Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1934
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text









1934 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AN]) HOME

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1934.














1934 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1934.


















CONTENTS
PAGE
. . . . .
REPORT OF THE D IRECTOR -------------------------------------------------- ----
F inancial Statem ent ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- I . 12
A gricultural A djustm ent W ork ------------------------------------------------------------- ------- 13
PUBLICATIONS A D N Ew s . I --------- --------- ------ . . . I ------- . 21

COUNTY A GENT W ORK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 24

Boys' 4-H CLUB W ORK ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31
DAIRYING . . 37

A NIM AL H USBANDRY --------------------------------------------------------------------- . 43
POULTRY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46

CITRUS CULTURE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------ . 51
A GRICULTURAL E CONOM ICS . 57
H OME D EM ONSTRATION W ORK . . 63

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION . ------------------------------------------------------------- 77
FOOD, N UTRITION AND H EALTH ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
H OME IM PROVEMENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I . 87
N EGRO' M EN'S W ORK ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 91

N EGRO W OMEN'S W ORK ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 97




















Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
-Sip.: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, Collegeof Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1934, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1934.
Respectfully,
GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Board of Control.



Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERS, President, University of Florida.









BOARD OF CONTROL

GEo. H. BALDWIN', Chairman, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in An'mal Husbandryl C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 I'RANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. -THUSBY, Economist in Food Conservation EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent


1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time,










COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua. Fred L. Craft .Gainesville .Mrs. Grace F. Warren Brevard. N. A. Lockett .Cocoa . Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Calhoun. J. G. Kelley. Blountstown .Miss Josephine Nimmot Citrus_. Inverness .Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore clay. Green Cove Springs .Miss Beulah Felts Columbia . .Guy Cox. Lake City . Dade. C. H. Steffani .Miami .Miss Pansy Norton DeSoto .C. P. Heuck .Arcadia . Dixie. D. M. Treadwell .Cross City. Duval. A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville . Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) .E. G. Pattishall.Jacksonville . . Escambia. E. P. Scott . Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden . .Paul Calvin-------.Quincy. Miss Elise Laffitte
Gulf. Wewahitchka. . Miss Pearl Jordan Hamilton.-----1. J. Sechrest .Jasper . Hardee . . C. E. Baggott**.----Wauchula. Hernando.------B. E. Lawton .Brooksville .
Highlands .L. H. Alsmeyer .Sebring . . Hillsboro.------C. P. Wright .Tampa .
Hillsboro (West).------------Tampa . . Miss Allie Lee Rush
Hillsboro (East). Plant City. Miss Clarine Belcher Holmes.Win. A. Sessoms .Bonifay.------_Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Jackson.---Gus York .Marianna.----_--Miss Alice W. Lewis
Jackson (Asst.) . Aubrey Hudson .Marianna . Jeff erson .E. H. Finlayson .Monticello .Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette.P. R. McMullen .---Mayo.--. .
Lake .C. R. Hiatt .Tavares . .-,. Leon . G. C. Hodge .Tallahassee.------Miss Ethyl Holloway
Levy.I-------N. J. Allbritton .Bronson. Miss Wilma Richardson
Liberty. Dewey H. Ward .Bristol . Miss Josephine Nimmot Madison . R. A. Stratford .Madison . Manatee . John H. Logan .Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb Marion .Clyde H. Norton .Ocala.------Miss Tillie Roesel Okaloosa .Joseph W. Malone . Orestview . ----7.-.
Okeechobee .C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee. Orange._. K. C. Moore .Orlando.-------Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola .1. R. Gunn_.-----Kissimmee . .Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach.M. U. Mounts .West Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .Win. Gomme. CIAarwater . Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk . W. P. Hayman .BartowI. Miss Lois Godbey St. Johns.------Loonis Blitch .St. Augustine .Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie. . Ft. Pierce.------Miss Bertha Hausman
Santa Rosa .John G. Hudson .Milton . Miss Eleanor Barton Sarasota. W. E. Evans .Sarasota. Seminole. C. R. 'Dawson .Sanford .Miss Josephine Boydston Suwannee.S. C. Kierce .Live Oak.--------Miss Eunice Grady
Taylor . R. S. Dennis .Perry. Miss Floy Moses Union. -----L. T. Dyer .Lake Butler.1-.
Volusia . DeLand. Mrs. Marguerite Norton Wakulla. Aubrey Dunscombe.Crawfofrdville.-----* --------Walton. Mitchell Wilkins .DeFuniak Springs . Miss Eloise McGriff Washington.Henry Hudson .Chipley .
* This list correct to December 31, 1934.
**Resigned effective December 31, 1934.
t Works in two counties.





































Fig. 1.-Through 4-H Club recreational activities, rural boys and













PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1934.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


Emergency work has received the attention of Extension Service employees this year in large amount, but the regular programs of demonstration work have been continued with little diminution. The year 1934 may be considered as having been a successful one for the Extension Service from all standpoints. Reports by specialists and supervisors, found elsewhere, give a general view of the activities in the various lines during the year.
The adjustment program was most important in the counties of northern and western Florida, and here it was necessary to modify the regular schedule of work to a certain extent. Commodities affected by the program in Florida have been principally cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs.
In the area affected, it is estimated 75,1/o of the County Agents' time has been given over to the adjustment program. The farmers responded readily and the cooperation has been excellent from the beginning.In Central and South Florida the Extension Service has not materially changed its program from that of former years. The program there for horticulture, dairying and poultry has occupied the County Agents' time with the addition of work that fits into the rehabilitation program, and in this the Home Demonstration Agents have had the most important part. There has been a decided interest in a live-at-home program in this area, and encouragement has been given to the proposal to produce the things needed by the family on the farm-as far as practical. *
Under the direction-of the Organization Specialist, in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements have been presented for consideration dealing with Irish potatoes, strawberries, watermelons and citrus fruits. The County Agents have served their communities in the distribution of information leading to the organization of such groups, and their offices have been made headquarters for local organizations interested'in the welfare of such marketing agreements.
On account of the large production of horticultural products in South Florida, marketing and financing problems stand out as among the most important from the farmers' standpoint. The County Agents' offices have served the farmers by way of securing loans for production purposes and have cooperated with the Farm Credit Administration in the setting up of committees and selection of officers to handle the loan organizations. They have also cooperated with the Federal Seed Loan Office of Memphis,,Ten-


REPORT FOR 1934








Florida Cooperative Extension


nessee, and their offices have been, made clearinghouses for applications from farmers for emergency and seed loans.
The County Agents of this area have also been active in assisting the Emergency Relief Administration. They have offered their services to appointees of the Relief Administration in drafting programs, and in many cases their offices have been made headquarters for such efforts. The Administrative Offic6 in GainesVille has given every assistance requested that suitable persons might be employed and their operations directed to the best advantage.
In the case of rehabilitation with rural women, Assistant Home Demonstration Agents have been appointed to work in rural homes as assistants to the County Home Demonstration Agents, and look to the Home Agents for direction of their programs. This arrangement was decided on by a joint agreement between the Director of Extension and the Director of Rural Rehabilitation. An account of their operations is given in the report of'the State Home Demonstration Agent.

EMERGENCY CATTLE PURCHASES
Due to excessive rainfall in June, a large area of the most important cattle section of Florida became flooded. At the request of the cattle owners of that area the Commodity Division of the F.E.R.A. consented to purchase 10% of the cattle in the flooded area. This undertaking was submitted to the Agricultural Extension Service, and W. J. Sheely was appointed as director of the cattle purchases. From seven Central Florida counties over 16,000 cattle were purchased according to. regulations and prices fixed by the Commodity Division, F.E.R.A.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The work of the Home Demonstration Agents has been largely modified because of rehabilitation work. It was recognized at the beginning that a large number of rural people living on farms were in immediate need of relief. The problem, therefore, was to rehabilitate them that they might make their living from the farm and homestead as far as possible. This rehabilitation work extended into practically every county in Florida and the Emergency Relief Program was set up and directed by the Supervisory Staff from the State Home Demonstration Office. While this rehabilitation work has been done largely by assistants, it has necessarily occupied a large portion of the Home Demonstration Agents' time and energies. This work is described in the report of the State Home Demonstration Agent.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped because of other pressing duties and emergency programs. Never-the-less, enrollment has increased. The State Club Agent was able to secure the assistance of interested club members who, under the direction of the County Agents, endeavored to keep the organization of 4-H club work intact. These special workers were employed and paid by the F.E.R.A., and were extremely helpful in securing reports on projects undertaken. In counties where AAA and other emergency programs did not seriously interfere, 4-H club work continued unabated.
4-H CLUB CAMPS
Progress for the improvement of 4-H club work has been made by way, of providing regional summer camps. Two camps are now available. One is on Choctawhatchee Bay on property owned by the U. S. Forest Service.







Annual Report, 1934


This camp has facilities to accommodate 250 persons with central cottages for the supervisors. The camp is equipped with electric lights, an adequate water supply and toilet facilities. An expenditure of approximately $5,000 has been made and improvements will be added as fast as finances permit.
A second camp was established in the Ocala National Forest property to serve Central Florida counties. This camp was originally constructed to serve a Civilian Conservation Corps camp and was turned over to the Extension Service as a 4-H camp with several buildings and other improvements.
The County Agent of the county in which this camp is located was able to secure an F.E.R.A. project supplying approximately $800 worth of labor. The Extension Service expended approximately $500 on purchases. The camp is favorably located on a small lake, has facilities to accommodate approximately 100 persons, and is equipped with an excellent kitchen for which equipment was donated from the dining rooms of the University of Florida and the Florida State College for Women.
The improvements and equipment have an approximate value of $5,000.
Both camps are used for holding farmers' meetings conducted by the Extension Service.
NEGRO WORK
As the Negro work in Florida is confined largely to the counties growing basic commodities, their programs, too, have been modified because of changing agricultural conditions. The Negro Agents have served in a limited way to assist the Negro farmers in their plans as governed by the adjustment program. However, emphasis has been placed on.the necessity of a well balanced agricultural program especially needed during times of uncertain markets. Particular emphasis has been placed on the live-athome program, and the necessity for home canning and the production of supplies needed to maintain the farm family.
CITRUS INDUSTRY
The citrus industry represents the largest horticultural interest in this state. The acreage of citrus trees has been gradually increased to such an extent that with a normal crop the marketing of it is a very.important undertaking and economy must be exercised in production methods. The Economics Section of the Extension Service has conducted a series of cost studies in cooperation with the Florida Experiment Station, and has provided cost accounting record books to be kept under the direction of the County Agents. These records have been summarized and returned to the producers after they have been analyzed in order that the growers might have a comparative conception of their year's business.
The County Agents in the citrus area have given more than usual attention to the problems culture and fertilization, these being the operations that can be modified to reduce or increase cost of production more than any other items in grove culture. The Citriculturist, in cooperation with the County Agents of the more important citrus areas, has made this a most important undertaking, and the response from the growers has been generous.
ADMINISTRATION
The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work and three for women's work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent and specialists in citriculture, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, marketing, farm management, and rodent control. Two district agents serve as part-time specialists, one in agronomy and another in organization and







Florida Cooperative Extension


outlook work. On, the home demonstration staff there is one nutritionist, one economist in marketing and one agent in home improvement.
In home demonstration work, the special projects are directed by the nutritionist, economist in marketing, and specialist in home improvement. In addition, projects having to do with rehabilitation work are carried on in practically every county.
The Extension Service is cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry in animal husbandry work, and with the Bureau of Biological Survey in rodent control.
There are 47 counties with white Extension agents, all of these counties financially supporting Extension work. Projects represent all phases of horticulture, agriculture, livestock and poultry typical of this state, and agricultural economics confined to specialized phases of our agriculture in general.
In the Negro work, 14 counties are being served, eight of these by Home Demonstration Agents and six by Farm Demonstration Agents. Three of the counties contribute to the support of Negro Home Demonstration Work; the other counties are supported by state and federal funds.
The Negro work is supervised by one District Agent who has his headquarters at the A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee.
CHANGES IN STAFF
The following changes have taken place during the past year: Dr. J. E. Turlington resigned as Economist on January 1, 1934, on account of ill health. His work was taken over by Dr. C. V. Noble, who also heads the agricultural economics departments in. the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station.
Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was granted leave of absence effective October 1, 1934, for a year's study at Cornell University pursuing his doctor's degree. To continue his work R. Holt Howard was appointed Assistant in Farm Management.
W. E. Evans, former County Agent, was appointed for a short period during 1934 as Assistant District Agent in North Florida to assist with the administrative duties in adjustment work.
Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent, was granted leave of absence, effective July 1, 1934, to organize home demonstration work in Porto Rico, at the request of the Director of Extension, Washington, D. C. Her place is temporarily filled by Miss Anna Mae Sikes, formerly Extension Nutritionist. Mrs. Eva Culley was appointed to fill the place vacated by Miss Sikes with the title, Acting Nutritionist.
There have been relatively few changes in the personnel of the County and Home Agents. County Agents have been appointed in the following additional counties: Brevard, Columbia, Gadsden, Sarasota and Seminole. Home Demonstration Agents have been appointed in the following counties: Brevard, Clay, Levy, St. Lucie, Seminole, Suwannee and Volusia. These additional counties represent the largest increase of any year since 1927.
Other counties in addition to these have made provision for and requested Extension work, but due to lack of funds it has not been possible to cooperate with all counties making application for Agents.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS
Other departments of the College of Agriculture and the Home Economics Department of the State College for Women have extended generous cooperation along many lines to make Extension work more effective during the year. Practically every department in the Teaching Division and Experiment Station has rendered generous assistance.








Annual Report, 1934

The Florida State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Live Stock Sanitary Board have problems in 'common with the Extension Service dealing with the distribution of marketable crops, plants and livestock and in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Commissioner of Agriculture's office cooperates in the distribution of state funds used in payment of County Agents' salaries.
The Forest Service of Florida cooperates in conservation work, principally with 4-H clubs, the purpose of which is to protect the timber growth.
The State Board of Health works with the home demonstration projects in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board cooperates to facilitate the distribution of plant materials used in projects supervised by County and Home Demonstration Agents.
The Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the Federal Land Bank and its agents in Columbia, S. C., with the Intermediate Credit Bank, the Farm Credit Administration, and the Agricultural Finance Corporation in every way possible that these agencies may provide the best assistance possible to the farmers of this state.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Poultry Association, the various marketing agencies handling fruits and vegetables, the State Horticultural Society, the State Fern Growers Association, in promoting the interest involved in the welfare of the farmers affected.
There has been a closer relationship between the County Agents and the vocational agriculture teachers this year. The county employees have arranged their programs in conference with each other, have carried out their rally and contest days in a cooperative way, and have worked to harmonize the educational features of their work. Vocational teachers have assisted with the agricultural adjustment work as far as their time would permit. ,
The Extension Service has supplied assistance to vocational teachers in handling their instructional and educational programs in the counties.

. METHODS USED FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY
Frequent conferences with the Extension Staff to provide uniformity in subject matter are held with the subject matter specialists of the Teaching Division and the Experiment Station. Valuable assistance has been received also from the various bureaus of the Department of Agriculture. 1\ The Home Demonstration Staff is in frequent conferences with department heads of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida And Experiment Station and with the specialists in Extension work. They also receive cooperation from the Home Economics Department of the Florida State College for Women.
The Negro Agents are given assistance from various specialists in the Extension Service, particularly in agronomy, poultry, home economics and horticulture.
SOURCES OF REVENUE
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue as follows:
A. Funds appropriated by the United States Department of Agriculture.
B. State offset from Extension Funds appropriated by the Florida
Legislature.
C. County appropriations.
The offset funds required for State Smith-Lever funds have been appropriated by the Legislature. Other offset funds needed have been made available through county appropriations.








12 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATE FINANCES
The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal sources total $149,479.98, and from , state sources, $163.841.98; of these state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county boards.
The Legislature of 1933 reduced its annual appropriation in support of the work.
The Negro work is financed almost entirely from State and Federal funds.
On the approval of the State Director, F.E.R.A., county offices have received clerical assistance. On the whole, it has served a good purpose. With increased demands on county offices due to adjustment and other programs, more dependable clerical assistance is needed in 7517o of the county offices.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1934
RESOURCES
Federal, Funds
Smith-Lever and Supplemental . $ 84,684.24 Capper-Ketcham . 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative; . 20,500.00 U . S. D . A . . 15,700.00 Bureau of Animal Industry . 2,040.00
$149,479.98
State Funds
Smith-Lever Offset . 7 . $ 53,968.80 Direct Appropriation . 18,157.20 Continuing Appropriation . 5,000.00 County Appropriations . 86,715.98
$163,841.98 $313,321.96
EXPENDITURES
Projects
Administration . . __ . __ . _ $ 7,510.62 Publications . 6,970.74 County Agent Work . --_-----_------------- 1279111.66
Boys' Clubs . 6,391.55 Home Demonstration Work . 94,107.43 Food Conservation . 3,497.45 N utrition . e . . 3,580.00 Home Improvement . . . 3,759.28 Dairy Husbandry . . 5,255.13 Animal Husbandry . 4,202.25 Farm and Home Makers (Negro Work) . 22,329.53 Citriculture . . . 4,569.,07 Poultry Husbandry . 3,928.60 Extension Schools . 1,025.41 Agricultural Economics . 11,506.10 Florida National Egg Laying Contest . 5,952.84 Unexpended Balance . 1,624.30
$313,321.96 $313,321.96







Annual. Report, 1934


AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK
The Agricultural Adjustment Program, as carried out in Florida, was authorized under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of Congress approved May 12, 1933.
,The Act declares that "it is the policy of Congress to raise the purchasing power of American farmers to the level which it occupied in the base period," the five years from 1909 to 1914, when agricultural and industrial production and prices were well balanced, and the national income was equitably distributed.
The. Agricultural Adjustment Act empowers the President, through the Secretary of Agriculture, to assist farmers in adjusting the production of certain basic commodities to meet effectively the demand without sacrificing income, and to put into effect marketing agreements on agricultural commodities designed to insure fair prices to producers, efficient and equitable distribution of the production, and protection for the.consumers of the finished goods.
"Section A:
In order to effectuate the declared policy, the Secretary of Agriculture will have the power
(1) To provide for reduction in the acreage or in the production for market, or both, of any basic agricultural commodity, through agreement with the producer, or by other voluntary methods, and to provide for rental or benefit payments in connection therewith, or upon that part of any basic agricultural commodity required for domestic consumption in such amount as the Secretary deems fair and reasonable, to bo paid out of any moneys available
for such payments."
The program was entirely voluntary. The reduction program of the Act contains no power to order such reductions.
The basic commodities most affecting Florida's agriculture are: cotton, corn, hogs, tobacco, milk and its products, and peanuts. The reduction programs as carried out in Florida in 1934 were with cotton, corn-hogs, and tobacco.
An adjustment program for peanuts was put into effect at the close of the growing season. It provides for a reduction program in 1935, and those who participate in 1935 will receive benefit payments on their 1934 crop.
In carrying out the provisions of the Act in Florida, the Agricultural Extension Service was assigned the responsibility of handling the program. The program called for supervision by the Director of Extension and to carry it out, the County Agents were assigned the responsibility of directing the work in the counties. This program required the appointment of State Allotment Boards, Boards of Review, and County and Community Associations, thereby establishing contact between the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of the Federal Government and the producers of basic commodities in the state of Florida. This extensive program has therefore required an intensive effort and has placed additional duties on the Extension Service, which also has its regular program of Extension work formerly assigned by the state and federal governments. This reduction program was applicable to 50 percent of the counties of Florida.
The remaining counties of Florida were affected by the Agricultural Adjustment Act on account of marketing agreements, which apply to the sale and distribution of dairy products, celery, strawberries, Irish potatoes, and citrus fruits. Marketing agreements affecting these commodities have







14 - -


Florida Cooperative Extension


been supervised in Florida by the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Marketing Bureau, and the Commodity Section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.

COTTON ADJUSTMENT
STATE REVIEW BOARD
District Agent H. G. Clayton was designated as Chairman of the State Board of Review. He makes the following brief report of the work in connection with the voluntary contracts of 1934-35 for cotton production control:
(1) Contracts called for a reduction of 35 to 4501o of the 5-year average
(1928-1932) acreage.
(2) Producers eligible to sign contracts were:
(a) Producers growing cotton 4 or 5 years of the base period.
(b). Producers growing cotton 3 years of base period, one of which
was 1931 or 1932.
(c) Producers growing cotton in both 1931 and 1932.
(d) Producers who cooperated in the 1933 plow-up program.
(3) (a),Producers received rental benefits per acre at the rate of 3%c
per pound for the average adjusted per acre yield with a maximum of $18.00.
(b) , And in addition a parity payment of 1Y2c per pound for 4001o
of the permitted production.
(4) Contracts. applied 'to the land and were executed by owners, cash
renters and managing share tenants.

SET-UP
In each cotton county the County Agent was the representative of the Secretary of Agriculture and the State Extension Service. A County Cotton Control Committee and community committeemen composed of local cotton producers supervised the filling out of contracts, measuring acreage, appraising yields, and adjusting individual contracts. Assistant County Agents were appointed to handle much detailed work in connection with the contracts. Assistants and committeemen were paid by the AAA.
In several casfs County Agents handled adjoining counties where there were no Agents employed.
After the contracts were executed in the counties, a tabulation sheet showing the essential data from each contract was submitted to the State Board of.Review. This Board represented the State and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and checked the county figures of individual contractors and secured adjustments so the totals for the county would be in line.with the percentage of production under contract when compared to the official figures for the county's production during the base period.
This work involved a large amount of detailed calculations to secure the required adjustment, which was submitted to the County Committee, and it in turn. made adjustments in the individual contracts to get the totals within the required amounts. Each producer whose contract was adjusted was contacted to secure his approval.
The, following table contains a summary by counties of the contracts.







Annual Report, 1934 15

COTTON RENTAL AND BENEFIT CONTRACTS ACCEPTED,, BY COUNTIES
Adjusted
County Contracts Average Base I Rented Acres
Production Acres I-Acres Allowed
'pounds
Alachua . 79 100,951 729.8 299 430.8
Baker . 6 7,983 56.0 21
Calhoun . 81 182,356 1,200.0 486 714.0
Columbia . 256 579,861 4,655.5 1,799 2,856.5
Escambia . 344 857,439 5,516.7 i,203 3,313.7
Gadsden . 64 65,186 438.2 182;
Gilchrist . 5 6,857 51.0 23 28.0
Hamilton . 393 959,962 7,573.5 2,997, 4,576.5
Holmes . 1 523 1,647,044 10 ' 738.5 4,198 6,540.5 Jackson . . 1,160 3,076,895 20,514.9 8,049 12,465.9 Jeff erson . 37 503,308 4,134.1 1,625 2,509.1
Lafayette . 87 146,810 1,123.7 441 682.7
Leon . _ 316 684,212 5,128.0 2,022 3,106.0
Levy . 47 63,169 404.0 160 244.0
Madison . 527 1,076,398 8,606.8 3,270, 5,336.8 Okaloosa . 390 1,199,786 7,532.9 3,012 4,520.9
Santa Rosa ------ * 521 2,225,943+ 12,260.7+ 4,895+ 7,365.7 Suwannee . 578 953,114 7,706.4 3,085 4,621.4
Taylor . 13 30,329 220.0 87 133.0
Union . 3 13,840 108.0 43 65.0
Wakulla . 7 10,531 81.0 37 44.0
Walton . - 444 992,993 6,791.5 2,687 4,104.5
Washington . 227 382,990 2,417.2 987 1,430.2

I
Totals . 6,408 157,679.57 108,112.40 1 72,264 65,449.4


BANKHEAD COTTON TAX EXEMPTION WORK
The Bankhead Cotton Control Act was passed by Congress to supplement the voluntary adjustment program with cotton. Essential provisions of the act were to establish national, state and county quotas of cotton which could be marketed tax-freei these quotas to be set each year by the Secretary of Agriculture. Production in excess of allotmeks covered by tax exemption certificates is subject to a ginning tax (of 50clo of the average central market price). Provision was made for transfer of surplus certificates between growers.
Mr. Clayton also served as chairman of the State Allotment Board which handled applications for and issued the tax-exemption certificates to individual growers. The same county committees and community committeemen who served in the voluntary program assisted with this work.
Each producer of cotton signed a sworn application with the county committee setting forth the cotton history (acreage and production for each year of the base period) for the land he was farming in 1934. Owners, cash renters and standing rent tenants were eligible to file applications. Where growers had signed voluntary reduction contracts, data for their exemption applications were taken directly from their contracts. No I ncontractors filed applications and the county committees adjusted these to be in line with contractors.
The Bankhead Act provided that 10,000,000 bales could be ginned taxfree. This amount of tax-exempt cotton was allotted to various states and counties in proportion to their cotton production during the base period,







Florida Cooperative Extension


1928-32. Florida's allotment was 24,683 bales of 478 pounds each. Ninety percent of this amount was allotted to individual counties. Ten percent was placed in the state reserve and was allotted to individual producers (irrespective of county lines) who qualified under one or more of the following conditions:
(a) Producers who had less than Y3 of their cultivated land in cotton.
(b) New prod cers who began production since 1932.
(c) Producers who had already reduced acreage over 4001o.
(d) Producers who, during one or more years of the base period, had
yields 1/3 below their 5 year average production, such reduction
being the result of uncontrollable natural causes.
Producers who qualified under a, c, or d received cotton tax-exemption certificates from the state reserve in addition to the amount received from the county quota. New producers (b) could receive no tax-exemption certificates from the county quota since they had no production during the base period and received all certificates issued to them from the state re erve.
Wages for committeemen and clerical help employed in the operation of the Bankhead Act were paid from funds of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
Two issues of tax-exemption certificates were made in Florida and no interim certificates were used.
The following table summarizes the operations of the Bankhead Cotton Act:
Bales Pounds of Lint
State Reserve . . 2,469 1,179,840 County Quotas . . 22,214 10,618,560
Total State Allotment . 24,683 11,798,400

TOBACCO PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT
The adjustment program for flue-cured tobacco in Florida was handled through the State Agricultural Extension Service, with Economist D. E. Timmons in charge. (The work with shade tobacco was not delegated to this office.) This program met with excellent response, and it is estimated that 90 percent of the eligible growers of flue-cured tobacco signed contracts.
There were 1,025 contracts signed and accepted, with two rejected and 12 still awaiting final acceptance. The 1,025 contractors had a base acreage of 5,985.4 acret, with an allotted acreage of 4,185.4 acres.
Contracting growers agreed to reduce their acreage at least 30 percent of their bases. They could choose as their base acreage the average acreage grown during the three years 1931, 1932 and 1933, or 85 percent of the average for any two of those years, or 70 percent of the 1931 acreage, or 80 percent of the 1933 acreage. Rental payments were to be $17.50 an acre. In addition, growers were to receive an adjustment payment of 12Y2 percent of the net sale price of the tobacco, up to 21 cents a pound. Each grower was paid 2 cents a pound for all that he lacked of producing his allotment. For 1934 Florida farmers planted 64 percent of their base, when their allotment was 70 percent of base.
Statistics on the flue-cured tobacco adjustment work in Florida for 1934 are shown in the following table.







Annual Report, 1934


TABLE 1.-RESULTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO ADJUSTMENT WORK IN FLORIDA, 1934.


Ala Ba] Brz Col
Ga( Ha: Ho Jac Jefi Laf Leo: Le~ Ma Su~
Un


Tot


I No.
County IContracts

tchua . . 152 ker .7 Ldford. 16
umbia . 70
dsden . 18
milton . 180 Lines . 7
kson . 33
~erson . 12 fayette. 86
n . . . . .4
7y. 1 dison . 148 Avannee ----- 277 ion .- 14


al .


1,025


Base Acreage

1,076.6 31.3
142.2 443.4
76.0
1,424.7 20.3
108.3
75.3
357.0
19.6
4.2
812.3 1,323.1 71.2


5,985.5


I Base IAllotted I Production IAcreage


838,180 19,560 95,'303 307,735 47,077
1,084,900
13,714 79,062 53,540 235,923
14,910 3,139 598,921 961,561 55,867


4,409,392


752.6 21.9 99.3 309.8 53.3 996.7
14.'2 75.7 52.8
249.6 13.6 2.9 568.3 925.0
49.7


4,185.4


By December 31, 1934, Florida farmers had received $126,789.37 in rental and equalization payments. It is estimated that they will receive $70,000 in adjustment payments. In addition to these amounts, they have received $2,730.95 -from excess allotments sold to North Carolina contract signers.
,Rental and equalization payments received by Florida farmers on 1,025 of the 1,039 contracts signed are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-RENTAL AND EQUALIZATION PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY 1,025 FLORIDA TOBACCO CONTRACTORS.


County No.
_ _ __ - - - 1Contracts

Alachua .1 152 Baker .i 7 Bradford . 16
Columbia . 70
Gadsden. 18
Hamilton . 180 Holmes . 7
Jackson . 33
Jefferson. 12
Lafayette. 86
Leon ._. 4
Levy . 1 Madison.--- 148 Suwannee . 277
Union_ . 14


Total .


1,025


Rental Acreage

324.0
9.4 42.9
133.6 22.7
428.0
6.1 32.6 22.5
107.4
6.0 1.3
244.0 398.1
21.5


1,800.1


Rental Payment

$ 5,670.00
164.50 750.75
2,338.00
397.25
7,490.00
106.75 570.50 393.75
1,879.50
105.00 22.75
4,270.00 6,966.75 376.25


$31,501.75


Equalization Payment

$18,753.61 376.84 951.53
5,856.47
301.14
27,216.77
71.43 960.19 397.39
4,946.71
71.26 125.30
11,373.40 22,528.06
1,357.52


$95,287.62


Total Rental
and
Equalization

$24,423.61 541.34
1,702.28
8,194.47
698.39
34,706.77
178.18
1,530.69
791.14
6,826.21
176.26
148.05
15,643.40 29,494.81
1,733.77


$126,789.37


Allotted Production

586,720
13,692 66,711
215,416 32,952 759,416
9,600 55,341 37,478 165,139
10,437 2,197
419,239 673,075 39,107


3,086,520







Florida Cooperative Extension


The average price of Florida flue-cured tobacco was 11.8 cents per pound for the 1933 crop. The average price for the total sales at the Live Oak warehouses for the 1934 crop was 20.8 centsper pound, or an increase of 76 percent over the 1933 average.
The Extension Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of checking tobacco contracts and assisting county allotment committees with making individual contract allotments. He acted as agent for the representative of the Secretary of Agriculture in the final approval of tobacco contracts. After approval by the State Office, these contracts were transmitted to the Contract Records Section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington for final acceptance and payments.
The State Office, under the supervision of the Marketing Specialist, issued all allotment and marketing cards distributed in Florida. When the season closed, it was necessary to have these allotment cards returned to the State Off ice where they were checked against the duplicate copies of tax-payment warrants.
Florida's tobacco yield for 1934 was 118 pounds per acre less than the three year average of 1931-33. This resulted in excess allotments to farmers. The Marketing Specialist arranged with the Extension representative of North Carolina to handle some of these excess allotments. To date, one-half million pounds of excess allotments have been sold to North Carolina producers, for which $2,730.95 has been paid to the farmers of Florida.
KERR-SMITH ACT
The Kerr-Smith Act, the immediate object of which was to bring tobacco production in line with consumption by limiting production in 1934 to not more than 500i000,000 pounds of flue-cured tobacco, was signed by the President on June 28. It was designed to place the tobacco growing industry on a sound financial and economic basis, to prevent unfair competition and practices in the production and marketing of tobacco entering into the channels of interstate and foreign commerce, and for other purposes.
The act placed a tax on all types of tobacco sold, except that covered by exemption allotments. The rate of this tax was to be set by the Secretary of Agriculture, but could not exceed 33% percent nor be less than 25 percent of the average selling price. of the tobacco.
All tobacco growers who signed contracts with the Secretary of Agriculture under the terms of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were to be issued tax-exemption certificates to equal the amount of their production allotted under the AAA.
Provision -was made in the act for continuance another year by favorable vote of 75 percent of tobacco farmers.
Administering this tobacco control and tax exemption required a great deal of time on the part of workers in the Extension Service. They issued (AAA) allotment cards to growers. Certificates for tax exemption were issued to farmers by a representative of the Internal Revenue Bureau at the warehouse. These allotment cards and copies of exemption warrants were later returned to the Agricultural Extension Service for checking and corrections.

THE CORN-HOG REDUCTION PROGRAM
The corn-hog adjustment program called for reductions of 20% in corn acreage and 25% in number of market hogs raised in 1934. The contracts required that farmers could not increase the acreage of any other basic commodity over that of 1932 or 1933, whichever was the greater. Sales receipts for hogs sold were required as supporting evidence of claims.







Annual Report, 1934


If hogs had been butchered and then sold, 150 pounds of meat was taken .o equal one hog.













i ii!j











Fig. 2.-Farmer, son and County Agent make out a corn-hog adjustment contract with the aid of the son's 4-H club business record kept on his father's farm.

For this cooperation the producer was to receive 30c per bushel for the corn not produced, and $5.00 per head on the 751/o of his base production of market hogs, less the cost of administering this work in the counties.
This program was supervised by District Agent J. Lee Smith.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
There were 1,493 contracts accepted, renting to the Secretary 19,262 acres of corn land, with an allotment of 56,939 acres to farmers. For these rented acres, the farmers received $74,851.80. They had an allotted production of market hogs of 48,566 head and received in benefit payments for hogs a total of $242,830. Total benefit and rental payments amounted to $317,681.80.
A summary of counties having contracts for 1934-35 is shown in Table 3.
All papers, including the supporting evidence, were sent to the State Office for consideration by the State Board of Review. The board rejected some contracts, scaled down others, and sent them back to the County Agents and Corn-Hog Control Associations for acceptance or rejection.

COMPLIANCE
Measuring of land and counting of hogs were done by committeemen as in compliance on other contracts. The forms were so many and complicated that it was quite expensive to do the committee and clerical work connected with compliance. The papers were taken into the office of the State Compliance Officer and all items, including measurement and calculations, were checked and transmitted to Washington.





TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF COUNTIES HAVING CORN-HOG REDUCTION CONTRACTS WITH THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA, 1934-35.
_____CORN -. .-HOGS
_______ _______ -[IBase Allotted Benefit Total
INo. Base Rented Rental Produced Productiodn Payments Corn-Hog
Counties IContracts Acres IAcres Payments IFor For For Benefit
______________ ____ ______ I_______ _____I_ Market Market - Hogs -Payments 1AlachuaI qA 1 706I72 1712 1 A 62140 11 7432 1 5 74 It 2'78'7000l 1 34-4A18450.


2. Baker. 3. Citrus . 4. Clay . 5. Calhoun. 6. Columbia. 7. Dixie . 8. Escambia.------9. Gadsden.--** 10. Gilchrist -------------11. Hamilton . . 12. Holmes. 13. Hernando.----*. .
14. Jackson.-----15. Jefferson. 16. Lafayette.-----17. Leon. 18. Levy. 19. Madison. 20. Marion . 21. Okaloosa .I. 22. Orange. 23. Polk.-------.
24. Putnam.------25. Santa Rosa . 26. St. Johns . 27. Suwannee . 28. Taylor. 29. Wakulla. . 30. Walton . 31. Washington ---.


Totals . I


1,493


450 73.5 1,172.7 7,482.2 507 273.5
2,491.5 2,143 487
1 ,225.3
45
9,375.7 8,322.7
1,954 4,015 6,125 3,152.5 3,922.5
1,434
16
110
349.5 223 1,916.3
7,420 388
604 2,765 485.5


7,20~z1.1


126.1
20
286.5 1,867.6 113 55.5 643.5 570.3 113.7 290
9
2,389.2 2,229.7
493 803 1,385.4
762.4 985.1 362
4.5
27
84 64
728.3 1,906.3 115.8 179.1 672.6 135


1~,261.8


336.0 65.70 1,079.10 8,318.40 531.30 289.20 2,1602.20 2,566.80 330.60 1,156.50
27.00 8,182.80 8,843.70
1,541.70 2 ,670.00 4,575.60 2,362.80
5,348.40 1,855.80
40.50 152.28 370.20 260.10
4,020.90 6,784.26
377.10 638.76
2,445.00 707.40


$'14.8r.8 ,982


388.5 75
745.5 6,415.5 560 173.5 1,219 2,857
406.5 710.5 80
4,892 3,454 1,562 530.5
9,634 1,929
4,974 589.5 83.5 86.5 378.5 99
200.5 8,132 2,03 182 1,435.5 300


291 56 559
4,812 420 130
914 2,143 305 533 60
3,669 2,590 1,171 3,979 7,226
1,447 3,730
442 63
65
284 74 150 6,099 152 136 1,077 225


48,566


-.950.00
1,455.00 280.00 2,795.00
24,060.00 2,100.00 650.00
4,570.0,0 10,715.00 1,525.00 2,665.00 300.00 18,345.00 12,950.00 5,855.00 19 ,895.00 36,130.00

18,650.00
2,210.00 315.00 325.00
1,420.00 370.00 750.00
30,495.00
760.00 680.00 5,385.00 1,125.00


1,107.20 1,791.00
345.70 3,874.10 32,378.40 2,631.30
939.20 7,172.20 13,281.80 1,855.60
.327.00 26,527.80 21,793.70 7,396.70 22,565.00 40,705.60 9,597.80 23,998.40 4,065.80 355.50 477.28 1,790.20 630.10 4,770.90 37,279.26 1,137.10 1,318.76 7,830.00
1.832.40


$242,830.00 1 $317,681.80







Annual Report, 1934


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. Francis Cooper, Editor
R. M. Fulghum, Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
With the addition of a second Assistant Editor to the Department on January 8, 1934, largely as a result of agricultural adjustment activities, the work of the Extension Editorial Department during the year has been considerably enlarged and improved. Additional service has been rendered in supplying both radio talks and news and farm paper stories, while the publication of bulletins and other material has not increased materially.
In addition to.the three lines of work mentioned above, the distribution of bulletins and supplies is handled in this Department. Vast quantities of supplies for County and Home Demonstration Agents and large numbers of Extension bulletins were mailed during the year. In addition, the Mailing clerks ran thousands of copies of mimeograph material for all Extension workers. The number of stencils used each month averages around 75 or more.
Continued cooperation was rendered the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the United States Department of Agriculture in the distribution of news and information relating to the adjustment program from the standpoints of both the state and the Nation.
The three Editors and two Mailing Clerks devoted about half of their time to work for the Experiment Station, as in the past.
PUBLICATIONS
While no new bulletins were published during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, the number of record books and similar material printed increased materially. One old bulletin was reprinted during the year. The Extension calendar was printed as usual, and continued to be one of the most useful and popular publications of the Extension Service. Followink is a list of the material printed during the year.
Pages Edition
Bul. 69-Buy Health With Your Food Dollar (reprint) . 48 15,000 Cire. 35-Grapes and Grape Products . 4 10,000 Circ. 22-The Succulent Peach (reprint) . 4 10,000 Cire. 24- The Fig (reprint) . ----------------------------------------------- 4 10,000
Cire. 25- Pear Products (reprint) . 4 10,000 Cire. 33-The Canning Budget (reprint) . 6 10,000 M. P. -1-Citrus Grove Record Book (revised) . 500 M. P. 4-Florida Poultry Record Book for Small Flocks
(revised) . 500 1934 Calendar . 12 10,000 4-H Club Girls' Canning Guide and Record Book . 20 15,000 Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing . _ 16 20,000 Record Book for Women in Home Demonstration Work . 16 15,000 Poultry Club Record Book . 12 10,000 Record Book for All-Year Home Garden and Orchard Work . 20 10,000
Record Book for Food, Nutrition and Health . 20 15,000 Food Consumption Record . 1000 4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint) . 7:000 Rules, Ninth'Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . 2,000 Chick M ortality Card . . . 1 1,000 Agents' Monthly Report Form . 1 5,000 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* . 1 31,500 Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . 2 750 A nnual Report, 1933 . . . --- 92 2,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEWS TO DAILY, WEEKLY AND FARM PAPERS
News and informational material in wide variety and large quantities was supplied to daily, weekly andfarin papers during 1934, and was used extensively by these papers. Reports of adjustment and other activities of the workers, together with information about improved practices with crops and livestock, the existing situation and outlook, economical and informative home suggestions, and other worth while information for farmers, growers and farm women were furnished the papers.
The clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was printed and distributed to weekly newspapers and farm papers each week. It carried from nine to 12 separate articles each week, and the papers reprinted these articles generously. Surveys during the year indicate that from 85 to 90 percent of the weekly newspapers in Florida reprint from this clipsheet from time to time, many of them each week. The farm papers also use some of the material it contains.
Special stories were sent to the daily newspapers regularly throughout about nine months of 1924, and irregularly the other three months. These were widely used.
For three months special stories to the dailies were supplied through the state mail service of the Associated Press, and throughout' the year the most important news stories were handled by.the wire service of this news disseminating organization. Nation-wide publicity was given two Florida stories by the AP. A farm department, consisting of material supplied from this office, was carried each Sunday by one large daily paper. County and home agents furnished articles regularly to their local papers.
Special articles in large number were supplied to farm papers in Florida by members of the staff, and in still larger number by the three Editors. These latter also supplied a number of stories to Southern and national farm publications.
The material from this office used by Florida, Southern and national farm journals just about doubled during the year. A check shows that 58 separate stories, amounting to 1,858 column inches, supplied by the Editors were used by four Florida papers, while three Southern farm papers printed 10 articles totaling 100 column inches. Five journals of national circulation printed six stories for 122 column inches. Cuts and other features were furnished to still other special publications with restricted national circulation.
FARM RADIO PROGRAMS
The Florida Farm Hour each week day over WRUF and daily farm flashes to five other radio stations in the state were continued throughout 1934, giving good coverage of the entire state with farm radio programs supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service. Workers in the Experiment Station and others cooperated in supplying material for the talks, but the programs were supervised and distributed by the Extension Editors.
On the Florida Farm Hour, from 12 to 1 p.m. each week day over WRUF, livestock market reports were given daily throughout 1934. Citrus shipment and auction and sales reports were included daily during November and December.
In all, 734 talks, a number of them supplied by the U. S. D. A., were put on the air during this period in 1934. Thirty-two of these were &epared and given by the Editors themselves. They also prepared and presented daily farm news highlights, weekly farm news and the weekly farm question box.
Stations receiving and using farm flashes, each about 7 minutes in length, included WCOA, Pensacola; WMBR, Jacksonville; WDBO, Orlando;







Annual Report, 1934 23

WQAM, Miami; and WSUN, St. Petersburg. During the year 409 separate flashes were mailed to these stations, 223 of them prepared in this office and 186 supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and approved here. County and Home Demonstration agents in counties where radio stations are located make frequent use of them, and cooperate in furnishing the farm flashes.
A special period for farm women, the Florida Home.Period, was presented by this office over WRUF each week day until the end of June, 1934. It occupied 15 minutes and used material supplied by state and county home demonstration workers and the U. S. D. A.
The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the national 4-H club achievement day program over NBC stations on November 3. This program consisted of one hour, with the first and last 15 minutes coming from Washington over the chain and the middle 30 minutes going over each station locally. There are three Florida stations on the NBC network, and the local program for each one was arranged by the Extension Service.







Florida Cooperat ive Extension


PART 11-MENS WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent
Forty-six counties cooperated in the employment of County Agents during this fiscal year. The state was divided into three districts each supervised by a District Agent. In the northern and western part of Florida the agricultural adjustment program consumed the greater 'part of the agents' time. This program with cotton, corn-hogs, and tobacco required very active supervision on the part of the District Agents, and enlisted the cooperation of some 300 farmers who acted as Committeemen. The part played by the Extension Service was to carry out the plans laid down by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
In this program, approximately 15,000 different contracts were signed by farmers, and in this way they participated in the national program as carried out in all states.
County Agents were drafted for additional duties in connection with other phases of federal adjustment and relief programs. The Rehabilitation Section of the F.E.R.A. requested that the County Extension Agents act in an advisory capacity in selecting rehabilitation clients and making recommendations for their agriculture. They were also drafted to assist the Farm Credit Administration to facilitate the machinery needed for making loans to farmers. They were further drafted to assist in collecting statistical matter required by the Department.of Agriculture through its various branches. These additional activities consumed more than 60 percent of their time, with the result that many of the usual projects carried on in the counties were secondary to the emergency programs.
In each county having adjustment programs there were necessarily county and community committees. These committees approved applications for contracts and assumed much of tho responsibility for the accuracy of information governing these contracts. The County Agent's office was headquarters -for all such activities, and he assumed the responsibility for calling meetings and transmitting necessary information to the State Office, where in turn it was transmitted to the commodity divisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington. - This staff of County Agents, together with the Committeemen, comprised a larger number of people engaged in an agricultural program than at any former period in the history of Florida's agriculture.
This adjustment program has been carried on without any additional expense from state funds. The extra burdens were borne entirely by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
The personnel of the'Supervisory Staff has remained unchanged, but the District Agents have assumed responsibility for supervision of the adjustment program. District Agent H. G. Clayton was appointed chairman of the Board of Review for Cotton, which duties required more than 5017o of his time. District Agent J. Lee Smith was appointed Supervisor of Compliance, and in charge of the peanut adjustment program. W. T. Nettles assumed a large responsibility for supervision of Extension work in additional 'counties. D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing, was appointed chairman of the tobacco adjustment work, and he did a good part of the state work with corn and hogs. W. J. Sheely was appointed








Annual Report, 1934 25

chairman of the corn-hog adjustment program. F. W. Brumley, Economist, was appointed a member of the State Cotton Board of Review. H. L. Brown, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, conducted an educational campaign in the control of the screw worm fly. N. R. Mehrhof was appointed leader in the formation of the Florida Poultry Council. It has, however, been the policy of the Extension Service to keep, as far as possible, the work undertaken in the various agricultural projects disturbed just as little as possible, as far as supervision is concerned.
The County Agents in the southern and horticultural counties have been permitted to carry on their usual programs with less disturbance than in the northern area. There have, however, been many additional duties assigned to them due to marketing agreements and county rehabilitation and relief programs.
.A review of the County Agents' records for the past year indicates a great diversion of energies, yet in spite of this, none of the projects formerly making up the Extension program were abandoned or seriously neglected. The readjustments for the purpose of placing agriculture on a better basis must necessarily continue.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
In carrying out the Extension program in 1934 there was active cooperation in 346 different communities; 652 men and 56 women gave voluntary assistance at the request of the Extension Agents. About one-half of these assisted with the adjustment program There were 18,532 farms 'participating in agricultural programs, and this, according to the Federal Census, represents approximately 3517o of the total farms in Florida. There were 23,800 families that were influenced and affected by the Extension program. The number of actual contacts cannot be correctly stated because of the numerous programs such as tours, achievement days, short courses, and a variety of meetings. In all it is estimated that more than 100,000 people made contacts with the Extension Service and participated in the programs undertaken by the County Extension Agents.
Reports from the County agents show the following.
Soil Improvement.-The crops grown for soil improvement were Austrian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria. There were 636 demonstrations. These demonstrations were conducted for the purpose of determiningthe adaptability and use according to types of soil and crops; also to follow out the recommendations governed by the research work of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. They were conducted on the different types of soil found in Florida.
Throughout the citrus area, crotalaria was used more successfully than other crops, since this crop adapts itself well to citrus soils and cultural practices. A variety of crops were grown in the general farming area and of these crotalaria produced the largest tonnage. Its use being restricted to soil improvement, it was not adopted as generally as legumes that can be fed to livestock, due to their economic importance in the production of livestock. In many instances increase in yields ran to 10 and 20 percent, and in a few instances the yields were 100 percent over that produced in adjoining areas where cover crops had not been used.
Cereals-Cereals consist principally of corn, with limited acreages of oats and rye. Demonstrations with them were confined almost entirely to the West Florida area. There were 359 cereal demonstrations with adult farmers. The farmers conducted these demonstrations following recommendations in reference to fertilizer, seed selection, disease and insect control, spacing, and cultivation.







