Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1935
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text










1935 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1935















1935 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1935















CONTENTS
PAGE

REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7

Financial Statement 12

Statistical Report 13

PUBLICATIONS,' NEws, RADIO 18

COUNTY AGENT WORK 21

Agricultural Adjustment Program 28

Boys' 4-H. CLUB WORK 35

DAIRYING 40

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 44

CITRUS CULTURE 48

POULTRY WORK 52

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 60

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 65

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION 77

HOME IMPROVEMENT 80

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH 84

NEGRO MEN'S WORK 87

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 90

Negro Statistical Report 92




















Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1935, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 80, 1935.
Respectfully,
G~o. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TiGERT,
President, University of Florida.








BOARD OF CONTROl.
GEo. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialistz HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman2 D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing* A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent MARY KEOWN, District Agent* ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Acting District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

I In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.
*On leave of absence.








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua . Fred L. Craft . Gainesville. Mrs. Grace F. Warren Brevard .T. L. Cain . Cocoa Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward Ft. Lauderdale Miss Olga Kent
Calhoun- . J. G. Kelley _------------ Blountstown ------------- Miss Josephine Nimmo
Charlotte . N. H. McQueen- . Punta Gorda Citrus Inverness . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Clay Green Cove Springs . Miss Beulah Felts
Columbia --------------- Guy Cox . Lake City
Dade C. H. Steffani . Miami Miss Pansy Norton
DeSoto E H. Vance . Arcadia
Dixie D. M. Treadwell.Cross City
Duval . A. S. Lawton . Jacksonville Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) . E. G. Pattishall**. Jacksonville Escambia . E. H. Finlayson.Pensacola Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden . Paul Calvin . Quincy Miss Elise Laffitte Gulf Wewahitchka.Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield
Hamilton . J. J. Sechrest . Jasper Hardee . H. L. Miller ------------- Wauchula
Hernando . B. E. Lawton . Brooksville Highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer ----- Sebring Hillsboro . Alec White .Tampa Hillsboro (West) Tampa Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsboro (East) Plant City Miss Clarine Belcher
Holmes . D. D. McCloud ----- Bonifay Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River Vero Beach Miss Manilla Wells
Jackson . J. W. Malone ---------- Marianna Miss Alice W. Lewis
Jefferson . P. R. McMullen . Monticello Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette . D. H. Ward --------.Mayo
Lake C. R. Hiatt-. Tavares Mrs. Lucie K. Miller
Lee C. P. Heuck . Ft. Myers
Leon G. C. Hodge .Tallahassee . Miss Ethyl Holloway
Levy Bronson Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty . F. D. Yaun . Bristol Madison . S. L. Brothers .---- Madison Manatee -------_-- John H. Logan . Bradenton Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion . J. Lawrence
Edwards . Ocala Miss Tillie Roesel
Okaloosa . E. R. Nelson . Crestview Okeechobee . C. A. Fulford ---.Okeechobee Orange .------ K. C. Moore . Orlando Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola . J. R. Gunn -------------_ Kissimmee Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts ---------- West Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus
Pasco J. A. McClellan, Jr.Dade City
Pinellas .Win. Gomme . Clearwater Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk W. P. Hayman ----- Bartow Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam . H. E. Westbury . Palatka St. Johns . . Loonis Blitch . St. Augustine ------------------- Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie Ft. Pierce Miss Bertha Hausman
Santa Rosa ----------- John G. Hudson ---- Milton Miss Eleanor Barton
Seminole . C. R. Dawson . Sanford . Miss Josephine Boydston Sarasota -------_---- W. E. Evans ------------ Sarasota
Suwannee . S. C. Kierce -----------_ Live Oak Miss Eunice Grady
Taylor . K. S. McMullen ---- Perry Miss Floy Moses
Union L. T. Dyer _-------- .Lake Butler
Volusia . F. E. Baetzman ---- DeLand Mrs. Marguerite Norton Wakulla . N. J. Allbritton .Crawfordville Mrs. Pearl Penuel Walton . Mitchell Wilkins.-DeFuniak Springs . Miss Eloise McGriff Washington . Henry Hudson . Chipley
*This list correct to Decemter 31, 1935.
*Resigned effective December 31, 1935.












AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, In Charge Gainesville
H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Cotton Allotment Board. Gainesville R. S. Dennis, In Charge Potato Adjustment Program . Gainesville J. Lee Smith, In Charge Peanut Adjustment Program . Gainesville W. J. Sheely, In Charge Corn-Hog Adjustment Program. Gainesville D. E. Timmons, In Charge Tobacco Adjustment Program. Gainesville E. Owen Blackwell, Executive Secretary Gainesville
C. A. Lyle, Assistant Clerk Gainesville

ASSISTANTS IN COTT~ON ADJUSTMENT
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua Lamar Hatcher Gainesville
Columbia Gussie Calhoun Lake City
Escambia Bryan C. Gilmore Pensacola
Hamilton J. W. Mitchell Jasper
Holmes Win. L. Slay Bonifay
Jackson R. C. Peacock Marianna
Jefferson E. R, Nelson Monticello
Leon A, C. Spiller Tallahassee
Madison J. E. Donald Madison
Okaloosa M. B. Miller Crestview
Santa Rosa T. K. McClane,- Jr Milton
Suwannee J. W. Tedder Live Oak
Walton John G. Hentz DeFuniak Springs

NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua F. E. Pinder Alachua
Columbia and
Southern Suwannee .E. S. Belvin Lake City
Hamilton and
Northern Suwannee.N. H. Bennett White Springs
Jackson J. E. Granberry Marianna
Jefferson M. E. Groover Monticello
Leon Rolley Wyer, Jr Tallahassee
Marion W. B. Young Ocala
LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS
Alachua Mary Todd McKenzie Waldo
Duval Ethel M. Powell Jacksonville
Gadsden Diana H. Bouie Quincy
Hillsboro Floy Britt Tampa
Jefferson Lorena Shaw Monticello
Leon Alice W. Poole Tallahassee
Madison Althea Ayer Madison
Marion Idella R. Kelley Reddick
*This list correct to December 31. 1935.













PARTI-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1935.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


During 1935 the Extension Service has been in a more conspicuous position than at any previous time in its existence. The agricultural adjustment program has interested practically every grower of basic agricultural commodities in this state. The farmers have contacted the county agents' offices for many reasons and their interests have been centered in the Extension Service.
The county agents' offices have been taxed to capacity and the same urgent demands have been placed on the supervisory staff. This has meant more organization among farmers which has been extremely helpful in handling adjustment contracts. Since the program also required the appointment of committeemen to assist in adjustment work, it has given greater opportunity for Extension agents to select and work with the leaders of agriculture.
The county agents' offices have each employed from 5 to 25 extra people. This, too, has increased the responsibilities and has required better office management.
In Central and Southern Florida the Extension Service has not materially changed its program of horticulture, dairying, livestock, and poultry. These programs have occupied the greater part of the county agents' time, together with the addition of work that fits into resettlement programs, and in this the home demonstration agents have had the most active part.
There has been a widespread interest in live-at-bome programs.
Under the direction of the Economics Section in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements as outlined by the AAA have been presented for consideration. They dealt with celery, strawberries, watermelons and citrus fruits. Of these, the celery and watermelon marketing agreements have been successful. The strawberry
marketing agreement failed to function. County and district agents have served counties and communities through their offices and have distributed information leading to the organization for marketing agreements.
On account of large 'production of horticultural products in South Florida, marketing and finance problems stand out as most important from the farmer's standpoint. The county agents' offices have assisted farmers in securing loans for production purposes and have cooperated


REPORT FOR 1935







Florida Cooperative Extension


with Farm Credit Administration in the organization and selection of committees and officers to handle loans. They have cooperated with Emergency Seed Loan Office, Columbia, South Carolina, and assisted small farmers in securing operating fund's needed for seasonal crops.

ASSISTANCE TO RURAL RESETTLEMENT
The county and home agents have been active in assisting in resettlement work. They have helped in drafting programs. In the selection of county supervisors, the Director of Rural Resettlement was supplied with names of available persons, most of whom have had agricultural college and home economics training.
In the case of resettlement work with rural homes, the State Home Demonstration Agent was asked to select the original personnel appointed to serve. These agents were placed in practically every county and were known as "assistant home demonstration agents" for a limited time. Later, however, their status was changed and they were no longer responsible to the home demonstration agents.

ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT
In the resettlement work, it was the plan that the county and home agents should serve on committees to pass on clients who made application to the Rural Resettlement Division for loans.
The Economics Section of the Extension Service has supplied economic data needed in the agricultural adjustment program affecting Florida. Members of the Economic Section served with chairmen of Triple A programs.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped because of other pressing duties. In former times the district agents assisted with the organization of 4-H club work, but with added administrative duties the responsibilities of club work were left to the 4-H supervisor. In addition, county agents were unable to give it the necessary attention. The county agents were able to secure some assistance from older club members, who, under their direction, could meet the clubs to keep the organization of 4-H clubs intact. Some of these assistants were paid from FERA funds. In counties throughout Central and South Florida, where the AAA program was not active, 4-H club work was not seriously disrupted.
4-H Club Camps-Two 4-H club camps have been established. In West Florida on Choctawhatchee Bay is the first one, which has accommodations for 250 persons. This has been reported previously. Improvements and enlargements are being made that add to the usefulness of the camp. Expenditure of approximately $1,000 was made for reroofing, repairs and ,added equipment, and other improvements will be added. The camp was also used as a meeting place for farmers.
Last year the Central Florida camp in the Ocala National Forest was in skeletal form, with bare facilities to accommodate the needs. Since then improvements have been added, mostly from donated funds and supplies. This camp is now equipped to accommodate 100 persons. The camp is located near a small lake and with sufficient grounds to provide recreation and sports.
In handling these camps the Extension Service provides supervisors and instructors, in addition to specialists who contribute time and arrange programs appropriate to 4-H club members.







Annual Report, 1935


ROME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Home demonstration work has made substantial gains, with additional counties cooperating financially. As the rural needs became more conspicuous, rural women of Florida have made their appeal for home demonstration agents. Their programs have dealt largely with economics of the home and the organization of rural women for the betterment of the community and for the improvement of 4-H club work with girls.
The home demonstration agents have contributed to resettlement work. A complete report of the State Home Demonstration Agent is submitted separately.

ASSISTANCE IN SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
The Extension Service was called upon to assist in the control of the screw worm fly. This infestation reached Florida in 1933 and.has gradually spread until all counties with livestock are infested. To help control it Congress appropriated a sum of money to be used for educational work in infested states. The Florida Legislature made funds available to the Agricultural Extension Service for screw worm work.
At the request of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the Agricultural Extension Service organized a State Screw Worm Committee. The membership consisted of the director of the Experiment Station, director of Extension; Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; State Veterinarian; Commissioner of Agriculture; and the President of the Florida State Livestock Association. This State Committee adopted the plans of the Bureau of Entomology. The work was then placed in charge of a director of screw worm activities who was assigned by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. The state program was merged with the federal program, making one program for Florida, paid for from federal and state sources. This program provided for screw worm supervisors in all infested counties. The county agents' offices were made headquarters for supplies and county information, and contacts with farmers were made through the Extension Service.
LIVESTOCK PROGRAM
Animal Husbandry The Animal Husbandry work continued in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., until June 30, 1935, when the Bureau withdrew its support. The Agent worked with'cattlemen in the improvement of their livestock, pastures and feeds. Various phases of the project are reported in detail by. W. J. Sheely.
The Extension Animal Husbandman acted as leader in the corn-hog adjustment program. He was also made the official Extension re'presentative for the screw worm control program, particularly that part financed by state appropriation.
Dairy Work.-Tbe dairy work and Animal Husbandry work are closely associated, particularly in matters -of feeds and pastures. The Extension Dairyman has given constructive help to commercial dairies in matters of herd management and economies in feeding. Florida has had a dairy association functioning for several years and the Extension Dairyman has assisted in the work of that organization, particularly in its interests as to the eradication of Bang's disease.
The Bang's disease program supervised by the Bureau of Animal Industry has been generally accepted by dairymen as a program in the right direction. The Extension Dairyman has, given that program his loyal support and has encouraged county agents to give it the consideration needed to make it successful.







Florida Cooperative Extension


On July 1, 1935, the animal industry divisions of the University of Florida were organized under one division of the college. Dr. A. L. Shealy, head of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, was placed in charge of the divisions of Dairying, Animal Husbandry, and Poultry. This change has not materially affected the Extension program.

POULTRY WORK
In July the Extension Poultryman was assigned to additional duties in the supervision of research and teaching in the College of Agriculture. This required employment of an assistant who began his duties in October 1935. Since a large part of the poultry of Florida is made up of commercial flocks, some of which are small, emphasis has been placed on the keeping of records and returns from small commercial and farm flocks. The Extension Poultryman has furnished the subject matter to county and home agents and has had the responsibility in poultry management affecting The Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. The Farm Management Specialist has collected data on poultry management that county and home agents will use in their programs.
CITRUS WORK
The Economics Section has conducted a series of citrus cost studies. These studies are to be used as a basis for recommendations in fertilization and grove management. The citrus industry represents the largest horticultural interest in this state and since the acreage has been gradually increased until a 30 to 40 million box crop is easily possible e under normal weather conditions, growers must put various economies into effect or their groves will not be profitable. In addition, the Extension Service program has been dealing with control of insects and diseases and general management practices.
Special attention has been given economical irrigation on certain types of groves.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Agricultural Economics work is divided into marketing and farm management. The marketing phases have been almost suspended during the past year.
In connection with the adjustment program, farm record books were given to farmers with the hope of getting more complete records as a basis for future agricultural programs. There has been special attention given to farm management in poultry work, conducted in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman.
CHANGES IN STAFF
The following changes in staff have taken place. Dr. A. L. Shealy, Head of the Department of Animal Husbandry in the Experiment Station, was placed in charge of all this work in the College of Agriculture, including Extension animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, and poultry work.
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, has been assigned by the Board of Control as Head of Poultry, Division of Animal Husbandry, and has been given supervision of the teaching, research and Extension work in this line. D. F. Sowell was appointed as Assistant Extension Poultryman to do field work formerly handled by Mr. Mehrhof.
R. S. Dennis, county agent of Taylor County, was temporarily transferred to position of Assistant District Agent to handle cotton contracts under the Triple-A 'program. This arrangement was discontinued June 30.








Annual Report, 1935


However he was reappointed at a laterdate to supervise the Triple-A program with tobacco and potatoes and at that time received a permanent appointment as Assistant District Agent.
Miss Mary E. Keown, who was granted leave of absence on July 1, 1934, was granted further leave until December 31 and her position was filled temporarily by appointment of Miss Anna Mae Sikes, the former Extension Nutritionist. This- also continued employment of Mrs. Eva Culley, to fill the place vacated by Miss Sikes, the title being Acting Nutritionist.
During the past year many changes have been made in the counties by transfer of agents from one county to another and additional persons being appointed. This brought a change in location by 30 percent of the county agents. On account of renewing activities in agriculture, additional counties have made cooperative arrangements for employment of county and home agents.
NEGRO WORK
In Negro work 15 counties have been served; eight of these by women and seven by men. Two counties contribute to the support of Negro home demonstration work. All other counties are supported by State and Federal funds.
There have been practically no changes in the arrangement of the plans of Negro work, which work is confined largely to counties growing basic commodities. The Negro agents have not been required to take an active part in the adjustment program. Negro home demonstration work is supervised by the State Home Demonstration Agent; it also receives some supervision from the local District Agent for men's work. The usual emphasis has been placed on encouraging rural farmers to adopt better practices in handling livestock and farm crops and particularly farm management problems which involve balanced Agriculture, production, and Boil improvement.
Emphasis has been placed on home canning, gardening and poultry for the women's work.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
The Extension Service has maintained close cooperation with all departinents of the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station and Florida State College for Women.
Other institutions have received and given cooperation. Among them are the State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State Forestry Service, the State Board of Health, the Rural Resettlement Administration, the State Plant Board, the State Department of Education, including vocational agriculture; in addition to county organizations, such as, the State Cattlemen's Association, the State Dairymen's Association, the State Poultry Association, the State Horticultural Society, and the State Fern Growers' Association.
The Extension Service further cooperated with Florida Farm Debt Adjustment Commission. By appointment of the Governor of Florida, the Vice-Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were members of this commission. A report just issued by the commission indicates a scaledown of $124,488.00 indebtedness on Florida farms and groves in the past two years. This involved 142 cases and amounted to $633,414.00. This compares favorably with reports from other states.

SOURCES OF REVENUE
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue: (1), Funds supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Agri-








Florida Cooperative Extension


cultural Adjustment Administration; (2), Extension funds appropriated by the Florida Legislature, used in part to offset Federal appropriation; and
(3), County appropriations.
Offset funds required for Federal allotments have been appropriated in'part by the State Legislature, in part through county appropriations.

STATE FINANCES
The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal sources including Triple-A total $171,139.98, and from state sources $163,841.98; of these state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county boards.
The Legislature of 1935 increased its annual appropriation in support of the work.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1935

RESOURCES
Federal Funds
Smith-Lever and Supplemental $ 84,684.24
Capper-Ketcham 26,555.74
Additional Cooperative 23,500.00
U. S. D. A 4,000.00
Bureau of Animal Industry 2,400.00
Agricultural Adjustment Administration 30,000.00
State Funds
State appropriation including offset for Federal funds . . 68,546.00 Continuing Appropriation 5,000.00
County Appropriations 86,715.98
College Appropriations 3,580.00
$334,981.96
EXPENDITURES
Projects
Administration $ 8,752.79
Publications 10,211.39
County Agent Work 145,262.13
Boys' Clubs 7,001.04
Home Demonstration Work 96,861.57
Food Conservation 3,349.81
Nutrition 3,580.00
Home Improvement 3,907.50
Dairy Husbandry 5,138.80
Animal Husbandry 4,533.19
Farm and Home Makers (Negro work) 22,672.20
Citriculture 4,589.27
Poultry Husbandry 4,052.39
Extension Schools 1,114.21
Agricultural Economics 8,063.06
Florida National Egg Laying Contest 5,892.61
$334,981.96







Annual Report, 1935 13

STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Statistical Data from County and Rome Demonstration Agents' Reports
Days service rendered by county workers 24,633
Days in office 1,157.5
Days in field 13,057.5
Number people assisting Extension 'program voluntarily . 2,304 Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work . 309 Members in such clubs 7,733
4-H Clubs 631
4-H Club members enrolled 11,576
Different 4-H club members completing 8,213
4-11 club teams trained 439
Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work
with rural young people 16 years of age and older_ . 23 Members in these groups 324
Farm or home visits made 41,176
Different farms or homes visited 19,623
Calls relating to Extension work 314,097
News articles or stories published and circular letters . 8,010 Number individual letters written 93,928
Bulletins distributed 93,802
Radio talks 161
Extension exhibits shown 352
Training meetings held for local leaders 547
(Attendance 6,973
Method demonstration meetings held 9,649
(Attendance 135,171
Meetings held at result demonstration 2,890
(Attendance 29,781
Farm tours conducted 171
(Attendance 4,615
Achievement days held 116
(Attendance 24,279
Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) . 54 (Attendance 2,856
Other meetings 4,384
(Attendance 150,933


CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted Result demonstrations conducted Meetings held
News stories published and circular letters Farm or home visits made Office calls received 4-11 Club members 4-H Club members completing Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed .

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted Result demonstrations conducted Meetingsheld
News stories published and circular letters Farm or home visits made Number office calls received


374 381
.334 308 1,213 8,380
826 370
472
12,959 Bu. 6,887 1,336


661 688
438 390 1,638 19,507







Floii-da Cooperative Extension


4-H Club members enrolled 242
4-11 Club members completing 114
Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing(Seed 58,589 Lb.
(Forage 116.7
Farmers following better practice recommendations . 5,653 Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed . . 3,137

POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Other Crops Cotton Tobacco
Communities in which work was conducted 483 217 87
Result demonstrations 219 53 14
Meetings held 285 335 54
News stories published and circular
letters written 326 552 135
Farm or home visits made 1,632 1,542 374
Office calls received 9,707 87,088 9,649
4-H Club members enrolled 326 230 4
4-H Club members completing . 170 89 3
Acres in projects by 4-H club members
completing 113.5 92 3
Yields by 4-H club members completing ---- 12,517 Bu. 68,252 Lb. 3,308 Lb. Farms following better practices . 7,027 9,366 1,458 Farms for which adjustment contracts
were signed 657 10,703 1,227

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Communities in which work was conducted 2,023
Result demonstrations conducted 9,335
Meetings held 3,613
News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,356 Farm or home visits made 11,366
Office calls received 27,972
4-H Club members enrolled 8,669
4-H Club members completing 5,609
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,604.5
Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing 44,961 Bu.
Farms and homes adopting improved practices 36,146

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Communities in which work was conducted 174
Result demonstrations conducted 279
Meetings held 291
News stories published and circular letters issued . 110 Farm or home visits made 752
Office calls received 2,325
4-H Club members enrolled 52
4'H Club members completing 6
Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with
small trees 16
Acres reforested 64
Farms adopting better forestry practices 965
Farms adopting soil conservation practices 608
Acres involved 22,216
Farmers adopting better machine practices 1,039
Number machines involved 1,047
Farmers adopting better buildings and equipment practices 2,053
Building and items of equipment involved 1,922







Annual Report, 1935


POULTRY AND BEES
Communities in which work was conducted 542
Result demonstrations conducted 1,287
Meetings held 1,105
News stories published and circular letters issued . 416 Farm or home visits made 2,315
Office calls received 9,864
4-H Club members enrolled 1,626
4-H Club meetings completing 987
Number chickens raised 38,841
Number colonies bees 203
Families following improved practices in poultry raising -------- 8,882 Families following improved practices-bees 534

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
Communities in which work was conducted 1,014
Result demonstrations conducted 1,137
Meetings held 1,317
News stories published and circular letters issued 687
Farm or home visits made 10,168
Office calls received 30,106
4-H Club members enrolled 997
4-H Club members completing 501
Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing 1,117 Farmers obtaining better breeding stock 1,467
Farmers using other improved livestock practices . 21,962 Number of farms for which adjustment contracts were signed 1,336

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Communities in which work was conducted 1,096
Result demonstrations conducted 1,194
Meetings held 885
News stories published and circular letters issued . 474 Home or farm visits made 3,503
Office calls received 16,932
4-H Club members enrolled 935
4-H Club members completing 747
Farmers keeping account and cost records 3,417
Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts 575
Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ------------ 7,552
Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year 101 Farmers making business changes resulting from economic
surveys 8,586
Families assisted in getting established 2,762
Marketing groups organized or assisted 70
Individuals affected by marketing program 9,570
Organizations assisted with problems 235
Individuals assisted with problems 7,361
Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted . $3,629,224.08 Value of 'products sold by individuals (not in organizations) . 2,509,560.70 Value of supplies purchased-all associations 992,188.31
Value of supplies purchased by individuals 1,076,394.10

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted 926
Result demonstrations conducted 6,913
Meetings held 4,239
News stories published and circular letters issued . 852 Farm or home visits made 3,861
Office calls received 8,768
4-H Club members enrolled 7,943







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

4-H Club members completing 5,842
Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members 189,811 Families adopting better practices as to foods 28,760
Schools following recommendations for school lunch . 64 Children in schools following lunch recommendations . . 14,894 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs . 1,863,704 Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved . $405,479.70 Families readjusting family food supply 3,737
. CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted 121
Result demonstrations conducted 315
Meetings held 161
News stories published and circular letters issued . 43 Farm or home visits made 265
Office calls received 451
4-11 Club members enrolled 625
4-H Club members completing 476
Additional 4-H club members participating 621
Families following child development plans 2,973
Different individuals participating in child-development
program 2,252
Children involved in child-development program 17,377
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted 486
Result demonstrations conducted 2,045
Meetings held 2,394
News stories published and circular letters issued . . 318 Farm or home visits made 1,038
Office calls received 2,668
4-H Club members enrolled 6,970
4-H Club members completing 5,382
Articles made by 4-H club members completing 39,648
Individuals following better clothing practices 29,313
Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing
requirements 2,246
Savings' due to clothing program $25,550.47
HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted 838
Result demonstrations conducted 5,073
Meetings held 1,979
News stories published and circular letters issued 352
Farm or home visits made 1,682
Office calls received 2,687
4-H Club members enrolled 3,504
4-H Club members completing 2,407
Projects conducted by 4-H club members completing . . 16,060 Families following better home-management practices . 13,151 Estimated savings due to home-management program . $25,811.00 Families improving household furnishing 9,264
Savings due to house-furnishings program $27,897.50
Families following handicraft practices 7,709
HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work.was conducted 392
Result. demonstrations conducted 1,415
Meeti ' ngs held 785
News stories published and circular letters issued . 152 Farm, or home visits made 994
Office calls received 1,552







Annual Report, 1935 17

4-H Club members enrolled 4,120
4-11 Club members completing 3,322
Additional 4-H club members 'participating 2,221
Individuals having health examination 3,733
Individuals adopting health measures 13,210
Families adopting health measures 3,063
EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Communities in which work was conducted 641
Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting . 591 Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or
committeemen 1,190
Meetings held 918
News stories published and circular letters issued . 1,057 Farm or home visits made 2,968
Office calls received 4,124
Communities assisted with community problems 952
Country life conferences 85
Families following recommendations as to home recreation ---- 1,116 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities 206
Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other
relief agency 2,389







Florida Cooperative Extension


PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor
Agricultural Adjustment activities continued to occupy a good part of the time of the.three Editors during 1935. Most of the news and informational material about programs with basic crops, marketing agreements, and compulsory control features was handled through this office, generous cooperation being received from Washington.
The Editor made one trip to Atlanta to become better acquainted with the corn-hog program, and later spent two weeks in the office of the Regional Contact Section, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Washington. There a study was made of the various AAA programs which related to Florida, and of methods of disseminating information. Considerable informational material was assembled there for use on returning to Florida.
The Editor attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Agricultural College Editors, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., in August, and participated in its program.
Bulletins and supplies were distributed from the Mailing Room, and this work was extremely heavy during the year, since there is a great demand for supplies by the county and home demonstration agents during times of emergencies. The three editors and three mailing clerks devoted about one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service and the other half to duties of the Experiment Station.

PUBLICATIONS
Bulletin printing was rather heavy during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935. Four new bulletins were printed and three old ones were reprinted, for a total of 244 pages and 217,000 copies. In addition, 2,500 copies of a 32-page outlook report were printed and distributed, two circu'ars amounted to 24 pages and 25,000 copies, and numerous record books and other supplies were printed. Following is a list of material 'Printed during the year:
Pages Edition
Bul. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida . 40 12,000 Bul. 78. Rose Growing in Florida 28 10,000
Bul. 79. Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets 48 15,000
Bul. 80. The Home Garden 16 30,000
Bul. 64. Save the Surplus (Reprint) . 52 20,000
Bul. 70. The Goodly Guava (Reprint) 32 10,000
Bul. 75. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits (Reprint) . 28 20,000 Cire. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop, 4 10,000
Circ. 37. School Lunches 20 15,000
Misc. Pub. 5. Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1935 ---------------- 32 2,500
Misc. Pub. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book 12 7,500
Misc. Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint) . 500 Misc. Pub. 2. Record Book for Commercial Poultry Flocks
(Reprint) 500
1935 Extension Calendar 12 10,000
Rules I 10th Florida National Egg-Laying Contest 2,000
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 issues)* 1 33,600
Monthly report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . 4 800 Farm Radio Programs (monthly) 4 30,000

Ten issues of 800 copies each were paid for by the State Plant Board.







Annual Report, 1935 19

The biennial report of the Agricultural Extension Service to the State Board of Control, incorporated and printed in the University of Florida
-report, was edited in this office. Then, too, the Annual Report for 1934, 104 pages and cover, was edited and printed.
Monthly report of the Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley was prepared and mailed there, by the Supervisor.

NEWS SERVICE
Naturally, the agricultural adjustment work being done in Florida in 1935 was the subject of considerable news material distributed by the Extension Editors. This news was placed before the public in simple, understandable news terms, and "propaganda" was avoided. Much of the material relating to AAA released through this office was supplied by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches of the United States Department of Agriculture, while much other material was based entirely on local activities.
The Agricultural News Service continued to be the medium for distributing news stories to weekly papers, and to a certain extent to dailies and farm papers. This is a clipsheet issued each week in the year, and the material it contains is widely clipped and used by Florida papers. It contained from 8 to 11 or 12 separate stories in each of the 52 issues, and most of them related to the Extension Service. Some, however, were about the work of the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the State Plant Board, and other institutions.
Service to the dailies was supplied in the form of special stories to one or more papers, mimeographed stories for general distribution, and releases through the Associated Press, both wire and mail service. Farming questions and answers, supplied by this office, were printed each Sunday by one large daily paper. Occasional mats were supplied both dailies and weeklies.
Special articles written by members of the staff were printed in large number by five general farm and specialized citrus and poultry publications in Florida. Majority of these articles were handled by the Extension Editors and forwarded to the papers. Others were sent direct by staff members.
The Editors themselves prepared 46 different articles for four Florida farm papers during the year. These, when published, amounted to 1,160 column inches. The farm and grove section of 35 Florida newspapers is here classed as a farm paper and included in this list.
In addition, nine articles, amounting to 80 column inches, prepared by the Editors were printed in two Southern farm journals and three articles, 14 column inches, in three national farm publications.

RADIO SERVICE
The special service of farm flashes, supplied by this office in cooperation with the Radio Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, was expanded during the year with the addition of one more station. For the first nine months of the year these farm flashes, each about seven minutes in length, were broadcast five days a week by four Florida radio stations; for the last three months, by five stations; and occasionally, averaging about once a week, throughout the year by another station.
Records show that for the 261 broadcasting days this year, 339 separate flashes were sent. Of these, 146 were prepared by the USDA and 193 locally. In many cases two separate flashes were prepared for the same day, to get material adapted to both North Florida and South Florida. In other cases, where material was suitable, it was used on all stations.
These farm flash programs now cover the entire State of Florida, being used regularly over radio stations in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville,







Florida Cooperative Extension


Orlando, and Miami, and occasionally over one in St. Petersburg. County agents cooperate in checking the copy and furnish some material for most of them.
The Florida Farm Hour programs were continued over WRUF, going on the air every week day in the year. These come from 12 to I p. m., and consist of music, weather reports, special talks by staff members and others, market reports, and other features. The program is arranged and supervised by the Editors, and they w rote 23 of the 513 prepared talks given during the year.
The feature, farm news highlights, given daily, and prepared by the Editors, attracted widespread attention and much favorable comment during the year. Each day the principal items, both national and state, of interest to farmers were summarized and presented as a feature of the Florida Farm Hour.
In addition to the 513 special talks and the farm news highlights, farm questions and answers were read each Tuesday, USDA farm flashes were presented about twice a week, and weekly news items (largely from the Agricultural News Service) every Saturday. The special talks were pre'pared, and often delivered, by staff members of the Extension Service, Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, and others.
Livestock market reports and weather reports were given daily. Towards the end of the year both of these were expanded by the addition of poultry and vegetable market reports and the frost forecasting service for citrus and truck crops.
The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the National 4-H Club Achievement Day broadcast on November 2. This was a 1-hour program over all NBC stations, the first and last 15-minute periods being supplied by the Washington office and the NBC chain, and programs featuring club boys and girls and leaders were staged over each one.
Printed programs for the Florida Farm Hour, with hints about the flashes used on other stations, were distributed each month, except July and August.
MISCELLANEOUS
Students in the College of Agriculture were aided in editing and publishing the first issue of The Florida College Farmer, which was revived during the 1935-36 school. year after a lapse of two years.
Courses in news writing were given to home demonstration women and girls in two different counties. Representatives from each club in the county assembled in the home demonstration office for the course, which required two days in one county and one day in the other. Home demonstration news reports following this training were noticeably improved.
University of Florida Week was observed throughout Florida November 10-16, 1935. Theme for the weekdesignated by the directors of the University of Florida Alumni Association was "The University's Contribution to Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry." A brochure outlining the principal of these contributions was prepared by the Extension Editors. and used as a basis for talks before 50 civic clubs throughout the state. The Editor spoke before one club during the week.
A talk on news writing and publicity was made to the home demonstration agents at their annual conference. Another talk on agricultural news was presented before the State Press Association at its annual gathering.








Annual Report, 1935


P-A-R-T 11-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent
J. Lee Smith, District Agent
W. T. Nettles, District Agent

The number of counties cooperating in the employment of county agents during 1935 has increased from 44 to 49. All new appointees are graduates of the University of Florida College of Agriculture. The positions were filled in some cases by transfers, whi , ch resulted in a larger number of counties having new agents than at any time previously.
Interest in Extension work in the counties has been stimulated by the AAA program in the area of Florida growing basic crops. The county agents have acted as representatives of the Secretary of Agriculture and the State College of Agriculture in handling farmers' contracts under the AAA.
REGIONAL PROBLEMS
The State is divided into regions from the standpoint of crop production. Region 1 consists of the counties lying in North and West Florida, Region 2 those counties lying in Northeast Florida and the East Coast, and Region 3 those lying in Central and Southwest Florida. There are many problems in common. However, the difference in type of agriculture in the three sectioAs makes it advisable to modify the programs to suit each of the sections.
On account of better 'prices received for farm produce on the whole, farmers of this state have had a more successful year in 1935 than in any other year since 1929. Prices for practically all commodities have greatly increased from that period. While operating expenses have also increased, net returns have given the farmers a larger income and therefore increased buying power. This is reflected in general prosperity and improved conditions now found in practically all sections.

EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS
Educational meetings were used generally for conducting Extension work throughout the state. On account of the limited time the county agent could give to individual farmers, it was apparent that collective groups could profit by discussions dealing with farm problems. This expedited signing of contracts and handling the usual Extension programs in the counties. Meetings and farm tours were arranged by county agents and help was supplied from the State office.

THE SCREW WORM SITUATION
During 1934 the screw worm infestation was general in North Florida counties. This pest spread into practically all counties in 1935. An appropriation by Congress was made available for the work in Florida and the work was directed by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant -Quarantine. A state appropriation was made also. A state Screw Worm Control Board was appointed, which board authorized the expenditure of state funds to be handled in accordance with the plans -of the Federal Bureau.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Screw worm control supervisors were placed throughout the livestock sections of the state. These supervisors worked in-cooperation with the county agents andlwith the livestock people. Educational work in 1935 has served to develop proper treatment and methods against screw fly injury, but more especially for better management of livestock. There has been close cooperation in handling this screw worm project.

SOIL IMPROVEMENT
There has been a soil conservation and improvement program which involves soil-building crops and the construction of terraces on many farms in West Florida. Drainage and terracing, while not major problems, have their place in most of the agriculture of the general farming area, where primary crops are cotton and tobacco.
Austrian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria were used in demonstrations, which were conducted mainly for soil improvement purposes, but also to determine the adaptability of these crops to types of soils in which they were planted. These demonstrations followed recommendations of research workers of the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture. Since the value of these soil 'improving crops depends to a large extent on the use made of the land afterwards, that, too, was a consideration in recommending their use to farmers.
Studies have shown that production costs with winter legumes are higher than with summer legumes. In fact, the practice of growing winter legumes is much less practical in some sections than in others and while the yields have been improved for the following crops in some cases, the expenses have not been actually justified, In any case, where soil improvement practices cost $5 per acre or more and increase the yield of corn not more than 10 bushels, the practice could hardly be justified from one season's returns.
Summer legumes, principally crotalaria, cowpeas, and velvet beans grow more readily and with less cost, and are therefore more generally used than winter legumes.
Crotalaria has become an important crop in Florida, due partly to the ease with which it is produced and its habit of reseeding. This crop, most varieties of which cannot be used for stock feeding, is not looked upon with as much favor by livestock people as crops that are adapted to livestock feeding. However, the large tonnage produced makes it a soil improving crop that can be recommended in most sections of the state.
Following these leguminous crops, yields of field crops increased from 10-2Ko and in some instances were even much higher.
The saving of crotalaria seed has yielded considerable returns to many farmers in the cotton growing area. However, during the past year, the demand for seed was limited and a relatively small amount was gathered, but the large amounts left on the land will provide for a good stand for the 1936 crop.
Velvet bean crops for the most part were interplanted with corn and grazed off during winter months by cattle. A relatively small amount of seed was gathered for seed purposes.

CEREALS
Demonstrations with small grains, 'principally oats and rye, were mainly for winter pasture purposes., However, many farmers produced a small acreage to provide for hay and green feed during spring months, particularly for their mules. In the West Florida area much attention was directed







Annual Report, 1935


to the experiments carried on at the Florida Experiment Station branch at Quincy. The season was favorable and the crop yielded relatively well. The growing of these cereals, however, is limited to a relatively small acreage, but is encouraged by county agents, particularly for feeding purposes. For the most part there was a relatively small amount of fertilizer used, although some farmers give their crops a top-dressing of nitrate of soda and this produced in all cases a larger yield because of the fertilizer application.
Demonstrations with corn were carried on in the usual way. The practice of corn planting being fairly well established, it was largely a matter of varieties and cultivation. Recommendations on varieties were submitted by the Florida Experiment Station and for the most part Whatley's Prolific was recommended, being generally well adapted to the area. However, in Central and South Florida other varieties, depending on time of planting and type of soil, were used. Corn in the southern part of the Ktate is grown as a cash crop and in some cases sold as a vegetable crop. It occupies a relatively small place in the production of crops in South Florida and, even though yields are relatively high in some instances, it is comparatively unimportant as a commercial crop in most of the area.

FIELD CROPS

On account of the agricultural adjustment program, there were somewhat fewer demonstrations of the ordinary type with cotton and tobacco. These being basic crops in the North Florida area, the adjustment program was the only consideration in which farmers were interested. However, the adjustment program made it possible to emphasize the necessity of good cultural and fertilizer practices. On account of reduced acreage it was desirable that farmers produce as large tonnage as possible on the land they cultivated. The reduced acreage, therefore, caused better cultural methods than usual, particularly on the better farms.
About the only tobacco demonstrations were in the seedbeds. These were sprayed in order to have strong, vigorous plants free of disease, ready to set by March 1.
FEED AND PASTURE CROPS
Reports from the Extension Dairyman and the Beef Cattle Specialist place considerable emphasis on the growing of feeds and pastures. Pastures in particular have been important, especially to dairymen, due to the increased price of grains that must be bought for the dairies near larger cities. Some dairymen in the larger cities have purchased additional lands and have seeded them to carpet grass. Some have used a small amount of fertilizer, and have mowed the pastures to keep down weeds. This practice has given a decidedly improved pasture and has made it possible for the dairymen to raise a larger part of their feed, thereby lowering the cost of producing milk.
In Duval County the agent'secured a supply of Italian rye grass seed for several dairymen and this was broadcast over the pastures and served to supplement the winter forages available. While these pastures are temporary, they have served a good purpose in producing green feed through the winter months at a considerable saving in costs to the dairymen.
The production of 'pastures for beef cattle also has been an important part of the work in 1935. Since beef cattle on pasture have received practically no grain, the improvement of the pastures is considered a major item in the county agents' program, particularly in those counties where large areas of grazing lands are under fence.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SILAGE CROPS
Definite progress has been made in providing silage crops for both dairy and beef cattle. For a number of years the number of silos in the state of Florida has been gradually increasing. In recent years with cheaper types of silos, the number of these feed preservers has grown rapidly. During 1935 dairymen and beef cattle raisers have constructed surface or underground silos with capacity from 50 to 200 tons. Crops used for silage are sorghum, Napier grass, corn, and sugarcane. These have provided large quantities of cheap feed and have served as excellent demonstrations as means of reducing feed costs, particularly for beef and dairy cattle.
Some varieties of sugarcane have been used as soiling crops and give promise of greater development for better livestock. These varieties yield from 10 to 20 tons per acre on good soils. By storing it cheaply, it provides an excellent silage crop.

LIVESTOCK
BEEF CATTLE
Improved prices of livestock have resulted in the purchase of purebred breeding stock in car-lots from areas outside of Florida and the livestock breeders of Florida had a good sale for their breeding stock. The improvement of pastures has gone hand in hand with this and those farmers who own the larger areas and have been financially able to fence them have ex'pressed an interest in the improvement of the stock and the range.
The range men have gradually improved their cattle for several years with the result that some additional markets have been opened up. In central Florida, in particular, county agents have been particularly. active with range cattle work. They have accompanied the owners into Texas and other livestock producing areas for the purpose of getting breeding stock by the carload.
These demonstrations have been productive of much improvement. This has culminated in two important livestock exhibits, one held at the South Florida Fair and a second at the Florida Fat Stock Show and sale in Jacksonville. At both places unusually good prices were paid for these finished animals and they are in demand by the buyers.

DAIRYING
Report of the Dairy Specialist indicates the interest among dairy farmers and particularly those engaged in commercial dairying. The problems of dairying are principally those of feeds and improvement of the dairy animals for production purposes. Through the home demonstration agents special attention has been given to the use of dairy products on the farm and considerable interest has been taken in better farm dairy cattle.
The big problem, however, is the cost of production in commercial areas. Special attention has been given to the improvement of pastures and larger ranges, particularly in the areas near larger cities. Due to the higher cost of feed in 1935, dairymen we're compelled to reduce their feed costs and better pastures and the construction of pit silos have added much to improvement of feeding practices.
In connection with these dairies, there has always been a problem of parasites with young animals. Formerly it was not the practice of dairymen to raise calves to supply their future producers, but on account of difficulty in securing animals - of quality, many dairymen are now giving special attention to the raising of their own stock. The management of herds to control parasites has been one of the big problems in the past.








Annual Report, 1935


This means crop rotation and less permanent pastures for young livestock and feeding methods that will prevent infestation of parasites, particularly for the first six months of a calf's life.
One additional outstanding problem has been the eradication of tuberculosis and Bang's. disease. Tuberculosis eradication has been conducted in a systematic way until a large part of the herds have been practically freed of this disease.
The Extension dairyman and county agents have accompanied dairymen to other sections of the country to secure producing animals that are needed for the increased winter trade prevalent in Florida.

HOGS
Due to the agricultural adjustment program, it was not desirable at the beginning of the season to encourage production of a larger number of hogs on farms, but because Florida is a meat deficiency area it gave opportunity to produce larger hogs. Consequently, even with the agricultural adjustment program, shipments of hogs from Florida resulting from 1935 production have been larger than in previous years, due principally to the better prices and to heavier animals being marketed. With low prices for hogs since 1932, good breeding stock has been difficult to secure. However, those few breeders who have had good breeding stock have found a ready sale for the animals. At the end of the season with hogs selling at above average price, there is increased interest in hogs and many farmers are returning to hogs as their main money crop, particularly in that area where peanuts and corn are principal grain crops. The agricultural adjustment program has stimulated improvement in quality and demonstrations with farmers have been built around the problem of better quality together with cheaper feeds.











AIL








Fig. L-Demonstrations in cutting and curing pork aided Florida farmers in saving a larger and more satisfactory home meat supply during 1935.

During the period of low priced pork, interest was centered around home curing and this program got well underway and under the direction of the Animal Husbandman, demonstrations in butchering, cutting and curing methods were given. Also, cold storage has been made available to most areas. Help has been given by the United States Department of








26 Florida Cooperative Extension I

Agriculture and a much larger. supply of home cured meat of better quality has been placed in the farm homes since the beginning of this program.
County agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog cholera. In increasing number, agents have cooperated with the Live Stock Sanitary Board in the treatment of hog cholera and in control of other hog diseases.
Special attention has been given to parasite control with hogs and cattle. This has been a program of unusual importance, since farmers are finding it necessary to rotate pastures in order to hold the parasites of livestock in check.

GOVERNMENT CATTLE TO 4-H CLUB MEMBERS
The Government purchases from the drought area of the West in 1934 brought to this state about 90,000 cattle. Practically all of these were slaughtered and canned in cooperation with the Commodity Division, FERA. A number of these better animals were held over to determine their adaptability to Florida conditions. These were finally closed out at the end of the year and 50 animals consigned for 4-H club work, These were animals two years old and over and were placed in counties where there were facilities for taking care of them.
Results of this demonstration cannot be determined until one or two calf crops are produced. The animals were given normal or average care and since they were of better than average breeding, it will be of interest to know their progress the next five years. They were turned over free of all costs and placed with representative 4-H club boys who were in position to feed and care for them properly.

CITRUS FRUITS
On account of the adjustment program District Agents turned over practically all of their supervisory citrus program to the Citriculturist. A unified citrus program was planned and approved by the Extension Service and research workers of the Experiment Station and centered around the economical production of improved quality of fruit and around irrigation.
On account of a freeze in 1934, many groves in the state were severely injured, resulting in dead wood which caused an unusual infestation of melanose. This required a spraying program, particularly for melanos3, and also a fertilization program to help restore these injured groves to good productive condition. The Citriculturist gave special attention to these two problems and his recommendations to the county agents emphasized the necessity of bringing these groves back to normal bearing at limited cost. Because of these special treatments and a favorable season, the groves have made remarkable recovery.
Special attention was given to irrigation by the Citriculturist in groves where irrigation is possible at relatively low cost. The control of insects and diseases has been carried out by county agents in cooperation with other research workers in the field of horticultural work in the central part of Florida.
VEGETABLES
The work with vegetables comes under two divisions: First, commercial crops and, second, home gardens. The commercial crop area has had the usual problems of marketing, fertilization and disease and insect control. Demonstrations in these commercial crops are more difficult to handle than in most other crops, since earliness is of importance as compared with even the cost of production. However, special attention has been given to organic materials in fertilization and the content of fertilizer in respect







Annual Report, 1935


to nitrogen. Cover crops, such as native grasses and crotalaria, have been a part of the program. There were demonstrations in the use of new insecticides and fungicides as recommended by the Florida Experiment Station.
County agents in all sections of the state have had as a part of their program the home garden. This has added considerable to the food supply. In this, the county and home demonstration agents have cooperated and both have cooperated with employees of the Rehabilitation Service who were assisting the relief families with the cooperation of the county and home agents.
AGRICULTURAL LOANS
The Farm Credit Administration, through its various branches ' is becoming well established throughout this state and it is the policy of the Extension Service to cooperate with them to the fullest extent. Farmers have been assisted in making the greatest use of these agencies. The Production Credit Associations have functioned in each case with the cooperation of the county agents in the respective districts. The Federal Land Banks, while longer established, have invited the Extension Service to cooperate in their program. The greatest service with agricultural loans has been with emergency crop loans. In this the county agents have received applications from farmers and transmitted them to the district offices.
OUTLOOK INFORMATION
An outlook report is published annually and placed in the hands of county agents as a part of their program. This report is under the supervision of H. G. Clayton and is brought up to date with the assistance of the specialists in charge of the various divisions of the Extension Service. To get this outlook information to the farmers, District Agents and Specialists have conducted outlook meetings to interest the farmers as a guide -for their production in 1936.
EXHIBITS
County agents of South Florida supervised many exhibits at the South Florida Fair. These exhibits attracted national attention because of the superior quality and attractive designs. While these are aside, in some respects, from the Extension program, they have become a contribution by the Extension Service, due to the requests of the County Boards who cooperate. Other exhibits of lesser extent have been displayed at smaller fairs and in addition to this there have been numerous exhibits put on by persons who cooperate with the Extension agents. These have been useful in displaying products of 4-11 clubs and have served a useful purpose as demonstration activities.

COOPERATION BY STATE AND COUNTIES
The financial statement shows an increase in state funds for Extension work over the amount allotted in 1934.
County appropriations have slightly increased and there has been a greater increase in the number of counties appropriating than in any Dther period in the history of Extension work. This makes it possible to carry through 1936 a larger number of county and home agents and the situation in this respect is decidedly better than for several years past. County Boards in most cases have appropriated the maximum amount permitted by law and in most instances have cooperated in other cases to improve the service by furnishing office equipment and clerical help.







Florida Cooperative Extension .


AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM

The Agricultural Extension Service was assigned the responsibility for the direction and supervision of 'production adjustment programs. These programs affected,'for the most part, the general farming area. The only exceptions were corn and hog contracts in a few of the Central and South Florida counties. This, however, was a minor part of the program. The following persons were assigned the supervision of commodity programs:
Cotton-State Board of Review, Chairman, H. G. Clayton.
Peanuts-Supervisor of Contracts, J. Lee Smith, District Agent.
Tobacco-Supervisor of Contracts, D. E. Timmons.
Corn-Hogs-Supervisor of Program, W. J. Sheely.
Compliance Supervisor of all commodities-J. Lee Smith.
This 'program required that county and community committees handle work in the respective counties. This was done by the appointment of three county committeemen and with as many community committeemen as were necessary, depending on the number of farmers and contract signers in the county. These community committeemen were selected by the respective associations that were designated by the Secretary of Agriculture to handle programs. They served in administering the contracts in the counties and worked under the supervision of the county agent, whose office was made headquarters for the program. Meetings were called by him when matters of importance were to be considered. The county agents are, therefore, the key-men in the county programs, handling all commodities.
The county agents' offices were supplied with office equipment and with sufficient clerical assistance to handle contracts. They required from two to 10 additional persons in each county during 'period of greatest activity. Filing systems were set up where the records were kept intact and where data could be obtained regarding each program. The county agent's off ice was also made the disbursing office for checks that were received by them f or distribution in the county.
The compensation for extra services was paid by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Committeemen received $3.00 per day and clerical assistance received from $2.50 to $4.00 per day, depending on the type of clerical work to be performed.
All instructions were submitted from the Central Office at Gainesville to the county agent and forms supplied from Washington were transmitted through the Gainesville office to the county headquarters. In all programs except corn-hog, the expenses were borne directly by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. However, in the corn-hog program the expenses were deducted from the benefit payments to farmers and this required a county budget and receipts for expenditures submitted before the farmers received their benefit payments from the corn-hog reduction program. All county certificates for services were certified in the Gainesville office and checks were issued from the Adjustment Administration, Washington, D. C., to the Gainesville office for distribution throughout the state.
The potato adjustment program affected some 40 Florida counties for a short while near the end of 1935. An allotment of tax-free potatoes coule be sold in Florida and for this.exemption stamps were issued. The statc allotment was prorated to counties and each county allotment was broken down into producers' allotments. This program was underway with almost a complete sign-up in the commercial potato areas at the time that all control programs of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were declared unconstitutional, January 6, 1936. In the meantime, growers had made some







Annual Report, 1935


adjustment in their acreage and were anticipating controlled production :and relatively increased prices because of it. The program, however, was ,discontinued when the Agricultural Adjustment Act was declared unconstitutional on January 6, 1936.
In the handling of the adjustment program, Assistant Cotton Adjustment Agents were employed in cotton counties. They were paid by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. These men were placed in the county under bond, since they were required to handle tax exemption certificates and stamps. These agents were employed in all the main cotton-producing
-counties in Florida and assisted the county agents in handling the Cotton Adjustment Program. Results of the adjustment program as measured by the payment to farmers is indicated in the following tables.

