Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1932
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


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1932 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING

WILMON NEWELL, Director





REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1932 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1932.

















1932 REPORT

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1932 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1932.












CONTENTS
PAGE
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR . 7
Financial Statement . 11 Farm ers' W eek . . 12 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS . 13 COUNTY AGENT W ORK . 17 Boys' 4-H CLUB W ORK . : . 33 DAIRYING . _ 43 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . 48 POULTRY . 54
. National Egg-Laying Contest . 62 CITRUS CULTURE . . 63 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS . 68
Farm Management Activities . . 68 M arketing . 71 RODENT CONTROL . 76 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK . 79
Food, Nutrition and Health . 82 Gardening and Perennial Plantings . 83 Food Conservation . 85 Home Improvement . 87 Clothing . 89 Money-Making Home Industries . 91 NEGRO MEN'S W ORK . . 99 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK . . 106
















Hon. Dave Sholtz,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1932, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1932.

Respectfully
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.




Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida.









BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A. H. WAGG, West Palm Beach Gzo. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON.NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialis J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBuSK, B.S., Citriculturist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry' J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control1

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAviD, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

1In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2Part-time.













COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua.F. L. Craft .Gainesville.Mrs. Grace F. Warren Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer .Lake Butler Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke) Calhoun .SJ. G. Kelly. Blountstown . Calhoun and Liberty. Blountstown.Miss Josephine Nimmo Citrus. Inverness .Mrs. Bizabeth W. Moore Dade .C. H. Steffani .Miami .Miss Pansy Norton DeSoto.SJ. J. Heard. Arcadia. Dixie .D. M. Treadwell . . Cross City . Duval.A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville .Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Ass t.).E. G. Pattishall . Jacksonville . Escambia .BE. P. Scott .Pensacola .Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden. Quincy . Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton. . J. J. Sechrest .Jasper. Hernando. B. E. Lawton .Brooksville. Highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer . Sebring. Hillsborough .C. P. Wright.Plant City (E).Miss Motelle Madole Hillsborough. Tampa (W). Miss Allie Rush Holmes . Bonifay. Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson . Marianna. Miss Eleanor Clark Jefferson .B. H. Finlayson . Monticello .Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette. W. J. Davis. Maya . Lake. C. H. Hiatt. Tavares. Leon.G. C. Hodge.Tallahasscee.Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy. N. J. Albritton . . . Bronson. Liberty. Dexvey H. Ward . . Bristol. Manatee .J. H. Logan . Bradenton .Miss Margaret Cobb Marion.Clyde H. Norton . . Ocala .Miss Tillie Roesel Okaloosa. Joseph W. Malone. Crestview. Okeechobee.C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee . Orange .K. C. Moore.Orlando .Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola .S. R. Gunn .Kissimmee .Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts .W. Palm Beach. .Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas . .Win. Gomme.Clearwater .Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk .F. L. Holland .Bartow .Miss Lois Godhey Polk (Asst.).Bartow .Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns .Loonis Buitch .St. Augustine.Missi Anna E. Heist Santa Rosa .S. G. Hudson.Milton .Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor-----------.R, S. Dennis.Perry. Miss Floy Moses
Wakulla. H. E. Hudson .Crawfordville . Walton .Mitchell Wilkins. . DeFuniak Springs. . .Miss Eloise McGriff Washington. Gus York . Chipley .

*This list correct to December 31, 1982.




































Fig. 1.-This open house display, showing the work of home demonstration women of one county, was visited by 1,200 people.










REPORT FOR 1932

PARTI-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1932.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

During 1932 there has been a better balance in agricultural production in the counties where Extension work has been carried on than in former years, in spite of the general and widespread depression. This readjustment of farm operations has made it possible for farmers to maintain good living standards even though their cash incomes have been greatly reduced.
The "live-at-home" program adopted by farmer's has given most of them ample supplies of produce in the form of meats, vegetables, feeds, livestock and poultry, and with the soil-building program that has been practiced, better yields of crops have been produced with a relatively small outlay for labor and fertilizer.
Farmers have not only supplied most of their immediate needs from the farms but have larger supplies of meat, poultry and other farm products that are being exchanged for labor and materials that are usually purchased.
The home demonstration agents' programs have been responsible for increased incomes for farm families in the preparation of salable articles of food, clothing and handicraft. These pro. grams have been made adaptable to existing conditions in the locality and the local demand for available articles.
Prior to 1928 a large part of fluid milk used in this state came from other states, but since that time the Florida supply of dairy products has so increased that there is now a surplus in the larger







Florida Cooperative Exten$ion


centers and a more liberal supply for farm use in the rural homes. While this increase has resulted in lowered prices being received by commercial dairymen, it has given the farm family a needed supply and has enabled the family to reduce household expenses for food but at the same time to maintain a better balanced diet.
Farmers have profited by information made available through outlook reports supplied to them by the Extension Service. This has afforded a much lower production cost on many farms and a larger supply of products that can be used at home.
The Extension Service and the Experiment Station are preparing milk production and cost studies throughout the state. These are to be used by county agents in determining future programs and adjusting the farm business.

ADMINISTRATION
The Agricultural Extension Service of Florida has 18 projects in its program. These represent the agricultural, horticultural, livestock and poultry and home interests.
The supervisory staff consists of the following:
Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work and three district agents for women's work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys Club Agent and the following specialists: Citriculturist, Dairyman, Animal Husbandman, Poultryman, Rodent Control Specialist, Agricultural Economist, Economist in Marketing, Economist and Assistant Economist in Farm Management; one part-time specialist in Agronomy and one outlook specialist. Specialists for the home demonstration work consist of one Nutritionist, one Economist in Marketing and one Agent in Home Improvement.
The Animal Husbandman and Rodent Control Specialist are employed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, the former with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the latter with the Bureau of Biological Survey.
There were 39 counties with white Extension agents, all of these cooperating financially in support of the work during the year.
. In the negro work there is one district agent for women's work and one for. men's work. There. were 14 counties, having -negro agents; eight of these have home demonstration agents and seven have farm demonstration agents. Four of these counties contribute to the support of home demonstration work, all the others Are supported entirely from State and Federal funds.






Annual Report, 1982


STAi F CHANGES
Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was granted leave of absence beginning October 15, to pursue graduate study at Cornell University. J. R. Greenman, who graduated in the College of Agriculture in 1932, was appointed as Assistant in Farm Management.
Rosa J. Ballard, District Agent for Negro Home Demonstration Work, was appointed January 1, 1932, succeeding Julia Miller, who resigned November 15, 1931.

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

Both the Teaching Division and the Experiment Station of the University of Florida'College of Agriculture -have cooperated to the fullest extent with the Agricultural Extension Service. They have made studies to obtain information desired by Extension workers, have tested soils, assisted in meetings, written bulletins, and rendered other assistance.
The State Marketing Bureau, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the State Plant Board have rendered excellent cooperation also. The State Livestock Sanitary Board assists in the distribution of improved livestock for breeding purposes and in the control of diseases of hogs and poultry. The State Marketing Bureau cooperates in the sale of farm produce, particularly in arranging car-lot sales of hogs and poultry and in the shipment of beef cattle.
The State Forest Service cooperates with the Extension Service in conservation work and in 4-11 club work, principally to protect the timber growth.
The State Board of Health cooperates with the home demonstration projects in nutrition and health educational work.
The State Plant Board assists county agents in the distribution' of plant material supplied to farmers and farm homes on the recommendation of the county agents.
During 1931, the Farmers Cooperative Vegetable Growers Association, the Alabama-Florida Peanut Growers Association and the National Pecan Growers Association were organized with the help of the Federal Farm Board. While the progress of these organizations has not been encouraging, the Extension Service in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has assisted in various programs in connection with the organization on the recommendation of the Federal Farm Board. This has been handled






Florida Cooperative Exten.5ion


principally through the agricultural economists of the Extension Service and with the help of the county agents.
During the early part of the year, an effort was made to stimulate interest in the Florida Poultry Association that had been reorganized in the previous year, but because of falling prices was losing patronage. Meetings were held in the most important centers to obtain the viewpoint of the producers in reference to the association. However, due to low prices of eggs, the organization has not made substantial progress in the last 12 months and during that time, two branches of the organization have disbanded.
The Inter-State Early Potato Committee, with representatives in the early potato growing states, has assisted in the movement of the early potato crop in the potato area of North Florida. During the spring of 1932 the crop was more promising than usual, but because of the freeze occurring in March, the average yields were reduced to one-fifth of the normal yield. This, together with falling prices, resulted in a disastrous year for the growers.

COOPERATION WITH VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS
It has been the policy of the Extension Service to urge cooperation between the personnel of the different branches. County agentsand teachers have endeavored to work cooperatively and in most cases have been successful.

SOURCES OF REVENUE
The three main sources of revenue are from founds appropriated by the United States Department of Agriculture, state offset and other Extension funds appropriated by the Florida Legislature, and county appropriations.
State Smith-Lever offset funds have been appropriated by the Legislature. Other offset funds needed have been made available through county appropriations. These county appropriations have shown a reduction since 1931. The State of Florida also has a continuing appropriation made available by an act of the Legislature in 1911 and in addition an appropriation for conducting the Florida National Egg Laying Contest and other minor activities of the Extension Service.
The expenditures and resources for the Extension Service are shown in detail in the attached financial statement.







Annual Report, 1932 11

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

RECEIPTS
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary . 84,685.21 Smith-Lever, State . 53,968.80 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . 26,555.82 Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A . . 2,400.00 Additional Cooperative Iederal . 20,500.00 U. S. D. A. Appropriations . 20,000.00 State Appropriations . 46,775.81 County Appropriations . 110,000.00
$364,885.64
EXPENDITURES
Adm inistration . $ 9,321.02 Publications . 9,564.80 County Agent W ork . 140,075.52 Home Demonftration Work . 104,097.96 Food Conservation . 3,934.84 Home Improvement . 4125.16 Extension Nutrition . 4:000.00 Negro work- men . 13,668.32 Negro work-women . 13,098.22 Boys' Club work . 7,089.96 Dairy Husbandry . 5,827.04 Animal Husbandry . 4,482.30 Plant Pathology . 4,957.31. Agricultural Economics . 18,371.24 Poultry Husbandry . 4,699.35 National Egg Laying contest . 8,446.93 Extension Schools, Farmers Week . 1,893.63 Unexpended balance . I . 7,232.04
$364,885.64

METHODS FOR MAINTAINING EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of the Extension Service is dependent upon its intimate, satisfactory contacts with the agriculture of the state. Contacts with the research work of the Experiment Station and University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture and other research institutions also aid the Extension Service greatly.
Federal crop production loans have been handled.through the county extension offices with the assistance of county agents. Outlook information based on state reports and Federal statistics has been prepared to guide farmers in their farming operations. Cooperative associations have been organized under the direction of the Extension Service with the cooperation of the State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Extension Service. To carry out this cooperative effort Mr. H. G. Clayton, District Agent, has been assigned to the duties of Outlook and Organization Specialist.
Mr. J. Lee Smith has been assigned as Extension Agronomist,







Florida Cooperative Extension


in addition to district agent duties. The agronomy program applies to all counties in Florida and deals with grain, feed and soil improvement crops.

EXTENSION AGENTS AND FEDERAL CROP LOANS

Farmers of Florida have obtained crop production loans from funds appropriated by Congress. Local county committees are appointed who have a knowledge of the agricultural needs. This committee, together with the county agents, make recommendations governing loans to farmers.

COOPERATION WITH BUREAUS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The Florida Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the Bureau of Animal Industry in the assignment of a specialist from the Bureau to work with beef cattle programs. The expenses of this are borne on a fifty-fifty basis with the Bureau of Animal Industry.
The Extension Service also has a working relationship with the Bureau of Biological Survey. A report of this service is contained in the following pages. The work has been confined to the trucking area of South Florida, and for the purpose of controlling rats that destroy crops on the lower East Coast and Everglades. The expense of this work is borne by the Bureau of Biological Survey. This cooperative work with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Bureau of Biological Survey has given valuable assistance in working out the Extension program and to the farmers and stock raisers of this state.
I FARMERS' WEEK

All departments of Extension workers cooperate in the program for Farmers' Week which is an annual event held at the College of Agriculture during August. The attendance at Farmers' Week is stimulated by the activities of the county agents who work up interest in the counties for this event. Facilities are provided to accommodate the visitors by permitting the use of the college dormitories and serving meals at actual cost. The program was divided into sections and sectional programs were arranged by committees from the College of Agriculture as a whole
During 1932 the attendance was around 1,600 men and women.







Annual Report, 1932


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. FRANCIS CooPER, Editor
R. M. FuLGHum, Assistant Editor
Information of interest and value to the farmers, growers and housewives of Florida was disseminated during the year in increasing quantities through the Editorial Department and other divisions of the Agricultural Extension Service. Methods used included bulletins, circulars and other publications, the Agricultural News Service (weekly clipsheet), the monthly Agricultural Extension Economist, articles for farm papers and newspapers, and radio.
The two Editors and two Mailing Clerks devote approximately one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service, and the other half to duties connected with the Agricultural Experiment Station.
PUBLICATIONS
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, four new Extension bulletins were printed and one bulletin and one circular were reprinted. The yearly calendar for 1932 was printed and distributed. The Agricultural News Service was distributed weekly to newspapers, county and home agents, Smith-Hughes agriculture teachers and others. The Agricultural Extension Economist was -sent monthly to nearly 1,000 people interested in economics information. The monthly and final reports of the National Egglaying Contest at Chipley were distributed to contestants and more than 1,000 others. Material for all of these was either written or edited, or both, by the Extension Editors.
The five new bulletins amounted to 308 pages of printed matter. Editions ranged from 5,000 to 12,000, with a total of 49,000 copies being printed. The reprinted bulletin was 56 pages in size, and 15,000 copies of it were run.
Publications issued during the year are listed below:
Pages Edition
Bul. 63 Strawberry Production .52 12,000 Bul. 64 Save the Surplus . -.'48 10,0(0 Bul. 65 Club Work and the Farm Boy . **. 20 5,0(0 Bul. 66 Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets .48 12,000 Bul. 67 Citrus Insects and Their Control .140 10,000 Bul. 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida (Reprint) .56 15,000 Circ. 27 First Year Sewing Program (Reprint) .16 15,000 Annual Report, 1931 . 152 2,000 Final Report, Fifth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . 20 1,500 Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest . 4 750 1932 Calendar. . 12 10,000 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* . 1 81,500 Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist .6 12,000
*Ten issues, of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In addition to the regular publications listed above, a quantity of supplies, including farm record book and a healthy chick folder, was printed. The annual Florida Farm Outlook Report was mimeographed and distributed.
Thousands of copies of Extension bulletins and circulars, both new ones and old ones, were distributed from the mailing room, which is a part of this department. Materials and supplies for
-use by the agents are distributed from the mailing room also. An enormous quantity of mimeographing for Extension workers was done by the mailing clerks.
NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES
Newspapers and farm papers receiving the weekly Agricultural News Service continued to clip and reprint copious material, both news stories about the Agricultural Extension Service and its workers and informational material furnished by them and workers of the Experiment Station. The service carried from eight to 12 different stories each week, and one or more of them was reprinted in from two-thirds to three-fourths of the weekly papers of Florida. Toa certain extent, the material was reprinted by the dailies, also.
From three to six stories a week were sent to the state mail service of the Associated Press, for redistribution to its 45 member papers, mostly dailies, in the State. This service did not prove very satisfactory during the year. At infrequent intervals special stories were sent direct from this office to certain of the dailies, and in most cases they used the material. Two dailies carried farm sections each Sunday to which this office contributed largely.
A Farmers'Week page, consisting of 10 to 15 different stories, was carried by one of the Gainesville dailies for four days during that event, copies of the paper being distributed free to visitors by the Extension Service.
Farm papers of Florida and the South make copious use of material supplied by this office and by other workers. Occasional stories are printed in national farm magazines. Copies of numerous radio talks by staff members are printed by the Florida farm papers.
During the year six Florida farm papers printed 71 stories, amounting to 1,714 column inches of printed matter which were furnished by the Editors. This is an average of approximately six stories a month. They printed many other articles by other members of the staff. Southern farm papers printed seven







Annual Report, 1932


stories for a total of 83 column inches of material. Two national papers printed a story each, giving a total of 66 column inches. One paper in Michigan ran a 10-inch story and one in California used a 21-inch story by the Florida Extension Editors.
In the Spring of 1932 a number of news stories on Crotalaria were sent to newspapers in Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Iowa, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Most of these were used by papers to which sent. These, together with stories on the same subject in Southern farm papers, resulted in widespread interest in this crop in many other States.

RADIO
Noon-day farm programs, 45 minutes in length, were broadcast over WRUF each day except Sunday. Approximately 25 minutes of these were devoted to music and 20 minutes to talks prepared by workers of the College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture. The programs were arranged and supervised by the Editors, and many of the talks were read by them. During the year a microphone was installed in the bulletin room, and farm program talks now go on the air from the bulletin room studio.
The Editors themselves prepared and gave 51 of the farm talks. Other members of the staff prepared the remainder of the 438 which were broadcast. Approximately 175 USDA talks were broadcast during the Florida farm hour. During Farmers' Week the principal addresses were broadcast fron the University auditorium each day, and an extra 15-minute period in the evening was given over to talks by visiting farmers. During County Agents' Week, the first of October, an evening broadcast period was used daily.
At the end of June this office took over the daily 15-minute period of hints to housewives, and is now broadcasting that feature each morning.
Once each month 4-H club members and their friends from various Florida counties put on a 30-minute program over WRUF. In most cases the music and talks for these programs were furnished by 4-H members.
The Florida Extension Service joined with the United States Department of Agriculture in celebrating 4-H achievement day on the first Saturday in November with a one-hour program, half of which was furnished from Washington and the other half from each local station. Three stations of the NBC chain in Florida







Florida Cooperative Extension


participated in the event. Local programs for these stations were arranged by the Editors.
An outstanding special series of talks on ornamentals, prepared at the request of Garden Clubs of the State, was started on Sept. 14, 1932. One talk each week for 44 weeks is scheduled. Copies of all of these talks are sent to five other radio stations in Florida, and are used by them. A total of 74 other talks were sent to other Florida stations and used during the year.

MISCELLANEOUS
A news writing contest was conducted among county and home demonstration agents during the year, with only fair success. The agents expressed an interest in doing more news writing and publicity work, and a large proportion of them enrolled for the contest. A number of them submitted entries for judging and display during County Agent Week in October, 1932. Ribbons were awarded to the winners.
Ten club boys attending the annual short course at the University of Florida in June were given training in news writing, and issued a daily mimeographed paper for those attending the event. Twenty-two club girls attending their short course during the same month at the State College for Women were given training in reporting club news.







Annual Report, 1932


PART Il-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent W. T. NETTLEs, District Agent

The results of research work, -outlook information, f arm and grove record studies and other economic data are used as the basis for developing programs of county Extension work. The Extension program has been based largely upon plans for reduced cost in operations which included (a) a reduction in acreage in some cases, (b) lessening the labor cost, (c) economy in the use of fertilizer and the planting of summer and winter legumes,
(d) keeping out of debt and (e) following a program of "living at home." Some of the main projects are as follows:
1. Conservation and improvement of the soil by terracing and
use of winter and summer cover crops.
2. Economical production of grains and feed crops by use of
cover crops, more intelligent use of commercial fertilizers,
spacing, culture and selected varieties.
3. More economical production of cash crops by the intelligent
use of commercial fertilizers, improved varieties, proper
spacing, and rotation of crops.
4. Improvement of livestock and poultry-introduction of improved breeding stock, better feeding and pastures.
5. Control of parasites in sheep, cattle and hogs and livestock
management to prevent diseases.
6. Reduced production costs of commercial f ruits and vegetables
through changes in cultural and fertilizer practices.
7. Cooperative purchases and sales.
8. Establishing a home fruit garden, and production of a more
complete living on the farms.

SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS
In January and February a series of "Planning Meetings" was held in the general farm-*ng counties to recommend the adjustments that could be made on farms in the light of the outlook and the research data available. Two thousand and seven hun-






Florida Cooperative Extension


dred farmers attended. Their names and addresses were taken and by means of direct contacts by county agents and circular letters the program as outlined was followed up. Finally a questionnaire was submitted to each farmer asking him to check the practices he had followed that were recommended at the spring meetings. Replies from 20 percent of the persons who received the questionnaire show the following: Percent
1. Produce food and feeds needed for farm and home consumption. . 91 2. Have a standard Trarden the year round . 74 3. Have or begin a bo-re fruit garden of six fruit . 70 4. See that money spent has a good chance to come back . 44 5. Establish permanent pasture for workstock and other livestock. . 45 6. Sow crotalaria for improving soil . I . 36 7. Get improved seed corn for planting . 47
8. F
Rmigatkecorn to control weevil . 17
9. se quc y available nitrogen as a side-dressing for corn if fertilizer is used . 21 10. Use inorganic nitrogen in cotton fertilizer . 32 11. Space cotton to have 18 to 20 thousand plants to the acre . 46 12. Use Cayana 10 sugarcane for planting . 55 13. Space peanut plants close-double the amount of seed . 81 14. Grow hogs on worm-free pastures . 49 15. Grow succession of grazing crops for hogs and market early . 34 16. Arrange to gather a calf crop . 63 17. Use purebred sires . 64 18. Supply fresh milk for home needs . 80
Austrian winter peas and vetch have been the main winter legume crops grown in North and West Florida and turned into the soil. There were 106,000 pounds of seed of these crops planted in Florida during the winter of 1931-32. The yield of corn in 1932 was practically doubled on land where crops had been turned under.

CROTALARIA AND OTHER SUMMER COVER CROPS
Crotalaria has been used for several years to improve soil for general farm crops and as a summer cover crop for groves and vineyards. In 1932 there was 560,000 pounds of seed sown in Florida. Seed to the value of $60,000 were sold in the state this spring.
To demonstrate the benefits derived from crotalaria during the last two years to the farmers of North Florida the county agents have procured 50 demonstrations comprising 524 acres in 1931 and 408 demonstrations comprising 3,538 acres in 1932. These demonstrations showed the usual increase in the yield of corn, peanuts, beans and other crops.
In Central and South Florida, soil improvement legume crops were planted very generally and consisted mainly of crotalaria,







Annual Report, 1932


soybeans, clovers, velvet beans, cowpeas and lespedeza. Reports from the agents' show 309 demonstrations covering 4,683 acres; 142 of these, covering 2,929 acres, were crotalaria.
The results of these demonstrations have varied with local conditions and types of soil. On potato demonstrations in Palm Beach County one grower cut his fertilizer application by 750 pounds per acre following crotalaria and increased the yield by 18 bushels per acre. Another grower used the same amount of fertilizer but reduced the ammonia one percent and produced an increase of 614 bushels of potatoes following crotalaria.
Demonstrations in DeSoto County show an increase of 98 1/3 bushels of potatoes over the check plot adjoining on same type of soil and treated the same way, except for the crop of crotalaria grown. Other growers reported satisfactory crops of cucumbers on nematode infested land following a crop of- crotalaria.
In Duval County there were 166 demonstrations on 1,920 acres in cover crops of clovers, soybeans, cowpeas, velvet beans and crotalaria. The crotalaria proved the most satisfactory, producing 10 tons green material per acre, or twice the tonnage produced by other crops except cowpeas.
In Union and Bradford counties crotalaria produced an increase of 10 to 15 bushels of corn per acre on the most outstanding demonstration plots.

TERRACING, DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION
On rolling lands in Northwest Florida subject to heavy rainfall it is essential that the land be terraced. The county agents have demonstrated the value of terraces for several years. These terracing demonstrations have increased from 1,426 acres in 1925 to 5,500 acres in 1932.
County agents have furnished re commendations for drainage and irrigation. One hundred and fifty-seven farmers installed drainage, systems according to recommendations on 6,311 acres and 72 farmers were assisted with irrigation systems on 3,104 acres. On 164 farms buildings were either constructed or remodeled according to plans furnished by county agents.

FARM CROPS
CORN
Fertilizing, Side-Dressing :-Commercial fertilizer is used to increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This fertilizer is usually a side-dressing of some quickly available







Florida Cooperative Extension


nitrogenous inorganic material. A complete fertilizer is used in some areas.
There were 626 demonstrations conducted by juniors on 696 acres that produced a total of 19,718 bushels of corn. This was 28 1/3 bushels per acre, or approximately twice the state average. Demonstrations of field selection of seed have been responsible for an increase of seven bushels per acre.
Standard Fertilizer and Cover Crop Demonstrations:-To demonstrate the superiority of the approved practice of cover-cropping, a series of demonstrations known as the standard demonstrations with corn were conducted. The yield of corn per acre following Austrian peas or vetch was 23 bushels; following summer cover crop, 18.3 bushels; following farmer's most common practice, 14.6 bushels; and following no fertilizer, 10.5 bushels.
It is seen that summer and winter cover crops resulted in increased yields of the corn which followed.
Variety Demonstrations:-Out of 65 varieties of corn tested by the Experiment Station, Whatley's Prolific and Kilgore Red Cob have proven the best yielders. Twenty-one demonstrations with these varieties were conducted in 1932 by farmers with the following results:
Average yield with improved varieties recommended, 15.5 bushels; average yield of.common corn, 10.5 bushels; increased yield due to improved variety, 5 bushels.
As a result of the demonstrations conducted last year and published results of experimental and demonstration tests, there were 139 bushels improved varieties of seed corn bought by.farmers for planting. Replies to questionnaires sent out indicate that approximately one-third of the farmers attending the planning meetings where improved varieties were recommended planted an improved variety of corn.
CORN WEEVIL CONTROL
The fumigating of corn with carbon bisulphide to control corn weevils was generally recommended by county agents. Demonstrations were conducted by having the cribs made air tight ane the carbon bisulphate applied regularly. During both 1931 anc 1932 fumigation saved more than 10 percent of the corn, which would have been lost without fumigation.
PASTURES
Pasture experiments show that carpet grass, dallies grass and other tame grasses have carried one cow per acre under careful management and produced as high as 256 pounds beef per acre







Annual Report, 1932


per annum. County agents have been conducting demonstrations to show best methods for establishing pastures and the returns that might be expected for several years. Through the influence of this information gathered from demonstrations and tests there were 153 pasture demonstrations comprising 5,096 acres.












Fig. 2-County agents encouraged the development of improved pastures for both dairy and beef cattle. Cattle owners report more grazing and less feed bills as the result.

One pasture demonstration of 100 acres in Dixie County carried 54 head of cattle, 28 being milk cows, during the best growing season. The owner reports a saving of $18 per cow on feed bill for the milk cows.
Many acres of cut-over unimproved lands have been seeded to improved pastures, which indicates a decided progress toward improved livestock production.
SOYBEANS
Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are easily cured and give fair production on suitable lands. Thirteen demonstrations comprising 68 acres produced 3/4 ton hay more per acre than cowpeas.
PEANUTS
Spacing Demonstrations:-The results of the thicker spacing as shown by data gathered from 1931 demonstrations and experimental plots were presented at planning meetings. Reports from farmers who attended these meetings indicate that approximately 80 % of them followed the thicker spacing practices. There were 282 well-planned demonstrations conducted comprising 2,331 acres giving an average increase of 12 bushels per acre.
Where thicker spacing and landplaster application were both used the yields were further increased.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUGARCANE
Mosaic disease and nematode have materially reduced the yield of syrup of the common varieties of red sugarcane. The Cayana 10 variety is nearly immune or resistant to both. To show the superiority of this cane it has been planted side by side with the red variety in 39 demonstrations, and has returned an increased yield of 113 gallons per acre. These demonstrations have caused it to become established generally with farmers who produce syrup on a co commercial scale.
Replies f rom 20 % of the farmers who attended meetings where Cayana was I recommended show that it is being planted in pref erence to other varieties.
COTTON
The five-year average production of seed cotton from 1925 to 1929 was 315 pounds per acre. This yield was produced with the use of. $3.44 worth of commercial fertilizer. There are three things-more and better fertilizer, more plants on land, and better varieties-that have been found to increase yield. There were 22 demonstrations conducted with an average yield of 637 pounds per acre compared with 422 pounds by use of usual practices, an increase of 215 pounds per acre.
The yield of cotton has been increased by putting more stalks on the land-closer rows and thicker in the drill. Demonstrations with 18,000 stalks per acre produced 586 pounds seed cotton and 11,000 stalks yielded only 363 pounds per acre, a difference of 223 pounds in favor of closer spacing.
FRUITS
In the North Florida area the fruits generally grown are Satsumas, pears, blueberries, pecans and grapes. Demonstrations with cover crops, fertilization and spraying produced increased tree growth and more bearing surf ace. In 1931 there were 42 demonstrations covering 299 acres and in 1932 the number was 94,. on 668 acres.
More fruits for home use and as cash crops could be profitably produced in this general farming area. The county agents have made it a part of their program to increase the planting of such fruits for home use and for marketing.
Both citrus and truck growers have been aided in obtaining economical production. The program has been directed to reduce production costs from every angle possible. The economic conditions have caused growers to use Extension workers to a greater extent than when economic conditions were better. New ferti-







Annual Report, 1932


lizer materials, new insecticides and unusual weather conditions, coupled with low prices, called for readjustments even among the most experienced and best growers. County agents devote a large part of their time to calls from grove owners for advice on fertilization, culture, spraying, insect and disease control.
The value of cover crops as demonstrations in many groves has made it possible to carry on an extensive program in cover crop work with the result that growers have produced their fruit at a much lower cost per box because of this program.
The Experiment Station, Agricultural College and Extension Service jointly compiled uniform fertilizer recommendations for all commercial crops. These were published in an Extension circular. This served as a basis for uniform recommendations by county agents. This fertilizer program is subject to modifications according to soil type, age of trees, and sufficiently flexible for all varieties of citrus. Growers report a saving of from 30 to 60 percent in the costs over former fertilizer programs.
Demonstrations, tours, meetings, personal visits, the radio, press and letters were all used in carrying out the horticultural program.
The program of economical citrus production included cover crops for soil improvement, reduced cultivation which goes with the cover crops program, careful timing of spraying operations, and less spray operations due to better development of friendly fungi where cover crops are produced. More nitrogen from cheaper sources reduces fertilizer cost and increases the vigor of the tree to better resist insect and disease injury.
The program for truck crops involved cover crops, cheaper fertilization from inorganic and high analysis goods, and improving spraying methods.
Some of the results of the year's work are summarized as follows: 137 citrus meetings, 169 truck crop meetings and 101 home gardens meetings were held during the year. A total of 248 news stories about citrus, 293 about truck crops and 224 about home gardens and home beautification were published. There were 4,762 farm visits on citrus, 3,774 on truck crops and 1,654 on home gardens made during the year. There were 8,890 office calls relating to citrus production, 8,338 relating to truck crops and 3,058'relating to home gardens and home, beautification. During the year there. were made 3,937 'inspections of citrus groves, involving 54,810 acres; 2,660 inspections of truck crop properties, involving 10,281 acres; and 991 inspections of home






Florida Cooperative Extension


gardens and small fruits, involving 744 acres. Improved practices were followed by 3,625 citrus growers, truck crop producers and home gardeners handling 66,335 acres; 2,112 of these involved fertilizer practices. There were conducted 375 demonstrations on 2,255 acres of truck crops and 641 demonstrations on 19,565 acres of citrus.
In the truck work, demonstrations in fertilization, disease And insect control, seed varieties and time of planting were carried on. There were 145 of these demonstrations, covering 1,387 acres. In Palm Beach County the agent reports an increase of 1517o on demonstrations where certified seed potatoes were planted.
LIVESTOCK
POULTRY
County agents have conducted 295 -demonstrations involving 66,658 birds in culling, better feeding, feed growing, incubation and brooding of poultry. Home built brick brooders are in use on the recommendations of county agents.
Feed prices have fallen faster than egg prices and the close of the year finds the poultry business in a more favorable' position than other livestock enterprises.
Reports show 128 demonstrations including 32,494.birds in the state-wide Grow Healthy Chick program; culling, proper feeding, disease control and marketing have been carried on.
Nine thousand chickens have been vaccinatedto prevent sorehead. Several hundred purebred chicks have been placed on the poultry farms for breeding purposes. As a result of the development of the, extension program there are to be found more purebred, better kept flocks, and a more profitable poultry industry in the state.
DAIRYING
The marketing problem confronts the dairymen of the state. Milk prices have fallen and there is a surplus of whole milk to supply the trade. The county agents. have actively assisted dairymen in perfecting organizations. to stabilize prices. Two hundred and thirty demonstrations have been conducted with dairying (involving 6,288 cattle) and 85 dairymen have been assisted in securing purebred sires and 126 in securing purebred females. The development of pastures and the' production of green feeds have received much attention. County agents have received 4,101 office calls from dairymen, have made 1,598 farm visits to dairies and have held 163 dairy meetings. . .







Annual Report, 1932


In Duval County the agent put on 40 dairy feeding demonstrations to reduce the protein content of the ration from 24 to 18 per cent. This was put on with a hope of correcting some breeding troubles confronting dairymen. The results seemed to indicate an improved condition and the cows showed improvement in flesh and weight. Through the efforts of this agent, 102 purebred dairy bulls have been brought into the, county.
More dairymen are now raising their best heifers to replace cows taken out of production. Approximately 2,500 heifers have been raised by the dairymen this past year.
BEEF CATTLE
There have been 233 demonstrations of better herd management conducted; they touched 64,625 head of cattle. There were 789 cows treated for worms, and 2,682 vaccinated for hemorrhagic septicemia.
Three hundred and fifty-six purebred bulls were secured by farmers. Local cattlemen's associations have been organized for the protection and improvement of the range cattle.
Livestock shows with exhibits of bulls, scrub cows and their grade calves were featured. In one show 200 head of cattle were exhibited. These shows demonstrated what had been done in improving the cattle by the introduction of purebred bulls and gave many farmers and.cattlemen a living picture of what can be done in improving the quality of cattle.
Demonstrations to relieve salt sickness in range cattle have been conducted by the agents with good results.
SHEEP
Stomach and tape worms have been responsible for the decrease in the number of range sheep. They can be controlled by drenching sheep with a solution of bluestone and nicotine sulpliate. Demonstrations to control these worms have resulted in regular treatments through the 'summer season, giving a larger lamb crop, stronger sheep, and larger fleeces. This year 5,726 sheep were treated. Nine purebred rams were placed by county agents.
SWINE
Demonstrations were conducted in which hogs were pastured on grazing crops rather than on permanent pastures; young pigs were kept free of worms and were supplied green grazing crops. Young pigs handled in this way made good growth and were thrifty. This is an inexpensive method of feeding hogs And makes them marketable at from 6 to 9 months of age.







Florida Cooperative Extension


County agents vaccinated 117,942 head of hogs as a prevention against hog cholera. Two hundred and fifty-two swine demonstrations involving 5,579 animals were completed. One hundred and fifty-seven farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars and gilts.
Many hogs have been butchered and the meat cured on the f arm on account of low prices. Much of this cured meat was traded for supplies and farm labor. Meat cutting and curing demonstrations have been held to improve the trim and curing process.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FARM MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT
County agents in cooperation with necessary committees handled applications for crop production loans for 2,395 farmers.
An outlook report was prepared by the Extension Service; it was based on state and federal information dealing with demand, supply, and credit. This report was put in the hands of agents, farmers, and business men. Agents report that 2,976 farmers adjusted their cropping systems because of information given in the outlook report.
Three hundred and thirty-one farmers kept farm accounts on forms supplied by the Extension Service.
Studies of the corn enterprise and other farm management practices have been made.
Poultrymen have been assisted in keeping cost records. These records show cost of producing laying stock, feed cost, egg pro, auction costs, and size of flocks most profitable.
County agents have assisted in getting 138 complete citrus grove records during the year.
PURCHASING AND SELLING
County agents have arranged for cooperative sales and purchases at a substantial saving to the farmers. The items consisted of poultry, dairy, beef, hogs, sheep, fruits, vegetables, cotton, peanuts and miscellaneous farm products. Total sales were $3,052,056; purchases, $48,962; saving, $156,842.82.
Where there were no cooperative organizations functioning the 'county agents through their committees marketed a variety of miscellaneous farm products and purchased supplies at a substantial saving.
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
A stock show was held in Tallahassee under the supervision of the county agent in connection with the state 4-11 Pig Club Show







Annual Report, 1932


where poultry, sheep, dairy cattle and beef cattle of the county were shown.
Personal services to the farmers and growers, including consultations, inspections of groves or fields to see conditions and advise the growers, and many other things took up a large part of the county agent's time.


Fig. 3-13oth county and home demonstration agents rendered valuable and effective service in connection with unemployment relief. Community gardens were planted in many places. A seedbed for one large gardening operation is shown here.

County agents have assisted in planting gardens and distributing seed and fertilizer for the unemployed in cooperation with the Florida Emergency Relief Administration. The largest gardening project for unemployed was in Hillsborough County where the county agent assisted in planning the work and supervising the growing of the crops on a 160-acre tract.
The agents have cooperated in the management of 6 fairs and have displayed 58 fair exhibits.
County agents have made 1,211 soil tests for acidity and 108 phosphate testson citrus and truck soils.
PUBLICITY
MEANS USED FOR DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE
Practically every means of disseminating knowledge at the county agents' command has beeli used consistently, as follows:


1 1 ,







Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of personal letters . B ulletins sent . Talks over radio . Tours conducted . Circular letters . N ew spaper articles .


28,236
33,924
216 68 796 2,031


There were 68 tours conducted with 2,934 farmers and business men attending. About half were county-wide farm tours. Those attending saw a cross-section of the agent's plan worked out in


Fig. 4.-A unique part of a county exhibit at one of the larger fairs.

demonstrations. The tours were concluded with programs. These tours have been effective in showing the value of constructive Extension work.
MEETINGS
Extension agencies served the people through meetings of various kinds during the year. Statistics on these follow:
Number Attendance
1. Training meetings for leaders . 72 561
2. Method demonstration meetings . 1,306 14,037 3. Result demonstration meetings . 528 6,745
4. Achievement days and fairs . 30 5,622 5. Camps held, junior . 24 1,202 6. Other extension meetings . 1,327 53,997 7. Meetings, held by local leaders . 185 3,375 8. Institute . 1 751







Annual Report, 1932


The Institute mentioned above deserves special attention, it being the first one held at the 4-11 Club Camp on Choctawhatchee Bay. Programs for both men and women on livestock, field crops, nutrition, home beautification and other subjects, in addition to recreation, were presented.