26 Florida Cooperative Extension

The demonstrations conducted with oats and rye and other cereals were mainly for the purpose of providing ''Winter pasture and feed for livestock. The recommendations were largely as' to varieties of oats and rye and the use of nitrogenous fertilizer to stimulate growth during the spring months. For the most part o I ts and rye were' used only as forage crops and not as grain.
Cotton-There were relatively few demonstrations carried on with cotton, and those few were in reference to culture and fertilizer practices principally, the main emphasis being placed on fertilizer practices and the selection of areas that should be taken out of production so that farmers might get the greatest returns froin'their efforts. Since the average yield of cotton is relatively low in Florida, there is continued effort to increase the yield based on experimental data and practical experience.
Tobacco-The principal work With tobacco was in connection with the adjustment program. The most important tobacco area is comprised of six counties. There was a limited number of the usual demonstrations for the purpose of securing healthy plants aiid'selection of suitable soils, fertilizer, cultivation, and curing.
Irish Potatoes-The important Irish potato growing areas in Florida are located in Escambia, St. Johns, Flagler and Dade counties, although there are limited acreages throughout several of the Central Florida counties. In the main producing areas, Extension work was largely with the problems of disease-free seed, insect and disease control, and marketing. In order to assist in the marketing of potatoes in Florida, the Extension Service cooperates with the Early Potato* Growers' Association, which association has membership in all the Eastern -early producing area, also with the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Extension Service. Effort was directed toward better distribution of Florida potatoes. This was handled through shippers' organizations, particularly in the Hastings and Flagler area.
Citrus Fruits.-Extension work in citrus groves extends into every citrus growing county. A unified citrus growing program was planned and approved by the Extension Service, County Agents, and research workers of the Experiment Station. The main program was centered around economy of production, improved quality of fruit; and irrigation.
Since the acreage of bearing trees 'continues to increase throughout the State of Florida without a correspondingly expanding market, the niost severe problem confronting the growers is to maintain a low cost of production. This low cost of production 'has been centered around studies of commercial fertilizer requirements, proper use and conservation of cover crops, and economy in cultural practices. During the months of September and October, on account of the lack of rainfall, drouth conditions presented a serious problem for the growers in th6 ridge''area. To meet this situation the Citriculturist and the County Agents ga I ve special attention to irrigation methods.
County Agents have carried out theusual programs for the control of insects and disease.
Vegetables.-The work with vegetables may be divided into two main divisions: first, commercial crops, and second, home gardens.
In the important commercial vegetable growing areas, special attention was given to fertilization, mainly substituting in part inorganic material for organic, and studying fertilizer costs in respect to nitrogen. Cover crops consisted principally of crotalaria .'and native grasses. Seed treatment was mainly to procure a better stan d and more thrifty plants. Emphasis was placed on more timely applications for insect control and







Annliiail_ report, 1934


protection against disease spores, rather than control after' the plants were infected. Also, there -were demonstrations in the use of the newer insecticides and fungicides, as directed bythe departments of the Florida Experiment Station.
Due to economic conditions, the efforts'of Extension and relief workers with gardens have been greatly increased. The County Agents have assisted relief workers in determining varieties, planting dates, fertilizer practices and.use of crops. - This1has added considerably to the food supply in large areas throughout the state. Since there are many problems involved in this in which the Home Demonstration Agents alsotook an active part, this has required a very large part of the agents' time.
Feed Crops and Pasiures Demonstrations with feed crops and contacts with livestock men are a part of practically every County Agent's work. Special emphasis has been placed on the use of pastures. With the large areas of unimproved lands it is recognized that much time can be given to this problem with a view to improving the livestock of this state.
The dairymen have been- particularly active in improving their pastures, especially in the localities of the larger dairy producing sections, Increasing acreages of cut-over lands have been purchased by dairymen, particularly in the Jacksonville and Tampa areas. These pastures have been improved by seeding wit h carpet grass, by mowing the weeds, by avoiding overpasturing, and in a few cases with fertilizer applications. With the rise in price of grains and greater competition in the production of dairy products, economy 'of production has been considered the most important phase of this type of Extension work.
While this applies to a lesser extent to beef cattle and hogs it is part of practically every County Ag ent's program.
Forage and Silage.=Special emphasis has been given to suitable silage crops and types of silage. Dairymen of Duval County have materially increased the number of silos in- use-some of these at considerable cost, but for the most part surface or underground silos. This has attracted considerable attention since it has been found that much can be done with a limited outlay of'cash and by the main expense being in the far i in labor. Forty silos of this type are now being used in one county. These vary in capacity from 50 to 200 tons. For the most part the crop stored is corn. The quality of the feed compares favorably with that produced in the more expensive types of silos, and has served as an excellent demonstration of a means of reducing the cost of production.
, Special attention also was given to the use of varieties of sugarcane asa soiling crop for dairy cattle. This gives promise of greater development since the production per acre is larger than with most other crops, and the results so far show that it produces a satisfactory forage crop for cattle. The useof other improved grasses suitable to the type of soil has been part of the 1934 Extension program.
Livestock-The livestock program is primarily with dairy cattle, beef cattle and hogs. Due to the low prices received by farmers for beef and pork, many farmers of limited areas have practically discontinued their operations. The adjustment program received the greatest attention through 1934. There continues to be, however, a definite interest in the improvement of livestock in our general farming area. , And this was intensified during the latter part of the year due to the increased prices for pork.
Demonstrations with hogs during the past year have been largely in feed production, consisting - principally of growing forage crops during
*the summer months together with fattening crops,. principally peanuts. And in this the 4-H clubs have played an important part. While the number








~, 4.
,~iv ~


;~


Fig. 3.-Proper equipment enables Florida farmers to produce and cure a g( had meat for home use and for sale.







Annual Report, 1934


of breeders has not increased, the County Agents have stimulated a demand for improvement in quality, and their demonstrations have been built around the problem of better quality together with cheaper feeds.
In addition the home curing of pork has received special attention, principally under the direction of the Animal Husbandman, as shown in his report. Also proper butchering, cutting and curing methods have been explained. And since cold storage has been made available to most farming areas, County Agents have encouraged proper storage and curing methods. In this help has been given by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Schools have been carried out demonstrating better practices in curing and handling of meat. This has resulted in a much larger supply of home cured meat of a decidedly superior quality.
County Agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog cholera, and in most important hog growing counties this has occupied approximately 50 percent of the County Agents' time. They have cooperated with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, thereby enabling farmers to have their hogs treated at a minimum cost.
During the early part of the year prices of dairy products were relatively low, with the result that there has been little encouragement for increasing farm dairying. Emphasis therefore has been placed on dairying to supply the family needs with the home dairy cow. This has been further emphasized by relief organizations, and the general emphasis on the need of dairy products for the better nourishment of the family. County Agents have endeavored to get distribution of dairy cows on farms where they can be properly cared for, and have emphasized the importance of homegrown feeds to make the undertaking a success.
In the commercial dairies emphasis has been placed on production and economical use of feeds; home-grown feeds have been the principal part of the program, the selection of purchased feeds and maintenance rations, the culling out of unprofitable animals, and the raising of heifers from the best cows in order to replenish the herd. Special attention has been given to parasite control, since this is all-important in the production of
-dairy calves.
. Assistance in Control of Screw Worm Fly-The screw worm affects all kinds of livestock, and livestock producers of Florida are deeply interested in methods of combatting this pest. This menace was first found in Florida in 1933 and through 1934 was located in most of the areas where cattle and hogs are kept. Since this pest was relatively new in Florida, the
-various agencies of the State and Federal Governments undertook to control its spread and to promote an educational program that would assist in its ,control. Through cooperation with the FERA, programs were put into effect for the purpose of destroying carcasses and otherwise controlling the screw worm invasion of the various counties. These organizations
-were headed up in the County Agent's office.
These programs were effective in 24 Florida counties in 1934. The Live Stock Sanitary Board, the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Experiment Station issued timely information on proper methods of procedure, and much voluntary assistance was given by the farmers of the state to prevent the spread of the screw worm fly. This work was directed by the Bureau of Entomology under the supervision of Dr. W. V. King.
Purchase for Commodity Division, FMMA At the request of the Director of Commodity Division, F.E.R.A., 25,000 gallons of Florida sirup was purchased from farmers. This sirup was assembled in carrots under the supervision of the County Agents. District Agent J. Lee Smith was placed in charge of the purchase, inspection, loading and distribution of orders.







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

In addition to this, other purchases of hay and cornmere made at the request of the Commodity, Division, F.E.R.A.,. which. products were used for relief clients and for feeding government-owned cattle that were shipped to Florida from the Western drouth areas.
Agricultural Loans Tbe County Agents have assisted farmers in securing credit from the Farm Credit Administration by helping them execute necessary papers and forms, supplying information to producers, furnishing .the Farm Credit Administration with data on conditions and need for credit, and assisted in the organization and operation of local, production credit associations. The types of credit available are: (1) Long-term credit with mortgage security, through the Land Bank and Land Bank Commissioners' Loans; (2) production credit through the Production Credit Corporation, secured by crop and chattel mortgages; (3) emergency loans for seed and fertilizer through the Emergency Loan Office, -secured by crop mortgages; (4) loans to cooperatives from the Bank for Cooperatives for facilities secured by proper collateral. In this the County Agents have taken a leading part and have endeavored to give the best service possible so that the farmers may benefit to the greatest extent from this government credit agency.
Outlook Information.-The Extension Service has established -a division under the direction of H. G. Clayton to supply outlook information to the producers of this state. From the 'national standpoint, outlook work is under the supervision of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The information for the outlook report is based on statistics on production, distribution and credit and is made available to all producers in this state for the purpose of governing them in their operations. An Outlook Report is published annually and is placed in the hands of the County Agents as a .part of their program. In order to get the outlook information to the farmers of the state, the District Agents and Specialists have conducted a series of outlook meetings in all counties with representative attendance in each county.
Agricultural Economics-This relatively new phase of Extension work affects practically every section of our state. It has to do with, public problems and economic planning on a county and community basis, farm records and inventories, individual farm planning, farm and home finances, marketing, buying and selling. In these various phases of economics, there were 832 demonstrations, in support of these there were 246 meetings held and 129 circular letters with instructions, and 21,721 office calls. There were 1,146 farmers keeping cost accounts, 1,402 farmers were given assistance in making inventories and credit statements; 1,072 were assisted in making mortgage and other debt adjustments; 868 farmers adopted complete farming account systems,. according to recommendations; and 209 urban families received assistance in becoming established on farms.
Value of products sold through clubs. and individuals cooperating in these activities amount to 4,479,204, and the value of purchases by these associations and individuals amount to $620,728.
Additional Activities-Additional activities carried on by County Agents in the respective counties have to do with practically all farm problems, including contracts and leases, diseases of livestock, purchase of breeding stock, selling of farm produce, marketing of poultry and eggs, and during last year they assisted various federal agencies in carrying out their programs as they affected agriculture in Florida.







Annual Report, 1934


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent

ENROLLMENTWhile the year 1934 has been one in which the old extension program has had to give way to agricultural adjustment activities, boys' 4-H club work in Florida was able not only to hold its own in enrollment but to regain part of the loss suffered in 1933. This increase is gratifying and goes far toward proving that 4-H club work does develop efficient leadership in farm boys. There were 2,356 boys enrolled in club work duking the year. They had 3,080 projects. Of these, 1,101 members completed 1,651 projects.
The following figures show. the gains and losses in the different projects.

0
0 0 k ;t 0 Cd
U E-4 04 U E-4

Total, 1933 . 1 583 1 192 1 1 Ill 338 93 277 376 203 2481 2415
. 1 7191 2371 222 4431 55 337 4661 2471 354 3080


Gain or loss . 1+1361 +451+1111+105 -381 +60 +90 +441- 106 +665


ORGANIZATION
The local club has been the salvation of our work this year. In the counties where the boys had been organized and the older ones served as key boys the enrollment was increased. The job of securing members was turned over to the older boys in most of the counties of North and West Florida.' Even in some of the counties where the time of the County Agent was taken up completely with the adjustment work, more boys enrolled than in 1933. After securing enrollment these boy leaders carried on and kept the club meetings going and in some counties visited the younger members and helped with their record books. One hundred and thirty-eight meetings wereheld by clubs without assistance from a county agent.
The effectiveness of our present organization in time of stress proves the necessity of giving more emphasis to this part of the 4-11 program.
Local 4-H Clubs-The number of organized clubs increased in 1934. Of the 33 agents reporting club work, 32 had a total of 154 organized clubs, an increase of 30 over last year. This increase is explained by the fact that more counties employed agents than in 1933. A new agent is urged to organize his local clubs as one of the first steps in developing a club program for his county. Escambia County leads in effective organization -among the larger counties andUnion for the smaller. The local clubs in Escambia County are the oldest in the state, some of them having been in continuous operation for 14 years. Most of these clubs are under the leadership of old 4-H club boys. In Union County all club members have been in organized clubs for eight years. Our experience in club organization has been that the local clubs fail or succeed according to the ability of the older club members.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Outstanding Local Clubs-Perhaps the most outstanding local club in Florida for(1934 was the Macedonia Club in Suwannee, County. This club has been in existence butfour years and has had the benefit of the leadership of Miss Nettie Bass during this time. For the last two years, every member has reported and exhibited at the county contest and every member attended the contest. It is a thoroughly wide-awake club and one which holds its membership interested through regular meetings and interesting programs.
The Lake Worth Club in Palm Beach County holds the honor of being the first chartered club in the state, the first one to win a gold seal and now has won the purple seal which is the highest ranking a club can reach. This club has functioned eight years and claims to have in its membership every boy of club age in the area set aside by the County Agent for the Club. It will be awarded the first purple seal given to a Florida Boys' 4-H Club.
The Walnut Hill Club of Escambia County won the cup for the best club in the county with a membership of 25 boys completing 56 projects. The Newberry Club in Alachua County continues to supply over half the record books for the county. The Gaskins Club in Walton County leads that county in the greatest revival of club work ever staged in the state.

LEADERSHIP
The success of a local 4-H club depends upon its leadership. The leadership can be supplied either by an older person as in case of the Lake Worth Club or by the older boys in the club as in case of the clubs in Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton and Alachua counties. The older club members function on the average more efficiently than do men and women leaders.
The success in increasing club enrollment for 1934 is to the credit of the older club members. Realizing that the agricultural adjustment work would take practically all of the agents' time in several of the counties, a plan was worked out to enlist the aid of older club boys for 1934. Each County Agent was asked to have one or two boys from each local club meet at the courthouse on a set date. The State Club Leader attended and after giving a resume of conditions due to the adjustment work, he placed the responsibility for securing the enrollment and carrying on club work in the county on the boys present. Each boy was given the title of "Key Boy". The duties of the key boy were to secure enrollment in big community, help in the organization of the local club, to visit every club member as often as possible and to check reports. A letter was sent to each key boy once a month from the state office with instructions for project work and ideas for social programs. The plan was successful. Of course not all the key boys did the job assigned to them, but most did a fair piece of work and some did wonderfully well. Vertice Truett in Walton County visited every member in his club several times and that club turned in the best set of record books ever received from that county.

PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS
With the return of better prices for farm products, the interest in club work as a means of making money will be increased. The past three
years have been ones of low financial returns to club boys, but 1934 shows some improvement. The better prices for tobacco, corn, hogs and cotton increased the percent profit to the boys. Yields are below pre-depression years because heavy fertilization lids been discouraged. Soil building and economical production have been stressed as primary considerations in carrying out a project demonstration. We have stressed the social side







Annual Report, 1934


of club work during the depression. The project has been held as the first requirement for membership but less emphasis than formerly has been placed on the securing of big yields.

FARM CROPS
Corn-Three hundred seventy-two boys grew 414 acres of corn and produced 12,532 bushels, an average yield of 30.2 bushels. The increased price of corn at gathering time gave good profit even with the decreased yield. Where the corn followed a demonstration in soil building the yield was very satisfactory. Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County led with a yield of 91 bushels. This boy used a liberal amount of commercial fertilizer.
Cotton-The number of 4-H club cotton acres was kept down by the requirements of the cotton reduction program. But 113 boys produced 87,633 pounds of seed cotton at a very nice profit to the boys. The average production was 775 pounds of seed cotton, although very little fertilizer was used.
Peanuts-Boys carrying this crop as a project averaged 38 bushels per acre. This is a very satisfactory yield and was secured by closer spacing of the peanuts.
Home Gardens and Truck Crops-Home gardens and truck crops as club projects came back in number. The club garden has been the salvation of many small families particularly in the edges of the small towns. Many families have been living on the club poultry flock backed up by the club garden and sometimes the cow which started out as a club calf. One family in Palm Beach County has been forced to depend entirely upon the club projects of the boy for the past two years. The father could not get work and the family bad to live on the products grown by the club boy. The sweet potato project continues to hold its own as a money making project.
SOIL IMPROVEMENT
This project continues to offer a wonderful opportunity for constructive work during the depression. It seems rather difficult to induce man or boy to plant an acre of land with the knowledge that no returns can be secured until the end of the second year. Whenever land is planted to crotalaria and corn follows, the increase in yield justifies the labor spent. Union County boys are doing more of this work than those in any other county. The average increase in yield due to crotalaria is about 17 bushels per acre. This is double the yield on the check plots.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
There was little inducement for club members to raise pigs during the past two-years. Never-the-less, there was a slight increase in number of boys raising pigs and with the increased price of live market hogs a small profit was possible.
Some attempt to encourage the raising of beef cattle is being made. The success of this project is doubtful but experience only can prove its plac6 in the Florida club program.

DAIRY HUSBANDRY
This project had an 18clo increase in enrollment over 1933. The dairy club work in Duval County has reached the point where the animals once club calves are now cows producing milk. The majority of them are






Florida Cooperative Extension


making a profit for their owners. There has been a gradual spread of this project into new counties where the raising of good family cows is the object.


Fig. 4-This club boy is learning the fine points about hog raising by growing a pig.


POULTRY HUSBANDRY
The poultry work has increased slightly in amount. The boys having a flock of around 100 laying hens appear quite likely to make some money.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
The socialization of rural people is one of the big projects in rural life today. Better types of living and a more intelligent farm citizenry is the need of the day. 4-H club work has a big job ahead if it does its part in building this new type of agricultural life in Florida.
Recreation.-The utilization of leisure time is one of the big problems facing the world today. Folks without jobs must spend their time at something. Satisfying wholesome recreation at low expense is needed in rural sections. 4-H club work is trying to help meet this need. Recreation is







Annual Report, 1934


a vital part of the program of every local club. That obtained in club activities is all the recreation some farm boys'get.
To assist in'developing leadership with at least some definite training in recreation, six recreation leadership training schools were held in cooperation with the National Recreation Association. Schools were held at Miami, Palm Beach, Orlando, Plant City and Monticello for the first time. At the West Florida 4-H Club Camp a six day school was held which was the best one of this type ever held in Florida. Four boys and four girls from each of the 10 counties in West Florida were brought there for a week. They were selected for their leadership ability.
Club Camps.-The 4-H club camp stands out as the most vital special activity in our program. The club camp is a big event in the life of the club boy -who attends. In 1934 24 counties held camps. The boys' camps were all held at three camping places.
The West Florida Club Camp is serving as a central camping point for club boys and girls from Pensacola to as far east as Jefferson County. The fine equipment at this camp makes it an ideal camping place for club work. A power victrola and an outdoor stage were added this year.
The biggest event of the club year was the securing of an abandoned CCC camp in the Ocala National Forest as a central camp for Central Florida. This camp is designed for 100 boys or girls at a time. Cabins and bunks for 70 are built with dining room and kitchen facilities for the completed camp. The control cottage is built, but two docks and a recreation hall and three more cabins are yet to be built. Sanitary sewerage and electric lights are the big need at present. Boys from nine counties and girls from one county used the camp in 1934.
The camp was named for C. K. McQuarrie, who was the first County Agent Leaderfor Florida under the Smith-Lever Act.
D. R. Matthews and Wilmer Bassett, Jr., two old club boys, were employed to assist at the camp during the summer months.
Annual Short Course-The 17th annual Boys' Club Short Course was held at the University of Florida in June, with 235 boys attending. This is a great source of inspiration for club boys. Many boys enter the University solely because they attended one or more club short courses and determined to return as regular students.
At an examination given during the short course three boys were awarded scholarships to the College of Agriculture given by the Florida Bankers' Association.

STATE WINNERS FOR 1934
Bankers' Scholarships G. T. Huggins, Jr., of Alachua County, Marcus Williams of Lake County and Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County were the winners of the $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture.
National 4-H Camp.-Thomas Lamb of Orange County and William Clegg of Alachua County were the Florida 4-H club boys selected to attend this camp. Clegg entered the University this fall and Lamb will enter in 1935.
FRIENDS OF CLUB WORK
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad.-This company pays the expenses of one of the delegates to the National 4-H Camp each year. Thomas Lamb of Orange County won the trip in 1934.
Florida Bankers' Association-For 16 years the bankers of Florida have given three 4-H club boys a $100 scholarship to the College of Agriculture each year. The boys who entered the University on bankers' scholarships have made good.







36 Florida Cooperative Extension

National Recreation Association.-This association has been very liberal with Florida. For the past five years we have had the services of one of its best men in helping train leaders for rural recreation. The results have been excellent.
INelson Knitting Mills.-This company paid the expenses of a boy to the International Live Stock Show and Club Congress held in Chicago the first week in December. The trip was awarded the state corn club champion. - Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County won this trip for 1934. Medals were given to county winners in corn work.
Thomas E. Wilson.-Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County won the gold watch given by Mr. Wilson, President of Wilson and Company, as a prize to the outstanding 4-H boy in meat-production work. Medals were given county winners.







Annual Report, 1934


I DAIRYING

Hamlin L. Brown, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1934 in cooperation with the county agents: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Liberty, Calhoun, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval, St. Johns, Union, Bradford, Baker, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Hernando, Manatee, Highlands, DeSoto, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Dade. Some dairy work was carried on with farmers in the following counties not having county agents: -Bay, Gulf, Volusia, Putnam, Clay, Citrus and Broward.

DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor emphasized by the Extension Dairyman in 1934. Pasture or grazing crops and silage crops are of greatest importance, with soiling crops and hay crops next in order,
Dairymen this year have continued to locate their dairies on soils best adapted to growing forage crops, many of them moving to better locations. Government loans offered on lands and livestock have increased the opportunities for dairymen to secure land better suited to growing forage. Within the last three years 189 dairymen have purchased 18,715 acres of farm lands for growing pasture and forage crops.

BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS
County Agents report they had 27 demonstrations in repairing dairy barns and helped in the construction of 32 silos for dairy purposes in 1934. Twenty-seven of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and five above ground. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have proven that silage will keep in Florida in any well-constructed silo. Practically all kinds of forage grown in the state may be preserved in a silo.
The underground silo has been popular during these depression times. The very low cost of construction and the reduced cost of machinery for filling the underground silo makes it possible for more farmers to have silos. The farmers living in the flatwoods are building the semi-trench silo by digging about 2 feet down for the trench and extending the wall above ground with poles, logs or board timber banked with dirt removed from the trench. These walls extend from a foot to 6 feet above the ground. The surface is covered with dirt.

SILAGE
Silage demonstrations conducted in various sections of the state have established silage as a most valuable cattle feed in Florida. Proper methods of handling silage have been stressed and are of the greatest importance. Duval County dairymen have made the most progress with silage and forage demonstrations. Sixty-three percent of all the dairymen in Duval County are feeding silage in the winter of 1934. It was found necessary to introduce crops other than corn that would produce large yields of silage. Twenty-nine farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane as a silage crop and to supply silag-e where the corn or sorghum fails to fill the silos.
Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing sorghum, Napier grass and. cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1934.







Florida Cooperative Extension


These crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy industry by producing an abundance of cheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of the state that are not adapted to growing corn.
The increased price on all grains and concentrated dairy feeds in recent months has served to stimulate greatly the interest in silage and forage crops for the coming season.

PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS
The financial depression has encouraged Florida dairy farmers to increase the number of acres of pasture. Additional profits from milk sales resulting from better stabilized markets afforded more capital to improve conditions. County Agents reported 1,127 acres seeded by dairymen in 1934.
Demonstrations in mowing pastures for the past four or five years have proven effective. The increased grass yields are so noticeable on the better grass lands that there has been a larger number of farmers mowing pastures each year. There were 7,440 acres of permanent pasture mowed by dairymen in 1934.
Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commercial fertilizers have proven profitable. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,470 acres of grazing crops this year.

RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS
The low price for meat animals has greatly retarded the culling of dairy cows. Low prices on grain feed and a surplus of market milk permitted the dairymen milking low producing cows to remain in business. The recent advance in grain prices has changed the situation and low producing cows on farms where required forage is not being grown are a losing proposition. Dairymen are being helped to dispose of their poor cows and to grow out some of their best heifers for replacement. They are urged to select the best heifers from only the best cows in the herd, feed a liberal ration first six months, then feed nutritionous roughages. The average Florida dairy cow is 20clo under size. Demonstrations in growing heifers are helping to correct this condition.
Sixty percent of the dairy heifers in the state are infested with intestinal parasites. Calves are pastured on infested fields before they are old .enough to resist parasites. In calf feeding demonstrations calves are kept on cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures'and parasite infestation is largely avoided. The system of breeding cows for fall freshening is ideal for growing dairy heifers free from intestinal parasites.

FARM DAIRYING
The keeping of dairy cows on general farms of Florida has been encouraged. The milk and other dairy products obtained from the family cow have supplied the farm family with splendid food when it was sorely needed. Better grade heifers from the farm herds have been supplied to commercial dairymen for replacements in their herds.
Demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement have been conducted by many of the County Agents as a part of the farm dairy program.
Agents have assisted the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in its rural rehabilitation program as it related to the family milk cow.
In some counties the agents have assisted farmers in procuring high grade and purebred milk cows from other areas. Fifty-one good heifer calves were placed on farms in Hernando County during 1934, 'and will grow into excellent family milk cows.


































Fig. 5.-Some excellent family milk cows were brought to Florida farms fror agents and Extension Dairyman helping to select and procure the animals for t placed on farms of Liberty County.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairy work among 4-H club boys continued to center interest on -improved animals and proper care. Through it, the farm dairy program was enhanced.
DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The very important reason for dairy records as understood by the average dairyman is that he wants information for culling. About 20,11o of the dairy farmers in the state have kept some kind of individual milk records of the weights of the milk and feed as a guide in proportion ing the amount of feed for each animal. These records have furnished information for culling the herd, also.
Feed records have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the importance of the forage program in a very substantial way. Around 95V. of the dairymen of North Marion County were keeping dairy records and about this percentage are producing all of their forage feed now.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 76 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during 1934 by Extension Agents. The interest in proven sires is increasing.
County Agents report 43 exchanges among neighbor farmers of dairy bulls. Good bulls that have to be moved to avoid inbreeding and that have sired heifers showing type and promise to make valuable animals are exchanged with neighbors.

4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Twenty county agents enrolled 123 4-H club members with 184 dairy animals in 1934. Of these, 35 were registered females and 88 were high grade females. The 4-11 club has for its purpose a general training for farm boys and girls in methods of, growing dairy heifers and feeding and managing them as dairy cows. It requires at least three years to complete a project of raising a dairy heifer from calf to cow.
At the 4-11 Boys' Short Course in June, one squad of about 30 boys received special training in dairying.

COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are 18 county dairy associations and one state dairy association. The state association with over 500 members has been functioning continuously now for nine years. These dairy organizations take an active part in helping build the county and state dairy programs.
The State Dairy Association has active charge of matters affecting dairy legislation.
RADIO AND NEWS STORIES
Twenty-seven radio talks of , 7 minutes each were prepared and delivered during 1934, dealing with timely subjects on dairying.
Thirty-two news articles dealing with timely subjects on dairying were prepared for the agricultural press during 1934. Also, during the year an address-o-graph list of all dairymen in the state was prepared for use in connection with circular letters.
SCREW WORM FLY CONTROL
The screw worm fly first became a menace to Florida livestock during the summer of 1933. Although it has given much trouble with hogs and beef cattle, the screw worm fly never has been a serious menace to dairy







Annual Report, 1934


,animals in market milk dairies in this state. Through circular letters mailed to all dairymen, this office advised dairymen of changed herd practices and emphasized the importance of applying pine tar preparations to all fresh wounds as a prevention. On account of the emergency caused by severe infestation of screw worm, the Extension Dairyman was assigned the duty of assisting in organization work and conducting educational meetings on screw worm control, cooperating with the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. Approximately two months of intensive work was given to education features of the program.
A statewide conference wa's called at Tallahassee by Governor Sholtz, 'September 5, to plan for screw worm fly control. It was attended by members ofthe 1935 Legislature, livestock owners and others interested in livestock development, officials from the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, State FERA, State Live Stock Sanitary Board, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. The FERA appropriated a fund from the Surplus Commodity Purchasing Department to carry on a Statewide Educational program, and for employment of 28 agents to work six weeks in representative counties to assist with the program. Dr. W. V. King, Field Agent, Bureau of Entomology, stationed at Orlando, V. L. Bruns of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and the Extension Dairyman were appointed to carry on the educational program. A total of 28 county assistants were appointed and placed in representative counties infested with screw worms to assist in the training of farmers in methods of treating animals, building stock chutes and holding pens for handling infested animals. The educational program mapped out by the committee was practically a continuation of the educational work started in July. Thirty-four farmers meetings were held with a total attendance of 1,967. County Agents report 788 animals treated for screw worm.
AAA PROGRAMS
A representative of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Washington, requested a conference with representatives of the Agricultural Extension Service regarding a proposed plan for distributing surplus dairy cows in rural communities of Florida. The Dairy Agent made a survey of the state. Forty-one counties reported 6,245 cows could be placed with reasonable assurance that they would be given feed and care. This was to be in connection with a proposed program by the AAA for reducing milk cows on farms.
There was but little interest in a dairy adjustment program in Florida because this is regarded as a milk deficiency area.

DISEASE CONTROL
The matter of eradicating Bang's disease through indemnity payments to dairymen for animals slaughtered was presented to the Florida Dairymen by Dr. T. W. Cole, B.A.I., Inspector in Charge, at the annual meeting of State Dairymen's Association in Ocala, September 26, 1934.
One hundred and twenty-two herds of 4,313 animals in 12 counties have been tested to date. There were 668 reactors, or about 15.517c. It is likely that many more dairymen will have their herds tested, if funds are made available through the spring months.

FERA
The Extension Dairyman has held conferences with state, district and county supervisors of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in outlining plans for feed and management for family cows as a part of the








42 Florida Cooperative Extension

Rural Rehabilitation program in various counties. Proposed plans for farm dairying and the establishment of creameries have been thoroughly discussed and it is agreed that feed and cows are the essentials, and that a successful feed growing program must precede creamery development.

FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION
Valuable aid has been given dairymen of Florida through feed and seed loans and loans on farm lands. Dairymen have been able to move onto soil more suitable for feed growing.
The Extension Dairyman cooperated in the training school given in November for land appraisers in Florida.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY
M eetings held . 272 Total attendance . . 675 M iles traveled . . . 32p198 Letters written . . 2,316







Annual Report, 1934


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry
Work with beef cattle and hogs was continued along lines similar to those followed in preceding years. Emergency work, however, occupied considerable time of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the County Agents this year. This work included corn-hog adjustment, the purchase of surplus cattle from flooded areas, and control of the screw worm fly.
Phases of livestock work were carried on in most counties of the state through personal visits, meetings, field day programs, correspondence and circular letters, radio talks and press articles.

PURCHASING DISTRESS CATTLE
Considerable portions of the cattle grazing areas in Brevard, Seminole, Orange, Osceola, Polk, Highlands and Okeechobee counties became flooded as a result of excessive rainfall in June. At the request of cattlemen in those counties, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration agreed to purchase about 10 percent of the cattle in the areas. They requested the cooperation of the Agricultural Extension Service in making the purchases, and the Agent in Animal Husbandry was appointed director of purchases.
The Livestock Marketing Agent of the State Marketing Bureau and inspectors of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperated in the undertaking.
An organization was perfected in each county and worked under the direction of the County Agent. The county committeemen assisted in assembling and grading the cattle. Agents of the Bureau of Animal Industry inspected them. Those accepted were turned over to the FERA for slaughter and finally were canned for distribution to families on relief.
A total of 16,335 cattle were purchased, the owners receiving $224,161. Congested conditions on ranges and pastures were relieved and feed was left for the remaining cattle.


Fig. 6.-Grade cattle are becoming more widespread in Florida, and the quality of the state's beef production is improving as a result.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BEEF CATTLE PROJECTS
PRODUCTION
Despite the fact thht cattle production is an industry more than 350 years old in Florida, there is still a great deal of room for improvement in herds of beef cattle in this state. It is generally agreed that the way to go about building up Florida beef herds is to breed purebred bulls to native range cows and secure better offspring. Considerable progress in that direction has been made.
Florida is situated long distances from most of the purebred breeding herds of beef cattle, and consequently the procuring of purebred bulls is a problem. Assistance has been rendered to men interested in the beef cattle breeding business in Florida. All breeders have been able to sell all their bulls by the timethey reach serviceable age.
Assistance has been rendered in the handling of sales of purebred bulls at various points in Florida. Purchasers have been assisted in obtaining bulls desired. In all, 364 bulls have been placed this year.
Winter feeding of bulls has been emphasized. It has been pointed out that bulls turned on the range in the pink of condition will sire more early calves than thin bulls, and it is the early calf which makes the profit. County Agents report 321 bulls on winter feed.
FEED AND PASTURAGE
It has been demonstrated that good feed and pasturage for bred beef cows results in better and larger calves which make excellent growth their, first year. Consequently, attention has been given to the production of more feeds and better pastures and the winter feeding of cows.
Demonstrations have shown that pastures kept clear of weeds through mowing produce much more forage than pastures in which weeds are allowed to grow undisturbed. The practice of mowing has been encouraged, and County Agents report that 53 pastures have been kept clear of weeds this year as a result of their demonstrations.
FATTENING
With the introduction of improved beef cattle into the herds, it is realized that closer attention and better feeding must be given to the cattle if highest profits and best results are to be. attained. With the screw worm fly making it imperative that the herds receive close supervision, it is also realized that only the better grades of animals will be profitable.
The shade tobacco growers of Gadsden County, who feed out large numbers of cattle to obtain the manure, have been using Florida cattle in greater percentages of their herds in recent years.
SHOWS AND SALES
The annual livestock show held by Alachua County cattlemen proved of interest as usual this year, and enabled. the cattlemen to sell and exchange breeding stock. Plans are now under way for a state fat stock show and sale to be held in Jacksonville next spring.
HOGS
The work with hogs has consisted of recommendations for economical production, with all-year grazing crops for the hogs to gather, and the use of purebred boars of meat type hogs. Emphasis has been placed on keeping the hogs free of parasites.








Annual Report, 1934


MEAT CUTTING AND CURING
Special stress has been placed on producing and curing a sufficient supply of good meat for home consumption. The interest in proper curing of meats for home consumption has advanced rapidly in recent years.
Demonstrations in proper cutting and curing of meat have been held this year in a number of counties, and have attracted widespread attention. Assistance in this work has been generously rendered by K. F. Warner of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry. As a result of these demonstrations, there is noticeable a wonderful improvement in appearance and methods of handling home-cured meats.
The first conferences of cold storage and commercial meat curing men were held in September of this year. Better methods of curing meat for farmers were discussed, and these men are now rendering a greater service to agriculture.
Eighteen wax models of both beef and pork, showing the attractive cuts, cooked and uncooked, and the cheaper cuts well prepared were secured from the Bureau of Animal Industry and exhibited at the annual conference of County and Home Demonstration Agents. Charts showing market grades of feeder cattle, finished cattle, and carcasses were displayed also.
THE SCREW WORM FLY
Early in the year a project in screw worm fly control was worked out, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration cooperated closely with the County Agents in this work in Levy, Marion, Alachua, Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton and other counties.
A survey was made in June, and it disclosed that 70 percent of the late calves were infested with screw worms. Late pigs suffer a like fate. However, all animals are subject to infestation if their skin is bruised or broken in any way. The Agent in Animal Husbandry worked on this project only until the latter part of June.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Fundamental phases of poultry production continued to receive emphasis by the Extension Poultryman and County and Home Demonstration Agents during 1934. Perhaps the most important projects were growing healthy chicks and pullets and calendar flock records and management. The Extension Poultryman visited 25 counties during the year in the interest of the work.
Helpful cooperation has been received from a number of associations and individuals. The poultry service veterinarian in charge of accreditation work with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board has assisted in poultry meetings and with testing work at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with County and Home Demonstration Agents and with the Gainesville office.
The Extension Agents have assisted the Inspection Division of the State Department of Agriculture in arranging meetings for discussion of the Florida egg law. Egg inspectors in various localities have been of much help to producers in presenting data pertaining to the law and methods of placing quality products on the market.

FEED AND POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICES
Since prices which they must pay for feed and which they receive for their products influence the success of the poultrymen, and to a considerable degree affect Extension work with poultrymen, it is interesting to note some of the high points in the situation.
Poultry ration prices were low in 1931-32, averaging $1.55 per 100 pounds. Since then the price has been on the increase, being $2.25 per 100 pounds in 1934. The wholesale price of eggs was 24.4 cents per dozen in 1931-32, increasing to 27.7 in 1934. On the other hand, the wholesale price of fryers decreased from 40 cents a pound in 1931 0 25.2 cents in 1934. Consequently during 1934 eggs were in a more favorable position as regards feed prices than were other poultry products.

PULLET PRODUCTION
The Grow Healthy Chick program still is considered one of the most important Extension poultry projects. Quality chicks, sanitation, and balanced rations have been emphasized.
During the past year the trend of brooding has been to put a small number of chicks in colony brooder houses on clean range. The more successful producers are adopting a 3 or 4 year rotation plan for the growing pullet. These methods have been used in brooding chicks: (1) colony brooder houses, (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors, and (3) battery brooders.
In the production of pullets for high egg production a sanitation program was developed and stressed by the various agents during the year. The sanitation program included clean chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, and clean feed. Records over a period of years show the value of adopting this program. This program was made effective by means of meetings, circular letters, bulletins and farm visits. , The use of succulent green feed for poultry of all ages was emphasized by the agents during the year. Information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, etc., have been furnished the producer. In some cases the green feed program was developed along with the sanitation program in that a double yarding system was used in growing green feed








Annual Report, 1934


and in rotating the birds. Other producers found it more economical and practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it and feed the birds.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Rising feed prices made it necessary for the poultry producer to secure high egg production. Considerable time was spent in advising producers about early maturity, intensity, and persistency as indicated by changes in pigmentation, and molt. This program helped materially in selecting the birds out of production. Culling demonstrations were given by practicalIy all county and home demonstration agents this past year.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
Since 1925 a number of poultry producers have cooperated in a project known as "Calendar Flock Records". Each succeeding year, record keeping has become more interesting and widespread. Producers in the state know the value of keeping a record of their expenses and receipts and then at the end of the year analyzing their entire business.
There are two different books in use for poultry raisers, one for the producer who has a flock under 250 and one for commercial producers.
To create interest and to illustrate the value of this type of project, monthly reports were issued summarizing the results for the month and to date, together with timely poultry information. During the 1933-34 year poultry feed and poultry product prices and indices were given.
The records are started October 1 and are completed September 30.
This year 43 poultry raisers from 21 counties kept records. They had total of 15,248 birds, or an average of 354 per farm. Production averaged 181.32 eggs for the year. Birds culled amounted to 35.76 I)ercent of the total, and mortality was 12.26 percent.
The average egg production per bird for the year increased approximately 12 eggs per bird over the preceding year. Another very important improvement was shown in a reduction of culling (10.2%) and mortality (3.46%).
Table 4 gives the number of flocks, average size of flock and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.
TABLE 4-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED AccoRDiNG TO SIZE.
10-50 1 51-250 251-500 Over 500 Birds I Birds Birds Birds

Total number of flocks. . 1 5 14 11 13
Average size of flock . 1 34 115 335 753
Average No. eggs per bird . 186.70 167.38 179.58 184.19


JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
A large percentage of 4-H club members are enrolled in poultry, and this is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work.
There are two types of 4-11 poultry work- (1) poultry productionthe boy or girl owns and manages his or her own flock; (2) poultry improvement-the boy or girl manages the flock on the farm. The improvement program is by far the more popular.
Instructions in poultry culture were given to girls and to boys at their two short courses in June. ' Birds exhibited by 4-H club members w&e 'judged at three county fairs.








Florida Cooperative Extension


'Meetings and farm visits gave opportunity for poultry subjects to be discussed. The more important phases were records, sanitation, feeding for egg production, and growing healthy chicks.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
.T.he-Florida State Poultry Producers Association, organized a year ago, has been very active during the past year. Monthly news bulletins have been issued which have been of help in the development of the association and the poultry -industry of Florida. About 25 county poultry associations are affiliated with the state organization.
Local and county poultry associations have assisted in the development of constructive poultry programs. Monthly meetings are usually held by these county associations at which time educational material is presented.
I The Florida Baby Chick Association has been very active this past year.
This organization has assisted materially in forwarding the Grow Healthy Chick'program. It is working in close contact with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in enforcing the hatchery code.

HATCHERY CODE
The Code of Fair Competition for the Commercial and Breeder Hatchery Indusfrywas approved by the President of the United States December g7, 1933.
A stateTwide meeting was held at Orlando the latter part of January and the hatchery code was explained in detail. Additional meetings were held in various sections of the state to discuss the code. The entire program for the hatchery code was turned over to the industry for enforcement. The.state set-up consisted of a state chairman, three district chairmen and 21 local committeemen.
The baby chick industry in Florida has complied with the requirements of the ' code and the consensus of opinion is that it has helped the Florida producer of baby chicks materially.
Detailed records were kept by the hatcherymen on cost of production which will be of great value in increasing their efficiency.
According to the code authorities there is a little more than a million egg hatching capacity in the state.

CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
The practice of vaccinating pullets has become more widespread. Commercial egg producers have found that it is an economical practice. Pullets were vaccinated generally when 12 to 16 months of age.

HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
The brick brooders which were built at the suggestions of the agents in West Florida during recent years have given excellent results. The farmers are finding these brooders very practical and economical. During the pastyear several brick brooders were built in the southern part of the state.
NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Records obtained at the Eighth Florida National Egg Laying Contest, Chipfe , gave indications of improvement in poultry breeding and management. The Eighth Contest started October 1, 1933 and was concluded 'Wtemb6t 22, 1934. There were 82 pens of pullets entered from 21 differenVstdt6s 4hd the Hawaiian Islands. There were 20 pens of heavy breeds and 62 pens of light breeds.







Annual Report, 1934


A pen of White Leghorns entered in the Florida Contest was the high pen in all standard contests in America. These 10 pullets produced 2,887 eggs for a value of 3,020.80 points for the 51 weeks' period.
The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 208.7 eggs per bird for a value of 208.5 points. There were 36 birds that made a 300 point average for the year.
Records of the contest show these factsThe average feed cost per bird was $2.29.
The average feed cost per dozen eggs was 13.2 cents.
The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.95 pounds.
The average mortality was 24.34 percent.
The average egg price was 21.5 cents per dozen.

FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
At the Florida National Egg Laying Contest, in addition to the regular official contest, feeding and management demonstrations were inaugurated during the fall of 1933.
The following practical tests and demonstrations were conducted:
(1) A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain and mash ration in feeding for egg production.
(2) A comparative study of the -value ' of meatscraps, fish meal, and milk solids as source's of protein for egg production.
(3) Lights versus no lights for egg production.
(4) A study of shell texture and egg' quality.
In these demonstrations 40 Single Comb White Leghorn pullets of same breeding and age were placed in six uniform houses. The first year's results indicate the value of whole white -corn and liquid skimmilk as a I ration for egg production. In the other feeding trial, high egg production
was obtained in all four pens, the highest production being with the group receiving meatscraps plus milk as the source of protein.
In the management demonstration comparing morning lights versus no lights as it may affect egg production, the first year's results show very little difference in egg production between the two pens. These three demonstrations are being continued for the second year.
Very complete records are kept on egg production, egg size, value of eggs, and fedd consumption.

COOPERATIVE POULTRY EXPERIMENTAL WORK
At the request of the Director of Extension, the following projects have been conducted in cooperation with W. F. Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary, Bureau of Animal Industry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station, and N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, Agricultural Extension Service:
(1) A study of the value of different sources of protein for the production of broilers.
(2) A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single Comb White Leghorn pullets and hens for egg production.
(3) Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets.
(4) Value of rotation in rearing pullets.
(5) Growth studies of cockerels and pullets.
(6) The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds.
(7) The use of peanuts and peanut products in rearing turkeys.
Progress report of these trials will be found in the -Annual Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.







50 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATISTICAL DATA
The following data were compiled from the reports submitted by county and home demonstration agents:
Days agents devoted to poultry . 1,036 Number of communities in which work was conducted . 508 Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting . 155
Days of assistance rendered by local leaders or committeemen
assisting . . . 199 Number of adult result demonstrations conducted . 1,225 Number of meetings at result demonstrations . 174 Number of method demonstration meetings held . 354' Number of other meetings held . 337 Number of news stories published . 288 Number of different circular letters issued . 270 Number of farm or home visits made . 2)165 Number of office calls received . 7,026 Number of 4-H poultry club members enrolled . 1,230 Number of 4-11 poultry club members completing . 744 Number of chickens in projects conducted by 4-H poultry club
m em bers . . . 41,729 Number of families following an organized improved breeding plan 370
Number of families following recommendations in purchasing baby
chicks . . 557 Number of families following recommendations in chick rearing . 1,203
Number of families following production-feeding recommendations. 1,031
Number of families following sanitation recommendations in disease
and parasite control . 1,352 Number of families improving poultry house equipment . 318 Number of families following marketing recommendations . 912 Value of products sold by all associations or groups organized or
assisted . . $257,845 Value of products sold by individuals not in organizations . $ 94,274







Annual Report, 1934


CITRUS CULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist
This report covers work that has been carried on during the year in practically all of the citrus producing counties by county agents and the citriculturist in cooperation with citrus growers and assisted by district agents, the professor of soils in the College of Agriculture, members of the Experiment Station, and specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Continued low prices, due to increased production, and low purchasing power of consumers necessitate reducing the unit cost of production and improving quality where it can be done economically. The conditions are forcing growers to make changes in their practices in almost every phase of citrus culture. It presents to the Extension Service unusual opportunities to direct growers into the adoption of new and improved practices.

GROVE MANAGEMENT
The most effective work in citrus culture is being conducted in demonstration groves. Each demonstration grove is treated as a grove management project, in which the best known methods of citrus culture for the particular grove are put into practice. Each operation is a demonstration in that particular phase of citrus culture. Results of these demonstrations are measured by comparing them with the results in other similar groves. Results of the grove management projects are measured by comparing the production costs, item by item, and yields, of the demonstration groves with those of other comparable groves of the community, county and state. This comparison is made possible by the fact that more than five hundred growers of the state are keeping grove records, distributed so as to represent a cross-section of the citrus industry.
A number of representative demonstration groves are being selected in each county. They are distributed so as to make the results of the various demonstrations available to as many growers as possible and to represent (a) the principal soil types, (b) standard varieties, (c) the principal rootstocks and (d) the different ages of trees. The cooperating growers are selected with great care. They must be growers who desire to learn, have receptive minds and are willing and able to cooperate. They must keep complete records of all grove operations and yields.
New practices in citrus culture are being tested in the form of factfinding demonstrations in the individual demonstration groves. These consist of small plots, and the results are carefully determined by comparing plots in the various demonstration groves. ; The demonstration grove plan further provides for the organization and maintenance of citrus schools in the various communities of the different counties doing this type of work. In these schools up-to-date courses are being given, covering all phases of practical citrus culture. Thirteen such schools are now being conducted, with an enrollment of more than 500, representing about 20,000 acres of citrus groves.
The number of demonstration groves has increased 7Ko in the last year, now containing approximately 2,000 acres. The saving to the owners of these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of improved practices, was $17.00 per acre on the operations of the past year. At the same time the average yields havebeen materially increased, and in almost every grove the quality of the fruit has been improved. These facts, together with the improved conditions that the demonstration groves present, have a very






Florida Cooperative Extension


strong influence in converting growers to better practices. For example, the influence of these demonstrations in one county is affecting the practices of more than 400 growers.

