases or to allow desired im ' provements in the home, farm women and girls have sought ways of supplementing that family income. They have utilized surplus products or . planned to produce specific products which could be u s ed in the manufacture of standardized quality articles for sale. Through the tourists who seek products with local color and through their own initiative in finding markets . still undeveloped, home demon s tration women and girls have found ready sale for quality products and . in consequ e nce have realized a considerable addition to their incomes. Sales reported by women and girls were made from the following cqmmodities: Baked products, using Florida marmalades , jellies, etc ...... .......... . $ 6,087.47 12,715.17 25,798.50 19,007.07 95,337.27 21,573.96 Canned products .... ... ... . ............... ... ... ......... . . . .................. .... ............. ...... .. . Fresh vegetables from home gardens .... .... ............ ..... . .. .. . ....... : . .. ... .... . Fresh fruits from calendar orchards . . .. ..... .... . . . ... .... .. . . ... ...... .. ... . .. . . ... . Eggs and poultry .. .. ...... . . . ......... .. .. .. ..... . .. . ... .. . .. . . ..... . ... .. . . . .. ... : ...... . . .. .. .... .. . Butter, milk and cottage chee s e ................ . . . . . ........... . . . .................. .. . . .. . Other articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native products, honey, etc.) ........ . .... . ....... . ..... .. . .... ... . .. . ..... ..... .. . .... .. ... .... . . . . . 19,343.70 $199,863.14 Community Activities: Women and girls have been encouraged to show wholesome interest in community needs. All clubs have been re sponsible for at least one community-wide activity. Emphasis has been given to keeping up the morale of the rural people through maintenance of good health, provi s ion of good reading material, and through inexpen sive forms of family and community recreation. Permanent community houses have been secured in 48 communities and 49 rural libraries have been established. Special recreation schools for training leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted by the National Recreation Association and Extension workers in six counties. Community achievement programs and dis ' plays of work have been held in 114 communitie s with an attendance of 98,775 persons; 85 tours to established demonstrations were conducted during the year; 1,879 home demonstration members made improvements in school and ch . urch grounds. METHODS AND PLANS FOR DEVELOPING AND STRENGTHENING THE WORK As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions and outlook data and discuss these facts in the light of local needs with the agent and council members to assist them in determining the most helpful service the agent can render during the year. Goals for the year are then set up. Supervisory Program: The supervisory staff of the state office em phasized the development of the . following objectives for their work. in all counties during the year:

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension 1. Assisting in developing the type of programs that would meet the needs of the greatest number of rural peo ple . . 2. Adapting our immediate programs to meet present conditions, at the same time carrying out and giving emphasis to our permanent and . long-time demonstrations in the homes. 3. Serving a larger number of people in each county maintaining home demonstration work through wider use of local leaders wherever possible and by urging each home demonstration member to be responsible for passing information along and interesting at least two non-members. Older 4-H girls were urged to act as leaders for younger girls. 4. Rendering some definite assistance in unorganized counties to spread more widely the influence of home demonstration work. 5. Further development of home demonstration clubs, county and state councils, increasing number of standard clubs and councils, working with larger number of older girls, maintaining high percentage of completions, and securing better records. 6. Giving more attention to efficient distribution of agent's time and work in county; and distribution of the time of specialists, district agents, and state agent. 7. Working out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance. 8. Emphasizing the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging records, more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations. 9. Giving preference in the employment of new agents as far as train ing is concerned to college graduates who . have majored in home economics and had at least two years' teaching or similar experience. Newly ap pointed agents have spent several days in the state office prior to assum ing their duties in the county, to become more familiar with available material and methods used in develo ' pment of the work. 10. Staff. conferences regarding the development of home demonstra tion activities were held each month as far as practicable, in the state home demonstration agent's office, and conferences of the entire extension staff were arranged as often as the director found it advisable to call them. Farm and home demonstration agents were encouraged to work jointly in developing county agricultural councils and in county agricultural plan ning activities. In conducting effective home demonstration work certain principles and methods proved valuable in all counties and the plans and programs of all agents have taken the fol'owing into consideration: Demonstrations Established in the Homes: Home demonstration clubs for women and girls and .county councils are chief avenues through which the home agent works; special events are arranged as the . district and county agents think advisable to create interest and spread the influence. Plans of Work: A definite program and plan of work is required of each home demonstration worker at the beginning of the year and results accomplished are checked at the close of the year, serving as a gauge of success or failure and a guide for future plans. By having a well planned, unified program based on needs and with each worker assuming her share of responsibility and making a definite plan for doing her part, far-reaching results have been secured. Clubs and Councils: All agents follow a regular schedule of organized club meetings, usually meeting with each senior and junior club once each month: The county councils usually meet quarterly. State and district agents :frequently accompany the agent to club and council meetings, thus learning the situations in the county and forming a friendly and under

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Annual Report, 1936 81 standing contact with the people of the county. Specialists work in the counties according to definite plans as the assistance is needed and they also aid the agent in formulating effective methods for carrying out her work. Records: Simple but practical record books prepared by the state staff are furnished to each home demonstration member so that she may keep an accurate record of her own work. Statistics used in this report are compiled from such record books. These records serve as a stimulus to greater achievement and give valuable factual data on needs and opportun itie s for service which the home demonstration agent may give in rural homes . Exhibits: Many girls and women have realized the satisfaction of show ing to their friends on Achievement Day their worthwhile achievements and these have served to spread Extension information. Thirty-four coun ties report 300 events at which were shown educational exhibits carefully judged so that exhibitors might have quality standards and compare their improvement and quality with that of their neighbors. Publicity: Newspapers throughout the state have been generous in the amount of space given to news stories and seasonal information of value to rural people. Thirty~five counties report 2,838 news stories pub lished. News reporters appointed in home demonstration clubs, both girls and women, have learned to write simple reports of their activities and to s ubmit these stories to the local papers, giving these amateur reporters excellent experience and additional contact with local busine s s people. Eighteen agents report 38 radio talks given over WRUF and other radio stations. Florida 4-H girls and agents participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program presented from four stations in Florida in November. Circular letters have been used during the year to further extend useful information to per s ons who may not be able to attend organized club meetings or to visit the agent's office. Reports show 1,779 different circular letters written through the year. Tour: Farm people have proved that certain home activities are valu able from an economic standpoint and are eager to share this _ knowledge of better living with all who are interested. Fine reports have been made by the farm people themselves of the value of the pantry tour s , home improvement tours, garden tours, and other visit s to these successful dem onstrations. Eighty-five tours were reported with 3,462 interested persons attending. Better buying tours to business houses conducted in several counties familiarized the homemaker with local shops and their merchandise and trained the women in buying standards. Other tours to nearby counties or to the State College or University have been used as a means of educa tion and recreation for many groups of farm people. Bulletins and Circulars: During the year mimeographed and printed publications have been prepared on the subjects of gardening, conservation, nutrition, home improvement and clothing. Material for use in the cloth ing program is in preparation. Bulletins in greatest demand include those pertaining to food conservation, economical meals, and house furnishings. SPECIAL EVENTS TO MARK ACHIEVEMENT AND TO DEVELOP PROGRAM Achievement Days: Completion of the year's work in each community and county is observed by achievement programs and exhibits; These events give r e cognition to all members for worthy endeavor, help the demon

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension strator and the agent to check progress and .improve quality, and allow the public an opportunity to know more about the work in the county . . Fifty-one achievement days were held in 1936 by the women, with an attendance of 50,488, while the girls held 63 achievement programs attended by 48,287. In 1935 the total number of programs held was 93 as against 114 in 1936, but attendance rose from 12,640 to 98,775. Camps: The camps actually are short courses of training for the girls and women and provide a valuable means for giving instruction and recrea tion and generally strengthening the county home demonstration programs. During the . summer of 1936 33 camps were held for girls and 16 for women and were attended by 1,573 girls and 1,232 women. Many interested local people contributed to the . success of these camps by acting as instructors, and at the same time became familiar with plans of work in their counties. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H club girls and local leaders all aided the agents. Thirteen counties held camps at Camp McQuarrie in the Ocala National Forest and seven camped at Camp Timpoochee in the Chocta whatchee National Forest, both owned by the Extension Service and equipped through the combined efforts of extension workers and club members. A two-day farm and home institute held at Camp Timpoochee brought inspiration and recreation to adult farm people of West Florida. . Out-of-State Trips: Margaret Taylor of Escambia County and Beatrice Arnold of Dade County received awards of scholarship trips to the National 4-H Camp held in June. This camp is held annually under the direction of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. Only two 4-H girls and two 4-H boys may attend from each. state and these are selected for their achievement in club work and because of their leadership ability. In addition to the educational programs participated in by the club members, directed tours to interesting places in and about Washington add to the outstanding educational advantages of the cam p. Trips to the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago at the time of the International Live Stock Show are awarded by the State office to . Florida 4-H girls who have made excellent records in various phases of club work. These scholarship trips are given by interested business firms. Winners of these awards in 1936 were Toi Strickland of Holmes, Edith McKeown of Jackson, Louise Grantham of Jefferson, Harriet Wallace of Marion, and Frances Webb of Dade County. State Short Course for 4-H Girls: The 24th Annual . Short Course for 4-H Club Girls was held at Florida State College for Women in June. The capability and attitude of the girls themselves, their morale, the type of program and the greatly improved work seen in the counties as a result of the Short Course training, proves the wisdom of requiring tlrnt those girls awarded Short Course scholarships must be county winners at least 14 years old. There were 582 girls and 67 local leaders and 36 home dem onstration agents in attendance at the 1936 Short Course. Scholarships for club girls and leaders were p1;ovided by club members who earned the money for their representatives and by county commis sioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants arid interested individuals who wished to give this opportunity to girls of their county. Each girl who receives a scholarship is made responsible for making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing on to others the knowl edge she has gained, helping younger girls with their work, .and acquaint ing girls who are not members with the purpose and results of 4-H club . work:-in short, assisting the agent wherever she can. The "Short Course

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Annual Report, 1936 83 :girls" help effectively in county camps and in special programs in their own communities. All facilities of the . Florida State College for Women -were used during the course. Faculty, social directors, dietitians, college nurses, all gave their time and interest generously to make a successful pl'ogram. Dormitories, laboratories and classrooms we1e used exclusively by the girls during the week. Former 4-H club girls now in College served as leaders for the younger girls and were given responsibility for many details. The Junior Home Demonstration Council held its annual meeting during Short Course, electing Lorena Wetherbee of Orange County as president. The Junior Council maintains a scholarship fund to assist worthy club members to attend college. Home Demanstration Council for \Vomen: The Senior Home Demon . stration Council representing the 28 county councils participated in the program of the Woman's Institute in June and held its annual meeting at that time. Mrs. Nellie Murphy of Dade County was elected president . .State and county staff members assisted with the program and aided council members in planning their year's program of work. The Senior Council maintains a scholarship fund awarded to a worthy junior-year student at the Florida State College for Women who has been a 4-H club member and had a creditable record in club work and at college. Training Course for Local Leaders: A training course for volunteE\r local leaders was held as a part of the Short Course program, attended by 67 women, with special instruction in the history and program of home demonstration work, duties of a local leader, and methods for successfully assisting the agent in her program. The women given this course requested additional instruction, and many similar courses have been given in the counties. LOCAL LEADERS The work has grown to such an extent that in most counties it is im possible for the agent to meet all demands made on her time and energy. Furthermore, if the activities have grown as they should, the agent is not the only source of the kind of information included in the home demon stration 'program; rather the rural people themselves are passing along to others the useful knowledge they have gained. Records show that home demonstration women and girls have realized their responsibility and are . serving as volunteer local leade1s for the agent, strengthening work in the county and developing a fine type of leadership among rural people where it should be found. In 1936 1,472 persons acted as volunteer local leaders. Of this number 201 were older 4-H club girls helping with the _girls' program. That these project chairmen and 4-H local leaders might work effec tively, 63 special training meetings were held in the counties on subject matter and methods. In several counties groups of older 4-H girls or former 4-H girls now married or at work, have formed "Alumnae Clubs" to strengthen 4-H club work in their counties. The College 4-H Club, organized at the Florida State College for Women and . having a mempership in 1936 of 78 former 4-H girls, has become a recognized campus organization . Members help with the annual girls'. Short Course and aid freshmen to become acquainted with college life. Throughout the year these girls maintain close relationship with the State .Home Demonstration Office. SPECIAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS BY GIRLS There were 9,712 girls between 10 and 20 years of /ge in 479 clubs in 35 counties. The percentage of older girls doing active work with their

