Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
The Division
Creation Date:
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )


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TV ? I - 1"\' FAFI!, FLORIDA







JUNE 30, 1933.







JUNE 30, 1933.



Financial Statem ent . 13 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS . 14 COUNTY AGENT W ORK . . 18 Boys' 4-H CLUB W ORK . . 30 D AIRYING . 37 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . 40


Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Uiniversity of Florida, for the calendar year 1933, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1933.

Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
President, University of Florida.

BOARD OF CONTROL GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E; F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Assistant

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry[ J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist


tIn cooperation with U. S. D. A. 2Part-time.

County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua.F. L. Craft .Gainesville .Mrs. Grace Warren Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer. Lake Butler . Calhoun. J. G. Kelly. Blountstown. Calhoun and Liberty. Blountstown.Miss Josephine Nimmo Citrus. Inverness .Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Dade .C. H. Steffani .Miami .Miss Pansy Norton Dixie. D. M. Treadwel. Cross City. Duval .A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville .Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) .E. G. Pattishall .Jacksonville . Escambia . E. P. Scott .Pensacola .Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden. Quincy. Miss Elise Laffitte Hardee . C. E. Baggott.Wauchula . Hamilton . J. J. Sechrest .Jasper . Hernando . B. E. Lawton .Brooksville . Highlands. L. H. Alsmeyer . . Sebring. Hillsborough .C. P. Wright.Tampa .Miss Allie Rush Holmes .W. A. Sessoms.Bonifay .Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson .Gus York .Marianna.Miss Mabel Clyde Wilson Jefferson .E. H. Finlayson.Monticello .Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette . P. R. McMullen. Mayo . Lake. C. R. Hiatt. Tavares . Leon.G. C. Hodge.Tallahassee .Miss Ethyl Holloway Levy. N. J. Albritton.Bronson. . Liberty. Dewey H. Ward . Bristol. Manatee .J. H. Logan .Bradenton .Miss Margaret Cobb Marion .Clyde H. Norton. - Ocala .Miss Tillie Roesel Okaloosa . Joseph W. Malone. Crestview. Okeechobee . C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee. Orange .K. C. Moore.Orlando .Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola. J. R. Gunn. Kissimmee. Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts .W. Palm Beach. . .Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .Win. Gomme .Clearwater .Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk .W. P. Hayman.Bartow .Miss Lois Godbey St. Johns . Loonis Blitch .St. Augustine.Miss Anna E. Heist Santa Rosa .J. G. Hudson.Milton .Miss Eleanor Barton Suwannee. N. G. Thomas .Live Oak. Taylor.R. S. Dennis .Perry .Miss Floy Moses Wakulla. A. H. Spurlock.Crawfordville. . Walton . . Mitchell Wilkins . DeFuniak Springs. . Miss Eloise McGriff Washington . H. E. Hudson .Chipley .

*This list correct to December 31.,1933.



CROP INCO/"ff 43z 500,000


PROFITON OPTION._44 00,00, AoJT7MfENT PAYMENT4 1i,0000oo

.CROP INCOME__ O589.50.O00
TOTAL INCOME ,0749,500,000


I Fig. 1.-Crop adjustment activities conducted in Florida during 1933 by the Agricultural Extension Service for the Federal Agricultural Adjustment Administration helped to prevent a huge surplus of cotton and increased returns to farmers.




President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1933.

Respect ully,

During 1933 the Florida Agricultural Extension Service suf fered a reduction of 17 percent in its income from State funds, but, fortunately, a threatened reduction of 25 percent in Federal funds was not put into effect by President Roosevelt.
Despite reductions in its income, the Extension Service has rendered service that was scarcely diminished. In fact, the number of counties cooperating and employing county agents has increased as a result of the adjustment programs with cotton, tobacco, corn and hogs. The County and Home Demonstration Agents have been acting as representatives of the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture in organizing and conducting all of the adjustment programs in Florida.
It is apparent that the Extension Service holds a more important place in the minds of the public than at any time during previous years. The indications are that its. duties will be extended, particularly in adjustment programs, marketing service, cooperative organizations, and relief.
During 1933 the farmers of Florida have confronted many serious problems, chief of which are the very low prices paid for all farm products. The results of this condition are far-reaching and a large percent of the farmers have mortgages and obliga-

Florida Cooperative Extension

tions that they are unable to satisfy. To overcome this in part, farmers planted more heavily of some crops in 1933 than in former years, realizing the necessity of raising cash and therefore the need for larger production at lower prices. While this has affected practically every farm crop it has been most serious with the following: Hogs, beef cattle, fruits, vegetables and poultry, with the result that the buying power of the farmer has been lower than in recent past years.
This situation has not reflected seriously on living standards for most of our farmers, due largely to the home supply program that farmers have gradually adopted, giving them a supply of meats, vegetables, feeds, livestock and poultry. The better methods of agriculture they have practiced have been responsible for larger yields in some sections, with the result that for the most part the supplies have been liberal. But without a ready sale for the products, the farmers' purchasing power remains low.
The labor supply on the farms has been liberal although to some extent demoralized due to the uncertainty of income, Farmers were unable to supply their labor with the usual needs so that many of them have been transferred to state and Federal relief projects.
The adjustment programs with cotton, hogs and tobacco have met with favorable response, indicating that farmers are willing to accept adjustment whenever there is a promise of greater returns. Approximately 20 percent of the area planted to cotton was plowed up. Practically all the farmers growing flue-cured tobacco signed up to reduce their tobacco acreage for 1934. The government's request to slaughter hogs was promptly complied with and a larger number would have been slaughtered had there been an opportunity to do so.
These adjustment programs have occupied a large part of the County Agents' time since July 1 and many other regular programs have been modified as a result. In handling these adjustment programs in the counties there was a good response from business interests and County Agents received liberal cooperation in their efforts. These programs applied largely to North and West Florida.
In the area where citrus fruits and vegetables constitute the main fanning interests, the farmers have also been confronted with a serious financial situation. The low prices paid for citrus fruit in 1932 left a large percent of the growers without funds for operations and for living expenses. A large part of the spring

Annual Report, 1933

marketed vegetable crop of 1933 was sold at a loss to the farmers, leaving them without funds for supplies'and labor and placing many of these farmers in a position where it was advisable to apply for labor paid for from relief agencies. This gave rise to large demands on the County Agents for relief looking to the financing of the production of citrus and vegetable crops which was left uncertain until government agencies placed their representatives in the counties, permitting farmers to finance themselves from these federal sources.
Both citrus and vegetable crops require relatively heavy expenditures for fertilizer and other production costs so that the need for funds has. been urgent in practically every section, inasmuch as local banks and other lending agencies have been unable to finance farmers to the same extent as in the past.
The dairy and poultry industries in this area have suffered the same reduced income as in other sections. There has been a surplus of whole milk and a surplus of locally produced eggs and with the rise of feed prices which occurred in midsummer, both dairymen and poultrymen were confronted with an increased production cost without a corresponding increase in sales. The result is that every section of the State has been seriously handicapped as a result of low prices for farm products.
Much time has been given to relief problems in practically every county. Relief agencies have had the assistance of County and Home Agents and unusually large amounts of farm products have been preserved or canned and stored for f uture use. Farmers have hesitated to sell their poultry and hogs for prevailing prices and with the help of County and Home Agents large quantities of meats have been canned for home use. Community canneries have been in operation and largely under the direction of the Extension Agents.
Home Demonstration Agents have given more than the usual attention to home gardens on account of needed relief, so that the program as proposed January 1, 1933, has been adjusted in many respects, due to the great number of emergencies that have been presented to the Extension Service since March 4, 1933.
The Agricultural Extension Service has 17 projects in its program representing all phases of horticulture, livestock, poultry and home economics. The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work and three for women's work, the

Florida Cooperative Extension

State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent and specialists in citriculture, dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, marketing economics, farm management economics, one part-time specialist in agronomy and one part-time specialist in organization and outlook work. Specialists in home demonstration work consist of one nutritionist, one economist in marketing and one igent in home improvement.
The Extension Service is cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry in the employment of one animal husbandman and with the Bureau of Biological Survey in the services of a specialist in rodent control.
There were 45 counties with white Extension Agents, all of them cooperating financially in the support of the work.
In the Negro work, there was one district agent for women's work up to June 30 and one district agent for men's work throughout the year. There were 14 counties having Negro agents; eight of these have home demonstration agents and seven of them are served by farm demonstration agents. Four of these counties contribute to the support of Negro home demonstration work; the others are supported by state and Federal funds.
Due to reduced appropriations from both state and Federal funds, Mr. W. R. Briggs, Assistant Economist, was discontinued June 30, 1933.
On account of the death by drowning of Rosa Ballard, Local District Home Demonstration Agent during June, no one was appointed to succeed in that position July 1. The supervision of the Negro home demonstration work was taken over largely by the district supervisor of white agents together with the assistance of the district supervisor of the Negro men's work.
There have been relatively few changes in the personnel of the counties. Two counties, namely Polk and Hillsborough, did not make provision in their budgets for the continuance of Assistant Home Demonstration Agents.
There has been cooperation with other departments of the College of Agriculture and the home economics department of the State College for Women in the following: The department of soils has cooperated in studies of fertilization, soil acidity, fertilizer residues and other soil problems. The animal husbandrk department of the College and Station has worked co-

Annual Report,' 1933

operatively with the Extension Service in the management of livestock, pastures and distributing breeding stock.
The horticultural department has cooperated with district agents and specialists in problems affecting the Extension program dealing with citrus and other fruits, vegetables and floriculture. The landscape specialists have worked cooperatively with the Extension Service in recommendations for the planting of school grounds and other public properties.
The head of the agricultural economics department has assumed the duties of project leader in farm management and in marketing and has cooperated in surveys dealing with areas growing citrus, vegetables and general farm crops. There has also been a coordination of projects between the economics section of the Experiment Station and the Extension Economist.
The veterinary department has cooperated closely with the poultry specialist in rendering service to farmers through the County Agents in the management of poultry on the farms and in particular in the management of the Florida National EggLaying Contest conducted from state funds and under the direction of the Extension Service. Other less definite projects have had the cooperation of other departments of the University, especially those assisting in the 4-H club programs at the annual meeting on the campus of the University of Florida and the State College for Women for 4-H club boys and girls.
The Florida State Marketing Bureau, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Live Stock Sanitary Board have problems in common with the Extension Service dealing with the distribution of marketable crops, plants and livestock and in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Commissioner of Agriculture's office cooperates in the distribution of state funds used in the payment of County Agents' salaries.
The Forest Service of Florida assists the Extension Service in conservation work, principally with 4-H clubs, the purpose of which is to protect the timber growth.
The State Board of Health cooperates with the home demonstration projects in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board facilitates the distribution of plant materials used in projects sup revised by county and home demonstration agents.
. The Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the

Florida Cooperative Extension

Federal Land Bank and its agents in Columbia, S. C., with the Intermediate Credit Bank, the Farm Credit Administration and the agricultural finance corporation in every possible way that these agencies may provide the best assistance possible to the farmers of this state.
The Extension Service has cooperated with the State Poultry Association, the various marketing agencies handling fruits and vegetables, the State Horticultural Society, and the State Fern Growers' Association in promoting the interest involved in the welfare of farmers affected.
COOPERATION WITH VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TEACHERS The Smith-Hughes Vocational teachers located in counties where club work is in progress have problems in common that require their mutual agreement. This office and the director of vocational education have urged the close cooperation between the county Extension workers and the vocational teachers. During the adjustment campaign, vocational teachers w6a'assigned to special duties and gave every possible assistance.
The Extension Service has algo supplied assistance from the specialist and supervisory force to assist vocational teachers in handling instructional and educational programs in the counties.
Frequent conferences with the Extension staff to provide uniformity in subject matter are held with the subject matter specialists of the college and Experiment Station. The County Agents look to the specialists for guidance and direction in their more important and difficult problems.
Valuable assistance has been received from the various bureaus of the Department of Agriculture.
The home demonstration staff is in frequent conference with department heads of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida and Experiment Station and with the specialists in the Extension work. They also receive cooperation and assistance from the home economics department of the Florida State College for Women.
The Negro agents are given assistance from various specialists in the Extension Service, particularly in agronomy, poultry, home economics and horticulture.
County and home agents are called together frequently for conferences on problems of state-wide nature. Neither the State University nor the State College for Women has made special

Annual Report, 1933, 13

provision for increasing efficiency of Extension workers beyond their regular department projects.
The Extension Service has three main sources of revenue as follows:
(1) Funds appropriated by the United States Department of Agriculture; (2) State offset from Extension funds appropriated by the Florida legislature; and (3) County appropriations. . The offset funds required for state Smith-Lever funds have been appropriated by the legislature. I Other offset funds needed have been made available through county appropriations.
These county. appropriations have shown some reductions since 1932, although the percentage reduction has not been as great here in the past year as during 1931. While these county appropriations have been reduced in amount, they are still sufficient to pay salaries that compare favorably with other educational employees, although in a few cases the home agents have suffered greater reductions.
The expenditures and resources for the Extension Service are submitted in separate form.
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary . $ 84,684.24 Smith-Lever, State . 53,968.80 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . 26,555.74 Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A . 2,208.00 Additional Cooperative Federal . 20,500.00 U. S. D. A. Appropriations . 18,500.00 State Appropriations . 30,063.20 County Appropriations . 79,733.23
Administration . $ 7,821.06 Publications . 6,348.26 County AgentW ork . 124,795.00 Home Demonstration Work . 78,286.18 Food Conservation . 3,638.36 Home Improvement . 3,982.48 Extension Nutrition . 4,000.00 'Negro work- men . 13,820.99 Negro work-women . 13,445.21 Boys' Club Work . 6,855.01
Dairy Husbandry . I . 5,775.98
Animal Husbandry . o . 4i479.39
Citriculture . 4,838.60
Agricultural Economi so . 16,060.19
Poultry Husbandry . 4,551.80
National Egg Laying contest . 6,832.60 Extension Schools, Farmers Week . 2,338.90 Unexpended balance . 8,343.20

Florida Cooperative Extension

J. FRANcis CooPER, Editor
R. M. FULGHum, Assistant Editor
During 1933 the informational office of the Florida Agricultural Extension Service functioned along lines similar to those followed in preceding years, but on a more extensive scale. In addition to bulletins and circulars, newspapers, farm papers, and radio, were utilized in carrying the message of better farming and homemaking to the rural population of Florida. All of these agencies proved most willing to cooperate with the Extension Service in forwarding the state's agriculture and improving its rural homes.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service cooperated with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other branches of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in presenting the crop adjustment program during the latter half of 1933. This adjustment work has been a principal activity of many county agents in that time, and the educational work conducted through the press and over the radio assisted in making the program a complete success.
Distribution of both bulletins and supplies is handled in the Mailing Room. Vast quantities of mimeographing for Extension workers were turned out by the Mailing Clerks. As usual, the two Editors and two Mailing Clerks devoted approximately half time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service, the remainder being occupied by duties for the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Nine new bulletins were printed during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, this being an increase of about 33 percent over the number printed in former years. The bulletins printed this year were of unusually high quality and interest'- value. Several of the bulletins were of immediate practical value to rural and urban families in planning more economical meals and otherwise meeting the exigencies of reduced financial income.
Three new circulars were printed during the year. In addition to the bulletins and circulars, the year's printing included a calendar, which, in many ways, has proven to be the most popular publication each year. Also a weekly news clipsheet, 12 monthly reports and a final report of the National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley, the monthly Agricultural Extension Economist, and various record books and supplies. These latter were: Poultry Record Book for Small., Flocks, Poultry Record Book f or Com-

Annual Report, 1933 15

mercial Flocks, Citrus Grove Enterprise Account, Home Improvement Record Book for 4-H Club Girls (reprint), and Livestock Club Record Book (reprint).
Publications issued during the year are listed below:
Pages Edition
Bul. 68 Solar Water Heaters .12 10,000
Bul. 69 Buy Health With Your Food Dollar.48 15,000
Bul. 70 The Goodly Guava . . 36 '10,000 Bul. 71 Butchering and Curing Pork . . 16 8,000 Bul. 72 Foundation Plantings for Florida Homes . 44 15,000 Bul. 73 Annual Flowering Plants for Florida . 36 15,000 Bul. 74 Clothing . 36 20,000
Bul. 75 Preserving FliaaCitrus Fruits . 28 12,000 Bul. 76 Herbaceous Perennials .36 12,500
Final Report, Sixth Florida N4ational*Egg-Laying
Contest. . 28 1,500
1933 Calendar. . 12 10,400 Circ. 31 Suggestions for the Planning of Economical
Meals (Printed Preceding Year) . 24 10,000 Circ. 32 Food Supply Plan for Florida Farm Families . 4 10,000 Circ. 33 The Canning Budget . .6 5,000 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* . 1 31,500 Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist . 7 1,000 Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest .4 750 Monthly Report, Calendar Flock Records . 5 800 Annual Report, 1932. 116 2,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.