TABLE 1.-RENTAL AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY COUNTIES, JANUARY 1, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1935.


County*


Alachua . Baker . .Bay
Bradford.
Calhoun Citrus Clay Columbia.----.
Dixie Escambia.----.
Flagler Gadsden Gilchrist Gulf Hamilton . Hernando._----Holmes .Jackson Jeff erson. Lafayette.-----Lake Leon Levy Madison Marion . ,'Okaloosu . Orange Polk Putnam St. Johns.------Santa Rosa._---Sumter Suwannee.----.
Taylor Union Wakulla Walton Washington.------


Total Cotton ITobacco ICorn-Hogs


$ 46,428.54
1,630.17
144.47
7,124.75
6,911.34 1,313.20
332.20
45,410.65 3,130.75
20,576.63
117.00 107,371.00 10,189.32
32.49
39,909.27
193.50
44,093.60 87,974.04 31,721.00
14,106.91
20.30 22,669.22 32,079.73 57,120.21 17,270.35 24,962.87 289.50
1,469.70
1,441.60 5,181.47
47,183.44 670.53 :68,549.82 2,275.02 8,041.85 1,679.50
25,954.54 10,286.79


'Totals $795,857.27


$ 4,682.49
385.67
144.47
.3,466.86


13,331.53
59.74
19,621.03
117.00
1,506.64
285.41 32.49
19,390.42
40,543.97 64,664.64 13,078.19 3,703.72

17,118.78 2,302.81 21,148.79

21,809.95




234.77
19,852.56
928.27 351.27 613.90
21,477.37
8,619.73


$346,252.86


$ 15,220.72
359.41

1,711.70
335.36

5,532.33


99,805.38

19,457.80

342.29
1,451.01 1,087.98 4,621.67
20.30
945.43
10.50 28,177.90



18,487. 86.
864. . 92.





$18,432.56


$ 26,525.33
885.09
5,413.05 3,109.12 1,313.20
332.20
26,546.79
3,071.01
955.60
6,058.98 9,903.91

1,061.05
193.50
3,207.34 21,858.39 17,554.83 5,781.52

4,605.01
29,766.42
7,793.52
17,270.35 3,152.92
289.50
1,469.70
1,441.60 5,181.47
403.05 435.76
30,209.40
1,346.75 6,825.66 1,'065.60
4,477.17 1,667.06


$251,171.85









REVIEW OF AAA WORK
As a matter of record, the Agricultural Adjustment Act became effective on May 12, 1933. Its principal provisions were declared unconstitutional on January 6, 1936. It was supplemented by the following compulsory control laws: Bankhead Act for cotton, Kerr-Smith Act for tobacco, and Warren Potato Act for potatoes. These three were repealed by Congress, the repealing act being signed by President Roosevelt on February 10, 1936.
In- 1933 the only adjustment program attempted was the plow-iip campaign with cotton. That year 4,434 Florida growers with 61,000 acres of cotton signed contracts and plowed up 22,800 acres, nearly one-third of their crop and about 20 percent of the state acreage. The program throughout the cotton belt was hailed as a success, and the price of cotton advanced from 5 to 9 cents per pound. Plans were laid for more extensive work the next year.
The State Agricultural Extension Service, with its corps of county agents, was drafted to conduct adjustment activities in Florida, each agent being a representative of the Secretary of Agriculture. This service organization had charge of the 'plow-up campaign in 1933 and the programs with cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs in 1934, the same crops in 1935, with the addition -of peanuts and sirup.
Committees of farmers were set up in each community to check applications from farmers for participation in the voluntary programs, to measure acreage and check compliance, and handle other features of the work locally. In each county a county committee of leading farmers checked applications and forwarded them to the state office. State boards of allotment and review made allotments and reviewed cases where complaints had been entered. Each contract signer was a member of the County Control Association. County and community committeemen were elected by members of the association.
For their cooperation in the projects during the three years, Florida farmers have been paid rental and benefit payments totaling $1,674,835.13, as shown by figures given in accompanying tables, which have been prepared by E. 0, Blackwell, executive secretary for the State Allotment Board. It is estimated that some $448,578.47 remains to be paid, which will give a grand total of $2,123,413.60 coming to Florida farmers in direct payments for adjustment.
TABLE 2.-SummARY or BENEFIT PAYMENTs, ALL COMMODITIES, FLORIDA.
1933 1 1934 1935) I(Estimates)
(Paid) I (Paid) I (Paid To be paid Total

Cotton . $260,050.09 $228,955.62 $346,252.86 $204,950.43 $1,040,209.00 Tobacco --------- 63,106.05 181,816.99 198,432.56 15,059.,00* 458,414.60
Corn-Hog . . 145,049.11 251,171.85 78,569.04 474,790.00 Peanuts . . ------------_--- ------------------ 100,000-00 100,000.00
Sirup ------------ ------------------ ------------ ----- ------------------ 50,000.00 50,000.00

Totals . $323,156.14 $555,821.72 1$795,857.27 $448,5-78.47 $2,123,413.60

This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because of the exchange of poundage between producers.


Florida Cooperative Extension








Annual Report, 1935


TABLE 3.-ESTIMATES OF SALES RECEIPTS AND BENEFITS TO PRODUCERS OF
FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FROM 1931 TO 1935.

Production Price per IBenefit Total
(Pounds) Pound IPayments IReceipts

1931 4,356,000 6.6c $ 287,000.00
1932 1,260,000 11.Oc 138,000.00
1933 3,750,000 12.0c 450,000.00
1934 3,432,000 20.Oc $193,991.'00* 886,000.00
1935 5,943,000 18.1c 15,059.00* * 1,090,059.00

* Benefits include a parity payment received by cooperators based on receipts from the 1933 crop.
** This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because of the exchange of poundage between producers.


TABLE 4.-FARM VALUE COTrON LINT AND SEED, 1932-1935.


County


Alachua
Calhoun
Columbia.------Escambia.
Gadsden
Hamilton . Holmes . Jackson.------Jefferson.---Laf ayette.-----Leon
Madison.-----Okaloosa
Santa Rosa . Suwannee . Waltcnr
WashIngton . All Others.
Sea Is'and.-----Total Value Seed and Lint. Benefits Paid.


Total Crop Value.--


No Control Program
1932

$ 6,173.74
3,742.34 18,627.07
36,407.40
2,751.74
27,658.32 63,017.48 98,177.23 27,552.54
4,445.12
45,363.66 33,020.71 51,083.29 103,718.81 28,575.59 35,031.57 16,263.42 6,389.97


Voluntary Plow-up
Program
1933


$ 12,258.68
15,985.45 46,167.26 91,116.68 12,259.71 69,925.34
198,181.36
278,148.42
68,278.46 13,109.70 84,2-05.69 79,870.22 106,025.65
241,923.99
66,804.47 109,332.63
27,404.48 32,383.90


$ 608,000.00 $1,553,382.09
1 260,050.09


Voluntary Acreage Reduction Program 1934 1 1935*


$ 16,054.98
20,556.42 56,696.93 105,315.84
15,513.52
89,404.97
420,788.84 381,375.42 64,365.47 16,258.36 73,615.92 91,806.37 113,078.48 370,445.98 98,850.08 133,714.33
33,184.21
40,195.60


$ 15,668.80
20,800.04 53,943.92 133,287.97
6,433.55
87,362.82
286,145.80 392,272.54 45,331.27 18,174.35
84,404.91 137,358.00 135,780.35 266,620.16 101,376.47 157,046.78 74,673.06 20,701.92 20,160.00


$2,121,'221.721 -$2,057,542.71
228,995.62J 346,252.86


$ 608,000.O00 $1,813,432.18~ $2,350,177.3d


$2,403,795.57


* Estimated value.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 5.-FLORIDA INCOME FROM COTTON, 1933-1935.


Voluntary
County Plow-Up
1933


Alachua $ 3,244.50
Baker .
Bay .
Calhoun 2,074.00
Columbia . 6,419.50 D ixie .
Escambia. 13,844.22 Flagler. .
Gadsden 2,389.50
Gilchrist 531.00
Gulf .
Hamilton . 7,366.00 Holmes 19,587.103
Jackson 40,455.75
Jefferson 8,619.50
Lafayette.----- 5,320.00 Leon 14,829.25
Levy 3,029.50
Madison 13,500.11
Marion 260.00
Okaloosa.-----. 29,299.00 Santa Rosa-.-.---------- 52,197.50
Sumter ----.
Suwannee . 16,991.60 Taylor 727
Union 175.00
Wakulla 593.25
Walton 15,118.68
Washington. 3,422.45


Total $260,050.09


BE NE F IT S
Voluntary IVoluntary Total
Reduction IReduction Benefits
1934 I 1935 1933-34-35

$ 1,387.10 $ 4,682.49 $ 9,314.09,
57.83 385.67 443.50
90.00 144.47 234.47
2,595.15 3,466.86 8,136.01
7,412.16 13,331.53 . 27,163.19
.59.74 59.74
10,630.12 19,621.03 44,095.37
. 117.00 117.00
977.11 1,506.64 4,873.25
234.86 285.41 1,051.27
.32.49 32.49
12,620.79 19,390.42 39,377.21
21,663.68 40,543.97 81,794.68
47,987.43 64,664.64 153,107.82
6,109.93 13,078.19 27,807.62
2,060.93 3,703.72 11,084.65,
11,686.37 17,118.78 43,634.40
670.33 2,302.81' 6,002.64:
17,287.71 21,148.79 51,936.61
52.00 .312.00
20,361.01 21,809.95 71,469.96
33,119.64 46,780.39 132,097.53
.-. 234.77 234.77
13,133.07 19,852.56 49,977.23
412.92 928.27 2,123.94
114.17 351.27 640.44
141.65 613.90 1,348.80.
13,047.35 21,477.37 49,643.40
5,102.31 8,619.73 17,144.49


$228,955.62 $346,252.86 $ 835,258.57'


Unpaid Estimate 204,950.4&

Total Benefits, State, 1933-1935 $1,040,209.00.


WORK OF D. E. TIMMONS
The Extension Economist in Marketing spent a large proportion of his. time assisting in the administration of AAA programs.

BASIC COMMODITIES
Tobacco-The Extension Economist in Marketing directed the work of the tobacco adjustment program in Florida until September 18, 1935, when he was granted leave of absence to work with the Potato Section at Wash-ington.
He supervised the work of the state office, advised county agents of' changes in administrative rulings, and assisted them and their committeemen in making recommendations concerning contracts and allotments to applicants. The state office checked the 1934 allotment cards against the. carbon copies of the tax-payment warrants issued at warehouses, checked.








Annual Report, 1935 33

new contracts, handled the referendum vote on the Kerr-Smith'Act, issued allotment cards for 1935, and summarized reports from- the county offices.
In this connection,-a mimeographed report was prepared hy the Extension Economist in Marketing on June 26, 1935, giving the status of "The Flue-Cured Tobacco Adjustment Program in Florida from May 12, 1938 to April 30, 1935". This study developed the fact that since 1930 Florida flue-cured tobacco producers witnessed such low prices that a large number of growers ceased to produce tobacco. Of 1,038 contract signers for 1934, 209 or 20 percent, had not produced any tobacco since 1931. There were 303 who had planted two of the base years, and only 323 who had planted all three of the base years. Almost one-half of all contract signers planted tobacco only one of the base years, 1931-33. There were 198 non-contracting producers in 1934 in Florida.
The 1,038 flue-cured tobacco contracts represented 3,805.8 acres aver-' aging 740 pounds yield per acre. The 198 non-contracting producers planted approximately 864 acres, with an estimated yield of 672 pounds per acre.
The 2,806,914 pounds of flue-cured tobacco sold by Florida contract ;igners brought an average 'price of 21.74 cents per pound in 1934, as against the average price received by producers in 1931 of 6.6 cents per )ound, and 12.0 cents per pound in 1933.
Florida contract growers sold most of their tobacco during 1934 in Valdosta, Ga., and Live Oak, Fla., Valdosta ranking first in volume of
-eceipts with 1,614,000 pounds, and Live Oak second receiving -947,000 bounds.
There were 1,178 regular contracts and 67 Special Base contracts, makrig 1,240 flue-cured tobacco contracts in effect in 1935. Of this total, there vere 135 new contracts signed in 1935.
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted the producers in the ransfer of surplus allotments from one grower to another. On completion f the marketing season in August 1935,.the allotment cards together with he growers' warehouse receipts were forwarded to the state office and here checked against duplicate tax-payment warrants from Washington nd the marketing cards made up from the data developed in this checking. Data on the 1935 crop were not compiled, due to the leave of absence ranted the Extension Economist in Marketing.
Corn and Hogs.-The Extension Economist in Marketing was a member f the State Board of Review. Hie assisted the committee in adjusting orn and hog contracts and in the handling of appeal cases. It was necesary to spend some time in the field contacting county agents, committeeten and contract signers who had appealed for adjustments in their con7acts. It was also necessary in one case that he represent the State oard of Review in connection with an appeal case that went to the Corn.og Section in Washington. At this meeting the Extension Economist in [arketing presented to the Corn-Hog Section the results of farm survey materials in Florida which showed that the allotment to contract signers iFlorida was too little as regarding corn yields. It is a general pracce, in large areas of West Florida, for the farmers to 'plant one row of Irn and one row of peanuts and in some instances to plant either the irn row or peanut row with velvet beans. Farm survey data indicated tat where corn was planted by this method, there was approximately a percent higher yield if corn were reduced to a solid basis on land planted corn and peanuts than if planted in solid corn. By reducing the interanting to a solid corn basis and comparing with a state average yield, was obvious that growers would receive abnormally low rental payments r their corn acreage. The Corn-Hog Section, after studying the statistics
-esented, made administrative rulings which took into consideration the
cts brought out in data 'presented.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Extension Economist in Marketing also assisted in the setting up of the Corn-Hog Control Associations and in the making of their regular budgets. This was incidental, however, to his regular duties as a member of the Corn-Hog Board of Review.
Potatoes.-The inclusion of potatoes as a basic commodity and the preliminary work done in Florida prior to the framing of the bill, made it necessary for the Extension Economist in Marketing to spend considerable time with potato growers, dealers, and in conference with officials in Washington. One section of the state felt that making potatoes a basic commodity, or any similar legislation, would affect that section adversely. Another section of the state felt that they had had extremely low prices and that if some legislation was not made the farmers of those communities were doomed to bankruptcy. The Extension Economist in Marketing, through meetings, kept the farmers and dealers in each of these areas informed ' as to proposed legislation and discussed with them the progress being made.
In meetings held in Washington and the state, the policy of the Extension Economist in Marketing was to carry information from growers to Washington and from Washington to growers in an unbiased manner. .
After it was determined that there would be a 'potato control program, meetings were held explaining the plan. Growers were -notified at these meetings that it would be necessary to make applications for sales allotments if they were to receive tax-exempiion stamps. Preliminary forms and instructions for the handling of the potato program were made and sent to county agents. ,

A.A.A. RECORD BOOK WORK
The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding educational meetings to explain the purpose of the records and the value of records to Farmers. Record books were distributed to farmers by county agents to record farm operations as a basis for farm management practices. These meetings were attended by 1,174 growers.









Annual Report, 1935


BOYS'4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

On account of enlarged duties imposed upon District Agents, the time they could allot to club work has been very limited this year. The result is that where formerly there were four supervisors promoting boys' 4-H ,club work, there is but one with a little assistance from one district agent.

4-11 SUPERVISORY PROGRAM FOR 1935
Older 4-11 Boys as Emergency Leaders From experience in 1934 it was evident that using the older 4-H club boys as emergency leaders was the most satisfactory way to overcome the almost complete lack of time for club work on the part of the county agent. It was planned to assist county agents in the counties affected by the several adjustment programs in organizing the older 4-11 boys for the purpose of carrying on the work during the emergency. The counties with adjustment problems were the counties in which the larger part of the club enrollment was to be found. This fine plan came to naught because the county agents were too busy with adjustment work to find time to set a date for organizing the older club members.


Fig. 2-Class instruction, as shown above, and recreation make annual 4-11 club camps attractive to boys and girls, and maintain their interest in the work.

Club Camps.-In the club program for Florida the camp is a vital factor in promoting club work. Nine years ago a district camp was started in West Florida to serve 10 counties. This central camp proved so useful and so satisfactory that in 1934 a second district camp was begun in Central Florida. The camps were built by donations. The one in West








PFlorida Cooperative Extension


Florida was large enough to handle 120 and was equipped with electric lights and a sanitary sewage disposal system. The one in Central Florida was just begun in 1934 and it seemed advisable to devote the time necessary to enlarge this camp and to install needed sanitary equipment. Three months of the state club agent's time were given to securing donations and to supervising'the erection of building and the installation of a lighting plant and a modern sanitary disposal system at the Central Florida camp. The result is tbat we now have two very fine 4-H club camps in Florida which are a big factor in the 4-11 club program.
Two former 4-H boys were employed as camp directors during the summer months. D. R. Matthews had charge of the West Florida Camp and W. W. Bassett, Jr., of the camp in Central Florida. Both of these nien are able and conscientious. Both did the job at hand very well indeed.
Recreation .Leadership Training.-The fact that so many young people are backing up on the farms without jobs to take up their time made it seem advisable to devote some time to the recreational side of rural life. Through cooperation of the National Recreational Association, six leadership training schools were held in the state. The schools were a success and in some counties recreation councils were formed and meetings held monthly during the year. This work is building a more desirable rural social life. It was noticeable in the stories written by new club members in the counties where the recreational schools were held that the good times had by club members were given as the major reason why the new member joined the club. Recreation training is a big part of the summer 4-H camp program. Beginnings of improvement, in rural social contacts seem evident.

PROBLEMS, METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Relations with' Counties.-The big problem in 4-H club work has been to overcome the lack of time on the part of county agents. 'The average ccunty agent in the general farming area of Florida has been unable to take care of anything except the adjustment work. Some succeeded in Allocating their time in such way thaif they were able to carry on the r .egular extension program in- a limited way. An attempt was made to turn the major part of routine boys' club work over to the older club boys. A few county organization meetings were held at which two older boys from each community were present. The boys were impressed with the poIpportunity' for service. The result in counties where such organization meetings were held was enough to prove that the older boys can and will carry the club program over in emergency. Of course it is doubtful as to the efficiency of this 'plan for a period over a year or two in length.
Assisting County Agents in Determining Club -Program.-Twelve agents were assisted in planning a 4-H program for boys. The work in Alachua County was exceptional. County Agent F. L. Craft and 'Assistant Agent J. A. McClellan organized the club work in this county in a complete way. Each local club was organized and a county council was formed. Several innovations were instituted by Mr. McClellan, which aroused and held the enthusiasm of the different clubs.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES. AND RESULTS
ENROLLMENT
Through the assistance of older boys a 14%/ increase in enrollment was secured. The number of projects started increased from 3,080 to 3,507, This was most gratifying. Then the result of neglect on the part of th( county agents began to show up. For the third year the agents did nol







Annual Report, 1935


have time to supervise the club work personally. The older boys did their best but it takes the personal contact of the agent himself to hold 4-H !lub work at the proper standard. The boys started their projects but did .ot complete them. This was noticeable last' year when the percent of ompletions dropped to 53%. In 1935 but 49% of the projects started were ,ompleted. With 428 more projects than in 1934 there were but 82 more ;omp'etions.
The following figures show the gains and losses in the different projects .or 1933, 1934 and 1935.
Gain or
Project 1933 1934 [ 1935 Ioss1935
[ over 1934

Jorn 583 719 825 -106
)otatoes 192 237 276 - 39
Cotton 111 222 229 - 7
Jruck and Garden 338 443 513 - 70
poultry 277 337 388 - 51
lig 376 466 547 - 81
,alf 203 247 246 - 1
miscellaneous 341 409 483 + 74

.Iotal1 2415 3080 3507 +428


ORGANIZATION
The number of organized clubs increased from 154 to 171.
The value of well organized local clubs was demonstrated in Escambia ,ounty this fall. Some of the clubs in this county have been operating ar 15 years. Leadership is supplied by old 4-H boys. E. P. Scott resigned s county agent a month before the club contest was to be held. The new Dunty agent arrived on Wednesday and the contest was held on Friday nd Saturday. He did not visit a club. When the contest was held three lubs brought in over 90% reports. All the work, even putting up the exhibits, was done by boys under the leadership of the club officers.
If more assistance could be given the county agents in perfecting workig local club organizations the enrollment would be increased, but the reatest improvement would be in the percent of completions. From presit records it would seem that it would be possible to secure at least 80% ports. This would mean much to club work as it is detrimental to a boy encourage him to start a project and then not help him finish it.
FARM CROPS
Corn.-Three hundred seventy boys grew 472 acres of corn, producing .,959 bushels, an average yield of 27.4 bushels per acre. The decrease i average yield from 37.4 bushels in 1931 shows the effect of low prices id the general let-down in the attempt to increase the yield per acre. oys as well as farmers are not striving to keep, up production per acre. ew boys used fertilizer and there appears to be a tendency to forget te value of high yields in lowering the cost of production per bushel. This ems to be a sad mistake and a step backward. Cotton.-This project showed a further decline, due to the cotton reduc-n program. Eighty-five boys grew 92 acres at an average yield per re of 740 pounds of seed cotton. Here again the tendency to neglect the Ldue of high yield is manifest.







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Peanuts.-The yield 'per acre of peanuts held up very well. Closer spacing accounts for the increased yield.
Home Garden and Truck Crops.-With agricultural conditions improving somewvhat, interest in gardens decreased. This is a "hard times" project. During the depression many families have had reason to be thankful for the 4-H club garden, as it furnished a good part of the family living. When other crops began to pay the boy turned to them, as there was not a profit to him from the garden.
Sweet Potatoes.-This is one of the best profit producing projects in club work. One hundred and eleven boys grew 94 acres -of sweet potatoes averaging 94 bushels per acre. The expense per acre is low and there is usually a sale for the crop at fair prices.
Horticulture.-We have been unable to work out successful projects for club work with citrus. The period between planting and bearing is too long. Record keeping and cost accounting seem to be the only phases which will work.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
The rising prices of meat animals has made the pig clubs profitable once more. There is a shortage of good breeding animals in the state at present.
Dairy.-This project had one member less than in 1934. The farm family did not have enough money to buy calves. Some of the older dairy club boys have a start for a herd of purebred cows.
Swine.-There was a 16%1 increase in enrollment over 1934. It would have been larger had the boys been able to locate breeding stock. For the first time since the depression started, we have had some real finished barrows at the club contests. This project made the boys money and will likely grow in size next year.
Beef Cattle.-Twenty-nine boys grew 42 animals in this project. It is new for Florida. We are not sure of the profit to be made. Fifteen boys are feeding out a baby beef each for the State Fat Stock Show next spring. Plans are being formulated to put on some 15 demonstrations in the possibility of a boy building a herd of beef cattle.
Poultry.-The number of chickens raised per club member is increasing and profits are growing. A boy should not start with less than 50 chicks.
The following table gives completions and yields for major club projects in 1935:
Organization
171-Organized community 4-H1 clubs
Enrollment and Completions
2955-Members enrolled
3507-Different projects carried by club members 1369-Members completed 46%
1733-Projects completed 49%V
Project Work
Yield 12,959 bushels corn
41,909 lbs. peanuts
45 tons hay (peanuts)
278 bushels seed (forage crops) 66 tons hay (forage crops) 1,549 bushels Irish potatoes 8,629 bushels sweet potatoes 68,252 lbs. seed cotton
3,308 lbs. tobacco
26 homes (home beautification)







Annual Report, 1935


Animals Involved . 17,500 birds (poultry)
215 animals (dairy cattle) 42 animals (beef cattle) 648 animals (swine)
Leadership and Recreation
6-Judging teams trained
7-Demonstration teams trained
55-Leadership training meetings held with 760 attending
19-Achievement days held with 3632 attending
30-Club camps held with 915 attending
1-State Short Course held with 253 attending

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
Annual Short Course.-The 19th annual Boys' Club Short Course was field at the University of Florida in June with 253 boys attending. This s the most inspirational club meeting of the year. All the counties with )oys' club work except two were represented. Out-of-State Trips.-But one out-of-state trip was made by Florida 4-H
ioys in 1935. Two boys, Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County and ). C. Hanks of Escambia County, represented Florida at the National 4-H ,amp in Washington, D. C., in June.
Scholarships.-The Florida Bankers' Association continued its three cholarships to the College of Agriculture. These scholarships were won by )scar Watson of Santa Rosa County, Thomas Henry of Suwannee County nd Francis Hildebrand of Orange County.








40 Florida Cooperative Extension

DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman

Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1935, in cooperation with county agents: Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette, Hamilton, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval, St. Johns, Union, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Brevard, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Hernando, Sarasota, Manatee, DeSoto, Hardee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Dade. Some dairy work was carried on with farmers in counties not having county agents: Bay, Flagler. Clay, Citrus and Broward.

DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS

The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor in developing the dairy extension program in the State in 1935. Pastures for dairy cows suffered severely in the winter of 1934-35 because of cold, dry winter in a large area of the State.
There has been continued interest among dairymen this year in locating their dairies on soils best adapted to growing forage crops. Government loans offered on lands and livestock have increased opportunities for dairymen to secure land better suited to growing forage. Within the last three years, 207 dairymen have purchased 23,640 acres of farm lands for growing pasture and forage crops. Duval, Hillsboro and Dade lead in numbers of acres of farm lands purchased.


Fig. 3.-Trench silos with dirt floors, walls and ceilings provide inexpensive but satisfactory storage for silage. Numbers of them have been constructed in Florida recently, and they are aiding dairymen in saving forage.








Annual Report, 1935


BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS
County agents report they had 29 demonstrations in repairing dairy )arns and helped in the construction of 38 silos for dairy purposes in 1934. [hirty-two of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and six were ibove-ground. Trench silos were built in nine counties for the first time n 1935. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have proven d iage will keep in Florida in any kind of silo that is practical in any other ;ection of the United States.
Eighty-four farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane as a soiling Lnd silage crop in 1935. Improved forage cane as a forage crop for dairy ows was introduced into 12 counties of Columbia, Suwannee, Nassau, Clay, 5t. Johns, DeSoto, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, Sarasota, Manatee and Dade n 1935. Cooperative purchases and sales were arranged with counties having cane for sale and those needing seed.
Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing -sorghum, Napier ,rass and cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1935. .hese crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy industry and in producing an abundance of cheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of he State that are not adapted to growing corn.
Eight farm tours were conducted in Suwannee, Duval, Marion, Hernando, tillsboro, and Manatee counties to visit result demonstrations with silos nd forage crops. The farm tours were attended by 194 interested dairy armers from 15 counties. As a result, trench silos were built for the first ime in nine counties in 1935 and improved varieties of forage cane were lanted in 12 counties for the first time in 1935.

PASTURE AND GRAZING CROPS
The dry, cold weather in the latter part of 1934 and the first five months 1 1935 limited the number of acres seeded to pastures in 1935. There were ,825 acres seeded by dairy farmers in the State.
Demonstrations in mowing pastures conducted throughout the State 3r some six years have proven valuable. The increased grass yields, so oticeable on the better grass lands, have interested an increased number f farmers in mowing pastures each year. There were 8,360 acres of ermanent pasture mowed by dairymen in 1935. More dairy farmers are becoming interested in pastures. Field meetings conducted by county agents 'ith assistance of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the Extension 'airyman have proven valuable in bringing pasture demonstrations to the attention of a large percentage of farmers. Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commercial rtilizers have proven profitable. With carpet grass and lespedeza ferlizers meant the difference between success and failure. There has been ri increased tonnage of grass and this grass carried higher protein, vitaiin and mineral content, and has a greater feeding value. In a demonstraon in Sarasota County, dairy cattle showed a preference for fertilized cass, to the extent that the fertilized areas didn't need mowing to prevent eding in the rainy season when grass on the unfertilized area grew ,yond the needs and formed seeds instead of leaves and went into the rest age. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,865 acres of grazing crops this year.

RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS
The very marked upturn in prices for meat animals has greatly in'eased the culling of dairy animals. Increased prices on grain feed in 134-35 and decreased volume of market milk resulting from cows slaughred for Bang's disease made culling profitable.








Florida Cooperative Extension


The advance in grain prices in 1934 caused a lot of the low producing cows on farms not growing the forage requirements to fall into the loss column. With increased price of meat, dairymen are now culling the submarginal cows. Around the larger market centers the advance in price of milk through price supporting measures under the Milk Control Board gave temporary relief. The slaughtering of cows reacting to Bang's disease during the summer season of 1935 reduced the summer surplus and helped equalize production with consumptive requirements unusually well.
The present problem in dairy Extension work is to get fewer heifers from only the best cows in the herd, fed a more liberal ration during the first six months. High quality roughage for the winter season presents a problem on many farms. The average dairy cow in Florida is at least 2011o under size. Demonstrations in growing heifers are helping to correct this condition. Approximately 60clo of the dairy heifers in the State are infested with stomach and internal parasites as a result of being undernourished and due to the fact that calves are placed on infested pastures before they are old enough to resist parasites. Therefore, in calf feeding demonstrations calves are kept on cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures. The system of breeding cows for fall freshening is quite ideal for growing dairy heifers, free from internal parasites.
FARMPAIRYING
Farm dairying with enough good cows to produce milk as a part of the family living and furnish a regular part of the cash income on the farm is an important part of the dairy Extension program. The very low prices for milk products has made the marketing of cream unattractive in most farming sections.
Farmers are giving more attention to farm dairying. Demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement are being conducted as a part of the farm dairy program., The county agents are making surveys to determine the approximate number of additional family cows that are needed to supply milk to farm families in 1936. A plan for properly financing the grade heifer calves with a schedule of values that will provide for the 4-H club members to receive pay for the club heifer at the time she becomes the family milk cow is much needed.
County Agent J. J. Sechrest placed 100 family cows in Hamilton County in 1935. County Agent N. J. Albritton 15laced 26 family cows in Levy County. These are among many agricultural counties without any large market milk centers that have taken a very active interest in increasing the family milk supply in North and West Florida. County Agent C. P. Heuck put on a "live-at-home" program and conducted a motorcade of farmers to Hillsborough County to study forage and pasture crops.
B. E. Lawton, county agent, assisted in securing 51 heifer calves during 1934, 40 heifers in 1935, in Hernando. Seven years ago Madison County farmers, under the direction of the county agent, bought 540 registered and-high grade dairy cows that later became family cows. In 1935, farmers in Madison County sold 175 dairy cows to market milk centers at good prices, from this foundation stock.

GOOD MARKET FOR DAIRY COWS
Surplus dairy cows will bring in a substantial revenue in Florida for some years to come. It is possible that later on, butterfat prices will justify the development of creameries and other by-product milk factories, after the dairy cows are established with a practical farm feeding program. With the large demand for herd replacements in the market milk centers of the State, there is a good market for farm milk cows.








Annual Report, 1935


The large number of cows reacting to Bang's disease and mastitis that ,ere slaughtered in the market milk centers in 1935 greatly increased the emand for Florida-grown dairy cows.

DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The Bang's disease eradication program disrupted milk production recrds in 1935. It was not advisable to attempt the organization of two herd riprovement associations planned for 1935. However, in eradicating Bang's sease dairymen have become much more interested in herd improvement ia system of herd records than ever before. The difficulty market Jlk dairymen ,have in finding disease-free cows has forced their attention ia breeding program. The very important reason for dairy records as understood by the average dairyman is that he wants information for illing. However, about 2001 of the dairy farmers in the State have kept 'me kind of individual milk records of the weights of the milk and feed ;a guide in proportioning the amount of feed for each animal. Feed !cords have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the importance
* the forage program in a very substantial way. In northern Marion )unty 95%/ of the dairymen keep records and about this percentage produce
1 the forage feed requirements now.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 74 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during 35 by Extension agents. This work promises to expand in 1936, as A sult of increased interest in breeding herd replacements on Florida farms. terest in proven sires is increasing. Educational work in evaluating digrees and selecting registered bulls is receiving more interest from irymen. There have been more exchanges of dairy bulls among neighbor rmers than in the past, 58 being reported.

4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Twenty-two county agents enrolled 237 4-H club members with 215 iry animals in 1935. Of these, 27 were registered females and 188 were ,h grade females. The 4-H club has for its purpose a general training
boys and girls in methods of growing dairy heifers and feeding and Lnaging them as family cows.
The dairy clubs are only adapted to counties where the club members enrolled for longer periods than one year. It is not possible for a mber to complete properly dairy club work in less than three years. is naturally reduces the number of boys anid girls enrolled in dairy club rk.
The 4-11 club members are rendering very valuable services in improving quality of dairy animals o'n farms and in introducing better methods growing dairy heifers.
A large percentage of the 4-H dairy club heifers in Florida have been Wdes. Registered heifers have been used in several counties with fair ults. The depression with the years of low prices for dairy cattle, milk I milk products reduced interest and profits in registered dairy animals. has not seemed advisable to promote registered dairy heifers.

COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 19 county and one state dairy associations. The state oriization with over 500 members has been functioning continuously now 10 years.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry

This work has been a cooperative project with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Extension Service and College of Agriculture until April 30, 1935. On that date the Extension Service took over the entire expense of the office.
During the year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has been a member of the State Board of Review of the corn-hog adjustment work. Since June 10, 1935, the Agent has supervised corn-hog compliance work.
The Agent in Animal Husbandry was designated as contact man for the State Screw Worm Control Committee to work in cooperation with county agents and the representative of the Federal Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
Cooperation of individual farmers, county and state livestock associations, packers, stockyards, Chamber of Commerce of Jacksonville, and cold storage people has aided materially.
BEEF CATTLE
For profitable beef cattle production it is important to develop the maximum early calf crop. This involves herd management, breeding, selection and feeding.
Since, due to the quality of Florida cattle, they have been discriminated against in markets, efforts have been made to improve this quality by grading up.
Securing wellbred bulls at nominal 'prices is a problem, since Florida is a long distance from breeding centers and home breeders do not have sufficient to supply the demands.
This office has located bulls in other states, secured prices, marked out the points on -road maps, and put the information in the hands of county agents and individual cattle owners and dealers, resulting in 350 purebred bulls being brought into the state. More than 200 bulls have been placed by this office and county agents,
Pasture Work Grass and weeds do not occupy the land at the same time for profit. We have'urged the use of the mowing machine.* This year 55 pastures were mowed. Where pastures with weeds have been mowed each year the stand of grass shows a decided improvement.
Trench Silos.-The first trench silos for beef cattle were put in in Jackson County in 1931. Silos are now used in Alachua, Duval, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Walton, Washington and Holmes counties. This season 20 new trench silos were constructed.
Growing Feeder Cattle-Since Florida is a feed deficiency state and most of the cattle are raised under semi-range conditions and sold grassfat, efforts have been made for producing feeder cattle of such quality that steer feeders of this state and other states would look this way for their cattle each yearto go on feed.
West Florida shade tobacco growers feed their cattle each year for the manure. They have been buying their cattle from out of the state. In 1932 a movement was started to secure Florida raised steers. In 1933, steers to be fed out in Gadsden County were secured in Liberty County. The Quincy Experiment Station used Liberty County cattle in 1934 and the Gainesville Experiment Station used Alachua County cattle in experimental work. This year, there are other cattle from Liberty County being used as feeders in Gadsden County. In 1934 Florida steers were grazed and fed out at Winston-Salem, N. C., with good results. In 1935 another bunch was sent to Winston-Salem.








Annual Report, 1935


Florida cattle exhibited at the First Florida Fat Stock Show at Jacksonville, March 5-6, 1935, attracted attention of buyers from other states and an increased demand from feeders in other states for Florida grade cattle is in prospect.
















WWI
Fig. 4-Better breeding and better feeding are bringing vast and rapid improvement in Florida's beef cattle industry.

Feeding Cattle.-More cattle are on feed this year than were on feed in the same period last year, notwithstanding the fact that sales of cattle have been heavier than at this time last year. Cattle on feed as reported by county agents are 2,452 head, with 4,778 additional head being fed in bean fields.
A new part this year in cattle feeding is that 21 boys in five counties are feeding out calves for the Fat Stock Show and Sale at Jacksonville next March.
Marketing Cattle.-Efforts are made to aid in developing economic and systematic marketing of all classes of livestock.
With the aid of the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, National Stock Yards, State Marketing Bureau, and other agencies, the first Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale was held in March 1935, at which time 147 steers were sold. At this show and sale cattle were graded according to standard market grades by competent judges. To further aid in this Fat Cattle Show, K. F. Warner, Extension representative from the Bureau of Animal Industry, conducted demonstrations to show the different cuts and corresponding prices that were received, thus taking home to the people the matter of good grade cattle resulting in high quality meat.
A livestock auction market opened October 21, 1936, in Gainesville in cooperation with the business men and the State Marketing Bureau, with the idea of developing a continuous market for all classes of livestock. Farmers from a wide area in Florida and some from Georgia have already patronized this market.
In 1933, attempts were made in Dixie County to sell cooperatively a number of steers and calves with very little success. This year, 1935, there were sold $38,000 worth of cattle cooperatively, including 1,746 steers and 748 calves.
For the last five years, attempts have been made to interest the Eastern buyers in coming to Florida for fat calves during the summer. Hitherto Florida calveshave been of inferior quality, carrying too little beef breeding







Florida Cooperative Extension


to interest the Eastern trade. This year, as a result of selection of cows and the breeding of purebred bulls, the calves were of such quality that Eastern buyers came into the counties of Orange, Osceola, Polk, Hardee, DeSoto, Okeechobee and Highlands, and took approximately 100 cars of calves to the Eastern market. In Osceola County alone, 1,700 caYves moved out.
Local packers were also interested in the Florida calf market in the East. One packer in Jacksonville killed a number of cars of Florida calves, chilled them and sent them to the Eastern market in refrigerated cars. The writer was present and saw the first 100 calves killed and dressed in preparation for the Eastern market. Further, Swift and Company of Moultrie took several cars of calves for their trade.
The quality of the calves as a result of breeding and selection attracted the attention of out-of-state buyers as well as aroused the local packers to the opportunities of killing Florida calves and sending them to the East. This marketing of cattle was so handled that it benefited both the large and small producers. .
The following is a tabulation of some beef cattle activities:
1935 1934
Number purebred bulls placed 305 313
Number bulls being fed this winter 553 321
Number steers on feed 2,452
Number steers in bean fields 4,778
Number farmers selecting and developing best heifers . 223 Number new silos filled for beef cattle (trench) 20 15
Number pastures on which mowing machine used . ---- 55 53 Adult result demonstrations 305 162
Number method demonstrations 196 180
Number 4-H members completing 29 11
Number animals in 4-H club projects completed 37 48
Number farmers assisted in obtaining purebred sires ---------------- 173 86
Number farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade
females 87 26
Number herd improvement associations 5

SWINE WORK
A drop in hog prices two years ago caused a decrease in number of hogs and apparent lack of interest in hog development. However, with adjustment programs and natural conditions forcing a decrease in number of hogs and an increase in price, there has been a new impetus given to the hog work. Farmers are now making inquiries as to where they can secure additional breeding stock. We have had more inquiries this fall for breeding stock than was the case a year ago.
Special emphasis has been given the curing of meats for home use. Contacts have been made with cold storage people and information and suggestions furnished these people on the better methods of curing meat for farmers. They have been urged not to increase their prices for curing. The cold storage, people have been urged to perform a service to the livestock industry in Florida and to the farming people by developing standard methods of curing good quality meat.
This work has brought results, for within the last few years the quality of meat cured in these cold storage places has materially improved. This work has attracted attention throughout the country- ,
Special emphasis has been put on the curing of sufficient meat for home use on the farm, beginning with hogs and growing them out to the finished product. The writer and the county agents have held numerous meat cutting and curing demonstrations that seem to net results.







Annual Report, 1935 47

From reports that we have received from cold storage people, practically 3% million pounds of meat were cured last year. (Ten of the cold storage plants made no reports.) Our records show that about 90,000 )?ounds of additional meat were cured in ice boxes.

SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK
This campaign was in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant* Quarantine and was similar to the one carried on by county agents. the year before. In 1935 the Federal Government made appropriations for screw worm work and about $90,000 was allotted Florida for educational work. About the same time the Florida State Legislature appropriated $50,000 for cooperative work.
A State Screw Worm Control Committee consisting of Dr. Wilmon Newell, Dean And Director of Extension Service; A. P. Spencer, Vice Director; Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture; Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian; P. E. Williams, President, State Livestock Association; Dr. W. L. Koon, Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; was selected to handle the work in the state in connection with the Federal Government. Walter J. Sheely of the Extension Service was designated to be contact man for this committee.
In order to participate in the Federal appropriation, this State Committee had to set forth the necessity of spending the Federal funds in this state. W. J. Sheely, in cooperation with the county agents, secured an estimate of screw worm infestation, the number of livestock-cattle, hogs, horses, mules-and the approximate amount of benzol and pine tar that would be needed for screw worm control work. This information the comrnittee used in making their application to the Federal Government for aid.
W. G. Bruce was designated by the Federal Government as state supervisor of the Screw Worm Educational and Control Program, with W. E. Stiles as assistant; 6 district supervisors and 35 county supervisors-later 3 additional men were appointed as county supervisors-receiving state pay.
A school for supervisors was held the last of May and first day of June ,o inform the district and county men on methods of handling screw worm ,ases in all class s of livestock. This office aided in making arrangements ind getting men and material for this school.
This office aided in arranging cooperative connections between county agents, livestock men and the screw worm control representatives, also at:ended the meetings and furnished subject matter material on livestock.







Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist

Conditions in the citrus industry continue to focus attention on lower production costs and better quality of fruit. . This naturally leads into sounder and more economical grove management, involving more efficient disease and insect control, better fertilizing and cultivation practices and A constructive program of soil utilization. The freeze of last December brought into the picture grower finance problems and emergency measures in rebuilding frozen groves.
As a whole, our program of work 'has centered around (a) grove management, (b) soil management, (c) disease control and (d) insect control.
I I GROVE MANAGEMENT
Most substantial progress toward better grove management practices has been made by the use of demonstration groves. The plan is very po)pular among th4 better trained and more experienced county agents P and the number of demonstration groves listed has passed the 50 mark. The saving to the owners of these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of improved practices, was more than $15 per acre last year. The average yield of these groves is greater than that of other groves, and the quality of the fruit is above the average of the community.
The facts, together with the improved conditions that the demonstration groves present, have a very strong influence in converting growers to better practices. County agents report mote than 500 growers added to .the list in 1935, following their recommendations in improved grove management.
SOIL MANAGEMENT
The work in soil management including, fertilization, cultivation, cover crops, irrigation and soil amendments, has grown very-rapidly during the last three years.
Fertilizing The 'fertilizer cost constitutes 3001o to 6001o of the total operative cost of producing citrus'fruits. Successful fruit growing depends much upon this factor.
I County agents report 1,096 growers following their recommendations in fertilizing citrus groves in 1935 for the first time. These recommendations embody improved practices set forth in demonstrations of the past few years, and result in a great saving to growers. ,
Cultivation Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning of citrus trees by deep plowing and other methods of deep cultivation weaken the trees, disturb the nutritive balance and render them more susceptible to disease attack. It has been demonstrated that )Poor texture of fruit is often traceable to deep or excessive cultivation.
More than 4,000 acres are in demonstrations in grove cultivation. Eleven counties have taken part in this project. Just enough cultivation is done to incorporate the cover crop with the top soil at the end of the growing season to prevent burning of the cover crop and grove in case of an accidental fire. No further cultivation can be justified in a bearing grove under ordinary conditions. This practice results in a saving over the old practice of $4 to $8 per acre.
Cover Crops-The dominant problem in the 'production of citrus fruits in Florida is the supply of organic matter. More than 1,000 growers have adopted improved practices in growing and handling the grove cover crop. This is one route to lower production cost and better quality fruit. The use of organic matter, produced in the cover crop and supplied by hauling







Annual. Report, 1935


in manures and coarse organic material, constitutes the foundation for niot only economical. fertilizing of citrus, but for the production of quality fruit and maintaining vigorous trees.
Fifty-two communities have thken 'part in this project.
Irrigation.-Irrigation water is needed in '75% of the groves to supplement the rainfall during winter or spring of three years out of four to produce better quality fruit and heavier cover crop.
Further improvements have been made in methods of applying irrigation water, at a big saving to growers. The type of irrigation plant developed last year and described in the Annual Report is proving very practicable and very popular. More than 100 growers have been assisted in the installation or improvement of irrigation plants. Several striking demonstrations of the cold protection afforded by irrigation were evident last December. Groves well irrigated during the late fall and just before the cold spell withstood the low temperature much better than those lacking water.
Soil Amendments.-The so-called "bronze leaf" or "copper leaf" is becoming a serious disease in many groves. During the last three years soil amendment demonstrations have been conducted in 16 groves of eight principal c itrus producing counties. Of the seven different treatments in these demonstrations, one consists of an annual application of 300 pounds per acre of dolomitic limestone. In three of the groves iih which this work is being conducted "bronze leaf" has developed. The dolomitic limestone has corrected this trouble in every. instance and at the same time has marvelously stimulated the growth of crotalaria in-the grove. This treatment is checked with regular limestone in a manner to produce strong evidence that the "bronze leaf" of citrus and the "frenching" of crotalaria are manifestations of magnesium deficiencies. If this can be successfully verified we have made a very valuable discovery.
In the demonstrations with raw phosphate, further definite results are manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil conditions. County agents made 538 tests for soil acidity, phosphorus, calcium and potash. These results are used as a basis for soil treatments.

CORRECTING "FRENCHING" AND SPLITTING
Spray ing citrus trees with zinc sulfate to correct "frenching" is recoinmended by the Florida Experiment Station and has been practiced in our Demonstrations for the last three years, but the results are not entirely satisfactoryy as 'the spraying gives only temporary relief in many instances.
In December 1933 an extensive fact-finding demonstration was put on with the use of both zinc sulfate and copper sulfate in soil applications for 'frenching" and splitting of Valencia oranges. These two chemicals were ised at different rates, both alone and combined. Results showed up this 'ear with the "frenching" corrected almost 100%o and splitting of: the Valencia oranges also reduced about '75% where the two chemicals 'were applied to the soil at the rate of 11/2 pounds each per tree. The trees made nuch 'more growth and the crop of fruit was increased more than 600%. g7o additional applications have been made.
The annual loss from splitting of Valencia oranges in Florida runs into hundreds of thousands of dollars. No remedy for this disease has been ,vorked out. It seems that we have found a lead.

DISEASE CONTROL
The two diseases of md'st economic importance are melanose and blue nold decay. The former mars the appearance of the fruit, while the latter ;akes heavy tolls in transit. Most effective work .during the last seven








50 Florida Cooperative Exte'nsion

Years in t~xe control of these diseases has been along the line of prevention. In the control of these and other diseases the county agents report 587 growers following their recommendations this year.
Melanose.-Melanose has been satisfactorily controlled in most demonstration groves, and in many other groves, by the adoption of a cultural program that results in a reduction of dead wood produced from year to year. This is done by more adequate fertilization, less cultivation and, in many instances, irrigation. More pruning was done last spring than usual on account of the dead wood resulting from the December freeze. Some good results were obtained by spraying with bordeaux 11'/2-1 1h-50. The crop as a whole is fairly free of melanose this year.
Blue Mold Decay.-The goal set in 1925 on blue mold decay control has been reached. The goal was a reduction of picking defects to 401, and the elimination of the sharp pointed, scissors type clipper from the picking equipment. In the same communities where picking inspection revealed an average of 15%1 picking defects in 1925 recent inspections showed only 3.6%1. This improvement has been brought about largely'through our educational program in which packers and growers have cooperated 100%1.
During the last two years the campaign against blue mold decay has been carried into a few packinghouses where full use has been made of borax and waxes:' Where fruit is to be colored with gas, it goes through a bath of borax on the receiving platform. It receives a second borax treatment as it is washed for packing. The results have been most gratifying. Decay in transit has been reduced to less than -f of 1 percent.
Scab.-Our scab control program has received a serious set-back on account of so much of our grapefruit going into cans, and the prices having been very low during the last three years.
Frenching.-More than 100 demonstrations in spraying trees with zinc sulfate for "frenching" were conducted this year in 10 counties. The results for the most part were satisfactory. Soil treatments with zinc sulfate were also demonstrated.