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension club program increases each ye;:ir. At present 6,418 members are below 14 years of age and 3,294 are 14 years old or more. A regular program to be executed progressively over a period of years is planned so that the girl may have the advantage of practical training in home making and agricultural duties which she naturally carried on in her own home as a member of the farm family. Each girl is expected to conduct a "productive" demonstration-poultry, gardening, beekeeping-so that she will learn the relationship of these activities to better family living and at the same time have opportunity to earn some money through applying successful business methods to these enterprises. Records are kept on all phases of 4-H work and at the end of the year the girl must exhibit her work and write a story of her progress. Each active club member each year conducts demonstrations in at least three phases of home demonstration work-one productive and two home making. Homemaking activities include different phases of home improve ment, yard beautification, food preparation, nutrition and health, canning and clothing. The demonstration is conducted in the home under ordinary living conditions but these demonstrations must be well thought out to meet family needs and means must be provided to carry them to completion. During 1936 71 percent of club girls completed their demonstrations and submitted their records for judging and scoring. Club meetings are conducted regularly so that the girls learn how to direct an orderly program and acquire poise and confidence and pride in their own achievements. They recognize the fact that real leaders earn that title through achievement and not appointment. National honors have come to Florida 4-H club girls this year. Frances Webb of Dade County, a fourth year girl, won first place in the clothing work competing with state winners of 42 other states. In addition to her clothing work Frances has excelled in home improvement and yard improve ment as well as leadership through her club and county council. Ruth Durrenberger, a 4-H club girl for seven years in Orange County, after graduation from a home economics course in college and a year's experience assisting in home demonstration work, was selected as winner of the Payne Fellowship which provides funds for a year's study in the United States Department of Agriculture. Girls from every state competed for this honor. Records of Florida State College for Women show that former 4-H club girls to the number of 101 have received their college degrees in the past 10 years and 15 earned two-year certificates. Campus honors have been earned by college 4-H girls through the election of Margaret Delaney to membership in Omicron Nu, honorary home economics society. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES The friendly relationships enjoyed with other organizations at work in the state has brought gratifying associations to home demonstration workers during the year and the recognition and courtesies extended by them to home demonstration work is acknowledged with appreciation. Nine School Boards in the state cooperate with the Extension Service in maintaining a budget for home demonstration work. School authorities in nearly all counties arrange for time for the agents to conduct 4-H club meetings where such arrangement has been desirable because of consolidated schools or lack of other community centers. The interest of the home demonstration club members, both girls and women, in community progress has made possible establishing school lunch rooms in rural schools, stimulating interest in securing departments of

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Annual Report, 1936 85 agriculture and home economics, establishment of school libraries, beauti fying school grounds and in otherwise assisting with educational institu tions. For example, last year 1,879 home demonstration members made definite improvements in beautifying school grounds and 49 home demonstration clubs established community libraries. . College and university authorities have arranged scholarships or given employment for deserving 4-H girls and boys otherwise unable to secure funds for their further education. Business Organizations of men and women throughout Florida have as sisted in strengthening home demonstration work by gaining an under standing of its purposes and by offering scholarships or awards for achieve ment of women and girls. The total value of such awards in 1936 was more than $5,000.00. Fair associations have worked with the agents in arrangements for exhibits of results of home demonstration work and their award lists have encouraged its objectives. State Board of Health: For years home demonstration agents have looked to the medical, nursing and health authorities of the state for reliable information to be used in their applied work in home and community health and sanitation. Fine assistance has been received from state and county officials and through the use of the printed bulletins and publica tions furnished by the State Board. Home demonstration agents under stand rural conditions and needs and because of their wide acquaintance with local people have been able to stimulate intelligent interest and sup port of the work of the health authorities . The State Congress of Parents and Teachers, through its state officials and particularly its home service de'partment, keeps in touch with home demonstration agents. The program of both organizations has developed in harmony and to mutual advantage. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs maintains a Department of Home Demonstration whose chairman is a former home demonstration agent, as is the chairman of the Department of Home Economics of the Federation and the editor of the Federation publication. The president of the State _Federation also has been a home demonstration agent recently, so the Federation can be expected to understand the purposes of home dem onstration work. Federation members have given strong support both in counties and in the state generally. County and state workers assist with programs before local clubs, which aid in furnishing scholarships for Short Course and club cam ps. National Better Homes Week: Each county home demonstration agent is county chairman of Better Homes Week and the State Home Improve ment Specialist is state chairman. Government and Emergency Agencies: Sometimes it has been a per plexing problem to know how to supply the kind and amount of cooperative assistance requested from this office by other agencies engaged in work in Florida, and at the same time to continue to develop the kind of permanent home demonstration program which renders the best service to rural people. The program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and Soil Conservation has affected the work of all extension agents. Home demon stration agents assumed their share of responsibility for explaining tb,e significance of this program to the farm families and to interested civic groups. Considerable effort has been made to bring about some under standing of national and international problems and situations as they relate to agricultural adjustments and how they affect the affairs of the individual farm family. Directors of the Resettlement Administration have been in constant touch with the home demonstration agents, both state and county. The

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.86 Florida Cooperative Extension . state home demonstration staff advised with the state director of resetUe ment on the program to be conducted and furnished subject-matter assist ance for its development. Recommendations for appointment of personnel were requested and given. The Works Progress Admini s tration, through its various divisions, has given assistance to county agents by assigning a certain number of certified local people to work under their direction. In cooperation with these agencies the office of home demonstration work has supplied them with s ubject-matt e r information, demonstration materials, exhibits, bulletins, and trained and supervised a large number of workers for their respectivE> duties as canning assistants, teachers, etc. The National Youth Administration has arranged for a number of young women and girls to assist in county offices, the agents thereby training the s e girl s to greater usefulness as a result of which numbers of the s e girls have been able to s e cure regular employment. Several former 4-H club girls have been enabled to work their way through Florida State College for Women using the NY A scholarships awarded them. The Farm Credit Administration through its divi s ion of Family Credit presented discussion s of family credit during the annual agents' conference and as a result the ag e nts have a better understanding of the purposes and development of agencies concerned with farm debt adjustment and credit, so they can assist farm families wherever possible. National Recreation Association: Special recreation schools for the training of leaders to develop community recreation have been conducted in six group centers of the state by re presentatives of the National Recrea t' on Association under the direction of extension agents. Recreation Councils formed in five counties were composed of men and women, boys and girls interested in community life. MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS The content of this report and the miscellaneous facts quoted below :S ubstantiated by records in the state and county offices indicate considerable progress in the home demonstration program in Florida during the last y e ar and the accomplishment of practical results. The records show the following: An increase of three counties making financial arrangements to employ : home demonstration agents. Number of women enrolled increased by more than 1,000. Number of girls enrolled in 4-H clubs increased by 500. 31 more clubs organized for women than in 1935. 213,529 people attended home demonstration meetings compared with 141,270 in 19 3 5. 42,642 calls were made by p e ople at agents' offices compared to 31,193 last year. Telephone inquiries made to office increased during last year by 4,132 to a total of 24,894. Nearly 100 additional local leaders volunteered their services for the year, making the number now 1,472. The family food supply increased-amount of food canned doubled from 1;02 3 ,817 quart s in 1935 to 2,366,532 in 1936. Number of lighting systems installed increased from 98 in 1935 to 224 in 1936. Number of water systems increased from 107 to 188. 956 homes remodelled by demonstrators compared with 6G2 in 1935. Women and girls added to the family cash income by sales of home produced articles totaling $199,863.14.

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Annual Report, 1936 87 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation The entire program of home demonstration work in Florida carries the ideal of "the more abundant life for every family", a higher standard of living, better housing, better food, better clothes, labor-saving equip ment, leisure and facilities for travel, education, recreation, and the develop ment of cultural and spiritual values ever before the workers. That part dealing with gardening and food conservation, forms the basis of a well conceived plan for family nutrition and at the same time furnishes the medium for securing a substantial part of the funds that will enable the Fl01ida rural family to realize the ideals set forth above. However, owing to extent, topography, the variation in soils, climate, seasons and drainage, and the many types of occupations by which Florida people earn their livelihoods, the "live-at-home" program must be modified to meet varying conditions and situations in different parts of the state. Nevertheless, it is believed that the majority of families living in rural sections can produce much of the food that is needed in the home, and can add greatly to their food supply and family income. The promotion, therefore, of year-round gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings and their cultivation, the preparation and utilization of surplus products according to the newest knowledge of canning technology, that the family shall have a balanced and healthful food supply, composes a large part of the program of the Economist in Food Conservation. In addition, the income obtained through lowering cash expenditures for food and by the sale of surplus fruits and vegetables, both fresh and canned, is an item of increasing importance and promotes thrift and economy in the home. Also, the improvement and beautification of the farm home through the increased plantings of not only the "economic orna mentals" but also of native shrubs and flowers, particularly the "county" flower, all tend to develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional values of Florida fruits and vegetables, and the part they play in making a finer farm life. GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS Records submitted on gardening activities show 3,354 year-round gar dens with a cash valuation of $42,711.80 for vegetables sold, and 4,178 part-time gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase of 367 in the number of year-round gardens made this year. Club girls to the number of 4,784 enrolled in gardening in 1936. Florida home demonstration families not only supplied their homes with fresh vegetables but in many instances, high grade, well-standardized canned goods are achieved from the planned surplus of the farm and home garden. The gardens are grown with that idea in mind and one county alone reports an estimated value of $22,000 for vegetables grown by club members. Out of this $2,500 worth of canned vegetables were sold. Home -demonstration records for 1936 show that gardens have been worth from $150 to $1,375 to each family reporting. From the standpoint of health, they are worth infinitely more. A record shows that one family in a north Florida county spent only $45 for food and enough fresh vege tables were exchanged to pay this bill. The fresh vegetables pay for. many things. They buy food not produced on the farm, household comforts such as rugs, radios, cook stoves and curtains. They defray doctors' bills

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88 Florida Cooperati-ve Extension and make contributions to the preacher. All this is due to better farm and garden management as worked out in the home demonstration program. CALENDAR ORCHARDS Many home demonstration agents report that the canning budget bas exerted a stimulating influence for more and varied plantings of fruit trees. For the year1936, the number of calendar orchards planted is given as 486. Plantings were made of 24,966 fruit trees, 69,783 berry vines, and 4,422 grape vines. Fresh fruit having a cash value of $19,007.07 was sold from 4,018 homes. FOOD CONSERVATION Making a budget of the canned food needs of the family and canning according to that budget as well as a surplus for emergencies and barter has still been the project of greatest interest and progress in the home demonstration program of work. As stated before; food conservation logically follows production in the live-at-home program and cannot well be separated. Likewise, food conservation and the canning budget are inseparable and the counties have responded well to what is planned to be not only an asset to the family health, but a creative and a remunerative program. Reports indicate that the majority of club members still figure that 600 containers or more of canned foods are needed to meet Florida conditions in nearly all sections of the state. In fact, many fill considerably more than that amount and convincingly justify their budgets. Canning projects enrolled 3,624 4-H club girls who filled 107,852 containers. The total amount of canning done by women in 1936 has more than doubled over the amount canned in 1935; the women canned 2,366,532 quarts of fruits, vegetables, meats and fish. Since recent research tends to prove that where fine fresh foods only ar e used for canning and the latest information on processing procedures is used in selecting, preparing, precooking, processing, cooling and storing, the final products serve admirably in place of the same products freshly cooked. For this reason, many club members feel that it is far more prac tical and less expensive to can abundantly of certain vegetables during the season of their best growth and nutritive value and discontinue the struggle against climatic conditions, pests, arid other ills that menace production in Florida at certain times in the year. CANNING CONTESTS A total of 871 women from 27 counties entered three jars each in the Three-Jar-Can-for-Quality Contest featured for 1936. This consisted of one choice vegetable, one fruit, and a fine meat. This contest created in the participants a desire for improvement in their canning practices. Scoring of the containers submitted is done by the women themselves under the direction of a home demonstration agent. Through the judging of their own handiwork and that of their neighbors, women learn to recognize not only what constitutes high grade products as to nutritive value, but develop and fix standards of workmanship which are guides and incentives toward further achievement in the newer knowledge of canning technology. The Canning Budget with its achievement days, concluding tours and pantry. displays is stimulating and worthwhile as may be determined from the records, stories and publicity material received. That this contest has influenced the building of better, more convenient and efficient storage places so greatly needed in rural homes, is also learned from county reports.