As in preceding years, from three to six stories each week were supplied to the state mail service of the Associated Press for distribution to its member papers. However, this did not prove entirely satisfactory, and a special service from this office was supplied to several daily papers in Florida. This service found a most hearty response on the part of the dailies, and the amount of Extension news published in the daily papers this year was increased greatly as a result.
One daily paper carried a farm department each Sunday during the year, and copy for this was supplied by this office. Another daily carried a weekly farm page during the latter part of the year, using Extension copy exclusively. Still another ran a farm page three times weekly for the last two months of 1933, and used some copy from this office.
The weekly papers and farm papers were again supplied with the weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, which carried from 10 to 12 separate informational and news stories each week. These were copiously reprinted by the weekly newspapers, and, to a certain extent, by the farm papers.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Agents in counties used their local papers to advantage.
A farm and grove section circulated by about 30 papers was issued monthly for 10 months during the year, and each issue of this section contained from one to six stories by the Extension Editors. Twenty-four of these stories, amounting to 252 column inches, were printed.
Farm, papers continued to use Extension news and informational stories freely. Practically every issue of all Florida farm papers contains material supplied by the Extension Editors and other College of Agriculture workers. Two Florida farm papers used 25 stories by the Extension Editors, and these amounted to 895 column inches. In addition, Florida farm papers carried much material clipped from the Agricultural News Service.
Southern and national farm papers also use material of the Florida work occasionally. During the year two Southern papers printed six stories amounting to 150 column inches, and two national journals carried two stories for a total of 12 inches.
The radio broadcasting activities of the Extension Service were considerably increased on March 1, 1933, when a series of regular farm flashes to four Florida stations was initiated. Prior to that time, occasional flashes had been furnished. For the remainder of 1933 these four stations were furnished with copy for a 7-minute program five days a week. Stations WCOA at Pensacola, WDBO at Orlando, WJAX at Jacksonville, and WQAM at Miami broadcast these programs daily, and expressed appreciation for them. Station WSUN at St. Petersburg put them on the air occasionally.
This service was inaugurated with the cooperation of the Radio Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. From March 1 to the end of 1933, 285 flashes were sent to these stations. Most of them were sent to all stations, but occasionally it was necessary to send separate flashes to stations in the northern and western parts of the state.' The flashes were about equally divided between those prepared locally and those from Washington, 140 being worked up by the Extension Editors and 145 sent by the Radio Service.
The Florida farm hour and home period were continued over WRUF at Gainesville, each being a feature every week day during the year. The Farm Hour covered 45 minutes during most of the year and a full hour for the last four or five months and opened at 12 o'clock noon each day. The home period consisted of 15 minutes daily. '

Annual Report, 1933

On the Farm Hour were presented 608 local talks and 148 USDA flashes, most of them around 7 minutes in length. Most of the local talks were prepared by various workers in the three divisions of the College of Agriculture. The Extension Editors wrote 33 of them, and conducted a weekly question box period, weekly news review and weekly resume of editorial comments by newspapers and farm magazines over the Nation. All of the Farm Hour programs were directed and many of the talks were read by the Extension Editors from a microphone in the Editorial office.
The Farm Hour of December 30, 1933, was the 1588th regular program since the establishment of WRUF.
The Florida Home Period, from 9:45 to 10:00 o'clock each week day morning, presented chats to Florida homemakers. About half of the time was devoted to talks and reports by county and state home demonstration workers and the remainder to house"keepers chats from the Radio Service of the USDA, and to material supplied by various other agencies. During the year 292 talks were given by or prepared by and read for state and county home demonstration workers.
One of the most interesting series of radio programs put on the air during the year was the garden club and ornamental series broadcast weekly by WCOA, WDAE at Tampa, WJAX, WQAM, and WRUF. This series carried 40 talks of 15 minutes each, which proved to be of widespread interest to listeners. It was arranged in cooperation with Harold Hume of the Florida Experiment Station and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs.
As usual, the Florida Extension Service joined with the United States Department of Agriculture in celebrating National 4-H Club Achievement Day the first Saturday in November (Nov. 4). This program occupied an hour, the first and last 15 minutes coming from Washington over the National Broadcasting Company chain, and the middle 30 minutes being supplied by each local station. The local programs were arranged by the Extension Editors and club leaders and presented local club boys and girls and interested civic leaders.
Station WRUF carried a similar program f or 1 hour and 15 minutes, the last 30 minutes of which coincided with the time of the local program over WJAX, and came from the Jacksonville studios of that station.
Four other special 4-H club programs were broadcast over WRUF during the year, each one presenting four or five talks by club members and officials.

Florida Cooperative Extension


A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
In normal times the principal objective of Agricultural Extension activities is profitable farming. They seek to build up an agriculture giving returns enabling the farmers and their families to enjoy both the necessities and the comforts of life. With this end in view, Extension Service workers. give wide distribution to the findings of agricultural research, and extend assistance in respect to farm practices based thereon.
When extraordinary eco nomic depression prevails, conserva-. tion measures and emergency relief factors are introduced into the agricultural situation. Under conditions of widespread financial stress, government aid frequently is required by agriculture, just as it is called for in other and less basic industries. Extension Service programs need to be adjusted and modified accordingly, and this fact particularly applies to the work of County Agents.
During 1933, Florida County Agents were drafted for extra, duties in connection with numerous phases of the federal agri,: cultural adjustment campaign. In counties growing crops classified as basic farm commodities, acreage reduction effortilargely occupied their time for a considerable period., Where special crops chiefly are produced, credit facilities provided by the national government received much attention from them. Throughout the state, their cooperation was enlisted-by sundry agencies for extending emergency relief.
Review of the county agricultural agents' records for -the year therefore discloses the diversion. of energies in a substantial degree from the channels in which previously they had flowed. Yet few indeed were the instances in which projects of merit already under way entirely were abandoned or even -seri 'ously; neglected. Worthy of note also is the small proportion of the farm demonstration work planned or inaugurated in preceding periods that failed to justify itself as economically wise when subjected to the grilling tests of the 1933 situation.

Annual Report, 1933

Extent of the operations in crop reduction and farm credit fields, on which County Agents were engaged during 1933, in service for the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, finds a striking illustration in a compilation for the 14 counties composing the northwest Florida district of the Extension Service.
In the cotton campaign, 5,016 growers were seen, and 4,943 acreage reduction contracts were accepted. Under these, 22,568 acres of cotton were destroyed, with an estimated yield of 4,196,250 pounds of lint. Bales optioned were 3,640. Rental payments amounted to $263,013.58; advances on the staple under option, $72,800; total of benefits, $335,813.58.
Five of the 14 counties in this district also carried out programs for control of tobacco production. Growers of the flue-cured type signed 761 agreements, covering 4,882.5 acres and affecting 3,936,982 pounds. Adjustment payments of $98,037 and rentals of $25,633 were to be made in the following spring, or an aggregate of $123,670. In the subsequent fall, additional parity payments will be forthcoming.
Preliminary work also was done on the 1934 cotton program and on the corn-hog reduction p ogram. While the bulk of the "basic commodities" are produced. in the foregoing district, farmers in the other corresponding divisions also were concerned with one or another of the campaigns, in a lesser degree. County Agents in the central and southern areas were called on for much work on applications for loans from the Federal Land Bank and other farm credit agency s.
In several instances, assistance was rendered by the farm agents in the organization of production credit associations. Information on loan matters was furnished by practically all of them. Hundreds of requests therefor were handled in each of several counties. Emergency Relief Councils also received a great deal of assistance, and County Agents frequently supervised the community and individual gardens they were sponsoring.
Emergency Adjustment Campaign (Holmes C-ounty):-In this county the cotton reduction program was directed by an emergency farm agent. Eleven meetings in the first six days were attended by 800 farmers. While arranging for these, and in supervising the subsequent activities, the agent held 65 conferences, made 78 farm visits, contacted 177 farmers, wrote 55 letters, furnished six news articles, checked 806 contracts, issued 306 emergency permits, spent 213 hours in the office and 542

Florida Cooperative Extension

on field duties, traveling 1,246 miles. Cotton was destroyed on 1,680 acres, at a per acre cost of 78.8 cents. Cash and option plan accepted by 128 growers for 755 acres gave them $7,178 in money while cash plan preferred by 178, on 925 acres, paid them $12,663. Some 200 farmers failed to sign.
Diversity and practicability are major features in the undertakings sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service and developed by means of the county farm agents' system. While for 1933 the economic elements in agricultural conditions were emphasized, the need for this treatment having been in large measure anticipated, the greatest variety was found in the projects employed for application of the principle.
Indication as to the wide range of the activities is given in the selection which follows of one item from the annual report of each County Agent. Duplications of the endeavor were made in most of the other counties where agents had relatively similar problems presented to them by farmers and growers. Choice of the achievements reproduced herein has been from the viewpoint of the degree in which they are representative and does not imply that in any instance the accomplishment is regarded as the most valuable one to the credit of the particular County Agent,

Sugarcane Variety Demonstration (Alachua County):-Sirup yields having declined for several years, principally because of diseases attacking the common varieties of cane, the County Agent arranged for 15,000 stalks of Cayana 10 to be available at $1.50 per 100 stalks. Twenty farmers were induced to make small plantings of the improved variety, eight of whom kept records comparing the sirup output from it with that of the canes generally grown. Average yield of the eight was 205 gallons per acre from Cayana 10, 176 gallons from the others, an increase of 29 gallons, or more than 16 percent.
(Sugarcane variety demonstrations were conducted during 1933 by farm agents in more than a dozen counties.)
Peanut Planting Demonstration (Calhoun County) :-Repeated for the fifth year was the planting of a one-acre test plot in pea-nuts, with rows 24 inches apart and seed spaced six inches in drills, without fertilizer. Check plot was planted in three-foot rows, ten inches apart in drills, and had 200 pounds of commercial fertilizer applied. Yield was 932 pounds per acre on the closer spaced plot against 868 on the other, a gain of 64 pounds or better

Annual Report, 1933

than 7 percent. Saving on fertilizer was $1.40 per acre and increased cost of seed 50 cents. In consequence of this demonstration and previous ones, 50 percent of the county's farmers now practice the closer spacing of peanuts.
(Peanut plantings and related work were carried on in at least 15 counties.)
Avocado Disease Experiments (Dade County):-Begun two years before, these had produced results justifying a field meeting during 1933, at which the groves where the tests have been carried on, by the County Agent in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture and two growers, were visited by 55 other avocado producers. Scab and black spot control with fewer sprayings than commonly practiced was shown to be feasible. Trees of the Waldin variety, about to be top-worked to a species less subject to scab when this work commenced, are producing superior fruit, demanded in the markets. Now 90 percent of commercial grove owners are spraying for disease control.
(Avocado disease and culture demonstrations also were conducted in several other counties.)
Corn Production Costs (Dixie County):-Soils of light sand, often in run-down condition, and improper handling of the crop have combined to raise the cost of producing corn until it averages 70 cents a bushel. In 16 demonstrations with corn following crotalaria, one to two years sowings, on 220 acres in four communities, the output per acre was increased by seven bushels and the average cost per bushel reduced to 36 cents.
(Corn production cost and variety demonstrations also were made in over two dozen additional counties.)
Silo Building Campaign (Duval County): - A campaign launched in the spring of 1933 to interest dairy farmers in the building of silos resulted in the construction of 14 of the trench and wood-hoop types, with a capacity of 1,220 tons. Valued at $10 a tonthe feed stored in these silos will save dairymen $12,000 annually. One trench silo built at a cost of $8 holds 40 tons of silage. Total expense of growing corn and filling silo was $82 additional, affording feed for $2.25 a ton.
(Silo building campaigns were directed by farm agents in eight to 10 counties.)
Cattle Conditioning Tests (Escambia County):-A demonstration started ihe year before in feeding bone meal to cure lameness and correct other mineral deficiency conditions in cattle, was completed in 1933. Steamed bone meal was fed to the animals

Florida Cooperative Extension

on the range for a 12 months period and at the end all lameness had disappeared and blood tests showed return to normal mineral content. As a result of the showing 1,000 head of other range cattle in the county were introduced to a bone meal addition in their diet, and lameness rapidly is disappearing.
(Cattle conditioning work also was instituted or completed in " number of other counties.)
Tobacco Crop Endeavor (Hamilton County):-Since tobacco is " principal cash crop, the County Agent spent fully half his time between March and August with the 158 farmers who raised 1,138,707 pounds on 1,413 acres. Although sold for about twothirds the real value, the output was more profitable than any in five years, owing to lowered production costs and favorable .weather for curing and marketing. Reduction of 560 acres has been signed up for the next year, with benefit payments of $34,350.78 on a total valuation of $157,194.70.
(Tobacco effort was also expended by agents in six other counties.)
Sweet Potatoes in Summer (Hernando County) :-Five farmers planted 75 acres of early sweet potatoes, using 200 bushels of certified seed secured for them by the County Agent. When the crop was harvested in July and early August, the yield proved 20 bushels an acre above that previously produced when inferior seed was used. Cash received for the output came at a time when greatly needed and the growers expect to repeat the plantings the next season.
(Sweet potatoes were the subject of County Agents' attention in at least a dozen counties.)
Pine Ashes-for Sweetening Soils (Highlands County):-Pine ashes, usually obtainable for the cost of loading and hauling from sawmill plants, have given 70 percent as good results in sweetening soils as hardwood ashes costing from $16 to $22 a ton, since the County Agent began advocating their use, four years ago. A demonstration arranged on the Rex Beach property at Avon Park, with several Florida materials as substitutes for the hardwood ashes, in 1933, gave 15 percent increase in truck crop yields at 40 percent reduction in cost.
(Soil sweetening methods were demonstrated in six or more counties.)
Cover Crops With Citrus and Truck (Hillsborough County)
In consequence of demonstrations and related activities on the part of the County Agent, 272 truck farmers and citrus growers

Annual Report, 1933

planted 2,667 acres to cover crops for the first time in 1933, 1,760 acres of it. in, crotalaria. Seed in the quantity of 6,270 pounds was bought cooperatively by 42 of the citrus men at a saving of $501.60.
(Cover crops demonstrations took place in about 30 counties.)
'Meat Cutting and Curing (Jefferson County) :-Five communities were given neighborhood demonstrations in cutting and curing meat, attended by 114 persons. Talks made told of the type of hogs affording the greatest percentage of desirable cuts, the. best methods of handling before slaughtering and of the proper ways of killing, scalding, cleaning and dressing. Much improvement has resulted in the practice of many farmers who produce part of the county.'s- annual- output of nearly 1,000,000 pounds of pork.
(Meat cutting and curing was demonstrated in three counties, all-told.)
Citrus Grove Demonstrations (Lake Coui~ty) :-In the fourth year, the plan of citrus demonstration groves had attained such a' success that 1,350 acres were under. supervision. Growers owning the properties have cut down their producing costs by from 40 to 50 percent. Over 200 additional ones have changed their. cultural and fertilizer practices, on approximately 9,000 acres. Citrus schools were attended by some 300 growers, representing ,about 15,000 acres. Three tours of the demonstration 'groves were taken part in by 175 growers. Request calls on the County Agent' are 90 percent from citrus producers seeking advice on: grove management, insect and disease control and like topics.
(Citrus demonstrations took place in an aggregate of 15 'counties.) iI
SBulls- Bought With Bankers' Aid (Leon County) :-Beef cattle were profitable in this county during 1933, despite the depression. Herds are numerous, and improvement in the breeding practices has steadily continued, under the aggressive work of the County Agent, -who has enlisted cooperation from local bankers. Loans for the purchase of purebred bulls have been made in numerous instances by the Tallahassee banks. Since the fall of 1927, 84 purebred or grade bulls have been bought in Leon, 12 of the number in 1933. Bigger and better calves have been the result and -home raised half-breed steers slaughtered for consumption in the-county have afforded-meat of: good quality.
(Buying of bulls has been carried on through the farm agents' offices in~twenty-odd counties.)