INSECT CONTROL
Rust Mite.-The rust mite is the most important insect, from an economic standpoint, in the Florida citrus grove. It presents the grower's greatest opportunity for profits in insect control.
The most outstanding educational program of the last 10 years in rust mite control was put on last year. It was planned to repeat this program in the spring of 1935, but the freeze of December 1934 seemed to have destroyed the prospects of a crop and removed the opportunity to accomplish results, therefore the plan was abandoned. The crop turned out much better than was expected, and county agents report 654 growers cooperating with them in rust mite control. The results of our special efforts on this project last. year have been apparent all over the citrus belt this year. After all, a good job of rust mite control has been done this year.,
Scale and Whitefly.-Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is being further developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars annually. This year as usual red aschersonia gave splendid control of whitefly in many groves.
Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove conditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective, to determine the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale and white-fly in two years, and are just as 'free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed







Annual Report, 1935 51

;wice a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are )roducing larger crops of fruit.
Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree often will ac!omplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents nvested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop Lnd put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.
In many demonstration groves, by reducing cultivation to about one'ourth, growing a heavy cover crop, and not pruning out the center of the rees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which avors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not 1een necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last three to Lye years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 15,000 acres ,f grove.
MISCELLANEOUS
Grove Visits.-There is an ever increasing demand made upon Extension workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers or personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove roblems. This service consumes a large part of the county agent's time, nd unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work, erhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through bese grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers and the ,xtension Service. It is through these visits that the county agent's apply of first hand information about current grove conditions is obtained, nd that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines is fully ppreciated. During the year, 3,389 grove visits were made, going into itrus-producing problems, in 11 counties of the state.
Meetings and Tours.-During the year, 490 grower meetings were held t demonstrations and elsewhere, attended by more than 5,000 growers and qieir wives. In addition, 23 grove tours were conducted, in which 240 rowers took part. In these meetings and tours every phase of citrus Llture was discussed. The demonstrations covered the principal phases.
Miscellaneous Service.-The freeze of last December brought about conitions that called for many emergency measures. Unusual demands were iade upon the Extension workers for services in the treatment of coldijured groves. Information on proper pruning and fertilizing of trees 'as made available to growers by circular letters, press articles, radio dlks and through meetings. Federal emergency loans were made available, nd the county agents assisted more than 3,000 growers in obtaining these rid other loans. About 500 were assisted in making better finance plans.
More than 300 growers were assisted in making arrangements for the marketing of their fruit.
Four hundred twenty-three growers were assisted in becoming selfipporting.
Growers' Institute.-Eight counties cooperated in putting on a 4-day rowers' institute in September at Camp McQuarrie in Lake County. Citrus ilture programs held the most important place in the institute. Every base of citrus culture was discussed by Extension workers, members of ie College of Agriculture, teaching division, and of the Experiment Staon Staff. Several method demonstrations were given. The institute was
-tended by more than 200 growers and their wives, and was declared a g success.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Daniel F. Sowell, Assistant Extension Poultryman
During 1935 the poultry extension program was developed around two mairi projects: Growing healthy chicks and pullets, and calendar flock records and management. These two projects divide the poultry work into two separate fields, The first deals With the chick, its growth, and the rearing and management of pullets till they are placed in the laying house. The second deals with the laying flock, including feeding and management. Both projects include items which affect cost of production, such as management of chicks and pullets, cost records, feeding, vaccination, growing greenfeed and adoption of a sanitation program.
FEED PRICES
The price that poultrymen have to 'pay for feed is a most important item. Farm management records show that feed represents approximately 5001o of the total cost of egg production and on a cash cost basis it would be considerably higher. Poultry feed prices vary from year to year and the relationship of poultry feed prices to poultry product prices has a direct bearing on the poultry Extension work in the state.
It is desirable to know the variation in price of the ingredients that go into a poultry ration as well as the variation in the price of the poultry ration.
The poultry ration as used in this report is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds meatscraps 55% protein, and 25 'pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat).,
The poultry ration for the period (1926-29) averaged $2.80 per 100 pounds. The price decreased to $1.55 per 100 pounds in 1931-32. During the next three years it increased to $1.60 per 100 pounds in 1932-33, $1.96 in 1933-34, and $2.27 in 1934-35. The poultry ration price during the year 1934-35 increased to January'and has been on the decline up through November 1935, at which time it cost $2.13 per 100 ounds. I During the period December 1933 to November 1934 cost of the poultry ration increased 36 cents per 100 pounds, or approximately 20 percent. On the other hand, a year later (December 1934 to November 1935) cost of
-Ahe poultry ration decreased 10 cents per 100 pounds or 4.4 percent.
PRICE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS
Daily quotations of poultry products are given by the State Marketing Bureau at Jacksonville and these 'prices have been tabulated over a period of years.
The average yearly prices for poultry products for the base' period (October 1, 1926-September 30, 1929) are as follows: No.' 1 white eggs, 41.1 cents per dozen; heavy hens, 26.7 cents per pound; and heavy fryers, 36.6 cents per pound.
The average price of No. I white eggs decreased to 23.7 cents per dozen in 1932-33. Since that time the price of eggs increased to 27.7 cents in 1933-34 and to 32.7 cents in 1934-35. This, repress ents an increase of 5 cents a dozen over the price for last year, or an increase of approximately 18 percent. The average April price of fryers for the base period was 42.7 cents per pound. There was a decrease in the April fryer price through the year 1933. But in 1934, the April price of 25.2 cents per pound was about 1 cent higher than the April price in 1933. The price was slightly







Annual Report, 1935


higher for April, 1935. See Tables 6 and 7 for prices of eggs, hens, anct fryers by months for the 1933-34 and 1934-35 seasons.
BABY CHICK AND PULLET 'MANAGEMENT
The Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program including these six pointsbatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced rations, and separationof pullets from cockerels-is one of the most important projects undertaken by the Extension Service.
The points considered in the main during the past year were quality chicks, clean brooder houses, and clean land.
The ultimate aim of any pullet program is in the placing of a high quality, well grown 'pullet in the laying house each fall. Agents and producers realize its importance, with the result that a sanitation program was developed and stressed during the year. Records kept by farmers over a period of years show the value and need for such a program.
In Florida three systems of brooding chicks are generally used (1) colony brooder houses; (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors, and (3) battery brooders.
A number of producers are now attempting.to work out a plan in the development of their pullets to have a 3- -or 4-year rotation range. A program of this type has been most successfully presented by means of meetings, circular letters, bulletins, and farm visits.

SUCCULENT GREEN FEED
The development of a green feed program for poultry production is both sound and advisable in Florida. Data tabulated from records kept by producers indicate the value of feeding succulent green feed to poultry of various ages. The use of succulent green feed as a part of a feeding program was emphasized by the agents during the year. In cooperation with the Agronomy Department of the Agricultural Experiment Station, information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, etc., have been furnished the producer.
In many cases the green feed program was worked out in connection with the sanitation program. A double yarding system was inaugurated so that the birds could be rotated at regular intervals and green feed grown in the yard when the birds were ranging in the other yard. In other cases due to layout of the farm and type of soil some producers found it more economical and practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it and feed it to the birds.,
CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Poultry producers' are rapidly finding out that it is absolutely essential to have a high producing flock to succeed,'and one way to have a flock of this type is to practice culling. The more successful Doultry producers find it desirable to cull every month of the year. Meetings, newspaper articles, and farm visits were means of advising producers about the importance of early maturity, intensity, and persistency as shown by changes in pigmentation and molt.
Demonstrations showing the method of culling were given by various agents during the year.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Record keeping has become one of the most important phases of the poultry Extension program. -During the past 11 years this project has demonstrated its value and importance. A study of the records has re-










TABLE 6.-MONTHLY PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS,* DECEMBER, 1933-NOvEMBER, 1934, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Product Dec. Jan. Feb. Mair. April May June. July Aug. Sept. Oct.

No. 1 white eggs-cents per doz 34.4 28.7 25.6 19.2 19.8 20.1 23.5 28.0 31.6 36.8 38.0
Heavy hens-cents per lb 14.0 14.3 15.5 16.0 15.5 15.8 16.0 15.7 14.8 16.6 17.2
Heavy fryers-cents per lb 16.1 17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9 22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.0

* Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau.



TABLE 7.-MONTHLY PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS,* DECEMBER, 1934-NOVEMBER, 1935, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.

Product Dec. Jan. Feb. War. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.

No. 1 white eggs--cents per doz. 40.0 35.8 31.8 23.0 24.9 26.3 26.8 31.5 35.6 39.0 39.3 37.0
Heavy hens-cents per lb 17.5 17.5 17.8 18.3 18.0 18.0 18.7 18.2 18.4 19.3 21.0 21.7
Heavy fryers-cents per lb 20.5 21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 26.4 23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.4 23.2

* Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau.








Annual Report, 1935


sealed many facts which have been of assistance to producers in increasing the efficiency of their enterprise.
The calendar flock records program has been devised to take care of two groups of poultry raisers, the one with a flock of less than 250 birds, and one who has a commercial flock. Two different books are in use.


























Fig. 5-Mrs. G. W. Boles of Santa Rosa County keeps records on her turkeys, and finds that they gross between $400 and $500 a year. The flock paid for the home place and built the home for the family. Ranges are rotated and disease is held down.

In the development of this program it is necessary to hold the interest of the producer throughout the year so that he or she will keep the book complete. To help hold this interest, a monthly report is issued to all cooperators, and in this report a summary of the monthly records are given, together with poultry, egg, and feed prices and indices, and timely poultry information.
All poultry records start October 1 and are completed September 30.
During the year just ended poultry raisers from 16 counties kept complete records.
Table 8 gives the results obtained for the year 1934-35.
An item of particular interest is the average number of birds per farm. It has increased for the 'past three years. In 1932-33, the average number of birds per farm was 258; in 1933-34 it was 354, and in 1934-35 it was 470 birds.
The percent culling was the greatest during the past three years.
Adult mortality increased from 12.26 percent in 1933-34 to 20.38 percent in 1934-35, indicating the need for considerable study along this phase of poultry husbandry.
Table 9 shows the number of flocks, average size of flocks and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE 8.-,FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS,. SUMMARY FOR (OCTOBER 1, 1934-SEPT. 30, 1935).

Items

Number of farms 37
Average number of birds 17,410
Average number of birds per farm 470
Average number of eggs per bird per year 163.04
Average percent culled 49.25
Average percent mortality 20.38


The highest egg production per bird was obtained by the group Averaging 815 birds to the flocle.
I This project was started again on October 1, 1935, and over 250 poultry record books were distributed, indicating an" increased interest I in this program.
TABLE 9.-FLocKs CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE.
1 10-50 51-250 251-500 Over 500
Birds Birds Birds Birds

Total number of flocks . 3 11 6
Average size of flock 34 140 319 .815
Average number eggs per bird ---- 141.49 157-51 154.93 164.94

JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
Poultry raising is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work forboth boys and girls. There were 1,596 boys and girls efirolled during the year. The work was outlined similar to the previous year in that there were two types of projects known as poultry production and poultry improvement. The poultry improvement project is the more practical and popular.
Poultry was taught at both the Girls' Short Course and the Boys' Short Course 'held in June. The instruction was divided into two groups, one group for beginners and another for advanced work. The advanced group received poultry instructions in the form of managing a flock of 100 birds, including locating the buildings, types of houses, incubation, brooding, rearing, managing the layers, and heeping'records.
Poultry subjects were discussed at 4-H club meetings and on farm visits.
At five county fairs 4-H club. members exhibited birds and these birds were judged, with. demonstrations given 'in judging and discussions of methods of preparing birds for show.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
The various poultry associations in the state have been of great assistance in the development of the poultry Extension program. . The Florida State Poultry Producers' Association has been organized
for over 10 years and has been very active in 'promoting and protecting the poultry industry in the state. The state association is composed of 28 local or county poultry associations. The state association has sponsored a poultry magazine known as The Florida Poultryman. The First Egg Show on a state-wide basis will be held in February 1936 at the Florida 'Fair. This is another activity of the state association.







Annual Report, 1935 57

Various local and county poultry associations have held regular monthly meetings, at which time special poultry talks or demonstrations have been given. These associations are assisting county and home demonstration agents in analyzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the counties.
The Florida Baby Chick Association is an organization of hatcherymen and-others interested in the development of the baby chick industry. While the hdtchery code was in effect, the association members were active in seeing that the code was carried out. The members have assisted and fostered the Grow Healthy Chick Program.

FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL
The Florida Poultry Council was organized January 15, 1985, the organization meeting being held at Orlando.
The Florida Poultry Council is composed of delegates representing all phases of the 'poultry industry. Included in the organization are poultry producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial and breeder), poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultry dealers, packers, the poultry press, State Department of Agriculture (Marketing and Inspecion Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board, Poultry Division of College of agriculture, Agrict'tural Extension Service, State Health Department, National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers of vocational agriculture and home conomics, and delegates from the Florida Poultry Producers' Association, Florida Baby Chick Association, American Poultry Associati on of Florida, ind the State Feed Association.
The Council is a fact finding group. Only two regular meetings are ield a year, the main work being accomplished through committees. The :ollowing committees were appointed for the year 1985: Marketing, Breed Improvement, Research and Education, Disease Control, Poultry Show, Organization, and Legislation and Legal Advice Committee.
The most outstanding work started by the Florida Poultry Council luring the year is Florida's Egg Quality Program and the National Poultry improvementt Program.
The Council ha 's great possibilities in rendering advice for the safe levelopment of the poultry industry of the State.

FLORIDA'S EGG QUALITY PROGRAM
The Florida Egg Law states that eggs are to be sold on a weight and quality grade similar to United States grades. The Florida Poultry Council ias adopted an educational program including the producer, dealer, and ,onsumer. All departments doing educational work in the State are coiperating in developing this program. Only the preliminary, part of the )rogram has started but it will be in full swing during the 1936 season.

NATIONAL POULTRY, IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
The revised uniform 'plan for flock improvement and disease control .s announced by the United States Department of Agriculture is under the upervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. The Agricultural Exension Service is cooperating with Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Vetrinarian of the Livestock Sanitary Board, in the development of this proram. A program of this type should result in better flocks with higher gg production and lower mortality.
Dr. Gilles has assisted in Extension Poultry meetings and with testing vork at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MARKETING
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with the county and home demonstration agents and with th6 Gainesville office.
F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and home demonstration agents in locating markets for eggs and poultry meat. He has attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing the marketing and grading of eggs and poultry.
In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and data are collected from the seven district egg and poultry inspectors to study the marketing conditions in the State.
The Extension agents have assisted the Inspection Bureau in arranging meetings to discuss the new Florida Egg and Poultry Laws.
CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Poultry producers in the State are realizing more each year the value of vaccinating pullets for chickenpox. It is practiced by practically all commercial producers. In some sections demonstrations were given with very satisfactory results. As a rule the pullets are vaccinated at 12 to 16 weeks of age.
HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
Brick brooders still are popular in many sections of the State. The first brick brooders in Florida were built in northwestern counties, but some are now found as far south as Highlands County. 'The majority of the operators find this method of providing heat for baby chicks. very satisfactory.
POULTRY MEETINGS
In cooperation with local and state associations, poultry meetings were held throughout the year. State Departments and commercial manufacturers assisted in presenting practical poultry information to those interest6d in poultry production and marketing.
NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying * Contest started at Chipley October 1, 1934, and ended September 22, 1935. There were 74 pens of pullets entered from 18 different states. There were 15 pens of heavy breeds and 59 'pens of light breeds.
Average egg production for the 51 weeks period was 210.4 eggs per bird, for a value of 210.2 points. This production was slightly higher than the production obtained in the Eighth Contest. There were 16 birds that produced 300 or more eggs. Twenty-one pullets made a 300 point average or more for the year, and eight pullets produced 300 or more eggs with a value of more than 300 points.
There was one Rhode Island Red and one Barred Plymouth Rock that made a 300 point value.
Some additional data from the Ninth Contest follow:
1. The average'feed cost per bird was $2.26.
2. The average feed cost 'per dozen eggs was 12.88 cents.
3. The average pounds of feed'per bird per year was 91.12 pounds.
4. The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.197 pounds.
5. The average mortality was 26.72 percent.
16. The average egg price was 26.2 cents per dozen.







Annual Report, 1935


The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest started October 1, 1935, with all 100 pens filled for the first time.

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, in addition to the regular official contest, feeding and management demonstrations started in 1933 were repeated.
The demonstrations conducted were
1. A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain and mash ration in feeding for egg production.
2. A comparative study of the value of meatscraps, fishmeal, and milk solids as sources of protein for egg production.
3. Lights versus no lights for egg production.
4. A study of shell texture and egg quality.
A report showing the two years' results will be issued in the near future.

COOPERATIVE WORK WITH THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY
AND FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
The following projects have been conducted in cooperation with W. F. Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary, Bureau of Animal Industry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station, and K. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, Agricultural Extension Service.
1. A study of the value of different sources of protein for the production )f broilers.
2. A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single ,omb White Leghorn hens for egg production.
3. Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets.
4. Value of range rotation in rearing pullets.
5. Growth studies of cockerels and 'pullets.
6. The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds. '
7. The use of peanuts and peanut products in -rearing turkeys.
Progress report of these trials will be found in the Annual Report of he Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.









AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist
F. W. Brumley, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist, Farm Management
D. E. Timmong, Agricultural Economist, Marketing

During practically all of the year the Economist in Marketing was assigned to special duties in connection with the agricultural adjustment ,program, and his report is included under that heading.
FARM MANAGEMENT
During the year a number of studies were made in the major type-of.farming areas as a basis for future planning of agriculture in Florida. These studies were of great assistance in supplying information requested from various sources. The Farm Management Economists have cooperated with the other specialists and different divisions of the College of Agriculture in collecting, assembling and supplying information to those re-questing it. The main projects carried on during the past year were: Citrus accounts, farm management surveys, poultry accounts, agricultural adjustment work, feed and egg prices, program planning, and miscellaneous.

CITRUS ACCOUNTS
The citrus account project is now in its sixth year. The purposes of this project are:
1. To provide growers with a simple record book in which they may
keep expenses and receipts of their grove operations.
2. To assist growers in keeping and summarizing their records and
determining cost of production.
3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, cost of
production, fertilizing practices, prices of fruit received by varieties
and net returns on similar groves.
4. To provide data that may be studied over a long period of years in
an effort to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits.
Table 10 shows a summary of the citrus record work by years and counties for the five years beginning September 1, 1930.
TABLE 10.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS BY
COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1934-35.

Counties 1930-31 1931-32 1932-33 1933-34 1934-35* 1935-36**

Lake 39 61 88 85 115 130
Polk 17 59 80 83 90 91
Orange 46 42 48 42 50 74
Highlands . 12 35 44 40 38 42
Miscellaneous
Counties. . 5 12 8 8 10 13

1 1
Total .119 1 209 268 258 303 350
Estimated, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1935. Fruit returns will not be available until the crop of 1935-36
has been sold.
Accounts started.


1 60


Florida Cooperative Extension







Annual Report, 1935 61

The first annual summary of costs. and returns for Florida citrus groves n a crop-year basis was prepared for the 1932-33 season. This change n method of handling the accounts was -requested by county agents and :rowers cooperating. The former accounts were handled for a year's busiLess, as most farm accounts are handled, which included all expenses and eceipts incurred during a 12-months period. However, the new method naugurated during the past year included the fruit -receipts and expenses ncurred primarily in producing the same crop. It is believed that the rop year furnishes a more adequate basis for studying factors affecting osts and returns on a single crop.
Each individual grower was furnished a copy of the state summary, ogether with a summary of his record which included data for the current nd past years. This enabled cooperators to compare their costs and returns or different years, as well as with other groves in their county and in he State for the current year. All growers who furnished the analysis ,nd quantity of fertilizer used during the year were given a summary f the pounds of available plant food applied per 100 trees to compare with he average amounts applied on other groves. More than 1,500 copies of his summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer companies and their alesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico, and business mien pon request.
1933-34 Accounts.-The 1933-34 accounts are now being summarized and he report will be released within six or eight weeks. This report will be he second summary issued on a crop-year basis. 'Results of the first two
-ears' work were summarized on a seasonal basis, and for the third year summary was prepared and distributed to cooperators and others renesting a copy on both seasonal and crop year bases. There were 301 grove accounts started in 1933-34, but due to change in ownership of groves and he cold injury to fruit and trees, only 258 complete accounts have been ummarized. A special effort was made to get cooperators to complete heir accounts on groves affected by cold by estimating the number of oxes lost, but many growers were discouraged and did not care to finish he accounts.
11934-35 Accounts.-The fruit returns for this cost year will not be availble until the crop produced during the year is sold, which will be about Lugust 1936. There were 303 cost accounts completed for the year. The ew who did not request new books either sold their groves during the year r the groves were severely damaged by the December 1934 freeze. Howver, about 10 percent more books were distributed this year than last year.

FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Farm organization data were available in only 22 counties prior to the ummer of 1935. During the past year, the Assistant Extension Economist operated in farm management surveys in Dade County for the early rhite potato and tomato areas; Broward County for the Dania tomato and 'ompano truck areas; Palm Beach County, Belle Glade-Chosen truck area; nd Escambia County, general farming and white potato area. The farm ecords taken in the Dade County early white potato area were summarized nd the findings returned to the farmers in that area.

POULTRY ACCOUNTS
October 1, 1935, marked the eleventh year in which poultry account ooks have been distributed free to poultrymen of Florida by the Florida :xtension Service. This has been a cooperative project with the Extension







Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultryman since 1931. One hundred or more books have been distributed each year.
These books serve a two-fold purpose. They are used by poultrymen for keeping records of receipts, expenses, egg production and mortality. They are also used by all poultrymen who wish to enter their flock in the Florida Calendar Flock Records.
During the years 1927-32, from 40 to 100 poultry record books were summarized each year for the cooperators by the College of Agriculture and the Extension Service. Each. cooperator was furnished a summary of his year's business, showing costs of production, profits and a list of factors for use in studying the strong and weak points of his business. Many practical ways of increasing profits were found by studying these records and the results were made available to all poultrymen in the state.
None of these books have been summarized since 1932. While three years is a relatively short period, there have been several new developments. in management practices since that time. During September 1935, in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman, County and Home Agents, teachers of vocational agriculture, and feed companies, over 250 books were distributed to poultrymen in all parts of Florida. About two-thirds of this number were distributed in Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Marion, Nassau, Putnam, Pasco, Pinellas and Polk counties.
Next fall the Extension Service plans to make another state-wide summary of these books for all poultrymen who keep them during the year. It is hoped that the results of this year's work will furnish information on thetrelative profitableness of many of the new methods, such as confinement housing, individual batteries for layers, and methods of marketing,. compared with the older and more established systems.

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK
The farm record books, prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, were distributed to producers desiring them. During January 1935, 31 meetings were held in 20 Central and West Florida counties. The principal subject discussed at these meetings was how and when to make a farm inventory. In addition to the discussion of inventories at these meetings, a brief resume was given of the methods to be used in keeping farm expenses and receipts. All farmers who attended these meetings were offered one of the AAA record books and a supply of these books was left in the County Agents' offices for those farmers who did not attend one of the meetings but later might request one of the books.
In Escambia County, where most interest was shown in keeping farm records, three additional meetings were held in May at the request of the County Agent.
Again in July, another series of meetings was held in 18 counties for the purpose of discussing in more detail the importance and methods of keeping the farm expenses and receipts.
At the beginning of the year a 15" x 21" farm record poster was prepared and displayed in all County Agents' and Production Credit Association offices.
Various state control boards and committees of the agricultural adjustment programs were assisted in several ways during the year. The Extension Economist served on the State Board for Cotton during the month of August and part of September. Other adjustment boards were assisted in assembling and preparing statistical information for use in connection ,with the programs.







Annual Report, 1935 63

FEED AND EGG PRICE DATA
Average profits of a large number of poultrymen fluctuate with the )rices received for eggs and the prices paid for feed. Egg and feed prices ire available for the Jacksonville market for a longer period than for mny other market in Florida. The average monthly price of eggs, as quoted )y the Florida State Marketing Bureau, and the weekly prices of feeds Ls quoted by a Jacksonville feed dealer, have been tabulated in this office or several years.
During the three-year period October 1, 1926, to September 20, 1929, he average yearly wholesale price of eggs at Jacksonville was 41 cents. ,arly in 1929, egg prices began to drop very rapidly. They were lowest luring 1932-33 when the average price was 23.7 cents, or 59 percent of the .926-29 level. Beginning in the fall of 1933, egg prices began to rise and Lveraged 27.7 cents for the year 1933-34 and 32.7 cents for 1934-36.
Feed prices also declined during the 'period 1929-32, and in 1931-32 and 932-33 were relatively lower than egg prices, giving eggs a higher pur'hasing power than during the base period. However, eggs lost their ad'antage soon after prices began to rise, as feed prices rose faster than !gg prices. The ratio of egg prices to feed prices was relatively low until n the spring and summer of 1935, at which time eggs experienced less han the normal seasonal decline and feed prices declined slightly.

COUNTY AGRICULTURAL, PLANNING
This is a cooperative 'project between the Agricultural Adjustment Adainistration, the U.S.D.A. Extension Service, State Extension Service, Colege of Agriculture, and Florida Experiment Station. It is, in short, a roposal for large-scale cooperative planning in the development of county, tate and national agricultural programs.
The project involves the setting up of county agricultural planning ommittees composed of leading farmers and agricultural workers in each ounty where there is a County Agent. In Florida it has been decided to all these bodies "County Agricultural Planning Councils". The leader of he project in each county will be the County Agricultural Agent. Each ouncil should be divided into smaller committees representing one or more f the types of farming in the county.
It will be the duty of these councils to help assume the responsibility or thinking through the agricultural problems of the county, the state nd the nation. They can be a media through which state and federal gencies may get farmer approval of proposed plans and from which may ome many suggestions for formulating a county, state and national agriultural program.
From the standpoint of time, the functions of these councils may be ivided into immediate and future tasks. The immediate task will be to stimate, after a careful study of all available facts, the answers to certain uestions needed in the formulation of county, state and -national agricularal programs. The future work of the councils will be to act as a group f local thinking people in assisting the County Agent in carrying on a ound agricultural 'program in each county. They can assist him in giving broader dissemination of facts and information available on the agriulture of the county and by helping him to round out an agricultural proram fitted to the needs of the farmers of the county.
In carrying out this project in Florida, special emphasis has been placed n the long-time advantages of having such county agricultural planning Duncils. The results of such councils or committees in counties in which ,iey have functioned in the past have been very beneficial.







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

This project is a very broad one and should have many far-reaching effects. It is the :first time an eff ort has been made to assemble all available agricultural economics data on a county basis. It is hoped all of the councils will continue to function permanently.

MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND PROJECTS
The most important regular work accomplished during the year was the presentation of the results of 'previous farm management work carried on by the Department of Agricultural Economics. These were presentect by the use of mimeographed material and charts at farm meetings, institutes, County Agents' Week, and other meetings. Over 6,500 farmers were reached by these methods. In addition, much of this material was mailed to farmers, agricultural workers and other interested parties.
A representative -of this department served on the Florida Poultry Council. Assistance was rendered those who prepared the 1936 Agricultural Outlook for Florida.







Annual Rep~ort, 1935


PA rRT Ill-WOMEN'S AND


4-H WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent Lucy B. Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent
Anna M. Sikes,.Acting District Home Demonstration Agent

ORGANIZATION
The home demonstration state supervisory staff consists of state agent, iree district agents and subject matter specialists in home improvement, iod conservation, and nutrition. There are 36 county home demonstration rents working in 35 counties in Florida. This is an increase of four 'unies cooperating in financing and conducting home demonstration work ,er last year.
Records show work underway in 501 communities. There are 296, orinized home demonstration clubs for women with a membership of 7,122. iere are 615 girls' 4-H clubs with a membership of 9,215 girls 10 to 21 ars; of age.
The type of work conducted is somewhat dependent upon the classifican of county according to the following grouping: (1) counties in which e work has been established f or 15 to 20 years or more, (2) counties which the work has been established for a year, (3) counties in which e work has been established within the last few months, and (4) unganized counties. The supervisory staff endeavors to study the needs .d, with the home demonstration agents, guide the development of the rid of program that renders the best service in meeting needs of those ncerned.
EMERGENCY WORK
Emergency work has continued to increase demands upon the agents' ne. On the other hand it has served to an advantage in that it has, (1) veloped more forcibly the agents' leadership abilities, (2) increased the mber of contacts with the agents, (3) given increased emphasis to various livities that home demonstration agents have been stressing all along, Because of this extra pressure a larger number of families are paripating in home demonstration work, (5) increases in the number of inties appropriating are due to a great extent to interest aroused by Rural home as sistants in the rural rehabilitation program, working in inties without home demonstration agents, but in close cooperation with ,te supervisory staff of home demonstration work, (6) a large amount canning equipment is available in many counties as a result of the rural iabilitation program.

[ME-ELEMENT DURING SCHOOL YEAR AND 4-H CLUB WORK
Although 4-H club work is growing, the time that girls can devote to during the school year is affected considerably by the long distances ny must travel, leaving almost no time before or after school for work home. Consequently, particular emphasis is being placed upon the type







Florida Cooperative Extension


of work these girls do at home over the week-end during the school year and upon more detailed 4-H club project activities during the school' vacation period.
SUPERVISORY PROGRAM
The state staff gave particular attention to development of the following major objectives during the year:
1. To assist all home demonstration agents in developing programs that meet the needs of the greatest number of rural people.
2. To adapt programs to meet present conditions and at same time give emphasis to permanent and long-time demonstrations in the homes.
3., To render some definite assistance in unorganized counties in order to spread more widely the influence of home demonstration work and increase the number of county home demonstration agents as funds permit.
4. To further develop home demonstration clubs, county and state councils, to increase -number of standard clubs and councils, work with larger number of older girls, maintain high percentage of cordpletions and secure better records.
5. To give more attention to efficient distribution of agents' time; distribution of work in county; and distribution of the specialists' time, district agents' time, and state agent's time.
6. To work out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance.
7. To emphasize the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations.
8. To employ the best trained workers available and acquaint them as far as is possible, with the job before it is assumed.

DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAM
Program planning is practically a year-round procedure from the standpAnt of state Extension workers, although county programs are in most cases adopted during the latter part of the calendar year for the ensuing year.
In counties where home demonstration work has been established for some time agents, home demonstration women and 4-H club girls, also members of the state staff, have a rather clear understanding of conditions and there are considerable factual data at hand obtained through questionnaires, surveys, special project studies, records and reports of previous work that help to some extent in program making. These with goals previously set and achievements for the year as well as needs are analyzed. Outlook material for Florida farm homes in particular and the nation in general serve as guides. All economic data that specialists and the supervisory staff members are able to assemble that affects farm family living are studied, presented to state and county workers and to individual club members, clubs in the communities, to county councils and committees working with agents in determining the most helpful programs during the year.
Agents analyze situations affecting the farm homes in their respective counties and confer with specialists and supervisors regarding same. Interest through participation as well as experiences of the local club members themselves bring about far -reaching results.
The community home demonstration and 4-11 groups meet monthly and during latter part of summer or early fall in connection with program plannirig for next year they give particular attention to discussions of conditions, individual and community needs, along with their accomplish-, ments for the past year and setting goals for the -next year.








Annual Report, 1935


EMPLOYMENT OF AGENTS
It is the policy to employ agents who have at least the bachelor degree in home economics and experiences which provide a good background for home demonstration work.
In filling the new positions this year well trained 'people were secured. All of them are college graduates with excellent records over a period 'Of several years as teachers of home economics. In addition three of them were successful rural rehabilitation assistants for a year or more.
Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that Extension workers have not had an opportunity to leave their posts of duty this year for study.

ASSISTANCE IN PLANNING WORK
As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions, ecoiomic and outlook data, and discuss these and various local situations with the agent and home demonstration councils to assist in determining .he most helpful service the agent can render during the year. With : . acts at hand that help to determine the type of program to be followed he agent is in position to set her goals for the year.
Demonstrations established in homes, home demonstration clubs for vomen and 4-11 clubs for girls, and county councils are the chief avenues through which the home agent works, and special events are decided upon L9 the agent and district agent think are best suited to creating interest Lnd spreading influence of home demonstration work.
During the first 'part of each year a definite program of work with ilans for developing is required of each agent. In this she lists goals set nd methods to be used in obtaining them. This program is studied toether carefully by district and state agent. -They approve or make sug-estions for strengthening, as the ease may be. This program is checked y the district agent with the agent from time to time during the year. Lfter reports have been submitted at the close of the year a comparison made of the goals set with results accomplished and this is referred to
e agent with comments and suggestions for the next year.

MEASURINGG PROGRESS AND RESULTS OF EXTENSION TEACHING
Simple but practical, usable record books prepared by the state staff re furnished each club member in which she can keep accurate records. The increase in interest and number of records submitted, in number older girls remaining in 4-11 club work, and in number of women estab3hing definite demonstrations in their homes is attributed in 'Part to the 7stematic forms used especially in women's work, and to the understanding tat council members have for the need of accurate records. The percent,e of members 'keeping full records is far from satisfactory but the number increasing.
There is a very good percentage of 4-11 club girls who continue active their 4-11 club work, so strengthening the work generally and providing
fine group of leaders for the younger members.
Goals set at beginning of each year are always compared with achieveents and discussed with agents. For the'most part goals were exceeded.
ie need for providing a living at home and the need for assistance or .vice so as to get best returns for efforts, also the confidence in the agents,
feel brought this about.
The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year award for the best county council book which is judged on appearance,








68 Florida Cooperative Extension

arrangement and effective development of the county council program during the year. This has been an excellent means of bringing about far greater interest in.keeping record books in the clubs and causing individual members to kee p better records not only for themselves but for their clubs and councils.
The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach County. The president of the State Council is a member of the Palm Beach County Council and an enthusiastic demonstrator who keeps accurate records of her work.

STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations, increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution of concise, tabulated reports of accomplishments in the county, presenting facts and figures regarding the work to civic organizations, Florida products, dinners, thrift meals, exhibits, tours to established demonstrations in the bome-such as pantries, poultry flocks, home improvement, gardens and orchards-also shopping tours, achievement days, use of the press and radio, assistance with emergency relief activities, are methods which continue to be most successfully used in creating sentiment for home demonstration work because these afford opportunity for better understanding of the work.
The willingness *and readiness with which home demonstration offices cooperate with other organizations in assisting with worthwhile endeavors have obtained good will from many groups.

CIRCULAR LETTERS
Reports show that during 1-935 the agents prepared 1,507 different circular letters for distribution to their club members. This was a decrease from last year due to lack of clerical assistance as provided the year before by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Attractive drawings that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used f or illustrating these principles and showing them carried out in practice of the home. Recognition of successful result demonstrations inspires the demoiistrator to attempt greater accomplishments. Realizing this, the agents almost. doubled this year the number of meetings at result demonstrations with more than double attendance. Circular letters assisted in informing the members of the demonstrations.

PUBLICITY
Members of the home demonstration organization present talks over WRUF and other radio stations during the year. Twelve county hom( demonstration agents report 31 radio talks during the year, Agents wher( there are local broadcasting stations frequently broadcast subject matter information of interest to home makers and information regarding developments in home demonstration activities. We participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day Program presenting programs from foui stations in Florida.
Newspapers throughout the State have given space generously for new , stories and regularly appearing columns of an informative nature. Thirtyfive counties report 2,326 news articles or stories Jublished.
News reporters elected or appointed in both girls' 4-11 and women'k clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given during Short Course for 4-H club girls by thE







Annual Report, 1935 69

xtension Editor and occasional courses given by him in the counties to tembers -of county home demonstration councils have proven of much help these reporters.
HOME VISITS
We continue to realize and emphasize the importance of home visits ith a specific purpose in mind. Reports show that the home demonstraon agents made 14,205 home visits to 7,437 homes during the year. It is dlt that much has been accomplished by these personal contacts.

TOURS
Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are dremely worth while and profitable from an economic standpoint. These successful women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object ssons. Fine reports have been received of the pantry tours this year, Sfollow-up of planning canning budgets for the family. There were 97 )urs conducted with an attendance of 2,905 interested persons.

CLUB AND COUNCIL MEETINGS
All agents follow a regular schedule of club meetings, visiting each mnior club once each month; usually each junior club holds the same amber of meetings with the agent. Most council meetings are held aarterly.
The district agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently ad attends county council meetings once or twice a year, makes home sits with the agents and frequently attends special events. In this way formed a close acquaintance and friendly contact with the people of ke county.
Members of the state staff not only advise with the county agents on .ans to follow in developing any special program of work, but they take iggestions of strengthening the work from county to county and advise to new material available for reference or assistance.

BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS
During the year material has been prepared for agents' use on the ibjects of: The Family Food Supply, Citrus, and Canning Budgets. Bultins in greatest demand have included those pertaining to food conserttion, economical meals, renovation of house furnishings. In connection ith subject-matter instruction, agents report they have distributed 43,213 illetins.
EXHIBITS
Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards other than bbons this year, 31 counties report 304 events at which educational exbits were shown. That these could be used to further improve the prod!ts, the articles were carefully scored and the exhibitors were given !nefit of the findings. The state home demonstration staff arranged a Special exhibit of home demonstration work for the annual meeting of State
-deration of Women's Clubs.

DEMONSTRATIONS
The demonstration method of teaching is the one used by home demistration agents most advantageously. The basis of this service lies in .e demonstration conducted in the home under ordinary living conditions, id these demonstrations must be well thought out and means provided







Annual Report, 1935


'amp in June. This camp, held annually in Washington, D. C., under the uspices of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, affords outstanding educational advantages and leadership evelopment. In addition to the program participated in by club members n the camp grounds, educational tours were made to places of interest n and near the city of Washington. Only the two girls and two boys niaking the highest score within the states are permitted to attend.



























Fig. 6.-Supervised recreational programs at 4-H camps train girls in roper use of leisure time and help them to become leaders in their comnunities.

There is always keen interest among club members for trips to Chicago or attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress. Only those scoring highest in various phases of club work are awarded trips. Recipients of he trips this year were Rebecca Partin of Palm Beach County; Margaret )unford of Polk County; Edna Sims of Walton County; Frances Palmer f Gadsden County and Lorena Wetherbee of Orange County.
Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.-The State Short Course for 4-H Club iirls, held at Florida State College for Women, was the outstanding event if the 4-H club year. The morale, type of programs, results seen in counties re improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those n attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 14 years if age or over. There were 450 girls, 40 local leaders and 28 home demnstration agents in attendance at the 1935 Short Course.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members, ounty commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, nerchants and interested individuals as in previous years.
Girls who attend the Short Course are charged with the responsibility f making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing knowledge







Florida Cooperative Extension


gained on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting eligible girls who are not members with what it is and does, and assisting agents wherever possible. Agents use these girls effectively in camps and in presenting special programs.
Dormitories, laboratories, and classrooms of the Florida State College for Women are used. College nurses, dietitians, social directors and various faculty members are generous with their time and assistance rendered. Former 4-H club girls who are students at Florida State College for Women serve as leaders for the other girls and have the responsibility for many details.

PROVIDING AN ADEQUATE FOOD SUPPLY FOR THE FAMILY
Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to develop agricultural resources of the State and to improve farm family living, it emphasizes the need of securing an adequate food supply for the family. The food supply should prevent disease, protect vigorous health, and be obtained at minimum cost. Some of the results reported by home demonstration menibers along this line are as follows:
Vegetable gardens4,554 vegetable gardens were grown by 4-11 club girls.
4,080 vegetable gardens were grown by home demonstration women.
3,865 all-year vegetable gardens were grown by women and girls.
Calendar orchards714 calendar orchards were planted.
,'28,387 fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards.
791 bush and small fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards.
4,858 grape vines were planted in calendar orchards.
Home dairying1,730 families reported using daily a quart of milk for each child and
a pint for each adult.
356 families bought cows this year to increase the supply of milk
and dairy products used in their homes.
Poultry flocks1,128 women and 1,223 4-11 club girls followed recommended practices
in the management of the home poultry flocks, including 271,732
standard bred chickens.
Conservation345,928 quarts fruit canned for home use by women.
72,446 quarts vegetables canned.
72,152 quarts 'pickles and relishes made.
179,957 quarts jams, marmalade and jellies made.
8,580 quarts vinegar made.
66,992 quarts fruit juice made.
139,091 quarts pork, beef and game canned.
8,524 quarts chicken canned.
29,730 quarts fish canned.
This gives a total of 923,400 quarts of good food saved by women; ir addition, 109,417 quarts of foods were canned by 4-H girls; 736,857 poun& of meat were cured by families, and 17,450 pounds soap were made.
If these 1,032,817 quarts of fruits and vegetables were valued at onl, 10 cents a quart, and the 76,922 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, thi4 means the farm women and girls have saved more than $177,089.20 through, home canning. The abundant supply of fresh products used in the bette, farm living from the home garden and orchard, poultry flock, home dairZ








Annual Report, 1935 '73

nd farm meat animals butchered on the farm has meant a great deal to 'lorida families in health and economy.
UtilizationUtilization of Florida foods has been increased, as evidenced in the great iterest shown by women and girls in the value of different foods needed y the farm family to protect health and prevent disease.
A larger variety of farm-produced, foods was used for variety and
economy.
More dairy products were produced and used at home.
More poultry 'products were produced and used at home.
Cheese has been made for home use where there was a surplus of -milk.
A special study of good nutrition was made by 4,621 4-H club girls nd 2,881 women in home demonstration clubs. These women and 'girls ave gained an understanding of what an adequate diet is; why it is sential; how to select and prepare adequate and economical meals adintageously for the family; always-popular cookery; disease prevention rough proper selection of foods; school lunch; community meals, and )w to help others with information they have gained.

HOME MANAGEMENT
To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods of homeaking, home demonstration agents have attempted to develop better home anagement practices with home demonstration women and girls, Iarticurly in the management of time and energy and the management of income eluding farm home resources. A splendid system of account keeping, tsiness centers, and family councils within the homes are developing. As a result of the women becoming more business-like in use of their ne, strength and family resources, 1,603 families followed recommenda)ns in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment.
453 reported assistance in improving home laundry problems.
1,543 improved everyday housekeeping activities.
2,739 made adjustments in home making to gain a more satisfactory
standard of living.
355 kept home accounts according to recommended method and
reported wiser use of income.
385 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to avoid
unwise buying, and served as demonstrators.
1,000 made a study of buying methods and followed recommendations of the home demonstration agents.
Reports from 20 counties show an estimated saving of $25,811.00
through participation in the home management program.

HOME IMPROVEMENT AND BEAUTIFICATION
General conditions have made it impossible to make large financial 'estments in home improvements, but the women and girls realized they .st put forth special efforts to make their homes attractive to members their families. Those Who reported in 1935 show the following results: 662 homes were remodeled according to a plan.
Ill sewage disposal. plants were installed.
107 water systems were installed.
30 sunshine water heaters wefe installed.
98 lighting systems.
400 homes screened.
379 sanitary toilets built.






































Fig. 7.-Careful preparation and uniformly good products bring repeat orders to Gadsden County home demonstration women who market cooperatively and supplement the family income.








Annual Report, 1935


662 houses and outbuildings painted and,
111 whitewashed.
682 kitchens, completely improved.
1,004 women and girls reported they refinished walls, woodwork and
floors.
2,261 women and girls repaired and -remodeled furniture.
Yards were beautified and improved, using native shrubs and trees
at little or no cost.
1,745 women and 2,038 4-H club girls made and followed definite
plans for yard beautification.
3,043 homes planted their county flowers.
The attractive appearance of the home helped to keep all members of e family better satisfied and thereby stimulated pride in their homes and me surroundings.

CLOTHING FOR THE FAMILY
Clothes must be provided for each member of the family, with none too ich money for buying, so renovation and remodeling were popular projects home demonstration work.
9,165 women and girls enrolled for clothing instruction.
1,234 women and girls used a clothing budget.
5,889 women and girls followed demonstrations on remodeling clothing.
2,296 women and girls were assisted in'making children's clothing.
1,650 demonstrations on clothing subjects were given by agents.
Many garments were made for distribution to needy.

HOME MONEY-MAKING INCREASING THE FAMILY INCOME
Since the cash income of the farm often is too small to provide for !ded purchases or to allow desired improvements in their homes, all home nonstration programs of work include plans for developing the resources the farm homes and farm community into high quality products and ndardized articles which will find a market. Many money-making home ustries have brought cash incomes to the women a 'nd girls of Florida Ich have been used to buy necessit 'ies for the home, to pay taxes, to cate the children, to subscribe for newspapers and magazines, etc. The sales reported by the women and girls were made from the followcommodities:
.ed products, using Florida marmalades, fruits, etc. $ 2,608.65 ned products 6,320.78
sh vegetables from home gardens 10,157.90
sh fruits from calendar orchards 8,520.99
-s and poultry 145,847.41
ter, milk, cottage cheese 37,622.64
er articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native products , rugs, honey, etc.) 19,260.29
Total amount of sales reported $230,338.66

CONSUMER BUYING
Ulong with the desire for an increased income was the imperative need iake wise investments of the money that was available. Home demration women requested assistance in wise 'planning of expenditures more information on true values. Consequently the home demonstraagents have assisted women and girls most effectively with their umer buying problems.








76 Florida Cooperative Extension

When money was not available but surplus farm products were on hand, barter and exchange were popular. Labor was traded for vegetables or milk and a good spirit of neighborliness developed thereby.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Following are some of t he results of home demonstration work that helped to keep up the morale of the farm families in Florida through maintenance of good health and through provision of good reading material and through inexpensive forms of family and community recreation.
57 clubs began community libraries, subscribing to 786 magazines.
5,372 magazines and newspapers were subscribed to-by club members.
23 flower shows were held featuring county flowers and native )plants.
42 community achievement programs were held.
250 entertainments were held for social purposes only.
61 plans were presented as a part of community recreation.
205 communities had definite plans for general community recreation.
1,821 club members helped make improvements in church or school
grounds.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Rome demonstration clubs organized for women 296
4-H clubs for girls under 21 years of age 615'
Number of women enrolled as active demonstrators 7,121
Number of girls enrolled as members of 4-H clubs 9,21
Horne, and farm visits made by home demonstration agents . 14,205 Number meetings held by home demonstration agents 14,01(
Total attendance at above meetings 248,611
Number of news stories written for state newspapers 2,32(
Exhibits of work shown 304
Number calls made on agents for information by local peopleOffice calls k'19
Telephone calls 20,761






Annual Report, 1935


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

Florida's "live-at-home" program having been worked out according to the needs of rural Florida, the three specialists in the State Homei Demonstration organization closely cooperate in working toward that goal.
Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry, are the main sources of the family's food supply. An adequate garden advocated in the food preservation and food preparation program leads directly to better health and nutrition. One phase of work reinforces the other, though all workers may attack the problem from different standpoints.
The productive program for both women and girls is centered around the idea that with the soil, climatic and seasonal conditions as they are in Florida, there is no just reason why every rural Florida family cannot feed itself, and no excuse, except in rare cases, where any rural Florida family living on any but marginal land should be on relief. Hence allyear gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings, so-called calendar orchards and the cultivation, preparation, utilization of the surplus products, compose a large part of the program of the economist in food conservation.
GOALS FOR THE YEAR
1. To aid in providing a balanced and a healthful food supply in the home throughout the i year through wise planning for and varied plantings in the garden and orchard.
2. To prevent waste of valuable fruits and vegetables from gardens, trucking fields and orchards through thoughtful planning of budget, canning of budget, and by proper 'preparation for the table improve the meals served in the home.
3. To increase the family income by lowering cash expenditures for food, by careful, accurate conservation of the resources at hand through the canning budget, and by the standardization of high grade canned products for sale.
4. To emphasize the importance of making a budget for home canning, based on the adequate nutritional needs of the family and planned in connection with growing the all-year garden and calendar orchard, and canning the products by means of the latest and best practices.
5. To encourage canning for variety and highest possible quality; the use of both glass and tin; better organization of the home pantry; to provide more and better storage places.
6. To encourage the use of more honey in the home, a greater utilization of fishery and other choice products typical of Florida.
7. To develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional value of Florida fruits and vegetables, the part they play in making a finer farm life and to make canning a fine art and a science.
8. To promote interest in the canning project by giving recognition through worthy contests for accomplishments achieved by the home canner.
9. To help establish high ideals for better equipment and improved home kitchens and for community canning centers that are up-to-date, sanitary and efficient.
ULTIMATE GOAL
Florida farm products so conserved and so utilized that the family will attain and maintain a standard of living equal to the best in American life and "to learn how to live with each other in abundance" within the communities.







78 Florida Cooperative Extension

GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Records submitted on gardening activities show 2,417 all-year gardens made with a cash valuation of $11,149.85 for vegetables marketed from the home gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase in the number of gardens, in 1935 over those of 1934. Records also show an encouraging increase of fruit plantings made in the calendar orchard demonstration over those planted in 1934, with a total valuation, of $1,460.60 sold from the calendar orchard.
How the gardening program has grown and expanded in one of the counties in North Central Florida-where the agent has planned a productive program designed to feed the family well at home and also to have a generous surplus for use in canning certain vegetable products for market, is well shown in the table from records submitted over the period of 1925 to 1935 inclusive.
TABLE 11-OVER A PERIOD OF 11 YEARS, GARDEN PRODUCTS HAvE COME TO
MEAN MONEY TO, GADSDEN CouNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN.
No. Gardens All-Year Total Average
Year Reported Gardens Value Sold Value Sold

1925 41 . . . .
1926 57 . . . .
1929 98 15 $123.50 $ 9.71
1930 139 20 650.20 8.32
1933 252 209 1,276.70 8.03
1934 462 275 897.70 10.55
1935 531 322 2,124.75 13.12


GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS FOR GIRLS
The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely for four years of work in' the garden record book for girls. For the current year there is an enrollment of 4,654 in gardening with 3,263 completing. By completions is meant finishing the work required for that year in the vegetable garden, growing flowers and having the perennials started as required in the first year of work, submitting records and story and exhibiting on achievement day. 'For 1934 there were 3,803 girls enrolled with 2,556 completing,
. The report from Calhoun County is fairly typical of the garden work being done by girls throughout the more northern section of Florida. . "Ninety-six 4-H club girls started gardens, 84 of these completed their
demonstrations. Forty-eight girls exhibited fresh vegetables at the Achievement Day held in May, some exhibiting as many as 22 different vegetables. An effort is being made to have the older girls grow theallyear ga de . n. I checked these girls duringthe past month and found that 75 had fall gardens growing. These gardens contain from one to six different vegetables. The girls have learned to cook vegetables in different ways and they have also canned some of the products grown in the gardens."







Annual Report, 1935


FOOD CONSERVATION
In the canning program for 1935-as in 1934-canning by the women has been done greatly in excess of the budgetary needs of the family, in many instances. But as before, this excess has been well accounted for in the reports received from the women who certainly are of the mind that producing and canning as much of the food supply as possible is sound ?conomics for any farm family to practice. In this way, time is turned .nto money and a more adequate year-round diet is assured. A well-filled pantry at home truly represents a savings bank for the family, and home lemonstration agents claim that the canning program has been the one )f most interest to all-men and women alike.
The Canning Budget.-Reports for the current year also show that 'budgeting" has been a point. of great progress in food conservation work. ['he canning budget was presented at club meetings at the beginning of ;he year and the women were thoughtfully guided in figuring their needs n connection with a careful analysis of the yield from the all-year garden ind orchard.
Judging of canned goods serves well to get the ideal of quality products Lnd the proper procedures in canning before the people-both club niem)ers and others.
From all over the State come such statements as the following, showing iow much home demonstration work in general and canning in particular ias meant to club members. "We hope we may be able to can cooperatively vith our neighbors, for we never lived so well and yet had so little cash Ls this past summer, with our pantry well filled." "Our garden was a lifeaver, and then we learned to conserve the surlus." "The family has helped with the canning and appreciate the product we have for table use." Our girls are learning to can well."







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Agent in Home Improvement

During the past few years there has been a noticeable influx of people to farms in Florida. Depression conditions have caused thousands to move from cities to farms, while other thousands have stayed on farms who might have gone to cities in times of good prices for labor.
The maintenance of a fine type of citizenry in rural homes is an essential factor in good government. That there be satisfying home life in rural homes is essential to state and national well-being.
Comfort is as essential to satisfying home life in rural districts as it is elsewhere. Among the things which help to make comfortable places in which to live are houses with-tight, warm roofs and walls which protect from sun, wind and storm; heat for cold weather and comfort for warm weather; ample space in which to live, eat and sleep; good light, both natural and artificial, by which to read, work and play; running water, storage space, provision for privacy, convenient toilet facilities, and numerous other things.
Good housing is invaluable from a social standpoint, as well as providing comfortable facilities for the family. Every house should offer the background environment for most favorable development of its individual family members. By so doing, it gives strength to the group. In the farm home, group activities still remain a part of the home life. Group activities demand adjustment, and it isfrom adjustments made in family life that the foundations for adjustments in community and national life are built.
Home improvement activities of home demonstration agents during the past year have aided rural families not only to obtain more attractive and comfortable homes but also to live fuller lives and be more useful citizens.

