Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
The Division
Creation Date:
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

Full Text







JUNE 30,1931







JUNE 30,1931



Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1931, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1931.
Respectf ully,
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yon ye,
Chairman, Board of Control.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.

President, University of Florida.

P. K. YoNGE, Chairman, Pensacola A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando GEO. H. BALDWIN, Jacksonville J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBusK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry' J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist2 FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing CARLYLE CARR, B.S., Specialist in Rodent Control'

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY McDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist

A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent ROSA J. BALLARD, Local District Home Demonstration Agent

'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.

County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua.F. L. Craft .Gainesville .Mrs. Grace F. Warren Bradford and Union. L. T. Dyer .Lake Butler. .Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke) Calhoun. J. G. Kelley. Blountstown. Calhoun and Liberty .Blountstown.Miss Josephine Nimmo Citrus . Inverness .Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Dade (North) .J. S. Rainey .Miami .Miss Pansy Norton Dade (South) .C. H. Steffani .Homestead . DeSoto. J. J. Heard. Arcadia. Dixie . D. M. Treadwell . Cross City. Duval .A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville .Miss Pearl Laffitte, Duval (Asst.) .C. H. Magoon .Jacksonville. Escambia . E. P. Scott .Pensacola .Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden . Quincy. Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton. J. J. Sechrest .Jasper . Hernando. J. H. Logan . Brooksville. Highlands. L. H. Alsmeyer'. . . Sebring . Hillsborough .C. P. Wright.Plant City (E).Miss Motelle Madole Hillsborough. Tampa (W). Miss Allie, Rush Holmes. Bonifay . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Jackson .Sam Rountree .Marianna .Miss Eleanor Clark Jefferson .E. H. Finlayson. . Monticello .Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette . W. J. Davis. Mayo. . Lake .C. R. Hiatt .Tavares .Mrs. Mary S. Allen Lee .W. P. Hayman .Fort Myers .Miss Clarine Belcher Leon .G. C. Hodge . Tallahassee .Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy . N. J. Albritton. .Bronson . Liberty. Dewey H. Ward. . . Bristol. Manatee .L. H. Wilson.Bradenton .Miss Margaret Cobb Marion. Clyde H. Norton . Ocala . Miss Tillie Roesel, Martin . C. P. Heuck . Stuart . Okaloosa .Joseph W. Malone. . Crestview .Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee .C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee. Orange .K. C. Moore . Orlando .Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola .J. R. Gunn .Kissimmee .Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts .W. Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .Win. Gomme .Clearwater .Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk .F. L. Holland .Bartow .Miss Lois Godbey Polk (Asst.) . Bartow . Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns .Loonis Blitch .St. Augustine.Miss Anna E. Heist Santa Rosa .J. G. Hudson .Milton .Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor. R. S. Dennis . Perry . Volusia. DeLand . Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla. H. E. Hudson .Crawfordville. Walton .Mitchell Wilkins . DeFuniak Springs . . Miss Eloise McGriff Washington . Gus York. Chipley .

*This list correct to December 31, 1931.



or our flelt-4~ More Tomafoes

Fig. 1.-During 1931 there were 329 demonstration teams of two girls each trained in giving demonstrations to others in phases of work in which they have been particularly successful.




Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultura I Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1931, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1931.



The Agricultural Extension Service of Florida has continued under the same administration as during former years. The general headquarters are at the University of Florida, Gainesville, while headquarters for the home demonstration work are at the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee, and those for Negro work are at the A. and M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee.
The supervisory staff consists of the following: Director, ViceDirector and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work, three district agents for women's work, State Home 'Demonstration Agent, Boys' Club Agent; and specialists as follows: Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist, Dairyman, Animal Husbandman, Poultryman, Specialist in Rodent Control, Agricultural Economist, Agricultural Economist in Marketing, Agricultural Economist in Farm Management and one assistant, Extension Nutritionist, Food and Marketing Agent, Home Improvement Agent.
For the Negro work, there is one district agent in charge of men's work and another in charge of women's work.
During the year Extension work has been conducted in 52

Floiida Cooperative Extension

different counties. At the close of the year 45 counties had county extension agents, all of these cooperating financially in support of the work.
There have been relatively few changes in the supervisory and specialist staff since December 1, 1930. On February 1, D. E. Timmons was appointed Agricultural Economist in Marketing. On June 1, Mrs. Eva R. Culley was appointed Extension Nutritionist and resigned August 15, 1931. July I Carlyle Carr was appointed Specialist in Rodent Control in Cooperation with the Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture.
All appointees have full-time appointments with the exception of Dr. J. E. Turlington, Agricultural Economist, who serves part time for the Extension Service and part time for the Teaching Division of the College of Agriculture.
On November 16, 1931, Julia Miller, District Agent in charge of Negro home demonstration work, resigned to take Lip similar duties in Oklahoma.

The Agricultural Extension Service, being a part of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, works cooperatively with the Teaching Division and the Florida Experiment Station. This cooperation provides for assistance at state and county meetings, interchange of data between the Experiment Station and Extension, particularly in reference to field work, cooperative recommendations concerning various phases of agriculture, distribution of plants and seed by the Experiment Station to farmers, cooperation in poultry disease control work, particularly at the National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley, and preparation and distribution of outlook material. Inasmuch as the Experiment Station maintains sub-stations throughout the state, it affords an opportunity for cooperation between the county and home agents and those in charge of the work of the sub-stations to interest the farmers in the research work under way at these sub-stations.

The Extension Service cooperates with the State Plant Board by assisting in an educational way in control of diseases and insects affecting plant life. It also cooperates with the State

Annual Report, 1931

Livestock Sanitary board in the control of hog cholera and other diseases of livestock and poultry.
The Extension Service cooperates with the State Marketing Bureau by assisting in the assembling of car-lots of products and providing for sales of livestock and poultry; and with the Commissioner of Agriculture's office in various ways. The State Board of Health has problems in nutrition and sanitation in common with the home demonstration work.
In conducting Farmers' Week and tither state meetings, these various departments of the state assist in the programs and also render assistance in county programs when called upon to do so.
With the exception of the College of Agriculture, none of the institutions mentioned give financial support to Extension work.
Teachers of vocational agriculture and county and home demonstration agents have cooperated on many of their projects during the year. They have similar problems, and the working together in arranging and holding meetings and conducting other activities has resulted in benefit to both groups.
- The A. & M. College for Negroes has supplied office space and working facilities for the Negro Extension work. The College also has assisted in programs of state meetings of colored agents, club short courses, and occasionally in county meetings when local agents asked for such assistance.

The Extension Servi ' ce works with the State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board in rendering service to cooperative organizations. Among such groups this year were the following: Florida Truck Growers, Inc., Alabama-Florida Peanut Growers Association, and National Pecan Growers Association. All of these associations are relatively new, and considerable time has ,been given to their organization and plans. Other cooperatives also have had assistance during the year.
While the Extension Service does not aid cooperatives in soliciting memberships, through its specialists and county agents it does assist in placing information regarding the desirability of cooperation and the aims and purposes of different associations before prospective members.
Through the Inter-State Early Potato Growers Committee, composed largely of workers from the United States Department of Agriculture and from the Extension services of the early potato growing states, assistance has been rendered to growers of early

Florida Cooperative Extension

potatoes. . The Florida Extension Service bears part of the expenses of A. E. Mercker of the United States Department of Agriculture in conducting this work. For a part of the season he had headquarters at Hastings, in the -center of the Florida potato section.
The Florida Extension Service has three main sources of revenue, as follows: (1) Funds appropriated by Congres's to the United States Department of Agriculture; (2) State appropriations by the Florida Legislature; and (3) county appropriations. State offset funds to match federal Smith-Lever funds were provided by the Legislature; other offset f unds have been made from county appropriations. The Legislature also makes a continuing appropriation of $5,000 a year and an additional appropriation of $32,280 for all phases of Extension work, including the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley.
County appropriations,. with two exceptions, have been made by boards of county commissioners who are empowered to levy one-half mill for agricultural development. Economic conditions confronting the various boards have made county appropriations mor -uncertai-thi� year than during any other time recently. There has been a small reduction in the number of counties appropriating, and the amounts appropriated by the individual counties have been curtailed considerably in some cases. It is hoped that a method can be evolved whereby a much larger part of agents' salaries will be paid from State and Federal funds.
A summary of the receipts and expenditures for the past year follows:
Smith-Lever, Federal and Supplementary . $ 77,646.71 Smith-Lever, State . 48,872.25 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . 25,941.28 Bureau Animal Industry, U. S. D. A . 7 . 2,400.00 Additional Cooperative Federal . 22,000.00 U. S. D. A. Appropriations . 21,000.00 State Appropriations . 47,530.00 County Appropriations . 123,949.73 $369,339.97

Annual Report, 1931

Administration . 8,504.80 Publications . 6,857.22 County agent work . 161,237.56 Home demonstration work . 111,402.29 Food conservation . 4,049.10 Home improvement . 4,505.41 Extension nutrition . * * * ' * . * . ' . * * ' * ' ': * . * ' ' 4,300.00 Negro work-- men . . 13,458.26 Negro work- women . 12,610.90 Boys'club work . 7,352.37 Dairy husbandry . 5,055.66 Animal husbandry . 4,721.37 Plant pathology . 5,350.05 Poultry husbandry . * '' * * '' - . " ' * . 5,264.46 National Egg-Laying Contest . 10,368.53 Extension schools, Farmers'Week . 6 . 2,647.51 Unexpended balance . 6 . 1,654.48 $369,339.97
Due to a lack of space in the College of Agriculture, there were no housing facilities for the economics department when it was established a year ago. To make room for the specialists in economics and the clerical staff, and to house the supplies, a building was leased adjoining the Univer8ity campus. This was formerly a residence but the arrangement allows of suitable office space. The lower floor of this building is used by the Agricultural Extension Service and the upper story by the Experiment Station. It is known as the economics building for Extension and research.
The economics building is now fairly well equipped with desks, filing cases, typewriters, calculating machinery and other needed supplies for the proper conduct of the work of that department.
Other additions have been minor and just sufficient to meet the needs from time to time.

Extension workers have been encouraged to increase their efficiency by study, observation and contacts with other departments of the University of Florida and with bureaus of the U. S. D. A. In addition, the Florida State College for Women provided a short course designed especially for county home demonstration agents. Those. who took advantage of this were allowed full time without reduction in salary during.the summer term when this short course was offered.
Frequent conferences were held with the Extension staff and

Florida Cooperative Extension

with department heads, so that there would be uniformity in subject matter and methods in extension teaching. The University of Florida does not offer sabbatic leave and as a large part of the salary of county workers is paid from county funds, no means have been devised for giving a leave of absence for study except at personal expense and loss of time of the agent.,

Extension schools were conducted by supervisors, specialists and county Extension agents. The meetings have been of onehalf day and one day duration. These meetings have been relative to the county or state Extension program, outlook topics, etc.

The annual Farmers' Week 'was held at the College of Agriculture during August. The program was handled by the Agricultural Extension Service, assisted by the Florida Experiment Station, teaching division and State Plant Board.
The University dormitories were used to accommodate the visitors. Classrooms were used for sectional programs. The University Cafeteria served meals at actual cost.
One section of the University was used exclusively by the home economics department, and the program arranged by the Home Demonstration Department and conducted under their direction.
The attendance numbered 2,000. The total cost was $1,800, provided by State appropriation.