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Annual Report, 1936 89 The many minor phases of the productive program of home demon stration work-beekeeping, growing and using herbs, utilizing native material, standardizing fancy packages of canned and preserved products, baked articles such as orange breads and citrus cakes, all delicious and distinctive-continue to serve not only to promote Florida products, but also to increase the income of farm families.

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist The food, nutrition and health program for 1936 in general emphasized the importance of planning, producing, conserving and utilizing the family food supply n e cessary to m e et nutritional needs of the farm family. It was developed from factual information collected over a period of years and was based on the Outlook for Farm Family Living as adapted to meet the needs of Florida farm families. Through the cooperative planning of the entire Extension Staff it was possible to furnish interested farm people with reliable information and to assist them to recognize their own problems and in this way help them to develop a program through their own efforts which met their individual family needs and conditions. During 1936, 4,793 families reported the use of timely economic information as a basis for readjusting their plans for the family food supply. In making a practical plan the several types of farming areas were considered because the same conditions that determine types of farming influence farm tenure, income, food supply, food habits and customs, standards of living, and ways of thinking of the people of the farm. Taking into consideration types of farming areas, income levels, dietary habits, climatic and soil factors that affect production and storage of food, modified plans for the food supply to fit various conditions were made: first, for farm families with very small cash income and little op ' portunities for producing the food supply; second, for large trucking areas where it is possible to have large gardens and a good supply of fruit but little possibility for livestock or poultry for food purposes; third, for sections as on the coast, in flatwoods or grazing areas where much of the soil is sandy or sub-marginal; and fourth, for families who have considerable capital and good possibilities for food 'production. The ultimate goal of the food, nutrition and health program i s to have every farm family benefit itself and others in the community by empha sizing, (1) the necessity of balanced diet for health, (2) the plan for a family food supply, (3) the production, conservation and utilization at home of dairy and poultry products, vegetables, fruits, meats, . and honey with the surplus developed into standardized quality products for sale; ( 4) food storage under the temperature and humidity conditions character istic of the area; (5) the principles of food preparation with special emphasis on quality standards; (6) meal planning, including attention to special needs of mothers and children; and (7) intelligent buying of foods that are not produced. Demonstrations were established in the homes by the 3,696 women and 3,498 girls completing their work in 1936 to meet some individual or family need in food, nutrition and health. These women and girls benefitted from improved farm and home nutritional practices and at the same time served as demonstrators for teaching and inspiring other families of the community to adopt similar plans in their homes. The home demonstration agent s, extension nutritioni s t and other specialists assisted, advised and stimulated these demonstrators by home visits, conferences, letters, bulletins and other material. Two hundred and three meetings were held at these result demonstrations in 16 counties. The food, nutrition and health program has been divided into two phases: "Feeding the Family Program" for the adults enrolled, and the "Healthy Living Program" for the girls enrolled.

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Annual R epo1 t, 19 36 91 WORK WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN The general purpose of the nu trition program for women ha s been to promote careful planning, producing, utilizin g and wise buying of the family food s upply essential for good nutrition and h ea lth, and to develop a sense of responsibility of t h e h ome-maker for the health of the individual s of h er family and the commu nity . Essentials for Good Nutrition: In many countie s thi s demonstration wa s begu n by empha s izing the factor s necessary for good nutrition ( milk or fresh air, s un sh in e, happiness, re st , food and posture); adequate food and preparation and u ses of t he classes of foods. In str u ction was given about foo d s necessary for building, repairing, and protecting the body as well as furnishing e n e rgy. Every individual enrolled was e ncourag e d to l e arn how to se lect food, thus under sta nding the value of food, the body requirements and protection against dietary diseases through proper food se l ection and preparation. A s im ple record in the form of a score card s howing daily food habits and suggested goa l s for achievement was kept in connection with this demo n stration by each woman enrolled. This demonstration on meal planni n g and preparation of foods essential for good nutrition was estab li s h ed in man y commu niti es and counties. Th e " F ee din g the Famil y" record card wa s used by women enro lled fo r chec kin g food se l ectio n , h ea l t h of the family members , tab l e service, and h ospita lity. I r AIOS IN A U[ll BALANCED f Mil y s~r PLY Fig. 4.-Food supply budgets for the year enable farm familie s to grow and pre se rv e enough products for their own need s , and some to s pare.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension Method demonstrations on kinds of food needed in a balanced diet, meal planning, table service, diets for overweight and underweight, posture, and invalid cookery were given to individuals and groups when the need of such work was found through analyzing the general food habits and health situations in the homes and community. A total of 5,997 families reported they had served better planned meals as a result of the nutrition program. Also 2,196 girls and women reported improving their posture according to teachings of the home demonstration agents, and 2,435 girls and women in 24 counties reported improved health practices._ Planning, Providing and Utilizing the Family Food Supply Essential For Good Nutrition: Planning a yearly, weekly, and daily food su pply, meal planning, food buying, child feeding, school lunch, special diets, and enter taining in th e home were features of this program. Two thousand homemakers report they packed the school lunches of their children according to recommendations of the home demonstration agents in 31 counties. Ninety schools in 16 counties followed recommenda tions for a hot dish added to the school lunch or established a school lunch. The record kept by the demonstrators was the "Yearly Farm Food Supply". Annual achievement exhibits, tours and meetings were held where the demonstrators showed and discussed their achievements and gave reports on the results as shown by their records. The exhibits consisted of displays in homes, stores, fairs, or achievement day group meetings. PROGRAM FOR GIRLS IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK The general purpose of the junior or "Healthy Living Program" is to develop with each of the 3,498 girls completing their demonstrations an understanding of and a desire for positive health through the recognition of the contribution made by proper food selection and preparation to her normal growth and deve!opment; to stimulate her interest in school lunches; and to create a feeling of responsibility in the girl towards securing an adequate sanitary and economical food supply for family and community through home production and home consumption. This program is divided into the four demonstrations: Health Improvement, Food Preparation arid Meal Planning, Baking, and Judging Baked Goods. Health Improvement: At the beginning of this demonstration, each girl enrolled made a check on her health, using a chart to show where improvements should be made, and listed means that she could use to improve her health. Ariother check was made at the end of the year to note improvements as a result of following the health program. This result demonstration included right selection of food, good posture, care of teeth and eyes, cleanliness, and mental and physical health improve ment. Some activities of this demonstration were physical examination given through the cooperation of 'physicians, health units and county nurses; monthly health and posture programs composed of demonstrations, songs, stunts, playlets, etc. A health improvement and posture handbook and records were supplied for developing this program. Emphasis was placed on improving the health as well as maintaining good physical condition of the girl enrolled. Food Preparation and Meal Planning: Under this demonstration each 4-H girl checked her food and health habits during the year to note improve ment and need for further improvements and at the end of the . year on Achievement Day made an exhibit of her food preparation work. This food preparation work included the selection and preparation of vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, meats and cereals, meal planning and preparation of breakfast, dinner, and supper. As a final achievement the girl took complete charge

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Annual Report, 1936 93 of the family cooking for at least two weeks, planning, preparing and serving three balanced meals each day. The girls report they planned and served 9,273 meals during the year and prepared 43,017 food dishes for their families. Baking and Judging Baked Products: This demonstration was planned for girls who had been enrolled for some time in food preparation work and were 14 or more years old. Each member checked her own food and health habits. She showed an exhibit of required baked products with record and story for the year in which she -was enrolled and made a recipe box containing recipes used. Individual and team demonstrations were developed in connection with this phase of nutrition work on the preparation and judging of breads, cakes, pies and making of recipe files and community, county and state contests. A 4-H club baking guide and record with mimeographed supplement giving general directions and recipes was supplied to the 4-H club members enrolled. The Young Homemaker: The Young Homemaker program for older 4-H club members included planning and preparing family foods, school lunch, meals, and parties for special occasions, invalid cookery, helping with marketing, making recipe files, gift boxes, etc., and assisting with younger members of the family. These club members also assisted with the family food supply demonstration in planning of food budgets and keeping records . SPECIAL ACTIVITIES In addition to regular county activities, special work was done in food, nutrition and health by girls attending the Annual 4:H Club Short Course and at camps. Special method demonstrations were given in food selection and preparation, baking, meal planning, posture, self-improvement, and health. These especially trained girls returned to their counties and assisted in further development of the "healthy living program" by acting as demonstrators in the different activities. RESULTS OBTAINED In summing up the year's results it has been evident that families who have adopted the food supply plan are realizing a more satisfying life by living on more home produced commodities and less cash. This was an important point, since prices of many of the food commodities formerly purchased by farm families had increased in price, thus making it almost impossible to supply family needs and have any desirable standard of living unless these commodities were produced for family use on the farm. Pr_o ducing at home many foods formerly purchased, such as breads, cereals, canned products, and cured meats, was a means of raising health standards and conserving cash income.