HOME MANAGEMENT

To obtain improvements in the home it is necessary to have some money or materials, even though every effort is made to hold expenses to the minimum. Consequently the home improvement work is correlated with productive work, farm marketing, and the wise use of the family income. With less money available for amusements during the past few years there has developed a social consciousness, a realization of a bond between the entire household as pertains to the earning of money and the wise spending of it.
Home management programs have presented the philosophy of this subject, to lead community and county groups in their thinking. Home management proposes to develop the thinking of the entire group as pertains to income earning and spending for the family.
Families have been encouraged to set goals for certain improvements to be made in the homes. These goals have included such things as remodeling the old home or building a new one; repairs to roof, steps or other part of the house; installation of a bathroom fully equipped, with hot and cold running water; painting the house.
Consideration is given to things which are most necessary, with the family learning to make non-essentials take second place. Then all members of the family are encouraged i7o work together to earn the money necessary for the home improvements.
Reports from agents show that there were 13,151 Florida families following better home management practices in 1935.







































Fig. 8.-The community clubhouse, center of neighborhood activities, is the work of both men and women.

00







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME ENGINEERING
Dr. Seaman A. Knapp said, "It is impossible to impress upon anyone that there is dignity in residing upon a farm with impoverished soil: dilapidated buildings, and an environment of ignorance." Home demonstration agents have encouraged and aided rural families in remodeling their present homes or in building new and more satisfactory ones.
Many requests have come in for plans for remodeling or building, and available house plans are kept in constant circulation. Also, there is muc interest in the installation of running water outfits and septic tanks, ir better lighting and other rural home engineering problems.
Reports by home demonstration agents show that 52 new dwellings were constructed according to plans furnished; '00 dwellings were remodeled 107 water systems were installed; 100 sewage systems were put in; 2, heating and 98 lighting systems were installed during the year.

HOUSE FURNISHINGS
There is continued enthusiasm in the utilization of sacks, mill ends and usually discarded materials in making attractive and serviceable furnishings for the home. Women and girls love to create, and when the5 are guided along artistic lines, results are excellent.
The wise buying 6f only a few pieces of furniture at a time is being practiced. Educ6Ltional shopping tours have helped dealers to see ho's essential it is that rural families buy useful and beautiful house furnishing, which harmonize. Members of rural families also learn to make usefu and artistic barrel or box chairs and other furniture to add to the perma. nent equipment of their home, since their budget for purchasing house furnishings usually is quite limited.
According to reports by home agents, there were 1,867 women and girl, who made better selection of househeld furnishings last year. Other fig. ures follow: Number following improved methods in repairing, remodeling or refinishing furniture, 3,242; improving arrangement of rooms and treat. ment of walls, woodwork and floors, 2,259; families following recommenda. tions regarding handicraft, 2,294.

HOME SANITATION
Sanitation in rural districts, particularly around the home, is necessary for best health and welfare of members of the family. Formerly, rura' areas were considered to be the most healthful in the country, but in recent years urban sanitation has changed this. Now rural sanitation bids faii to place the country once again in its favorable position.
There has been noticeable improvement in rural home sanitation during 1935 in Florida. Cooperation to this, end has been rendered by home dem onstration agents, State Board of Health, and other agencies.
Reports show that during the year 406 families installed sanitary closet, or outhouses, 1,809 screened homes, and.968 followed other recommende( methods of controlling insects.

BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
In the past, too niany rural builders have given little attention to land scaping their homes. During recent years increasing attentimihas bee given to rural landscaping, and as the work has progressed its, values hav become more evident. It has been estimated that proper'planning an planting often increase the value of farm property from' 20 to 35 percent
During the last few years malny more farm people than ever befort have turned willingly and eagerly to landscape work, since much can b








Annual Report, 1935 83

lone for little expenditure of money. In 1985 reports submitted by home lemonstration women and girls show that 918 gave special care to lawns, )62 planted shrubbery and trees, and 1,065 improved the exterior appearince of their homes.


Fig. 9.-This outdoor sitting room is the beginning of a long-time emonstration in yard improvement following a definite plan worked out pith the home demonstration agent.

Tours to homes that have been beautified and where the demonstrator as kept a complete record, with pictures, proved valuable in stimulating iterest in home improvement during the year. Plenty of time was al$wed for questions, and actual experiences were told about how certain results were attained.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist

The general, plan, purpose and ultimate goals of the food, nutrition and' health program in Florida may be summarized in the following statements: To arouse and create interest in improving existing nutritional and health conditions;' family food supply; home production of food products; wise buying; balanced diet at the lowest cost; to develop a health education program prepared for mothers and school children, emphasizing a hot dish supplement or school lunch in rural schools; and to enlist girls' and women's clubs in carrying the food, nutrition and health project as a community service program.
This program is closely related to other home demonstration projects principally gardening, dairying, poultry, beekeeping, meat supply, food conservation, home sanitation, and home improvement.
The value, use and preparation of dairy products has been taught b direct instruction and demonstrations. Likewise the value and use of poul, try products and the farm meat supply were taught.
Printed and mimeographed material with illustrations giving subjec matter and suggestive outlines were supplied home demonstration agent to add information and interest in support of the program. Demonstrations talks and exhibits also served to extend this program to many not in at tendance at group meetings.I
,The family food supply as a part of the whole live-at-home plan wa& discussed in helping plan food budgets, to improve family health and pro mote growth and development, as well as to determine the lowest cost a which the family could be adequately fed.
Food budget guides were used in determining the yearly food needsC f arm families. This planning of a family food budget caused the fani women to realize the value of home produced products-of the garden, oi chard, dairy, poultry and meat supply, and a conservation program to fui nish products for home canning and other storage products to supplemer the diet, in quantities sufficient for periods when fresh products are rn at hand.
Lectures, demonstrations, charts and posters to promote this phase 4[ the program were used to list the weekly food budgets for a farm famil' of five at four different levels of income.
A few women demonstrators have kept a food consumption record ar from these records were able to see the big contribution which is ma, to the family income through home production, food conservation, wi buying of foods, and the value of careful planning.

FOOD SELECTING, PREPARATION AND WISE BUYING
Food selection and preparation and wise buying proved to be very poplar and it was gratifying to see the number of women who were keen interested.
The scoring of meal plans and food products has helped to raise V quality standards of foods prepared for home use and those exhibited, club contests and fairs. Improved practices in food preparation we, adopted by 2,510 women in 28 counties in their baking, meat and vegetal cooking and use of poultry and dairy products; 5,390 families report, having served better balanced meals as a result. Also, 2,413 families f( lowed food buying recommendations and thus helped to conserve the fami income.







Annual Report, 1935 85

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD
this program for the school child encouraged health protection for !very child, included physical examinations of the child, and a follow-up )rogram. It also included preparation of different school lunches, and howed the relation to the school lunch as it affects the child's daily diet. [Phis office cooperated with other agencies in providing the hot dish sup)lenient or school lunch as a school or community project. .Home demonstration agents have cooperated with school boards, public iealth and welfare workers, P.-T.A. organizations, civic clubs and women's lubs in promoting a health education program for school children and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in establishing lunch rooms. :)lans for operating the lunch rooms, and quantity recipes were furnished or the food dishes to be served in many instances. Exhibits were made )f different types of lunches and suitable containers for use in packing unches. It is noted that 2,939 families improved the home-packed lunch hat 65 schools followed recommendations for a hot supplement to 14,944
-hildren.

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
Doctors and nurses, public health and welfare workers, Emergency Reief agencies, P.-T.A. organizations, schools and other agencies have co)perated in the public welfare problem with home demonstration agents n sponsoring baby clinics and conducting group meetings where child care tnd training was discussed; also meetings where physical examinations vere given for the correction of defects. Assistance was given with child 'eeding problems and pre-natal diets. The Extension Nutritionists dis'ussed "Normal Family Nutrition" at two district meetings of nurses. ,The following statistics were reported from 17 counties; 237 homes Ldopted better adult habits with regard to development of children; 1,518 ' amilies followed recommended methods in child feeding; 864 families im)roved habits of children.

LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND COMMUNITY SERVICE
Leaders have been trained through service rendered in their local club. ['he axiom "We learn by doing" proved true with both women and girls, Lad both groups furnished leaders as assistants at camp with food and food [emonstrations, food, nutrition and health project chairmen, club officers, ;ponsors for 4-H1 clubs who assisted with camp programs, by instructions ,iven at the State Short Course and by supplying leaders with subject natter material on the food, nutrition and health program.
Home demonstration women have rendered an invaluable service in their 'ommunities by creating interest in school lunchrooms and assisting with heir establishment and operation if needed; assisting with recreation and nstruction at senior and 4-H camps and in many other ways; and served L5 real demonstrators of improved practices of better living in their, comnunities and counties.

NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS
After a*4-H club girl decided to work on the nutrition project, she was riven a general physical examination by a nurse or doctor. The correction ;f all physical defects was urged and correct food and health habits were aught to promote self-improvement. The girls were scored three times luring the year on their food selection and health habits.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Demonstrations were then given in food selection, preparation, meal planning, table service, and health education such as, correct posture, good health habits, home hygiene and first aid with the sole 'purpose of developing a desire for normal health through proper food selection and correct health habits.


Fig. 10.-Edna Sims, state champion in 4-H bread baking and judging, gives a demonstration in judging bread. She represented Florida at the National Club Congress in Chicago.

Contests in different phases as posture, bread making, bread judging, and food preparation were held. The state winners of the bread judging and food preparation contest in 1935 were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Congress, held in Chicago, where they entered similar contests there.
The girls have exhibited their products for educational purpose at achievement and other rally days, fairs, and club meetings.
The food, nutrition and health project received special emphasis at the State Short Course to benefit all girls attending Short Course and more specific information in nutrition was given to a senior group who majored in nutrition. The girls in this group served as leaders in their home counties for this phase of work.
Recreational camps held during the summer months afforded splendid opportunities to develop this program with the 4-H girls, while they were enjoying a nice vacation and outing.
There were 4,621 4-H club members enrolled in food and nutrition with 3,267 members completing, 50,321 food dishes were prepared and 7,339 meals planned and served by 4-H members.







Annual Report, 1935


PAcRT IV-NEGRO WORK

NEGRO MEN'S WORK

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent

During 1935, Negro Extension work was carried on in 12 counties: .lachua, Columbia, Duval, Marion, Leon, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Hamton, Hillsboro, Suwannee and Gadsden. There were eight men and six omen employed in county work, together with one district agent supersing, and the necessary clerical help for the office. In Suwannee, Hamilton nd Columbia counties, two agents served three counties as the Negro arming area in these three counties is adjacent. In general farming )unties the Negro-.farmers participated in cotton, tobacco and corn-hog ijustment programs. Most contracts were with cotton, and there were dlatively few tobacco, peanut or corn-hog contracts. In this work the egro agents assisted the white agents by contacts with the producers and lucational meetings so that the colored farmers might have an opportunity 7 taking full advantage of AAA programs. This work consumed a minor irt of their time.
Triple A programs bettered the condition of the colored farmers. The creased prices for farm crops has placed colored farmers in a better )sition to finance their farming operations and make improvements. This is stimulated Extension agents to introduce improved practices and obtain operation of a larger number.
The specialists of the Extension Service outlined programs on dairying, restock, agronomy and 4-H club work and organization, particularly in Leir relationships with the white agents in handling AAA programs. In rrying out their work the Negro agents have the assistance of the local aders who serve as community club leaders in particular in handling the H program, and help promote better farm and home practices as recoinended by the Agricultural Extension Service. The Negro program has been forwarded by county-wide achievement tys, local exhibits and demonstrations by 4-H club members and by exbits at county fairs. An exceptionally fine display was provided for the )uth Florida Fair under the supervision of the Negro district agent and egro county agents.
In cooperation with the National Youth Administration, the Extension )rvice held eight district meetings attended by 1,875 Negro leaders from inmunities in Florida. Some major projects considered were Negro coinunity centers, playgrounds, training schools and the widening of the fluence of the Extension Service for Negroes in the state. The National Playground and Recreation Association, directed by the deral Extension Service, arranged for short courses in recreation. Special aining was provided for the county Extension workers and the 4-H club embers who had shown leadership ability. These schools were held at egro institutions. The meetings lasted four days and were limited to latively small groups of people.

DEMONSTRATIONS
Plans for demonstration programs were made at the beginning of the ar. Programs given particular emphasis were a soil building program







Florida Cooperative Extension


that included the planting of legumes and rotation of crops and a program that would provide for the production of food and forage needs and the cash crops -necessary to meet expenses.
Colored farmer D. A. Miles of Alachua County planted a corn crop and interplanted with crotalaria and cowpeas and produced 181/2 bushels of corn per acre, which was 81/2 bushels over other lands without the cover crop. Growing legumes and cover crops suitable to the areas has been part of the Negro agents' program. Cowpeas, velvet beans and soybeans were used in rotation. Much of the crop was used for feeding livestock, and a part turned under for soil improvement purposes.

MARKETING
The marketing of surplus perishable products on Negro farms is usually limited to local needs. Consequently, their sales are limited in most areas. Emphasis has been placed on the live-at-home program and salable products to supply local markets. In Alachua, Columbia and Hamilton counties, tobacco is an important cash crop.
The Negro agents have given particular attention to poultry raising. This is a minorpart of the work, but an important part of the live-at-home program. Year round gardening has been emphasized.

POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK
The poultry and livestock phase of the work has interested the 4-H club members in particular, and 122 boys enrolled in poultry clubs, 54 of whom completed their projects. The number of birds involved in the demonstrations was 6,266. This is a larger number than in former years.
On account of the live-at-home program, more dairying has been practiced for local consumption and for home use. This hasrequired more feed and better ways of handling it. Hogs also have been of great importance and Negro farmers have cooperated in the Agricultural Adjustment Administration corn-hog program, although a relatively small number of Negro farmers have as yet 'produced sufficient meat for home use. A! total of 68 4-H club members completed their projects with 169 pigs.
There was interest in the screw worm control demonstrations, particularly with hogs.
Records of production were kept by 233 farmers and 104 farmers reduced their expenses by exchanging labor and machinery with their neighbors.
SALES

Through local associations, cooperative sales amounted to $20,947.45 and- through organized. sales a total of $15,297.64 worth of products were sold. Agents in Marion County report sales of $12,392.53 for beans and watermelons through the Negro Farmers' Cooperative Association of Marion County. This association has been organized for some time and hasi proven a valuable aid to farmers and in carrying out Extension programs.
Negro agents have cooperated with the organization of livestock sales, especially with hogs. This has been particularly true where hogs were shipped in car-lots. They have also taken advantage of the marketing facilities under the leadership of the county agents wherever these are available, with the result that the colored farmers have benefited by th better price paid and have been encouraged to produce hogs of good qualitand benefit from the prices received from the higher grades. .







Annual Report, 1935


DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PRODUCING FEED AND FATTENING CROPS
Demonstrations for producing feed and fattening crops have been set Sin the farming areas for the purpose of having the hogs ready for arket during the early fall months, when the prices are usually highest. his requires planning in advance for the production of the hogs as well crops needed for fattening purposes.

4-H CLUB WORK
The number of 4-H club members completing their work was 2,556 as ported by the agents. The type of club work carried on by the Negro rents differs only in respect to its application to the colored farmers' edutiional problems. These club members were organized to carry out edu.tional work, principally with the commodities grown in the general farmg area, namely, cotton, hogs, coin, poultry. The results of the 4-H club work among Negroes indicate that even ith limited facilities, substantial interest can be developed leading to gher production and more economical yields, and because of this having eb in operation for several years, Negro farmers having representation the 4-H1 club work are those that have not appeared on the relief payrolls. The usual procedure for handling 4-H clubs has not been changed for veral years. In each case, it is under the leadership of the Extension rvice and the specialists in charge have given this their attention to see at the work is carried along in a systematic and constructive way. As a result of the organized 4-H clubs in the county, there has been bstantial increase in the number of 4-H club members who attend the inual short course held each year at the A. & M. College at Tallahassee. ie College has offered facilities and a program and with the assistance the county agents and the state organization, this annual 4-H club proam in Tallahassee has been able to bring together 4-H club members om each county. Expenses of these are usually paid from local sources id results have been satisfactory and stimulating to the Extension and
-ricultural programs of the counties.
A Negro 4-H club camp was held for club members in the North Florida unties and arranged by the Negro agents. The program provided for 'ing accommodations, as well as educational and recreational programs. Negro Health Week.-Negro Extension agents have participated in the nual Negro Health Week. This is carried out under local leadership th the cooperation of interested citizens and in most counties, agents ye taken a leading part. The purpose of this is to encourage sanitation ound homes and a clean-up program, the control of mosquitoes and other oblems that reflect on the general health and appearance of the corninities.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Reported by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement

The Negro home demonstration agents of Florida have gone forward with their work in a fine way. For the 'past two and half years funds have not permitted the employment of a Negro district home demonstration agent. The State Home Demonstration Staff and county home demonstration agents have guided the Negro home demonstration agents in theii work. The Negro district agent for men's work has also worked with them.
The same general plan for the development of home demonstration work among Negroes with emphasis on a live-at-home program is followed as that which is used in conducting home demonstration work among the white people. The Negro work is planned with a definite goal in mind. The specialists furnish subject matter and help the Negro agents by special visits, correspondence, and in conferences.
Methods used in developing the work in the various 'projects is through meetings in the home, school or church, home visits, tours to well established demonstrations, also to visit annual or quarterly exhibits.
National Negro Health Week has proven an excellent time to put emphasis on the home sanitation project which many home owners establish that week and expand during the year.
The State Short Course for Negro girls and boys at Florida A. & M. College, annual conference of local Extension agents, farm institutes, and achievement days are of great benefit to the agents as well as to the individual boys and girls. Some of the agents have developed very good county councils.
Negro home demonstration agents have helped in all the emergency work, and have assisted in nearby counties when they have been called upon. They have been placed with a view to serving the greatest Negro population. Practically every home demonstration club member and every 4-H club member has looked to having an adequate food supply by having a garden with something growing in it during all the months, 'Poultry, better food preparation, a family cow, a few pigs, and sufficient canned products to meet the family needs. In many cases these things have been bartered in exchange for other food products needed.
Faculty members of the A. & M. College have been helpful in teaching how to improve the soil, and have given demonstrations in building up the soil, rotation of crops, etc.
Better seed were distributed to the needy by the A. & M. College. There is marked improvement in sanitation of premises and the destroying of mosquito breeding places, and more beautification of home grounds.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
New homes and remodeling of old ones are noted. Although in far toc many cases crowded sleeping quarters for rural families still exist, onE of the goals in home engineering for several years has been that of providing sleeping porches. The lack of money delays better building.
One of the outstanding demonstrations in home improvement during the past year was at the home of Caroline James in Miccosukee. Caroline had cooked in one of the most aristocratic homes in the old settlement of Miccosukee for forty-five years, yet her house was dark, dreary and unsanitary.
She was elected president of the Women Home-Makers, and felt deeplN her responsibility as a leader for her people. She tried "to make the besi better" in all things in which her home demonstration agent, Alice Poole asked her to become a demonstrator.







Annual Report, 1935 91

Each year for the past five years the Leon County Commissioners have iven '$25 to encourage some -Negro demonstrator to have a better home. ,aroline's home was selected for a demonstration and she gave over her ome for the "working bee" where neighbors and friends would work to-ether and learn together. Caroline saved $10 from her pecans and eggs; his was added to the $25, and the improvement was remarkable. New windows were cut on each side of the chimney to give better light; new window panes were added, floors mended, a new roof was put on, new teps were made, porch floor was 'patched, the well was cleaned and cased rith a top, the house was whitewashed inside and out, fences were mended nd whitewashed, a new sanitary toilet was added, the kitchen was ceiled nd a pantry door was added; a new closet was built in the new spare edroom, and also in Caroline's room.
The work was all done by volunteer workmen who were not busy. The ouse was fumigated and thoroughly cleaned from top to bottom. New ortains of bright cretonne were given for the three new windows, and 'bite ruffled curtains for the "preacher's" room or spare bedroom. All rho took part in the "working bee" learned valuable lessons which have since been repeated. Thus by raising the standard of living in one home, iany homes have been helped. Alice Poole had the interested cooperation nd direction of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Specialist; Iso Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
All community activities seem to be more wholesome than in many decades. Fun making, feasting, and games for old and young have been Dted.
The men are listening to the women agents' instructions in feed and )rage for the farm family and livestock. Althea Ayers, home demonstraon agent in Madison County, is doing splendid all-round work and had )me excellent demonstrations with the men, as well as with the women rid girls.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
In Hillsborough County 105 year-round gardens were grown during the ast year; 92 calendar orchards were owned by club members; 54 family Lilk cows were owned by club women; 52,542 containers were filled with uit, vegetables, etc., and 893 articles were made for the home; 109 garents were remodeled for children; 89 kitchens were rearranged for conmnience, and 179 4-H club girls received physical examination. Emphasis has been given to the remodeling of clothing for children well as grown-ups; 153 dresses for small girls, and 359 4-H club uniorms were remodeled. More thought is given to better beds by remodeling d mattresses, also making new ones when money is available; 8 -new attresses were made in the county; 45 good ladder back chairs were made. any are learning from their elders and the home demonstration agent )w to bottom chairs with corn shucks, which many think is as pretty as te rush. Hickory and maple split basketry is another home industry that being revived. The Negro people in Gadsden County are more conscious their need to follow a live-at-home program, and to have plenty of inserved fruits and, vegetables to meet the home needs. Fifteen school gardens were valuable in stimulating interest in home irdens. The vegetables were used in the food preparation classes. Agents wve encouraged farmers to -plant winter pastures or cover crops for the mily milk cow, which is usually neglected during the winter months on !count of lack of food; the green 'pastures also help the farm poultry wck. Six pastures have been started.







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Statistical Data from County Workers Reports (Men and Women)
Total days service rendered 3,947
Members in Extension Associations or Committees 378
Communities in which Negro Extension program has been planned 198
Clubs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work 97
Members in such clubs or groups 1,388
4-H Clubs 456
4-H Club members enrolled 3,787
4-11 Club members completing 2,556
4-H Club teams trained 62
Farm or home visits 7,862
Different farms or homes visited 3,159
Calls relating to extension work 6,428
News articles or stories published and circular letters . 540 Letters written 4,537
Bulletins distributed 3,440
Radio talks 2
Extension exhibits 38
Meetings held 2,529
(Attendance 47,712
Achievement days and encampments 25
(Attendance 1,151
Homes and farms influenced by program 6,141
Homes with 4-H Club members enrolled 2,413
CEREALS
Communities in which work was conducted 140
Result demonstrations conducted 79
Meetings held 97
News stories 'published and circular letters issued 17
4-H Club members enrolled 805
4-H Club members completing 511
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing . 673 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing . 8,083.5
LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS
Communities in which work was conducted 298
Result demonstrations conducted 65
Meetings held 95
News stories published and circular letters issued 18
4-11 Club members enrolled 276
4-H Club members completing 177
Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing -------- 182 Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing . 3,984
POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Others Cotton Tobaccc
Communities in which work was conducted . 130 63 29
Result demonstrations conducted . 41 20 10
Meetings held 27 41 32
News stories published and circular letters 5 7 6
4-H Club members enrolled 140 159 2
4-H Club members completing 92 99 2
Acres in project conducted by 4-H Members 90 124 4
Yields of crops grown by 4-H Members . 3,155 Bu. 34,398 Lb. 4,000 L'








Annual Report, 1935 93

FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
mmunities in which work was conducted 592
:sult demonstrations conducted 748
,etings held 505
ws stories published and circular letters issued 139
-I Club members enrolled 2,651
1 Club members completing 1,532
res in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing . 881 elds of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing . 2,064 Bu.

FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
mmunities in which work was conducted 41
sult demonstrations conducted 20
etings held 16
ws stories published and circular letters issued 3
I Club members enrolled 100
I Club members completing 40
nd-clearing practices 6
res 125
tter building and equipment practices 210
ildings involved 220

POULTRY AND BEES
mmunities in which work was conducted 147
sult demonstrations conducted 202
etings held 168
-ws stories published and circular letters issued 12
I Club members enrolled 730
I Club members completing 530
imber units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing 10,469
milies following better practices for poultry 2,308

DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES
mmunities in which work was conducted 211
sult demonstrations conducted 66
'etings held 164
ws sories published and circular letters issued 63
I Club members enrolled 294
.I Club members completing 215
iimals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing 351

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

sult demonstrations conducted 2
etings held 72
!ws stories published and circular letters issued 9
I Club members enrolled 108
I Club members completing 108
rmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments . 322 milies assisted in getting established 92
lividuals affected by marketing program 501
ganizations assisted with problems 19
lividuals assisted with problems 362
lue of products sold by associations $21,092.18
lue of supplies 'purchased by organizations $ 3,029.35







94 Florida Cooperative Xxtension

FOODS AND NUTRITION
Communities in which work was conducted 167
Result demonstrations conducted 276
Meetings held 280
News stories published and circular letters issued 65
4-H Club members enrolled 2405
4-H Club members completing 1:862
Families adopting improved food practices 3,282
Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 45 Children involved 3,578
Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H Clubs . 83,447 Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved -------------------- $ 9,138.2
CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION
Communities in which work was conducted 35
Result demonstrations conducted 9
Meetings held . 27
News stories published and circular letters issued 3
4-H Club members enrolled 40
4-11 Club members completing 25
Other 4-H Club members who participated 1.6
Families adopting better child-develdpment practices . 230 Individuals participating in child-development program . 133 Children involved 313
CLOTHING
Communities in which work was conducted 155
Result demonstrations conducted 331
Meetings held 197
News stories published and circular letters issued 5
4-11 Club members enrolled 2,017
4-H Club members completing 1,286
Articles made by 4-H Club members 6,588
Individuals following better clothing practices 5,741
Savings due to clothing program $ 3,853.2

HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS
Communities in which work was conducted 274
Result demonstrations conducted 345
Meetings held 142
News stories published and circular letters issued 75
4-H Club members enrolled 1,907
4-11 Club members completing 1,231
Units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing . 3,089 Families adopting improved home-management practices . 3,253 Saving due to home-management program $ 2,353.0
Families making improvements in house furnishings . 1,406 Saving due to home-furnishings program $ 1,106.0
Families following recommendations regarding handicraft . 219
HOME.HEALTH AND SANITATION
Communities in which work was conducted 222
Result demonstrations conducted 487
Meetings held 145
News stories published and circular letters issued 70
4-H Club members enrolled 1,940
4-11 Club members completing 1,523
Other 4-H Club members who participated 400
Individuals having health examination 455
Individuals adopting better health habits 4,381
Families adopting better health habits, 1,019







Annual Report, 1935 95

EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
3etings held 108
,ws stories published and circular letters issued 35
immunities assisted with community problems 396
'aining meetings conducted for community leaders 19
Lmilies following recommendations as to home recreation . 107 HI Clubs engaging in community activities 143
Lmilies aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other relief agency 343







Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX


A
Accounts, citrus, 60
poultry, 61 '
Achievement days, club, 70 Adjustment work, 7, 8, 11, 18, 20,
28, 30, 34, 62, 87 Agents, list of, 5 Agreements, marketing, 7 Agricultural economics, 10, 15, 60, 64
engineering, statistics, 14
loans, 27
planning, 63
statistics, 15, 93
Animal husbandry, 9, 38, 44 Assistance to Rural Resettlement, 8 Assistance to Screw Worm control, 9 Associations, poultry, 56
B
Baby chick management, 53 Bang's disease, 9, 25 Beale, Clyde, work, 18 Beautification, home grounds, 14, 73,
82, 83
Beef cattle, 15, 24, 44, 93 clubs, 38
Bees, statistics, 15, 93 Blacklock, R. W., work, 35 Blue mold decay, 50 Boys' club wojrk, 35 Bronzing, citrus, 49 Brooders, hdme-made, 58 Brown, H. L., work, 40 Brumley, F. W., work, 60 Bulletins, 18, 69 Bureau Animal Industry, 9 Buying, consumer, 75

C
Calendar flock records, 53 Camps, 4-11, 8, 35, 36, 70 Canning, 79 Cattle, purchases of government, 26
dairy and beef, statistics, 15 beef, 24, 93 Cereals, 13, 22, 92 Changes in staff, 10 Chickenpox, 58 Child development and parent
education, 16, 94 Circular letters, 68 Citrus accounts, 60 work, 10, 26, 48 Clayton, H. G., work, 21, 28 Clothing, 16, 75, 94


Clubs, 4-H, dairy, 43
work, 8, 35, 56, 65, 68-76, 89
Community activities, 17, 76, 85, 9
95
Conservation, food, 72, 77 Cooperation with other institution
11
by states and counties, 27 Cooper, J. F., work, 18 "Copper leaf" of citrus, 49 Corn-hog adjustment work, 33 Corn clubs, 37 Cotton adjustment, 28
Florida income from, 32 value of lint and seed, 31
work, 14, 23, 92 Cotton clubs, 37 Council, poultry, 57 County Agricultural Planning
Council, 63
Cover Crops, 22, 48 Cows, market for dairy, 42 Credit, farm, 8 Crops, field, 23
feed and pasture, 23
silage, 24
Culling demonstrations, 53

D
Dairy clubs, 38
work, 9
Dairying, 15, 24, 40
farm, 42
feeding demonstrations, 40
pasture and grazing crops, 41
raising dairy heifers, 41 DeBusk, E. F., work, 48 Director, report of, 7 Disease control, citrus, 49

E
Economics, agricultural, 10 Educational meetings, 21, 51, 58 Egg-Laying Contest, 58, 59 Egg quality program, 57 Engineering, home, 82, 93 Exhibits, 27, 69 Extension organizations and
community activities, 17
1 F
Farm credit, 8 Farm management, 60 Fat Stock Show, 45 Feed and egg prices, 63







Annual Report, 1935


Feed and pasture crops, 23, 40 Feeder cattle, 44 Field crops, 23 Finances, state, 12 Financial statement, 12 Florida Poultry Council, 57 Food conservation, 72, 77, 84 Food selection, 84 Foods and nutrition, 15, 72, 84, 94 Forestry, 14, 93 "Frenching", citrus, 49 Fruits, 14, 26, 93

G
Gardening, 77, 91 General activities, 13, 76 Gleason, Flavia, work, 65 Grass, work, 23 Grazing crops, 41 Green feed for poultry, 53 Growers' Institute, 50 Grove management, 48

H
Health and sanitation, 16, 94 Heifers, raising, 41 Hogs, adjustment work, 25
demonstrations, 25
Home beautification, 14, 73
management and house
furnishings, 16, 73, 80, 94
demonstration work, 9, 65
improvement, 80, 90
sanitation, 82
Horses, statistics, 15 Horticulture clubs, 38 Howard, R. H., work, 60

I
Improvement, home, 73 Income, family, 75 Insect control, citrus, 50 Institutions, cooperation with other,
11
Irrigation, citrus, 49

L
Leaders, local, 70, 85 Legumes and forage crops, 13, 229 92 List of agents, 5 Live-at-home programs, 7 Livestock, 24, 88 program, 9 Loans, agricultural, 27


M
Management, baby chicks and
pullets, 53
farm, 60 grove, 48
home, 73, 80, 81
soil, 48
Marketing, 45, 58, 88 McDavid, Ruby, work, 65 Meat curing,. 25 Mehrhof, N. R., work, 52 Melanose, 50 Meetings, educational, 21, 51, 58 Men's work, 21 Miscellaneous publications, 20
citrus, 51 Mold, blue, 50 Moore, V. P., work, 80, 90

N
Negro work, 11, 87
statistical report, 92 Nettles, W. T., work, 21 News, 18, 19, 68 Noble, C. V., work, 60 Nutrition work, 15, 72,.84
0
Orchards,72
Organizations, dairy, 43 Outlook information, 27
P
Pasture work, 23, 41, 44 Payments, rental and benefit by
counties, 29
summary of benefits, all
commodities, 30 Peanut clubs, 38 Perennial plantings, 78 Planning, agricultural, 63 Pork, home curing, 25 Potatoes, 34
adjustment work, 28, 34
special crops, 14, 92 Poultry, 52
associations, 56
clubs, 38
statistics, 15, 93 work, 10, 53, 88
Programs, animal husbandry, 9
dairy work, 9
home demonstration, 67
livestock, 9
Publications, 18
miscellaneous, 20 Publicity, 68







Florida Cooperative Extension


Special activities, 39 Staff changes, 10 State finances, 11 Statement, financial, 12 Statistical report, 13 Surveys, farm management, 61 Sweet potato clubs, 38 Swine clubs, 38
statistics, 15
work, 46
T
Thomas, Jefferson, work, 18 Thursby, I. S., work, 77 Timmons, D. E., work, 28, 32, 60 Tobacco, estimates of sales, receipts
and benefits to producers, 14, 31,
32, 92
Tours, farm, 51
home, 69
Trench silos, 41, 44 Trips for club members, 39, 70 Tuberculosis in cattle, 25 Turner, A. A., report, 87
U
University of Florida week, 20
V
Vegetable, work, 14, 26, 93
W
Whitefly control, 50 Women's work, 65 Work, home demonstration, 9, 65


R
Radio, 18, 19, 68 Regional problems, 21 Records, AAA, 34, 62
dairy, 43
poultry, 53, 61
Recreation training, 36 Reports, statistical, men and
women, 13
Revenue, sources, 11 Report of director, 7 Resettlement, assistance to, 8 Rust mite control, 50

S
Sales, cooperative, 88 Sanitation, home, 82 Scab, citrus, 50 Scale control, citrus, 50 Scholarships, club, 39 Screw worm control, 9, 47
situation, 21
Settle, Lucy B., work, 65 Sheep statistics, 15, 93 Sheely, W. J., work, 28, 44 Short courses, club, 39, 71 Sikes, A. M., work, 65, 84 Silage crops, 24 Sires, dairy, 43 Smith, J. Jee, work, 21, 28 Soil improvement, 22
management, citrus, 48, 49 Sources of revenue, 11 Sowell, D. F., work, 52 Spencer, A. P., work, 21




Full Text

PAGE 1

:-,.. : ) ~ ... 1935 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1935

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1935 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1935 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1935

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BOARD OF CONTROi. GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J . TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WmMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent 1-:. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist A. L. SHEALY, D . V.M., Animal lndustriali:.. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D ., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm : Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A . , Agricultural Economist, Marketing* A. E. MERCKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Controll COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent MARY KEOWN, District Agent * ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Acting District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent lln cooperation with U. S . D. A . 2 Part-time. *On leave of absence.

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CONTENTS PAGE REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7 Financial Statement ..... . . .. .... . ..... . .............. . ........ . ........................................ 12 Statistical Report ............................... . .......... . ......................... . .... .. .... .. ....... 13 PUBLICATIONS,' NEWS, RADIO .. . . . . . ... . ..... .. .......... .. .................................................. 18 COUNTY AGENT 21 Agricultural Adjustment Program ........ . . .. ..... . ....... . .. : ...... . ..... .. ... . ... .. ..... .. . 28 BOYS' 4-H . CLUB WORK 35 DAIRYING ... . ....... . . . . .. . .. ... . ... .. ... ... . . . . . ..... . .. . . . . .. ... ... ........ . ........... ... . .. ..... .. ..... . .. .....• 40 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 44 CITRUS CULTURE 48 POULTRY WORK 52 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .. . . .. . . ...... .. . . . .. . . ..... .... . . . .. .. . . . .. .. ... .. .. . .. . . . .... .. ... . .......... . .. 60 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .. . ... . ........... . . .. .. .... . ......... . ... ...... . ....... , . .. .......... . ... 65 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION . . ... . .. .. . . . .. ... . .... . .. . . . . .. .... .. .. ... . . . .... ... .. ... . . . . .. 77 HOME IMPROVEMENT . .. ..... . ... .. .... . ...... . ... . ..... . ......................... . ..... .. .... . ......... . ........ 80 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH .. ... . ... . .. . . .. . . . ... ...... .. .... ...... .. ... . ..... . ... . . ... .. . . . . ... ....... 84 NEGRO MEN'S : ... ... .. ... .. 87 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK . .. . ...... . .... . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . . .. ... . ... . .. . . . .. . .. .... .. . .... 90 Negro Statistical Report ........ . .... . ......... .. .... . ................ . .... . .... . . . .. . ..... . ... .. ... 92

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Hon. Dave Sholt z , Gove r nor of F'lo r i.da, Tallahassee, Florida SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricul tural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1935, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1935. Hon. Geo. H. Baldw i n, Chairman, Board of Control. Respectfully, GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman , Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service; College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accord ance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J . TIGERT, Pr e si.d e nt, University of Florida.

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Alachua ........ . ......... Fred L. Craft ........ .. Gainesville .. . ................. Mrs. Grace F. Warren Brevard .................. T. L. Cain ......... . ....... Cocoa ....... . ......... . ............. . .. Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Broward .. ..... . . . ...... . ... . ..................... .. ........ Ft. Lauderdale .. ............ ... .. . .... Miss Olga Kent Calhoun ................. .J. G. Kelley ........ ...... Blountstown ................ Miss Josephine Nimmo Charlotte ............... N. H. McQueen ....... Punta Gorda ....................................................... . Citrus .................... . ................................... Inverness . . . . ............ Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Clay ..................... . ............................. .. ....... Green Cove Springs ....... ..... Miss Beulah Felts Columbia ......... .... .. . Guy Cox ........ ....... ... .Lake City ...... . ..................... . .......................... .. .... . Dade ....................... C. H. Steffani .. ... . .... Miami. ............................... Miss Pansy Norton DeSoto ................. .. E. H. Vance ............ Arcadia ........ .............. .. ...... . .. ..... ....... . .......... . .. ... ... . Dixie ....................... D. M. Treadwell ..... Cross City . . ....................... .. ......................... .. ..... . Duval... ................ . . A. S. Lawton .......... :Jacksonville . .. ..................... Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ...... E. G. Pattishall** .... Jacksonville ....................... ... ............................. . Escambia ............. . . E. H. Finlayson ..... Pensacola ........................ Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden .............. . .. Paul Calvin .............. Quincy ................................ Miss Elise Laffitte Gulf . ... .... ..... . ........ ....... .......... . ..... . ............ . . Wewahitchka .... Mrs. Pearl Jordan Whitfield Hamilton ........ . ...... .J. J. Sechrest .. ........ Jasper Hardee ........... . . . .. .. . . H . L. Miller ....... .. .... Wauchula .. .. . ................ ......... . .. ................. . .. ... ... . Hernando ........... . ... B. E. Lawton ........... Brooksville .. .... ............ . . .. . ...... ..................... . ...... . Highlands ........... . . . L. H. Alsmeyer ....... Sebring ... ..................................................... .. ..... . Hillsboro ............... Alec White ....... ... ..... Tampa .............................. ........ ........................... . Hillsboro (West) . .. .. ...................... ... ....... Tampa ............... , ................ Miss Allie Lee Rush Hillsboro (East) ............................ .. . . ..... Plant City .................... . ... Miss Clarine Belcher Holmes ................. . . D. D. McCloud ........ Bonifay ...... . .... .. ........... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River .. ... . . ..•.. . ...................... ........ . Vero Beach ....................... . Miss Manilla Wells Jackson ............. . .. . . J. W. Malone ... . ...... Marianna . .. ..... .................. Miss Alice W. Lewis Jefferson .............. .. P. R. McMullen ...... Monticello ............................ Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette .......... .. . .. D. H. Ward .............. Mayo .................................................................... Lake ........................ C. R. Hiatt ............... Tavares ........ ................... . Mrs. Lucie K. Miller Lee .......................... C. P. Heuck. ............. Ft. Myers ............................................................. . Leon ........................ G. C. Hodge . . . ... . ..... Tallahassee .... . ............... Miss Ethyl Holloway Levy .......... . ..... . ... . .. . ....................... ... . . .. ..... Bronson ...................... Miss Wilma Richardson Liberty ..... ... ......... . . F. D. Yaun . . .. ....... .. . Bristol . ....... ..... . .... .. .... , ...... ... . .. . .. ......................... . Madison ................ ..S. L. Brothers ......... .Madison ............................................................... . Manatee ............ . .... J ohn H. Logan ........ Bradenton ............. : .......... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ................. . . .J. Lawrence Edwards ............... Ocala ......... .. ........................ ... Miss Tillie Roesel Okaloosa ................ E. R. Nelson .. ....... ... Crestview ......................... .... .............................. . Okeechobee .... .... .... C. A. Fulford . ..... ... Okeechobee ... ................ . ... . . ........ ............. .. ......... . Orange ................... K. C. Moore .. . .. .. ...... Orlando ... ....... ............ ... . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola .................. .J. R. Gunn .. ............. Kissimmee .......................... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach .......... . M. U. Mounts .......... West Palm Beach .... , ... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pasco ...................... J. A. McClellan, Jr .. Dade City . ... ........................ . . .. ............................. . Pinellas .................. Wm. Gomme ....... . .... Clearwater ........................ Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk. ...............•....... W. P. Hayman . ....... Bartow .... .. . . .......................... Miss Lois Godbey Putnam ................ .. H. E. Westbury ...... Palatka .. .. .................. ... .......................... . ........... . St. Johns ............... Loonis Blitch ... ....... .St. Augustine ................ .... Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie ......... '. ... . Ft. Pierce . ........... ... .. .. ... Miss Bertha Hausman Santa Rosa ........... .John G. Hudson ...... Milton ....... . ...................... Miss Eleanor Barton Seminole .......... .. .... C. R. Dawson .. . ........ Sanford .. ... ............... Miss Josephine Boydston Sarasota ............... .. W. E. Evans ............ Sarasota .............................. , .............................. . Suwannee .............. .S. C. Kierce ... .. ....... .Live Oak. ........................... Miss Eunice Grady Taylor ................... . K. S. McMullen ...... Perry ............ .. ........................ Miss Floy Moses Union ..................... .L. T. Dyer ............... .Lake Butler .................. . ... . .................................. . Volusia ................. . . F. E. Baetzman ..... . DeLand ...... ..... ..... . ..... Mrs. Marguerite Norton Wakulla . . ... ... ......... N. J. Allbritton .. .... Crawfordville . ............... . .. . .. Mrs. Pearl Penuel Walton ................... Mitchell Wilkins . ... . DeFuniak Springs .......... Miss Eloise McGriff Washington ........... Henry Hudson ......... Chipley .... . .............................................. .. .......... . *This list correct to Decemter 31, 1935. ••Resigned effec tive December 31, 1935.

PAGE 7

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, In Charge ................................................ Gainesville H. G. Clayton, Chairman, State Cotton Allotment Board ................ Gainesville R. S. Dennis, In Charge Potato Adjustment Program .................... Gainesville J, Lee Smith, In Charge Peanut Adjustment Program .................... Gainesville W. J. Sheely, In Charge Corn-Hog Adjustment Program ................ Gainesville D. E. Timmons, In Charge Tobacco Adjustment Program ................ Gainesville E. Owen Blackwell, Executive Secretary ............................................ Gainesville C, A. Lyle, Assistant Clerk ................. , .................................................... Gainesville ASSISTANTS IN COTTON ADJUSTMENT COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Alachua ........................ , .............. Lamar Hatcher ...................................... Gainesville Columbia ..................................... Gussie Calhoun ........................................ Lake City Escambia ..................................... Bryan C. Gilmore .................................... Pensacola Hamilton ..................................... J. W. Mitchell.. ........ , ..................................... Jasper Holmes ......................................... Wm. L. Slay ................................................ Bonifay J ackson ........................................ R. C. Peacock. ........................................... Marianna Jefferson ........... : .......................... E. R, Nelson ............................................ Monticello Leon ............................................. A, C. Spiller .......................................... Tallahassee Madison ....................................... J. E. Donald ................................................ Madison Okaloosa ...................................... M. B. Miller .............................................. Crestview Santa Rosa ................................. T. K. McClane, Jr ........ : ................................. Milton Suwannee .................................... J. W. Tedder .............................................. Live Oak Walton ......................................... John G. Hentz .......................... DeFuniak S'prings NEGRO COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* COUNTY LOCAL COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua ....................................... F. E. Pinder ................................................ Alachua Columbia and Southern Suwannee .............. E. S. Belvin .............................................. Lake City Hamilton and Northern Suwannee ............. N. H. Bennett. ................................. White Springs J ackson ........................................ J. E. Granberry ...................................... Marianna Jeff erson ...................................... M. E. Groover ........................................ Monticello Leon ................................ , ............ Rolley Wyer, Jr ................................... Tallahassee Marion ......................................... W. B. Young .................................................... Ocala LOCAL HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS Alachua ....................... : ............... Mary Todd McKenzie .................................. Waldo Duval... .................... , ................... Ethel M. Powell .................................. J acksonville Gadsden ....................................... Diana H. Bouie ............................................ Quincy Hillsboro ...................................... Floy Britt ...................................................... Tampa Jefferson ..................................... .Lorena Shaw .......................................... Monticello Leon ............................................. Alice W. Poole ...................................... Tallahassee Madison .......... : ............................ Althea Ayer ................................................ Madison Marion .................................. , ...... Idella R. Kelley ............... , .......................... Reddick *This list correct to December 31. 1935.

PAGE 8

REPORT FOR 1935 PART I-GENER_;\L REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935, and a summary of the activities of the Service . for the calendar year 1935. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. During 1935 the Extension Service has been in a more conspicuous position than at any previous time in its existence. The agricultural adjustment program has interested practically every grower of basic agri cultural commodities in this state. The farmers have contacted the county agents' offices for many reasons and their interests have been centered in the Extension Service. The county agents' offices have been taxed to capacity . and the same urgent demands have been placed on the supervisory staff. This has meant more organization among farmers which has been extremely helpful in handling adjustment contracts. Since the program also required the appointment of committeemen to assist in adjustment work, it has given greater opportunity for Extension agents to select and work with the leaders of agriculture. The county agents' offices have each employed from 5 to 25 extra people. This, too, has increased the responsibilities and has required better office management. In Central and Southern Florida the Extension Service has not materi ally changed its program of horticulture, dairying, livestock, and poultry. These programs have occupied the greater part of the county agents' time, together with the addition of work that fits into resettlement pro grams, and in this the home demonstration agents have had the most active part. There has been a widespread interest in live-at-home programs. Under the direction of the Economics Section in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements as outlined by the AAA have been presented for consideration. They dealt with celery, straw berries, watermelons and citrus fruits. Of these, the celery and water melon marketing agreements have been successful. The strawberry marketing agreement failed to function. County and district agents have served counties and communities through their offices and have dis tributed information leading to the organization for marketing agreements. On account of large production of horticultural products in South Florida, marketing and finance problems stand out as most important from the farmer's standpoint. The county agents' offices have assisted farmers in securing loans for production purposes and have cooperated

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension with Farm Credit Administration in the organization and selection of committees and officers to handle loans. They have cooperated with Emergency Seed Loan Office, Columbia, South Carolina, and assisted small farmers in securing operating funds needed for seasonal crops. ASSISTANCE TO RURAL RESETTLEMENT The county and home agents have been active in assisting in resettle ment work. They have helped in drafting programs. In the selection of county supervisors, the Director of Rural Resettlement was sup'plied with names of available persons, most of whom have had agricultural college and home economics training. In the case of resettlement work with rural homes, the State Home Demonstration Agent was asked to select the original personnel appointed to serve. These agents were placed in practically every county and were known as "assistant home demonstration agents" for a limited time. Later, however, their status was changed and they were no longer respon sible to the home demonstration agents. ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT In the resettlement work, it was the plan that the county and home agents should serve on committees to pass on clients who made application to the Rural Resettlement Division for loans. The Economics Section of the Extension Service has sup'plied economic data needed in the agricultural adjustment program affecting Florida. Members of the Economic Section served with chairmen of Triple A pro grams. 4-H CLUB WORK The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped because of other pressing duties. In former times the district agents assisted with the organization of 4-H club work, but with added administra tive duties the responsibilities of club work were left to the 4-H supervisor. In addition, county agents were unable to give it the necessary attention. The county agents were able to secure some assistance from older club members, who, under their direction, could meet the clubs to keep the organization of 4-H clubs intact. Some of these assistants were paid from FERA funds. In counties throughout Central and South Florida, where the AAA program was not active, 4-H club work was not seriously dis rupted. 4-H Club Camps.-Two 4-H club camps have been established. In West Florida on Choctawhatchee Bay is the first one, which has accommodations for 250 persons. This has been reported previously. Improvements and enlargements are being made that add to the usefulness of the camp. Ex penditure of approximately $1,000 was made for reroofing, repairs and added equipment, and other improvements will be added. The camp was also used as a meeting place for farmers. Last year the Central Florida camp in the Ocala National Forest was in skeletal form, with bare facilities to accommodate the needs. Since then improvements have been added, mostly from donated funds and supplies. This camp is now equipped to accommodate 100 persons. The camp is located near a small lake and with sufficient grounds to provide recreation and sports. In handling these camps the Extension Service provides supervisors and instructors, in addition to specialists who contribute time and arrange programs appropriate to 4-H club members.

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1935 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 9 Home demonstration work has made substantial gains, with additional counties cooperating financially. As the rural needs became more con spicuous, rural women of Florida have made their appeal for home demon stration agents. Their programs have dealt largely with economics of the home and the organization of rural women for the betterment of the community and for the improvement of 4-H club work with girls. The home demonstration agents have contributed to resettlement work. A complete report of the State Home Demonstration Agent is submitted separately. ASSISTANCE IN SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK The Extension Service was called upon to assist in the control of the screw worm fly. This infestation reached Florida in 1933 and . has gradually spread until all counties with livestock are infested. To help control it Congress appropriated a sum of money to be used for educational work in infested states. The Florida Legislature made funds available to the Agricultural Extension Service for screw worm work. At the request of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the Agricultural Extension Service organized a State Screw Worm Committee. The membership consisted of the director of the Experiment Station, director of Extension; Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; State Veterinarian; Commissioner of Agriculture; and the President of the Florida State Live stock Association. This State Committee adopted the plans of the Bureau of Entomology. The work was then placed in charge of a director of screw worm activities who was assigned by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. The state program was merged with the federal pro gram, making one program for Florida, paid for from federal and state sources. This program provided for screw worm supervisors in all infested counties. The county agents' offices were made headquarters for sup ' plies and county information, and contacts with farmers were made through the Extension Service. LIVESTOCK PROGRAM Animal Husbandry.-The Animal Husbandry work continued in co operation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., until June 30, 1935, when the Bureau withdrew its support. The Agent worked with ' cattlemen in the improvement of their livestock, pastures and feeds. Various phases of the project are reported in detail by W. J. Sheely. The Extension Animal Husbandman acted as leader in the corn-hog adjustment program. He was also made the official Extension representa tive for the screw worm control program, particularly that part financed by state appropriation. Dairy Wark.-The dairy work and Animal Husbandry work are closely associated, particularly in matters of feeds and pastures. The Extension Dairyman has given constructive help to commercial dairies in matters of herd management and economies in feeding. Florida has had a dairy association functioning for several years and the Extension Dairyman has assisted in the wcirk of that organization, particularly in its interests as to the eradication of Bang's disease. The Bang's disease program supervised by the Bureau of Animal In dustry has been generally accepted by dairymen as a program in the right direction. The Extension Dairyman has given that program his loyal support and has encouraged county agents to give it the consideration needed to make it successful.