Annual Report, 1931

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1931, four new Extension bulletins and four new circulars were printed; the yearly calendar for 1931 was printed and distributed; the Agricultural News Service was distributed weekly to newspapers, county agents, and others; the Florida Agricultural Extension Economist (mimeographed) was distributed monthly for the last six months to nearly 1,000 people interested in economic information; and the monthly and final reports of the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were distributed to contestants and others. Material. for all of these except the monthly egg-laying report was handled by the Editors.
The four bulletins amounted to 124 pages of printed matter, and 45,000 copies were run. The calendar contained 12 pages, and 9,000 were printed. The circulars contained a total of 60 pages; there were 38,000 of them printed.
Following is a list of the publications issued during the year: Pages Edition
Bul. 59 Rose Growing . : . * . 28 15,000 Bul. 60 Culling for Egg Production . 16 10,000 Bul. 61 Sweet Potatoes . 32 10,000 Bul. 62 Why Grow Tomatoes . 48 10,000 Circ. 26 Beautifying the Home Grounds . 12 15,000 Cire. 28 Second Year Sewing Program . 16 10,000 Circ. 29 Third Year Sewing Program . 16 8,000 Circ. 30 Fourth Year Sewing Program . 16 5,000 Annual Report . 2,000 Final Report, Fourth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. . 20 1,500 1931 Calendar . 12 9,000 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks)* . 1 31,500 Monthly Agricultural Extension Economist (6 months) . 6 6,000
In addition to the regular publications mentioned above, a quantity of supplies was printed. These included a citrus grove record book, two poultry record books, record book for all-year garden work, laying flock account book, home egg-laying contest pads, a milk sheet, certificates for the National Egg-Laying Contest, and programs, window cards, and stuffers for Farmers'Week.
Thousands of copies of Extension bulletins and circulars- were distributed from the mailing room, which is a part of the Editorial and Mailing Department. Materials for use by agents are distributed from here also.
*Ten issues were paid for by the State Plant Board.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The Agricultural News Service, a weekly clipsheet sent to newspapers, farm papers, county agents, Smith-Hughes agriculture teachers, and a few others, continued to be the principal means used for the dissemination of information about the Extension Service and hints about Florida farming subjects. From: eight to 12 stories were carried each week, and were clipped and reprinted. in many of the Florida papers, particularly the weeklies and the farm papers. The service is held in high regard by the newspaper editors.
From three to six stories each week were sent to the state mail service of the Associated Press for distribution to its member papers, mostly dailies. This arrangement has not proven entirely satisfactory during the past year, and it may be necessary to provide a service to the dailies direct from this office. One daily carried a farm page and another carried a farm department each Sunday during the year. Material for both of these came almost exclusively from this office. Forty-five different special stories were sent direct to from one to eight dailies during the year.
A Gainesville daily accorded us the usual courtesy of a Farmers' Week page f or four days during that event, the material being supplied by this office. Copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors, the Extension Service buying them at a reduced rate and supplying them to visitors.
Farm papers of Florida and the South make copious use of material supplied by this office and by other workers in the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, and Extension Service. During the year 87 different stories were sent from this office to eight Florida, two Southern, and two national papers, and were printed. They amounted to 2,329 column inches of material. In addition, many articles by members of the staff were published by these papers during the year.

Farm programs were broadcast over WRUF each day except Sunday. These programs go on the air during the noon hour, and for the first part of the year they consisted of 30 minutes only; however, beginning on January 26, 1931, they consisted of 45 minutes from 12:00 noon to 12:45 p.m. In practically all cases the first part of the program was given.over to music, and music was interspersed between the talks.

Annual Report, 1931

The programs were arranged by the Assistant Editor, and ranked equal to the local farm programs of practically any other station. Workers at the Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, and Extension Service, as well as other state employees and farmers, were used as speakers. Papers prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture were read to fill out the programs. On Saturdays the gist of the weekly clipsheet, Agricultural News Service, was read as a part of the farm radio program. Each worker who prepared a paper was encouraged to read his own paper; however, in cases where the workers- could not, for any reason, be present, the papers were read by the Assistant Editor.
On the farm hour broadcasts during the year there were given a total of 783 talks, 28 of which were prepared by the Editors themselves.
In, addition to the regular farm hour programs, during Farmers' Week the general session programs in the University auditorium were broadcast, and an extra hour in the evening was given to Farmers' Week speakers and other visitors.
Once each month (except January, 1931) a 4-H club program was put on the air over WRUF. As a rule, the -girls had one month and the boys the next. These programs lasted for onehalf hour. Ten specialists, 27 4-11 club members, and eight others, a total of 45, spoke on these 4-11 club programs during the year.
The Florida Agricultural Extension Service joined with the United States Department of Agriculture in celebrating 4-H achievement day the first Saturday in November. Three Florida stations of the National Broadcasting Chain carried these programs, which lasted for one hour. The first 15 minutes came over the chain from Washington, the middle 30 minutes being furnished from local stations, and the last 15 minutes coming from Washington. The programs for the local stations were supplied entirely by the Extension Service, and in each case consisted of music and talks by Extension specialists, club boys and girls, and business men.
About 15 papers were prepared and sent to two other stations for broadcasting as part of their farm programs.
Ten club boys attending the annual short course at the University of Florida in June were given training in news writing, and

16 Florida Cooperative Extension

assisted in issuing a daily mimeographed club paper for the short course. Twenty-five club girls in one county were given training in news writing during one of their quarterly council programs. These girls have club columns in each of their two local papers,
A news writing contest among county and home demonstration agents was started on October 5, at the annual agents' conference. It will continue until September 30, 1992. About half of the agents are entered in the contest, and are paying especial attention to local news stories, news from their counties for state distribution, and circular letters and photographs.
The Editors devote approximately half of their time to work for the Experiment Station, the other half being available for Extension Service work. The Mailing Clerks also devote about half of their time to Experiment Station work.

Annual Report, 1931

A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H, G. CLAYToN, District Agent and Organization and Outlook Specialist
W. T. NETTLES, District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Extension Agronomist Although county agent work has been maintained during the past year under more financial difficulties than are usually experienced, the reduction in the number of counties has not seriously affected the progress. General economic conditions have forced county boards to reduce expenses in practically every county and the agents have come in for a fair share of difficulties because of this retract i ion. In many cases the county's part of the agent's salary has been reduced and, while in some instances this reduction is relatively small, in others 30 to 50 per cent has been taken off that of former years. This has been generally accepted by the staff as a necessary reduction. It has nevertheless hampered the undertaking and created uncertainty that has been unwholesome. This has been in part made up by an increased amount to apply on county agents' salaries from state and federal funds and has been of material help in maintaining the morale so that the programs could be carried on without too much disturbance.
Reduced values in counties have naturally produced a reduced revenue and the effect has been passed along to all departments. However, it has served to force attention on the realization of economic problems that confront the farmers and in many instances has , brought about a closer cooperation between the farmers and the Extension Service. This again emphasizes the necessity for greater stabilization of the program by having the work financed from sources not subject to local influences or the interest of those who have only a passing interest in the welfare of agriculture in the general development of the state as a whole.
County agents render considerable personal service to the f farmers and growers. By this item is meant consultations, inspecting groves or fields to see conditions and advise the growers, and many other things that cannot be tabulated, yet they take up a very large part of the county agent's time.
County agents have fostered the live-at-home programs in so far as such work is necessary. A survey of the North Florida

Florida Cooperative Extension

territory shows that the live-at-home program has not been entirely neglected by the farmers for many years, that is, it has been customary for the farmers to producetheir own meat, grains, some fruits and some vegetables. This, however, in many cases has fallen short of the actual possibilities of maintaining the families'needs from the produce grown on the farm.
Attention has been given to better care of the poultry flocks, the all-year garden, fruit orchard and an adequate and properly prepared meat supply. The farmers have in storage larger quantities of meats for home use than heretofore and have been compelled to make provision for carrying on their farming operations expecting small cash returns for their crops. This has meant that labor is being maintained from supplies largely home-grown, thereby avoiding an outlay of cash.
In other sections of the state the live-at-home programs have not been as carefully worked out. The dairymen are finding it necessary to shift from city conditions back on to the grazing lands. This has meant a larger acreage of pasture and homegrown feeds for the farm dairy as well as the commercial dairy. In the vegetable and citrus area where general f arming is not usually practiced, special attention has been given to gardening, poultry, and food for the work-stock. In a few instances home industries, such as canning and preserving and beekeeping, have been taken up by the farmers and have proven a valuable source of income. In many cases they have made it possible for owners or.tenants to maintain their business operations without going into debt.
The products have meant more than merely helping out with the family's food, they have meant a reduced cash outlay for living expenses and in some instances the payment of taxes and other expenses that usually come from the sale of the usual commercial crops.
As Extension work is educational by means of demonstrations, the district agents have encouraged county agents in conducting farm tours. This proposes to interest not only farmers but other leading citizens in the welfare of the farms of the communityFarm tours during the past year have served a useful purpose in this respect. Bankers have been particularly interested, and those merchants who realize their dependency on the farmers have laid aside their work and have participated in the tours. These tours are ma:de during the summer months when farmers

Annual Report, 1931 19,

feel they have time to attend. Also when the results ofbetter methods of production can be observed.
A farm tour usually lasts one day in the community and encourages a large number of people to observe the results of the demonstrations carried on under the direction of the county agents and supervisory forces of the Extension Service. These farm tours fit into practically every phase of agriculture and horticulture.
Many tours have been taken through the branch experiment stations in central and south Florida, but greater emphasis is placed on the farm tours where the farmers themselves can be observed by those who feel interested enough to leave their regular business for a short time to see the programs of agriculture in their respective counties. These tours stimulate a cooperative interest in the farmers' problems and help the bankers and other business men to get a better viewpoint of the farming business, resulting in a more ' sympathetic and constructive view.
These farm tours have demonstrated that there are better methods of production practiced on the farm. They indicate that business methods and the relationship of production and returns must be understood not only by the farmers but by the business men as well. County and home agents have had the cooperation of the leaders of the state in keeping their work before the public.

To increase the humus and nitrogen content of the soil and thereby increase yields, Austrian winter peas and vetch have been grown during winter and early spring and turned into the soil since 1925. County agents have encouraged. this practice and caused its increase. Table I shows the growth of this practice in North and West Florida:
No. lbs. Tons Yield (bu.) Yield (bu.) Increased
Year- No. seed No. acres green of corn of corn yield(bu.)
Dem. planted planted matter after peas on check of corn 1925-26 10 200 10 42 . . .
1926-27 23 600 30 126 . . .
1927-28 60 6,000 250 1,063 . .
1928-29 78 53,000 2,100 8,820 31.1 13.2
1929-30 91 110,000 4,500 21,816 29.2 12.4 16.8
1930-31 113 153,000 6,000 25,200 26.1 13.2 12.9
1931-32 . 106,000 4,300 . . .
Total . 428,800 18,190 57,087 . . .

Florida Cooperative Extension

Because of extreme drought from July 15 to December 8, the planting has been less this year.
County agents throughout most of Florida, and particularly in the central and southern parts of the state, have encouraged* the use of Crotalaria as a summer cover crop. Results last year seemed to justify pushing the program still further. Last year there were 195 demonstrations covering 3,450 acres; this year reports show 257 demonstrations covering 4,457 acres.
Citrus growers have been encouraged to grow cover crops, to stop cultivation early enough in the spring to avoid injuring the yo ung cover crop, to top-dress the native grass cover crops with 100 pounds to the acre of some source of quickly available nitrogen, to sow Crotalaria if native cover crops are not producing sufficient tonnage, and to use the mowing machine and disc harrow to handle the cover crop.
The cover crop program has succeeded and almost 100% of the citrus plantings in this territory grow some kind of cover crop. There is much to be done yet to find out the surest way to get stands of cover crops. Last year and this year the drought during the summer caused poor stands and light tonnages on the dryer lands.
In Highlands County in 1926 there were 205 acres of Grotalaria planted, and this year 55% of the citrus acreage was planted to Crotalaria. Highlands County probably has the largest percentage of acreage in Crotalaria of any county in the state.
Crotalaria is also very promising as a cover crop on truck farms and the demonstrations are proving the value of this cover crop and are attracting the interest of growers. Manatee County has taken the lead in using this crop on truck farms, 30 demonstrations being under way this year. Yields following Crotalaria were from 10 to 50% larger than on the check plots.
The highest yield reported was 23 tons of green matter per acre in Palm Beach County on truck farm soil while the average ran around 11 tons per acre.
Reports from county agents in the early potato section show an increase in some instances as high as 20 bbls., through the use of Crotalaria, and in practically every case a more vigorous growth and an increase in the percentage of No. 1 potatoes.
In the citrus section, fertilizer demonstrations are being conducted by the county agents to check up on the actual value of Crotalaria as a cover crop in the grove. In the truck section the

Annual Report, 1931

same demonstrations are being conducted. Another year should bring some definite figures on these demonstrations.
In the citrus and truck sections the 'slogan "Grow More Cover Crops" has become well established in the mind of the grower in a majority of cases. County agents have established in addition to demonstrations in vetch, Austrian winter peas and Crotalaria, some 156 demonstrations covering 1,683 acres in such cover crops as soybeans, velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweeds, natural cover crops, and three demonstrations covering 28 acres of sweet clover and black medic in the southern end of Dade County.