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement The limited cash income of many rural families in Florida is a facfor which iust be considered in planning home im ' provement. Better incomes mean better homes. The activities of the en t ire farm with its soils, its farm enterprises, its farm crops and livestock, its production of food fot: the family, enter into any plan for home improvement. Therefore, the estab lishment of a demonstration in home improvement is valuable to the community as well as the individual and the 2,464 farm women and 1,958 girls who ,have conducted such demonstrations in 1936 have contributed to , the economic as well as esthetic wellbeing of the community. POINTS EMPHASIZED Home improvement work for home demonstration girls hi1 . s been planned : to furnish definite instruction and assistance to the girls enrolled in 4-H clubs. The demonstrations have been outlined definitely to cover work . which a girl may accompfo,h in one year and follow a progressive plan for improving the entire home over a number of years. The demonstrations . include the following: Better Housekeeping-emphasizing definite home tasks performed daily in the home; care of rooms. Porch lmprovement-care of porch; room improvement. Heme Sanitation-emphasizing the possibilities of cleaning up the home premises and trying to induce others in the neighborhood to do the same. Beautification of Home Grounds-starting with simple foundation plant ings of periwinkles and leading on to more extensive beautification of yard : with grass, shrubbery, flowers, vines, trees, and stepping stones. The Home Improvement program for women has been divided into the ' phases of home management, rural engineering, home furnishings, thrift, home sanitation, beautification of home grounds, electrification, and planningthe entire home site. In this way definite assistance is given to the demonstrator along the lines in which she wishes to conduct her home demonstration. The slogan used in home improvement work is: "Health and Comfort for the Fann Family and Beauty and Orderliness in the Farm Home". Planning the program to meet the needs of the family . as a whole has received emphasis during the year. Making a house plan on paper has . inspired many people in their thinking about the new home they plan fo build or the old one which might be remodeled. Home demonstration members have given thought to the various types of roof most suited to the use in sections of Florida where they live, also of all building material, . insulation; heating and cooling devices; good lighting, both natural and artificial, for comfort as well as to encourage more night reading; storage space; larger and more private sleeping areas; and a dining room for rural families so they may assemble together to enjoy social contacts with . other members of the family, also where the growing children may get . admonition and inspiration from their parents. HOME MANAGEMENT The home management program presents the idea that the farm woman : has a responsibility for being interested and for having information in:

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Annual Report, 1936 95 :matters of the farm which pertain to the general wellbeing of the family. Emphasis in the home management program has been given to the value of planning for food production, food conservation, clothing conservation . and adequate storage spaces because these factors influence better family living . In many of the farm enterprises the farm women must 'participate . actively, and in most of them she needs to take an intelligent interest. Farm families have been encouraged to set definite goals for home imp1ovement. Some of the goals can be achieved without cash expenditures while for others, money is required . "Time" and its expenditure has been given a larger con s ideration; "Jiving rich" is also being stressed more, thus bringing about more apprecia tion of the esthetic things of life, starting with the beautiful flowers and fruits about the farm home; the joy of harmonious and healthful living; .nature study of insects for 4-H club members; time for a "hobby"; time for more love and consideration in the family and in the neighborhood, and tim e ' to contemplate and meditate. A larger viewpoint has come to the family because of the radio, and librari e s which are being established in the rural communities and in many hom e s where books are bought for the family reading; reading centers with electric lights or brilliant lamps for night reading; business centers .ior keeping the family up with economic data. Home demonstration families report they subscribe to 4,008 magazines and newspapers. All this shows . a healthful growth and change. It seems the family old and young enj o y staying at home more because of this new emphasi s and the added comfort they find there. The limited capital income of the rural family is a great handicap in .normal times, and it is necessary. to consider carefully ways and means for the accomplishment of desired improvements in the home. Adoption of a family budg.et or account keeping has helped many families to find the mon e y for the needed home improvements. In 1936, 453 families kept home . accounts and 470 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to avoid unwise buying. HOME ENGINEERING Popular goals for the year in home engineering are those built upon th e findings of the Farm Housing Survey as applied to the local community and its houses. These facts have served as a measuring rod for the thinking of the men in the family and for discus s ions at community meetings. Demonstrators have made a li s t of needed improvements with an estimated cost for same. With a knowledge of the expected income, the family is then able to set a home improvement goal for the year or longer which can be successfully carried out with all the family working and plan ning together. Remodeling, repairing and drawing on paper the kind of home they would like . to have, and studying good house plans so that they will know and appreciate a comfortable, convenient and healthful home has help e d many families . United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 1738 on Farm House Plans and Bulletin 17 49 on Modernizing Farmhouses hav e been invaluable in getting people to think and to "want" improvements. ' Reports show that 956 homes were remodeled according to plans :furni s hed by hon:ie demonstration agents, 294 more than in 1935, an increase of 30 % . More than twice as many lighting systems were purchased in 1936 as in 1935, and the number of water systems nearly doubled . . Definite goals for home improvement which will be enj_oyed by all :members of the family are set by the demonstrator after an analysis has been made of the needs and desires of the family. Consideration is given -to income and the possibility of productive and conservation activities so

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension that the goals set for accomplishment may not be beyond the possibility of accomplis hment. A bathroom with running water has been a popular goal; 1,791 families report they bought or made practical labor-saving equipment for their homes during 1936; 108 kitchens were completely renovated. HOME SANITATION The home sanitation project has emphasized clean, well kept p1 emi s es and conditions that promote the health of the family. Breeding places of the mosquito often cause losses of hundreds of dollars to Florida families because of time necessarily Jost from work by "chills and fever " (malaria), or from unnecessary doctor bills and medicine. The State Board of Health has cooperated with home demonstration agents in demonstrations of sanitary toilets and septic tank systems. In 1936 333 sanitary toilets were built and 111 sewage disposal plants were installed. The work done under the direction of the State Board of Health, in cooperation with Rural Rehabilitation and P. W. A. programs, has been valuable in arousing hundreds of people to the work of home sanitation through building outdoor toilets. The Malaria Catechism, issued by the State Board of Health, has shown many a "doubting Thomas" the cause of malaria. Demonstrators screened 536 homes against mosquitoes and flies in 1936. Special instruction on home sanitation was given to the 600 4-H girls attending the State Short Cour s e. Good results all over the state are seen following this leadership training. HOUSE FURNISHINGS Many families who have furnished their homes by the "thrift route" since 1924 now are buying good furniture and gradually furnishing their homes with better quality furnishings. More intelligent purchasing of furnishings is evident where the income is limited; a 'growing' room is stressed where certain essential pieces of furniture of good quality are purchased first and for the balance box furniture that is artistic and comfortable is used, looking forward to the purchase of other permanent units when money is available. Better treatment of walls and floors has been taught with the result that 1,526 women and girls reported they had refinished walls, woodwork or furniture. Wall paper has been used exten sively and insulation has been studied and installed in some homes. Home makers 1,393 strong have followed better buying practices in their shopping. Playrooms for their young children were made by 165 mothers. BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME GROUNDS The men of the family have seen that beautifying the home grounds and painting the house and out-buildings enhances the value of the rural home. Women and girls have studied good pictures of plantings; they have referred to Florida publications and the nursery catalogs to find out what should be planted in certain locations; they are studying the native shrub bery, also vines and trees, and are learning the names of Florida flowers. Reports of 1936 show that 923 lawns have been improved or planted; 1,500 families planted trees, vines or shrubbery; 674 stepping-stone wa~ks were made, mostly by 4-H club girls.

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Annual Report, 1936 97 CLOTHING AND TEXTILES Clarine Belcher, Specialist in Clothing and Textiles Clothing demonstrations have been established in the homes which would serve the needs of the rural families, and 10,817 women and girls were enrolled for clothing instruction in 1936. The program has been planned to be a growing and long-time endeavor, with an ever-enlarging goal for the provision of adequate clothing and textiles for the family and for the home. Factors considered in develo'ping the clothing program were the growing interest in the always popular subject of clothing, the varied economic situation of the families enrolled, the physical and climatic conditions of a Southeastern area, and the great diversity of practices and habits of rural families within the state. A definitely outlined clothing program for 4-H club girls has been conducted throughout the state since the beginning of home demonstration work in 1912, but the program for women's work had not been unified for the state as a whole until this year, although practical and far-reaching activities for women enrolled always have been conducted in all of the counties. PROGRAM WITH HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN AND GIRLS The clothing supply for the Florida farm family, with special emphasis on meeting wardrobe needs for the members of the family, is the basis of the clothing program for women. At present there are two definitely out lined demonstrations recommended for the women's work; one on construc tion of clothing and the other on better buying. Both of these demon strations were planned so that the woman demonstrator might improve her personal wardrobe. It is the plan later to add further demonstrations for the wardrobes of various members of the family as well as the buying of household textiles and remodeling and renovation of clothing on hand. The purpose of the junior program is to help the 4-H club girl under . stand the contribution to the family living she may make through under standing her own wardrobe needs, how best to meet these needs, and to realize her responsibility to other members of the family and home in supplying clothing for the family and textiles for the home. The junior program has been increased in scope this year with additional subject matter especially to suit girls' needs and suggested activities which are included in the following six demonstrations: Fundamentals in home sewing, the Florida 4-H club uniform and cap, the well dressed club girl for school, the well dressed club girl for "best wear", the well dressed club girl for street and travel, and the well dressed club girl for informal 'party wear. The clothing demonstrations are developed through teaching the construction of the required articles, the understanding of related subject matter and activities, achievement exhibits, and team demonstrations. THE WARDROBE DEMONSTRATION The clothing program for women, "The Clothing Supply for the Florida Farm Family" with special emphasis on the mother's personal wardrobe, was begun in April 1936 in nine representative counties. These counties represented all types po'pulated with persons with decided differences in social and economic needs. This demonstration included informatio"n on the articles needed for an economical and becoming wardrobe, and included the use of commercial 4

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension and guide patterns, the fitting . and finishing of . outer garments, the selection of accessories and underclothing, the care of clothing, and personal grooming. Since the demonstrations are still under way in most of the nine counties selected, the accomplishments as shown in actual figures are small but the interest and appreciation which has been manifested are encouraging. Reports show that 75 women have made inventories of personal clothing on hand. Personal clothing has been put in wearable condition by 62 demonstrators; some improvement in personal appearance by the use of correct diet, good posture, exercise and better fitting garments has bel;!n noted by every woman enrolled. Sixty-five women planned and provided at least a part of adequate personal wardrobes. Clothing account records have been kept for a period of six months during the warm season of the year. The results of the improvement of clothing storage space this year were small but included building new closets, remodeling and adding equipment to others and the building of improved storage spaces by some families either because of low incomes or because the women lived in rented houses; all the women who were developing the wardrobe demonstration reported making garments at home, usually the greater number of which were used by the members of the family; a remarkable spirit expressed in terms of service to others prevails among the women in this special group. Fifty-one women entered the dress revue, many for the first time, as a conclusion of the wardrobe demonstration. All 35 counties having home agents have conducted clothing programs with 4-H club girls for the year 1936. The revised program for girls was introduced at the annual Agents' Conference in October 1936, so the achieve ments reported are results of the previous program. Planning, selection, construction and care are the points receiving . emphasis in this year's clothing program. . . PLANNING THE CLOTHING SUPPLY . M:eeting :the clothing needs of various members of the family has been the goll.l of the clothing work developed in the counties. Thus planning, a fundamental need in all programs for achieving better rural life, is . being encouraged and some results can be noted. At the annual State Short Course held in Tallahassee in June, "Planning the 4-H Club Girl's Wardrobe", was presented to 532 girls. This demon . stration series included selecting and exhibiting suitable designs and materials for the various garments and accessories needed in the entire wardrobe of a 4-H club girl, . and costs at current prices were checked by . the girls themselves. Thus the practicing of planning clothing expenditures which resulted in wiser purchasing has been followed by 1,118 individuals who have budgeted clothing expenditures, and 2,453 families who have been assisted in using timely economic information in meeting clothing requirements. CLOTHING SELECTION Quality of articles of clothing selected and their artistic aspects were emphasized in the selection of clothing in the home. Information on buying fabrics for outer and under wear, especially stressing cotton. and synthetic materials, ready-made outer and under garments, hose and shoes, have been included in the clothing information made available to women and ~irk Cooperation of the retail merchants over the entire state• , has . beem of great assistance in conducting educational

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Fig. 5.-4 -H club girls l earn to sew a fine seam and to make u seful, practical, a nd attractive c l ot hin g .