SOIL MANAGEMENT
A number of demonstrations. are being conducted in other groves with fertilizer, cultivation, cover crops and irrigation.
Fertilizing-More than 50 demonstrations have served further to convince growers that the fertilizer cost of producing fruit can be kept down to the minimum by supplying to the grove large amounts of bulky organic matter by the, full use of cover crops and by hauling in manures and other vegetable matter. This practice enables the grower to use with safety the cheaper inorganic fertilizers of the higher analyses.
In the demonstration with raw phosphate further definite results are manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil. conditions.
About 25 fact-finding demonstrations are being continued in eight counties, to bring out the best practice in the use of lime and magnesium lime in citrus groves. Under certain conditions both the crotalaria cover crop and the trees responded definitely to magnesium lime again this year.
Cover Crops.-In 100 demonstrations a dollar's worth of cheap nitrogen applied in the rainy season has, on the average, continued to increase the yield of the grass cover crop approximately 1,000 pounds per acre (dry weight). This grass has a value in many of the groves of about $5.00. per ton. More than 1,300 growers have been induced to adopt improved fertilizing practices. ,
In more than 200 demonstrations the yield of fruit is being increased 5 to 20 percent and the quality of both fruit and tree greatly imp-roved by mowing the cover crop and placing it around the trees as a mulch. In addition, the cost of hoeing the trees is eliminated.
The economy of the practice of mowing grass and weed crops on old fields and city lots and hauling the material into the grove is being widely established by demonstrations. The value of muck is also being demonstrated.
Cultivation-Work on this project has aimed at -reducing production cost by eliminating not only unnecessary, but wasteful and injurious cultivation. Aside from, incorporating the cover crop material with the top soil at the end of the growing season, as a means of flre protection, it is very doubtful if any further cultivation is justified under ordinary grove conditions. Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning by deep cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to disease attack. Poor texture of fruit is traceable in a large measure to excessive cultivation.
More than 100 demonstrations in grove cultivation have been conducted, involving more than 4,000 Acres. The direct saving on this operation has averaged $4.00 per acre. Ten counties have taken part in this project. In addition, more than 400 consultations have been held with citrus growers relative to improving grove cultivation practices and reducing the cost of this item in production.
Irrigation-The rainfall throughout the citrus belt during the last three months of this year was the lightest for that period since 1906. Consequently groves generally have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture. Heavy dropping has resulted, materially reducing the largest crop in the history of the industry. This condition has greatly stimulated interest in grove irrigation and has multiplied the demands on the Extension Service for assistance in the installation and operation of irrigation plants. Seventy







Annual Report, 19.34.


growers have been assisted in purchasing the proper kind of material and installing efficient plants for a total acreage of more than 3,000.
A preliminary survey has shown that many growers have an ample supply of accessible water for grove irrigation, and could use it to a great advantage in production, but are unable financially to pay for an adequate irrigation plant. To meet this condition the citriculturist has developed a very practicable type of portable irrigation plant. It is designed for the use of (a) cooperative associations that do grove work for their members,
(b) grove caretakers, (c) the grower who has several groves each with a supply of water for irrigation, (d) and of those interested in doing custom irrigation.
A trial plant was built with a working capacity of 900 to 1,200 g.p.m. The original cost of this plant, designed for a 20-acre unit, was $900.00. But it is being used on five different properties, making the installation cost per acre very low. It can be dismounted, moved and set up again ready for operation by three men and a 11/2-ton truck, in four hours. Enough main is being added to cover an 80-acre unit at an additional cost of $800.
After i35 growers witnessed the operation of this plant in two demonstrations, seven other plants like it have been built. It seems that we have opened a new field in grove irrigation by developing a practicable portable plant and by working out this new method of applying water. By these developments both the cost per acre of installation and the labor cost of applying water have been greatly reduced.

DISEASE CONTROL
The most effective work during the last six years in the control of citrus diseases has been along the line of indirect control or prevention. Reports show that disease control recommendations of the Extension Service were followed in more than 1,500 groves this year.
Melanose Melanose has been greatly reduced in our demonstration groves and in many other groves by reducing the amount of dead wood produced from year to year by adopting a program of more adequate fertilization, less cultivation and, in many instances, irrigation. We find that the resistance to most of the common citrus tree diseases is greatly increased by building up the tree and maintaining it in a more vigorous condition.
In spite of the very unfavorable weather conditions'last spring, in a few instances outstanding results were obtained by spraying for melanose control.
Scab-The economic factors that affect melanose control operate also in scab control. Interest in controlling this disease has been weakened by low prices received during the last two years. In a few cases the dormant spray. of lime-sulphur 1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied at the same time gave better control. ,
Blue Mold Decay It has been found that approximately 70 percent of the abrasions of the fruit, caused by rough and improper handling, result in decay before the fruit is consumed. Ten years ago we demonstrated that-the number of long stems and clipper cuts were almost eliminated by the use of the nipper type or blunt nose picking clipper. Continuous efforts for fewer blemishes in picking have been rewarded by the almost universal adoption of these better clippers and consequently the elimination of clipper cuts and long stems.
Foot Rot.-Where only an occasional light infection of foot rot is present in a grove prevention is being demonstrated by giving all trees. a "foot






Florida Cooperative Extension


bath" with a 6-9-50 bordeaux mixture applied with a power sprayer with nozzles adjusted so as to throw the most penetrating stream of the material in among the crown roots. In advanced stages of the disease, where trees were almost girdled, the effect of banking or mounding the trees is being extensively demonstrated. A mound of dirt or clay 14 to 18 inches high and 10 to 15 feet in diameter around the trunk of the tree enables the tree to establish a new root system above the disease infected parts and prolongs the life of the tree. Thousands of old trees are being rejuvenated by these treatments.


Fig. 7.-Citrus trees suffering from foot rot are saved by being banked, so they can start a new root system.

Gummosis and Psorosis.-Twenty method demonstrations were given, teaching the proper technique in applying the remedy as recommended in Experiment Station Bulletin 229. These diseases have been less prevalent this year.
INSECT CONTROL

Rust Mite.-A special campaign in rust mite control was put on this year, with outstanding results.







Annual Report, 1934


The campaign began with a two-day central training school in Orlando, for the primary purpose of teaching packinghouse managers, grove caretakers and supervisors, and managers of cooperative associations the very latest things in rust mite control. The assistance of a leading packinghouse manager was found helpful in bringing the key men to this school. The meeting room and laboratory facilities of the United States Department of Agriculture station in Orlando were made available and contributed largely to the success of the school. State entomologists also were used. Courses were given covering every phase of rust mite control. In addition, the proper use of the most modern spraying and dusting field equipment was demonstrated. A novel feature of the demonstrations was an airplane dusting demonstration in which a ton of dusting sulphur was applied to 40 acres or 2,400 trees in 30 minutes. Upon a follow-up inspection it was found that the airplane dusting was equally as efficient as that done by the land equipment.
The regular enrollment in the school was limited to 50, the capacity of the meeting room. A total of more than 400 were in attendance, including those at the demonstrations. Eleven counties and 21 organizations were represented in the regular enrollment, representing directly more than 3,000,000 boxes of fruit.
This control school was followed by 22 similar schools for growers including all of the citrus-producing counties. The enrollment at these schools exceeded 1,000 growers, representing about 50,000 acres %vith a capacity of approximately 9,000,000 boxes. All of the schools touched directly about one-third of the state's crop. Of course the influence of the campaign reached many others, asthe schools were followed up by circular letters, exhibits of charts and materials, radio talks, and timely press articles.
One of the definite results of this campaign noted is the increased use of spraying and dusting materials. Many leaders in the citrus industry testify that the percentage of rust mite injured fruit in the state this year is the lowest that they have ever seen.
Scale and Whitefly Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is being rapidly developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars annually. This year red aschersonia gave splendid control of whitefly.
'Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove conditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective, to determine the minimum amount of spraying required f or satisfactory control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale and whitefly in a year, and are just as free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed twice a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are producing larger crops of fruit. We find that 3 cents invested in. -nitrogen and applied to the tree often will accomplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop and put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.
In many demonstration groves by reducing cultivation to about onefourth, growing a heavy cover-crop, and not pruning out the center of the trees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which favors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not been necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last two to four years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 10,000 acres of grove.







Florida Cooperative Extension


MISCELLANEOUS
Grove Visits.-There is an increasing demand made upon Extension workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove problems. This service consumes a large part of the County Agent's time, and unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work, perhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through these grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers.and the Extension Service. It is through these visits that the County Agent's supply of first hand information about current grove conditions is obtained, and that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines is fully appreciated. During the year more than 4,000 grove visits were made, going into citrus-producing problems in 14 counties of the state.
Meetings and Grove Tours-During the year 326 meetings and schools of instruction with a total attendance of more than 5,000 growers, were conducted. Different phases of citrus culture were discussed in these meet,ings, and demonstrations were given in pruning, thinning fruit, bracing tangerines, treating gummosis and psorosis, and methods of applying irrigation water. In Lake and Orange counties, the organized citrus clubs meet regularly and follow definite courses of study in citrus culture. Seven grove tours were conducted in four counties, with more than 300 growers taking part. These tours were made to various demonstrations and cooperative experiments in the different counties.
Press Articles and Radio Talks.-More than 200 articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by the specialist and County Agents of 13 counties and published in local and state papers.
Fifty-six radio talks were delivered over six stations on various citrus subjects.







Annual Report, 1934


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS

C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist
Frank W. Brumley, Economist, Farm Management R. H. Howard, Asst. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. Timmons, Economist, Marketing
H. G. Clayton, Organization and Outlook Specialist

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

There has been an increased demand for economic information relative to Florida agriculture. This demand came from County Agents, farmers and fruit growers who were in need of data on methods of lowering cost of production, and how to put their farms on a more profitable basis. The information requested has been furnished as far as possible from previous studies made by different divisions of the College of Agriculture. Additional information was collected by the survey and cost account method during the year. In addition to the regular farm management activities, considerable time was spent assisting the A.A.A. and the Farm Credit Administration in carrying out their programs in Florida.

CITRUS ACCOUNTS

The Citrus Account project is now in its fifth year. The primary purposes of this project, as previously outlined, are:
1. To provide growers with books in which they may keep records of
grove receipts and expenses.
2. To assist growers in summarizing their records and determining
cost of production.
3. To provide the grower with a summary of a large number of similar
groves with which to compare his yield, cost of production, price
and net returns.
4. To provide data that may be studied to determine factors affecting
cost of production and profits.
The number of growers cooperating has steadily increased, being 118 the first year, 260 the second, 268 the third 301 the f ourth, and 325 now cooperating f or the fifth year. A propoQonate increase will probably continue if time and facilities will permit the handling of the records.
1932-33 Accounts.-The "Third Annual Summary of Costs and Returns for 268 Florida Citrus Groves" was released during the year. Individual grove summaries were furnished each cooperator that he might compare his returns, costs and other factors affecting profits. Table 5 will show the costs and returns by counties for the 195 groves over 10 years old.
Of the 118 original growers who cooperated in 1930-31, 62 have continued to furnish records on their groves for three years. While these groves are slightly above the average of all the groves from which records were obtained for each year, they too have felt the effect of low prices. However, these growers have reduced their costs from $81.97 per acre in 1930-31 to $61.85 per acre in 1932-33, as shown in Table 6.












































168

$ 24.69
23.71
4.27 7.15 2.03

$ 61.85
75.17

13.32


I
Yield per Acre . . 177
Cost per Acre:
Labor, Power & Equipment . $ 31.36
Fertilizer . 34.80
Spray & Dust . 2.74
Taxes . 8.51
Miscellaneous . 4.56
Total Cost per Acre Excluding Interest &
Depreciation . 1 $ 81.97
Total Returns per Acre . 1 127.37
Net Returns for Interest & Owner's i
Supervision . 1 45.40
Total Cost per Box Excluding Interest & Depreciation -------- _ --------- -_------------- . 1 $ .46
Total Income per Box . __ 72
Net Returns per Box for Interest &_'d We'r;s
Supervision ------------------------------------------------ - . -1
. . . . .26


150

$ 29.16
29.81 3.50 7.76
3.04

$ 73.27
140.41

67.14


TABLE 5 COSTS AND RETURNS BY COUNTIES, 195 GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OLD, SEASON 1932-33.


High
Polk Orange I lands


66 1,152
17 16 60
29 157
148


Costs per Acre:
Labor, Power & Equipment .
Fertilizer .
Spray & Dust Material .
Taxes ----- .
M iscellaneous .

Total Costs per Acre Excluding
Interest & Depreciation . Total Returns per Acre . Net Returns per Acre for Interest & Owner's Supervision .


Total Cost per Box.E clouding Interest & Depreciation . Total Income per Box. . Net Returns per Box for Inter-I est & Owner's Supervision. . I


TABLE 6.-SumMARY OF COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE FOR 3 YEARS ON 62
I

GROVES, SEASONS 1930-33.


$ .39
.62 .23


Fertilizer being one of the major items of cost, grower cooperators were also informed of the amount of available plant food applied for each of the three principal elements per 100 trees to compare with the average used, by ages, for all groves. A study of the relationship of total pounds of available plant food applied to yield and returns per 100 trees revealed that the greater the amount applied the greater the yield and returns.


Florida Cooperative Extension


I Lake


Item


,Others
5
76 15
20 58
26 109 107

$27.16 21.13 1.86 5.50 2.57

$58.22 78.36

20.14

$ .54 .73

.19


Number of Groves . Total Acres of Groves . . Average Acres per Grove . Average Age . Number Trees per Acre . Percent of Trees Grapefruit . Boxes Produced per Acre . Boxes Harvested per Acre .


61 1,025
17 19 62 28 130
124


37 26
478 2,536
13 98
19 15
61 54
18 50
183 107 176 100

$27.00 $10.71 28.89 11.33 3.84 2.36 6,.63 3.87
2.08 1.94

$68.44 $30.21 88-86 35.58

20.42 5.37

1$ .39 $ .30
.51 .35

.12 .05


$17.15 18.72 2.62 9.05
1.49

$49.03 77.11

28.08


$24.57 24.96 4.81 7.98 .62

$62.94 51.78

-11.16


$ .43 .35

-.08


Y E A R S
1930-311 1931421 1932-33


Items







Annual Report, 1934


:However, the law of diminishing returns applies to the use of fertilizer as well *as to any other production factor and there is a point beyond which additional fertilizer applications will not pay.
1933-34 Accounts-A new method is being inaugurated this year in handling and summarizing these accounts. This change in method was requested by County Agents and growers so that the summaries will be more beneficial and useful to them. The former accounts have been handled for a year's business, as most farm accounts are handled, which includes all expenses and receipts incurred during the 12 month period. However, the new method being inaugurated this year, will include the expenses for the 12 month period and the fruit receipts resulting primarily from those expenses, rather than the receipts for the same period. In short, this change in method of handling the accounts is from a fiscal year basis to a crop year basis.
FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS
Farm management surveys provide a very economical means of obtaining records for studying the types of farmi ' ng, organization of the farm business, as well as other factors affecting profits. During 1934 a survey was made in Escambia County of the cost of producing white potatoes, which consisted of 27 farm records. Among the factors affecting the profits as revealed by these records, the yield per acre seemed to have been the most important single item.
In the fall of 1932, 112 survey records were taken of truck farming in the vicinity of Plant City, Hillsborough County. A summary of this study was published in the "Agricultural Extension Economist" of June, 1933. However, during this year additional statistical and Extension work was carried on at the request of the County Agent in Hillsborough County based upon the 1932 survey records.
POULTRY ACCOUNTS
This project is in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman. Its primary-purposes are to encourage record keeping and better poultry management. Poultrymen have been furnished record books prepared especially for them. At the present time two poultry books are being distributed, one for commercial flocks and one for small flocks. From 1926 to 1932 a number of the books were summarized and returned to those cooperating in the study. None were summarized for 1933 or 1934 due to heavy demands for other Extension work. However, books have been distributed to those requesting them.
The six years' records reveal many valuable facts relative to commercial poultry farming in Florida. While the rate of egg production, feed consumption and other management data have remained fairly constant, some factors have not. Others are relatively more important now than ever before. The mortality rates have increased each year of the study. A larger percentage of the poultrymen are now using lights than was the case in the first years of the study.
4-H CLUB WORK
During the annual Boys' Short Course, a group of the older 4-H club boys Were instructed in farm management. This instruction consisted of a study of how to take a farm inventory, types of farming in Florida, factors influencing success in farming and other related farm management subjects. A group of the junior 4-H club boys were also taught how to keep project records, which consisted of a study of methods used in keeping records in their respective crop, livestock and livestock products record books.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Assistance was given the Boys' 4-11 Club Agent in organizing record keeping clubs in three counties. The County Agents arranged for the meetings and secured the interest of the club boys in the work.

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION WORK
Due to the pressing work of the A.A.A. program, both the Farm Management Specialist and the Assistant Farm Management Specialist spent a large portion of the year assisting in'carrying out the program.
Forty-three educational meetings were held in the 16 principal adjustment counties in cooperation with the County Agents. These meetings were held for the purpose of explaining to each cooperator the necessity of keeping an accurate record of his farm business. There were 2,406 adjustment cooperators who attended these meetings.
In addition to the above adjustment work, the Farm Management Specialist served as a member of the State Board of Review on Cotton and the Assistant Farm Management Specialist assisted in tabulating the cotton adjustment contracts and computing farm allotments.

MARKETING
The time of the Marketing Economist has been largely occupied in agricultural adjustment activities and farm credit work during 1934. In addition to being in charge of the tobacco reduction program, the Extension Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of checking tobacco contracts and assisting county allotment committees in making individual allotments, and of assisting in formulating marketing agreements for various special crops.
MARKETING AGREEMENTS
Under the provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, agricultural commodities such as fruits and vegetables, which are not classed as basic commodities, can be covered by marketing agreements and licenses. This is the only means at present for securing the benefits of the act for nonbasic commodities. The aim of marketing agreements is to enable growers and shippers under the act to establish and maintain such balance between the production and consumption of agricultural commodities and such marketing conditions therefor, as will reestablish prices to farmers at a level that will give agricultural commodities a purchasing power with respect to articles farmers buy, equivalent to the purchasing power of agricultural commodities in the base period, such base period being the post-war period, August 1919 to July 1929, such equality of purchasing power to be approached by gradual correction of present inequalities and to safeguard the consumers' interest by not increasing the percentage of consumer retail expenditures for agricultural products which is returned to the farmer, above the percentage returned in the prewar period.
As set up the operation of a marketing agreement is under the authority of a control committee composed of growers and shippers. Shippers are under license, and in the early agreements it was necessary for shippers controlling a majority of the tonnage to become signatories to the agreement before it could be put into eff ect.
Four marketing agreements affecting Florida products were approved by the Secretary -of Agriculture. They include the following:
Florida citrus marketing agreement, approved November 15, 1933 (substitute agreement put into effect in 1934). , . Florida strawberry marketing agreement, approved August 5, 1934.







Annual Report, 1934


Florida celery marketing agreement, approved April 28, 1934.
Southeastern watermelon marketing agreement, approved August 10, 1934.
The citrus marketing agreement, operated under unfavorable conditions due to opposition which developed that prevented this agreement from receiving the full cooperation of the growers and shippers concerned.
The strawberry marketing agreement was not put into operation for the 1934-1935 crop due to opposition of some growers and shippers which apparently was associated with some of the opposition to the citrus agreement.
The celery agreement was not put into operation until the 1934-35 shipping season and has been operated successfully. Amendments have been made to the agreement to improve its practical operation.
The watermelon agreement is expected to be in operation for the 1935 crop. The four states included in this agreement are Florida, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina.

FARM CREDIT
The Marketing Economist was loaned to the Farm Credit Administration from November 1, 1933, to January 15, 1934. This period was used for holding educational meetings explaining the proposed production credit plan of the administration. Groups of farmers were assisted in making applications for Production Credit Associations and in organizing temporary associations.
The Marketing Economist assisted in holding 22 meetings, attended by 1,142 farmers. A number of conferences were held with County Agents, association secretaries and production credit officials of Columbia and Washington in an endeavor to work out a credit system that would meet the needs of Fl orida farmers.
Since January 15, the Economist has cooperated with Production Credit Associations in Florida and the Production Credit Corporation of Columbia, S. C. He has appeared on three farm programs, as well as at several
-conferences with officials and farmers relative to production credit.

TAMPA PRODUCE MARKET SURVEY
At the request of the Bank for Cooperatives, Columbia, S. C., and of' the president of the recently organized farmers' cooperative association in Hillsborough County, the Marketing Economist made a survey of existing produce markets in Tampa to determine the advisability of the purchase by the newly organized group of one of the existing markets. This survey indicated that only 25 percent of the business done on these markets was with produce grown locally. The market which the farmers' group proposed buying is more accessible to nearby farmers but less convenient to buyers. It was recommended that the group lease a market rather than purchase.

MISCELLANEOUS
Assistance has been rendered to other marketing agencies, also. The manager of the Jacksonville Produce Market requested and received assistance with certain problems peculiar to that market.
Small packing organizations have been aided in setting up appropriate accounting systems for their business. Assistance on a small scale has been rendered in connection with cooperative sales of hogs and turkeys and in obtaining markets for roasting ear corn.







Florida Cooperative Extension


,OUTLOOK

The 1934 Outlook Report was issued in December, 1933, in mimeograph form. A total of 1,250 copies were distributed to County and Home Agents, Smith-Hughes teachers, bankers, newspapers, agricultural papers and farmers and other persons.
A summary of the report was published in the Extension Economist with a mailing list of nearly 1,000. Summaries were carried by the Agricultural News Service,. the Extension weekly clipsheet. Summaries of the outlook by commodities were put out overRadio Station WRUF at Gainesville. County Agents used data from the report in news articles and in radio talks.
During 1934, the program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration made it possible for individual producers of basic commodities to make adjustments in keeping with the general economic situation. In presenting the adjustment program to farmers the economic background was used by County Agents and others to show the need for the program and forecast the results of adjustments when carried out on a national scale.
Three potato outlook meetings were held this fall, one at LaCrosse, one at Hastings, and one for the Miami area. These outlook meetings are annual events at LaCrosse and Hastings and although this was the first time such a meeting has been held in the Miami area the response from growers was good. A. E. Mereker of the U. S. D. A. presented the outlook situation and outlined the recommendations of the Interstate Early Potato Committee.
In a series of educational meetings of farmers on the cotton situation, the outlook and foreign situation was presented at 21 such meetings with an attendance of 2,500 cotton farmers.
In November, this Agent was the State representative at the National Outlook conference held in Washington. Following this conference, the State Outlook Report for 1935 has been prepared by the Experiment Station Staff, the Specialists and District Agents of the Extension Service and by the Home Demonstration Specialists and District Agents.
County Agents have assisted farmers in using outlook and other timely economic information as a basis for readjusting farm operations. Some
-farmers made adjustments for more than one commodity. Agents received 523 office calls regarding outlook information.

ORGANIZATION WORK
County Agents. assisted in the organization of six marketing groups during the year and assisted 23 organizations previously formed. Membership in these associations and organizations totaled 2,903. Also 388 individuals not in organizations were assisted with marketing problems. Assistance rendered to the above organizations consisted of help in Standardizing grades and packages for 12 organizations, locating markets for eight, use of current market information for 23, assistance in securing financing by nine, in organization problems seven and in keeping membership informed with regard to their commodity, 14.






Annual Report, 1934


III-WOMEN'S AND 4-H WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Miss Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent
Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent
Miss Anna Mae Sikes, Acting District Agent
Home demonstration work in Florida has grown during 1934. The year closed with 32 Home Demonstration Agents working in 31 counties, an increase of eight counties cooperating in financing and conducting the work since the beginning of the year. The 32 agents have work underway in 483 communities. There are 271 home demonstration clubs for women's work with a membership of 7,125 women. There are 462 4-H clubs for girls with a membership of 9,116 girls 10 to 21 years of age.
Interest in home demonstration work is growing as evidenced by (1) increase in number of counties appropriating; and (2) increased enrollments and attendance at meetings. The reasons are probably three: First,
-need is apparent for the type of assistance home demonstration work renders in teaching rural people to be thrifty and self-supporting. Second, work of the Home Agents demonstrated the outstanding and unique services they are prepared to render. Third, a larger number of people benefited by Extension teaching through cooperation with FERA.
EMERGENCY WORK
The National Recovery Program brought about some definite changes in conducting home demonstration work. There was increasing demand for varied services from the agents because of training, experience, knowledge of conditions, acquaintance with the people of county and type of work they were doing. In every county the agents have worked closely with social service and other relief workers. They have performed advisory and supervisory duties in producing, purchasing wisely and conserving food and clothing materials. They have given help in women's work rooms and served as leaders in the establishing and operating of canning centers.
Recognizing the need for extending such service as home demonstration work to families on relief and especially those selected for rehabilitation, FERA and Florida Agricultural Extension Service entered into an agreement in July whereby necessary emergency- assistant agents and project leaders could be employed by FERA to work under direction and supervision of the Agricultural Extension Service to extend home demonstration work to families on relief rolls and borderline cases to assist them in becoming self-sustaining in part or in whole.
AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT
Home Demonstration Agents have had no part in conducting the crop reduction campaigns. However, in the field of agricultural adjustments ,they have a most important place as pertains to the farm family living.
Studies made of production in the cotton producing counties show that there is a shortage of such things as vegetables, fruits, poultry, and dairy products for home use. We have a budget of food supplies for Florida farm families which we are using effectively. This gives the foods needed, and the yearly amount for a family of five. It is a splendid guide showing the actual needs so far as foods are concerned, and a definite plan for growing and conserving those foods at home. Women are enthusiastically






1 64


Florida Cooperative Extension


working under guidance of Home Demonstration Agents in devising ways and means of providing these needs.
The consumption of cotton was increased to some extent through efforts of the agents in stressing the use of cotton fabrics in clothing and household furnishings made under their direction and in the rebuilding of cotton mattresses, making of rugs and such.
Some good results are being accomplished in consumer purchasing. Home Demonstration Agents are trying to stimulate interest among consumers in wise buying. They are encouraging homemakers to become familiar with general economic conditions affecting them as consumers and to learn standards and qualities of products purchased.

RURAL REHABILITATION
The home demonstration workers have assisted in setting up and training the personnel of the home rehabilitation workers.
A large part of the District Agents' time has been spent in interviewing prospective rehabilitation workers and establishing them in the various counties. It has been the policy to appoint only home economics trained persons who graduate with Bachelor of Science degrees and have practical experience.
In the beginning of the rural rehabilitation program, an agricultural survey was made. After studying the data obtained and the case histories, the home rehabilitation workers contacted the relief families and have studied their problems prior to the selection of the families for rehabilitation. In many instances group meetings have been held for relief families, helping to solve some of their immediate problems.

CANNING CENTERS
By an arrangement with the Rural Rehabilitation Department, it is possible for communities willing to supply land, building material, lights and water to secure modern canning plants with adequate equipment. The Rural Rehabilitation Department will supply equipment for the canning center which must be paid for either in cash or toll of canned products or surplus produce.
The agents are taking the lead in making necessary arrangements with local communities. During the past six months they have been studying the logical places for establishing these centers and presenting the plans to, the citizens, making them realize that the canning center must be requested by the people as the, result of a need of the community.
An architect has been furnished by Rural Rehabilitation Department to the Home Demonstration Department to draw up satisfactory plans and supervise building and equipping the plants. The agents in a majority of the counties have submitted projects from a number of their communities for these centers.
OTHER RELIEF WORK
In addition to the rural rehabilitation families there are relief clients in each county who need the services of the County Home Demonstration Agents. Group meetings have been held to aid these women in their home problems. Demonstrations have been given in food, shelter and clothing. Home Agents have cooperated with social service directors since the inception of the relief program, advising as to food and clothing requirements, working out budgets, conferring with and instructing case aides as to how to determine food needs and such.
Plans were worked out in connection with food conservation so the agents directed the canning for relief families in some counties.








Annual Report, 1934


Home Demonstration Agents in Dade, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie counties have supervised tremendous work projects for women, using and training 25 to 50 women on relief rolls each month.
The Home Agent in Leon has trained and successfully directed two visiting housekeepers of the social service department over a period of six or seven months. These women have become expert in canning and are now of considerable help to the Home Demonstration Agent in this phase of the work.
The agent in Jackson County, with assistance from the state office, conducted a camp, in cooperation with the county social service director, for women of families on relief rolls. This was a tremendous undertaking but seemed to be very much appreciated.

SUPERVISORY METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Supervision has been carried on by the regular state home demonstration supervisory staff consisting of a State and three District Home Demonstration Agents. Working in subject matter -fields are one specialist each in nutrition, food conservation and home improvement. Through FERA funds one specialist is now employed to develop handicraft, using mainly native materials of Florida. Each district agent, in addition to her regular supervisory duties, has responsibility for development of some phase of home demonstration work for which no specialist is employed.
Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent for East Florida, was granted a year's leave of absence to establish home demonstration work in Puerto Rico beginning July 1, 1934. Miss Anna Mae Sikes was transferred from the position of Extension Nutritionist to that of Acting District Agent. Mrs. Eva R. Culley, who had previously served as Extension Nutritionist, was appointed Acting Extension Nutritionist. Mrs. Culley works under Miss Sikes' direction in carrying out the nutrition program.

RELATIONS WITH COUNTIES
County appropriations are made by boards of county commissioners, with assistance from school boards in eight counties. The school board appropriates the entire sum in one county.
Only one county reduced the appropriation this year. Six counties increased the appropriations, one made provisions for two agents and seven counties made new appropriations.
Among the most important changes affecting work in all counties has continued to be that of adjusting the agent's time and home demonstration program to include work with relief agencies. This has meant in some instances that local leaders have assumed added duties in the communities and in other cases the leaders under direction of the Home Demonstration Agent have assumed duties in connection with the relief work. The most valuable assistance the agent has received from this source has come from older 4-H club girls, some of whom are married women of the communities, some are teachers, while many are still actively engaged in 4-H club work.
The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations, increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution of concise, tabulated reports of accomplishments in the county, presenting work to civic organizations, Florida products dinners, thrift meals, exhibits, tours to established demonstrations in the home, such as pantries, poultry flocks, home improvement, gardens and orchards, shopping tours, achievement days, use of the press and radio, assistance with emergency relief activities,-are methods which have resulted in a greater appreciation of home demonstration work this year.








Florida Cooperative Extension


PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Agents who have at least the bachelor degree in home economics and experiences which provide a good background for home demonstration work are employed as far as possible. New positions this year have been filled with especially well trained people.
Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that Extension workers have not had opportunity to leave their posts of duty this year for study. However, one is writing thesis for master's degree, as is also one of the district agents.
The Annual Extension Workers' Conference served well in advancing timely information to the group as a whole on such subjects as farm administration and legislation, relief work from a national and state viewpoint, and recent findings in home economics.
The specialists in the State Home Demonstration Office have furnished the agents with latest authoritative information in their respective subjects, and the agents have made excellent use of this material.
OFFICE EQUIPMENT
Most agents have access to county-owned mimeograph machines, telephones, and typewriters, although their offices may not be equipped with them. The demand for canning has caused the purchase of canners and sealers by the counties in some instances. The Rural Rehabilitation Department is sending excellent canning equipment into some of the counties.
DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAMS
During the annual state conference for Extension workers, specialists and supervisors present program 'recommendations. These are discussed in joint conferences by state and county workers. When it has been decided in which counties the specialists will do concentrated work, the specialist, County Home Agent and District Agent make plans so far as is possible for coordinating the agent's and specialists' programs and for definite development of the particular projects.
Local clubs discuss conditions, individual and community needs with the agent. Representatives of the local clubs who form the county councils meet with the agent and when possible the District Agent, State Agent or specialist, in discussion of data, situations and available assistance. Conclusions and goals set are worked into county and community programs.
Usually in September or October the agents and county councils hold their meetings for program planning for the year. At this meeting the women present the needs of their communities as they see them and hear recommendations for state-wide emphasis -as recommended by the state council. The County Home Demonstration Agent presents county situations as she sees them. Out of these discussions evolve recommendations to be considered in making the program. Final programs are adopted by county councils usually the first meeting after agents' annual conference.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work held a most satisfactory meeting during the S'-ate Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.
The State Home Demonstration Council endeavors to place the right interpretation upon home demonstration activities, to understand methods of procedure, to select for emphasis those things which seem most timely from the standpoint of the homemaker and in strengthening home demonstration work among those participating and the public at large.
During the first part of each year a definite program of work is required of each agent in which she lists goals set and methods to be used in obtaining them. This program is studied together carefully by district and state agents. They approve or make suggestions for strengthening as ther







Annual Report, 1934 67

case may be. This program is checked by the District Agent with the agent from time to time during the year. After reports have been submitted at the close of the year a comparison is made of the goals set with the results accomplished and this is referred to the agent with comments and suggestions for the next year.
It was realized that one reason why young women do not attend club meetings has been that they had no one to care for the small children, so the clubs have provided persons and facilities for taking care of them at the club meetings but in a place removed from the women's group. Older 4-H club girls have assisted in this program and received recognition in club leadership for their efforts. Guidance has been given the club girls in caring for the young children, for it has been recognized that such guidance is excellent training to the girls in developing wholesome attitudes toward family relationships and resourcefulness.
MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS
Record books prepared by the state staff are furnished each club member in which she can keep accurate records. It has been interesting to observe the increase in number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work and the increase in number of women establishing definite demonstrations in their homes.
The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year an award for the best County Council book which is judged on the appearance, arrangement and effective development of the council program. This has created interest in keeping record books in the clubs and caused individual members to keep better records not only for themselves but for their clubs and councils.
The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach County.
STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Circular Letters-Reports show that during 1934 ' the agents prepared 2,331 different circular letters for distribution to their club members. Attractive drawings that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used advantageously by some of the more original agents and specialists in preparing circular letters that command immediate attention.
Publicity-Twenty-two County Home Demonstration Agents report 77 radio talks during the year. We participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program over four radio stations, in Florida.
Excellent cooperation is received continuously from newspapers of the state. Twenty-six counties report 2,425 news articles or stories published. News reporters elected or appointed in the girls' 4-H clubs and women's clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given during Short Course for 4-H Girls and occasional courses in the counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As an outgrowth of this instruction, several councils edit and publish their own news sheets. Several women's councils have similar publications.
Home Visits.-Reports show that the agents made 12,176 home visits to 6,692 homes, an average of about 430 visits per agent. It is felt that muc'h has been accomplished by these personal contacts this year, as in many instances'there are those who have been kept closer at home because of the expense of travel.
Tours-There is noticeably increased interest among the people themselves in tours or visits to successful result demonstrations in the home. Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are extremely worthwhile and profitable from an economic standpoint. These successful







68 Florida Cooperative Extension

women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object lessons. This year 19 agents report 48 tours with an attendance of 965 persons.
Club and Council Meetings-All agents follow a regular schedule of club meetings, meeting each senior and each junior club once each month. Most council meetings are held quarterly. The days in the fifth week of the month usually are set aside for special activities and public meetings.
The District Agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently and plans to attend county council meetings once or twice a year, makes home visits with the agents and frequently attends special events. The State Agent endeavors to keep in touch and informed regarding the work in the county through reports and one or more visits into each county per year.
Bulletins and Circulars.-Material has been prepared for agents' use on the family food supply, citrus and canning budgets. Bulletins in greatest demand have included those pertaining to food conservation, economical meals, and renovation of house furnishings. Agents report that they have distributed 54,534 bulletins.
Exhibits-Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards other than ribbons this year, 23 counties report 208 events at which educational exhibits were shown. The articles displayed were carefully scored and the exhibitors were given benefit of the findings. The State Home Demonstration staff arranged a special exhibit of home demonstration work for the annual meeting of State Federation of Women's Clubs held in Tallahassee this year.
Demonstrations-The demonstration method of teaching is the one used by Home Demonstration Agents most advantageously. The women and girls with the agent's advice decide on the demonstrations they are to conduct. To assist the women and girls in establishing demonstrations in their homes using recommended methods, the agents held 6,250 method demonstration meetings during the year. There was an attendance at these meetings of 242,110, an increase of 139,145 persons over the attendance at 6,028 meetings last year.
There were 1,726 meetings held at result demonstrations with an attendance of 30,734. This is almost double the number of meetings at result demonstrations with more than double attendance recorded last year.
Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls are encouraged as a means of determining the completeness with which the girls are really adopting principles; to enable them to pass information along to others and for their own self-development. Seventy-two judging teams and 194 demonstration teams were developed. Those scoring highest in the counties entered statewide contests conducted during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course.
Local Leaders.-The local women and girls through their councils have assumed an increased share of responsibility for extending the home demonstration program and so allow more time for the agent to develop work along new or emergency lines. The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils are factors contributing greatly to efficient development of home demonstration work throughout the state. In 1934 a total of 1,260 older 4-H club girls assisted Home Demonstration Agents as voluntary local leaders. There were 149 training meetings held for leaders attended by 2,259 people.
SPECIAL 6ENTS
Achievement Days-Community and county achievement days are observed at the culmination of the year's work. They give recognition to club members for worthy endeavor, help them and the agent observe the






Annual Report, 1934


progress and give the public an opportunity to know more about the work in the county. Features of the program include exhibits, reports, talks, council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates and pins in recognition for work accomplished as clubs and individuals.
During the year there were 72 achievement days held, 22 for adults with an attendance of 7,465 and 53 for 4-H club members with an attendance of 9,212.
Camps-Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with adults. There were 33 camps held during the summer of 1934, 12 for women, five for boys and girls and 12 entirely for girls. There were in attendance for the duration of the camps 471 women of home demonstration clubs; 1,247 girls, and 1,057 others including visitors, instructors, and leaders who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership development of the camps conducted by the Home Demonstration Agents. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H girls and local leaders gave excellent assistance to agents in conducting the camps. A well trained woman recreation leader was employed throughout the two months' period of camps to assist with the work at the West Florida 4-H Camp. Through the courtesy of the State Board of Health a nurse was provided for the duration of the camps. These two workers contributed greatly to the program.
The two-day farm and home institute for adults held at the West Florida 4-H club camp was again this year the most inspirational event of the year for farm people of West Florida. Regardless of inconveniences in accommodating large crowds at the camp, attendance and enthusiasm far exceeded that anticipated.
Out-of-State Trips-National 4-H Club Camp: Margaret Alford of Manatee County and Edna Sims of Walton County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Camp. This camp, held annually in Washington, D. C., under the auspices of the Cooperative Extension Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, affords outstanding educational advantages and leadership development. Only the two girls and two boys making the highest score within the states are permitted to attend. The girls' trips this year were financed by 4-H club members and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.
National 4-H Club Congress: There is always keen interest among club members for trips to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress. Only those scoring highest in club work are awarded trips. Recipients of the trips this year were Annabelle Jameson of Polk County, winner in health; Margaret Alford of Manatee, winner in clothing; Marjorie Morrison of Alachua County, winner in State Bread Contest; and Betty Reed of Jefferson County, champion in canning. These trips were financed by Montgomery Ward and Company, Chicago Mail Order Company, Northwestern Yeast Company and Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company.
Short Course for 4-H Club Girls-The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, held at Florida State College for Women, is the outstanding event of the 4-H club year. The morale, type of programs, results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 14 years of age or over. There were 343 girls, 54 local leaders and 21 Home Demonstration Agents in attendance this year.
Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by Extension workers and club members in various phases of home demonstration work. Outstanding features were assistance given by college 4-H girls, project







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 8.-Betty Reed, state champion canning girl,
has an outstanding record for 1934.

demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for recognition of accomplishmnents, State Council meetings, recreation and entertainment.
Girls who attend the Short Course are charged with the responsibility of making 4-H club work render a larger service by passing knowledge on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting eligible girls who are not members with what it is and does, and to assist agents wherever possible. Agents use these girls effectively, particularly in camps and in presenting special programs.
Of extrem-e importance to the success of the Short Course is the fact that one week is set aside annually in the college year between the spring and summer terms for the Home Demonstration Department to hold the Short Course without interruption. This year, as in the past, dormitories, laboratories, and classrooms were available. The college nurses rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The dieticians rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls, leaders and agents, because






Annual Report, 1934


of the good food so efficiently served. Social directors and various faculty members were generous with their time and assistance.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Specialists have dealt in detail with the projects to which most attention has been given. Only a short summary of developments and comments on outstanding projects will be given here. Objectives in project activities centered around a live-at-honie program based upon needs.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
Calendar gardens and orchards are essential in every well balanced home demonstration program. Through gardening and perennial plantings more families have an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables and are beautifying their home grounds by decorative plantings.
Great progress has been made in meeting economic needs through the home gardening program. It is the home garden that is first turned to for producing foodstuffs when funds are low. The Economist in Food Conservation has secured splendid cooperation in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. Cooperative purchasing and donations of seeds have enabled many families to plant gardens this year. Interest has been stimulated through actually working out food budgets for individual families with the mothers; utilizing score card; garden scores; demonstrations; and all-year garden contests.


Fig. 9-Home gardens have played an important part in the live-athome program in Florida.

Agents held 1,116 meetings; published 432 news stories; made 2,495 visits and had 3,482 office calls in connection with this project. Women report 3,521 demonstrations carried in home gardening; 370 with market






Florida Cooperative Ea7tension


gardening; and 2,111 with the home orchard. The home gardens and orchards have not only supplied fruits and vegetables but other things for the family resulting from sales amounting to $26,350. There were 3,482 4-H club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and 740 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home garden program.
POULTRY
Development of the home poultry flock as a part of the home demonstration program is improving family nutrition and increasing the family income. There were 1,167 women in 21 counties who cooperated in the poultry program. However, this is less than half as many as cooperated in this phase of the work in 1933.


Fig. 10-Home demonstration agents aided farm women with their culling and other poultry problems.


Tours to flocks and hatcheries were made. worth of poultry marketed during the year.

DAIRYING


Reports show $75,542.00


Improvement in quality of milk for home consumption and increase in the use of milk products in the diet with the view to better nutrition and using the surplus to increase the family income have been goals. Reports from 11 counties show that 287 families cooperated during the year in the home dairying program.
NUTRITION
The general plan and purpose for the nutrition work has been to put into operation a simple understandable food program that would result in better food selection, food preparation and meal planning for family, school lunch, group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying and gardening. It has been necessary to give particular attention to economical







Annual Report, 1934


meals that were adequate. Results have been determined by the improveinent shown in food selection and health scores, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better records from theni in health improvement. There were 4,090 girls and 1,855 women who reported adopting improved practices in nutrition work.

FOOD CONSERVATION
This year interest has been high in saving the surplus for home use. Food conservation scientifically done assures a inore varied diet in the home, and eliminates waste of fruits and vegetables. Through promoting it the agents are constantly using Florida products and furnishing another means for increasing the family income. Florida Products Dinners are very popular and attract public interest in home demonstration work as well as to the products themselves. A total of 1,586 families followed the agents' advice in producing and canning according, to a family food supply budget this year. There were 5,928 families assisted in the canning and preserving. 4-H club member,,, canned 130,722 containers of products.
Reports from 23 counties show an estimated valuation of products canned to be $227,719.00.
CLOTHING
In developing the clothing work with women and girls we have emphasized selection of materials from standpoint of wise buying, color, design and suitability; proper construction, renovation, thrift, cleaning methods and storage. Much of the clothing work this year has been done along thrift lines. Girls have been impressed with what they could do to help with clothing problems of the family, in exchanging patterns, dyeing and renovating garments, cutting and fitting and making hats. The exhibit lent to us by the Textiles Division of the Bureau of Home Economics was








F










, M6*,
iz 7"


Fig. 1 I.-These 4-H club girls of St. Johns County are reviving the all-but-lost art of old Spanish needlework, which flourished there many years ago.







Florida, Cooperative Extension


appreciatively and beneficially received. There were 2,383 women and 6,920 girls who made garments under the agents' instruction. Eighteen -counties estimate savings due to this clothing program at $27,206.00.
Clothing clinics served well in many communities. Clothes in need of renovation were brought to some central place where instruction was given that showed the person bringing the garment how to make a nice looking dress from one or more unattractive ones, a suit from a discarded top coat, or children's garments from unworn parts of adult clothes.
Feed sacks were transformed into wearing apparel for women and children, and into other household articles. . The proper care of the feet, the selection of shoes, and simple corrective measures for foot defects have been demonstrated as a part of the clothing program.
HOME ENGINEERING
in spite of low funds there is more abundant living in many farm homes today because during 1934 they were made more comfortable. Some of the many home improvements were as follows: Buildings were improved on 235 farms in seven counties. Three of the seven counties estimate the saving because of this service at $1,500; 30 new dwellings were constructed and W dwellings were remodeled; 33 sewage disposal systems, 43 water systems and 17 lighting systems were installed according to recommendations.
HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION
The agents' part in the health program is preventive and educational, guiding demonstrators in the adoption of improved health habits. Work which was started with such activities as clean-up days, fly control, exterior and interior sanitation, ind safeguarding the water supply has developed a general consciousness of the importance of health and its relation to efficiency. The agents have cooperated with public health workers with good resul ts.
During 1934 1,362 homes report having improved home health and sanitation to get rid of the malarial mosquito and*hookworni and other household pests.
The State Home Demonstration Office gave assistance in the plans and organizations of sanitary programs directed by CWA, for which CWA was highly appreciative. The agents urged people to take- advantage of opportunities afforded for installation of sanitary toilets. Through this cooperation 532 sanitary toilets were installed in 18 counties.

HOUSE FURNISHINGS
There were 1,751 families who reported repairing, remodeling and refinishing furniture. Most popular has been the reclaiming of chairs. Reports from 19 counties show an estimated saving of $24,602 as result of this program.
HOME MANAGEMENT
There were 940 families who followed recommendations in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment, 400 homes were given help in improving the family laundry problems and 1,146 homes were' helped to improve their everyday housekeeping duties. There were 1,901 families who made adjustments to gain a more satisfactory standard of living.
There were 409 women who kept home accounts and reported a wiser use of the income, while 93 women budgeted their expenses to avoid unwise buying. Also ViO made a study of their buying methods.








Annual -Report, 1934


Reports from 11 counties show an estimated saving of $37,737 through participation in the home management work undertaken.

BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Attention has been given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery, foundation plantings, planting yards according to a plan and the physical appearance of dwellings and the entire premises.
Some of the clubs and many individual demonstrators have made definitely planned trips into the woods for native shrubbery. There, have been numerous exchanges of plants and shrubs. Seedsmen and nurseries have given splendid cooperation. Clubs are learning the importance of pooling their orders. Through cooperative purchases And distribution by county councils, club members secured a variety of good seed and'qixcellent assortments of plants and shrubbery at small cost. As a part of the program all club members- are expected to grow the adopted county flower. A total of 1,326 women and 1,904 girls have carried definite demonstrations in improving the home grounds during-the year.

CHILD TRAINING AND CARE,.
With more young mothers as member's of home demons traction clubs, child training and care is receiving more and more attention.
The Extension program emphasizes the kind of diet that promotes growth and health, considers clothing which helps instead of hinders development, and other adjustments necessary for the child's welfare, and the importance of putting into practice information along these lines. There were 2,071 families --following advice as to home packed school lunches; 358 families report improved habits of children; 107 reported substituting positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 60 provided recommended playground equipment and 71 followed recommendations* regarding furnishings adapted to children's needs. Reports from 10 counties show that 945 women and 231 men were participating in this program.

MARKETING OF HOME PRODUCTS
Efforts have been made to develop a market for salable products to bring in needed cash. Most of these products have been taken from farm surplus or were articles made -from native products. The value of. such products amounts to $128,681.
Farm women have been able to add to the family income by the sale of fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, poultry products, and handicraft articles. In one county the women have established a local demand for their canned products and are now supplying three stores in the county with three varieties of home canned products. A total of $4,507.28 in fresh and canned fruits and vegetables were sold cooperatively and individually by club members of that county this year.
Cooperative sales have been the cause of 131 individuals in that county becoming interested in standardizing, grading, and processing products for the market. On the whole the women have been very careful to keep up the standard set.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Home Demonstration Agents assisted 400 communities in planning community activities to meet the most outstanding needs. Home demonstration and 4-11 club members help to keep up the morale of the farm family, maintain good health, provide good reading material, inexpensive forms of family and community recreation and participate in other activities which develop community enrichment.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Recreation.-Recreation has been one of the outstanding community activities in Florida this year. Five recreational short courses were held under the direction of John Bradford and Jack Knapp of the National Recreation Association. Volunteer leaders from communities attended the short courses, which covered a four nights' period. Following the recreation short course, Extension recreational councils were formed. These have for the most part met regularly each month. In two counties the councils assumed responsibility for taking charge of recreational community night meetings.
Libraries.-Libraries have been started by women's clubs and are a real asset in the counties. Funds have been raised by the women to operate the libraries. There were 40 communities assisted in establishing libraries this year.
Other Community Work.-Hlome demonstration clubs have assisted in improving. church and schools grounds, arranging for community club houses for meeting place, making surveys, establishing school lunchrooms, conducting local fairs and arranging exhibits.
Through cooperation with FERA, plans are underway for establishment of excellent canning kitchens. The home demonstration club houses and rooms are used as regular meeting places and many have equipped kitchens. The club members assist with the upkeep of the building and provide the equipment.







Annual Report, 1934 .