In some of the Northwest Florida counties with rolling land and heavy rainfall, it is essential that the land be terraced. The county agents have assisted the farmers in building terraces for several years, as shown by the following figures:
Year No. Terracing Demonstrations Acres 1925 49 1,426
1926 1927
1928 66 iJ66
1929 151 3,857
1930 211 3,875
1931 10 4,510.
Total 577 15,868

Fertilizing, Side-Dressing:-Commercial fertilizer i's used to increase the yield of corn and reduce the cost per bushel. This fertilizer is usually a side-dressing of nitrate of soda or some other quickly available inorganic nitrogenous material. A complete fertilizer is used in some areas.
During 1931 there were 142 adult demonstrations which produced an average increase of 11.8 bushels per acre on 1,028 acres.
There were a series of 208 demonstrations conducted by juniors. These comprised 230 acres which produced a total of 7,573 bushels-32 bushels per acre, or approximately 18 bushels more than the state average. Demonstrations of field selection of seed have been. responsible for seven bushels' increase.
A good part of the corn and other staple crops in central and southern Florida are planted as catch crops following truck crops and usually very satisfactory yields are made. Twenty-seven

Florida Cooperative Extension

demonstrations in growing corn were carried out with an, average increase in yield of 13 bushels per acre. These demonstrations were with corn varieties and fertilization by top-dressing with quickly available nitrogenous fertilizers. In Hillsborough County 36 4-H corn club boys grew 44 acres of corn with a total yield of 2,574 bushels, an average of 71.5 bushels per acre. These boys have for several years made the highest average yields of any county group of boys in the state. The demonstrations conducted in Polk County with sweet corn indicate that corn fertilized before planting will stand more cold without injury than corn fertilized later.
One series of demonstrations in Union County with Crotalaria planted in the row with corn and at the time of planting the corn consistently showed an increase of around 40 percent in yield of corn.
Standard Fertilizing . Demonstrations:-A series' of demonstrations were conducted to show the advantages of planting corn behind a winter crop of vetch and peas, or of fertilizing the corn with about 150 pounds per acre of nitrate of soda or other quickly available nitrate fertilizer. It has been found in past years that applications of phosphate and potash seldom pay with corn in Florida.
The average yields per acre from the use of different methods in the standard demonstrations were as follows: Following peas or vetch, 431/2 bushels; fertilized with nitrate only, 32 bushels; fertilized according to most common practice among farmers in community, 27.8 bushels; fertilized with 200 pounds of 16 percent superphosphate, 23.5 bushels; not fertilized, 20.4 bushels.
Variety Demonstrations:-In 10 demonstrations in West Florida the variety Whatley's Prolific, which has been found by the Experiment Station to yield best in the general farming area of Florida, returned an average increase of 6.4 bushels per acre over other varieties.
Corn Weevil Control:-During 1931 Florida county agents conducted 41 demonstrations in the control of corn weevils by fumigation with carbon bisulphide. They used 2,801 pounds of the fumigant in air-tight cribs constructed for the purpose. The fumigated corn shelled out 10 percent more grain than the untreated.
As a result, many farmers have made their cribs air-tight and bought materials for fumigating the crop harvested this fall.

Annual Report, 1931

Fulghum oats and Abruzzi rye are the most satisfactory varieties of small grains under Florida conditions. Fifty to 100 pounds per acre of quickly available inorganic nitrogen as a topdressing has proven a satisfactory fertilizer. Eleven demonstrations with oats on 93 acres were grown, with an increase of from 4 to 23 bushels per acre over check plots. All 11 rye demonstrations were grown on 64 acres. The increase was from seven to nine bushels per acre'.
Wiregrass pasture will carry only about one cow to ' 10 or 15 acres. Some pastures established by the Florida Experiment Station four or five years ago of carpet and Dallis grasses have carried one cow per acre for nine months during the growing season and produced as high as 256 pounds of beef per acre.
Because of the scarcity and high price of seed, and a drought extending over approximately two years, there were not as many acres of pasture established this year as last in the North Florida area.
In Central and South Florida pasture demonstrations have been largely carried on by the dairymen, but now that tick eradication work is reaching this area, pasture work is being started with the beef cattle men. There were 77 pasture demonstrations with 5,924 acres. Carpet grass is the basis of most pasture sowings but centipede, Bermuda, Dallis, bahia, and lespedeza are used in mixtures. In Orange County one dairyman has his pastures so arranged that the cattle are rotated. In one block centipede is the grass planted. This year each time the cattle were grazed on this centipede grass the milk flow increased.

Soybeans are recommended for hay because they are comparatively easily cured and yield fairly well. Twenty-nine demonstrations were grown on 106 acres and produced 3/4-ton hay-more per acre than, cowpeas.
There are two things that increase the yield of peanuts-an application of landplaster (gypsum) on runners and thicker spacing of both the runners and Spanish varieties. The virtue of these practices is shown in demonstrations as follows:

Florida Cooperative Extension

Fifty landplaster demonstrations gave an average increased yield of 121/2 bushels per acre.
Twenty-soven spacing demonstrations gave an average increased yield of 11 bushels per acre.

Mosaic disease and root-knot have reduced very materially the yield of the red sugarcane varieties. The Gayana 10 variety is immune or resistant to both. In 26 demonstrations where Cayana 10 was planted to compare it with red cane, the Cayana 10 produced an increase of 156 gallons of syrup per acre.

Potatoes grown from non-certified seed often are affected with mosaic and other diseases and produce practically nothing. This year the county agents of West Florida persuaded dealers to stock some certified seed. The county agents conducted demonstrations in which common stock seed and the certified seed were planted in plots side by side. With 44 demonstrations on 83 acres, the certified stock produced 42 bushels per acre more than the uncertified seed.

Fertilizing :-The five-year Average production of cotton in Florida, 1925 to 1929, inclusive, was 315 pounds seed cotton per acre. In 1930 it was 675 pounds and in 1931, 525 pounds. These unusually high yields were brought about by dry weather which enabled plants to mature the cotton and prevent weevil damage. The 315-pound average yield was produced with the use of $3.44 worth of commercial fertilizer of various kinds. There are thr~e things-more and better fertilizer, more plants on land, and better varieties-that have been found to increase the yield of cotton in Florida. By the use in demonstrations of the "approved formula" the farmers were shown a better method. There were 68 demonstrations conducted on 295 acres with an increase per acre of 253.6 pounds.
Closer Spacing :-In the cotton spacing demonstrations, the following results were obtained: Where there were 18,000 stalks per acre the yield was 1,107 pounds; where there were 12,000 stalks per acre the yield was 805 pounds. The extra 6,000 stalks gave an increased yield of 302 pounds.

Annual Report, 1931 25

Variety Demonstrations:-Florida soils and rainfall are so varied that no consistent results are obtained with any one variety of cotton. Very few of the farmers save their seed, therefore each year they purchase seed of one of the several outstanding yielders. There were 10 special tests run in the territory this year, which showed slight increase for two or three varieties.
A small acreage of Sea Island cotton was grown in Hamilton County this year for the first time since the boll weevil made the crop unprofitable. This was introduced by the county agent. A fair yield was produced and it sold at 15c. and 12c. per pound.

The county agents have furnished plans and assisted in the following activities:
Farms putting in drainage systems . 12 Acreage drained . I . 81 Farms clearing land of stumps as recommended . 49 Families assisted with house plans . 19 Dwellings constructed according to plans . 10 Sewerage disposal systems installed . 10 Water systems 8
Number of farms other buildings constructed . 68 Dairy barns . 14
Hog houses . * . -* . * ' 22
Poultry houses . 42
Silos . 3
Others . 17
The poultry industry is on a fairly stable basis. Few new poultry farms have been established but some increase in the size of flocks among those already in business has been made. Egg prices have changed little from last year, while feed prices have dropped considerably. - This means that, as compared to other agricultural enterprises, poultry is in a little more favorable position than a year ago.
During the year many of the county agents have been busy conducting demonstrations in culling,.better feeding, feed growing, incubating, and brooding of poultry. There have been 20 brick brooders built and used as demonstrations in brooding. There were 46 demonstrations in culling conducted by the agents.
A serious effort has been made this year in the cooperative marketing of eggs and poultry products. The net results seem to be that the poultrymen in the outlying sections away from

Florida Cooperative Extension

the market centers are completely sold on cooperative marketing while the poultrymen near the market centers believe it to be a good practice for the business generally and for the county neighbors, but for themselves they feel they can make more money marketing their own eggs.
Many purebred chicks have been placed during the year. Thousands have been vaccinated for sorehead.
Dairying is conducted largely near consuming centers and production is more than adequate to supply the local demand for fluid milk. The production per cow and the grade of cows is being gradually improved. The work done by county agents in the improvement and development of pastures has been the most satisfactory work accomplished. Some dairy herds are being moved to cheaper lands farther from the cities and to lands better adapted to producing grasses. One of the most serious problems before the dairymen is the one of marketing. The agents have worked with the dairymen and assisted in forming local organizations of milk producers and some good has come of this work, but the problem is not yet solved.
There were 214 demonstrations on dairy work, irrespective of pasture work, covering 4,497 dairy cattle. These demonstrations covered such subjects as balanced rations, feeding dairy calves, control of parasites, dairy production records, introduction of purebred bulls, and building silos and sheds. These demonstrations have shown practical results in lowering the cost of production and raising the standard of dairy herds.
The quality of the dairy cattle in Florida is still being improved. More definite plans are being made to provide sufficient feed for them. Both county agents and dairymen are more conscious of the need of, more home-grown feed. More production records are being kept. Register of merit tests are being conducted. Because of the low price of butterfat and unsatisf factory methods of marketing, one milk station was discontinued during the year. In West Florida four bull circles have been organized. During the year county agents conducted 86 demonstrations, involving 1,394 cattle. Sixteen purebred sires have been purchased.
The work with beef cattle has been (a) establishing improved woods and farm pastures, (b) introducing good bulls where ticks

Annual Report, 1931

have been eradicated, and (c) encouraging the saving of the best females in sections where cattle dipping was in progress or soon to be in progress. In St. Johns County three different men are working out a woods pasture program on some 2,000 acres by fencing and planting carpet grass and lespedeza. Duval County reports three demonstrations in beef bulls. In one case three purebred bulls were placed with 90 native cattle and brought a calf crop of 60 calves.

Fig. 2-Cattlemen get together at a beef cattle demonstration to discuss their problems and get the results of the latest tests.

Relative to better herd management, there have been 45 demonstrations involving 756 animals. There were also 113 bulls of improved breeding and a much larger number of high grade and selected females purchased to improve the herds.
Three purebred cattle sales were conducted by the Extension workers-one at Crestview and two at Gainesville.
During the dipping campaign throughout this territory cattle were sold out by the thousands. Now the cattlemen are undertaking to restock.
Stomach and tape worms have been largely responsible for the decrease in the number of sheep on our ranges. For the last two years drenching demonstrations, in which sheep were drenched with a solution of bluestone and nicotine sulphate, have been held. Many sheepmen are now drenching regularly through the summer season. Their lamb crop is larger, the sheep stronger, and their fleeces heavier. A f ew rams of better breeds are being placed on the ranges.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The market hogs of Florida are produced largely in North and West Florida. There are a few produced in practically every county. Most of those go to local markets and do not reach the packinghouse. The hog industry of North Florida is one of its most important sources of revenue. The Extension Service and the county agents have given this more attention than any other phase of livestock production. The improvement has been in process since the beginning of 4-11 club work with hogs. This club work and adult demonstrations continue to show how to cheapen production and improve quality.
A special effort has been made to market hogs during the months when the prices are usually the highest, in the early fall. Demonstrations have helped show how to have green crops ready as early as possible in the summer months and then finishing crops such as corn and peanuts ready for the early fall months. This requires careful planning of the field crops. The county agents have been encouraging farmers to produce litters as early as February and March and then have a succession of growing crops as many months during the period as weather will permit.
Encouragement has been given to having better breeding stock so that hogs may be marketed when six to eight months of age. Also farmers have been urged to give more attention to the rearing of the litters, to prevention of diseases and parasites, and to keeping hogs thrifty.
Demonstrations have been conducted in sanitary methods for raising hogs following the plan of the Bureau of Animal Industry, with the litters farrowed on clean ground and precautions taken to see that there is little chance for infection with parasites. On a farm basis this has not been entirely practical for many farmers. However, methods leading up to this have been adopted by many.
Cooperative marketing of hogs has been a feature of Extension work during the past year. Much of this has been in cooperation with the Florida State Marketing Bureau. However, in many places where the large packinghouses are easily accessible, the farmers have not seen fit to ship their hogs collectively, for they considered it more economical and saving of time to handle them by truck. In any case, county agents have encouraged the farmers to produce good quality of hogs and grade them according to the buyers' demands. This has stimulated interest and, although

Annual Report, 1931

the price during the past year has been disappointing, it has placed hog raising on a more substantial basis.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry, meat cutting demonstrations were conducted under the supervision of county agents. These, demonstrations were intended to show how to make the best cuts and utilize the carcass to the very best advantage. Some instruction was given as to curing methods so that the meat could be marketed if desired to the very best advantage. The meat so put up has been used largely for local consumption and for a limited trade with the county merchants. No attempt has been made to compete with the packinghouse products.
Some interest has been aroused by promoting the use of peanutfed pork. One county agent arranged for a dinner and invited influential people so that they could understand something of the quality and value of the peanut-fed products. This aroused considerable interest and was helpful in increasing the demand for this product in the territory.
A meat display was arranged at the South Florida Fair in Tampa. This meat was supplied bk Swift and Company, Moultrie, Ga., and its display was arranged by the animal husbandry department and the packinghouse company.
In 1931 there was a total of 191 demonstrations involving 3,120 hogs. In the North Florida territory reports show that 270 head of breeding stock were placed with the farmers through the efforts of the county agents. The pig club work continues as usual and is reported elsewhere.