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Florida Cooperative Extension On July 1, 1935, the animal industry divisions of the University of Florida were organized under one division of the college. Dr. A . L. Shealy, head of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, was placed in charge of the divisions of Dairying, Animal Husbandry, and Poultry. This change has not materially affected the Extension program. POULTRY WORK In July the Extension Poultryman was assigned to additional duties in the supervision of research and teaching in the College of Agriculture. This . required employment of an assistant who began his duties in October 1935. Since a large part of the poultry of Florida is made up of commercial flocks, some of which are small, emphasis has been placed on the keeping of records and returns from small commercial and farm flocks. The Extension Poultryman has furnished the subject matter to county and home agents and has had the responsibility in poultry management affect~ ing The Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. The Farm Management Specialist has collected data on poultry management that county and home agents will use in their programs. CITRUS WORK The Economics Section has conducted a series of citrus cost studies. These studies are to be used as a basis for recommendations in fertiliza tion and grove management. The citrus industry represents the largest horticultural interest in this state and since the acreage has been gradually increased until a 30 to 40 million box crop is easily 'possible under normal weather conditions, growers must put various economies into effect or their groves will not be profitable. I'll addition, the Exten s ion Service program has been dealing with control of insects and diseases and general management practices. Special attention has been given economical irrigation on certain types of groves. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Agricultural Economics work is divided into marketing and farm man agement. The marketing phases have been almost suspended during the past year. In connection with the adjustment program, farm record books were given to farmers with the hope of getting more complete records as a basis for future agricultural programs. There has been special attention given to farm management in poultry work, conducted in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman. CHANGES IN STAFF The following changes in staff have taken place. Dr. A. L. Shealy, Head of the Department of Animal Husbandry in the Experiment Station, was placed in charge of all this work in the College of Agriculture, includ ing Extension animal husbandry, dairy husbandry, and poultry work. Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, has been assigned by the Board of Control as Head of Poultry, Division of Animal Husbandry, and has been given supervision of the teaching, research and Extension work in this line. D. F. Sowell was appointed as Assistant Extension Poultryman to do field work formerly handled by Mr. Mehrhof. R. S. Dennis, county agent of Taylor County, was temporarily trans ferred to position of Assistant District Agent to handle cotton contracts under the Triple-A program. This arrangement was discontinued June 30.

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Annual Report, 1935 11 However, he was reappointed at a later . date to supervise the Triple-A program with tobacco and potatoes and at that time received a permanent appointment as Assistant District Agent. Miss Mary E. Keown, who was granted leave of absence on July 1, 1934, was granted further leave until December 31 and her position was filled temporarily by appointment of Miss Anna Mae Sikes, the former Extension Nutritionist. This. also continued em'ployment of Mrs. Eva Culley, to fill the place vacated by Miss Sikes, the title being Acting Nutritionist. During the past year many changes have been made in the counties by transfer of agents from one county to another and additional persons being appointed. This brought a change in location by 30 percent of the county agents. On account of renewing activities in agriculture, additional counties have made cooperative arrangements for employment of county and home agents. NEGRO WORK In Negro work 15 counties have been served; eight of these by women and seven by men. Two counties contribute to the support of Negro home demonstration work. All other counties are supported by State and Federal funds. There have been practically no changes in the arrangement of the plans of Negro work, which work is confined largely to counties growing basic commodities. The Negro agents have not been required to take an active part in the adjustment program. Negro home demonstration work is supervised by the State Home Demonstration Agent; it also receives some supervision from the local District Agent for men's work. The usual emphasis has been placed on encouraging rural farmers to adopt better practices in handling livestock and farm crops and particularly farm management problems which involve balanced Agriculture, production, and soil improvement. Emphasis has been 'placed on home canning, gardening and poultry for the women's work. COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS The Extension Service has maintained close cooperation with all depart ments of the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station and Florida State College for Women. Other institutions have received and given cooperation. Among them are the State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State Forestry Service, the State Board of Health, the Rural Resettlement Administration, the State Plant Board, the State Department of Education, including vocational agriculture; in addition to county organizations, such as, the State Cattlemen's Asso ciation, the State Dairymen's Association, the State Poultry Association, the State Horticu _ ltural Society, and the State Fern Growers' Association. The Extension Service further cooperated with Florida Farm Debt Ad justment Commission. By appointment of the Governor of Florida, the Vice-Director and State Home Demonstration Agent were members of this commission. A report just issued by the commission indicates a scale down of ' $124,488.00 indebtedness on Florida farms and groves in the past two years. This involved 142 cases and amounted to $633,414.00. This compares favorably with reports from other states. SOURCES OF REVENUE The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue: (1), Funds sup'plied by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Agri

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension cultural Adjustment Administration; (2), Extension funds appropriated by the Florida Legislature, used in part to offset Federal appropriation; and ( 3), County appropriations. Offset funds required for Federal allotments have been appropriated in pa rt by the State Legislature, in part through county appropriations. STATE FINANCES The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal sources including Triple-A total $171,139.98, and from state sources $163,841.98; of these state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county boards. The Legislature of 1935 increased its annual appropriation in support of the work. FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1935 RESOURCES Federal Funds Smith-Lever and Supplemental ... $ 84,684.24 26,555.74 23,500.00 , xd~ftT~~!f t~~:e;~ti~~:::::::::::::: ::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: U.S.D.A .... .. .............. .................... . ........................................ . ....... . Bureau of Animal Industry .................. .. .............................. ... ...... . Agricultural Adjustment Administration ... .... .................. .. ...... . State Funds State appropriation including offset for Federal funds . .......... . Continuing Appropriation ................... . ......................................... . County Appropriations .................................. . .............................. . College Appropriations ............. . ................................. . ......... . ....... . EXPENDITURES Projects Administration .... ... ......... . .................... .. ........... . ..... ..... .......... ...... .. . Publications ............ .... ................. . ......... .......... .. . .......... . ......... . ....... . County Agent Work ....................................................................... . Boys' Clubs .. . .......... . ....... . ... .. ................... . ................................ . .... . Home Demonstration Work ....... ............... ..................................... . Food Conservation ............................................................ ; .............. . Nutrition .... ... .. . ................ ... .......... .. ..... ...... ...... .. ...................... . ........ . Horne Improvement .................. ..... ........ .. ........................................ . Dairy Husbandry ...................... ..... ........ .... ................................ '. ..... . Animal Husbandry .......... . .. . ....... ... ................. ... ............................. . Farm and Honie Makers (Negro work) ................. . ........... .. ...... . Citriculture ........................................... . ..................... .. ................. . Poultry Husbandry .. .................. ... ...... . ........................ ..... .. .. .. . ....... . Extension Schools . . . . ............... , .. .... ..... .. .. ..... ......... . ................... ....... . Agricultural Economics ................................................................. . Florida National Egg Laying Contest . . . ... . ............. . .. . ........ .. ..... . 4,000.00 2,400.00 30,000.00 68,546.00 5,000.00 86,715.98 3,580.00 $334,981.96 $ 8,752,79 10,211.39 145,262.13 7,001.04 96,861.57 3,349.81 3,580.00 3,907.50 5,138.80 4,533.19 22,672.20 4,589.27 4,052.39 1,114.21 8,063.06 5,892.61 $334,981.96

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Annual Report, 1935 STATISTICAL REPORT, MEN AND WOMEN GENERAL ACTIVITIES 13 Statistical Data from County and Home Demonstration Agents' Reports Days service rendered by county workers ..... . .... . ........... ... .......... . Days in office ................... . ................................... .. .. . ............. ... ........... . Days in field .. ... .. .. ............ . .. . ............ ... . ...... ........... .. ............ ......... ........ . Number people assisting Extension program voluntarily ....... . Clubs organized to carry on adult home demonstration work ... . l'vlembers in such clubs •........................................ . ................. . ............ 4-H Clubs ... ... ..... ............. .. ..... ............. . ............... ... ................ .. .......... . 4-H Club members enrolled ......... . ...... . .......... . . . .................. .. ......... . Different 4-H club members completing ...... .. ..... .... .... . ... ... .. . ........ . 4-H club teams trained .................................................................. . .. . Groups other than 4-H clubs organized for Extension work with rural young people 16 years of age and older ............... . Members in these groups ............ . . ..... . . ............. . .............. . ... . ......... . Farm or home visits made •....... ....... ..... . .. . ... .. .......... .......... . ....... ..... Different farms or homes visited . ... . . ... . . .. .. ........ ....... .. ..... ..... .. .. ... . Calls relating to Extension work . ..... . ........ ...... ............................ . News articles or stories published and circular letters ........... . Number individual letters written .......... ......... ............. ...... ......... . Bulletins distributed ........ . . . ........ . ... . . ....... ........ ... . . . . .............. .... ... . . . .. . Radio talks . .. .. . ... . .... . ............ ....... . ....... ... .. ... ..... . . ... ..... .. . . ........ . ........... . Extension exhibits shown ............ . ... .... .......... . .... . .. . .. . ........ . . .. .... . ...... . Training meetings held for local leaders .......... . . . ............ ..... ......... . (Attendance ................ . .......... . Method demonstration meetings held .. . ... . . ............. ...... . . ..... . ... ..... . ( Attendance ...... ..... . . . ... . ..... . ... . Meetings held at result demonstration .............................. ........ ... . (Attendance ........................... . Farm tours conducted ... .. .................................... . . . .............. . ... . ........ . (Attendance ................ . .......... . Achievement days held (Attendance ........................... . Encampments held (not including picnics, rallies, etc.) ........... . (Attendance ........................... . Other meetings (Attendance .. ........... ............ .. . CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted . . . . ............. . .. . .......... . Result demonstrations conducted .... ... .... . ...... ..... ..... . ... . .. . ..... .. ........ . Meetings held ... . .... .. . ......... .. ............................................................... . News stories published and circular letters . ... . ......................... : . Farm or home visits made .............. ... ................ .. ............................ . Office calls received ........ . ................ ... .. .. .............. .. .............. .. ........... . 4-H Club members , ... .... . .. ............... .... ........... .......... .... . ..... .. . ... ... . .... . . . 4-H Club members completing ... . .... .. .................. . . .. .. .... ... . ... . .. ..... .... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of cro'ps grown by 4-H club members completing Farmers following better practices recommended , ........... .. .......... . Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed ................. . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted . .. ................. . .......... . Result demonstrations conducted ... . .... .. ......... .. ................ . .. . .... . . ... . . Meetings held .. .... . ... . ...... . .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. . ...... . .. . .. .. .. .. ....... . ........ . .. : . . . .. .......... . News stories published and circular letters ............................... . Farm or home visits made ................ ... ........... .. . . ................. .. .......... . Number office calls received ........ . ... . : .............. . ... . ....... , .................. . 24,633 1,157.5 13,057.5 2,304 309 7,733 631 11,576 8,213 439 23 324 41,176 19,623 314,097 8,010 93,928 93,802 161 352 547 6,973 9,649 135,171 2,890 29,781 171 4,615 116 24,279 54 2,856 4,384 150,933 374 381 334 308 1,213 8,380 826 370 472 12,959 Bu. 6,887 1,336 661 688 438 390 1,638 19,507

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension 4-H Club members enrolled ..... . ....... ...... .................. ..... .. .. ... . ....... .... .. . 4-H Club members completing ... . ..... .............................................. . Yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing( Seed ........ . .. ...... ... ..................... . ...... . .. . (Forage ..... . . .. .................................... . Farmers following better practice recommendations ............... . Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed ......... .... .. . 242 114 58,589 Lb. 116.7 5,653 3,137 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Other Crops Cotton Communities in which work was conducted 483 217 Result demonstrations .............. .. . . .. ...... .. . .. . .. 219 53 Meetings held ..... ... ................ .. ... .. .. ....... : ..... .... 285 335 News stories published and circular letters written ........................ . .............. ... 326 Farm or home visits made ............... .. . .. .. . ... 1,632 Office calls received .................. . ...... ... . .... . ... . 9,707 4-H Club members enrolled ............ ............ 326 4-H Club members completing ....... ... . ..... .... 170 Acres in projects by 4-H club members completing ..................................... . .......... 113.5 Yields by 4-H club members completing .... 12,517 Bu. Farms following better practices ... . . . ........ 7,027 Farms for which adjustment contracts were signed .. ................. .. . . ...... ..... ... ..... .... 657 552 1,542 87,088 230 89 92 68,252 Lb. 9,366 10,703 Tobacco 87 14 54 135 374 9,649 4 3 3 3,308 Lb. 1,458 1,227 FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Communities in which work was conducted ........................... .... . Result demonstrations conducted ... .... .... . ......................................... . Meetings held ......................................... .... ...... . ........................... ... ..... . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ............. .. ...... . ......................................... . Office calls received ................ . .......... ..... ............................................ . 4-H Club members enrolled 4-H Club members completing ........... . ........................................... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Total yields of crops grown by 4-H club members completing Farms and homes adopting improved practices ........................... . FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Communities in which work was conducted .... ......... .................. . Result demonstrations conducted ................................................... . Meetings held ........ _. .............................................................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . FarIJl or home visits made ..... . ... . ......... . ... . ....................................... . Office calls received ................... ..... .. .. ..... . .... . .................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled 4:H Club members completing ..... ... ............. : ................................. . Farms on which new areas were reforested by planting with small trees . Acres reforested ............................ ... ........ .. .... ............................... .. . . . Farms adopting better forestry practices ...... . ................ ... ......... . Farms ado pting soil conservation practices ............................... . Acres involved ................ . ... .. ..... . . .. . . . ... ................................................ . Farmers adopting better machine practices ............................... . Number machines involved .......... ... ................................................ . Farmers adopting better buildings and equipment practices ... . Builqing and items of equipment involved ................................. . 2,023 9,335 3,613 1,356 11,366 27,972 8,669 5,609 . 1,604.5 44,961 Bu. 36,146 174 279 291 110 752 2,325 52 6 16 64 965 608 22,216 1,039 1,047 2,053 1,922

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Annual Report, 1935 POULTRY AND BEES Communities in which work was conducted ...... .. .. .. . . . .. ... .......... . . R e sult demonstrations conducted ... . . . . ...... . . . .. . . ..... .. .. . . . . .. . . . . ... . . ... . . .. . Me e tings held ..... . ............ . .•...... . .. . . . . . ........ . . . .. .. ....... ... .... . .... . .... . ........... N e ws stories published and circular letters issued .... .. . . . . ......... . Farm or home visits made ... . . . . . ... ...... .... ....... . . . .. ... .. ....... .. . . .. .. . . .. ..... . Office calls received . .. ... .. .... . ..... . ........ . .... ... .. . ....... ....... . . .... . . ... ... .. . .. . . . . . 4-H Club members enrolled .... .. . .. . .. ........ ...... ...... . . . . .. ......... ... ........... . 4-H Club meetings completing . ..... ...... ... .. ... ..... .. .. . .. .. .... . . ..... ........ . . . Number chickens raised . .. .. .. . . . . . . ... . . ....... ..... ... . ... ..... . .. ...... ... .. . . . .... . . .. . Number colonie s bees ... . ... ....... .. . ... ...... .. . ..... ...... . . .. ... . ........ .. .. .. . . ... . .. . . Families following improved practices in poultry raising ....... . Families following improved practices-bees ... ... . ... . . ..... .. . ..... . . . 542 1,287 1,105 416 2,315 9,864 1,626 987 38,841 203 8,882 534 15 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES Communities in which work was conducted . .. . . ... . ....... .. . .. . . ...... : .. R e sult demonstrations conducted . . .. .... . . ... .. . ..... ... .. .. ..... . .... . . . .......... . Meetings held ..... ... .......... . . . ........... .. . . . . ......... .. ............ .. .......... . .. . . . ........ . News stories published and circular letters issued ....... . .. . ......... . . Farm or home visits made ... . ... .. . . ................. .. .... . ... .. ..... . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . Office calls received .... ....... . .. . . ... ..... ..... .. . ......... ... ... . .. ...... . .... . . ... . .. .. .... . 4 H Club members enrolled .... . ... .. ......... . .. . ......... . . .. . . ....... . . ... .. . ....... . . 4-H Club members com ' pleting . . .. . .......... .. ........ .. .. . . . ...... . .. .. ......... .. . . Animals in projects conducted by 4-H club members completing Farmers obtaining better breeding stock .... .. .... . ............... . .... .. .. . . . Farmers using other improved livestock practices ..... .. ............ . Number of farms for which adjustment contracts were signed AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Communities in which work was conducted . .. ............ . .......... . .... . Result demonstrations conducted . . ... . . . . . ... ... . . ..... . . . .. . . . ......... . . ... .... . . . Meetings held ..... .. .. .. ....... . .. .. .. . ....... .... ....... . . ... . .. ..... . ...... . ....... . . . . . ....... . .. . News stories published and circular letters issued ...... . ........... . . Home or farm visits made . .......... .. ........ . . . . . ........ ... ........... . . . .......... . . . Office calls received .. .. . . .. . . . . .... . .. .. .. . .. . ... . . . . .... ........... .. ... ... ... . .. ..... . . .. . .. . 4-H Club members enrolled ... . ..... .. ......... . . ... ...... . . . ........... . ... . .......... . . 4-H Club members completing .............. .. ............ . ........... . . . ............ . Farmers keeping account and cost records .... . . . ........ . .. . . . ......... ... . Farmers assisted in summarizing their accounts . . ... . . .. . .. ..... . ... . . . Farmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments . ........ . . . Farm credit associations assisted in organizing during year Farmers making business changes resulting from economic 1,014 1,137 . 1,317 687 10,168 30,106 997 501 1,117 1,467 21,962 1,336 1,096 1,194 885 474 3,503 16,932 935 747 3,417 575 7,552 101 surveys . . ......... ..... . . .. . .. .... ~...... . ... .. .... . .. .. . ... . .. . ..... ... . ... . ... .. .. . .... .. . . .. . . . .. 8,586 Families assisted in getting established .. ......... . .. . ........... .. . . .......... 2,762 Marketing groups organiz e d or assisted ...... ...... . ............ . ............ .. 70 Individuals affected by marketing program . . . .. .. ..... ... . .. . ......... . ... 9,570 Organization s assisted with problems . ..... ...... . ... .. ....... . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. ... 2 3 5 Individuals assisted with problems ...... . ... . ....... ...... ........ ... ........... . . 7,361 Value of products sold by all groups organized or assisted .... .. $3,629,224.08 Value of products sold by individuals (not in organizations) .. . . 2,509,560.70 Value of supplies purchased-all associations ... . . ..... . . . . .... . .. .... .. . 992,188.31 Value of supplies purchased by individuals .... . . .. ............ . ............. 1,076,394.10 FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted ... . ............... . ..... , .... . . Result demonstrations conducted ........ . . . .. . ...... .. . . .. . . . . . . .. ............. .. .. . Meetings held . .. . ....... .. . . ... . .. . . . .... . . ... ... ..... . ... ..... . . ... . . . : . .. . ..... ..... .... ... . .. ... .. . News stories published and circular letters issued ..... . ... . ......... . Farm or home visits made ..... . ... .. .............. . ......... . . . ........................ . . Office calls received .... ... . .. .......... ..... . . .... . . ..... . .. ... .... ... . .... .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . . . . 4 H Club members enrolled . .... ... .. . ..... .. . . . . . ... . .. .... . .. ... . . . ........ .. . .. .. . .. . . 926 6,913 4,239 852 3,861 8,768 7,943

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16 Florjda Cooperative Extension 4-H Club members completing .. ...... .... . .. . ....... .. ......... , .......... . .. ....... . Containers of food prepared and saved by 4-H club members Families adopting better practices as to foods ........................... . Schools following recommendations for school lunch ............... . Children in schools following lunch recommendations ......... , ... . Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H clubs ........... . Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved ... . .... ...... . Families readjusting family food su ' pply ................................... . 5,842 189,811 28,760 64 14,894 1,863,704 $405,479.70 3,737 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Result demonstrations conducted ................................................... . Meetings held ..................................... . ................................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ............. . ..... . ... ... ............. . ....... . ........ . ...... . Office calls received ~ 4-H Club members enrolled ............. . ................... ... .............. . ............ . 4-H Club members completing .... . .. . .................................... . .......... . Additional 4-H club members participating ................... .. .......... . Families following child development plans .... . ............ .. .......... . Different individuals participatingin child-development program ..... . .................................. . .................. . .............................. . Children involved in child-development program ......... . .. .. ......... . CLOTHING Communities in which work was conducted .. .. . .......................... . Result demonstrations conducted . .. ................................... . ............ . Meetings held .. . ................................................. ................................. . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ................................. .. ............. ... . .. ......... . Office calls received ........................................................................... . 4-H Club members enrolled ....... .. ................. . .................... . ........... . 4-H . Club members completing .... . . .. .................. . ............. .... ........... . Articles made by 4-H club members completing ....................... . Individuals following better clothing practices .......... . .... .. .... . ..... . Families assisted in determining how best to meet clothing requirements ................ .. ..........•..................... .. .................. ... ........... Savings due to clothing program .. . ................................ ..... ........... . 121 315 161 43 265 451 525 476 621 2,973 2,252 17,377 486 2,045 2,394 318 1,038 2,668 . 6,970 5,382 39,648 29,313 2,246 $25,550.47 HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS Communities in which work was conducted . .. ............... . . ... ......... 838 Result demonstrations conducted . ... ............... ....... .......................... 5,073 Meetings held ................... . .................................... .. ................. .. ........... 1,979 News stories published and circular letters issued .......... ... ......... 352 Farm or home visits made ....... . ..... . ... . ..... ... ...... . ................... . ........... 1,682 Office calls received ..... . ......................... . ........ . ...................... . ............ 2,687 4-H Club members enrolled ........... . , ....... ,........ . .............................. 3,504 4-H Club members completing ..... ... ................................... . ............ 2,407 Projects conducted by 4-H club members completing ................ 16,060 Families following . better home-management practices .......... . . 13,151 Estimated savings due to home-management program .. .......... . $25,811.00 Families improving household furnishing ........................ . ........... 9,264 Savings due to house-furnishings program ................... . ........ $27,897.50 Families following handicraft practices ......... .... .............. .. ........... 7,709 HO;ME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work . was conducted .................... . .......... . Result demonstrations conducted ... . .................. .... ............. ... ......... . Meetings held ....... . ............. .. .. , ........... . . . ................ .. .................. . .......... . News stories published and circular letters issued ............ . ...... . ~ffit ~11rir:::cci~!~s . . :::::::~:::::: ::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 392 1,415 785 152 994 1,552

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Annual Report, 1935 4-H Club members enrolled ............................................................. . 4-H Club members completing ....................................................... . Additional 4-H club members 'participating ....... , ......................... . Individuals having health examination ....................................... . Individuals adopting health measures ........................................... . Families adopting health measures ............................................... . 4,130 3,322 2,221 3,733 13,210 3,063 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Communities in which work was conducted ............................... . Voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting ................... . Days of assistance rendered by voluntary leaders or committeemen ................................................................................. . Meetings held ................ ..................................................................... . News stories published and circular letters issued ................... . Farm or home visits made ............................................................. . Office calls received ......................................................................... . Communities assisted with community problems ....................... . Country life conferences ................................................................... . Families following recommendations as to home recreation ... . 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities ............................... . Families aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other relief agency ................................................................................... . 641 591 1,190 918 1,057 2,968 4,124 952 85 1,116 206 2,389 17

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension PUBLICATIONS, NEWS, RADIO J. Francis Cooper, Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor Clyde Beale, Assistant Editor Agricultural Adjustment activities continued to occupy a good part of the time of the .three Editors during 1935. Most of the news and informa tional material about programs with basic crops, marketing agreements, and compulsory control features was handled through this office, generous cooperation being received from Washington. The Editor made one trip to Atlanta to become better acquainted with the corn-hog program, and later spent two weeks in the office of the Re gional Contact Section, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Washing ton. There a study was made of the various AAA programs which related to Florida, and of methods of disseminating information. Considerable in formational material was assembled there for use on returning to Florida. The Editor attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Agricultural College Editors, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., in August, and participated in its program. Bulletins and supplies were distributed from the Mailing Room, and this work was extremely heavy during the year, since there is a great demand for supplies by the county and home demonstration agents during times of emergencies. The three editors and three mailing clerks devoted about one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service and the other half to duties of the Ex'periment Station. PUBLICATIONS Bulletin printing was rather heavy during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935. Four new bulletins were printed and three old ones were re printed, for a total of 244 pages and 217,000 copies. In addition, 2,500 copies of a 32-page outlook report were printed and distributed, two cir cu ars amounted to 24 pages and 25,000 copies, and numerous record books and other supplies were printed. Following is a list of material 'printed during the year: Pages Bui. 77. Houses and Equipment for Poultry in Florida ............ 40 Bui. 78. Rose Growing in Florida .................................................. 28 Bui. 79. Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets ............................ 48 Bui. 80. The Home Garden ............................................... , .............. 16 Bui. 64. Save the Surplus (Reprint) ........................................... 52 Bui. 70. The Goodly Guava (Reprint) .......................................... 32 Bui. 75. Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits (Reprint) ................ 28 Circ. 36. Saving the Sweet Potato Crop: ............ ,........................ 4 Circ. 37. School Lunches .................................................................. 20 Misc. Pub. 5. Florida Agricultural Outlook for 1935 ..... , .......... 32 Misc. Pub. 6. 4-H Crop Club Record Book ................................ 12 Misc. Pub. 1. Citrus Grove Record Book (Reprint) ................. . Misc. Pub. 2. Record Book for Commercial Poultry Flocks (Reprint) ........................................................................................ . 1935 Extension Calendar ................. , ......... ....................................... 12 Rules, 10th Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ..................... . Weekly Agricultural News Service ( 42 issues)*.......................... 1 Monthly report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.............. 4 Farm Radio Programs (monthly).................................................... 4 Edition 12,000 10,000 15,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 15,000 2,500 7,500 500 500 10,000 2,000 33,600 800 30,000 * Ten issues of 800 copies each were paid for by the State Plant Board.

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Annual Report, 1935 19 The biennial report of the Agricultural Extension Service to the State Board of Control, incorporated and printed in the University of Florida report, was edited in this office. Then, too, the Annual Report for 1934, 104 pages and cover, was edited and printed. Monthly report of the Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley was prepared and mailed there, by the Su'pervisor. NEWS SERVICE Naturally, the agricultural adjustment work being done in Florida in 1935 was the subject of considerable news material distributed by the. Extension Editors. This news was placed before the public in simple, understandable news terms, and "propaganda" was avoided. Much of the material relating to AAA released through this office was supplied by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches of the United States Department of Agriculture, while much other material was based entirely on local activities. The Agricultural News Service continued to be the medium for dis tributing news stories to weekly papers, and to a certain extent to dailies and farm papers. This is a clipsheet issued each week in the year, and the material it contains is widely clip'ped and used by Florida papers. It contained from 8 to 11 or 12 separate stories in each of the 52 issues, and most of them related to the Extension Service. Some, however, were about the work of the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the State Plant Board, and other institutions. Service to the dailies was supplied in the . form of special stories to one or more papers, mimeographed stories for general distribution, and releases through the Associated Press, both wire and mail service. Farming ques tions and answers, supplied by this office, were printed each Sunday by one large daily paper. Occasional mats were su pplied both dailies and weeklies. Special articles written by members of the staff were printed in large number by five general farm and specialized citrus and poultry publications in Florida. Majority of these articles were handled by the Extension Editors and forwarded to the papers. Others were sent direct by staff members. The Editors themselves prepared 46 different articles for four Florida farm papers during the year. These, when published, amounted to 1,160 column inches. The farm and grove section of 35 Florida news ' papers is here classed as a farm paper and included in this list. In addition, nine articles, amounting to 80 column inches, prepared by the Editors were printed in two Southern farm journals and three articles, 14 column inches, in three national farm: publications. RADIO SERVICE The special service of farm flashes, supplied by this office in cooperation with the Radio Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, was expanded during the year with the addition of one more station. For the first nine months of the year these farm flashes, each about seven minutes in length, were broadcast five days a week by four Florida radio stations; for the last three months, by five stations; and occasionally, aver aging about once a week, throughout the year by another station. Records show that for the 261 broadcasting days this year, 339 separate flashes were sent. Of these, 146 were pre'pared by the USDA and 193 locally. In many cases two separate . flashes were prepared for the same day, to get material adapted to both North Florida and South Florida. In other cases, where material was suitable, it was used on all stations. These farm flash programs now cover the entire State of Florida, being used regularly over radio stations in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville,

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension Orlando, and Miami, and occasionally over one in St. Petersburg. County agents cooperate in checking the copy and furnish some material for most of them. The Florida Farm Hour programs were continued over WRUF, going on the air every week day in the year. These come from 12 to 1 p. m., and consist of music, weather reports, special talks by staff members and others, market reports, and other features. The program is arranged and su'per vised by the Editors, and they wrote 23 of the 513 prepared talks given during the year. The feature, farm news highlights, given daily, and prepared by the Editors, attracted widespread attention and much favorable comment during the year. Each day the principal items, both national and state, of interest to farmers were summarized and presented as a feature of the Florida Farm Hour. In addition to the 513 special talks and the farm news highlights, farm questions and answers were read each Tuesday, USDA farm flashes were presented about twice a week, and weekly news items (largely from the Agricultural News Service) every Saturday. The special talks were pre pared, and often delivered, by staff members of the Extension Service, Ex periment Station, College of Agriculture, and others. Livestock market reports and weather reports were given daily. Towards the end of the year both of these were expanded by the addition of poultry and vegetable market reports and the frost forecasting service for citrus and truck crops. The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the National 4-H Club Achievement Day broadcast on November 2. This was a 1-hour program over all NBC stations, the first and last 15-minute periods being supplied by the Washington office and the NBC chain, and programs featuring club boys and girls and leaders were staged over each one. Printed programs for the Florida Farm Hour, with hints about the flashes used on other stations, were distributed each month, except July and August. MISCELLANEOUS Students in the College of Agriculture were aided in editing and pub lishing the first issue of T.he Florida College Farmer, which was revived during the 1935-36 school. year after a lapse of two years. Courses in news writing were given to home demonstration women and girls in two different counties. Representatives from each club in the county assembled in the home demonstration office for the course, which required two days in one county and one day in the other. Home demon stration news reports following this training were noticeably improved. University of Florida Week was observed throughout Florida November 10-16, 1935. Theme for the weekdesignated by the directors of the Uni versity of Florida Alumni Association was "The University's Contribution to Agriculture, Livestock and Forestry." A brochure outlining the principal of these contributions was prepared by the Extension Editors. and used as a basis for talks before 50 civic clubs throughout the state. The Editor spoke before one club during the week. A talk on news writing and publicity was made to the home demonstra tion agents at their annual conference. Another talk on agricultural news was presented before the State Press Association at its annual gathering.

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Annual Report, 1935 PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader H. G. Clayton, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent 21 The number of counties cooperating in the em'ployment of county agents during 1935 has increased from 44 to 49. All new appointees are graduates of the University of Florida College of Agriculture. The positions were filled in some cases by transfers, whi'ch resulted in a . larger number of counties having new agents than at any time previously. Interest in Extension work in the counties has been stimulated by the AAA program in the area of Florida growing basic crops. The county agents have acted as representatives of the Secretary of Agriculture and the State College of Agriculture in handling farmers' contracts under the AAA. . REGION AL PROBLEMS The State is divided into regions from the standpoint of crop production. Region 1 consists of the counties lying in North and West Florida, Region 2 those counties lying in Northeast Florida and the East Coast, and Region 3 those lying in Central and Southwest Florida. There are many problems in common. However, the difference in type of agriculture in the three sections makes it advisable to modify the programs to suit each of the sections. On account of better 'prices received for farm produce on the whole, farmers of this state have had a more successful year in 1935 than in any other year since 1929. Prices for practically all commodities have greatly increased from that period. While operating expenses have also increased, net returns have given the farmers a larger income and therefore increased buying power. This is reflected in general prosperity and improved con ditions now found iII practically all sections. EDUCATIONAL MEETINGS Educational meetings were used generally for conducting Extension work throughout the state. On account of the limited time the county agent could give to individual farmers, it was apparent that collective groups could profit by discussions dealing with farm problems. This expedited signing of contracts and handling the usual Extension programs in the counties. Meetings and farm tours were arranged by county agents and help was supplied from the State office. THE SCREW WORM SITUATION During 1934 the screw worm infestation was general in North . Florida counties. This pest spread into practically all counties in 1935. An ap propriation by Congress was made available for the work in Florida and the work was directed by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. A state appropriation was made also. A state Screw Worm Control Board was appointed, which board authorized the expenditure of state funds . to be handled in accordance with the plans of the Federal Bureau.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension Screw worm control supervisors were placed throughout the livestock sections of the state. These supervisors worked in-cooperation with the county agents and .with the livestock people . Educational work in 1935 has served to develop proper treatment and methods against screw fly injury , but more especially for better management of livestock. There has been close cooperation in handling this screw worm project. SOIL IMPROVEMENT There has been a soil conservation and improvement program which involves soil-building crops and the construction of terraces on many farms in West Florida. Drainage and terracing, while not major problems, have their place in most of the agriculture of the general farming area, where primary crops are cotton and tobacco. Austrian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria were used in demonstrations, which were conducted mainly for soil improvement pur poses, but also to determine the adaptability of these cro ps to types of soils in which they were planted. These demonstrations followed recom mendations of research workers of the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture. Since the value of these soil improving crops depends to a large extent on the use made of the land afterwards, that, too, was a consideration in recommending their use to farmers. Studies have shown that production costs with winter legumes are higher than with summer legumes. In fact, the practice of growing winter legumes is much less practical in some sections than in others and _ while the yields have been improved for the following crops in some cases, the expenses have not been actually justified . In any case, where soil improve ment practices cost $5 per acre or more and increase the yield of corn not more than 10 bushels, the practice could hardly be justified from one season's returns. Summer legumes, principally crotalaria, cowpeas, and velvet beans grow more readily and with less cost, and are therefore more generally used than winter legumes. Crotalaria has become an important crop in Florida, due partly to the ease with which it is produced and its habit of reseeding. This crop, most varieties of which cannot be used for stock feeding, is not looked upon with as much favor by livestock people as crops that are adapted to livestock feeding. However, the large tonnage produced makes it a soil improving crop that can be recommended in most sections of the state. Following these leguminous crops, yields of field crops increased from 10-20% and in some instances were even much higher. The saving of crotalaria seed has yielded considerable returns to many farmers in the cotton growing area. However, during the past year, the demand for seed was limited and a relatively small amount was gathered, but the large amounts left on the land will provide for a good stand for the 1936 crop. Velvet bean crops for the most part were interplanted with corn and grazed off during winter months by cattle. A relatively small amount of seed was gathered for seed purposes. CEREALS Demonstrations with small grains, 'principally oats and rye, were mainly for winter pasture purposes. However, many farmers produced a small acreage to provide for hay and green feed during spring months, particu larly for their mules. In the West Florida area much attention was directed

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Annual Report, 1985 23 to the experiments carried on at the Florida Experiment Station branch at Quincy. The season was favorable and the crop yielded relatively well. The growing of these cereals, however, is limited to a relatively small acreage, but is encouraged by county agents, particularly for feeding pur. poses. For the most part there was a relatively small amount of fertilizer used, although some farmers give their crops a top-dressing of nitrate of soda and this produced in all cases a larger yield because of the fertilizer application. Demonstrations with corn were carried on in the usual way. The practice of corn planting being fairly well established, it was largely a matter of varieties and cultivation. Recommendations on varieties were submitted by the Florida Experiment Station and for the most part What ley's Prolific was recommended, being generally well adapted to the area. However, in Central and South Florida other varieties, depending on time of planting and type of soil, were used. Corn in the southern part of the !;tate is grown as a cash crop and in some cases sold as a vegetable crop. It occu ' pies a relatively small place in the production of crops in South Florida and, even though yields are relatively high in some instances, it is comparatively unimportant as a commercial crop in most of the area. FIELD CROPS On account of the agricultural adjustment program, there were some what fewer demonstrations of the ordinary type with cotton and tobacco . These being basic crops in the North Florida area, the adjustment program was the only consideration in which farmers were interested. However, the adjustment program made it possible to emphasize the necessity of good cultural and fertilizer practices. On account of reduced acreage it was desirable that farmers produce as large tonnage as possible on the land they cultivated. The reduced acreage, therefore, caused better cul tural methods than usual, particularly on the better farms. About the only tobacco demonstrations were in the seedbeds. These were sprayed in order to have strong, vigorous plants free of disease, ready to set by March 1. FEED AND PASTURE CROPS Reports from the Extensio n Dairyman and the Beef Cattle Specialist place considerable emphasis on the growing of feeds and pastures. Pastures in particular have been important, especially to dairymen, due to the increased price of grains that must be bought for the dairies near larger cities. Some dairymen in the larger cities have purchased additional lands and have seeded them to carpet grass. Some have used a small amount of fertilizer, and have mowed the pastures to keep down weeds. This practice has given a decidedly improved pasture and has made it possible for the dairymen to raise a larger part of their feed, thereby lowering the cost of producing milk. In Duval County the agent secured a supply of Italian rye grass seed for several dairymen and this was broadcast over the pastures and served to supplement the winter forages available. While these pastures are temporary, they have served a good purpose in producing green feed through the winter months at a considerable saving in costs to the dairymen. The production of pastures for beef cattle also has been an important part of the work in 1935. Since beef cattle on pasture have received prac tically no grain, the improvement of the pastures is considered a major item in the county agents' program, particularly in those counties where large areas of grazing lands are under fence.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension SILAGE CROPS Definite progress has been made in providing silage crops for both dairy and beef cattle. For a number of years the number of silos in the state of Florida has been gradually increasing. In recent years with cheaper types of silos, the number of these feed preservers has grown rapidly. During 1935 dairymen and beef cattle raisers have constructed surface or underground silos with capacity from 50 to 200 tons. Crops used for silage are sorghum, Napier grass, corn, and sugarcane. These have provided large quantities of cheap feed and have served as excellent demonstrations as means of reducing feed costs, particularly for beef and dairy cattle. Some varieties of sugarcane have been used as soiling crops and give promise of greater development for better livestock. These varieties yield from 10 to 20 tons 'per acre on good soils. By storing it cheaply, it provides an excellent silage crop. LIVESTOCK BEEF CATTLE Improved prices of livestock have resulted in the purchase of purebred breeding stock in car-lots from areas outside of Florida and the livestock breeders of Florida had a good sale for their breeding stock. The improve me . nt of pastures has gone hand in hand with this and those farmers who own the larger areas and have been financially able to fence them have ex pressed an interest in the improvement of the stock and the range. The range men have gradually improved their cattle for several years with the result that some additional markets have been opened up. In central Florida, in particular, county agents have been particularly . active with range cattle work. They have accompanied the owners into Texas and other livestock producing areas for the , purpose of getting breeding stock by the carload. These demonstrations have been productive of much improvement. This has culminated in two important livestock exhibits, one held at the South Florida Fair and a second at the Florida Fat Stock Show and sale in Jack sonville. At both places unusually good prices were 'paid for these finished animals and they are in demand by the buyers. DAIRYING Report of the Dairy Specialist indicates the interest among dairy farmers and particularly those engaged in commercial dairying. The problems of dairying are principally those of feeds and improvement of the dairy ani mals for production purposes. Through the home demonstration agents special attention has been given to the use of dairy products on the farm and considerable interest has been taken in better farm dairy cattle. The big 'problem, however, is the cost of production in commercial areas. Special attention has been given to the improvement of pastures and larger ranges, particularly in the areas near larger cities. Due to the higher cost of feed in 1935, dairymen were compelled to reduce their feed costs, and better pastures and the construction of pit silos have added much to improvement . of feeding practices. In connection with these dairies, there has always been a problem of para s ites with young animals. Formerly it was not the practice of dairy men to raise calves to supply their future 'producers, but on account of difficulty in securing animalsof quality, many dairymen are now giving special attention to the raising of their own stock. The management of herds to control parasites has been one of the big problems in the past.

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Annual R eport, 1935 25 This means crop rotation and les s permanent pastures for young livestock a nd feeding methods that will prevent infestation of parasites, particularly for the first six months of a calf's life. One additional outstanding problem ha s been the eradication of tuber culosis and Bang 's . disease. Tuberculosis eradication ha s been conducted in a systematic way until a lar ge part of the h er d s hav e been practically freed of this disease. Th e Extension dairyman and co unty agents have accompanied dairymen to other sections of the country to secure producing animals that are needed for the increased wi nter trade prevalent in Florida. HOGS Due to the agricultural adjustment program, it was not desirable at the beginning of the season to encourage production of a larger number of hog s on farms, but because Florida is a meat deficiency area it gave opportunity to produce lar ger hogs. Conseq u ently, even with the agri c1,1 ltural adjustment program, s hipment s of hogs from Florida res ulting from 1935 production have been larger than in previous years, due prin cipally to the better prices and to heavier animals being marketed. With low prices for hogs since 1932, good breeding stock has been difficult to secure. H owever, those few breeders who have had good breeding stock hav e found a ready sale for the animals. At the end of the season with hog s selling at above average price, there is increased interest in ho gs and many farmers are returning to hogs as their main money crop, par ticularly in that area where peanuts and corn are principal grain crops. The agricultural adjustment program has stimu l ated impro vement in quality and demonstrations with farmers hav e been built around t h e prob l em of bett er quality together wi t h cheaper feeds. Fig. 1. Demonstrations in cutting and curing pork aided Florida farmers in sav ing a larger and more satisfactory home meat supply during 1935. During the period of low priced pork, interest was cente red around home curing and this program got well underway and und er t he direction of the Animal Husbandman , demonstrations in butchering, cutting and curing method s were given. Also, cold sto rage has been made available to most areas. Help has been given by the United States Department of

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension Agriculture and a much larger supply of home cured meat of better quality has been placed in the farm homes since the beginning of this program. County agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog cholera. In increasing number, agents have cooperated with the Live Stock Sanitary Board in the treatment of hog cholera and in control of other hog diseases. Special attention has been given to parasite control with hogs and cattle. This has been a program of unusual importance, since farmers are fin:iing it necessary to rotate pastures in order to hold the parasites of livestock in check. GOVERNMENT CATTLE TO 4-H CLUB MEMBERS The Government purchases froni the drought area of the West in 1934 brought to this state about 90,000 cattle. Practically all of these were slaughtered and canned in cooperation with the Commodity Division, FERA. A number of these better animals were held over to determine their adaptability to Florida conditions. These were finally closed out at the end of the year and 50 animals consigned for 4-H club work. These were animals two years old and over and were placed in counties where there were facilities for taking care of them. Results of this demonstration cannot be determined until one or two calf crops are produced. The animals were given normal or average care and since they were of better than average breeding, it will be of interest to know their progress the next five years. They were turned over free o.f all costs and placed with representative 4-H club boys who were in position to feed and care for them properly. CITRUS FRUITS On account of the adjustment program District Agents turned over p~actically all of their supervisory citrus program to the Citriculturist. A unified citrus program was planned and approved by the Extension Service and research workers of the Experiment Station and centered around the economical production of improved quality of fruit and around irrigation. On account of a freeze in 1934, many groves in the state were severely injured, resulting in dead wood which caused an unusual infestation of melanose. This required a spraying program, particularly for melanos3, and also a fertilization program to help restore these injured groves to good productive condition. The Citriculturist gave special attention to these two problems and his recommendations to the county agents ems phasized the necessity of bringing these groves back to normal bearing at limited cost. Because of these special treatments and a favorable season, the groves have made remarkable recovery. Special attention was given to irrigation by the Citriculturist in groves where irrigation is possible at relatively low cost. The control of insects and diseases has been carried out by county agents in cooperation with other research workers in the field of horticultural work in the central part of Florida. VEGETABLES The work with vegetables comes under two divisions: First, commercial . crops and, second, home gardens. The commercial crop area has had the usual problems of marketing, fertilization and disease and insect control. Demonstrations in these commercial crops are more difficult to handle than in most other crops, since earliness is of importance as compared with even the cost of production. However, special attention has been given to organic materials in fertilization and the content of fertilizer in respect

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Annual Report, 1935 27 to nitrogen. Cover crops, such as native grasses and crotalaria, have been a part of the program. There were demonstrations in the use of new insecticides and fungicides as recommended by the Florida Experiment Station. County agents in all sections of the state have had as a part of their program the home garden. This has added considerable to the food supply. In this, the county and home demonstration agents have cooperated and both have cooperated with employees of the Rehabilitation Service who were assisting the relief families with the cooperation of the county and home agents. AGRICULTURAL LOANS The Farm Credit Administration, through its various branches, is be coming well established throughout this state and it is the policy of the Extension Service to cooperate with them to the fullest extent. Farmers have been assisted in making the greatest use of these agencies. The Production Credit Associations have functioned in each case with the co operation of the county agents in the respective districts. The Federal Land Banks, while longer established, have invited the Extension Service to cooperate in their program. The greatest service with agricultural loans has been with emergency crop loans. In this the county agents have received applications from farmers and transmitted them to the dis trict offices. OUTLOOK INFORMATION An outlook report is published annually and placed in the hands of county agents as a part of their program. This report is under the super vision of H. G. Clayton and is brought up to date with the assistance of the specialists in charge of the various divisions of the Extension Service. To get this outlook information to the farmers, District Agents and Specialists have conducted outlook meetings to interest the farmers as a guide for their production in 1936. EXHIBITS County agents of South Florida supervised many exhibits at the South Florida Fair. These exhibits attracted national attention because of the superior quality and attractive designs. While these are aside, in some respects,from the Extension program, they have become a contribution by the Extension Service, due to the requests of the County Boards who cooperate. Other exhibits of lesser extent have been displayed at smaller fairs and in addition to this there have been numerous exhibits put on by persons who cooperate with the Extension agents. These have been useful in displaying products of 4-H clubs and have served a useful purpose as demonstration activities. COOPERATION BY STATE AND COUNTIES The financial statement shows an increase in state funds for Extension work over the amount allotted in 1934. County appropriations have slightly increased and there has been a greater increase in the number of counties appropriating than in any other period in the history of Extension work. This makes it possible to carry through 1936 a larger number of county and home agents and the situation in this respect is decidedly better than for several years past. County Boards in most cases have appropriated the maximum amount permitted by law and in most instances have cooperated in other cases to improve the service by furnishing office equipment and clerical help.