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
Isabelle S Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation

Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry products are the main sources of food supply for the farm family. Naturally, the Economist in Food Conservation has stressed the production and conservation of home vegetables and fruits to provide the farm family with adequate food of varied ingredients and to enable the family to have more money available for other needs.
The entire program has been centered around the idea that with soil, climatic and seasonal conditions as they are in Florida there is no valid reason why every rural family cannot largely feed itself. Fruits and vegetables can be grown in every section of the state the year round.
A standard has been set calling for fresh Florida fruits and vegetables on the table every day in the year, a well filled pantry with canned fruits and vegetables for use out of season And in rush times, and home poultry products as a part of the daily diet. This standard is striking a responsive chord among farm families in every county where Home Demonstration Agents are working.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
HOME GARDEN WORK
Renewed and increased interest i n home gardens was evidenced this year, and demands for assistance consequently multiplied. Women enrolled in home demonstration clubs made every effort to have fresh garden products for their tables every month in the year. Compilations show that the home demonstration women grew 3,521 "calendar" gardens in 1934. Fresh fruits and vegetables sold had a valuation of $26,350.21, while those canned, preserved and made into jellies reached a total value of $227,718-81.
In addition to the provision of some kind of fresh garden product for each month, the women have grown larger numbers and different varieties of vegetables to add zest to the menu. They have planned to produce enough for canning and in many cases to sell.
Records of their work have drawn increased attention this year also. The women are learning through figures on cost of production pind value of products that the home garden is quite worth while from the financial standpoint as well as providing good health for the members of the family.
PERENNIAL PLANTINGS OR CALENDAR ORCHARDS
The calendar orchard is another very important objective. Florida people have at their finger tips a largess of fruits if they only take the trouble to grow them. In the northern section of the state such fruits as pears, peaches, persimmons, -figs, quinces, muscadines and other grapes grow with little encouragement, yet there are hundreds of rural homes without a fig tree, without a pear or plum, without a scuppernong or persimmon.
I The need for more fruit, in greater variety, is easily recognized when working out the canning budget and the budget is proving to be a very direct and convincing argument for the calendar orchard. Many agents have reported of its stimulating influence for more and better plantings.
A calendar orchard plan for Florida was worked out by H. H. Hume, assistant director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville, and supplied in mimeographed form to interested families throughout the state. It is a guide as to number of trees to plant, varieties, distance, and so on.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In many counties large numbers of families were contacted in reference to the all-year orchard, their interest aroused, and orders for trees and vines were pooled. In this way the nurseries of the state made it possible for many more people to obtain plants than could have obtained them individually and at regular prices.
The total number of calendar orchards planted in 1934 by home demonstration women was 2,111. These included fruit trees, berry and grape vines.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY 4-H GIRLS
The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely, with set requirements for four years of work. The suggested perennials for planting in the various sections of the state are listed in the Girls' Garden Record Book. Each girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs and to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality.
The planting of a definite number of fruit trees or berries is a part of the first year's requirements.
For the current year there were 3,803 club girls enrolled in gardening. Out of this number there were 2,556 completions.

FOOD CONSERVATION
Club members eager to work in the present emergency, have more than ever before taken avidly to food conservation and to the idea of planning their pantries to take care of the "lean" months. The stories of the club members themselves indicate that they feel well repaid for their efforts in this direction.




















Fig. 12-These Orange County 4-H club girls become proficient at canning.

One outstanding feature in food conservation work this year is that in so many instances canning has been done greatly in excess of the budgetary needs of the family. The surplus above the fan-lily's own needs has been sold to bring in much needed cash, exchanged or bartered for necessities the family lacked.
Many club girls and women were able to pay their way to camp by means of their canned products.








Annual Report, 1934 79

MEAT CANNING
Reports indicate that never before has meat canning been so generally practiced throughout the state and over all the year. This year the canning of beef has gained in favor, and has resulted in a greatly improved meat supply., The agents report that impetus has been given by the canning budget, which calls;-attention to the meats needed by the family during the year.
One agent alone gave 140 demonstrations in canning beef, 125 with pork, 15 with poultry and four with lamb.

THE CANNING BUDGET
The goal f or better gardens, for calendar orchards, better budgeted and filled pantri 'es, And mor6 and better storage places for the canned food supply, has been uppermost in importance in the program of work for the year. Canning budget. making in all 'counties begins with the individual demonstrator whose family needs and tastes are not exactly like her neighbor's. Time is taken at regular club meetings for thoughtful, careful, computation of the budgetary needs of the various -families at the beginning of the season for: canning activities.
The progress made with the canning budget plan is perhaps best told by Miss Elise Laffitte of Gadsden County, who has given consistent, thoughtful Attention to the plan ever since its introduction to the canning program. Miss Laffitte states:
I"T-,o years ago a few farm women in Gadsden County became interested in doing their home canning by a carefully computed budget, budgeting for the, purpose of supplying the variety of canned foods necessary to supplement the fresh fruits and vegetables available from the home garden and orc hard in order to provide well-balanced meals 365 days during the year.
"While the amounts canned by the individual families vary because of the difference in the amounts and varieties of these fresh products grown on the different farms, the approximate estimate of canned products for a family of five in Gadsden County has been placed at 600 quarts for a year. The 600 quarts are divided into the following groups and amounts: canned fruits, 170 quarts; fruit juices, 80 quarts; vegetables, 216 quarts; meats, 52 quarts; sweets, 52 quarts; pickles, 36 quarts. The women who did their 1933 canning according.,to this plan were so well pleased with the results in providing a balanced and healthful food supply in their homes throughout the year, that they talked a great deal about their pantries. Twenty-one of these women showed their pantries on a pantry tour held in September, 1933. From this, interest in doing home canning by budgets increased, and plans for the 1934 canning were started.
"Early in the year one meeting of each woman's home demonstration club in the county was devoted to a discussion on canning for home by a carefully computed budget. At this time the budget sheets were explained and the names of those women who expressed interest in canning by a budget were listed. In all 187 women expressed a desire to plan a canning budget and to can towards completing the budget by November 1934. The Home Demonstration Agent then assisted each woman to plan her budget. Of the 187 women who planned to do their home canning according to a budget, 57 completed their budgets as computed, 80 lacked a very,.small quantity of canning the amounts and only 50 lacked more than 25 quarts of completing',their budgets. These failures were due largely to a shortage of bearing fruit tr e*on their farms. Since these failures to can the full allotments of frirhae stimulated-an interest in orchard plantingA for this winter, perhaps the failures haven't been so bad after all. The 187





































Fig. 13.-Home Demonstration Club women, with the aid of their agents, me


IN -Ilk







Annual Report, 1934


women who canned by budgets have families ranging in size from two to 12. These families total 896 individuals. The amount canned by the 187 women during 1934 for home use in Gadsden County is 93,632 quarts."

CANNING CONTESTS AND PANTRY TOURS
Canning contests are introduced and formulated with the idea of getting greater enthusiasm and interest in the food conservation program. They are outlined in the way that is considered the best and almost direct route for bringing about the desired practices with the least waste of time and effort. The rules and regulations as set up for 1933 were not changed f or 1934.
In counties where the canning budget contest has been conducted, pantry tours have been featured. Visits were made to most of the outstanding pantries in each county, stimulating the women who had canned and those who had not. Their influence spread to neighboring communities and counties and gave impetus to the work.
Another result of these pantry tours and budget canning contests has been an increase in number of suitable pantries built for storing the canned goods. Desirable storage capacity is lacking on entirely too many farms.
SINGLE-JAR CONTEST FOR WOMEN
this contest features quality packs of both fruit and vegetables from a large number of women.
The county participating in this contest holds a canning achievement day at which a club member may bring in her choicest jar of plain canned fruit or vegetables to compete against the best from other pantries in the county. These are judged for county winners and the best jar of fruit and the best of vegetables is'sent to the state.home demonstration office to be scored county against county.
The three highest scoring jars in both classes as well as high scoring pantries, are awarded splendid cash and other prizes, by several manufacturing companies.

GIRLS' CANNING CONTEST
A contest similar to the one for women is held for girls. The girls are divided into groups of those 10 to 14 years of age and those 15 and over.
Elimination contests are held in the local clubs to select the best two containers for the county contest. In turn, the two containers judged best in the county are sent to the State Home Demonstration Department where the girls at Short Course are given an opportunity to participate in further judging and scoring of all the canned products entered. These contests serve to bring greater color and interest in canning activities and encourage club members to grade more closely and to can food materials when in their prime condition, as well as to train to be more discriminating and more generally careful.
I A club girl, to enter the junior part of the contest, must have canned the requirements of the first or second year's work, and have submitted her record and story to her agent as called for on the achievement day for her club.
To enter the senior or advanced girls' canning contest, the club member must have canned the requirements for the third year canning program or more. In addition, she must exhibit at annual State Short Course a balanced meal, selected from the year's work, consisting of five quart jars which may be used in the preparation of (1) an emergency dinner to include a meat, vegetables, a -fruit and a pickle or relish; (2) the jars must







Florida Cooperative Extension


be accompanied by the complete menu -for this meal. -. This maybe supplemented by bread and butter, a raw fruit or vegetable for salad and a drink.
The three g rls scoringhighest in the Emergency Xeal- Contest were given an opportunity to work further on their canning records through the summer and resubmit them in October to be judged 1or the state-wide canning contest. The winner was awarded a trip to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress in Chicago, given by another glass manufacturer.

RELIEF CANNING
Home Demonstration Agents in all counties where they were working rendered valuable assistance to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in canning for families- on relief rolls. In many cases the agencies in the county established canningcenters and furnished cans, taking toll to pay the costs. The agents, with their experience in canning work, were called on frequently to assist in getting the work organized. Many of them loaned their own equipment, where necessary equipment was not available.
Through this work the program for conservation has reached many who had not been touched before, and they have been taught to use what they had and to depend on their own efforts for relief.
The FERA recently assigned an architect with wide experience to assist with the planning of community canning kitchens and centers, that these might be made more up-to-date and sanitary. Considerable up-todate canning equipment is now available, and improvement in the canning set-up is anticipated.
EXHIBITS
As usual, a large and varied exhibit of citrus by-products, canned "hearts", preserves, spiced marmalades, candied and baked citrus goods was set up at the Florida Orange Festival 'the last week in January in Winter Haven. This year marked the beginning of a competitive exhibit between the counties and individuals within the counties.

UTILIZATION OF HONEY IN THE HOME
Reports do not altogether show the increasing interest in beekeeping among women nor in the greater use of honey in general cookery. The Economist is keenly interested in honey and honey-made products and has encouraged the use of part honey in the place of part sugar in jelly making as well as its more frequent use in cookery.
The 55 page bulletin, Florida Honey and Its Hundred Uses, written in cooperation with Dr. Waldo Horton, then president of the Florida Beekeepers' Association, and printed by the State Department of Agriculture for the benefit of the honey industry, has received wide and favorable commendation within the state -and without. In fact, it Was said by the National Honey Institute to be the finest publication on the subject yet published by any state in the Union,







Annual Report, 1934,


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH

Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist
Mrs. Eva- R. Culley, Acting Extension Nutritionist
The food, nutrition and health program for 1934 was a continuation of the "long-time" program planned the previous year, to bring about appreciable changes in food production, food selection and food consumption practices. This project has been very closely allied with the home dairy, family meat supply, year-round garden, calendar orchard, home canned food budget, and home sanitation during the year.
The problem of providing an adequate diet with limited resources confronted many Florida families, and budgets for the family income demanded special attention, mqhile stress was laid on providing a happy, healthful living for every member of the families. With a reduction in the money available for family meals, a problem of meal planning and food preparation arose which made it necessary to teach careful preparation of lowcost foods so that they would be palatable, satisfying and appetizing to the individuals and at the same time provide for their body needs.
In general, -the aims of the food, nutrition and health program have been: To give instructions as to the importance of providing the family food supply, emphasizing production, selection and preparation in order to secure the best possible balanced nourishment at the lowest cost.
To aid in establishing and directing a program for the feeding of tinder-, nourished children through the school lunchroom., To have trained leaders for this project and an adequate lunch provided for every school child.
To encourage the home canned food budget by stressing its value in the daily diet, school lunch, baby's diet and emergency meals.
To encourage and aid in seeing that every pre-school and school child has a physical examination and that all defects be corrected if possible.
To increase the use of home-produced and Florida products to provide a balanced food supply at the lowest cost.
To enlist girls' and women's clubs in a food, nutrition and health program.
THE FAMILY FOOD SUPPLY
The Nutritionists and Home Demonstration Agents endeavored to develop a realization among the members of a large number of families of the necessity for careful planning, production and wise buying of the family food supply; to bring'about better selection, preparation and use of home produced foods.
Farm women were assisted in planning the food budget to meet' the needs of adequate nutrition for the family at the lowest cost. Food consumption records were kept to show how home production of foods pays. A plan for the farm home food supply was worked out and presented to the women.
Foods work was conducted in practically all counties having Home Demonstration Agents, and 6,235 families were assisted in using timely economic information as a basis for readjusting the food supply. Also 856 homes planned yearly food budgets.
Food consumption records were kept in detail by 35 women in four counties, and they showed a saving of $892.87 in four months through the consumption of home-grown products.






84 Florida Cooperative Extension

FOOD PREPARATION
The objectives of the work in food preparation have been to help rural ,vomen to learn to get the full value of foods by having them properly prepared and served, to choose and file good recipes, to prepare and serve products of high quality at all times, and to prepare foods into palatable but inexpensive dishes.


Fig. 14.-Gulf County 4-H club girls make cheese for home use and for sale, utilizing surplus milk produced on the farm.

Improved practices in food preparation were followed in 23 counties. In some counties food dietaries were worked out for home demonstration club and relief families, the women using them as a basis for buying or growing food products and planning meals.
This is the one phase of home demonstration work in which every member of the family is interested. This year more than ever before it has been necessary to make food adjustments. To do this intelligently, women had to have a more thorough working knowledge of the nutritive value of foods and their relation to health. Consequently many demonstrations were given in food selection and preparation.

MEAL PLANNING
Home demonstration club women realize that time, labor and money are saved by careful meal planning. At the close of the year there were 1,814 families following food buying recommendations of the agents, and 4,193 families were serving better balanced meals.
Work along this line was intended to teach the women to save time and labor by careful meal planning, to plan, prepare and serve well balanced meals, to plan and prepare low-cost emergency meals, to buy foods wisely,






Annual Report, 1934


and to relate food canning budgets to balanced diets, meal planning and the family income.

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD
It was noted that 2,071 homes have improved home-packed school lunches according to recommendations of Extension workers. Also, 48 schools involving 11,742 children were following recommendations for the hot dish supplement or school lunch this year.
Health protection, good posture and optimum health standards were encouraged, physical examinations were emphasized, and school lunchroom projects were encouraged and plans were given. Mothers were urged to relate the school lunch to the child's daily diet, and to prepare and pack or serve different types of school lunches.

THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD
Work with mothers which related to the younger, or pre-school child, was conducted in 20 counties, and reports show that 1,283 homes are using improved methods in child feeding. A number of families report improved health habits of 'children.
Physical 'examinations have been given and suggestions made forcok-' recting defects. In this, the home demonstration workers have assisted repress I natives of the State Board of Health.
Through this program, mothers have been assisted in learning the value of pre-natal care, studying the mother's diet and diets for pre-school ebildren, becoming informed on improved methods and practices of child feeding. They have been encouraged to give correct training to the pre-school child, and to provide health protection and physical examinations for every pre-school child, with defects being corrected before the child enters school.

WISE BUYING
Much emphasis this year has been placed on the wise selection of foods to give adequate,. well balanced meals with whatever money was available for food purchases. With decreases in family incomes, this was an important project throughout the state. The worsen were taught to obtain the most for their food dollar and At the sam6 time'secure the right kind of diet for the family,
A number of radio talks were made and news articles written outlining the'different kinds and combinations of low-cost foods for adequate meals. Demonstrations and talks on the subject were given at club meetings.

NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS
The goal for the girls was to develop in every club girl an under standing of and a desire f or positive health, through the recognition and formation of good health habits and proper food selection, and through physical examinations and correction of defects. Twenty-three counties reported that 2,555 girls completed the food, nutrition and health program as outlined.
All 4-H club girls choosing the food, nutrition and health project were required to have a physical examination at the beginning. of the year and a scoring of their food selection and health habits at least three times during the year.
Demonstrations were given in food selection and preparation, meal planning, table service, and various phases of health education, such as correct posture, good health habits, home hygiene and first aid.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 15-Jefferson County 4-11 girls, with a former club girl as local leader, are excellent home bread bakers.

STATE AND NATIONAL CONTESTS
For further development of the girls' program, contests were held in various phases, such as health, posture, bread making and bread judging.
Girls winning first places in health and bread judging in the state contests attended the National Club Congress in Chicago and entered similar contests there. The Florida health girl placed in the red ribbon class, while the bread judging winner finished second in the national contest.

SHORT COURSE AND CAMPS
At the annual short course, every girl received instruction in health education and nutrition, while one group of the girls took major training in these subjects. They were given daily lessons in food selection, preparation and scoring.
County camps for both girls and women provided excellent opportunities for presenting this phase of the home demonstration program. In some counties the girls were allowed to pay their expenses at camp by bringing food products, either fresh or canned. This gave impetus to the food production program.







Annual Report, 1934 87

HOME IMPROVEMENT
Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement
The home improvement program of work consists of projects in home management, rural engineering, house furnishings, thrift, home sanitation, beautification of home grounds, electrification, 4-H club work, and Planning the entire home site. Thus it provides - something of interest for 'nearly every rural home.
HOME MANAGEMENT
In the home management project the entire planning is aro I und the demonstration of the kitchen. Good management of the entire home may emanate from this demonstration of kitchen improvement; by making a floor plan of the kitchen and its present routing and then improving this routing so as to save steps and time; by raising or lowering working surfaces to save energy or loss of energy and provide comfortable working conditions. Apparently small items cause a great loss of energy,,also often cause loss of money because of doctors' bills. . Another home management problem, also a home, engineering one, -is to do away with the lifting of tons of water each year. by having the water piped into the house by the use of electrical power or hydraulic ram. It has been proven that water in the house decreases doctors'- bills, I thus saving money for other improvements.
One county started three years ago to keep home records, in five different homes; this year they report 25 home demonstration club members, are keeping accounts.
The following statistics show the progress of home management -this year:
I * Number of homes keeping accounts . 143 2. Homes budgeting expenditures in relation to income . . 93 3. Number of homes following recommended methods in buying . 910
4. Number of women following a recommended schedule for home activities ----- ------------------------------------------------- **"* -------------------------------- * . 230
5. Kitchens rearranged for convenience . ----------- 360
,6. Number of homes following recommendations in obtaining laborsaving equipm ent . . ------------------ ----------- 941
7. Number of homes adopting recommended laundering methods . 400 8. Number of homes practicing every-day good housekeeping ------------ 1,146
9. Homes assisted in an analysis of their home conditions with reference to a standard of living . . 882 10. Homes assisted in making adjustments in homemaking to gain
a more satisfactory standard of living . 1,901 11. Families assisted- in home soap making ---------------- I
. 297
12. Number of 4-11 club.members keeping personal accounts . . 409 13. Number of families assisted- in developing home industries as a
means of supplementing income ----------------------------------------------------------- 604
14. Families having increased time for rest and leisure as a. result r
of the home management program. . - . 428 15. Number of families following other specific practice recommendations . ; . . . 18
In Western Florida the women have more leisure time due to'the crop reduction programs, the womenbeing freed from many field duties that heretofore had demanded much of their time. Consequently, they have more time for reading, more knowledge of public affairs that:'affect the home, more time for food conservation and gardening.







88 Florida Cooperative Extension

RURAL ENGINEERING
Many of the home engineering projects, particularly the building of new homes and remodeling of old ones, have been at a standstill this year, due to urgency of other demands for avaVable money. However, as shown by the following statistics, progress has been made.
1. Number of dwellings constructed according to plans furnished . 30 2. Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished. . 23
-3. Water systems installed according recommendations ----- -------------- 43
4. 'Number of sewage systems installed . 3 5. H eating system s installed . . 3 6. Lighting system s installed . z . 18 7. Number of home appliances and machines . 719 8. Number of home dairy buildings constructed . 4

HOME FURNISHINGS AND THRIFT
Women and girls have been busy creating something beautiful out of things near at hand and that cost nothing in most instances. Boxes and barrels have been converted into usable furniture such as comfortable overstuffed chairs and seats, where discarded automobile springs have been used. The Florida moss was used for the padding, with a layer of cotton on top. While there has been but little furniture bought, many families are learning to create household articles at little or no cost.
Slip covers of tied and died mill-end materials and remnants of cretonne have been made for these articles of furnishings. Drawings of such furniture as bookcases, shaving stands, and buffets for the dining room have been sent out to work rooms and others. Other articles have been made to cheer many a drab home.
One man proudly showed.me a chifferobe he had copied from a catalog. He had used old road signs and odd pieces of plank. He proudly showed his boys' neatly folded underwear, the socks and shoes on the shelf side, and the hung up "Sunday clothes" on the other side. His interest was aroused because of the improved family bedroom where the floors, walls, ceilings, window curtains, braided rugs, pictures, and also better reading lamps had been repaired or provided.
A house furnishing project is usually started around one demonstration, selecting one room to be improved, and continuing the work until all rooms I are improved. "Working bees" are still popular for teaching large groups
of workers and people on relief have been particularly appreciative of help alongthese simple lines of procedure.
Statistics on house furnishings work follow:
1. Number of individuals improving the selection of household fur: nishings . 937 2, Individuals improving methods of repairing, remodeling, or refinishing of furniture . 1,636
3. Individuals following recommendations in improved treatment of
windows (shades, curtains, draperies) . . _ 1,751 4. Individuals, improving arrangement of rooms (other than kitchen) 818 ,5, Individuals improving treatment of walls, woodwork and floors . 631 6. Number of articles of box furniture made . 578
Number of families applying principles of color and design in
improving appearance of rooms . 769

HOME SANITATION
.The achievements in home sanitation have been many and outstanding because *of -the campaign waged for sanitary privies by the State Board of






Annual Report, 1934


Health in cooperation with the FERA. People generally are more conscious of the hazards of hookworm and malaria. These organizations would put in a pit privy where the individuals would furnish the materials.
The following projects in home sanitation were completed during the past year:
1. Number of families installing sanitary closets . . 532 2. N um ber of hom es screened . . 463
3. Number of families following other recommended methods of


controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects . 4. Number of individuals enjoying improved health as a result of
health and sanitation program . . _ -------------


1,362 8,709


BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS
Home beautification is receiving more attention in rural homes. The home demonstration club members are encouraged to draw plans for the improvement of the home. They are encouraged to plant green grass and shrubbery for foundation plantings. There has been splendid cooperation between the nurserymen and the Home Agents. Tours have been conducted to encourage these improvements.


Fig. 16-This Alachua County farm home, improved by a home demonstration club woman, took first prize in a home improvement contest covering three states.

Home beautification throughout the state was done to the extent of:
1. Number of homes improved by establishment and care of lawn-. 526 2. Number of homes improved by planting shrubbery and trees -------- 1,111 3. Number of homes improved by repair of walks, drives, or fences 272
4. Number of homes benefited by improving appearance of house and outbuildings . . . . . - . 535 5. N um ber of rock gardens built . . ------- 2 6. N um ber of grass plots . . . . . 25 7. N um ber planting county flow er ------------------------------------------------------------ 250







90 Florida Cooperative Extension

FARM HOUSING SURVEY
On December 14, 1933, the Home Improvement Specialist was loaned to the Civil Works Administration by the Agricultural Extension Service to conduct the Farm Housing Survey in Florida. This was directed by Dr. Louise Stanley, Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Home Economics, cooperating with the Agricultural Extension Service. Seven areas were selected by a state committee, the following counties being chosen: -Escambia, Alachua, Orange, Polk, Hilisborough, Dade, and Leon-Gadsden. The committee decided that this group of counties would show a cross-section of the various farm, fruit, dairy and poultry enterprises.
The County Home Demonstration Agents were asked to suggest efficient county supervisors to have charge of the work in each area. A personnel of not over 14 enumerators to a county, a chief clerk, two stenographers, and an engineer or an architect, was quickly set up.,
By January 1, every area was set up for operation. A training school with all personnel present in each county was held to show them how to p roceed.
Following the initial survey, the engineers, contractors or carpenters in each county (except Alachua) used a method which was outlined by a group of agricultural engineers and plans furnished by the Washington office.* Each day the man helper checked over the enumerators' blanks and selected the poor, fair, and better holnes of three or more rooms. He then visited the houses to be repaired or remodeled, taking another blank in order to check the needed repairs and estimate the cost of making the repairs in each county.







Annual Report, 1934


PART IV-NEGRO WORK.,

MEN'S WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
Negro Extension work in Florida.was carried on'in 1934 with a force of 14 local agents, six men and eight women. The men worked in the following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion, and Suwannee.
Negro -farm agents in Hamilton and Columbia counties have been conducting the work in Suwannee County this year, since that county has no Negro farm agent.
Demonstrations were conducted during the year with corn, cotton, legume crops for feed and soil improvement, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, fruits, garden props, poultry and livestock. The program resulted in outstanding achievements in better farming and homemaking in 87 communities. Voluntary local leaders rendered valuable assistance in the work.
While the signing of contracts and other details connected with the Agricultural Adjustment program were carried out by the white agents, Negro agents advised with their farmers concerning the programs with cotton, tobacco, corn and hogs.

PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS
The program of work for the year was based on the needs of Negro farmers and their families in the various communities, as determined by observations made at the beginning of the year. That it was effective is shown by a check-up on progress and results accomplished. It was found that marked improvement had been made along the following lines;
Better quality products brought about by careful selection of improved seed and varieties. '
Decreases in 'cost of production through the use of better varieties, improved methods of cultivation and economical fertilization.
Prevention of erosion and improvement of soil by growing legumes and winter cover crops.
The improvement of livestock on the farm through better breeding, care and attention.
Twelve county-wide meetings were held near the end of the year for discussing problems confronting Negro farmers and homemakers. They had a total attendance of 2,240.
The problems of the Negro farmers are similar to those of white farmers, and the Negro agents have had assistance throughout the year from the white agents in their counties and in the state offices. The work for the year has centered around a "live-at-home" program, which was deemed advisable for Negro families. Sxich a program not only helps them to assure themselves of a living, but it enables them to improve their economic status with the income derived from cash crops. The local agents this year have endeavored to stimulate the idea of self-help.

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS CORN
Local agents devoted 249 days to corn demonstrations, there being 85 adult result demonstrations with this crop. They held 49 meetings at result demonstrations and 67 at method demonstrations.







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

Four-H club members grew 426 acres of corn, which yielded 8,837 bushels or an average of 21 bushels to the acre. This is well above the average yield of most farms.,

OATS AND RYE
Nine method demonstrations were conducted with oats and two with rye. Three meetings were held at result demonstrations with oats of which there were seven.
I Six club members enrolled for oats demonstrations and two completed. Ten acres were involved in the completed projects and they yielded 150 bushels of oats.
PASTURES
There were eight- adult result demonstrations with pastures, and two meetings were held at these demonstrations. Method demonstrations accounted for 13 meetings, and two other meetings concerned pastures.
Eight 4-H club members were enrolled and four completed pasture demonstrations involving 12 acres.

COWPEAS AND FIELD PEAS
Cowpeas are grown for soil improvement and for hay, while field peas are used for feeding poultry by a number of Negro- farmers. Agents urged the planting of these and other legumes for building more fertile lands, and devoted 45 days to demonstrations with these crops. They enrolled 25 boys in 4-H club projects with peas, and 14 of the boys completed their demonstrations.
VELVET BEANS
Velvet beans are becoming more widely used for soil build ng and for feed, furnishing good grazing during the early winter months when cows are turned onto fields from which corn has been harvested. -Negro agents conducted nine demonstrations and held two meetings. They enrolled 20 4-H club boys, of whom 12 completed their projects involving 60 acres.

SNAP BEANS.
Field or snap beans are grown as a side-line crop, Negro farmers occasionally making good money with them in spring and again in early fall. Local. agents devoted 24 days to work with field beans in 20 communities and held 17 meetings at demonstrations. Three boys enrolled in 4-11 club projects with this crop, and produced 130 bushels on their six acres.

PEANUTS
Peanuts are a chief forage and legume crop among Negro farmers in Practically all counties in which local agents work. They are grown on a large scale for hog feed as well as for cash sale. Special demonstrations conducted this year showed that closer spacing almost doubled the yield.
Recommendations of agents with regard to fertilizers and marketing were followed by seven and 43 farmers, respectively. A total of 149 farmers were assisted in using timely economic information on the subject. Sixty-nine demonstrations were conducted by men and 24 meetings were held. ,
There were 130 4-H club boys enrolled, 74 completing. The 163 acre's. in the completed club projects yielded 3,690 bushels,







Annual Report, 1934


SWEET POTATOES
Sweet potatoes Are grown on practically every Negro farm for home consumption. Many farmers also grow some for sale. Local agents conducted 18 adult demonstrations with sweet potatoes this year, and held 26 meetings on the subject. Thirty farmers followed fertilizer recommendations. They enrolled 34 club members, all of whom completed their projects, producing 1,100 bushels of potatoes on 12 acres.

COTTON
Cotton demonstrations were aimed primarily at improving the yield, and consequently the profits, through the use of improved seed and proper fertilizing and spacing. The agents devoted 109 days to 41 cotton dernonstrations and 36 meetings for adults. They enrolled 98 boys in cotton clubs, and 54 finished the project for the year.
Recommendations by agents and number of farmers following them included the following subjects: Fertilizers, 157; insect control, 13; marketing, 97; other information, 864. Practically all Negro farmers growing cotton signed adjustment contracts.

TOBACCO
Only a few Negro farmers in counties having agents grow tobacco. One farmer in Alachua County reported 1,496 pounds of flue-cured tobacco sold at 27% cents a pound. The agents devoted 36 days to tobacco demonstrations and held six meetings.

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
With better prices for their products this year, farmers have had more available cash and have been able to make needed repairs and additions to the physical equipment of their farms. New fences have been erected and old ones repaired, new outhouses and buildings have been constructed, electric lights have been installed and better water supplies provided. Ten demonstrations were conducted along this line.
Assistance was reAdered in the maintenance and repair of farm machinery on 21 farms.
A summary of Work with buildings and equipment shows that ib light systems were installed, six dwellings constructed and eight remodeled, two silos, two hog houses, one poultry house, two storage structures and eight other buildings were constructed.

FORESTRY
Five farmers adopted improved practices in the production of naval stores and 19 cooperated in the prevention of forest fires. There were 10 who assisted in timber estimation and appraisal, one who followed woodpreservation recommendations, and seven who carried out suggestions in marketing forest product�4
POULTRY
The men agents devoted 68 days-to poultry work in 35 communities. One family did improved poultry breeding work. Thirty-one families were assisted in the purchase of baby chicks, while 312 followed recommendations in chick rearing. Marketing recommendations were followed by 12 families, parasite and disease control by 287, and better feeding practices by 66.






Florida Cooperative Extension


LIVESTOCK AND SWINE
Better dairy cows with improved pastures and more feed have been recommended, and considerable improvement is noted. Recommendations of the agents for control of parasites and diseases were followed by 108 farmers, and marketing assistance was rendered to 10. There were 123 farmers assisted in obtaining purebred sires, and 76 in obtaining high grade or purebred females.
Fourteen boys were enrolled in dairy club work, and eight completed the project with 12 animals.
Three farmers were helped to secure high grade or purebred beef sires and eight boys were registered in the beef clubs.
In the work with swine the agents aided farmers in obtaining 36 purebred sires and 20 high grade females. They conducted 18 demonstrations and held 28 meetings. Hundreds of hogs were inoculated against cholera in two counties. In 4-H swine work 63 boys enrolled and 28 completed.
The screw worm fly continued to give trouble to farm animals of all kinds in 1934, but was most severe on hogs and cattle. Local agents assisted in screw worm control, and a vigorous campaign was kept up throughout the entire season when the pest was doing its greatest damage.

HOME GARDENS
Home gardens on every farm were promoted to improve the health of the family by giving its members a diversified diet and to help the Negro families to produce more of their living at home. A campaign for yearround gardens was put on early in the year with the agents urging the planting of at least three leaf, three pod and three root vegetables.


Fig. 17-Calendar orchard near a Negro home in Marion County. Seven different varieties of fruit trees furnish fresh fruits over most of the year.







Annual Report, 1934 95

The agents counseled about fertilizer, on 86 farms, insect control on 74, and marketing on 22. They conducted 47 demonstrations and held 38 meetings.
Fifteen enrolled in 4-H garden clubs and 11 completed.
A number of Negro farmers grew truck crops as their cash product, and 21 of them cooperated in demonstrations. Enrollment in the 4-H1 club attracted six.
Surplus truck crops which could not, be marketed to advantage were canned under the direction of the FERA.

HOME ORCHARDS
Despite the scarcity of funds for purchasing nursery stock, eff orts of the. agents in promoting home orchards met with hearty response. They recommended the planting and care of pears, scuppernongs, bunch grapes, Japanese persimmons,,blueberries, pecans and satsuma oranges for rounding out the-family diet.

MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES
RECREATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOLS
Two recreational training schools-the first of their kind for Negroes in Florida-were held this year.' They were directed by Mr. and Mrs. John Bradford of the National Playground and Recreation Association. They were held at Fessenden Academy, near Ocala, and at the A. & M. College for Negroes in Tallahassee. They were attended by Negro farm and home agents, vocational agriculture and Jeans teachers, and social and welfare workers.
LIST OF LOCAL FARM AND HOME AGENTS

County Farm Agent IAddress
Alachua----------------- .F. E. Pin der------------------.Gainesville
Columbia I .E. S. Belvin-------------------. .Lake City
Southern Suwannee3
Hamilton 1 . N. H. Bennett--------------.White Springs
North Suwannee3
Jackson-----------------. .J. E. Granberry.;-.-------------.Marianna
Jefferson----------------. _ .M. E. Groover-----------------.Monticello
Marion-----------------.W. B. Young----------------------.Ocala
Home Agent
Alachua-----------------. Mary Todd McKenzie--------------.Waldo
Duval------------------.Ethel M. Powell--------------.Jacksonville
Gadsdenl----------------.Diana H. Bouie-------------------.Quincy
Hillsborough-------------.Floy Britt-----------------------. .Tampa
Jeff ers on----------------.Lorena Shaw------------------. .Monticello
Leon-------------------.Alice W. Poole--------------- .Tallahassee
Madison-------------. . .Althea Ayer---------------------. .Madison
Marion------------------. .Idella R. Kelley------------------.Reddick







Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Report by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Rome Improvement
Home demonstration work for Negro women and girls is conducted in the following counties: Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Duval, Marion, Hillsborough, Madison, St. Johns, and Sumter.
The work was discontinued in St. Johns June 30th and begun in Jefferson County. The agent in Sumter was moved to Gadsden County July 31st. These new counties have a large Negro farm population.
There has been no district Negro home demonstration supervisor since 1933, due to lack of funds. The State Home Demonstration Agent and three District Home Demonstration Agents have outlined and supervised the Negro work, with the assistance of other members of the staff. Subject matter material and record books are supplied the Negro agents.
The goal of the Negro work has been to keep the Negro population off of the relief rolls and in spite of hard times to help them to help themselves.
There has been an increase in home dairy cows for the family needs. It is becoming a goal in hundreds of families to get a young heifer calf of good breed and keep it for a future milk cow.
The women agents plan with the entire family their feed needs for the livestock. Better breeds of turkeys, ducks, chickens and guineas are becoming more noticeable. Many families are raising the sow and pigs each year for their meat supply, as well as lard, and all scraps of odds and ends in meat are used for making soap. One demonstration club member reports more than 200 lbs. of soap made. Many have honey, and each one has a cane patch. If they do not have cane for syrup they are taught to barter hog meat, chickens and canned products for what they do not have.

FOOD CONSERVATION
The home agents advise the mothers and home demonstration members about their food habits, and how to buy to the best advantage when buying is necessary. Most Negro families have a collard patch, onions, turnip greens, pumpkins and cushaws in the winter, and this mixed with hog meat, grits or hominy, syrup or honey, and milk, is "fine living".
The canning of pork in various ways has been a great thing for Negro families. Canned sausage, backbone, spareribs, head cheese, and roasts, provide meat for the entire year. This plan also reduces illness because too much "fresh pork" is not eaten now to "save it", canned meat is as fine as fresh meat. I
The following canned products were conserved by home demonstration club members:
Quarts of fruits, vegetables and meat canned . 24,865 Containers of jam, jelly, or other products . 9,955 Pounds of fruits and vegetables stored or dried . . 2,174
HOME IMPROVEMENT
Many homes have been improved throughout the state under the direction of the Negro Home Demonstration Agents. In Hillsborough County alone 126 Negro homes have been improved. The sanitation and beautification of yards also has made marked improvement. Seventy-four sanitary toilets have been built during the past year, and 30 houses screened.
House furnishings have gone forward in a fine way by utilizing everything at hand such as sacks, moss, shucks, curtains, and bedspreads made of sacks of all kinds; better mattresses made or remodeled, old chairs bottomed with shucks.







Annital Report, 1934


There were five new houses built after a plan furnished; 11 old homes remodeled; one family installed running water; five installed sewage systems, and four installed lighting systems.
"Working bees" -where the home demonstration club members and neighbors lend a hand and work under the direction of the home demonstration agents is providing a valuable lesson to many communities.' All who help go home and make improvements of some kind.

POULTRY
Poultry raising has been one of the major projects among home demonstration club members during the past year. In Madison County the agent states that "my reason for selecting poultry as a major project was because farm families did not have enough chickens and eggs to supply the family. Some had few or no chicks on the yard. This year 39 families obtained purebred cockerels to improve the flock. There are now 18 demonstrations in poultry in 14 communities."
The Leon County agent reports that "poultry raising is receiving much attention by the club members. Sixteen poultry projects were conducted by families purchasing standard eggs for setting. Twelve demonstrations were given as to the care of nests and location of poultry houses, also feeding and dressing poultry for marketing. There were 80 women and 14 girls enrolled in poultry projects, and of this number 16 women are following improved breeding plans as recommended by the agent. Chickens raised this year were 1,756, sold $79.80; 500 dozen eggs were sold for $135. Poultry houses have also been improved according to recommendations."

GARDENING
Much stress has been put on community gardens throughout the state, and these have been a means of keeping many people off the relief rolls. Also relief families have been benefited from these gardens.
In Sumter County the agent states as a result of the help gained from community gardens, that one can readily see a decided change in the gardens and vegetables upon entering the county. Continuous interval planting was done, and it was found that in nearly every instance where the people had gardens they were canning their own surplus, raised in their own gardens, and not sitting around waiting on the vegetable growers to abandon their gardens for vegetables to can.
Gardening has also proven of great value in other counties. Okra, corn, squash, beans, tomatoes, peas, greens, potatoes, beets, carrots, and onions and other products have been grown.

HEALTH AND HOME SANITATION
Health and sanitation have been stressed throughout the year in all clubs, particularly during National Negro Health Week, when lectures were given on the teeth, the preparation of foods, screening against flies, mosquitoes, etc. One agent states that she has found the great amount of sickness among the rural Negroes is due largely to unsanitary conditions, and lack of proper food and clothing. The State Board of Health also gave instructions during this week in preventive and curative methods with diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hookworms, and others prevalent among children, as well as the proper care of mothers and babies. Sanitary toilets and better water supplies have been provided for Negro schools.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SHORT COURSES.
The annual State 4-H Short Course for the Negro boys and girls and the Farmers' and Homemakers' Institute both held at Florida A. & M. College, have been of value. Excellent help was given by President Lee and his faculty of instructors.
The state staff of Farm and Home Demonstration Agents from the University of Florida and the State College for Women gave lecture demonstrations. This year 344 boys and girls came to the short course in cars and buses. The Florida A. & M. College gave free board and lodging to these boys and girls. The county commissioners of Duval County paid the expenses of 42 Negro 4-H boys and girls to the state short course this year.

RECREATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CAMPS
The past year trained leaders in recreation gave short courses for leaders in recreation in several counties and at the Florida A. & M. College at Tallahassee. Mr. and Mrs. John Bradford of the National Playground and Recreation Association conducted these training schools.
Picnics where games, stunts, yells, singing, and swimming have been a feature in all counties where there is a home demonstration agent, These are usually sponsored by the Junior and Senior County Councils. Camps for 4-H club girls, and senior home demonstration club members were held in Hillsborough County.
EXHIBITS
Community, county and state exhibits usually are held in the fall and winter. An improvement in the canning, I sewing, rug work, shuck work, and thrift work is noted. Special exhibits have been shown at the agents' offices, at demonstration kitchens, at churches or schoolhouses. At the Florida State Fair a Negro exhibit building was filled.







Annual Report, 1934


INDEX


A
Accounts, citrus, 57
'poultry, 59
Achievement days, club, 68 Adjustment work, 7, 13, 24 , 41, 57,
63
Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural engineering, 93 Animal husbandry, .33, 43 Associations, poultry, 48

B
Bankers scholarships, 355 Bankhead cotton tax exemption
work, 15
Bean demonstrations, 92 Beautification, home grounds, 75, 89 Beef cattle work, 44 Blue mold decay, 53 Boys' 4-H work, 8, 31 Bread contest, 86 Brooders, home-made, 48 Brown, H. L., report, 37 Brumley, F. W., work of, 57 Buildings, dairy, 37 Bulletins, 21, 68 Buying, wise, 85


Calendar floc records, 47 orchards, 77 Camps, 4-H, 8, 35, 69, 86, 98 Canning 'centers, 64
contests, 81 work, 73, 78
Cattle purchases, emergency, 8, 43 Changes in staff, 10 Chickenpox, 48 Child care and training, 75
health, 85
Citrus work, 9, 26, 51, 57 Clayton, H. G., work, 14, 24, 57 Clothing, 73 Club camps, 8, 35, 69 Club work, boys, 8, 31, 40, 47, 59
girls, 47, 68, 78, 85 negro, 97
Code, hatchery, 48 Community activities, 75 Cooper, J. F., work of, 21 Corn adjustment work, 18 demonstrations, 25, 33, 91 Cotton -adjustment, 14 demonstrations, 26, 33, 93


County agents, list, 5 County agent work, 24 Cover crops, 52 Cowpea demonstrations, 92 Credit 30, 61 Culley, E. R., work, 83 Culling demonstrations, 47 Cultivating citrus, 52 Cutting and curing meat, 45
D
Dairy husbandry, 33, 37 Dairying, home, 72 DeBusk, E. F., work of, 51 Director's report, 7 Disease control, citrus, 53
dairy, 41
E
Egg law, 46 Egg-Laying Contest, 48 Engineering, agricultural, 93
home, 74, 88
Exhibits, 68, 82, 98 Experiments, poultry, 49
F
Family food supply, 83 Farm Credit Adm., 7, 11, 30, 42, 57,
61
Farm dairying, 38 Farm Housing Survey, 90 Farm management, 57 Fattening beef cattle, 44 Feed and forage, 27, 37, 44
poultry, 49
FERA cooperation, 8, 12, 29, 41, 43,
63
Fertilizing citrus, 52 Financial statement, 12 Fly, screw worm, 25, 29, 40, 45 Food conservation, 73, 77, 78, 96 Foods work, 83 Foot rot, citrus, 23 Forestry, 93 Fuighum, R. M., work of, 21 Furnishings, house, 74, 88
G
Gardens, home, 33, 71, 77, 94, 97 Girls' club work, 68, 85
short course, 69 Grazing crops, 38 Grove management, 51 Gummosis control, 54




Full Text

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1934 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, I COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1934.

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1934 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1934 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1934.

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BOARD OF CONTROL GEO. H. BALDWIN ' , Chairman, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director . A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Age . nt Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant : COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent . H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman ., E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in An'mal Husbandry 1 C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2 JfRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management R.H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control! COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S;, District Agent . RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. •THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation EVA R. CULLEY, B.S., Acting Nutritionist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent lip cooperation with U.S. D. A. 2 Part-time.

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CONTENTS PAGE REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR .............. ... .. . .......... : .......... ., . . .............. : ......... :: . . : .:.......... 7 Financial Statement ............... . ............................ . .................... .................. :.... 12 Agricultural Adjustment Work ..................................................... . ..... , ....... 13 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS .............................. : ... . ..... ... . . : . . .... ... ..... . .... : .. . •.... ." ., .. , .... ,, 21 COUNTY AGENT WORK ..................... ....................... . ............................................. 24 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK .................. . ............................ . .......................................... 31 DAIRYING .....•.•.. 37 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY .................................................... .. .. .. .............. : ... . ... . ..... . .... . .. 43 POULTRY................. . .......................... . ..................... ..... ........................................... . 46 CITRUS CULTURE ................................................................................ ,:: . :.: ... ::: ......... 51 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ............. . .. : .. ...... .. ...... . . . .. .. . . .......................................... 57 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK .•.... . .................... .. . . . . ..........•.......... ;, ......•.•. : . : ....... ,. 63 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ................... . ............................•................. 77 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH .. . ... ... ..................... ..... ................ :.... ... . . ............... 83 HOME IMPROVEMENT •.•..........•..•... : .. ............................•................................... ."...... 87 NEGRO MEN'S WORK ............................. 91 NEGRO WOMEN'S WORK ............................................ : ........................ .. ................. 97

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Hon. Dave Sholtz, Governor of Florida, 7'allahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the repor~ of the Agricul tural Extension Service, College ' of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1934, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1934. Hon. Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Board of Control. Respectfully, GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida.

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Alachua .................. Fred L. Craft ............ Gainesville ............... Mrs. Grace F. Warren Brevard .................. N. A. Lockett ............ Cocoa ............................ Mrs. Eunice F. Gay Calhoun ................. .J. G. Kelley ................ Blountstown ........ Miss Josephine Nimmot Citrus ......................................................... Inverness ............ Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Clay .......................•..................................... Green Cove Springs ...... Miss Beulah Felts Columbia ............ , ... Guy Cox ...................... Lake City ....................................................... . Dade ....................... C. H. Steffani... ......... Miami... ......................... Miss Pansy Norton DeSoto .................... C. P. Heuck ................ Arcadia ........................... : ............................... . Dixie ....................... D. M. Treadwell ........ Cross City ....................................................... . Duval... ................... A. S. Lawton ............ J acksonville .................. Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ........ E. G. Pattishall ...... ,.Jacksonville Escambia ............... E. P. Scott .................. Pensacola .................... Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden .................. Paul Calvin ................ Quincy ............................ Miss Elise Laffitte Gulf .............................................................. Wewahitchka ................ Miss Pearl Jordan ::~~~~~:::::::::::::::~. -~ie:;;~it**::::::::~::;~~~1;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Hernando ............... B. E. Lawton ............ Brooksville ..................................................... . Highlands ............ :.L. H. Alsmeyer .......... Sebring ........................................................... . Hillsboro ................ C. P. Wright .............. Tampa ............... '. .......................... ,., .•............... Hillsboro (West) ....................................... Tampa ................... : .... Miss Allie Lee Rush Hillsboro (East) ........................................ Plant City ................ Miss Clarine Belcher Holmes ................... Wm. A. Sessoms ...... Bonifay .................... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson .................. Gus York. ................... Marianna .................... Miss Alice W. Lewis Jackson (Asst.) .... Aubrey Hudson ........ Marianna: ......................................................... . Jefferson ................ E. H. Finlayson ........ Monticello ........................ Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette .............. P. R. McMullen .......... Mayo ............... '. ............................................... . Lake ........................ C. R. Hiatt ................ Tavares ............................................. , ............. . Leon ........................ G. C. Hodge .............. Tallahassee .............. Miss Ethyl Holloway Levy ....................... N. J. Allbritton ........ Bronson ................ Miss Wilma Richardson Liberty ................... Dewey H. Ward ........ Bristol .................. Miss Josephine Nimmot Madison ................. R. A .. Stratford .......... Madison .................. , .......... : ............................. . Manatee ................. John H. Logan .......... Bradenton .................. Miss Margaret Cobb Marion .................... Clyde H. N orton ...... Ocala ................................ Miss Tillie Roese! Okaloosa ................ Joseph W. Malone .... Orestview ....................................................... . Okeechobee ............ C. A. Fulford ............ Okeechobee ..................................................... . Orange ................... K. C. Moore .............. Orlando .................... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola .................. .J. R. Gunn .......•.......... Kissimmee .................... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ........... M. U. Mounts ............ W est Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .................. Wm. Gomme .............. Clearwater ............. : .... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk ........................ .W. P. Hayman .......... Bartow ............................ Miss Lois Godbey St. J ohns ..... ,. ......... Loonis Blitch ............ St. Augustine ............ Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie ...................................................... Ft. Pierce ................ Miss Bertha Hausman Santa Rosa ............ J ohn G. Hudson ........ Milton ........................ Miss Eleanor Barton Sarasota ................. W. E. Evans .............. Sarasota ......................................................... . Seminole ................ C. R. Dawson ............ Sanford .............. Miss Josephine Boydston Suwannee ............... S. C. Kierce .............. Live Oak. ....................... Miss Eunice Grady Taylor ................... :.R. S. Dennis ............•. Perry .................. , ............... Miss Floy Moses Union ...................... L. T. Dyer .................. Lake Butler ................................................... . Volusia ............................... : ........................ DeLand ................ Mrs. Marguerite Norton Wakulla ................. .Aubrey Dunscombe .. Crawfo!rdville ............................. , ................... . W alton ................... Mitchell Wilkins ...... DeFuniak Springs .... Miss Eloise McGriff V,lashington ........... Henry Hudson .......... Ch'ipley ........................................................... . This list correct to December 31, 1934. Resigned effective December 31, 1934. tWor_ks in two counties.