All the counties in northwestern Florida received loans from the drought relief fund appropriated by Congress. The agents, in cooperation with local committees, handled the application for loans. There were 1,019 farmers securing loans.
Information as provided by outlook reports for 1931 was discussed at meetings and with individuals in the early part of the year. Outlook publications were put in the bands of county agents, farmers, and business men. Reports show that 699 farmers adjusted their operations because of information given in this outlook. It is not known how many more. The number of individuals making changes in different enterprises are reported as follows: Corn, 27; cotton, 153; tobacco, 70; truck, 127; dairy, 31;

Florida Cooperative Extension

beef cattle, 62; hogs, 178; and poultry, 118. The number of farmers keeping farm accounts throughout the year under supervision of agent was 23. Thirty-four kept cost of production records.
Meetings have been held with groups of poultrymen where facts pertaining to their business have been shown-such as cost of production of hens, cost of eggs, size of flocks, and f eed costs. Many are changing their practices after having these facts presented.
There are a number of f farmers' cooperative organizations which have been in existence for one year or more and several which have been operating successfully for a period of years. Under present business conditions these organizations have had to meet prob-lems similar to those encountered by other businesses. County agents assist these organizations in various ways. This year assistance was rendered 18 associations in some phase of their operation. The agents also assisted growers in the formation of eight new associations.
The Extension forces have cooperated with the Florida State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board in their efforts to assist cooperative organizations.
In addition to work with cooperatives, individual farmers have been assisted in establishing a system of accounting, in making purchases and sales of farm products, and in readjusting farm acreages and operations in line with the outlook. Due to this line of work 313 farmers made adjustments in one or more crops.

Three commodity organizations have been launched and set upin cooperation with the Federal Farm Board. A unit of the Alabama-Florida Peanut Marketing Association was organized and membership secured in Jackson County. Sixteen meetings were held and a thousand tons were signed up.
Units of the National Pecan Marketing Association were also formed to serve the pecan area in North and West Florida. Florida Truck Growers, Inc., with headquarters in Bradenton, was assisted.
To protect their interest better and to do the things found most advantageous to the cattle industry, a Northwest Florida Cattlemen;s Association has been formed.
Hog marketing associations also have been formed during the last two years.

Annual Report, 1931

Statistics f rom county agents' reports during the past two years in the general farming area show that 41 cooperative associations have been in operation, with a membership of 2,297. These organizations have marketed $206,857 worth of products, and their cooperative purchases have totaled $165,144.

Citrus work is a large part of the work of county agents in the citrus area of Florida.
County agents' reports show that 652 demonstrations were conducted on 17,656 acres. An important part of the citrus work this past year has been with the soil improvement programs. For several years the county agents have emphasized the importance of cover crops and have generally introduced Crotalaria to a large part of the citrus growing territory. This has continued for the past year with the same interest and value.
Due to a more difficult marketing condition, the main problem of attack has been on costs of production. For the past two years growers have been confronted with small returns for their crops,

Fig. 3.-Lake County Agents, Mrs. Mary S. Allen and Clifford R. Hiatt (center two), being awarded cups for winning exhibits in citrus and vegetables at the South Florida Fair. Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo is presenting the cups.

Florida Cooperative Extension

so it has seemed wise to urge reductions in the cost of production wherever possible. Cover crop demonstrations have served a useful purpose to that end, for growers have found that fertilizer bills can be easily reduced by a systematic use of Crotalaria and other cover crops. It is not expected that maximum yields will be the result of reduced commercial fertilizer, however, reports indicate that the yields have held up in a satisfactory way and since the price of the property has been relatively low the cost of production could be materially lower, which would mean a large saving and the possibility of maintaining good grove practices even under the stress of uncertain marketing conditions.
The Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred has been a source of information for the growers, since much of the work has been under way a sufficient length of time to indicate the best methods. County agents have therefore arranged tours in their respective counties, inviting leading citrus growers to study the recent improvements, that have been under way at the Citrus Experiment Station.
New sources of fertilizer materials, mostly to supply nitrogen, have been introduced in the market and have led to a further study of fertilizer applications. Considering economic conditions, growers have expressed a keen interest in a modification of fertilizer practices. County agents have studied the matter with a great deal of care and have paved the way for improved practices. This work has been valuable in view of the present financial situation.
The county agents in the southern territory have continued with vegetable crop demonstrations. These have always been less definite than many other demonstrations, conducted by farmers of this state., This year cover crops have received emphasis and are proving very,_Valuable. Crotalaria has eiell used wherever the system of vegetable growing permits. Demonstrations with this crop indicate that a study must be made of the soil conditions, particularly for vegetables.
There have been some changes in fertilizer practices with vege. table crops. However, this has been carried on to a less extent than with etirus.

Grapes, strawberries and blackberries' have come in for a fair share of attention. Grapes are grown principally in -three Central Florida counties with the largest acreage in Lake County. The

Annual Report, 1931 33

industry is new and there are many problems in fertilization, cultivation, disease and insect control in which the county agent of Lake County has rendered valuable assistance to the growers. Much interest is manifested in varieties that will mature a little earlier.
The county agent in Lake County has been elected secretary of the grape growers' organization and at various times has been responsible f or programs that will bring the grape growers together in the interest of more satisfactory products and marketing.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of c ounty agents . 40 Number of months of service . 470 Number communities in which extension program has been conducted . 310
Number voluntary county or community local leaders or committeemen assisted in the extension program . 551 Total number of farm and home visits . 33,057 Number of different farms and homes visited . 14,157 Number of office and telephone calls . 89,385 Number of days agents in office . 3,3551/ Number of days agents in field . 8,236 Number of news articles or stories published . 2,098 Number of individual letters written . 33t968 Number of bulletins distributed . 29,054 Number of radio talks made . 218 Number of events where extension exhibits were shown . 58

Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders . 19 270 Method demonstration meetings held . 1,625 17,478 Meetings held at result demonstrations . 662 6,663 Tours conducted . 71 2,304 Achievement days held-Adult work . 5 6,776
Achievement days held-4-H Club . 47 2,586
Encampments held for 4-H Clubs . 21 736
Other Extension meetings . 1,004 47,817 Meetings held by local leaders-Adult work . 65 2,080 Meetings held by local leaders-4-H Club . 95 2,213

Number of method demonstration meetings . 137 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 375 Total number of acres in result demonstrations . 3,898 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstration s-corn,
11% bu.; oats, 6 bu.; rye, 41/2 bu.

Legumes and Forage Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held . 310 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 996 Number of acres in adult result demonstrations . 19,810%

I , Potatoes, Cotton, Tobacco, and Other Special Crops
Number of method demonstration meetings held . 201 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 325 Number of acres in adult result demonstrations . 2,651 1 /4 Average increased yield per acre on adult result demonstrationsIrish potatoes, 33 bu.; sweet potatoes, 23 bu.; cotton, 288 lbs.;
tobacco, 150 lbs.
Fruits, Vegetables, and Beautification of Home Grounds
Number of method demonstration meetings held . 1,664 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 1.652 Number of acres in adult result demonstrations . 16,081 Average increased yield per acre on result demonstrations-truck
crops, 24 bu.; tree fruits, 19 bu.; bush and small fruits, 178 qts.

Annual Report, 193.1

Number of method demonstration meetings . 3
Number of adult result demonstrations . 4 Acres new forest. or farm woodland areas planted . 380 Number of farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management . 25
A creage . 8,450 Number of farms planting windbreaks . 18

Animal and Insect Pest Control
Number of method demonstration meetings . 272 Number of result demonstrations completed . 231 Pounds of poison used . 4,909

Agricultural Engineering

Number of method demonstration meetings . 170 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 197 Number of farms following recommendations in installing drainage
system s . 194 Acres drained . 6,557
Number of farms following recommendations in installing irriga, tion system s . 58 Acres irrigated . 91612 Number of farms building terraces to control erosion . 85 Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented . 4,427 Number of farms clearing land of stumps . 90 Number of families assisted with house-planning . 47 Number of dwellings constructed . 14 Number of dwellings remodeled . 16 Number of sewage-disposal systems installed . 35 Number of water systems installed . 40 Number of lighting systems installed . 40 Number of farm buildings constructed or remodeled,,,;. si., . 281
Dairy barns, 39; hog houses, 32; poultry houses, os, 28;
other, 45.
Number of farms following recommendations on machinery . 386
Tractors, 35; tillage implements, 164; harvesters and tbreshers,
8; other, 35; miscellaneous machinery, 144.

Number of method demonstration meetings . 314 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 263 Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations . 80,275 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $22,778.19 Number farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breeding stock . 221 Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 62

Dairy Cattle
Number of method demonstration meetings . 148 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 265 Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations . 4,878 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $12,861 Number fanns assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breed- I
ing stock . I . 166 Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 41

Florida Cooperative Extension

Other Livestock
Number of method demonstration meetings . . . 174
Number of adult result demonstrations complete 284
Number of animals in completed adult result demonstrations . 10,633 Total profit or saving result demonstrations . $14,385.50 Number farms assisted in obtaining purebred or high-grade breeding stock . 448 Number of farms keeping performance records of animals . 8

Farm Management, Credit, Insurance, and Taxation
Number of method -demonstration Ineetings . . 114 Number of adult result demonstrations completed . 242 Number of farms keeping farm accounts . 222 Number of farms keeping cost-of-production records . 368 Number of farms assisted in summarizing their accounts . 160 Number of farms assisted in making inventory or credit statements 220 Number of farm business or enterprise survey records taken . 92 Number of farms making recommended changes in their business. 127 Number of other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete
farming systems . . 320 Number of farms advised relative to leases . 242 Number of farms assisted in obtaining credit . 1,421 Number of different farms assisted in using outlook information . 1,824
Corn, 123; cotton, 162; potatoes, 183; tobacco, 75; truck crops, 400; dairy cattle, 97; beef cattle, 94; hogs, 299; sheep, 3; poultry, 221; citrus, 124; strawberries and grapes, 35; bulbs, 8.

Marketing (Farm and Home)
Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups organized 27 Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups previously organized . 84 Membership in associations organized . 5,028 Value of products marketed by all associations . $2,169,314.14 Value of supplies purchased by all associations . $1,089,673.82 Number of cooperative-marketing associations or groups assisted
with problems of-Preliminary analysis, 21; organization, 34; accountIng and auditing, 20; financing, 29; business policies, 39; production to meet market demand, 39; reduction of market losses, 21; use of current market information, 68; standardizing, 39; processing or manufacturing, 8; packaging and grading, 45; loading, 22; transporting, 18; warehousing, 8; keeping
membership informed, 63; merging into larger units, 10.
Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups
assisted with- problems of-standardizing, 526; packaging and
grading, 474; use of current market information, 1,853.

Community or Country Life Activities
Number of communities assisted in making social or country life
surveys . . . * . 3
Number of country life conferences for community leaders . 10 Number of community groups assisting with organization problems,
activities, or meeting programs . 14 Number of communities developing recreation programs . 21 Number of community or county-wide pageants or plays presented 13 Number *of communities assisted in improving hygienic practices. 4 Number of school or other community grounds improved . 2
Number of 4-H Clubs engaging in community activities . 13 Total number of different communities assisted community or country life work . . I . I . 25

Annual Report, 1931 37


Nume Number Me
merDays by Days of . e- Farm
comT- Special- Work ings Visits
munities ist Held

Farm Crops .277 143 20171/2 365 6780

Horticultural Crops . . 205 138 2481 380 8156

Live Stock .I 238 256 3078 / 485 KO

Agricultural Ecoaomics 245 146 1001 1 269 2612

Miscellaneous and
Program Making . 149 I 66 8591/ 208 1727

Forestry . 14 I 3 24%A 3 40

R. W. BLACKLOCK, State Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT
For the second consecutive year, there has been a slight decrease in enrollment. The reasons lie in the increasing demands upon the time of the county agents. The addition of farm management work-and the increased effort given to organization and marketing have forced the agents to give less time to work with boys, All but six of the county agents have club w.ork as a part of their programs of work.
The following table shows the gains and losses in the different projects.