4-11 CLUB WORK
There were 1,333 boys enrolled in 4-11 Clubs. There were 10 Achievement Day programs conducted in connection with final contests. The completions were larger than in former years. Older boys are assisting the county agents in club leadership work.
Corn and truck projects led by a wide margin. This was expected as most of the district is in the trucking section of the state, still there were 73 projects in poultry, 74 in calves and 73 in swine.
OTHER PROJECT WORK
RODENTS AND INSECT CONTROL WORK
The work with rat control shows that there was 8,310 pounds of poison bait used, and 2,362 pounds of poison bait used in combatting insects. Reports from Dade County showa saving of $160,709.50.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
COUNTY AGENTS
Number of county agents . 38 Number of months of service . 453 Number of communities in which Extension program has been
conducted . 496 Number of voluntary county or community local leaders or committeemen assisting in the Extension program . 691 Total number of farm and home visits . 35,490
Number of different farms and homes visited . 16,289
Number of office and telephone calls . 92,180 Number of days agents in office . 3,276 Number of days agents in field . 8,2181/2 Number of news articles or stories published . 2,031
Number of individual letters written . 28,236
Number of bulletins distributed . 33,924 Number of radio talks made . 216 Number of events where Extension exhibits were shown 58
Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders . 38 338
Method demonstration meeting held .:,*:::*,:::,.* 1,306 14,037 Meetings held at result. demonstration . 528 6745 Tours conducted . 68 2,934
Achievement days held-Adult work . 3 806
Achievement days held-4-H Club . 27 4,816
Encampments held for 4-H Clubs . 23 1,186
Other Extension meetings . 1,347 53,997
Meetings held by local leaders-Adult work . 34 659
Meetings held by local leaders-4-H Club . 151 2P716








Florida Cooperative Extension


Cereals
Number of method demonstration meetings . 102
Number of adult result demonstrating completed . 369 Total number of acres in result demonstrations . 3,824 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrationscorn, 8 bu.; oats, 5 bu.; rye 5 bu.
Number of farmers following improved practices . 1,433 Number of acres involved . I . 19,042
Legumes and Forage Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held . 279
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 887
Number of acrez in adult result demonstrations . 13,325 Number of farmers following improved practices . 1,667 Number of acres involved . 18,307
Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco and Other Special Crops
Number of method demonstrations held . 152
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 289
Number of acres in adult result demonstrations . 1,311 Average increased yield per acre in adult result demonstrations-Irish potatoes, 24.8 bu.; sweet potatoes, 32 bu.; cotton, 198 lbs.; tobacco, 24.8.
Number of farmers following improved practices . 1,737 Number of acres involved . 6,981
Fruits, Vegetables and Beautification of Home Grounds
Number of method demonstration meetings held . 896
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 1 ' 978 Number of acres in adult result demonstrations . 22,543 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrationstruck crops, 20 bu.; tree fruits, 20 bu.; bush and small fruits, 196 qts.
Number of grove or fleld inspections made . 7,498 Number of spray or dusting demonstrations conducted . 1,031 Number of acres involved . 61,776 Number of cover crop demonstrations conducted . 566
Number of acres involved in cover crop demonstrations . 8,324 Number of growers known following fertilizer practices recomm ended . . 2,358 Number of growers nown following improved practices this year believed due to Extension efforts . 3,995 Number of acres involved . 67,012,
Savings made in fertilizer practices . $ 351,637
Forestry
Number of method demonstration meetings . 21
Number of adult result demonstrations . 15
Acres new forest or farm woodland areas planted . 95
Number of farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management . . 52
A creage . 8,445 Number of farms planting windbreaks . 17
Animal and Insect Pest Control
Number of method demonstration meetings . 230
Number of result demonstrations completed . 358
Pounds of poison used . 18,071
Agricultural Engineering
Number of method demonstration meetings . 205
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 240
Number of farms following recommendations in installing
drainage system s . 151







Annual Report, 1932 - 31

Acres drained . 6,151 Number of farms following recommendations in installing irrigation system s . ill Acres irrigated . 3,9251/2
Number of farms building terraces to on*t*ro*1*eros io*n- 228
Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented . 5,753 Number of farms clearing land of stumps . 80
Number of families assisted with bouse-planning . 46
Number of dwellings constructed . 7
Number of dwellings remodeled . 12
Number of sewage disposal systems installed . 29
Number of water systems installed . 21
Number of lighting systems installed . 5
Number of farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled . 238
Dairy barns, 56; po lir* ' o* l s" i ; 's'iios', *3' 0*;' *O*t*i'e*r*s,* *3'3*.
Number of farms following recommendations on machinery . 220
Tractors, 36: tillage implements, 167; harvesters and
threshers, 6; others, 101; miscellaneous machinery, 169.
Poultry
Number of method demonstration meetings . 226
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 235
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations. 64,625 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $ 23,717 Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock . : . 123 Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 134
Dairy Cattle
Number of method demonstration meeting . 67
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 230
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations. 6,288 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $ 14,740 Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock . 85
Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 66

Other Livestock
Number of method demonstration meetings . 199
Number of- adult result demonstrations completed . 391 Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations ' . 20,271 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $ 20,402 Number of firms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade
breeding stock . . 568 Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 61
Number of animals vaccinated . 138,281 Number of animals treated for worms . 26,588 Number of sanitation demonstrations completed . 94
Number of animals involved . 16,250 Number of animals obtained for farmers . 9,020 Number of offspring obtained this year from sires secured
through Extension efforts . 25,635
Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation
Number of method demonstration meetings . 82
Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 178
Number of farms keeping farm accounts . 331
Number of farms keeping cost-of -production records . Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts . 250 Number of farms assisted in making inventory or credit statem ents . 327
Number of farm business or enterprise survey records taken . 194








Florida Cooperative Extension


Number of farms making recommended changes in their busi- 14
ness.4 Number ofaother farms adptin g cropping, livestock, or complete farming systems. 495 Number of farms advised relative to leases .320 Number of farms assisted in obtaining credit .2,395 Number of different farms assisted in using outlook information 2,976
Corn, 676; cotton, 732; potatoes, 334; tobacco, 215; truck
crops, 809; dairy cattle, 110; beef cattle, 309; hogs, 535;
sheep, 25; poultry, 241.
Marketing (Farm and Home)
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups organized. 1 1 1*- -11 11
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups previously organized. 80 Members-hip in associations organized .5,455 Value of products marketed by all associations .$3,670,870 Value of supplies purchased by all associations .$ 395,285 Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups with
problems of-preliminary analysis, 27; organization, 35; accounting and auditing, 19; financing, 41; business, policies, 46; production to meet market demand, 60; reduction of market losses, 40; use of. current market information, 56; standardizing, 48; processing or manufacturing, 10; packaging and grading, 50; loading, 22; transporting, 22; warehousing, 11; keeping membership informed, 52; merging into larger units,
19.
Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or
groups assisted with problems of-standardizing, 751; packaging and grading, 375; use of current market information,
2,220.
Savings made by:
Cooperative Sales . $ 167,786.50 Cooperative Purchases . $ 32,136.00
Community or Country Life Activities
Number of communities assisted in making social 'or country
life surveys. 5
Number of country life conferences for community leaders 16
Number of community groups assisting with organization problems, activities, or meeting programs .10 Number of communities developing recreation programs . 19
Number of community or county-wide pageants or plays presented. 9
Number of communities assisted in improving hygienic practices. 6
Number of school or other community grounds improved . 12
Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities . 15
Total number of different communities assisted with community or country life work. 42

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Number
Number Days, by MeetCommuni- Special- Days of ings Farm ties ists Work Held Visits
Farm Crops .I 279 110 1,657Y2 428 4,972
Horticultural Crops .1271 163 1/2 2,4951/2 407 10,190
Livestock.I 208 263 3,543 603 12,359
Agricultural Economics. 330 148 1,180/2 290 3,505
Miscellaneous and Program Making .*.70 35 363/2 71 541
Forestry .I 44 3 75 11 180







Annual Report, 1932


BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent

ENROLLMENT
Boys' 4-H club work shows an increased enrollment for 1932
as against a decrease in both 1930 and 1931. The opportunity for earning more money by outside work is limited, which has
made our rural boys more country-minded.
More efficient 4-H organizations and the slowly developing
leadership of older club boys is overcoming the major cause of the loss of membership in the past two years, lack of time on the
part of the county agents.
The following table shows the gains and losses in the different
projects:
Pota- Poul- Total Total
Corn Cotton toes Truck Citrus try Pig Calf Misc. 1932 1931 Votal, 1932. . 654 123 195 425 100 346 507 235 538 3123
1931. 612 200 163 551 71 355 432 150 194 2728
-77 32 29 -9 75 344 395
'ain or Loss 42 -126 85

ORGANIZATION
The improvement in local organization of 4-11 club work continues and increased enrollment and increased percentage of reports prove the value of such organizations. While the number of local club organizations has decreased two, due to consolidations, the clubs are functioning more efficiently. More of the routine work connected with the projects is being handled by the older boys and the club officers. With the ever-increasing demands upon the county agents, the only hope for continuing 4-H club work at anywhere near its present volume rests upon better
organization and the development of local leadership.
Local 4-H Clubs:-Twenty-five of the 32 agents reporting club
work have one or more organized clubs. A total of 111 local clubs are functioning. Charters have been awarded to seven clubs, two of which have won gold seals for their club achievements. That the clubs can and do function is shown by the fact that during 1932 the local clubs held 151 meetings (attendance, 2,716) which
were neither arranged for nor attended by the county agents.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-The Lake Worth Boys' 4-11 Club of
Palm Beach County is an example of efficient organization over a period of years. This club has a small membership, averaging







Florida Cooperative Extenaion


about 14. Every boy of club age except one living in the area outlined by the county agent as belonging to the club was a member in 1932. The club has met regularly once a month for five years. This club has never failed to furnish a creditable exhibit at the fairs and contests in the county. The county delegation to the short course has always included members of this club. The record books are well kept and a large per cent of the projects completed. This club was the first in Florida to earn a charter and later a gold seal, given to any boys' 4-11 club which meets certain requirements as to membership, meetings and projects. One of its members was one of the two 4-H boys representing' Florida at the National 4-H Camp.
The Newberry Club of Alachua County was judged the second best all-around boys' 4-H club in the county in 1931. When new officers were elected for this year, a definite plan was outlined to win first place. The officers worked out a plan to increase enrollment and to keep the record books up to date. A month before the county 4-11 club contest, a committee was appointed to see that all record books were completed and sent in and that all the calves and pigs were exhibited as well as the corn, cotton, potatoes and peanuts. At contest time two trucks were secured and all club exhibits were sent to the contest. Sixty-eight records were secured from the one club and 67 exhibits were made. The plan outlined in the spring was carried out and the club won first place in the county.
LEADERSHIP
With the local organizations comes the necessity of some local leadership. The lack of leaders has been the biggest obstacle in organizing local clubs. The work of the leader was not understood at first and there was great difficulty in getting competent men and women to serve. This difficulty is being gradually overcome. The older club boys and the older club girls are taking over the job of leading their community clubs. The clubs are placing more responsibility on the older members. The clubs have project leaders or captains whose duty is to visit the younger members, help them with their record books and to act as leaders in their community.
The social side of 4-11 club work is being directed by the club members through their social committees. Parties, picnics and camp fires are planned and carried out by the older members. It is no longer necessary for the county agent to take active charge of all details of club work.







Annual Report, 1932


Obtaining records is a big item in club work. The percent.4ge of reports in well-organized clubs averages nearly 50% greater than under the old method when the county agent did not secure the active assistance of the older club members. The training in leadership which the older members get from trying to help the younger ones is building an ever-increasing number of young people in rural communities who are not only willing but also able to plan and execute for the general welfare. In 1931 out of 193 local 4-H leaders but 81 were older club members, while in 1932 out of 225 local leaders 106 were old club members. When 4-H club work comes to the point that it has grown and trained its own leadership, the problem of rural leadership will be partly solved.

PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS

DEPRESSION DIFFICULTIES
The lack of money and the surety of low prices for products forced a change in methods of conducting project work. The boys have been restricted in the money procurable for carrying on their work. Again, the low price of farm products has stressed the necessity of cutting costs of production. The boys have been attempting to produce their crops and animals in the most economical ways. With all the attempts for lowering costs, the profits have been very small.
FARM CROPS
Corn -356 boys grew 452 acres of corn and produced 13,612 bushels. The average yield was but 30.1 bushels against 37.3 for
This decrease was caused in a large part by less fertilizer being used. The price of corn was so low that side-dressing with a quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer was not recommended.
Cotton:-The enrollment in the cotton project dropped from 106 m 1931 to 66 in 1932. The general lack of finances and the attempt to lower cotton acreage worked to secure the lower enrollment. The yield of 966 pounds seed cotton per acre was very good, as the boys decreased the amount of fertilizer used per acre. In 1932, 400 pounds per acre was a fair average while in previous years the average was around 660 pounds.
Peanuts:-While this project is a minor one, but 56 boys completing, it showed a 7017o increase over 1931. The drive for increased acreage of feed crops was responsible for the increase. More boys are growing peanuts to fatten their pigs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Home Gardens:-This club increased 150% over 1931. Two hundred and three club boys completed their work in home gardens, against 79 in 1931. The boys made very little cash profit from their gardens but they added much to the family food supply. Again, the. club boys showed a response to a popular demand. The demand for increased gardens was answered in a fine manner.
Truck Crops:--:-The crop used depends upon the truck crops grown in the boy's community, as the boy in a bean growing section usually grows beans. The profit in 1932 depended upon market conditions at the time the crop was harvested. One boy in Hillsborough County happened to have a fine crop of beans ready just as the crop in the Glades was cut off by water. The result was that he had a profit of over $200. Another boy in the same community who had his crop mature two weeks earlier made practically nothing. The truck crop projects were confined to the counties and communities where the raising of truck is the main agricultural business of the farmers. Seventy-three boys completed their projects in truck.
Citrus:-In Manatee County three clubs are continuing with their citrus nursery projects. The work is carried on in connection with their rural schools. The club boys fence off a small plot of ground, prepare the soil and each boy plants a row or two of sour orange seed. The seedlings are fertilized and cared for as directed by the county agent. At the proper time the little trees are budded. When the trees have reached the right age, the boys have them to sell or to set out at home. The oldest club in the county, at Parrish, has trees ready for setting out in a grove. Some are starting a small grove of their own and some are selling the trees. In addition to raising trees each club member is given instructions in the identification and control of citrus insects and diseases.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
With increased production of feed there came an increase in the number of pigs raised. Two hundred and twenty boys completed their pig project, raising 627 pigs. This was an increase of 12 boys and 172 pigs over last year. The boys are growing more feed crops and are fattening their pigs in place of selling them for breeding stock. The low market price for hogs made it almost impossible for the boys to make a profit, but most of them showed a fair labor income.
Bill Clegg of Alachua County carried out a very complete demonstration in swine production in cooperation with the animal







Annual Report, 1932


husbandry department of the Experiment Station. Good stock and a good system of grazing and fattening crops enabled Bill to get $4.45 per hundred'pounds for his litter of nine pigs which were sold in Moultrie, Georgia, when the prevailing price was $3.75.
The pigs were farrowed early in February. They were raised under a cooperative agreement with the Florida Experiment Station and on a gazing crop system worked out by the Station. They were farrowed in a clean house and immediately turned on a field of oats. Later they were grazed on millet and sudan grass. They were fed shorts, dry peanuts, corn, and milk and supplemental feeds, and had a mineral mixture bef ore them. They were weaned at two months old, and about the middle of July were turned on a field of corn to fatten.
The total cost of producing the pigs was $33.64. The nine pigs, averaging 182 pounds, brought $72.89, leaving a profit of $39.64.
There are two main reasons for the pigs topping the market; they were free of worms and they were of fine quality and the size which the market prefers.
Arthur MeNeeley has his first pig club pig. This Poland China sow has raised over 100 pigs. Arthur has a herd of Poland Chinas which he hopes will help him go college.
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
The dairy club is growing. The eradication of the Texas fever tick is encouraging the introduction of better milk cows. Two hundred *and twenty-one club members raised dairy animals in 1932 while 172 were members in 1931. With the return of better times this project will show a decided growth.
Twenty-four Duval County boys who raised purebred heifers last year are continuing with their cows this year. They are keeping feed and milk records. Three of the cows give promise of being outstanding milk producers.
In Hernando County, B. E. Lawton, county agent, brought a carload of Jerseys from Tennessee, 14 of which were placed with 4-H club members.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project remains about the same. The boys are culling their flocks and trying to decrease production costs. Club boys continue to be among the leaders in the Home-Egg-Laying Contest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FORESTRY
This project is now and promises to be an-interesting one. Fiftythree acres were planted to pines by club. boys in Liberty County, and 85 per cent of these plantings were successful. The others failed because of poor drainage or destruction by hogs. Fire was kept from all plantings by means of fire lines. In Palm Beach County a community reforestation project is being attempted by the club boys in cooperation with an interested citizen who is furnishing the land and protecting against fire.
FARWCOST ACCOUNTING
A new type of citrus club work was attempted this year. In ,Orange and Lake counties boys kept grove cost accounting records on commercial groves. Record books approved by the Extension Economics Department were furnished the boys. The boys kept complete records on bearing groves. The boys met with the County Agent at intervals and the records were studied. Visits were made to the groves on which records were kept and the grove owner's system studied. The records kept are to be checked and commented upon at the end of the year by the Extension Farm Management Specialist and returned to the boys. This project is limited to boys in high school.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
The aim of club work-to improve farm and home life-is not confined to the production of products. The socialization of farm people is just as important. Club work has its biggest opportunity in this field. The fostering of the cooperative spirit and the development of trained rural leadership means much to the future of rural America. 4-H club work is trying to do its part in building intelligent citizens out of its members. . Recreation:-The lack of money for trips, picture shows and the usual types of recreation has left a blank in rural social life which needs filling. Club boys and girls are trying to meet the emergency through more socials, picnics, fish frys and camps. The only opportunity some farm boys and girls have is furnished by the 4-11 club.
Four recreation leadership training schools were held again in cooperation with the Playground and Recreation Association of America. This was the second of a series of four which will be held in the state. The trouble is not in getting enough interested leaders to take the course but to keep the number small enough






Annual Report, 1932


that the instructions can be given in the proper way. The leaders attending have gone back to their communities and have taken the lead in improving community recreational activities.
Radio Programs :-The club department continues to provide a 30-minute program over WRUF each month, the boys having one month and the girls the next. The programs are varied to show the various phases of club work. In addition to the regular f eature, speakers were furnished for Florida's part in the National 4-H Achievement program on November 5. The 4-H club story has been told f rom every radio station in the state on at least one occasion during the year.
Club Camps :-The summer club camp continues to hold its popularity with the boys. Twenty-three camps were held with a total attendance of 1,176. Howard Curry and Donald Matthews were employed again to assist with the camps.
A program of supervised recreation and leadership training is supplied for each camp. A spirit of healthy rivalry is built. The boys are divided into squads of 10 and the squads compete in all phases of camp life for the ribbons given to each member of the honor squad.
The West Florida Club Camp was improved by the building of two more cottages and the installation of a lighting and a water system. The value of the central camp is being appreciated more


Fig. 5.-The 4-11 club boys attending the an iual short cour e at the University of 1 lorida planted a palm tree in honor of the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington.






Florida Cooperative Extension


each year. The camp was used for a West Florida farmers' institute this year.
Annual Short Course:-The biggest event of the club year is the short course. The county champions meet at the University of Florida for a week of inspiration and instruction. Many boys get the inspiration to go to college from their visit to the short course.
In June, 1932, 258 boys were enrolled. Courses were given in livestock, dairying, horticulture, poultry, farm mechanics, farm accounting, tree surgery, swimming and organized recreation. The evenings were used for entertainment. A George Washington program was put on one night and a palm was planted in memory of the first President.

STATE EXHIBITS
South Florida Fair:-4-H club work made an exhibit of corn and cotton at the South Florida Fair in February, 1932. The cotton exhibit attracted much favorable attention from the northern visitors. John Hentz of Liberty County won the grand champion bushel and the grand champion 10-ear exhibit for the second time. Union County showed the best county exhibit of 10 bushels.
For the first time, a calf club show was held at this fair. Twenty-six registered Jersey calves were shown. Duval County boys exhibited the greater part of the calves shown. On one day all the Duval club members came to Tampa and witnessed the judging. A parade of the club members and their animals was staged before the grandstand.
State Pig Club Show:-For the third year, the Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored the State Pig Club Show. Over 100 club pigs were exhibited.
John Carter, Jr., of Jefferson County, showed the grand champion barrow, a Chester White. He was awarded a $100 scholarship offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville, Florida.
Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed th6 grand champion breeding pig, a Duroc Jersey, and won a $150 scholarship to the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis.
State Poultry Club Show:-The Second Florida 4-11 Poultry Show was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair. This was open to boys and girls. Two hundred thirty-one birds were exhibited in 1932 against 180 in 1931. The poultry judging contest held in connection with the show was won by a team of boys from Lake County. Tom Lamb of Orange County won the $100 schol-







Annual Report, 1932


warship to the University of Florida offered to the high individual in the judging contest.

STATE PRIZE WINNERS FOR 1932
Jack Platt of Marion County, Marable Love of Leon County, and Guy Botts of Santa Rosa County entered the College of Agriculture this year on their Florida Bankers' Association 4-H scholarships. Frances Allen of Madison County entered on his Frank E. Dennis scholarship.
Bankers' Scholarship:-The Florida Bankers' Association offers three $100 scholarships to the Florida College of Agriculture. The scholarships are awarded at the short course on an examination given by the State Boys" Club Agent. The winners for 1932 were W. W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County for West Florida, William Clegg of Alachua County for Central Florida and David Scott of DeSoto County for South Florida.
National 4-H Camp:-Each state is allowed to send but two boys and two girls to this camp, which is held in Washington. The delegates are the two most outstanding club boys and girls in the state, the requirements being rigid.
Ralph Arant of Santa Rosa County and Herbert Fritz of Palm Beach County attended the camp in June, 1932. Expenses for
this trip were supplied by the Boys' 4-H Club Fund.

BOYS' 4-H CLUB STATISTICS ORGANIZATION
111 Organized community 4-H clubg
8 County club organizations
ENROLLMENT AND COMPLETION
2409 Members enrolled
3123 Different projects carried by club members 1430 Members completed
1858 Projects completed
PROJECT WORK
Crops
Acres
Project Grown Yield
356 members completed corn . 426 13,612 bu. 56 members completed peanuts . 75 2,572 bu.
6 members completed Irish potatoes . 9 1,162 bu. 115 members completed sweet potatoes . 71 8,266 bu. 66 members completed cotton . - 75 72,109 lbs. seed cotton
1 member completed tobacco . 1 750 lbs.
203 members completed home garden . 73 73 members completed truck crop . 7"4 89 members completed small fruits . 16 41 members completed home beautification 41 homes
beautified
74 members completed cover-crop 74 acres improved
61 members completed forestry 144 acres planted








Florida Cooperative Extension

Livestock


171 members completed poultry 144 members completed dairy 10 members completed beef cattle 220 members completed wine
Farm Management 140 members completed farm records
Leadership and Recreation
4 Demonstration'teams trained
8 Judging teams trained
34 Leadership meetings with 223 attending 27 Achievement days held, 4,816 attending 151 Social meetings held, 2,716 attending 23 Club camps held, 1,076 attending


Animals Involved
6,943 birds
210 animals
14 animals
627 animals







Annual Report, 1932


DAIRYING
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1932, in cooperation with the county agents: Dade, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Martin, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Hernando, Orange, Polk, Lake, Marion, Bradford, Union, St. Johns, Duval, Alachua, Suwannee, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Calhoun, Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia. Some cooperative dairy work was carried on with farmers in some of the counties not having county agents: Bay, Gadsden, Madison, Columbia, Putnam, Citrus, Volusia, Seminole, Pasco, Glades, and Broward.
DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
The increase in forage production was continued in 1932. The efforts of Extension workers were limited to assistance in the production of pasture crops, silage crops and some hay crops. The very low prices for grain and mill feeds, together with the low yield of corn and other grain crops grown in Florida makes it impractical to devote time to demonstrations with grain crops.
There has been an increase of approximately 3,970 acres of grazing and silage crops in the market milk areas of the state during the last 12 months. This has reduced the cost of producing milk very materially. The cooperative purchases of mill feed and grains in car-lots, and the home mixing of the dairy feeds at the barn to supplement the roughage has saved the dairymen of the state $75,000 to $100,000 in reduced cost of producing milk. E. C. Fogg, secretary of the Miami Home Milk Producers Association, states that during March, 1932, five members of their association saved $1,356 by cooperative purchase of feeds. This reduction in cost of producing milk has been an important factor in helping many dairymen to meet outside competition, and in many cases it was the means of enabling the dairymen to continue in the dairy business.
An important part of the feed growing program has been to get the dairies located on lands best adapted to growing feed crops. Eleven thousand acres of farm lands have been purchased by 73 dairymen to, enlarge their pasture areas. With paved roads and modern trucks, it is practical for dairymen to move 15 to 20 miles out from town if necessary to locate on good land. There is a determination among dairymen to have pastures and produce feed that will reduce feed costs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PASTURES

Dairy farmers seeded 1,545 acres to permanent pastures.
Improvement in pasture management has contributed in helping to increase the supply of grazing from permanent pastures. There were some 4,500 acres of pastures in the state that are being mowed. Demonstrations have proven that it is important to seed permanent grasses on the heavier moist soils. 'The lighter, drier soils are being planted to Bermuda grass and to corn and other silage crops. An occasional plowing or disking of the Bermuda pastures increases the yield of grass by killing weeds and loosening the soil.
Annual crops for pasture are recommended. The dairymen in Marion County use cowpeas and soybeans extensively with silage as a supplement to permanent pastures.
Reduced prices for milk have forced dairymen to lower production costs.
There was approximately 3,000 acres more winter crops seeded in the state in 1932 than in any previous year; 1,160 acres of rye and oats and 310 acres of Italian rye grass were seeded by Duval County dairymen. County Agent Lawton has demonstrated the value of heavy seeding and the use of inorganic nitrates.
In Walton County good results were obtained with crimson clover mixed with sweet clover and sown on a Bermuda sod and disked down thoroughly. C. T. Smith, operating a dairy farm, ,says this pasture replaced commercial feeds to the value of $6Ti an acre.
SILAGE
The results from the 1932 silo demonstrations were very effective. Two trench and two pit silos constructed by North Marion dairymen in 1931 were enlarged in 1932. These dairymen weighed and tested the milk from individual cows and were in a position to know the feeding value of silage. Silage and peavine hay cut with ensilage cutters and blown into the hay mows made up the winter roughage feed. It was the first time these farmers had an abundance of roughage.
Demonstrations in proper methods of filling silos accounted largely for the success of the silage demonstrations. The common mistake is in not wetting down the silage from corn sorghum or cane where the leaves have overcured. This was largely avoided in 1932.







Annual Report, 1932


FARM DAIRYING
The "Live-at-Home" program emphasized by county and home agents has continued to increase the number of cows to supply the family needs.
D. H. Ward, county agent, Liberty County, arranged for the cooperative purchase of 35 grade Jersey heifers from middle Tennessee at bargain prices. These Jerseys were purchased by 31 farmers to supply milk for family needs. They are replacing scrub cattle and furnishing family cows to small farmers.
There were 375 high grade and registered dairy heifers and cows placed on farms to supply milk and butter. Marion, Walton, Santa Rosa, and Madison counties are the principal counties marketing cream for butter-making purposes.
RAISING DAIRY COWS
In 1927 approximately 307 of the herd replacements were raised on the market milk dairy farms. In 1932 approximately 93% of the herd replacements were raised on dairy farms. The dairymen in 60% of the counties of the state have raised more than enough heifers for herd replacements.

NEW& R Al I
16


Fig. 6.-DT. P. K. Yonge, for many years chairman of the State Board of Control of Higher Institutions, is shown here with one of his outstanding dairy cows.







Florida Cooperative Exten&ion


The demonstrations in growing out dairy calves in all market milk centers has increased, which is resulting in a reduction in the number of dairy cows imported into our dairy centers. In 1927 approximately 4,000 cows a year were purchased for herd replacements, at $90 to $140 each, at a cost of approximately onehalf million dollars. The money expended for replacements in 1932 was very much less.
Demonstrations in control of intestinal parasites in Duval County have greatly helped in improving the quality of calves. Keeping calves off of sod pastures and pasturing them on cultivated fields planted to cowpeas, soybeans, corn or similar crops, until they are 6 to 8 months old is preventing infestation with intestinal parasites in addition to keeping the calves from drinking polluted water in stagnant ponds.

DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The large volume of locally produced milk has prevented the importation of cheap milk from other states and the movement of milk from long distances within the state, thereby avoiding a general - disorganization of local marketing conditions. An abundance of fresh fluid milk at reasonable prices has reduced the consumption of condensed milk and milk powders.
Individual dairy records have proven valuable as a guide to adjusting dairy rations. Five years ago probably 30-yo of the dairy rations were home-mixed, with a view to supplying a grain concentrate to supplement the grazing and roughage crops on the farm. Now about 95%, of the dairymen are having their grain feeds mixed according to their needs with a view of economy in milk production.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
There were 114 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during 1932. Duval County has a registered bull at the head of every dairy herd in the county. It is a conservative estimate to state the dairy herds of Florida have an increased productive value of $47,000 for 1932, directly traceable to purebred sires.

BUILDING SILOS, REMODELING DAIRY BARNS AND MILK HOUSES
Silos have been constructed as follows: 4 pit; 11 trench; 2 Tennessee wooden hoop; 5 monolithic concrete; 4 steel; a total of 26. These silos were built at a relatively low cost.







Annual Report, 1932


Seventeen agents assisted dairymen with improvements on 41 dairy barns and in building six sheds for shade and protection during rainy weather.

MARKETING OF FLUID OR MARKET MILK
Dairy leagues f or cooperative marketing of milk were organized in Hillsborough, Pinellas and Alachua counties. The Duval County Better Milk League reorganized with a 9517o sign up. . The Miami Home Milk Producers Association operates a distributing plant in Miami. Cooperative producer dairy associations in Marion, Leon, Escambia, Dade, Palm Beach, Orange, Broward, Volusia, Manatee, Seminole, Polk, Flagler, and Hernando counties have worked together in adjusting conditions to stabilize the market.
The State Dairy Association is made up of the 17 county and community dairy associations in the above named counties. Through cooperative understanding the markets of one city were not disrupted by the surplus fluid milk from oiher cities. By means of cooperative pools the surplus milk was converted intq sweet cream and other dairy products. This cream from surplus milk replaced imported cream from other states.
The general dairy situation in Florida is equally as good as the situation in best dairy-sections in the United States with regards to market conditions, as shown in market reports published by the U. S. Bureau of Markets. This favorable condition is largely the result of cooperative efforts by milk producers to stabilize conditions.
4-H DAIRY CLUB PROGRAM
Fifteen county agents conducted 4-H dairy club work with 152 members owning 192 animals in 1932. Of these animals, 106 were registered females and 86 grade females. This was a large increase in registered animals over previous years.
Club members of Duval and Jefferson counties exhibited 26 registered heifers at the South Florida Fair in Tampa.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
WALTER J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry
The major part of the beef cattle in Florida are raised under range and semi-range conditions with a few herds restrained on farms in the northern and western part of the state. Many of the cattle owners own or control very little land upon which their cattle graze and make little or no preparation for pasture, winter feed or for improvement in breeding and selection. '
Cattlemen in the tick-free areas are showing a decided interest in improved. breeding stock, development of permanent pastures, production of feeds, fattening and finishing cattle in the bean fields and feed lots.
The financial situation has checked the demand for improved breeding stock, purebred bulls, and good native cows. Still, the number of beef cattle in the state shows an increase and there is a healthy interest despite the low prices of beef.

LIVESTOCK MEETINGS
During this year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has taken part in 46 meetings with an attendance of 5,247 people and has made radio talks on livestock work at Gainesville and at Pensacola.
Civic clubs in Pensacola, Quincy, Tallahassee, Lake City, St. Augustine, Monticello, Ocala, and Leesburg have interested themselves in the Extension livestock program. A livestock program was carried out in connection with Farmers' Week at the University of Florida.
During 4-H club week at the University and at the annual meeting of Smith-Hughes students, the Agent instructed 140 club boys and 180 future farmers in selecting breeding beef cattle and using purebred sires.

LIVESTOCK FIELD DAY DEMONSTRATIONS
Four livestock field day demonstrations have been held this season with 1,050 people attending. Two were in Marion County, one in Alachua County, and one in Okaloosa County. They were held on the following farms:
L. K. Edwards, Irvine, with a showing of purebred Angus cattle, native and grade cows, good calves and steers. Results: 14 purebred Angus bulls and 16 steers sold.
A. L. Jackson, Gainesville, showing purebred Shorthorn and







Annual Report, 1932


Hereford bulls, native and grade cows. Results: Sold a car of fat steers.
J. B. Simonton, Micanopy, showing purebred and high grade Angus cattle, silos and pastures. Results: 11 Angus bulls sold.
J. W. Gaskin, Laurel Hill, 300 people attended from eight counties. Showing 100 acres of Carpet grass pasture (planted 1930).
FAIRS AND SHOWS
The agent has cooperated with fair associations, with the result that a Florida herd of Angus cattle were shown at the South Florida Fair and a Hereford herd from Alabama at DeLand.
A unique livestock demonstration without premiums was held in connection with the 4-H club contest in Gainesville; 130 Alachua County owned beef cattle were shown. Results: 6 purebred bulls and 7 purebred cows were sold, and two men traded bulls.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUREBRED BULLS
In cooperation with county agents, breed associations, breeders, and other state agencies, a total of 316 purebred bulls, 26 high-grade bulls and 40 Brahman bulls have been added to Florida herds in 38 counties.
On May 7, at Ocala, 18 Angus bulls and six heifers were sold to Florida farmers, in six counties. On May 13, at Thomasville, Georgia, the Extension agents assisted cattlemen in five North Florida counties in securing 10 bulls. Florida breeders have readily sold their surplus bulls to cattlemen of this state.
One man advises that he has purchased 15 Red Polled bulls that will go to Orange County in February.
Approximately 122 purebred heifers and cows have been brought into the state, while Florida breeders have sold a few.
Fifty-three bulls were sold to cattle owners in Osceola and Orange counties. Twenty-six high grade Hereford bulls were secured by one man in Dade County. Forty registered Brahman bulls came into Dixie County from Texas. . Private individuals and companies have been encouraged to handle purebred beef bulls for sale and exchange to cattlemen to provide stockers and feeders.













.r


Fig. 7.-A large number of purebred bulls for improving range herds were brought to Florida during the year by cattlemen and with the assistance of county agents and others. The carload chown here is one of the best received during the year. Considerable improvement in the quality of I lorida beef should be noticeable in a few years.







Annual Report, 1932


SILAGE AND WINTER FEEDING
The Marianna Fruit Company stored 1,080 tons of sorghum in trench silos and successfully wintered about 1,100 cows and calves on silage and cottonseed meal. Farmers and other business men from 9 northwest Florida counties attended a field meeting on the Marianna Fruit Company farm to inspect the trench silos and cattle being fed on silage and cottonseed meal. Following this, six trench silos were constructed in Jefferson, Washington, and Walton counties.
STEER FEEDING
During 1931-32, P. E. Williams of Davenport fed and kept records of feeds and gains on 165 native South Florida steers; 108 two- and three-year-old cattle were fed sorghum silage and cottonseed meal and 57 two-year-olds were f ed corn silage and cottonseed meal. The steers were divided in three lots. Following are the results:
Lot I Lot 2 Lot 3
Two-year Two-year Three-year Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed meal meal meal
Corn Sorghum Sorghum
silage silage silage
Number of steers . 57 58 50
Average daily gain per r s. 1.35 1.49 1.69
Average daily ration silage per
steer lbs . 34.10 34.10 40
Average daily ration C-'i.k.*pe*r*
steer lbs . . : I I ' I I * I * 3.65 3.65 4.53 Silage to make 100 lbs. gain . 2,516 2,280 2,352
C.S.M. to make 100 lbs. gain . 262 244 267

Tobacco growers in Madison and Gadsden counties in 1931 bought $55,000 worth of steers from outside the state to feed out to secure manure to fertilize tobacco. That Florida cattle owners might furnish these steers, cattle owners from adjoining counties met at Quincy. One man sold 20 head of black steers to a Gadsden County feeder. During the season 1931-1932 the shade tobacco men in Gadsden County fed 1,600 steers. Two of the men followed recommendations in handling and feeding and for the first time weighed the steers at regular intervals and kept records of gains and feeds consumed.
At Pensacola, Morgan & Crosby fed out 220 native and grade steers last season. This year these men are feeding 300 head; have put in scales and will have hogs follow the steers and are following feeding recommendations.







Florida Cooperative Extension


LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS
During this year five local county associations held two general meetings at DeFuniak Springs and Laurel Hill. At the DeFuniak Springs meeting two Escambia County men sold 14 purebred bulls to Walton County cattle owners.
At the Laurel Hill meeting 300 men from seven counties were shown 100 acres of pasture that had been sown to carpet grass in 1930 and was then carrying 100 cattle three days each week, 100 hogs and 85 sheep all the time during the best grazing season.

PASTURES
In the spring of 1931 the Putnam Lumber Company, Cross City, sowed 200 acres of flat, sandy land to Carpet grass. The land was double disked. Due to dry weather very little grass came up. However, on 100 acres of this land well prepared there is a good stand of grass.
In 1931 a Jackson County farmer with 400 acres of grazing land has mowed his pastures for two successive years with good results.
In Alachua County where the mowing machine was used in 1931 the grass was good, where not mowed the weeds choked out the grass. This is but one of the examples of the good of mowing.

FARMERS'BEEF CLUB
To encourage the consumption of Florida beef, a mimeographed circular with plans for operating "A Farmers' Beef Club" was prepared and distributed to the county agents, home demonAration agents and farmers. K. F. Warner, B.A.I., U.S.D.A., demonstrated just how the cuts are made so that each member gets his proportion of beef. This circular is available to any person asking for it.
Marianna Fruit Company sold on the Montgomery market 200 calves ranging in price from 11/2c. to 4c per pound. The difference in price was due to the difference in breeding, quality, and finish. The better bred calves carried the most flesh.
Arthur Adkinson, Walton County, sold grade calves for a premium of $5 per head over the price paid for natives. 0. N. Powell, Suwannee County, says his grade calves when 9 months' old brought 15 percent more than native yearlings.







Annual Report, 1932 53

HOGS
In hog work, emphasis has been placed on economical production of quality animals by selecting the best breeding stock and keeping them free of parasites and feeding on grazing and fattening crops.
To encourage better home-curing and handling of meat, in February, 1931, K. F. Warner helped in cutting and curing demonstrations. This year meat cutting demonstrations were held at the Annual Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week, also,15 meat cutting and curing demonstrations have been held in nine counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY
N. R. MEHRHoF, Extension Poultryman
During 1932 the principal points emphasized in Extension work with poultry were as follows: Growers were encouraged to raise healthy chicks, to grow green feed, to practice culling, and to keep flock records. The fifth of the principal projects was the work with 4-11 club members interested in keeping poultry. Other phases of the work for the year included the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, assistance in vaccination and parasite e and disease control, and miscellaneous work.
Thirty-eight counties were visited.by the Extension Poultryman during the year.

GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
A program of encouraging and assisting poultrymen to produce healthy chicks, and thus reduce chick mortality, improve the quality of pullets produced, and reduce the cost of raising pullets, was started in 1928 and has been continued every year since then. During 1932, its fifth year, it included the same six factors that have been found so desirable in raising chicks and have been included each year. These factors are: hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced ration: and separation of cockerels from pullets. Poultrymen were encouraged to adopt all six of these factors, and results have shown that their adoption is profitable to the producers.
A summary of the results obtained indicates the value of putting into practice the six factors stressed in the program. Each year the mortality on farms adopting all six factors was below 10 percent.
Table I shows chick mortality by weeks, and the average. It will be noted that the greatest mortality occurs during the first week, and mortality declines after that.
TABLE J.-CHICK MORTALITY TO 8 WEEKS OF AcF.
Weeks Number Chicks Alive Weekly Mortality
Percent
Start . 85,729 1st W eek . 82,100 2nd W eek . 78,938 3.85
3rd W eek . 76,882 2.60
4th W eek . 75,517 1.77
5th W eek . 74,704 1.07
6th W eek . 74,127 .77
7th W eek . 73,057 .63
8th W eek . 73,251 .55
TOTAL . 90,615 16.27








Annual Report, 1932


TABLE II.-RESULTS OF Gpow HEALTHY CHICK CAMPAIGN.
. 1928 1929 1930 1931
No. of producers . 35 38 28 21
Av. number chicks per farm . 845 579 1,017 793
Percent mortality during 8 weeks . 24.26 13.87 14.25 12.76 No. of farms with mortality over 2001o. 15 8 8 4
Average mortality-6 factors adopted. 7.29 5.03 9.49 8.33

Table Il gives number of producers, average number of chicks per farm, average chick mortality, and percent mortality of farms adopting the six factors.
TABLE III.-IMPORTANCE- OF ADOPTING THE Six FACTORS.
Four-year Average Results in the
Grow Healthy Chick Campaign
No. of No. of Mortality Mortality
Factors Adopted Chicks Number Percent
6 . 47,577 3,217 6.76
5 . 35,686 7,873 21.51
4 . 11,240 3,318 29.51
3 . 239 99 41.42
Table III shows the results when one or more factors were not put into practice. Note how the mortality increased from 6.76 percent to 41.42 percent as the number of factors adopted decreased.
GROW.GREEN FEED

The use of green f eed as a part of the feeding program for poultry is both desirable and important for the growing bird and the producer.
Printed literature on types of green feed, planting dates, etc., has been available for the producers, encouraging them to adopt a plan to have green feed the year round.
Succulent green feeds have proven to be a profitable phaseof feeding efficiency.

TABLE IV.-REIATION OF USE OF GREEN FEED To EGG-PRODUCTION AND RETURNS, 36 FARMS, 1930-31.
Value of Eggs
No. of Eggs Eggs Oct. Percent Over Feed, Farms Per Bird to Dec. Mortality Per Bird No green feed . 6 135.2 14.1 14.6 $1.18
Green feed part of year. 12 151.3 17.3 13.2 1.32
Green feed all year . 18 167.00 24.4 12.5 1.64
Average -or total 36 156.47 20.33 13.12 $1.45

In Table IV the 36 farms were sorted on the basis of whether green feed was fed part of the year, all the year, or none at all. The farms feeding no green feed had an average production of 135.2 eggs per bird, while the farms feeding green feed all year had an average egg production of 167, a difference of 32 eggs.







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The farms feeding green feed had a greater winter egg production, greater total production, lower mortality, greater returns over feed cost, and lower feed cost per dozen eggs.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Lower egg prices during the past year made it possible and desirable to discuss culling and to give more culling demonstrations. The, maintenance of high production was essential. The low producer had to be discarded, either sold or eaten.
The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting 35 culling demonstrations. The reports from 30 agents show that 713 culling demonstrations were given during the year.

CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS
The project known as the Home Egg-Laying Contest was changed to the name "Calendar Flock Records." The purpose of this project is to encourage poultry producers to keep records of their poultry expenses and receipts, so that the year's business can be summarized and studied.
Two different t record books were used, starting with the new records 1932-33, one for small flocks, and the other for commercial flocks.
Table V gives the yearly egg production, number of farms completing, and number of birds represented since 1926. TABLE V.-YEARLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD FOR SEVEN YEARS, 1926-1932.
No. of Farms No. of Birds Eggs Per Bird 1926 . 25 5,515 161.07
1927 . . 29 6,620 160.04
1928 . 18 4,275 156.60
1929 . 38 7,893 158.46
1930 . 41 14,915 159.87
1931 . . 51 17,040 158.54
1932 . 59 16,989 156.15

The flocks are divided into four groups according to the number of birds involved as follows: Group 1, 10-50 birds; Group II, 51-250 birds; Group 111, 251-500 birds; Group IV, over 500 birds.
Table VI gives the monthly egg production, percent mortality, and percent culling in the Seventh Florida Calendar Flock Records.
The number of eggs per bird per month was figured on the basis of average number of birds for the month divided into the total egg production for the month.