Florida Cooperative Extension

Typical Diversity of Work (Levy County):-In 1933, the farm agent for this county, who has no office assistant, wrote 73 letters, distributed 106 bulletins, held 133 conferences with business men, handled 313 telegraph and telephone messages and attended to 574 callers. Traveling 34,700 miles, he made 1,745 farm visits. Treatments were given to 206 horses and mules, 112 cows and 18 dogs, for various ills and injuries, while seven horses and mules, 12 cows, 75 dogs and 17,117 hogs'were vaccinated. In addition, a number of crop demonstrations were conducted.
(Variety in the activities is found in every county having a f arm demonstration agent.)
Farm Forestry Projects (Liberty County) :-Owners of a tract containing about 5,000 acres were interested by the farm agent in a three-year forestry project, cooperating with the State Forest Service. Boys' 4-11 club forestry members assisted in creating public sentiment favorable to the Apalachicola National Forest, partly located withiD the county. The boys also did considerable tree planting on the farms where they live.
(Forestry projects were promoted in more than a dozen other counties.)
Fair Exhibits and Prizes (Manatee County) :-Exhibits in charge of the farm agent and home demonstration agent won more premiums at the South Florida Fair than were taken by any competing county. Prizes of $50 each were awarded to the exhibits for accumulating the most points in the three major groups-citrus, vegetables and home canned projects. The county had displays in six other divisions. An exhibit also was made at the Chicago World's Fair.
(Farm agents in fully 15 counties prepared fair exhibits, for events ranging from the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago to neighborhood shows.)
Fern Insect Control Demonstrations (Marion County):-Control of the blister beetle and the worms eating the young fronds was demonstrated on five acres of Asparagus plumosus ferns. Dusting once a week with sulphur kept them practically free from worms. Spraying with three-fourths of a pound of paris green, one gallon of molasses and the juice from six citrus fruits, added to 50 gallons of water, effectively controlled the blister beetle. Arsenate of lead proved a repellant for this insect.
(Fern growing received the attention of farm agents in three or four counties.)
Oats for Hay Demonstration (Okaloosa County) :-Three result

Annual Report, '1933

demonstrations were put on, featuring improved varieties and proper fertilization of oats grown for hay. The Fulghum variety was sown and sulphate of ammonia was applied as a top-dressing, using 100 pounds an acre. Two of the farmers reported yields doubling those of previous years and the third harvested two tons of hay per acre. Many calls for information followed.
(Hay crops were included in the 1933 program of 15 County Agents.)
Fertilizing White Potatoes (Okeechobee County):-Red Bliss white potatoes have proved a satisfactory cash crop f or several years. Thirteen acres were included in a demonstration in use of fertilizers. On two acres, none was applied; on another acre, 600 pounds of 5-8-6 at time of planting and on the remainder, 800 pounds of 3-8-8. Yields were respectively 81, 98 and 120 bushels. Profits on the fertilized acreage were better than $1,000.
(White potato crop practices were demonstrated in 10 counties during 1933.)
Institute for Farmers (Orange County) :-When farmers week at the College of Agriculture in Gainesville had to be suspended for financial reasons, the Orange County Agent conceived the idea of a two days' institute in Orlando. Cooperation was obtained from the Home Demonstration Agent and the Orange County Chamber of Commerce. Central Florida farmers exhibited great interest and 254 registered as in attendance, a number neglecting to record their names. Requests have been freely made that the event be repeated annually.
(General meetings for farmers of the entire area were held in over half the counties, under direction of farm agents.)
Insects and Diseases, Citrus and Truck (Osceola County):-In consequence of 46 demonstrations on control of rustmites, the volume of russet fruit for 1933 dropped to less than 2 percent from between 50 and 75 percent the year before. Kissimmee branch of the Florida Citrus Exchange then undertook to develop plans for dusting or spraying the groves of all members in the future. For other citrus diseases or pests, 18 demonstrations were conducted, and 16 on infections or infestations in truck crops.
(Insect and disease control was an essential element of farm agents' activities in practically every county.)
Restoring Fruit Industries (Palm Beach County) :-Pineapples, once highly profitable on the East Coast, latterly have been almost wholly abandoned. In an effort to re-establish the industry,

Florida Cooperative Extension

plants have been secured from Puerto Rico, which were healthy and vigorous after more than a year in the field. Lands formerly devoted to the fruit have been sown in crotalaria, for turning under before slips are set. Figs also had been given up in large measure, because of the damage from root-knot nematodes, causing failure of fruit to mature. Grafting of figs on roots of wild rubber plants seems to be overcoming the difficulty.
(Pineapples and figs were accorded consideration by the agents in three counties.)
Dairy Industry Uphuilding (Pinellas County) :-County Dairymen's Cooperative Association, organized two years ago, in 1933, did over $500,000 of business for the 75 members, comprising more than 90 percent of the industry in Pinellas. Without the body, several dairymen would have been forced to suspend opera 'tions, in view of the depressed conditions prevailing. Regular meetings were held, and much eff ort was devoted to stabilization. of prices. Aided by the County Agent, about 20 dairy farmers secured loans aggregating some $20,000 from the Regional Agricultural Credit Corporation. Twenty herd records were started, at the instance of the farm agent, as a means toward weeding out "boarder" cows. The Association has an ice cream plant.
(Dairy industry affairs entered into the working programs of 26 farm agents in 1933.)
Development of Special Crops (Polk County) :-Whil .e this
county leads the state in citrus fruit production and is not, -well adapted to numerous special crops, the farm agent assisted in the formation of a strawberry growers' cooperative and devoted considerable of his time to vegetables. Four meetings of truck raisers were held, and 140 inspections were made of sundry.,crops. Cabbage ranks next to strawberries in value, and assistance Was rendered in disease and insect control. Sweet corn is of, increasing importance in one section and aid was extended to growers in selection of varieties and advice given as to getting rid, of the ear worm. Watermelons suffered from severe attacks of anthracnose, for which spraying with 4-4-50 bordeaux, under. 300 pounds pressure, was recommended.
(Special crops are constructively handled by farm agents in 10 counties.)
.Poultry Husbandry Endeavor (St. Johns County) :-Farmn flocks in several instances were brought back into, production by adoption of the feeding practice advised by the farm agent. Moist mash, composed of laying mash and skimmed milk, is fed about

Annual Report, 1983

10 A. M.-four pounds to 100 birds-followed. with yellow cracked com and wheat in the afternoon. One poultry raiser with 9,000 fowls and another having 2,000, carried on demonstrations. Egg output was most economical and satisfac tory when small flocks of about 150 each are given light from around 4 o'clock A. M. Units of 80 birds, on quarter acre plots and with a 10x12 house, were found to be a good thing.
(Poultry husbandry engaged more or less of the time in the office and field work of agents in 30 counties.)
Sheep Raising Improvement (Santa Rosa County):-Income from wool is a worthwhile item to farmers, who have about 30,000 sheep, mostly on open range. The animals usually are penned only once a year, at shearing time. Lambs in large numbers are lost each year from stomach worms and in 1933 the farm agent assisted in drenching the young animals during the shearing period. Sheepmen were urged to drench all lambs and.several have adopted the practice. Three flock owners bought purebred rams and ewes, aided by the County Agent. Keeping of sheep in pastures next will be advocated and demonstrated.
(Sheep raising is carried on in 10 of the counties having farm demonstration agents who seek improvements in breeding and methods.)
"Salt Sick" in Cattle (Suwannee County) :-Depletion in th e system of certain minerals, due to grazing on land defleient therein, causing a condition commonly known as salt sick, led to the farmers in certain portions of the county giving up the raising of cattle as a hopeless task. When the Florida Experiment Station, after 40 years of research, found that a corrective is available in a mixture of common salt, copper sulphate and iron oxide, demonstrations were conducted by the farm agents in several of the affected areas. Results proved so satisfactory that already farmers have begun to replace milk cows for home supplies.
(Remedy for salt sick in cattle was demonstrated during 1933 in six or eight counties.)
Hog Cholera and Animal Diseases (Taylor County) :-Control of hog cholera takes almost half the time of the farm agent in this county. Losses of thousands of dollars annually are sustained by the farmers and preventive measures are of great importance in the area. During 1933, 9,186 head of hogs were vaccinated against cholera and 288 head treated for internal parasites and screw worm. Outbreak of the screw worm fly

Floridff Cooperative Extension

worked havoc in the late summer and became so serious that a campaign of trapping flies and burning of dead animals had to be inaugurated. Over 600 carcasses were destroyed. The spread was effectively checked.
(Hog cholera vaccination was looked after by agents in 20 counties.)
Cash Value of Agents'Work (Union and Bradford Counties):Farm demonstration agent working through 1933 in the two counties rendered service having concrete and immediate cash values conservatively estimated as worth $4,059, divided as f ollows: corn increase from crotalaria, 2,500 bushels at 50 cents, $1,250; hogs vaccinated for cholera, 8,090 at 10 cents each, $809; sirup increase from improved varieties, 2,000 gallons at 30 cents, $600; fertilizer bought cooperatively, 110 tons at a saving of $5 each, $550; corn increase from better seed, 600 bushels at 50 cents, $300; saved for 50 farmers on treating hogs for worms, lice, etc., at $4 each, $200; premiums won by 4-H club boys, $175; crotalaria seed sold, 2,000 pounds, net earning 5 cents each, $100; savings on dusting and spraying, and for poultrymen, $75.
(Direct benefits from County Agents' performances are greater in proportion when areas have agriculture of larger economic values. In almost every case they far exceed the cost of the service.)
Grapes and Other Small Fruits (Wakulla Courity):-Range hogs and cattle are the chief reliance of farmers, and veterinary and immunization work takes 95 percent of the farm agent's time. Effort is made, nevertheless, for greater diversification and in 1933 he distributed 500 cuttings of Florida Beacon grapes. Several farmers also secured cuttings of sand pears. Satsuma trees likewise were ordered for farmers and distributed to them.
(Grapes were listed among farm agents' crop projects in 10 counties.)
Terracing Rolling Farm Lands (Walton County) :-Farmers who have rolling lands accepted assistance and guidance from the farm agent during 1933 in 45 cases, for terracing projects involving 1,200 acres. Fields properly terraced have promptly given better yields of crops, through stoppage of erosion. Owners of land have taken much greater interest in preserving soil fertility, since the depression grew acute. Th;s agent also aided in planning many new farm buildings, more having been erected than during the previous five years.
(Terracing of hilly farms was advocated by farm agents in six

Annual Report, 1933

counties; practically without exception the agents gave service on building plans.)
Permanent Pasture Demonstrations (Washington County): Pour were placed in as many communities, on land too wet f or profitable crop production or too rolling for. economical cultivation. On two, planted previous to 1933, in carpet grass and lespedeza, bushes were cut out and weeds destroyed by mowing. On the other two, after clearing and plowing up of wiregrass sod, a mixture was sown in early spring, consisting of 10 parts carpet grass, two parts lespedeza and one part Dallis grass. All plots were grazed to capacity af ter the grass became established, the 95 acres'supporting 75 cattle units until frost came.
(Pasture grasses were pushed in 25 counties, as a necessary factor in profitable animal industry.)
Additional Counties Covered :-On account of illness, the DeSoto County farm agent was forced to take an indefinite leave of absence and could prepare no annual report. Resignation late in the year of the agent for Lafayette County was accepted before his report had been prepared. In both cases, arrangements have been made for resuming activities. Plans also have been completed for placing agents in Gadsden, Hardee, Jackson and Madison counties during 1934.

R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT
Boys' 4-H club work shows a decreased enrollment for 1933. The reason was lack of time on the part of County Agents. With crop loans, relief gardens, cotton reduction campaign, etc., the County Agents were forced to give less time to their usual lines of work. Club work suffered with the rest.
The growing efficiency of 4-H organizations and the leadership of the older boys saved the day. Without these there would have been a very, small percent of reports. In three counties the enrollment was made by older boys.
The following table shows gains and losses in the different projects:
Pota- PoulCorn Cotton toes Truck Citrus try Pig Calf Misc. Total
1933. 583 111 192 338 93 277 370 203 248 2415 1932. 654 123 195 425 100 346 507 235 538 3123 Loss -91 -12 -3 -87 -7 -69 -137 -32 -290 -708

Local 4-H Clubs:-The local club organization has been demonstrated as a necessity if 4-11 club work is to continue under present hectic conditions. The need of such local organization 'has become so well recognized that of the 29 agents reporting club work, 25 had 124 organized clubs, an increase of 13 over 1932. Wherever the County Agent had the organization perfected with a good leader the work was continued although the agent was unable to meet with the clubs. One hundred and fiftyfive club meetings were held without the County Agent being present. The 4-11 boys are learning how to work in organizations.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-With the gradual improvement in organization, the number of efficient local clubs increases. The Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County continues to function after seven years. This is due to the fact that the same leader has stayed with the club. The Bratt Club in Escambia County won first place in the county in competition with 10 other clubs. This is an achievement, as Escambia County is the best organized county in the state in club work. The Little Spring Club of Union County won the cup for the best club for the second year. The Newberry Club of Alachua County continues to supply the greater part of the reports and exhibits at the county contest.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Annual Report, 1983

I The valueof rivalry between local clubs is shown in Suwannee County. The Macedonia Club has been going for three years and has been able to get 100 17o reports from its membership. This year the Pleasant Hill Club was organized and a spirited rivalry started between these two clubs., Both were able to get 100% reports and 1OWo exhibits at the county contest except in one case when the member's pig had died. These clubs are fortunate in having wide awake local leaders.
Among the adult leaders th school teachers are supplying the majority of efficient leaders. Fathers and mothers of club membdrs are sometimes exceptionally good as evidenced in case of the Lake Worth Club in Palm Beach County and the Shady Club in Marion County. The older club boys and girls are acting in large part as'local leaders each year. These young people have in addition to the enthusiasm which g6es with youth, the knowledge which comes from experience. They have been club members and can direct the new members intelligently. Of the 226 local leaders of boys 4-H clubs in 1933, 162 were older club boys and girls'
The social side of club work is being handled almost exclusively by the local clubs. Each organized club is expected to hold four ,social meetings a year. These meetings are to acquaint the parents and the public generally with the value of 4-H club work as well as to supply the community with some wholesome recreation. The five clubs in Washington County carried this out in 1933. Definite programs of recreation and publicity were put over by each club. In recreation work the older boys and girls received their training in the schools conducted for four years in connection with the Playground and Recreation Association of America. I PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS
For the past three years the possibility of making a profit from even a well-conducted club project has been slight. With the gradual disappearance of cash from rural communities together with the surety of low prices for products club boys have been forced to alter the type of their demonstrations. The projects had to be planned so that little cash would be required and the product produced as cheaply as possible.
Corn:-Two hundred and seventy-six boys grew 300 acres of corn,,and produced 9,339 bushels. The average yield was 31.1

Florida Cooperative Extension

bushels. This is 6 bushels less than the five-year average, the decrease being due to less fertilizer being used. Without the demonstrations following cover crops the average yield would have been less.
Cotton:-In an attempt to get hold of some cash, more boys finished their cotton project. These were the lucky boys as they produced an average of over half a bale of cotton per acre. With the increase in price for cotton, the 80 cotton club boys made some money. They used less fertilizer than is advisable under normal conditions but due to favorable weather and a slight infestation of boll weevil they harvested a fair crop.
Peanuts:-This is a minor project but one in which the boys making good yields were able to show a little profit.
Home Gardens and Truck Crops:-The home garden project showed a decrease in 1933. The relief community gardens cut down the market outlet for the surplus. More boys raised sweet potatoes and regular market truck crops than in 1932. Profits were dependent upon conditions beyond the power of the boy to control. ' If the crop happened to be ready when the supply of that crop was scarce he made a profit, otherwise he lost money. The sweet potato project made a smaller but more certain profit than did the market truck projects.
Citrus:-In Manatee County three clubs have combined the study project with the production of nursery stock in a club plot located at the school grounds. One club has been going long enough to have raised trees from seed. This seems to be the most satisfactory project yet worked out with citrus. InManatee County two other clubs have their seedlings ready to bud and one new club is ready to start planting seed.
In Suwannee County, W. A. Robinson planted corn and peanuts after a crop of crotalaria and produced 16.8 bushels of corn and 45.5 bushels of peanuts while the check acre produced but 10 bushels of- corn and 26.6 bushels of peanuts. In Union County 6 boys raising corn after crotalaria produced an average of 35 bushels of corn per acre without fertilizer, while adjoining acres used as checks produced an average of 10 bushels.
Out of all projects the livestock ones were hit the worst by the low prices. It has been impossible for a boy to make a profit or even to pay for a pig at last year's prices. The enrollment in

Annual Report, 1933

the pig club dropped f rom. 507 to 370 and but 170 of these reported. While the 170 raised 416 pigs it is doubtful if they averaged 50c per head profit. The only hope for a pig club boy is to get hold of some good stock while prices are low and be ready to take advantage of the improvement which must come eventually.
Some few boys are attempting to do something with beef cattle. This is also a discouraging proposition as prices of beef are so low. One girl in the lower end of Highlands County has started a herd of range cattle which she runs under the 4-H brand.