0 Q F.
+J 0 0 " 1-1
0 0 :t 0 ':) co v)
d - E,
Total, 1931 . 612 200 163 551 71 355 432 150 194 2728

1930 . 1 586 219 176 316 113 4231 686 196 197 2912

Gain or Loss + 26 1 -19 1 -13 1+235 1 1 -42 1 68 1 1-253 1 1 -46 1 1 -3 1 1-184 1 1 .

The greatest improvement in boys' 4-H club work in Florida for 1931 is in organization, both of the local clubs and of county councils. The decrease in enrollment would have been much larger and the percentage of reports much smaller had it not been for these club organizations. The well organized counties showed the least loss and in some cases showed an increase, particularly in percentage of reports received.
Local Clubs:-Twenty-four of the 30 county agents who have 4-H club work as part of their program have local club organizations. -In four counties a cup or banner is awarded to the best local club in the county.
The local club organization serves in many ways. New members are secured and reports inspected during the year. Some clubs have held tours of inspection and visited every project. Concerted effort on the part of the club organization has secured an exceptionally high percentage of reports. The fact of the club

Florida Cooperative Extension

Annual Report, 1931

organization itself helps keep the members interested and makes other boys wish to join.
Local clubs help in adding to the social life of the community. Picnics, socials, and camping parties have given opportunity for social contacts which are proving worth while in developing a more wholesome local social environment.
Outstanding Local Clubs:-The Archer Club of Alachua County has functioned well. This club has held meetings regularly Whether the county agent has been present or not. Under its officers the club has held business and social meetings and sent members to the county camp and to the state short course. Its crowning achievement was the securing of a report from every member of the club.
The Bratt Club of Escambia County won the cup offered to the best local club in that county. This club has 23 members with 26 projects. All completed their projects and all but one handed in record books. A club meeting was held every month and a picnic with the club girls was held in the summer. Every member attended the county rally and nine went to the summer camp.
In Bradford and Union counties club tours were held by the local clubs. Every project was visited. This is a practice which should be carried out in every county.
County Organizations:-After the local clubs are functioning, a county organization is formed. This organization is called a county council and can be made a big factor in promoting club work in a county. County councils have been set up in seven counties.
If 4-H club work is to hold its own under the ever-increasing. burden of work of the county agents, leaders must be developed in every locality. Six agents report that the club work secured in 1931 was due to the efforts of the old club members. Practically all agents reported that the only acceptable leadership to be had was by the older club members or by former club members. One club of 14 members was organized by two older boys without assistance from the county agent. These boys not only secured the boys for the club but had visited the parents of every boy who wished to join and obtained promises of their- cooperation.
In Escambia County, during the protracted illness of the county agent, the leaders of the local clubs carried on so well that the county reported the highest percentage of completions in the history of club work in that county.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The building of leaders from the club members is our most important problem and one which will follow naturally when organizations are perfected.

The most intelligent approach to more profitable farming in Florida seems to be through the building of our soils. Club boys are turning to this method in larger numbers each year. The use of Austrian winter peas and vetch has been practiced for some years and now Crotalaria, a summer soil building legume, is being used. In Union and Bradford counties, 39 boys planted an acre each of crotalaria. The crop was planted in rows and cultivated, and seed were gathered to be sold to pay expenses of making the crop. The crotalaria stalks will be turned under and a crop of corn planted for 1932. Wherever possible an adjoining acre will be planted to corn to check the value of this crop as a soil builder. The results from these demonstrations will determine whether or not this plan of soil building will be pushed.

Corn:-The yield of corn varied over the state due to spotted weather conditions. The average for the state remained about the same, 37.4 bushels per acre.
Hillsborough County club acres produced the highest average in all the years of club work in Florida. Thirty-six club acres produced an average of 75.1 bushels per acre.
The quality of the 10-ear exhibits at county contests was above the average. The state corn club show at Tampa is responsible for this in a large measure.
Cotton:-The work with cotton in 1931 was not up to standard. The low prices and a lack of money for the necessary fertilizers caused yields below normal. Where proper methods were followed some very high yields were made. One boy reported 11/2 bales from his acre.
The work with truck crops was about normal. The profits were small but the yields were about as usual.
In Manatee County three citrus clubs are at work on a treegrowing project. Each boy plants the same number of sour orange seed in a common plot. The seedlings are cultivated, set

Annual Report, 1931

in rows and budded. This is a three-year proposition but in this county one club has kept going for three years. Whenever a boy moves away another takes up his projects and carries on. The first club now has enough trees grown to plant an acre of grove for each boy. Some will start groves while others will sell their trees.
Hard times are holding pig club work in check. Many boys do not have the money to buy purebred pigs. The old boys are carrying on but have been forced to cheapen their cost of production, which is in line with what should be done.
Arthur McNeeley of Marion County was awarded the Thomas E. Wilson gold watch as the outstanding pig club member in Florida. Arthur has developed a fine herd of Poland Chinas.
With so much of the state freed from the tick quarantine, more interest is being shown in this project. In Duval County, 25 purebred calves were placed with club members. The dairymen's association of the county is backing this venture and results above the average are expected.
In some counties a start is being made with grade calves, as money is not available for buying purebred animals. This project should show an increase during the next year.
Work with poultry is decreasing in number of projects but increasing in number of birds involved and in efficiency of the work done. Poultry club members are among the leaders in the Home Egg-Laying Contest. This fall five club members entered a pen of five birds each in the National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley. To date the club birds are holding their own in egg production.
The actual work in connection with a club demonstration or project is but part of 4-11 club work. The social side of life is important and deserves attention as much as does the making of a living. Educational trips and club exhibits are of prime importance in the promotion of club work.
Social Meetings:-Farm boys and girls need and value the enjoyments of a social good time. The 4-H club organizations are furnishing means for recreational meetings in many communities. Picnics, socials, and fish fries in which oftentimes the community


Fig. 4.-Duval County club boys and girls exhibited more than 20 club calves at the South Florida Fair.


Annual Report, 1931

joins, have been held by the boys and girls. One agent reports 10 such occasions in his county.
Recreation Schools :-The Playground and Recreation Association of America is interested in developing the recreation movement in rural areas. Working in connection with this association four recreation schools were held in 1931. At these schools, selected rural leaders and outstanding club members were given instruction in organized recreation. Schools were held at Crestview, Marianna, Gainesville and Plant City. The results from these schools were such that advanced work will be given in schools held in the same places in 1932.
Radio Programs :-Each month a 30-minute program is broadcast over state station WRUF, the boys alternating with the girls in planning these. In addition the department took part in the National 4-H Achievement Program on November 7, by supplying speakers for WIOD, WFLA and WJAX.
Club Camps :-The summer club camp remains popular and one of the best features of the club recreation program. The work has grown until in 1931 it was necessary to use two extra men during the camping season. Howard Curry and Donald Matthews were employed for three months to assist with camps.
A total of 691 boys from 22 counties spent four days at the 15 camps held during June, July and August of 1931. A central camp, similar to that in the Choctawliatchee National Forest, is needed for Central Florida.
Annual Short Course :-Each June the county club champions are brought to the University for a week of instruction and recreation. This is the crowning event of the club year. The visit to the University seems to make a lasting impression on the lives of many boys. Each year the number of former club boys enrolled in the University increases, due to the effect of a visit to the short course.
In 1931, 252 boys spent the week in Gainesville and 22 others came for a one-day visit. The most enjoyable occasion was a camp fire in the woods given by the former club boys who are now attending college. The evening program for one night was broadcast over WRUF.
Exhibits at South Florida Fair :-For the second year an exhibit of corn was made at the South Florida Fair. Cotton was added for the first time. A total of 3,300 square feet of exhibit space was filled with corn and cotton grown by the club boys.

Florida Cooperative Exten&ion

Some of the corn shown at this show was donated by the boys to be sold and the proceeds sent to the State Club Leader of Arkansas to buy seed corn for the club boys who had suffered from the drought of 1930. In all, $50 was sent, and it supplied over 100 Arkansas boys with seed for their 1932 club acres.
State Pig Club Show:-Again in 1931, the Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored the State Pig Club Show. The show was held in October so that Florida boys could enter the national contests, which close on November 1. 1
Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County showed the grand champion barrow, a Poland Chlina and the offspring of the gilt with which he won the Frank E. Dennis scholarship in 1930.
State Poultry Club Show:-The first Florida 4-11 Poultry Club Show was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair. Both girls and boys participated.
In addition to an exhibit of 180 club chickens, a judging contest was held. Six county teams were entered. Alachua County's team of girls won and Eunice Nixon of Gainesville was awarded a trip to Chicago as high point contestant.
Two boys represented Florida at the 1930 National 4-11 Camp at Washington. One boy attended the National Dairy Show and three the International Live Stock Exposition and 4-11 Club Congress at Chicago.
Five boys entered the College of Agriculture on scholarships given by the Florida Bankers Association.
The 4-11 scholarship. winners continue to maintain enviable records for scholarship in the College of Agriculture. Two of the four boys who entered in 1930 were on the honor roll for scholarship.
Bankers' Scholarships:-Due to the fact that three winners in previous years decided not to come to college, six scholarships were awarded this year. The winners were John Hentz, Liberty County, and LeRoy McCurdy of Santa-Rosa County for West Florida; Clyde Byrd of Union County and Ben McLaughlin of Marion County for Central Florida; Kenneth Newkirk of Lake County and Maurice Lamb of Orange County for South Florida.
National 4-H Camp:-Arlington Henley of Walton County and Jack Platt of Marion County represented Florida 4-11 club boys at the National 4-H Camp in Washington.

Annual Report, 1931

Trips :-The Armour and Company trip to Chicago for champion pig club barrow was won by Wilmer W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County.
The L. & N. Railroad trip to Chicago for outstanding club boy in counties served by that road was awarded to Dennis Bradley of Escambia County.
Essay :-The Creamery Package Company prize for best essay on a milk plant was written by Dupont Magill of Duval County, who was given a trip to the National Dairy Show at St. Louis.
South Florida Fair :-Grand champion bushel of corn at the State Corn Club exhibit was shown by John Hentz; of Liberty County. BOYS' 4-H CLUB STATISTICS

113 Organized community 4-H clubs
7 County club organizations
ENROLLMENT AND COMPLETION 2239 Members enrolled 2554 Different projects carried by club members 1197 Members completed 1389 Projects completed PROJECT WORK

Project corn peanuts Irish potatoes sweet potatoes cotton



39 members completed 89 members completed

144 members completed 102 members completed 2 members completed 208 members completed

obacco jome garden ruck crop mall fruits iome beautification

rotalaria, over-crop

Live Stock
beef cattle

Acres Grown 3461/2 361/,36 100



Yield 12,866 bu. 1,508 bu.
365 bu. 3,776 bu. 85,212 lbs. seed
cotton 12,560 lbs.