Annual Report, 1932 57

TABLE VI.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION, PERCENT MORTALITY AND PERCENT
CULLING IN THE SEVENTH FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RFcoRDs
OCTOBER I., 1931-SEPTEMBER 30, 1932. 1
No. Eggs Percent Percent
Month Per Bird Mortality Culling
October . 6.68 1.14 2.42
November . 8.84 2.55 1.08
December . 10.79 2.67 1.15
January . 14.00 1.17 3.41
February . 15.91 1.08 5.23
March . 16.97 1.22 5.24
April . 18.26 1.38 3.91
May . 17.92 1.85 3.75
June . 15.20 1.55 5.13
July . 12.20 3.74 12.80
August 10.77 1.99 3.95
SeptembW 8.58 1.69 10.28

The culling and mortality percentages were figured on the basis of the number of birds reported the first of the month divided into the total number of birds that died and the number of birds culled (sold or eaten).
During the year 42 records for the year October 1, 1930-September.30,1931, from poultry producers were studied. Anumberof these records were from producers enrolled in the Calendar Flock Records. These records were analyzed by the Extension Economist and the Extension Poultryman. The findings were mimeographed and distributed to the cooperators and other interested producers.
Some of the results obtained are:
1. The average number of birds per farm was 874.
2. The average capital invested in poultry farming was $2,872 per farm, or $3.29 per bird.
3. The cash family income was $731.
4. The average egg production perbird was 156 eggs.
5. The feed cost per bird per year was $1.79.
6. The size of flock affected labor earnings. The larger the flock the greater were the labor earnings.
7. An increase in egg production resulted in greater labor earnings and a lower cost for producing a dozen eggs. The total cost of producing a dozen eggs was 28.5 cents.
8. Winter egg production is an important factor in successful poultry farming. High winter egg production resulted in high total production and high labor earnings.
9. An increase in adult mortality resulted in lower egg production, greater depreciation per bird, a lower value of eggs over feed costs and smaller labor earnings.







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10. The average feed consumption per bird was 77.5 pounds. High feed intake and high egg production were found to be correlated.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
The 4-H poultry club program was developed around these three phases:
1. Production project-the boy or girl owns and manages his or her own flock.
2. Improvement project-the boy or girl manages the flock on farm if purebred.
3. State Poultry Club Show and Judging Contest.
The total number of boys and girls enrolled in 4-H poultry work was 1,550 and 1,282 members completed their projects. The total number of birds in the completed projects was 37,837, or an average of 30 birds to the flock.


Fig. 8.-A 4-H club girl demonstrates the points of a good layer to fellow club girls and boys.

Visits were made to 4-H poultry flocks during the year. Club meetings were attended, and various phases of poultry production were discussed, principally sanitation, feeding, houses, culling, growing healthy chicks, and record keeping. Three 4-H poultry tours were conducted.







Annual Report, 1932


The 4-H boys' and girls' short courses were held at Gainesville and Tallahassee. Record keeping, and fundamental poultry information was given.
The second state 4-H Poultry Show and Judging Contest was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair, Deband, February 16-20, 1932.
There were 33 boys and girls from five counties who exhibited 231 birds, mostly Rhode Island Reds, White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Plymouth Rocks, White, Wyandottes, and Blue Andalusians.
The 4-H Judging Contest was held in connection with the poultry show. Each judging team was composed of three 4-H poultry club members. There were seven teams competing for individual and team awards. Each member of the judging team competing for prizes was required (1) to make an exhibit of at least 5 birds, including one male, (2) submit a record book, (3) answer 10 questions concerning Standard-bred birds, and (4) judge 16 birds, 4 each of Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, and Single Comb White Leghorns.
A team of boys from Lake County, trained under the leadership of the County Agent, was awarded first place. A team of boys and girls from Orange County, trained by the county and home demonstration agents, was awarded second prize.
The outstanding award-given to the highest scoring individual-went to Thomas Lamb, an Orange County club boy. Thomas will receive 'a $100 scholarship to the University of Florida.
The second highest individual was Marcus Williams, Eustis, Florida.
The 4-H Club Egg-Laying Contest ended the year September 23, 1932. There were five pens entered, six pullets to a pen, one pen from Escambia County, and four pens from Lake County. There were three pens of White Leghorns, one pen of Barred Plymouth Rocks and one pen of White Plymouth Rocks.
The high pen of heavy breeds was the pen of Barred Plymouth Rocks owned by Herbert Babb, Umatilla, Florida. These five pullets produced a total of 983 eggs for a value of 902.15 points. Three of the birds produced over 200 eggs each.
The high pen of light breeds was the pen of White Leghorns owned by Frieda Nowak, Cantonment, Florida. These five pullets produced a total of 1,116 eggs f or a value of 1,119.30 points. There were eight birds from the three competing pens of White Leghorns that produced over 200 eggs each.







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The White Leghorn owned by Edward Zellman, Umatilla, had the greatest number of eggs to her credit. This bird produced 255 eggs for a value of 210.95 points. The highest bird in this contest was a White Leghorn owned by Frieda Nowak. This bird produced 227 eggs for a value of 237.50 points.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Local and county poultry associations in Lake, Orange, Pinellas, Okaloosa, Seminole, Hillsborough, Polk, Manatee, Lee, Highlands, and Dade counties have assisted materially in carrying out the Extension poultry program. Meetings were held with the various associations, at which time educational data were presented.
The American Poultry Association of Florida through its members has cooperated in every way to encourage junior poultry work and higher quality poultry in the state. It has also fostered and assisted in making the State 4-H Poultry Club Show and Judging Contest a success.
The Florida Baby Chick Association and its members have cooperated and assisted the Agricultural Extension Service in making the Grow Healthy Chick program successful. A two-day meeting was held at Orlando in October. An interesting and valuable program was given.
The accreditation of poultry flocks in Florida is under the supervision of the Livestock Sanitary Board. Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poultry Service Veterinarian of this Board, has assisted in poultry meetings and with regulatory work at the National Egg-Laying Contest.
The State Marketing Bureau, with its Poultry Marketing Specialist, F. W. Risher, has worked in close cooperation with the agents and the state office in an educational way.
HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
The use of home-made brick brooders which was started three years ago in West Florida has become more widespread. The brooder is cheap and efficient and is being used successfully on farms in West and Central Florida.
More than 100 of these brooders were in operation this past season. Farmers report better results since they started using them, in place of the hen or some other method.
CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
The use of chickenpox vaccine has become more widespread each year. This vaccine is in general use among commercial







Annual Report, 1932


poultrymen to prevent the occurrence of chickenpox. In Florida this disease generally makes its appearance in the late summer and fall, about the time the young pullets come into production, and results in a loss of egg production at the time when the price of eggs is high. Very often this disease is accompanied by colds and roup, resulting in mortality and a decrease in returns.
The birds are generally vaccinated when they are from 12 to 16 weeks of age.
It has been estimated that 100,000 birds were vaccinated this past season.
POULTRY MEETINGS
The Extension Poultryman attended 42 poultry meetings with 1,260 present. Seven all-day poultry schools were held.
An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from 25 to 75 people.

PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Worm control studies are still in progress, in which the Veterinary Division of the Experiment Station and the' Extension Service are cooperating. The experiment is to determine the value of worming as practiced by a large number of Florida poultrymen and to determine if it is profitable to worm pullets at the National Egg-Laying Contest.
In brief, the experiment may be outlined as follows: All flocks were divided into three equal pens. All management practices were similar in each experiment. One pen was treated with tetrachlorethylene and kamala, the second was treated with iodine vermicide, and the third was untreated.
Complete records were kept on Experiment Station pens two years and on flocks of three different producers one year.
The conclusions drawn from these preliminary studies are:
1. These experiments indicate that hens given one worm treatment and placed back on the same ground are handicapped, since they suffer a decreased egg production due to treatment, and are reinvested with ascarids and tapeworms before they have time to recover.
2. Worm treatment as has been practiced in Florida and used in these experiments is apparently not only worthless but harmful and expensive.
3. There apparently was no superiority of one treatment over the other.







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4. There is no correlation between the degree of ascarid infestation and egg production in laying hens.
5. It would seem from the indications in these preliminary studies of the value of vermif uges that the best procedure for poultrymen to follow would be to inaugurate sanitary measures to prevent as far as possible infestation and when infestation does occur, cull vigorously, and forget worm treatment until some vermifuge and method of use has been found, tested, and proven beneficial by the use of control flocks.
The Extension Poultryman is cooperating with the Experiment Station in preliminary surveys of fowl paralysis.

NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Sixth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at Chipley was conducted from October 1, 1930, to September 22, 1931. There were 84 pens entered. Twenty-one different states and 17 counties from Florida were represented. The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 187.4 eggs per bird. The average egg production for the heavy breeds was 168.87 eggs, and for the light breeds 194.81 eggs.
A detailed report of the Sixth National Egg-Laying Contest is available in printed form.

MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK
Judging was done at eight poultry shows last year, the Extension Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the open classes.
Fifteen conferences were held with feed men and fair managers relative to poultry problems in their localities.

POULTRY STATISTICAL DATA
The following data have been compiled from the county and home demonstration agents reports: Number of communities participating. 556 Number of leaders assisting . 232 Days agents devoted to poultry . 1180 Number of meetings held . 827 Number of news stories published . 424 Number of different circular letters issued . 321 Number of farm or home visits. 3241 Number of office calls . 6334 Number of method demonstration meetings held . .749 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the
next year.1362 Number of animals involved 'in these 'completed *a'dultresult-demonstrations . 225,724 Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations completed.$67,016







Annual Report, 1932


CITRUS CULTURE
E. F. DEBUSK, Citriculturist
Citrus growers are making drastic reductions in grove operat.ing costs. Consequently, increasing demands are being made on the Extension Service by growers and organizations in adjusting their practices to meet existing conditions. All projects and special service work, therefore, have centered around reducing the cost of producing citrus without sacrificing quality of fruit.

COVER-CROPS AND MULCHING
The need of more organic matter in our citrus soils is universally recognized. More than 70 percent of our citrus acreage shows a great need of more coarse organic matter than is being supplied. The minimum requirement of these soils is indicated by research as three tons per acre (dry weight) per annum. This is our goal.
The Service conducted 139 cover-crop demonstrations in 13 leading citrus counties and representing approximately 5,200 acres to demonstrate the best adapted cover-crops and the most efficient method of handling them. Under certain conditions crotalaria is by far the most satisfactory cover-crop. Under other conditions it is difficult to secure a stand of crotalaria, and consequently better results are obtained by purchasing a cheap form of soluble nitrogen and applying it as a fertilizer to the grasses (mostly Natal) that come voluntarily. In such demonstrations a dollar's worth of nitrogen has, on the average, increased the yield of grass approximately 1,000 pounds (dry weight) per acre. This grass has a value of about $5.00 a ton.in a large percentage of our groves on the light sandy soils.
Demonstrations have shown that best results are obtained from a cover-crop of grass by mowing it in July or August and applying the material around the trees as a mulch. Demonstrations in mulching representing more than 5,000 acres have given good results. Muck, grass, weeds and leaves are being hauled into the groves from the outside. The proper use of such material reduces the cost of production and improves the quality of both fruit and tree.
CULTIVATION
This project has aimed at reducing production cost by eliminating unnecessary and injurious cultivation. Aside from incorporating the cover-crop material with the top soil as a means of







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fire protection, it is doubtful if any further cultivation is justified under ordinary grove conditions. Research has pointed out that organic matter is lost by unnecessary grove cultivation. Demonstrations have established the fact that root pruning by deep cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to disease attack and insect injury. Poor texture of fruit is traceable mainly to excessive cultivation. One hundred demonstrations in 13 counties have been conducted but it is extremely difficult to measure results accomplished. This work has saved the growers of one county $15,000 in actual operation costs.
The savings on production costs by improved practices will exceed $500,000 annually.

IRRIGATION
The rainfall in the citrus belt has been unusually light and groves have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture. Fortysix growers with 3,000 acres have been assisted in installing grove irrigation plants. Assistance has been rendered 57 growers in applying irrigation water. Fourteen grower meetings were held in which grove irrigation was the chief subject discussed. Twentythree demonstrations were conducted in which irrigation is used to replace one to three grove cultivations. The objective is to save enough on the cost of cultivation to pay for the irrigation, thus giving heavier cover-crop yields and more organic matter.
Study is being made by the Extension Citriculturist, correlating the average daily rainfall of 30 to 35 stations distributed throughout the citrus belt, of each year since 1925, with the production of each respective year. This is done to point out the months in which a deficiency or an abundance of soil moisture have marked influence upon production; these data to be used as a guide as to the time, and rate of application of irrigation water. An analysis of these data suggests the importance of keeping up the soil moisture content in December, and March to June. A bearing orange grove takes up approximately one inch, or 27,000 gallons, per acre in 10 days. Irrigation water is applied during the critical months, on that basis.
FERTILIZING
Since fertilizing calls for more than 50% of the total cash outlay in producing a crop of citrus fruit, our program of sup-plying organic matter, by a more efficient use of cover-crops and manures; of improving cultivation practices; and of more efficient grove







Annual Report, 1932


irrigation, is designed as a basis for more efficient use of the commercial fertilizers.
The cheaper forms of plant food are being used. As the grower obtains the desired results with the concentrated inorganic fertilizers he sees that the cost permits him to use them more liberally, with the result of increased yield and reduced unit cost in fertilizing.

METHODS OF APPLICATION

The efficiency of fertilizing citrus groves has been greatly increased by improvements in the methods of application. A study of the root distribution of citrus trees has brought out facts that are leading to the practice of applying more of the fertilizer under the branches of the tree, especially in the fall and spring applications, since 80 to 90 percent of the roots of a tree are found under this area. An extra application of nitrogen is made out in the tree middles in June to August to fertilize the cover crop. This change from the practice of applying the fertilizer largely from the end of the branches of the tree outward in a narrow belt is giving much better results, with no additional cost. This study of the distribution of the tree roots has also been the means of improving practices in cultivation, mulching, and in the application of irrigation water.

DISEASE CONTROL

The most effective work during the last four years in the control of melanose and stem-end rot, dieback and ammoniation, gummosis and psorosis, has been directed along the line of indirect control or prevention.
Melanose :-Controlling melanose by spraying with bordeauxoil is a general practice when returns permit and when conditions seem to justify the practice, but opportunities through indirect control-prevention of the production of dead wood-are still too often overlooked.
Inadequate soil moisture, deep cultivation and improper fertilizing are the chief causes of dying back of twigs and branches. In rare cases twigs are killed by scale-insects, and by the improper use of oil in scale control. The problem of practical melanose control runs through the whole program of citrus culture. The same may be said in reference to withertip, dieback, ammoniation, frenching and other trunk and root diseases.







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Our eff orts to control melanose by spraying were unsuccessful, owing to the long drawn-out blooming and fruit setting period following an unusually warm, dry, winter.
Scab :-The economic factors that affect melanose control operate also in scab control. The long fruit-setting period of last spring presented a condition under which spraying was very ineffective. In a few cases the dormant spray of lime-sulphur 1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied at the same time gave better control.
Blue Mold Decay :-The control of blue mold decay depends in a large measure upon the manner in which the fruit is handled from the tree to the packinghouse. Nine meetings with growers and pickers were held, in which the proper method of handling fruit was carefully outlined.

INSECT CONTROL
Assistance has been rendered in improving spraying equipment used in applying lime-sulphur. The cost of spraying has been greatly reduced and lime-sulphur is finding a larger place in our insect control program, beginning to replace oil emulsion in scale control. It has the advantage of being stimulating to the tree, instead of shocking it, as does the oil emulsion used in scale control.
Rust-Mite :-Seventy-one demonstrations in spraying and dusting for rust-mite control, covering more than 2,000 acres and affecting 300,000 boxes of fruit, were conducted.
Scale and Whitelly :-Natural control of scale-insects -and whitefly is being rapidly developed. Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove conditions where natural control of scale-insects is most effective, to determine. the minimum amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the given conditions. Some of these demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale for six years, and are just as free of scale injury as they were when sprayed once, and sometimes twice, a year. Besides, the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are producing larger crops of fruit.
Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree will often accomplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. The point is, if a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop and put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.







Annual Report, 1932


Whitefly have given very little trouble this year. This pest is being held under control very largely by the use of. the Red Aschersonia, a parasitic fungus that is grown in cultures by the State Plant Board and supplied to growers as they need it. Several hundred cultures, are placed through the influence of Extension workers each year.
The greatest need in our program of economical scale and whitefly control is the development of a practicable method of growing and distributing the brown fungus parasite of the whitefly and the "Pink and red-headed fungi parasites of our most common scale-insects.
MEETINGS AND GROVE TOURS
During the year, 126 meetings and schools of instruction were conducted, with a total attendance of more than 3,000 growers. In Lake, Orange and Highland counties, organized citrus clubs meet every two weeks and follow definite courses of study in citrus culture. Twenty-one grove tours were conducted in 10 counties with more than 500 growers taking part. These tours were made to various demonstrations and cooperative experiments in the different counties, and to the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred.

GROVE VISITS
It is through these visits that the grower's needs and viewpoints are fully appreciated. During the year, more than 4,000 grove visits and inspections were made, going into every com-' mercial citrus-producing county of the state.







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AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
J. E. TURLINGTON, Agricultural Economist
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, Agricultural Economist, Marketing

FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
The continued world-wide depression, in which prices of the commodities the farmers have to sell have fallen more rapidly than the prices of the commodities they buy, has greatly reduced the farmers' income. In addition to low purchasing power, a heavy indebtedness contracted when prices were much higher'has caused many farmers to lose their farms. Much information is needed regarding farm credit, purchasing of farm supplies, efficie , nt marketing, organization of the farm business, and economical production. This need has been met by use of previous research studies or through short-time projects carried on during the year. The efforts to accomplish this can be grouped as follows: farm accounts, studies of farm organization and enterprises, and dissemination of economic information.

FARM ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS
There were 43 poultry record books turned over to the County Agents, Poultry Specialist, or Farm Management Specialist for summarizing in the fall of 1931. These records included receipts and expenses, egg and mortality records, and incubation records. Commercial flocks in central Florida gave information to compute the cost of producing eggs, raising pullets, hatching chicks and total labor returns to the operator. Each cooperator received a two-page summary of his record compared with the average results. A mimeographed report was prepared showing the costs, returns and relationship of certain management practices to profits.
Some of the practices found to be related to returns may be found in the report of the Poultry Specialist and are not given here.
During 1931-32, two poultry record books were prepared, one for commercial and a less detailed book for the small flocks. Since there are many non-commercial flocks where records will be taken, a smaller poultry record book was prepared for their use in 193233, in addition to the book for commercial flocks.







Annual Report, 1932


GENERAL FARM ACCOUNTS
The third account project in 1932 was a farm account book for general farms. It provided for receipts and expenses and for an inventory at the beginning and end of the year. These were distributed in meetings of farmers and county agents.

STUDIES OF FARM ORGANIZATIONS
There are certain general farm management practices that cause variations in the amount of money made by farmers. These can best be determined by studying the operation of farms in an area. Two community surveys were made for the year 1931. Records for 79 farms were secured from farmers in Suwannee County and 43 from farmers in the Jay community of Santa Rosa County.
The procedure for such surveys was as follows: The'Farm Management Specialist with the County Agent took the records. This required from three to five days in a county. . The records were summarized and analyzed at the College. Each farmer was furnished a summary of his farm business compared with the average of all the farms in the community.
The farms in Santa Rosa County received about 75% of their income from the sale of cotton and cotton seed. The farmers in Suwannee County sold cotton, watermelons, tobacco and hogs.

TABLE VII-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS FOR SUWANNEE AND SANTA ROSA COUNTY FARMS, 1931.
Average 79 Farms Average 43 Farms Suwannee County Santa Rosa County Aver age Farm Capital . $3,643 $6,439
Receipts:
Crops . 397 979
Livestock and Livestock Products. . 258 137
Miscellaneous . 30 25

Expenses: 685 1,141
Cash Expenses . 456 726
Decrease in Capital . 218 143
Unpaid Family Labor . ill 142
785 1,011
Farm Income . $ -100 130
Interest on Capital 7% . 255 450
Operator's Labor Income . -355 -320'
Cash Receipts less Cash Expenses . 229 415
Factors for Analyzing Farm Business:
Acres Crops per Farm . 78 77
Number of Workstock per ar- 2.2 2.7
Crop Acres per Work Animal . 35.6 28.0







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The results of these two surveys clearly show the effect of present low prices on the incomes of . farmers in these areas. We see that the cash farm income over expenses was $229 for the Suwannee County farms, and _ 415 for Santa Rosa. This is the amount the family had to spend, provided the farmer owned all of the farm capital and he did not go in debt. If interest and other non-cash expense es were charged, the operators of these farms lacked $355 and $320 respectively of receiving anything for their labor in 1931. See Table VII.
Under these conditions, with 75 to 8017o of the farms showing a minus labor income, the larger the farm the greater the loss. The most important factor that was found to increase labor income was crop yields per acre. The large farms with belowaverage crop yields showed the largest loss for both areas. The group showing the smallest loss was the small farms with aboveaverage crop yields. With high fixed overhead in capital, real estate and equipment, with certain fixed expenses and the impossibility of quick changes in organization of the farm, the farmer is in a relatively difficult position during falling prices. It would take prices 150 to 200% of those for 1931 before the large farm operators would receive more for their labor than the small farm operator, if the expenses remained the same. TABLE VIII RELATIONSHIP OF S izE OF FARM AND CROP YIELDS To FARM RETURNS, 1931.
Numberof Percent Operator's Farm Cash Workstock Average Labor Receipts over Per Farm Yield Income Cash Expenses
SUWANNEE COUNTY:
Small Farms:
Low crop yields . 1.6 68 -364 $ 77
High crop yields . 1.5 135 -234 217
Large Farms:
Low crop yields . 3.9 72 -740 251
High crop yields . 3.5 140 -270 563
SANTA ROSA COUNTY:
Small Farms:
Low crop yields . 1.7 86 $ -257 $185
High crop yields . 1.9 114 - 35 460
Large Farms:
Low crop yields . 3.8 88 -619 426
High crop yields . 3.7 123 -322 780
A study was also made of corn production. Records were obtained from farmers in six counties. They were summarized and comparisons were made of cost of fertilizing, cultivation and harvesting by various methods. The results were used at farmers' institutes, Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week. . At







Annual Report, 1932


this time, no report has been prepared on the results. This will probably be done after another year's results have been collected.
DISSEMINATION OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION
This type of work goes on throughout the year in the form of radio talks, "The Florida Extension Economist," mimeographed reports and letters. Radio articles are broadcast over WRUF when data of general interest are available. "The Florida Extension Economist" which has a circulation among approximately 1,200 f farmers and agricultural workers, is printed each month and usually carries one or more farm management articles.
In addition, farmers interested in special subjects are provided with farm management facts. Mailing lists of poultrymen, potato growers, dairymen, and others, are kept; and, as various farm management research data, outlook reports or special data are available, they are mimeographed and sent to those interested.

MARKETING
The marketing activities of the Extension Specialist have included the following projects:
1. Hog prices by grade and season-continued from previous year.
2. Effect of motor truck transportation on marketing of farm products and bulk movement of citrus fruits.
3. Economic study of cucumber farms.
4. Management and marketing practices of range cattle.
5. Distribution of citrus fruits.
6. Assistance to existing and prospective marketing organizations.
The project was started March, 1931. The following report is a continuation of that study to determine variation in farm prices of hogs by season and grade.
HOG PRICES BY GRADE AND SEASON
The assembling and tabulation of prices paid to farmers by local dealers have shown that farm prices of Florida hogs have tended downward since the fall of 1927, or the beginning of the marketing season of 1927-28.
TABLE IX.-FARM PRICES OF HOGS, NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, SEASONS 1928-29 THROUGH 1931-32.
Number Price per Average
Season of Head 100 Pounds Weight
1928-29 . 5,537 $7.05 138
1929-30 . I . 13,619 6.89 144
1930-31 . 13,913 6.14 139
1931-32 . 12,877 3.50 124







Florida Cooperative. Extension


Prices for the 1931-32 season reacted in approximately the same manner as in previous seasons. August-September prices were from 11/2 to 21/2 cents higher than December-January prices. February-March prices failed to increase very much. Prices did not increase materially until about August-September of the present season.
The average weight of live hogs marketed during the 1931-32 season was lower than normal. This was due to a higher percentage of small hogs marketed early and also that prices fell so low.
BULK CAR-LOT SHIPMENTS OF CITRUS FROM FLORIDA, SEASON 1931-32
Data for the bulk car-lot movement of citrus were obtained from the railroads and tabulated, showing states and principal cities to which this fruit was billed. Total car-lot unloads also were tabulated to determine the relative importance of bulk carlot shipments for various states and cities. Approximately 11/2 million boxes of bulk citrus were shipped by rail during the season 1931-32. About 1,750 cars of this number were oranges, 1,350 cars were grapefruit, and 1,125 cars were mixed and miscellaneous fruit. Practically no tangerines were shipped in bulk.
Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee, Virginia, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Indiana were the principal receivers of bulk car-lot citrus. Approximately 80 percent of all car-lot receipts in Virginia, Georgia, and South Carolina were in bulk cars. TABLE X.-UNLOADS OF ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT AT NINE CITIES, SHOWING PERCENTAGE ORIGINATED IN FLORIDA-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE 1927-31.
Oranges Grapefruit
Total Florida Total Florida
Unloads Unloads ' % of Total Unloads Unloads % of Total New York . 14,495 . 5,804 40 5,646 3,750 66
Chicago 5,340 1,039 19 1;871 1,650 88
Boston . 4,754 1p893 40 1,244 1,143 92
Philadelphia. . 4,486 2,485 55 1,215 1,152 95
Detroit . 2,356 364 15 747 706 95
Pittsburgh . 2,076 767 37 546 538 99
Cleveland . 1,861 540 29 590 570 97
St. Louis . 1,468 325 22 447 353 79
Baltimore . 1,455 965 66 442 435 98
Observations indicated that there was a larger, percentage of spoilage of citrus in bulk cars than in trucks or in packages shipped by rail.
. . ECONOMIC STUDY OF CUCUMBER FARMS
A business analysis was made of these farms to determine the relation of such factors as crop yields, capital turnover, diversity index, price index, education of operator, manwork units per man, total manwork units, and acreage of cucumbers to profits.









TABLE XI.-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS PER FARM ON FLORIDA CUCUMBER FARMS, SEASONS 1927-28 AND 1929-30.

Winter
Area Williston Webster-Bushnell Wauchula Alachua Garden
Season 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1927-28 1927-28

Number of farms . . 71 119 62 101 52 34 27
Farm area acres . 137.1 226.4 90.8 70.8 37.0 206.7 71.6
Crop acres . 61.7 77.7 27.2 29.1 16.0 68.0 48.0
Acres in crops* . 64.7 85.5 36.1 39.2 24.5 82.2 67.7
Number of work stock . 2.4 3.0 1.9 2.3 1.2 2.7 2.5
Total capital . $7,914 $2,326 $9,419 $6,026 $8,225 $9,361 $53,912
Receipts . 2,807 787 3,947 2,539 3,462 3,983 16,022
Expenses . 1,674 696 2,630 2,202 1,908 2,876 11,309
Farm income** . 1,133 91 1,317 337 1,554 1,107 4,713
Interest on investment 7% . 554 163 659 422 576 655 3,774
Labor income*** . 579 -72 658 -85 978 452 939
Value operator's labor . $ 368 $ 130 $ 323 $ 483 $ 450 $ 404 $1,212
Percent return on investment . 9.7 -1.68 10.6 -2.42 14.3 7.5 6.5
Value unpaid family labor (except
operator's) . $ 134 $ 35 $ 115 $ 158 $ 208 $ 136 $ 155
Family income . 1,267 126 1,432 495 1,762 1,243 4,868

Difference equals the acres re-cropped.
Receipts less Expenses.
Farm Income less 7% on Capital.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Man hours of labor required to produce and harvest an acre of cucumbers during the 1928 season varied from an average of 151 in the Williston area to 384 in the Webster-Bushnell area; while man hours required for the 1930 season averaged - 120 in the Williston area and 313 in the Webster-Bushnell area. Also, more horse labor was required to produce cucumbers in the WebsterBushnell area. For the 1928 season, it required 45 hours of horse labor in the Williston area with 6 in the Webster-Bushnell area; while in 1930, it required 40 hours in Williston and 52 in WebsterBushnell.
The Webster-Bushnell area produces cucumbers in a much more intensive way. Frost protection is generally 'used by covering the plants with cypress troughs. More farms are irrigated and larger quantities of fertilizer are used in that area.
The low yields of the 1930 season partly explain why less labor was used. Not only did they require less labor, for harvesting, but where a portion of a field was killed by frost or drowned, it was. abandoned. Since these portions were fertilized, planted and cultivated for a while, the entire acreage was included in calculating labor and materials required.
The study of these data is being continued in an effort to determine the factors that affect yields. MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF RANGE CATTLE
Ninety-one herds located in 14, counties were studied. One of the purposes was to determine the economic effect of purebred bulls; therefore, a large number of herds which had purebred bulls were included. Since the Texas fever tick had been eradicated in only a few counties and in most of these for a short time (this fever seems to affect imported cattle more than native), it was impossible to determine the economic advantage of purebred bulls crossed with native cattle.
it is the consensus of opinion that pastures must be improved at a low cost and ranges must be fenced if cattlemen make substantial headway with purebred bulls.
The slaughter of beef from 59 of the 91 herds observed was on farms or in local slaughter pens and the beef sold locally. Low price of beef cattle partly explains the high percentage of farm killing, since many of those who were holding for higher markets were owners of large herds who depended on packer markets as their outlet.







Annual Report, 1932


DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS FRUITS
Data for this study were taken from the reports of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. D. A., showing unloads for 66 cities. The majority of the markets which receive more cars of Florida than California oranges are in the east and southeast. Philadelphia is the only very large receiver which gets more than half of its oranges from Florida.
Florida exceeds its competitors in percentage of grapefruit unloads in practically all the large receiving cities.
ASSISTANCE TO EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS
Live-at-home and diversification programs resulted in the production of a surplus of a number of commodities which had no previous outlet. This caused an unusual demand to be made on the Extension Service for assistance. Existing marketing organizations were not always in a position to handle these products. Several local organizations were formed during the last year, having as their purpose the furnishing of an outlet for their products.







Florida Cooperative Extension


RODENT CONTROL
CARLYLE CARR, Specialist in Rodent Control

COTTON RAT
Cotton rats are present over the rolling lands in the central and north portions of the state and are exceedingly numerous in the low areas and over the Everglades. Although being destructive to ground-nesting birds and their eggs generally, they do not seriously damage agricultural crops except in the low areas such as the Everglades. The greatest damage is done in the Indian River section, the Okeechobee area, the marl land on the lower East Coast, and the tomato growing area in Collier, Lee, Sarasota and Manatee counties; on a total area of approximately 55,000 acres fruit and vegetable lands.
The principal crops injured are tomatoes, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, squash, carrots and beans. The cotton rat damages citrus by eating the bark at the base of the trunk, often completely girdling the tree.
In the Manatee and Indian River sections, damage is so scattered that so f ar no control by campaigns has been undertaken.


Fig. 9.-This Dade County farmer knows that the rodent control demonstrations were effective-he gathered 263 dead cotton rats off of one acre of sweet potatoes, and when he dug the potatoes found 250 more.







Annual Report, 1932


However, farmers of these areas have been advised as to control methods.
In the Lake Okeechobee section, the United States Sugar Company, which farms large areas, has poisoned the cotton rat using the recommendations of this Service. A supply of strychnine to be used in the Everglades area has been placed at the Experiment Station at Belle Glade, and 4,075 ounces of strychnine have been .used in the Okeechobee Section, resulting in the effective control of rits at a substantial saving to the growers. In 1931 the United States Sugar Company suffered a loss of 36 percent by rat damage on 5,000 acres of sugarcane; this loss amounting to $96,000 from rats alone. In 1932 the loss was less than 5 percent due to effective poisoning methods.
A total of 350 pounds of bait were distributed in the northern area of Dade county, which resulted in perfect control.
The County Commissioners of Dade County have appropriated $400 for cotton rat control in the northern part of the County. During the past 12 months, 93,000 pounds of sweet potato bait and 625 ounces of strychnine resulted in near perfect control over the treated areas of 12,000 acres which suffered a loss of $150,000 from the cotton rat during 1931. Others donated $600 in services and bait.
The Board of County Commissioners of Collier County donated $100 for the purchase of strychnine, but insisted that all farmers affected must carry on the work as recommended by the U. S. Biological Survey and the Agricultural Extension Service. There are approximately 2,200 acres of truck crops, mostly tomatoes, affected by cotton rats in this area.
The poison formula recommended and used over the trucking areas is as follows:
Slice 16 pounds of raw sweet potatoes in'slices "/s-inch in thickness and from % to I inch in diameter. Sprinkle one large handful salt over the slices. Mix together, dry, one ounce of alkaloid strychnine and one ounce of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). Sift the strychnine mixture over the salted sweet potatoes, stirring and mixing until the slices are evenly coated with the poison. These slices should be dropped every 10 feet apart in 10-foot rows in the field, or five feet apart about the edges of the field where the rats come into the field from adjoining lands.

HOUSE AATS
Three kinds of house rats are prevalent over the entire state of Florida, and'after many tests it was found that the control of the three requires different method from the accepted control in other states. In general, the northern part of Florida is







Florida Cooperative Extension


populated with the Norway rat, while the roof and black rats have a general distribution.
Injury:-The injury caused in most cases by house rat's is similar to that in other states. Along the Indian River citrus and South Florida'sections, the roof rat is destructive to -grapefruit, oranges and guavas. These rats get into the tree by climbing the wires, fences, or limbs which extend to the ground. They damage the fruit by eating out the contents. The estimated damage will amount to several thousand dollars each year. '
The use of calcium cyanide for dusting the runs about poultry houses is recommended where poisons may be dangerous to animals and where a concentration of gas can be obtained.
Red squill, recommended for the control- of the Norway rat, is not effective in controlling the roof rat. Therefore, it was necessary to find a poison and bait combination that would kill -the Norway rat and also the roof and black rats. A bait is made from 1 part of barium carbonate to 6 parts, by weight, of hamburg steak or chopped apple.
Campaigns on a county-wide basis for the control of house rats are contemplated during the ensuing year. The cost of a campaign is low compared to the results obtained. Barium carbonate if purchased wholesale will cost approximately 6 cents per pound, whereas the retail price is often $2.00 per pound. When all infested places in a county are poisoned at the same time more permanent results are obtained.
In the Fort Pierce citrus grove section, C. B. Murray and a group of citrus growers in his locality, have been conducting a drive against the roof rat. They used 200 pounds of barium carbonate.
MISCELLANEOUS
The control of moles, land crabs, pocket gophers, marsh rabbits, and melon mice are problems in the state which are being handled at. present by individual effort through directions supplied by this office.
This rodent control work has the active cooperation of the State Game Commission, the Izaak Walton League, the Florida Wild Life League, and approximately 2,000 farmers over the state. These farmers are users of larger quantities of poisoned bait for rat control than city people on rat campaigns. The saving to th2 farmer, during this period of low purchasing power of the farmer's dollar, is receiving our greatest attention and support.







Annual Report, 1932


PART III-WOMEN'$ WORK

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ANNA MAE: SIKES, Nutritionist

Many women and girls.respond enthusiastically to the demonstration method of.instruction. ' They establish demonstrations in their own homes by putting into practice recommendations made by home demonstration agents. Through these demonstrations they learn and teach others. That the agent may serve all of the farm families in the county, it is necessary for her to amplify her services many times.
During 1932 home demonstration work was cooperatively carried on in 515 communities in 30 counties by state and county home demonstration staff and local people. There were 6,831 women enrolled in 284 home demonstration clubs and 8,496 girls enrolled in 474 4-11 clubs. Membership in the clubs is voluntary. During the year these 15,327 women and girls met monthly for instruction pertaining to greater thrift, best'uses of farm home resources, and other homemaking activities for the improvement of the farm home and community life.
The clubs were organized into 19 county councils for women's work and 26 for girls' work. The home demonstration council represents the clubs of the county and all the activities of home demonstration work. The Council is a demonstration in organization. It enables the agent to better plan for local needs and conditions.
County boards make appropriations to conduct the Extension work in counties. The school boards are generous in arranging time for 4-11 meetings, furnishing school busses for special occasions, furnishing bulletin board space and encouraging 4-H club members. Men's and women's civic clubs are generous in donating funds for 4-H club girls to attend the annual state, short course.
Welfare associations are looking to home demonstration agents to assist with distribution and use of cloth for needy and also the







Florida Cooperative Extension


use of flour distributed through the Red Cross. Home agents have conducted bread making demonstrations to which the leaders in welfare work were invited.
Agents are giving assistance to welfare organizations with the emergency gardening. work and by distributing seed with instructions for planting.
The home agents have assisted in canning vegetables and meats for the unemployed. Canning centers have been established in counties.
Home demonstration club members are using information which they have gained from the agent on school lunches and clothing. Agents have the opportunity of assisting with clinics for sick and crippled.
The 4-H club members have contributed jars of canned food for the Children's Home in Pensacola.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs always evidences support and interest in home demonstration work. This organization participates in each state meeting that the Federation holds. One program each year is given over to home demonstration work in each 'club. The chairman of home demonstration work spent the week in attendance at Farmers' Week.
The first vice-president of the State Congress of Parent-Teach,ers spent the entire time in attendance at Farmers' Week; and their home service chairman two days of our Annual Conference. She explained their program and acquainted herself with the Extension program. They are emphasizing home demonstration work through their home service department. An excellent demonstration of cooperation with that group and home demonstration members is in Pinellas County in work with the school lunchroom managers. Both the Federation of Women's Clubs and the Congress of Parents and Teachers invite contributions from this organization to be published in their official magazine.
State Board of Health physicians and nurses have assisted with special programs and the State 4-H Health Contest.
The home demonstration organization has participated in the program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society andhas a representative on the State Council of Health Welfare and Education. The home improvement specialist is a member of the beautification committee of the State Chamber of Commerce. The state home demonstration agent is counselor for the State Home Economics Association and edits the State Home Economics News Letter. She is also a member of the board of directors of the Florida Social Workers Conference. Miss Keown,







Annual Report, 1932


district agent, has-served on the executive committee of the American Home Economics Association, and is president of the Florida Home Economics Association.

EMERGENCY CONDITIONS
There has been curtailment of county funds and increased. demands for services. In every case reports show that to the home demonstration agent individuals and organizations rightfully look for counsel and assistance pertaining to families in the rural seetiGns. In times of depression it is to the-home garden, canning of surplus, and best use of obtainable foods and clothing that attention is turned to meet the immediate needs. Consequently the agent extends her service's to a larger group of people than her own club members. '
The program has centered around those things which would provide food and feed, increase the family income, wise buying and abundant living. This was termed the "live-at-home" program. Outstanding in this program have been the calendar vegetable gardens, calendar orchards, food conservation, food preparation, poultry flocks, home dairying, nutrition, clothing, home industries, standardizing products for market, recreation and home improvement.
The report from a St. Petersburg Relief Council shows that persons who are applying for relief have not taken advantage of home demonstration instruction. There is not a club member in Holmes County who has had to askfor help of any kind from the Red Cross or any other organization. Record books Aow from 115 to 1,400 quarts of canned fruits and vegetables are on the pantry shelves of each club member.
Emphasis was placed on the following points during the year: 1. Production of meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and honey necessary for the family.
2. The conservation of surplus food.
3. Adding to the family income through farm women's marketing of surplus garden, orchard, poultry and dairy products-encouraging home industries.
4. Thrift in clothing through renovation, care, wise buying.
5. The arrangement of work and equipment to save time and steps; lowering the cost of operation; and budgeting the income.
6. Keeping up the family morale through the maintenance of:
(a) The comfort and beauty of the home.
(b) Community work and recreation in-the home and community.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITIONAND HEALTH
ANNA MAE SIXEs, Nutritionist
The general purpose of the work is to develop a clear'understanding of the essential principles of human nutrition and a program for food selection, preparation and adequate economical meal planning, disease prevention, school lunch, group of community meals, exhibits, school and club demonstrations, using the women and girls as individual exhibits of results.
A part of this program relates the nutrition work to the productive program of poultry raising, dairying, beekeeping, gardening and fruit growing. Another phase of thework interests girls' and Women's clubs in a community service that will bring about home production and home consumption which will result in better nutrition and health.
The food, nutrition and health program for girls stresses sufficient food in proper balance, correct eating habits, correct posture, proper mental attitude, adequate sleep and rest, plentiful sunshine and fresh air, regulated exercise and play, personal and 'home hygiene. This program begins with learning how to score food, nutrition and health habits and con tines with a definite plan of study and demonstrations of improvement in food, nutrition and health.
Records show that in 1932, 6,156 4-11 club girls participated in health improvement - work ; 5,429 individuals improved health habits; 4,366 individuals improved posture, and 4,432 adopted recommended positive preventive means to improve health.
Realizing that a -child builds both physically and mentally, the plan is to establish better school lunches. Intelligent choice of food, right attitude toward food, better nutrition and economical foods are demonstrated in actual practice. Records for 1932 show that 2,385 homes improved home-packed lunches and 117 schools followed recommendations for a hot school lunch.
The food, nutrition and health program for the pre-school child includes physical examination, study of child and health protection. Demonstrations of the need for wholesome food, properly masticated, and natural elimination each day are given to groups of mothers. In 1932 a result of nutrition work showed 1,690 homes improved methods in child feeding; 318 homes substituted positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 268 homes provided recommended play equipment; 775 homes made recommended physical adjustments to better meet the children's needs, and 487 adopted better adult habits with respect to development of children.







Annual Report, 1932


The women's nutrition program suggests means of correction through diet of a few common ailments. The points emphasized are the classification of foods According to functions, the selection, preparation, service: a nd cost of meals'for individuals. The family m arket orders and menus for the week are made with demonstrations given of meals using Florida products. Records are kept of expenditures for food.
The food, nutrition and health program was conducted in 29 counties this past year. There were 3,898 adult result demonstrations, and 5,02 4-H club girls enrolled.
Improved practices were adopted by 1,595 women in baking; 1,491 women in meat cookery; 2,266 women in vegetable cookery; 1,599 women in poultry products, and 1,597 women in dairy products.
The records of .1932 show there has been an improvement in' food habits, improvement of general health, improvement in planning. diets, increased production and consumption of milk, eggs, fruits, and vegetables, improvement of school lunch and lunch rooms.