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM The Agricultural Extension Service was assigned the responsibility for the direction and supervision of 'production adjustment programs. These programs affected, for the most part, the general farming area. The only exceptions were corn and hog contracts in a few of the Central and South Florida counties. This, however, was a minor part of the program. The following persons were assigned the supervision of commodity programs: Cotton-State Board of Review, Chairman, H. G. Clayton. Peanuts-Supervisor of Contracts, J. Lee Smith, District Agent. Tobacco-Supervisor of Contracts, D. E. Timmons. Corn-Hogs-Supervisor of Program, W. J. Sheely. Compliance Supervisor of all commodities-J. Lee Smith. This 'program required that county and community committees handle work in the respective counties. This was done by the appointment of three county committeemen and with as many community committeemen as were necessary, depending on the number of farmers and contract sign ers in the county. These community committeemen were selected by the respective associations that were designated by the Secretary of Agriculture to handle programs. They served in administering the contracts in the counties and worked under the supervision of the county agent, whose office was made headquarters for the program. Meetings were called by him when matters of importance were to be considered. The county agents are, therefore, the key-men in the county programs, handling all com modities. The county agents' offices were supplied with office equipment and with sufficient clerical assistance to handle contracts. They required from two to 10 additional persons in each county during 'period of greatest activity. Filing systems were set up where the records were kept intact and where data could be obtained regarding each program. The county agent's office was also made the disbursing office for checks that were received by them for distribution in the county. The compensation for extra services was paid by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Committeemen received $3.00 per day and clerical assistance received from $2.50 to $4.00 per day, depending on the type of clerical work to be performed. All instructions were submitted from the Central Office at Gainesville to the county agent and forms supplied from Washington were transmitted through the Gainesville office to the county headquarters. In all programs exce pt corn-hog, the expenses were borne directly by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. However, in the corn-hog program the ex penses were deducted from the benefit payments to farmers and this required a county budget and receipts for expenditures submitted before the farmers received their benefit payments from the corn-hog reduction program. All county certificates for services were certified in the Gaines ville office and checks were issued from the Adjustment Administration, Washington, D. C., to the Gainesville office for distribution throughout the state. The potato adjustment program affected some 40 Florida counties for a short while near the end of 1935. An allotment of tax-free potatoes coul<' be sold in Florida and for this . exemption stamps were issued. The stah allotment was prorated to counties and each county allotment was broken down into producers' allotments. This 'program was underway with almost a complete sign-up in the commercial potato areas at the time that all control programs of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were declared un constitutional, January 6, 1936. In the meantime, growers had made some

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Annual Report, 1935 29 adjustment in their acreage and were anticipating controlled production and relatively increased prices because of it. The program, however, was -discontinued when the Agricultural Adjustment Act was declared uncon stitutional on January 6, 1936. In the handling of the adjustment program, Assistant Cotton Adjustment Agents were employed in cotton counties. They were paid by the Agricul tural Adjustment Administration. These men were placed in the county under bond, since they were required to handle tax exemption certificates and stam ' ps. These agents were employed in all the main cotton-producing Counties in Florida and assisted the county agents in handling the Cotton Adjustment Program. Results of the adjustment program as measured by the payment to farmers is indicated in the following tables. TABLE 1.-RENTAL AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY COUNTIES, JANUARY 1, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER 31, 1935. County Total Cotton Tobacco I Corn-Hogs Alachua ..... . .. . ......... . .. $ 46,428.54 $ 4,682.49 $ 15,220.72 $ 26,525 . 33 Baker .............. ,. ........ . .. 1,630.17 385.67 359.41 885.09 : Bay ...... . ......... , .. . . . .... . .. . . 144.47 144.47 -----------------Bradford . . . . ...... . ...... . . .. 7,124.75 -----1,711.70 5,413.05 Calhoun ..... . .. ... .......... . . 6,911.34 3,466.86 335.36 3,109.12 Citrus . ............ . . . .......... 1,313.20 --------------1,313.20 Clay .. . ........ . ... ... ......... .. 332.20 -----------------332.20 Columbia ...... .. . .... .... . . .. 45,410.65 13, 3 31.53 5,532.33 26,546.79 . Dixie . ........... .. ............. . 3,130.75 59.74 --------3,071.01 Escambia ..... . ............ .. 20,576.63 19,621.03 955.60 Flagler .. . .... .. . ... . . ......... 117.00 117.00 ------------Gadsden ..... ...... ........ . ... 107,371.00 1,506.64 99,805.38 6,058.98 Gilchrist ...... . ............... 10 , 189.32 285.41 ............. . ...... 9,903.91 Gulf .. . . . .......... . .............. 32.49 32.49 Hamilton .... . .. . .. . . ... ...... 39,909.27 19,390.42 19,457.80 1,061.05 Hernando ... .. . . .. .. .... . .. .. 193.50 ---------------193.50 Holmes ...................... : . 44,093.60 40,543.97 342.29 3,207.34 , Jackson ...... , .. ... .......... 87,974.04 64,664.64 1,451.01 21,858.39 . Jefferson . . .. .... .. .... . ... ... 31,721.00 13,078.19 1,087.98 17,554.83 Lafayette ..... .. ............ . 14,106.91 3,703.72 4,621.67 5,781.52 Lake ............... . ............. 20.30 ---------------20.30 ------------------Leon ................. . ......... .. 22,669.22 17,118.78 945.43 4,605.01 Levy . . . .. ...... . .. . . . ........... . 32,079 , 73 2,302.81 10.50 29,766.42 M~dison ......... . ........... .. 57,120.21 21,148.79 28,177.90 7,793.52 :Marion ........... . 17,270.35 -----------------------------------17,270.35 ' Okaloosa ...... . .... . . . .... ... 24,962.87 21,809.95 ---------3,152 . 92 Orange .......... . . . ........ ... 289.50 ------289.50 Polk. .. ....................... ... 1,469.70 ---1,469.70 Putnam ........ . . . ........... .. 1,441.60 ----------1,441.60 St. Johns . . . .... . . . . . ....... ., 5,181.47 -5,181.47 : Santa Rosa ..... . . . .. . ...... 47,183.44 46,780.39 -----403.05 Sumter ........... .. .......... .. 670.53 234.77 435.76 Suwannee .... . . .. ............ 68,549.82 19,852.56 18,487.86 30,209.40 Taylor ...... . .... . ... . ...... . . .. 2,275.02 928.27 ----1,346.75 Union ................ . ..... . .. .. 8,041.85 351.27 864 . 92 6,825.66 Wakulla ........ . ............ .. 1,679.50 613.90 ----1,065.60 Walton ......... . ............. .. 25,954.54 21,477.37 -----------------4,477.17 Washington .. .. . ........... 10,286.79 8,619.73 1,667.06 ' Totals ......... ..... ........ . ... ( $795,857.27 $346,252.86 $198,432.56 $251,171.85

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension REVIEW OF AAA WORK As a matter of record, the Agricultural Adjustment Act became effective on May 12, 1933. Its principal provisions were declared unconstitutional on January 6, 1936. It was supplemented by the following compulsory control laws: Bankhead Act for cotton, Kerr-Smith Act for tobacco, and Warren Potato Act for potatoes. These three were repealed by Congress, the repealing act being signed by President Roosevelt on February 10, 1936. In 1933 the only adjustment program attempted was the plow~u'p cam paign with cotton. That year 4,434 Florida growers with 61,000 acres of cotton signed contracts and plowed up 22,800 acres, nearly one-third of their crop and about 20 percent of the state acreage. The program throughout the cotton belt was hailed as a success, and the price of cotton advanced from 5 to 9 cents per pound. Plans were laid for more extensive work the next year. The State Agricultural Extension Service, with its corps of county agents, was drafted to conduct adjustment activities in Florida, each agent being a representative of the Secretary of Agriculture. This service or ganization had charge of the plow-up campaign in 1933 and the programs with cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs in 1934, the same crops in 1935, with the addition of peanuts and sirup. Committees of farmers were set up in each community to check appli cations from farmers for participation in the voluntary programs, to meas ure acreage and check compliance, and handle other features of the work locally. In each county a county committee of leading farmers checked applications and forwarded them to the state office. State boards of al lotment and review made allotments and reviewed cases where complaints had been entered. Each contract signer was a member of the County Con trol Association. County and community committeemen were elected by members of the association. For their cooperation in the 'projects during the three years, Florida farmers have been paid rental and benefit payments totaling $1,674,835.13, as shown by figures given in accompanying tables, which have been pre pared by E. 0. Blackwell, executive secretary for the State Allotment Board. It is estimated that some $448,578.47 remains to be paid, which will give a grand total of $2,123,413.60 coming to Florida farmers in direct payments for adjustment. TABLE 2.-SUMMARY OF BENEFIT PAYMENTS, ALL COMMODITIES, FLORIDA. 1933 1934 1935 I Estimates \ (Paid) (Paid) (Paid) (To be paid) Total Cotton ........... $260,050.09 $228,955.62 $346,252.86 $204,950.43 $1,040,209.00 Tobacco ..... .... 63,106.05 181,816.99 198,432.56 15,059.00* 458,414.60 Corn-Hog . .... ----------145,049.11 251,171.85 78,569.04 474,790.00 Peanuts ..... .. .. 100,000.00 100,000.00 Sirup ........ ..... ----------50,000.00 50,000.00 Totals ............ /$323,156.14 1$555,821.721$795,857.271$448,578.47 )$2,123,413.60 * This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because of the exchange of poundage between producers.

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Annual Report, 1935 31 TABLE 3.-ESTIMATES OF SALES RECEIPTS AND BENEFITS TO PRODUCERS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO FROM 1931 TO 1935. Production I Price per Benefit Total (Pounds) Pound Payments __Beceip~ 1931 .......................... 4,356,000 6.6c $ 287,000.00 1932 .......................... 1,260,000 11.0c 138,000.00 1933 .......................... 3,750,000 12.0c 450,000.00 1934 .......................... 3,432,000 20.0c $193,991."00* 886,000.00 1935 .......................... 5,943,000 18.lc 15,059.00** 1,090,059.00 * Benefits include a parity payment received by cooperators based on receipts from the 1933 crop. ** This item includes only the 1935 estimated rentals as no estimate at this time, February 1, 1936, can be made of any parity benefits because of the exchange of poundage between producers. TABLE 4.-FARM VALUE COTTON LINT AND SEED, 1932-1935. Voluntary Voluntary Acreage No Control Plow-up Reduction Program County Program Program 1932 1933 1934 I 1935* Alachua ....................... [ $ 6,173.74 $ 12,258.68 $ 16,054.98 $ 15,668.80 Calhoun ....................... 3,742.34 15,985.45 20,556.42 20,800.04 Columbia ..................... 18,627.07 46,167.26 56,696.93 53,943.92 Escambia .................... j 36,407.40 91,116.68 105,315.84 133,287.97 Gadsden ........................ 2,751.74 12,259.71 15,513.52 6,433.55 Hamilton ..................... 27,658.32 69,925.34 89,404.97 87,362.82 Holmes ....................... , 63,017.48 198,181.36 420,788.84 286,145.80 Jackson ....................... 98,177.23 278,148.42 381,375.42 392,272.54 Jefferson ..................... 27,552.54 68,278.46 64,365.47 45,331.27 Lafayette .................... 4,445.12 13,109.70 16,258.36 18,174.35 Leon ............................. 45,363.66 84,2.69 73,615.92 84,404.91 Madison ...................... 33,020.71 79,870.22 91,806.37 137,358.00 Okaloosa ...................... 51,083.29 106,025.65 113,078.48 135,780.35 Santa Rosa ................. 103,718.81 241,923.99 370,445.98 266,620.16 Suwannee .................... 28,575.59 66,804.47 98,850.08 101,376.47 Walt~r1 ......................... 35,031.57 109,332.63 133,714.33 157,046.78 W a.sh,ngton ................. 16,263.42 27,404.48 33,184.21 74,673.06 All Others ................... 6,389.97 32,383.90 40,195.60 20,701.92 Sea Is~and ................... ---------------------------------------20,160.00 Total Value Seed and Lint.. .......... $ 608,000:00 $1,553,382.09 $2,121,221.72 $2,057,542. 71 Benefits Paid .............. -------------------260,050.09 228,995.62 346,252.86 -Total Crop Value ...... ! $608,000.001 $1,813,432.18/ $2,350,177.34/ $2,403,795.57 * Estimated value.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE 5.-FL0RIDA INCOME FROM COTTON, 1933-1935. l Voluntary BENEFIT s County Plow-Up Voluntary I Voluntary I Total I 1933 Reduction Reduction Benefits 1934 1935 1933-34-35 Alachua ....................... $ 3,244.50 $ 1,387.10 $ 4,682.49 $ 9,314.09' Baker ........................... ------------------57.83 385.67 443.50 Bay •.............................. 90.00 144.47 234.47 Calhoun ....................... 2,074.00 2,595.15 3,466.86 8,136.01 Columbia ..................... 6,419.5-0 7,412.16 13,331.53 27,163.19 Dixie ............................ 59.74 59.74Escambia ..................... 13,844.22 10,630.12 19,621.03 44,095.37 Flagler ......................... ---------------117.00 117.00 Gadsden ....................... 2,389.50 977.11 1,506.64 4,873.25 Gilchrist ...................... 531.00 234.86 285.41 1,051.27 Gulf .............................. -----------0-••---32.49 32.49 Hamilton .... , ................ 7,366.00 12,620.79 19,390.42 39,377.21 Holmes ........................ 19,587.03 21,663.68 40,543.97 81,794.68 Jackson ........................ 40,455.75 47,987.43 64,664.64 153,107.82 Jefferson ...................... 8,619.50 6,109.93 13,078.19 27,807.62 Lafayette .................... 5,320.00 2,060.93 3,703.72 11,084.65 Leon ............................. 14,829.25 11,686.37 17,118.78 43,634.40 Levy ... , ......................... 3,029.50 670.33 2,302.81' 6,002.64 Madison ....................... 13,500.11 17,287.71 21,148.79 51,936.61 Marion ......................... 260.00 52.00 -------------------312.00• Okaloosa ..................... 29,299.00 20,361.01 21,809.95 71,469.96 Santa Rosa ................. 52,197.5-0 33,119.64 46,780.39 132,097.53 Sumter ......................... -----------------------------------234.77 234.71 Suwannee .................... 16,991.60 13,133.07 19,852.56 49,977.23 Taylor .......................... 782.75 412.92 928.27 2,123.94 Union ........................... 175.00 114.17 351.27 640.44 Wakulla ....................... 593.25 141.65 613.90 1,348.80, Walton ......................... 15,118.68 13,047.35 21,477.37 49,643.40 Washington ................ 3,422.45 5,102.31 8,619.73 17,144.49 ~ot.al... ......................... 1 $260,050.09 I ~2~8~.955~~~ I $346,252.861 $ 835,258.57 Unpa'd Estimate.................................................................................... 204,950.43. Total Benefits, State, 1933-1935 ........................................................ $1,040,209.00 WORK OF D. E. TIMMONS The Extension Economist in Marketing spent a large proportion of his. time assisting in the administration of AAA programs. BASIC COMMODITIES Tobacco.-The Extension Economist in Marketing directed the work of the tobacco adjustment program in Florida until September 18, 1935, when he was granted leave of absence to work with the Potato Section at Wash-• ington. He supervised the work of the state office, advised county agents of changes in administrative rulings, and assisted them and their committee men in making recommendations concerning contracts and allotments to applicants. The state office checked the 1934 allotment cards against the carbon copies of the tax-payment warrants issued at warehouses, checked.

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Annual Report, 1935 33 n_ew contracts, handled the referendum vote on the Kerr-Smith Act, issued allotment cards for 1935, and summarized reports from the county offices. In this connection, a mimeographed report was prepared by the Exten sion Economist in Marketing on June 26, 1935, giving the status of "The Flue-Cured Tobacco Adjustment Program in Florida from May 12, 1933 to April 30, 1935". This study developed the fact that since 1930 Florida flue-cured tobacco producers witnessed such low prices that a large number of growers ceased to produce tobacco. Of 1,038 contract signers for 1934, 209 or 20 percent, had not produced any tobacco since 1931. There were 303 who had planted two of the base years, and only 323 who had planted all three of the base years . Almost one-half of all contract signers planted tobacco only one of the base years, 1931-33. There were 198 non-contracting producers in 1934 in Florida. The 1,038 flue-cured tobacco contracts represented 3,805.8 acres aver.: 3.ging 740 pounds yield per acre. The 198 non-contracting producers planted 1pproximately 864 acres, with an estimated yield of 672 pounds per acre. The 2,806,914 pounds of flue-cured tobacco sold by Florida contract dgners brought an average 'price of 21.74 cents per pound in 1934, as 1gainst the average price received by producers in 1931 of 6.6 cents per lound, and 12.0 cents per pound in 1933. Florida contract growers sold most of their tobacco during 1934 in valdosta, Ga., and Live Oak, Fla., Valdosta ranking first in volume of :eceipts with 1,614,000 pounds, and Live Oak second receiving 947,000 ,ounds. ' There were 1,173 regular contracts and 67 Special Base contracts; mak ng 1,240 flue-cured tobacco contracts in effect in 1935. Of this total, there vere 135 new contracts signed in 1935. The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted the producers in the ransfer of surplus allotments from one grower to another. On completion f the marketing season in August 1935, . the allotment cards together with he growers' warehouse receipts were forwarded to the state office and here checked against du " plicate tax-payment warrants from Washington nd the marketing cards made up from the data developed in this checking. Data on the 1935 crop were not compiled, due to the leave of absence ranted the Extension Economist in Marketing. Corn and Hogs.-The Extension Economist in Marketing was a member f the State Board of Review. He assisted the commiteee in adjusting orn and hog contracts and in the handling of appeal cases. It was neces ary to spend some time in the field contacting county agents, committee1en and contract signers who had appealed for adjustments in their con ~acts: It was also necessary in one case that he represent the State oard of Review in connection with an appeal case that went to the Corn :og Section in Washington. At this meeting the Extension Economist in [arketing presented to the Corn-Hog Section the results of farm survey 1aterials in Florida which showed that the allotment to contract signers L Florida was too little as regarding corn yields. It is a general prac ce, in large areas of West Florida, for the farmers to plant one row of ,rn and . one row of peanuts and in some instances to plant either the ,rn row or peanut row with velvet beans. Farm survey data .indicated 1at where corn was planted by this method, there was approximately a ) percent higher yield if corn were reduced to a solid basis on land planted . corn and peanuts than if planted in solid corn. By reducing the inter anting to a solid corn basis and comparing with a state average yield, was obvious that growers would receive abnormally low rental payments r their corn acreage. The Corn-Hog Section, after studying the statistics esented, made administrative rulings which took into consideration tho cts brought out in data 'presented. 2

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension The Extension Economist in Marketing also assisted in the setting up of the Corn,Hog Control Associations and in the making of their regular budgets. This was incidental, however, to his regular duties as a member of the Corn-Hog .Board of Review. Potatoes.-The inclusion of potatoes as a basic commodity and the pre liminary work done in Florida prior to the framing of the bill, made it necessary for the Extension Economist in Marketing to spend considerable time with potato growers, dealers, and in conference with officials in Wash ington. One section of the state felt that making potatoes a basic com modity, or any similar legislation, would affect that section adversely. Another section of the state felt that they had had extremely low prices and that if some legislation was not made the farmers of those communities were doomed to bankruptcy. The Extension Economist in Marketing, through meetings, kept the farmers and dealers in each of these areas informed as to proposed legislation and discussed with them the progress being made. In meetings held in Washington and the state, the policy of the Extension Economist in Marketing was to carry information from growers to Wash ington and from Washington to growers in an unbiased manner. After it was determined that there would be a potato control program, meetings were held explaining the plan. Growers were notified at these meetings that it would be necessary to make applications for sales allot ments if they were to receive tax-exemption stamps. Preliminary forms and instructions for the handling of the potato program were made and sent . to county agents. A.A.A. RECORD BOOK WORK The Extension Economist in Marketing assisted in holding educational meetings to explain the purpose of the records and the value of records to !armers. Record books were distributed to farmers by county agents to record farm operations as a basis for farm management practices. These meetings were attended by 1,174 growers.

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Annual Report, 1935 BOYS ' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent 35 On account of enlarged duties imposed upon District Agents, the time they could allot to club work has been very limited this year . The result is that where formerly there were four supervisors promoting boys' 4-H club work, there is but one with a little assistance from one district agent. 4-H SUPERVISORY PROGRAM FOR 1935 Older 4 -H Boys as Emergency Leaders.-From experience in 1934 it was evident that using the older 4-H club boys as emergency leaders was the most satisfactory way to overcome the almost complete lack of time for club work on the part of the county agent. It was planned to assist county agents in the counties affected by the several adjustment programs in organizing the older 4 H boys for the purpose of carrying on the work during the emergency. The counties with adjustment problems were the counties in which the larger part of the club enrollment was to be found. This nne plan came to naught because the county agents were too busy with adjustment work to find time to set a date for organizing the older club members. .,.. Fig. 2.-Class instruction, as shown above, and recreation make annual 4-H club camps attractive to boys and girls , and maintain their interest in the work. Club Carnps.-In the club program for Flo r ida the camp is a vital factor in promoting club work. Nine year s ago a di s trict camp was started in West Florida to serve 10 counties. This central camp proved so useful and so satisfactory that in 1934 a second district camp was begun in -Central Florida. The camps were built by donations. The one in West

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Florida was large enough to handle 120 and was equipped with electric lights and a sanitary sewage disposal system. The one in Central Florida was iust begun in 1934 and it seemed advisable to devote the time necessary to enlarge this camp and to install needed sanitary equipment. Three months of the stat e club agant's time were given to securing donations and to supervising ' the erection of building and the installation of a lighting plant and a modern sanitary disposal system at the Central Florida camp. The result is that we now have two very fine 4-H club camps in Florida which are a big factor in the 4-H club program. Two former 4-H boys were employed as camp directors during the summer months. D . R. Matthews had charge of the West Florida Camp and W. W. Bassett, Jr., of the camp in Central Florida . Both of these men are able and conscientious. . Both did the job at hand very well indeed. Recreation .Leadership Training.-The fact that so many young people are backing up on the farms without jobs to take up their time made it seem advisable to devote some time to the recreational side of rural life. Through cooperation of the National Recreational Association, six leader ship training schools were held in the state. The schools were a success and in some counties recreation councils were formed and meetings held monthly during the year. This work is building a more desirable rural social life. It was noticeable in the stories written by new club members in the counties where the recreattonal schools Were held that the good times had by club members were given as the major reason why the new member joined the club. Recreation training is a big part of the summer 4-H camp program. Beginnings of improvement. in rural social contacts seem evident. PROBLEMS, 'METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS Relations with Counties.-The big problem in 4~H club work has been to overcome the lack of time on the part of county agents. ' ( The average c ' cunty agent in the general farming area of Florida has been unable to take care of anything exi;ept the adjustment work. Some succeeded in allocating their , . time in such way tha:t' they were able to carry on the regular extension program in a limited way. An attempt was made to turn the major part-of routine boys' club work over to the older club boys. A few county organization meetings were held at which two older boys from each community were present. The boys were impressed with the o , pportunity : for service. The result in counties where such organization meetings were held was enough to prove that the older boys can and will c,irry the club program over in emergency. Of course it is doubtful as to the efficiency of this 'plan for a period over , a year or two in length. Assisting County Agents in Determining Club Prograrn.-Twelve agents were assisted in planning a 4-H program for boys. The wo:rk in Alachua County : was exceptional. County Agent F. L. Craft and Assistant Agent J. A. McClellan organized the club work in this county in a complete way. Each 'local club . was organized and a county council was formed. Several innovations were instituted by Mr. McClellan, which aroused and held the enthusiasm of the different clubs; PROJECT ACTIVITIES . AND RESULTS ENROLLMENT Through the assistance of older boys a 14 % increase in enrollment was secured. The number of projects started increased from 3,080 to 3,507 . This was most gratifying. Then the result of neglect on the part of tht county agents began to show up. F . or the third year the agents did no1

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Annual Report, 1935 37 ilave time to supervise the club work personally. The older boys did their best but it takes the personal contact of . te agent himself to hold 4-H :lub work at the proper standard, The boys started their projects but did 1ot complete them. This was noticeable last" year when the percent of :ompletions dropped to 53%. In 1935 but 49% of the projects started were :ompleted. With 428 more projects than in 1934 there were but 82 more :omp'.etions. The following figures show the gains and losses in the different projects 'or 1933, 1934 and 1935. Project I Gain or 1933 1934 1935 loss 1935 over 1934 )orn .................................................................. l 583 719 825 +106 'otatoes . . ..... ..... ... ................ . ............... . . .. ........ . 192 237 276 + 39 ~otton ................................... . . . ........................ . 111 222 229 + 7 rruck and Garden .. . . . ......... . . .. .... ......... ... . .. . . . . . 3 . 38 443 513 + 70 'oultry ..... . .......... .. .... ... ............... .... ........ . ...... .. 277 337 388 + 51 ,. 1g ............................... ... ..... .. .................. .... ..... . 376 466 547 + 81 ~i~~ellaneous ..................... . ........ .... ....... . ........ , 203 247 246 1 341 409 483 + 74 'otaL ......... . . . .............. . ....... . ................... . ........ .. j 2415 3080 3507 +428 ORGANIZATION The number of organized clubs increased from 154 to 171. The value of well organized local clubs was demonstrated in Escambia :ounty this fall. Some of the clubs in this county have been operating lr 15 years. Leadership is supplied by old 4-H boys. E. P. Scott resigned s county agent a month before the club contest was to be held. The new o unty agent arrived on Wednesday and the contest was held on Friday nd Saturday. He did not visit a club . . When the contest was held three tubs brought in over 90% reports. All the work, even putting up the ichibits, was done by boys under the leadership of the club officers. If more assistance could be given the county agents in perfecting work1g local club organizations the enrollment . would be increased, but the reatest improvement would be in the percent of completions. From pres1t records it would seem that it would be possible to secure at least 80% i ports. This would mean much to club work as it is detrimental to a boy , encourage him to start a project and then not help him finish it. FARM CROPS Corn.-Three hundred seventy boys grew 472 acres of corn, producing !,959 bushels, an average yield of 27.4 bushels per acre. The decrease 1 average yield from 37.4 bushels in 1931 shows the effect of low prices 1d the general let-down in the attempt to increase the yield per acre. oys as well as farmers are not striving to keep up production per acre. ew boys used fertilizer and there appears to be a tendency to forget , e value of high yields in lowering the cost of production per bushel. This ems to be a sad mistake and a step backward. Cotton.-This project showed a further decline, due to the cotton reduc ~n program. Eighty-five boys grew 92 acres at an average yield per -ra of 740 pounds of seed cotton. Here again the tendency to neglect the ,lue of high yield is manifest.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension Peanuts.-The yield 'per acre of peanuts held up very well. Closer spacing accounts for the increased yield. Home Garden and Truck Crops.-With agricultural conditions improving somewhat, interest in gardens decreased. This is a "hard times" project. During the depression many families have had reason to be thankful for the 4-H club garden, as it furnished a good part of the family living. When other crops began to pay the boy turned to them, as there was not a profit to him from the garden. Sweet Potatoes.-This is one of the best profit producing projects in club work. One hundred and eleven boys grew 94 acres of sweet potatoes averaging 94 bushels per acre. The expense per acre is low and there is usually a sale for the crop at fair prices. Horticulture.-We have been unable to work out successful projects for club work y.rith citrus. The period between planting and bearing is too long. Record keeping and cost accounting seem to be the only phases which will work. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The r1smg prices of meat animals has made the 'pig clubs profitable once more. There is a shortage of good breeding animals in the state at present. Dairy.-This project had one member less than in 1934. The farm family did not have enough money to buy calves. Some of the older dairy club boys have a start for a herd of purebred cows. Swine.-There was a 16% increase in enrollment over 1934. It would have been larger had the boys been able to locate breeding stock. For the first time since the depression started, we have had some real finished barrows at the club contests. This project niade the boys money and will likely grow in size next year. Beef Cattle.-Twenty-nine boys grew 42 animals in this project. It is new for Florida. We are not sure of the profit to be made. Fifteen boys are feeding out a baby beef each for the State Fat Stock Show next spring. Plans are being formulated to put on some 15 demonstrations in the pos sibility of a boy building a herd of beef cattle, Poultry.-The number of chickens raised per club member is increasing and profits are growing. A boy should not start with less than 50 chicks. The following table gives . completions and yields for major club projects in 1935: Organization 171-Organized community 4-H clubs Enrollment and Completions 2955-Members enrolled 3507_:Different projects carried by club members 1369-Members completed .... . ......... ... . .............. 46% 1733-Projects completed .. ............... . .............. 49% Project Work Yield .......... . ....... . ..... ...... 12,959 bushels corn 41,909 lbs. peanuts 45 tons hay (peanuts) 278 bushels seed (forage crops) 66 tons hay (forage crops) 1,549 . bushels Irish potatoes 8,629 bushels sweet potatoes 68,252 lbs. seed cotton 3,308 lbs. tobacco 26 homes (home beautification)

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Annual Report, 1935 Animals Involved ... . .... 17,500 birds (poultry) 215 animals (dairy cattle) '12 animals (beef cattle) 648 animals (swine) Leadership and Recreation 6-Judging teams trained 7-Demonstration teams trained 55-Leadershi'p training meetings held with 760 attending 19-Achievement days held with 3632 attending 30--Club camps held with 915 attending 1-State Short Course held with 253 attending SPECIAL ACTIVITIES 39 Annual Short Course.-The 19th annual Boys' Club Short Course was 1eld at the University of Florida in June with 253 boys attending. This s the most inspirational club meeting of the year. All the counties with ,oys' club work except two were represented. Out-of-State Trips.-But one out-of-state tri'p was made by Florida 4-H ,oys in 1935. Two boys, Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County and ). C. Hanks of Escambia County, represented Florida at the National 4-H )amp in Washington, D. C., in June. Scholarships.-The Florida Bankers' Association continued its three cholarships to the College of Agriculture. These scholarships were won by >scar Watson of Santa Rosa County, Thomas Henry of Suwannee County nd Francis Hildebrand of Orange County.

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40 Florida Cooperative E xtensi on DAIRYING Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1935, in cooperation with county agents: Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette, Hamilton, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval, St. Johns, Union, Lake, Volusia, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Brevard, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Hernando, Sarasota, Manatee, DeSoto, Hardee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Dade. Some dai~y work was carried on with farmers in counties not having county agents: Bay, Flagler , Clay, Citrus and Broward. DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS , The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor in developing the dairy extension program in the State in 1935. Pastures for dairy cows suffered severe ly in the winter of 1934-35 because of cold, dry winter in a large area of the State. There has been continued interest among dairymen this year in locating their dairies on soils best adapted to growing forage crops. Government loans offered . on lands and livestock have increased o'pportunities for dairy men to sec ure land better suited to growing forage. Within the last three years, 207 dairymen have purchased 23,640 acres of farm lands for growing pasture and forage crops. Duval, Hillsboro and Dade lead in numbers of acres of farm lands purchased. Fig . 3.-Trench silos with dirt floors, walls and ceilings provide inex pensive but satisfactory storage for silage. Numbers of them have been constructed in Florida recently, and they are aiding dairymen in savi ng forage.

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Annual Report, 1935 41 BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS County agents report they had 29 demonstrations in repairing dairy )arns and helped in the construction of 38 silos for dairy purposes in 1934. [hirty-two of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and six were tbove-ground. Trench silos were built in nine counties for the first time n 1935. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have proven ;ilage will keep in Florida in any kind of silo that is practical in any other ; ection . of the United States. Eighty-four farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane as a soiling md silage crop in 1935. Improved forage cane as a forage crop for dairy : ows was introduced into 12 counties of Columbia , Suwannee, Nassau, Clay, ;t. Johns, DeSoto, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, Sarasota, Manatee and Dade n 1935. Cooperative purchases and sales were arranged with counties 1aving cane for sale and those needing seed. Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing sorghum, Napier :rass and cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1935. :hese crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy .industry and in 1roducing an abundance ofcheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of he State that are not adapted to growing corn. Eight farm tours were conducted in Suwannee, Duval, Marion, Hernando, lillsboro, and Manatee counties to visit result demonstrations with silos .nd forage crops. The farm tours were attended by 194 interested dairy armers from 15 counties. As a result, trench silos were built for the first ime in nine counties in 1935 and improved varieties of forage cane were .Janted in 12 counties for the first time in 1935. PASTURE AND GRAZING CROPS The dry, cold weather in the latter 'part of 1934 and the first five months 1 1935 limited the number of acres seeded to pastures in 1935. There were ,825 acres seeded by dairy farmers in the State. Demonstrations in mowing pastures conducted throughout the State :>r some six years have proven valuable . The increased grass yields, so oticeable on the better grass lands, have interested an increased pumber f farmers in mowing pastures each year. There were 8,360 acres of ermanent pasture mowed by dairymen in 1935. More dairy farmers are ecoming intere s ted in pastures.. Field meetings conducted by county agents ith assistance of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the Extension 1 airyman have proven valuable in bringing pasture demonstrations to the ttention of a large percentage of farmers. . . Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commercial irtilizers have proven profitable. With carpet grass and lespedeza fer lizers meant the difference between success and . failure. There has been 11 increased tonnage of gra ss and this grass carried higher . protein, vita tin and mineral content, and has a greater feeding value. In a demonstra on in Sarasota County, dairy cattle showed a preference for . fertilized rass, to the extent that the fertilized areas didn't need mowing to prevent ieding in the rainy season when grass on the unfertilized area grew iyoii.d the needs and formed seeds instead of leaves and went into the rest .age. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,865 acres of grazing crops this year. RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS The very marked upturn in prices for meat animals has greatly in eased the . culling of dairy animals. Increased prices on grain feed in 134.35 and decreased volume of market milk resulting from cows slaugh red for Bang's disease made clling profitable.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension The advance in grain' prices in 1934 caused a lot of the low producing cows on farms not growing the forage requirements to fall into the loss column. With increased price of meat, dairymen are now culling the sub marginal cows. Around the larger market centers the advance in price of milk through 'price supporting measures under the Milk Control Board gave temporary relief. The slaughtering of cows reacting to Bang's dis ease during the summer season of 1935 reduced the summer surplus and helped equalize production with consumptive requirements unusually well. The present problem in dairy Extension work is to get fewer heifers from only the best cows in the herd, fed a more liberal ration during the first six months. High quality roughage for the winter season presents a problem on many farms. The average dairy cow in Florida is at least 20% under size. Demonstrations in growing heifers are helping to correct this condition. Approximately 60% of the dairy heifers in the State are infested with stomach and internal parasites as a result of being . under nourished and due to the fact that calves are placed on infested pastures before they are old enough to resist parasites. Therefore, in calf feeding demonstrations calves are kept on cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures. The system of breeding cows for fall freshening is quite ideal for growing dairy heifers, free from internal parasites. FARM . DAIRYING Farm dairying with enough good cows to produce milk as a part of the family living and furnish a regular part of the cash income on the farm is an important part of the dairy Extension program. The very low prices for milk products has made the marketing of cream unattractive in most farming sections. Farmers are giving more attention to farm dairying. Demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement are being conducted as a part of the farm dairy program. The county agents are making surveys to deter mine the approximate number of additional family cows that are needed to supply milk to farm families in 1936. A plan for properly financing the grade heifer calves with a schedule of values that will provide for the 4-H club members to receive pay for the club heifer at the time she becomes the family milk cow is much needed. County Agent J. J. Sechrest placed 100 family cows in Hamilton County in 1935. County Agent N. J. Albritton placed 26 family cows in Levy County. These are among many agricultural counties without any large market milk centers that have taken a very active interest in increasing the family milk supply in North and West Florida. County Agent C. P. Heuck put on a "live-at-home" program and conducted a motorcade of farmers to Hillsborough County to study forage and pasture crops. B. E. Lawton, county agent, assisted in securing 51 heifer calves during 1934, 40 heifers in 1935, in Hernando. Seven years ago Madison County farmers, under the direction of the county agent, bought 540 registered andhigh grade dairy cows that later became family cows. In 1935, farmers in Madison County sold 175 dairy cows to market milk centers at good prices, from this foundation stock. GOOD MARKET FOR DAIRY COWS Surplus dairy cows will bring in a substantial revenue in Florida for some years to come. It is possible that later on, butterfat prices will justify the development of creameries and other by-product milk factories, after the dairy cows are established with a practical farm feeding program. With the large demand for herd rep}acements in the market milk centers. of the State, there is a good market for farm milk cows.

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Annual Report, 1935 43 The large number of cows reacting to Bang ' s disease and mastitis that "ere slaughtered in the market milk centers in 1935 greatly increased the emand for Florida-grown dairy cows. DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS The Bang's disease eradication 'program disrupted milk production rec rds in 1935. It was not advisable to attempt the organization of two herd nprovement associations planned for 1935. However, in eradicating Bang's i sease dairymen have become much more interested ih herd improvement 1d a system of herd records than ever before. The difficulty market . ilk dairymen ,have in finding disease-free cows has forced their attention 1 a breeding program. The very important reason for dairy records as 1derstood by the average dairyman is that he wants information for 11ling. However, about 20% of the dairy farmers in the State have kept •me kind of individual milk records of the weights of the milk and feed , a guide in proportioning the amount of feed for each animal. Feed , cords have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the importance . the forage program in a very substantial way. In northern Marion lUnty 95 % of the dairymen kee'p records and about this percentage produce 1 the forage feed requirements now. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES There were 74 registered dairy bulls 'placed on farms in Florida during 35 by Extension agents. This work promises to expand in 1936, as a sult of increased interest in breeding herd replacements on Florida farms. terest in proven sires is increasing. Educational work in evaluating digrees and selecting registered bulls is receiving more interest from irymen. There have been more exchanges of dairy bulls among neighbor rmers than in the past, 58 being reported. 4-H DAIRY CLUBS Twenty-two county agents enrolled 237 4-H club members with 215 iry animals in 1935. Of these, 27 were registered females and 188 were th grade females. The 4-H club has for its purpose a general training boys and girls in methods of growing dairy heifers and feeding and maging them as family cows. The dairy clubs are only adapted to counties where the club members enrolled for longer periods than one year. It is not possible for a i mber to complete pro'perly dairy club work in less than three years. is naturally reduces the number of boys and girls enrolled in dairy club rk. The 4-H club members are rendering very valuable services in improving , quality of dairy animals oh farms and in introducing better methods growing dairy heifers. A large percentage of the 4-H dairy club heifers in Florida have been ides. Registered heifers have been used in several counties with fair ults. The depression with the years of low prices for dairy cattle, milk l milk products reduced interest and profits in registered dairy animals. has not seemed advisable to promote registered dairy heifers. COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS There are 19 county and one state dairy associations. The state or1ization with over 600 members has been functioning continuously now 10 years.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry This work has been a cooperative project with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Extension Service and College of Agriculture until April 30, 1935. On that date the Extension Service took over the entire expense of the office. During the year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has been a member of the State Board of Review of the corn-hog adjustment work. Since June 10, 1935, the Agent has supervised corn-hog compliance work. The Agent in Animal Husbandry was designated as contact man for the State Screw Worm Control Committee to work in cooperation with county agents and the representative of the Federal Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Cooperation of individual farmers, county and state livestock associa tions, packers, stockyards, Chamber of Commerce of Jacksonville, and cold storage people has aided materially. BEEF CATTLE For profitable beef cattle production it is important to develop the maximum early calf crop . . This involves herd management, breeding, se lection and feeding. Since, due to the quality of Florida cattle , they have been discriminated against in markets, efforts have been made to improve this quality by grading up. Securing wellbred bulls at nominal prices is a problem, since Florida is a long distance from breeding centers and home breeders do not have sufficient to supply the demands. This office has located bulls in other states, secured prices, marked out the points on road maps, and put the information in the hands of county agents and individual cattle owners and dealers, resulting in 350 purebred bulls being brought into the state. More than 200 bulls have been placed by this office and county agents: Pasture Work.-Grass and weeds do not occupy the land at the same time for profit. We have ' urged the use of the mowing machine; This year 55 pastures were mowed . Where pastures with weeds have been mowed each year the stand of grass shows a decided improvement. Trench Silos.-The fir s t trench silos for beef cattle . were put in in Jack son County in 1931. Silos are now used in Alachua, Duval, Hernando, Jackson, Jefferson, Levy, Liberty, Marion, Walton, Washington and Holmes counties. This season 20 new trench silos were constructed. Growing Feeder Cattle.-Since Florida is a feed deficiency state and most of the cattle are raised under semi-range conditions and sold grass fat, efforts have been made for producing feeder cattle of such quality that steer feeders of this state and other states would look this way for their cattle each year.to go on feed. West Florida shade tobacco growers feed their cattle each year for the manure. They have been buying their cattle from out of the state. In 1932 a movement was started to secure Florida raised steers. In 1933, steers to be fed out in Gadsden County were secured in Liberty County. The Quincy Experiment Station used Liberty County cattle in 1934 and the Gainesville Experiment Station used Alachua County cattle in experi mental work. This year, there are other cattle from Liberty County being used as feeders in Gadsden County. In 1934 Florida steers were grazed and fed out at Winston-Salem, N. C., with good results. In 1935 another bunch was sent to Winston~Salem . .

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Annual Report, 1935 45 Florida cattle exhibited at the First Florida Fat Stock Show at Jack sonville, March 5-6, 1935, attracted attention of buyers from other states and an increased demand from feeders in other states for Florida grade cattle is in prospect: Fig. 4.-Better breeding and better feeding are bringing vast and rapid improvement in Florida's beef cattle industry. Feeding Catt le. -More cattle ar e on feed this year than were on feed in the same period last year, notwith s tanding the fact that sa le s of cattle have been heavier than at this time last year. Cattle on feed as reported by county agents are 2,452 head, with 4,778 additional head being fed in bean fields. A new part this year in cattle feeding is that 21 boys in five counties are feeding out calves for the Fat Stock Show and Sale at Jacksonville next March. Marketing Cattle.-Efforts are made to aid in developing economic and systematic marketing of all classes of livestock. With the aid of the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, National Stock Yards, State Marketing Bureau, and other agencies, the first Florida Fat Stock Show and Sale was held in March 1935, at which time 147 steers were so ld. At this show and sale cattle were graded according to standard market g rade s by competent judges. To further aid in this Fat Cattle Show, K. F. Warner, Extension representative from the Bureau of Animal Industry, conducted demonstration s to show the different cuts and corre sponding prices that were received, thus taking home to the 'people the matter of good grade cattle resulting in high quality meat. A livestock auction market opened October 21, 1936, in Gainesville in cooperation with the busines s men and the State Marketing Bureau, with the idea of developing a continuous market for all classes of livestock. Farmers from a wide area in Florida and some from Georgia have already patronized this market. In 1933, attempts were made in Dixie County t:o sell cooperatively a number of steers and calves with very little s uccess. This year, 1935, there were sold $38,000 worth of cattle cooperatively, including 1,746 steers and 748 calves. For the last five years, attempts have been made to interest the Eastern buyers in coming to Florida for fat calves during the summer . HithEitto Florida calves .have been of inferior quality, carrying too little beef breeding

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46 Florida Cooperati v e Extension to interest the Eastern trade. This year , as a result of selection of cows and the breeding of purebred bulls, the calves were of such quality that Eastern buyers came into the counties of Orange, Osceola, Polk, Hardee, DeSoto, Okeechobee and Highlands, and took approximately 100 cars of calves to the Eastern market. In Osceola County alone, 1,700 calves moved out. Local packers were also interested in the Florida calf market in the East. One packer in Jacksonville killed a number of cars of Florida calves, chilled them and sent them to the Eastern market in refrigerated cars. The writer was present and saw the first 100 calves killed and dressed in preparation for the Eastern market. Further, Swift and Company of Moultrie took several cars of calves for their trade. The quality of the calves as a result of breeding and selection attracted the attention of out-of-state buyer s as well as aroused the local packers to the opportunities of killing Florida calves and sending them to the East. This marketing of cattle was so handl e d that it benefited both the large and small producers. The following is a tabulation of some beef cattle activities : 1935 Number purebred bulls placed .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ....... ....................... . .. . .. . . . 305 Number bulls being fed this winter ... ..... . .. . ............................ . ..... 553 Numb e r steers on feed ..... .. ..... . ..... . . ..... .... .. .. ... .......................... .. . .. . 2,452 Number s teers in bean fields ..... .. . . . ....... ... . . ..... ................... . ... .. ..... . 4,778 Number farmers selecting and developing best heifers .. . . . .... . 223 Number n e w silos filled for beef cattl e (trench) . . ...... .. . .. . .. . .. .. ... 20 Number pastures on which mowing machine used .... .. . . . ....... . .. . 55 Adult re s ult demon s trations .. . . . . ...... . . . .. ... . . .. . . .. . .... , . ... .. .. . . ...... . . . .. .. .. . 305 . Numb e r method demonstrations . . .. . ... . . ...... .. . .............. . . : . . .. .. ...... ... . 196 Number 4-H members completin~ ... . . . ..... . ... . . ..... ... .. . .. . . . :. ... . ........ . 29 Number animal s in 4 H club proJects completed . . ... ....... . . . ..... .. 3 7 Number farmer s assisted in obtaining purebred sires . . . . . . . ..... . .. . 173 Number farmers assisted in obtaining purebred or high grade femal e s . . . .... . . .................. . .... . . . . . .. . .. .. .... . . . .. . . .. ... . . . ................... . ...... .. . . . 87 Number herd improvement associations . . . . ....................... .. . ... ... . . 5 SWINE WORK 1934 313 321 * * ** ** 15 53 162 180 11 48 86 26 ** A drop in hog prices two years ago caused a decrease in number of hog s and apparent Jack of interest in hog development. Howe v er, with ad justment programs and natural conditions forcing a decrease in number of hogs and an increase in 'price, there has been a new impetus given to the hog work. Farmers are now making inquiries as to where they can secure additi . onal bre e ding stock . We have had more inquirie s this fall for breed ing stock than was the case a year ago. Special emphasis has been given the curing of meats for home use. Contacts have been made with cold storage people and information and suggestions furnished these people on the better methods of curing meat for farmers. They have been urged not to increase their prices for curing. The cold storage people have been urged to perform a service to the live stock industry in Florida and to the farming people by developing standard methods of curing good quality meat. Thi s work has brought results, for within the last few years the quality of meat . cured in these cold storage place s has materially improved. This work ha s attracted attention throughout the country. Special emphasis has been put on the curing . of sufficient meat for home use on the farm, beginning with hogs and growing them out to the finished product . The writer and the county agents have held numerou s meat cutting and curing demon s tration s that s eem to net results.

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Annual Report, 1935 47 From reports that we have received from cold storage people, practically 3 million pounds of meat were cured last year. (Ten of the cold storage plants made no reports.) Our records show that about 90,000 'pounds of additional meat were cured in ice boxes. SCREW WORM CONTROL WORK This campaign was in coo'peration with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and was similar to the one carried on by county agents . the year before. In 1935 the Federal Government made appropriations for screw worm work and about $90,000 was allotted Florida for educational work. About the same time the Florida State Legislature appropriated $50,000 for cooperative work. A State Screw Worm Control Committee consisting of Dr. Wilmon Newell, Dean and Director of Extension Service; A. P. Spencer, Vice Di rector; Honorable Nathart Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture; Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian; P. E. Williams, President, State Livestock Association; Dr. W. L. Koon, Chairman, Livestock Sanitary Board; was selected to handle the work in the state in connection with the Federal Government. Walter J. Sheely of the Extension Service was designated to be contact man for this committee. In order to participate in the Federal appropriation, this State Com mittee had to set forth the necessity of spending the Federal funds in this ,tate. W. J. Sheely, in cooperation with the county agents, secured an estimate of screw worm infestation, the number of livestock-eattle, hogs, horses, mules-and the approximate amount of benzol and pine tar that would be needed for screw worm control work. This information the com rnittee used in making their application to the Federal Government for aid. W. G. Bruce was designated by the Federal Government as state super l'isor of the Screw Worm Educational and Control Program, with W. E. Stiles as assistant; 6 district supervisors and 35 county supervisors-later 3 additional men were appointed as county supervisors-receiving state pay. A school for supervisors was held the last of May and first day of June '. o inform the district and county men on methods of handling screw worm :ases in all classes of livestock. This office aided in making arrangements md getting men and material for this school. This office aided in arranging cooperative connections between county 1gents, livestock men and the screw worm control representatives, also at : ended the meetings and furnished subject matter material on livestock.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension CITRUS CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist Conditions in the citrus industry continue to focus attention on lower production costs and better . quality o_f fruit. . This . naturally leads into sounder and more economical grove management, involving more efficient disease and insect control, better fertilizing and cultivation practices and _ a constructive program of soil utilization. The freeze of last December brought into the picture grower finance problems and emergency measures in rebuilding frozen groves. As a whole, our program of work has centered around (a) grove man agement, (b) soil management, (c) disease control and (d) insect control. GROVE MANAGEMENT Most substantial progress toward better grove management practices has been made by the use of demonstration groves. The plan is very popu iar among the' better trained and more experienced county agents, and the number of demonstration groves listed has passed the 50 mark. The saving to the owners of these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of im proved practices, was more than $15 per acre last year. The average yield of these groves is greater than that of other groves, and the quality of the fruit is above the average of the community. . The facts, together with the improved conditions that the demonstration groves present, have a very strong influence in converting growers to better practices. County agents report more than 500 growers added to . the list in 1935, follow _ ing their recommendations in improved grove man agement. SOIL MANAGEMENT The work in soil management including fertilization, cultivation; cover crops, irrigation and soil amendments, has grown veryrapidly during the last three years. Fertilizing.-The fertilizer cost constitutes 30% to 60% of the total operative cost of producing citrus fruits. Successful fruit growing depends much upon this factor. County agents report 1,096 growers following their recommendations in fertilizing citrus groves in 1935 for the first time. These recommendations embody improved practices set forth in demonstrations of the past few years, and result in a great saving to growers. Cultivation.-Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning of citrus trees by deep plowing and other methods of deep cultivation weaken the trees, disturb the nutritive balance and render them more susceptible to disease attack. It has been demonstrated that poor texture of fruit is often traceable to deep or excessive cultivation. More than 4,000 acres are in demonstrations in grove cultivation. Eleven counties have taken part in this project. Just enough cultivation is done to incorporate the cover crop with the top soil at the end of the growing season to prevent burning of the cover crop and grove in case of an acci dental fire. No further cultivation can be justified in a bearing grove under . ordinary conditions. This practice results in a saving over the old practice of $4 to $8 per acre. Cover Crops.-The dominant problem in the 'production of citrus fruits in Florida is the supply of organic matter. More than 1,000 growers have adopted improved practices in growing and handling the grove cover crop. This is one route to lower production cost and better quality fruit. The use of organic matter, produced in the cover crop and supplied by hauling

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Annual.Bepo_rt, 1935 49 in manures and coarse organic material, constitutes the foundation for not only economical. fertilizing of citrus, but for the production of quality fruit and maintaining vigorous trees. . . Fifty-two communities have taken 'part in this project. Irrigatfon.-Irrigation water is needed in 75% of the groves to supple ment the rainfall during winter or spring of three years out of four to produce better quality fruit and heavier cover crop. Further improveinents have been made in methods of applying irrigation water, at a big saving to growers. The type of irrigation plant developed last year and described in the Annual Report is proving very practicable and very popular. More than 100 growers have been assisted in the . in stallation or improvement of irrigation plants. Several striking demon strations of the cold protection afforded by irrigation were evident last December. Groves well irrigated during the. }ate fall and just before the cold spell withstood the low temperature much better than those lacking water. Soil Amendments.-The so-called "bronze leaf" or "copper leaf" is be coming a serious disease in many groves. During the last three years soil amendment demonstrations have been conducted in 16 groves of eight principal citrus producing counties. Of the . seven different treatments in these demonstrations, one consists of an annual application of 300 pounds per acre of 9olomitic limestone. In three of the groves in : which this work is being conducted "bronze leaf" has developed. The dolomitic limestone has corrected this trouble in every instance and at the same time has marvelously stimulated the growth . of crotalaria in the grove. This treat ment is checked with regular limestone in a manner to produce strong evidence that the "bronze leaf" of citrus and the "frenching" of crotalaria are manifestations of magnesium deficiencies. If this can be successfully verified we have made a very valuable discovery. In the demonstrations with raw phosphate, further definite results are manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil condi tions. County agents made 538 tests for soil acidity, phosphorus, . calcium and potash. These results are used as a basis for soil treatments. CORRECTING "FRENCHING" AND SPLITTING Spraying citrus trees with zinc sulfate to correct "frenching" is :recom mended by the Florida Experiment Station and has been practiced in our :lemonstrations for the last three years, but the results are not entirely mtisfactory as the spraying gives only temporary relief in many instances. In . Decem'ber 1933 an extensive fact-finding demonstration was put on with the use of both zinc sulfate and co'pper sulfate in soil applications for 'frenching" arid splitting of Valencia oranges. These two chemicals were lsed at different rates, both alone and combined. Results showed up this rear with the "french!ng" corrected almost 100o/o and splitting of ' the Valencia oranges also reduced about 75% where the two chemicals were 1pplied to the soil at the rate of 1 pounds each per tree. The trees made nuch more growth and the crop of fruit was increased more than 60%. 1 fo additional applications have been made. The annual loss from splitting of Valencia oranges in Florida runs into mndreds of thousands of dollars. No remedy for this disease has been worked out. It seems that we have found a lead: DISEASE CONTROL The two diseases of most economic importance are . melanose and . blue nold decay. The forme _ r mars the appearance of the fruit, while the latter ; akes heavy tolls in transit. Most effective work . during the last seven