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'ioo Florida Cooperative Extension shopping tours and in furnishing ready-to~wear merch1rndise for use in the demonstration of selection of the wardrobe which has been presented at 10 county-wide and community nieetirigs in all sections of Florida. Recommendations on clothing buying as made by home demonstration agents have bee _ n foUowed by 18,888 families. The artistic . aspects of clothing selection have been popular with both women and . girls now as before. Attractiveness through . suitable line, color and texture to the individual, appropriate costumes for various occasions, harmonious accessories and good grooming have been taught in the applica tion of art principles to dress. CONSTRUCTION OF CLOTHING Better skill in workmanship and better equipment for efficiency of work have been emphasized in the construction of clothing. The in1portance of using a pattern (a practice which is frequently omitted), alteration of patterns, correct fitting and finishing of garments are included in teaching the making of garments and household textiles. An interesting feature of the annual Agents' Conference was the style revue of garments furnished by a commercial company to illustrate the practicability of sewing at home. Twenty dresses illustrating suitable costumes for all types of wear, style trends in designs, fabrics, and work manship, sources of commercial patterns and total costs compared with the ready-made costs were modeled. Nine counties report style revues with 240 women . participating. At the annual Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, the State Style Revue for girls was held with 20 counties entering 45 contestants. Each contestant was a winner of a county contest. Models made by the club girls for themselves were displayed in each of the four divisions; the Wash Dress or Suit for School; the Wool, Silk or Rayon Dress or Suit for School; the "Best Dress"; and the Informal Party Dress. The state winner who wore an informal party dress entered the National 4-H Club Girls' Style Revue held at the National 4-H Club Congress and became national champion. She describes her own costume giving the costs, in this manner: "I carried out an idea of mine, that of develqping double-duty garments in this costume. This would give me more variety in my clothes at a smaller cost. My ensemble included four garments: white cotton net dress, a blue floral print underdress, a white slip, and a blue taffeta jacket. The shirt waist style dress has a blouse with a tucked yoke, a Peter Pan collar, puffed sleeves, and a gored skirt finished with a narrow ruffle on the edge. The net dress may be worn over either the figured or plain slip, then the printed slip with a detachable bow and peplum or with the Jacket and the plain slip with the jacket. Altogether this makes five separate and distinct costumes, and the total cost was $12.20, or each outfit averages $2.44. It has been a joy to me and has given me the thrill which comes from always having something different to wear." With 8,275 individuals who report following our recommendations in construction of clothing and the 4-H club members reporting 6,539 dresses and 36,105 other articles made, it is evident that there is a widespread practice of sewing in the home and that our program on clothing con struction is meeting a need of rural women and girls. Dressing the child has received considerable attention . in the clothing program, especially emphasizing self-help features. Children'11 clothing has been improved according to recommendations by 1,946 individuals. Renovation and remodeling of garments continued to be an important phase of the clothing work; 3,676 families were assisted by home demon stration agents in renovating, remodeling and caring for clothing.

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Annual Report, 1936 CARE OF CLOTHING 101 Care, the fourth division of the clothing program to receive special emphasis during 1936, was presented with special concern for the economy and appearance of the family clothing. The difficulty encountered in storing clothing in Florida, especially of leather goods and woolen articles, is one of the factors of clothing economies with which the women needed help. The prevalence of insects and the favorable conditions for molds make this problem of storage of utmost importance in family economy. Storage Space: Plans were presented, closet accessories exhibited, and demonstrations in improvising closets from wooden boxes were used to interest the women . in improving the facilities of the home for storing personal and household clothing. The effect of good grooming on personal appearance has been emphasized. Some progress has been noted with the development of the clothing program under the recently appointed specialist but greater achievement, especially in the buying and construction of the clothing for the family and textiles for the home, will be expected in the future years.

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102 Florida Cooperative Extension PART IV-NEGRO WORK NEG RO MEN'S WORK A. A. Turner, Local District Agent Extension work with Negroes began just 20 years ago as a part of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service with offic e at t h e Negro A. & M. Co llege, Tallaha ssee, Florida. The office has been supp lied with clerical help, bulletins, and eq uipm e n t and s ubj ect matter material has been furnished from the main office at Gainesville. Th e Negro work ha s made s ubstant ia l progress in educational programs under the s up ervision of the Extension Service and assisted by the Experiment Station. In 1936, 12 Florida cou nti es had Negro exte n sion workers and the program for this past year ha s been confined primarily to crop production, organi zation and 4-H club work along educationa l line s . Assistance in the agricultural conservation program has been r endered by Negro agents to county agents and cou n ty committees, as contracts by farmers regardless of co lor hav e been handl ed through the co unty agent's office. The Negro agent's part in this, how ever, was to give definite in formation to growers as to procedure, pract : ces, and benefits to be obtained . . . . I Fig. 6.-Contour listing on sloping farms prevents washing and aids in soil conservation. Jack Crump believes in saving his good land. Negro farmers must have a correct understanding of the agiicultural adjustment program, si nce these farmers are vitally affected because of their de ' pendence on the farm as a so urce of income . The contracts require a definite understanding between landlord and tenant, and since a large percent of colored farmers in many counties are tenants there mu st be an understanding of the benefits and returns that farmers will receive when cooperating. COOPERATIVE AGENCIES The Florida A. & M. College at Tallahassee ha s been the main coop erative in stitution . In addition, assls.tance has been rendered by Negro farmers' coo'perative organ iza tions in the counties. These are set up, particularly for soc ial and marketing purposes and for the most part have been set up with the help of the Negro ag e nts. Through this program

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Annual Report, 1936 103 the principles of extension work have been kept before the members and cooperation on the part of individual farmers has been encouraged. Other agencies that have contributed are the vocational teachers, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, State Board of Health, the Tampa Urban League, Florida State Marketing Bureau, county welfare and relief agencies, and pastors of rural churches. EDUCATIONAL WORK AT FAIRS Exhibits have been displayed tinder the direction of the District Super vi s or and Negro County Agents. These exhibits portray the general program of agricultural extension work, particularly in reference to pro duction of crops and livestock. In 1936 the awards totaled $950.00 at the South Florida Fair in Tampa. The expenses of the exhibits were borne by the counties and individuals. The exhibits were well displayed with appropriate placards and were set up as educational exhibits without hope of profit or payment beyond actual cost. Any money in excess of actual cost is used to defray the ' expenses of 4 H club members to the Annual 4-H Short Course at the A. & M, College, Talahassee. FARM DEBT ADJUSTMENT The Negro Agents of Florida have rendered a definite service in assisting the farm debt adjustment program. . Special report is made of the Alachua County Agent who gave this program special attention. He .. was able to prevent foreclosures on Negro farms by laying out a program . for the operation and by contacting the people holding notes and mortgages. In this he has assisted in the prevention of foreclosure in 40 instances in Alachua County. Special records of these cases are not available. The program as set up requires . personal contacts between the parties concerned and the Negro Agent undertook this in a definite way. PROJECT ACTIVITIES Corn: Recommendations of the Extension Service and Experiment Station were followed regarding varieties, culture, and fertilization of corni In Alachua County 26 farmers planted cowpeas and winter legumes in preparation for the 1936 planting . Summer crdps were planted between the corn rows and turned under during October. Austrian peas were planted in December and turned under during March. The yields of corn following these demonstrations ranged from 17 to 20 bushels per acre, against an average yield for all farmers in the county of approximately 10 bushels per acre. Peanuts: Peanuts are the leading crop of most farms operated by Negroes. The Extension program in peanut production is to encourage closer ' planting with limited fertilization. Farmers cooperating in this were supplied with information from the Florida Experiment Station; Yields were not definitely weighed because of lack of facilities, and most of the peanuts were harvested by hogs in the field, but the demonstrations were sufficient to characterize the practice as a good one and this practice was followed through all the demonstrations in the peanut programs of colored agents. Sea Island Cotton: In the North Florida area where Sea Island cotton was at one time the most important cash crop there has been an increased interest on the part of all people with the hope of reviving this crop. Sea Island cotton was planted by Negroes in Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton,

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104 Florida Cooperative Extension Suwannee, and Madison co unties and was handled in cooperation with the program s upervised by the Extension Service and the Experiment Station. Fig. 7.-Negroes as well as white farm ers are interested in reviving Sea Island cotton production in Florida. One 7 acre field, part of which is shown above, yielded 1,934 'pounds of lint in 1936. Th e necessity of proper seed and c ultural practices was strong ly emp ha s ized to Ne gro farmers in undertaking these plantings of Sea Island cotton. The acreage for 1937 will undoubtedly be increased among colored farmers in these areas. Tobacco: Tobacco being the main money crop in the North Florida area, the col ored farmers followed the practices under the direction of the county agents and Negro agents. Many of these farmers, however, were on a share crop basis, others fi nanced their own operations and their returns for the 1936 crops gave the colored farm ers reasonable profits. They produced a good . quality in all cases where there was co operation between the farm ers and the Extension Ser vice. Hogs: Th e colored farm ers have profited by increas ing the production of hogs in 1936 , consequently there was much interest on the part of cooperating farmer s for the improve ment of hogs for marketing purposes. The 'program of the Extension Service called for ample grazing and fattening crops, principally s ummer legumes, improved pastures and grazing crops and peanuts. Co lor ed fanners marketed the.se hogs coopera tively with other farmers through arrangements made by county agents and Negro agents. This program ha s had a s ubstantial effect on the Negro farmer's income and the prospect for the increased production in 1937 is very evident at this time. Thi s hog program has required attention to_ . :s anitary practices, particularly in the control of hog cholera and inte s tinal parasites. Living-at Ho m e Program: The living-at-home program which requires ptotluction of vegetables, meat s, dairy products, poultry products, and .s ufficient feed crops to s upply the livesto c k ha s been featured in each county;Year-round gardens have had their rightful place on the farms of most faTmers who have cooperated with the colored agents. In areas where the farmers' returns hav e been unusually good this program has not l oomed as important as in other places. It was also a part of the 4-H -elub . work to encourage thrift and better Jiving. Farm Improvements: The Extension Service ha s been giving encourage ment td improve farming facilities , principally repairs to fences, out

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Annual Report, 1936 buildings and homes. Much of these repairs have been paid for by the returns from crops, particularly in the tobacco area. Other repairs have been made through government loans and consist of farm homes at a cost of $850 to $1,200 per home, and repairs amount to $100 to $500 for each house. It was not considered advisable to encourage colored farmers to go beyond their means in undertakings of this kind. Encouragement was rendered only where there was a 'prospect that this undertaking would increase. value and result in permanent good. Beautification Projects: The planting of shade trees and other beauti fication work around premises has been considered important to Negro farmers. This program has been limited and the progress depends on the farmers' returns for the given year. Inasmuch as farmers' returns for 1936 were better than for previous years, the number of demonstrations and practices in beautification work increased in all the counties where agents were employed. Poultry: Work with poultry was primarily to encourage a better live at-home program, and where facilities were available to provide an income from the returns of poultry. Through the help of the Negro agents baby chicks were purchased and from them the farmers raised their laying flock and sold friers. This has added considerable revenue to the farmers cooperating, particularly in area where there was a ready sale for fresh poultry products. Negro agents cooperated with the Poultry Specialist in the production of turkeys. This turkey program has a limited application and was the first of its kind established in the state. In the area where this was under taken poultry raising has been generally practiced, but little attention has been given to the better practices necessary to make the undertaking suc cessful in particular _as it applies to the production of turkeys. BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK Boys' 4-H club work is . carried on in the following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Marion, Hillsborough, and Suwannee. Thel!e were 1,350 Negro club boys enrolled in club projects in 1936. Of these 966 carried their projects through to completion. FJELD CROPS Corn: . Boys enrolled in 4-H corn projects the past year received special instruction hi raising corn with improved seed as well as improved practices of corn cultivation as recommended by the Experiment Station. Whatley's Prolific, Kilgore's Red Cob, and Cuban Flint were the varieties used by the majority of the boys. There were 720 boys enrolled in corn 'projects, 466 of whom . completed their projects and gave in a report of their plots. These boys harvested 32,755 bushels of corn from 586 acres. The land selected for corn was seeded to some green manure crop the fall of 1935, and in most cases the only commercial fertilizer used was nitrate of soda . as a side-dressing. Peanuts: In this project were 267 boys enrolled, and of this number 121 boys completed their projects. They planted 529 acres of peanuts and harvested 36,111 pounds of peanuts. The vines were baled for hay and sold or credited to the boys' account. Closer spacing was recommended by the agents and carried out by the club boys, to increase their yields; Cotton: There were 177 boys enrolled in 4-H cotton clubs, 79-of whom completed their projects, involving 169 acres. From these demonstration cotton plots, 48,023 pounds of cotton were harvested. The Alachua County'