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Extension Economist in Food Conservation

Recognizing the need for-Florida people to have fresh fruits and vegetables at all seasons. of the year, the "live-at-home" project, was-emphasized. The trend has been the development of more home gardens and fruits.
ALL-YEAR 'HOME GARDEN WORK
Home gardens average a little more than $34 per farm. This is above all costs and does not include trucking areas or acreage. Hundreds of 4-H1 gardens and'all-year garden projects carried by the junior and senior home demonstration club members have amounted to as much as $300 and over.
ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST
In spite of no awards to serve as a stimulus to record-keeping. records have improved greatly and more club members, have kept the garden record books as supplied by the state office than in previous years. Club members realize the value of well-kept records of accomplishments and results and. the habit of Ibeing business-like and meth odical is gaining.
The compilation of the gardening work of the senior home







Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration members show 3,972 gardens made in 1932 with a total cash valuation of $22,364.24 for vegetables served at home; $31,917.47 for vegetables sold fresh; $11,590.50 of vegetables canned and $22,364.24 for fresh fruits sold from the orchard.
The women and girls who have kept garden records have demonstrated very clearly to themselves the value of the garden, both in dollars and cents and in dividends far greater than gold-better health.
The calendar orchard was stressed as a valuable asset.

4-H GIRLS'GARDEN WORK
There were 4,646 enrollments and 3,646 completions in gardening by the girls. By completions is meant finishing one full year's work, growing the vegetables and flowers as outlined, having the perennials started as required, and submitting the record of the work done and exhibiting when and where called for by the home demonstration agent.
A suggestive list of perennials is given in the record book and the club girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs and to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality.
Fresh vegetables marketed by members of the 4-H clubs amounted in Palm Beach County to $496.41.
In Dade County, 392 girls grew vegetable gardens, while both girls and women raised 500 flower gardens.
Walton County has this interesting report:
"The plan for junior club members in gardening was divided into two main projects and 154 first and second year girls planted three or more kinds each season. This gave a variety of winter, spring, summer and fall vegetables. Third and fourth year girls chose a spring garden of vegetables for canning. Most of the older girls go to school on buses and have little time for gardening. They plant to have vegetables for canning and can the surplus during vacation.

CALENDAR ORCHARD (perennial plantings)
The need for more fruit throughout the year is recognized and emphasis is placed on variety plantings to supply fresh fruits most of the year. Twenty-three counties report 629 calendar orchards planted or increased.
The Senior Home Demonstration Council sponsored a special project, Calendar Orchards, this year with both women and girls. To encourage this, the Council had one of its first meetings of the year in a typical, tropical orchard. This was followed by a







Annual Report, 1932


visit to a nursery that offered a special discount to home demonstration members and 4-H club girls.
Fourteen demonstrations were given on "what, when, and how to plant." Members were asked to report on fruits they had grown, how many canned products they bought for the month and for the year, and how much they had canned at home. Up to this time these members had not realized how many canned products were usually purchased.
Alachua County has been carrying the calendar orchard demonstration for several years. In 1932, 18 more women planted calendar orchards.

FOOD CONSERVATION
MISS ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist
Scientific research has proved that canned foods are equal in nutritive value to the same foods entirely prepared in the home kitchen. Adequate, well-balanced meals, rich in vitamins and other essential food elements, may be served with much ease and very little preparation by the home gardener who plans a canning program of quantity and of a variety to suit the needs and tastes of her family.
THE CANNING BUDGET
The program has.provided for a planting and canning budge. to meet individual family needs. These budgets include, of course, the fruits, vegetables, meats, sweets and relishes necessary to supplement the fresh products of the season.
MEETING ECONOMIC NEEDS
Food conservation in Florida has received more attention than usual. Pantry shelves have never been better filled. Extra canned products are being exchanged for other home necessities. Sales from surplus canned products have aided in payment of taxes. There has been a large amount of canning equipment bought.
The following is an illustration of how canning may be used advantageously from the standpoint of economy:
In Holmes County, the Home Demonstration Agent gave meat canning demonstrations in each community. She carried her equipment to the home of some interested family where she held a community meeting. They spent the day in canning meats. As a result 106 animals were canned in tin and glass ready to be served or sold in exchange for other necessities, farmers getting 35c per No. 2 tin can of this meat.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SUMMARY,
Last year, 3,898 women in Florida canned and preserved:.,
154,928 quarts of fruit
219,547 quarts of vegetables
53,965 quarts of pickles and relishes
91,155 quarts of jams, marmalades and jellies
1,910 gallons of vinegar 4,602 gallons fruit juice
61,850 quarts pork, beef and game
6,107 quarts chicken
8,865 quarts flsh

In addition to the above amounts saved by the women, 205,927 quarts were canned by 4-H girls; 272,820 pounds of meat were cured by 1,245 families and 27,358 pounds soap were made.
Valued at 10 cents a quart, the farm Women and girls have saved during one year more than $114,771 through home canning.

CANNING A PHASE OF RELIEF w6RK
The nation-wide concern over unemployment has touched Flor-m ida and in many places where the problem of . feeding. the unemployed (mainly from other states) has become acute the doctrine of conservation and its practical application has helped in a very substantial way in meeting the "depression situation."
Through cooperative and community canning, Leon County home demonstration workers stocked their pantries with canned products and assisted the County Welfare Board in supplying the needs of the unemployed.
Farmers supplied the produce, and the labor and the Welfare Board furnished thetins and jars. Filled containers were divided evenly between the two.
During the month of June alone a total of 3,851 No. 2 cans of vegetables and 67 gallons of green beans had been canned; 385 of the cans were of soup mixture, 991 of Fordhook beans, 2,199 green beans and 276 of corn.
A community center was established in West Palm Beach in January to meet local conditions. The home demonstration agent gave instructions and demonstrations to a group of 15 volunteer workers on canning all types of products available. A civic committee arranged for space and equipment. With the cooperation of the gas and water companies a complete and convenient canning center has operated during the trucking season. The Salvation Army then took over the management of the cannery and at the closing the last of June, 12,000 cans of products were ready for distribution during the summer months, the season of scarcity.
It is important that honey be used generously in the diet and







Annual Report, 1932


club members should be influenced to learn more about the food value of honey and how it may be used. For two summers, the Economist in Food Conservation has cooperated in the joint program with the State Beekeepers Association during Farmers' Week. A five-page mimeographed circular was prepared for distribution regarding the uses of 'honey in the menu.
Home demonstration agents have sponsored county products dinners. It was interesting see in this connection that'civic clubs over the state last year entered into the idea of serving AllFlorida Products Dinners as a means of helping to relieve depression and unemployment. A great deal of local pride and interest has been aroused by the county products dinners given under the direction of home demonstration women and 47 H girls. I Products taken from their gardens, orchards, poultry flocks, dairies and pantries provided excellent food of great variety.
POULTRY
Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home demonstration program mainly for two reasons (1) for family nutrition (2) to increase the family income. There were 1,186 women ;ho managed and reported on flocks with a total'of 166,339 birds. They report a profit for their work of $44,465. A total of 1,077 girls raised 33,543 birds. Nine counties report 104 entries in the Florida Calendar Flock Records.
Enthusiasm in the home poultry flock has been stimulated by' the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries and through marketing of products in addition to the regular work of the agents under leadership of the poultry specialist. Eighteen counties report $18,227.58 worth of poultry sold on the market, and $75,500.33 received for eggs sold by those who reported.
DAIRYING
Reports from 18 counties show that 359 family milk cows have been obtained for farm families this year. There are 1,901 families who report using daily a quart of milk for each child and a pint for each adult. Two hundred sixty-two women working with 636 cows report a profit of $25,080.
HOMEIMPROVEMENT
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement
To have rural homes that are clean, orderly, convenient and attractive in appearance leads to the development of happy, healthy, progressive dependable "rural citizens. 1. r_ _








Florida Cooperative Extension


During the year 3,184 homes improved home health and sanitation to control malarial mosquito, hookworm, flies and other parasites.






















Fig. 10-The 4-H girls try their hands at painting garden furniture during their short course at the State College for Women as a part of their home improvement work.
There were 5,391 women and girls utilizing discarded materials who renovated and made attractive house furnishings at small cost.
Reports show that:
116 homes were remodeled 79 sewage plants installed 101 water systems installed
63 solar water heaters installed 231 families installed electricity
438 homes screened
383 sanitary toilets built
806 porches repaired
303 houses and outbuildings painted and 319 whitewashed
943 kitchens improved
2,178 other rooms improved
2,126 women and girls refinished walls, woodwork and floors
2,295 women and girls repaired and remodeled furniture.
Tours to see improvements made in homes, shopping tours, educational trips, demonstrations in communities at county-wide events, Short Course and Farmers' Week have helped to increase improvements along definite lines.

HOME MANAGEMENT
To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods of homemaking, the demonstration agents have worked with







Annual Report, 1932


3,508 farm women and girls to improve (1) the management of time and energy, and (2) the management of income or farm home resources.
In helping farm women to manage their time and use their strength, home demonstration agents worked with 1,520 homes, assisted in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equipment. Also 1,168 homes weregiven help to improve the family laundry problem, and 1,840 homes were helped to improve their everyday housekeeping duties.
Five hundred eighty-five women kept home accounts, 455 women budgeted their expenses, 1,098 women made a study oftheir buying methods and followed recommendations of the home demonstrationagent.
Managing the farm income in most cases means using it for those necessities that cannot be produced on the farm. In one county under the direction of the home demonstration agent 20 women kept accurate records on the vegetables produced and used and found they each saved in a year from $97 to $247 on grocery bills.
BEAUTIFYING HOME GROUNDS
To make the rural home attractive, special attention is given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery and foundation plantings.
During 1932 there were 6,198 women and girls who beautified their home grounds. Club members are using native shrubbery. Seedsmen and nurseries have cooperated in offering reduced prices. Seeds were portioned out in penny packages and sold to club members. Various, counties have adopted a county flower to be grown by all club members.

CLOTHING
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
This year 10,418 women and girls improved their sewing skill through instructions given by the home demonstration agents in short cuts and time-saving methods in construction.
WISE BUYING
Economic conditions had a direct bearing on clothing the family in 1932, and fewer articles were bought. Methods to inform wbmen what was good value in material, workmanship, and suitability, shopping tours, clothing exhibits, judging and scoring ready-made and home-made garments were featured, with the result that 10,755 women and girls bought and made clothing







Florida Cooperative Extension


for themselves with the help of the home demonstration agents, while 1,188 women and girls made out a clothing budget before purchasing anything new.
CHILDREN'S CLOTHING
4-H Club girls learn to sew in their club meetings and after they become skillful often take over the task of sewing for themselves and the younger children of the family. Two thousand two


Fig. 11-These girls were winners of the 4-H clothing contest at the short
course. They are wearing dresses made by themselves.
hundred and eighty-three girls in 1932 made such clothing with the guidance of the home demonstration agent, and 2,341 women were given assistance in making children's clothing. Six thousand two hundred and sixty women and girls were helped to make old garments into garments that were clean and wearable.
4-H HOME SEWING
After a club girl has received two years of instruction in sewing she demonstrates her ability. One thousand nine hundred and thirteen 4-H club girls made curtains, bedspreads, quilts, table linen and other household articles for the home.
Home agents and their club women have helped with the making of thousands of garments from cotton cloth distributed by the Red Cross.







Annual Report, 1932


One home demonstration agent reports that, under the direction of six women cooperating with her, 150 needy women of the county were given employment in making 3,390 garments from 12,000 yards of cloth.
I I In another county the home agent and club women made 1,500 garments for needy families. They met once a week and brought old clothing which was cleaned and made into garments.
Interest in wise buying, color, design, good workmanship, accessories and personal grooming, has increased, culminating in dress revues at county-wide meetings and short courses for 4-11 Club girls.
I At.the State Short Course for 4-11 club girls in June, Mary Ellen Lovelace won a clothing contest for girls who have had a clothing program for three years. She was awarded a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress and won third place in a National Clothing Contest.

MONEY-MAKING HOME INDUSTRIES
MARY E. KE:owN, District Agent
Lowered cash receipts from farm products have caused farm families to seek ways of supplementing their incomes. The home demonstration agents have helped the women develop standardized articles for sale; examples: the canned spiced guava of Pinellas, the boned chicken of Gadsden, the poultry products and wreaths of Alachua, or the hooked rugs of Dade County.
Marketing enterprises have been established, such as direct sales from the producer to the consumer through the home demonstration office; sales stands on the highways; booths in curb markets, and home demonstration shops equipped and operated by the farm women.
Reports by girls and women to the home demonstration agents show the following'sales by counties:
Bradford and Union counties report total sales amounting to $4,628.60; Alachua, $8,371.35; Dade, $37,746.80; Palm Beach, $7,449.21; St. Johns, $7,385.00; Duval, $4,223.53.
Amounts received for poultry in Gadsden total $7,390.74; in Jackson $4,138.50; in Jefferson $2,034.00; in Holmes $3,201.40; in Lake $2,580.00; in Santa Rosa $5,109.25. . Amounts received for garden produce alone total $2,150.00 in
Orange; $18,746.00 in Polk; $1,875.00 in Leon; $2,502.95 in Gadsden, and $3,283.20 in Walton.
The total sales reported by the women and girls amount to







Florida Cooperative Extension


$213,896.68; poultry and eggs, $93,468.13; fresh fruits and vegetables, $56,228.92; dairy products, $12,315.20; canned products, $11,590.50; home baked goods, $6,107.07; and other craft articles, $34,186.86.
Particular attention is given to standardizing canned and baked products for market.

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Club houses for club and community meetings were available in 51 communities. There were 117 schools in 18 counties that served a hot dish or school lunch for 25,519 pupils and 26 clubs managed hot school lunches for 16,136 school children under home agent' plans.
Community recreation was developed in 166 communities and 122 community plays were presented.
There were 162 communities assisted in definitely improving hygienic practices, and 183 school or other community grounds were improved according to recommendations from home demonstration agents. Thirty-two clubs began community libraries, subscribing to 149 magazines. Club members subscribed to and


Fig. 12.-A home demonstration club house is an ideal community center.
This one was named in honor of the home demonstration agent.







Annual Report, 1932


exchanged among themselves 5,054 magazines and papers. There were 1 439 community achievement meetings and exhibits held. A total of 515 communities were assisted in developing various community activities according to community needs. '
The decrease in counties appropriating, consolidation of schools and increased number of organizations in many of the schools and dropping from the- rolls those not definitely carrying 4-H club work as required, reduced the total enrollment in girls' 4-H club work this year 472. However, the percentage of completions increased from 7817o to 82.2% this year. Older girls have continued active in their 4-H club work, so strengthening the work generally and providing a fine group of leaders for the younger generation.
Alumnae Clubs, so called for lack of a better name as yet, have been organized in two counties, with two other counties planning to perfect their organization during the holidays. The membership of these alumnae clubs consists of girls too old to be active in the groups of younger girls and still too young to enjoy active membership in the clubs for women. The counties have various standards for admission to membership, but their object is the same: To aid in furthering 4-H club work and to aid the members themselves to find jobs, or get further education or to carry on long time and comprehensive demonstrations in their homes and communities.
This group of girls has already taken considerable responsibility in club camps, etc., and we expect them to render invaluable service. When this plan was discussed by the district agent recently with the College 4-H Club at the Florida State College for Women, numbers of these college girls indicated their intention of helping their agents form similar groups.

PUBLICITY

Each home demonstration agent submits a radio talk with her monthly report. Members of the state staff prepare talks at varying intervals.
We participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program presenting programs from four stations in Florida. A 4-H club radio program was presented over WRUF monthly, the girls and boys alternating. Twenty-eight agents report 174 radio talks this year, an increase of 143 over last year.
Twenty-nine counties report 3,008 news articles or stories published.







Florida Cooperative Extension


News reporters elected or'appointed in the 4-H and women's clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given by the Extension Editor during Short Course for 4-H club girls and occasional courses in the counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As an outgrowth of this instruction a good many girls' councils edit and publish their own news sheet. Several women's councils have similar publications which have created considerable interest among the club members.

VISITS, TOURS, MEETINGS

Reports show that the agents made 13,434 home visits to 6,964 homes and an additional 884 farm visits to 610 farms.
There is an interest in tours or visits to successful result demonstrations in the home.
An exhibit. of citrus by-products was placed at the Orange Festival held in Winter Haven in January. The exhibit has grown from year to year in variety and in quality, featuring this year what was probably the largest and finest- collection of crystallized citrus fruits that could be found anywhere in the United States-oranges, grapefruit, 'shaddock, tangelo, citron, kumquats,. limequats, orangequats, calamondins, and still other members of the marvelous citrus family, all exquisite in form and color.
Home demonstration agents held 946 demonstration meetings with an attendance of 15,589 and 15 agents conducted 71 tours with an attendance of 9,999.
Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls have been encouraged in all counties during the year. Forty-eight judging teams and 243 demonstration teams were trained in the state. These scoring highest in the counties entered state-wide contests conducted during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. The county making the highest score annually is awarded a silver pitcher for the year. Dade County was the recipient in 1932.

LOCAL LEADERS

The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils contribute to efficient development of the rural home. In 1932, 919 women and 368 older girls assisted home demonstration agents as voluntary local leaders. There were 203 training meetings held for leaders with an attendance of 2,288.







Annual Report, 1932


SPECIAL EVENTS
ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Community and county achievement days are observed at the culmination of the year's work. Features of the program include exhibits, reports, demonstrations by club members, addresses by the state staff, local persons as county superintendents and others, awarding of certificates and pins to those who have accomplished most as a club. They also afford splendid opportunities to observe methods and progress.
During the year there were 112 achievement days held; 36 were for adults, attendance 15,692; and 71 for 4-11 club members, attendance of 16,504.
CAMPS
There were 35 camps held. Twelve of these were, for women, 10 for boys and girls and 13 for girls. There were 666 women, 1,347 girls, 242 boys and 1,482 others including visitors, instructors, and leaders in attendance. Three trained camp workers, College 4-11 club girls, assisted agents with the camps.
,A two-day farm and home institute for adults was held at the West Florida 4-11 Club Camp.
SHORT COURSE FOR 4-11 CLUB GIRLS
The Annual State Short Course for 4-11 club girls was held 'at Florida State College for Women. There were 416 girls, 41 local leaders, and 28 agents in attendance. The average age of those attending is from 14 to 15 years.
Scholarships were provided by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, mer chants. The L. & N. Railroad has provided expenses for a girl to attend from each county traversed by its lines.
Outstanding features were assistance given by College 4-H girls, project demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for recqgnition of accomplishments, state council meetings, recreation and entertainment. The council awarded a scholarship to Cora Boyette, Manatee County, for her junior year at Florida State College for Women. The business manager of the State College for Women followed this by awarding a dining room scholarship, to supplement funds provided by the Council.
Individuals entered clothing, posture and health contests. Demonstration teams of 10 girls representing each county entered contests in table setting, dishwashing, canning, judging of canned products, poultry judging, salad and sandwich making. The entire county group entered the 4-H song contest.







Florida -Cooperative Extension


Points won by each county were totaled and Dade County, scoring highest, was awarded. an engraved silver pitcher to be held until 1933 Short Course.
The Short Course was ended with an impressive candle lighting service through the cooperation of Dr. Edward Conradi, president of the College, which typified the extending of knowledge from Florida State College for Women through the Extension Service into the rural communities.
FARMERS AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
There were 700 women in attendance during Farmers' Week. The theme for the home economics program was "Opportunities for Florida Homemakers Today." Demonstrations and instructions were given. Outstanding features were exhibits and group work with rural women, musical programs, dress revue, radio programs. The State Home Demonstration Council awarded a scholarship to Mary George of Marion County for her junior year at Florida State College for Women, and a silver loving cup to Dade and Alachua County Councils.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Martha Briese of Escambia County and Ruth Ansley of Marion County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Camp for Boys and Girls, in Washington, D. C., directed by the Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Two girls and two boys making the highest score within the states are permitted to attend. . The girls' trips were financed by The Capitol City Publishing Company and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company.
Trips. to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress are awarded those scoring highest in various phases of club work. Recipients of the trips were Loraine Chamberlain, Alachua County, for home improvement work; Ellen Dirr, Manatee, winner in the state health contest; Mary Ellen Lovelace, Dade County, winner in state clothing contest. She won third place in the National Contest. These trips were financed by the State Department of Agriculture, Montgomery Ward and Company,.and Chicago Mail Order Company.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of home demonstration agents . 29 Number of m5i5tant hQme demonstration agents . 1 Number of county home demonstration councils for girls' work . 26 Number of county home demonstration councils for women's work . 19 Number of communities actively participating in home demonstration
activities . 615








Annual Report, 1932 97

Number local leaders-adult work:
M en . 4
W om en . 584 Number local leaders-4-H club work:
M en . ; . 14 W om en . 335 Older club boys . 20 Older club girls . 368 Number adult home demonstration clubs . 254 M em bership . 6,831 Number 4-H clubs . 474 Membership:
B oys . 76 Girls . :- - *******- * . ***''** 8,496 Number of 4-H club members completing:
B oys . 55 G irls . . 6,991 Number of 4-11 club teams trained:
Judging . 48 Dem onstration . 243 Number farm and home visits made . 14,318 Number different farms and homes visited . -. 7,574 Number days agents spent in office. .2,3871/2 Number days agents spent in field. 6,187 Number newspaper articles or stories lish d . 3,008 Number individual letters written . 31,289 Number different circular letters written . 2,085 Number bulletins distributed . 70,585 Number events at which extension exhibits were shown . 236 Training meetings held for local leaders or committeemen:
(a) Adult work: Number . . 99
Women leaders . 1,346
(b) 4-H Club: Number . 105 Leaders attending . 932 Method demonstration meetings held:
N um ber . 8,430 Attendance . 147,642 Meetings at result demonstrations:
N um ber . 946 A ttendance . 15,589 Tours conducted:
N um ber . 71 Attendance . 9,999 Achievement Days held:
(a) Adult work: Number . 36
Attendance . 15,692
(b) 4-H Club: Number . 76
Attendance . 16,504 Encampments held:
(a) Farm women: Number . 12
Total attendance . 766
(b) 4-H Club: Number . 25
Girls attending . 1,347 Others attending . 1,482 Other meetings of extension nature:
N um ber . 910 Attendance . 127,099 Meetings held by local leaders:
(a) Adult work: Number . 455 Attendance . 9,015
(b) 4-H Club: Number . 1,393 Attendance . 23pI86












PROJECT ACTIVITIES
No. Days Days No. No. Differ- Home office No. individuals
PHASE OF WORK Com- No. Special- devoted meet- news cent adopting practices
muni. of ist to ings stories rcular visits calls
ties Leaders helped work I held published letters made made women Girls

Home gardens and home beautification. 460 338 37 6,064/2 1,672 337 213 3,116 4,354 3,972 4,646
Market garden and truck crop . 55 38 81/2 49Y2 158 39 29 351 1,240 1,093 383
Fruits . 227 124 3 189 448 73 32 270 809 3,176 2,409
Rodents and miscellaneous insects . 28 26 5 31 101 11 4 144 480 527
Agricultural (Home) Engineering . 162 54 7 156Y2 114 37. 16 264 373 531
Poultry . 359 150 43 4511/2 621 227 252 1,345 2,258 1,186 1,358
Dairy . 141 77 . 1131/2 168 24 36 497 553 262 34
Marketing home products . 228 127 151/2 214 317 112 141 550 1,834 362 .
Foods and nutrition . 435 337 70 1,270:1/2 2,132 557 204 2,070 5,182 3,898 5,022
Child training and care . 28 90 . 82 219 37 47 151 533 1,004 .
Clothing . 506 485 18 1,337 2,112 322 130 966 2,311 3,048 7,370
Home management . 231 125 11 2231/ 341 78 51 370 510, 2,188 1,661
House furnishings . 454 227 30 5 3 5 '/, 926 128 133 818 1,907 2,992 2,399
Home health and sanitation . 386 253 21 35311/ 849 110 37 790 1,268 1,610 .
Community activities . 341 484 32 304 292 262 130 748 1,770 . .
Miscellaneous . 256 235 42 324 429 176 126 642 1,991
Building extension program of work . 295 443 142 264 335 108 186 492 1,430 . .
Organization . 393 674 641/2 .342 273 317 314 700 1,628 . .
TOTAL . I . 4,292 5491/2 t2,305%111,807 2,955 j 2,081 114,284 130,431 125,849 25,352
1 1 1 1 1 1







Annual Report, 1932


PART IV-NEGRO WORK

NEGRO. MEN'S WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent

Negro Extension work is carried on by local agents supervised by one district agent for the men's work and one district agent for the women's work. The office headquarters are at the A. & College for Negroes in Tallahassee and the work has the same supervision as other Extension work. I
In the farm work among Negroes, the counties of Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion and Suwannee had agents. The work, however, was not confined to these counties but was carried on through Negro Farmer Cooperative associations in Gadsden, Leon, Hillsboro, Madison and Suwannee counties. Reports show that there were definite Extension programs in 85 communities. These agents work an average of 11 months during the year.
Definite plans for an Extension program with Negroes were made in the Gainesville office of the Extension Service. These were given to the colored agents and farmers at community meetings. This was made up in the form of programs and placed in the hands of the county workers who were to use it as their program for the year. This plan harmonized all agricultural programs for all classes of farmers and was made up with a view of economical production, taking into consideration the needs of the farm and farm family, and with the further plan to produce only such cash cro s as were to find a fair market, and these crops to be produced on the best land with a small outlay of expense. Where cash crops were grown, consideration was given to the possible markets, the cost of fertilizer, and farmers were urged to avoid going into debt.
These recommendations resulted in a reduced acreage of cotton, tobacco and marketable vegetable crops, and as a result of this, such farmers as followed these recommendations found themselves in a position to hold their farms, feed their families and prepare for next year's crops. A further result shows that the loans advanced for ' Negro farmers for marketing their crop were relatively small as compared with former years. Colored farmers




Full Text

PAGE 1

~,, . c... to~O Y.C.~b .)LLINS COLLEGt ~ld':{f.ER I?~, IFl~ . I I . \' '~.:i,_ c..;~. 3 ... 1932 REPORT -COO , PERATIVE EXTENSION WORK ._ IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS I AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WoM~N, 1 AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, I. . COOPERATING . , ' WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL 4CTIYITIES FOR . 1932 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR 'J:'HE \. : . ' . FI~CAL YEAR ' ENDING JUNE 30, 1932. I .

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1932 REPORT COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS . AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1932 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1932.

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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Financial Statement CONTENTS PAGE 7 11 Farmers' Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS . . . . . . 13 COUNTY AGENT WORK BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK 17 33 DAIRYING 43 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . . . 48 POULTRY . 54 National Egg-Laying Contest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CITRUS CULTURE . . . 63 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS . . . . . 68 Farm Managem~nt Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 RODENT CONTROL . . . 76 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK . . . . . . . 79 Food, Nutrition and Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Gardening and Perennial Plantings............................. 83 Food Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Home Improvement ......... ............ ." ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Clothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Money-Making Home Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 NEGRO MEN'S WORK . •................. 99 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ; 106

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BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando A. H. BLANDING, Tampa A.H. WAGG, West Palm Beach GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON. NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor . R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary . COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialis1 J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN; B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist N. R. MEHRH0F, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry 1 J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist 2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management . W.R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Controll COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLA VIA GLEASON, State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARYE. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist NEGRO EXTENSION WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent lln cooperation with U. S. n. A. 2Part-time.

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Hon. Dave Sholtz, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1932, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1932. Hon. P. K. Yonge, Respectfully P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control. Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida.

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents Alachua .......... F. L. Craft ........ Gainesville ....... Mrs. Grace F. Warren Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer ......•.. Lake Butler .. Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke) Calhoun .......... J. G. Kelly ........ Blountstown ......................•.. Calhoun and Liberty ................... Blountstown ..... Miss Josephine Nimmo Citrus ............................... Inverness ...... Mrs. Elzabeth W. Moore Dade ............. C.H. Steffani ...... Miami .............. Miss Pansy Norton DeSoto ........... J. J. Heard ........ Arcadia ............................. Dixie ............. D. M. Treadwell .... Cross City .......................... . Duval ........... . A. S. Lawton ...... Jacksonville ......... Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (As.::t.) ..... E. G. Pattishall .... Jacksonville ........................• Escambia ......... E. P. Scott ........ Pensacola .......... Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden ............................. Quincy .............. Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton •......•. J. J. Sechrest ...... Jasper .............................. . Hernando ......... B. E. Lawton ....•. Brooksville ......................... . Highlands ........ L. H. Alsmeyer .... Sebring ............................ . Hillsborough .•.... C. P. Wright ....... Plant City (E) ..... Miss Motelle Madole Hillsborough ......................... Tampa (W) ............ Miss Allie Rush Holmes .............. ................ Bonifay .......... Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson .............................. Marianna._ .......... Miss Eleanor Clark Jefferson .......... E. H. Finlayson .... Monticello ............ Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette ......... W. J. Davis ........ Mayo ..........................•..••• Lake ............. C.R. Hiatt ......... Tavares ............................ . Leon ............. G. C. Hodge ....... Tallahassee ........ Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy ............. N. J. Albritton .... Bronson .........•................... Liberty ........•.. Dewey H. Ward .... Bristol ............................. . Manatee ......... . J. H. Logan ....... Bradenton ......... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ........... Clyde H. Norton .... Ocala ............... Miss, Tillie Roese! Okaloosa ........•• Joseph W. Malone .. Crestview ...................•....... Okeechobee .....•• C. A. Fulford ...... Okeechobee .........................• Orange ........... K. C. Moore ....... Orlando .......... Mrs .. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ........•.. J. R. Gunn ......... Kissimmee .......... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ....... M. U. Mounts ..... . W. Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .........•. Wm. Gomme ..... , Clearwater ......... Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk .....•..••.... F. L. Holland ...... Bartow ............... Miss Lois Godbey Polk (Asst.) •.................•...... Bartow ............ Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns .......... Loon is Blitch ...... St. Augustine ....... Miss, Anna E. Heist Santa Rosa .....•.. J. G. Hudson ....... Milton ............ Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor ............ R. S. Dennis ....... Perry ................. Miss Floy Moses Wakulla .......... H. E. Hudson ...... Crawfordville . ', ..................... . Walton ........... Mitchell Wilkins .... DeFuniak Springs ... Miss Eloise Mc Griff Washington .•..... Gus York .......... Chipley ............................•• *This list correct to December 31, 1932.

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Fig. 1.-Thi s open hou s e d ir play, s ho w ing the work of home demonstration wom e n of one cou:ity, was v i s ited by 1,200 people.

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REPORT FOR 1932 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1932. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. During 1932 there has been a better balance in agricultural production in the counties where Extension work has been carried on than in former years, in spite of the general and widespread depression. This readjustment of farm operations has made it possible for farmers to maintain good living standards even though their cash incomes have been greatly reduced. The "live-at-home" program adopted by farmers has given most of them ample supplies of produce in the form of meats, vege tables, feeds, livestock and poultry, and with the soil-building program that has been practiced, better yields of crops have been produced with a relatively small outlay for labor and fertilizer. Farmers have not only supplied most of their immediate needs from the farms but have larger supplies of meat, poultry and other farm products that are being exchanged for labor and materials that are usually purchased. The home demonstration agents' programs have been respon sible for increased incomes for farm families in the preparation of salable articles of food, clothing and handicraft. These pro• grams have been made adaptable to existing conditions in the locality and the local demand for available articles. Prior to 1928 a large part of fluid milk used in this state came from other states, but since that time the Florida supply of dairy products has so increased that there is now a surplus in the larger

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8 Florida Cooperative Extens,ion centers and a more liberal supply for farm use in the rural homes. While this increase has resulted in lowered prices being received by commercial dairymen, it has given the farm family a needed supply and has enabled the family to reduce household expenses for food but at the same time to maintain a better balanced diet. Farmers have profited by information made available through outlook reports supplied to them by the Extension Service. This has afforded a much lower production cost on many farms and a larger supply of products that can be used at home. The Extension Service and the Experiment Station are pre paring milk production and cost studies throughout the state. These are to be used by county agents in determining future pro grams and adjusting the farm business. ADMINISTRATION The Agricultural Extension Service of Florida has 18 projects in its program. These represent the agricultural, horticultural, livestock and poultry and home interests. The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three dis trict agents for men's work and three district agents for women's work; the State Home Demonstration Agent, Boys Club Agent and the following specialists: Citriculturist, Dairyman, Animal Husbandman, Poultryman, Rodent Control Specialist, Agricul tural Economist, Economist in Marketing, Economist and Assis tant Economist in Farm Management; one part-time specialist in Agronomy and one outlook specialist. Specialists for the home demonstration work consist of on e Nutritionist, one Economist in Marketing and one Agent in Home Improvement. The Animal Husbandman and Rodent Control Specialist are employed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, the former with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the latter with the Bureau of Biological Survey. There were 39 counties with white Extension agents, all of these cooperating financially in support of the work during the year. In the negro work there is one district agent for women's work and one for men's work. There were 14 counties having negro agents; eight of these have home demonstration agents and seven have farm demonstration agents. Four of these counties con tribute to the support of home demonstration work, all the others are supported entirely from State and Federal funds.

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Annual Report, 1932 STAFF CHANGES 9 Frank W. Brumley, Economist in Farm Management, was granted leave of absence beginning October 15, to pursue gradu ate study at Cornell University. J. R. Greenman, who graduated in the College of Agriculture in 1932, was appointed as Assistant in Farm Management. Rosa J. Ballard, District Agent for Negro Home Demonstration Work, was appointed January 1, 1932, succeeding Julia Miller, who resigned November 15, 1931. COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES Both the Teaching Division and the Experiment Station of the University of Florida; College of Agriculture have cooperated to the fullest extent with the Agricultural Extension Service. They have made studies to obtain information desired by Extension workers, have tested soils, assisted in meetings, written bulletins, and rendered other assistance. The State Marketing Bureau, the State Livestock Sanitary Board, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the State Plant Board have rendered excellent cooperation also. The State Live stock Sanitary Board assists in the distribution of improved live stock for breeding purposes and in the control of diseases of hogs and poultry. The State Marketing Bureau cooperates in the sale of farm produce, particularly in arranging car-lot sales of hogs and poultry and in the shipment of beef cattle. The State Forest Service cooperates with the Extension Service in conservation work and in 4-H club work, principally to protect the timber growth. The State Board of Health cooperates with the home demon stration projects in nutrition and health educationalwork. The State Plant Board assists county agents in the distribu tion of plant material supplied to farmers and farm homes on the recommendation of the county agents. During 1931, the Farmers Cooperative Vegetable Growers As sociation, the Alabama-Florida Peanut Growers Association and the National Pecan Growers Association were organized with the help of the Federal Farm Board. While the progress of these organizations has not been encouraging, the Extension Service in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau has assisted in various programs in connection with the brganization on the rec ommendation of the Federal Farm Board. This has been handled

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10 Florida Cooperative Exteneiion principally through the agricultural economists of the Extension Service and with the help of the county agents. During the early part of the year, an effort was made to stim ulate interest in the Florida Poultry Association that had been reorganized in the previous year, but because of falling prices was losing patronage. Meetings were held in the most important centers to obtain the viewpoint of the producers in reference to the association. However, due to low prices of eggs, the organi zation has not made substantial progress in the last 12 months and during that time, two branches of the organization have disbanded. The Inter-State Early Potato Committee, with representatives in the early potato growing states, has assisted in the movement of the early potato crop in the potato area of North Florida. During the spring of 1932 the crop was more promising than usual, but because of the freeze occurring in March, the average yields were reduced to one-fifth of . the normal yield. This, to gether with falling prices, resulted in a disastrous year for the growers. COOPERATION WITH VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS It has been the policy of the Extension Service to urge cooper ation between the personnel of the different branches. County agents .and teachers have endeavored to work cooperatively and in most cases have been successful. SOURCES OF REVENUE The three main sources of revenue are from founds appropri ated by the United States Department of Agriculture, state off set and other Extension funds appropriated by the Florida Legis lature, and county appropriations. State Smith-Lever offset funds have been appropriated by the Legislature. Other off set funds needed have been made available through county appropriations. These county appropriations have shown a reduction since 1931. The State of Florida also has a continuing appropriation made available by an act of the Legislature in 1911 and in addition an appropriation for conduct ing the Florida National Egg Laying Contest and other minor activities of the Extension Service. The expenditures and resources for the Extension Service are shown in detail in the attached financial statement.

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Annual Report, 1932 FINANCIAL STATEMENT RECEIPTS 11 Smith-Lever , Federal and Supplementary .. . .... .. .. .. . . ... . .. $ 84,685.21 Smith-Le v er, State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53,968.80 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,555.82 Bur e au Animal Indu s try, U . S. D. A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,400.00 Additional Co o perati v e I cderal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 , 500.00 U. S. D. A . Appropriation s ....... .. .... . . .. .. . . .. ... . . .. ... .. 20,000 . 00 State Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46,775.81 County Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110,000.00 $364,885.64 EXPENDITURES Administration ......... . .................... . . . .. .. . .. .... . $ 9,321.02 9.564.80 140,075.52 104,0 9 7.96 3,934.84 Publications ................................ . .. . .. . ....... . Count y Agent Work ..... . ..... . .... . .. . .... .. ........ . .. . . . Home Demorn :: tration Work . . ... . ... .. . .. ... ... ....... . ..... . Food Conse r vation ....... . ........... . . . ..... .. ..... ... .... . Home Impro v ement .......... _ .. . ....... . ..... . ..... .. ...... . Extension Nutrition . . .. ... . . . .. .. . . .. .........• . .... . .. .... Negro work-men . . ... .. . . ... . . . . . .... .. .................. . Negro work-women .... . ...... . ..... . ....... . ..... .. ..... . Boys' Club work ....... ... ..... .. ... . ....... . . . .... . . ... .. . . Dairy Husbandry .. . .. ... .... ..... ... . . .. .. .. . . ... . . . .. .. . . . Animal Hu s bandry ...... . ..... . .. . ......... . ...... .. ..... . . Plant Pathology ...................... . ............ ... ..... . Agricultural Economics . . ..... . ............ . . .. .. . ... . ... . . Poultry Husbandr y ........ . .. . .. . ... . ...... . ...... .. ..... . . National Egg Laying cont es t ... .... ......... ... ..... ... ... . . Extension Schools, Farm e r s Week ..... . ..... .... ........... . Unexpended balance .... .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . ..... . . . ... ... . . . . 4,125.16 4,000.00 13,668 . 32 13,098.22 7,089.96 5,827.04 4,482.30 4,957.31 18,371.24 4,699 .3 5 8,446.93 1,893.63 7,232.04 $364,885.64 METHODS FOR MAINTAINING EFFICIENCY The efficiency of the Extension Service is dependent upon its intimate, satisfactory contacts with the agriculture of the state. Contacts with the research work of the Experiment Station and University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture and other research institutions also aid the Extension Service greatly. Federal crop production loans have been handled through the county extension offices with the assistance of county agents. Outlook information based on state reports and Federal statistics has been prepared to guide farmers in their farming operations. Cooperative associations have been organized under the direction of the Extension Service with the cooperation of the State Market ing Bureau and the Federal Extension Service. To carr y out this cooperative effort Mr. H. G. Clayton, District Agent, has been assigned to the duties of Outlook and Organization Specialist. Mr. J. Lee Smith has been assigned as Extension Agronomist,

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12 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion in addition to district agent duties. The agronomy program applies to all counties in Florida and deals . with grain, feed and soil improvement crops. EXTENSION AGENTS AND FEDERAL CROP LOANS Farmers of Florida have obtained crop production loans from funds appropriated by Congress. Local county committees are appointed who have a knowledge of the agricultural needs. This committee, together with the county agents, make recommenda tions governing loans to farmers. CO()PERATION WITH BUREAUS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE The Florida Agricultural Extension Service has cooperated with the Bureau of Animal Industry in the assignment of a specialist from the Bureau to work with beef cattle programs. The expenses of this are borne on a fifty-fifty basis with the Bureau of Animal Industry. 'rhe Extension Service also has a working relationship with the Bureau of Biological Survey. A report of this service is contained in the following pages. The work has been confined to the truck ing area of South Florida, and for the purpose of controlling rats that destroy crops on the lower East Coast and Everglades. The expense of this work is borne by the Bureau of Biological Survey. This cooperative work with the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Bureau of Biological Survey has given valuable assistance in working out the Extension program and to the farmers and stock raisers of this state. FARMERS' WEEK All departments of Extension workers cooperate in the program for Farmers' Week which is an annual event held at the College of Agriculture during August. The attendance at Farmers' Week is stimulated by the activities of the county agents who work up interest in the counties for this event. Facilities are provided to accommodate the visitors by permitting the use of the college dormitories and serving meals at actual cost. The program was divided into sections and sectional programs were arranged by committees from the College of Agriculture as a whole, During 1932 the attendance was around 1,600 men and women.