Fig. 2.-Club pigs grazing rye at 4 weeks of age. Club boys grow grazing for their pigs.
This club is holding its own fairly well. The gradual eradication of the fever tick is giving an opportunity f or the introduction of some better dairy stock at very low prices. Suwannee and Union counties are starting calf club work. Duval County continues to lead. The calves placed with club members three years ago are now producing milk and many of them have grown into profitable cows. POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Low prices of eggs and the general failure to make a profit caused a decrease in this club. The more efficient boys continue to make a little profit. The boy's flock has helped keep the family in many cases. One agent reports that the sole income of one family for two years has been the boy's flock. It has enabled the family to live.

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This project is coming slowly. In Liberty County of the 53 acres planted in 1932, 35 escaped fire and other destructive agencies and are coming in good shape. In two more years these acres should prove whether or not forestry club work will go in Florida. In Palm Beach the community 4-11 ref restoration project is coming nicely. Fire burned over part of the plot which will give a demonstration of fire control as well as of the growth of trees.
Recreation:-To assist in building a recreation program, four recreation leadership training schools were held again in cooperation with the Playground and Recreation Association of America. These schools were held at DeFuniak Springs, Marianna, Gainesville and Plant City. These schools have been most successful in that the leaders attending have gone back to their communities and have taken the lead in improving community recreational activities.
Club Camps:-Of all the special activities of the club program, the county club camp holds first place in the hearts of the boys. Nineteen camps were held with an attendance of 1,300. Donald Matthews was employed again to assist with the summer camps.
Annual Short Course:-A trip to the annual 4-11 short course is the highest award a boy can win on his club work in any county. The ' county champions gather at the University of Florida for a week of fun, inspiration and instruction.
In June, 1933, 254 boys were enrolled. Courses were given in livestock, dairying, horticulture, poultry, farm mechanics, farm accounting, swimming, and organized recreation. The evenings were used for entertainment. Of the boys attending the 1933 short course nine entered the University of Florida as freshmen. The short course is doing much in making the University known and understood in'the rural sections of our state.
At an examination given during the short course three boys were awarded $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture given by the Florida Bankers' Association.
State Corn Show:-A state corn club show was held at the South Florida Fair in February, 1933. A space of 90 feet by 12 feet was filled with corn raised by the club boys. Signs and legends were used to help the visitors get the story of 4-11 Club work.

Annual Report, 1933

Bankers' Scholarship :-Frank Buck of Orange County, John Leynes of Alachua County and Harvey Cook of Escambia County won the Florida Bankers' Association scholarship.
National 4-H Camp :-The delegates to the National 4-H Camp
-ire selected as the two outstanding 4-H boys in the state. The Florida delegates were W. W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County and Arthur McNeely of Marion County. Both Bassett and McNeely entered the College of Agriculture this fall.
Governor's Wife Donates Pigs :-Mrs. Sholtz, wife of the Governor of Florida, became interested in the work of the 4-H clubs and gave several boys and girls a purebred pig-each from her farm in the Carolinas. The pig club members getting these pigs were thrilled and promised to take good care of them.
Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company :-Each year this railroad pays the expenses of one boy and one girl from Florida to the National 4-H Camp in Washington. The Club Department appreciates the fact that even during the hard times this company has never failed to contribute these trips.
Florida Bankers' Association :-For 15 years the bankers of Florida have contributed three $100. scholarships annually to boys' 4-H club work. The inspiration furnished by these scholarships is greater perhaps than that generated by any other one thing in club work. If the boy is not prepared for college the money is placed in the bank against the time when he is. In the class from the College of Agriculture which will graduate in June, 1934, there are three men who will receive diplomas because club work brought them to the short course and the Bank~ers' Scholarship enabled them to enter the University. In the freshman class which entered the University in September, 1933, there were three boys who were entering because they had won Bankers' Scholarships. The bankers of Florida are helping to educate worthwhile men.
Playground and Recreation Association of America :-This association has paid the expenses of trained leaders to put on the recreation leadership training schools held in the state for the past four years. It is hard to tell just how much benefit has been derived from these schools. Community recreation has improved wonderfully in the counties where the schools were held.

Florida Cooperative Extension

BOYS'4-H CLUB STATISTICS ORGANIZATION 124 Organized community 4-11 clubs
8 County club organizations or councils

ENROLLMENT AND COMPLETION 2,177 Members enrolled 2,415 Different projects carried by club members 1,033 Members completed 1,495 Projects completed PROJECT WORK

Project A
Irish potatoes sweet potatoes cotton tobacco sugarcane
home gardens truck crops
horticulture home beautification forestry
poultry dairy beef cattle swine

cres Growr 300 66
5 Y4
47% 715,fi
4,598 trees

9,339 bushels 2,146 bushels 1,560 bushels 7,312 bushels 59,976 lbs. 2,840 lbs
603 gZ.

6 homes
79 acres planted

Animals Involved 6,870 birds
168 animals 30 animals 416 animals

276 Members completed 38 Members completed 5 Members completed 103 Members completed 80 Members completed
3 Members completed 16 Members completed 143 Members completed 74 Members completed 76 Members completed 6 Members completed 54 Members completed

172 Members completed 120 Members completed 16 Members completed 173 Members completed

4 Demonstration teams trained
6 Judging teams trained 41 Leadership meetings with 210 leaders attending 18 Achievement days held with 2,377 attending 19 Club camps. held with 1,300, attending
1 State short course held with 254 attending

Annual Report, 1933

HAMLIN L. BRowN, Extension Dairyman

Dairying was the objective of work done with the cooperation of farm demonstration agents in 30 counties during 1933. In 11 more, not having County Agents, the Extension Dairyman was active with farmers, in a lesser degree.
Forage crop production was the major undertaking of the program. Pasture grazing and silage are regarded as of first importance, with soiling and hay crops next in order. Interest among dairymen was found to be greatly increased in the direction of larger forage output.
Government loans were taken advantage of in acquiring land better suited to forage crops. In the past two years, 147 diarymen have purchased 17,340 acres for the purpose. Duval County led in the acreage of farm lands bought by dairymen. County Agents reported 1,726 acres seeded to grass during 1933 against 1,545 in the preceding year, a gain.of 181 or about 11 percent.
Field meetings conducted by the County Agents again proved valuable in demonstrating the practicability of mowing pastures and thus enlarging the grass yields. In most of these events, part was taken by the Agent in Animal Husbandry and by the Extension Dairymen. Combining the effort of the beef cattle and dairying departments has helped in enlarging the scope and influence of the endeavor.
Demonstrations also were held in supplying commercial fertilizers to pastures and grazing crops. An increased tonnage of grass almost invariably has resulted. Experiments conducted in other states have shown that the practice gives grazing with higher vitamin and mineral contents, and greater feeding value. Dairy farmers in Florida fertilized 1,470 acres of grazing products in 1933. Owing to the high price of seed oats and rye in the fall, demonstration acreage of both was reduced, however.
Anti-silo agitation developed during the World War period by improper construction and filling has been mostly overcome by demonstrations in the correct methods. In one county, Duval, where farmers had been disappointed by bad results from poor silage, in 1933 every old silo was filled and 14 new ones were erected If present high prices for feed are continued, the prospects are good for twice as many additional silos to be built during 1934.
Relation between soil types and the forage crops grown have been stressed in the Extension dairy program for several years. Corn in the Lowell neighborhood, Marion County, gave an aver-

Florida Cooperative. Extension

age yield of three tons of silage to the acre. When 12 farmers were induced to plant sorghum as a substitute in 1933, they averaged nine tons. Corn silage probably has 25 percent more feeding value but this is offset several times over by the 300 percent output of the sorghum. In Duval county 20 farmers have been assisted in securing seed of Cayana. sugarcane for planting. Napier grass, cat-tail millet and other crops have been used in the demonstrations carried on in over a dozen counties.
Milk as a part of the family living rather than as a source of direct cash income more and more has been stressed, under the low prices prevailing for butter and related products. Dairying in connection with a diversified type of farming, providing for home supplies of food and feed, was demonstrated in about 15 counties, and received encouragement from farmers who had lost their ready markets for milk.
Where herds had been built through breeding and culling, over a considerable period, and forage was grown for all requirements, in some instances they refused to sell the cows even when buyers had been found. The feeling was that other kinds of farming offered no more assurance of profit, and that ways could be found for utilizing the milk that previously had been sold in fluid form.
Low prices on grain feed ruling in the past few years and the resulting surplus of milk caused retention in herds of too many low-production cows, with the advance in feed prices, farms failing to grow forage crops found these cows a source of actual loss.
In Extension dairy work the present treatment of the problem is to get fewer heifers, from the best cows in the herd exclusively. They need to be fed liberal rations of milk during the first six months and provided with plenty of high quality roughage from that age until they are fully grown.
Average weight of dairy cows in the state is approximately 800 pounds, which is 25 percent undersize. Demonstrations in growing heifers in accordance wi ' th the better practice are helping to correct that condition. Farm surveys in different sections made by the department of agricultural economics have assisted.
Stomach and intestinal parasites have infested some 60 percent of the dairy heifers in Florida. An under-nourished condition and placing of calves in infested fields are principal causes. Calves need lots of milk until five or six months old, and before that can get little nourishment from grass. In calf feeding demonstrations, the animals are kept in cultivated fields and not allowed to range on sod pastures.
Dairy production records continue to be employed in the Exten-

Annual Report, 1933 '

sion activities. Up to 20 percent of the dairymen have begun to keep them. They are the source of information on which culling may be practiced. Feed records direct attention to the impor.tance of raising forage. In a community where 95 percent of the dairy farmers are keeping records, feed is produced by about the same proportion. Distinct progress was reported in 1933 from numerous areas.
Scrub and grade bulls rapidly are disappearing from the dairy herds of Florida. During 1933, 69 registered dairy bulls were placed on farms in the state. Educational material as to evaluating pedigrees and selecting breeding animals is more and more welcomed by farmers. Bulls have been freely interchanged when it became advisable to remove them from one locality to another. County Agents reported 34 exchanges in the 12 months.
Barn repairing and silo building demonstrations reported in 1933 number 36, and County Agents helped in the construction of 34 silos for dairy purposes. Of these, 26 were trench, semitrench and pit, and only eight above ground.
Underground silos have been advocated in the Extension dairy program during the depression, because of the low cost. Demonstrations in every section of the state have proved that practically all kinds of forage may be preserved in silos. The lower the cost the more of them that can be erected.
No factor, is more potent in building up dairying than the 4-H dairy clubs. In 1933, 17 county agents enrolled 219 members with 241 dairy animals. Thirty percent were heifers producing milk, 89 registered females and 152 high grade females. Banks financing the purchases of several thousand animals in the past 1-1 years have had no case of loss.
In addition to the State Dairy Association, Florida has 19 county organizations. The state body has 576 members and has been in operation for eight years. Counsel and advice from the leaders of these several groups has been helpful in carrying out the Extension program. County Agents have assisted the local associations with their affairs in repeated instances.
During 1933, the Extension Dairyman held 118 meetings, with a total attendance of 4,916. His travel mileage was 27,427 and he wrote 1,420 letters. Activities planned for 1934 largely are .along similar lines. Dairymen generally want to go ahead and carry on, feeling that a brighter outlook is not apparent in other forms of specialized farming.

F16rida Cooperative Extension

W. J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry

From 1925 to 1930 the number of cattle in Florida decreased by 224,000 head or 34 percent. Many cattlemen sold out completely before tick eradication, expecting to restock when it had been completed. Other owners had it pointed out to them that the practice would prove unprofitable, and saved their good breeding animals.
Between 1930 and 1933 the cattle population of the State showed a gain of 48,000, or 11 percent. Use of improved bulls has caused a marked change for the better in the quality of the stock; feeding more intelligently also has helped.
Average annual calf crop on ranges has been 30 percent. One, breeder reported 100 percent for 1933. Several cattlemen have obtained 60 to 70 percent by following the advice of the Extension workers.
In 1933 a total of 76 beef cattle method demonstrations were conducted and 113 adult result demonstrations were completed. Animals involved in completed demonstrations numbered 13,630. Assistance was rendered farmers in obtaining 70 purebred bulls and 329 purebred sires were placed.
Developing sources of supply for purebred bulls within the state made considerable progress. Four years ago Florida had only five breeders of purebred cattle. Now 10 or more are active, with herds totaling 350 females. All bulls raised so far have been sold by the time they were a year old.
Demand for purebred bulls continued to exceed the supply. Lykes Brothers of Tampa consented to bring them into the state, and during 1933 imported 100 beef bulls, 115 Brahmans and 200 Brahman cows. A grand total of 690 bulls now are shoving out the scrubs-413 purebred beef animals, 180 Brahmans and 97 grade bulls.
Herd betterment effort has featured winter feeding and controlled breeding. While the success has been varying, noteworthy progress was recorded in numerous areas. Feeder calves and yearlings are sought that will be uniform in color, conformation, quality and size. Another objective is fat, well-grown calves for veal, giving local butchers meat of higher quality than now is generally available within the state.
Putting cut-over lands into pasture is another objective. The

Annual Report, 1933

agent in animal husbandry and other Extension Service workers have helped with the plans under which the Putnam Lumber Company has fenced 113,000 acres, in six divisions, sowing 200 acres to carpet grass. The Florida Industrial Corporation has fenced 44,000 acres, and is winter feeding weak cows and calves. In Dixie County alone 200,000 acres are under fence, stocked with 10,000 head, including 107 purebred bulls placed this year. Two carloads of calves were shipped to the Richmond Market.
Growing and storage of feed has been consistently urged in the Extension livestock program. Drouth in North and West Florida hindered production this season but nevertheless 17 new trench silos for beef cattle feeding were put in. Pasture work has been stressed and County Agents report 12,188 pounds of grass seed bought, 2,342 acres sown to grasses and 7,000 acres Tnowed to eliminate weeds. Special machines for weed-cutting have been developed and field day demonstrations made new friends for the practices.
Despite the check placed on finishing cattle for market by the financial situation, special attention has been given to improving the methods employed. A Polk county feeder, who has eight metal silos with 2,200 tons capacity, fed 487 steers and in addition winter fed 220 steers, 123 calves and 28 bulls.
A Kissimmee butcher erected a silo and is feeding out his own cattle for local trade. Oxford butchers are finishing 300 steers to furnish beef for customers. Another firm following this practice is located at Lakeland. Information on methods of feeding

Fig. 3.-Florida cattlemen are finishing out better quality steers and obtaining better prices for them.

Florida Cooperative Extension

has been furnished on several occasions. Many of the feeders report considerable savings in consequence.
In normal times, North Florida tobacco growers ship in steers to feed for manure. Effort has been made by the Extension workers for this feeding stock to be produced in Florida. During 1931, $50,000 was sent out of the state for the animals. This year Liberty County furnished Gadsden tobacco farmers nearly 100, and they also obtained a number from Leon, Wakulla and neighboring counties.
Beef cutting and canning demonstrations were held at five points in three counties. In hog producing counties these events were devoted to pork. A miniature meat curing box has been made from blueprints supplied by the United States Department of Agriculture and was exhibited at the County Agents' annual meeting and on the occasion of gatherings attended by farmers. Duplicate prints have been furnished on request.
A cold storage curing plant at Branford cured more than 1,000,000 pounds of meat for farmers last season. Another at Live Oak, a new one, has a capacity of 400,000 pounds. Mayo also built one, capacity 175,000 pounds, and another recently erected at Chiefland cured 75,000 pounds. Established curing warehouses reported more meat in process at the end of the year than 12 months preceding, in several cases. Many of them now are using only the sugar cure.
The Agent in Animal Husbandry has attended 33 meetings and talked on some phase of livestock raising, before 2,250 people. Two field days were held, demonstrating the methods and advantages of mowing weeds in pastures. Whenever opportunity has offered, the beef cattle industry and its possibilities have been presented at service club luncheons and to other groups of business men. Agricultural Adjustment Administration corn-hog reduction campaigns were taken part in on a somewhat extensive scale, during the summer and again toward the end of the year.