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension years in the control of these diseases has been along the .line of prevention. In the control of these and other diseases the county agents report 587 growers following their recommendations this year. Melanose.-Melanose has been satisfactorily controlled in most demon stration groves, and in many other groves, by the adoption of a cultural program that results in a reduction of dead wood produced from year to year. This is done by more adequate fertilization, less cultivation and, in many instances, irrigation. More pruning was done last spring than usual on account of the dead wood resulting from the December freeze. Some good results were obtained by spraying with bordeaux 1 -1 -50. The crop as a whole is fairly free of melanose this year. Blue Mold Decay.-The goal set in 1925 on blue mold decay control has been reached. The goal was a reduction of picking defects to 4%, and the elimination . of the sharp pointed, scissors type clipper from tM' picking equipment. In the same communities where picking inspection revealed an average of 15% picking defects in 1925 recent inspectiomi showed only 3.6%. This improvem~nt has been brought about largety through our edu cational program in which packers and growers have cooperated 100%. During the last two years the campaign against blue mold decay has been carried into a few packinghouses where full use has been made of borax and waxes: Where fruit is to be colored with gas, it goes through a bath of borax on the receiving platform. It receives a second borax treatment as it is washed for packing. The results have been most grati fying. Decay in transit has been reduced to less than i~ of 1 percent. Scab.-Our scab control program has received a serious set-back on account of so much of our grapefruit going into cans, and the prices having been very low during the last three years. Frenching.-'-More than 100 demonstrations sulfate for . "frenching" were conducted this results for the most part were satisfactory. sulfate were also demonstrated. in spraying trees with zinc year in 10 counties. The Soil treatments with zinc INSECT CONTROL Rust Mite.-The rust mite is the most important insect, from an eco nomic standpoint, in the Florida citrus grove. It presents the grower's greatest opportunity for profits .in insect control. , The most outstanding educational program of the last 10 years in rust mite control was put on last year. It was planned to repeat this program in the spring of 1935, but the freeze of December 1934 seemed to have destroyed the prospects of a crop and removed the opportunity to accomplish results, therefore the plan was abandoned. The crop turned out much better than was expected, and county agents report 654 growers cooperating with them in rust mite control. The results of our special efforts on this project last. year have been apparent all over the citrus belt this year. After all, a good job of rust mite control has been done this year. Scale and Whitefly.-Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is being further developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars annually. This year as usual red aschersonia gave splendid control of whitefly in many groves. Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove con ditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective, to determine the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale and white-fly in two years, and are just as free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed

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Annual Report, 1935 51 :wice a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are >roducing larger crops of fruit. Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree often will ac :omplish more in the long run in ridding . the tree of scale than 15 cents nvested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly fertilized it win be able to vithstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop md put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter. In many demonstration groves, by reducing cultivation to about one ourth, growing a heavy cover crop, and not pruning out the center of the rees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which avors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not ,een necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last three to ive years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 15,000 acres , f grove. MISCELLANEOUS Grove Visits.-There is an ever increasing demand made upon Extension vorkers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers or personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove , roblems. This service consumes a large part of the county agent's time, nd unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work, erhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through hese grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers and the :xtension Service. It is through these visits that the county agent's upply of first hand information about current grove conditions is obtained, nd that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines is fully ppreciated. During the year, 3,389 grove visits were made, going into itrus-producing problems; in 11 counties of the state. Meetings and Tours.-During the year, 490 grower meetings were held t demonstrations and elsewhere, attended by more than 5,000 growers and b.eir wives. In addition, 23 grove tours were conducted, in which 240 rowers took part. In these meetings and tours every phase of citrus 11lture was discussed. The demonstrations covered the principal phases. Miscellaneous Service.-The freeze of last December brought about con itions that called for many emergency measures. Unusual demands were 1ade upon the Extension workers for services in the treatment of cold1jured groves. Information on proper pruning and fertilizing of trees 'as made available to growers by circular letters, 'press articles, radio 1lks and through meetings. Federal emergency loans were made available, nd the county agents assisted more than 3,000 growers in obtaining these nd other loans. About 500 were assisted in making better finance plans. More than 300 growers were assisted in making arrangements for the tarketing of their fruit. Four hundred twenty-three growers were assisted in becoming self1pporting. Growers' Institute.-Eight counties cooperated in putting on a 4-day rowers' institute in September at Camp McQuarrie in Lake County. Citrus ilture programs held the most important place in the institute. Every b.ase of citrus culture was discussed by Extension workers, members of 1e College of Agriculture, teaching division, and of the Experiment Sta on Staff. Several method demonstrations were given. The institute was ;tended by more than 200 growers and their wives, and was declared a g success.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY WORK Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman Daniel F. Sowell, Assistant Extension P _ oultryman . . During 1935 the poultry extension program was developed around two main projects: Growing healthy chicks and pullets, and calendar flock records and management. These two projects divide the poultry work into two separate fields. The first deals with the chick, its growth, and the rearing and management of pullets till they are placed in the laying house. The second deals with the laying flock, including feeding and management. Both projects include items which affect cost of production, such as man agement of chicks and pullets, cost records, feeding, vaccination, growing green feed and adopti0n of a sanitation program. FEED PRICES The price that poultrymen have to pay for feed is a most important item. Farni management records show that feed represents approximately 50% of the total cost of egg production and on a cash cost basis it would be considerably higher. Poultry feed prices vary from year to year and the relationship of poultry feed prices to poultry product prices has a direct bearing on the poultry Extension work in the state. It is desirable to know the variation in price of the ingredients that go into a poultry ration as well as the variation in the price of the poultry ration. The poultry ration as used in this report is composed of equal parts of a mash mixture (100 pounds bran, 100 pounds shorts, 100 pounds yellow corn meal, 100 pounds fine ground oats, 100 pounds meatscraps 55% protein, and 25 pounds alfalfa leaf meal) and a grain mixture (100 pounds cracked yellow corn and 100 pounds wheat). The poultry ration for the period (1926-29) averaged $2.80 per 100 pounds. The price decreased to $1.55 per 100 pounds in 1931-32. During the next three years it increased to $1.60 per 100 pounds in 1932-33, $1.96 in 1933-34, and $2.27 in 1934-35. The poultry ration price during the year 1934-35 increased to January and has been on the decline up through No vember 1935, at which time it cost $2.13 per 100 pounds. During the period December 1933 . to November 1934 cost of the poultry ration increased 36 cents per 100 pounds, or approximately 20 percent. On the other hand, a year later (December 1934 to November 1935) cost of the poultry ration decreased 10 cents per 100 pounds or 4.4 percent. PRICE OF POULTRY PRODUCTS Daily quotations of poultry products are given by the State Marketing Bureau at Jacksonville and these prices have been tabulated over a period of years. The average yearly prices for poultry products for the base period (October 1, 1926-September 30, 1929) are as follows: No." l white eggs, 4L1 cents per dozen; heavy hens, 26.7 cents per pound; and heavy fryers, 36.6 cents per pound. The average price of No. 1 white eggs decreased to 23.7 cents per dozen in 1932-33. Since that time the price of eggs increased to 27.7 cents in 1933-34 and to 32. 7 cents in 1934-35. This represents an increase of 5 cents a dozen over the price for last year, or an increase of approximately 18 percent. The average April price of fryers for the base period was 42.7 cents per pound. There was a decrease in the April fryer price through , the year 1933. But in 1934, the April price of 25.2 cents per pound was about 1 cent higher than the April price in 1933. The price was _ slightly

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Annual Report, 1935 53 higher for April, 1935. See Tables 6 and 7 for prices of eggs, hens, and fryers by months for the 1933-34 and 1934-35 seasons. BABY CHICK AND PULLET ' MANAGEMENT The Florida Grow Healthy Chick Program including these six points hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, bal anced rations, and separation .of pullets from cockerels-is one of the most important projects undertaken by the Extension Service. The points considered in the main during the past year were quality chicks, clean brooder houses, and clean land. The ultimate aim of any pullet program is in the placing of a high quality, well grown 'pullet in the laying house each fall. Agents and pro ducers realize its importance, with the result that a sanitation program was developed and stressed during the year. Records kept by farmers over a period of years show the value and need for such a program. In Florida thre e systems of brooding chicks are generally used (1) colony brooder houses; (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors, and (3) battery brooders. A number of producers are now attempting to work out a plan in the development o:f their pullets to have a 3.or 4-year rotation range. A program of this type has been most successfully presented by means of meetings, circular letters, bulletins, and farm visits. SUCCULENT GREEN FEED The development of a green feed program for poultry production is both sound and advisable in Florida. Data tabulated from records kept by producers indicate the value of feeding succulent green feed to poultry of various ages. The use of succulent green feed as a part of a feeding program was emphasized by the agents during the year. In cooperation with the Agronomy De'partment of the Agricultural Experiment Station, information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, etc., have been furnished the producer. In many cases the green feed program was worked out in connection with the sanitation program. A double yarding system was inaugurated so that the birds could be rotated at regular intervals and green feed grown in the yard when the birds were ranging in the other yard. In other cases due to layout of the farm and type of soil some producers found it more economical and practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it and feed it to the birds. CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS Poultry producers are rapidly finding out that it is absolutely essential to have a high producing flock to succeed, ' and one way to have a flock of this type is to practice culling. The more successful poultry producers find it desirable to cull every month of the year. Meetings, newspaper articles, and farm visits were means of advising producers about the im portance of early maturity,, intensity, and persistency as shown by changes in pigmentation and molt. Demonstrations showing the method of culling were given by various agents during the year. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS Record keeping has become one of the most important phases of the poultry Extension program. During the past 11 years this project has demonstrated its value and importance. A study of the records has , re

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TABLE 6.-MoNTHLY PRICES OF PouLTRY PRODUCTS, * DECEMBER, 1933-N~VEMBE~, 1934 ; JAcKso~vn_;LE, FLA: Product I Dec. I Jan. Feb. I Mat. J Aprffl May I June I /uly I Aug. Sept. I Oct. No. 1 white eggs-eents per doz .. ... .............. .. . ...... 34.4 28;7 25.6 19.2 19.8 20.1 23.5 28.0 31.6 36.8 38.0 Heavy hens-eents per lb .......... ........ ............... ... , ..... 14.0 14.3 15.5 16.0 . 15.5 15.8 16.0 15.7 14.8 16.6 17.2 Heavy fryers-eents per lb ......... ...... ....... ..... ....... 16.1 17.6 20.2 23.9 25.2 24.9 22.5 20.1 18.7 19.7 20.0 * Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau. TABLE 7.-MONTHLY PRICES OF POULTRY PRODUCTS,* DECEMBER, 1934-NOVEMBER, 1935, JACKSONVILLE, FLA. , Dec. I I I jMar. \ April I May I June I July I Aug. , Sept. , Oct. \ Nov. Product Jan. Feb. : No. 1 white eggs-eents per doz .............. 40.0 35.8 31.8 23.0 24.9 26.3 26.8 31.5 35.6 39.0 39.3 37-.0 Heavy hens-eents per lb ............... , ............ 17.5 17.5 17.8 18.3 18.0 18.0 18.7 18.2 18.4 19.3 21.0 21.7 Heavy fryers-eents per lb ........................... 20.5 21.5 24.3 26.1 25.9 26.4 23.1 21.2 20.3 21.0 22.4 23.2 * Wholesale quotations by State Marketing Bureau.

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Annual R eport, 1935 55 ve aled many facts which have been of assistance to producers in increasing the efficiency of their enterprise. The calendar flock records program ha s been devised to take care of two groups of poultry raisers , the one with a flock of less than 250 birds, and one who has a commercial flock. Two different books are in use. Fig. 5 . Mrs. G . W . Bole s of Santa Rosa County keeps records on her turkeys, and finds that they gross between $400 and $5 00 a year. The f lock paid for the home place and built the home for the family. Ranges are rotated and disease is held down. In the development of this program it is necessary to hold the interest of the producer throughout the year so that he or s he will keep the book comp lete. To help hold this interest, a monthly report is issued to all coope rator s, and in this report a summary of the monthly records are given, together with poultry, egg, and feed prices and indices, and timely poultry information. All poultry records start October 1 and are completed September 30. During the year just ended poultry raise rs from 16 counties kept com plete records. Table 8 gives the results obtained for the year 1934-35. An item of particular interest is the average number of birds per farm. It has increased for the past three years. In 1932-33, the average number of birds per farm was 258; in 1933-34 it was 354, and in 1934 35 it was 470 birds. The percent culling was the greatest during the past three years. Adult mortality increased from 12.26 percent in 1933-34 to 20.38 percent in 1934-35, indicating the need for considerable study along this phase of poultry husbandry. Table 9 s h ows the number of flocks, average size of flocks and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.

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56 Florida Cooperative E x tension TABLE 8.-FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS, SUMMARY FOR .YEArt ( OCTOBER 1, 1934-SEPT. 30, 1935). Items Number of farms . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .... ... ... . . .... .. . ..... . .... . ... . ..... . ..... .. .. . ...... . ... . . ....... . Average number of birds .... .. . . .......... .. ....... . . ........... .. ......... . ......... . ......... . Average number o f birds per farm . .. . ...... . ... . . . .... . . . . .... . .. ..... .... . . . ....... . . . Average number of eggs per bird per year .... . .. . . . . .... .. .. . .... .. .... . : . ..... . . Average percent culled .................... .. ................................. .. ......... . . ....... . 4verage percent mortality . .. .. .. . . . ..... . : ...... . . .. .... .. .... .. . ..... . . . . . ... . . . ... . .. .. . .... . I 37 17,410 470 163.04 49.25 20 . 38 The highest eg g production per bird was obtained by the group averaging 815 birds to the flock: This project was started again on October 1, ., 1935, and over 250 poultry record books were distri b uted, indicating an " )ncreased interest , in this program. TABLE 9 . -FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE. ~otal number of flocks . . . ...... . . . . .... . Average size of flock .. . . ........ . . . . . . .... Average number e ggs per bird ... . 10-50 Birds 3 34 141.49 51-250 Birds 11 140 157.51 JUNIOR POULTRY WORK 251-500 I Over 500 Birds Birds 6 17 319 815 154.93 164.94 Poultry raisin g is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work for . both boys and g irls. Ther e were 1,596 boys and girls enrolled during the year. The work was outlined similar to the previous year in that there were two types of projects known as poultry production and poultry improvement. The poultry improvement 'project is the more practical and popular. Poultry was taught at both the Girls' Short Course and the Boys' Short Cours e held in June. The instruction was divided into two groups, one group for beginners and another for advanced work. The advanced group received poultry instructions in the form of managing a flock of 100 birds, including locating the buildings, type s of houses, incubation, brooding, rearing, managing the layers , and keeping records. Poultry subjects were discussed at 4-H club meetings and on farm visits. At five county fairs 4-H club. members exhibited birds and these birds were judged, with . demonstrations given ' in .judging and discussions of methods of preparing birds for show. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS The various poultry associations in the state have been of great ' assistance in the development of the poultry Extension program. The Florida State Poultry Producers' Ass ociation has been organized for over 10 . years and has been very active in 'promoting and protecting the poultry industry in the s tate. The state association is composed of 28 local or county poultry association s . The state association ha s spon s ored a poultry magazine known as The Florida Poultryman : The First Egg Show on a state-wide basis will be held in February 1936 at the Florida Fair. This is another activity of the state association.

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Annual Report, 1935 57 Various local and county poultry associations have held regular monthly meetings, at which time special poultry talks or demonstrations have been given. These associations are assisting county and home demonstration agents in analyzing and working out constructive poultry programs for the counties. The Florida Baby Chick Association is an organization of hatcherymen and others interested in the development of the baby chick industry. While the hatchery code was in effect, the associatfon members were active _ in seeing that the code was carried out. The members have assisted and fostered the Grow Healthy Chick Program. FLORIDA POULTRY COUNCIL The Florida Poultry Council was organized January 15, . 1935, the organization meeting being held at Orlando. The Florida Poultry Council is composed of delegates representing all phases of the 'poultry industry. Included in the organization are poultry producers (farm and commercial), hatcheries (commercial and breeder), poultry breeders (farm and commercial), egg and poultry dealers, packers, t he poultry press, State Department of Agriculture (Marketing and Inspec tion Bureaus), Livestock Sanitary Board, Poultry Division of College of Agriculture, Agricu : tural Extension Service, State Health Department, National Egg-Laying Contest, teachers of vocational agriculture and home ~conomics, and delegates from the Florida Poultry Producers' Association, l<'lorida Baby Chick Association, American Poultry Association of Florida, ind the State Feed Association. The Council is a fact finding group. Only two regular meetings are 1eld a year, the main work being accomplished through committees. The :ollowing committees were appointed for the year 1935: Marketing, Breed [ m provement, Research and Education, Disease Control, Poultry Show, Or~anization, and Legislation and Legal Advice Committee. The most outstanding work started by the Florida Poultry Council luring the year is Flo:rida's Egg Quality Program and the National Poultry :mprovement Program. The Council ha _ s great possibilities _ in rendering advice for the safe levelopment of the poultry industry of the $tate. FLORIDA'S EGG QUALITY PROGRAM The Florida Egg Law states that eggs are to be sold on a weight and 1uality grade similar to United States grades. The Florida Poultry Council 1as adopted an educational program including the producer, dealer, and : onsumer. All departments doing educational work in the State are co in developing this program. Only the preliminary part of the ,rogram has started but it will be in full swing during the 1936 season. NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM The revised uniform plan for flock improvement and disease cont:t'ol . s announced by the United States Department . of Agriculture is under the upervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. The _ Agricultural Ex ension Service is cooperating with Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Vet rinarian of the Livestock Sanitary Board, in the development of this pro :ram. A program of this type should result in better flocks with higher gg production and lower mortality. Dr. Gilles has assisted in Extension poultry meetings and with testing ,or _ k at the _ " Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension MARKETING The State Marketing Bureau has . worked in close cooperation with the county arid home demonstration agents and with the Gainesville office. F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has assisted county and home demonstration agents in . locating markets for eggs and poultry meat. He has attended meetings of poultry associations, discussing the marketing and grading of eggs and poultry. ' . In cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau and the Inspection Bureau, daily quotations of eggs and poultry are given over WRUF and . data are collecteci from the seven district egg and poultry inspectors to study the marketing conditions in the State. The Extension agents have assisted the Inspection Bureau in arran~ing meetings to discuss the new Florida Egg and Poultry Laws. CHICKENPOX VACCINATION Poultry producers in the State are realizing more each year the value of vaccinating pullets for chickenpox. It is practiced by practically all commercial producers. In some sections demonstrations were given with very satisfactory results. As a rule the pullets are vaccinated at 12 to 16 weeks of age. HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS Brick brooders still are popular in many sections of the State. The first brick brooders in Florida were built in northwestern counties, but some are now found as far south . as Highlands County. ' The majority of the operators find this method of providing heat for baby chicks. very satis factory. POULTRY MEETINGS In coop~ration with local ana state associations, poultry meetings were held throughout the year. State Departments and commercial manufac turers assisted in presenting practical poultry information to those interest ed in poultry production and marketing. NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST The Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest started at Chipley October 1, 1934, and ended September 22, 1935. There were 74 pens of pullets entered from 18 different states. There were 15 pens of heavy breeds and 59 ):>ens of light breeds. Average egg production for the 51 weeks period was 210.4 eggs per bird, for a value of 210.2 points. This production was . slightly higher than the production obtained in the Eighth Contest. There were 16 birds that produced 300 or more eggs. Twenty-one pullets made a 300 point average or more for the year, and eight pullets produced 300 or more eggs with a value of more than 300 points. , There was one Rhode Island Red and one Barred Plymouth Rock that made a 300 point value. Some additional data from the Ninth Contest follow: 1. The average feed cost per bird was $2.26. 2. The average feed cost ):>er dozen eggs was 12.88 cents. 8. The average pounds Of feed per bird per year was 91.12 pounds. 4. The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.197 pounds. 5. The average mortality was 26.72 percent . . 6. The average egg price was 26.2 cents per dozen.

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Annual Report, 1935 59 The Tenth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest started October 1, 1935, with all 100 pens filled for the first time. FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, in addition to the regular official contest, feeding and management demonstrations started in 1933 were repeated. The demonstrations conducted were 1. A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain and mash ration in feeding for egg production. 2. A comparative study of the value of meatscra'ps, fishmeal, and milk solids as sources of protein for egg production. 3. Lights versus no lights for egg production. 4. A study of shell texture and egg quality. A report showing the two years' results will be issued in the near future. COOPERATIVE WORK WITH THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION The following projects have been conducted in cooperation with W. F. Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary , Bureau of Animal In dustry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station, and N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, Agricultural Extension Service. 1. A study of the value of different sources of protein for the production )f broilers. 2. A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single 8omb White Leghorn hens for egg production. 3. Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets. 4. Value of range rotation in rearing pullets. 5. Growth studies of cockerels and 'pullets. 6. The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White C..eghorns and Rhode Island Reds. 7. The use of peanuts and peanut products in rearing turkeys. Progress report of these trials will be found in the Annual Report of : he Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

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-60 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist F. W. Brumley, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. Howard, Assistant Economist, Farm Management D. E. Timmons, Agricultural Economist, Marketing During practically all of the year the Economist in Marketing was . assigned to special duties in connection with the agricultural adjustment program, and his report is included under that heading. FARM MANAGEMENT During the year a number of studies were made in the major type-of farming areas as a basis for future planning of agriculture in Florida. These studies were of great assistance in supplying information requested from various sources. The Farm Management Economists have cooperated with the other specialists and different divisions of the College of Agri culture in collecting, assembling and supplying information to those re questing it. The main projects carried on during the past year were: Citrus accounts, farm management surveys, poultry accounts, agricultural ad justment work, feed and egg prices, program planning, and miscellaneous. CITRUS ACCOUNTS The citrus account project is now in its sixth year. The purposes of this 'project are: 1. To provide growers with a simple record book in which they may keep expenses and receipts of their grove operations. 2. To assist growers in keeping and summarizing their records and determining cost of production. 3. To provide growers with a summary of comparative yields, cost of production, fertilizing practices, prices of fruit received by varieties and net returns on similar groves. 4. To provide data that may be studied over a long period of years in an effort to determin~ factors affecting cost of production and 'profits. Table 10 shows a summary of the citrus record work by years and counties for the five years beginning September 1, 1930. TABLE 10.-SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF CITRUS RECORD ACCOUNTS BY COUNTIES, FROM 1930-31 TO 1934-35. Counties ) 1930-31 1931-32, 1932-3311933-34 I 1934-35*11935-36** Lake .......... . ... . ........... 39 61 88 85 115 130 Polk .......................... 17 59 80 83 90 91 Orange .......... .. .......... 46 42 48 42 50 74 Highlands .... . ........... 12 35 44 40 38 42 Miscellaneous I Counties . ... . ........... ! 5 12 8 8 10 13 Total ........... .. ........... 1 119 I 209 I 268 I 258 303 I 350 * Estimated, based upon number of cost records completed as of August 31, 1935. Fruit returns will not be available until the crop of 1935-36 has been sold. ** Accounts started.

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Annual Report, 1935 61 The first annual summary of costs. and returns for Florida citrus groves , n a crop-year basis was prepared for the 1932-33 season. This change . n method of handling the accounts was requested by county agents and : rowers cooperating. The former accounts were handled for a year's busi , ess, as most farm accounts are handled, which included an expenses and eceipts incurred ' during a 12-months period. However, the new method naugurated during the past year included the fruit receipts and expenses ncurred primarily in producing the same cro'p. It is believed that the rop year furnishes a more adequate basis for studying factors affecting osts and returns on a single crop. Each individual grower was furnished a copy of the state summary, ogether with a summary of his record which included data for the current .nd past years. This enabled cooperators to compare their costs and returns or different years, as well as with other groves in their county and in he State for the current year. All growers who furnished the analysis . nd quantity of fertilizer used during the year were given a summary f the pounds of available plant food ap ' plied per 100 trees to compare with he average amounts applied on other groves. More than 1,500 copies of his summary have been supplied growers, fertilizer companies and their alesmen, libraries in the United States and Puerto Rico, and business men pon request. 1933-34 Accounts.-The 1933-34 accounts are now being summarized and he report will be released within six or eight weeks. This report will be he second summary issued on a crop-year basis . Results of the first two ears' work were summarized on a seasonal basis, and for the third year summary was prepared and distributed to cooperators and others re uesting a copy on both seasonal and crop year bases. There were 301 grove ccounts started in 1933-34, but due to change in ownership of groves and he cold injury to fruit and trees, only 258 complete accounts have been ummarized. A special effort was made to get cooperators to . complete heir accounts on groves affected by cold by estimating the number of oxes lost, but many growers were discouraged and did not care to finish he accounts. 1934-35 Accounts.-The fruit returns for this cost year will not be avail ble until the crop produced during the year is sold, which will be about lUgust 1936. There were 303 cost accounts completed for the year. The ew who did not request new books either sold their groves during the year r the groves were severely damaged by the December 1934 freeze. Haw ver, about 10 percent more books were distributed this year than last year. FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS Farm organization data were available in only 22 counties prior to the ummer of 1935. During the past year, the Assistant Extension Economist oo perated in farm management surveys in Dade County for the early rhite potato and tomato areas; Broward County for the Dania tomato and 'ompano truck areas; Palm Beach County, Belle Glade-Chosen truck area; nd Escambia County, general farming and white potato area. The farm ecords taken in the Dade County early white potato area were summarized nd the findings returned to the farmers in that area. POULTRY ACCOUNTS October 1, 1935, marked the eleventh year . in which poultry account ooks have been distributed free to poultrymen of Florida by the Florida :xtension Service. This has been a cooperative proje<:t with the Extension

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62 F'lorida Cooperative Extension Poultryman since 193L One hundred or more books have been distributed each year. These books serve a two-fold purpose. They are used by poultrymen for keeping records of receipts, expenses, egg production ar;d mortality. They are also used by all poultrymen who wish to enter their flock in the Florida Calendar Flock Records. During the years 1927-32, from 40 to 100 poultry record books were summarized each year for the cooperators by the College of Agriculture and the Extension Service. Each. cooperator was furnished a summary of his year's business, showing costs of production, profits and a list of factors for use in studying the strong and weak points of his business. Many practical ways of increasing profits were found by studying these records and the results were made available to all poultry-men in the state .. None of these books have been summarized since 1932. While three years is a relatively short period, there have been several new developments in management practices since that time. During September 1935, in co operation with the Extension Poultryman, County and Home Agents, teach ers of vocational agriculture, and feed companies, over 250 books were distributed to poultry.men in all parts of Florida. About two-thirds of this number were distributed in Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Marion, Nassau, Putnam, Pasco, Pinellas and Polk counties. Next fall the Extension Service plans to make another state-wide summary of these books for all poultrymen who keep them during the year. It is hoped that the results of this year's work will furnish information on thetrelative profitableness of many of the new methods, such as con finement housing, individual batteries for layers, and methods of marketing, compared with the older and more established systems. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK The farm record books, prepared by the Agricultural Adjustment Ad ministration, were distributed to producers desiring them. During January 1935, 31 meetings were held in 20 Central and West Florida counties. The principal subject discussed at these meetings was how and when to make a farm inventory. In addition to the discussion of inventories at these meetings, a brief resume was given of the methods to be used in keeping farm expenses and receipts. All farmers who attended these meetings. were offered one of the AAA record books and a supply of these books was left in the County Agents' offices for those farmers who did not attend one of the meetings but later might i:equest one of the books. In Escambia County, where most interest was shown in keeping farm records, three additional meetings were held in May at the request of the County Agent. Again in July, another series of meetings was held in 18 counties for the purpose of discussing in more detail the importance and methods of keeping the farm ex'penses and receipts. At the beginning of the year a 15" x 21" farm record poster was pre pared and displayed in all County Agents' and Production Credit Association offices. , Various state control boards and committees of the agricultural adjust, ment programs were assisted in several ways during the year. The Ex tension Economist served on the State Board for Cotton during the month ' of August and part of September. Other adjustment boards were assisted ' in assembling and preparing statistical information for use in connection 1 -with the programs.

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Annual Report, 1935 FEED AND EGG PRICE DATA 63 Average profits of a large number of poultrymen fluctuate with the >rices received for eggs and the 'prices paid for feed. Egg and feed prices ire available for the Jacksonville market for a longer period than for my other market in Florida. The average monthly price of eggs, as quoted >Y the Florida State Marketing Bureau, and the weekly prices of feeds is quoted by a Jacksonville feed dealer, have been tabulated in this office 'or several years. During the three-year period October 1, 1926, to September 20, 1929, . he average yearly wholesale price of eggs at Jacksonville was 41 cents. <}arly in 1929, egg prices began to drop very rapidly. They were lowest luring 1932-33 when the average price was 23.7 cents, or 59 percent of the . 926-29 level. Beginning in the fall of 1933, egg prices began to rise and 1veraged 27.7 cents for the year 1933-34 and 32.7 cents for 1934-35. Feed prices also declined during the 'period 1929-32, and in 1931-32 and .932-33 were relatively lower than egg prices, giving eggs a higher pUr , hasing power than during the base period. However, eggs lost their ad 'antage soon after prices began to rise, as feed prices rose faster than ,gg prices. The ratio of egg prices to feed prices was relatively low until n the spring and summer of 1935, at which time eggs experienced less han the normal seasonal decline and feed prices declined slightly. COUNTY AGRICULTURAL _ PLANNING This is a cooperative 'project between the Agricultural Adjustment Ad ninistration, the U.S.D.A. Extension Service, State Extension Service, Col ege of Agriculture, and Florida Experiment Station. It is, in short, a •roposal for large-scale cooperative planning in the development of county, tate and national agricultural programs. The project involves the setting up of county agricultural planning ommittees composed of leading farmers and agricultural workers in each ounty where there is a County Agent. ln Florida it has been decided to all these bodies "County Agricultural Planning Councils". The leader of he project in each county will be the County Agricultural Agent. Each ouncil should be divided into smaller committees representing one or more .f the types of farming in the county. It will be the duty of these councils to help assume the responsibility or thinking through the agricultural problems of the county, the state . nd the nation. They can be a media through which state and federal gencies may get farmer approval of proposed plans and from which may ome many suggestions for formulating a county, state and national agri ultural program. From the standpoint of time, the functions of these councils may be ivided into immediate and future tasks. The immediate task will be to stimate, after a careful study of all available facts, the answers to certain uestions needed in the formulation of county, state and national agricul11ral programs. The future work of the councils will be to act as a group f local thinking people in assisting the County Agent in carrying on a ound agricultural 'program in each county. They can assist him in giving broader dissemination of facts and information available on the agri ulture of the county and by helping him to round out an agricultural pro ram fitted to the needs of the farmers of the county. In carrying out this project in Florida, special emphasis has been placed n the long-time advantages of having such county agricultural planning ouncils. The results of such councils or committees in counties in which iley have functioned in the past have been very beneficial.

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64 P'lorida Cooperative Extension This project is a very broad ~ne and should have many far-reaching effects. It is the first time an effort has been made to assemble all avail able agricultural economics data on a county basis. It is hoped all of the councils will continue to function permanently. MISCELLANEOUS WORK AND PROJECTS The most important regular work accomplished during the year was •the presentation of the results of 'previous farm management work carried on by the Department of Agricultural Economics. These were presented by the use of mimeographed material and charts at farm meetings, insti tutes, County Agents' Week, and other meetings. Over 6,500 farmers were reached by these methods. In addition, much of this material was mailed to farmers, agricultural workers and other interested parties. A representative .of this department served on the Florida Poultry Council. Assistance was rendered those who prepared the 1936 Agricul tural Outlook for Florida.

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Annual Report, 1935 PART III-WOMEN'S AND 4-H WORI{ HOME . DEMONSTRATION WORK Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent Ruby McDavid, District Home Demonstration Agent Lucy B. Settle, District Home Demonstration Agent Anna M. Sikes, . Acting District Home Demonstration Agent ORGANIZATION 65 The home demon s tration state supervisory staff consists of state agent, 1ree district agents and subject matter specialists in home improvement, , od conservation, and nutrition. There are 36 county home demonstration rents working in 35 counties in Florida. This is an increase of four ,unties cooperating in financing and conducting home demonstration work •er last year. Records show work underway in 501 communities. There are 296 or mized home demon s tration clubs for women with a membership of 7,i22. 1ere are 615 girls' 4-H clubs with a membership of 9,215 girls 10 to 21 iars of age. The type of work conducted is somewhat dependent upon the c1assifica >n of county according to the following grouping: (1) counties in which e work has been established for 15 to 20 years or more, (2) countie s which the work has been established for a year, (3) counties in which e work has been established within the last few months, and (4) un ganized counties. The supervisory staff endeavors to study the needs d , with the home demonstration agents, guide the development of the nd of program that renders the best service in meeting needs of those ncerned. EMERGENCY WORK Emergency work has continued to increase demands upon the agents' ne. On the other hand it has served to an advantage in that it has, (1) veloped more forcibly the agents' leadership abilities, (2) increased the mber of contacts with the agents, (3) given increased emphasis to various t ivities that home demonstration agents have been stressing all along, ) because of this extra pressure a larger number of families are par ipating in home demonstration work, (5) increases in the number of mties appropriating are due to a great extent to interest aroused by i rural home assistants in the rural rehabilitation program, working in mties without home demonstration agents, but in close coop e ration with ,te supervisory staff of home demonstration work, (6) a large amount canning equipment is available in many counties as a result of the rural Labilitation program. CME-ELEMENT DURING SCHOOL YEAR AND 4-H CLUB WORK Although 4 H club work is growing, the . time that girls can devote . to during the school year is affected considerably by the long distances ny must travel, leaving: almost no time before or after school for work home. Consequently, particular emphasis is being placed upon the type 3

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension of work these girls do at home over the week-end during the school year and upon more detailed 4-H club project activities during the school vaca tion period. SUPERVISORY PROGRAM The state staff gave particular attention to development of the following major obj e ctives during the year: 1. To assist all home demonstration agents in developing programs that meet the need s of the greatest number of rural people. 2. To adapt programs to meet present conditions and at same time give emphasis to permanent and long-time demonstrations in the homes. 3 . . To render some definite assistance in unorganized counties in order to spread more widely the influence of home demonstration work and in crease the number of county home demonstration agents as funds permit. 4. To further develop home demonstration clubs, county and state coun cils, to increase number of standard clubs and councils, work with larger number of older girls, maintain high percentage of com pletions and secure better records. 5. To give more attention to efficient distribution of agents' time; distribution of work in county; and distribution of the specialists' time, district agents' time, and state agent's time. 6. To work out a more satisfactory arrangement for providing agents with better demonstration equipment and necessary assistance. 7. To emphasize the demonstration as an object lesson by encouraging more tours, home visits and meetings at result demonstrations. 8. To employ the best trained workers available and acquaint them as far as is possible , with the job before it is assumed. DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAM Program planning is practically a year-round procedure from the stand p:. int of state Extension workers, although county programs are in most cases adopted during the latter part of the calendar year for the ensuing year. In counties where home demonstration work has been established for some time agents, home demonstration women and 4-H club girls, also members of the state staff, have a rather clear understanding of conditions and there are considerable factual data at hand obtained through ques tionnaires, surveys, special project studies, records and reports of previous work that help to some extent in program making. These with goals previously set and achievements for the year as well as needs are analyzed. Outlook material for Florida farm homes in particular and the nation in general serve as guides. All economic data that specialists and the super visory staff members are able to assemble that affects farm family living are studied, presented to state and county workers and to individual club members, clubs in the communities, to county councils and committees working with agents in determining the most helpful programs during the year. Agents analyze situations affecting the farm homes in their respective counties and confer with specialists and supervisors regarding same. In terest through participation as well as experiences of the local club mem bers themselves bring about far reaching results. The community home demonstration and 4-H groups meet monthly and during latter part of summer or early fall in connection with program planning for next year they give particular attention to discussions of conditions, individual and community needs, along with their accomplish ~ ments for the past year and setting . goals for the next year. .,

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Annual Report, 1935 EMPLOYMENT OF AGENTS 67 It is the policy to employ agents who have at least the bachelor degree in home economics and experiences which provide a good background for home demonstration work. In filling the new positions this year well trained 'people were secured. All of them are college graduates with excellent records over a period of several years as teachers of home economics. In addition three of them were successful rural rehabilitation assistants for a year or more. Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that Extension workers have not had an opportunity to leave their posts of duty this year for study. ASSISTANCE IN PLANNING WORK As stated previously, members of the state staff study conditions, eco1omic and outlook data, and discuss these and various local situations .vith the agent and home demonstration councils to assist in determining ;he most helpful service the agent can render during the year. With 'acts at hand that help to determine the type of program to be followed ; he agent is in position to set her goals for the year. Demonstrations established in homes, home demonstration clubs for vomen and 4-H clubs for girls, and county councils are the chief avenues hrough which the home agent works, and special events are decided upon LS the agent and district agent think are best suited to creating interest , nd spreading influence of home demonstration work . During the first 'part of each year a definite program of work with ,Jans for developing is . required of each agent. In this she lists goals set nd methods to be used in obtaining them. This program is studied to ether carefully by district and state agent. They approve or make sug estions for strengthening, as the case may be. This program is checked y the district agent , with the agent from time to time during the year . fter reports have been submitted at the close of the year a comparison ; mad!! of the goals set with results accomplished and this is referred to he agent with comments and suggestions for the next year. !EASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS OF EXTENSION TEACHING Simple but practical, usable record books prepared by the state staff re furnished each club member in which she can keep accurate records. The increase in interest and number of records submitted, in number ' older girls remaining in 4-H club work, and in number of women estab shing definite demonstrations in their homes is attributed in 'part to the rstematic forms used especially in women's work, and to the understanding 1at council members have for the need of accurate records. The percent re of members keeping full records is far from satisfactory but the number increasing. There is a very good percentage of 4-H club girls who continue active their 4-H club work, so strengthening the work generally and providing fine group of lead e rs for the younger members. Goals set at beginning of each year are always compared with achieve e nts and discussed with agents. For the most part goals were exceeded. ie need for providing a living at home and the need for assistance or . vice so as to get best returns for efforts, also the confidence in the agents, 1 feel brought this about. The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year award for the best county council book which is judged on appearance,

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension arrangement and effective development of the county council program dur ing the year. This has been an excellent means of bringing about far greater interest in .keeping record books in the .clubs and causing individual members to kee'p better records not only for themselves but for their clubs and councils. The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach County. The president of the State Council is a member of the Palm Beach County Council and an enthusiastic demonstrator who keeps accurate records of her work. STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations, increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution of concise, tabulated reports of. accomplishments in the county, pr.esenting facts and figures regarding the work to civic organizations, Florida prod ucts dinners, thrift meals, exhibits, tours to established demonstrations in the home-such as pantries, poultry flocks, home improvement, gardens and orchards-also shopping tours, achievement days, use of. the press and radio, assistance with emergency relief activities, are methods which continue to be most successfully used in creating sentiment for home demonstration work because these afford opportunity for better under standing of the work. The willingness and readiness with which home demonstration offices cooperate with other organizations in assisting with worthwhile endeavors have obtained good will from many groups. CIRCULAR LETTERS Reports show that during 1935 the agents prepared 1,507 different circular letters for distribution to their club members. This was a decrease from last year due to lack of clerical assistance as provided the year before by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Attractive drawings that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used for illustrating these principles and showing them carried out in practice of the home. Recognition of successful result demonstrations inspires the demonstrator to attempt greater accomplishments. Realizing this, the agents almost doubled this year the number of meetings at result demonstrations with more than double attendance. Circular letters assisted in informing the members of the demonstrations. PUBLICITY Members of the home demonstration organization present talks over WRUF and other radio stations during the year. Twelve county homE demonstration agents report 31 radio talks during the year. Agents wherE there are local broadcasting stations frequently broadcast subject matte1 information of interest to home makers and information regarding de velopments in home demonstration activities. We participated in the Na tional 4-H Achievement Day Program presenting programs from fou1 stations in• Florida. Newspapers throughout the State have given space generously for new~ stories and regularly appearing columns of an informative nature. Thirty five counties report 2,326 news articles f.>r stories published. News reporters elected or appointed in both girls' 4-H and women's clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given during Short Course for 4-H club girls by thE

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Annual Report, 1935 69 xtension Editor and occasional courses given by him in the counties to lembers of county home demonstration councils have proven of much help > these reporters. HOME VISITS We continue to realize and emphasize the importance of home visits ith a specific putpose in mind. Reports show that the home demonstra on agents made 14,205 home visits to 7,437 homes during the year. It is ilt that much has been accomplished by these personal contacts. TOURS Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are dremely worth while and profitable from an economic standpoint. These 1ccessful women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object , ssons. Fine reports have been received of the pantry tours this year, ; follow-up of planning canning budgets for the family. There were 97 rnrs conducted with an attendance of 2,905 interested persons. CLUB AND COUNCIL MEETINGS All agents follow a regular schedule of club meetings, visiting each mior club once each month; usually each junior club holds the same 11mber . of meetings with the agent. Most council meetings are held 1arterly. The district agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently !ld attends county council meetings once or twice a year, :makes home isits with the agents and frequently attends special events. In this way formed a close acquaintance and friendly contact with the people of le county. Members of the state staff not only advise with the county agents on ! ans to follow in developing any special program of work, but they take 1ggestions of strengthening the work from county to county and advise ; to new material available for reference or assistance. BULLETINS AND CIRCULARS During the year material has been prepared for agents' use on the 1bjects of: The Family Food Supply, Citrus, and Canning Budgets. Bui tins in greatest demand have included those pertaining to food conser ition, economical meals, renovation of house furnishings. In connection ith subject-matter instruction, agents report they have distributed 43,213 1lletins. EXHIBITS Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards other than bbons this year, 31 counties report 304 events at which educational ex bits were shown. That these could be used to further improve the prod :ts, the articles were carefully scored and the exhibitors . were given mefit of the findings. The state home demonstration staff arranged a ,ecial exhibit of home demonstration work for the annual meeting of State ~deration of Women's Clubs. DEMONSTRATIONS The demonstration method of teaching is the one used by home dem1stration agents most advantageously. The basis of this service lies in , e demonstration conducted in the home under ordinary living conditions, 1d these demonstrations must be well thought out and means provided

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension for their being carried to completion. The women and girls with the agent's advice decide on the demonstrations they are to conduct. To assist the women and girls in establishment of demonstrations in their homes using recommended methods, the agents held 8,345 method demonstration meetings during the year with an attendance of 120,361. The successful demonstration is convincing proof of the soundness of the methods being demonstrated. Meetings held at the demonstration pro vide a means for pointing out and interpreting the principles taught by the agent and give the agent available material for illustrating these principles and showing them carried out in practice of the home. There were 1,790 meetings held at result demonstrations with an attendance of 20,999. Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls are encouraged as a means of determining the completeness with which the girls are really adopting principles; to enable them to pass information along to others, and for their own self-development. One hundred and one judging teams and 318 dem onstration teams were developed in the state during the year. LOCAL LEADERS Local women and girls through their councils realize they must take an increased share of responsibility for extending the home demonstration program and so allow more time for the agent to develop work with addi tional groups or individuals. The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils are factors contributing greatly to efficient development of home demonstration wor:k throughout the state. In 1935 a total of 1,391 persons assisted home dem onstration agents as voluntary local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the Extension program. Of this number, 269 were older 4-H club girlE helping with the 4-H club program. There were 205 training meetingE held for leaders for adult work, attendance being 2,417. There were 87 training meetings for leaders of 4H club work with an attendance of 1,280. In several counties older 4-H girls, known as 4-H alumnae groups, havE: taken a direct responsibility, especially with camps and similar events during the last two years. SPECIAL EVENTS Achievement Days.-Community and county achievement days are ob served at the culmination of the year's work. The purpose in holding thes( is to give recognition to the club members for worthy endeavor, to helI them and the agent check on their own progress, and to give the publi< an opportunity to know more about the work in the county. During th( year there were 93 achievement days held, 41 for adults with an attendanc( of 7,578 and 53 for 4-H club members with an attendance of 8,062. Carnps.-Camps continue to be popular with 4-H club members anc adults. During the summer of 1935 there were 42 camps held; 16 of thes\ were for women, six for boys and girls and 20 for girls. There were ii attendance at these camps 587 home demonstration club women; 1,291 girls, and 1,652 others including visitors, instructors, leaders, who enjoye< the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership development of th, camp. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H girls and local leaders gave ex cellent assistance to the agents in conducting the camps. The two-day farm and home institute for adults held at the West Florid: 4-H Club Camp was the most inspirational event of the year for adult farn people of West Florida. Out-of-State Trips.-Nellie Berry of Alachua County and Florence Hom' broek of Escambia County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Clul

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Annual R eport, 1 935 71 : amp in June. Thi s camp, held annually in Wa s hington, D. C . , under th e . u s pice s of the Extension Service of the United States D ep artment of lgricul t ure , affords outstanding ed ucational . advantages and l e ad e rshi p . evelopment. In additio n to the program participated in by club members , n t h e camp groun d s, educational tours were made . to places of int erest n and near the city of Washington. Only the two g irl s and two boys naking t h e highe st score wit hin t h e states are permitted to attend. Fig. 6 .-Sup e rvi se d recreational program s at 4-H camps train girls in ,roper u se o f l e i s ure time and help them to become lead e r s in their com nunitie s. Th ere i s alway s keen inter est am ong club members for trip s to Chicago ' or attendan ce at the National 4H C lub C ongres s. Onl y those s coring 1igh est in va riou s 'phases of club work are awarded trips. Recipients o~ h e trips thi s ye ar were R e b ecca Par ti n of Palm B e ach County; Margaret )unford of P o lk Co un ty; Edna Sims of Walto n Co un ty ; France s Palm er ,f Gad sd en County and Lor e na W et herbe e of Oran ge County. Short Course for 4 -H C lub Girls.-The State Short Cour se for 4-H Club iirl s , held at Florida Stat e College for Wom e n, was the out st anding event ,f the 4 -H club year. The morale, type of programs , results see n in countie s , r e improvement s brought about to some extent by the fact that those n attendanc e must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 14 years ,f ag e or over. Th ere were 450 g irl s, 40 loc a l l ea der s and 28 home d em ,n str ati o n agents in att en dan ce at the 1 935 Sh ort Course . Scholarship s for club girls an d l eade r s were provided by c lub members, : ounty comm i ss ioners, sc hool boards, women's clubs , men' s clubs, bank s, n erc hant s and interested i ndi v idual s a s in previou s ye ar s . Girls w ho attend t h e S h ort Co u rse are c harg ed with the re s ponsibility f making 4 H club work render a larger servi ce by 'p a ss ing knowledge

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension gained on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting eligible girls who are not members with what it is and does, and assisting agents wherever possible. Agents use these girls effectively in camps and in presenting special programs. Dormitories, laboratories, and classrooms of the Florida State College for Women are used. College nurses, dietitians, social directors and various faculty members are generous with their time and assistance rendered. Former 4-H club girls who are students at Florida State College for Women serve as leaders for the other girls and have the responsibility for many details. PROVIDING AN ADEQUATE FOOD SUPPLY FOR THE FAMILY Since home demonstration work is a part of a program intended to develop agricultural resources of the State and to improve farm family living, it emphasizes the need of securing an adequate food supply for the family . . The food sup . ply should prevent disease, protect vigorous health, and be obtained at minimum cost. Some of the results reported by home demonstration members along this line are as follows: Vegetable gardens4,654 vegetable gardens were grown by 4-H club girls. 4,080 vegetable gardens were grown by home demonstration women. 3,865 all-year vegetable gardens were grown by women and girls. Calendar orchards714 calendar orchards were planted . . .' 28,387 fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards. " ' ~ ~791 bush and small :fruit trees were planted in calendar orchards. 4,858 grape vines were planted in calendar orchards. Home dairying1,730 families reported using daily a quart of milk for each child and a pint for each adult. 356 families bought cows this year to increase the supply of milk and dairy products used in their homes. Poultry flocks1,128 women and 1,223 4-H club girls followed recommended practicesl in the management of the home poultry flocks, including 271,7321 standard bred chickens. Conservation345,928 quarts fruit canned for home use by women. 72,446 quarts vegetables canned. 72,152 quarts 'pickles and relishes made. 179,957 quarts jams, marmalade and jellies made. 8,580 quarts vinegar made. 66,992 quarts fruit juice made. 139,091 quarts pork, beef and game canned. 8,524 quarts chicken canned. 29,730 quarts fish canned. This gives a total of 923,400 quarts of good food saved by women; ir addition, 109,417 quarts of foods were canned by 4-H girls; 736,857 poundi of meat were cured by families, and 17,450 pounds soap were made. If these 1,032,817 quarts of fruits and vegetables were valued at onl~ 10 cents a quart, and the 76,922 quarts of meats at 50 cents a quart, thi i means the farm women and girls have saved more than $177,089.20 throug' home canning. The abundant supply of fresh products used in the bette farm living from the home garden and orchard, poultry flock, home dair 4

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Annual Report, 1935 73 nd farm meat animals butchered on the farm has meant a great deal to 'lorida families in health and economy. UtilizationUtilization of Florida foods has been incr . eased, as evidenced in the great 1terest shown by women and girls in the value of different foods needed y the farm family to protect health and prevent disease. A larger varjety of farm-produced foods was used for variety and economy. More dairy products were produced and used at home. More poultry 'products were produced and used at home. . Cheese has been made for home use where there was a surplus of milk. A special study of good nutrition was made by 4,621 4-H club girls 11d 2,881 women in home demonstration clubs. These women and ' girls !lve gained an understanding of what an adequate diet is; why ' it is 1sential; how to select and prepare adequate and economical meals ad mtageously for the family; always-popular cookery; disease prevention trough proper selection of foods; school lunch; community meals, . and >w to help others wit!\ information they have gained. HOME MANAGEMENT To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods of home aking, home demonstration agents have attempted to develop better home anagement practices with home demonstration women and girls, particu rly in the management of time and energy and the management of income eluding farm home resources. A splendid system of account keeping, 1siness centers, and family councils within the homes are developing. As a result cif the women becoming more business-like in use of their ne, _ strength and family resources, 1,603 families followed recommenda ms in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment. 453 reported assistance in improving home laundry problems. 1,543 improved everyday housekeeping activities. 2,739 made adjustments in home making to gain a more satisfactory standard of living, 355 kept home accounts according to recommended method and reported wiser use of income. 385 budgeted their expenses in relation to family income to avoid unwise buying, and served as demonstrators. 1,000 made a study of buying methods and followed recommenda tions of the home demonstration agents. Reports from 20 counties show an estimated saving of $25,811.00 through participation in the home management program. HOME IMPROVEME~T AND BEAUTIFICATION General conditions have made it impossible to make large financial estments in home improvements, but the women and girls realized they :st put forth special efforts to make their homes attractive to members their families. Those ; '\YhO reported in 1935 show the following results: 662 homes were remodeled according to a plan. 111 sewage disposal plants were installed. 107 water systems were installed. 30 sunshine water heaters wefe installed. 98 lighting systems. 400 homes screened, 379 sanitary toilets built.

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Fig. 7 . -Ca reful preparation and uniformly good produ cts bring repeat orders to Gad s den Cou n ty home demonstra tion women w h o market cooperatively and supp l eme n t the fami l y income.