PAGE 7

Fig. !.-Through 4-H Club recreational activities, rural boys and

PAGE 8

REPORT FOR 1934 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1934. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. Emergency work has received the attention of Extension Service em ployees this year .in large amount, but the regular programs of demonstra tion work have been continued with little diminution. The year 1934 may be considered as having been a successful one for the Extension Service from all standpoints. Reports by specialists arid supervisors, found else where, give a general view of the activities in the various lines during the year. The adjustment program was most important in the counties of northern and western Florida, and here it was necessary to modify the regular schedule of work to a certain extent. Commodities affetted by the program in Florida have been principally cotton, tobacco and corn-hogs. In the area affected, it is estimated 75% of the County Agents' time has been given over to the adjustment program. The farmers responded readily and the cooperation has been excellent from the beginning. In Central and South Florida the Extension Service has not materially changed its program from that of former years. The program there for horticulture, dairying and poultry has occupied the County Agents' time with the addition of work that fits into the rehabilitation program, and in this the Home Demonstration Agents have had the most important part. There has been a decided interest in a live-at-home program in this area, and encouragement has been given to the proposal to produce the things needed by the family on the farm•as far as practical. Under the direction of the Organization Specialist, in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, marketing agreements have been presented for consideration dealing with Irish potatoes, strawberries, watermelons and citrus fruits. The County Agents have served their communities in the distribution of information leading to the organization of such groups, and their offices have been made headquarters for local organizations interested' in the welfare of such marketing agreements. On account of the large production of horticultural products in South Florida, marketing and financing problems stand out as among the most important from the farmers' standpoint. The County Agents' offices have served the farmers by way of securing loans for production purposes and have cooperated with the Farm Credit Administration in the setting up of committees and selection of officers to handle the loan organizations.. They have also cooperated with the Federal Seed Loan Office of Memphis, Ten

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension nessee, and their offices have been niade . clearinghouses for applications from farmers for emergency and seed loans. The County Agents of this area have also been active in assisting the Emergency Relief Administration. They have offered their services to appointees of the Relief Administration in drafting programs, and in many cases their offices have been made headquarters for such efforts. The Administrative Office• in Gainesville has given every assistance requested that suitable persons might be employed and their operations directed to the best advantage. In the case of rehabilitation with rural women, Assistant Home Demon stration Agents have been appointed to work in rural homes as assistants to the County Home Demonstration Agents, and look to the Home Agents for direction of their programs. This arrangement was decided on by a joint agreement between the Director of Extension and the Director of Rural Rehabilitation. An account of their operations is given in the report of the State Home Demonstration Agent. EMERGENCY CATTLE PURCHASES Due to excessive rainfall in June, a large area of the most important cattle section of Florida became flooded. At the request of the cattle owners of that area the Commodity Division of the F.E.R.A. consented to purchase 10% of the cattle in the flooded area. This undertaking was submitted to the Agricultural Extension Service, and W. J. Sheely was appointed as director of the cattle purchases. From seven Central Florida counties over 16,000 cattle were purchased according to. regulations and prices fixed by the Commodity Division, F.E.R.A. 1 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK The work of the Home 'Demonstration Agents has been largely modified because of rehabilitation work. It was recognized at the beginning that a large number of rural people living on farms were in immediate need of relief. The problem, therefore, was to rehabilitate them that they might make their living from the farm and homestead as far as possible. This rehabilitation work extended into practically every county in Florida and the Emergency Relief Program was set up and directed by the Supervisory Staff from the State Home Demonstration Office. While this rehabilitation work has been done largely by assistants, it has necessarily occupied a large portion of the Home Demonstration Agents' time and energies. This work is described in the report of the State Home Demonstration Agent. 4-H CLUB WORK The 4-H club work, particularly with boys, has been handicapped because of other pressing duties and emergency programs. Never-the-less, enroll ment has increased. The State Club Agent was able to secure the assistance of interested club members who, under the direction of the County Agents, endeavored to keep the organization of 4-H club work intact. These special workers were employed and paid by the F.E.R.A., and were extremely helpful in securing reports on projects undertaken. In counties where AAA and other emergency programs did not seriously interfere, 4-H club work continued unabated. 4-H CLUB CAMPS Progress for the improvement of 4-H club work has been made by way of providing regional summer camps. Two camps are now available. One is on Choctawhatchee Bay on property owned by the U. S. Forest Service.

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1934 9 This camp has facilities to accommodate 250 persons with central cottages for the supervisors. The camp is equipped with electric lights, an adequate water supply and toilet facilities. An expenditure of approximately $5,000 has been made and improvements will be added as fast as finances permit. A second camp was established in the Ocala National Forest property to serve Central Florida counties. This camp was originally constructed to serve a Civilian Conservation Corps camp and was turned over to the Extension Service as a 4-H camp with several buildings and other im provements. The County Agent of the county in which this camp is located was able to secure an F.E.R.A. project supplying approximately $800 worth of labor. The Extension Service expended approximately $500 on purchases. The camp is favorably located on a small lake, has facilities to accommodate approximately 100 persons, and is equipped with an excellent kitchen for which equipment was donated from the dining rooms of the University of Florida and the Florida State College for Women. The improvements and equipment have an approximate value of $5,000. Both camps are used for holding farmers' meetings conducted by the Extension Service. NEGRO WORK As the Negro work in Florida is confined largely to the counties growing basic commodities, their programs, too, have been modified because of changing agricultural conditions. The Negro Agents have served in a limited way to assist the Negro farmers in their plans as governed by the adjustment program. However, emphasis has been placed on.the necessity of a well balanced agricultural program especially needed during times of uncertain markets. Particular emphasis has been placed on the live-at home program, and the necessity for home canning and the production of supplies needed to maintain the farm family. CITRUS INDUSTRY The citrus industry represents the largest horticultural interest in this state. The acreage of citrus trees has been gradually increased to such an extent that with a normal crop the marketing of it is a very .important undertaking and economy must be exercised in production methods. The Economics Section of the Extension Service has conducted a series of cost studies in cooperation with the Florida Experiment Station, and has pro vided cost accounting record books to be kept under the direction of the County Agents. These records have been summarized and returned to the producers after they have been analyzed in order that the growers might have a comparative conception of their year's business. The County Agents in the citrus area have given more than usual attention to the problems of culture and fertilization, these being the operations that can be modified to reduce or increase cost of production more than any other items in grove culture. The Citriculturist, in coopera tion with the County Agents of the more important dtrus areas, has made this a most important undertaking, and the response from the growers has been generous. ADMINISTRATION The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work and three for women's work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent and specialists in citriculture, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, market ing, farm management, and rodent control. Two district agents serve as part-time specialists, one in agronomy and another in organization and

PAGE 11

10 Florida Cooperative Extension outlook work. On the home demonstration staff there is one nutritionist, one economist in marketing and one agent in home improvement. In home demonstration work, the special projects are directed by the nutritionist, economist in marketing, and specialist in home improvement. In addition, projects having to do with rehabilitation work are carried on in practically every county. The Extension Service is cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Indus try in animal .husbandry work, and with the Bureau of Biological Survey in rodent control. There are 47 counties with white Extension agents, all of these counties financially supporting Extension work. Projects represent all phases of horticulture, agriculture, livestock and poultry typical of this state, and agricultural economics confined to specialized phases of our agriculture in general. In the Negro work, 14 counties are being served, eight of these by Home Demonstration Agents and six by Farm Demonstration Agents. Three of the counties contribute to the support of Negro Home Demonstra tion Work; the other counties are supported by state and federal funds. The Negro work is supervised by one District Agent who has his head quarters at the A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee. CHANGES IN STAFF The following changes have taken place during the past year: Dr. J. E. Turlington resigned as Economist on January 1, 1934, on account of ill health. His work was taken over by Dr. C. V. Noble, who also heads the agricultural economics departments in. the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station. _ Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was granted leave of absence effective October 1, 1934, for a year's study at Cornell University pursuing his doctor's degree. To continue his work R. Holt Howard was appointed Assistant in Farm Management. W. E. Evans, former County Agent, was appointed for a short period during 1934 as Assistant District Agent in North Florida to assist with the administrative duties in adjustment work. Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent, was granted leave of absence, effective July 1, 1934, to organize home demonstration work in Porto Rico, at the request of the Director of Extension, Washington, n. C. Her place is temporarily filled by Miss Anna Mae Sikes, formerly Extension Nutri tionist. Mrs. Eva Culley was appointed to fill the place vacated by Miss Sikes with the title, Acting Nutritionist. There have been relatively few changes in the personnel of the County and Home Agents. County Agents have been appointed in the following additional counties: Brevard, Columbia, Gadsden, Sarasota and Seminole. Home Demonstration Agents have been appointed in the following counties: Brevard, Clay, Levy, St. Lucie, Seminole, Suwannee and Volusia. These additional counties represent the largest increase of any year since 1927. Other counties in addition to these have made provision for and requested Extension work, but due to lack of funds it has not been possible to co operate with all counties making application for Agents. COOPERATION WITH OTHER INSTITUTIONS Other departments of the College of Agriculture and the Home Eco nomics Department of the State College for Women have extended generous 1 cooperation along many lines to make Extension work more effective during the year. Practically every department in the Teaching Division and Ex periment Station has rendered generous assistance.

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Annual Report, 1934 11 The Florida State Marketing Bureau, _ the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Live Stock Sanitary Board have problems in common with the Extension Service dealing with the distribution of marketable crops, plants and livestock and in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry. The Commissioner of Agriculture's office cooperates in the distribution of state funds used in payment of County Agents' salaries; The Forest Service of Florida cooperates in conservation work, princi pally with 4-H clubs, the purpose of which is to protect the timber growth. The State Board of Health works with the home demonstration projects in nutrition and health educational work. The State Plant Board cooperates to facilitate the distribution of plant materials used in projects supervised by County and Home Demonstration Agents. The Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the Federal Land Bank and its agents in Columbia; S. C., with the Intermediate Credit Bank, the Farm Credit Administration, and the Agricultural Finance Cor poration in every way possible that these agencies may provide the best assistance possible to the farmers of this state. The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Poultry Associa tion, the various marketing agencies handling fruits and vegetables, the State Horticultural Society, the State Fern Growers Association, in pro moting the interest involved in the welfare of the farmers affected. There has been a closer relationship between the County Agents and the vocational agriculture teachers this year. The county employees have arranged their programs in conference with each other, have carried out their rally and contest days in a cooperative way, and have worked to harmonize the educational features of their work. Vocational teachers have assisted with the agricultural adjustment work as far as their time would permit. The Extension Service has supplied assistance to vocational teachers in handling their instructional and educational programs in . the counties. METHODS USED FOR INCREASING EFFICIENCY Frequent conferences with the Extension Staff to provide uniformity in subject matter are held with the subject matter specialists of the Teach ing Division and the Experiment Station. Valuable assistance has been received also from the various bureaus of the Department of Agriculture. \ The Home Demonstration Staff is in frequent conferences with depart ment heads of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida and Experiment Station and with the specialists in Extension work. They also receive cooperation from the Home Economics Department of the Florida State College for Women. The Negro Agents are given assistance from various specialists in the Extension Service, particularly in agronomy, poultry, home economics and horticulture. SOURCES OF REVENUE The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue as follows: A. Funds appropriated by the United States Department of Agriculture. B. State offset from Extension Funds appropriated by the Florida Legislature. C. County appropriations. The offset funds required for State Smith-Lever funds have been appro priated by the Legislature. Other offset funds needed have been made available through county appropriations.

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension STATE FINANCE~ The attached financial statement shows that finances from federal sources total $149,479.98, and from state sources, $163.841.98; of these state sources, $86,715.98 are supplied by county boards. The Legislature of 1933 reduced its annual appropriation in support of the work. The Negro work is financed almost entirely from State and Federal funds. On the approval of the State Director, F.E.R.A., county offices have received clerical assistance. On the whole, it has served a good purpose. With increased demands on county offices due to adjustment and other programs, more dependable clerical assistance is needed in 75% of the county offices. FINANCIAL STATEMENT For Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1934 RESOURCES ,Federal. Funds Smith-Lever and Supplemental... .............. ,............ $ 84,684.24 Capper-Ketcham........................................................ 26,555.74 Additional Cooperative,............................................. 20,500.00 U. S. D. A ........................ ' ................ :.......................... 15,700.00 Bureau of Animal Industry.................................... 2,040.00 $149,479.98 State Funds Smith-Lever Offset .................................................... $ 53,968.80 Direct Appropriation ............................................ :... 18,157.20 Continuing Appropriation........................................ 5,000.00 County Appropriations............................................ 86,715.98 $163,841.98 EXPENDITURES Projects Administration............................................................ $ 7,510.62 6,970.74 127,111.66 6,391.55 Publications ................................................................ .. County Agent Work. ................................................ . Boys' Clubs ............................................................... .. Home Demonstration Work. .................................. . Food Conservation .................................................... .. Nutrition ........................ .1 ................................. Home Improvement ..... : ............................................ Dairy Husbandry .................................................... .. Animal Husbandry .................................. : ................ . Farm and Home Makers (Negro Work) ............ .. Citriculture ................................................................. . Poultry Husbandry ................................................... . Extension Schools ..................................................... . Agricultural Economics ........................................... . Florida National Egg Laying Contest. ................ . Unexpended Balance ................................................. . 94,107.43 3,497.45 3,580.00 3,759.28 5,255.13 4,202.25 22,329.53 4,569.07 3,928.60 , 1,025.41 11,506.10 5,952.84 1,624.30 $313,321.96 $313,321.96 $313,321.96

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Annual Report, 1934 AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT WORK 13 The Agricultural Adjustment Program, as carried out in Florida, was authorized under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of Congress approved May 12, 1933. 1 The Act declares that "it is the policy of Congress to raise the pur chasing power of American farmers to the level which it occupied in the base period," the five years from 1909 to 1914, when agricultural and industrial production and prices were well balanced, and the national income was equitably distributed. The Agricultural Adjustment Act empowers the President, through the Secretary of Agriculture, to assist farmers in adjusting the production of certain basic commodities to meet effectively the demand without sac rificing income, and to put into effect marketing agreements on agricultural commodities designed to insure fair prices to producers, efficient and equit able distribution of the production, and protection for the . consumers of the finished goods. "Section A: In order to effectuate the declared policy, the Secretary of Agricul ture will have the power (1) To provide for reduction in the acreage or in the produc tion for market, or both, of any basic agricultural commodity, through agreement with the producer, or by other voluntary meth ods, and to provide for rental or benefit payments in connection therewith, or upon that part of any basic agricultural commodity required for domestic consumption in such amount as the Secretary deems fair and reasonable, to b~ paid out of any moneys available for such payments." The program was entirely voluntary. The reduction program of the Act contains no power to order such reductions. The basic commodities most affecting Florida's agriculture are: cotton, corn, hogs, tobacco, milk and its products, and peanuts. The reduction programs as carried out in Florida in 1934 were with cotton, corn-hogs, and tobacco. An adjustment program for peanuts was put into effect at the close of the growing season. It provides for a reduction program in 1935, and those who participate in 1935 will receive benefit payments on their 1934 crop. In carrying out the provisions of the Act in Florida, the Agricultural Extension Service was assigned the responsibility of handling . the program: The program called for supervision by the Director of Extension and to carry it out, the County Agents were assigned the responsibility o:f direct ing the work in the counties. This program required the appointment of State Allotment Boards, Boards of Review, and County and Community Associations, thereby establishing contact between the Agricultural Ad justment Administration of the Federal Government and the producers of basic commodities in the state of Florida. This extensive program has therefore required an intensive effort and has placed additional duties on the Extension Service, which also has its regular program of Extension work formerly assigned by the state and federal governments . . This ieduc tion program was applicable to 50 percent of the counties of Florida. The remaining counties of Florida were affected by the Agricultural Adjustment Act on account of marketing agreements, which apply to the sale and distribution of dairy products, celery, strawberries, Irish potatoes, and citrus fruits. Marketing agreements affecting these commodities have

PAGE 15

14 Florida Cooperative Extension been supervised in Florida by the Agricultural Extension Service, the State Marketing Bureau, and the Commodity Section of the Agricultural Adjust ment Administration. COTTON ADJUSTMENT STATE REVIEW BOARD District Agent H. G. Clayton was designated as Chairman of the State Board of Review. He makes the following . brief report of the work in connection with the voluntary contracts of 1934-35 for cotton production control: (1) Contracts called for a reduction of 35 to 45% of the 5-year average (~928-1932) acreage. (2) Producers eligible to sign contracts were: (a) Producers growing cotton 4 or 5 years of the base period. (b) Producers growing cotton 3. years of base period, one of which was 1931 or 1932. . (c) Producers growing cotton in both 1931 and 1932. (d) Producers who cooperated in the 1933 plow-up program. (3) (a) Producers received rental benefits per acre at the rate of 3c per pound for the average adjusted per acre yield with a maxi mum of $18.00. (h) Arid in addition a parity payment of lc per pound for 40% of the permitted production. ( 4) Contracts applied to the land . and were executed by owners, cash renters .and managing share tenants. SET-UP In each cotton county the County Agent was the representative of the Secretary of Agriculture and the State Extension Service. A County . Cotton Control Committee and community committeemen composed of local cotton producers supervised the filling out of contracts, measuring acreage, ap praising yields, and adjusting individual contracts. Assistant County Agents were appointed to handle much detailed work in connection with the contracts. Assistants and committeemen were paid by the AAA. In several cas~s County Agents handled adjoining counties where there were no Agents employed. After the contracts were executed in the counties, a tabulation sheet showing the essential data from each contract was submitted to the State Board of Review. This Board represented the State and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and checked the county figures of individual contractors and secured adjustments so the totals for the county would be in line . with the percentage of production under contract when compared to the official figures for the county's production during the base period. This work involved a large amount of detailed calculations to secure the required adjustment, which was submitted to the County Committee, and it in turn. made adjustments in the individual contracts to get the totals within the required amounts. Each producer whose contract was adjustedwas contacted to secure his approval. T:h.~.}qllowing table contains a summary by counties of the contracts.

PAGE 16

Annual Report, 1934 15 COTTON RENTAL AND BENEFIT CONTRAC , TS ACCEPTED, BY COUNTIES County I I Adjusted I Contracts Average Production pounds I Alachua ..... . ...... 79 100,951 Baker ... . ........... . 6 7,983 Calhoun .... . ....... . 81 182,356 Columbia . .. . ... . .. 256 579,861 Escambia ... . ...... 344 857,439 Gadsden ... .. . ... . .. 64 65,186 Gilchrist ..... . ..... 5 6,857 Hamilton . . . . .. . . . . 393 959 , 962 Holmes ...... ... ..... 523 1,647,044 Jackson . .. ... . . .. . .. 1,160 3,076,895 Jefferson .. .. . . ..... q37 503,308 Lafayette .. . .... . . . 87 146,810 Leon . . ....... . . . . . . . .. 316 684,212 Levy ... .. ..... .. ...... 47 63,169 Madison . . . . . .. . . ... 527 1,076,398 Okaloosa .. .... .... . 390 1,199,786 Santa Rosa . .. . ... 521 2,225,943+ Suwannee ......... 678 953,114 Taylor . .. . ... . .. . .. .. 13 30 , 329 Union .. . . .... . . . ..... 3 13,840 Wakulla . .... ...... . 7 10,531 Walton ........ . ..... 444 992,993 Washington .... .. 227 382,990 Base Acres 729.8 56 . 0 1,200.0 4,655.5 5,516.7 438.2 51.0 7 , 573.5 10,738.5 20,514.9 4,134.1 1,123.7 5,128 . 0 404.0 8,606 . 8 7,532.9 12,260.7+ 7,706.4 220 . 0 108.0 81.0 6 , 791.5 2 , 417.2 I Rented .. , Acres Acres Allowed 299 430.8 21 ' 35.0 486 714.0 1,799 2,856.6 2,203 3,313.7 182 266.2 23 . 28.0 . 2,997 . 4,576.5 4,198 . 6,540.5 8,049 12 , 466.9 1,625 2,509.1 441 682.7 2,022 3,106.0 160 244.0 3,270 5,336.8 3,012 . 4,520.9 4,895+ 7,366.7 3,085 4,621.4 87 133.0 43 65.0 37 44 . 0 2,687 4,104.6 987 1,430.2 Totals .. ...... .. ...... ) 6,408 157,679.57) 108,112.40 I 72,264 I 65,449.4 BANKHEAD COTTON TAX EXEMPTION WORK The Bankhead Cotton Control Act was passed by Congress to supple ment the voluntary adjustment program with cotton. Essential provisions of the act were to establi s h national, s tate and county quotas of cotton which could be marketed tax-free, these quotas to b e set each year by the Secretary of Agriculture . Production in excess of allotments covered by tax exemption certificates is subject to a ginning tax ( of 50 % of the average central market price). Provi s ion wa s made for tran s fer of surplus certificates between growers. Mr. Clayton also served as chairman of the State Allotment Board which handled applications for and issued the tax-exemption certificates to individual grower s . The same county committee s and community com mitteemen who served in the voluntary program assisted with this work. Each producer of cotton s igned a sw orn application with the county committee setting forth the cotton h i story (acreage and production for each year of the base period) for the land he was farming in 1934 . Owners, cash renters and . standing rent tenant s were eligible to file applications. Where growers had signed voluntary reduction contracts, data for their exemption applications were taken directly from their contracts. Non contractors filed applications and the county committees adjusted the s e to be in line with contractors. The Bankhead Act provided that 10,000,000 bales could be ginned tax free, This amount of tax-exempt cotton w as a llotted to various state s and counties in proportion to their cotton production during the ba s e period,

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension 1928-32. Florida's allotment was 24,683 bales of 478 pounds each. Ninety percent of this amount was allotted to individual counties. Ten percent was placed in the state reserve and was allotted to individual producers (irrespective of county lines) who qualified under one or more of the following conditions: (a) Producers who had less than of their cultivated land in cotton. (b) New producers who began production since 1932. (c) Producers who had already reduced acreage over 40%. ( d) Producers who, during one or more years of the base period, had yields below their 5 year average production, such reduction being the result of uncontrollable natural causes. Producers who qualified under a, c, or d received cotton tax-exemption certificates from the state reserve in addition to the amount received from tlie county quota. New producers (b) could receive no tax-exemption cer tificates from the county quota since they had no production during the base . period and received all certificates issued to them from the state reserve. Wages for committeemen and clerical help employed in the operation of the Bankhead Act were paid from funds of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. Two issues of tax-exemption certificates were made in Florida and no interim certificates were used. The following table summarizes the operations of the Bankhead Cotton Act: Bales Pounds of Lint State Reserve.............................................. 2,469 1,179,840 County Quotas............................ . ................. 22,214 10,618,560 Total State Allotment.............................. 24,683 TOBACCO PRODUCTION ADJUSTMENT 11,798,400 The adjustment program for flue-cured tobacco in Florida was handled through the State Agricultural Extension Service, with Economist D. E. _ Timmons in charge. (The work with shade tobacco was not delegated to this office.) This program met with excellent response, and it is estimated that 90 percent of the eligible growers of flue-cured tobacco signed contracts. There were 1,025 contracts signed and accepted, with two rejected and 12 still awaiting final acceptance. The 1,025 contractors had a base acreage of 5,985.4 acres, with an allotted acreage of 4,185.4 acres. Contracting growers agreed to reduce their acreage at least 30 percent of their bases. They could choose as their base acreage the average acreage grown during the three years 1931, 1932 and 1933, or 85 percent of the average for any two of those years, or 70 percent of the 1931 acreage, or 80 percent of the 1933 acreage. Rental payments were to be $17.50 an acre. In addition, growers were to receive an adjustment pay ment of 12 percent of the net sale price of the tobacco, up to 21 cents a pound. Each grower was paid 2 cents a pound for all that he lacked of producing his allotment. For 1934 Florida farmers planted 64 percent of their base, when their allotment was 70 percent of base. Statistics on the flue-cured tobacco adjustment work in Florida for 1934 are shown in the following table.

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Annual Report, 1934 17 TABLE !.-RESULTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO ADJUSTMENT WORK IN FLORIDA, 1934. County I No . \ Base I Base I Allotted \ Allotted Contracts Acreage I Production Acreage Production Alachua .... . . .. .... 152 1,076.6 838,180 752.6 586,720 Baker ... . . .... .. .... . 7 31.3 19 , 560 21.9 13,692 Bradford .. . .. : . .... 16 142 . 2 95,303 99 . 3 66,711 Columbia ... . .. .. . . 70 4 4 3.4 3 07,7 3 5 309 . 8 215 , 416 Gadsden .. . . ... ..... 18 76.0 47,077 53.3 32,952 Hamilton . . . . .. .. .. 180 1,424.7 1,084,900 996.7 759,416 Holmes . . . ... . . .. .. . 7 20.3 13,714 14 . 2 9,600 Jackson . ........ .. .. 3 3 108.3 79,062 75.7 55, 3 41 Jeff e rson ~ .... . .. ... 12 75.3 53 , 540 52.8 37,478 Lafayette ... .. . .. . 86 357.0 235,923 249 . 6 165,139 Leon ...... .. . . ...... . . 4 19.6 14,910 13.6 10,437 Levy .... .. . .. .. .. . .... 1 4.2 3 , 139 2.9 2,197 Madison .. .... .. . .. . 148 812.3 598,921 568.3 419,2 3 9 Su w ann ee . .. ... .. . 277 1,323.1 961,561 925 . 0 673,075 Vnion . . 14 71.2 55,867 49.7 39,107 Total.. . . ..... . .. . . . .. \ 1,025 5,985.5 \ 4 , 409,392 l 4,185 . 4 \ 3,086,520 By December 31, 1934, Florida farmers had received $126,789.37 in rental and equalization payments. It is estimated that they will receive $70,000 in adjustment payments. In addition to these amounts, they have received < $ 2,730.95 from excess allotm e nts sold to North Carolina contract signers. Rental and . equalization payments received by Florida f a rmers on 1 , 025 of the 1,039 contracts signed are shown in Table 2. TABLE 2.-RENTAL AND EQUALIZATION PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY 1,025 FLORIDA TOBACCO CONTRACTORS. County I I I I ! Total Rental No. Rental Rental Equalization and Contracts Acreage Payment Payment Equalization Ala c hua . ... .. ::~ : :1 152 324.0 $ 5,670.00 $18,753.61 '$ 24 , 423.61 Baker ... . . .. .. ... . . .. ! 7 9.4 164.50 3 76.84 541.34 Bradford . ..... . . ... 16 42.9 750.75 951.53 1,702.28 Columbia .... ...... 70 1 3 3.6 2 , 3 3 8.00 5 , 856.47 8,194.47 Gadsden . .. ..... .. . . 18 22.7 3 9 7.25 301.14 698.39 Hamilton ... . ...... 180 428.0 7,490 . 00 27,216.77 34,706.77 Holmes. , .. ....... .. I 7 6.1 106.75 71.43 178.18 Jackson . . .. . .. . ..... 3 3 3 2.6 570.50 960.19 1,530 . 69 Jefferson ... ..... ... 12 22.5 393.75 3 97. 3 9 791.14 Lafayette ......... 86 107.4 1,879.50 4,946.71 6, 8 26.21 Leon . . .... .... ..... ... 4 6.0 105.00 71 . 26 176.26 Levy ... . .. . .. .... ..... 1 1.3 22.75 125.30 148.05 Mad is on ... ... . .. . . . 148 244.0 4,270.00 11,373.40 15,643 . 40 Suwannee . . . . ... .. 277 398.1 6,966.75 22,528.06 29,494.81 Union . ... . . . .. . .... . . 14 21.5 376.25 1 , 357.52 1 , 7 3 3.77 Total... . ... . . .... .. . . ( 1,025 I 1,800.1 I $31,501.751 $95,287.621 $126,789.37

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension The average price of Florida flue-cured tobacco was 11.8 cents per pound for the 1933 crop . . The average price for the total sales at the Live Oak warehouses for the 1934 crop was 2-0.8 cents . per pound, or an increase of 76 percent over the 1933 average. The Extension Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of check ing tobacco contracts and assisting county allotment committees with making individual contract allotments. He acted as agent for the repre sentative of the Secretary of Agriculture in the final approval of tobacco contracts. After approval by the State Office, these contracts were trans mitted to the Contract Records Section of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington for final acceptance and payments. The State Office, under the supervision of the Marketing Specialist, issued all allotment and marketing cards distributed in Florida. When the season closed, it was necessary to have these allotment cards returned to the State Office where they were checked against the duplicate copies of tax-payment warrants. Florida's tobacco yield for 1934 was 118 pounds per acre less than the three year average of 1931-33. This resulted in excess allotments to . . farmers. The Marketing Specialist arranged with the Extension represent ative of North Carolina to handle some of these excess allotments. To date, one-half million pounds of excess allotments have been sold to North Carolina producers, for which $2,730.95 has been paid to the farmers of Florida. KERR-SMITH ACT The Kerr-Smith Act, the immediate object of which was to bring tobacco production in line with consumption by limiting production in 1934 to not more than 500,-000,000 pounds of flue-cured tobacco, was signed by the President on June 28. It was designed to place the tobacco growing indus try on a sound financial and economic basis, to prevent unfair competition and practices in the production and marketing of tobacco entering into the channels of interstate and foreign commerce, and for other purposes. The act placed a tax on all types of tobacco sold, except that covered by exemption allotments. The rate of this tax was to be set by the Secretary of Agriculture, but could not exceed 33 percent nor be less than 25 percent of the average selling price of the tobacco. All tobacco growers who signed contracts with the Secretary of Agri culture under the terms of the Agricultural Adjustment Act were to be issued tax-exemption certificates to equal the amount of their production allotted under the AAA. Provision was made in the act for continuance another year by favorable vote of 75 percent of tobacco farmers. Administering this tobacco control and tax exemption required a great deal of time on the part of workers in the Extension Service. They issued (AAA) allotment cards to growers. Certificates for tax exemption were issued to farmers by a representative of the Internal •Revenue Bureau at the warehouse. These allotment cards and copies of exemption warrants were later returned to the Agricultural Extension Service for checking and corrections. THE CORN-HOG REDUCTION PROGRAM The corn-hog adjustment program called for reductions of 20% in corn acreage and 25% in number of market hogs raised in 1934. The contracts required that farmers could not increase the acreage of any other basic commodity over that of 1932 or 1933, whichever was the greater. Sales receipts for hogs sold were required as supporting evidence of claims.

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Annual Report, 1934 19 [ f hogs had been butchered and then sold , 150 pounds of meat was taken ; o equal one hog. Fig. 2 . -Farmer, son and County Agent make out a corn-hog adjustment contract with the aid of the son's 4-H club business record kept on his father ' s farm . For this cooperation the producer was to receive 30c per bushel for the corn not produced, and $5.00 per head on the 75% of his base production of mark e t hogs, less the cost of administering this work in the counties. This program was supervised by District Agent J. Lee Smith. ACCOMPLISHMENTS There were 1,493 contracts accepted, renting to the Secretary 19,262 acres of corn land, with an allotment of 56,939 acres to farmer s . For these rented acres, the farmers received $74,851.80. They had an allotted production of market hogs of 48 , 566 head and received in benefit payments for hogs a total of $242,830. Total benefit and rental payments amounted to $317,681.80. A summary of counties having contracts for 1934-35 is shown in Table 3. All papers, including the supporting evidence, were sent to the State Office for consideration by the State Board of Review. The board rejected some contracts, scaled down others, and sent them back to the County Agents and Corn-Hog Control Associations for acceptance or rejection. COMPLIANCE Measuring of land and counting of hogs were done by committeemen as in compliance on other contracts. The forms were so many and com plicated that it was quite expensive to do the committee and clerical work connected with compliance. The papers were taken into the office of the State Compliance Officer and all items, including measurement and calcu lations, were checked and transmitted to Washington.

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TABLE 3.-SUMMARY OF COUNTIES HAVING CORN-HOG REDUCTION CONTRACTS WITH THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA, 1934 . -35. CORN HOGS 11 Base Allotted Benefit , Total No. Base Rented Rental Produced Production Payments Corn-Hog Counties Contracts Acres Acres Payments 11 For For For Benefit I Market Market Hogs Payments 1. Alachua .. . .. .... .. . . . ...... . . 9 4 7,067.2 1,781.2 $ 6 , 214.50 I 7,432 5,5 7 4 $ 27 , 870.00 $ 34,084 . 50 2. Baker .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . . .. . 7 204 . 5 59 157.20 253 . 5 190 950.00 1,107.20 3. Citrus . .. . . . ..... .. .. . ... . . . ... 15 4 50 126.1 3 36 . 00 388.5 291 1,455 . 00 1,791.00 4. Clay . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. ... 3 73 . 5 20 65.70 75 56 280.00 345.70 5. Calhoun .. ... . ..... .. . . . .. .. . . 25 1,172.7 286.5 1,079.10 745.5 559 2,795.00 3,874.10 6. Columbia . . ... . .. . .. ....... . 173 7,482 . 2 1,867.6 8,318.40 6,415.5 4,812 24,060.00 3 2,378.40 7. Dixie . . .. ... . . ... .. .. . . . ..... . . . 9 507 113 531. 3 0 560 420 2 , 100.00 2,631.30 8. Escambia . . ... .... ..... . .... 6 273.5 55.5 289.20 173.5 130 650.00 939.20 9. Gad s den ....... . ... ... ... . . .. 4 6 2 , 491.5 . 643.5 2,602.20 1,219 914 4,570.00 7,172.20 10. Gilchri s t ........ .. ..... .. ... . 51 2,143 570.3 2 , 566 . 80 2,857 2,143 10 , 715.00 1 3 ,281.80 11. Hamilton ....... . . . ... .. .... I 6 487 113.7 330.60 406.5 305 1 , 525.00 . 1,855.60 12. Holme s .. ......... . .... .. ... . . ! 34 1,225.3 290 1,156 . 50 710.5 533 2,665.00 3,821.50 13. Hernando . .. . .... ... ........ 1 45 9 27.00 80 60 300.00 327.00 14. Jackson . ... .. . .. .... .. . .. .... 1 5 0 9,375.7 2,389.2 8,182 . 80 4,892 3 ,669 18,345.00 26,527.80 15. Jefferson .. ... . .. . .... .... ... 79 8,3 2 2.7 2,229.7 8 , 843.70 3,454 2,590 12,950.00 21 , 793.70 16. Lafayette ... . . . .. . ....... .. 41 1,954 493 1,541.70 1,562 1,171 5 , 855 . 00 7,3 9 6.70 17 . Leon ..... .. ......... . ....... . . . 22 4,015 803 2,670.00 530.5 3,979 19,895.00 22,565.00 18. Levy ... . ... .. ............ . ..... 173 6,125 1,385.4 4 , 575.60 9,634 7,226 36,130.00 40,705.60 19. Madison . .. .. ..... . . .. . . . .... 39 3,152.5 762.4 2,362.80 1 , 929 1,447 7,235.00 9, 597.80 20. Marion .... .... . . ......... .... 103 3,922.5 985.1 5,348.40 4,974 3 ,730 18,650.00 2 3 ,9 9 8.40 21. Okaloo s a ........ .. .... .. .... 56 1,434 362 1,855 . 80 589.5 442 2,210 . 00 4 , 065 . 80 22. Orange . .. .... .. .. .. .. . . .... .. 1 16 4.5 40.50 83.5 63 315.00 355.50 23. Polk .... . . .. ..... .... .... .. .... . 6 110 27 152.28 86.5 65 325.00 477.28 24. Putnam .. ...... . ....... .. . .. . 8 349.5 84 370.20 378.5 284 1 , 420 . 00 1,790.20 25. Santa Rosa .. . ....... .. . .. . 5 223 64 260.1-0 99 74 370.00 630.10 26. St. Johns . ..... . .. . .. .. ..... 59 1,916.3 728.3 4,020.90 200.5 150 750 . 00 4,770.90 27. Suwann e e ........ . ......... 162 7,4 2 0 1,906 . 3 6,784,.26 8,132 6,099 30,495.00 37,279.26 28. Taylor ..... ... ....... .. .... . .. 5 388 115.8 377.10 203 152 760 . 00 1,137.10 29. Wakulla. , . . ....... . . . . ... ... 7 604 179.1 638.76 182 136 680.00 1,318.76 30. Walton .... ... . . .... ... ... ... . 91 2,765 672.6 2,445.00 1,435.5 1,077 5,385.00 7,830.00 31. Washington ... . ..... . .... ! 16 485 . 5 135 707 : 40 1 300 225 1,125.00 1 , 832.40 Totals .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . ..... . ... ! 1,4 9 3 I 76,201.1 I 19,261 . 8 I $74,851.80 11 59,982 I 48 , 566 I $ 242,830.00 I $317,681.80

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Annual Report, 1934 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. Francis Cooper, Editor R. M. Fulghum, Assistant Editor Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor 21 With the addition of a second Assistant Editor to the Department on January 8, 1934, largely as a result of agricultural adjustment activities, the work of the Extension Editorial Department during the year has been considerably enlarged and improved. Additional service has been rendered in supplying both radio talks and news and farm paper stories, while the publication of bulletins and other material has not increased materially. In addition to .the three lines of work mentioned above, the distribution of bulletins and supplies is handled in this Department. Vast quantities of supplies for County and Home Demonstration Agents and large numbers of Extension bulletins were mailed during the year. In addition, the mailing clerks ran thousands of copies of mimeograph material for all Extension workers. The number of stencils used each month averages around 75 or more. Continued cooperation was rendered the Agricultural Adjustment Ad ministration and the United States Department of Agriculture in the distribution of news and information relating to the adjustment program from the standpoints of both the state and the Nation. The three Editors and two Mailing Clerks devoted about half of their time to work for the Experiment Station, as in the past. PUBLICATIONS While no new bulletins were published during the ifiscal year ending June 30, 1934, the number of record books and similar material printed increased materially. One old bulletin was reprinted during the year. The Extension calendar was printed as usual, and continued to be one of the most useful and popular publications of the Extension Service. Follow ing is a list of the material printed during the year. Pages Edition Bill. 69-Buy Health With Your Food Dollar (reprint) .............. 48 15,000 Circ. 35-Grapes and Grape Products............................................ 4 10,000 Circ. 22-The Succulent Peach (reprint) ............................... ,...... 4 10,000 Circ. 24-The Fig (reprint).............................................................. 4 10,000 Circ. 25-Pear Products (reprint).................................................. 4 10,000 Circ. 33-The Canning Budget (reprint)...................................... 6 10,000 M. P. !-Citrus Grove Record Book (revised).............................. 500 M. P. 4-Florida Poultry Record Book for Small Flocks (revised) ................................................................................. . 1934 Calendar ........................................................................................ 12 4-H Club Girls' Canning Guide and Record Book. ....................... 20 Record Book for 4-H Club Sewing.................................................. 16 Record Book for Women in Home Demonstration Work. ........... 16 Poultry Club Record Book.................................................................. 12 Record Book for All-Year Home Garden and Orchard Work. ... 20 Record Book for Food, Nutrition and Health ................................ 20 Food Consumption Record ................................................................. . 4-H Crop Club Record Book (reprint) ........................................... . Rules, Ninth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ................... . Chick Mortality Card ............................................................. ,............ 1 Agents' Monthly Report Form.......................................................... 1 Weekly Agricultural News Service ( 42 weeks)*.......................... 1 Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest.............. 2 Annual Report, 1933............................................................................ 92 500 10,000 15,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 10,000 15,000 1,000 7,000 2,000 1,000 5,000 31,500 750 2,000 * Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.

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22 Florida Cooperative E,vtension . NEWS TO DAILY, WEEKLY ANI> FAl?.M , PAPERS News and informatiQnal material in wide variety and large quantities was supplied to daily, weekly and farm papers during 1934, and was used extensively by these papers. Reports of adjustment and other activities of the workers, together with information about improved practices with crops and livestock, the existing situation and outlook, economical and informative home suggestions, and other worth while information for farmers, growers and farm women were furnished the papers. The clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was printed and distributed to weekly newspapers and farm papers each week. It carried from nine to 12 separate articles each week, and the papers reprinted these articles generously. Surveys during the year indicate that from 85 to 90 percent of the weekly newspapers in Florida reprint from this clipsheet from time to timf!, many of them each week. . The farm papers also use some of the material it contains. Special stories were sent to the daily newspapers regularly throughout about nine months of 1934, and irregularly the other three months. These were widely used. For three months special stories to the dailies were supplied through the state mail service of the Associated Press, and throughout ' the year the most important news stories were handled by . the wire service of this news disseminating organization. Nation-wide publicity was given two Florida stories by the AP. A farm department, consisting of material supplied from this office, was carried each Sunday by one large daily paper. County and home agents furnished articles regularly to their local papers. Special articles in large number were supplied to farm papers in Florida by members of the staff, and in still larger number by the three Editors. These latter also supplied a number of stories to Southern and national farm publications. The material from this office used by Florida, Southern and national farm journals just about doubled during the year. . A check shows that 58 separate stories, amounting to 1,858 column inches, supplied by the Editors were used by four Florida papers, while three Southern farm papers printed 10 articles totaling 100 column inches. Five journals of national circulation printed six stories for 122 column inches. Cuts and other features were furnished to still other special publications with restricted national circulation. FARM RADIO PROGRAMS The Florida Farm Hour each week day over WtRUF and daily farm flashes to five other radio station s in the state were continued throughout 1934, giving good coverage of the entire state with farm radio programs supplied by the Agricultural Extension Service. Workers in the Experi ment Station and others cooperated in supplying material for the talks, but the programs were supervised and distributed by the Extension Editors. On the Florida Farm Hour, from 12 to 1 p.m. each week day over WRUF, livestock market reports were given daily throughout 1934. Citrus shipment and auction and sales reports were included daily during Novem ber and December. In all, 734 talks, a number of them supplied by the U. S. D. A., were put on the air during this period in 1934. Thirty-two of these were p're pared and given by the Editors themselves. They also prepared and pre~ sented daily farm news highlights, weekly farm news and the weekly farm question box. . Stations receiving and using farm flashes, each about 7 minutes in length, included WCOA, Pensacola; WMBR, Jacksonville; WDBO, Orlando;

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Annual Report, 1934 23 WQAM, Miami; and WSUN, St. Petersburg. During the year 409 separate flashes were mailed to these stations, 223 of them prepared in this office and 186 supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and approved here. County and Home Demonstration agents in counties where radio stations are located make frequent use of them, and cooperate in furnishing the farm flashes. A special period for farm women, the Florida Home . Period, was pre sented by this office over WRUF each week day until the end of June, 1934. It occupied 15 minutes and used material supplied by state and county home demonstration workers and the U. S. D. A. The Agricultural Extension Service cooperated in staging the national 4-H club achievement day program over NBC stations on November 3. This program consisted of one hour, with the first and last 15 minutes coming from Washington over the chain and the middle 30 minutes going over each station locally. There are . three Florida stations on the NBC network, and the local program for each one was arranged by the Extension Service.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II-MEN'S WORI( COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader H. G. Clayton, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent Forty-six counties cooperated in the employment of County Agents during this fiscal year. The state was divided into three districts each supervised by a District Agent. In the northern and western part of Florida the agricultural adjustment program consumed the greater part of the agents' time. This program with cotton, corn-hogs, and tobacco required very active supervision on the part of the District Agents, and enlisted the cooperation of some 300 farmers who acted as Committeemen. The part played by the Extension Service was to carry out the plans laid down by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. In this program, approximately 15,000 different contracts were signed by farmers, and in this way they participated in the national program as carried out in all states. County Agents were drafted for additional duties in connection with other phases of federal adjustment and relief programs. The Rehabilita tion Section of the F.E.R.A. requested that the County Extension Agents act in an advisory capacity in selecting rehabilitation clients and making recommendations for their agriculture. They were also drafted to assist the Farm Credit Administration to facilitate the machinery needed for making loans to farmers. They were further drafted to assis~ in collecting statistical matter required by the Department .of Agriculture through its various branches. These additional activities consumed more than 60 per cent of their time, with the result that many of the usual projects carried on in the counties were secondary to the emergency programs. In each county having adjustment programs there were necessarily county and community committees. These committees approved applica tions for contracts and assumed much of thQ responsibility for the accuracy of information governing these contracts. The County Agent's office was headquarters for all such activities, and he assumed the responsibility for calling meetings and transmitting necessary information to the State Of fice, where in turn it was transmitted to the commodity divisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington. This staff of County Agents, together with the Committeemen, comprised a larger num ber of people engaged in an agricultural program than at any former period in the history of Florida's agriculture . This adjustment program has been carried on without any additional expense from state funds . . The extra burdens were borne entirely by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. The personnel of the Supervisory Staff has remained unchanged, but the District Agents have assumed responsibility for supervision of the adjustment program. District Agent H. G. Clayton was appointed chair man of the Board of Review for Cotton, which duties required more than 50 % of his time. District Agent J. Lee Smith was appointed Supervisor of Compliance, and in charge of the peanut adjustment program. W. T. Nettles assumed a large responsibility for supervision of Extension work in addit\onal counties. D. E. Timmons, Economist in Marketing, was appointed chairman of the tobacco adjustment work, and he did a good part of the state work with corn and hogs. W. J. Sheely was appointed

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Ann1,1,al Report, 1934 25 chairman of the corn-hog adjustment program. F. W. Brumley, Economist, was appointed a member of the State Cotton Board of Review. H. L. Brown, in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, conducted an educational campaign in the control of the screw worm fly. N. R. Mehrhof was appointed leader in the formation of the Florida Poultry Council. It has, however, been the policy of the Extension Service to keep, as far as possible, the work undertaken in the various agricultural projects disturbed just as little as possible, as far as supervision is concerned. The County Agents in the southern and horticultural counties have been permitted to carry on their usual programs with less disturbance than in the northern area. There have, however, been many additional duties assigned to them due to marketing agreements and county rehabili tation and relief programs . . A review of the County Agents' records for the past year indicates a great diversion of energies, yet in spite of this, none of the projects formerly making up the Extension program were abandoned or seriously neglected. The readjustments for the purpose of placing agriculture on a better basis must necessarily continue. GENERAL ACTIVITIES In carrying out the Extension program in 1934 there was active co operation in 346 different communities; 652 men and 56 women gave volun tary assistance at the request of the Extension Agents. About one-half of these assisted with the adjustment program. There were 18,532 farms participating in agricultural programs, and this, according to the Federal Census, represents approximately 35% of the total farms in Florida. There were 23,800 families that were influenced and affected by the Extension program. The number of actual contacts cannot be correctly stated be cause of the numerous programs such as tours, achievement days, short courses, and a variety of meetings. In all it is estimated that more than 100,000 people made contacts with the Extension Service and participated in the programs undertaken by the County Extension Agents. Reports from the County agents show the following. Soil Improvement.-The crops grown for soil improvement were Aus trian peas, vetch, cowpeas, velvet beans, and crotalaria. There were 636 demonstrations. These demonstrations were conducted for the purpose of determining the adaptability and use according to types of soil and crops; also to follow out the recommendations governed by the research work of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. They were conducted on the different types of soil found in Florida. Throughout the citrus area, crotalaria was used more successfully than other crops, since this crop adapts itself well to citrus soils and cultural practices. A variety of crops were grown in the general farming area and of these crotalaria produced the largest tonnage. Its use being re stricted to soil improvement, it was not adopted as generally as legumes that can be fed to livestock, due to their economic importance in the production of livestock. In many instances increase in yields ran to 10 and 20 percent, and in a few instances the yields were 100 percent over . that produced in adjoining areas where cover crops had not been used. Cereals.-Cereals consist principally of corn, with limited acreages of oats and rye. Demonstrations with them were confined almost entirely to the West Florida area. There were 359 cereal demonstrations with adult farmers. The farmers conducted these demonstrations following recom mendations in reference to fertilizer, seed selection, disease and insect control, spacing, and cultivation.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension The demonstrations conducted with oats and rye and other cereals were mainly for the purpose of providing \vinter pasture and feed for livestock; The recommendations were largely as to varieties of oats and rye and the use of nitrogenous fertilizer to stimulate growth during the spring months. For the most part oats and rye were used only as forage crops and not as grain. Cotton.-There were relatively few demonstrations carried on with cotton, and those few were in reference to culture and fertilizer practices principally, the main emphasis being placed on fertilizer practices and the selection of areas that should be taken out of production so that farmers might get the greatest returns from their efforts. Since the average yield of cotton is relatively low in Florida, there is continued effort to increase the yield based on experimental data and practical experience. Tobacco.-The principal work with tobacco was in connection: with the adjustment program. The most important tobacco area is comprised of six counties. There was a limited ninriber of the usual demonstrations for the purpose of securing healthy plants ahd selection of suitable soils, fertilizer, cultivation, and curing. ltish Potatoes.-The important Irish potato growing areas in Florida are located in Escambia, St. Johns, Flagler and Dade counties, although there are limited acreages throughout several of the Central Florida coun ties. In the main producing areas, Extension work was largely with the problems of disease-free seed, insect and disease control, and marketing. In order to assist in the marketing of potatoes in Florida, the Extension Service cooperates with the Early Potato ' Growers' Association, which association has membership in all the _ Easterri early producing area, also with the Federal Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Extension Service. Effort was directed toward better distribution of Florida potatoes. This was handled through shipp . ers' organizations, p ' articularly in the Hastings and Flagler area. Citrus Fruits.-Extension work in citrus groves extends into every citrus growing county. A unified . citrus growing program was planned and approved by the Extension Service, County Agents, and research workers of the Experiment Station. The main program was centered around economy of production, improved quaHty of fruit; and irrigation. Since the acreage of bearing ' trees " continues to increase throughout the State of Florida without a correspondingly expanding market, the niost severe problem confronting the growers is to maintain a low cost of production. This low cost of production bas been centered around studies of . commercial fertilizer requirements, proper use and conservation of cover crops, and economy in cultural practices. During the months of September and October, on account of the lack of rainfall; drouth conditions presented a serious problem for the growers in the ridge area. To meet this situation the Citriculturist and the County Agents gave special attention to irrigation methods. County Agents have carried out the usual programs for the control of insects and disease. Vegetables.-The work with vegetables may be divided into two main divisions: first, commercial crops, and second, . home gardens. In the important commercial vegetable . growing areas, special attention was given to fertilization, mainly substituting in part inorganic material for organic, and studying fertilizer costs in respect to nitrogen. Cover crops consisted principally of crotalaria : arid liative grasses. Seed treat ment was mainly to procure a better ' stand and more thrifty plants. Emphasis was placed on more timely appliclitions for insect control and

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Ann'iia[Report, 1934 27 protection against disease spores, rather than control after . the plants were infected. Also, there \ \yere < deinonstrations in the use of the newer insecticides and fuilgicides, ., hs { directed by the departments of tlie Florida Experiment Station. . . . . .. •. . . . . . Due to economic conditions/ the efforts ' of Extension and relief . workers with gardens have been greatly increased. The County Agents have assisted relief workers in determining varieties, planting dates, fertilizer practices and . use of crops. : This has added considerably to the food supply in large areas throughout the state. Since there are many problems involved in this .in which . the Home Demonstration Agents also , took an active part, this has required a very large part of the agents' time. Feed Crops and Pastures.-Demonstraticins with feed crops and contacts with livestock men are a part of practically every County Agent's work. Special emphasis has been placed on the use of pastures. With the large areas of unimproved lands it is recognized that much time can be given to this problem with a view to improving the livestock of this state. The dairymen have beenparticularly active in improving their pastures, especially in the localities of the larger dairy producing sections. Increasing acreages of cut-over lands have been purchased by dairymen, particularly in the Jacksonville and Tampa areas. These pastures have been improved by seeding with carpet grass, by mowing the weeds, by avoiding over pasturing, and in a few cases with fertilizer applications. .With the rise in price of grains and greater competition in the production of dairy products, economy of production has been considered the most important phase of this type of Extension work. While this applies to a lesser extent to beef cattle and hogs it is part of practically every County . Agent's program. Forage and Silage.-:-Special emphasis has been given to suitable silage crops and types of silage. Dairymen of Duval County have materially increased the number of silos inuse-some of these at considerable cost, but for the most part surface or underground silos. This has attracted considerable attention since it has been found that much can be done with a limited . outlay of cash arid by the main expense being in the far _ m labor. Forty silos of this. type are now being used in one county. These vary in capacity from . 50 to 2-00 . tons. For the most part the crop stored is corn. The quality cif the feed compares .favorably with . that produced in the more expensive types of silos, and has served as an excellent dem onstration of a means of reducing the cost of production . . Special attention also was given to the use of varieties of sugarcane as a soiling crop for dairy cattle. This gives promise of greater develop ment since the production per acre is larger than with most other crops, and the results so far show that it produces a satisfactory forage crop :for cattle. The use of other improved grasses suitable to the type of soil has been part of the 1934 Extension program; Livestock.-The livestock program is primarily with dairy cattle, beef cattle and hogs. Due to the low prices received by farmers for beef and pork, many farmers of limite
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'/-1 ' ' ~' ' . Fig. 3.-Proper equipment enables Florida farmers to produce and cure a g( had meat for home use and for sale.