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Annual Report, 1932 13 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor Information of interest and value to the farmers, growers and housewives of Florida was disseminated during the year in in creasing quantities through the Editorial Department and other divisions of the Agricultural Extension Service. Methods used included bulletins, circulars and other publications, the Agricul tural News Service (weekly clipsheet), the monthly Agricultural Extension Economist, articles for farm papers and newspapers, and radio. The two Editors and two Mailing Clerks devote approximately one-half of their time to work for the Agricultural Extension Service, and the other half to duties connected with the Agricul tural Experiment Station. PUBLICATIONS During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, four new Extension bulletins were printed and one bulletin and one circular were reprinted. The yearly calendar for 1932 was printed and dis tributed. The Agricultural News Service was distributed weekly t.o newspapers, county and home agents, Smith-Hughes agricul ture teachers and others. The Agricultural Extension Economist was sent monthly to nearly 1,000 people interested in economics information. The monthly and final reports of the National Egg laying Contest at Chipley were distributed to contestants and more than 1,000 others. Material for all of these was either written or edited, or both, by the Extension Editors. The five new bulletins amounted to 308 pages of printed matter. Editions ranged from 5,000 to 12,000, with a total of 49,000 copies being printed. The reprinted bulletin was 56 pages in size, and 15,000 copies of it were run. Publications issued during the year are listed below: Pages Bui. 63 Strawberry Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Bui. 64 Save the Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Bul. 65 Club Work and the Farm Boy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Bui. 66 Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Bui. 67 Citrus Insects and Their Control. ................ 140 Bui. 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida (Reprint) ........... . 56 Circ. 27 First . Year Sewing Program (Reprint) ........... 16 Annual Report, 1931 ..................................... 152 Final Report, Fifth Florida National Egg-Laying ConteE,t .... 20 Monthly Report, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest....... 4 1932 Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Edition 12,000 10,000 5,000 12,000 10,000 15,000 15,000 2,000 1,500 750 10,000 31,500 12,000 *Ten issues , of 750 copies each, were paid for by the State Plant Board.

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14 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion In addition to the regular publications listed above, a quantity of supplies, including farm record book and a healthy chick folder, was printed. The annual Florida Farm Outlook Report was mim eographed and distributed. Thousands of copies of Extension bulletins and circulars, both new ones and old ones, were distributed from the mailing room, which is a part of this department. Materials and supplies for use by the agents are distributed from the mailing room also. An enormous quantity of mimeographing for Extension workers was done by the mailing clerks. NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES Newspapers and farm papers receiving the weekly Agricultural News Service continued to clip and reprint copious material, both news stories about the Agricultural Extension Service and its workers and informational material furnished by them and work ers of the Experiment Station. The service carried from eight to 12 different stories each week, and one or more of them was reprinted in from two-thirds to three-fourths of the weekly papers of Florida. Toa certain extent, the material was reprinted by the dailies, also. From three to six stories a week were sent to the state mail service of the Associated Press, for redistribution to its 45 mem ber papers, mostly dailies, in the State. This service did not prove very satisfactory during the year. At infrequent intervals, special stories were sent direct from this office to certain of the dailies, and in most cases they used the material. Two dailies carried farm sections each Sunday to which this office contributed largely. A Farmers' Week page, consisting of 10 to 15 different stories, was carried by one of the Gainesville dailies for four days during that event, copies of the paper being distributed free to visitors by the Extension Service. Farm papers of Florida and the South make copious use of material supplied by this office and by other workers; Occasional stories are printed in national farm magazines. Copies of numer o'..1.s radio talks by staff members are printed by the Florida farm papers. During the year six Florida farm papers printed 71 stories, amounting to 1,714 column inches of printed matter which were furnished by the Editors. This is an average of approximately six stories a month. They printed many other articles by other members of the staff. Southern farm papers printed seven

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Annual Report, 1932 15 stories for a total of 83 column inches of material. Two national papers printed a story each, giving a total of 66 column inches. One paper in Michigan ran a 10-inch story and one in california used a 21-inch story by the Florida Extension Editors. In the Spring of 1932 a number of news stories on Crotalaria were sent to newspapers in Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Iowa, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Most of these were used by papers to which sent. These, together with stories on the same subject in Southern farm papers, resulted in widespread interest in this crop in many other States. RADIO Noon-day farm programs, 45 minutes in length, were broadcast over WRUF each day except Sunday. Approximately 25 minutes of these were devoted to music and 20 minutes to talks prepared by workers of the Co11ege of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture. The programs were arranged and supervised by the Editors, and many of the talks were read by them. During the year a microphone was installed in the buUetin room, and farm program talks now go on the air from the bulletin room studio. The Editors themselves prepared and gave 51 of the farm talks. Other members of the staff prepared the remainder of the 438 which were broadcast. Approximately 175 USDA talks were broadcast during the Florida farm hour. :Quring Farmers' Week the principal addresses were broadcast from the University audi torium each day, and an extra 15-minute period in the evening was given over to talks by visiting farmers. During County Agents' Week, the first of October, an evening broadcast period was used daily. At the end of June this office took over the daily 15-minute period of hints to housewives, and is now broadcasting that fea ture each morning. Once each month 4-H club members and their friends from various Florida counties put on a 30-minute program over WRUF. In most cases the music and talks for these programs were fur nished by 4-H members. The Florida Extension Service joined with the United States Department of Agriculture in celebrating 4-H achievement day on the first Saturday in November with a one-hour program, half of which was furnished from Washington and the other half from each local station. Three stations of the NBC chain in Florida

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension participated in the event. Local programs for these stations were arranged by the Editors. An outstanding special series of talks on ornamentals, prepared at the request of Garden Clubs of the State, was started on Sept. 14, 1932. One talk each week for 44 weeks is scheduled. Copies of all of these talks are sent to five other radio stations in Florida, and are used by them. A total of 7 4 other talks were sent to other Florida stations and used during the year. MISCELLANEOUS A news writing contest was conducted among county and home demonstration agents during the year, with only fair success . The agents expressed an interest in doing more news writing and publicity work, and a large proportion of them enrolled for the contest. A number of them submitted entries for judging and display during County Agent Week in October, 1932. Ribbons were awarded to the winners. Ten club boys attending the annual short course at the Uni versity of Florida in June were given training in news writing, and issued a daily mimeographed paper for those attending the event. Twenty-two club girls attending their short course during the same month at the State College for Women were given train ing in reporting club news.

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Annual Report, 1932 PART II-MEN'S ,v ORK COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P . SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent _ Leader H. G. CLAYTON, Di s trict Agent J. LEE SMITH, Di s trict Ag e nt W. T. NETTLES, District Ag e nt 17 The results of research work, outlook information, farm and grove reco , rd studies and other economic data are used as the basis for developing programs of county Extension work. The Extension program has been based largely upon plans for reduced cost in operations which includ e d (a) a reduction in acreage in so~e cases, (b) lessening the labor cost, (c) economy in the use of fertilizer and the planting of summer and winter legumes; (d) keeping out of debt and (e) following a program .of "living at home." Some of the main projects are as follows: 1. Conservation and improvement of the soil by terracing and use of winter and summer cover crops. 2. Economical production of grains and feed crops by use of cover crops, more intelligent use of commercial fertilizers, spacing, culture and selected ., varieties. 3. More economical production . of cash crops by the intelligent use of commercial fertilizers, improved varieties, proper spacing, and rotation of crops. 4. Improvement of livestock and poultry-introduction of im proved breeding stock, better feeding and pastures. 5. Control of parasites in sheep, cattle and hogs and livestock management to prevent diseases. 6. Reduced production costs of commercial fruits and vegetables through changes in cultural and fertilizer practices. 7. Cooperative purchases and sales. 8. Establishing a home fruit garden, and production of a more complete living on the farms. SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS In January and February a series of "Planning Meetings" was held in the general farm i ng counties to recommend the adjust ments that could be made on farms in the light of the outlook and the research data available. Two thousand and seven hun

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension dred farmers attended. Their names and addresses were taken and by means of direct contacts by county agents and circular letters the program as outlined was followed up. Finally a ques tionnaire was submitted to each farmer asking him to check the practices he had followed that were recommended at the spring meetings. Replies from 20 percent of the persons who received the questionnaire show the following: Percent 1. Produce food and feeds needed for farm and home . consumption. . 91 2. Have a standard r-arden the year round....................... 74 3. Have or begin a hol'l"~ fruit garden of sh: fruit!'................ 70 4. See that money spent has a good chance to come back. . . . . . . . . . 44 5. Establish permanent pasture for works tock and other livestock. . 45 6. Sow crotalaria for improving soil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7. Get improved seed corn for planting.......................... 47 8. Fumigate corn to control weevil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 17 9. Use quickly available nitrogen as a side-dressing for corn if fertilizer is used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 10. Use inorganic nitrogen in cotton fertilizer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11. Space cotton to have 18 to 20 thousand plants to the acre. . . . . . . 46 12. Use Cayana 10 sugarcane for planting ...... '.................. 55 13. Space peanut plants close-double the amount of seed. . . . . . . . . . 81 14. Grow hogs cin worm-free pastures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 15. Grow succession of grazing crops for hogs and market early. . . . 34 16. Arrange to gather a calf crop............................... 63 17. Use purebred sires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 18 . Supply fresh milk for home needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Austrian winter peas and vetch have been the main winter legume crops grown in North and West Florida and turned into the soil. There were 106,000 pounds of seed of these crops planted in Florida during the winter of 1931-32. The yield of corn in 1932 was practically doubled on land where crops had been turned under. CROTALARIA AND OTHER SUMMER COVER CROPS Crotalaria has been used for several years to improve soil for general farm crops and as a summer cover crop for groves and vineyards. In 1932 there was 560,000 pounds of seed sown in Florida. Seed to the value of $60,000 were sold in the state this spring. To demonstrate the benefits derived from crotalaria during the last two years to the farmers of North Florida the county agents have procured 50 demonstrations comprising 524 acres in 1931 and 408 demonstrations comprising 3,538 acres in 1932. These demonstrations showed the usual increase in the yield of corn, peanuts, beans and other crops. In Central and South Florida, soil improvement }egume crops were planted very generally and consisted mainly of crotaJaria,

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Annual Report, 1932 19 soybeans, clovers, velvet beans, cowpeas and lespedeza. Reports from the agents' show 309 demonstrations covering 4,683 acres; 142 of these, covering 2,929 acres, were crotalaria. The results of these demonstrations . have varied with local conditions and types of soil. On potato demonstrations in Palm Beach County one grower cut his fertilizer application by 750 pounds per acre following crotalaria and increased the yield by 18 bushels per acre. Another grower used the same amount of fertilizer but reduced the ammonia one percent and produced an increase of 614 bushels of potatoes following crotalaria. Demonstrations in DeSoto County show an increase of 98 1/3 bushels of potatoes over the check plot adjoining on same type of soil and treated the same way, except for the crop of crotalaria grown. Other growers reported satisfactory crops of cucumbers on nematode infested land following a crop of. crotalaria. In Duval County there were 166 demonstrations on 1,920 acres in cover crops of clovers, soybeans, cowpeas, velvet beans and crotalaria. The crotalaria proved the most satisfactory, pro ducing 10 tons green material per acre, or twice the tonnage pro duced by other crops except cowpeas. In Union and Bradford counties crotalaria produced an increase of 10 to 15 bushels of corn per acre on the most outstanding dem onstration plots. TERRACING, DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION On rolling lands in Northwest Florida subject to heavy rainfall it is essential that the land be terraced. The county agents have demonstrated the value of terraces for several years. These ter racing demonstrations have increased from 1,426 acres in 1925 to 5,500 acres in 1932. County agents have furnished recommendations for drainage and irrigation. One hundred and fifty-seven farmers installed drainage systems according to recommendations on 6,311 acres and 72 farmers were assisted with irrigation systems on 3,104 acres. On 164 farms buildings were either constructed or re modeled according to plans furnished by county agents. FARM CROPS CORN Fertilizing, Side-Dressing:-Commercial fertilizer is used to increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This fertilizer is usually a side-dressing of some quickly available

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension nitrogenous inorganic material. A complete fertilizer is used in some areas. There were 626 demonstrations . conducted by juniors on 696 acres . that produced a total of 19,718 bushels of corn. This was 28 1/3 bushels per acre, or approximately twice the state average. Demonstrations of field selection of seed have been responsible for an increase of seven bushels per acre. Standard Fertilizer and Cover Crop Demonstrations :-To dem onstrate the superiority of the approved practice of cover-crop ping, a series of demonstrations known as the standard demon strations with corn were conducted. The yield of corn per acre following Austrian peas or vetch was 23 bushels; following sum mer cover crop, 18.3 bushels; following farmer's most common practice, 14.6 bushels; and following no fertilizer, 10.5 bushels. It is seen that summer and winter cover crops resulted in increased yields of the corn which followed. Variety Demonstrations :-Out of 65 varieties of corn tested by the Experiment Station, Whatley's Prolific and Kilgore Red Cob have proven the best yielders. Twenty-one demonstrations with these varieties were conducted in 1932 by farmers with the following results: Average yield with improved varieties recomm.ended, 15.5 bushels; average yield of common corn, 10.5 bushels; increased yield due to improved variety, 5 bushels. As a result of the demonstrations conducted last year and pub lished results of experimental and demonstration tests, there were 139 bushels improved varieties of seed corn bought by farmers for planting. Replies to questionnaires sent out indicate that approximately one-third of the farmers attending the planning meetings where improved varieties were recommended planted an improved variety of corn . . CORN WEEVIL CONTROL The fumigating of corn with carbon bisulphide to control corn weevils was generally recommended by county agents. Demon strations were conducted by having the cribs made airtight anc the carbon bisulphate applied regularly. During both 1931 anc. 1932 fumigation saved more than 10 percent of the corn, which would have been lost without fumigation. PASTURES Pasture experiments show that carpet grass, dallis grass and otber tame grasses have carried one cow per acre under careful management and produced as high as 256 pounds beef per acre

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Annual R ep ort, 193 2 21 per annum. County agents have been conducting demonstra tions to show best methods for establishing pastures and the returns that might be expected for several years. Through the influence of this information gathered from demonstrations and tests there were 153 pasture demonstrations comprising 5,096 acres. Fig. 2. -C ounty agents encouraged the development of improv ed pastures for both dairy and beef cattle. Cattle owners report more grazing and l ess feed bills as the result . One pasture demonstration of 100 acres in Dixi e County carried 54 head of cattle, 28 being milk cows, during the best growing seaso n. The owner reports a saving of $18 per cow on feed bill for the milk cows. Many acres of cut-over unimproved lands have been seeded to improved pastures, which indicates a decided progress toward improved live stock production. SOYBEANS Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are easily cured and give fair production on s uitable lands. Thirteen dem onstrations comprising 68 acres produced ton hay more per acre than cowpeas. PEANUTS Spacing Demonstrations :-The results of the thicker spacing as shown by data gathered from 1931 demonstrations and experi mental plots were presented at planning meetings. Reports from farmers who attended these meetings indicate that approximately 80 % of them followed the thicker spacing practices. There were 282 well.planned demonstrations conducted comprising 2,331 acres giving an average increase of 12 bushels per acre. Where thicker spacing and landplaster application were both used the yields were further increased.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension SUGARCANE Mosaic disease and nematode have materially reduced the yield of syrup of the common varieties of red sugarcane. The Cayana 10 variety is nearly immune or resistant to both. To show the superiority of this cane it has been planted side by side with the red variety in 39 demonstrations, and has returned an increased yield of 113 gallons per acre. These demonstrations have caused it to become established generally with farmers who produce syrup on a commercial scale. Replies from 20% of the farmers who attended meetings where Cayana was recommended show that it is being planted in prefer ence to other varieties. COTTON The five-year average production of seed cotton from 1925 to 1929 was 315 pounds per acre. This yield was produced with the use of.$3.44 worth of commercial fertilizer. There are three things-more and better fertilizer, more plants on land, and better varieties-that have been found to increase yield. There were 22 demonstrations conducted with an average yield of 637 pounds per acre compared with 422 pounds by use of usual prac tices, an increase of 215 pounds per acre. The yield of cotton has been increased by putting more stalks on the land-closer rows and thicker in the drill. Demonstrations with 18,000 stalks per acre produced 586 pounds seed cotton and 11,000 stalks yielded only 363 pounds per acre, a difference of 223 pounds in favor of closer spacing. FRUITS In the North Florida area the fruits generally grown are Sat sumas, pears, blueberries, pecans and grapes. Demonstrations with cover crops, fertilization and spraying produced increased tree growth and more bearing surface. In 1931 there were 42 demonstrations covering 299 acres and in 1932 the number was 94,. on 668 acres. More fruits for home use and as cash crops could be profitably produced in this general farming area. The county agents have made it a part of their program to increase the planting of such fruits for home use and for marketing. Both citrus and truck growers have been aided in obtaining economical production. The program has been directed to reduce production costs from every angle possible. The economic con ditions have caused growers to use Extension workers to a greater extent than when economic conditions were better. New ferti

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Annual Report, 1932 23 lizer materials, new insecticides and unusual weather conditions, . coupled with low prices, called for readjustments even among the most experienced and best growers. County agents devote a large part of their time to calls from grove owners for advice on f erti lization, culture, spraying, insect and disease control. The value of cover crops as demonstrations in many groves has made it possible to carry on an extensive program in cover crop work with the result that growers have produced their fruit at a much lower cost per box because of this program. The Experiment Station, Agricultural College and Extension Service jointly compiled uniform fertilizer recommendations for all commercial crops. These were published in an Extension circular. This served as a basis for uniform recommendations by county agents. This fertilizer program is subject to modifi cations according to soil type, age of trees, and sufficiently flexible for all varieties of citrus. Growers report a saving of from 30 to 60 percent in the costs over former fertilizer programs. Demonstrations, tours, meetings, personal visits, the radio, press and letters were all used in carrying out the horticultural program. The program of economical citrus production included cover crops for soil improvement, reduced cultivation which goes with the cover crops program, careful timing of spraying operations, and less spray operations due to better development of friendly fungi where cover crops are produced. More nitrogen from cheaper sources reduces fertilizer cost and increases the vigor of the tree to better resist insect and disease injury. The program for truck crops involved cover crops, cheaper fer tilization from inorganic and high analysis goods, and improving spraying methods. Some of the results of the year's work are summarized as fol lows: 137 citrus meetings, 169 truck crop meetings and 101 home gardens meetings were held during the year. A total of 248 news stories about citrus, 293 about truck crops and 224 about home gardens and home beautification were published. There were 4,762 farm visits on citrus, 3,774 on truck crops and 1,654 on home gardens made during the year. There were 8,890 office calls relating to citrus production, 8,338 relating to truck crops and 3,058 . relating to home gardens and home beautification. During the year there . were made 3,937 inspections of citrus groves, involving 54,810 acres; 2,060 inspections of truck crop properties, involving 10,281 acres; and 991 inspections of home

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24 Florida Cooperative Ex_tens.ion gardens and small fruits, involving 7 44 acres. Improved prac tices were followed by 3,625 citrus gro':'7ers, truck crop producers and home gardeners handling 66,335 acres; 2,112 of t}1ese irivolved fertilizer practices. There were conducted 375 demonstrations on 2,255 acres of truck crops and 647 demonstrations on 19,565 acres of citrus. In the truck work, demonstrations in fertilization, disease and ins~ct 1 ~ . ontrol, seed varieties and time , of planting were carried on. There were 145 of these demonstrations, covering 1,387 acres. In Palm Beach County the agent reports an increase of 15% on demonstrations where certified seed potatoes were planted. LIVESTOCK POULTRY County . agents have conducted 29 . 5 demonstrations involving 66,658 birds in culling, better feeding, feed growing, incubation and brooding of poultry. Home built brick brooders are in use on the recommendations of county agents. Feed prices have fallen faster than egg prices and the . close of the year finds the poultry business in a more favorable position than other livestock enterprises. Reports show 128 demonstrations including 32,494 birds in the state-wide Grow Healthy Chick program; culling, proper feeding, disease control and marketing have been carried on. Nine thousand chickens have been vaccinated . to prevent sore~ head. Several hundred purebred chicks have been placed on the poultry farms for breeding purposes. As a result of the devel opment of the extension program there are to be found more purebred, better kept flocks, and a more profitable poultry indus try in the state. DAIRYING The marketing problem confronts the dairymen of , the state. Milk prices have fallen and there is a surplus of whole milk to supply the trade. The county agents have actively assisted dairymen in perfecting organizations to stabilize prices. Two hundred and thirty demonstrations have been conducted with dairying (involving 6,288 cattle) and . 85 dairymen haye been as sisted in securing purebred sires and 126 in securing purebred females. The development of pastures and the production of green feeds have received much attention. County agents have received 4,101 office calls from dairymen, have made 1,598 farm visits to dairies and have held 163 dairy meetings.

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Annual Report, 1932 25 In Duval County the agent put on 40 dairy feeding demonstra~ tions to reduce the protein content of the ration from 24 to 18 per cent. This was put on with a hope of correcting some breeding troubles confronting dairymen. The results seemed to indicate an improved condition and the cows showed improvement in flesh and weight. Through the efforts of this agent, 102 purebred dairy bulls have been brought into the county. More dairymen are now raisirig their best heifers to replace cows taken out of production. Approximately 2,500 heifers have been raised by the dairymen this past year. BEEF CATTLE There have been 233 demonstra~ions of better herd manage ment conducted; they touched 64,625 head of cattle. There were 789 cows treated for worms, and 2,682 vaccinated for hem orrhagic septicemia. Three hundred and fifty-six purebred bulls were secured by farmers. Local cattlemen's associations have been organized for the protection and improvement of the range cattle. Livestock shows with exhibits of bulls, scrub cows and their grade calves were featured. In one show 200 head of cattle were exhibited. These shows demonstrated what had been done in improving the cattle by the introduction of purebred bulls and gave many farmers and . cattlemen a living picture of what can be done in improving the quality of cattle. Demonstrations to relieve salt sickness in range cattle have been conducted by the agents with good results. SHEEP Stomach and tape worms have been responsible for the decrease in the number of range sheep. They can be controlled by drench ing sheep with a solution of bluestone and nicotine sulphate. Demonstrations to control these worms have resulted in regular treatments through the summer season, giving a larger lamb crop, stronger sheep, and larger fleeces. This year 5,726 sheep were treated. Nine purebred rams were placed by comity agents. SWINE Demonstrations were conducted in which hogs were pastured on grazing crops rather than on permanent pastures; young pigs were kept free of worms and were supplied green grazing crops. Young pigs handled in this way made good growth and were thrifty. This is an inexpensive method of feeding hogs and makes them marketable at from 6 to 9 months of age.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion County agents vaccinated 117,942 head of hogs as a prevention against hog cholera. Two hundred and fifty-two swine demon strations involving 5,579 animals were completed. One hundred and fifty-seven farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars and gilts. Many hogs have been butchered and the meat cured on the farm on account of low prices. Much of this cured meat was traded for supplies and farm labor. Meat cutting and curing demonstrations have been held to improve the trim and curing process. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS FARM MANAGEMENT AND CREDIT County agents in cooperation .with necessary committees han dled applications for crop production loans for 2,395 farmers. An outlook report was prepared by the Extension Service; it was based on state and federal information dealing with demand, supply, and credit. This report was put in the hands of agents, farmers, and business men. Agents report that 2,976 farmers adjusted their cropping systems because of information given in the outlook report. Three hundred and thirty-one farmers kept farm accounts on forms supplied by the Extension Service. Studies of the corn enterprise and other farm management practices have been made. Poultrymen have been assisted in keeping cost records. These records show cost of producing laying stock, feed cost, egg pro, duction costs, and size of flocks most profitable. County agents have assisted in getting 138 complete citrus grove records during the year. PURCHASING AND SELLING County agents have arranged for cooperative sales and pur chases at a substantial saving to the farmers. The items con sisted of poultry, dairy, beef, hogs, sheep, fruits, vegetables, cot ton, peanuts and miscellaneous farm products. Total sales were $3,052,056; purchases, $48,962; saving, $156,842.82. Where there were no cooperative organizations functioning the county agents through their committees marketed a variety of miscellaneous farm products and purchased supplies at a sub stantial saving. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES A stock show was held in Tallahassee under the supervision of the county agent in connection with the state 4-H Pig Club Show

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Annual Report, 193 2 27 where poultry, sheep, dairy cattle and beef cattle of the county were shown. Personal services to the farmer s and growers, including con sultations, inspections of groves or fields to see conditions and advise the growers, and many other things took up a large part of the county agent's time. Fig . 3.-Both county and hom e demonstration agent s rendered va luabl e and effective se rvice in conn ect ion with unemployment relief. Co mmunit y garden s were planted in man y places . A s eedbed for one large gardening operation i s shown here. County agents have assisted in planting gardens and distrib uting seed and fertilizer for the un e mployed in cooperation with the Florida Emergency Relief Administration . The largest gar dening project for unemployed was in Hillsborough County where the county agent assisted in planning the work and supervising the growing of the crops on a 160-acre tract. The agents have cooperated in the management of 6 fairs and have displayed 58 fair exhibits. County agents have made 1,211 soil tests for acidity and 108 phosphate tests _ on citrus and truck soils. PUBLICITY MEANS USED FOR DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE Practically every means of disseminating knowledge at the county agents' command has beert used consistently, as follows:

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension Number of per sona l lett ers . ............. . . ... ....... .. ........ . 28,236 33,924 216 68 7 96 2,031 Bulletins se nt ................ . . .... .. ......... . . .. ...... .. .. . . Talks over radio .. .... .... . .. .. . . ....... .. ....... ... .. ... ..... . Tours conducted .. . ............... . ............. . ............. . Circular letter s ......... .. ........ . .. .. .. .. .. ..... . ... . .. ..... . Newspap e r articles . ....................................... .. . . There were 68 tours conducted with 2,934 farmers and busines s men attending. About half were county -wid e farm tours. Those attending saw a cross-section of the agent's plan worked out in Fig. 4. A unique part of a county ex hibit at one of the larg er fairs. demonstrations. The tour s were concluded with program s . These tours have been effective in showing the value of constructive Extension work. MEETINGS Extension agencies served the people through meetings of va rious kinds during the year. Statistics on these follow: Number 1. Training me e ting s for leader s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2 . Method demonstration me et ing s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,306 3. Result demon s tration m eet ing s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 4. Achievement days and fair s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. Camps h e ld, junior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6. Other extension meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,327 7. Meeting r , held by local leader s . . •. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 8. In s titute ................... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Attendance 561 14,037 6,745 5,622 1,202 53,997 3,375 751

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Annual Report, 1932 29 The Institute mentioned above deserves special attention, it being the first one held at the 4-H Club Camp on Choctawhatchee Bay. Programs for both men and women on livestock, field crops, nutrition, home beautification and other subjects, in addition to recreation, were presented. 4-H CLUB WORK There were 1,333 boys enrolled in 4-H Clubs. There were 10 Achievement Day programs conduc . ted in connection with final contests. The completions were larger than in former years. Older boys are assisting the county agents in club leadership work. Corn and truck projects led by a wide margin. This was ex pected as most of the district is in the trucking section of the state, still there were 73 projects in poultry, 74 in calves and 73 in swine. OTHER PROJECT WORK RODENTS AND INSECT CONTROL WORK The work with rat control shows that there was 8,310 pounds of poison bait used, and 2,362 pounds of poison bait used in com batting insects. Reports from Dade County show a saving cif . $160,709.50. . GENERAL ACTIVITIES COUNTY AGENTS Number of county agents ................................ . Number of months of service ............................. . Number of communities in which Extension program has been conducted ............................................ . Number of voluntary county or community local leaders or committeemen assisting in the Extension program ............ . Total number of farm and home visits ..................... . Number of different farms and homes visited ............... . Number of office and telephone calls ....................... . Number of days agents in office ........................... . Number of days agents in field ........................... . Number of news articles or stories published ............... . Number of individual letters written ...................... . Number of bulletins distributed ........................... . Number of radio talks made .............................. . Number of events where Extension exhibits were shown .... . Number Training meetings for local leaders ................. 38 Method demonstration meetingr. held . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,306 Meetings held at result. demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Tours conducted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Achievement days held-Adult work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Achievement days held-4-H Club . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Encampments held for 4-H Clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Other Extension meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,317 Meetings held by local leaders-Adult work . . . . . . . . 34 Meetings held by local leaders-4-H Club . . . . . . . . . . . 151 38 453 496 691 35,490 16,289 92,180 3,276 8,218 2,031 28,236 33,924 216 58 Attendance 338 14,037 6,745 2,934 806 4,816 1,186 53,997 659 2,716

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension Cereals Numbe~ of method demonstration meetings ................ . Number of adult result demonE.trations completed ........... . Total number of acres in result demonstrations ............. . Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrationscorn, 8 bu.; oats, 5 bu.; rye 5 bu. Number of farmers following improved practices ........... . Number of acres involved ................................ . Legumes and Forage Crops Number of method demonstration meetings held ............ . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of acrec:, in adult result demonstrations ............ . Number of farmers following improved practices ........... . Number of acres involved ................................. . Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco and Other Special Crops Number of method demonstrations held ................... . Number of adult result demonstrations completed ......... . Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ............ . Average increased yield per acre in adult result demonstrations-Irish potatoes, 24.8 bu.; sweet potatoes, 32 bu.; cotton, 198 lbs.; tobacco, 24.8. Number of farmers following improved practices ........... . Number of acres involved ................................ . 102 369 3,824 1,433 19,042 279 887 13,325 1,667 18,307 152 289 1,311 1,737 6,981 Fruits, Vegetables and Beautification of Home Grounds Number of method demonstration meetings held ............ . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of acres in adult result demonstrations ............. . Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrationstruck crops, 20 bu.; tree fruits, 20 bu.; bush and small fruits, 196 qts. Number of grove or field inspections made .............. ... . Number of spray or dusting demonstrations conducted ...... . Number of acres involved ................................ . Number of cover crop demonstrations conducted ........... . Number of acres involved in cover crop demonstrations ..... . Number of growers known following fertilizer practices recommended ............................................... . Number of growers known following improved practices this year believed due to Extension efforts .................... . Number of acres involved ................................. . Savings made in fertilizer practices ....................... , $ Forestry Number of method demonstration meetings ................ . Number of adult result demonstrations .................... , Acres new forest or farm woodland areas planted .......... , . Number of farms asE.isted in forest or wood-lot management .. Acreage ............................................ . Number of farms planting windbreaks ..................... . Animal and Insect Pest Control Number of method demonstration meetings ................ . Number of result demonstrations completed ............... . Pounds of poison used ................................... . Agricultural Engineering Number of method demonstration meetings ................. . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of farms following recommendations in installing drainage systems ....................... ............... . 896 1,978 22,543 7,488 1,031 61,776 566 8,324 2,358 3,995 67,012 351,637 21 15 95 52 8,445 17 230 358 18,071 205 240 151

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Annual Report, 1932 Acres drained ........................................... . Number of farms following recommendations in installing irrigation systems ........................................ . Acres irrigated ......................................... . Number of farms building terraces to control erosion ....... . Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented ............ .. . . Number of farm!:', clearing land of stumps ................. . Number of families assisted with house-planning .......... . Number of dwellings constructed ...................... ... . Number of dwelling-s remodeled ............. .. ........... . Number of sewage disposal. systems installed .............. . Number of water systems installed .......... ; ............ . Number of lighting syrtems installed ..................... . Number of farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled ........ _ ..•.................................. . 1 Dairy barns, 56: poultry houses, 129; silo s , 30; others, 33. Numher of farms following recommendati 0 ns 011 machinery .. Tractors, 36: tillage implements, 167; harvesters and threshers, 6; others, 101; miscellaneous machinery, 169. Poultry Number of method demonrtration meetings ................. . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations .. Total profit or saving result demonstrations . . .............. $ Number of farmB assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breeding stock ..... : ...............................•... Number of farms keeping performance records of animals Dairy Cattle Number of method demonstration meeting:: ................. . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations .. Total profit or saving result demonstrations ................ $ Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breeding stock ........................................ . Number of farms keeping performance records of animals Other Livestock Number of method demonstration meetings ............... . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... -. Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations .. Total profit or saving result demonstrations ................ $ Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breeding stock ................... . .................... . Number of farms keeping performance records of animals ... . Number of animals vaccinated ........................... . Number of animal!:' . treated for worms ..................... . Number of sanitation demonstrations completed ............ . Number of animals involved ................ .. ........... . Number of animals obtained for farmers .................. . Number of offspring obtained this year from sires secured through Extension efforts .............................. . Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation Number of method demonstration meetings ................ . Number of adult result demonstrations completed .......... . Number of farms keeping farm accounfr , .................. . Number of farms keeping cost-of-production records ........ . Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts .... . Number of farms assisted in making inventory or credit st:i.tements ................................................ . Number of farm business or enterprise i:'.Urvey records taken .. 31 6,151 111 3,925 228 5,753 80 46 7 12 29 21 5 238 220 226 235 64,625 23,717 ,123 134 67 230 6,288 14,740 85 66 199 391 20,271 20,402 568 61 138,281 26,588 94 16,250 9,020 25,635 82 178 331 361 250 327 194

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension Number of farms making recommended changes in their business .......................................... ... . Number of other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete farming systems ..................•........... .. .. Number of farms advised relative to leases ................ . Number of farms ar.sisted in obtaining credit .............. . Number of different farms assisted in using outlook information Corn, 676; cotton, 732; potatoes, 334; tobacco, 215; truck crops, 809; dairy cattle, 110; beef cattle, 309; hogs, 535; sheep, 25; poultry, 241. Marketing (Farm and Home) Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups organized .............................................. . Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups pre140 495 320 2,395 2,976 11 viously organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Member , hip in associations organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,455 Value of products marketed by all associations ......... . .... $3,670,870 Value of supplies purchased by all associations .......... . ... $ 395,285 Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups with problems of-preliminary analysis, 27; organization, 35; ac counting and auditing, 19; financing, 41; businesr. policies, 46; production to meet market demand, 60; reduction of market losses, 40; use of current market information, 56; standard izing, 48; processing or manufacturing, 10; packaging and g-rading, 50; lo ading, 22; transporting, 22; warehousing, 11; keeping membership informed, 52; merging into larger units, 19. Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems of-standardizing, 751; pack aging and grading, 375; use of current market information, 2,220. . Savings made by: Cooperative Sales .............•...................... $ 167,786.50 Cooperative Purchases ................................ $ 32,136.00 Community or Country Life Activities Number of communities assisted in making social or country life surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Number of country life conferences for community leaders . . . . 16 Number of community groups assk.ting with organization problems, activities, or meeting programs . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Number of communities developing recreation programs . . . . . . 19 Number of community or county-wide pageants or plays presented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Number of communities assisted in improving hygienic practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Number of school or other community grounds improved . . . . . 12 Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities. , , . . . . 15 Total number of different communities assisted with community or country life work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . PROGRAM SUMMARY Farm Crops ............ I Horticultural Crops ..... I Livestock ............. \ Agricultural Economics .. Miscellaneous and Proj gram Making .... , ... Forestry .............. ,I Number Number Day!!, by CommuniSpecialties ists 279 110 271 163 208 263 330 148 I. 70 35 44 3 MeetDays of ings Work Held 1,657 r 428 2,495 i 407 3,543 603 1,180 290 I 363 71 75 11 Farm Visits 4,972 10,190 12,359 3,505 541 180

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Annual Report, 1932 33 BOYS' 4-H CLUB WORK R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT Boys' 4-H club work shows an increased enrollment for 1932 as against a decrease in both 1930 and 1931. The opportunity for earning more money by outside work is limited, which has made our rural boys more country-minded. More efficient 4-H organizations and the slowly developing leadership of older club boys is overcoming the major cause of the loss of membership in the past two years, lack of time on the part of the county agents. The following table shows the gains and losses in the different projects: PotaPoulTotal Total Corn Cotton toes Truck Citrus try Pig Calf Misc. 1932 rota!, 1932 .. 654 123 195 425 100 346 507 235 538 3123 1931., 612 200 163 551 71 355 432 150 194 }ain or Loss 42 -77 32 -126 29 -9 75 85 344 395 ORGANIZATION The improvement in local organization of 4-H club work con tinues and increased enrollment and increased percentage of re ports prove the value of such organizations. While the number of local club organizations has decreased two, due to consolida tions, the clubs are functioning more efficiently. More of the routine work connected with the projects is being handled by the older boys and the club officers. With the ever-increasing de mands upon the county agents, the only hope for continuing 4-H club work at anywhere near its present volume rests upon better organization and the development of local leadership. Local 4-H Clubs :-Twenty-five of the 32 agents reporting club work have one or more organized clubs. A total of 111 local clubs are functioning. Charters have been awarded to seven clubs, two of which have won gold seals for their club achievements. That the clubs can and do function is shown by the fact that during 1932 the local clubs held 151 meetings (attendance, 2,716) which were neither arranged for nor attended by the county agents. Outstanding Local Clubs:-The Lake Worth Boys' 4-H Club of Palm Beach County is an example of efficient organization over a period of years. This club has a small membership, averaging 1931 2728

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension about 14. Every boy of club age except one living in the area outlined by the county agent as belonging to the club was a mem ber in 1932. The club has met regularly once a month for five years. This club has never failed to furnish a creditable exhibit at the fairs and contests in the county. The county delegation to the short course has always included members of this club. The record books are well kept and a large per cent of the projects completed. This club was the first in Florida to earn a charter and later a gold seal, given to any boys' 4-H club which meets certain requirements as to membership, meetings and projects. One of its members was one of the two 4-H boys representing Florida at the National 4-H Camp. The Newberry Club of Alachua County was judged the second best all-around boys' 4-H club in the county in 1931. When new officers were elected for this year, a definite plan was outlined to win first place. The officers worked out a plan to increase en rollment and to keep the record books up to date. A month before the county 4-H club contest, a committee was appointed to see that all record books were completed and sent in and that all the calves and pigs were exhibited as well as the corn, cotton, pota toes and peanuts. At contest time two trucks were secured and all club exhibits were sent to the contest. Sixty-eight records were secured from the one club and 67 exhibits were made. The plan outlined in the spring was carried out and the club won first place in the county. LEADERSHIP With the local organizations comes the necessity of some local leadership. The lack of leaders has been the biggest obstacle in organizing local clubs. The work of the leader was not under stood at first and there was great difficulty in getting competent men and women to serve. This difficulty is being gradually over come. The older club boys and the older club girls are taking over the job of leading their community clubs. The clubs are placing more responsibility on the older members. The clubs have project leaders or captains whose duty is to visit the younger members, help them with their record books and to act as leaders in their community. The social side of 4-H club work is being directed by the club members through their social committees. Parties, picnics and camp fires are planned and carried out by the older members. It is no longer necessary for the county agent to take active charge of all details of club work.