9 homes
beautified 11,000 lbs. seed
89 acres

Animals Involved 7,153 birds 141 animals
2 animals
455 animals

Farm Management members completed farm records
Leadership and Recreation Demonstration teams trained Judging teams trained Leadership meetings with 260 meetings Achievement days held, 2,586 attending Social meetings held, 2,213 attending Club camps held, 736 attending

members members members members members

members members members members members

completed completed completed completed completed

completed completed completed completed completed


47 95

Florida Cooperative Extension

HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
Dairy work has been carried on in the following counties during 1931, in cooperation with the county agents: Dade, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, Martin, St. Lucie, Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Citrus, Hernando, Orange, Polk, Marion, Bradford, Union, St. Johns, Duval, Alachua, Suwannee, Jefferson, Leon, Jackson, Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Escam-w bia. Some cooperative dairy work was carried on with the farmers in some of the counties not having county agents, including Bay, Gadsden, Madison, Columbia, Putnam, Volusia, Pasco, Glades, and Broward.
The unfavorable season with limited rainfall in many sections of the state has prevented the success of many of the feed-growing demonstrations. However, the drouth did not prevent the dairymen of the state from making one of the greatest efforts they have ever made to grow roughage. Feed-growing demonstrations for dairy cows are being limited to the production of pastures, grazing crops, silage, soiling crops and hays.
There was a shortage of pasture grass seed in 1931, as a result of the severe drouth in seed-producing areas in 1930. This condition, coupled with limited finances, greatly retarded the pasture program for dairymen. However, county agents in 15 counties reported 2,140 acres seeded to permanent pasture. An increased .number of dairymen are mowing the permanent pastures. 'The large weeds, such as the coffee weed, bitterweed, and dog fennell, shade out the permanent pasture grasses and take up moisture.
The pasture program has been emphasized by field visits. to dairy farms where good pastures are established, and by direct cooperative purchase of grass seed. One Alachua County dairyman drove 100 miles to attend an extension field meeting on pastures. He was convinced after seeing the demonstration and knowing the method used to obtain results. This dairyman now has an .excellent pasture of 130 acres. This is just one of many dairymen who have been influenced by this one pasture demonstration.
The dry season has made the seeding of winter grazing crops very unsatisfactory. Rye, oats and winter legumes were almost a complete failure in north Florida. Some county agents are con-

Annual Report, 1931

ducting demonstrations with winter legumes for grazing, and are using sweet clover (melilotus) and black medic. These two clovers give promise of fitting into a grazing plan with bermuda grass that will give an all-year grazing crop. The clover is disked into the bermuda sod in the fall and comes along in the winter after the bermuda is frosted down. These clovers thrive best when the soil is underlaid with marl formation, or shells. The agent in lower Dade County reports yields of sweet clover amounting to 25,000 pounds of green material to the acre from volunteer seeding. In a demonstration with sweet clover on a Pinellas County farm five cows were grazed to the acre for a short period through the best growing season. .The agent in Walton County reports a successful demonstration with sweet and crimson clovers disked into a bermuda sod. 'County agent Finlayson of Jefferson County had similar demonstrations, using vetch with bermuda.
Silage demonstrations have shown how it is possible to produce a roughage to take the place of other roughages usually purchased.
The. greater profits will come from feeding cheap roughages that will increase the milk production and lower the cost of production, which will make it possible later to expand dairying.
Demonstrations in methods of filling silos in four counties have helped to correct wrong impressions about silage. Demonstrations with sorghum have given satisfactory yields and this has increased the interest in sorghum silage as a feed. In several counties where corn was planted for silage the dry weather cut the yield until it was necessary to plant sorghum to finish filling the silos.
Soybean and cowpea *silage demonstrations were put on in four counties. This legume silage is valuable as a substitute for legume hays.
The 1931 dairy prices put farmers in several of the West Florida counties out of business. In Okaloosa County 15 farmers quit shipping cream when the prices got down to 17 and 18 cents a pound f or cream. Okaloosa County and several of the West Florida counties were started into farm dairying under wrong conditions. In several instances the creamery placed the cream stations with commercial feed dealers whose prime interest was to sell the farmers high priced feeds.

Florida Cooperative Extension

There are a good many farmers and a few county agents in West Florida who are in a better position to start building a farm dairy business after this experience. Most of them know now that it requires a lot of cheap roughages and some good cows to succeed-with farm dairying.
In Walton County the farmers did not follow the cream promoters. A few farmers started into dairying and patronized a cooperative cream station selling the cream in Pensacola. They have organized a cooperative bull association and now have four bulls and have shipped in several high grade Jersey heifers with the help of the county agent. County agents in Jefferson, Suwannee, and Marion counties 'are also making real progress with farm dairying.
There has, been more interest in raising calves, partly due to surplus milk in most of the market milk centers and the low price of veal.
Feeding demonstrations were carried on with 35 calves in Duval County. In these demonstrations the purpose was to reduce the cost of raising calves and increase the size of the animals and the feed capacity, or barrel, by the feeding of more bulky feeds as supplements to skimmilk. In the feeding demonstration it was possible to reduce the cost of feeding calves about one-half what it has cost the dairymen. Demonstrations have been carried out in the control of parasites in calves. Polluted water and too early grazing of calves on sod pastures account for most of the parasite infestations.
There has been more interest in keeping individual milk records as a basis for correct feeding, and 134 dairymen have kept records on 2,386 cows.

Practically all of the dairy herds in Duval and Leon counties are headed by purebred sires. The president of the State Dairymen's Association, a leading dairyman of Duval County, purchased a proven Guernsey sire that cost approximately $2,000, to head his herd of purebred and high grade Guernseys. .There were 127 registered sires placed on farms during 1931 in 25 counties. There were 67 purebred females placed in the state.

Annual Report, 1931

During the year 1931 silo building on dairy farms was conducted along conservative lines. Most of the silos were the homemade variety. There were 10 trench silos; six pit, three Tennessee wooden hoop, two wood stave-steel hoop, six concrete (home-made), three steel (manufactured), and two wood (manufactured), making a total of 32 in addition to the trench silog.
County agents carried on silo building demonstrations in Walton, Washington, Jefferson, Leon, Duval, Alachua, and Marion counties.
The cost of construction of the different types of silos varied in the following order: Trench, pit, home-made Tennessee wooden hoop, wood stave-steel hoop, concrete, patented wooden and steel silos. The concrete silo is the most practical silo for the larger dairy farms where dairy farming is permanently established.
It is usually possible to finance the construction of a concrete silo and the machinery for filling it on the larger, permanent dairy farms. Financial conditions in 1931 made it difficult to finance silo building on farms where farm dairying is practiced. For this reason, and the uncertainty of permanence of the trench, pit silos and home-made wooden silos seemed, the logical kinds to build.
County Agent Wilkins in Walton County gives figures showing that the complete cash outlay on construction and filling a 20-ton trench silo was only $1.00 per ton. County Agent York in Washington County practically duplicated this demonstration, with a trench silo. There were charges for machinery in filling these silos as they used borrowed silage cutters and secured the power from a car. Relative costs of building the different types of silos were about as follows:
Trench 20-30 ton capacity . $ .50 per ton
Pit 15-25 " it . .75 Tennessee wooden hoop 180 ton capacity . 1.54
Concrete monolithicc) 100 " cc . 4.75 " 4' Steel 100 ton capacity . 6.25 " it
In the Lowell community in Marion County the farmers have all the different types of silos except the Tennessee wooden hoop. The farmers in that community cooperate in filling their silos. They pool labor, teams and wagons and use one silage cutter and engine. In this manner there is practically no cash outlay for all the teams and wagons that are required to carry on the operation.

Florida Cooperative Extension

In Duval County, through the efforts of the Extension workers, four dairy sheds were constructed. The sheds are built some distance from the barns and they serve as a shade in the summer and as a shelter in the winter on dairy farms where 20 or more cows are milked. These sheds only need a good roof supported by strong posts for studding. Dairymen find this kind of shed will pay for itself in about one year in increased milk production.

There has been a 12 months' problem in marketing fluid milk in Florida in 1931. The old trouble of summer surplus and winter shortage has completely vanished. There was about as much surplus in Jacksonville markets in January as in July. This condition has been brought about by a concerted effort on the pa rt of the dairymen to have cows freshen in the fall.
There was an active State Dairyman's Association in 1931 with 12 county organizations that contributed a great deal in helping stabilize dairy marketing. The state milk law is a product of the State Dairymen's Association. The provisions in this law that require shipped milk to meet local inspection requirements has served to check the wholesale shipping of milk out of milk product plants as was the case five or six years ago.

There has been a gradual increase in the number of counties doing dairy club work as tick eradication, has progressed. This year there were 17 counties with 127 beif ers doing some 4-H dairy work. The quality of club work is improving as the numbers have increased. This year's plans are made to exhibit registered club heifers at the South Florida Fair in Tampa.
It has been the work of the Extension dairy agent to assist the state boys' club leader with the boys' short course in Gainesville, and for the last few years a special group has been given four days' special training in dairying. Several of the boys in these special groups have come back to the campus later to take up the four years' college course in the University. This work has an important place in the 4-H club work and there is a splendid opportunity to expand these short courses to reach more farm boys in the state.
The 4-H dairy clubs offer an opportunity to help finance the introduction of purebred dairy animals. -There is a good 10-year record in financing dairy club work in the state. The banks of

Annual Report, 1931

the state have not lost a dollar in financing any registered animals. This fine record helped to secure finances for 25 registered dairy animals in Duval County this year. All of the 25 notes have been paid in full. The financial stress has not affected the financing of worthy dairy club work.
Special time in 4-H dairy club work by the Extension dairy agent was given to helping with a judging contest at the field day held at Inspiration Ranch near Bradenton in June. In the absence of the state club leader from the state, the Extension dairy agent took charge of the state essay contest put on by the National Dairy and Ice Cream Manufacturing Association. . Thirty-oneessays were turned in to the three district agents, the committee selected to act as judges. Dupont Magill, a club boy in Duval County, was awarded first prize and a free trip to the National Dairy Show in St. Louis in October.

The Extension dairy agent attended 105 meetings, with an attendance of 4,361, during the year. He wrote 1,143 letters and traveled 26,010 miles.

Florida Cooperative Extension

WALTER J. SHEFLY, Agent in Animal Husbandry

Extension work in animal husbandry has been carried on mainly in the tick-free area consisting of that part of the state north of a line drawn east and west from the southeastern end of Volusia County, the southern edge of Marion County and the southern part of Levy County. Practically all of the counties north and west of this line have been interested in beef cattle improvement and hog development.
Contrary to the usual effect of low prices, there is a healthy interest in beef cattle development in Florida. This interest is manifested by cattle owners in the demand for better bulls and breeding cows, for information on pasture development, the growing tendency to winter feed the bulls and weak cows, to insure a calf crop and the saving of the heifers.
Further evidence is the interest shown by the large land-owners who control millions of acres of land in this state.
During the year 56 meetings, with a total attendance of 6,500 people, have been attended in the 'following counties: Levy, Alachua, Dixie, Taylor, Suwannee, Columbia, Jefferson, Leon, Gadsden, Jackson, Liberty, Calhoun, Washington, Walton, Okaloosa, and Santa Rosa. Picture films setting forth beef cattle development were shown in Levy, Taylor, Jefferson, Leon, Jackson, Washington, Alachua, and Orange counties with a total attendance of 1,300.
During 4-H club week at the University and at the annual meeting of Smith-Hughes students the Agent instructed 128 club boys and 200 future farmers in selecting breeding beef cattle and using purebred bulls.
Demonstrations of cutting the beef carcass were held in cooperation with K. F. Warner of the Bureau of Animal Industry in Levy, Taylor and Gadsden counties. Pork cutting demonstrations were held in Alachua, Levy, Taylor, Jefferson, Leon (2whites and Negroes), Gadsden, Jackson and Washington.
In cooperation with county agents, prominent breeders and the Hereford Cattle Association, three bull sales were held. At

Annual Report, 1931

Gainesville (June 20 and July 11) 48 registered bulls were distributed in Alachua and adjoining counties.
On October 22 at Crestview, Okaloosa County, 8 bulls and 6 heifers were sold to farmers in that section.
Five additional bulls and four heifers came to Florida from a South Georgia sale.
The Animal Husbandman has located bulls, secured prices and furnished livestock information to county agents and a large number of individuals. A total of 171 purebred bulls have been added to Florida herds.
Fifty-six purebred beef heifers, 308 high grade cows and 190 calves have been brought in from other states during the year.
This office located 1,660 feeder steers, secured prices and freight costs for farmers in Gadsden and Madison counties from Montgomery, Alabama, South Georgia and in this state.
P. E. Williams, Davenport, Fla., has been f or the last three years feeding large numbers of native range cattle. Last year they fed 1,160 head. Mr. Williams is, for the first time, keeping records of feeds and weighing 400 steers every 30 days. He is following in a large measure our outline for feeding silage and cottonseed meal.

Fig. 5.-A trench silo is easily made, inexpensive, easily filled, and preserves
silage successfully. Well drained clay land is best.