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Annual Report, 1934 29 of breeders has not increased, the County Agents have stimulated a demand for improvement in quality, and their demonstrations have been built around the problem of better quality together with cheaper feeds. In addition the home curing of pork has received special attention, principally under the direction of the Animal Husbandman, as shown in his report . .. Also proper butchering, cutting and curing methods have been explained. And since cold storage has been made available to most farming areas, County Agents have encouraged proper storage and curing methods. In this help has been given by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Schools have been carried out demonstrating better practices in curing and handling of meat. This has resulted in a much larger supply of home cured meat of a decidedly superior quality. County Agents have continued their efforts in the control of hog eholera, and in most important hog growing counties this has occupied approximately 50 percent of the County Agents' time. They have cooper ated with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, thereby enabling farmers , to have their hogs treated at a minimum cost. During the early part of the year prices of dairy products were rela tively low, with the result that there has been little encouragement for increasing farm dairying. Emphasis therefore has been placed on dairying to supply the family needs with the home dairy cow. This has been further emphasized by relief organizations, and the general emphasis on the need of dairy products for the better nourishment of the family. County Agents have endeavored to get distribution of dairy cows on farms where they can be properly cared for, and have emphasized the importance of home grown feeds to make the undertaking a success. In the commercial dairies emphasis has been placed on production and ~conomical use of feeds; home-grown feeds have been the principal part -0f the program, the selection of purchased feeds and maintenance rations, the culling out of unprofitable animals, and the raising of heifers from the best cows in order to replenish the herd. Special attention has been given to parasite control, since this is all-important in the production of
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30 Flmida Coope~ative Extension In addition to this, other purchases of hay , and corn . were . made at the request of the Commodity .Division, F.E.R.A., which. products were used for relief clients and for feeding government-owned cattle that . were shipped to Florida from the Western drouth areas. Agricultural Loans.-The County Agents have . assisted farmers in se curing credit from the Farm Credit Administration by helping them execute necessary papers and forms, supplying inf.ormation to producers, furnishing the Farm Credit Administration with data on conditions and need for credit, and assisted in the organization and operation of local . production credit associations. The types of credit available are: (1) Long-term credit with mortgage security, through the Land Bank and Land Bank Commissioners' Loans; (2) production credit through the Production Credit Corporation, secured by crop and chattel mortgages; (3) emergency loans for seed and fertilizer through the Emergency Loan Off fee, , secured by . crop mortgages; (4) loans to cooperatives from the Bank for Cooperatives for facilities secured by proper collateral. In this the County Agents have taken a leading part and have endeavored to give the best service possible so that the farmers may benefit to the greatest extent from this government credit agency. Outlook Information.-The Extension Service has established a division under the direction of H. G. Clayton to supply outlook information to the producers of this state. From the national standpoint, outlook work is under the supervision of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The infor mation for the outlook report is based on statistics on production, distribu tion and credit and is made available to all producers in this state for the purpose of governing them in their operations. An Outlook Report is published annually and is placed in the hands of the County Agents as a . part of their program. In order to get the outlook information to the farmers of the state, the District Agents and Specialists have conducted a series of outlook meetings in all counties with representative attendance in each county. Agricultural Economics.-This relatively new phase of Extension work affects practically every section of our state. It has to do with . public problems and economic planning on a county and community basis, . farm records and inventories, individual farm . planning, farm and home finances, marketing, buying and selling. In these various phases of economics, there . were 832 demonstrations; in support of these there were 246 meetings held and 129 , circular letters with instructions, and 21,721 office calls. There were 1,146 farmers keeping cost accounts, 1,402 farmers were given assist anc.e in . making inventories and credit . statements; 1,072 were assisted iri , making mortgage and other debt adjustments; 868 farmers adopted com plete farming account systems, . according to. recommendations; and 209 urban families received assistance in becoming established on farms. Value of products sold through clubs . and individuals cooperating in these activities amount to $4,479,204, and the value of purchases by these associations and individuals amount to $620,728. Additional Activities.-Additional activities carried on by County Agents in the respective counties have to do with practically all farm problems, including contracts and leases, diseases of livestock, purchase of breeding stock, selling of farm produce, marketing of poultry and eggs, and during _last year they assisted various federal agencies in . carrying out their pro grams as they affected agriculture in Florida.

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Annual Report, 1934 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. Blacklock, State Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT 31 While the year 1934 has been one in which the old extension program has had to give way to agricultural adjustment activities, boys' 4-H club work in Florida was able not only to hold its own in enrollment but to regain part of the loss suffered in 1933 . This increase is gratifying and goes far toward proving that 4-H club work does develop efficient leader ship in farm boy s . There were 2,356 boy s enrolled in club work during the year. They had 3 , 080 projects. Of these, 1,101 members completed 1,651 projects. ',I'he following ngures show. the gains and losses in the different projects . rn Cl) :>. 0 s:: ,!t: rn "' .... 0 i: ..., ci . ~ s:: ol ..., Cl "i3 'H I-< .... ..., ::, .... !l.O .a Ul ..... 0 0 0 I-< u 0 p:; :@ 0 u ll. u E-< I ll. u E-< I I 1921 I I 931 2031 Total, 193 3 . . . . . . 1 5831 1111 338 1 277 376 2 4 8 2415 I I .. 1934 .. .. .. 1 719 1 237 1 2221 443 1 551 337 466 2471 3 54 3080 I I I I ORGANIZATION Th e local club has been the salvation of our work this year. In the counties where the boys had been organized . and the older ones serv e d as key boys the enrollment was increased. The job of securing members was turned over to the, older boys in most of the ccmnties of North and West Fl o rida. Even in some of the counties where the time of the County Agent was taken up completely with the adjustment work, more boys enrolled than in 1933. After securing erirollment t hese boy leaders carried on and kept the club meetings .. going and in s ome counties vi s ited the younger member s and helped with th e ir record books. One hundred and thirty-eight m ee tings were held by club s without assistance from a county agent. The effectiveiess . of our present organ i zation in time of stres s proves the n ec essity of giving more empha s is . to this part of the 4-H program. Local 4-H Clubs.-The number of o rg anized clubs increased in 1 9 34. Of the 33 agents reporting club work, 3 2 had a total of 154 organiz e d clubs, an i n c rea s e of 30 over last year . This increase is explained by the fact that more counties employed agents than in 1933. A new agent is urged to org a nize his local clubs a s one of the first steps in developing a club program for his county. Escambia County leads in effective organiza tion among the larger counties and ' Union for the smaller. The local club s in E s c a mbia County are the olde s t in the state, some of them having been in continuous operation for 14 years. Most of these clubs are under th e leader s hip of old 4-H club boys. In Union County all club member s have b ee n in organized clubs for eight years. Our experience in club organization ha s b ee n that the local clubs fail or succeed according to the ability of the older club members. .

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension Outstanding Local Clubs.-Perhaps the most outstanding local club in Florida for{ 1934 was the Macedonia Club in Suwannee , County. This club has been in existence but _ four years and has had the benefit of the leader ship of Miss Nettie Bass during this time. For the last two years, every member has reported and exhibited at the county contest and every member attended the contest. It is a thoroughly wide-awake club and one which holds its membership interested through regular meetings and interesting programs. The Lake Worth Club in Palm Beach County holds the honor of being the first chartered club in the state, the first one to win a gold seal and now has won the purple seal which is the highest ranking a club can reach. This club has functioned eight years and claims to have in its membership every boy of club age in the area set aside by the County Agent for the Club. It will be awarded the first purple seal given to a Florida Boys' 4-H Club. The Wal nut Hill Club of Escambia County won the cup for the best club in the county with a membership of 25 boys completing 56 projects. The Newberry Club in Alachua County continues to supply over half the record books for the county. The Gaskins Club in Walton County leads that county in the greatest revival of club work ever staged in the state. LEADERSHIP The success of a local 4-H club depends upon its leadership. The leader ship can be supplied either by an older person as in case of the Lake Worth Club or by the older boys in the club as in case of the clubs in Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton and Alachua counties. The older club mem bers function on the average more efficiently than do men and women leaders. The success in increasing club enrollment for 1934 is to the credit of the older club members. Realizing that the agricultural adjustment work would take practically all of the agents' time in several of the counties, a plan was worked out to enlist the aid of older club boys for 1934. Each County Agent was asked to have one or two boys from each local club meet at the courthouse on a set date. The State Club Leader attended and after giving a resume of conditions due to the adjustment work, he placed the responsibility for securing the enrollment and carrying on club work in the county on the boys present. Each boy was given the title of "Key Boy". The duties of the key boy were to secure enrollment in his community, help in the organization of the local club, to visit every club member as often as possible and to check reports. A letter was sent to each key boy once a month from the state office with instructions for project work and ideas for social programs. The plan was successful. Of course not all the key boys did the job assigned to them, but most did a fair piece of work and some did wonderfully well. Vertice _ Truett in Walton County visited every member in his club several times and that club turned in the best set of record books ever received from that county. PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS With the return of better prices for farm products, the interest in club work as a means of making money will be increased. The past three years have been ones of low :financial returns to club boys, but 1934 shows some improvement. The better prices for tobacco, corn, hogs and cotton increased the percent profit to the boys. Yields are below pre-depression years because heavy fertilization has been discouraged. Soil building and economical production have been stressed as primary considerations in carrying out a project demonstration. We have stressed the social side

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Annual Report, 1934 33 <>f club work during the depression. The project has been held as the first requirement for membership but less emphasis than formerly has been placed on the securing of big yields. FARM CROPS Corn.-Three hundred seventy-two boys grew 414 acres o.f corn and produced 12,532 bushels, an average yield of 30.2 bushels. The increased price of corn at gathering time gave good profit even with the decreased yield. Where the corn followed a demonstration in soil building the yield was very satisfactory. Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County led with a yield of 91 bushels. This boy used a liberal amount of commercial fertilizer. Cotton.-The number of 4-H club cotton acres was kept down by the re quirements of the cotton reduction program. But 113 boys produced 87,633 pounds of seed cotton at a very nice profit to the boys. The average pro duction was 775 pounds of seed cotton, although very little fertilizer was used. Peanuts.-Boys carrying this crop as a project averaged 38 bushels per acre. This is a very satisfactory yield and was secured by closer spacing of the peanuts. Home Gardens and Truck Crops.-Home gardens and truck crops as club projects came back in number. The club garden has been the salvation of many small families particularly in the edges of the small towns. Many families have been living on the club poultry flock backed up by the club garden and sometimes the cow which started out as a club calf. One family in Palm Beach County has been forced to depend entirely upon the club projects of the boy for the past two years. The father could not get work and the family }:!ad to live on the products grown by the club boy. The sweet potato project continues to hold its own as a money making project. SOIL IMPROVEMENT This project continues to offer a wonderful opportunity for constructive work during the depression. It seems rather difficult to induce man or boy to plant an acre of land with the knowledge that no returns can be secured until the end of the second year. Whenever land is planted to crotalaria and corn follows, the increase in yield justifies the labor spent. Union County boys are doing more of this work than those in any other county. The average increase in yield due to crotalaria is about 17 bushels per acre. This is double the yield on the check plots. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY There was little inducement for club members to raise pigs during the past two years. Never-the-less, there was a slight increase in number of boys raising pigs and with the increased price of live market hogs a small profit was possible. Some attempt to encourage the raising of beef cattle is being made. The success of this project is doubtful but. experience only can prove its place in the Florida club program. DAIRY HUSBANDRY This project had an 18% increase in enrollment over 1933. The dairy club work in Duval County has reached the point where the animals once club calves are now cows producing milk. The majority of them are

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension making a profit for their owners. There has been a gradual spread of this project into new counties where the raising of good family cows is the object. Fig. 4.-This club boy is learning the fine points about hog raising by growing a pig. POULTRY HUSBANDRY The poultry work has increased slightly in amount. The boys having a flock of around 100 laying hens appear quite likely to make some money. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES The socialization of rural people is one of the big projects in rural life today. Better types of living and a more intelligent farm citizenry is the need of the day. 4-H club work has a big job ahead if it does its part in building this new type of agricultural life in Florida. Recreation.-The utilization of leisure time is one of the big problems facing the world today. Folks without jobs must spend their time at some thing. Satisfying wholesome recreation at low expense is needed in rural sections. 4-H club work is trying to help meet this need. Recreation is

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Annual Report, 1934 35 a vital part of the program of every local club. That obtained . in club activities is all the recreation some farm boys get. . To assist in developing leadership with at least some definite training in recreation, six recreation leadership training schools were held in co operation with the National Recreation Association. Schools were held at Miami, Palm Beach, Orlando, Plant City and Monticello for the first time. At the West Florida 4-H Club Camp a six day school .was held which was the best one of this type ever held in Florida. Four boys and four girls from each of the 10 counties in West Florida were brought there for a week. They were selected for their leadership ability. Club Carnps.-The 4-H club camp stands out as the most vital special activity in our program. The club camp is a big event in the life of the club boy who attends. In 1934 24 counties held camps. The boys' camps were all held at three camping places. The West Florida Club Camp is serving as a central camping point for club boys and girls from Pensacola to as far east as Jefferson County. The fine equipment at this camp makes it an ideal camping place for club work. A power victrola and an outdoor stage were added this year. The biggest event of the club year was the securing of an abandoned CCC camp in the Ocala National Forest as a central camp for Central Florida. This camp is designed for 100 boys or girls at a time. Cabins and hunks for 70 are built with dining room and kitchen facilities for the completed camp. The control cottage is built, but two docks and a recrea tion hall and three more cabins are yet to be built. Sanitary sewerage and elect:,;ic lights are the big need at present. Boys from nine counties and girls from one county used the camp in 1934. The camp was named for C. K. McQuarrie, who was the first County Agent Leader . for Florida under the Smith-Lever Act. D. R. Matthews and Wilmer Bassett, Jr., two old club boys, were employed to assist at the camp during the summer months. Annual Short Course.-The 17th annual Boys' Club Short Course was held at the University of Florida in June, with 235 boys attending. This is a great source of inspiration for club boys. Many boys enter the University solely because they attended one or more club short courses and determined to return as regular students. At an examination given during the short course three boys were awarded scholarships to the College of Agriculture given by the Florida Bankers' Association. STATE WINNERS FOR 1934 Bankers' Scholarships.-G. T. Huggins, Jr., of Alachua County, Marcus Williams of Lake County and Herman Youngblood of Okaloosa County were the winners of the $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture. National 4-H Carnp.-Thomas Lamb of Orange County and William Clegg of Alachua County were the Florida 4-H club boys selected to attend this camp. Clegg entered the University this fall and Lamb will enter in 1935. FRIENDS OF CLUB WORK Atlantic Coast Line Railroad.-This company pays the expenses of one of the delegates to the National 4-H Camp each year. Thomas Lamb of Orange County won the trip in 1934. Florida Bankers' Association.-For 16 years the bankers of Florida have given three 4-H club boys a $100 scholarship to the College of Agriculture each year. The boys who entered the University on bankers' scholarships have made good.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension ,National Recreation Association.-This association has been very liberal with Florida. For the past fiye years we have had the services of one of its best men in helping train leaders for rural recreation. The results have been excellent. Nelson Knitting Mills.-This company paid the expenses of a boy to the International Live Stock Show and Club Congress held in Chicago the first week in December. The trip was awarded the state corn club cham pion.: Herbert Joyner of Hillsborough County won this trip for 1934. Medals were given to county winners in corn work. Thomas E. Wilson.___..:Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County won the gold watch given by Mr. Wilson, President of Wilson and Company, as a prize to the outstanding 4-H boy in meat production work. Medals were given county winners.

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Annual Report, 1934 , 37 DAIRYING Hamlin L, Brown, Extension Dairyman Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1934 in cooperation with the county agents: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Liberty, Calhoun, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Lafayette, Dixie, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Duval, St. Johns, Union, Bradford, Baker, Lake, Seminole, Orange, Polk, Hills borough, Pinellas, Hernando, Manatee, Highlands, DeSoto, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and Dade. Some dairy work was carried on with farmers in the following counties not having county agents: Bay, Gulf, Volusia, Putnam, Clay, Citrus and Broward. DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS The production of forage crops has continued to be the important factor emphasized by the Extension Dairyman in 1934. Pasture or grazing crops and silage crops are of greatest importance, with soiling crops and hay crops next in order. Dairymen this year have continued to locate their dairies on soils best adapted to growing forage crops, many of them moving to better locations. Government loans offered on lands and livestock have increased the oppor tunities for dairymen to secure land better suited to growing forage. Within the last three years 189 dairymen have purchased 18 , 715 acres of Jarin lands for growing pasture and forage crops. BUILDING SILOS AND REMODELING DAIRY BUILDINGS County Agents report they had 27 demonstrations in repairing dairy barns and helped in the construction of 32 silos for dairy purposes in 1934. Twenty-seven of these were trench, semi-trench and pit silos and five above ground. Demonstrations conducted in all sections of the state have proven that silage will keep in Florida in any well constructed silo. Prac tically all kinds of forage grown in the state may be preserved in a silo. The underground silo has been popular during these depression times. The very low cost of construction and the reduc e d cost of machinery for filling the underground silo makes it possible for more farmers to have silos. . The farmers living in the flatwoods are building the semi-trench silo by digging about 2 feet down for the trench and extending the wall above ground with poles, logs or board timber banked with dirt removed from the trench. These walls extend from a foot to 6 feet above the ground. The surface is covered with dirt. SILAGE Silage demonstrations conducted in various sections of the state have established silage as a most valuable cattle feed in Florida. Proper methods of handling silage have been stressed and are of the greatest importance. Duval County dairymen have made the most progress with silage and forage demonstrations. Sixty-three percent of all the dairymen in Duval County are feeding silage in the winter of 1934. It was found necessary to introduce crops other than corn that would produce large yields of silage. Twenty-nine farmers in Duval County planted sugarcane as a silage crop and to supply silage where the corn or sorghum fails to fill the silos. Silage crop adaptation demonstrations in growing sorghum, Napier grass anq cane in comparison with corn silage have been continued in 1934.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension These crops have helped greatly in stabilizing the dairy industry by pro ducing an abundance of cheap roughage on soils in the citrus area of the state that are not adapted to growing corn. The increased price on all grains and concentrated dairy feeds in recent months has served to stimulate greatly the interest in silage and forage crops for the coming season. PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS The financial depression has encouraged Florida dairy farmers to increase the number of acres of pasture. Additional profits from milk sales resulting from better stabilized markets afforded more capital to improve conditions. County Agents reported 1,127 acres seeded by dairy men in 1934. Demonstrations in mowing pastures for the past four or five years have proven effective. The incr e ased grass yields are so noticeable on the better grass lands that there has been a larger number of :tarmers mowing pastures each year. There were 7,440 acres of permanent pasture mowed by dairymen in 1934. Demonstrations in fertilizing pasture and grazing crops with commer cial fertilizers have proven profitable. Dairy farmers fertilized 1,470 acres of grazing crops this year. RAISING DAIRY HEIFERS The low price for meat animals has greatly retarded the culling of dairy cows. Low prices on grain feed and a surplus of market milk per mitted the dairymen milking low producing cows to remain in business. The recent advance in grain prices has changed the situation and low producing cows on farms where required forage is not being grown are a losing proposition. Dairymen are being helped to dispose of their poor cows and to grow out some of their best heifers for replacement. They are urged to select the best heifers from only the best cows in the herd, feed a liberal ration first six months, then feed nutritionous roughages. The average Florida dairy cow is 20% under size. Demonstrations in growing heifers are helping to correct this condition. Sixty percent of the dairy heifers in the state are infested with intestinal parasites. Calves are pastured on infested fields before they are old , enough to resist parasites. In calf feeding demonstrations calves are kept on cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures , and parasite infestation is largely avoided. The system of breeding cows for fall fresh ening is ideal for growing dairy heifers free from intestinal parasites. FARM DAIRYING The keeping of dairy cows on general farms of Florida has been encouraged. The milk and other dairy products obtained from the family cow have supplied the farm family with splendid food when it was sorely needed. Better grade heifers from the farm herds have been supplied to commercial dairymen for replacements in their herds. Demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement have been con ducted by many of the County Agents as a part of the farm dairy program. Agents have assisted the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in its rural rehabilitation program as it related to the family milk cow. In some counties the agents have assisted farmers in procuring high grade and purebred milk cows from other areas. Fifty-one good heifer calves were pla~ed on farms in Hernando County during 1934, and will . grow into excellent family milk cows.

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,. ~fi' ;}j -. ". t Fig. 5.-Some excellent family milk c:ows were brought to Florida farms fror agents and Extension Dairyman helping to select and procur e the animals for t placed on farms of Liberty County.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension Dairy work among 4-H club boys continued to center interest on 'im proved animals. and proper care. Through it, the farm dairy program was enhanced. DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS The very important reason for dairy records as understood by the average dairyman is that he wants information for culling. About 20% of the dairy farmers in the state have kept some kind of individual milk records of the weights of the milk and feed as a guide in proportioning the amount of feed for each animal. These records have furnished information for culling the herd, also. Feed records have directed the attention of Florida dairymen to the importance of the forage program in a very substantial way. Around 95% of the dairymen of North Marion County were keeping dairy records and about this percentage are producing all of their forage feed now. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES There were 76 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during 1934 by Extension Agents. The interest in proven sires is increasing. County Agents report 43 exchanges among neighbor farmers of dairy bulls. Good bulls that have to be moved to avoid inbreeding and that have sired heifers showing type and promise to make valuable animals are exchanged with neighbors. 4-H DAIRY CLUBS Twenty county agents enrolled 123 4-H club members with 184 dairy animals in 1934. Of these, 35 were registered females and 88 were high grade females. The 4-H club has for its purpose a general training for farm boys and girls in methods of. growing dairy heifers and feeding and managing them as dairy cows. It requires at least three years to complete a project of raising a dairy heifer from calf to cow. At the 4-H Boys' Short Course in June, one squad of about 30 boys received special training in dairying. COUNTY AND STATE DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS There are 18 county dairy associations and one state dairy association. The state association with over 500 members has been functioning continu ously now for nine years. These dairy organizations take an active part in helping build the county and state dairy programs. The State Dairy Association has active charge of matters affecting dairy legislation. RADIO AND NEWS STORIES Twenty-seven radio talks of '7 minutes each were prepared and delivered during 1934, dealing with timely subjects on dairying. Thirty-two news articles dealing with timely subjects on dairying were prepared for the agricultural press during 1934. Also, during the year an address-o-graph list of all dairymen in the state was prepared for use in connection with circular letters. SCREW WORM FLY CONTROL The screw worm fly first became a menace to Florida livestock during the summer of 1933. Although. it has given much trouble with hogs and beef cattle, the screw worm fly never has been a serious menace to dairy

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Annual Report, 1934 41 . animals in market milk dairies in this state . Through circular letters mailed to all dairymen, this office advised dairymen of changed herd prac tices and emphasized the importance of applying pine tar preparations to all fresh wounds as a prevention. On account of the emergency caused by severe infestation of screw worm, the Extension Dairyman was assigned the duty of assisting in organization work and conducting educational meetings on screw worm control, cooperating with the Bureau of Entomol ogy, U. S. D. A. Approximately two months of intensive work was given to education features of the program. A statewide conference wa's called at Tallahassee by Governor Sholtz, September 5, to plan for screw worm fly control. It was attended by members of , the 1935 Legislature, livestock owners and others interested in livestock development, officials from the Florida Agricultural Extension Service, State FERA, State Live Stock Sanitary Board, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. The FERA appropriated a fund from the Surplus Commodity Purchasing Department to carry on a Statewide Educational program, and for employment of 28 agents to work six weeks in representative counties to assist with the program. Dr. W. V. King, Field Agent, Bureau of Entomology, stationed at Orlando, V. L. Bruns of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, and the Extension Dairyman were appointed to carry on the educational program. A total of 28 county assistants were appointed and placed in representative counties infested with screw worms to assist in the training of farmers in methods of treating animals, building stock chutes and holding pens for handling infested animals. The educational program mapped out by the committee was practically a continuation of the educational work started in July. Thirty-four farmers meetings were held with a total attendance of 1,967. County Agents report 788 animals treated for screw worm. AAA PROGRAMS A representative of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration , Washington, requested a conference with representatives of the Agricul tural Extension Service regarding a proposed plan for distributing surplus dairy cows in rural communities of Florida. The Dairy Agent made a survey of the state. Forty-one counties reported 6,245 cows could be placed with reasonable assurance that they would be given feed and care. This was to be in connection with a proposed program by the AAA for . reducing milk cows on farms. There was but little interest in a dairy adjustment program in Florida because this is regarded as a milk deficiency area. DISEASE CONTROL The matter of eradicating Bang's disease through indemnity payments to dairymen for animals slaughtered was presented to the Florida Dairymen by Dr. T. W. Cole, B.A.I., Inspector in Charge, at the annual meeting of State Dairymen's Association in Ocala, September 26, 1934. One hundred and twenty-two herds of 4,313 animals in 12 counties have been tested to date. There were 668 reactors, or about 15 . 5%. It is likely that many more dairymen will have their herds tested, if funds are made available through the spring months. FERA The Extension Dairyman has held conferences with state, district and county supervisors of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in outlining plans for feed and management for family cows as a part of the

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Rural Rehabilitation program in various counties. Proposed plans for farm dairying and the establishment of creameries have been thoroughly discussed and it is agreed that feed and cows are the essentials, and that a successful feed growing program must precede creamery development. FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Valuable aid has been given dairymen of Florida through feed and seed loans and loans on farm lands. Dairymen have been able to move onto soil more suitable for feed growing. The Extension Dairyman cooperated in the training school given in November fo:r land appraisers in Florida. STATISTICAL SUMMARY Meetings held............................................................................ 272 Total attendance........................................................................ 675 Miles traveled .................................................. 32,198 Letters 2,316

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Annual Report, 1934 43 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Walter J. Sheely, Agent in Animal Husbandry Work with beef cattle and hogs was continued along lines similar to those followed in preceding years. Em e rgency work, however , occupied considerable time of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the County Agents this year. This work included corn-hog adjustment, the purchase of surplus cattle from flooded areas, and control of the screw worm fly. Phases of liv es tock work were carried on in most counties of the state through personal visits, meetings, field day programs, correspondence and circular letters, radio talks and press articles. PURCHASING DISTRESS CATTLE Considerable portions of the cattle g razing areas in Brevard, Seminole, Orange, Osceola, Polk, Highland s and Okeechobee counties became flooded as a result of excess ive rainfall in Jun e. At the request of cattlemen in those counties, t he Federai Emerg e ncy Relief Administration agreed to purcha se about 10 percent of the cattle in the areas. They reque sted the cooperation of the Agricultural Exten sio n Service in making the purchases, and the Agent in Animal Husbandry was appointed director of purchases. The Livestock Marketing Agent of the State Marketing Bureau and inspectors of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperated in the undertaking. An organization was perfected in each county and worked under the direction of the County Agent. The county committeemen assisted in assemblin g and grading the cattle. Agents of the Bureau of Animal In dustry in specte d them . Those accepted were turned over to the FERA for slaughter and finally were canned fot distribution to famili es on relief. A total of 16,335 cattle were purchased, the owners receiving $224, 161. Congested conditions on ranges and pastures were relieved and feed was left for the remaining cattle. Fig. 6.-Grade cattle are becoming more widespread in Florida, and the quality of the s tate's beef production i s improving as a result.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension BEEF CATTLE PROJECTS PRODUCTION Despite the fact that cattle production is an industry more than 350 years old in Florida, there is still a great deal of room for improvement in herds of beef cattle in this state. It is generally agreed that the way to go about building up Florida beef herds is to breed purebred bulls to native range cows and secure better offspring. Considerable progress in that direction has been made. Florida is situated long distances from most of the purebred breeding herds of beef cattle, and consequently the procuring of purebred bulls is a problem. Assistance has been rendered to men interested in the beef cattle breeding business in Florida. All breeders have been able to sell all their bulls by the time. they reach serviceable age. Assistance has been rendered in the handling of sales of purebred bulls at various points in Florida. Purchasers have been assisted in obtaining bulls desired. In all, 364 bulls have been placed this year. Winter feeding of bulls has been emphasized. It has been pointed .out that bulls turned on the range in the pink of condition will sire more early calves than thin bulls, and it is the early calf which makes the profit. County Agents report 321 bulls on winter feed. FEED AND PASTURAGE It has. been demonstrated that good feed and pasturage for bred beef cows results in better and larger calves which make excellent growth their. first year. Consequently, attention has been given to the production of more feeds and better pastures and the winter feeding of cows. Demonstrations have shown that pastures kept clear of weeds through mowing produce much more forage than pastures in which weeds are allowed to grow undisturbed. The practice of mowing has been encour aged, and County Agents report that 53 pastures have been kept clear of weeds tbis year as a result of their demonstrations. FATTENING With the introduction of improved beef cattle into the herds, it is realized that closer attention and better feeding must be given to the cattle if highest profits and best results are to be. attained. With the screw worm fly making it imperative that the herds receive close super vision, it is also realized that only the better grades of animals will be profitable. The shade tobacco growers of Gadsden County, who feed out large numbers of cattle to obtain the manure, have been using Florida cattle in greater percentages of their herds in recent years. SHOWS AND SALES The annual iivestock show held by Alachua County cattlemen proved of interest as usual this year, and enabled the cattlemen to sell and exchange breeding stock. Plans are now under way for a state fat stock show and sale to be held in Jacksonville next spring. HOGS The work with hogs has consisted of recommendations for economical production, with all-year grazing crops for the hogs to gather, and the use of purebred boars of meat type hogs. Emphasis has been placed on keeping the hogs free of parasites.

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Annual Report, 1934 45 MEAT CUTIING AND CURING Special stress has been placed on producing and curing a sufficient supply of good meat for home consumption. The interest in proper curing of meats for home consumption has advanced rapidly in recent years. Demonstrations in proper cutting and curing of meat have been held this year in a number of counties, and have attracted widespread attention. Assistance in this work has been generously rendered by K. F. Warner of the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry. As a result of these demonstra tions, there is noticeable a wonderful improvement in appearance and methods of handling home-cured ineats. The first conferences of cold storage and commercial meat curing nien were held in September of this year. Better methods of curing meat for farmers were discussed, and these men are now rendering a greater service to agriculture. Eighteen wax models of both beef and pork, showing the attractive cuts, cooked and uncooked, and the cheaper cuts well prepared were secured from the Bureau of Animal Industry and exhibited at the annual conference of County and Home Demonstration Agents. Charts showing market grades of feeder cattle, finished cattle, and carcasses were dis played also. THE SCREW WORM FLY Early in the year a project in screw worm fly control was worked out, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration cooperated closely with the County Agents in this work in Levy, Marion, Alachua, Columbia, Suwannee, Hamilton and other counties. . A survey was made in June, and it disclosed that . 70 percent of'the late calves were infested with screw worms. Late pigs suffer a like fate. However, all animals are subject to infestation if their skin is bruised or broken in any way. The Agent in Animal Husbandry worked on this project only until the latter part of June.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY HUSBANDRY Norman R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman Fundamental phases of poultry production continued to receive emphasis by the Extension Poultryman and County and Home Demonstration Agents during 1934. Perhaps the most important projects were growing healthy chicks and pullets and calendar flock records and management. The Ex tension Poultryman visited 25 counties during the year in the interest of the work. Helpful cooperation has been received from a number of associations and individuals. The poultry service veterinarian in charge of accredita tion work with the State Live Stock Sanitary Board has assisted in poultry meetings and with testing work at the Florida National Egg-Laying Con test. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with County and Home Demonstration Agents and with the Gainesville office. The Extension Agents have assisted the Inspection Division of the State Department of Agriculture in arranging meetings for discussion of the Florida egg law. Egg inspectors in various localities have been of much help to producers in presenting data pertaining to the law and methods of placing quality products on the market. FEED AND POULTRY PRODUCTS PRICES Since prices which they must pay for feed and which they receive for their products influence the success of the poultrymen, and to a considerable degree affect Extension work with poultrymen, it is interesting to note some of the high points in the situation. Poultry ration prices were low in 1931-32, avera:!ing $1.55 per 100 pounds. Since then the price has been on the increase, being $2.25 per 100 pounds in 1934. The wholesale price of eggs was 24.4 cents per dozen in 1931-32, increasing to 27.7 in 1934. On the other hand, the wholesale price of fryers decreased from 40 cents a pound in 1931 b 25.2 cents in 1934. Consequently during 1934 eggs were in a more favorable position as regards feed prices than were other poultry products. PULLET PRODUCTION The Grow Healthy Chick program still is considered one of the most important Extension poultry projects. Quality chicks, sanitation, and bal anced rations have been emphasized. During the past year the trend of brooding has been to put a small number of chicks in colony brooder houses on clean range. The more successful producers are adopting a 3 or 4 year rotation plan for the growing pullet. These methods have been used in brooding chicks: (1) colony brooder houses, (2) brooder houses with wire floors and sunparlors, and (3) battery brooders. In the production of pullets for high egg production a sanitation program was developed and stressed by the various agents during the year. The sanitation program included clean chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land 1 and clean feed. Records over a period of years show the value of adopting this program. This program was made effective by means of meetings, circular letters, bulletins and farin visits. The use of succulent green feed for poultry of all ages was emphasized by the agents during the year. Information pertaining to types of green feeds, planting dates, etc., have been furnished the producer. In some cases the green feed program was developed along with the sanitation program in that a double yarding system was used in growing green feed

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Annual Report, 1934 47 and in rotating the birds. Other producers found it more economical and practical to grow the green feed outside the yards, cut it and feed the birds. CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS Rising feed prices made it necessary for the poultry producer to secure high egg production. Considerable time was spent in advising producers about early maturity, intensity, and persistency as indicated by changes in pigmentation, and molt. This program helped materially in selecting the birds out of production. Culling demonstrations were given by prac tically all county and home demonstration agents this past year. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS Since 1925 a number of poultry producers have cooperated in a project known as "Calendar Flock Records". Each succeeding year, record keeping has become more interesting and widespread. Producers in the state know the value of keeping a record of their expenses and receipts and then at the end of the year analyzing their entire business. There are two different books in use for poultry raisers, one for the producer who has a flock under 250 and one for commercial producers. To create interest and to illustrate the value of this type of woject, monthly reports were issued summarizing the results for the month and to date, together with timely poultry information. During the 1933-34 year poultry feed and poultry product prices and indices were given. The records are started October 1 and are completed September 30. This year 43 poultry raisers from 21 counties kept records. They had total of 15,248 birds, or an average of 354 per farm. Production averaged 181.32 eggs for the year. Birds culled amounted to 35.76 'percent of the total, and mortality was 12.26 percent. The average egg production per bird for the year increased approxi mately 12 eggs per bird over the preceding year. An _ other very important improvement was shown in a reduction of culling (10.2%) and mortality (3.46%). Table 4 gives the number of flocks, average size of flock and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups. TABLE 4.-FLOCKS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SIZE. Total number of flocks . . ...... . ....... A veiage size of flock. ................... Average No. eggs Per bird .......... 10-60 Birds 5 34 186.70 51-250 I 251-500 I Over 500 Birds Birds Birds 14 11 13 115 335 753 167.38 179.58 184.19 JUNIOR POULTRY WORK A large percentage of 4-H club members are enrolled in poultry, and this is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work. There are two types of 4-H poultry work: (1) poultry production the boy or girl owns and manages his or her own flock; (2) poultry im provement-the boy or girl manages the flock on the farm. The i)liprovement program is by far . the more popular. Instructions in poultry culture were given to girls and to boys ~t thei~ two short courses in June. _Birds exhibited by 4-H club members _c were judged at three county fairs.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension Meetings and farm visits gave opportunity for poultry subjects to be discussed. The more important phases were records, sanitation, feeding for egg production, and growing healthy chicks. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS . The Florida State Poultry Producers Association, organized a year ago, has been very active during the past year. Monthly news bulletins have been. issued which have been of help in the development of the association and the poultry .industry of Florida. About 25 county poultry associations are affiliated with the state organization. Local and county poultry associations have assisted in the development of constructive poultry programs. Monthly meetings are usually held by the s e county associations at which time educational material is presented. The Florida Baby Chick Association has been very active this past year. This organization has assisted materially in forwarding the Grow Healthy Chick program. It is working in close contact with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in enforcing the hatchery code. HATCHERY CODE The Code of Fair Competition for the Commercial and Breeder Hatchery Industry .was approved by the President of the United States December ?,7, 1933 . A state,wide meeting was held at Orlando the latter part of January and the hatchery code was explained in detail. Additional meetings were held in various sections of the state to discuss the code. The entire program for the hatchery code was turned over to the industry for enforcement. The . state set-up consisted of a state chairman, three district chairmen and 21 local committeemen . The baby chick industry in Florida . has complied with the requirements of the code : and the consensus of opinion is that it has helped the Florida produeer of baby chicks materially. Detailed records were kept by the hatcherymen on cost of production which will be of great value in increasing their efficiency. According to the code authorities there is a little more than a million egg hatching capacity in the state. CHICKENPOX VACCINATION . The practice of vaccinating pullets has become more widespread. Com mercial egg producers have found that it is an economical practice. Pullets were vaccinated generally when 12 to 16 months of age. HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS The brick brooders which were built at the suggestions of the agents in \Vest Florida during recent years have given excellent results. The farmers are finding these brooders very practical and economical. During the past year several brick brooders were . built in the southern part of the state. NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST '' ReJo ' rds obtained at the Eighth Florida National Egg Laying Contest, Ch'i'pley; gave indications of improvement in poultry breeding and man agement. The Eighth Con . test started October 1, 1933 and was concluded 'Septetribef 22, ' 1934. There were 82 pens of pullets entered from 21 differ el't't " states aild the Hawaiian Islands. There were 20 pens of heavy breeds and 62 pens of light breeds.

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Annual Report, 1934 49 A pen of White Leghorns entered in the Florida Contest was the high pen in all standard contests in America. These 10 pullets produced 2,887 eggs for a value of 3,020.80 points for the 51 weeks' period. The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 208.7 eggs per bird for a value of 208.5 points. There were 36 birds that made a 800 point average for the year. Records of the contest show these facts: The average feed cost per bird was $2.29. The average feed cost per dozen eggs was 13.2 cents. The average amount of feed to produce 1 dozen eggs was 5.95 pounds. The average mortality was 24.34 percent. The average egg price was 21.5 cents per dozen. FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS At the Florida National Egg Laying Contest, in addition to the regular official contest, feeding and management demonstrations were innaugurated during the fall of 1933. The following practical tests and demonstrations were conducted: (1) A comparative study of white corn and liquid milk versus a grain and mash ration in feeding for egg production. (2) A comparative study of the value . of meatscraps, fish meal, and milk solids as source s of protein for egg production. (3) Lights versus no lights for egg production. (4) A study of shell texture and egg ' quality. In these demonstrations 40 Single Comb White Leghorn pullets of same breeding and age were placed in six uniform houses. The first year's results indicate the value of whole white corn and liquid skimmilk as a ration for egg production. In the other feeding trial, high egg production was obtained in all four pens, the highest production being with the group receiving meatscraps plus milk as the source of protein. In the management demonstration comparing morning lights versus no lights as it may affect egg production, the first year's results show very little difference in egg production between the two pens. These three demonstrations are being continued for the second year. Very complete records are kept on egg production, egg size, value of eggs, and feed consumption. COOPERATIVE POULTRY EXPERIMENTAL WORK At the request of the Director of Extension, the following projects have been conducted in cooperation with W. F. Ward, Superintendent, Chinsegut Hill Sanctuary, Bureau of Animal Industry; M. W. Emmel, Assistant Vet erinarian, Experiment Station, and N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman, Agricultural Extension Service: (1) A study of the value of different sources of protein for the pro duction of broilers. (2) A study of the value of all-night lights versus no lights on Single Comb White Leghorn pullets and hens for egg production. (3) Confinement versus non-confinement in rearing pullets. ( 4) Value of rotation in rearing pullets. (5) Growth studies of cockerels and pullets. (6) The development of a high quality strain of Single Comb White Leghorns and Rhode Island Reds. (7) The use of peanuts and peanut products in rearing turkeys. Progress report of these trials will be found in the Annual Report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

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50 Florida Cooperati v e Extemion STATISTICAL DATA The following data were compiled from the reports submitted by county and home demonstration agents: Days agents devoted to poultry . . . . ............ . ......... .. .. .. .................... ... ..... . .... . Number of communities in which work was conducted . ........ . .... . .......... . Number of voluntary local leaders or committeemen assisting . .. . ..... . Days ~f ~ssistance rendered by local leaders or committeemen ass1st1ng ........ ... .. . ......... . . . ....... .. . . . . ... 4 Number of adult result demonstrations conducted .. . ... . . . . . ... . .... . . . ... . . . ... . Number of meetings at result demonstrations .. .. .. . .......... .. .................... . Number of method demonstration meetings held ........... . .............. . ........ . Number of other meetings held . . ...... . ...... . .. . .... . ........... . ...... . ......... . . . . . .. . ... . . . Number of news stories published ... ..... .. . . . . . . .......... . ... .. ... ... . .......... . . . ..... . ... Number of different circular letters issued .......... . .................................. . Number of farm or home visits made ................. .. .... . ..... . ... . ................... . . . Number of office calls received . .. .. ...... . ............ . .. . . . . . ...... . .... . ..... .. . . . . .. . . . ..... . Number of 4-H poultry club members enrolled . . ............. . .......... . ..... . .... . Number of 4-H poultry club members completing ........................ . ........ . 1,036 508 155 199 1,225 174 354' 337 288 270 2,165 7,026 1,230 744 Number of chickens in projects conducted by 4-H poultry club , members ... . .............. . .... ~ 41,729 Number of families following an organized improved breeding plan 370 Number of families following recommendations in purchasing baby chicks .. . ........ . •... . .............. . .... . . . ... .. ........... . . . ......... . .. . . . .. .. ...... . . . .. .... ......... . ...... Number of families following recommendations in chick rearing .. .. . . Number of families following production-feeding recommendations .. Number of families following sanitation recommendations in disease and parasite control. . . ... . ....... .. .. . ........ . . . . . .... . ...... . ........... . . . . . ..... . . . ... . ...... . . Number of families improving poultry house equipment . ........ . ... . . . ..... . Number of families following marketing recommendations ........ .. ....... . Value of products sold by all associations or groups organized or 557 1,203 1,031 1,352 318 912 assisted ......... . . . ..... . . . .... . . .. .... . ...... . . . ... . ....... . .......... . .. . . . ......... . .. . ............ ..... .. .. $257,845 Value of products sold by individuals not in organizations . ........ . . . ...... $ 94,274

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Annual Report, 1934 51 CITRUS CULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Citriculturist This report covers work that has been carried on during the year in practically all of the citrus producing counties by county agents and the citriculturist in cooperation with citrus growers and assisted by . district agents, the professor of soils in the College of Agriculture, members of the Experiment Station, and specialists of the United States Department of Agriculture. Continued low prices, due to increased production, and low purchasing power of consumers necessitate reducing the unit cost of production and improving quality where it can be done economically. The conditions are forcing growers to make changes in their practices in almost every phase of citrus culture. It presents to the Extension Service unusual opportunities to direct growers into the adoption of new and improved practices. GROVE MANAGEMENT The most effective work in citrus culture is being conducted in demon stration groves. Each demonstration grove is treated as a grove manage ment project, in which the best known methods of citrus culture for the particular grove are put into practice. Each operation is a demonstration in that particular phase of citrus culture. Results of these demonstrations are measured by comparing them with the results in other similar groves. Results of the grove management projects are measured by comparing the production costs, item by item, and yields, of the demonstration groves with those of other comparable groves of the community, county and state. This comparison is made possible by the fact that more than five hundred growers of the state are keeping grove records, distributed so as to rep resent a cross-section of the citrus industry. A number of representative demonstration groves are being selected in each county. They are distributed so as to make the results of the various demonstrations available to as many growers as possible and to represent (a) the principal soil types, (b) standard varieties, (c) the principal rootstocks and (d) the different ages of trees. The cooperating growers are selected with great care. They must be growers who desire to learn, have receptive minds and are willing and able to cooperate. They must keep complete records of all grove operations and yields. New practices in citrus culture are being tested in the form of fact finding demonstrations in the individual demonstration groves. These con sist of small plots, and the results are carefully determined by comparing plots in the various demonstration groves. The demonstration grove plan further provides for the organization and maintenance of citrus schools in the various communities of the differ ent counties doing this type of work. In these schools up-to-date courses are being given, covering all phases of practical citrus culture. Thirteen such schools are now being conducted, with an enrollment of more than 500, representing about 20,000 acres of citrus groves. The number of demonstration groves has increased 70% in the last year, now containing approximately 2,000 acres. The saving to the owners of these demonstration groves, due to the adoption of improved practices, was $17.00 per acre on the operations of the past year. At the same time the average yields have . been materially increased, and in almost every grove the quality of the fruit has been improved. These facts, together with the improved conditions that the demonstration groves present, have a very

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension strong influence in converting growers to better practices. For example, the influence of these demonstrations in one county is affecting the. prac tices of more than 4-00 growers. SOIL MANAGEMENT A number of demonstrations: are being conducted in other groves with fertilizer, cultivation, cover crops and irrigation. Fertilizing.-More than 50 demonstrations have served further to con vince growers that the fertilizer cost of producing fruit can be kept down to the minimum by supplying to the grove large amounts of bulky organic matter by th~ full use of cover crops and by hauling in manures and other vegetable matter. This practice enables the grower to use with safety the cheaper inorganic fertilizers of the higher analyses. In the demonstration with raw phosphate further definite results are manifested in the stimulation of cover crops and in improving soil.conditions. About 25 fact-finding demonstrations are being continued in eight counties, to bring out the best practice in the use of lime and magnesium lime in citrus groves. Under certain conditions both the crotalaria cover crop and the trees responded de:finitely to magnesium lime again this year. Cover Crops.-In 100 demonstrations a dollar's worth of cheap nitrogen applied in the rainy season has, on the average, continued to increase the yield of the grass cover crop approximately 1,000 pounds per acre (dry weight). This grass has a value in many of the groves of about $5.00. per ton. More than 1,300 growers have been induced to adopt improved fertilizing practices. In more than 200 demonstrations the yield of fruit is being increased 5 to 20 percent and the quality of both fruit and tree greatly improved by mowing the cover crop and placing it around the trees as a mulch. In addition, the cost of hoeing the trees is eliminated. The economy of the practice of mowing grass and weed crops on old fields and city lots and hauling the material into the grove is being widely established by demonstrations. The value of muck is also being demon strated. Cultivation.-Work on this project has aimed at reducing production cost by eliminating not only unnecessary, but wasteful and injurious cul tivation. Aside from incorporating the cover crop material with the top soil at the end of the growing season, as a means of fire protection, it is very doubtful if any further cultivation is justified under ordinary grove conditions. Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning by deep cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to disease attack. Poor texture of fruit is traceable in a large measure to excessive cultivation. More than 100 demonstrations in grove cultivation have been conducted, involving more than 4,000 acres. The direct saving on this operation has averaged $4.00 per acre. Ten counties have taken part in this project. In addition, more than 400 consultations have been held with citrus growers relative to improving grove cultivation practices and reducing the cost of this item in production. lrrigation.-The rainfall throughout the citrus belt during the last three months of this year was the lightest for that period since 1906. Conse quently groves generally have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture. Heavy dropping has resulted, materially reducing the largest crop in the history of the industry. This condition has greatly stimulated interest in grove irrigation and has multiplied the demands on the Extension Service for assistance in the instaJlation and operation of irrigation plants. Seventy

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Annual Report, 1934 53 growers have been assisted in purchasing the proper kind of material and installing efficient plants for a total acreage of more than 3,000. A preliminary survey has shown that many growers have an ample supply of accessible water for grove irrigation, and could use it to a great advantage in production, but are unable financially to pay for an adequate irrigation plant. To meet this condition the citriculturist has developed a very practicable type of portable irrigation plant. It is designed for the use of (a) cooperative associations that do grove work for their members, (b) grove caretakers, (c) the grower who has several groves each with a supply of water for irrigation, (d) and of those interested in doing custom irrigation. A trial plant was built with a working capacity of 900 to 1,200 g.p.m. The original cost of this plant, designed for a 20-acre unit, was $900.00. But it is being used on five different properties, making the installation cost per acre very low. It can be dismounted, moved and set up again ready for operation by three men and a 1-ton truck, in four hours. Enough main is being added to cover an 80-acre unit at an additional cost of $800. After i35 growers witnessed the operation of this plant in two dem onstrations, seven other plants like it have been built. It seems that we have opened a new field in grove irrigation by developing a practicable portable plant and by working out this new methqd of applying water. By these developments both the cost per acre of installation and the labor cost of applying water have been greatly reduced. DISEASE CONTROL The most effective work during the last six years in the control of citrus diseases has been along the line of indirect control or prevention. Reports show that disease control recommendations of the Extension Service were followed in more than 1,500 groves this year. Melanose.-Melanose has been greatly reduced in our demonstration groves and in many other groves by reducing the amount of dead wood produced from year to year by adopting a program of more adequate fertilization, less cultivation and, in many instances, irrigation. We find that the resistance to most of the common citrus tree diseases is greatly increased by building up the tree and maintaining it in a more vigorous condition. In spite of the very unfavorable weather conditions ' last spring, in a few instances outstanding results were obtained by spraying for melanose control. Scab.-The economic factors that affect melanose control operate also in scab control. Interest in controlling this disease has been weakened by low prices received during the last two years. In a few cases the dormant spray of lime-sulphur 1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied at the same time gave better control . . Blue Mold Decay.-lt has been found that approximately 70 percent of the abrasions of the fruit, caused by rough and improper handling, result in decay before the fruit is consumed. Ten years ago we demon strated that•the number of long stems and clipper cuts were almost elimi nated by the use of the nipper type or blunt nose picking clipper. Contin uous efforts for fewer blemishes in picking have been rewarded by the almost universal adoption of these better clippers and consequently the elimination of clipper cuts and long stems. Foot Rot.-Where only an occasional light infection of foot rot is present in a grove prevention is being demonstrated by giving all trees . a "foot

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension bath" with a 6-9-50 bordeaux mixture applied with a power sprayer with nozzles adjusted so as to throw the most penetrating stream of the material in among the crown roots. In advanced stages of the disease, where trees w e re almost girdled, the effect of banking or mounding the trees is being exten s ively demonstrated. A mound of dirt 01 clay LI to 18 inches high and 10 to 15 f e et in diameter around the trunk of the tree e nables the tree to establish a new root system above the disease infected parts and pro longs the life of the tree. Thousands of old trees are being rejuvenated by these treatments. Fig. 7.-Citrus trees suffering from foot rot are saved by being banked, so they can start a new root system. Gummosis and Psorosis.-Twenty method demonstrations were given, teaching the proper technique in applying the remedy as recommended in Experiment Station Bulletin 229. These diseases have been less preva lent this year. INSECT CONTROL Rust Mite.-A special campaign in rust mite control was put on this year, with outstanding results.