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Annual Report, 1932 35 Obtaining records is a big item in club work. The perc~pt~ge . of reports in weU..:organized clubs averages nearly 50 % gr.eater than under the old method when the county agent did not secure the active assistance of the older club members. The training in leadership which the older members get from trying to help the younger ones is building an ever-increasing number of young people in rural communities who are not only willing but also able to plan and execute for the general welfare. In 1931 out of 193 local 4-H leaders but 81 were older club members, while in 1932 out of 225 local leaders 106 were old club members. When 4-H club work comes to the point that it has grown and trained its own leadership, the problem of rural leadership will be partly solved. PROJEGT DEMONSTRATIONS DEPRESSION DIFFICULTIES The lack of money and the surety of low prices for products forced a change in methods of conducting project work. The boys have been restricted in the money procurable for carrying on their work. Again, the low price of farm products has stressed the necessity of cutting costs of production. The boys have been attempting to produce their crops and animals in the most eco nomical ways. With all the attempts for lowering costs, the profits have been very small. FARM CROPS Corn :-356 boys grew 452 acres of corn and produced 13,612 bushels. The average yield was but 30.1 bushels against 37.3 for ,193'1. This decrease was caused in a large part by less fertilizer being used. The price of corn was so low that side-dressing with a quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer was not recommended. Cotton :-The enrollment in the cotton project dropped from 106 in 1931 to 66 in 1932. The general lack of finances and the at tempt to lower cotton acreage worked to secure the lower enroll ment. The yield of 966 pounds seed cotton per acre was very good, as the boys decreased the amount of fertilizer used per acre. In 1932, 400 pounds per acre was a fair average while in previous years the average was around 6o'O pounds. Peanuts:-While this project is a minor one, but 56 boys com:. pleting, it showed a 70 % increase over 1931. The drive for in creased acreage of feed crops was responsible for the increase. More boys are growing peanuts to fatten their pigs.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Home Gardens:-This club increased 150% over 1931. Two hundred and three club boys completed their work in home gar dens, against 79 in 1931. The boys made very little cash profit from their gardens but they added much to the family food supply. Again, the club boys showed a response to a popular demand. The demand for increased gardens was answered in a fine manner. Truck Crops:-,-The crop used depends upon the truck crops grown in the boy's community, as the boy in a bean growing sec tion usually grows beans. The profit in 1932 depended upon mar ket conditions at the time the crop was harvested. One boy in Hillsborough County happened to have a fine crop of beans ready just as the crop in the Glades was cut off by water. The result was that he had a profit of over $200. Another boy in the same community who had his crop mature two weeks earlier made practically nothing. The truck crop projects were confined to the counties and communities where the raising of truck is the main agricultural business of the farmers. Seventy-three boys com pleted their projects in truck. Citrus:-ln Manatee County three clubs are continuing with their citrus nursery projects. The work is carried on in connection with their rural schools. The club boys fence off a small plot of ground, prepare the soil and each boy plants a row or two of sour orange seed. The seedlings are fertilized and cared for as directed by the county agent. At the proper time the little trees are budded. When the trees have reached the right age, the boys have them to sell or to set out at home. The oldest club in the county, at Parrish, has trees ready for setting out in a grove. Some are starting a small grove of their own and some are selling the trees. In addition to raising trees each club member is given instructions in the identification and control of citrus insects and diseases. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY With increased production of feed there came an increase in the number of pigs raised. Two hundred and twenty boys com pleted their pig project, raising 627 pigs. This was an increase of 12 boys and 172 pigs over last year. The boys are growing more feed crops and are fattening their pigs in place of selling them for breeding stock. The low market price for hogs made it almost impossible for the boys to make a profit, but most of them showed a fair labor income. Bill Clegg of Alachua County carried out a very complete dem onstration in swine production in cooperation with the animal

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Annual Report, 1982 37 husbandry department of the Experiment Station. Good stock and a good system of grazing and fattening crops enabled Bill to get $4.45 per hundred pounds for his litter of nine pigs which were sold in Moultrie, Georgia, when the prevailing price was $3.75. The pigs were farrowed early in February. They were raised under a cooperative agreement with the Florida Experiment Station and on a gazing crop system worked out by the Station. They were farrowed in a clean house and immediately turned on a field of oats. Later they were grazed on millet and sudan grass. They were fed shorts, dry peanuts, corn, and milk and supple mental feeds, and had a mineral mixture before them. They were weaned at two months old, and about the middle of July were turned on a field of corn to fatten. The total cost of producing the pigs was $33.64. The nine pigs, averaging 182 pounds, brought $72.89, leaving a profit of $39.64. There are two main reasons for the pigs topping the market ; they were free of worms and they were of fine quality and the size which the market prefers. Arthur McNeeley has his first pig club pig. This Poland China sow has raised over 100 pigs. Arthur has a herd of Poland Chinas which he hopes will help him go to . college. DAIRY HUSBANDRY The dairy club is growing. The eradication of the Texas fever tick is encouraging the introduction of better milk cows. Two hundred and twenty-one club members raised dairy animals in 1932 while 172 were members in 1931. With the return of better times this project will show a decided growth. Twenty-four Duval County boys who raised purebred heifers last year are continuing with their cows this year. They are keeping feed and milk records. Three of the cows give promise of being outstanding milk producers. In Hernando County, B. E. Lawton, county agent, brought a carload of Jerseys froi:n Tennessee, 14 of which were placed with 4-H club members. POULTRY HUSBANDRY This project remains about the same. The boys are culling their flocks and trying to decrease production costs. Club boys continue to be among the leaders in the Home-Egg-Laying Con test.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion FORESTRY This project is new and promises to be aninteresting one. Fifty three acres were planted.to pines by club boys in Liberty County, and 85 per cent of these plantings were successful. The others failed because of poor drainage or destruction by hogs. Fire was kept from all plantings by means of fire lines. In Palm Beach County a community reforestation project is being attempted by the club boys in cooperation with an interested citizen who is furnishing the land and protecting against fire . . FARM COST ACCOUNTING A new type of citrus club work was attempted this year. In Orange and Lake counties boys kept grove cost accounting rec ords on commercial groves. Record books approved by the Ex tension Economics Department were furnished the boys. The boys kept complete records on bearing groves. The boys met with the County Agent at intervals and the records were studied. Visits were made to the groves on which records were kept and the grove owner's system studied. The records kept are to be checked and commented upon at the end of the year by the Ex tension Farm Management Specialist and returned to the boys. This project is limited to boys in high school. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES The aim of club work-to improve farm and home life-is not confined to the production of products. The socialization of farm people is just as important. Club work has its biggest opportunity in this field. The fostering of the cooperative spirit and the de velopment of trained rural leadership means much to the future of rural America. 4-H club work is trying to do its part in building intelligent citizens out of its members. Recreation :-The lack of money for trips, picture shows and the usual types of recreation has left a blank in rural social life which needs filling. Club boys and girls are trying to meet the emergen cy through more socials, picnics, fish frys and camps. The only opportunity some farm boys and girls have is furnished by the 4-H club. Four recreation leadership training schools were held again in cooperation with the Playground and Recr~ation Association of America. This was the second of a series of four which will be held in the state. The trouble is not in getting enough interested leaders to take the course but to keep the number small enough

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Annual Report, 193 2 39 that the instructions can be given in the proper way. The leaders attending have gone back to their comm unitie s and have taken the lead in improving community recreational activities. Radio Programs :-The club department continues to provide a 3O-minute program over WRUF each ronth, the boys having one month and the girls the next. Th ' e prog . r1:tms are varied to show the various phase s of club work. In addition to the regular fea ture , speakers were furni s hed for Florida's part in the National 4-H Achievement program on N ove m be r 5. The 4-H c lub story has been told from every radio statio n in the state on at least one occa s ion during the ye ar. Club-Camps:-The summer club camp continues to hold its pop ularit y with the boy s . Tw e nt y -thr ee ca mp s were held with a total attendance of 1,176. Howard Curry a nd Donald Matthews were employed again to a ss i st with the camps. A program of supervised recr eat ion a nd leader s hip training is supplied for each camp. A spirit of healthy rivalry i s built. The boy s are divid e d into squads of 10 and the sq uad s co mpete in all phase s of camp life for the ribbons given to eac h member of the honor sq uad. The We st Florida Club Camp was improved b y the building of two more cottages and the in sta llation of a lighting and a water system . The va lu e of the centra l camp i s being appreciated more Fig. 5 . ~ The 4 -H c lub bo ys attending t h e an , 1ual s hor t ro u r e at the Uni ve rsity of 1l orid a plant ed a pa lm tree in l : onor of t h e 200t h anni ve rsary of the birth of George Wa s hington.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension each year. The camp was used for a West Florida farmers' in stitute this year. Annual Short Course :-The biggest event of the club year is the short course. The county champions meet at the University of Florida for a week of inspiration and instruction. Many boys get the inspiration to go to co1lege from their visit to the short course. In June, 1932, 258 boys were enrolled. Courses were given in livestock, dairying, horticulture, poultry, farm mechanics, farm accounting, tree surgery, swimming and organized recreation. The evenings were used for entertainment. A George Washing ton program was put on one night and a palm was planted in memory of the first President. STATE EXHIBITS South Florida Fair:-4-H club work made an exhibit of corn and cotton at the South Florida Fair in February, 1932. The cotton exhibit attracted much favorable attention from the northern visitors. John Hentz of Liberty County won the grand champion bushel and the grand champion 10-ear exhibit for the second time. Union County showed the best county exhibit of 10 bushels. For the first time, a calf club show was held at this fair. Twen ty-six registered Jersey calves were shown. Duval County boys exhibited the greater part of the calves shown. On one day all the Duval club members came to Tampa and witnessed the judg ing. A parade of the club members and their animals was staged before the grandstand. State Pig Club Show :-For the third year, the Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored the State Pig Club Show. Over 100 club pigs were exhibited. John Carter, Jr., of Jefferson County, showed the grand cham pion barrow, a Chester White. He was awarded a $100 scholar ship offered by Frank E. Dennis of Jacksonville, Florida. Eugene Boyles of Suwannee County showed the grand cham pion breeding pig, a Duroc Jersey, and won a $150 scholarship to the University of Florida offered by Frank E. Dennis. State Poultry Club Show:-The Second Florida 4-H Poultry Show was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair. This was open to boys and girls. Two hundred thirty-one birds were exhibited in 1932 against 180 in 1931. The poultry judging contest held in connection with the show was won by a team of boys from Lake County. Tom Lamb of Orange County won the $100 schol

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Annual Report, 1932 41 arship to the University of Florida offered to the high individual in the judging contest. STATE PRIZE WINNERS FOR 1932 Jack Platt of Marion County, Marable Love of Leon County, and Guy Botts of Santa Rosa County entered the College of Agri culture this year on their Florida Bankers' Association 4-H scholarships. Frances Allen of Madison County entered on his Frank E. Dennis scholarship. Bankers' Scholarship :-The Florida Bankers' Association offers three $100 scholarships to the Florida College of Agricul ture. The scholarships are awarded at the short course on an examination given by the State Boys,Club Agent. The winners for 1932 were W. W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County for West . Florida, William Clegg of Alachua County for Central Florida and David Scott of DeSoto County for South Florida. National 4-H Carnp:-Each state is allowed to send but two boys and two girls to this camp, which is held in Washington. The delegates are the two most outstanding club boys and girls in the state, the requirements being rigid. Ralph Arant of Santa Rosa County and Herbert Fritz of Palm Beach County attended the camp in June, 1932. Expenses for this trip were supplied by the Boys' 4-H Club Fund. BOYS' 4-H CLUB STATISTICS ORGANIZATION 111 Organized community 4-H clubs 8 County club organizations ENROLLMENT AND COMPLETION 2409 Members enrolled 3123 Different projects carried by club members 1430 Members completed 1858 Projects completed PROJECT WORK Crops 356 members completed 56 memberii:' , completed 6 members completed 115 members completed 66 members completed 1 inember completed 203 members completed 73 members completed 89 members completed 41 members completed Project corn ........... . peanuts ........ . Irish potatoes ... . sweet potatoes .. . cotton ......... . tobacco ........ . home garden .... . truck crop ...... . small fruits ..... . home beautification 74 members completed cover-crop 61 . members completed forestry Acres Grown 426 75 9 71 75 1 73 70 16 Yield 13,612 bu. 2,572 bu. 1,162 bu. 8,266 bu. 72,109 lbs. seed cotton 750 lbs. 41 homes beautified 74 acres improved 144 acres planted

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Livestock 171 members completed poultry 144 members completed dairy 10 members completed beef cattle 220 members completed r . wine Farm Management 140 members completed farm record s Leadership and Recreation 4 Demonstration 'teams trained 8 Juaging teamstrained 34 Leadership meetings with 223 attending 27 Achievement days held, 4,816 attending 151 Social meetings held, 2,716 attending 23 Club camps held, 1,076 attending Animal s In v olved 6,943 birds 210 animals 14 animals 627 animals

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Annual Report, 1932 43 DAIRYING HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1932, in cooperation with the county agents: Dade, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Martin, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Her nando, Orange, Polk, Lake, Marion, Bradford, Union, St. Johns, Duval, Alachua, Suwannee, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Calhoun, Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escambia. Some cooperative dairy work was carried on with farmers in some of the counties not having county agents: Bay, Gadsden, Madison, Columbia, Putnam, Citrus, Volusia, Seminole, Pasco, Glades, and Broward. DAIRY FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS The increase in forage production was continued in 1932. The efforts of Extension workers were limited to assistance in the production of pasture crops, silage crops and some hay crops. The very low prices for grain and mill feeds, together with the low yield of corn and other grain crops _grown in Florida makes it impractical to devote time to demonstrations with grain crops. There has been an increase of approximately 3,970 acres of grazing and silage crops in the market milk areas of the state during the last 12 months. This has reduced the cost of pro ducing milk very materially. The cooperative purchases of mill feed and grains in car-lots, and the home mixing of the dairy feeds at the barn to supplement the roughage has saved the dairymen of the state $75,000 to $100,000 in reduced cost of producing milk. E. C. Fogg, secretary of the Miami Home Milk Producers Association, states that during March, 1932, five mem bers of their association saved $1,356 by cooperative purchase of feeds. This reduction in cost of producing milk has been an important factor in helping many dairymen to meet outside com petition, and in many cases it was the means of enabling the dairy men to continue in the dairy business. An important part of the feed growing program has been to get the dairies located on lands best adapted to growing feed crops. Eleven thousand acres of farm lands have been purchased by 73 dairymen to enlarge their pasture areas. With paved roads and modern trucks, it is practical for dairymen to move 15 to 20 miles out from town if necessary to locate on good land. There is a determination among dairymen to have pastures and produce feed that will reduce feed costs.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion PASTURES Dairy farmers seeded 1,545 acres to permanent pastures. Improvement in pasture management has contributed in help ing to increase the supply of grazing from permanent pastures. There were some 4,500 acres of pastures in the state that are being mowed. Demonstrations have proven that it is important to seed permanent grasses on the heavier moist soils. The lighter, drier soils are being planted to Bermuda grass and to corn and other silage crops. An occasional plowing or disking of the Bermuda pastures increases the yield of grass by killing weeds and loosening the soil. Annual crops for pasture are recommended. The dairymen in Marion County use cowpeas and soybeans extensively with silage as a supplement to permanent pastures. Reduced prices for milk have forced dairymen to lower pro duction costs. There was approximately 3,000 acres more winter crops seeded in the state in 1932 than in any previous year; 1,160 acres of rye and oats and 310 acres of Italian rye grass were seeded by Duval County dairymen. County Agent Lawton has demonstrated the value of heavy seeding and the use of inorganic nitrates. In Walton County good results were obtained with crimson clover mixed with sweet clover and sown on a Bermuda sod and disked down thoroughly. C. T. Smith, operating a dairy farm, says this pasture replaced commercial feeds to the value of $6'5 an acre. SILAGE The results from the 1932 silo demonstrations were very effective. Two trench and two pit silos constructed by North Marion dairymen in 1931 were enlarged in 1932. These dairymen weighed and tested the milk from individual cows and were in a position to know the feeding value of silage. Silage and pea vine hay cut with ensilage cutters and blown into the hay mows made up the winter roughage feed. It was the first time these farmers had an abundance of roughage. Demonstrations in proper methods of filling silos accounted largely for the success of the silage demonstrations. The common mistake is in not wetting down the silage from corn sorghum or cane where the leaves have overcured. This was largely avoided in 1932.

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Annual Report, 1932 45 FARM DAIRYING The "Live-at-Home" program emphasized by county and home agents has continued to increase the number of cows to supply the family needs. D. H. Ward, county agent, Liberty County, arranged for the cooperative purchase of 35 grade Jersey heifers from middle Tennessee at bargain prices. These Jerseys were purchased by 31 farmers to supply milk for family needs. They are replacing scrub cattle and furnishing family cows to small farmers. There were 375 high grade and registered dairy heifers and cows placed on farms to supply milk and butter. Marion, Walton, Santa Rosa, and Madison counties are the principal counties marketing cream for butter-making purposes. RAISING DAIRY COWS In 1927 approximately 30 % of the herd replacements were raised on the market milk dairy farms. In 1932 approximately 93 % of the herd replacements were raised on dairy farms. The dairymen in 60 o/a of the counties of the state have raised more than enough heifers for herd replacements. Fig. 6.-Dr. P. K. Yonge, for many years chairman of the State Board of Control of Higher Institutions, is shown here with one of his outstanding dairy cows.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion The demonstrations in growing out dairy calves in all market milk centers has increased, which is resulting in a reduction in the number of dairy cows imported into our dairy centers. In 1927 approximately 4,000 cows a year were purchased for herd replacements, at $90 to $140 each, at a cost of approximately one half million dollars. The money expended for replacements in 1932 was very much less. Demonstrations in control of intestinal parasites in Duval County have greatly helped in improving the quality of calves. Keeping calves off of sod pastures and pasturing them on culti vated fields planted to cowpeas, soybeans, corn or similar crops, until they are 6 to 8 months old is preventing infestation with intestinal parasites in addition to keeping the calves from drink. ing polluted water in stagnant ponds. DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS The large volume of locally produced milk has prevented the importation of cheap milk from other states and the movement of milk from long distances within the state, thereby avoiding a general disorganization of local marketing conditions. An abundance of fresh fluid milk at reasonable prices has reduced the consumption of condensed milk and milk powders. Individual dairy records have proven valuable as a guide to adjusting dairy ratiom1. Five years ago probably 30% of the dairy rations were home-mixed, with a view to supplying a grain concentrate to supplement the grazing and roughage crops on the farm. Now about 95% of the dairymen are having their grain feeds mixed acc0rding to their needs with a view of economy in milk production. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES There were 114 registered dairy bulls placed on farms in Florida during 1932. Duval County has a registered bull at the head of every dairy herd in the county. It is a conservative estimate to state the dairy herds of Florida have an increased productive value of $47,000 for 1932, directly traceable to purebred sires. BUILDING SILOS, REMODELING DAIRY BARNS AND MILK HOUSES Silos have been constructed as follows: 4 pit; 11 trench; 2 Tennessee wooden hoop; 5 monolythic concrete; 4 steel; a total of 26. These silos were built at a relatively low cost.

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Annual Report, 1932 47 Seventeen agents assisted dairymen with improvements on 41 dairy barns and in building six sheds for shade and protection during rainy weather. MARKETING OF FLUID OR MARKET MILK Dairy leagues for cooperative marketing of milk were organized in Hillsborough, Pinellas and Alachua counties. The Duval County Better Milk League reorganized with a 95% sign up .. The Miami Home Milk Producers Association operates a distributing plant in Miami. Cooperative producer dairy associations in Marion, Leon, Escambia, Dade, Palm Beach, Orange, Broward, Volusia, :Manatee, Seminole, Polk, Flagler, and Hernando counties have worked together in adjusting conditions to stabilize the market. The State Dairy Association is made up of the 17 county and community dairy associations in the above named counties. Through cooperative understanding the markets of one city were not disrupted by the surplus fluid milk from other cities. By means of cooperative pools the surplus milk was converted inb sweet cream and other dairy products. This cream from surplus milk replaced imported cream from other states. The general dairy situation in Florida is equally as go . ad as the situation in best dairy sections in the United States with regards to market conditions, as shown in market reports published by the U.S. Bureau of Markets. This favorable condition is largely the result of cooperative efforts by milk producers to stabilize conditions. 4-H DAIRY CLUB PROGRAM Fifteen county agents conducted 4-H dairy club work with 152 members owning 192 animals in 1932. Of these animals, 106 were registered females and 86 grade females. This was a large increase in registered animals over previous years. Club members of Duval and Jefferson counties exhibited 26 registered heifers at the South Florida Fair in 'I'ampa.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY WALTER J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry The major part of the beef cattle in Florida are raised under range and semi-range conditions with a few herds restrained on farms in the northern and western part of the state. Many of the cattle owners own or control very little land upon which their cattle graze and make little or no preparation for pasture, winter feed or for improvement in breeding and selection. Cattlemen in the tick-free areas are showing a decided interest in improved breeding stock, development of permanent pastures, production of feeds, fattening and finishing cattle in the bean fields and feed lots. The financial situation has checked the demand for improved breeding stock, purebred bulls, and good native cows. Still, the number of beef cattle in the state shows an increase and there is a healthy interest despite the low prices of beef. LIVESTOCK MEETINGS During this year the Agent in Animal Husbandry has taken part in 46 meetings with an attendance of 5,247 people and has made radio talks on livestock work at Gainesville and at Pensacola. Civic clul)s in Pensacola, Quincy, Tallahassee, Lake City, St. Augustine, Monticello, Ocala, and Leesburg have interested them selves in the Extension livestock program. A livestock program was carried out in connection with Farmers' Week at the Univer sity of Florida. During 4-H club week at the University and at the annual meet ing of Smith-Hughes students, the Agent instructed 140 club boys and 180 future farmers in selecting breeding beef cattle and using purebred sires. LIVESTOCK FIELD DAY DEMONSTRATIONS Four livestock field day demonstrations have been held this season with 1,050 people attending. Two were in Marion County, one in Alachua County, and one in Okaloosa County. They were held on the following farms: L. K. Edwards, Irvine, with a showing of purebred Angus cattle, native and grade cows, good calves and steers. Results: 14 pure bred Angus bulls and 16 steers sold. A. L. Jackson, Gainesville, showing purebred Shorthorn and

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Annual Report, 1932 49 Hereford bulls, native and grade cows. Results: Sold a car of fat steers. J. B. Simonton, Micanopy, showing purebred and high grade Angus cattle, silos and pastures. Results: 11 Angus bulls sold. J. W. Gaskin, Laurel Hill, 300 people attended from eight counties. Showing 100 acres of Carpet grass pasture (planted 1930). FAIRS AND SHOWS The agent has cooperated with fair associations, with the result that a Florida herd of Angus cattle were shown at the South Flor ida Fair and a Hereford herd from Alabama at DeLand. A unique livestock demonstration without premiums was held in connection with the 4-H club contest in Gainesville; 130 Alachua County owned beef cattle were shown. Results: 6 pure bred bulls and 7. purebred cows were sold, and two men traded bulls. DISTRIBUTION OF PUREBRED BULLS In cooperation with county agents, breed associations, breed ers, and other state agencies, a total of 316 purebred bulls, 26 high-grade bulls and 40 Brahman bulls have been added to Flor ida herds in 38 counties. On May 7, at Ocala, 18 Angus bulls and six heifers were sold to Florida farmers, in six counties. On May 13, at Thomasville, Georgia, the Extension agents assisted cattlemen in five North Florida counties in securing 10 bulls. Florida breeders have readily sold their surplus bulls to cattlemen of this state. One man advises that he has purchased 15 Red Polled bulls that will go to Orange County in February. Approximately 122 purebred heifers and cows have been brought into the state, while Florida breeders have sold a few. Fifty-three bulls were sold to cattle owners in Osceola and Orange counties. Twenty-six high grade Hereford bulls were secured by one man in Dade County. Forty registered Brahman bulls came into Dixie County from Texas. Private individuals and companies have been encouraged to handle purebred beef bulls for sale and exchange to cattlemen to provide stockers and feeders.

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Fig. 7.-A large number of purebred bulls for improving rang e h er d s were bro u g ht to Florida durin g the year by cattle men and with the a s s i st ance of count y agent s and others. The carload ~ h o ,v n here i s one of the be :: t recei ve d during the year. Considerable impro ve ment in the quality of 1lorida beef s hould be no t iceable in a few years. 01 0

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Annual Report, 1932 SILAGE AND WINTER FEEDING 51 The Marianna Fruit Company stored 1,080 tons of sorghum in trench silos and successfully wintered about 1,100 cows and calves on silage and cottonseed meal. Farmers and other business men from 9 northwest Florida counties attended a field meeting on the Marianna Fruit Company farm to inspect the trench silos and cattle being fed on silage and cottonseed meal. Following this, six trench silos were constructed in Jefferson, Washington, and Walton counties. STEER FEEDING During 1931-32, J>. E. Williams of Davenport fed and kept records of feeds and gains on 165 native South Florida steers; 108 twoand three-year-old cattle were fed sorghum silage and cot tonseed meal and 57 two-year-olds were fed corn silage and cotton seed meal. The steers were divided in three lots. Following are the results: Number of steers ................ . Average daily gain per steer lbs .... . Average daily ration silage per steer lbs ....................... . Average daily ration C:S.M. per steer lbs ...................... . Lot 1 Two-year Cottonseed meal Corn silage 57 1.35 Silage to make 100 lbs. gain ....... . 34.10 3.65 2,516 262 C.S.M. to make 100 lbs. gain ....... . Lot 2 Two-year Cottonseed meal Sorghum silage 58 1.49 34.10 3.65 2,280 244 Lot 3 Three year Cottonseed meal Sorghum silage 50 1.69 40 4.53 2,352 267 Tobacco growers in Madison and Gadsden counties in 1931 bought $55,000 worth of steers from outside the state to feed out to secure manure to fertilize tobacco. That Florida cattle owners might furnish these steers, cattle owners from adjoining counties met at Quincy. One man sold 20 head of black steers to a Gadsden County feeder. During the season 1931-1932 the shade tobacco men in Gadsden County fed 1,600 steers. Two of the men fol lowed recommendations in handling and feeding and for the first time weighed the steers at regular intervals and kept records of gains and feeds consumed. At Pensacola, Morgan & Crosby fed out 220 native and grade steers last season. This year these men are feeding 300 head; have put in scales and will have hogs follow the steers and are fol lowing feeding recommendations.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATIONS During this year five local county associations held two general meetings at DeFuniak Springs and Laurel Hill. At the DeFuniak Springs meeting two Escambia County men sold 14 purebred bulls to Walton County cattle owners. At the Laurel Hill meeting 300 men from seven counties were shown 100 acres of pasture that had been sown to carpet grass in 1930 and was then carrying 100 cattle three days each week, 100 hogs and 85 sheep all the time during the best grazing season. PASTURES In the spring of 1931 the Putnam Lumber Company, Cross City, sowed 200 acres of flat, sandy land to Carpet grass. The land was double disked. Due to dry weather very little grass came up. However, on 100 acres of this land well prepared there is a good stand of grass. In 1931 a Jackson County farmer with 400 acres of grazing land has mowed his pastures for two successive years with good results. In Alachua County where the mowing machine was used in 1931 the grass was good, where not mowed the weeds choked out the grass. This is but one of the examples of the goocl of mowing. FARMERS' BEEF CLUB To encourage the consumption of Florida beef, a mimeographed circular with plans for operating "A Farmers' Beef Club" was prepared and distributed to the county agents, home demonstra tion agents and farmers. K. F. Warner, B.A.I., U.S.D.A., demon strated just how the cuts are made so that each member gets his proportion of beef. This circular is available to any person ask ing for it. Marianna Fruit Company sold on the Montgomery market 200 calves ranging in price from lc to 4c per pound. The difference in price was due to the difference in breeding, quality, and finish. The better bred calves carried the most flesh. Arthur Adkinson, Walton County, sold grade calves for a premium of $5 per head over the price paid for natives. 0. N. Powell, Suwannee County, says his grade calves when 9 months old brought 15 percent more than native yearlings.

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Annual Report, 1932 53 HOGS In hog work, emphasis has been placed on economical produc tion of quality animals by selecting the best breeding stock and keeping them free of parasites and feeding on. grazing and fat tening crops. To encourage better home-curing and handling of meat, in February, 1931, K. F. Warner helped in cutting and curing demonstrations. This year meat cutting demonstrations were held at the Annual Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week, also 15 meat cutting and curing demonstrations have been held in nine counties.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extens.ion POULTRY N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman During 1932 the principal points emphasized in Extension work with poultry were as follows: Grow~rs were encouraged to raise healthy chicks, to grow green feed, to practice culling, and to keep flock records. The fifth of the principal pro]ects was the work with 4-H club members interested in keeping poultry. Other phases of the work for the year included the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, assistance in vaccination and parasite and disease control, and miscellaneous work. Thirty-eight counties were visited .by the Extension Poultry man during the year. GROW HEALTHY CHICKS A program of encouraging and assisting poultrymen to produce healthy chicks, and thus reduce chick mortality, improve the quality of pullets produced, and reduce the cost of raising pullets, was started in 1928 and has been continued every year since then. During 1932, its fifth year, it included the same six factors that have been found so desirable in raising chicks and have been in cluded each year. These factors are: hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced ration; and separation of cockerels from pullets. Poultrymen were en couraged to adopt all six of these factors, and results have shown that their adoption is profitable to the producers. A summary of the results obtained indicates the value of put ting into practice the six factors stressed in the program. Each year the mortality on farms adopting all six factors was below 10 percent. Table I shows chick mortality by weeks, and the average. It will be noted that the greatest mortality occurs during the first week, and mortality declines after that. TABLE 1.-CHICK MORTALITY TO 8 WEEKS OF AGE. Weeks Number Chicks Alive Weekly Mortality Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85,729 1st Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82,100 2nd Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78,938 3rd Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76,882 4th Week ...................... .. 75,517 5th Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74,704 6th Week .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74,127 7th Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73,657 8th Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73,251 TOT AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90,615 Percent 4.21 3.85 2.60 1.77 1.07 .77 ,63 .55 16.27

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Annual Report, 1932 55 TABLE IL-RESULTS OF GROW HEALTHY CHICK CAMPAIGN. 1928 1929 1930 No. of producers .................... . 35 38 28 Av. number chicks per farm ......... . 845 579 1,017 1931 21 793 12.76 4 8.33 Percent mortality during 8 weeks ..... . No. of farms with mortality over 20 % .. Average mortality-6 factors adopted .. 24.26 13.87 14.25 15 8 8 7.29 5.03 9.49 Table II gives number of producers, average number of chicks per farm, average chick mortality, and percent mortality of farms adopting the six factors. TABLE Ill.-lMPORTANCE OF ADOPTING THE SIX FACTORS. Four-year Average Results in the Grow Healthy Chick Campaign No. of Mortality Mortality Chicks Number Percent No.of Factors Adopted 6 ....................... .. 47,577 3,217 6.76 5 ........................ . 35,686 7,873 21.51 4 ........................ . 11,240 3,318 29.51 3 239 99 41.42 Table III shows the results when one or more factors were not put into practice. Note how the mortality increased from 6.76 percent to 41.42 percent as the number of factors adopted de creased. GROW GREEN FEED The use of green feed as a part of the feeding program for poultry is both desirable and important for the growing bird and the producer. Printed literature on types of green feed, planting dates, etc., has been available for the producers, encouraging them to adopt a plan to have green feed the year round. Succulent green feeds have proven to be a profitable phase of feeding efficiency. TABLE !V.-RELATION OF USE OF GREEN FEED TO EGG PRODUCTION AND RETURNS, 3 6 FARMS, 1930-31. No.of Farms No green feed .. . . . . . . . 6 Green feed part of year. 12 Green feed all year . . . . . 18 Average Or total ... •. 36 Eggs Per Bird 135.2 151.3 167.00 156.47 Value of Eggs Eggs Oct. Percent Over Feed, to Dec. Mortality Per Bird 14J 14~ $1J8 17.3 13.2 1.32 24.4 12.5 1.64 20.33 13.12 $1.45 In Table IV the 36 farms were sorted on the basis of whether green feed was fed part of the year, all the year, or none at all. The farms feeding no green feed had an average production of 135.2 eggs per bird, while the farms feeding green feed all year had an average egg production of 167, a difference of 32 eggs.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension The farms feeding green feed had a greater winter egg pro duction, greater total production, lower mortality, greater re turns overfeed cost; and lower feed cost per dozen eggs. CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS Lower egg prices during the past year made it possible and de sirable to discuss culling and ~o give more culling demonstrations. The . maintenance of high production was essential. The low pro ducer had to be discarded, either sold or eaten. The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conduct ing 35 culling demonstrations. The reports from 30 agents show that 713 culling demonstrations were given during the year. CALENDAR FLOCK RECORDS The project known as the Home Egg-Laying Contest was changed to the name "Calendar Flock Records." The purpose of this project is to encourage poultry producers to keep records of their poultry expenses and receipts, so that the year's business can be summarized and studied. Two differe:t record books were used, starting with the new records 1932-33, one for small flocks, and the other for commer cial flocks. Table V gives the yearly egg production, number of farms com pleting, and number of birds represented since 1926. TABLE V.-YEARLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD FOR SEVEN YEARS, 1926-1932. No. of Farms No. of Birds Eggs Per Bird 1926 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5,515 161.07 1927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6,620 160.04 1922 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4,275 156.60 1929 .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 38 7,893 158.46 1930 ... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 14,915 159.87 1931 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 17,040 158.54 1932 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 16,989 156.15 The flocks are divided into four groups according to the number of birds involved as follows: Group I, 10-50 birds; Group II, 51-250 birds; Group III, 251-500 birds; Group IV, over 500 birds. Table VI gives the monthly egg production, percent mortality, and percent culling in the Seventh Florida Calendar Flock Records. The number of eggs per bird per month was figured on the basis of average number of birds for the month divided into the total egg production for the month.

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Annual Report, 1932 57 TABLE Vl.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION, PERCENT MORTALITY AND PERCENT CULLING IN 'l'HE SEVENTH FLORIDA CALENDAR FLOCK RECOR1lS OCTOBER l, 1931-SEPTEMBER 30, 1932. Month October ................. .. November ............... . December ..........•..... January ...............•. February ............... . March •.................. April ................... . May .................... . June .................... . July .•.............•..... August .................. . September .......•........ No. Eggs Percent Per Bird Mortality 6.68 1.14 8.84 2.55 10.79 2.67 14.00 1.17 15.91 1.08 16.97 1.22 18.26 1.38 17.92 1.85 15.20 1.55 12.20 3.74 10.77 1.99 8.58 1.69 Percent Clling 2.42 1.08 1.15 3.41 5.23 5.24 3.91 3.75 5.13 12.80 3.95 10.28 The culling and mortality percentages were figured on the basis of the number of birds reported the first of the month divided into the total number of birds that died and the number of birds culled (sold or eaten). During the year 42 records for the year October 1, 1930-Septem ber 30, 1931, from poultry producers were studied. A number of these records were from producers enrolled in the Calendar Flock Records. These records were analyzed by the Extension Econ omist and the Extension Poultryman. The findings were mime ographed and distributed to the cooperators and other interested producers. Some of the results obtained are: 1. The average number of birds per farm was 874. 2. The average capital invested in poultry farming was $2,872 per farm, or $3.29 per bird. 3. The cash family income was $731. 4. The average egg production per bird was 156 eggs. 5. The feed cost per bird per year was $1.79. 6. The size of flock affected labor earnings. The larger the flock the greater were the labor earnings. 7. An increase in egg production resulted in greater labor earn ings and a lower cost for producing a dozen eggs. The total cost of producing a dozen eggs was 28.5 cents. 8. Winter egg production is an important factor in successful poultry farming. High winter egg production resulted in high total production and high labor earnings. 9. An increase in adult mortality resulted in lower egg produc tion, greater depreciation per bird, a lower value of eggs over feed costs and smaller labor earnings.

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58 Flo rida Cooperative E x tension 10. The average feed consumption per bird was 77.5 pounds. High feed intake and high egg production were found to be cor related. JUNIOR POULTRY WORK Th e 4-H poultr y c lub program was d eve lop e d around these thre e phase s : 1. Production project-the boy or girl owns and manages his or h er own flock. 2. Impr ove m e nt project-the boy or girl manag es th e flo c k on farm if purebred. 3. State P o ultry Club Show and Judging Contest. The total numb e r of boys a nd girls enro ll e d in 4-H poultry work was 1,550 and 1,282 memb ers co mpl eted their project s . The total number of birds in the co mplet e d projects was 37,837, or an average of 30 birds to the fl ock. Fig. 8.-A 4-H c lu b g irl d e monstrat es the point s of a goo d l ayer to fellow c lub girls and boy s. Visits were mad e to 4-H poultry flocks during th e year. Club m ee tings were attended, a nd var iou s phases of poultry produc tion were discu sse d , principally sa nitation , feeding, houses , cull ing , growing he a lth y c hi c k s, a nd record k eep ing. Thre e 4-H poultry tour s were conducted.

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Annual Report, 1932 59 The 4-H boys' and girls' short courses were held at Gainesville and Tallahassee. Record keeping, and fundamental poultry in formation was given. The second state 4-H Poultry Show and Judging Contest was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair, DeLand, Febru ary 16-20, 1932. There were 33 boys and girls from five counties who exhibited 231 birds, mostly Rhode Island Reds, White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, and Blue Andalusians. The 4-H Judging Contest was held in connection with the poul try show. Each judging team was composed of three 4-H poultry club members. There were seven teams competing for individual and team awards. Each member of the judging team competing for prizes was required (1) to make an exhibit of at least 5 birds, including one male, (2) submit a record book, (3) answer 10 questions concerning Standard-bred birds, and ( 4) judge 16 birds, 4 each of Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, Single Comb Rhode Island Reds, and Single Comb White Leghorns. A team of boys from Lake County, trained under the leader ship of the County Agent, was awarded first place. A team of boys and girls from Orange County, trained by the county and home demonstration agents, was awarded second prize. The outstanding award-given to the highest scoring individ ual-went to Thomas Lamb, an Orange County club boy. Thomas will receive . a $100 scholarship to the University of Florida. The second highest individual was Marcus Williams, Eustis, Florida. The 4-H Club Egg-Laying Contest ended the year September 23, 1932. There were five pens entered, six pullets to a pen, one pen from Escambia County, and four pens from Lake County. There were three pens of White Leghorns, one pen' of Barred Plymouth Rocks and one pen of White Plymouth Rocks. The high pen of heavy breeds was the pen of Barred Plymouth Rocks owned by Herbert Babb, Umatilla, Florida. These five pullets produced a total of 983 eggs for a value of 902.15 points. Three of the birds pro _ duced over 200 eggs each. The high pen of light breeds was the pen of White Leghorns owned by Frieda Nowak, Cantonment, Florida. These five pullets produced a total of 1,116 eggs for a value of 1,119.30 points. There were eight birds from the three competing pens of White Leg horns that produced over 200 eggs each.

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60 Florida Cooperati v e Extension The White Leghorn owned by Edward Zellman, Umatilla, had the greatest number of eggs to her credit. This bird produced 255 eggs for a value of 210.95 points. The highest bird in this contest was a White Leghorn owned by Frieda Nowak. This bird produced 227 eggs for a value of 237.50 points. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS Local and county poultry associations in Lake, Orange, Pinellas, Okaloosa, Seminole, Hillsborough, Polk, Manatee, Lee, Highlands, and Dade counties have assisted materially in carrying out the Extension poultry program. Meetings were held with the various associations, at which time educational data were presented. The American Poultry Association of Florida through its mem bers has cooperated in every way to encourage junior poultry work and higher quality poultry in the state. It has also fostered and assisted in making the State 4-H Poultry Club Show and Judg ing Contest a success. The Florida Baby Chick Association and its member s have co operated and assisted the Agricultural Extension Service in mak ing the Grow Healthy Chick program successful. A two-day meeting was held at Orlando in October . . An interesting and valu able program was given. The accreditation of poultry flocks in Florida is under the su pervision of the Livestock Sanitary Board. Dr. D. C. Gilles, Poul try Service Veterinarian of this Board, has assisted in poultry meetings and with regulatory work at the National Egg-Laying Contest. The State Marketing Bureau , with its Poultry Marketing Specialist , F. W. Risher, has worked in close cooperation with the agents and the state office in an educational way. HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS The use of home-made brick brooders which was started three years ago in West Florida has become more widespread. The brooder is cheap and efficient and is being used successfully on farms in West and Central Florida. More than 100 of these brooders were in operation this past season . Farm~rs report better results since they started using them, in place of the hen or some other method. CHICKENPOX VACCINATION The use of chickenpox vaccine has become more widespread each . year. This vaccine is in general use among commercial

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Annual Report, 1982 61 poultrymen to prevent the occurrence of chickenpox. In Florida this disease generally makes its appearance in the late summer and fall, about the time the young pullets come into production, and results in a loss of egg production at the time when the price of eggs is high. Very often this disease is accompanied by colds and roup, resulting in mortality and a decrease in returns. The birds are generally vaccinated when they are from 12 to 16 weeks of age. It has been estimated that 100,000 birds were vaccinated this past season. POULTRY MEETINGS The Extension Poultryman attended 42 poultry meetings with 1,260 present. Seven all-day poultry schools were held. An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from 25 to 75 people. PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL Worm control studies are still in progress, in which the Veter inary Division of the Experiment Station and the Extension Service are cooperating . The experiment is to determine the value of worming as practiced by a large number of Florida poul trymen and to determine if it is profitable to worm pullets at the National Egg-Laying Contest. In brief, the experiment may be outlined as follows: All flocks were divided into three equal pens. All management practices were similar in each experiment. One pen was treated with tetrachlorethylene and kamala, the second was treated with iodine vermicide, and the third was untreated. Complete records were kept on Experiment Station pens two years and on flocks of three different producers one year. The conclusions drawn from these preliminary studies are: 1. These experiments indicate that hens given one worm treat ment and placed back on the same ground are handicapped, since they suffer a decreased egg production due to treatment, and are reinfested with ascarids and tapeworms before they have time to recover. 2. Worm treatment as has been practiced in Florida and used in these experiments is apparently not only worthless but harm ful and expensive. 3. There apparently was no superiority of one treatment over the other.