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106 Florida Cooperative Extension club used 300 pounds of 5-7-5 fertilizer with 75 pounds nitrate of soda for top-dressing. The varieties of cotton seed used were: Rhynes Cook and Sea Island (in small quantities). Sweet Potatoes: Potato projects showed much improvement this year over last. There were 192 boys enrolled and 62 completed their projects. A total of 66 acres in projects were harvested with a yield of 3,265 bushels of potatoes. The value of the 4-H sweet potato project was $1,959. HOME GARDENS An effort has been made to encourage home gardens among the Negro farm families through the 4-H clubs. To that end 70 boys were enrolled in the home garden clubs with 57 completing, involving 45 acres from which 716 bushels of various vegetables were harvested. LIVESTOCK Swine: There were 154 boys enrolled in swine projects; of which number 95 completed. The number of animals involved was 221, which included the following breeds; Poland China, Duroc Jersey, Hampshire, and Essex. The Poland China and Duroc Jersey breeds were the most prevalent. Feeding demonstrations included all grazing crops, especially peanuts hogged off, in some instances the peanuts were planted with potatoes and corn and then turned over to the hogs for harvesting. Poultry: Poultry club work being a project more or less suited forgirls, little has been done this year by the boys except in those counties where no women agents work,' The past year's reports showed 161 boys enrolled in 4-H poultry clubs with 73 reporting, and 6,520 birds were involved, which was an increase over the past year's record. The local agents will encourage boys to increase their poultry flocks the coming year, since meat prices are relatively high. Dairy Cattle: Nineteen 4-H club boys were encouraged to enroll in the dairy cattle projects this year. In most instances these boys had cared for calves owned by their fathers until they became old enough to breed, then the fathers turned the cows over to the boys with an understanding that so much milk was to go to the family for the cows' upakeep and the rest was to be sold to pay the boys for their work. Thirteen of these boys completed their projects and turned in records showing that they had been amply paid for their work. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES Short Course: One hundred thirty-one club boys and seven adult leaders attended the Annual State 4-H Club Short Course held at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, June 3-5. These boys were selected by the local farm agents as being the most outstanding club members from their respective communities. They were given instruction in agronomy, dairying, swine husbandry, gardening, poultry, farn1 shop work, and farm records. They went back to their communities and began to put some of the infor mation into practice and as a result other members of their communities are beginning to work now in order that they may have a chance of attending the Short Course next year. Board and lodging was furnished by the college free. Transportation was taken care of by the club members themselves, in most instances. School boards and county commissioners assisted the other members with their transportation expenses.

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Annual Report, 1936 107 4-H Club Camps: Three counties, Alachua, Columbia, and Hamilton, sponsored a club camp at St. Augustine. Forty-seven boys attended and took part in the program which included hiking, swimming, competitive games, record keeping, gardening, livestock, forestry and 'personal hygiene. The Marion County local farm agent also held a wonderful club ca~p for 4-H members. . Achievement Days: Each local farm agent assisted the 4-H club boys of . his county in holding an achievement day to show to the public what the boys had accomplished. These exhibits were held in churches, schools and other public places. Ribbons were awarded by some of the local farm agents to those club boys who had the most outstanding article or articles on exhibition. The achievement day creates a good deal of interest among the club boys and helps the agent receive better cooperation from the club members.

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108 Florida Cooperative Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Beulah Stephens Shute, Local District Home Demonstration Agent Home demonstration work fot Negroes in Florida was carried on during 1936 by eight Local Home Demonstration Agents working in eight counties: Alachua, Duval, Hillsborough, Jefferson, Leon, Madison and Marion. These agents have been placed with a view to serving the greatest Negro population. In August 1936 a local district home demonstration agent was appointed to assist with the supervision of the work. She is responsible to the state home demonstration agent. One hundred clubs are organized for home demonstration women and 144 4-H clubs for girls. Enrolled in these organized clubs are 1,447 women and 2,602 girls. Local home demonstration agents held 2,520 meetings with an attendance of 68,429. SUPERVISORY PROGRAM Specialists from the Agricultural Extension Service, both men and women, furnish subject matter and help to the local agents by visits to their counties, correspondence and conferences. Local agents develop the work in their counties through meetings in homes, schools and churches, home visits, tours to well established demonstrations, and exhibits. Local agents seek the cooperation of county schools and churches and influential men and women of both races. The work is kept before the people through exhibits, newspaper articles, community and county-wide achievement programs, etc. Local agents in service have had the following opportunities to improve themselves during the year 1936: 1. In January, 1936, Mr. E. H. Shinn, Senior Agriculturalist, United States Department of Agriculture, held a one-day meeting stressing report making. 2. Agents attended a Farm and Home Institute at Fessenden Academy, August 17-20, 1936. Information was given them on marketing, poultry, home beautification, soil conservation and livestock management by state extension and federal specialists. 3. The agents' annual conference was held December 1-4 at the Florida A. and M. College for their enrichment. . At this time practical instruction was given in family food, family clothing and home improvement as well as in office organization and recreation. 4. The . district agent instructs each agent on her problems, supplying her with information needed and training the agent wherever necessary. One agent took extension courses from the Florida A. and M. College during the year, for which she received credit. OFFJCE AND FIELD EQUIPMENT Most equipment used by local agents has been supplied by the agents themselves. Fifty percent of the agents own a pressure cooker and some canning equipment, 3 agents have a kodak that is of service and interest, The Local Agents do their own clerical work and since only 3 own type writers, most of the work is done in long hand. Two agents have access to mimeograph machines . . A score card for judging the offices for neatness, cleanliness and suitable equipment and furnishings secured at little cost was worked out

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Annual Report, 1936 109 by the district agent and each agent judged her own office. Improvement has been evident as a result. Information is usually given to the women and girls by announcements in churches, schools and the county newspapers. Six counties report the publishing of 33 newspaper articles and one county presented a talk over radio station WRUF during the year. Two -thousand eight hundred fifty-one persons called for help at the offices of Local Home Demonstration Agents during 1936. PROGRAM The Local Agents realize that a well planned program well carried out is necessary for successful work. Each county submitted a plan of work based on the needs of that 'particular county. The general programs outlined by the extension specialists are analyzed and adapted to fit the 'needs of rural Negroes. Under present conditions on farms, it is necessary to stress the live-at-home and produce-at-home programs. This is true either for landowner, tenant farmer, or share-cropper. Faculty members of the A. and M. College have been helpful to the local home demonstration agents in teaching them how to improve the soil, secure better poultry and dairy cows, etc. Practically every home demonstration club member, whether girl or woman, has been encouraged to produce an adequate food supply by having a garden with something growing in it all months, 'poultry, a family cow, a few pigs, sufficient canned products to meet the family needs. They also are taught how to prepare the food in a better way. Rural women have been taught to enjoy thrift by creating something practical and beautiful out of the materials that formerly had been wasted. They have been encouraged to keep home records because when they see the savings they have brought about by their own thrift they realize what they can do to help make better living for their families. The district agent, since her employment in August, has given par ticular attention to the following objectives which affected the quality and amount of work done by the local home demonstration agents: 1. Assisted all local agents to develop a program to meet the needs of the rural people of her county. 2. Emphasized the value arid the need of practical demonstrations established in the homes by the people themselves. 3. Insisted that all home demonstration members enrolled complete the demonstrations they started. 4. Provided subject matter to the local agents that would give them assistance in doing better work. 5. Worked out a more satisfactory local office for each agent with the equipment and furnishings needed for efficient work. 6. Helped local agents to plan to use their time and work efficiently. In all counties a practical live-at-home program has been developed and the work strengthened among farm families by working through organized county councils in which the people themselves help to plan the work needed and by giving exhibits at community or county fairs, com munity and county achievement day 'programs, and by acquainting many other people with the kind of assistance which might be expected from the local home demonstration office. The agents visit farm homes of the county, assist with demonstrations under way, and offer practical suggestions on home living and better home methods. During 1936 3,582 such visits were made to 1,450 farm homes.

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110 Florida Cooperative E x tension Eight tours were conducted to home pantries filled ,vith canned goods so that many people saw the results of thi s work. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES All community activities seem to be more evident than in many years . past. Wholesome recreation carried on by the people themselves has been emphasized. A special training course in home and community recreation was presented to all Extension Agents by re presentatives of the National Recreation Association during the annual agents' conference. In this way local leaders were taught, who returned to their own communities . LOCAL LEADERSHIP Since the home demonstration program is growing in each county, agents are calling on local people to share some of their responsibility and to spread the influence of the work. Six agents reported a total of 89 leaders helping them with adult work and 134 leaders for 4-H Club girls' work. Twenty-three training meetings were held for adult leaders with a total attendance of 436, and 45 meetings for 4-H club leaders with a total attendance of 534. These training meetings were . held on canning, home improvement, gardening, etc . In some counties these leaders take direct responsibility for helping the agent with county-wide events such as short courses, camps, tours, achievement days, clean-up programs, and Negro health week programs. In this way they become interested in and are taught ways of securing community improvement. County and community achievement days are looked forward to as a climax of the year's work. At this time recognition is given to club members who have done outstanding work. The public has an opportunity through these exhibits to note the progress made in the county during the year. Thirteen achievement days were held in 5 counties with 5,981 people in attendance. SHORT COURSE AND CAMPS Seven camps were held for farm wonien and girls with 71 women and 144 girls attending and 420 others visiting. These camp programs made possible recreation and instruction and gave the groups an opportunity to know people in other communities. A 3-day Farm and Home Institute held at Fessenden Academy was an inspiring event for the farmers and their wives who attended from Marion and surrounding counties . The annual 4-H Girls' and Boys' Short Course was held in June at the Florida A. and M. College in Tallahassee. Two hundred selected 4-H club girls attended and 50 local club leaders and all home demonstration agents. Transportation for the girls was provided in various ways; county com missioners, school boards, local people who gave money-making entertain ments or provided donations all helped to make possible this training for the girls. Instruction and demonstrations were given by local home demon stration agents, county home demonstration agents and state specialists. Board, lodging, medical care and general assistance was provided by the A. and M. College. Through the state short course opportunities for 4-H club work are enlarged, greater interest in club work is stimulated and an educational, recreational and social medium is furnished for club members. They are stronger in their own club work and have learned to become intelligent, sensible leaders in their own communities.