RoHda Cooperative Extension

Pasture work has been hampered this season by the drouth and by the scarcity of grass seed. However, 7,000 pounds of grass seed were sown in Taylor County, 2,000 pounds in Dixie County and in St. Johns County there were 2,000 acres fenced and seeded with 1,000 pounds of grass seed. J. J. Taylor of Marion County sowed 1,500 pounds of grass seed. In Jackson County 600 acres were planted in carpet and lespedeza, and in Alachua County 10 acres were planted to Dallis grass on muck land. P. E. Williams, Davenport, is developing 250 acres of muck land pasture.
A trench silo for beef cattle feeding was put in by the Marianna Fruit Company. This company stored 1,080 tons of silage in a trench silo.
Early in the year county agents in the hog producing counties adopted standard demonstration plans for economic swine production. Meetings were held advising on the breeding and handling of hogs and on planting crops to finish the hogs for the early markets.
In April at Trentonj eight purebred boars and 18 sows and gilts were sold at public auction. In addition, county agents report 82 purebred boars and 88 gilts placed.
In cooperation with the county agents and the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A., pork cutting demonstrations were held in eight counties. At these demonstrations instructions were given on curing of pork. This stimulated inquiries for information on the curing of meats.
With the idea of calling attention to the good qualities of "peanut pork," and with the hope of increasing the demand for peanutfed meat, a peanut pork luncheon was held at Chipley, Florida, which was attended by representative business and professional men from the hog-producing counties.
Following this the Gainesville Kiwanis Club held a peanut pork luncheon when H. McDowell, Manager of Swift and Company's Moultrie, Ga., plant, explained the packing company's plans f or a wider distribution of southern pork. As a result, Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture and Chairman of the State Agricultural Committee of the Kiwanis. Clubs, recommended that each club in the state hold a "peanut pork" luncheon.
In cooperation with Swift and Company, a peanut pork exhibit was displayed at the South Florida Fair. Mr. McDowell advised

Annual Report, 1931

Fig. 6-The peanut pork luncheon at Chipley was well attended, and stimulated interest in this delicious product.

that this meat show was responsible for new customers for the peanut pork.
A meeting was held in Atlanta with representatives from Georgia and Alabama with the idea of working out better plans of marketing hogs in the Southeast. At this meeting there was formed the Southeastern Peanut Pork Association.
Most of the sheep are in west Florida and are of the range type. The main revenue obtained from these sheep is the wool. The low price of wool has kept many owners from getting purebred rams.
This season this office located and secured prices on purebred rams of the various breeds and furnished this information to the county agents and sheep owners. Due to tightness of money, no importations of rams were made.
During the year three livestock associations have been formed in as many counties: Escambia, Walton, and Washington. These associations have for their object improving the grade of the animals by breeding, herd management and feeding; also better marketing.
Experiment Station bulletin 236, "Swine Production in Florida," was issued under the joint authorship of the Agent in Animal Husbandry and the head of animal husbandry department in the Experiment Station.

Extension work in poultry production for the year 1930-1931 was concerned chiefly with several phases of economical production, including cost records, worm control, chickenpox vaccination, production of quality chicks, and culling.
Both egg prices, feed prices and poultry meat prices were lower than last year. Feed and egg prices dropped rapidly since January 1, 1930. Until July, 1931, the price of eggs fell more rapidly than did the price of poultry feeds, Feed has continued further downward to 60 percent of the five-year period and about 50 percent of the peak price in June, 1928, while eggs have remained about stationary at 70 percent of the five-year average, 1926-30.
Thirty-two counties were visited during the year and construetive poultry work was accomplished.
During the year 1931 the following phases of work were developed:
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feed.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home egg-laying contest.
5. Junior poultry work.
The purpose of the Grow Healthy Chick program is to reduce chick mortality, thereby reducing the cost of rearing pullets. The lower the chick mortality, the higher the quality of pullet that can be placed in the laying house.
Table 11 shows the value of such a program
Percent Mortality
Eggs Per Bird Value of Eggs over Feed
Chick Layers 1929 1929
1928 1929
8 9 168 2.80
15 10 155 2.49
26 12 143 2.15
35 13 140 2.00
55 19 116 7.66
26 11 145 2.29

*From records by Frank W. Brumley, of Agricultural Economics Department.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Annual Report, 1931

The Grow Healthy Chick program was centered around six fundamental factors, as follows: hatch early, clean eggs and chicks, clean brooder houses, clean land, balanced ration, separation of pullets from cockerels.
This Wan when adopted was effective in reducing chick mortality.
The following data have been assembled from the records submitted:
No. of No. of Chicks
Year Records Put Under Brooder Average Mortality
1928 . 35 . 30,000 . 24.3 1929 . 38 . 22,000 . 13.9 1930 . 28 . 28,500 . 14.3 1931 . 18 . 15,523 . 12.5
The following results were summarized from the 1931 reports: When poor quality chicks were used the mortality was 38.8 percent.
Failure to put chicks on clean ground results in a chick mortality of 19.6 percent.
Farmers adopting all six factors reported a chick mortality of
8.2 percent.
The feeding of green feed is important from the viewpoint of the growing bird and the layer. It is essential that poultrymen provide a year-round green feed program.
The liberal use of green feeds has proven a profitable phase of successful poultry feeding.
Producers are adopting a rigid culling program. It is a good business practice to keep nothing but good layers in the flock.
In all flocks there are individuals which tend to lower the average egg yield. This is the problem for the producer to solve. To make more money from the flock, the poultry raiser must maintain a high egg yield.
Through culling demonstrations the producers have learned the art of separating the. high egg birds from the low egg birds. The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting 25 culling demonstrations.
The purpose of the Home Egg-Laying Contest is to encourage poultry producers to keep records of their expenses and receipts, so that the year's business can be caref uly analyzed.

58 Florida Cooperative Extension

November 1 was the starting date for contests prior to 1930. Since then the contest begins October 1, and it is now known as the Florida Calendar' Flock Records project.
A new form of record book was put into use in 1931.

Year No. of Farms No. of Birds Eggs Per Bird
1926 .25 5,515 161.07
1927 .29 6,620 160.04
1928 .18 4,275 156.60
1929 . ;.38 7,893 158.46
1930 . 41 14,915 159.87
1931 .51 17,040 158.54
The flocks are divided in 4 groups according to the number of birds involved.
Group 1- 10-50 birds Group HI- 51-250 birds Group 111-251-500 birds Group IV-Over 500 birds

Group Group Group Group
Month I II III IV Average
October .5.86 7.28 7.25 5.99 6.53
November .5.83 7.98 7.48 7.05 7.32
December .7.45 8.94 8.79 8.86 8.81
January . 10.35 12.70 11.50 11.86 11.84
February . 15.13 16.65 16.17 15.25 15.81
March .16.67 19.08 1.3 19.34 19.25
April .16.46 18.55 19.21 20.41 19i.70
May . 15.86 18.31 17.66 18.78 18.38
June .12.31 14.59 14.96 16.99 16.03
July . 11.73 12.56 12.72 14.86 13.91
August .10.09 11.15 1.3 12.61 11.66
September .6.92 9.35 8.72 8.01 8.38

Total .140.19* 165.85* 157.39* 157.82* 158.54*
*Yearly egg production per bird. This is figured by taking the total number of eggs produced and dividing by the average number of birds.

(GROUPS III AND IV) (NOVEMBER 1, 19.29-OCToBER 31, 1930)
Per Bird Per Dozen Eggs
Feed Cost. $2.23 $ .159
Depreciation on birds. .83 .059
Value of Eggs sold. 4.26 .304

Likewise the following statements have been taken from the results tabulated from the Fifth Home Egg-Laying Contest (12 farms):

Annual Report, 1931

1. Flocks that averaged 187 eggs per bird per year returned $2.85 a bird above feed costs; while flocks averaging 138 eggs per bird returned only $1.'65 a bird above feed costs.
2. An average of 42 eggs per bird during November, December, and January resulted in 177 eggs for the year and a value of eggs over f eed cost of $2.84; while 22 eggs during November, December, January resulted in 149 eggs or a value of $1.67.
3. A high percentage of pullets meant a greater yearly egg production and a lower feed cost per dozen eggs.
4. Flocks which had an adult mortality of 14.6 percent produced an average of 146 eggs per bird per year and returned $1.80 (the value of eggs over feed costs) ; while flocks averaging 7.1 percent mortality produced an average of 182 eggs per bird per year and returned $2.85.
The 4-11 poultry club program was developed more efficiently during the past year.
Visits to 4-1 poultry flocks during the year were made. Club meetings were attended, and the fundamentals of poultry production- were discussed.
The 4-H boys' and girls' short courses held at Gainesville and Tallahassee have been places where various phases of poultry production were discussed.
The first State 4-H Poultry Show and Judging Contest was held in connection with the Volusia County Fair, DeLand, February 17-21, 1931. h was made 'possible through the cooperation of the manager.
The 4-1-1 poultry exhibit had a separate building, with new cages. There were 34 4-H exhibitors from eight counties (Alachua, Union, Bradford, Lake, Marion, Orange, Duval, and Volusia) and they entered 180 birds.
Ten different varieties were exhibited, consisting mostly of White Leghorns, Barred Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds. The exhibits were judged by a licensed A. P. A. judge, Mr. Daniel Sheve.
Each judging contest team was composed of three 4-H club members. Teams from Alachua, Bradford, Lake, Marion, Orange, and Volusia counties competed. Each member of the judging team competing for prizes was required (1) to make an exhibit of .at least 5 birds, including one male, (2) submit a record book, (3) answer 10 questions and (4) judge 16 birds, 4 each of Barred Plymouth Rocks, White Wyandottes, Single Comb Rhode Island

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Reds, Single Comb White Leghorns. The method employed to find the winners, both individual and team, was as follows:
1. Recordbook . * . 20 points
2. Exhibit . 15 points
3, Questions . . 10 points
4. Judging . 55 points 100 points
A team of girls from Alachua County trained under the leadership of the home demonstration agent, was awarded first place.
The second award went to a team of boys from Lake County under the leadership of the county agent.
The outstanding award (a trip to the Coliseum Poultry Show and National Club Congress) to the highest scoring individual was awarded to Miss Eunice Nixon, Gainsville, Florida.
The second highest scoring individual was Thomas Lamb, an Orange County club boy.
At the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest, a 4-H Club EggLaying Contest was started. There are 5 pens of 6 pullets each entered, one pen from Escambia County, and 4 from Lake County.

Local, county and state poultry associations have assisted materially in carrying out the Extension poultry program.
The. American Poultry Association of Florida has helped in furthering the Extension program,-has made it possible for club members to secure higher quality standardbred poultry, and also has fostered the junior poultry club show and judging contest.
The Florida Baby Chick Association has as its motto, "Better Quality Chicks." The members have cooperated and assisted in putting over the Grow Healthy Chick program. Accreditation work is handled under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. A two-day meeting of the association was held at Orlando in October which was well attended by the hatcherymen of the state.
The State Marketing Bureau, with its poultry marketing specialist, has worked in close cooperation with the agents, and the state office in an educational way.

Two years ago the county and home demonstration agents in West Florida secured plans for a home-made brick brooder. This type of brooder is cheap and efficient and is being used success-

Annual Report, 1931

fully on many farms in West Florida. Between 75 ana 100 of these brooders were in operation this past season. Better brooding is reported since the farmer installed this brick brooder.

A vaccine to check outbreaks of chickenpox is in general use by commercial poultrymen. This disease generally makes its appearance during the fall of the year just as the pullets come into production and results in a loss in egg production. Often it is accompanied by colds, roup and mortality and results in a substantial decrease in returns. The birds are generally vaccinated when 12 to 16 weeks of age. The cost is one to two cents per bird.

The Extension Poultryman attended 47 meetings with 1',280 present. Four all-day poultry schools were held.

An intensive poultry program is presented during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from 25 to 100 people.
Dr. E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, Experiment Station, has cooperated with the Extension Service in thig program by attending meetings, making farm visits, studying parasites and diseases, and making post-mortem examinations.
Worm control studies are now under way in which the Veterinary Department of the Experiment Station and the Extension Service are cooperating. Treatments were applied to three pens of pullets in 1931 and are being repeated in 1932. A report of progress will be given.
The Extension Poultryman is cooperating with the Experiment Station in preliminary surveys of fowl paralysis.

The Fifth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest located at Chipley, ran from October 1, 1930,'to September 22, 1931. There were 58 pens entered. The average egg production for the 51 weeks' period was 204.9 eggs per bird. The average egg production for the heavy breeds was 180.68 eggs, and f or the light breeds 214 eggs.

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Judging was done at 5 fairs last year, the Extension Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the open classes.
Twenty conferences. were held with feed men, fair managers, and secretaries of chambers of commerce, relative to poultry problems in their localities.
A veterinary short course was held at Gainesville, June 5-9, in cooperation with the Animal Husbandry Department of the Experiment Station. Approximately 15 were in attendance. A very interesting and educational program was presented.

At request of poultry producers, a broiler cost account was made available. A study of cost of broiler production will be made this year.
Also at the request of the members of the Florida Baby Chick Association, a hatchery record was mimeographed to facilitate study of costs of producing chicks and study factors affecting the production of baby chicks.