Annual Report, 1933

NORMAN R. MEHROF, Extension Poultryman

Extension poultry work was conducted in 1933 in the following counties: Alachua, Bay, Dade, Duval, Hernando, Hillsborough, Holmes, Highlands, Lafayette, Lake, Lee, Leon, Manatee, Marion, Nassau, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Putnam, Santa Rosa, Seminole, Sumter, Suwannee, St. Johns, Volusia, Walton, and Washington.
The Extension poultry program was developed around those phases of management which affected costs of production. Such factors as cost records, feeding, pullet production, chickenpox vaccination, and sanitation were emphasized.
The situation during the past year was, on the whole, unfavorable, with prices for both eggs and meat lower and costs of feed being higher. With the average monthly prices prevailing during the three years October 1, 1926, and ending September 30, 1929, used as a base of 100, it is found that the index prices for November, 1933, are: No. I white eggs 56, heavy hens 57, heavy fryers 45, and poultry feed 70.
Records have been kept over a period of years on the wholesale prices of poultry meat and eggs as quoted by the State Marketing Bureau for the Jacksonville area. To illustrate the situation that has existed, the average price of white eggs for the five-year period 1921-26 was 44.8 cents, while the five-year* average 1926-31 was 38.2 cents. The average price of white eggs for the year October 1 to September 30 was 29.6 cents per dozen in 1930-31, 24.4 cents in 1931-32, and 23.7 cents in 1932-33.
Prices for colored fryers also have declined. The five-year average price 1926-30 in April was 43 cents per pound, since 1930 prices have averaged 40 cents in 1931, 26.5 cents in 1932, and 24.3 cents a pound in 1933.
Feed prices also have declined during the past few years. Based on a ration (including grain and mash in equal proportions) similar to the one used at the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, the average price was $2.62 per 100 pounds (five years 1926-31), $2.04 (1930-31), $1.55 (1931-32) and $1.60 per 100 pounds (1932-33).
During 1933 three methods generally were used by commercial

Florida Cooperative Extension

egg producers in the production of quality pullets. In one group, the colony system was used, namely, small colony brooders, range houses and clean ranges (3 and 4 year rotation). This method is used when the producer has large acreage. The second group develop their pullets using wire floors and sun parlors. Acreage is small and land contaminated. The third group raise pullets in batteries to maturity. A small number of large producers are using this method.
The importance of sanitation (clean chicks, ciean brooder houses, and clean range) was stressed by the Agents during the year. This was accomplished by means of meetings, circular letters, bulletins and farm visits.
Data on types of green feeds, planting dates, length of time to harvest, etc., have been furnished to the poultry raisers to assist them in working out this important phase of poultry production.
Maintaining high production during the past year was most important because higher feed and lower egg prices prevailed.
Culling demonstrations were given by agents in the various counties of the state, so as to make the flock more profitable. County and Home Demonstration Agents reported 974, culling demonstrations.
With hen prices low a large quantity of poultry meat was canned on the farm.
Record keeping is still a popular part of the Extension program, for both small and large producer. The calendar Flock Records project was started in 1925. Two different books are used in the project, one f or the small producer and one for the commercial producer.
The flocks are divided into four groups according to the number of birds involved-Group 1, 10-50 birds; Group 11, 51-250 birds; Group 111, 251-500 birds; and Group IV, over 500 birds. Monthly reports are issued summarizing the results for the month and to date, together with timely poultry information.
The records start October 1 and are completed September 30.
Results for the past Year indicate greater efficiency in handling the poultry flock. The average egg production per bird for the year was 169.19 eggs. This production is the greatest since the project was begun.
Poultry raisers from 22 counties kept records in 1933. Table I

gives the number of flocks, average size of flock and average number of eggs per bird for the past year by groups.

10-50 51-250 251-500 500
birds birds birds birds Total number of flocks . 12 17 9 8.
Average size of flock . 32 134 269 858
Average number of eggs per bird . 154.45 156.81 166.40 175.10

Poultry raising is one of the popular phases of 4-H club work. The program for juniors is developed around two projects: (1) Poultry production-the boy or girl owns arid manages his or her own flock. (2) Poultry improvement-the boy or girl manages the flock on the farm, if it is purebred. The poultry improvement program is the more popular.
Meetings were held with 4-H poultry clubs at which time the more important phases of poultry production were discussed, principally records, sanitation, feeding, culling, and growing healthy chicks.
At the Girls' Short Course a poultry course was given.
Poultry tours were held during the year at which time improvement of the flocks was discussed. In Hillsborough County poultry records have been Studied and analyzed. Poultry questions relative to the records have resulted in better books at the end of the year.
Birds exhibited by 4-H club members were judged at two county fairs.
The Florida State Poultry Producers Association was organized during the year at Orlando. The purpose of this association is to promote, foster, and encourage the intelligent, orderly and lawful production and marketing of poultry and eggs. Membership in this association is composed of all members of any county poultry organization. Twenty-five county poultry associations. are affiliated with the state organization. The State Association has worked out plans for advertising Florida fresh eggs. Uniform labels and placards are used by many of the local organizations. The members are active in seeing that the Florida Egg Law is enforced.'
This association is working very closely with the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.

Annual Report, 1933

Florida Cooperative Extension

Local and county poultry associations have been more active during the year. They have assisted agents in developing constructive poultry programs. Educational meetings were held with the various associations at times during the year.
The American Poultry Association of Florida continues to foster quality birds for poultry club members. The association promotes educational poultry shows.
The Florida Baby Chick Association assists the Extension or.-anization in promoting the Grow Healthy Chick Program. The association is working in close contact with the International Baby Chick Association and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in developing a fair code for hatcherymen.
The accreditation of poultry breeding flocks is under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. The revised plan just issued specifies that all flocks must be tested twice for pullorum disease. The three classes are, accredited, certified, and pullorum disease free flocks.
Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian of the Live Stock Sanitary Board, has assisted in Extension poultry meetings and with regulating work at the National Egg-Laying Contest.
The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with the'County and Home Demonstration Agents. F. W. Risher, Poultry Marketing Specialist, has worked very closely with the Extension organization in finding markets for eggs and poultry meat, and has assisted the various poultry associations at meetings, discussing grading and marketing of eggs and poultry. Extension workers have assisted the Inspection Division of the Department of Agriculture in arranging meetings pertaining to the Florida Egg Law.
Four years ago agents in West Florida promoted the use of home-made brick brooders. This type of brooder appears to be cheap in construction and efficient. One agent reports over 100 in his county. Those brooders are used rather extensively in many West Floridacounties and reports from farmers indicate better results.
Demonstrations in vaccination were given during the year, the result being that more pullets were vaccinated than last year.,

Annual Report, 1933

The practice of vaccinating pullets at about 12 to 16 weeks of age is very common among the commercial egg producers.
The two most common methods used during the year were the "stick" and "feather follicle" methods.

During the year a large number of educational poultry meetings were held. These meetings were held in cooperation with County and Home Agents. Various agencies assisted in presenting poultry information, namely, commercial feed manufacturers, various state departments, and the local poultry associations.
The Seventh Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at Chipley was conducted from October 1, 1932, to September 22, 1933. There were 52 pens entered. There were 30 pens entered by Florida poultry breeders from 15 different counties.
The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 209 eggs per bird with a value of 205 points. The highest pen (10 birds) produced a total of 2,767 eggs for a value of 2,846 points. The highest individual was a White Leghorn entered by a Florida breeder. This bird produced 311 eggs for a value of 336.75 points.
Birds entered by Florida breeders compared very favorably with birds outside the state. The Florida birds of the dual purpose type averaged 185 eggs while the average for the entire contest was 117 eggs. In the case of White Leghorns the Florida birds averaged 216 eggs while the average in the contest was 221 eggs.
The only heavy breed bird producing 300 or more eggs was a Florida bird.
The Eighth Contest started October 1, 1933, and there were 83 pens entered.
In cooperation with the Animal Husbandry Department of the Experiment Station, feeding trials were started at the West Central Florida Experiment Station, Brooksville, Florida. The tests pertain to the efficiency of several sources of protein for producing broilers and also in rearing turkeys.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest feeding trials have been started to determine the relative efficiency of different sources of protein.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Additional data are being collected atthe We�t Central Experiment Station and the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest on different phases of poultry management. Projects that are being studied are "use of lights to increase winter egg production," confinement vs. non-confinement in rearing pullets," "value of rotation in developing pullets" and "growth studies of cockerels and pullets."
Judging was done in three poultry shows last year.
Twenty-five conferences were held with feed men and fair managers relative to poultry problems in their localities.

The following data have been compiled from the County and Home Demonstration Agents' reports: Number of communities participating . 542 Number of leaders assisting . 219 Days agents devoted to poultry . 1,185 Number of meetings held . 772 Number of news stories published . 315 Number of different circular letters issued . 247 Number of farm or home visits . 3,314 Number of office calls . 6,537 Number of method demonstration meetings held . . 721 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year . 1,923 Number of animals involved in these completed adult result demonstrations . 244,082 Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations completed. $52,122

Annual Report, 1933

E. F. DEBusK, Citriculturist

Reduction in the costs of producing citrus fruits, in so far as it can be accomplished without sacrificing quality or injuring the trees, has continued uppermost in the activities of the Extension citrus culture specialist. Grove and soil management were accorded preferred attention, and almost equal consideration was given to insect and disease control.
Fact finding demonstrations in selected groves throughout the citrus area are utilized as a principal means of carrying on the work. Choice of groves is based on soil, varieties, rootstock, age of tree and tendency y to cooperate shown by the grower. Projects started during 1933 included some 600 acres of grove, and in a single county the practices of over 200 producers were affected.
Citrus schools in sundry communities have been adopted as an efficient method of giving courses in all phases of practical culture. In 1933, 10 were conducted, with 'an enrollment of more than 400, representing about 16,000 acres of groves.

More than 40 demonstrations were devoted to showing that production costs can be kept down to the minimum only by supplying to the grove large amounts of bulky organic matter through the full use of cover crops or with manure that is hauled in. Others dealt with raw phosphate for stimulating cover crops and improving soil conditions while about 20 brought out the best practices in using lime and magnesium lime.
In over 100 demonstrations the yield of fruit has been increased 5 to 20 percent through mowing of the cover crops and placing it around the trees as a mulch, with improvement in trees and quality of fruit also evident. Output of cover crops was enlarged by 1,000 pounds an acre, dry weight, through application of a dollar's worth of cheap nitrogen per acre, the grass having a value in many groves of $5 per ton.
Cultivation of the wasteful or injurious type was eliminated in the methods followed in 80 or more demonstrations. In one county alone the influence of the work is estimated to have saved the growers at least $10,000 in cultivation outlay.
Irrigation problems are closely related to grove costs. Assistance was rendered to 95 growers in improving the system of

Florida Cooperative Extension

applying water and 14 were aided in installing grove plants, covering more than 1,600 acres.
Indirect control or prevention again proved to be most effective in the effort against melanose and stem-end rot, die-back and ammoniation, gummosis and psorosis. Other endeavors under the head of diseases dealt with citrus scab, blue mold and foot rot. :
Rust mite control was rendered a great deal more efficient when, undertaken at the right time and in the proper stages of devel'opment, and Extension workers devoted much labor to the dissemination of information on the subject. Spraying and dusting demonstrations were conducted in numerous communities.
Control of scale and whitefly by natural means was developed on a broader scale than ever before. In many of the demonstration groves it was unnecessary to spray for scale this year. In demonstrations applying to over 4,000 acres of grove, spraying for scale has been discarded for the past four years. Scale fungi developed to an extent affording control, when cultivation was reduced 75 percent, heavy cover crops were grown and pruning of the center of the trees was abandoned. The best results in insect work of course have been attained with trees that had been properly fertilized-a hungry tree is a feeble fighter.,

Demonstrations in thinning tangerines were conducted, affecting over 300 acres. Bracing of tangerin e trees was recommended and illustrated in a large number of instances.
Splitting of fruit in Valencia groves was closely studied in the field. Less was found in plantings that had abundant moisture from June to November. Irrigation at a cost of less than $1.00 per acre-inch pays for itself in lessened splitting, even when fruit prices are low.
Farm built implement demonstrations were welcomed by grow.ers. Written instructions and photographs have been made available to a great many. Assistance was rendered to exceeding of 25 of them, for utilization of second-hand automobile engines in irrigation pumping plants.
Cost record facts were eagerly accepted by many grove owners. More than 300 consultations were held with growers in 10 counties and in nine of these production accounting was taken up in. some 300 instances. Every operation becomes the object of study look-

Annual Report, 1983. 51

ing to lowered outlay when a grower has accurate cost sheets before him.
In 1933, an aggregate of 132 meetings and schools of instruction were held in 14 counties. Seventeen grove tours were conducted, in eight counties, with above 400 growers taking part. Over 7,000 citrus bulletins were distributed from the offices of 11 county agents, and more than 5,000 letters on the subject also went out. Sixty radio talks were made over six stations by the citriculturist and eight county agents. Articles on phases of citrus culture printed in 13 counties numbered 343.

C. V. NOBLE, Agricultural Economist
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Extension Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TimmoNs, Extension Economist, Marketing

Demand continued to increase for dependable facts concerning economic phases of Florida agriculture. Farmers, fruit growers and vegetable producers made more inquiries for information of this kind during 1933 than in any preceding period of like length. Meanwhile, the Economics division of the Agricultural ExtensionService in'the College of Agriculture was engaged in assembling additional data through surveys dealing with phases of farm management and crop marketing that have been given greater importance by the prevalence of depression conditions.
Citrus accounts constitute a project now entering its fourth year. The number of growers taking part has steadily increased, having been only 118 the first season, rising to 200 for the second year and currently reaching a total of 175.
Surveys in farm management were another continuing activity. In 1932, farms were studied in Suwannee and Santa Rosa counties. For 1933, the work was concentrated in Okaloosa and Walton counties. The Farm Management Specialist also assisted in tabulating and summariz'ng records for 112 truck farms in the Plant City section.
A poultry farm management study, including factors related to the major items of expense and income, has been carried on since .1926. Records from cooperating poultrymen were compiled and distributed during 1933, and new books furnished to them in which a few minor changes had been made from previous issues.
Feed and egg prices have been tabulated f or the period 1926 to dat6. The three-year period from October 1, 1926, to SeptemTABLE II AVERAGE EGG AND POULTRY FEED PRICES, JACKSONVILLE, 1926-33.
3 Year Avg.
Oct. 1, 1926, Oct. 1, 1930, Oct. 1, 1931, Oct. 1, 1932,
Sept. 30. Sept. 30, Sept. 30, Sept. 30, Nov., Nov., 1929 1931 1932 1933 1932 1933
Average Prices at Jacksonville
Poultry ration
(Dollars per cwt.). .$2.80 $2.04 $1.55 $1.60 $1.43 $1.91 No. 1 White Eggs
(Cents per Dozen). .41.1c 29.6c 24.4c 23.7c 32.7c 32.0e
Index of Feed and Egg Prices
Oct. 1, 1926, to Sept. 30, 1929 = 100
Poultry ration . 100 73 55 57 52 70
No. 1 White Eggs . 100 72 58 57 57 56

Florida Cooperative Extension

Annual Report, 1933

ber 30, 1929, during which conditions were relatively stable, was considered as a base period and comparisons made for each of the four succeeding twelve month periods. Table II, herewith reproduced, affords a typical example of the informative manner in which agricultural economics findings are furnished to the public'
The Florida Outlook Report for 1934 was in part prepared by the Specialist in Farm Management, who broadcasted extracts from it over Station WRUF in Gainesville. Articles containing reviews of the work accomplished were printed in the "Extension Economist."
Instructions in Farm Management and Record Keeping were given to groups of the older 4-11 Club boys and talks were made before a number of the clubs.

Motor truck transportation continues to be an important factor in the marketing of farm products. During the past season there has been a larger percentage of citrus fruits transported by truck than ever before, while there was apparently a decrease in the volume shipped by rail in bulk car lots. Investigations conducted by the Extension Economist in Marketing during 1933 showed Detroit, Cincinnati, Louisville and other points in that territory to be the principal receivers of citrus shipped by rail in bulk car lots. These investigations also disclosed definite reactions in the trade as to quality, and variation in quantity of contents of bulk cars.
Records taken on oranges shipped in bulk showed an average of less than 1/2 to 1 percent decay in transit, while grapefruit spoilage was less than oranges.
The breakage of citrus packages in transit was studied from data secured on 3,400 cars. There were 54,400 containers broken in these cars, or an average of 16 per car. Of this number, approximately 14 to the car could be repaired and placed in the regular channels of trade. The other two packages were so badly broken that they had to be sold at greatly reduced prices. Expressed in percentage, these data showed that 4.4 percent of the packages were broken, .6 percent of which had to be salvaged.
"Economic Facts About the Florida Hog Industry"-see Extension Economist for September, 1933-f furnished valuable data concerning this important item in the state's livestock holdings. Management and marketing practices with range cattle, and age

54 Florida Cooperative Extension

and weight of beef dressed were subjects of additional 1933 studies in the same field.
. A survey of the Jacksonville city market was made at the
request of the City Council Marketing Committee.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration affairs occupied considerable portions of the year in the work of the Marketing Specialist. Cooperation was given to the National Fruit and Vegetable Exchange in an inquiry into the possibilities for increased tonnage from Florida cooperatives. From November 1, the Marketing Specialist was loaned to the Farm Credit Administration for field work in connection with Production Credit Associations. Other miscellaneous work included speaking at various meetings, individual and group conferences on marketing problems.