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Annual Report, 1936 RESULTS OF THE YEAR'S WORK 111 Food Supply for the Farm: Through local home demoni:;tration agents -rural families learned to plan to provide adequate food to meet the needs of the family and to have a variety of foods at all seasons of the year by planting gardens, raising poultry and canning the surplus, and 11,414 quarts of food were canned by 806 girls. There were 31,481 quarts of food -canned by 804 families. There were 922 gardens reported. Leon County reports: "170 gardens were planted this year. A variety of -vegetables were sold at the local curb market twice a week. It was the aim of the women to grow enough vegetables to supply the family, to have a surplus to can, and to sell enough at the curb market and local stores to keep free of debt. Women earned $1,635.12 from these sales." Three dairy buildings were erected. Home Poultry: Hillsborough County writes: "Rural families have raised 2,334 baby chicks. The families are beginning to realize the value of eating more chicken and fresh eggs." Madison County reports: "Lizzie Brinson of Bethlehem Community purchased 500 baby chicks which we1e used for home and sale purposes. An average of 16 cents a pound was realized from selling 50 percent of them." Thirty poultry houses were built by the women and girls. Clothing: The clothing program emphasized the use of bags and rem nants made into attractive garments. Eight hundred twenty-three women and 1,015 girls enrolled for clothing instruction and made 7,283 garments. Two hundred fifty women and girls used a clothing budget. Marion County women and girls report 4,300 garments made by them, consisting of work shirts, play suits, dresses, underwear and overalls for children made from .sacks. Home Improvement: Outstanding advancement is being made in home improvement and better management as the following records from the .agents' reports will show. In Madison County, Agent Althea Ayer interested farmers who had recently received bonus money and_ advised them to invest it in some home improvement. As a result, two new homes were built and three were remodeled. At present, two other homes are under construction. In Leon County, Ola Robinson scored highest in club activities during the year. She planted and cared for a garden and canned a great variety of fruits and vegetables. She has given faithful service as council president. Each year she makes some improvement on her home. As an award for her •earnest work, the home agent, Alice Poole, made it possible for her to get $35 for home improvement. Miss Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Specialist of the State Home Demonstration Office, secured some paint, wall-paper and window glass for her rooms. At the suggestion and assistance of Miss Moore and the local agent, she is landscaping her grounds and planting a calendar orchard. Six dwellings were remodelled according to a plan; 211 women and girls reported walls and floors repaired. Beautification of home grounds has received major attention with most agents. In Alachua County, a county-wide porch and yard beautifica tion contest was held. This contest ran all summer. In the height of the flower season, the yards and porches were judged. A wards will be made at the annual County Achievement Day. The clubs in this county are especially interested in keeping the cemeteries and church yards clean and beautified. The agent secured cuttings from the gardens at the Univer .sity of Florida, from florists and interested persons. Schools in the county

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112 Florida Cooperative Extension have been made more attractive by these cuttings which were set out by club girls and boys. The women and girls enrolled estimate they saved $2,184.00 through their home management work. Eight families built food storage rooms to save their food supply grown and conserved at home, 164 kitchens were improved and 383 families obtained some labor saving equipment. . Health and Sanitation: Improving the health and sanitary conditions around the homes has been a major goal of all agents. From Gadsden County: "In cooperation with the schools, children are examined and vac cinated. Adults come out when the health nurse and doctor visit their communities. They are safeguarding their water supply, screening or using other recommended methods to fight flies, mosquitoes and other insects." Seventy-seven homes were screened in 1936. Three lig,hting systems and 7 water systems were installed. One agent reports 18 sanftary toilets built in the county during the year . A total of 77 families installed sanitary toilets during the year. RELATION TO OTHER GOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES Local home agents have cooperated with other governmental agencies in aiding in relief programs, old age pensions, and . resettlement projects. Agent Poole was given six mattress t _ icks for deserving families by the Resettlement Administration worker because she demonstrated to club members and resettlement workers the method of making a moss mattress. In six counties, agents were given from four to six N. Y. A. Assistants taken from the relief rolls. These girls were able to assist the agent in some of the demonstrations and make illustrative material. None of the girls was able to do any clerical work In Duval County the agent was successful in placing six girls in the county canning center, operated through the direction of the county home demonstration office.

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Annual Report, 1936 113 STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK GENERAL ACTIVITIES Total days service rendered ................................................................. . Members in Extension Associations or Committees ....................... . 3,026.5 461 Communities in which Negro Extension program has been planned ............................................................................................... . Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work Members in such clubs or groups ....................................................... . 4-H Clubs 4-H Club members enrolled ................................................................... . 4-H Club members completing ............................................................. . 4-H Club teams trained ........................................... . ......... . ............... . ... . Farm or home visits ............................................................................... . Different farms or homes visited ......................................................... . Calls relating to extension work ......................................................... . News articles or stories published and circular letters issued ..... . Letters written Bulletins distributed ............................................................................... . Radio talks ............................................................................................... . Extension exhibits ................................................................................. . Meetings held ........................................................................................... . (Attendance ............................. . Achievement days and encampments ................................................. . (Attendance ............................. . Homes and farms influenced by program ......................................... . Homes with 4-H Club members enrolled ....................... , ............. . ... . CEREALS 220 100 1,449 239 3,952 2,311 78 7,150 2,835 8,865 338 5,103 5,645 2 49 4,058 42,691 52 11,161 6,047 2,801 Communities in which work was conducted ...................................... 211 Result demonstrations conducted ......... ,.............................................. 63 Meetings held ............................................................................................ 162 News stories published and circular letters issued .......................... 20 4-H Club members enrolled .................................................................. 986 4-H Club members completing .............................................................. 651 Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ...... 586 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ............ 9,830 LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted ........................................ 416 Result demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 105 Meetings held ............................................................................................ 249 News stories published and circular letters issued .......................... 18 4-H Club members enrolled.................................................................... 467 4-H Club members completing ................................. ............................. 267 Acres in project conducted by 4-H Club members completing ...... 517 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ............ 2,905 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Others Cotton Communities in which work was conducted.... 146 70 Result demonstrations conducted .................... 13 31 Meetings held ............................................... :...... 243 105 News stories published and circular letters.... 10 24 4-H Club members enrolled .............................. 420 189 4-H Club members completing ............ ........... 240 79 Acres in project conducted by 4-H members.. 55 85 Yields of crops grown by 4-H members ........ 3,270 Bu. 39,923 Lb. 6 Tobacco 22 4 28 1 4 4 4 3,200 Lb.

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114 Florida Cooperative Exte ra;ion FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was conducted ... ......... . ..... ..... ..... . ........ . Result demonstration s conducted ... . .... ..... ..... .......... ... . ............. ... ....... . Meetings .held ........ ... . . ...................................... . ....... ..... ... . ............. . ......... . News stories published and circular letters issued . ... .. . ... . ........ .... . 4-H Club members enrolled ... . ......... . .. ... .. ... ... . .. .. ........ . . .. .. . ...... ... . . . . ....... . 4-H Club members completing ........ . . .. ......... . . ... ......... ........ ..... ....... ...... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ..... . Yields of crops grown by 4-H Club m embe r s completing . . . . .... ....... . FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Communities in which work was conducted . . . . .. .... ... . . . . . ....... .. .. . . ...... . Result demonstrations conducted .... . .. ... .......... . ... ...... . . . ... ......... . ........... . Meetings held .. : ..................... . ........................ . . ... ............ .. ... .... .... . ......... . News stories published and circular letter s i ss ued ... .......... .... .. . ..... . 4-H Club members e nrolled ............... . .......... .... ....... . . ... ..... ...... . .. . ....... . 4-H Club members completing ........ ..... ........ . . ...... ...... .. .............. .. ........ . Terracing and Drainage farms .... ... . .. .......... . .............. ... ... ...... .. . . .. ...... . Acres ........... . .......................... . ............... ... ....... ..... . ..... . .. . ...... . ...... ... .......... . . i~~!s clearing .practices. Better equipment practices ............ .. ... ... ....... ........ .... . .. ....... . ...... . ......... . . Buildings erected or improved ....... ....... . .. .... ..... . .. .. . ...... . .. : ... ... . ....... ..... . POULTRY AND BEES 745 1,305 620 51 2,310 1,545 239 1,083 Bu . 46 5 47 10 48 0 17 1,164 4 201 196 209 Communities in which work was conducted . .. . .... .... . .. .. ....... .. .. . ......... 190 Result demonstrations conducted .... . .. ....... .. . . .............. .... ...... . .. ........... 394 Meetings held .... .... ..... ............ .. ........... .. ........... ........ .... .. . . ... ...................... 303 News stories published and circular letters is s ued ..... ...... . . ... : ... ...... 18 4-H Club members enrolled. .. .. .......... .. ... ..... . .. . ....... ..... ........ ..... ........ ...... 720 4-H Club members completing ...... .. ............ .. .......... ..... ........ .... .......... . 468 Numb e r units in projects conduct ed by 4-H Club memb ers completing . ... . .. ..... , .... .. ........... ... ... . ... ..... ... ... ...... ..... ......... .. . . ......... ... . . ......... 11,526 Families following better practices for poultry .... ... . ... ....... . . .. ... ....... 2,408 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted ... ......... ..... ........ . ... .. ....... 253 Result demonstrations conducted ..... ..... ........ .. . ............... . .. . ...... .... ...... .. 165 Meetings held .......... ... ......... ..... .. . . . ..... ........ . .. ......... ....... ...... ........ .. .. ... ....... 242 News stories published and circular letters issued ... .. .. ..... .. ...... . .... . 22 4-H Club members enrolled .. .......... . . . ......... .. ............. . ........... .. . . .... ...... . 415 4-H Club members completing . ........ .. ............ ..... .. .. .. . ................ ..... ...... 181 Anim a ls. in project co nducted by 4-H Club m embers completing.. 312 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Re s ult demonstrations conducted . ... . ................... .. . ... .. .. ...... . .. ..... 1 Meetings held ........... .. ............ . ........... . .. . ... ....... ..... .......... .... ..... . .... .. . . ........ . 154 News stories published and circular letters issued ........... .. .. .. ... .... .. 37 4-H Club members enrolled . . .. ......... .... . . .. ..... ..... ........ ......... .... .. .. ... ........ . 144 4-H Club members completing ........ . .......... .... ............... .. ...... .. . . . . . ......... 86 Farmers obtaining credit and makin g debt adjustments .. ... .. ... ..... . 273 Families assisted in getting establi s hed .. .. .......... . . ... . ................. . . ..... 17 Individual s affected by mark e ting program . ...... ..... ............ .. .. . ......... 3 10 Organization s assist ed with problems ...... . ... .... .. ........... ........ ........ .. . .. 33 Individuals assisted with problems ...... ....... ... ......... . . .. .......... . .......... . .. 241 Value of products sold by a ssoci atio ns ................... ... . ............ .... ......... $88,392.47 Value of supplies purchased by organirntions ... . . .. . . . . . ..... ... .. .. . .... ..... . $10,069.00