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Annual Report, 1934 55 The campaign began with a two-day central training school in Orlando, for the primary purpose of teaching packinghouse managers, grove care takers and supervisors, and managers of cooperative associations the very latest things in rust mite control. The assistance of a leading packing house manager was found helpful in bringing the key men to . this school. The meeting room and laboratory facilities of the United States Department of Agriculture station in Orlando were made available and contributed largely to the success of the school. State entomologists also were used. Courses were given covering every phase of rust mite control. In addition, the proper use of the most modern spraying and dusting field equipment was demonstrated. A novel feature of the demonstrations was an airplane dusting demonstration in which a ton of dusting sulphur was applied to 40 acres or 2,400 trees in 30 minutes. Upon a follow-up inspection it was found that the airplane dusting was equally as efficient as that done by the land equipment. The regular enrollment in the school was limited to 60, the capacity of the meeting room. A total of more than 400 were in attendance, in cluding those at the demonstrations. Eleven counties and 21 organizations were represented in the regular enrollment, representing directly more than 3,000,000 boxes of fruit. This control school was followed by 22 similar schools for growers including all of the citrus-producing counties. The enrollment at these schools exceeded 1,000 growers, representing about 50;000 acres with a capacity of approximately 9,000,000 boxes. All of the schools touched directly about one-third of the state's crop. Of course the influence of the campaign reached many others, as, the schools were followed up by circular letters, exhibits of charts and materials, radio talks, and timely press articles. One of the definite results of this campaign noted is the increased use of spraying and dusting materials . Many leaders in the citrus industry testify that the percentage of rust mite injured fruit in the state this year is the lowest that they have ever seen. Scale and Whitefly.-Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is being rapidly developed, and is saving growers many thousands of dollars annually. This year red aschersonia gave splendid control of whitefly. Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove con ditions where natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is most effective, to determine the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the given conditions. Many of the demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale and whitefly in a year, and are just as free of scale injury as the check groves, some of which are sprayed twice a year. Besides the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are pro ducing larger crops of fruit. We !find that 3 cents invested in . nitrogen and applied to the tree often will accomplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. If a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop and put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter . . In many demonstration groves by reducing cultivation to about one fourth, growing a heavy cover-crop, and not pruning out the center of the trees to "let the sunshine in", a condition has been brought about which favors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not been necessary to spray the groves for scale control for the last two to four years. These demonstrations affect directly more than 10,000 acres of grove.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension MISCELLANEOUS Grove Visits.-There is an increasing demand made upon Extension workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove problems. This service consumes a large part of the County Agent's time, and unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work, perhaps the most important from the grower's standpoint. It is through these grove visits that lasting contacts are made between growers . and the Extension Service. It is through these visits that the County Agent's supply of ifirst hand information about current grove conditions is obtained, and that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various . lines is fully appreciated. During the year more than 4,000 grove visits were made, going into citrus-producing problems in 14 counties of the state. Meetings and Grove Tours.-During the year 326 meetings and schools of instruction with a total attendance of more than 5,000 growers, were conducted. Different phases of citrus culture . were discussed in these meet ings, and demonstrations were given in pruning, thinning fruit, bracing tangerines, treating gummosis and psorosis, and methods of applying irri gation water. In Lake and Orange counties, the organized citrus clubs meet regularly and follow definite courses of study in citrus culture. Seven grove tours were conducted in four counties, with more than 300 growers takirig part. These tours were made to various demonstrations and co operative experiments in the different counties. Press Articles and Radio Talks.-More than 200 articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by the specialist and County Agents of 13 counties and published in local and state papers. Fifty-six radio talks were delivered over six stations on various citrus subjects.

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Annual Report, 1934 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS C. V. Noble, Agricultural Economist Frank W. Brumley, Economist, Farm Management R. H. Howard, Asst. Economist, Farm Management D. E. Timmons, Economist, Marketing H. G. Clayton, Organization and Outlook Specialist FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES 57 There has been an increased demand for economic information relative to Florida agriculture. This demand came from County Agents, farmers and fruit growers who were in need of data on methods of lowering cost of production, and how to put their farms on a more profitable basis. The information requested has been furnished as far as possible from previous studies made by different divisions of the College of Agriculture. Addition al information was collected by the survey and cost account method during the year. In addition to the regular farm management activities, consid erable time was spent assisting the A.A.A. and the Farm Credit Adminis tration in carrying out their programs in Florida. CITRUS ACCOUNTS The Citrus Account project is now in its fifth year. The primary pur poses of this project, as previously outlined, are: 1. To provide growers with books in which they may keep records of grove receipts and expenses. 2. To assist growers in summarizing their records and determining cost of production. 3. To provide the grower with a summary of a large number of similar grpves with which to compare his yield, cost of production, price and net returns. 4. To provide data that may be studied to determine factors affecting cost of production and profits. The number of growers cooperating has steadily increased, being 118 the first year, 200 the second, 268 the third, 301 the fourth, and 325 now cooperating for tbe fifth year. A proportionate increase will probably continue if time and facilities will permit the handling of the records. 1932-33 Accounts.-The "Third Annual Summary of Costs and Returns for 268 Florida Citrus Groves" was released during the year. Individual grove summaries were furnished each cooperator that he might compare his returns, costs and other factors affecting profits. Table 5 will show the costs and returns by counties for the 195 groves over 10 years old. Of the 118 original growers who coop~rated in 1930-31, 62 have con tinued to furnish records on their groves for three years. While these groves are slightly above the average of all the groves from which records were obtained for each year, they too have felt the effect of low prices. However, these growers have reduced their costs from $81.97 per acre in 1930-31 to $61.85 per acre in 1932-33, as shown in Table 6.

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58 Florida Coop e rative Extension TABLE 5.-COSTS AND RETURNS BY COUNTIES, 195 GROVES OVER 10 YEARS OLD, SEASON 1932-33. Item I I I I HighI Lake Polk Orange lands . Others Number of Groves . . . . ....... . .. . . . ... . .. . 61 66 37 26 5 Total Acres of Groves .. .... .. ..... ..... 1,025 1,152 478 2,536 76 Average Acres per Grove .. . . ........ 17 17 13 98 15 Average Age . . . . ................ . . .. .......... 19 16 19 15 20 Number Trees per Acre . ............. 62 60 61 54 58 Percent of Trees Grapefruit .. . ... 28 29 18 50 26 Boxes Produced per Acre . ... .. . .. ... 130 157 183 107 109 Boxes Harvested per Acre . ......... 124 148 176 100 107 Costs per Acre: Labor, Power & Equipment . ... $ 17.15 $24.57 $27.00 $10.71 $27.16 Fertilizer .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..... . .. ... . .. .. . .... . . 18.72 24.96 28.89 11.33 21.13 Spray & Dust Material... . . ....... 2.62 4.81 3 .84 2.36 1.86 Taxes . .......... .. ............... .. .... . . . ....... 9.05 7.98 6.6 3 3.87 5.50 Miscellaneous ...... ......... . .. . .... . ...... 1.49 .62 2.08 1.94 2.57 -----Total Costs per Acre Excluding Interest & Depreciation ..... . .. . . . . $4 9 .03 $ 62 . 94 $68.44 i30.21 $58.22 Total Returns per Acre ........ . ....... 77.11 51.78 88.86 35.58 78.36 Net Returns per Acre for Interest & Owner's Supervi s ion ...... 28 . 08 -11.16 20.42 5.37 20.14 Total Cost per Box Excluding Interest & Depreciation .. ... . ...... $ .39 $ .43 ' $ .39 $ .30 $ .54 Total Income per Box . . ... . .. .......... .62 .3 5 .51 . .35 .73 Net Returns per Box for Interest & Owner's Supervision . . ... . .23 -.08 .12 .05 .19 TABLE 6.-SUMMARY OF COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE FOR 3 YEARS ON 62 GROVES, SEASONS 1930-33. . It e ms I Y E A ....::cR___;S _ _ _ 1930 . 31 I 1931-32 I 1932-3 3 Yield per Acre .. ................. . .. .. .......... ...... ............ .. . . .. 177 150 168 Cost per Acre: Labor, Power & Equipment . .. .. . . ..... .. . . . . .. . ......... $ 31.36 Fertilizer.. . .... . .. . .. . .. . ... . .... . ... . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . ... . ... ............ 34 . 80 $ 29.16 $ 24 . 69 29 . 81 23.71 S p ray & Dust................. .. .. . ....... . .. .... . ..... ....... . .... .. 2.74 3.50 4.27 Taxes.......... .. .. . ................ .. ............ ..... .................. .. 8.51 7.76 7.15 Miscellaneous ' ~ _ _ 4_. -'56 __, __ -'--'--+Tob~~~iJ~ii~~ . . .. . . . ... . ... / $ 81.97 3.04 2.03 i~tak!i~~u;:f o~efn!~::tto;~~;;~ I 121 31 Supervision .... .............. . .. . . .. ........ .. . ..... . ... ...... . . . . ..... ! 45 . 40 Total Cost per Box Excluding Interest & ,-------;Depr e ciation . . .. . .. . . ... . . .. . . .. ...... . . . . . . .... ... ... . . .. ... .. .. . . .. . $ .46 $ 73.27 $ 61.85 140.41 75.17 67.14 13.32 $ .49 $ .37 Total Income per Box . .... ... ............ ..... ................ .. . .72 Net Retur~s p e r Box for Interest & Owner's Sup e rv1s1on .... ... . . . .. . ... .... . .. .......... . ... .... . .. .. . ..... .. .... .. .26 .94 .45 .45 .08 Fertilizer being one of the major items of cost, grower cooperators were also informed of the amount of available plant food applied for each of the three principal elements per 100 trees to compare with the average used, by ages, for all groves. A study of the relationship of total pound s of available plant food applied to yield and returns per 100 trees revealed that the great e r the amount applied the greater the yield and returns.

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Annual Report, 1934 59 However, the law of diminishing returns applies to the use of fertilizer as well as to any other production factor and there is a point beyond which additional fertilizer applications will not pay. 1933-34 Accounts,-A new method is being inaugurated this year in handling and summarizing these accounts. This change in method was requested by County Agents and growers so that the summaries will be more beneficial and useful to them. The former accounts have been handled for a year's business, as most farm accounts are handled, which includes all expenses and receipts incurred during the 12 month period. However, the new method being inaugurated this year, will include the expenses for the 12 month period and the fruit receipts resulting primarily from those expenses, rather than the receipts for the same period. In short, this change in method of handling the accounts is from a fiscal year basis to a crop . year basis. FARM MANAGEMENT SURVEYS Farm management surveys provide a very economical means of obtain ing records for studying the types of farmi_ng, organization of the farm business, as well as other factors affecting profits. During 1934 a survey was made in Escambia County of the cost of producing white potatoes, which consisted of 27 farm records. Among the factors affecting the profits as revealed by these records, the yield per acre seemed to have been the most important single item. In the fall of 1932, 112 survey records were taken of truck farming in the vicinity of Plant City, Hillsborough County. A summary of this study was published in the "Agricultural Extension Economist" of June, 1933. However, during this year additional statistical and Extension work was carried on at the request of the County Agent in Hillsborough County based upon the 1932 survey records. POULTRY ACCOUNTS This project is in cooperation with the Extension Poultryman. Its pri mary. purposes are to encourage record keeping and better poultry man agement. Poultrymen have been furnished record books prepared especially for them. At the present time two poultry books are being distributed, one for commercial flocks and one for small flocks. From 1926 to 1932 a number of the books were summarized and returned to those cooperating in the study. None were summarized for 1933 or 1934 due to heavy de mands for other Extension work. However, books have been distributed to those requesting them. The six years' records reveal many valuable facts relative to commercial poultry farming in Florida. While the rate of egg_ production, feed con sumption and other management data have remained fairly constant, some factors have not. Others are relatively more important now than ever before. The mortality rates have increased each year of the study. A larger percentage of the poultrymen are now using lights than was the case in the first years of the study. 4-H CLUB' WORK During the annual Boys' Short Course, a group of the older 4-H club boys were instructed in farm management. This instruction consisted of a study of how to take a farm inventory, types of farming in Florida, factors influencing success in farming and other related farm management sub jects. A group of the junior 4-H club boys were also taught how to keep project records, which consisted of a study of methods used in keeping records in their respective crop, livestock and livestock products record books.

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension Assistance was given the Boys' 4-H Club Agent in organizing record keeping clubs in three counties. The County Agents arranged for the meetings and secured the interest of the club boys in the work. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION WORK Due to the pressing work of the A.A.A. program, both the Farm Man agement Specialist and the Assistant Farm Management Specialist spent a large portion of the year assisting in carrying out the program. Forty-three educational meetings were held in the 16 principal adjust ment counties in cooperation with the County Agents. These meetings were held for the purpose of explaining to each cooperator the necessity of keeping an accurate record of his farm business. There were 2,406 adjust ment cooperators who attended these meetings. In addition to the above adjustment work, the Farm Management Specialist served as a member of the State Board of Review on Cotton and the Assistant Farm Management Specialist assisted in tabulating the cotton adjustment contracts and computing farm allotments. MARKETING The time of the Marketing Economist has been largely occupied in agricultural adjustment activities and farm credit work during 1934. In addition to being in charge of the tobacco reduction program, the Extension Economist in Marketing had the responsibility of checking tobacco con tracts and assisting county allotment committees in making individual allotments, and of assisting in formulating marketing agreements for various special crops. MARKETING AGREEMENTS Under the provisions of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, agricultural commodities such as fruits and vegetables, which are not classed as basic commodities, can be covered by marketing agreements . and licenses. This is the only means at present for securing the benefits of the act for non basic commodities. The aim of marketing agreements is to enable growers and shippers under the act to establish and maintain such balance between the production and consumption of agricultural commodities and such mar keting conditions therefor, as will reestablish prices to farmers at a level that will give agricultural commodities a purchasing power with respect to articles farmers buy, equivalent to the purchasing power of agricultural commodities in the base period, such base period being the post-war period, August 1919 to July 1929, such equality of purchasing power to be approached by gradual correction of present inequalities and to safeguard the consumers' interest by not increasing the percentage of consumer retail expenditures for agricultural products which is returned to the farmer, above the percentage returned in the prewar period. As set up the operation of a marketing agreement is under the authority of a control committee composed of growers and shippers. Shippers are under license, and in the early agreements it was necessary for shippers controlling a majority . of the tonnage to become signatories to the agree ment before it could be put into effect. Four marketing agreements affecting Florida products were approved by the Secretary of Agriculture. They include the following: Florida citrus marketing agreement, approved November 15, 1933 (sub stitute agreement put into effect in 1934). Florida strawberry marketing agreement, approved August 5, 1934.

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Annual Report, 1934 61 Florida celery marketing agreement, approved April 28, 1934. Southeastern watermelon marketing agreement, approved August 10, 1934. The citrus marketing agreement. operated under unfavorable conditions due to opposition which developed that prevented this agreement from receiving the full cooperation of the growers and shippers concerned. The strawberry marketing agreement was not put into operation for the 1934-1935 crop due to opposition of some growers and shippers which apparently was associated with some of the opposition to the citrus agree ment. The celery agreement was not put into operation until the 1934-35 shipping season and has been operated successfully. Amendments have been made to the agreement to improve its practical operation. The watermelon agreement is expected to be in operation for the 1935 crop. The four states included in this agreement are Florida, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. FARM CREDiT The Marketing Economist was loaned to the Farm Credit Administration from November 1, 1933, to January 15, 1934. This period was used for holding educational meetings explaining the proposed production credit plan of the administration. Groups of farmers were assisted in making applications for Production Credit Associations and in organizing tem porary associations. The Marketing Economist assisted in holding 22 meetings, attended by 1,142 farmers. A number of conferences were held with County Agents, association secretaries and production credit officials of Columbia and Washington in an endeavor to work out a credit system that would meet the needs of Florida farmers. Since Janua~y 15, the Economist has cooperated with Production Credit Associations in Florida and the Production Credit Corporation of Columbia, S. C. He has appeared on three farm programs, as well as at several .conferences with officials and farmers relative to production credit. TAMPA PRODUCE MARKET SURVEY At the request of the Bank for Cooperatives, Columbia, S. C., and of' the president of the recently organized farmers' cooperative association in Hillsborough County, the Marketing Economist made a survey of exist ing produce markets in Tampa to determine the advisability of the pur chase by the newly organized group of one of the existing markets. This survey indicated that only 25 percent of the business done on these markets was with produce grown locally. The market which the farmers' group proposed buying is more accessible to nearby farmers but less convenient to buyers. It was recommended that the group lease a market rather than purchase. MISCELLANEOUS Assistance has been rendered to other marketing agencies, also. The manager of the Jacksonville Produce Market requested and received assist ance with certain problems peculiar to that market. Small packing organizations have been aided in setting up appropriate accounting systems for their business. Assistance on a small scale has been rendered in connection with cooperative sales of hogs and turkeys and in obtaining markets for roasting ear corn.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension OUTLOOK The 1934 Outlook Report was issued in December, 1933, in mimeograph form. A total of 1,250 copies were distributed to County and Home Agents, Smith-Hughes teachers, bankers, newspapers, agricultural papers and farmers and other persons. . A summary of the report was published in the Extension Economist with a mailing list of nearly 1,000. Summaries were carried by the Ag ricultural News Service, . the Extension weekly clipsheet. Summaries of the outlook by commodities were put out over Radio Station WRUF at Gaines ville. County Agents used data from the report in news articles and in radio talks. During 1934, the program of the Agricultural Adjustment Administra tion made it possible for individual producers of basic commodities to make adjustments in keeping with the general economic situation. In presenting the adjustment program to farmers the economic background was used by County Agents and others to show the need for the program and fore cast the results of adjustments when carried out on a national scale. Three potato outlook meetings were held this fall, one at LaCrosse, one at Hastings, and one for the Miami area. These outlook meetings are annual events at Lacrosse and Hastings and although this was the first time such a meeting has been held in the Miami area the response from growers was good. A. E. Mercker of the U. S. D. A. presented the outlook situation and outlined the recommendations of the Interstate Early Potato Committee. In a series of educational meetings of farmers on the cotton situation, the outlook and foreign situation was presented at 21 such meetings with an attendance of 2,500 cotton farmers. In November, this Agent was the State representative at the National Outlook conference held in Washington. Following this conference, the State Outlook Report for 1935 has been prepared by the Experiment Station Staff, the Specialists and District Agents of the Extension Service and by the Home Demonstration Specialists and District Agents. County Agents have assisted farmers in using outlook and other timely economic information as a basis for readjusting farm operations. Some farmers made adjustments for more than one commodity. Agents received 523 office calls regarding outlook information. ORGANIZATION WORK County Agents assisted in the organization of six marketing groups during the year and assisted 23 organizations previously formed. Member ship in these associations and organizations totaled 2,903. Also 388 indi viduals not in organizations were assisted with marketing problems. Assistance rendered to the above organizations consisted of help in stan dardizing grades and packages for 12 organizations, locating markets for eight, use of current market information for 23, assistance in securing financing by nine, in organization problems seven and in keeping member ship informed with regard to their commodity, 14.

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Annual Report, 1934 63 III-WOMEN'S AND 4-H WORI{ HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Miss Flavia Gleason, State Home Demonstration Agent Miss Ruby McDavid, District Agent Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent Miss Anna Mae Sikes, Acting District Agent Home demonstration work in Florida has grown during 1934. The year closed with 32 Home Demonstration Agents working in 31 counties, an increase of eight counties cooperating in financing and conducting the work since the beginning of the year. The 32 agents have work under way in 483 communities. There are 271 home demonstration clubs for women's work with a membership of 7,125 women. There are 462 4-H clubs for girls with a membership of 9,116 girls 10 to 21 years of age. Interest in home demonstration work is "growing as evidenced by (1) increase in number of counties appropriating; and (2) increased enroll ments and attendance at meetings. The reasons are probably three: First, need is apparent for the type of assistance home demonstration work renders in teaching rural people to be thrifty and self-supporting. Second, work of the Home Agents demonstrated the outstanding and unique services they are prepared to render. Third, a larger number of people benefited by Extension teaching through cooperation with FERA. EMERGENCY WORK The National Recovery Program brought about some definite changes in conducting home demonstration work. There was increasing demand for varied services from the agents because of training, experience, knowl edge of conditions, acquaintance with the people of county and type of work they were doing. In every county the agents have worked closely with social service and other relief workers. They have performed advisory and supervisory duties in producing, purchasing wisely and conserving food and clothing materials. They have given help in women's work rooms and served as leaders in the establishing and operating of canning centers. Recognizing the need for extending such service as home demonstration work to families on relief and especially those selected for rehabilitation, FERA and Florida Agricultural Extension Service entered into an agree ment in July whereby necessary emergency assistant agents and project leaders could be employed by FERA to work under direction and super vision of the Agricultural Extension Service to extend home demonstration work to families on relief rolls and borderline cases to assist them in becoming self-sustaining in part or in whole. AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT Home Demonstration Agents have had no part in conducting the crop reduction campaigns. However, in the field of agricultural adjustments they have a most important place as pertains to the farm family living. Studies made of production in the cotton producing counties show that there is a shortage of such things as vegetables, fruits, poultry, and dairy products for home use. We have a budget of food supplies for Florida farm families which we are using efl'ectively. This gives the foods needed, and the yearly amount for a family of five. It is a splendid guide showing the actual needs so far as foods are concerned, and a definite plan for growing and conserving those foods at home. Women are enthusiastically

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension working under guidance of Home Demonstration Agents in devising ways and means of providing these needs. The consumption of cotton was increased to some extent through efforts of the agents in stressing the use of cotton fabrics in clothing and household furnishings made under their direction and in the rebuilding of cotton mattresses, making of rugs and such. Some good results are being accomplished in consumer purchasing. Home Demonstration Agents are trying to stimulate interest among con sumers in wise buying. They are encouraging homemakers . to become familiar with general economic conditions affecting them as consumers and to learn standards and qualities of products purchased. RURAL REHABILITATION The home demonstration workers have assisted in setting up and train ing the personnel of the home rehabilitation workers. A large part of the District Agents' time has been spent in interviewing prospective rehabilitation workers and establishing them in the various counties. It has been the policy to appoint only home economics trained persons who graduate with Bachelor of Science degrees and have practical experience. In the beginning of the rural rehabilitation program, an agricultural survey was made. After studying the data obtained and the case histories, the home rehabilitation workers contacted the relief families and have studied their problems prior to the selection of the families for rehabilita tion. In many instances group meetings have been held for relief families, helping to solve some of their immediate problems. CANNING CENTERS By an arrangement with the Rural Rehabilitation Department, it is possible for communities willing to supply land, building material, lights and water to secure modern canning plants with adequate equipment. The Rural Rehabilitation Department will supply equipment for the canning center which must be paid for either in cash or toll of canned products or surplus produce. The agents are taking the lead in making necessary arrangements with local communities. During the past six months they have been studying the logical places for establishing these centers and presenting the plans to. the citizens, making them realize that the canning center must be requested by the people as the result of a need of the community. An architect has been furnished by Rural Rehabilitation Department to the Home Demonstration Department to draw up satisfactory plans and supervise building and equipping the plants. The agents in a majority of the counties have submitted projects from a number of their communities for these centers. OTHER RELIEF WORK In addition to the rural rehabilitation families there are relief clients in each county who need the services of the County Home Demonstration Agents. Group meetings have been held to aid these women in their home problems. Demonstrations have been given in food, shelter and clothing. Home Agents have cooperated with social service directors since the in ception of the relief program, advising as to food and clothing requirements, working out budgets, conferring with and instructing case aides as to how to determine food needs and such. Plans were worked out in connection with food conservation so the agents directed the canning for relief families in some counties.

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Annual Report, 1934 65 Home Demonstration Agents in Dade, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie counties have supervised tremendous work projects for women, using and training 25 to 50 women on relief rolls each month. The Home Agent in Leon has trained and successfully directed two visiting housekeepers of the social service department over a period of six or seven months. These women have become expert in canning and are now of considerable help to the Home Demonstration Agent in this phase of the work. The agent in Jackson County, with assistance from the state office, conducted a camp, in cooperation with the county social service director, for women of families on relief rolls. This was a tremendous undertaking but seemed to be very much appreciated. SUPERVISORY METHODS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS Supervision has been carried on by the regular state home demonstration supervisory staff consisting of a State and three District Home Demon stration Agents. Working in subject matter ,fields are one specialist each in nutrition, food conservation and home improvement. Through FERA funds one specialist is now employed to develop handicraft, using mainly native materials of Florida. Each district agent, in addition to her regular supervisory duties, has responsibility for development of some phase of home demonstration work for which no specialist is employed. Miss Mary E. Keown, District Agent for East Florida, was granted a year's leave of absence to establish home demonstration work in Puerto Rico beginning July 1, 1934. Miss Anna Mae Sikes was transferred from the position of Extension Nutritionist to that of Acting District Agent. Mrs. Eva R. Culley, who had previously served as Extension Nutritionist, was appointed Acting Extension Nutritionist. Mrs. Culley works under Miss Sikes' direction in carrying out the nutrition program. RELATIONS WITH COUNTIES County appropriations are made by boards of county commissioners, with assistance from school boards in eight counties. The school board appropriates the entire sum in one county; Only one county reduced the appropriation this year. Six counties increased the appropriations, one made provisions for two agents and seven counties made new appropriations. Among the most important changes affecting work in all counties has continued to be that of adjusting the agent's time and home demonstration program to include work with relief agencies. This has meant in some instances that local leaders have assumed added duties in the communities and in other cases the leaders under direction of the Home Demonstration Agent have assumed duties in connection with the relief work. The most valuable assistance the agent has received from this source has come from older 4-H club girls, some of whom are married women of the communities, some are teachers, while many are still actively engaged in 4-H club work. The development of practical programs, fitting home demonstration work into the economic situation, establishment of result demonstrations, increasing the family income through home earning activities, distribution of concise, tabulated reports of accomplishments in the county, presenting work to civic organizations, Florida products dinners, thrift meals, exhibits, tours to established demonstrations in the home, such as pantries, poultry flocks, home improvement, gardens and orchards, shopping tours, achieve ment days, use . of the press and radio, assistance with emergency relief activities; are methods which have resulted in a greater appreciation of home demonstration work this year.

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension PROFESSIONAL TRAINING Agents who have at least the bachelor degree in home economics and experiences which provide a good background for home demonstration work are employed as far as possible. New positions this year have been filled with especially well trained people. Demands have been so constant and services so needed on the job that Extension workers have not had opportunity to leave their posts of . duty this year for study. However, one is writing thesis for master's degree, as is also one of the district agents. The Annual Extension Workers' Conference served well in advancing timely information to the group as a whole on such subjects as farm ad ministration and legislation, relief work from a national and state view point, and recent findings in home economics. The specialists in the State Home Demonstration Office have furnished the agents with latest authoritative information in their respective subjects, and the agents have made excellent use of this material. OFFICE EQUIPMENT Most agents have access to county-owned mimeograph machines, tele phones, and typewriters, although their offices may not be equipped with them. The demand for canning has caused the purchase of canners and sealers by the counties in some instances. The Rural Rehabilitation De partment is sending excellent canning equipment into some of the counties. DETERMINING EXTENSION PROGRAMS During the annual state conference for Extension workers, specialists and supervisors present program recommendations. These are discussed in joint conferences by state and county workers. When . it has been decided in which counties the specialists will do concentrated work, the specialist, County Home Agent and District Agent make plans so far as is possible for coordinating the agent's and specialists' programs and for definite development of the particular projects. Local clubs discuss conditions, individual and community needs with the agent. Representatives of the local clubs who form the county councils meet with the agent and when possible the District Agent, State Agent or specialist, in discussion of data, situations and available assistance. Conclusions and goals set are worked into county and community programs. Usually in September or October the agents and county councils hold their meetings for program planning for the year. At this meeting the women present the needs of their communities as they see them and hear recommendations for state-wide emphasis as recommended by the state council. The County Home Demonstration Agent presents county situations as she sees them. Out of these discussions evolve recommendations to be considered in making the program. Final programs are adopted by county councils usually the first meeting after agents' annual conference. The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work held a most satisfactory meeting during the S' ate Short Course for 4-H Club Girls. The State Home Demonstration Council endeavors to place the right interpretation upon home demonstration activities, to understand methods of procedure, to select for emphasis those things which seem most timely from the standpoint of the homemaker and in strengthening home demon stration work among those participating and the public at large. During the first part of each year a definite program of work is _ re<1uired of each agent in which she lists goals set and methods to be used in ob taining them. This program is studied together carefully by district and state agents. They approve or make suggestions for strengthening as the

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Annual Report, 1934 67 case may be. This program is checked by the District Agent with the agent from time to time during the year. After reports have been sub mitted at the close of the year a comparison is made of the goals set with the results accomplished and this is referred to the agent with comments and suggestions for the next year. It was realized that one reason why young women do not attend club meetings has been that they had no one to care for the small children, so the clubs have provided persons and facilities for taking care of them at the club meetings but in a place removed from the women's group. Older 4-H club girls have assisted in this program and received recognition in club leadership for their efforts. Guidance has been given the club girls in caring for the young children, for it has been recognized that such guidance is excellent training to the girls in developing wholesome attitudes toward family relationships and resourcefulness. MEASURING PROGRESS AND RESULTS Record books prepared by the state staff are furnished each club member in which she can keep accurate records. It has been interesting to observe the increase in number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work and the increase in number of women establishing definite demonstrations in their homes. The State Home Demonstration Council for senior work offers each year an award for the best County Council book which is judged on the appear ance, arrangement and effective development of the council program. This has created interest in keeping record books in the clubs and caused indi vidual members to keep better records not only for themselves but for their clubs and councils. The State Council loving cup was this year awarded to Palm Beach County. STRENGTHENING HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Circular Letters.-Reports show that during 1934 .the agents prepared 2,331 different circular letters for distribution to their club members. At tractive drawings that catch the eye and tell a story in themselves are used advantageously by some of the more original agents and specialists in preparing circular letters that command immediate attention. Publicity.-Twenty-two County Home Demonstration Agents report 77 , radio talks during the year. We participated in the National 4-H Achieve ment Day program over four radio stations in Florida. Excellent cooperation is received continuously from newspapers of the state. Twenty-six counties report 2,425 news articles or stories published. News reporters elected or appointed in the girls' 4-H clubs and women's clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given during Short Course for 4-H Girls and occasional courses in the counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As an outgrowth of this instruction, several councils edit and publish their own news sheets. Several women's councils have similar publications .. Home Visits.-Reports show that the agents made 12,176 home visits to 6,692 homes, an average of about 430 visits per agent. It is felt that mucn has been accomplished by these personal contacts this year, as in many instances there are those who have been kept closer at home because of the expense of travel. Tours.-There is noticeably increased interest among the people them selves in tours or visits to successful result demonstrations in the home. Farm women and girls are proving that certain home activities are extreme ly worthwhile and profitable from an economic standpoint. These successful

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension women and girls and their accomplishments are set up as object lessons. This year 19 agents report 48 tours with an attendance of 965 persons. Club and Council Meetings.-All agents follow a regular schedule of club meetings, meeting each senior and each junior club one~ each month. Most council meetings are held quarterly. The days in the fifth week of the month usually are set aside for special activities and public meetings. The District Agent accompanies the agent to club meetings frequently and plans to attend county council meetings once or twice a year, makes home visits with the agents and frequently attends special events. The State Agent endeavors to keep in touch and informed regarding the work in the county through reports and one or more visits into each county per year. Bulletins and Circulars.-Material has been prepared for agents' use on the family food supply, citrus and canning budgets. Bulletins in greatest demand have included those pertaining to food conservation, economical . meals, and renovation of house furnishings. Agents report that they have distributed 54,534 bulletins. Exhibits.-Regardless of the fact that there were very few awards other than ribbons this year, 23 counties report 208 events at which edu cational exhibits were shown. The articles displayed were carefully scored and the exhibitors were given benefit of the ifindings. The State Home Demonstration staff arranged a special exhibit of home demonstration work for the annual meeting of State Federation of Women's Clubs held in Tallahassee this year. Demonstrations.-The demonstration method of teaching is the one used by Home Demonstration Agents most advantageously. The women and girls with the agent's advice decide on the demonstrations they are to conduct. To assist the women and girls in establishing demonstrations in their homes using recommended methods, the agents held 6,250 method demonstration meetings during the year. There was an attendance at these meetings of 242,110, an increase of 139,145 persons over the attend ance at 6,028 meetings last year. There were 1,726 meetings held at result demonstrations with an at tendance of 30,734. This is almost double the number of meetings at result demonstrations with more than double attendance recorded last year. Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls are encouraged as a means of determining the completeness with which the girls are really adopting principles; to enable them to pass information along to others and for theit own self-development. Seventy-two judging teams and 194 demonstration teams were developed. Those scoring highest in the counties entered state wide contests conducted during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. Local Leaders.-The local women and girls through their councils have assumed an increased share of responsibility for extending the home dem onstration program and so allow more time for the agent to develop work along new or emergency lines. The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils are factors contributing greatly to efficient development of home demonstration work throughout the state. In 1934 a total of 1,260 . older 4-H club girls assisted Home Demonstration Agents as voluntary local leaders. There were 149 training meetings held for leaders attended by 2,259 people. SPECIAL EVENTS Achievement Days.-Community and county achievement days are ob served at the culmination of the year's work. They give recognition to club members for worthy endeavor, help them and the agent observe the

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Annual Report, 1934 69 progress and give the public an opportunity to know more about the work in the county. Features of the program include exhibits, reports, talks, council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates and pins in recognition for work accomplished as clubs and individuals. During the year there were 72 achievement days held, 22 for adults with an attendance of 7,465 and 53 for 4-H club members with an attend ance of 9,212. Carnps.-Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with adults. There were 33 camps held during the summer of 1934, 12 for women, five for boys and girls and 12 entirely for girls. There were in attendance for the duration of the camps 471 women of home demonstration clubs; 1,247 girls, and 1,057 others including visitors, instructors, and leaders who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship and leadership develop ment of the camps conducted by the Home Demonstration Agents. College 4-H club girls, older 4-H girls and local leaders gave excellent assistance to agents in conducting the camps. A well trained woman recreation leader was employed throughout the two months' period of camps to assist' with the work at the West Florida 4-H Camp. Through the courtesy of the State Board of Health a nurse was provided for the duration of the camps. These two workers contributed greatly to the program. The two-day farm and home institute for adults held at the West Florida 4-H club camp was again this year the most inspirational event of the year for farm people of West Florida. Regardless of inconveniences in accommodating large crowds at the camp, attendance and enthusiasm far exceeded that anticipated. Out-of-State Trips.-National 4-H Club Camp: Margaret Alford of Manatee County and Edna Sims of Walton County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Camp. This camp, held annually in Washington, D. C., under the auspices of the Cooperative Extension Service, U. S. De partment of . Agriculture, affords outstanding educational advantages and leadership development. Only the two girls and two boys making the highest score within the states are permitted to attend. The girls' trips this year were financed by 4-H club members and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company. National 4-H Club Congress: There is always keen interest among club members for trips to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress. Only those scoring highest in club work are awarded trips. Recipients of the trips this year were Annabelle Jameson of Polk County, winner in health; Margaret Alford of Manatee, winner in clothing; Marjorie Morrison of Alachua County, winner in State Bread Contest; and Betty Reed of Jefferson County, champion in canning. These trips were financed by Montgomery Ward and Company, Chicago Mail Order Company, North western Yeast Company and Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company. Short Course for 4-H Club Girls.-The State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, held at Florida State College for Women, is the outstanding event of the . 4-H club year. The morale, type of programs, results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 14 years of age or over. There were 343 girls, 54 local leaders and 21 Home Demonstration Agents in attendance this year. Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals. The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by Extension workers and club members in various phases of home demonstration work. Outstanding features were assistance given by college 4-H girls, project

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70 Florida Cooperntive E x tension Fig. 8 .-Betty Re ed , state champion canning girl, has an outstanding record for l!J34. demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for recognition of accom plishm en ts, State Co uncil meetings, recreation and entertainment. Girls who attend the Short Co ur se are charged with the responsibility of making 4-H club work render a larger se rvice by passing knowledge on to others, assisting younger girls with their work, acquainting eligible girls who are not members with what it is and does, and to assist agents wherever possible. Agents u se these girls effectively, particularly in camps and in presenting special pr o grams. Of extre me importance to the s u c ce ss of the Short Course is the fact that on e w ee k is set aside annually in the college year between the spring and summer term s fur the Home Demonstration Department to hold the Short Course without intenuption. Thi s year, as in the past, dormitories, lab o ratorie s, and dassrooms were available. The college nurses rendered valuable a ss istanc e by ke epi ng the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical ca re during the week. Th e dieticians rendered a service that i s out st anding in the minds of the girls, leaders and agents, because

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Annual Report, 1934 71 of the good food so efficiently served. Social directors and various faculty member s were generous with their time a nd assistance . PROJECT ACTIVITIES Specialists have dealt in detail with the projeds to which most attention has been given. Only a short summary of developments and comments on outstanding projects will be given h ere. Objectives in project activities centered around a live-at-hom e program based upon needs. GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS Calendar gardens and orchards are essentia l in every well balanced home demonstration program. Through gardening and perennial planting s more families have an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetab l es and are beautifying their hom e grounds by decorative plantings . Great progre ss has been made in meeting econom i c n eeds through the home gardening program. It is the home garden that i s fir s t turned to for producing foodstuffs when fund s are low. The Economist in Food Conservation has secured splendid cooperation in promoting b e tter gardens and more perennial planting s . Cooperative purchasing and donations of seeds have enab led many families to plant gardens this y e ar. In terest has been stimulated through actually working out food budgets for indi vidual families with the moth ers; utilizing score card; garden scores; demonstrations; and all-year garden contests. Fig. 9. -Home gardens have played an important part in the live-at home program in Florida. Agents held 1 , 116 meetings; published 432 news stories; made 2,495 visits and had 3,482 office calls in connection w ith this project. Women report 3,521 demonstrations carried in home gardening; 370 with market

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72 Florida Cooperatiue E:rtension gardening; and 2,111 with the home orchard. The home gardens and orchards have not only supplied fruits and vegetables but other things for the family resulting from sales amounting to $26,350. There were 3,482 4-H club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and 740 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home garden program. POULTRY Development of the home poultry flock as a part of the home demon stration program is improving family nutrition and increasing the family income. There were 1,167 women in 21 counties who cooperated in the poultry program. However, this is less than half as many as cooperated m this phase of the work in l!l33. Fig. 10.-Home demonstration agents aided farm women with their culling and other poultry problem:-;. Tours to flocks and hatcherie:-; werP made. Reports show $75,542.00 worth of poultry marketed during the year. DAIRYING Improvement in quality of milk for home consumption and increase in the use of milk products in the diet with the view to better nutrition and using the surplus to increase the family income have been goals. Reports from 11 counties show thal 287 families cooperated during the year in the home dairying program. NUTRITION The general plan and purpose for the nutrition work has been to put into operation a simple understandable food program that would result in better food selection, food preparation and meal planning for family, school lunch, group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying and gardening. It has been necessary to give particular attention to economical

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A111111al Report, 19J4 73 meals that were adequate. Results have been deterinined by the improve ment shown in food selection and health scores, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better records from them in health improvement. There were 4,090 girls and 1,855 women who reported adopting improved practices in nutrition work. FOOD COXSER\'ATION This year interest has been high in :
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74 Florida Cooperative Extension appreciatively and beneficially received. There were 2,383 women and 6,920 girls who made garments under the agents' instruction. . Eighteen counties estimate savings due to this clothing program at $27,206.00. Clothing clinics served well in many communities. Clothes in need of renovation were brought to some central place where instruction was given that showed the person bringing the garment how to make a nice looking dress from one or more unattractive ones, a suit from a discarded top coat, or children's garments from unworn parts of adult clothes. Feed sacks were transformed into wearing apparel for women and children, and into other household articles. The proper care of the feet, the selection of shoes, and simple corrective measures for foot defects have been demonstrated as a part of the clothing program. HOME ENGINEERIN'G In spite of low funds there is more abundant living in many farm homes today because during 1934 they were made more comfortable. Some of the many home improvements were as follows: Buildings were improved on 235 farms in seven counties. Three of the seven counties estimate the saving because of this service at $1,500; 30 new dwellings were constructed and 70 dwellings were remodeled; 33 sewage disposal systems, 43 water systems and 17 lighting systems were installed according to recommenda tions. HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION The agents' part in the health program is preventive and educational, guiding demonstrators in the adoption of improved health habits. Work which was started with such activities as clean-up days, fly control, exterior and interior sanitation, and safeguarding the water supply has developed a general consciousness of the importance of. health and its relation. to efficiency, The agents have cooperated with public health workers with good results. During 1934 1,362 homes report having improved home health and sanitation to get . rid of the malarial mosquito and hookworm and other household pests. The State Home Demonstration Office gave assistance in the plans and organizations of sanitary programs directed by CW A, for which CW A was highly appreciative. The agents urged people to take advantage of opportunitJes afforded for installation of sanitary toilets. Through this cooperation 532 sanitary toilets were installed in 18 counties. HOUSE FURNISHINGS There were 1,751 families who reported repairing, remodeling and refinishing furniture. Most popular has been the reclaiming of chairs. Reports from 19 counties show an estimated saving of $24,602 as result of this program. HOME MANAGEMENT There were 940 families who followed recommendations in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment, 400 homes were given help in improving the family laundry problems and 1,146 homes were helped to improve their everyday housekeeping duties. There were 1,901 families who made adjustments to gain a more satisfactory standard of living. There were 409 women who kept home accounts and reported a wiser use of the income, whBe 93 women budgeted their expenses to avoid unwise buying. Also 910 made a study of their buying methods.