.Annual Report, 1933

J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
The Extension agronomy program during 1933 concerned itself principally with the following lines of endeavor:
1. Conservation and improvement of the soil by terracing and use of winter and summer cover crops.
2. Economical production of grains and feed crops by use of cover crops, commercial fertilizers, select varieties, and proper spacing.
3. A more economical production of cash crops by the same methods.
4. Control of diseases and parasites of crops.

WVith the alternate sunshine and heavy rains that are a part of Florida climate, any vegetable matter that constitutes a part of the natural sandy soils is destroyed quickly. Nitrogen is dis,ipated quickly also. The soils therefore. become poor. To increase yields Austrian winter peas and vetch have been grown since 1925. During the falls of 1932 and 1933 very few were planted due to drought at planting time and low prices of commodities grown following them.
Crotalaria has been used for several years to improve soil for general farm crops and as cover crops of groves and vineyards. The following statistics show how the practice has grown:
Year Seed sown Acres planted Value
1929 80,000 10,000 $50,000
1930 148,000 18,800 94,000
1931 270,000 35,000 175,000
1932 560,000 68,000 340,000
The seed crop sold last year for $60,000.
During the last three years the County Agents of Florida have encouraged farmers to plant 50 demonstrations of crotalaria comprising 524 acres in 1931, and 408 demonstrations comprising 3,538 acres in 1932, and many demonstrations comprising thous~iids of'acres in 1933. Last year's demonstrations were followed by other crops with very interesting results. They showed the usual four to six bushels increase in corn production. Peanuts, beans and other crops showed even better increases.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The land in some of the Northwest Florida counties being rolling and there being a heavy rainfall in that area, it is essential that the land be terraced. The County Agents have assisted the farmers in building terraces for several years. The record is as follows:
Year Number of Demonstrations Acres
1925 49 1426
1926 no records
1927 no records
1928 66 2100
1929 151 3857
1930 211 3875
1931 10 4510
1932 218 5498
1933 179 6157

They have assisted farmers and growers with drainage and irrigation problems in other parts of the state. During the year they furnished drainage recommendations to 60 farmers and 1,536 acres were drained by such systems. Thirty farmers and growers were furnished recommendations on installing irrigation systems for 590 acres of land. Plans were furnished for the building and remodeling of 58 farm buildings during the year.

Fertilizing, side-dressing:-Commercial fertilizer is used to increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This fertilizer usually is a side-dressing of some quickly available nitrogeneous inorganic element. During 1933 there were 162 corn fertilizing demonstrations conducted in this territory, consisting of 1,990 acres with an average increase of about 9 bushels per acre.
There were 184 demonstrations conducted by juniors which comprised 186 acres that produced a total of 5,269 bushels, or 28 1/3 bushels per acre, approximately 15 1/3 bushels more than the state average.
Corn Weevil Control:-Weevils destroy an enormous amount of corn in Florida each year. To show that they can be controlled by fumigating with carbon disulphide the County Agents had cribs prepared-made air-tight-and conducted demonstrations.
The effectiveness of the fumigation is shown by the following results:

Annual Report, 1933

Year 1931 Year 1932
Lbs. corn in shuck Lbs. shelled corn Lbs. corn in shuck Lbs. shelled 80-treated 58 80 58.25
80-not treated 52 80 51.4
Saved 6 .6.8

Results were similar from demonstrations conducted in the spring and summer of 1933.
As a result of these demonstrations more cribs have been fixed and poison bought preparatory to treating the present crop.
The native wiregrass pasture will carry only about- one cow to 10 acres. This grass becomes tough and woody by early summer and cattle just hold their own thereafter till frost. Pasture experiments show that carpet grass, dallis grass, and other tame grasses have carried one cow per acre under careful management and produced as high as 256 pounds of beef per acre per annum. To show to the farmers these qualities the agents have been establishing demonstrations on farms for several years. In 1933 there were 160 pastures planted comprising 6,704 acres.
Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are (comparatively) easily cured in the humid atmosphere of Florida and produce. high yields. Fifteen demonstrations comprising 53 acres were grown in 1933, producing 3/4 ton hay more per acre than cowpeas. Through this means and pasture, the livestock feed supply and its quality are being improved.
Fourteen trench silos have been added this year to those already in existence. Sorghum, corn and cane have been put in these silos to supplement cattle feed this winter.
There are two things that increase the yield of peanuts-an application of landplaster (gypsum) on runners where they are inclined -to make pops, and thicker spacing of both the runners and Spanish varieties. Landplaster demonstrations showed excellent results this year.
Spacing Demonstrations with Peanuts :-This was the second year that farmers have been shown the advantage of the thicker spacing by use of charts at meetings held in the early spring. At these same meetings farmers told of their results from thicker spacing last year. As a result of these and the demon-

Florida Cooperative Extension

stations, recommendations for thick spacing are becoming well known. There were 78 well-planned demonstrations conducted, comprising 1,000 acres.
With both thicker spacing and landplaster applications, much higher increases were secured.
In the commercial peanut area where the thicker spacing has been demonstrated for several years the practice is now established. SUGARCANE
Mosaic disease and nematode have affected very materially the yield of the old red sugarcane varieties which have served for making sirup for years. The Cayana 10 variety is highly resistant to both. To show the superiority of this cane it has been planted side by side with the other in 83 demonstrations and showed an increased yield of 113 gallons per acre.
The commercial growers are nearly all using Cayana 10 now and many others are using it each year. For the last three or four years some of the P. 0. J. hybrids have been used in experimental demonstrations. They have been going well and are now being distributed over the cane belt.
Three things have been found to increase the production of cotton in Florida-more intelligent use of fertilizers, better varieties, and thicker spacing of plants in the rows. Result demonstrations have been conducted b y the County Agents of cotton counties to show the growers the benefits derived from following these practices.
Naturally the cotton acreage adjustment campaign has c6nsumed much of the time and energies of the agents in 1933. There were 5,016 growers contacted and 4,343 contracts accepted by agents and committees in 14 counties. There were 22,568 acres of cotton plowed under, producing an estimated yield of 185.9 pounds per acre or 4,196,250 pounds of lint equal to 8,392,.5 bales of 500 pounds each.
Farmers took options to buy 3,640 bales from the government'. Total. rental payments amounted to $263,013.59,,. advance on optioned cotton $72,800. This means $335,813.59 as direct benefit payments as a result of the acreage reduction campaign.
Information gathered by studying the contracts turned in and questionnaires returned were interesting. Fo ,instance,, who provided the capital for growing this crop of cotton? Records show 41% of it was financed by private credit agencies;. 34%. by

Annual Report, 1933

the government "seed loan"; and 25 % by the growers themselves.
In view of the fact that many growers and private credit agencies said they would reduce their acreage of cotton in 1932 it is interesting to note that the contracts show the private credit agencies increased theirs 34.9%, borrowers of seedloans 22.8%, and farmers, financing their own crop, 21.6 t7o. .
About the first of November a questionnaire was sent to the 4,343 growers whose contracts had been accepted by the Secretary asking if they were "satisfied" with the "plow-up deal" and if not, why not? Fifty-nine percent of them replied immediately, 91% of those replying said they were. Of the 917o "not satisfied" 42% gave as their reason, "underestimated yield"; 31% gave "no checks yet" and others gave many reasons. "No options received" was most common.
Because such a large percentage of the few "dissatisfied" ones said the cause was "underestimated yield" the records were further studied. These studies show that this complaint came from certain counties where weather conditions were ideal for boll weevil destruction and continued growth and production of cotton the season through, and the average "estimate" there was 47 pounds per acre under the actual yield on same farms. Another county where there were six weeks rain and cloudy weather just after estimates were finished the records show the "estimate" was 33 pounds per acre over the actual yields on same farms. For the whole cotton belt the actual yield was 4.7 pounds greater per acre than the average estimate for the same farms.
While sweet potatoes are a minor crop they are grown almost universally for home use and in rare cases for market. There were 55 demonstrations conducted on sweet potatoes covering 387 acres producing an average increase of 23 bushels. These demonstrations were conducted along lines of better fertilization, improved seed and in Palm Beach County changing the time and method of planting. TOBACCO
In the spring of 1933 there was held at Live Oak a meeting of the flue-cured tobacco growers from Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, LaFayette, and Alachua counties. The outlook, methods of fertilizing, and management of plant beds, were discussed by the Agricultural Extension worker. This information was appreciated by the growers.
A high grade and a good production were secured by the

60 Florida Cooperative Extension

growers. When the markets opened prices, grade for grade, were no better than they were the previous year. However, the farmers secured a satisfactory per acre return because of high grade and excellent yield.
, When markets in the northern part of the flue-cured belt closed and the adjustment sign-up was begun, most all growers signed the agreement to control acreage in 1934 and 1935. There were 761 agreements signed covering 4,882.5 acres and affecting 3,936,982 pounds. This will mean adjustment payments of $98,037 and rentals amounting to $25,633 to the growers of the five counties, or a total of $123,670, to be paid them in the spring of 1934. Next fall additional parity prices will be paid.

Annual Report, 1933

A_ A. JL

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration AkentDuring 1933 home demonstration work was conducted ' by agents in 26 Florida counties, during all or part of the year. Members of the state staff worked in 52 of the 67 coun ' ties. While regular activities have continued to occupy a good part of the time of each agent, the most pressing work in many cases during the year was in connection with relief activities of the federal and other agencies. The home demonstration agents have devoted much attention to the production of vegetables in both relief and home ga dens and the conservation of available vegetables and fruits. This has been of untold value to the people of Florida.
In the regular work, result demonstrations numbering 924 were visited by 13,565 people. Thirty-eight tours were held, with an attendance of 7,599.
County Home Demonstration Agents made 12,725 visits to ,6 60 homes and 489 additional visits to 324 farms, an average oi 528 visits each. Educational exhibits were shown at 171 events in 24 counties. Method demonstrations in 1933 aggregated 6,023, with 102,965 persons present. A total of 970 women and 369 older girls assisted as voluntary local leaders, for whom 175 training meetings were held. County and community achievement days numbered 98, of which 27 were for adults, attended by 9,345, and 71 for 4-H club members, 10,710 attending.
Reports of home demonstration agents show that, in connection with Federal Emergency Relief Admin'stration endeavor, they assisted 4,825 families in producing on the farm the greater part of the foodstuffs needed by the members.
Assistance also was rendered to 6,605 families in the caning of homegrown products. A total of 583,737 quarts canned for relief purposes were valued at $107,470.50. The FERA furnished cans but not canning equipment.
In a north-central county, a cannery built by the local farmers organization was used by 518 families, who put up 67,992 cans

Fig. 4. Community canning centers in 1933 contributed to the relief of unemployed families. Home demonstration agents assisted relief workers in establishing and operating these canneries.

Annual Report, 193

of fruit, meats and vegetables. Output of a community garden also was canned in substantial quantities, for distribution to needy families'during the winter.
Gardens of the type were established in many localities. Farm and home demonstration agents advised, and in numerous instances supervised. In a typical instance the garden furnished fresh vegetables for 400 families from December- through April. The cost of seed 'and fertilizer was $42.00 and the products had a cash value of over $600.00.
Instruction in nutrition and food conservation was freely supplied by agents. They also cooperated in the utilization of cloth and flour received from the American Red Cross. Later they served as counsellors, to committees devising work projects for women. Members of home demonstration clubs responded generously to calls for aid made by the relief authorities.
Studies of production in the cotton counties disclosed the farm needs for food crops. 'Information furnished to farmers by Agricultural Adjustment Administration workers will indicate which of these may be planted on land rented to the government. Extension agents work directly with the farm families with the same end in view. Cotton consumption increase effort led to the making of* innumerable garments, with 334 mattresses made or rebuilt, 2,526 rugs constructed and other notable achievements.
Unless the women reported willingly the amount. of their earnings, no special attempt was made to secure it. People are not always anxious to divulge the state of their finances even to their agent.
A summary of reports that were submitted by women and girls hopingg value of products marketed is as follows:
Baked products .$ 2,937.14 Canned products.11,565.05.
Fresh ~ :: vgtbe.36,152.47,
Orchard products.13,348.44 Eggs . .71,723.41 Poultry .31,254.31 Butter .11,592.65 Milk .9,896.58 Cottage Cheese . 736.20 Other articles sold .28,217.57
Total . $217,423.82 COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Through home demonstration work rural women and girls have been led into group thinking and group action, in which they have

Fig. 5.-The faithful, efficient county home demonstration agents of Florida, and A. P. Spencer, vice-director of the State Agricultural Extension Service. Left to right, front: Anna Mae Sikes, Clarine Belcher, Mabel Wilson, Isabelle S. Thursby, Lois Godbey, Floy Moses, Virginia P. Moore, Pearl Jordan, Mrs. Nellie Taylor, Mrs. Grace Warren; middle: Eleanor Barton, Albina Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth Moore, Mrs. Bettie Caudle, Pearl Laffitte, Ruby Brown, Allie Lee Rush, Pansy Norton, Ruby McDavid, Mrs. Edith Barrus, Mary E. Keown, Mr. Spencer; top: Margaret Cobb, Ethel Atkinson, Eloise McGriff, Josephine Nimmo, Mrs. Joy B. Hess, Matilda Roesel, Elise Laffitte, Anna Heist and Lucy Belle Settle.

Annual Report, 1933

found satisfaction in helping to develop community activities according to the particular needs 6f each community.
In 1933 throughout the State, home demonstration groups helped to keep up the morale of the farm family through the minute ance of good health, provision of good reading material, and through inexpensive forms of family and community recreation. They were instrumental in building 27 new community club houses where community groups gathered for informal social activities. There were 15 community kitchens established also. They cooperated with the CWA in growing community gardens, ranging from one to 25 acres, and they helped to can the surplus from these community gardens for winter use for those on relief.
They stimulated the serving of better meals at community gatherings; they beautified the school and church grounds and community cemeteries; they assisted 156 schools with hot dish or school lunch for 27,017 pupils, and 28 clubs managed hot school lunches for 3,435 school children.
Forty-seven clubs began community libraries, they bought 1,325 books and subscribed to 76 magazines and papers; 338 community achievement meetings and exhibits were held.
A total of 448 communities were assisted in developing various community activities according to community needs.
The work with girls, who are organized into 4-H clubs, continues to be an important function of the Home Demonstration Agents. During 1933 there were 407 clubs with a membership of 7,580, of. which 5,781 completed the year's work and submitted records. Of the total membership, 2,907 girls were doing their first year of this work, while 2,001 were in their second year, 1,384 third, 675 fourth, 34L fifth, and 252 were sixth year girls.
The projects in which the girls were enrolled during the year included home gardening, market gardening, beautification of home grounds, growing tree fruits, bush and small fruits, and grapes, forestry, dairying, swine husbandry, food selection and preparation, food preservation, clothing, home management, home furnishing, health improvement, bees and handicraft. Thus it is seen that club work gave the girls training in practical phases of home and farm life.
The Home Demonstration Agents were assisted in -conducting the work by local leaders in the communities. There were 369 older 4-H girls and 297 women who served most proficiently as

Florida Cooperative Extension

leaders of the younger girls and greatly assisted with the year's work. During the year 104 training meetings were held for 4-H leaders, and were attended by 617 women and older girls. Local leaders held 194 meetings, attended by 13,516 people.
Each club follows a regular form of organization, having its own officers, and in 21 of the counties there were county councils composed of representatives of each club. These councils held regular meetings, usually quarterly, and assisted with the planning and conducting of the work throughout the county.
Team demonstrations by 4-H girls are an important f feature of the work. During 1933 there were 114 judging teams and 183 demonstration teams trained, each team consisting of two or more girls.
At a convenient time during the year, usually in late spring, achievement days and rallies are held in the various counties doing 4-H club work. This year 71 achievement days were held, and were attended by 10,710 people.
The annual camp, in most cases lasting a week, was a feature of the work in practically every county in which 4-H club work was conducted. Other and shorter encampments were held from time to time. During 1933 there were 194 encampments held, with an attendance of 1,828 girls and women.
The 4-H clubs take a leading and appreciated part in community activities, such as recreation, pageants, sanitation, improving school grounds, conducting local fairs, and similar enterprises.
During the summer of 1933, 35 camps were held, 16 for women, nine for boys and girls and 10 for girls exclusively. The attendance included 515 women members of home demonstration clubs, 1,240 girls, 194 boys and 1,445 visitors, leaders and instructors. A two-day farm and home institute for adults was conducted at 'he West Florida 4-H Club Camp.
Trips to the National 4-H Club Camp at Washington, D. C., were awarded to one girl each from Dade and Hillsborough counties. Girls from Duval and Jefferson counties won trips to the National Congress in Chicago. One each from bade, Duval, Hillsborough and Polk were honored with trips to the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago.
State Short Course for 4-H Club girls at the Florida College for Women offered a week of special training to 323 club girls, with 35 local leaders and 23 home demonstration agents also attending. One week is set aside for this event, between the

Annual Report, 1933

spring and summer terms. Each girl who attends is a winner in some project in her county.