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Annual Report, 1936 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted ..... .... .... ..... . ........... .. ..... . 278 Result d em onstrations conducted . . ........ .. ........ . ...... .. .... . .. . .... ,... .... .... ... 714 lYleetings held ............. ..... .... .... ..... ... ..... ........ . ..... . ........ . ....... .' .. .. ................. 415 News stories published and circular letters i ss ued ........................ .. 17 4-H Club members enrolled . . ....... ......... . ........... . ......... ...... .............. .... .. 2,100 4-H Club members completing .... ..... ...... . .............................................. 1,456 Families adopting improved food practices . . . .. ................. .. ................ 3,415 Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 28 Children involved .... .... ..... ..... ... .................. . ........................ . .......... .... ... .. 1,213 115 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H Clubs ................ 38,970 Value of all products canned or otherwise pr es erved ............ . ......... $14,479.14 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conducted . . .. ....... .. ........................ . 53 Result demonstrations conducted .. ....... .. ...... . . .. ................................... 26 Meetings held .................................. . ........ .... ..... ..... .... ..... .. ...... .... . , ......... ; 107 News stories published and circular letters issued .... . ......... .. ...... .. 4 4-H Club members enrolled ......•....................... ... ................ . ................ . 31 4-H Club . member s completing ..... . . . ..... . . ............... ... ... ....... ... .............. . . 20 Other -1-H Club members who participated ........................................ 144 Families adopting better child-development practices ........ . . .. ..... . .. 610 Individuals participating in child-development program ..... ..... ... . .. 479 Children involved . .... .... .. ...... . .... .... ... .. . .... ... .. .... ......... . ............ ........ ......... 694 CLOTHING Communities in which work was conducted . ..... ........ , ...... . ................. . Result demon st rations conducted . ............ . ............. . . .. . ................... ... . . Meetings held ....... ... ............................................. . ........................... . ....... . News stories published and circular letters issued ..... .. . .......... : .. .. . 4-H Club members enrolled ..... ............. ...... .. .... ...... ...... .... .. . .. .... ...... .. .. . 4-H Club members completing ... .... .............. .. .................. .. ........ . ....... . Articles made by 4-H Club members ........... . ............ . ........................ . Individuals following better clothing practic es ..................... . ......... . Savin2"s due to clothing program .................. . ......... . .......................... . 137 231 247 10 1,703 992 7,301 6,100 $5,496.00 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS . Communities in which work was conducted .... ....... .. ........................ . Result demonstrations conducted . ................................... . .......... . ....... . Meetings held ......... .. ............................. : .................................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ............ .' . . . .... ..... . 4-H Club members enrolle'd .. ....... ......... ......... ..... . ..... ...... ....... ... ..... ... ... . 4-H Club members completing ..... .... ....... . .................................. .. ..... .. . . Units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ... . Familie s adopting improved home-management practices . ..... ..... . Saving due to home-management program . . ...... . ............................ . Families making improvements in hou se furnishings ...... ... ....... .. ... . Saving due to home-furnishings program ... ..... ..... .... ........................ . Families following recommendations regarding handicraft ......... . HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in 'flhich work was conducted ........ . . .... .... ..... ...... ... ... .. . Re.suit demonstrations . conducted ........ .. ........................... . ............... . . . Meetings held ... .... .. ....... . .......................... .... ........ ... ..... ... ............... .... ...... . News stories publi s hed and circular letters issued ... ... . ...... ... ......... . 4-H Club members enrolled ....... . ........ .. .. . .... .... ...... .... ..... .... . . . ........ .. , ..... . 4-H Club members completing ..... .... .... ... .......... .. ........................ .. ..... .. . 310 514 307 11 1,940 1,468 2,913 4,506 $2,184.00 2,201 . $1,637.00 308 203 215 243 64 2,027 1,338

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116 Florida Cooperati ve Extension Individuals having health examination . .......... ............... ... . ....... .. . . .... . 242 Ot , her 4-H Club members who participat e d ..... . . . . . .... ... . ... ... ... .. .... .. ... 429 Individuals ado"pting better health habit s ......... . ................ ........... . .... 5,189 Families adopting better health habits .. ... ............................. . . .... ... . . .. . 2,186 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Meetings held ..................... ... . ... .............................................................. 161 N e ws stories published and circular letters issued ............. . ... .... ..... 63 Communities assisted with community problems ........ .... ,... ...... . . .... 895 Training meetings conducted for community leaders ..... .. .. .. . .. ...... .. 51 Families following recommendation s as to home recreation ..... . .. 780 4-H Clubs engaging in community activitie s ............ . . .... . .. ..... . . ... .. ... 98 Families aided in obtaining a s sistance from Red Cross or other relief ag e nc y ... .... ,......... . .... . .... .. . . . . . . ..... . .. . ... ... ... . ..... .. ......... .. . .. . . . ... .... . . .. 175

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Annual Report, 1986 INDEX 117 A Accounts, citrus, 66 poultry, 70 Achievement days, club, 81, 107 Agents, list of, 5 Agreements, marketing, 71, 72 Agricultural economics, 11, 66 planning, 69 statistics, 16, 114 surveys, 67 Agricultural adjustment work, 6, 24, 27, 28, 32, 50, 66, 67, 69, 73, 85 Agronomy, 11 Animal husbandry, 46, 114 Associations, National Recreation, 86 livestock, 49 poultry, 62 B Baby chick management, 60 Baking, 93 Bang's disea se, 9 Beale, Clyde, work of, 19 Beautification of home grounds, 7!), 94, 96, 105 Beef cattle, 8, 16, 39, 46, 51 Bees, statistics, 16, 114 Belcher, Clarine, work of, 97 Better Fruit Program, 55, 56 Blacklock, R. W., work of, 35 Blue mold, citrus, 55 Boys' 4-H club work, 35, 105 Breeding, controlled, 46 Brown, Hamlin L., work of, 41 Brumley, Frank W ., work of, 71 Bulletins, 19, 81 C Camps, 4-H, 36, 82, 107, 110 Canning contests, 88 Calendar flock records, 60 orchards, 88 Calves, marketing, 46 Castrating demonstrations, 47 Cattle, 8, 9, 16, 46, 106, 114 Cereals, statistics, 14, 113 Chick management, 60 Chickenpox vaccination, 63 Child development and parent edu cation, statistics, 17, 115 Citrus, 10, 11, 27, 52 accounts, 66 by-products, 42 marketing agreement, 71 Citrus Commission work, 55 Citrus Institute, 57, 70 Clayton, H. G., work of, 30 Clothing, 78, 97, 111 care, 101 construction, 100 statistics, 17, 115 Clubs, 4-H, 7, 35, 51, 105, 110 dairy, 43 poultry, 61 Community activities, 79, 110 statistics, 18, 116 Conservation, food, 77, 87, 88 Consumer education, 78 Consumer egg survey, 72 Contests, canning, 88 judging, 37 Florida National Egg-Laying, 65 Cooper, J. F., work of, 19 Cooperation with other institution s , 25, 84, 102 Cooperative sales, 27, 28 Corn, 105 demonstrations, 25 Corn-hog adjustment work, 50 Cotton, 25, 103, 105 price adjustment, 33, 34 S ea Island, 25, 103 statistics, 15, 113 Councils, 80 home demonstration, 83 planning, 24, 64 poultry, 62 County agent work, 23 County agricultural planning, 69 Crops, cane and forage, 41 cover, 53 feed and pasture, 26, 41 field, 105 silage, 42 statistics, 14, 113 Crotalaria, citrus cover crop, 54 Culling poultry, 60 Cultivation, citrus, 53 D Dade County study, 68 Dairy clubs, 4-H, 43 Dairying, 9, 41, 77, 106 DeBusk, E . F., work of, 52 Dehorning, 47 Director, report of, 7 Dis ease control, citrus, 55

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118 Florida Cooperative Extension E Economics, agricultural, 11, 66 Educational meetings, 28 Egg-Laying Contest, 65 Egg marketing survey, 64, 72 Egg quality program, 62 Electrification, home, 78 Engineering, agricultural, statistics, 15 home, 78, 95 Exhibits, 81 fair, 70 F Fairs, 49, 70 Farm credit, 72 debt adjustment, 103 management, 66, 67 n e ws service, 20 radio service, 20, 21 Fat Stock Show and Sale, 48, 51 Feed and pastures, 26 green for poultry, 60 Feed prices, 58 Feeding demonstration s , 41, 47 Fertilizing citrus, 52 Financial statement, 13 Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, 65 Florida Poultry Council, 62 Flue-cured tobacco study, 67 Food conservation, 77, 87, 88 preparation, 92 Foods and nutrition, 90 statistics, 16, 115 Forestry, statistics, 15, 114 Frenching, zinc for, 54 Fruit, citrus, 27 statistics, 1 5, 114 Furnishings, house, 78 G Gardening, 77, 87 General activities, 14, 113 Government and emergency agencies, 85 Green feed, 60 Grove mar.agement, 52 visits, 56 Growers' Institute, 57 H Health and sa nitation, 17, 78, DO, 91, 96 . Hog s, 49 adjustment work, 50 sales, 28 Home demonstration work, 108 management, 17, 78, 94 sanitation and health, 78, 112 House furni s hings, 17, 78, 06 Howard, R. H . , work of, 66 I Improvement, home, 94 In sec t control, citrus, 55 Institutions, cooperation with 25, 84, 102 Irrigation, 54 J ,Jefferson County study, 67 Jud g ing contests, 37 K K eo wn, Mary E., work of, 74 L 11, 74, 94, 96, other, Leaders, local, 83, 110 Leadership training, 36 Legumes and forage crops, Leon County study, 68 Lights for 'poultry, 64 14, lVl List of agents, 5 Live-at-home program, 104 Livestock , 16, 106 associations, 49 programs, 8 M McDavid, Ruby, work of, 74 Management, baby chicks and pullets, 60 farm, 66, 67 grove, 52 h e rd, 46 home, 17, 78, 94, 115 soil, 52 Marketing,-44, 48, 56, 64, 71 Marketing agreements, citms, 71 watermelon, 71 M ea l planning, 92 Meat curing, 49 Mehrhof, N. R., work of, 58 Melanose, 55

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Annual Report, 1936 119 Meetings, educational, 28, 56 home demonstration, 76 Men's work, 23, 102 Mold, blue, 55 Moore, Virginia P., work of, 94 N National Egg-Laying Contest, 65 National poultry improvement program, 63 Negro work, 11 men, 102 women, 108 Nettles, W. T., work of, 23 News service, 19, 20, 57 Nutrition work; 90, 91, 92 statistics, 16, 115 0 Orchards, 88 Organizations, club, 35 extension, statistics, 18, 116 poultry, 62 women's work, 7 4 Outlook report, 71 Out-of-state trips, 4-H club, 38, 82 p Pastures, feed and, 26 work, 47 Peanuts, 26, 105 Perennial plantings, 77, 87 Planning councils, 24 Potatoes in Dade County, 68 Poultry accounts, 70 council, 62 husbandry, 9, 58, 77 improvement program, 63 statistics, 16, 114 Preparation of food, 92 Price adjustment 'plan, cotton, 33 Prices, feed, 58 poultry products, 58 Programs, dairying, 9 egg quality, 62 hog,9 home demonstration, 75, 97 Negro work, 109 poultry, 9, 63 soil conservation, 30 Project activities, 25, 103 Publications, 19 Publicity, 7, 19, 81 Purcha s es, cooperative sales and, 27 R Radio, 19, 38, 57 Records, home demonstration, 81 poultry, 60 Recreational training, . 38 Report of director, 7 Reports, statistical, 14, 113 Revenu e, sources of, 13 Rust mite control, 56 s Sales, cooperative, 27, 28 Sanitation, home, 78, 94, 96, 112 Scale and whitefly, 56 Scholarships to college, 37 Schools, recreation, 38 Screw worm control work, 25, 50 Sea Island cotton, 25, 103 Settle, Lucy Belle, work of, 74 Sheely, W. J., work of, 46 Short courses, boys, 38, 106 girls , 82, 110 Shute, Beulah, work of, 108 Sikes, Anna Mae, work of, 90 Silo work, 42, 47 Smith, J. Lee, work of, 23 Soil conservation program, 30 Soil amendments, 54 . management, 52 Sowell, D. F., work of, 58 Spencer, A. P., work of, 23 Splitting of Valencia oranges, 54 Stanton, E. F., work of, 58 State Board of Health, 85 State congress of parents and teachers, 85 State Marketing Bureau, 64 State winners, leadership, 40 'project work, 39 Statement, financial, 13 Steer feeding, 47 Sweet potato weevil control, 28 Swine, 39, 49, 106 T Thomas, Jefferson, work of, 1!) Thursby, Isabelle, work of, 87 Timmons, D. E., work of, 66 Tobacco, 26, 67, 104 Tours, farm and home, 56, 81 Trench silos, 42, 47 Trips for club members, 38, 82, 106, 110

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120 Florida Cooperative Extension Truck farming survey, 68 Turkey management, 64 Turner, A. A., work of, 102 u University of Florida Dairy Day, 44 V Vegetables, 15, 27 Visits, grove, 56 w Washington County study, 68 Watermelon marketing agreement, 71 Weevil control, sweet potato, 28 Whitefly control, 56 White potatoes, study, 68 Women's work, 7 4, 108 Work stock, 50 z Zinc for frenching of citrus, 54