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62 Florida Cooperati v e Extension 4. There is no correlation between the degree of ascarid infestation and egg production in laying hens. 5. It would seem from the indications in these preliminary studies of the value of vermifuges that the best procedure for poultrymen to follow would be to inaugurate sanitary measures to prevent as far as possible infestation and when infestation does occur, cull vigorously, and forget worm treatment until some vermifuge and method of use has been found, tested, and proven beneficial by the use of control flocks. The Extension Poultryman is cooperating with the Experiment Station in preliminary surveys of fowl paralysis. NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST The Si?{th Florida National Egg Laying Contest located at Chipley was conducted from October 1, 1930, to September 22, 1931. There were 84 pens entered. Twenty-one different states and 17 counties from Florida were represented . The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 187.4 eggs per bird. The average egg production for the heavy breed . s was 168.87 eggs , and for the light breeds 194.81 eggs. A detailed report of the Sixth National Egg-Laying Contest is available in printed form . MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK Judging was done at eight poultry shows last year, the Exten8ion Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the open classes. Fifteen conferences were held with feed men and fair managers relative to poultry problems in their localities. POULTRY STATISTICAL DATA The following data have been compiled from the county and home demonstration agents reports: Number of communities participating ............ .. ........ . ... . Number of leaders assisting ......... . .... . ....... . ........... . Days ag e nts dev o ted to poultry ....... . .......... . . . . .... . . . .... . Number of meetings held ......... . ..... . . .. ... .. ... . .. . . .. ... . Number of news stories published ........... .. .. . . .. .... . ..... . Number of different circular letters issued ......... . ............ . Number of farm or home visits ............. . ... ... .... . .. .. .. . Number of office calls .. . .... . . . ....... . .. . . . .. . ..... .. ..... . . . Number of method demonstration meetings held ............ .. ... . Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the 556 232 1180 , 827 424 321 3241 633 4 749 next year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1363 Number of animals involved i n these complet e d adult result demonstrations ......................... . ... .. ...... . ..... . ...... 225,724 Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations completed ..... $67,016

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Annual Report, 1932 63 CITRUS CULTURE E. F: DEBUSK, Citriculturist Citrus growers are making drastic reductions in grove operat ing costs. Consequently, increasing demands are being made on the Extension Service by growers and_ organizations in adjusting their practices to meet existing conditions. All projects and special service work, therefore, have centered around reducing the cost of producing citrus without sacrificing quality of fruit. COVER-CROPS AND MULCHING The need of more organic matter in our citrus soils is univer sally recognized. More than 70 percent of our citrus acreage shows a great need of more coarse organic matter than is being supplied. The minimum requirement of these soils is indicated by research as three tons per acre (dry weight) per annum. This is our goal. The Service conducted 139 cover-crop demonstrations in 13 leading citrus counties and representing approximately 5,200 acres to demonstrate the best adapted cover-crops and the most efficient method of handling them. Under certain conditions cro talaria is by far the most satisfactory cover-crop. Under other conditions it is difficult to secure a stand of crotalaria, and conse quently better results are obtained by purchasing a cheap form of soluble nitrogen and applying it as a fertilizer to the grasses (mostly Natal) that come voluntarily. In such demonstrations a dollar's worth of nitrogen has, on the average, increased the yield of grass approximately 1,000 pounds (dry weight) per acre. This grass has a value of about $5.00 a tonin a large percentage of our groves on the light sandy soils. Demonstrations have shown that best results are obtained from a cover-crop of grass by mowing it in July or August and applying the material around the trees as a mulch. Demonstrations in mulching representing more than 5,000 acres have given good results. Muck, grass, weeds and leaves are being hauled into the groves from the outside. The proper use of such material reduces the cost of production and improves the quality of both fruit and tree. CULTIVATION This project has aimed at reducing production cost by elim: inating unnecessary and injurious cultivation. Aside from incor porating the cover-crop material with the top soil as a means of

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension fire protection, it is doubtful if any further cultivation is justified under ordinary grove conditions. Research has pointed out that organic matter is lost by unnecessary grove cultivation. Dem onstrations have established the fact that root pruning by deep cultivation weakens the tree and renders it more susceptible to disease attack and insect injury. Poor texture of fruit is trace able mainly to excessive cultivation. One hundred demonstrations in 13 counties have been conducted but it is extremely difficult to measure results accomplished. This work has saved the growers of one county $15,000 in actual operation costs . . The savings on production costs by improved practices will exceed $500,000 annually. IRRIGATION The rainfall in the citrus belt has been unusually light and groves have suffered from a deficiency of soil moisture. Forty six growers with 3,000 acres have been assisted in installing grove irrigation plants. Assistance has been rendered 57 growers in applying irrigation water. Fourteen grower meetings were held in which grove irrigation was the chief subject discussed. Twenty three demonstrations were conducted in which irrigation is used to replace one to three grove cultivations. The objective is to save enough on the cost of cultivation to pay for the irrigation, thus giving heavier cover-crop yields and more organic matter. Study is being made by the Extension Citriculturist, correlating the average daily rainfall of 30 to 35 stations distributed through out the citrus belt, of each year since 1925, with the production of each respective year. This is done to point out the months in which a deficiency or an abundance of soil moisture have marked influence upon production; these data to be used as a guide as to the time, and rate of application of irrigation water. An analysis of these data suggests the importance of keeping up the soil mois ture content in December, and March to June. A bearing orange grove takes up approximately one inch, or 27,000 gallons, per acre in 10 days. Irrigation water is applied during the critical months, on that basis. FERTILIZING Since fertilizing calls for more than 50 % of the total cash outlay in producing a crop of citrus fruit, our program of supplying or ganic matter, by a more efficient use of cover-crops and manures; of improving cultivation practices; and of more efficient grove

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Annual Report, 1932 65 irrigation, is designed as a basis for more efficient use of the com mercial fertilizers. The cheaper forms of plant food are being used. As the grower obtains the desired results with the concentrated inorganic ferti lizers he sees that the cost permits him to use them more liberally, with the result of increased yield and reduced unit cost in ferti lizing. METHODS OF APPLICATION The efficiency of fertilizing citrus groves has been greatly in creased by improvements in the methods of application. A study of the root distribution of citrus trees has brought out facts that are leading to the practice of applying more of the fertilizer under the branches of the tree, especially in the fall and spring applica tions, sirice 80 to 90 percent of the roots of a tree are found under this area. An extra application of nitrogen is made out in the tree middles in June to August to fertilize the cover crop. This change from the practice of applying the fertilizer largely from the end of the branches of the tree outward in a narrow belt is giving much better results, with no additional cost. This study of the distribution of the tree roots has also been the means of improving practices in cultivation, mulching, and in the applica tion of irrigation water. DISEASE CONTROL The most effective work during the last four years in the con trol of melanose and stem-end rot, dieback and ammoniation; gummosis and psorosis, has been directed along the line of indirect control or prevention. Melanose :-Controlling melanose by spraying with bordeaux oil is a general practice when returns permit and when conditions seem to justify the practice, but opportunities through indirect control-prevention of the production of dead wood-are still too often overlooked. Inadequate soil moisture, deep cultivation and improper ferti lizing are the chief causes of dying back of twigs and branches. In rare cases twigs are killed by scale-insects, and by the improper use of oil in scale control. The problem of practical melanose con trol runs through the whole program of citrus culture. The same may be said in reference to withertip, dieback, ammoniation, frenching and other trunk and root diseases.

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension Our efforts to control melanose by spraying were unsuccessful, owing to the long drawn-out blooming and fruit setting period following an unusually warm, dry, winter. Scab :-The economic factors that affect melanose control operate also in scab control. The long fruit-setting period of last spring presented a condition under which spraying was very ineffective. In a few cases the dormant spray of lime-sulphur 1-25 gave satisfactory results. Bordeaux applied at the same time gave better control. Blue Mold Decay:-The control of blue mold decay depends in a large measure upon the manner in which the fruit is handled from the tree to the packinghouse. Nine meetings with growers and pickers were held, in which the proper method of handUng fruit was carefully outlined. INSECT CONTROL Assistance has been rendered in improving spraying equipment used in applying lime-sulphur. The cost of spraying has been greatly reduced and lime-sulphur is finding a larger place in our insect control program, beginning to replace oil emulsion in scale control. It has the advantage of being stimulating to the tree, instead of shocking it, as does the oil emulsion used in scale control. Rust-Mite:-Seventy-one demonstrations in spraying and dust ing for rust-mtte control, covering more than 2,000 acres and affecting 300,000 boxes of fruit, were conducted. Scale and Whitefly:-Natural control of scale-insects and white fly is being rapidly developed. Considerable time is being devoted to a study of individual grove conditions where natural control of scale-insects is most effective, to determinethe minimufu amount of spraying required for satisfactory control under the given conditions. Some of these demonstration groves have not been sprayed for scale for six years, and are just as free of scale injury as they were when sprayed once, and sometimes twice, a year. Besides, the trees are in a more vigorous condition and are producing larger crops of fruit. Three cents invested in nitrogen and applied to the tree will often accomplish more in the long run in ridding the tree of scale than 15 cents invested in oil spraying. The point is, if a tree is properly fertilized it will be able to withstand a light scale attack until the scale fungi have time to develop and put the pest under control. A hungry tree is a feeble fighter.

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Annual Report, 1932 67 Whitefly have given very little trouble this year. This pest is being held under control very largely by the use of . the Red Aschersonia, a parasitic fungus that is grown in cultures by the State Plant Board and supplied to growers as they need it. Sev eral hundred cultures. are placed through the influence of Exten sion workers each year. The greatest need in our program of economical scale and white fly control is the development of a practicable method of growing and distributing the brown fungus parasite of the whitefly and the ~ pink and red-headed fungi parasites of our most common scale-insects. MEETINGS AND GROVE TOURS During the year, 126 meetings and schools of instruction were conducted, with a total attendance of more than 3,000 growers. In Lake, Orange and Highland counties, organized citrus clubs meet every two weeks and follow definite courses of study in citrus culture. Twenty-one grove tours were conducted in 10 counties with more than 500 growers taking part. These tours were made to various demonstrations and cooperative experi ments in the different counties, and to the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. GROVE VISITS It is through these visits that the grower's needs and view points are fully appreciated. Duririg the year, more than 4,000 grove visits and inspections were made, going into every commercial citrus-producing county of the state.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS J.E. TURLINGTON, Agricultural Economist FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management W.R. BRIGGS, Asst. Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, Agricultural Economist, Marketing FARM MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES The continued world-wide depression, in which prices of the commodities the farmers have to sell have fallen more rapidly than the prices of the commodities they buy, has greatly reduced the farmers' income. In addition to low purchasing power, a heavy indebtedness contracted when prices were much higherhas caused many farmers to lose their farms. Much information is needed regarding farm credit, purchasing of farm supplies, effi cient marketing, organization of the farm business, and econom ical production. This need has been met by use of previous re search studies or through short-time projects carried on during the year. The efforts to accomplish this can be grouped as fol lows: farm accounts, studies of farm organization and enterprises, and dissemination of economic information. FARM ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS There were 43 poultry record books turned over to the County Agents, Poultry Specialist, or Farm Management Specialist for summarizing in the fall of 1931. These records included receipts and expenses, egg and mortality records, and incubation records. Commercial flocks in central Florida gave information to compute the cost of producing eggs, raising pullets, hatching chicks and total labor returns to the operator. Each cooperator received a two-page summary of his record compared with the average re sults. A mimeographed report was prepared showing the costs, returns and relationship of certain management practices to profits. Some of the practices found to be related to returns may be found in the report of the Poultry Specialist and are not given here. During 1931-32, two poultry record books were prepared, one for commercial and a less detailed book for the small flocks. Since there are many non-commercial flocks where records will be taken, a smaller poultry record book was prepared for their use in 193233, in addition to the book for commercial flocks.

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Annual Report, 1932 69 GENERAL FARM ACCOUNTS The third account project in 1932 was a farm account book for general farms. It provided for receipts and expenses and for an inventory at the beginning and end of the year. These were distributed in meetings of farmers and county agents. STUDIES OF FARM ORGANIZATIONS There are certain general farm management practices that cause variations in the amount of money made by farme~s. These can best be determined by studying the operation of farms in an area. Two community surveys were made for the year 1931. Records for 79 farms were secured from farmers in Suwannee County and 43 from farmers in the Jay community of Santa Rosa County. The procedure for such surveys was as follows: The Farm Management Specialist with the County Agent took the records. This required from three to five days in a county. The records were summarized and analyzed at the College. Each farmer was furnished a summary of his farm business compared with the average of all the farms in the community. The farms in Santa Rosa County received about 75% of their income from the sale of cotton and cotton seed. The farmers in Suwannee County sold cotton, watermelons, tobacco and hogs. TABLE VII.-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS FOR SUWANNEE AND SANTA ROSA COUNTY FARMS, 1931. Average Farm Capital Average 79 Farms Average 43 Farms Suwannee County Santa Rosa County $3,643 $6,439 Receipts: Crops .. ... . ... .. ..... ... ....... . Livestock and Livestock Products .. Miscellaneous ................. . . Expenses: Cash Expenses .. .. ............. . Decrease in Capital .... . ........ . Unpaid Family Labor ..... . ..... . . 397 258 30 685 456 218 111 785 979 137 25 1,141 726 143 142 1,011 $ -100 Farm, . Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Interest on Capital 7% . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 255 Operator's Labor Income . . . . . . . . . . . -320 -355 Cash Receipts less Cash Expenses. . . . 415 229 Factors for Analyzing Farm Business: Acres Crops per Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 77 Number of Workstock per Farm..... 2.2 2.7 Crop Acres per Work Animal . . . . . . . 35.6 28.0

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension The results of these two surveys clearly show the effect of present low prices on the incomes of farmers in these areas. We see that the cash farm income over expenses was $229 for the Suwannee County farms, and _ $415 for Santa Rosa, This is the amount the family had to spend, provided the farmer owned all of the farm capital and he did not go in debt. If interest and other non-cash expenses were charged, the operat _ ors of these farms lacked $355 and $320 respectively of receiving anything for their labor in 1931. See Table VII. Under these conditions, with 75 to 80% of the farms showing a minus labor income, the larger the farm the greater the loss. The most important factor that was found to increase labor in come was crop yields per acre. The large farms with below average crop yields showed the largest loss for both areas. The group showing the smallest loss was the small farms with above average crop yields. With high fixed overhead in capital, real estate and equipment, with certain fixed expenses and the impos sibility of quick changes in organization of the farm, the farmer is in a relatively difficult position during falling prices. It would take prices 150 to 200 % of those for 1931 before the large farm operators would receive more for their labor than the small farm operator, if the expenses remained the same. TABLE VIII.-RELATIONSHIP OF SIZE OF FARM AND CROP YIELDS TO FARM RETURNS, 1931. Number of Percent Operator's Farm Cash Workstock Average Labor Receipts over Per Farm Yield Income Cash Expenses Suw ANNEE COUNTY: Small Farms: Low crop yields •...... 1.6 68 $ -364 $ 77 High crop yields ....... 1.5 135 -234 217 Large Farms: Low crop yields ....... 3.9 72 -740 251 High crop yields ....... 3.5 l40 -270 563 SANTA ROSA COUNTY: Small Farms: Low crop yields .... : .. 1.7 86 $ -257 $185 High crop yields ....... 1.9 114 35 460 Large Farms: Low crop yields ....... 3.8 88 -619 426 High crop yields ....... 3.7 123 -322 780 A study was also made of corn production~ Records were obtained from farmers in six counties. They were summarized and comparisons were made of cost of fertilizing, cultivation and harvesting by various methods. The results were used at farm ers' institutes, Farmers' Week and County Agents' Week. At

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Annual Report, 1932 71 this time, no report has been prepared on the results. This will probably be done after another year's resu!ts have been collected. DISSEMINATION OF ECONO.l\1IC INFOR.l\1ATION This type of work goes on throughout the year in the form of radio talks, "The Florida Extension Economist," mimeographed reports and letters. Radio articles are broadcast over WRUF when data of general interest are available. "The Florida Exten sion Economist" which has a circulation among approximately 1,200 .farmers and agricultural workers, is printed each month and usually carries one or more farm management articles. In addition, farmers interested in special subjects are provided with farm management facts. Mailing lists of poultrymen, potato growers, dairymen, and others, are kept; and, as various farm . management research data, outlook reports or special data are available, they are mimeographed and sent to those interested. MARKETING The marketing activities of the Extension Specialist have in cluded the following projects: 1. Hog prices by grade and season~ontinued from previous year. 2. Effect of motor truck transportation on marketing of farm products and bulk movement of citrus fruits. 3. Economic study of cucumber farms. 4. Management and marketing practices of range cattle. 5. Distribution of citrus fruits. 6. Assistance to existing and prospective marketing organiza tions. The project was started March, 1931. The following report is a continuation of that study to determine variation in farm prices of hogs by season and grade. HOG PRICES BY GRADE AND SEASON The assembling and tabulation of prices paid to farmers by local dealers have shown that farm prices of Florida hogs have tended downward since the fall of 1927, or the beginning of the market ing season of 1927-28. TABLE IX.-FARM PRICES OF HOGS, NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, SEASONS 1928-29 THROUGH 1931-32. Season 1928-29 ....................... . 1929-30 ....................... . 1930-31 ....................... . 1931-32 ....................... . Number of Head 5,537 13,619 13,913 12,877 . Price per 100 Pounds $7.05 6.89 6.14 3.50 Average Weight 138 144 139 124

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension Prices for the 1931-32 season reacted in approximately the same manner as in previous seasons. August-September ' prices were from 1 to 2 cents higher than December-January prices. February-March prices failed to increase very much. Prices did not increase materially until about August-September of the present season. The average weight of live hogs marketed during the 1931-32 season was lower than normal. This was due to a higher percent age of small hogs marketed early and also that prices fell so low. BULK CAR-LOT SHIPMENTS OF CITRUS FROM FLORIDA, SEASON 1931-32 Data for the bulk car-lot movement of citrus were obtained from the railroads and tabulated, showing states and principal cities to which this fruit was billed. Total car-lot unloads also were tabulated to determine the relative importance of bulk car lot shipments for various states and cities. Approximately 1 million boxes of bulk citrus were shipped by rail during the season 1931-32. About 1,750 cars of this number were oranges, 1,350 cars were grapefruit, and 1,125 cars were mixed and miscellaneous fruit. Practically no tangerines were shipped in bulk. Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee, Virginia, Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Indiana were the principal receivers of bulk car-lot citrus. Approximately 80 percent of all car-lot receipts in Virginia, Georgia, and South Carolina were . in bulk cars. TABLE X.-UNLOADS OF ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT AT NrnE ClTlES, SHOW lNG PERCENTAGE ORIGlNATED IN FLORIDA-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE 1927-31. Total Unloads New York .. 14,495 Chicago . . . . . 5,340 Boston .•.... 4,754 Philadelphia. . 4,486 Detroit . . . . . 2,356 Pittsburgh . . 2,076 Cleveland . . . 1,861 St. Louis . . . . 1,468 Baltimore . . . 1,455 Oranges Florida Unloads % of Total 5,804 40 1,039 19 1,893 40 2,485 55 364 15 767 37 540 29 325 22 965 66 Total Unloads 5,646 1;871 1,244 1,215 747 546 590 447 442 Grapefruit Florida Unloads % ofTotal 3,750 66 1,650 88 1,143 92 1,152 95 706 95 538 99 570 97 353 79 435 98 Observations indicated that there was a larger percentage of spoilage of citrus in bulk cars than in trucks or in packages shipped by rail. ECONOMIC STUDY OF CUCUMBER FARMS A business analysis was made of these farms to determine the relation of such factors as crop yields, capital turnover, diversity index, price index, education of operator, manwork units per man, total manwork units, and acreage of cucumbers to profits . .

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TABLE XL-SUMMARY OF FARM BUSINESS PER FAR ' M ON FLORIDA CUCUMBER FAR M S , SEASONS 1927-28 AND 19293 0 . Winter Area Williston Webster-Bushnell Wauchula Alachua Garden Season 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1929-30 1927-28 1927-28 1927-28 Number of farms .. , ....... . 71 119 62 101 52 34 27 Farm area acres ....... . . . ... . ... 137.1 226.4 90.8 70.8 37.0 206.7 71.6 ;i:.. ;,:s Crop acres ................... . . . 61.7 77 . 7 27.2 29.1 16 . 0 68.0 48 . 0 ' ;,:s Acr e s in crops* .................. 64.7 85.5 3 6.1 39.2 24 . 5 82.2 67.7 Number of work stock ...... .... .. 2.4 3.0 1.9 2.3 1.2 2.7 2 . 5 A .,_ Total capital . : .. . . .. .. .... ... ... $7,914 $2 , 326 $9,419 $6,026 $8,225 $9,361 $53,912 Receipt s . . . . . ... .. .... . ......... 2;807 787 3 ,947 2,539 3 ,4 62 3,983 16 , 022 't:! Expenses .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . ..... 1 , 674 696 2,630 2,202 1,908 2,876 11,309 C Farm income** . .. .......... . . . .. 1,133 91 1 , 317 337 1,554 1,107 4,713 .;'Interest on investment 7 % .... .. .. 554 163 659 422 576 655 3,774 ..... Labor income*** ................. 579 -72 658 -85 978 452 939 l:>l) Value operator's labor ......... . . . $ 368 $ 130 $ 323 $ 483 $ 450 $ 404 $1 , 212 Percent return on investment .. . ... 9.7 -1.68 10.6 -2.42 14. 3 7.5 6 . 5 Value unpaid family labor ( except operator's) ......... . .. . . . ... $ 134 $ 35 $ 115 $ 158 $ 208 $ 136 $ 155 Family income " .... . .. . .. .... ... 1,267 126 1,432 495 . 1,762 1,243 4,868 * Difference equals the acres re-cropped. * * Receipts less Expenses. ** * Farm Income less 7 % on Capital. -;) C,

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension Man hours of labor required to produce and harvest an acre of cucumbers during the ~928 season varied from an average of 151 , in the Williston area to 384 in the Webster-Bushnell area; while man hours required for the 1930 season averaged 120 in the Williston area and 313 in the Webster-Bushnell area. Also, more horse labor was required to produce cucumbers in the Webster Bushnell area. For the 1928 season, it required 45 hours of horse labor in the Williston area with 65 in the Webster-Bushnell area; while in 1930, it required 40 hours in Williston and 52 in Webster Bushnell. The Webster-Bushnell area produces cucumbers in a much more intensive way. Frost protection is generally used by covering the plants with cypress troughs. More farms are irrigated and larger quantities of fertilizer are used in that area. The low yields of the 1930 season partly explain why less labor was used. Not only did they require less labor. for harvesting, but where a portion of a field was killed by frost or drowned, it was.abandoned. Since these portions were fertilized, planted and cultivated for a while, the entire acreage was included in calculat ing labor and materials required. The study of these data is being continued in an effort to deter mine the factors that affect yields. MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING PRACTICES OF RANGE CA.TILE Ninety-one herds located in 14 counties were studied. One of the purposes was to determine the economic effect of purebred bulls; therefore, a large number of herds which had purebred bulls were included. Since the Texas fever tick had been eradicat ed in only a few counties and in most of these for a short time (this fever seems to affect imported cattle more than native), it was impossible to determine the economic advantage of purebred bulls crossed with native cattle. It is the consensus of opinion that pastures must be improved at a low cost and ranges must be fenced if cattlemen make sub stantial headway with purebred bulls. The slaughter of beef from 59 of the 91 herds observed was on farms or in local slaughter pens and the beef sold locally. Low price of beef cattle partly explains the high percentage of farm killing, since many of those who were holding for higher markets I were owners of large herds who depended on packer markets as their outlet.

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Annual Report, 1932 75 DISTRIBUTION OF CITRUS FRUITS Data for this study were taken from the reports of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. D. A:, showing unloads for 66 cities. The majority of the markets which receive more cars of Florida than California oranges are in the east and southeast. Philadelphia is the only very large receiver which gets more than half of its oranges from Florida. . Florida exceeds its competitors in percentage of grapefruit unloads in practically all the large receiving cities. ASSISTANCE TO EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS Live-at-home and diversification programs resulted in the pro duction of a surplus of a number of commodities which had no previous outlet. This caused an unusual demand to be made on the Extension Service for assistance. Existing marketing organ izations were not always in a position to handle these products. Several local organizations were formed during the last year, hav ing as their purpose the furnishing of an outlet for their products.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension RODENT CONTROL CARLYLE CARR, Specialist in Rodent Control COTTON RAT Cotton rats are present over the rolling lands in the central and north portions of the state and are exceedingly numerous in the low areas and over the Everglades. Although being destructive to ground-nesting birds and their eggs generally, they do not seriously damage agricultural crops except in the low areas such as the Everglades. The greatest damage is done in the Indian River section, the Okeechobee area, the marl land on the lower East Coast, and the tomato growing area in Collier, Lee, Sarasota and Manatee counties; on a total area of approximately 55,000 acres fruit and vegetable lands. The principal crops injured are tomatoes, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, sq u ash, carrots and beans. The cotton rat damages citrus by eating the bark at the base of the trunk, often completely girdling the tree. In the Manatee and Indian River sections, damage is so scat tered that so far no control by campaigns has been undertaken. Fig. 9.-This Dade County farmer knows that the rodent control demon strations were effective-he gathered 263 dead cotton rats off of one acre of sweet po t atoes, and when he dug th e potatoes found 250 more.

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Annual Report, 1932 77 However, farmers of these areas have been advised as to control methods. In the Lake Okeechobee section, the United States Sugar Com pany, which farms large areas, has poisoned the cotton rat using the recommendations of this Service. A supply of strychnine to be used in the Everglades area has been placed at the Experiment Station at Belle Glade, and 4,075 ounces of strychnine have been used in the Okeechobee Section, resulting in the effective control of rats at a substantial saving to the growers. In 1931 the United States Sugar Company suffered a loss of 36 percent by rat damage on 5,000 acres of sugarcane; this loss amounting to $96,000 from rats alone. In 1932 the loss was less than 5 percent due to effec tive poisoning methods. A total of 350 pounds of bait were distributed in the northern area of Daqe county, which resulted in perfect control. The County Commissioners of Dade County have appropriated $400 for cotton rat control in the northern part of the County. During the past 12 months, 93,000 pounds of sweet potato bait and 625 ounces of strychnine resulted in near perfect control over the treated areas of 12,000 acres which suffered a loss of $150,000 from the cotton rat during 1931. Others donated $600 in services and bait . The Board of County Commissioners of Collier County donated $100 for the purchase of strychnine, but insisted that all farmers affected must carry on the work as recommended by the U. S. Bio logical Survey and the Agricultural Extension Service. There are approximately 2,200 acres of truck crops, mostly tomatoes, affected by cotton rats in this area. The poison formula recommended and used over the trucking areas is as follows : Slice 16 pounds of raw sweet potatoes in slices 1 h-inch in thickness and from to 1 inch in diameter. Sprinkle one large handful salt over the slices. Mix together, dry, one ounce of alkaloid strychnine and one ounce of bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). Sift the strychnine mixture over the salted sweet potatoes, stirring and mixing until the slices are evenly coated with the poison. These slices should be dropped every 10 feet apart in 10-foot rows in the field, or five feet apart about the edges of the field where the rats come into the field from adjoining lands. HOUSE RATS Three kinds of house rats are prevalent over the entire state of Florida, and after many tests it was found that the control -of the three requires a 'different method from the accepted control in other states. In general, the northern part of Florida is

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension populated with the Norway rat, while the roof and black rats have a general distribution. Injury :-The injury caused in most cases by house rats is similar to that in other states. Along the Indian River citrus and South Florida sections, the roof rat is destructive to grapefruit, oranges and guavas. These rats get into the tree by climbing the wires, fences, or limbs which extend to the ground. They damage the fruit by eating out the contents. The estimated damage will amount to several thousand dollars each year. The use of calcium cyanide for dusting the runs about poultry houses is recommended where poisons may be dangerous to animals and where a concentration of gas can be obtained. Red squill, recommended for the control of the Norway rat, is not effective in controlling the roof rat. Therefore, it was neces sary to find a poison and bait combination that would kill. the Nor way rat and also the roof and black rats. A bait is made from 1 part of barium carbonate to 6 parts, by weight, of hamburg steak or chopped apple. Campaigns on a county-wide basis for the control of house rats are contemplated duringthe ensuing year. The cost of a campaign is low compared to the results obtained. Barium carbonate if purchased wholesale will cost approximately 6 cents per pound, whereas the retail price is often $2.00 per pound. When all infested places in a county are poisoned at the same time more permanent results are obtained. In the Fort Pierce citrus grove section, C. B. Murray and a group of citrus growers in his locality, have been conducting a drive against the roof rat. They used 200 pounds of barium carbonate. MISCELLANEOUS The control of moles, land crabs, pocket gophers, marsh rabbits, and melon mice are problems in the state which are being handled at . present by individual effort through directions supplied by this office. . This rodent control work has the active cooperation of the State Game Commission, the Izaak Wal ton League, the Florida Wild Life League, and approximately 2,000 farmers over the state. These farmers are users of larger quantities of poisoned bait for rat control than city people on rat campaigns. The saving to th2 farmer, during this period of low purchasing power of the farm er's dollar, is receiving our greatest attention and suppo:rt.

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Annual Report, 1932 79 PART III-WOMEN'S WORK HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent MARYE. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation ANNA MAE SIKES, Nutritionist Many women and girls respond enthusiastically to the demon stration method of instruction. They establish demonstrations in their own homes by putting into practice recommendations made by home demonstration agents. Through these demonstra tions they learn and teach others. That the agent may serve all of the farm families in the county, it is necessary for her to amplify her services many times. During 1932 home demonstration work was cooperatively carried on in 515 communities in 30 counties by state and county home demonstration staff and local people. There were 6,831 women enrolled in 284 home demonstration clubs and 8,496 girls enrolled in 474 4-H clubs. Membership in the clubs is voluntary. During the year these 15,327 women and girls met monthly for instruction pertaining to greater thrift, best uses of farm home resources, and other homemaking activities for the improvement of the farm home and community life. The clubs were organized into 19 county councils for women's work and 26 for girls' work. The home demonstration council repi;-esents the clubs of the county and all the activities of home demonstration work. The Council is a demonstration in organ ization. It enables the agent to better plan for local needs and conditions. County boards make appropriations to conduct the Extension work in counties. The school boards are generous in arranging time for 4-H meetings, furnishing school busses for special oc casions, furnishing bulletin board space and encouraging 4-H club members. Men's and women's civic clubs are generous in donat ing funds for 4-H club girls to attend the annual state short course. Welfare associations are looking to home demonstration agents to assist with distribution and use of cloth for needy and also the

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension use of flour distributed through the Red Cross. Home agents have conducted bread making demonstrations to which the lead ers in welfare work were invited. Agents are giving assistance to welfare organizations with the emergency gardening work and by distributing seed with instruc tions for planting. The home agents have assisted in canning vegetables and meats for the unemployed. Canning centers have been established in counties. Home demonstration club members are using information which they have gained from the agent on school lunches and clothing. Agents have the opportunity of assisting with clinics for sick and crippled. The 4-H club members have contributed jars of canned food for the Children's Home in Pensacola. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs always evidences support and interest in home demonstration work. This organ ization participates in each state meeting that the Federation holds. One program each year is given over to home demonstra tion work in each club. The chairman of home demonstration work spent the week in attendance at Farmers' Week. The first vice-president of the State Congress of Parent-Teach,ers spent the entire time in attendance at Farmers' Week; and their home service chairman two days of our Annual Conference. She explained their program and acquainted herself with the Ex tension program. They are emphasizing home demonstration work through their home service department. An excellent dem onstration of cooperation with that group and home demon stration members is in Pinellas County in work with the school lunchroom managers. Both the Federation of Women's Clubs and the Congress of Parents and Teachers invite contributions from this organization to be published in their official magazine. State Board of Health physicians and nurses have assisted with special programs and the State 4-H Health Contest. The home demonstration organization has participated in the program at the annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society and has a representative on the State Council of Health Welfare and Education. The home improvement specialist is a member of the beautification committee of the State Chamber of Com merce. The state home demonstration agent is counselor for the State Home Economics Association and edits the State Home Economics News Letter. She is also a member of the board of directors of the Florida Social Workers Conference. Miss Keown,

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Annual Report, 1932 81 district agent, has served on the executive committee of the American Home Economics Association, and is president of the Florida Home Economics Association. EMERGENCY CONDITIONS There has been curtailment of county funds and increased . de mands for services. In every case reports show that to the home demonstration agent individuals and organizations rightfully look for counsel and assistance pertaining to families in the rural sec tions. In times of depression it is to the-home garden, canning of surplus, and best use of obtainable foods and clothing that attention is turned to meet the immediate needs. Consequently the agent extends her services to a larger group of people than her own club members. The program has centered around those things which would provide food and feed, increase the family income, wise buying and . abundant living. This was termed the "live-at-home" pro gram. Outstanding in this program have been the calendar vege table gardens, calendar orchards, food conservation, food prepara tion, pouitry flocks, home dairying, nutrition, clothing, home industries, standardizing products for market, recreation and home improvement. The report from a St. Petersburg Relief Council shows that persons who are applying for relief have not taken advantage of home demonstration instruction. There is not a club member in Holmes County who has had to ask for help of any kind from the Red Cross or any other organization. Record books show from 115 to 1,400 quarts of canned fruits and vegetables are on the pantry shelves of each club member. Emphasis was placed on the following points during the year: 1. Production of meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, vege tables, fruit and honey necessary for the family. 2. The conservation of surplus food. 3. Adding to the family income through farm women's market ing of surplus garden, orchard, poultry and dairy products-en couraging home industries. 4. Thrift in clothing through renovation, care, wise buying. 5. The arrangement of work and equipment to save time and steps; lowering the cost of operation; and budgeting the income. 6. Keeping up the family morale through the maintenance of: (a) The comfort and beauty of the home. (b) Community work and recreation in-the home and com munity.

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82 Florida : Coopera t i ve E x tension FOOD, NUTRITION , AND HEALTH ANNA MAE SIKES, Nutritionist The general purpose of the work is to develop a clear under standing of the essential principles of human nutrition and a program for food selection, preparation and adequate economical meal planning, disease prevention, school lunch, group of com munity meals, exhibits, school and club demonstrations, using the women and girls as individual exhibits of results. A part of this program relates the nutrition work to the produc tive program of poultry rai s ing , dairying, beekeeping , gardening and fruit growing. Another phase of the , work interests girls' and . women's clubs in a community servfoe that will bring about home production and home consumption which will result in better nutrition and health. . . . The :food, nutrition and health program for girls stresses suffi cient food in proper balance, correct eating habits, correct posture, proper mental attitude, adequate sleep and rest, plentiful sun shine and fresh air, regulated exercise and play, personal ' and home hygiene. This program begins with learning how to score food, nutrition and health habits and continues with a definite plan of study and demonstrations of improvement in food, nutri tion and health. Records show that in 1932, 6,156 4-H club girls participated in health improvement work; 5,429 individuals improved health habits; 4,366 individuals improved posture, and 4,432 adopted recommended positive preventive means to improve health. . Realizing that a child builds both physically and mentally , the plan is to establish bett~r school lunches. Intelligent choice of food, right attitude toward food, better nutrition and economical foods are demonstrated in actual practice. Records for 1932 show that 2,385 homes improved home-packed lunches and 117 schools followed recommendations for a hot school lunch. The food, nutrition and health program for the pre-school child includes physical examination, study of child and health protec tion . Demonstrations of the need for .wholesome food, properly masticated, and natural elimination each day are given to groups of mothers. In 1932 a result of nutrition work showed 1,690 homes improved methods in child feeding; 318 homes substituted positive methods of discipline for negative ones; 268 homes pro vided recommended play equipment; 775 homes made recom mended physical adjustments to b e tter meet the children's needs, and 487 adopted better adult habits with respect to development of children.

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Annual Report, 1932 83 The women's nutrition program suggests means of correction through diet of a few common ailments. The points emphasized are the classification of foods according to functions, the selection, preparation, service ahd cost of meals for individuals. The family market orders ana menus for the week are rriade with demon strations given of meals using Florida products. Records are kept of expenditures for food. The food, nutrition and health program was conducted in 29 counties this past year. There were 3,898 adult result demonstrations, and 5,022 4-H club girls enrolled. Improved practices were adopted by 1,595 women in baking; 1,491 women in meat cookery; 2,266 women in vegetable cookery; 1,599 . women in poultry products, and 1,597 women in dairy products. i 1 , . ! .1 1:~ The records of 1932 show there has been an improvement in food habits, improvement of general health, improvement in . planning . diets, increased production and consumption of milk, eggs, fruits, arid vegetables, improvement of school lunch and lunch . rooms. . . GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS !SA.BELLE S. THURSBY, Extension Economist in Food Conservation Recognizing the need for . Florida people to have fresh fruits and vegetables at all seasons . of . the . year, the "live-at,home" project was _ emphasized. The trend has been the development ofmore home gardens and fruits. ALL-YEAR H01'fE GARDEN \vORI{ Home gardens average a little niore than $34 per farm. This' is above all costs and does n~t include trucking areas or acreage. Hundreds of 4-H gardens and all-year garden projects carried by the junior and senior home demonstration club members have amounted to ?S much as $300 and over. ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST In spite of no awards to serve as a stimulus to record-keeping, records have improved greatly and more club members have kept the garden record books as supplied by the state office than in previous years. Club members realize the value of well-kept records of accomplishments and results and the habit of being business-like and methodical is gaining. The compilation of the gardening work of the senior home

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension demonstration members show 3,972 gardens made in 1932 with a total cash valuation of $22,364.24 for vegetables served at home; $31,917.47 for vegetables sold fresh; $11,590.50 of vegetables canned and $22,364.24 for fresh fruits sold from the orchard. The women and girls who have kept garden records have dem onstrated very clearly to themselves the value of the garden, both in dollars and cents and in dividends far greater than gold-better health. . The calendar orchard was stressed as a valuable asset. 4-H GIRLS' GARDEN WORK There were 4,646 enrollments and 3,646 completions in garden ing by the girls. By completions is meant finishing one full year's work, growing the vegetables and flowers as outlined, hav ing the perennials started as required, and submitting the record of the work done and exhibiting when and where called for by the home demonstration agent ; A suggestive list of perennials is given in the record book and the club girl selects the type and variety adapted to her needs and to the soil and climatic conditions of her locality. Fresh vegetables marketed by members of the 4-H clubs amounted in Palm Beach County to $496.41. In Dade County, 392 girls grew vegetable gardens, while both girls and women raised 500 flower gardens. Walton County has this interesting report: "The plan for junior club members in gardening was divided into two main projects and 154 first and second year girls planted three or more kinds each season. This gave a variety of winter, spring, summer and fall vegetables. Third and fourth year girls chose a spring garden of vegetables for canning. Most of the older girls go to school on buses and have little time for garden ing. They plant to have vegetables for canning and can the surplus during vacation. CALENDAR ORCHARD (perennial plantings) The need for more fruit throughout the year is recognized and emphasis is placed on variety plantings to supply fresh fruits most of the year. Twenty-three counties report 629 calendar orchards planted or increased. The Senior Home Demonstration Council sponsored a special project, Calendar Orchards, this year with both women and girls. To encourage this, the Council had one of its first meetings of the year in a typical, tropical orchard. This was followed by a

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Annual Report, 1982 85 visit to a nursery that offered a special discount to home demon stration members and 4-H club girls. Fourteen demonstrations were given on "what, when, and how to plant." Members were asked to report on fruits they had grown, how many canned products they bought for the month and for the year, and how much they had canned at home. Up to this time these members had not realized how many canned products were usually purchased. Alachua County has been carrying the calendar orchard demon E,tration for several years. In 1932, 18 more women planted cal endar orchards. FOOD CONSERVATION MISS ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Economist Scientific research has proved that canned foods are equal in nutritive value to the same foods entirely prepared in the home kitchen. Adequate, well-balanced meals, rich in vitamins and other essential food elements, may be served with much ease and very little preparation by the home gardener who plans a canning program of quantity and of a variety to suit the needs and tastes of her family. THE CANNING BUDGET The program has provided for a planting and canning budge ~ to meet individual family needs. These budgets include, of course, the fruits, vegetables, meats, sweets and relishes necessary to supplement the fresh products of the season. MEETING ECONOMIC NEEO,S Food conservation in Florida has received more attention than usual. Pantry shelves have never been better filled. Extra canned products are being exchanged for other home necessities. Sales from surplus canned products have aided in payment of taxes. There has been a large amount of canning equipment bought. The following is an illustration of how canning may be used advantageously from the standpoint of economy: In Holmes County, the Home Demonstration Agent gave meat canning demonstrations in each community. She carried her equipment to the home of some interested family where she held a community meeting. They spent the day in canning meats. As a result 106 animals were canned in tin and glass ready to be served or sold in exchange for other necessities, farmers getting 35c per No. 2 tin can of this meat.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension SUMMARY Last year, 3,898 women in Florida canned and preserved: 154,928 quarts of fruit 219,547 quarts of vegetables 53,965 quarts of pickles and relishes 91,155 quarts of jams, marmalades and jellies 1,910 gallons of vinegar 4,602 gallons fruit juice 61,850 quarts pork, beef and game 6,107 quarts chicken 8,865 quarts fish In addition to the above amounts saved by the women, 205,927 quarts were canned by 4-H girls; 272,820 pounds of meat were cured by 1,245 families and 27,358 pounds soap were made. Valued at 10 cents a quart, the farm women and girls have saved during one year more than $114,771 through home canning. CANNING A PHASE OF RELIEF WORK The nation~wide concern over unemployment has touched Flor..: ida and in many places where the problem of feeding the unem ployed (mainly from other states) has b1;come acute the doctrine of conservation and its practical application has helped in a very substantial way in meeting the "d,2pression situation." Through cooperative and community canning, Leon Co:.inty home demonstration workers stocked their pantries with canned products and assisted the County Welfare Board in supplying the needs of the unemployed. Farmers supplied the produce. and the labor and the Welfare Board furnished the.tins and jars. Filled containers were divided evenly between the two. During the month of June alone a total of 3,851 No. 2 cans of vegetables and 67 galloni;; of green beans had been canned ; 385 of the cans were of soup mixture, 991. of Ford.hook beans, 2,199 green beans and 276 , of corn. . . . . A community center was established in West Palm Beach in January to meet local conditions. The home demonstration agent gave instructions and demonstrations to a group of 15 volunteer workers on canning all types of products available. A civic com mittee arranged for space and equipment. With the cooperation of the gas and water companies a complete and convenient can ning center has operated during the trucking season. The Sal vation Army then took over the management of the cannery and at the closing the last of June, 12,000 cans of products were ready for distribution during the summer months, the season of scarcity. It is important that honey be used generously in the diet and

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Annual Report, 1932 87 club members should be influenced to learn more about the food value of honey and how it may be used; For two summers, the Economist in Food Conservation . has cooperated in the joint program with the State Beekeepers Asso ciation during Farmers' Week. A five-page mimeographed cir cular was prepared for distribution regarding the uses of honey in the menu. .. Home demonstration agents have sponsored county products dinners. 1t was interesting to see in this connection that civic clubs over the state last year entered into the idea of servinft All -: Florida Products Dinners as a means of helpiJlg to relieve depres sion and unemployment. A great deal of local pride and interest has been aroused by the county products dinne:rs'given unde:rthe direction of home demonstration women and lHgirls. ' Products taken from their gardens, orchards, poultry flocks, dairies and pantries provided excellent food of great variety. POULTRY Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home demonstration program mainly for two reasons (1) for family nutrition; (2) to increase , the family income. There were 1,186 women who managed and reported on ' flocks with a total of 166,339 birds. They report a profit for their work of $44,465. A total of 1,077 girls raised 33,543 birds . Nine counties report 104 entries in the Florida Calendar Flock Records. Enthusiasm in the home poultry flock has been stimulated by ' the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries and through marketing of products in addition to the regular work of the agents under leadership of the poultry specialist. Eighteen counties report $18,227 . 58 worth of poultry sold on the market, and $75,500.33 received for eggs sold by those who reported. DAIRYING Reports from 18 counties show that 359 family milk cows have been obtained for farm families this year. There are 1,901 fam ilies who report using daily a quart of milk for each child and a pint for each adult. Two hundred sixty-two women working with 636 cows report a profit of $25,080. HOME IMPROVEMENT VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Hom . e Improvement To have rural homes that are clean, orderly, convenient and attractive in appearance leads to the development of happy, healthy, progressive dependable rural citizens.