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Annual Report, 1934 75 Reports from 11 counties show an estimated saving of $37,737 through participation i~ the home management work undertaken. BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Attention has been given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery, foundation plantings, planting yards according to a plan and the physical appearance of dweHings and the entire premises. . .. Some of the clubs and many individual demonstrators have made def initely planned trips into the woods for native shrubbery. There have been numerous exchanges of plants and shrubs. Seedsmen and nurseries have given splendid cooperation. Clubs are learning the importance of pooling their orders. Through cooperative purchases and distribution by county councils, club members secured a variety of good seed and excellent assortments of plants and shrubbery at small cost. As a part of the program all club members. are expected to grow the adopted county flower. A total of 1,326 women and 1,904 girls have carried definite demonstrations in improving the home grounds during the year. CHILD TRAINING AND CARE .. With more young mothers as members of home demonstration clubs, child training and care is receiving more and more attention. The Extension program emphasizes the kind of diet that promotes growth and health, considers clothing which helps instead of hinders development, and other adjustments necessary for the child's welfare, and the importance of putting into practice information along these lines. There were 2,071 families ' following advice as to home packed school lunches; 358 families report improved habits of children; 107 reported substituting positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 60 provided recommended playground equipment and 71 followed recommendations• regarding furnishings adapted to children's needs. Reports from 10 coun ties show that 945 women and 231 men were participating in this program. MARKETING OF HOME PRODUCTS Efforts have been made to develop a market for salable products to bring in needed cash. Most of these products have been taken from farm surplus or were articles made -from native products. The value of_ such products amounts to $128,681. Farm women have been able to add to the family income by the sale of fresh and canned fruits and vegetables, poultry products, and handicraft articles. In one county the women have established a local demand for their canned products and are now supplying three stores in the county with three varieties of home canned products. A total of $4,507.28 in fresh and canned fruits and vegetables were sold cooperatively and individually by club members of that county this year. Cooperative sales have been the cause of 131 individuals in that county becoming interested in standardizing, grading, and processing products for the market. On the whole the women have been very caTeful to keep up the standard set. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Home Demonstration Agents assisted 400 communities in planning com munity activities to meet the most outstanding needs. Home demonstration and 4-H club members help to keep up the morale of the farm family, maintain good health, provide good reading material, inexpensive forms of family and community recreation and participate in other activities which develop community enrichment.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension Recreation.-Recreation has been one of the outstanding community activities in Florida this year. Five recreational short courses were held under the direction of John Bradford and Jack Knapp of the National Recreation Association. Volunteer leaders from communities attended the short courses, which covered a four nights' period. Following the recreation short course, Extension recreational councils were formed. These have for the most part met regularly each month. In two counties the councils assumed responsibility for taking charge of recreational community night meetings . . I,,ibrari~s.-Libraries have been started by women's clubs and are . a real' asset in the counties. Funds have been raised by the women to operate :t~e lipraries. There were 40 communities assisted in establishing libraries this . year. Otfier Community Work.-Home demonstration clubs have assisted in improving church and i;;chools grounds, arranging for community club houses for meeting place, making surveys, establishing school lunchrooms, conducting local fairs and arranging exhibits . . Through cooperation with FERA, plans are underway for establishment of excellent canning kitchens. The home demonstration club houses and rooms are U!led as regular meeting places and many have equipped kitchens. The club members assist with the upkeep . of the building and . provide . the equipment. . ' . . . r

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Annual Report, 1934 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION Isabelle S. Thursby, Economist in Food Conservation 77 Gardens and orchards, dairy and poultry products are the main sources of food supply for the farm family. Naturally, the Economist in Food Conservation has stressed the production and conservation of home vege tables and fruits to provide the farm family with adequate food of varied ingredients and to enable the family" to have more money available for other needs. The entire program has been centered around the idea that with soil, climatic and seasonal conditions as they are in Florida there is no valid reason why every rural family cannot largely feed itself. Fruits and vegetables can be grown in every section of the state the year round. A standard has been set calling for fresh Florida fruits and vegetables on the table every day in the year, a well filled pantry with canned fruits and vegetables for use out of season and in rush times, and home poultry products as a part of the daily diet. This standard is striking a responsive chord among farm families in every county where Home Demonstration Agents are working. GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS HOME GARDEN WORK Renewed and increased interest in home gardens was evidenced this year, and demands for assistance consequently multiplied. Women enrolled in home demonstration clubs made every effort to have fresh garden products for their tables every month in the year. Compilations show that the home demonstration women grew 3,521 "calendar" gardens in 1934. Fres.h fruits llnd vegetables sold had a valuation of $26,35Q,21, while those canned, preserved and made into jellies reached a total value of $227,718.81. In addition to the provision of some kind of fresh garden product for each month, the women have grown larger numbers and different varieties of vegetables to add zest to the menu. They have planned t<> produce enough for canning and in many cases to sell. Records of their work have drawn increased attention this year also. The women are learning through figures on cost of production ~nd v11lue of products that the home garden is quite worth while from the financial standpoint as well as providing good health for the members of the family. PERENNIAL PLANTINGS OR CALENDAR ORCHARDS The calendar orchard is another very important objective. Florida people have at their finger tips a largess of fruits if they only take the trouble to grow them. In the northern section of the state such fruits as pears, peaches, persimmons, figs, quinces, muscadines and other grapes grow with little encouragement, yet there are hundreds of rural homes without a fig tree, without a pear or plum, without a scuppernong or persimmon. The need for more fruit, in greater variety, is easily recognized when working out the canning budget and the budget is proving to be a very direct and convincing argument for the calendar orchard. Many agents have reported of its stimulating influence for more and better plantings. A calendar orchard plan for Florida was worked out by H. H. Hume, assistant director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Gainesville, and supplied in mimeographed form to interested families throughout the state. It is a guide as to number of trees to plant, varieties, distance, and so on.

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78 Florida Cooperative E;rtension In many counties large numbers of families were contacted in reference to the all-year orchard, their interest aroused, and orders for trees and vines were pooled. In this way the nurseries of the state made it possible for many more people to obtain plants than could have obtained them individually and at regular prices. The total number of calendar orchards planted in 1934 by home dem onstration women was 2,111. These included fruit trees, berry and grape vines. GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS BY 4-H GIRLS The planting program for girls is outlined very definitely, with set requirements for four years of work. The suggested perennials for plant ing in the various sections of the state are listed in the Girls' Garden Record Book. Each girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs and to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality. The planting of a definite number of fruit trees or berries is a part of the first year's requirements. For the current year there were 3,803 club girls enrolled in gardening. Out of this number there were 2,556 completions. FOOD CONSERVATION Club members eager to work in the present emergency, have more than ever before taken avidly to food conservation and to the idea of planning their pantries to take care of the "lean" months. The stories of the club members themselves indicate that they feel well repaid for their efforts in this direction. Fig. 12.-These Orange County 4-H ch.ib girls become proficient at canning. One outstanding feature in food conservation work this year is that in so many instances canning has been done greatly in excess of the budgetary needs of the family. The surplus above the family's own needs has been sold to bring in much needed cash, exchanged or bartered for necessities the family lacked. Many club girls and women were able to pay their way to camp by means of their canned products.

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Annual Report, 1934 MEAT CANNING 79 Reports indicate that never before has meat canning been so ge'n~rally practiced throughout the state and over all the year. This year the canning of beef has gained in favor, and has resulted in a greatly improved meat supply. . The agents report that impetus has been given by the canning budget, which calls >: attention to the meats needed by the family during the year. , .. , r . . . . One agent' alone gave 140 demonstrations in canning beef, 125 ' with pork, 15 with poultry and four with lamb. THE CANNING BUDGET The goal for Detter gardens, for calendar orchards; better buclketed and filled pantri~s, . and mo:r;e and better storage places for the canned food supply, has been uppermost injmportance in the program of work for the year. Canning budget making in all ~ounties begins with the individual demonstrator whose family needs and tastes are not exactly like her neigh bor's. Time is taken at regular club meetings for thoughtful, careful, computation of the budgetary needs of the various families at the beginning of the season for canning a6tivities. The . progress made with the canning budget plan is perhaps best told by Miss Elise Laffitte of Gadsden County, who has given consistent, thoughtful . attention to the plan ever since its introduction to the canning program. Miss Laffitte states: . "Two years ago a few farm :women in Gadsden County became interested in doin g teir home canning by a carefully computed budget, budgeting for the : purpose . of supplying the variety of canned foods necessary to supplement the fresh . fruits and vegetables available from the home garden and ore . hard in order to provide well-balanced meals 365 days during the . . "While ' the amounts canned by the individual families vary because of the difference in the amounts and varieties of these fresh products grown on the different farms, the approximate estimate of canned products for a family of five in Gadsden County has been placed at 600 quarts for a year. The 600 quarts are divided into the following groups and amounts: canned fruits, 170 quarts; fruit juices, 80 quarts; vegetables, 216 quarts; meats, 62 quarts; sweets, 52 quarts; pickles, 36 quarts. The women who did their 1933 canll~ng according _,. to . this plan were so well pleased with the results it{ providing a balane~d and healthful food supply in their homes throughout the year, that they talked a great deal about their pantries. Twenty-one of these women showed their pantries on a pantry tour held in September, 1933. From this, interest in doing home canning by budgets increased, and plans for the 1934 canning were started. "Early in the year one meeting of each woman's home demonstration club in the county was devoted to a discussion on canning for home by a carefully computed budget. At this time the budget sheets we,re explained and the names of those women who expressed interest in canning by a budget were listed. In all 187 women expressed a desire to plan a canning budget and to can towards completing the budget by November 1934. The Home Demonstration Agent then assisted each woman to plan her budget. Of the 187 women who planned to do their . home canning according to a budget, 57 completed their budgets as computed, 80 lacked a very " small quantity of canning the amounts and only 50 lacked more than 25 . quarts of completing.their budgets. These failures were due . largely to a shortage of bearing fruit , t~~ ., pn their farms . .: .ince these failures to can _ th!:! full allotments of fruit~have stimulated .litri" interest in orchard plantings for this winter, perhaps the failures haven't been so bad after all. The 187

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Fig. 13.-Home Demonstration Club women, with the aid of their agents, ma

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Annual Report, 1934 81 women who canned by budgets have families ranging in size from two to 12. These families total 896 individuals. The amount canned by the 187 women during 1934 for home use in Gadsden County is 93,632 quarts." CANNING CONTESTS AND PANTRY TOURS Canning contests are introduced and formulated with the idea of getting greater enthusiasm and interest in the food conservation program. They are outlined in the way that is considered the best and almost direct route for bringing about the desired practices with the least waste of time and effort. The rules and regulations as set up for 1933 were not changed for 1934. In counties where the canning budget contest has been conducted, pantry tours have been featured. Visits were made to most of the outstanding pantries in each county, stimulating the women who had canned and those who had not. Their influence spread to neighboring communities and counties and gave impetus to the work. Another result of these pantry tours and budget canning contests has been an increase in number of suitable pantries built for storing the canned goods. Des _ irable storage capacity is lacking on entirely too many farms. SINGLE-JAR CONTEST FOR WOMEN This contest features quality packs of both fruit and vegetables from a large number of women. The county participating in this contest holds a canning achievement day at which a club member may bring in her choicest jar of plain canned fruit or vegetables to compete against the best from other pantries in the county. These are judged for county winners and the best jar of fruit and the best of vegetables is sent to the state _ home demonstration office to be scored county against county. The three highest scoring jars in both . classes as well as high scoring pantries, are awarded splendid cash and other prizes, by several manufac turing com ' panies. GIRLS' CANNING CONTEST A contest similar' to the one for women is held for girls. The girls are divided into groups of those 10 to 14 years of age and those 15 and over. Elimination contests are held in the local clubs to select the best two containers for the county contest. In turn, the two containers judged best in the county are sent to the State Home Demonstration Department where the girls at Short Course are given an opportunity to participate in further judging and scoring of all the canned products entered. These contests serve to bring greater color and interest in canning activities and encourage club members to grade more closely and to can food materials when in their prime condition, as well as to train to be more discriminating and more generally careful. A club girl, to enter the junior part of the contest, must have canned the requirements of the first or second year's work, and have submitted her record and story to her agent as called for on the achievement day for her club. To enter the senior or advanced girls' canning contest, the club member must have canned the requirements for the third year canning program or more. In addition, she must exhibit at annual State Short Course a balanced meal, selected from the year's work, consisting of .five quart jars which may be used in the preparation of (1) an emergency dinner to include a meat, vegetables, a fruit and a pickle or relish; (2) the jars must

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Florida Cooperati v e Extension be accompanied by the complete JP.enu for this meal. This may . be supple mented by bread and butter, a rawfruit or vegetable for salad and a drink. The three g _ irls scoring , highest in the Emergency ;Meal Contest . were given an opportunity to work further on their canning records through the summer and resubmit them in October to be judged .•for the state-wide canning contest. The winner was awarded a trip to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congre s s in Chicago, given by another glass manufacturer. .. . . . . ' ' . . . ' RELIEF CANNING . . . Ifo~e Demonstration Agents in aU counties where they were working rendered valuable assistance to the Federal Emergency Relief Administra tion in canp.ing for families on relief rolls. In many cases the agencies in the county established canning centers and furnished cans, taking toll to pay the costs. The agents, with their experience in canning work, were called on frequently to assi _ st in getting the work organized. Many of them ioaned their own equipment, where necessary equipment was not available. Through this work the program for conservation has reached many who had not been touched before, and they have been taught to use what they had and to depend on their own efforts for relief. The FERA recently assigned an architect with wide experience to assist with the planning of community canning kitchens and centers, that these might be made inore up-to-date and sanitary. Considerable up-to date canning equipment is now available ; and improvement in the canning set-up is anticipated. EXHIBITS . As usual, a large and varied exhibit of citrus by-products, canned "hearts",preserves, spiced marmalades, candied and baked citrus goods was s et up at the.Florida Orange Festival 'the last week . in January in Winter Haven. This year marked the beginning of a competitive exhibit between the counties . and individuals within the counties. UTILIZATION OF HONEY IN THE HOME Reports do not altogether show the increasing interest in beekeeping among women nor in the greater use of honey in general cookery. The Economist is keenly interested in honey and honey-made products and has encouraged the use of part honey in the place of part sugar .in jelly making as well as its more frequent use in cookery. The 55 page bulletin, Florida Honey and Its Hundred Uses, written in cooperation with Dr. Waldo Horton; then president of the Florida Bee keepers' Association, and printed by the State Department of Agriculture for the benefit of the honey industry, ha s received wide and favorable com mendation within the . state and without . In fact, it was said by the National Honey Institute to be the finest publication on the subject yet published by any state in the Union.

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Amial Report, 1934 . 83 FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH Anna Mae Sikes, Extension Nutritionist Mrs. ;Eva R. Culley, Acting Extension Nutritionist The food, nutrition and health program for 1934 was a continuation of the "long-time" program planned the previous year, to bring about ap 0 preciable changes in food production, food selection and food consumption practices. This project has been very closely allied with the home dairy, family meat supply, year-round garden, calendar orchard, home canned foo!l lmdget, and home sanitation during the year. " The problem of providing an adequate diet with limited resources con~ fronted many Florida families, and budgets for the family income demanded special attenti~n, 'while stress was laid on providing a happy, healthful living for every meniber of the families. With a reduction in the money available for family meals, a problem of meal planning and food prepara tion arose which made it necessary to . teach careful preparation of low cost foods so that they would be palatable, satisfying and appetizing to the individuals and at . the same time provide for their body needs. In general,Jhe aims of the food, n _ utrition and health program have been; To give instructions as to the importance of providing the family food supply, emphasizing ; pr<:iquction, selection and preparation in order to secure the best possible balanced n
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84 Florida Cooperatire Extension FOOD PREPARATION The objectives of the work in food preparation have been to help rural women to learn to get the full value of foods by having them properly prepared and served, to choose and file good recipes, to prepare and serve products of high quality at all times, and to prepare foods into palatable but inexpensive dishes, Fig. 14.-Gulf County 4-H club girls make cheese for home use and for sale, utilizing surplus milk produced on the farm. Improved practices in food preparation were followed in 23 counties. In some counties food dietaries were worked out for home demonstration club and relief families, the women using them as a basis for buying or growing food products and planning meals. This is the one phase of home demonstration work in which every member of the family is interested. This year more than ever before it has been necessary to make food adjustments. To do this intelligently, women had to have a more thorough working knowledge of the nutritive value of foods and their relation to health. Consequently many demon strations were given in food selection and preparation . .\IEAL PLANNING Home demonstration club women realize that time, labor and money are saved by careful meal planning. At the close of the year there were 1,814 families following food buying recommendations of the agents, and 4,193 families were serving better balanced meals. Work along this line was intended to teach the women to save time and labor by careful meal planning, to plan, prepare and serve well balanced meals, to plan and prepare low-cost emergency meals, to buy foods wisely,

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Annual Report, 1934 85 and to relate food canning budgets to balanced diets, meal planning and the family income. FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH FOR THE SCHOOL CHILD It was noted that 2,071 homes have improved home-packed school lunches according to recommendations of Extension workers. Also, 48 schools involving 11,742 children were following recommendations for the hot dish supplement or school lunch this year. Health protection, good posture and optimum health standards were encouraged, physical examinations were emphasized, and school lunchroom projects were encouraged and plans were given. Mothers were urged to re1ate the school lunch to the child's daily diet, and to prepare and pack or serve different types of school lunches. THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD Work with mothers which related to the younger, or pre-school child, was conducted in 20 counties, and reports show that 1,283 homes are using improved methods in child feeding. A number of families report improved health habits . of ~hildren. ' Physical examinations have been given and suggestions made for corL recting defects. In this, the home demonstration workers have assisted representatives of the State Board of Health. . Through this program, mothers have been assisted in learning the value of pre-natal care, studying the mother's diet and diets . for pre-school chil dren, becoming informed on improved methods and practices of child feed ing. They have been encouraged to give correct training to the pre-school child, and to provide health protection and physical examinations for every pre-school child, with defects being corrected before the child enters school. WISE BUYING Much emphasis this year has been placed on the wise selection of foods to give adequate, well balanced meals with whatever money was available for food purchases. With decreases in family incomes, this was an im portant project throughout the state. The women were taught to obtain the most for their food dollar and at the same time secure the right kind of diet for the family. A number of radio 'talks were made and news articles written outlining the 'different kinds and combinations of low-cost foods for adequate meals. Demonstrations and talks on the subject were given at club meetings. NUTRITION WORK WITH 4-H CLUB GIRLS The goal for the girls was to develop in every club girl an understanding of and a desire for positive health, through the recognition and formation of good health habits and proper food selection, and through physical examinations and correction of defects. Twenty-three counties reported that 2,555 girls completed the food, nutrition and health program as outlined. All 4-H club girls choosing the food, nutrition and health project were required to have a physical examination at the beginning . of the year and a scoring of their food selection and health habits at least three times during the year. Demonstrations were given in food selection and preparation, meal planning, table service, and various phases of health education, such as correct posture, good health habits, home hygiene and first aid.

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86 Florida Cooperative E:dension Fig. 15.-Jefferson County 4-H girls, with a former club girl as local leader, are excellent home bread bakers. ST ATE AND NATION AL CONTESTS For further development of the girls' program, contests were held in various phases, such as health, posture, bread making and bread judging. Girls winning first places in health and bread judging in the state contests attended the National Club Congress in Chicago and entered similar contests there. The Florida health girl placed in the red ribbon class, while the bread judging winner finished second in the national contest. SHORT COURSE AND CAMPS At the annual short course, every girl received instruction in health education and nutrition, while one group of the girls took major training in these subjects. They were given daily lessons in food selection, prepara tion and scoring. County camps for both girls and women provided excellent opportunities for presenting this phase of the home demonstration program. In some counties the girls were allowed to pay their expenses at camp by bringing food products, either fresh or canned. This gave impetus to the food pro duction program.

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Annual Report, 1934 HOME IMPROVEMENT Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement 8'i The home improvement program of work consists of projects in home management, rural engineering, house furnishings, thrift, home sanitation, beautification of home. grounds, electrification, 4-H club work, and planning the entire home site. Thus it provides something of interest for 'nearly every rural home. HOME MANAGEMENT . In the home management project the entire planning is around the demonstration of the kitchen. Good management of the entire home may emanate from this demonstration of kitchen improvement; by making a floor plan of the kitchen and its present routing and then improving this routing so as to save steps and time; by raising or lowering working surfaces to save energy or loss of energy and provide comfortable working conditions. Apparently small items cause a great loss of energy,'. also often cause loss of money because of. doctors' bills. Another home management problem,. also a home. engineering. one, .is to do away with the lifting of tons of water each year by having the water piped into the house by the use of electrical power or hydraulic ram. It has been proven that water in the house decreases doctors'•bills, thus.saving money for other improvements. One county started three years ago to keep home records in five differ ent homes; this year they report 25 homedemonstration club members. are keeping accounts. The following statistics show the progress of home management this year: L Number of homes keeping accounts ................................................ : ... .. 2. Homes budgeting expenditures in relation to income ................... . 3. Number of homes following recommended methods in buying ....... : 143 93 910 4. Nu~?~r of women following a recommended schedule for home activities ............................................................................ .................... ... 230 5. Kitchens rearranged for convenience.................................................. 360 . 6. Number of homes following recommendations in obtaining laborsaving equipment ............................................................... . ................... . 7; Numoer of homes adopting recommended laundering methods ..... . 8. Number of homes practicing every-day good housekeeping ........... . 9. Homes assisted in an analysis of their home conditions with 941 400 1,146 reference to a standard of living ............. ,............................................ 882 10. Homes assisted in making adjustments in homemaking to gain a more satisfactory standard of living ............................................... . 11. Families assisted in home soap making ................ ,:;.:.cc , .............• 12. Number of 4-H club.members keeping personal accounts ... , .......... ;; 13. Number of families assisted in developing home industries as a 1,901 297 409 means of supplementing income .......................... , ........... : ........... ....•..... ,. 604 14. Families having increased time for rest and leisure as a result of the home management program., ........... ........ : .. , ... , .........•.. , ............. : 428 15. Number of families following other specific practice recommendations ........... ........................ ... ............................................ , ... .... . 18 In Western Florida the women have more leisure time du~ to'th~ crop reduction programs, the women .being freed from many field duties that heretofore had demanded much of their time. Consequently, they . have more time for reading, more knowledge of public affairs that affect the home, more time for food conservation and gardening.

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension RURAL ENGINEERING Many of the home engineering projects, particularly the building of new homes and remodeling of old ones, have been at a standstill this year, due to urgency of other demands for available money. However, as shown by the following statistics, progress has been made. 1. Number of dwellings constructed according to plans furnished ....... . 30 2. Dwellings remodeled according . to plans furnished....... .. ............ . . . .... 23 : 3_ Water systems installed according . to recommendations .... . ..... ... ....... 43 4. Number of sewage systems installed.... .. ......... . .. ..... ..... .. .. . ............ . ...... 33 5. Heating systems installed........... . .. .......................... . .......................... . ...... 3 6. Lighting systems installed ........................ , ... ...... ,. . ........ . .. . .. . .......... .. . . ...... 18 7. Number of home appliances and machines ... ... ..... ........ . . .. . . ............. .. .... 719 8. Number of home dairy buildings constructed.... ... ........................... .. .... 4 HOME FURNISHINGS AND THRIFT Women and girls have been busy creating something beautiful out of things near at hand and that cost nothing in most instances. Boxes and barrels have been converted into usable furniture such as comfortable overstuffed chairs and seats, where discarded automobile springs have been used. The Florida moss was used for the padding, with a layer of cotton on top. While there has been but little furniture bought, many families are learning to create household articles at little or no cost. Slip covers of tied and died mill-end materials and remnants of cretonne have been made for these articles of furnishings.
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Annual Report, 1934 89 Health in cooperation with the FERA. People generally are more conscious of the hazards of hookworm and malaria. These organizations would put in a pit privy where the individuals would furnish the materials. The following projects in home sanitation were completed during the past year: 1. Number of families installing sanitary closets . ...... . ........... .. ........ .. . 532 2. Number of homes screened. ...... . .. ....... ........ .. ..... . ...................... .. .... . . .. ... 463 3. Number of families following other recommended methods of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects . .. . ..................... . ... .. .. .. . 1,362 4. Number of individuals enjoying improved health as a result of health and sanitation program . .... . ......•.......... . ..... . ... . ................ . . . .. . .. .. .. 8,709 BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS Home beautification is receiving more attention in rural homes. The home demonstration club members are encouraged to draw plans for the improvement of the home. They are encouraged to plant green grass and shrubbery for foundation plantings. There has been splendid cooperation between the nurserymen and the Home Agents. Tours have been conducted to encourage these improvements. Fig. 16.-This Alachua County farm home, improved by a home dem onstration club woman, took first prize in a home improvement contest covering three states. Home beautification throughout the state was done to the extent of: 1. Number of homes improved by establishment and care of lawn .... 526 2. Number of homes improved by planting shrubbery and trees . .. ..... 1,111 3. Number of homes improved by repair of walks, drives, or fences 272 4. Number of homes benefited by improving appearance of house and outbuildings ......... ... . ........ . . .. .......................... ... .... .. . .. ...... ................... 535 5. Number of rock gardens built...... ..... ........... ................. ......... . . .. . ........... 2 6. Number of grass plots......... .............. ... . ........ .......... ............. . ................. 25 7. Number planting county flower ... ................ .. . ..... . ....... . ...... . .... .... . ...... .. 250

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension F A _ RM HOUSING SURVEY On December 14, 1933, the Home Improvement Specialist was loaned to the Civil Works Administration by the Agricultural Extension Service to conduct the Farm Housing Survey in Florida. This was directed by Dr. Louise Stanley, Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Home Economics, cooper ating with the Agricultural Extension Service. Seven areas were selected by a state committee, the following counties being chosen: : Escambia, Alachua, Orange, Polk, Hillsborough, Dade, and Leon-Gadsden . The com mittee decided that this group of counties would show a cross-section of the various farm, fruit, dairy and poultry enterprises. The County Home Demonstration Agents were asked to suggest efficient county supervisors to have charge of the work in each area. A personnel of not over 14 enumerators to a county, a chief clerk, two stenographers, and an engineer or an architect, _ was quickly set up. By January 1, every area was set up for operati!>n, A training school with all personnel present in each county was held to show them how to proceed . . Following the initial survey, the engineers, contractors or carpenters in each county (except Alachua) used a method which was outlined by a group of agricultural engineers and plans furnished by the Washington office. Each day the man helpei' checkea over the enumerators' blanks and selected the poor, fair, and better ho~es of three or more rooms. He then visited the houses to be repaired or remodeled, taking another blank in order to check the needed repairs and estimate the cost of making the repairs in each county.

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Annual Report, 1934 91 PART IV-NEGRO WORK MEN'S WORK A. A. Turner, Local District Agent Negro Extension work in Florida. was carried on in 1934 with a force of 14 local agents, six men and eight women. The men worked in the following counties: Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion, and Suwannee. Negro farm agents in Hamilton and Columbia counties have been con ducting the work in Suwannee County this year, since that county has no Negro farm agent. Demonstrations were conducted during the year with corn, cotton, legume crops for feed and soil improvement, white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pea nuts, fruits, garden <;rops, poultry and livestock. The program resulted in outstanding achievements in better farming and homemaking in 87 communities. Voluntary local leaders rendered valuable assistance in the work. While the signing of contracts and other details connected with the Agricultural Adjustment program were carried out by the white agents, Negro agents advised with their farmers concerning the programs with cotton, tobacco, corn and hogs. PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS The program of work for the year was based on the needs of Negro farmers and their families in the various communities, as determined by observations made at the beginning of the year. That it was effective is shown by a check-up on progress and results accomplished. It was found that marked improvement had been made along the following lines: Better quality products brought about by careful selection of improved seed and varieties. Decreases in cost of production through the use of better varieties, improved methods of cultivation and economical fertilization. Prevention of erosion and improvement of soil by growing legumes and winter cover crops. The improvement of livestock on the farm through better breeding, care and attention. Twelve county-wide meetings were held near the end of the year for discussing problems confronting Negro farmers and homemakers. They had a total attendance of 2,240. The problems of the Negro farmers are similar to those of white farmers, and the Negro agents have had assistance throughout the year from the white agents in their counties and in the state offices. The work for the year has centered around . a "live-at-home" program . which was deemed advisable for Negro families. Stich a program not only helps them to assure themselves of a living, but it enables them to improve their economic status with the income derived from cash crops. The local agents this year have endeavored to stimulate the idea of self-help. PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS CORN Local agents devoted 249 days to corn demonstration~, there being 85 adult result demonstrations with this crop. They held 49 meetings at result demonstrations and 67 at method demonstrations.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension Four-H club members grew 426 acres of corn, which yielded 8,837 bushels or an average of 21 bushels to the acre. This is well above the average yield of most farms. OATS AND RYE Nine method demonstrations were conducted with oats and two with rye. Three meetings were held at result demonstrations with oats of which there were seven. , Six club members enrolled for oats demonstrations and two completed. , Ten acres were involved in the completed projects and they yielded 150 bushels of oats. PASTURES There were eight : adult result demonstrations with pastures, and two meetings were held at these demonstrations. Method demonstrations ac counted for 13 meetings, and two other meetings concerned pastures. Eight 4-H club members were enrolled and four completed pasture demonstrations involving 12 acres. COWPEAS AND FIELD PEAS Cowpeas are grown for soil improvement and for hay, while field peas are used for feeding poultry by a number of Negro farmers. Agents urged the planting of these and other legumes for building more fertile lands, and devoted 45 days to demonstrations with these crops. They enrolled 25 boys in 4-H club projects with peas, and 14 of the boys completed their demonstrations. VELVET BEANS Velvet beans are becoming more widely used for soil building and for feed, furnishing good grazing during the early winter months when cows are turned onto fields from which corn has been harvested . . Negro agents conducted nine demonstrations and held two meetings. They enrolled 20 4-H club boys, of whom 12 completed their projects involving 60 acres. SNAP BEANS Field or snap beans are grown as a side-line crop, Negro farmers occasionally making good money with them in spring and again in early fall. Local. agents devoted 24 days to work with field beans in 20 com munities and held 17 meetings at demonstrations. Three boys enrolled in 4-H club projects with this crop, and produced 130 bushels on their six acres. PEANUTS Peanuts are a chief forage and legume crop among Negro farmers in practically all counties in which local agents work. They are grown on a large scale for hog feed as well as for cash sale. Special demonstrations conducted this year showed that closer spacing almost doubled the yield. Recommendations of agents with regard to fertilizers and marketing were followed by seven and 43 farmers, respectively. A total of 149 farm ers were assisted in using timely economic information on the subject. Sixty-nine demonstrations were conducted by men and 24 meetings were held. There were 130 4-H club boys enrolled, 74 completing. The 163 acres in the completed club projects yielded 3,690 bushels.

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Annual Report, 1934 SWEET POTATOES 93 Sweet potatoes are grown on practically every Negro farm for home consumption. Many farmers also grow some for sale. Local agents con ducted 18 adult demonstrations with sweet potatoes this year, and held 26 meetings on the subject. Thirty farmers followed fertilizer recommenda tions. They enrolled 34 club members, all of whom completed their projects, producing 1,100 bushels of potatoes on 12 acres. COTTON Cotton demonstrations were aimed primarily at improving the yield, and consequently the profits, through the use of improved seed and proper fertilizing and spacing. The agents devoted 109 days to 41 cotton demon strations and 36 meetings for adults. They enrolled 98 boys in cotton clubs, and 54 finished the project for the year. Recommendations by agents and number of farmers following them included the following subjects: Fertilizers, 157; insect control, 13; market ing, 97; other information, 864. Practically all Negro farmers growing cotton signed adjustment contracts. TOBACCO Only a few Negro farmers in counties having agents grow tobacco. One farmer in Alachua County reported 1,496 pounds of flue 0 cured tobacco sold at 271/2 cents a pound. The agents devoted 36 days . to tobacco dem onstrations and held six meetings. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING . Wi . th better prices for their products this year, farmers have had more available cash and have been able to make needed repairs and additions to the physical equipment of their farms. New fences have been erected and old ones repaired, new outhouses and . buildings have been constructed, electric lights have been installed and better water supplies provided. Ten demonstrations were conducted along this line. Assistance was reniiered . in the maintenance and repair of farm machinery on 2i farms . . A summary of worlc with buildings and equipment shows that iO iight systems were installed, six dwellings constructed and eight remodeled, two silos, two . hog houses, one poultry house, two storage structures and eight other buildings were constructed. FORESTRY Five farmers adopted improved practices in the production of naval stores and 19 cooperated in the prevention of forest fires. There were 10 who assisted in timber estimation and appraisal, one who followed wood preservation recommendations, and seven who carried out suggestions in marketing forest products, POULTRY The men agents devoted 68 days to poultry work in 35 communities. One family did improved poultry breeding work. Thirty-one families were assisted in the purchase of baby chicks, while 312 followed recommenda tions in chick . rearing. Marketing recommendations were followed by 12 families, parasite and disease control by 287, and better feeding practices ~

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension LIVESTOCK AND SWINE Better dairy cows with improved pastures and more feed have been recommended, and considerable improvement is noted. Recommendations of the agents for control of parasites and diseases were followed by 108 farmers, and marketing assistance was rendered to 10. There were 123 farmers assisted in obtaining purebred sires, and 76 in obtaining high grade or purebred females. Fourteen boys were enrolled in dairy club work, and eight completed the project with 12 animals. Three farmers were helped to secure high grade or purebred beef sires and eight boys were registered in the beef clubs. In the work with swine the agents aided farmers in obtaining 36 pure bred sires and 20 high grade females. They conducted 18 demonstrations and held 28 meetings. Hundreds of hogs were inoculated against cholera in two counties. In 4-H swine work 63 boys enrolled and 28 completed. The screw worm fly continued to give trouble to farm animals of all kinds in 1934, but was most severe on hogs and cattle. Local agents assisted in screw worm control, and a vigorous campaign was kept up throughout the entire season when the pest was doing its greatest damage. HOME GARDENS Home gardens on every farm were promoted to improve the health of the family by giving its members a diversified diet and to help the Negro families to produce more of their living at home. A campaign for year round gardens was put on early in the year with the agents urging the planting of at least three leaf, three pod and three root vegetables. Fig. 17.-Calendar orchard near a Negro home in Marion County. Seven different varieties of fruit trees furnish fresh fruits over most of the year.

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Annual Report, 1934 95 The agents counseled about fertilizer on 36 farms, in s ect control on 74, and marketing on 22. They conducted 47 demonstrations and held 38 meetings. Fifteen enrolled in 4-H garden clubs and 11 completed. A number of Negro farmers grew truck crops as their cash product, and 21 of them cooperated in demon s trations. Enrollment in the 4-H club attracted six. Surplus truck crops which could not . be marketed to . advantage were canned unde rthe direction of the FERA. HOME ORCHARDS . Despite the scarcity of funds for purchasing nursery stock, efforts of the . agents in promoting home orchards met with hearty response. They recommended the planting and care of pears, scuppernongs, bunch grapes , Japanese persimmons, " blueberri e s, pecans and satsuma oranges for rounding out the:family diet. MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES RECREATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOLS Two recreational training schools-the .first of their kind for Negroes in Florida-were held this year. They were directed by Mr. and Mrs. John Bradford of the National Playground and Recreation Association~ They were held at Fessenden Academy, near Ocala, and at the A. & M. College for Negroes in Tallahassee. They were attended by Negro farm and home agents, vocational agriculture and Jean s teachers, and social and welfare workers. LIST OF LOCAL FARM AND HOME AGENTS County Farm Agent Address Alachua : ... . . .. . .... ..... ... : . . . .. .. ... . . . . ... F. E. Pind e r .. ...... . .. .. . .... . . .. . . . ...... . . .. .... ... Gainesville ~~lihe~~ Suwannee } .... .. .. ..... ,E. S. Belvin . .. . . . ....... . ... . . .. . . .. .... ... _. .. . . .... . . Lake City ~~~~tS~wannee } . .. . . ........... N. H. Bennett .. . ....... .. ... . . ................ . White Springs J ackson . . . . ..... . .. . .. .. .. . . . ..... . . . . ... . . . .. .J . E . Granberry. , . . . . .. .. . .. .... ........... , ........ Marianna Jefferson .... .. . .. ... .. .. : ..... . . . . .. . ... ..... . M . E. Groover . . .. ... .. . .. .. . . ............ . ..... . ..... Monticello Marion ... .... . . . .. . . ........... .. . .. ........... W ; B. Young ............. . . ... ... . ............. . . .. ............. Ocala Hi;,me Agent . . Alachua . .. .. .. ... ... . ...... .. .. . . . . ..... .. ... . Mary Todd McKenzie . . .. . . .. . . . .. .... ... ....... . . ... W aldo Duval ......... .. ... . ......... . .. .. .. . . . ......... Ethel M. Powell .... .. .. . . . . .. . ........... .. . . ... . Jacksonville Gadsden: .......... . ........... . ............. :Diana H. Bouie ....... . ... . ................ . : . ............. Quincy Hillsborough .......... .. .. .. .. . ........... Floy Britt .. .. .. . , ........... . . . . .. . . ........... . ............... Tampa Jefferson .. .. . . . . ...... . ...... ..... .. . .... . ... Lor e na Shaw ..... , . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .... . .... . . . ... . .. Monticello Leon ..... . . . .. ... . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . . .... . . ... ....... Alice W. Poole ... ... .. ... . . . . ... .. .. . . . .. . ... . ... . Tallahassee Madison .... . . . . . ........... . ... .. . ... . ....... Althea Ayer . ......... .. .. . .. . . . .. .. ..... . ..... .. . .. . .. . .... Madison Marion ... . ... .... .............. . . . ... . ....... . .Idella R. Kelley ........ .... .. , . . ......... . .. . .. .. ........ Reddick

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96 Florida Cooperative &;tension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Report by Miss Virginia P. Moore, Specialist in Home Improvement Home demonstration work for Negro women and girls is conducted in the following counties: Alachua, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson; Duval, Marion, Hillsborough, Madison, St. Johns, and Sumter. The work was discontinued in St. Johns June 30th and begun in Jeffer son County. The agent in Sumter was moved to Gadsden County July 31st. These new counties have a large Negro farm population. There has been no district Negro home demonstration supervisor since 1933, due to lack of funds. The State Home Demonstration Agent and three District Home Demonstration Agents have outlined and supervised the Negro work, with the assistance of other members of the staff. Subject matter material and record books are supplied the Negro agents. The goal of the Negro work has been to keep the Negro population off' of the relief rolls and in spite of hard times to help them to help themselves. There has been an increase in home dairy cows for the family needs. It is becoming a goal in hundreds of families to get a young heifer calf of good breed and keep it for a future milk cow. The women agents . plan with the entire family their feed needs for the livestock. Better breeds of turkeys, ducks, chickens and guineas are be coming more noticeable. Many families are raising the sow and pigs each year for their meat supply, as well as lard, and all scraps of odds and ends in meat are used for making soap. One de:qionstration club member reports more than 200 lbs. of soap made. Many have honey, and each one has a cane patch. If they do not have cane for syrup they are taught to barter hog meat, chickens and canned products for what they do not have. FOOD CONSERVATION The home agents advise the mothers and home demonstration members about their food habits, and how to buy to the best advantage when buying is necessary. Most Negro families have a collard patch, onions, turnip greens, pumpkins and cushaws in the winter, and this mixed with hog meat, grits or hominy, syrup or honey, and milk, is "fine living". The canning of pork in various ways has been a great thing for Negro families. Canned sausage, backbone, spareribs, head cheese, and roasts, provide meat for the entire year. This plan also reduces ill1;1ess because too much "fresh pork" is not eaten now to "save it"; canned meat is as fine as fresh meat. The following canned products were conserved by home demonstration club members: Quarts of fruits, vegetables and meat canned ................... . .... 24,895 Containers of jam, jelly, or other products .............................. 9,955 Pounds of fruits and vegetables stored or dried ......... . .... . ..... 2,174 HOME IMPROVEMENT Many homes have been improved throughout the state under the direc tion of the Negro Home Demonstration Agents. In Hillsborough County alone 126 Negro homes have been improved. The sanitation and beautifi cation of yards also has made marked improvement. . Seventy-four sanitary toilets have been built during the past year, and 30 houses screened. House furnishings have gone forward in a fine way by utilizing every thing at hand such as sacks, moss, shucks, curtains, and bedspreads made of sacks of all kinds; better mattresses made or remodeled, old chairs bottomed with shucks.

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Annual Report, 1934 97 There were five new houses built after a plan furnished; 11 old homes remodeled; . one family installed running water; five installed sewage sys tems, and four installed lighting systems. "Working bees" where the home demonstration club members and neighbors lend a hand and work under the direction of the home demon stration agents is providing a valuable le.sson to many communities. All who help go home and make improvements of some kind. POULTRY Poultry raising has been one of the major projects among home demon stration club members during the past year. In Madison County the agent states that "my reason for selecting poultry as a major project was because farm families did not have enough chickens and eggs to supply the family. Some had few or no chicks on the yard. This year 39 families obtained purebred cockereis to improve the flock. There are now 18 demonstrations in poultry in 14 communities." The Leon County agent reports that "poultry raising is receiving much attention by the club members. Sixteen poultry projects were conducted by families purchasing standard eggs for setting. Twelve demonstrations were given as to the care of nests and location of poultry houses, also feeding and dressing poultry for marketing. There were 80 women and 14 girls enrolled in poultry projects, and of this number 16 women are following improved breeding plans as recommended by the agent. Chickens raised this year were 1,756, sold $79.80; 500 dozen . eggs were sold for $135. Poultry houses have also been improved according to recommendations." .GARDENING Much stress has been put on community gardens throughout the state; and these have been a means of keeping many people off the relief rolls. Also relief families have been benefited from these gardens . . In Sumter County the agent states as a result of the help gained from community gardens, that one can readily see a decided change in the gardens and vegetables upon entering the county. Continuous interval planting was done, and it was found that in nearly every instance where the people had gardens they were canning their own surplus, raised in their . own gardens, and not sitting around waiting on the vegetable growers to abandon their gardens for vegetables to can. Gardening has also proven of great value in other counties. Okra, corn, squash, beans, tomatoes, peas, greens, potatoes, beets, carrots, and onions and other products have been grown. HEALTH AND HOME SANITATION Health and sanitation have been stressed throughout the year in all clubs, particularly during National Negro Health Week, when lectures were given on the teeth, the preparation of foods, screening against flies, mos quitoes, etc. One agent states that she has found the great amount of sickness among the rural Negroes is due largely to unsanitary conditions, and lack of proper food and clothing. The State Board of Health also gave instructions during this week in preventive and curative methods with diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid fever, hookworms, and others prevalent among children, as well as the proper care of mothers and babies. Sanitary toilets and better water supplies have been provided for Negro schools.

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension SHORT COURSES . The annual State 4-H Short Course for the Negro boys and girls and the Farmers' and Homemakers' Institute both held at Florida A. & M. College, have been of value. Excellent help was given by President Lee and his faculty of instructors; The state staff of Farm and Home Demonstration Agents from the University of Florida and the State College for Women gave lecture demon strations. This year 344 boys and girls came to the short course in cars and buses. The Florida A. & M. College gave free board and lodging to these boys and girls. The county commissioners of Duval County paid the expenses of 42 Negro 4-H boys and girls to the state short course this year. RECREATIONAL SCHOOLS AND CAMPS The past year trained leaders in recreation gave short courses for leaders in recreation in several counties and at the Florida A. & M:. College at Tallahassee. Mr. and Mrs. John Bradford of the National Playground and Recreation Association conducted these training schools. Picnics where games, stunts, yells, singing, and swimming have . been a feature in all counties where there is a home demonstration agent. These are usually sponsored by the Junior and Senior County Councils. Camps for 4-H club girls, and senior home demonstration club members were held in Hillsborough County. EXHIBITS Community, county and state exhibits usually are held in the fall arid winter. An improvement in the canning, sewing, rug work, shuck work, and thrift work is noted. Special exhibits have been shown at the agents' offices, at demonstration kitchens, at churches or schoolhouses. At the Florida State . Fair a Negro exhibit building was filled.

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Annual Report, 1934 INDEX 99 A AccountS", citrus, 57 poultry, 59 Achievement days, club, 68 Adjustment work, 7, 13, 24, 41, 57, 63 Agents, list of, 6 Agricultural engineering, 93 Animal husbandry, . 33, 43 Associations, poultry, 48 B Bankers scholarships, 355 Bankhead cotton tax exemption work, 16 Bean demonstrations, 92 Beautification, home grounds, 75, 89 Beef cattle work, 44 Blue mold decay, 53 Boys' 4-H work, 8, 31 Bread contest, 86 Brooders, home-made, 48 Brown, H. L., report, 37 Brumley, F. W., work of, 57 Buildings, dairy, 37 Bulletins, 21, 68 Buying, wise, 85 C Calendar flock records, 47 orchards, 77 Camps, 4-H, 8, 35, 69, 86, 98 Canning centers, 64 contests, 81 work, 73, 78 Cattle purchases, emergency; 8, 43 Changes in staff, 10 Chickenpox, 48 Child care and training, 75 health, 86 Citrus work, 9, 26, 51, 57 Clayton, H. G., work, 14, 24, 57 Clothing, 73 Club camps, 8, 35, 69 Club work, boys, 8, 31, 40, 47, 59 girls, 47, 68, 78, 85 negro, 97 Code, hatchery, 48 Community activities, 75 Cooper, J. F., work of, 21 Corn adjustment work, 18 demonstrations, 25, 33, 91 Cotton adjustment, 14 demonstrations, 26, 33, 93 County .agents, list, 6 County agent work, 24 Cover crops, 52 Cowpea demonstrations, 92 Credit 30, 61 Culley, E. R., work, 83 . . Culling demonstrations, 47 Cultivating citrus, 62 Cutting and curing meat, 45 D Dairy husbandry, 33, 37 Dairying, home, 72 DeBusk, E. F., work of, 51 Director's report, 7 Disease control, citrus, 53 dairy, 41 E Egg law, 46 Egg-Laying Contest, 48 Engineering, agricultural, 93 home, 74, 88 Exhibits, 68, 82, 98 Experiments, poultry, 49 F Family food su pply, 83 Farm Credit Adm., 7, 11, 30, 42, 57, 61 Farm dairying, 38 Farm Housing Survey, 90 Farm management, 57 Fattening beef cattle, 44 Feed and forage, 27, 37, 44 poultry, 49 FERA cooperation, 8, 12, 29, 41, 43, 63 . Fertilizing citrus, 52 Financial statement, 12 Fly, screw worm, 25, 29, 40, 45 Food conservation, 73, 77, 78, 96 Foods work, 83 Foot rot, citrus, 23 Forestry, 93 Fulghum, R. M., work of, 21 Furnishings, house, 74, 88 G Gardens, home, 33, 71, 77, 94, 97 Girls' club work, 68, 85 short course, 69 Grazing crops, 38 Grove management, 51 Gummosis control, 54

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100 Florida Cooperative Extension H p Hatchery code, 48 Health and sanitation, 74, 97 Heifers, dairy, 38 Hog adjustment work, 18 demonstrations, 44, 94 Home agents, list, 5 Home demonstration work, 8, 63 engineering, 74 health, 74, 97 improvement, 87, 96 management, 74 1 87 Honey in the home, 82 House furnishings, 74, 88 Howard, R. H., work, 57 I Irish potato demonstrations, 26 Irrigating citrus, 52 K Kerr-Smith Act, 18 :L Libraries, community, 7 . 6 Livestock demonstrations, . 27, 94 Local leaders, 31, 68 M Management, farm, 57 grove, 51 home, 74, 87 poultry, 49 . soil, 52 Marketing, 60, 75 Marketing agreements, 7; 60 Meal planning, 84 Meat cutting and curing, 45 Meetings, citrus, 56 Mehrhof, N. R., work, 46 Melanose control, 53 Mold, citrus, 53 Moore, V. P., work, 87 N Negro work, 9, 91 Nettles, W. T., work of, 24 Newell, Wilmon, report by, 7 News, 21, 40, 67 Noble, C. V., report, 57 Nutrition, 72, 85 0 Oats demonstrations, 25, 92 Orchards, home; 77, 95 Organizations, 40, 62 . Outlook report, 30, 62 Pantry tours, 81 Papers, cooperation of, 22 Pasture demonstrations, 27, 38, 44, 92 Peanut adjustment, 13 de'monstrations, 33, 92 Peas demonstrations, 92 Perennial plantings, 71, 77 Potato demonstrations, 26 Poultry, accounts, 59 work, 34, 46, . 72, 93, 97 Prices, poultry, 46 Produce market survey, 61 Production, dairy, 40 . Programs, determining, 66 , Psorosis control, 54 Publications, 21 Pullet 'production, 46 . Purchases, cattle, 8, 43 sirup, 29 R Radio, 22, 40, 56, ~7 Records, dairy, 40 poultry, 47, 48 . Recreation, 34, 76, 95, 98 Rehabilitation, 8, 64 . . Relief, emergency, 8,, 64, 8~ Revenue sources, 11 Rust mite control, . . 54 Rye demonstrations, 25, 92 s Sanitatiiin, home, 74, 88, 9!3 Scab, citrus, 53 Scale control, 55 Scholarships, club, 35 Schools, citrus, 55 . . . . Screw worm fly, 25, 29, 40, 45 Sheely, W. J., work, 43 . Short courses, club, 35, 69, 86, 97 Shows and sales, cattle, 44 Sikes, A. M., work, 37 Silage demonstrations, 27, 37 Silos, 37 Sires, dairy, 40 Sirup purchases, 29 Smith, J. Lee, work, 24 Soil improvement, 25, 33 management, 52 Sources of revenue, 11 Spencer, A. P., report, 24 Staff changes, 10 State Board of Health, cooperation, 11

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Annual Report, 1934 State Dept. Agr., cooperation, 11 State Forest Service cooperation, 11 State Market Bureau cooperation, 11 State Plant Board cooperation, 11 Surveys, farm, 69 farm housing, 90 'produce market, 61 Sweet potatoes, 93 Swine demonstrations, 94 T Tampa produce market survey, 61 Thomas, Jefferson, work of, 21 Thrift, home, 88 Thursby, I. S., work, 77 _ Timmons, D. E., work of, 16, 57 Tobacco adjustment, 16 demonstrations, 26, 93 Tours, grove, 66 home, 67 Trips, club, 69 Truck crop demonstrations, 33 Turner, A. A., report, 91 V Vegetable demonstrations, 26 Velvet beans, 92 Vocational agriculture teachers, cooperation, 11 w Whitefly control, 55 Women's work, 63 101