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Annual Report, 1935 662 houses and outbuildings painted and 111 whitewashed. 682 kitchens, completely improved. 75 1,004 women and girls reported they refinished walls, woodwork and floors. 2,261 women and girls repaired and remodeled. furniture. Yards were beautified and improved, using native shrubs and trees at little or no cost. 1,745 women and 2,038 4-H club girls made and followed definite plans for yard beautification. 3,043 homes planted their county flowers. The attractive appearance of the home helped to keep all members of e family better satisfied and thereby stimulated pride in their homes and me surroundings. CLOTHING FOR THE FAMILY Clothes must be provided for each member of the family; with none too 1ch money for buying, so renovation and remodeling were popular projects home demonstration work. 9,165 women and girls enrolled for clothing instruction. 1,234 women and girls used a clothing budget. 5,889 women and girls followed demonstrations oh remodeling clothing. 2,296 women and girls were assisted in making. children's clothing. 1,650 demonstrations on clothing subjects were given by agents. Many garments were made for distribution to needy. HOME MONEY-MAKING INCREASING THE FAMILY INCOME Since the cash income of the farm often is too small to provide for ,ded purchases or to allow desired improvements in their homes, all home rionstration programs of work include plans for developing the resources the farm homes and farm community into high quality products and ndardized articles which will find a market. ;Many money-making home ustries have brought cash incomes to the women and girls of Florida ich have been used to buy necessit_ies for the home, to pay taxes, to cate the children, to subscribe for newspapers and magazines, etc. The sales reported by the women and girls were made from the followcommodities: :ed products, using Florida marmalades, fruits, etc ... ,............. $ 1ned products ................................................................... sh vegetables from home gardens ............................................... . sh fruits from calendar orchards, ................................................ . ;s and poultry ....................•.......................................................... ... . ter, milk, cottage cheese .............. : ....................... : .......................... . 2,608.65 6,320.78 10,157.90 8,520.99 145,847.41 87,622.64 er articles sold (plants, flowers, craft articles from native >roducts, rugs, honey, etc.)........................................................... 19,260.29 Total amount of sales reported ................................................ $230,338.66 CONSUMER BUYING Uong with the desire for an increased income was the imperative need 1ake wise investments of the money that was available. Home dem ration women requested assistance in wise planning of expenditures more information on true values. Consequently the home demonstra agents have assisted women and girls most effectively with their umer buying problems.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension When money was not available but surplus farm products were on hand, barter and exchange were popular. Labor was traded for vegetables or milk and a good spirit of neighborliness developed thereby. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Following are some of the results of home demonstration work that ' helped to keep up the morale of the farm families in Florida through maintenance of good health and through provision of good reading material and through inexpensive forms of family and community recreation. 57 clubs began community libraries, subscribing to 786 magazines. 5,372 magazines and newspapers were subscribed to -by club members. 23 flower shows were held featuring county flowers and native 'plants. 42 community achievement programs were held. 250 entertainments were held for social purposes only. 51 plans were presented as a part of community recreation. 205 communities had definite plans for general community recreation. 1,821 club members helped make improvements in church or school grounds. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Home demonstration clubs organized for women.................................. 296 4-H clubs for girls under 21 years of age.,.............................................. 615' Number of women enrolled as active demonstrators ..... , ..... _,..._,__ 7,12~ Number of girls enrolled as members of 4-H clubs ................. :............ 9,21$ Home and farm visits made by home demonstration agents.............. 14,205 Number meetings held by home demonstration agents ......... ___ 14,0lC Total attendance at above meetings .............................................. ,........... 248,6H Number of news stories written for state newspapers........................ 2,32(' Exhibits of work shown......................................................... 304 NuO~i~e c!~fis .. .. ... :.~~ .. .. ~: ... 1 .~.~~.~ .. ~~~~~==--. 31,19J Telephone calls ....... _................................................................................. 20,76~

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Annual Report, 1935 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation 77 Florida's "live-at-home" program having been worked out according to the needs of rural Florida, the three specialists in the state Home' Dem onstration organization closely cooperate in working toward that goal. Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry, are the main sources of the family's food supply. An adequate garden advocated in the food preserva tion and food preparation program leads directly to better health and nutrition. One phase of work reinforces the other, though all workers may attack the problem from different standpoints. The productive program for both women and girls is centered around the idea that with the soil, climatic and seasonal conditions as they are in Florida, there is no just reason why every rural Florida family cannot feed itself, and no excuse, except in rare cases, where any rural Florida family living on any but marginal land should be on relief. Hence all year gardens, permanent and varied fruit plantings, so-called calendar orchards and the cultivation, preparation, utilization of the surplus prod ucts, compose a large part of the program of the economist in food con servation. GOALS FOR THE YEAR 1. To aid in providing a balanced and a healthful food supply in the home throughout the year through wise planning for and varied plantings in the garden and orchard. 2. To prevent waste of valuable fruits and vegetables from gardens, trucking fiel~s and _ orchards through thoughtful planning of budget, canning of budget, and by proper preparation for the table improve the meals served in the home. 3. To increase the family income by lowering cash expenditures for food, by careful, accurate conservation of the resources at hand through the canning budget, and by the standardization of high grade canned products for sale. . 4. To emphasize the importance of making a budget for home canning, based on the adequate nutritional needs of the family and planned in con nection with growing the all-year garden and calendar orchard, and can ning the products by means of the latest and best practices. 5. To encourage canning for variety and highest possible quality; the use of both glass and tin; better organization . of the home pantry; to provide more and better storage :(llaces. 6. To encourage the use of more honey in the home, a greater utiliza tion of fishery and other choice products ty pical of Florida. 7. To develop a greater appreciation of the esthetic, economic and nutritional value of Florida fruits and vegetables, the part they play in making a finer farm life and to make canning a fine art and a science. 8. To promote interest in the canning project by giving recognition through worthy contests for accomplishments achieved by the home canner. 9. To help establish high ideals for better equipment and improved home kitchens and for community canning centers that are up-to-date, sanitary and efficient. ULTIMATE GOAL Florida farm products so conserved and so utilized that the family will attain and maintain a standard of living equal to the best in American life and "to learn how to live with each other in abundance" within the communities.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS Records submitted on gardening activities show 2,417 all-year gardens made with a cash valuation of $11,149.85 for vegetables marketed from the home gardens. These figures show an encouraging increase in the number of gardens in 1935 over those of 1934. Records also show an encouraging increase of fruit plantings made in the calendar orchard dem onstration over those planted in 1934, with a total valuation, of $1,460.60 sold from the calendar orchard. How the gardening program has grown and expanded in one of the counties in North Central Florida-where the agent has planned a productive program designed to feed the family well at home and also to have a generous surplus for use in.canning certain vegetable products for market, is well shown in the table from records submitted over the period of 1925 to 1935 inclusive. TABLE 11.-OVER A PERIOD OF 11 YEARS, GARDEN PRODUCTS HAVE COME TO MEAN MONEY TO. GADSDEN COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WOMEN. I No. Gardens I All-Year Total Average Year Reported Gardens Value Sold Value Sold 1925 ............. ........... 41 1926 ....... ,., .............. 57 ------------1929 ........................ 98 15 $123.50 $ 9.71 1930 ........................ 139 20 650.20 8.32 1933 ........................ 252 209 1,276.70 8.03 1934 ........................ 462 275 897.70 10.55 1935 ........................ 531 322 2,124.75 13.12 GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS FOR GIRLS The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely for four years of work in• the garden record book for girls. For the current year there is an enrollment of 4,654 in gardening. with 3,263 completing. By com pletions is meant finishing the work required for that year in the vegetable garden, growing flowers and having the perennials started as required in the first year of work, submitting records and story and exhibiting on achievement day. ' For 1934 there were 3,803 girls enrolled with 2,556 completing, The report from Calhoun County is fairly typical of the garden work being done by girls throughout the more northern section of Florida. "Ninety-six 4-H club girls started gardens, 84 of these completed their demonstrations. Forty-eight girls exhibited fresh vegetables at the Achievement Day held in May, some exhibiting as many as 22 different vegetables. An effort is being made to have the older girls grow the all year garden. I checked these girls during the past month and found that 75 had .fall gardens growing. These gardens contain from one to six dif ferent vegetables. The girls have learned to cook vegetables in different ways and they have also canned some of the products grown in the gardens."

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Annual Report, 1935 FOOD CONSERVATION 79 In the canning program for 1935-as in 1934-canning by the women has been done greatly in excess of the budgetary needs of the family, in many instances. But as before, this excess has been well accounted for in the reports received from the women who certainly are of the mind that producing and canning as much of the food supply as possible is sound ~conomics for any farm family to practice. In this way, time is turned ' nto money and a more adequate year-round diet is assured. A well-filled ~antry at home truly represents a savings bank for the family, and home iemonstration agents claim that the canning program has been the one )f most interest to all-men and women alike. The Canning Budget . -Re'ports for the current year also show that 'budgeting" has been a point . of great progress in food conservation work. rhe canning budget was presented at club meetings at the beginning of :he year and the women were thoughtfully guided in figuring their needs n connection with a careful analysis of the yield from the all-year garden md orchard. Judging of canned goods serves well to get the ideal of quality products md the proper procedures in canning before the people-both club mem iers and others. From all over the State come such statements as the following, showing tow much home demonstration work in general and canning in particular 1as meant to club members. "We hope we may be able to can cooperatively vith our neighbors, for we never lived so well and yet had so little cash LS this past summer, with our pantry well filled." "Our garden was a life aver, and then we learned to conserve the surplus." "The family has 1elped with the canning and appreciate the product we have for table use." Our girls are learning to can well."

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Agent in Home Improvement During the past few years there has been a noticeable influx of people to farms in Florida. Depression conditions have caused thousands to move from cities to farms, while other thousands have stayed on farms who might have gone to cities in times of good prices for labor. The maintenance of a fine type of citizenry in rural homes is an essen tial factor in good government. That there be satisfying home life in rural homes is essential to state and national well-being. Comfort is as essential to satisfying home life in rural districts as it is elsewhere. Among the things which help to make comfortable places in which to live are houses with . tight, warm roofs and walls which protect from sun, wirid and storm; heat for cold weather and comfort for warm weather; am ple space in which to live, eat and sleep; good light, both natural and artificial, by which to read, work and play; running water, storage space, provision for privacy, convenient toilet facilities, and . numer ous other things. Good housing is invaluable from a social standpoint, as well as pro viding comfortable facilities for the family. Every house should offer the background environment for most favorable development of its individual family members. By so doing, it gives strength to the group. In the farm home, group activities still . remain a part of the home life. Group activities demand adjustment, and it is fr om adjustments made in family life that the foundations for adjustments in community and national life are built. Home improvement activities of home demonstration agents during the past year have aided rural families not only to obtain more attractive and comfortable homes but also to live fuller lives and be more useful citizens. HOME MANAGEMENT To obtain improvements in the home it is necessary to have some money or materials, even though every effort is made to hold expenses to the minimum. Consequently the home improvement work is correlated with productive work, farm marketing, and the wise use of the family income. With less money available for amusements during the past few years there has developed a social consciousness, a realization of a bond between the entire household as pertains to the earning of money and the . wise spending of it. Home management programs have presented the philosophy of this subject, to lead community and county groups in their thinking. Home management proposes to develop the thinking of the entire group as per tains to income earning and spending for the family . Families have been encouraged to set goals for certain improvements to be made in the homes. These goals have included such things as re modeling the old home or building a new one; repairs to roof, steps or other part of the house; installation of a bathroom fully equipped, with hot and cold running water; painting the house. Consideration is given to things which are most necessary, with the family learning . to make non-essenti~!s take second place. Then all mem bers of the family are encouraged to work together to earn the money necessary for the home improvements. Reports from agents show that there were 13,151 Florida families fol lowing better home management practices in 1935.

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Fig. 8 . -The community clubhouse, center of neighborhood activities, is the work of both men and women. 00 t--"

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME ENGINEERING Dr. Seaman A. Knapp said, "It is impossible' to impress upon anyone that there is dignity in residing upon a farm with impoverished soil, dilapidated buildings, and an environment of ignorance." Home demon stration agents have encouraged and aided rural families in remodeling their present homes or in building new and more satisfactory ones. Many requests have come in for plans for remodeling or building, and available house plans are kept in constant circulation. Also, there is mucl: interest in the installation of running water outfits and septic tanks, it: better lighting and other rural . home engineering problems. Re'ports by home demonstration agents show that 52 new dwellings werE constructed according to plans furnished; '30-0 dwellings were remodeled; 107 water systems were installed; 100 sewage systems were put in; 2~ heating and 98 lighting systems were installed during the year. HOUSE FURNISHINGS There is continued . enthusiasm in the utilization of sacks, mill ends and usually discarded -materials in making attractive and serviceable fur nishings for the home. Women and girls love to create, and when thel are guided along artistic lines, results are excellent. The wise buying 6f only a few pieces of furniture at a time is being practiced. Educational shopping tours have helped dealers to see ho" essential it is that rural families buy useful and beautiful house furnishing! which harmonize. Members of rural families also learn to make usefu: and artistic barrel or box chairs and other furniture to add to the perma nent equipment of their home,. since their budget for purchasing housE furnishings usually is quite limited. According to reports by home agents, there were 1,867 women and girl! who made better selection of househeld furnishings last year. Other fig ures foUow: Number following improved methods in repairing, remodeling or refinishing furniture, 3,242; improving arrangement of rooms and treat ment of walls, woodwork and floors, 2,259; families following recommenda• tions regarding handicraft, 2,294, HOME SANITATION Sanitation in rural districts, 'particularly around the home, is necessar3 for best health and welfare of members of the family. Formerly, rura areas were considered to be the most healthful in the country, but in recen1 years urban sanitation has changed this .. Now rural sanitation bids fail to place the country once again in its favorable position. There has been noticeable improvement in rural home sanitation durin~ 1935 in Florida.\ Cooperation to this end has .he.en rendered by home dem onstration agents, State Board of Health, and other agencies. Reports show that during the year 406 families installed sanitary closet, or outhou~es, 1,809 screened homes, and,968 followed other recommendec methods of controlling insects. ; ' . . ' .;,. BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS In the pa ~~; too 'nian/ rural buBders have given little att1u'tion to land scaping their homes. During recent ye~rs irlcreasing attentibn:.has beex given to rural. landscap.ing, and. as.t .. he w. ork .. has p. rogress.edj.ts. v.afoes havl become more evident. It has been estimated that proper' planning an planting often increase the value .of farm: pro'perty from' 20 to 35 percen During the last few years many ni:ore farm: people than ~ever befor have turned willingly and eagerly to landscape work, since much can b

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Annual Report, 1935 83 :lone for little exp~nditure of money. In 1935 reports submitted by home iemonstration women and girls show that 918 gave specia l care to lawns, rn2 planted shrubbery and trees, and 1,065 improved the exterior appear mce of their homes. Fig. 9.-This outdoor sit ting room is the beginning of a long-time emonstration in yard improvement following a definite plan wo rked out r ith the home demonstration agent. Tours to home s that have been beautified and where the demonstrator as kept a complete record, with 'pictures, proved valuable in stimulating 'tterest in home improvement during the year. Plenty of time was al lwed for questions, and actual experiences were told about how certain esu lts were attained.

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritfonist The general plan, purpose and ultimate goals of the food, nutrition and ' health program in Florida may be summarized in the following statements: To arouse and create interest in improving existing nutritional and health conditions; family food supply; home production of food products; wise buying; balanced diet at the lowest cost; to develop a health . education 'program prepared for mothers and school children, emphasizing a hot dish supplement or school lunch in rural schools; and to enlist girls' and women's clubs in carrying the food, nutrition and health project as a community service program. This program is closely related to other home demonstration projects principally gardening, dairying, poultry, beekeeping, meat supply, food con servation, home sanitation, and home improvement. The value, use and pre paration of dairy products has been taught b~ direct instruction and demonstrations. Likewise the value and use of poul , try products and the farm meat supply were taught. Printed and mimeographed material with illustrations giving subjec matter and suggestive outlines were supplied home demonstration agent : to add information and interest in support of the program. Demonstrations talks and exhibits also served to extend this program to many not in at tendance at group meetings. ' I . The family food sup ' ply as a part of the whole live-at-home plan wa : discussed in helping plan food budgets, to improve family health and pro 1 . mote growth and development, as well as to determine the lowest cost 2 which the family could be adequately fed. Food budget guides ' were used in determining the yearly food needs < farm families. This planning of a family food budget caused the ar1 women to realize the value of home produced products-of the garden, 01 chard, dairy, poultry and meat supply, and a conservation program to fu1 nish products for home canning and other storage 'products to supplemer the diet, in quantities sufficient for periods when fresh products are nc at hand. Lectures, demonstrations, charts and posters to promote this phase c the program were used to list the w~ekly food budgets for a farm fami l of five at four different levels of income. ' I A few women demonstrators have kept a food consumption record ar from these records were able to see the big contribution which is ma, to the family income through home production, food conservation, wi buying of foods, and the value of careful planning. FOOD SELECTING, PREPARATION AND WISE BUYING Food selection and preparation and wise buying proved to be very pop lar and it was gratifying to see the number of women who were keen interested. The scoring of meal plans and . food products has helped to raise ti quality standards of foods prepared for home use and those exhibited club contests and fairs. Improved practices in food preparation we ' adopted by 2,510 women in 28 counties in their baking, meat and vegetal' cooking and use of poultry and dairy products; 5,390 families report having served better balanced meals as a result. Also, 2,413 families , lowed food buying recommendations and thus helped to conserve the fami income.

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Annual Report, 1935 85 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD This program for the school child encouraged health protection for :very child, included physical examinations of the child, and a follow-up >rogram. It also included preparation of different school lunches, and :howed the relation to the school lunch as it affects the child's daily diet. rhis office cooperated with other agencies in providing the hot dish sup >lement or school lunch as a school or community project. Home demonstration agents have cooperated with school boards, public 1ealth and welfare workers, P.-T.A. organizations, civic clubs and women's :lubs in promoting a health education program for school children and the <'ederal Emergency Relief Administration in establishing lunch rooms. >tans for operating the lunch rooms, and quantity recipes were furnished 'or the food dishes to be served in many instances. Exhibits were made >f different types of lunches and suitable containers for use in packing unches. It is noted that 2,939 families improved the home-packed lunch :hat 65 schools followed recommendations for a hot supplement to 14,944 :hildren. FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD Doctors and nurses, public health and welfare workers, Emergency Re ief agencies, P.-T.A. organizations, schools and other agencies have co >perated in the public welfare problem with home demonstration agents n sponsoring baby clinics and conducting group meetings where child care md training was discussed; also meetings where physical examinations vere given for the correction of defects. Assistance was given with child 'eeding problems and pre-natal. diets. The Extension Nutritionists dis' :ussed "Normal Family Nutrition" at two district meetings of nurses. The following statistics were reported from 17 counties; 237 homes Ldopted better adult habits with regard to development of children; 1,518 :amilies followed recommended methods in child feeding; 864 families im >roved habits of children. LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Leaders have been trained through service rendered in their local club. rhe axiom "we learn by doing" proved true with both women and girls, md both groups furnished leaders as assistants at camp with food and food lemonstrations, food, nutrition and health project chairmen, club officers, :ponsors for 4-H clubs who assisted with camp programs, by instructions :iven at the State Short Course and by supplying leaders with subject natter material on the food, nutrition and health program. Home demonstration women have rendered an invaluable service in their :ommunities by creating interest in school lunchrooms and assisting with heir establishment and operation if needed; assisting with recreation and nstruction at senior and 4-H camps and in many other ways; and served LS real demonstrators of improved practices of better living in their. com nunities and counties. NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS After a -H club girl decided to work on the nutrition project, she was :iven a general physical examination by a nurse or doctor. The correction >f all physical defects was urged and correct food and health habits were :aught to promote self-improvement. The girls were scored three times luring the year on their food selection and health habits.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension Demonstrations were then given in food selection, preparation, meal planning, table service, and health education such as, correct posture, good health habits , home hygiene and first aid with the sole 'purpose of develop ing a desire for normal health through proper food selection and correct health habits. Fig. 10.-Edna Sims, state champion in 4-H bread baking and judging, gives a demonstration in judging bread . She represented Florida at the National Club Co ngress in Chicago. Contests in different phases as posture, bread making, bread judging, and food preparation were h eld . The state winners of the bread judging and food preparation contest in 1935 were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Congress, held in Chicago, where they entered s imilar contests there. The girls have exhibited their products for educational purpose at achievement and other rally days, fairs, and club meetings . The food, nutrition and health project received special emphasis at the State Short Course to benefit all girls attending Short Course and more s pecific information in nutrition was given to a senior group who majored in nutrition. The girls in this group served as leaders in their home coun ties for this p ha se of work . Recreational camps held during the summer months afforded splendid op portunities to develop this program wit h the 4-H girls, while they were enjoying a nice vacation and outing. There were 4,621 4 -H club members enrolled in food and nutrition with 3,267 member s completing, 50,321 food dishes were pre pared and 7,339 meals planned and served by 4-H members.

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. Annual Report, 1935 87 PART IV-NEGRO WORI( NEGRO MEN'S WORK A. A. Turner, Local District Agent During 1935, Negro Extension work was carried on in 12 counties: Jachua, Columbia, Duval, Marion, Leon, Jackson, Jefferson, Madison, Ham ton, Hillsboro, Suwannee and Gadsden. There were eight men and six omen employed in county work, together with one district agent super ising, and the necessary clerical help for the office. In Suwannee, Hamilton 11d Columbia counties, two agents served three counties as the Negro trming area in these three counties is adjacent. In general farming mnties the Negro . farmers participated in cotton, tobacco and corn-hog ijustment programs. Most contracts were with cotton, and there were i latively few tobacco, peanut or corn-hog contracts. In . this work the egro agents assisted the white agents by contacts with the producers and lucational meetings so that the colored farmers might have an opportunity ' taking full advantage of AAA programs. This work consumed a minor nt of their time: Triple A programs bettered the condition of the colored farmers. The 1creased prices for farm cro'ps has placed colored farmers in a better )sition to finance their farming operations and make improvements. This i.s stimulated Extension agents to introduce improved practices and obtain ,operation of a larger number. The specialists of the Extension Service outlined programs on dairying, ~estock, agronomy and 4-H club work and organization, particularly in 1eir relationships with the white agents in handling AAA programs. In 1rrying out their work the Negro agents have the assistance of the local aders who serve as community club leaders in particular in handling the H program, and help promote better farm and home practices as recom ended by the Agricultural Extension Service. The Negro program has been forwarded by county-wide achievement 1ys, local exhibits and demonstrations by 4-H club members and . by ex bits at county fairs. An exceptionally fine display was provided for -the mth Florida Fair under the supervision of the Negro district . agent and egro county agents. In cooperation with the National Youth Administration, the Extension irvice held eight district meetings attended by 1,875 Negro leaders from , mmunities in Florida. Some major projects considered were Negro com unity centers, playgrounds, training schools and the widening of the fluence of the Extension Service for Negroes in the state. The National Playground and Recreation Association, directed by the ~deral Extension Service, arranged for short courses in recreation. Special aining was provided for the county Extension workers and the 4-H club embers who had shown leadership ability. These schools were held at egro institutions. The meetings lasted four days and were limited to latively small groups of people. ' DEMONSTRATIONS Plans for demonstration programs were made at the beginning of the ,ar. Programs given particular emphasis were a soil building program

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension that included the planting of legumes and rotation of crops and a program that would provide for the production of food and forage needs and the cash crops necessary to meet expenses. Colored farmer D. A. Miles of Alachua County planted a corn crop and interplanted with crotalaria and cowpeas and produced 18 bushels of corn per acre, which was 8 bushels over other lands without the cover crop. Growing legumes and cover crops suitable to the areas has been part of the Negro agents' program. Cowpeas, velvet beans and soybeans were used in rotation. Much of the crop was used for feeding livestock, and a part turned under for soil improvement purposes. MARKETING The marketing of surplus perishable products on Negro farms is usually limited to local needs. Consequently, their sales are limited in most areas. Emphasis has been placed on the live-at-home program and salable prod ucts to supply local markets. In Alachua, Columbia and Hamilton counties, tobacco is an important cash crop. The Negro agents have given particular attention to poultry raising. This is a minor part of the work, but an important part of the live-at-home program. Year round gardening has been emphasized. POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK The poultry and livestock phase of the work has interested the 4-H club members in particular, and 122 boys enrolled in poultry clubs, 54 of whom completed their projects. The number of birds involved in the dem onstrations was 6,266. This is a larger number than in former years. On account of the live-at-home program, more dairying has been prac ticed for local consumption and for home use. This has required more feed and better ways of handling it. Hogs also have been of great importance and Negro farmers have cooperated in the Agricultural Adjustment Ad ministration corn-hog program, although a relatively small number of Negro farmers have as yet produced sufficient meat for home use. A) total of 68 4-H club members completed their projects with 169 pigs. There was interest in the screw worm control demonstrations, particu larly with hogs. Records of production were kept by 233 farmers and 104 farmers re duced their expenses by exchanging labor and machinery with their neigh bors. SALES Through local associations, cooperative sales amounted to. $20,947.45 and-through ,organized. sales a total of $15,297.64 worth of products were sold. Agents in Marion County report sales of $12,392.53 for beans 'and watermelons through the Negro Farmers' Cooperative Association of Mar-1 ion County. This association has been organized for some time and has 1 proven a valuable aid to farmers and in carrying out Extension programs. 1 Negro agents have cooperated with the organization of livestock sales,1 especially with hogs. This has been particularly true where hogs were 1 shipped in car-lots. They have also taken advantage of the marketing! facilities under the leadership of the county agents wherever these ar,e, available, with the result that the colored farmers have benefited by th better price paid and have been encouraged to produce hogs of good qualit. and benefit from tlie prices received from the higher grades.

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Annual Report, 1935 DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PRODUCING FEED AND FATTENING CROPS 89 Demonstrations for producing feed and fattening crops have been set J in the farming areas for the purpose of having the hogs ready for .arket during the early fall months, when the prices are usually highest. his requires planning in advance for the 'production of the hogs as well ; crops needed for fattening purposes. 4-H CLUB WORK The number of 4-H club members com pleting their work was 2,556 as , ported by the agents. The type of club work carried on by the Negro ~ents differs only in respect to its application to the colored farmers' edu c tional problems. These club members were organized to carry out edu ,tional work, principally with the commodities grown in the general farm g area, namely, cotton, hogs, corn, poultry. The results of the 4-H club work among Negroes indicate that even ith limited facilities, substantial interest can be developed leading to gher production and more economical yields, and because of this having , eh in operation for several years, Negro farmers having representation the 4-H club work are those that have not appeared on the relief payrolls. The usual procedure for handling 4-H clubs has not been changed for veral years. In each case, it is under the leadership of the Extension :rvice and the specialists in charge have given this their attention to see at the work is carried along in a systematic and constructive way. As a result of the organized 4-H clubs in the county, there has been bstantial increase in the number of 4-H club members who attend the mual short course held each year at the A. & M. College at Tallahassee. 1e College has offered facilities and a program and with the assistance the county agents and the state organization, this annual 4-H club pro am in Tallahassee has been able to bring together 4-H club members om each county. Expenses of these are usually paid from local sources , d results have been satisfactory and stimulating to the Extension and :ricultural programs of the counties. A Negro 4-H club camp was held for club members in the North Florida unties and arranged by the Negro agents. The program provided for ing accommodations, as well as educational and recreational programs. Negro Health Week.-Negro Extension agents have participated in the nual Negro Health Week. This is carried out under local leadership th. the cooperation of interested citizens and in most counties, agents ve taken a leading part. The purpose of this is to encourage sanitation ound homes and a clean-up program, the control of mosquitoes and other oblems that reflect on the general health and appearance of the com mities.

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Reported by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement The Negro home demonstration agents of Florida have gone forward with their work in a fine way. For the 'past two and half years funds have not permitted the employment of a Negro district home demonstration agent. The State Home Demonstration Staff and county home demonstra tion agents have guided the Negro home demonstration agents in their work. The Negro district agent for men's work has also worked with them. The same general plan for the development of home demonstration work among Negroes with emphasis on a live-at-home program is followed as that which is used in conducting home demonstration work among the white people. The Negro work is planned with a definite goal in mind. The specialists furnish subject matter and help the Negro agents by special visits, correspondence, and in conferences. Methods used in developing the work in the various 'projects is through meetings in the home, school or church, home visits, tours to well estab lished demonstrations, also to visit annual or quarterly exhibits. National Negro Health Week has proven an excellent time to put em phasis on the home sanitation project which many home owners establish that week and expand during the year. The State Short Course for Negro girls and boys at Florida A. & M. College, annual conference of local Extension agents, farm institutes, and achievement days are of great benefit to the agents as well as to the indi vidual boys and girls. Some of the agents have developed very good county councils. Negro home demonstration agents have helped in all the emergency work, and have assisted in nearby counties when they have been called upon. They have been placed with a view to serving the greatest Negro population. Practically every home demonstration club member and every 4-H club member has looked to having an adequate food supply by having a garden with something growing in it during all the months, 'poultry, better food preparation, a family cow, a few pigs, and sufficient canned products to meet the family needs. In many cases these things have been bartered in exchange for other food products needed. Faculty members of the A. & M. College have been helpful in teaching how to improve the soil, and have given demonstrations in building up the soil, rotation of crops, etc. Better seed were distributed to the needy by the A. & M. College. There is marked improvement in sanitation of premises and the destroying of mosquito breeding places, and more beautification of home grounds. HOME IMPROVEMENT New homes and remodeling of old ones are noted. Although in far toe many cases crowded sleeping quarters for rural families still exist, ont of the goals in home engineering for several years has been that of pro viding sleeping porches. The lack of money delays better building. One of the outstanding demonstrations in home improvement during the past year was at the home of Caroline James in Miccosukee. CarolinE had cooked in one of the most aristocratic homes in the old settlement of Miccosukee for forty-five years, yet her house was dark, dreary and un sanitary. She was elected president of the Women Home-Makers, and felt deep!~ her responsibility as a leader for her people. She tried "to make the bes1 better" in all things in which her home demonstration agent, Alice Poole asked her to become a demonstrator.

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Annual Report, 1935 91 Each year for the past five years the Leon County Commissioners have : iven $25 to encourage some Negro demonstrator to have a better home. laroline's home was selected for a demonstration and she gave over her . ome for the "working bee" where neighbors and friends would work to ether and learn together. Caroline saved $10 from her pecans and eggs; his was added to the $25, and the improvement was remarkable. New 1indows were cut on each side of the chimney to give better light; new 1 indow panes were added, floors mended, a new roof was put on , new teps were made, porch floor was 'patched, the well was cleaned and cased r ith a top, the hou s e was whitewashed inside and out, fenc e s were mended nd whitewashed, a new sanitary toilet was added, the kitchen was ceiled nd a pantry door was added; a new closet was built in the new spare edroom, and also in Caroline's room. The work was all done by volunteer workmen who were not busy. The ouse wa s fumigated and thoroughly cleaned from top to bottom. New urtains of bright cretonne were given for the three new windows, and •bite ruffled curtains for the "preacher's" room or spare bedroom. All r ho took part in the "working bee" learned valuable lessons which have ince been repeated. Thus by raising the standard of living in one home, 1any homes have been helped. Alice Poole had the inter e sted cooperation nd direction of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Home Improvement Specialist; !so Mis s Ruby McDavid, District Agent. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES All community activities seem to be more wholesome than in many ecades. Fun making, feasting, and games for old and young have been o ted. The men are listening to the women agents' instructions in feed and >rage for the farm family and livestock. Althea Ayers, home demonstra on agent in Madison County, is doing s'plendid all-round work and had Jme excellent demonstrations with the men, as well as with the women rl d girls. MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES In Hillsborough County 105 year-round gardens were grown during the ast year; 92 calendar orchards were owned by club members; 54 family t ilk cows were owned by club women; 52,542 containers were filled with uit, vegetables, etc., and 893 article s were made for the home; 109 gar ents were remodeled for children; 89 kitchens were rearranged for con ! nience, and 179 4-H club girls received physical examination. Emphasis has be e n given to the remodeling of clothing for children ; well as grown-ups; 153 dresses for small girls, and 359 4-H club uni •rms were remodeled. More thought is given to better beds by remodeling d mattre s ses, also making new ones when money is available; 8 new attresses were made in the county; 45 good ladder back chairs were made. : any are learning from their elders and the home demonstration agent JW to bottom chair s with corn shucks , which many think is as pretty as te rush. Hickory and maple split basketry is another home industry that being revived. The Negro people in Gadsden County are more conscious ' their need to follow a live-at home program, and to have plenty of on served fruits and vegetables to meet the . home needs. Fifteen school gardens were valuable in stimulating interest in home 1rdens. The vegetables were used in the food preparation classes. Agents we encouraged farmers to plant winter pastures or cover crops for the , mily milk cow, which is usually neglected during the winter months on :count of lack of food; the green 'pastures also help the farm poultry ock. Six pastures have been started.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension STATISTICAL REPORT, NEGRO WORK GENERAL ACTIVITIES Statistical Data from County Workers Reports (Men and Women) Total days service rendered 3,947 Members in Extension Associations or Committees .... . ... ... . .. .......... 378 Communities in which Negro Extension program has been planned 198 Chibs or other groups organized to carry on adult home demonstration work ........ . .. . ....... .... ...... . .. .... .. . . .. . . ........................ . . ... .. .. ... . ..... 97 Members in such clubs or groups .. ...... ... .. . . . . .............. .. . .... .. .... .......... . . 1,388 4-H Clubs .. .. .... . . . . . ... . . . ......... . . .. . . .......... . ... .. ..... . .......................... ... .. .. ........ . .. 456 4-H Club members enrolled ......................... . .......................................... 3,787 4-H Club members completing ............. ... . .... . .... ................. .. ................. 2,556 4-H Club teams trained . . .......................... .. ............................................ 62 Farm or home visits ....•... ..... ...................... ...... ...................... .... ............. 7,862 Different farms or homes visited ..... .. ...... .... .. .. .................. ...... .. . ........ 3,159 Calls relating to extension work ............. . . ........... . .. ............. ... ............... 6,428 News articles or stories published and circular letters ... .. ........... 540 Letters written . . . .. .......... . . .... ....................... . .. ....... . . ........... .... ... . ........... . ... 4,537 Bulletins distributed .................. .. .. .................. . . . .................... .... ...... . ...... 3,440 Radio talks ... . ................... . . .. ..................... . ......................... . ..................... 2 Extension exhibits .......... . . .. ........................... . .......................................... 38 Meetings held .... ,............. . ............................ ....... ..................... . ................ 2,529 (Attendance ............. . . .... . . . ... ....... 47,712 Achievement days and encampments ....... . ......................... .. .. : ............ 25 (Attendance . ..... . . .. . . . .... . .... .... . ..... 1,151 Homes and farms influenced by program . . ... .. ....... . .. ... . .... .. ... .......... 6,141 Homes with 4-H Club members enrolled ... . ... . ............... ..... .. ... ........... 2,413 CEREALS Communities in which work was conducted ... .. .................... . ............. . Result demon s trations conducted ............ .. ...... . . . . . ......... .. .. ...... .... .. .. . .. . Meetings held .......... .. . .. ..... . .... . ................ . ..... .. ....... . ... . . .. .. . ...... ...... .... .. ..... . News stories published and circular letters issued . . . ... . ..... . . ...... . .... . 4-H Club members enrolled ........................... . .. .. .................... .. . . . . ....... . 4-H Club members completing .................... .. ................... ... .. . .............. . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ....... . Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ........... . LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS Communities in which work was conducted ........... . ......... . ... ..... ......... . Result demonstrations conducted ..................... .. ............ ... .. . . . .............. . Meetings held ............................................. . ............................ . ... . ............ . News stories published and circular letters issued ....................... : 4-H Club members enrolled ... ...................... . .................................. . ...... . 4-H Club members completing ............... . . . ..................... .. .. .... .. . ......... . Acres in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ... .... . Bushels of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ........... . 140 79 97 17 805 511 673 8,083.5 298 65 95 18 276 177 182 3,984 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO, AND OTHER SPECIAL CROPS Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Others Cotton Communities in which work was conducted ... . 130 63 Result demonstrations conducted ................... . 41 20 Meetings held ............... . . ... . . ...... ... ............ ... ....... . 27 41 News stories published and circular letters 4-H Club members enrolled . ............................ . 5 7 140 159 4-H Club members completing ......................... . 92 99 Acres in project conducted by 4-H Members Yields of crops grown by 4-H Members ... . . . 90 124 3,155 Bu. 34,398 Lb. Tobaccc 29 10 32 6 2 2 4 4,000 L :

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Annual Report, 1935 FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS mmunities in which work was conducted ................................... . suit demonstrations conducted ....................................................... . •etings held ........................................................................................... . iws stories published and circular letters issued ........................... . :I Club members enrolled ................................................................. . :I Club members completing ..................................... , ..................... . 592 748 505 139 2,651 1,532 93 res in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ..... . elds of crops grown by 4-H Club members completing ............. . 881 2,064 Bu. FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING mmunities in which work was conducted ...................................... 41 suit demonstrations conducted .......................................................... 20 •etings held ................ ........................................................................... 16 iws stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 3 I Club members enrolled .................................................................... 100 I Club members completing ............................................................ 40 nd-clearing practices .......................................................................... 6 res 125 tter building and equipment practices .......................................... 210 ,ildings involved .................................................................................. 220 POULTRY AND BEES mmunities in which work was conducted ...................................... 147 sult demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 202 •etings held 168 •ws stories published and circular letters issued .......................... 12 :I Club members enrolled ................................................. : .................. 730 I Club members completing ............................................................ 530 1mber units in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing ........................................................................................... 10,469 milies following better practices for poultry .............................. 2,308 DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP, SWINE, AND HORSES mmunities in which w.ork was conducted .................................... 211 suit demonstrations conducted ........................................................ 66 •etings held ................................................. .......................................... 164 ,ws sories published and circular letters issued .......................... 63 I Club members enrolled .................................................................. 294 :I Club members completing .............................................................. 215 1imals in projects conducted by 4-H Club members completing 351 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS sult demonstrations conducted ............................................... : .......... 2 •etings held .................................................................................. .......... 72 ,ws stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 9 I Club members enrolled .................................................................. 108 I Club members completing ............................................................ 108 rmers obtaining credit and making debt adjustments ............ 322 milies assisted in getting established ............................................ 92 Hviduals affected by marketing program .................................... 501 ganizations assisted with problems ................................................ 19 lividuals assisted with problems .................................................... 362 lue of products sold by associations ................................................ $21,092.18 lue of supplies 'purchased by organizations .................................... $ 3,029.35

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94 Florida Cooperative E.xtension FOODS AND NUTRITION Communities in which work was conducted .. . . . ... . .... . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . ... . ... . 167 Result demonstrations conducted .. . ............. . ..... . ............ .. . ... ..... ... . . . .... 276 Meetings held .. . ........ . ...... . . . ..... . ... . ... . . . ..... . . . .. . , ....... .-........... . ... . ........... ... . . . . . 280 News stories published and circular letters issued ..... . .. . .... . . . ..... . .. . . 65 4-H Club members enrolled .... .... ......................................... . .. . ...... .. . .... 2;405 4-H Club members completing . . ... . .. .. .... . ......................... . .... :.. . . . . . ....... 1,862 Families adopting improved food practices ........................ . ... . . .. . . . .. . . . 3,282 Schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school lunch 45 Children involved ..... : ............. . . ...... .. .... ,.... . ...................... . ...... . ........ .. ... 3,578 Containers of food saved by non-members of 4-H Clubs .... .. . . .. . . . ... 83,447 Value of all products canned or otherwise preserved ... . .... . ....... . . . . $ 9,138 . 8 CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PARENT EDUCATION Communities in which work was conducted . . . . .............. . .. . ... . ....... . . . . . .. 35 Result demonstrations conducted . ............. . . . .......... . ..... . .............. . ... .... .. 9 Meetings held 27 News stories published and circular letters issued ... . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 3 4-H Club members enrolled .... . . .. . . .......... ... . . . . ................ . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . ... ... 40 4-H Club members completing . . . . ... . . . . . ............... ,................ . ....... . .. .. ... 25 Other 4-H Club members who participated ...................... .. ....... . .. . ... 16 Families adopting better child-develo"pment practices ..... . ..... . .. ... . 230 Individuals participating in child-development program .... . .... . .. . . . . 133 Children involved ............. . ... . ... . ....... .. . .. ... ,........................ . ....... ... ... .. .. . ... .. 313 CLOTHING Communities in which work was conducted . .. ... . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. . . . . . Result demonstrations conducted . . . . .. .. . .. . ... . ........ . .... . . .. . ... . ...... . . . . . ... . . . . Meetings held News stories published and circular letters issued ... .. ... .. ... . . ... . . . . . .. . 4-H Club members enrolled .. .. .. . . .. .. . ................... .. .... . .. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . 4-H Club members completin g . . .... .. . .. . ... . .. .. . . .... . ..... . . . .. .. . ...... . ... . . ... . .. . . . . Articl e s made by 4-H Club members . ... .... . ................. ... ... . . . ..... . ... . .. . Individuals following better clothing practices ............. . .. . ..... . . .... ... . Savings due to clothing program ... . ..... . ...................... . . . ...... ... . . .. . . . . . ... $ HOME MANAGEMENT AND HOUSE FURNISHINGS 155 331 197 5 2,017 1,286 6,588 5,741 3,853.2 Communities in which work was conducted ...................... . .. . .. .. . .. ... . ... 274 . Re s ult demonstrations conducted . .. ...... .. ......................... . ....... . . . . . . . .. ... 345 Me e tings held . . ...... . ... . .... . . . . .. ... ... .. .... . . ..... .. . .. .. . . . .................. . . .. .. . .. ..... . . .. . ... 142 News stories published and circular letters issued . . .. . .. . .. . ... . ....... .... 75 4-H Club members enrolled ....... ... . . .................... . ........ .. .. . .......... .. .... . . .. .. 1,907 4-H Club members completing . .. ~. . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .... . ... . . .. ..... . ........... . . .... . . . . ... 1,231 Units in projects conducted by 4-H Club member s completing. . . .. . 3,08 9 Families adopting improved home-management practices . . . ... . . . . . . 3,253 Saving due to home-management program .. . . . ...... . .... . . . . . ...... . . .. . . . . . .. $ 2, 3 53 . 0 Families making improvements in house furnishings ...... . . . ..... ... . .. 1,406 Saving due to home-furni s hings program ................ . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . .. . ..... $ 1,106.0 Families following recommendations regarding handicraft . . . . . . .. . . 219 HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION Communities in which work was conducted ............................ . . . ... . . 222 Result demonstrations conducted . . .. .... ...... . ................. . ... . ........ . . . .... . . . . 487 Meetings held ..................... . ........ . ........ ... .. . .. .. .. . ................ . .... .. .. .. ....... . ... . . 145 News storie s published and circular letters issued . . .. ... .... .. .. ... .. .. .... 70 4-H Club members enrolled . . .... .. ........ . .. . ...... . ...... . ... .. ...... . . ... . . . . .... . . . . .. . .. . 1,940 4-H Club members completin g .. .. .... . . . ......... ... ..... . ...... . ..... ... .. . ........... . . .. 1,523 Other 4-H Club members who participated .. ... . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . . ... . .. .. 400 Individuals havinghealth examination .... . . . . .. . . ................. . ........ . ... . ... . 455 Individuals adoptmg better health habits .... . . ... .. . .. . . . . ... .. .. ... . ...... . . ... 4,381 Familie s adopting better health habits ... . .......................... .. ... . . . . . ...... 1,019

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Annual Report, 1935 95 EXTENSION ORGANIZATION AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES ,etings held .................. ........................................................................ 108 iws stories published and circular letters issued ........................ 35 immunities assisted with community problems ............................ 396 aining meetings conducted for community leaders ........................ 19 Lmilies following recommendations as to home recreation .......... 107 H Clubs engaging in community activities .................................... 143 Lmilies aided in obtaining assistance from Red Cross or other relief agency ........................................................................................ 343

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension INDEX A Accounts, citrus, 60 poultry, 61 Achievement days, club, 70 Adjustment work, 7, 8, 11, 18, 20, 28, 30, 34, 62, 87 Agents, list of, 5 Agreements, marketing, 7 Agricultural economics, 10, 15, 60, 64 engineering, statistics, 14 loans, 27 planning, 63 statistics, 15, 93 Animal husbandry, 9, 38, 44 Assistance to Rural Resettlement, 8 Assistance to Screw Worm control, 9 Associations, poultry, 56 B Baby chick management, 53 Bang's disease, 9, 25 Beale, Clyde, work, 18 Beautification, home grounds, 14, 73, 82, 83 Beef cattle, 15, 24, 44, 93 clubs, 38 Bees, statistics, 15, 93 Blacklock, R. W., work, 35 Blue mold decay, 50 Boys' club work, 35 Bronzing, citrus, 49 Brooders, home-made, 58 Brown, H. L., work, 40 Brumley, F. W., work, 60 Bulletins, 18, 69 Bureau Animal Industry, 9 Buying, consumer, 75 C Calendar flock records, 53 Camps, 4-H, 8, 35, 36, 70 Canning, 79 Cattle, purchases of government, 26 dairy and beef, statistics, 15 beef, 24, 93 Cereals, 13, 22, 92 Changes in staff, 10 Chickenpox, 58 Child development and parent education, 16, 94 Circular letters, 68 Citrus accounts, 60 work, 10, 26, 48 Clayton, H. G., work, 21, 28 Clothing, 16, 75, 94 Clubs, 4-H, dairy, 43 work, 8, 35, 56, 65, 68-76, 89 Community activities, 17, 76, 85, 9 95 Conservation, food, 72, 77 Cooperation with other institution 11 by states and counties, 27 Cooper, J. F., work, 18 "Copper leaf" of citrus, 49 Corn-hog adjustment work, 33 Corn clubs, 37 Cotton adjustment, 28 Florida income from, 32 value of lint and seed, 31 work, 14, 23, 92 Cotton clubs, 37 Council, poultry, 57 County Agricultural Planning Council, 63 Cover Crops, 22, 48 Cows, market for dairy, 42 Credit, farm, 8 Crops, field, 23 feed and pasture, 23 silage, 24 Culling demonstrations, 53 D Dairy clubs, 38 work, 9 Dairying, 15, 24, 40 farm, 42 feeding demonstrations, 40 pasture and grazing crops, 41 raising dairy heifers, 41 DeBusk, E. F., work, 48 Director, report of, 7 Disease control, citrus, 49 E Economics, agricultural, 10 Educational meetings, 21, 51, 58 Egg-Laying Contest, 58, 59 Egg quality program, 57 Engineering, home, 82, 93 Exhibits, 27, 69 Extension organizations and community activities, 17 F Farm credit, 8 Farm management, 60 Fat Stock Show, 45 Feed and egg prices, 63

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Annual Report, 1935 Feed and pasture crops, 23, 40 Feeder cattle, 44 Field crops, 23 Finances, state, 12 Financial statement, 12 Florida Poultry Council, 57 Food conservation, 72, 77, 84 Food selection, 84 Foods and nutrition, 15, 72, 84, 94 Forestry, 14, 93 "Frenching", citrus, 49 Fruits, 14, 26, 93 G Gardening, 77, 91 General activities, 13, 76 Gleason, Flavia, work, 65 Grass, work, 23 Grazing crops, 41 Green feed for poultry, 53 Growers' Institute, 50 Grove management, 48 H Health and sanitation, 16, 94 Heifers, raising, 41 Hogs, adjustment work, 25 demonstrations, 25 Home beautification, 14, 73 management and house furnishings, 16, 73, 80, 94 demonstration work, 9, 65 improvement, 80, 90 sanitation, 82 Horses, statistics, 15 Horticulture clubs, 38 Howard, R. H . , work, 60 I Improvement, home, 73 Income, family, 75 Insect control, citrus, 50 Institutions, cooperation with other, 11 Irrigation, citrus, 49 L Leaders, local, 70, 85 Legumes and forage crops, 13, 22, 92 List of agents, 5 Live-at-home programs, 7 Livestock, 24, 88 program, 9 Loans, agricultural , 27 M Management, baby chicks and pullets, 53 farm, 60 grove, 48 home, 73, 80, 81 soil, 48 Marketing, 45, 58, 88 McDavid, Ruby, work, 65 Meat curing,. 25 Mehrhof , N. R., work, 52 Melanose, 50 Meetings, educational, 21, 51, 58 Men's work, 21 Miscellaneous publications, 20 citrus, 51 Mold, blue, 50 Moore, V. P., work, -SO, 90 N Negro work, 11, 87 statistical report, 92 Nettles, W. T., work, 21 News, 18, 19, 68 Noble, C. V., work, 60 Nutrition work, 15, 72, 84 0 Orchards, 72 Organizations, dairy, 43 Outlook information, 27 p Pasture work, 23, 41, 44 Payments, rental and benefit by counties, 29 summary of benefits, all commodities, 30 Peanut clubs, 38 Perennial plantings, 78 Planning, agricultural, 63 Pork, home curing, 25 Potatoes, 34 adjustment work, 28, 34 special crops, 14, 92 Poultry, 52 associations, 56 clubs, 38 statistics, 15, 93 work, 10, 53, 88 Programs, animal husbandry, 9 dairy work, 9 home demonstration, 67 livestock, 9 Publications, 18 miscellaneous, 20 Publicity, 68 97

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension R Radio, 18, 19, 68 Regional problems, 21 Records, AAA, 34, 62 dairy, 43 poultry, 53, 61 Recreation training, 36 Reports, statistical, men and women, 13 Revenue, sources, 11 Re ' port pf director, 7 Resettlement, assistance to, 8 Rust mite control, 50 s Sales, cooperative, 88 Sanitation, home, 82 Scab, citrus, 50 Scale control, citrus, 50 Scholarships, club, 39 Screw worm control, 9, 47 situation, 21 Settle, Lucy B., work, 65 Sheep statistics, 15, 93 Sheely, W. J., work, 28, 44 Short courses, club, 39, 71 Sikes, A. M., work, 65, 84 Silage crops, 24 Sires, dairy, 43 Smith, J. ;Lee, work, 21, 28 Soil improvement, 22 management, citrus, 48, 49 Sources of revenue, 11 Sowell, D. F., work, 52 Spencer, A. P., work, 21 Special activities, 39 Staff changes, 10 State finances, 11 Statement, financial, 12 Statistical report, 13 Surveys, farm management, 61 Sweet potato clubs, 38 Swine clubs, 38 statistics, 15 work, 46 T Thomas, Jefferson, work, 18 Thursby, I. S., work, 77 Timmons, D. E., work, 28, 32, 60 Tobacco, estimates of sales, receipts and benefits to producers, 14, 31, 32, 92 Tours, farm, 51 home, 69 Trench silos, 41, 44 Trips for club members, 39, 70 Tuberculosis in cattle, 25 Turner, A. A., report, 87 u University of Florida week, 20 V Vegetable, work, 14, 26, 93 w Whitefly control, 50 Women's work, 65 Work, home demonstration, 9, 65