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension During the year 3,184 homes improved home health and sani tation to control malarial mosquito, hookworm, flies and other parasites. Fig. 10.-The 4-H girls try th e ir hand s at painting g ard e n furniture dur ing their short course at the State College for Women a s a part of their home improvement work. There were 5,391 women and girls utilizing discarded materials who renovated and made attradive house furnishings at small cost. Report s show that: 116 homes were remodeled 79 sewage plants installed 101 water systems in s talled 63 solar water heater s installed 231 familie ~ . installed electricity 438 homes screened 383 sanitary toilets built 806 porches repaired 303 houses and outbuildings painted and 319 whitewashed 943 kitchens improved 2,178 other rooms improved 2,126 women and girls refinished walls, woodwork and floors 2,295 women and girls repaired and remodeled furniture. Tours to see improvements made in homes, shopping tours, educational trips, demonstrations in communities at county-wide events, Short Course and Farmers' Week have helped to increase improvements along definite lines. HOME MANAGEMENT To secure greater convenience, comfort and orderly methods of homemaking, the demonstration agents have worked with

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Annual Report, 1932 89 3,508 farm women and girls to improve (1) the management of time and energy, and (2) the management of income or farm home resources. In helping farm women to manage their time and use their strength, home demonstration agents worked with 1,520 homes, assisted in obtaining inexpensive and practical labor-saving equip ment. Also 1,168 homes were given help to improve the family laundry problem, and 1,840 homes were helped to improve their everyday housekeeping duties. Five hundred eighty-five women kept home accounts, 455 women budgeted their expenses, 1,098 women made a study of their buy ing methods and followed recommendations of the home demonstration agent. . Managing the farm income in most cases means using it for those necessities that cannot be produced on the farm. In one county under the direction of the home demonstration agent 20 women kept accurate records on the vegetables produced and used and found they each saved in a year from $97 to $247 on grocery bills. BEAUTIFYING HOME GROUNDS To make the rural home attractive, special attention is given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery and foundation plant ings. During 1932 there were 6,198 women and girls who beautified their home grounds. Club members are using native shrubbery. Seedsmen and nurseries have cooperated in offering reduced prices. Seeds were portioned out in penny packages and sold to club members. Various. counties have adopted a county flower to be grown by all club members. CLOTHING LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent This year 10,418 women and girls improved their sewing skill through instructions given by the home demonstration agents in short cuts and time-saving methods in construction. WISE BUYING Economic conditions had a direct bearing on clothing the family in 1932, and fewer articles were bought. Methods to inform women what was good value in material, workmanship, and suit . ability, shopping tours, clothing exhibits, judging and scoring ready-made and home-made garments were featured, with the result that 10,755 women and girls bought and made clothing

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension for themselves with the help of the home demonstration agents, while 1,188 women and girls made out a clothing budget before purchasing anything new . CHILDREN'S CLOTHING 4-H Club girls learn to sew in their club meetings and after they become skillful often take over the task of sewing for them selves and the younger children of the family. Two thousand two Fig. 11.-The se girls were winners of the 4-H clothing conte s t at the s hort course. They are wearing dresses made by them s elves. hundred and eighty-three girls in 1932 made such clothing with the guidance of the hom e demonstration agent, and 2,341 women were given assistance in making children's clothing. Six thou sand two hundred and sixty women and girls were helped to make old garments into garments that were clean and wearable. 4 -H HOME SEWING After a club girl has received two years of instruction in sewi ng she demonstrates her ability. One thousand nine hundred and thirteen 4-H club girls made curtains, bedspreads, quilts, table linen and other household articles for the home. Home agents and their club women have helped with the mak ing of thousands of garments from cotton cloth distributed by the Red Cross.

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Annual Report, 1932 91 One home demonstration agent reports that, under the direc tion of six women cooperating with her, 150 needy women of the county were given employment in making 3,390 garments from 12,000 yards of cloth. In another county the home agent and club women made 1,500 garments for needy families. They met once a week and brought old clothing which was cleaned and made into garments. Interest in . wise buying, color, design, good workmanship, acces sories and personal grooming has increased, culminating in dress revues at county-wide meetings and short courses for 4-H Club girls. At the State Short Course for 4-H club girls in June, Mary Ellen Lovelace won a clothing contest for girls who have had a clothing program for . three years. She was awarded a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress and won third place in a National Clothing Contest. MONEY-MAKING HOME INDUSTRIES MARYE. KEOWN, District Agent Lowered cash receipts from farm products have caused farm families to seek ways of supplementing their incomes. The home demonstration agents have helped the women develop standard ized articles for sale; examples: the canned spiced guava of Pinellas, the boned chicken of Gadsden, the poultry products and wreaths of Alachua, or the hooked rugs of Dade County. Marketing enterprises have been established, such as direct sales froin the producer to the consumer through the home dem onstration office ; sales stands on the highways ; booths in curb markets, and home demonstration shops equipped and operated by the farm women. Reports by girls and women to the home demonstration agents show the following sales by counties: Bradford and Union counties report total sales amounting to $4,628.60; Alachua, $8,371.35; Dade, $37,746.80; Palm Beach, $7,449.21; St. Johns, $7,385.00; Duval, $4,223.53. Amounts received for poultry in Gadsden total $7,390.74; in Jackson $4,138.50; in Jefferson $2,034.00; in Holmes $3,201.40; in Lake $2,580.00; in Santa Rosa $5,109.25. Amounts received for garden produce alone total $2,150.00 in Orange; $18,746.00 in Polk; $1,875.00 in Leon; $2,502.95 in Gads den, and $3,283.20 in Walton. The total sales reported by the women and girls amount to

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension $213,896.68; poultry and eggs, $93,468.13; fresh fruits and vege tables, $56,228.92; dairy products, $12,315.20; canned products, $11,590.50; home baked goods, $6,107.07; and other craft articles, $34,186.86. Particular attention is given to standardizing canned and baked products for market. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Club houses for club and community meetings were available in 51 communities. There were 117 schools in 18 counties that served a hot dish or school lunch for 25,519 pupils and 26 clubs managed hot school lunches for 16,136 school children under home agent' plans. Community recreation was developed in 166 communities and 122 community plays were presented. There were 162 communities assisted in definitely improving hygienic practices, and 183 school or other community grounds were improved according to recommendations from home demon stration agents. Thirty-two clubs began community libraries, subscribing to 149 magazines. Club members subscribed to and Fig. 12.-A home demonstration club house is an ideal community center. This one was named in honor of the home demonstration agent.

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Annual Report, 1932 93 exchanged among themselves 5,054 magazines and papers. There were 439 community achievement meetings and exhibits held. A total of 515 communities were assisted in developing various community activities according to community needs. The decrease in counties appropriating, consolidation of schools and increased number of organizations in many of the schools and dropping from the rolls those not definitely carrying 4-H club work as required, reduced the total enrollment in girls' 4-H club work this year 472. However, the percentage of completions increased from 78% to 82.2% this year. Older girls have con tinued active in their 4-H club work, so strengthening the work generally and providing a fine group of leaders for the younger generation. , Alumnae Clubs, so called for lack of a better name as yet, have been organized in two counties, with two other counties planning to perfect their organization during the holidays. The member ship of these alumnae clubs consists of girls too old to be active in the groups of younger girls and still too young to enjoy active membership in the clubs for women. The counties have various standards for admission to membership, but their object is the same: To aid in furthering 4-H club work and to aid the members themselves to find jobs, or get further education or to carry on long time and comprehensive demonstrations in their homes and communities. This group of girls has already taken considerable responsibility in club camps, etc., and we expect them to render invaluable service. When this plan was discussed py the district agent re• cently with the College 4-H Club at the Florida State College for Women, numbers of these college girls indicated their intention of helping their agents form similar groups. PUBLICITY Each home demonstration agent submits a radio talk with her monthly report. Members of the state staff prepare talks at varying intervals. We participated in the National 4-H Achievement Day program presenting programs from four stations in Florida. A 4-H club radio program was presented over WRUF monthly, the girls and boys alternating. Twenty-eight agents report 174 radio talks this year, an increase of 143 over last year. Twenty-nine counties report 3,008 news articles or stories pub lished.

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension News reporters elected or appointed in the 4-H and women's clubs have as their duties the reporting of individual and club activities. A special course given by the Extension Editor during Short Course for 4-H club girls and occasional courses in the counties have proven of much help to these reporters. As an out growth of this instruction a good many girls' councils edit and publish their own news sheet. Several women's councils have similar publications which have created considerable interest among the club members. VISITS, TOURS, MEETINGS Reports show that the agents made 13,434 home visits to 6,964 homes and an additional 884 farm visits to 610 farms. There is an interest in tours or visits to successful result dem onstrations in the home. An exhibit of citrus by-products was placed at the Orange . Festival held in Winter Haven in January. The exhibit has grown from year to year in variety and in quality, featuring this year what was probably the largest and finest collection of crys tallized citrus fruits that could be found anywhere in the United States-oranges, grapefruit, 'shaddock, tangelo, citron, kumquats, limequats, orangequats, calamondins, and still other members of the marvelous citrus family, all exquisite in form and color. Home demonstration agents held 946 demonstration meetings with an attendance of 15,589 and 15 agents conducted 71 tours with an attendance of 9;999. Team demonstrations by 4-H club girls have been encouraged in all counties during the year. Forty-eight judging teams and 243 demonstration teams were trained in the state. These scoring highest in the counties entered state-wide contests conducted during the Girls' 4-H Club Short Course. The county making the highest score annually is awarded a silver pitcher for the year. Dade County was the recipient in 1932. LOCAL LEADERS The development of local leaders, both girls and women, and the strengthening of county and state councils contribute to effi cient development of the rural home. In 1932, 919 women and 368 older girls assisted home demonstration agents as voluntary local leaders. There were 203 training meetings held for leaders with an attendance of 2,288.

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Annual Report, 1932 SPECIAL EVENTS ACHIEVEMENT DAYS 95 Community and county achievement days are observed af the culmination of the year's work. Features of the program include exhibits, reports, demonstrations by club members, addresses by the state staff, local persons as county superintendents and others, awarding of certificates and pins to those who have accomplished most as a club. They also afford splendid opportunities to observe methods and progress. During the year there were 112 achievement days held; 36 were for adults, attendance 15,692; and 71 for 4-H club members, attendance of 16,504. CAMPS There were 35 camps held. Twelve of these were for women, 10 for boys and girls and 13 for girls. There were 666 women, 1,347 girls, 242 boys and 1,482 others including visitors, instruc tors, and leaders in attendance. Three trained camp workers, College 4-H club girls, assisted agents with the camps. A two-day farm and home institute for adults was held at the West Florida 4-H Club Camp. SHORT COURSE FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS The Annual State Short Course for 4-H club girls was held at Florida State College for Women. There were 416 girls, 41 local leaders, and 28 agents in attendance. The average age of those attending is from 14 to 15 years. Scholarships were provided by club membed, county commis sioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, mer chants. The L. & N. Railroad has provided expenses for a girl to attend from each county traversed by its lines. Outstanding features were assistance given by College 4-H girls, project demonstrations, contests, afternoon program for rec ()gnition of accomplishments, state council meetings, recreation and entertainment. The council awarded a scholarship to cora Boyette, Manatee County, for her junior year at Florida State College for Women. The business manager of the State College for Women followed this by awarding a dining room scholarship to supplement funds provided by the Council. Individuals entered clothing, posture and health contests. Demonstration teams of 10 girls representing each county entered. contests in table setting, dishwashing, canning,judging of ca~ned products, poultry judging, salad and sandwich making. The entire county group entered the 4-H song contest.

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension Points won by each county were totaled and Dade County, scor ing highest, was awarded an engraved silver pitcher to be held until 1933 Short Course. The Short Course was ended with an impressive candle lighting service through the cooperation of Dr.Edward Conradi, president of the College, which typified the extending of knowledge from Florida State College for Women through the Extension Service into the rural communities. FARMERS AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK There were 700 women in attendance during Farmers' Week. The theme for the home economics program was "Opportunities for Florida Homemakers Today." Demonstrations and instruc tions were given. Outstanding features were exhibits and group work with rural women, musical programs, dress revue, radio programs. The State Home _ Demonstration Council awarded a scholarship to Mary George of Marion County for her junior year at Florida State College for Women, and a silver loving cup to Dade and Alachua County Councils. OUT~OF-STATE TRIPS Martha Briese of Escambia County and Ruth Ansley of Marion County were awarded trips to the National 4-H Club Camp for Boys and Girls, in Washington, D. C., directed by the Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Two girls and two boys making the highest score within the states are permitted to attend. The girls' trips were financed by The Capitol City Publishing Company and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Com pany. Trips. to Chicago for attendance at the National 4-H Club Congress are awarded those scoring highest in various phases of club work. Recipients of the trips were Loraine Chamberlain, Alachua County, for home improvement work; Ellen Dirr, Manatee, winner in the state health contest; Mary Ellen Love lace, Dade County, winner in state clothing contest. She won third place in the National Contest. These trips were financed by the State Department of Agriculture, Montgomery Ward and Com pany, _and Chicago Mail Order Company. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES Number of home demonstration agents............................ 29 Number of misi5t,mt home demonstration agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Number of county home demonstration councils for girls' work...... 26 Number of county home demonstration councils for women's work... 19 Numhei: ~f.communities actively participating in home demonstration acby1bes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515

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Annual Report, 1932 Number local leaders-adult work: Men .... . ................ . ............... . ...... . .. . .. .. .. . Women . . .. .. . . . .... . ...... . . .. ... . .. . ..... . ..... ..... . . . . Number local leaders-4-H club work: Men ......... , ......... . ............ . ................ . ... . Women . . . ......................... . ............ , .. ...... . Older club boys ........ . ......................... .. ....... . Older club girls ............ , ............ . ............ . .... . Number adult home demonstration clubs .... . .. ........ . . . ... . ... . Membership . . . .. . ....... . . . ... .. .......... .. ..... . .. . . .. ..... . Number 4-H c lubs ............ . .......... .. . . .. . ....... . . .. . . .. . Membership: 97 4 584 14 336 20 368 254 6,831 474 Boys .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Girls .................... . ............................ .. . . . 8,496 Number of 4-H club members completing: Boys .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Girls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,991 Number of 4-H club teams trained: Judging .... .. . ..... . ...... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Demonstration .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Number farm and home visits made ....... . ............. .. ....... 14,318 Number different farms and homes visited .................. . .. :-, . 7,574 Number day s a g ents spent in office .... . .. .. . ... ..... .. ... .. .... 2,387 Number days agents spent in field .... . ... . ..... ... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,187 Number newspaper articles or stories published . .......... . ....... 3 , 008 Number individual letters written . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,289 Number different circular letters written.................. .. ...... 2,085 Number bulletins distributed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,685 Number events at which extension exhibits were shown ... ... ..... , 236 Training meetings held for loc a l leaders or committeemen: (a) Adult work: Number . . . . ......... ; ....... . . . ......... . Wom e n leaders attending .......... .. ..... . (b) 4-H Club : Numb e r . .................... . . ... . . ..... . Leaders attending ... .. ........... . . . ; .... . Method demonstration meetings held: 99 1,346 105 932 Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,430 Attendance .................. . ..... . ... .. ..... .. ... . .. . .... 147,642 Meetings at result demon s trations : Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 946 Attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,589 Tours conducted: Number . .. .................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Attendance ........................ : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,999 Achievement D a ys held: (a) Adult work: Number . ... . . . ... . ; .. .. .... . .. . . . .. . . . .. . Attendance ..... .. ........... . .... . ...... . (b) 4-H Club: Number . ........ . ... . ......... . ......... . Attendance .......... . ........... .. . . .... . Encampments held: (a) Farm women: Number ......... _ .. . ..................... . Total attendance . . .. . . . .................. . (b) 4-H Club: Number .. . ..................... . ... .. . Girls attending . .... . ................... . . . Others attending .... .... ... . ..... .... .... . Other meeting s of extension n a ture: 36 15,692 76 16,504 12 766 25 1,347 1,482 Number . .. ............ . ........... . .. . ........... . ........ 910 Attendanc e ....... . .... .. ............ .. .................... 127,099 Meetings held by local leaders: (a) Adult work: Number . . .............. .. ............... . Attend a nce . . . ... .. .. . .. . ....... . . .... ... . (b) 4-H Club: Number •.......... . . .... .. . .. .... ........ Attendance ..................... . ........ . 455 9,015 1,393 23,186

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PHASE OF WORK I No. Com muni ties PROJECT ACTIVITIES I No. I S~ei!!J . I d~.;~ I of 1st to Leaders helped work No. meet ings held No. 1 •Differ-1 news ent Home stories circul~r visits published letters made I Office calls made Home gardens and home beautification.. 460 338 37 6,064 1,672 337 I 213 3,116 4,354 Market garden and truck crop......... 55 38 8 49 158 39 29 351 1,240 Fruits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 124 3 189 448 73 32 270 809 Rodents and miscellaneous insects. . . . . . 28 26 5 31 101 11 4 144 480 Agricultural (Home) Engineering...... 162 54 7 156 114 37 . 16 264 . 373 Poultry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 150 43 451 621 227 252 1,345 2,258 Dairy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 141 77 . . . . 113 168 24 36 497 553 Marketing home products ... : . . . . . . . . . 228 127 15 214 317 112 141 550 1,834 Foods and nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 337 70 1,270 2,132 557 204 2,070 5,182 Child training and care................ 28 90 . . . . 82 219 37 47 151 533 Clothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 485 18 1,337 2,112 322 130 966 2,311 Home management ................... 231 125 11 223 341 78 51 370 510 House furnishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 227 30 535 926 128 133 818 1,907 Home health and sanitation............ 386 253 21 353 849 110 37 790 1,268 Community activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 484 32 304 292 262 130 748 1,770 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 235 42 324 429 176 126 642 1,991 Building extension program of work..... 295 443 142 264 335 108 186 492 1,430 I No. individuals adopting practices Women j Girls 3,972 1,093 3,176 527 531 1,186 262 362 3,898 1,004 3,048 2,188 2,992 1,610 4,646 383 2,409 70 1,358 34 5,022 7,370 1,661 2,399 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 674 64 . 342 273 317 314 700 1,628 TOT AL . . .. .. ..................... i-1 ---, --=-4,"""29=2=--,...I -=54""'9"""-;-l2 1 1,.,,2--=,3"""0"'"'51/:,...,2-;-l,1..,.1--=,s=o~7 -1-=2--=,9-=55=--.,...\ -=2--=,o-=31.,-----c-cl 1..,.4,-=2-=34.,-----+=\3"""0,""'4"""31,--+=\ 2-=5,--=-3..,.,49=--+=12-=-5,-=-3=52=-

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Annual Report, 1932 99 PART IV-NEGRO WORK NEGRO _ MEN'S WORK A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent Negro Extension work is carried on by local agents supervised by one district agent for the men's work and one district age~t for the women's work. The office headquarters are at the A. & M. College for Negroes in Tallahassee and the work has the same supervision as other Extension work. In the farm work among Negroes, the counties of Alachua, Columbia, Hamilton, Jackson, Jefferson, Marion and Suwannee had agents. The work, however, was not confined to these coun ties but was carried on through Negro Farmer Cooperative asso ciations in Gadsden, Leon, Hillsboro, Madison and Suwannee counties. Reports show that there were definite Extension pro grams in 85 communities. These agents work an average of 11 months during the year. Definite plans for an Extension program with Negroes were made in the Gainesville office of the Extension Service. These were given to the colored agents and farmers at community meetings. Thfs was made up in the form of programs and placed in the hands of the county workers who were to use it as their program for the year. This plan harmonized all agricultural programs for all classes of farmers and was made up with a view of economical production, taking into consideration the needs of the farm and farm family, and with the further plan to produce only such cash crops as were to find a fair market, and these crops to be produced on the best land with a small outlay of expense. Where cash crops were grown, consideration was given to the possible mar kets, the cost of fertilizer, and farmers were urged to avoid going into debt. These recommendations resulted in a reduced acreage of cotton, tobacco and marketable vegetable crops, and as a: result of this, such farmers as followed these recommendations found them selves in a position to hold their farms, feed their families and prepare for next year's crops. A further result shows that the loans advanced for Negro farmers for marketing their crop were relatively small as compared with former years. Colored farmers

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100 Florida Cooperati v e Extension in the general farming area bought less fertilizer than usual and in other ways cut expenses, and in this period of depression have fared better than many whit . e farmers. During July, farm tours were planned to visit demonstration plots where the better varieties and better cultural practices could be observed. This was followed up in several sections of the state, in each case arranged by the local agent, interested farmers being invited to see the results of the improved practices. During these tours, farmers expressed the results of their opera tions. One farmer in Hamilton County who had borrowed $198 to make his spring crop explained how he had met his obligations by growing a crop of sweet potatoes, storing them properly and then finding a good market for them. Other farmers expressed their views as to thrift and economy and their plans of operation so that they could continue with their farming operations with out going into debt. Demonstrations were conducted on the Negro farms as pro vided for in the general program for Extension work. Florida has a Negro population on farms of 75,469 people. The Negro farmers own 514,833 acres and have 248,867 acres in cultivation. The value of the land, buildings and livestock totals $19,096,157. The totalvalue of .the annual products was $7,509,240. The problems on Negro farms are similar to those on farms operated by white farmers . Negro farmers must pay taxes, pay operating costs, pay interest and liquidate their debts to keep their farms in a productive condition. To do so, the Negro far mers must take advantage of conditions offered and be ready to adopt the better practices in agriculture. The prograin of work provided for livestock and crops adapted to the sections. The demonstrations conducted included corn, cotton, legume crops for feed and soil improvement, Irish potatoes, peanuts , fruits and garden crops. Thes . e demonstrations were planted to show improved practices as to cultivation, fertilization and vari ~ties for the crops and for the livestock, to demonstrate the value of improved livestock and better methods of feeding them. . The demonstrations gave an increase over the production in adjoining fields where the ordinary methods and practices were used in comparison with the better methods. Livestock demonstrations were with hogs, dairy and beef cattle and poultry. As the hog crop is the most important on the aver age farm , it has more attention than other livestock. The prac tices recommended to white farmers were also recommended to

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Annual Report, 1932 101 colored farmers, which recommendations provide for feed crops during the summer months and fattening crops of corn and pea nuts so that the hogs could be marketed early to take advantage of the better prices in case they were sold. Unfortunately, on account of low prices throughout the entire season, the number of hogs actually sold in the . usual way was smaller than usual. The greater part of the meat was used locally or home cured and kept for the farmer's meat supply. Under these conditions there was very little tendency to increase the number of hogs on the farms or inclinations to improve the breeding stock. In every case the sales for the products grown were disappear ing. The colored farmers were compelled to adjust themselves to unusual conditions which resulted in an exchange of farm products for . supplies that are needed and to conduct their farm ing operations with a relatively small amount of cash; The live-at-home program which included a year-round garden and a liberal supply of poultry products was an important part of the agent's work. This work was emphasized after it became necessary to carry on the relief work due to unemployment. The Negro agents assisted the local relief councils in locating destitute colored people and assisted them in raising a garden and making themselves as nearly self-sustaining as possible. This effort has given relief to many colored farmers who otherwise would have been entirely on funds supplied through the relief council for their food and clothing. Through the relief councils they were able to distribute seeds and instructions and later follow up the results so that the efforts of the relief council will be of the greatest service. With dairy cattle, the local agents recommended the better handling of dairy cattle by providing feeds and pastures with the idea of having a plentiful milk supply for home use. Through the help of county agents, the colored agents were able to secure a few Jersey heifers for the colored farmers that they may build up their small herds and give them a better class of cattle. Negro agents helped their farmers to increase the number of beef cattle on the farms. With those farmers who had cut-over lands not in eultivation and had access to a free range, it was logical for them to increase their herds for it meant a remunera:. tion with a little extra cost. The farmers were also encouraged to raise more feed and fatten out a few cattle, and even though the price was low, there was a local market for good quality beef. One farmer in Hamilton County who owns 740 head of cattle was

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102 Florida Cooperative Extension able to market $900 worth of cattle that was butchered and sold in the local community. Demonstrations in poultry were principally with laying breeds. Baby chicks and eggs from purebred stock were purchased. Methods of feeding were recommended. Laying flocks were culled. Others were helped with the production of broilers and fryers. For the most part, these were with the farm flocks so that the farmers could have a plentiful supply of products for home use and for sale or for exchange to stores for supplies that farmers need. The colored agents had the help of all the specialists in poultry, livestock and farm crops. The live-at-home program has been especially stressed in this part of Extension work and it has resulted in much good to com munities as well as to individuals. CLUB WORK There were 352 boys and 10 girls completing 4-H club projects. These projects dealt with corn, cotton, sweet potatoes, poultry, hogs and calves. The same instructions were given the boys as were given adult farmers. Kilgore's Red Cob and Whatley's Prolific were the two varieties of corn recommended and on 270 acres, these boys produced an average of 22 bushels which is an increase of approximately 12 ~ . ushels over the state average for colored farmers. Club meetings were held and 4-H clubs organized with the help of leaders or local agents. FARMERS' COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS In counties where no agents are employed, the cooperative asso ciations have helped materially in carrying along the program. Assistance has been given these associations in organization methods and in the purchase and sales. The crops sold cooper atively were principally vegetables and berry crops. Practically nothing was sold cooperatively in the gene;ral farming area. These associations purchased some fertilizer, at a saving of from $3 to $7 per ton, due to the collective orders and cash sales. The gross sales of the products sold cooperatively through the asso ciations amounted to $19,000. EXHIBITS Exhibits of the Negro work representing six counties were placed on display al lhe Soulh Florida Fair in Tampa during February. These exhibits were collected and_ installed by the

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Annual Report, 1932 103 help of local agents and farmers' cooperative associations. The exhibits represented a creditable display of farm products and were commendable as showing an interest for the betterment of the Negro farmers of Florida. The statistical data are as follows: NEGRO MEN'S WORK General Activities Number of agents employed . ........................... _. . ...... . Number of months of service ................................... . Number of communities in which the Extension program has been conducted ................ . ............ . ........ ..... . ...... . Number voluntary county or community local leaders or committee. men assisting in the Extension program ... . ........... . ...... . County Extension organization membership . ............ . : . .. . . . . Total number of farm and home visits ...................... ; .... . Number of different farms and homes visited ............. .. ..... . Number of office and telephone calls .................... : .. , .... . Number of days agents in office ................................ . Number of days agents in field ................................. _ Number of news articles or stories published ............ . : . . .... . Number of individual letters written ..... . . . .......... .. ....... . Number of circular letters prepared ..... . ...................... . Number of bulletins distributed ................................ . Number of Extension exhibits shown .................. .. ....... . 7 77 _ 85 312 845 5,666 1,695 2,930 387 .1,646 82 1,330 176 1,308 14 Training meetings for local leaders ......... . ...... . Method demonstration meetings held ... . ...... . .... . Meetings held at result demonstrations . ... . ........ . Tours conducted ....................... ...... .... . Number . 123 341 22 3 46 2 732 145 Attendance 697 5,970 2,208 933 Encampments held-4-H Club ..................... . Other Extension meetings . ... ........... . .. , ..... . Meetings held by local leaders .......... _ . -, . . _. ...... . Cereals 38 5,803 1,985 Number of method demonstration meetings..... . ................ 101 Number of adult result demonstrations completed..... . .... . ...... 84 Total number of acres in result demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,498 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-:corn, 2.7 bu.; oats, 8 bu.; rye, 2 bu. -' Number farmers following improved practices.. . ................. 253 Acres involved ........................... . _ ........ .. . :, ....... 1,488 Legumes and Forage Crops Number of method demonstration meetings ... . ................. : 160 Number of adult result demonstrations completed ........ ; ... ; .... 302 Total number of acres in result demonstrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,844 Number farmers following improved practices......... . .. . ....... 36 Number acres involved ......................................... 83 Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco, and Other Special Crops Number of method demonstration meetings...................... 58 Number of adult result demonstrations completed......... . ....... 79 Total numJber of acres in result demonstrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-Irish potatoes, 2.2 bu.; sweet potatoes, 5.8 bu.; cotton, 67 lbs. Number of farmers following impro v ed practice s ................ . . 12 Number acres involved ............... . .. . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

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104 Florida Cooperative Extension Fruits, Vegetables, and Beautification of Home Grounds Number of method demonstration meetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Number of adult result demonstrations completed.. . .... . ........ . 390 Total number of acres in result demonstrations .. :................ 819 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-truck crops, 15 bu. Number groves following fertilizer practices..................... 7 Number groves following improved practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Number acres involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Number grove inspections made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Number spraying and dusting demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Number acres involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Number crop demonstrations conducted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Number acres involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Agricultural Engineering Number of method demonstration meetings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Number of farms installing drainage system..................... 6 Acreage drained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Number of farms building terraces.............................. 48 Acreage ....•..................... .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866 Number of farms clearing land of stumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Number of families assisted with house-planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Number of dwellings constructed according to plans ....... . ... : . .. 12 Number of dwellings remodeled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Number of water systems and sewage-disposal systems.......... . 1 Number of farms on which farm buildings were constructed or remodeled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Dairy barns, 3; hog houses, 9; poultry houses, 16. Number of farms employing better types of machinery or equipment 382 Poultry Number of method demonstration meetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Number of adult result demonstrations completed .. . ... .. ...... . . 203 Number of animals in completed demonstrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,614 Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations ....... . .. . . . .. $427.00 Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred and high-grade breeding stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Other Livestock Number of method demonstration meetings ............ . ... . .... , Number of adult result demonstrations completed ............ . ... . Number of animals in completed demonstrations ................. . Total profit or saving on adult result demonstrations .............. . Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred and high-grade breeding stock .................. . ................. . ......... . Number of animals vaccinated ................................. . Number animals treated for worms ..... . .. . . . ......... . ........ . Number sanitation demonstrations completed ........... . ....... . Number animals involved ..................................... . Number aniillials obtained for farmers . ...... . ..... . ... . .. . . . ... . Number offspring obtained this year from sires secured through Extension efforts ........... . .............................. . . Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation Number of adult result demonstrations completed ... . .. , ......... . Number of farms keeping farm accounts . ..................... . Number of . farms keeping cost-of-production record s ... . ......... . Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts . ........ . Number of farms assisted in making inventory ......... . .... . ... : 55 360 2,752 2,455 29 4,996 4,567 112 1,797 464 906 78 9 39 37 45

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Annual Report, 1932 105 Number of farms making recommended changes in their busi-iiess.. 26 Number of farms advised relative to leases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Obtaining credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Number of farms using outlook economic information ....... : ..... 90 Corn, 42; potatoes, 12; truck crops, 16; dairy cattle, 6; beef cattle, 3; hogs, 29; poultry, 12. Marketing (Farm and Home) Number of cooperative-marketing associations ......... . ........ . Number of cooperative-marketing association s or groups previously organized ... . ...... . ..................... . ..•................ Membership in associations organized .........................•. Value of products marketed by . associations .. . .......... . ........ $ Number of cooperative-marketing associations assisted with problems of-preliminary analysis, 10; organization, 6; business policies, 11; production to meet market demand, 6; reduction of market losser, 5; use of current market information, 7; standardizing, 3; packing and grading, 4; loading, 2; transporting, 3; keeping membership in. formed, 6. Savings made by8 11 705 6,092 Cooperative sales .......................................... $ 6,574 Cooperative purchases ... , ........ , .... . , .................. 91,775 Community or Country-Life Activities Number of communities assisted in making social or country-life s urvey!' , .......................... . ............... , . . . . . . . . . . 8 Number of country-life conferences or training meetings. . . . . . . . . . 29 Number of community groups assisted with organizational activities and meeting programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Number of communities assisted in improving hygienic and recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Number of school or other community grounds improved.... . ...... 8 Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities.... . ...... 20 Total number of different communities assi!' , ted in community or . country-life work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Farm Crops Horticultural Crops Livestock Program Summary Number No. Days by Days of Communities Specialist Work 97 9 663 83 3 282 63 3 205 Agricultural Economics Miscellaneous and 70 3 59 Program Making Forestry 18 26 9 0 181 11 Meetings Held 588 381 196 73 66 13 Farm Visits 1,943 710 5fi3 252 560 22

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106 Florida Cooperative Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent There are eight local home demonstration agents and one local district home demonstration agent conducting home demonstra tion work with Negroes, COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES The local home demonstration agents have assisted welfare and other organizations in reaching those in need of supplies and in helping to secure work when possible. Considerable assistance has been given by the agents in promoting vegetable gardens as a relief measure. TheLeon County boys' and girls' day was a joint program of the Smith-Hughes teacher for boys and the local home demon stration agent. There were 232 boys and girls in attendance at this meeting. PROJECT ACTIVITIES Home Gardens and Home Beautification :-There were 966 cal endar gardens planted and 238 families sold a total of $3,394 worth of fresh vegetables; 31 families sold $3,139 worth of fruit from their home orchards. . . Fifty-three homes have bee11 whitewashed; 25 painted; 277 outbuildings and 73 fences whitewashed; and 44 homes have been improved by plantings and repair. Poultry :-Adult dub members own 15,543 and 4-H clubs own 10,986 chickens; 114 have been sold for breeding purposes and 5,643 sold on market. The total value of chickens raised was $2,644.00; the total value of eggs produced was $2,434.00 . . Dairying:-Five hundred . and forty-five milk cows are . owned by families, 100 of them being added this year. Improved practices in home dairying have been adopted in 222 homes and 389 . homes are using milk at the rate of one q~art for each child and one pint for each adult. Records show that $1,921 worth of butter has been sold and used at home; also 22,140 quarts of cream and milk, Foods and Nutrition:-There have been 215 method demon strations in food and nutrition with 694 club members carrying result demonstrations. Three hundred and fourteen homes have been assisted in planning the family budget. One thousand five hundred and twelve girls have been instructed in foods . Twenty schools are serving hot lunches to 3,973 children and . 230 homes

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Annual Report, 1932 107 are using improved methods of child feeding. The number of containers of canned goods preserved by 4-H club girls is 10,190. The amount of canned products is as follows: fruit, 4,836 ; vege tab le s, 7,965; pickles , 1,793; relishes, 703; marmalades, 1,018; Fig . 13.-A Negro farmer who had no hogs three year s ago attended a meeting and demonstration held by the Local Home Demonstration Agent. Now this farmer and his family have more home-raised meats than they can use. They are shown making sausage. preserves, 2,280; jellies, 1 ,5 74; vinegar, 311 gallons; fruit juices, 286 gallons; 196 quarts of pork; 211 jars of beef; 5 quarts of game; 458 quarts of fish; 281 quarts of poultry. Four hundred and fifty families have cured 15,941 pounds of meat. Clothing :-Garments were made from flour, meal and feed bags. The records show that 763 women and 1,308 girls have made their own garments, that 538 women and 717 girls have shown improvements in making children's clothes, and that 584 women and 666 girls have been instructed in the care, renovation and remodeling of clothing. Horne Management :-Ninet y -nine demonstration meetings in home management have been held. Six hundred and sixty-two girls have been instructed in checking up on the needs of the home. The number of homes keeping accounts is 153 ; budgeting expenditures, 172 ; following recommended methods for buying

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108 Florida Cooperat iv e Extension in the home, 264; women following recommended schedule for home activities, 206. Home Furnishlng:-There have been 119 porches improved; 199 pieces of box furniture made; 403 mattresses renovated and 305 made. It can be seen from the records that 604 quilts, 368 bedspreads, 439 luncheon sets and 16,218 curtains have been made. The punch work rugs in Marion County were especially attractive and durable. Many of the women and girls made their own needles and some of them used large nails. The number of hooked rugs was 148; braided rugs, 568; crochet rugs, 156; and punched rugs, 402. Home Health and Sanitation:-National Negro Health Week was ob s erved the first week in April, at which time yards were cleaned and rubbish destroyed. One hundred and sixty-six demon strations have been given in health and sanitation, and 218 sani tary outhouses built. There have been 866 health exa . minations among club members and 1,173 individuals. Special Home Improvement Demonstrations :-During the first. week of May 37 4 people took advantage of a home improvement school held at W. J. Montgomery's farm in Orange County. There were 24 demonstrations given. This work was done by the District Home Demonstration Agent, two local home demonstration agents, club members, and friends. The family paid the carpenter $35.25; material and paint cost the owner $127.35. Therefore, at a cost of $162.60, the family has a very comfortable and sanitary home inside and outside. In Sumter County meetings were held at a home for five days with a total of 297 people participating. Three dead trees were cut down and the house and fences improved. A walk was made in front of the home and shrubbery planted. Rugs and furniture were made, repaired and cleaned. Demonstrations were given in preparing and serving balanced meals, and food and care for sick persons. . . Demonstrations in health measures were given each day by the county nurse and the county board of health supervised the toilet construction. Demonstrations were also given in bread making and balanced meals, and making household articles. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES There have been 80 meetings with community leaders and 53 communities participating in recreational programs. Games and stunts have been taught to all of the club groups, and in each county an effort has been made to establish a park or playground.

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Annual Report , 1932 109 None of these is finished, but six of them are underway. The records show that 43 purely social parties have been conducted by club members and that 54 parties and entertainments have been given to raise money (total amount $190) which was used to assist 4-H club girls in going to the annual Short Course. In Duval County the agent has been asked to supply 40 women in four communities to make garments under ~he directions of the Red Cross for destitute families . SHORT COURSE The annual Short Course for 4-H club boys and girls was held at the Florida A. & M. College. Two hundred and seventy-three girls were given instructions for carrying along the projects. Recognition was given to the five girls who brought the best and most complete outfits suitable for a school girl to wear. These outfits also included bedspreads, curtains, runners and such for the girls' rooms.

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INDEX Agents, list of, 5 county, work of, 17 home, work of, 79 Agricultural economics, 68 Animal husbandry clubs , 36 report, 48 Associations, livestock, 52 poultry, 60 Bankers' scholarships, 41 Beautifying home . grounds, 89 Beef cattle, 25, 48, 7 4 Blue mold decay, 66 Brick brooders, 60 Buildings, dairy, 46 Bulk shipments of citrus, 72 Bulls, distribution, 49 Calendar flock records, 56 orchards, 84 Camp, National 4-H, 41, 96 Camps, 39, 95 Cannh:g, 85 Chickenpox, 60 Chicks, healthy, 54 Citrus, 23, 36, 63 bulk shipments, 72 Clothing work, 89, 107 Club work, 29, 33, 47, 58, 84,102,109 Community activities, 92, 108 Conservation of foods, 85 Cooperation with other agencies, 9 U. S. D. A., 8, 12 Corn demonstrations, 19, 35 Cotton, 22, 35 Cotton rat, 76 Cover crops, citrus, 63 Credit, 26 Crop production loans, 11 Crotalaria, 18 Cucumber farms study, 72 Culling poultry, 56 Cultivation, citrus, 63 Dairying, 24, 43, 87, 106 clubs, 37 Demonstration teams, 94 Director's report, 7 Disease control, citrus, 65 . poultry, 61 Drainage, 19 Economics, agricultural, 68 . Economist, Extension, 71 Editors' work, 13 Egg-laying Contest, 62 Exhibits, 40, 102 Fairs and shows ,40, 49 Farm account clubs, 38 Farmers' Week, 12, 96 Farm accounts, 68 management, 26, 68 Farm paper stories, 14 Feeding demonstrations, beef, 51 dairy, 43 Fertilizing citrus, 64 Field days, livestock, 48 poultry, 55 Financial statement, 11 Foods work, 82, 106 Forestry, 38 Fruits, 22 Furnishings, home, 108 Gardening work, 83, 106 Gardens, 36 Green feed, poultry, 55 Grove work, citrus, 63 Health work, 82, 108 Healthy chicks, 54 Hog prices, 71 Hogs, 53 Home demonstration report, 79 Home improvement, 87, 108 Horticulture, 22, 63 House rats, 77 Industries, home, 91 Insect control, citrus, 66 Irrigation, 19, 64 Judging teams, 94 Legumes, 18 "Live-at-home" program , 7 Loans to farms, 11 Local leaders, 34, 94 Management , home, 88, 107 Marketing work, 71 Marketing milk, 47 range cattle, 74 Meetings, 17, 28, 48, 61, 67 Melanose, 65 Milk marketing, 47 Money-making industries , 91 Mulching citrus, 63 National 4-H Camp, 41, 96 National Club Congress, 96 National Egg-Laying Contest, 62 Negro home demonstration work, 106 Negro Men's work, 99 News stories, 14 News writing contest, 16 Nutrition work, 82, 106 Orchard plantings, 84

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Parasite control, poultry, 61 Pastures, 20, 44, 52 Peanuts, 21 Perennial plantings, 83 Planning meetings, 17 Poultry, 24, 54, 87, 106 clubs, 37 Publications, 13 Publicity, 13, 27, 93 Purchasing and selling, 26 Radio, 15, 39 Range cattle study, 74 Rat control, 76 Records, dairy, 46 farm, 68 poultry, 56 Recreation, club, 38 Relief assistance, 81, 86 Rodent control, 76 Sanitation, 108 Sales and purchases, 26 Scab, citrus, 66 Scale, citrus, 66 Sewing, 90 Sheep, 25 Short course, boys, 40 girls, 95 Negroes, 109 Show, pig, 40 poultry, 40 Silage, 44 Soybeans, 21 Steer feeding, 51 Sugarcane, 22 Summer legumes, 18 Swine, 25 Teams, demonstration, 94 Terracing, 19 Tours, 67, 94 Truck crops, 36 U. S. D. A. cooperation, 8, 12 Vocational agricultural teachers, cooperation, 10 Weevil control, corn, 20 Whitefly, 66 Winter legumes, 18