In promoting gardening and the calendar orchard, county home demonstration agents held 1,476 meetings; published 410 news stories; made 3,119 home visits and had 6,270 office calls in connection with this project. Women report 4,405 demonstrations carried in home gardening; 1,320 with market gardening; and 3,866 with the home orchard. Reports from 24 counties show 3,241 calendar or all-year gardens and from 22 counties they show 962 calendar orchards planted or added to during the year. 'The home gardens and orchards have not only supplied fruit and vegetables but other things for the family resulting from sales amounting to $49,520.91. There were 4,309 4-H club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and 896 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home garden program.
Poultry flocks were managed and reported on by 4,506 women, with 139,454 birds. The home flocks helped to furnish the family food supply. Profits were $45,307. A total of 18,091 birds were raised by 718 girls. In 18 counties, poultry sales ran to $32,221.65 on the markets and to $6,358.00 for breeding purposes, while $124,714.22 was received for eggs by the persons reporting.
From 22 counties records of results were submitted on 3,661 family milk cows, 543 of which had been obtained during the year. Profits on sales of $6,112.00 were reported by 289 women working with 725 cows.
Clothing the farm family well but economically was the problem to which Home Demonstration Agents gave thought last year. The phases of clothing work receiving particular attention were remodeling, care, repair, and storage of clothing; laundering; construction of garments for adults grandchildren, and the making of household articles from flour, feed, sugar and fertilizer sacks. "Use Cotton" campaigns and the wise buying of ready-made garments and piece goods also received attention. Thrift exhibits and cotton dress revues have proved useful in spreading ideas as to the possible use of inexpensive materials and made generally popular the wearing of thrift garments.
In one county alone, more than 5,000 garments have been

68 Florida Cooperative Extension

remodeled and 3,000 made from sacks. The thrift dress project was conducted in a county-wide way by Home Demonstration club women. A dress revue was held in each community at which the women modeled their dresses made at a cost not to exceed 50 cents. A contest was held in 11 clubs with the best from each club featured in a revue at the county meeting. Some of the dresses were made of sacks and some of new material. One of the best, a dress that appeared to be much more expensive than it was, was made of heavy twilled feed sacks dyed tan and trimmed with the same material dyed brown. This example is typical of the clothing work done in all of the counties having Home Demonstration work.
There were 4,364 women and 6,446 girls who made garments under the instruction of Home Demonstration Agents. They studied selection of.materials, suitable and becoming colors, combinations of materials, and the best use of patterns. There were 3,082 women and 4,849 girls who reported following definite recommendations in improving care, renovation, and remodeling of clothing.

In order to get best returns.for their time and products 1,564 homes followed the agents' advice in canning according to needs of a family budget this year. Reports show that 4-H club members canned 164,512 jars of products during the year. Not having an itemized list of this we are unable to evaluate it. However, an incomplete report of the work which the women did under the direction of Home Demonstration Agents shows the amount conservatively values as follows:
Fruit canned . 307,637 quarts
Vegetables canned . 595,348 "
Pickles made . 34,410 "
Relishes made . 15,584 "
M armalades . 32,970 "
Preserves made . . 29,886 "
Vinegar made . 1,858 gallons
Jellies made . 31,492 "
Fruit juices . 7,0231/2 "
Pork canned . 35,849 quarts
Beef canned . 34,558 Game canned . 448 Fish canned . 5,882 Chicken canned . 7,312

Valuing the 1,047,327 quarts of fruits, vegetables, pickles, relishes, marmalades, preserves and jellies at 10c each and the

Annual Report, 1933

84,049 quarts of meat products at 50c per quart, we have a cash value of $146,757.20
Reports on canning for relief purpose which agents or home demonstration women supervised amount to 587,737 quarts, modestly valued at $107,470.50. There were 6,605 families assisted with this project.
Improved practices in nutrition, as explained by home demonstration agents, were reported as adopted by 4,757 girls and 3,093 women.
County agents' advice in house planning problems was followed by 215 families, 36 new dwellings were built after plans furnished, 47 sewage systems installed, 66 water systems and 80 lighting systems. Home health and sanitation were improved in 2,634 instances.
In making house furnishings of discarded material 2,500 rugs were produced. Almost 11,000 yards of mill-end lengths of cotton were utilized, and 6,028 families used sacks for curtains, chair covers and so on. Furniture was repaired in 3,386 homes.
Home grounds improvement employed 2,653 women and 2,505 girls. Orders were pooled for seeds, plants and shrubs. Adoption of county flowers helped to arouse interest in ornamentals.
Management of homes was studied with agents by 4,537 farm women and girls. Help was given to 1,737 homes in securing inexpensive labor-saving equipment.
Adjustments to provide more satisfactory standards of living were considered in 2,512 country homes.
Budgeting of family accounts, and child training and care, also received Extension attention.

Florida Cooperative Extension

ANNA MAE SIKEs, Extension Nutritionist
In developing the program for 1933 the Nutritionist studied the outlook for the Florida farm home for 1933 and developed projects to aid families to make the necessary adjustments in order to supply the foods needed for their families to maintain health. From a study of the conditions in the various sections of the State the Nutritionist developed a program that would determine how much of the different foods a family would need for a year and how it could be secured at the lowest cost.
This -program emphasized (1) the foods the body needs to maintain health, (2) the most economical sources of these foods,. and (3) wise buying of these foods. Attention was concentrated on securing the essential groups of foods. Food budget tables were used in determining the yearly food needs of the various farm families according to the size of the family and the possible cost level. In the program the Nutritionist stressed home production, consumption, wise buying, bartering of foods and intelligent selection and preparation of foods; an adequate school lunch for every school child; a physical examination for every preschool child and all possible defects corrected before entering school; the enlisting of girls' and women's clubs carrying a food, nutrition and health program in a community service in order to bring about home production and home consumption that resulted in better nutrition for the community, county and state.
Th family food supply plan was presented in association with related divisions of the Extension Service. The Nutritionist discussed this plan with 600 farmers in Northwest Florida. Contribution was made by the Nutritionist to promote increased milk consumption and more family cows, milk drinking campaigns were conducted through addresses, exhibits, news articles and radio talks. PUBLICITY AND EDUCATION
More than 65 radio broadcasts were made by the Nutritionist during 1933, using a number of stations. Stories were written for newspaper and farm journal reproduction. Addresses were given at state, district, county and neighborhood meetings. Exhibits were shown at numerous fairs and gatherings.
Emergency relief activities required considerable time. A school lunch room project was organized for the F. E. R. A. Assistance in the execution was rendered with the cooperation of the agents in many counties.

Annual Report, 1933

The Nutritionist has met with welfare and social service directors, supervisors and aides from every county in the state, demonstrating the need for providing a balanced diet on at least the restricted emergency level. Assistance was given by the Nutritionist in working out plans to make the available money secure
the most balanced nourishment for the relief clients. Information and instructions were given to the agents and local leaders
on methods of reaching and instructing relief families in rural areas. The Nutritionist has aided in the organization of the mothers of under-nourished children and has given them instructions as to the food needed to maintain health.
Bulletins, charts, circular letters, posters and similar educational material have been freely utilized.
During 1933, demonstrations were given or arranged by the
Nutritionist, as follows:
Family Food Supply . 105 Low Cost M eals . 93 Food Preparation . 78 W ise Buying . 65 School Lunch . . 63 Pre-natal and Child Feeding . 25 Pre-school . 38 Posture and Health . 77

A summary of the food, nutrition and health statistics reveals
the tabulation that follows:
Number of method demonstration meetings held by county home
agents-25 counties .1,721 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the
new year- 25 counties . 4,090 Number of 4-H club members enrolled in food selection and preparation- 25 counties . 4,759 Number of 4-H club members completing-13 counties . 3,608 Number of homes assisted in planning family food budget for a year21 counties . 2,762 Number of homes budgeting food expenditures for a year-17 counties 1,295 Number of homes balancing meals for a year-20 counties . 3,092 Number of homes improving home packed lunches according to recommendations- 24 counties . 2,827 Number of schools following recommendations for a hot dish or school
lunch-15 counties . 156 Number of children involved in preceding questions-13 counties. 27,017 Number of homes using improved methods in child feeding-21 counties . . 2,690 Number of individuals adopting recommendations for corrective feeding- 21 counties . 2,395
Number of club women adopting improved practices in food preparation:
(a) Baking- 21 counties . 2,578 (b) Meat cookery- 21 counties : . 2,267 (c) Vegetable cookery-25 counties . 2,708 (d) Dairy products- 21 counties . 1,328 (e) Poultry products- 19 counties . 2,073

Florida Cooperative Extension

In addition to Circular 32, A Food Supply Plan for Florida
Families, the Nutritionist contributed materials during the year in accordance with the schedule herewith:
Survey and Record.
Feeding the Family at Low Cost.
Wise Buying of Staples, Vegetables, Fruits, Meats, Poultry, etc.
School Lunch Material.
Pre-natal and Child Feeding Material.
Emergency Relief Material.
(a) Food Supply, Restricted Levels.
(b) Market Orders.
(c) Menus.
(d) Recipes.
(e) Outlines for Relief Workers.
Adequate Foods Requirements, Etc.
Posture and Health Materials.
Outlines of Points to Stress in 4-H Club Work.
Food Selection and Preparation Demonstrations for 4-11 Club Girls. Food, Nutrition and Health Standards. Food Budget Tables.
Outlook Material. '
Information, Menus, Recipes, for Florida Food Products Compaign.
Community Meal Material.
Dairy and Dairy Products Material.
Bread Material.
Bulletins, circulars and other printed matter were used by
County Home Demonstration Agents in the quantities indicated by the tabulation appended:
1. Printed
Bulletin 69. Buy Health with Your Food Dollar . 9,325 Bulletin 56. Food, Nutrition and Health . 1,375
Circular 31. Suggestions for the Planning of Economical
M eals . 2,155
Circular 32. A Food Supply Plan for Florida a*rm'* 'F'a m'il'ie*s 3,500
Circular 979. Food, Nutrition and Health for Women's Home
Demonstration Clubs . 850 Nutrition Records . 2,700 W atch Us Grow Car& . 1,600 M eal Planning Charts . 650
2. Mimeographed
School Lunch Material . 1,182 Bread M aterial . 2,500 Posture M aterial . 2,100 H ealth M aterial . 1,900 M ilk M aterial . 1,700 M eat M aterial . 1,570 Health Scores and Material (Girls) . 2,750 Child Care and Pre-natal Material . 982 Food Tables . 850 Family Food Budgets for Use With Relief Groups . 1,475 Points to be Considered in Buying . * . 1,172 M iscellaneous . 972 Feeding Family at Low Cost . 750

Annual Report, 1933

ISABELLE S. THURsi3y, Economist in Food Conservation
Efforts were redoubled for a Florida that feeds herself. Allyear home garden work was pushed with renewed vigor. Contests conducted as a part of this program were appreciatively taken part in, and yielded helpful results.
Reports indicate that because of the spread of the gospel of food production and conservation hundreds of families have been kept off the relief rolls.
Records on the activities of the senior home demonstration members show 4,495 gardens in 1933 against 3,972 for 1932. Vegetables sold fresh this year had a value of $36,152.47; canned products, $112,937.60, while fresh fruits from the calendar orchards were valued at $13,348.44.
In junior garden work, 4,309 girls were enrolled, with 3,231 (completions." Calendar orchard demonstrations were contiriued, as begun several years ago. Sales of output indicate only in a minor degree the usefulness of this endeavor for the calendar orchard is being made profitable in health and pleasure as well as in cash. The fruit planting tables set up for the three sections of the state, prepared by H. Harold Hume, Assistant Director of Research, University of Florida Experiment Station, are used in promoting this project. Being a widely known horticulturist, Mr., Hume's recommendations carry weight and inspiration and are greatly appreciated throughout the state.
Emphasized as never before by County Home Demonstration Agents, food conservation was practiced more generally than in the past. More than 1,151,546 containers of fruits, meats'and vegetables were canned by club women and girls, having a cash worth of $148,774.20.
It seems that the efforts of these club members in their gardening and canning activities point the surest way out of the troubles into which agriculture has fallen. Had these women and girls not grown and canned farm products to the value of $148,774.20, the thousands of dollars would have gone out of the state f or food stuff raised elsewhere. In addition to making tidy additions to their own incomes, they benefit every business interest in their communities by keeping this money at home. A canning budget contest focused the thought of farm women on the provision of an adequate and healthful family food supply.

Florida Cooperative Extension

In this contest the importance of making a budget for home canning based on the adequate nutritional needs of the family, and planned in connection with growing the all-year garden and cal-

Mg. 6-The canning budget helped Florida farm families to determine the amount of conserved materials needed, and they grew enough to meet the needs. This Gadsden County woman's budget showed she had 956 containers, and through sales of some of them she was able to add comforts and conveniences to her home.

endar orchards was emphasized. Through the contest interest in canning for quality and variety was augmented. The use of both glass and tin, better storage facilities and organization of the home pantry were stressed. The contestants were required to show in their pantries a minimum of 500 containers of home canned products between November 1, 1932, and November 1, 1933.
Barter has been encouraged and neighborliness developed greatly.
In almost every county, home demonstration women have both contributed f rom their own stores and assisted with community canning projects for relief of the needy. When the advice of the home agents was followed, and only pressure cookers used, under competent direction, minimum spoilage occurred.

Annual Report, 1933 75

"Preserving Florida Citrus Fruits," a bulletin of 28 pages, haQ been written; "Florida Honey and Its Hundred Uses" was written in cooperation with Dr. Waldo Horton, President of the State Beekeepers Association, and was received from the printer in the spring. The Girls Garden Record Book was revised and printed the first of the year. The Canning Budget and the 4-11 Club Girls Canning Guide and Record Book, 6 and 19 pages respectively, are also new publications.
Florida Beef in the Low Cost Diet was written and mimeographed to take the place of the Home Canning of Meats, copies of which were exhausted early in the year.
Countless letters have been written to inquiring individuals, both in and out of the State, regarding use of Florida fruits, vegetables and other products, their cookery and their preservation.
Many radio talks have been written.

Florida Cooperative Extension

VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement

Requests for help in remodeling homes were unusually numerous during the early part of 1933. Plans were drawn and many personal visits were made but scarcity of money interfered seriously with the completion of the work in a great number of cases.
Log houses were recommended where timber was plentiful. Stores and school houses no longer in use for the original purposes have been made over into places of residence. Furnishings in large part were devised from old boxes, odds and ends of lumber, and the like.
Water and solar heaters appear to have been less frequently installed than in preceding years, owing to economic conditions, and partly to lack of time for pushing the idea. Despite all the handicaps carried during the year, other forms of home improvement effort successfully were prosecuted in several counties.
In Jackson County alone 60 kitchens were improved. The Santa Rosa County Home Agent helped in planning 15 new homes and with the remodeling of 16 additional ones. Plantings Were featured in the Walton County program, about 80 farm homes having them made in one way or another. Re-covering of chairs and repairing of furniture had special attention in Marion County. Removal from porches of unsightly material was sought in St. Johns County.
House reconstruction went on vigorously in Palm Beach County. where 240 farm houses were rebuilt. Six well-planned new residences were erected. Shrubbery setting earlier taken up in Alachua made further progress, with 2,050 trees and shrubs added to the demonstration in the current period. A similar line of endeavor went forward in Jefferson County, aided by opportunities for obtaining planting material at low cost from
-nurseries quitting business.
I Money was no less scarce in Holmes County than elsewhere, yet
the demonstration agent assisted 25 farm families in planning home additions or changes, two families having installed lighting systems, eight, water systems, and 10, sewage systems.
Beautification of the exterior surroundings of the home, as well as of the home itself, has been emphasized this year as usual. At the suggestion of the Home Improvement Specialist and the County Home Demonstration Agents, old fences have been torn down, new and attractive fences have been built and some of

Fig. 7.-These 4-H girls demonstrate the painting of a home-made bed and basket, similar to wicker furniture.

Florida Cooperative Extension

them painted, lawns were sodded and planted, and numbers of base plantings were started. Backyard improvement has been a notable feature in some counties.
Sanitation is an important phase of home improvement work, and this subject received n little attention in 1933. In Jackson County 280 4-H girls made a special campaign against flies and mosquitoes by destroying breeding places. In Santa Rosa 20 homes of club members were screened. Demonstrations on the building of a sanitary toilet were given in 16 communities of this county, and 60 sanitary privies were installed in the county as a result of these demonstrations. Similar activities have been carried on in other counties. More interest in personaland famlly health has been evidenced.
Assistance has been rendered in planting and landscaping school yards and the grounds surrounding other public buildings.
Renovation of house furnishings has been a big part of the year's work. In Palm Beach County,'for instance, 192 pairs of curtains, 38 quilts, 41 bedspreads, and 52 luncheon sets were made, and 278 articles of furniture were renovated.
Lightening of home burdens for the women and girls by the adoption of more efficient methods of doing household tasks resulted in considerable improvement of everyday housekeeping activities in many counties where Home Demonstration Agents are working. Women studied their daily routine and made improvements and rearrangements in their homes, particularly their kitchens, to make their tasks lighter. Systems for providing running water and lights were installed in several homes in each county having a Home Demonstration Agent. Owing to scarcity of money, this line of the work did not make as good showing as it should have.
Indication as to the extent of the workdone in other lines than the foregoing is contained in the distribution of 250 record books for home demonstration work, 325 requested government bulletins, 1,825 girls' record books for 4-H clubs, 2,427 Extension Service bulletins and 5,960 mimeographed articles mailed on request. Statistics more in detail and on a comparative basis are given below:

1928 1931 1933
Number of homes remodeled according to plan 87 170 106
Number of sewage disposal plants installed. . 81 164 47 Number of water systems installed . 929 138 66
Number of Solar water heaters installed . . . 18 Number of lighting systems installed . 96 166 30

Annual Report, 1933 79

1928 1931 1933
Number of homes screened . 393 717 244
Number of sanitary toilets built . 328 513 152
Number of porches repaired . . . 596
Number of houses and out-buildings painted or white-washed . 292 327
Number of kitchens improved . 952 1'0 657
Number of other rooms improved . 1,884 4,037 1,786
Number of women and girls refinishing walls,
woodwork and floors . 1,574 2,703 806
Number of women and girls following definite plans for yard beautification . 5,064 6,693 5,158
Number of women and girls repairing and remodeling furniture . 2,251 4,307 3,386

Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO MEN'S WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

Depression conditions have placed emphasis on the Negro farming population of Florida, numbering 75,469. Negro farmers own 514,833 acres of land and have 248,867 acres in cultivation. Land, buildings and livestock holdings are valued at $19,096,157.00 and the products at $7,509,250.00 annually. Foundation exists for better farming practices making the rural Negroes of the state a self-sustaining group.
Effort in that direction had some encouraging results during 1933, despite complications and handicaps. One Negro farmer, David Miles, of Alachua County, harvested 650 bushels of corn from a 45-acre fiQld, and had 350 bushels on hand from previous crops. On 287 acres, Negro 4-H Club boys produced 5,581 bushels.
Negro agricultural Extension work was carried on in 14 counties by local agents, under the supervision of one District Agent for men and one for women, the latter only during the first half of the year. In a few other counties, activities were prosecuted through cooperative farmer associations.
The local district agent worked 213 days in the field and 104 in the office, traveling *19,494 miles during the year.
Negro farmers held 92 method and completed 188 result demonstrations in corn culture, with 2,890 acres. Average increased yield on the adult result demonstrations was 31/2 bushels per acre.
Local Negro agents also arranged 16 method and completed 25 result demonstrations with 281 acres in oats, mainly used for grazing and hay. The oat crop was short almost everywhere in the state, owing to drouth, which likewise was true of corn.
Legumes and forage crops, as soil builders, had special attention and Negro farmers growing them reduced their fertilizer bills considerably. Demonstrations were conducted as follows: crotalaria, result, 11,110 acres; cowpeas, 28 method and 81 result, 628 acres-increase of yield in forage averaging one-fourth ton an acre; velvet beans, 39 method and 107 result, 1,166 acresaverage increase, 3.8 bushels; field beans, eight method and 18 result, 215 acres-average increase, 3.1 bushels; peanuts, 67 method and 134 result, 1,313 acres-average increase, 14 bushels.

Annual Report, 1933

Sweet potatoes, 29 method and 104 result, 211 acres-average increase, 6.2 bushels; cotton, 42 method and 32 result, 216 acresaverage increase, 99 pounds; tobacco, two method and two result, seven acres-average increase, 15 pounds; sugarcane, four method and 37 result, 34 acres; home gardens, 68 method and 192 result; poultry, 19 method and 51 result, 2,260 birds; livestock, 12 method and 25 result with 114 dairy animals, five method and five result with 41 beef cattle, hogs, 32 method and 54 result, 822 animals.
Local Negro farm agents organized and supervised 63 4-H clubs, with 836 boys and 214 girls enrolling, 463 and 56 completing. Projects were carried on with calves, corn, home gardening, hogs, poultry and sweet potatoes,
Exhibit of farm and garden products, cured meat and pork, furnished by men farmers, and canned. fruits and vegetables, preserves, pickles and jellies, from women, gave creditable representation at the South Florida Fair in Tampa, January 31 to February 10, 1933.
Displays sponsored by the Negro farm and home agents with the Florida farmers cooperative associations and Smith-Hughes teachers, shown at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago for the week September 3 to 9, was the only Negro exhibit of state-wide importance during the World's Fair. Over 1,000,000 visitors passed through Florida Hall in the seven day period.
Federal relief agencies called on the Negro Extension workers for much assistance, in investigating and reporting on needy cases and in supervising the planting of community gardens. Agricultural Adjustment Administration duties also took up a substantial amount of time. The period of the first hog reduction campaign was too short for many Negro farmers to meet the requirements but the farm agents succeeded in having 1,070 acres of cotton taken out of production.
In addition to field achievement days in the several counties, arranged by the farm agents, they directed two state meetings for special training, one was held December 6, 7 and 8, 1932, and the other, June 6, 8 and 9, 1933, at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. At the December session, for adults, 143 men and women from 14 counties were present. Devoted specially to 4-H Club boys and girls, the June event was taken advantage of by 202. Only one state tour was made, during July, when 41 counties were visited. Local communities were organized for cooperation in government activities and matters handled pertaining to the World's Fair Exhibit.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Report by Miss RUBY McDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent

Death by drowning of the Negro district demonstration agent, Rosa J. Ballard, occurred in the middle of 1933 and no successor has been appointed, owing to the scarcity of funds. For the latter half of the year, greater supervision over the work previously under her direction was given by the white District Home Demonstration Agent.
Activity was maintained in eight counties. The financing largely is from federal and state funds, Duval, Hillsborough, Leon and St. Johns counties alone supplementing them. Orange County was forced to withdraw the support it previously had extended, effective April 30. The agent working there was transferred to Suwannee until November 1, thence to Alachua.
In the eight counties, 95 adult home demonstration clubs had 1,189 members and 117 junior clubs had membership of 2,085. Meetings were conducted in 168 communities, 4,573 visits were made to 1,545 homes, 4,312 office calls were handled and 1,161 calls by telephone. Local leaders who helped in carrying on the work numbered 360.

Method demonstrations held on 1,483 occasions had an aggregate attendance of 29,156 while 544 result demonstrations were attended by 6,212 persons.
Tours to established demonstrations in 35 instances were taken part in by 524 people, the number present at achievement day exercises was 5,518 and other events sponsored by the Negro home demo nstration agents brought out 6,528 persons.
During National Health Week particularly gratifying work was done in many communities. In one county the agent reported that it was observed by all club members and that the concrete results included cleaning of 221 houses and 337 yards. Six homes were screened and one remodeled ready for painting.
Seven counties held 28 exhibits. Outstanding displays were shown by several at the South Florida Fair in Tampa. Agents also were responsible for much of the material in the Negro exhibit at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, which attracted a great deal of favorable attention. Exhibits constitute one of the chief means used by Negroes in presenting their accomplishments to the public.

Annual Report, 1933

The annual conference for Negro agents was held for two days during December, at the Florida A. and M. College, with Jocal district agent A. A. Turner in immediate charge. Members of the Agricultural Extension Service staff gave personal direction to much of the program.
Assistance of a valued character also was rendered by members of the college faculty. They were responsible for most of the program at the Farmers' Institute which followed the agents' conference. County Agents in turn furnished the greater part of the attendance.
The Negro Boys' and Girls' Short Course at the A. and M. College has grown to be highly popular with young folks working under supervision of the agents. Board, lodging, and instruction are furnished by the institution. Transportation is supplied principally in agents' cars or by local Negro farm organizations. Two boards of county commissioners have financed it.
Gardens were planted, under direction of Negro Home Demonstration Agents, in seven counties by 730 adults and 963 juniors, 951 of the 1,693 having been calendar gardens. From 234 of these, $2,877.45 worth of fresh vegetables were sold. Five counties reported 50 calendar orchards planted or added to, from 39 of which the owners used or sold fruit.
Reports were made of 56 houses whitewashed and 10 painted, 236 outbuildings whitewashed and five painted, 46 fences whitewashed and one painted. Complete improvement of grounds according to plans were made on 320 premises. Aside from club members 122 persons were influenced to make extensive home improvements. In five counties adopting official flowers, 381 club members planted the annual and 148 the perennial.
Enrolled in agricultural engineering were 135 persons, who stopped soil erosion on five acres, cleared 10 farms of stumps, assisted 55 families in house planning, furnished plans for six new houses and remodeling of 22, helped in installing five sewage disposal systems, seven water systems, one heating system and three lighting systems. Farm buildings erected included two dairy barns, 50 poultry houses and eight others.
Poultry club members to the number of 861 reported owning 10,429 birds. Flocks were culled during the year in 211 cases, 6,511 chickens were raised for home consumption, valued at $3,756, while 135 sold for breeding were worth $146.00 and 4,669

Florida Cooperative Extension

disposed of for other purposes brought $2,941.00. Eggs with a value of $5,537 were produced, about half of these having been used at home and the other half marketed.
Stressing the need for milk in the diet, Negro agents influenced 84 families to buy cows during the year, 542 already owning them. In 345 homes a quart of milk for each child and a pint for every adult are used daily.
Improved dairying practices have been adopted in 156 instances, and 113 club members reported a surplus of milk. Butter used at home was 18,452 pounds, valued at $26,622.75; with 2,959 pounds going to market for $654.47. Of milk 4,155 gallons were sold, and of cream 148 gallons.
In 514 families, 11,784 pounds of meat were cured,-495 made 1,421 pounds of sausage, 509 rendered 1,273 pounds of lard and 306 prepared 2,775 pounds of homemade soap. Canning according to a family budget was done in 408 homes, where 56,101 containers were filled with fruit and vegetable products and 2,730 with beef, pork, fish, game, or poultry.
Food and nutrition enrollment among juniors was larger than for any other phase of the work, running to 1,544 with clothing a close second at 1,434. Assistance was given 750 homes in planning food budgets. In 27 schools, recommendations followed for hot dish or school lunches involved 4,171 children. Three counties have 23 adult groups with 101 members mainly devoting the time to child training and care.
Home management improvement was undertaken in 387 homes. On home furnishings, 1,185 adult club members were enrolled, more than for any of the projects. Girls to the number of 970 also were interested. Health and sanitation effort included 535 complete physical examinations. Sanitary toilets were installed in 106 homes, screening was done on 114 houses and 696 families followed recommended practices for control of pests in the household.
Five junior councils, with 55 members, and seven councils for women, having 75, direct community activities. Funds were raised through 74 entertainments and 32 were given for purely social purposes. Local fairs and like events had help from 67 clubs, 48 places developed recreational work, 36 school yards were improved, 13 maintained hot school lunches, five have started libraries. Agents helped on emergency relief for 1,084 families, and assisted 460 in producing more of their livings on the farms.


Acreage reduction, 1933,
cotton, 6, 58
tobacco, 60
Administration, 9 Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural Adjustment Administration activities, 19, 42, 54, 60 Agricultural economics, 52 Agricultural Extension staff, 3 Agricultural situation, the, 7 Agronomy, 55 Animal husbandry, 40 Associations,
Florida Bankers', 35
Florida Dairymen's, 39
Florida Poultry Producers', 45 Avocado disease experiments, 21

Bankers aid, 23
Association Florida, 35 Beef cattle, 40 Boys' 4-H clubs, 30 Breeding dairy cows, 39 Bulls bought with bankers' help, 23 Bulls, distribution and sources of
supply, 40

Calendar flock records, 44 Calendar orchards, 74 Camp, National 4-H Club, 35, 66 Camps, trips and short courses, 66 Canning, home, 68 Cash value of work, 28 Cattle conditioning tests, 21 Cattle for market, 41 Citrus cover crops, 22
culture, 49
grove demonstrations, 23 Clothing work, 67 Clubs. boys' 4-H, 30
girls' 4-11, 65, 68, 78 Community activities, 63 Control, Board of, 10 Cooperation with other agencies, 11
with other institutions, 10
with U. S. Department of
Agriculture, 13, 19, 42, 54, 60
with Vocational agricultural
teachers, 12
Corn production costs, 21 Cotton, 1933 acreage reduction, 6 County and home demonstration
agents, 5
Counties. typical examples of agents'
work in, 20
Cover crol3s, with citrus and truck, 22 Culture of citrus, 49

Dairy industry, 26 Dairying, 37 Dairymen's Association, Florida, 39 Demonstrations,
citrus grove, 20
fern insect control, 24
oats for hay, 24
peanut planting, 20
permanent pasture, 29 sugarcane varieties, 20
Development of special crops, 26 Director, report of, 7
Economics, agricultural, 52 Economists, Extension, 52 Editor's work, 14 Egg-Laying Contest, 47

Fairs, exhibits and shows, 24 Farm crops, 56 Farm forestry program, 24 Farm management, 52 Farm paper stories, 15 Farmers' institutes, 25 Feeding beef cattle, 41
dairy cattle, 39
Fern insect control, 24 Fertilizing citrus groves, 49
white potatoes, 25
Financial statement, 13 Food, nutrition and health, 70 Furnishings, home, 78
Gardening and food conservation, 73 Gardens, home, 36 Girls' 4-H clubs, 65, 68, 78 Grapes and other small fruits, 28 Grove work, citrus, 50
Health, food and nutrition, 70 Heifers, raising for dairies, 38 Hog cholera and animal diseases, 27 Home demonstration work, 61
workers, 64
Home improvement, 76 Home gardens and orchards, 67
Industries, home, 63 Insects and diseases, citrus and
truck, 25
Institutes for farmers, 25
Management, farm, 52
home, 78
Marketing farm products, 53 Meat cutting and curing, 23 Methods for increasing efficiency, 12 Money-making home industries, 64

National 4-H Camp, 35, 66 National Egg-Laying Contest, 47 Negro Extension work, 3
home demonstration work, 82
men's work, 80
Newspapers, local use of, 16 News service, 15 Nutrition, food and health, 70
Oats for hay demonstration, 24 Orchards, calendar, 74
Pastures, permanent, demonstrations,
Peanut planting demonstrations, 29 Pine ashes for sweetening soils, 22 Poultry associations, 45 Poultry husbandry, 26, 43 Publications and news, 14
Radio broadcasting, 16 Reduction campaigns, acreage, 6,
58, 60
Relief and emergency work, 61 Reports, annual, 7, 14, 18, 30, 37, 40,
43, 52, 55, 61, 70, 73, 76, Restoring fruit industries, 25 Revenue, sources of, 13

Salt sick in cattle, 27 Sheep raising improvement, 27 Short courses, 34, 66 Silo building, 21 Soils, 55
Sources of revenue, 13 Staff changes, 10
members, 3
Storage plants, cold, 42 Sugarcane variety demonstrations, 20 Sweet potatoes in summer, 22

Terracing rolling lands, 28 Tobacco crop endeavor, 22
acreage reduction, 59
Typical examples, county agent
work, 20
development of work, 24
Truck crops, insect control, 25

U. S. D. A. cooperation, 13, 19, 42,
54, 60

Vocational education, agricultural, 12

Winter feeding of cattle, 40

Full Text