Annual Report, 1931

E. F. DEBUSK, Extension Citriculturist.
The year that has just closed has been one of history-making for the citrus industry of Florida. The crop of 1930-31 was the largest in the history of the industry, and was grown and marketed at a loss to the producers. The 1931-32 crop apparently is too large for consumer demand under existing conditions. Consequently growers have been forced to make drastic reductions in operating expenses in order to "make ends meet." The result is that many of the time-honored practices in citrus culture in the state are undergoing rapid changes, some of which" of course will be only temporary, while others will no doubt become permanent and far-reaching in the citrus industry and in certain allied industries. The movement of fruit by motor truck to markets of the South has virtually come into existence during the year and grown to the 'enormous volume of approximately 3,000,000 boxes, or 101ye of the commercial crop. This affects certain phases of production and presents new and intricate marketing problems. Consequently, under existing conditions, new and increasing demands have been made on Extension Service men throughout the citrus belt for special service to individual growers, small groups of growers and organizations, in adjusting their grove management practices to meet present conditions and demands. This accordingly has necessitated certain changes in our plan of work entered upon at the beginning of the year. But the keynote of our whole program of citrus culture has been economical production.
The most fruitful efforts in the control of. melanose during the last three years have been directed along lines of what might be termed indirect control. Growers understand very well the method of controlling melanose by spraying with bordeaux-Gil, and apply the treatment when funds will permit and conditions seem to justify the practice, but opportunities through indirect control-prevention of the production of dead wood-are often overlooked. Inadequate soil moisture, breaking the roots by deep cultivation, and improper fertilizing, are recognized as the chief underlying causes of dieing back of twigs and branches. In rare cases, twigs are killed by scale-insects, and in some cases they are killed by the improper use of oil in spraying for scale control.

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Thus it can be seen that this problem of practical melanose control runs through the whole program of citrus culture. The same may be said of withertip, dieback, ammoniation, frenching, and perhaps the tree trunk and root diseases. Practical control of these diseases, therefore, resolves itself largely into one big problem of proper soil management and cultural practices.
Twenty-two melanose control demonstrations by spraying with bordeaux-oil, were conducted in three counties (Hillsborough, St. Lucie and Manatee), covering 870 acres and affecting approximately 175,000 boxes of fruit. In addition, 575 consultations were held with county agents and specialist on the problem of melanose control in 13 counties, representing approximately 15,000 acres, and practical suggestions were given the growers on the proper procedure in combatting this disease. The results on the whole have been very satisfactory.

Twenty-six scab control demonstrations were conducted in five counties (Highlands, Pinellas, St. Lucie, Jackson, Bay) covering 780 acres and representing more than 100,000 boxes of fruit.
In many cases liquid lime-sulphur 1-25 was used in the dormant spray, instead of 3-3-50 bordeaux plus 1% oil, with good results.
Grower interest in scab control on grapefruit was below normal this year, no doubt due to the low price received for good fruit of the previous crop and to the development of the canning industry that promised to absorb the slightly scabby fruit at little or no discount.
The control of blue mold decay depends largely upon the manner in which the fruit is handled from the tree through the packinghouse. Approximately 70 percent of the fruit abrasions, caused by rough or improper handling, result in decay before the fruit is consumed. The proper use of picking equipment to obviate fruit injuries has been stressed in 11 meetings with growers and packers. The handling of approximately 2,000,000 boxes was. involved. Additional growers and packers were reached through press articles on the subject, appearing in 27 publications, and by two radio talks. The adoption and general use of the nipper type fruit clipper by the leading organizations that pick and pack fruit has resulted in almost complete elimination of long stems and clipper cuts, the two main picking blemishes.

Annual Report, 1931

Twenty-five demonstrations were reported by county agents in the control of foot rot, dieback, frenching, gummosis and psorosis. It should be noted here that with the trend toward less grove cultivation, dieback and ammoniation of fruit tend to become of less importance and disappear entirely in individual groves.

The usual rust mite control by the rust mite fungus, during the months of July to September, could not be depended upon in certain localities this year because of the very light ra infall. This made rust mite control more difficult for the average grower.
Thirty-two demonstrations in spraying and dusting for rust mite control were conducted in three counties (St. Lucie, Martin and Polk), covering 1,280 acres and affecting approximately 250,000 boxes of fruit. In addition, more than 900 consultations were held with county agents and specialist on rust mite control problems, representing approximately 36,000 acres., The results have been highly gratifying.

Natural control of scale-insects and whitefly is claiming more attention from year to year. Considerable time has been devoted to a study of individual grove conditions, with special reference to natural control of these pests, to determine the minimum am ount of spraying required for satisfactory control under given conditions. Groves are often sprayed when conditions do -not justify, the expense. One grower will spray religiously once or twice a year for scale control, while another in the same locality either never sprays for scale at all or sprays only every two or three years with apparently the same degree of success in scale control. The explanation is found in natural control by the scale fungi.
Several hundred growers have been induced to secure from the State Plant'Board cultures of the Red Aschersonia for whitefly control. This natural control of whitefly is a great saving to the growers of the state who take advantage of it. It is growing more popular every year, and will continue to constitute an -important part of our whitefly control program. The greatest need in our program of scale and whitefly control is the development of a practical method of growing and distributing the brown fun-

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gus parasite of the whitefly and the pink and red-headed fungi parasites of our most common scale-insects.
Fifty-five demonstrations in the control of scale and whitefly were conducted during the year in 7 counties (St. Lucie, Martin, Putnam, Pasco, Lake, Pinellas and Hillsborough), covering 1,650 acres. More than 900 consultations were held in which practical suggestions were given growers on both natural and artificial control of scale and whitefly.

Sixty-thiree demonstrations were conducted and approximately 700 office consultations held with growers in 20 counties on the control of aphids, red spider, cottony-cushion scale, mealybug, pumpkin bug, thrips and other minor insects. In the spring, there was a heavy outbreak of red spider across the central part of the citrus belt and considerable damage was done before it could be checked. In this emergency, county agents rendered valuable service to a large number of growers by. instructing them in. the kind of spray material to use and when and how to use it. Many thousands'of acres were thus served. Many growers were aided in securing the cryptolaemus ladybeetles in mealybug control.

The need of cover crops in citrus groves is universally reCognized. The grower's chief concern lies in determining the Icrop best adapted to his particular conditions, and finding out the methods of growing and handling the 'crop that will give best results. To meet these demands, 212 cover-crop demonstrations were con-' ducted in 17 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Orange, Pinellas, St. Lucie, Putnam, B3ay, and Jackson), including 6,708 acres. Perhaps the greatest service has been rendered through the 1,228 consultations with county agents on cover-crop problems affecting more than 50,000 acres.
It has been shown that by the proper use of the best adapted cover crop, the cost of producing fruit can be reduced 20 to 30 percent, and at the same time the quality of the fruit is improved.
Of the cover crops that are planted, Crotalaria is far in the lead and is rapidly increasing in popularity and acres. It is estimated that the acreage planted this year was about double that of 1930. Unf ortunately a poor stand was secured, on account of unusually dry weather, and the yield generally has not been satisfactory.

Annual Report, 1931

In many cases, however, where the young Crotalaria was killed by drought the demonstrations were turned into fertilizing the grasses (mainly natal) with cheap -nitrogen to increase the yield. Invariably the increase in yield has been highly satisfactory, and the practice of fertilizing the grass cover crop with nitrogen has been established.
Seventy-five percent of our citrus acreage shows a great need of more bulky organic matter than is being supplied. The minimum requirement of these soils is fixed by research at three tons (dry weight) per acre per annum. This is our goal. Under practices still too common', less than one ton per acre is produced. The first and main objective, therefore, is to increase the yield of organic matter.
Since the fertilizing cost represents approximately 50 percent of the total cost of producing citrus fruits, the demand for reducing production costs under existing conditions rests heavily upon this main item. Supported by research results, the cost of fertilizing is being materially reduced by the use of inorganic sources of plant food, and by reducing the amount of phosphoric acid and potash in common use. With this objective, 188 fertilizer demonstrations are being conducted in 16 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSotb, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lee, Lake, Manatee, Martin, Okeechobee, Orange, Osceola, Pinellas, St. Lucie, and Putnam), including 7,317 acres. - In addition to the demonstration -work, more than 1,300 consultations were held with growers on the subject of fertilizing citrus, representing more than 50,000 acres.
One of the main problems in profitable production of tangerines is to produce large, firm fruit, well colored. Tangerine trees are inclined to produce very heavy crops, with the result that a large percentage of the fruit is too small to be marketed at a profit. Thinning eliminates very largely the small, unprofitable sizes and results in more fruit of the larger sizes. Eight thinning demonstrations were conducted this year, affecting 480 acres, with very satisfactory results.
The results of a few mulching demonstrations of the past four years are stimulating wide interest. Any kind of vegetable matter is used.' It is applied either under and around individual trees or over the entire area, with strips left as a fire guard. Where

Florida Cooperative Extension

individual trees are mulched it is applied just heavy enough to keep vegetation smothered down, and added to from time to time to replace losses by decomposition. Fertilizer is applied on the mulch. The benefits of the mulch that have been noted are as follows: results in better growth and more vigorous trees, gives better quality of fruit, conserves soil moisture, and reduces fertilizer and cultivation costs.
Eighteen demonstrations were added this year in five counties (Polk, Highlands, Lake, Pinellas, and Putnam), including 2,642 acres, and 283 consultations were held with growers on the subject.

Grove cultivation has come up for considerable attention during the year. Aside from the useless expense of the operation, it has' been clearly demonstrated that too much grove cultivating is practiced under certain conditions for the best health of the trees and for quality fruit. This grove operation is often found to be a very aggravating factor in disease and insect control as well as in general soil management. Root pruning by deep cultivation throws the tree out of natural balance, thus weakening it and rendering it more susceptible to disease attack and insect injury. The result is weakened and dead wood, followed by an increase in diplodia, withertip, stem-end rot melanose and other diseases. Less cultivation and the growing of cover crops over a longer period result in more effective natural control of all insects, thus reducing the insect-control bill. Perhaps the greatest evil of excessive cultivation is in the utter waste of organic matter. In a six-year experiment on ridge soil, where an average of more than two tons of organic matter per acre per annum was supplied and the usual cultivation practiced, the organic content of the soil actually decreased about 19 percent.
Twenty-five demonstrations in proper cultivation were conducted this year, with very striking results, and more than a thousand consultations were held with extension workers in 24 counties on the subject of proper grove cultivation. These demonstrations and consultations are resulting in the saving of thousands of dollars to growers on their grove operations.
The rainfall was unusually heavy during the first three months of the year. This brought up numerous problems in drainage on thelow lands. The usual summer rainy season did not come, and

. Annual Report, 1931

the last quarter of the year has been the driest for many years. These conditions, coupled with the scarcity of money among growers, have made heavy demands upon the extension workers for service of a more or less temporary character-handling the immediate problems with the expenditure of as little money as possible. Approximately 200 consultations have been held on matters of drainage and irrigation in 21 counties. Drainage facilities, in many instances, have been greatly improved; the efficiency of a number of irrigation installations has been greatly increased and the operating cost materially reduced.

There has not been a.time during the last 20 years when citrus growers were more eager for facts and more willing to think for themselves and draw their own conclusions. They are thinking of each grove operation as having a direct and important bearing on the efficiency of the grove as a paying business enterprise. This frame of mind welcomes an opportunity to study in detail the cost of production in the individual grove and a careful analysis of the whole grove management set-up, with the view of making improvements and reducing the cost of production where practicable. More than 300 consultations with growers in 10 counties went into various phases of grove management, with the result that many improvements have been made and production costs reduced. A detailed report on grove records and production cost studies is found in the reports of the Extension Economists.

There i an increasing demand made upon extension workers for what is called special service. Requests come from growers for personal visits to their properties and consultations on various grove problems. This service consumes a large part of the county agent's time, and unquestionably constitutes a very important part of his year's work, perhaps the most 'important from the grower's standpoint. It is through these grove visits that last ' ing contacts are made between growers and the Extension Service. It is through these visits that the county agent's supply of firsthand information about current grove conditions is obtained, and that the needs and viewpoint of the grower along various lines are fully appreciated. During the year, 3,572 grove visits were made covering every citrus-producing county of the state and representing approximately 200,000 acres.

Florida Cooperative Extension

During the year, 198 meetings and schools of instruction were held in 24 counties with an attendance of 4,345. All phases of citrus culture were covered in, the discussions. Twenty-eight grove tours were held in 13 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, and Pinellas), attended by 652 growers. These tours were made to the various demonstrations and cooperative experiments in the respective counties and to the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred. They are the most effective means yet devised for teaching the lessons in the demonstrations and experiments. They are sure to increase in popularity and usefulness.
Extension workers took part in 284 additional meetings in 20 counties, with an attendance of more than 9,000. In these meetings various phases of extension work were discussed.

Exhibits on extension work, in connection with fairs, attract attention and seem to have a distinct educational value. During the year, 45 exhibits were 16 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinellas and St. Lucie), at various points, including the South Florida Fair, Tampa; the Central Florida Festival, Orlando; and the Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven. At the Orange Festival a space of 10x110 feet was occupied by exhibits on soil buildhjg and cover. crops varieties of fruit, rootstocks and propagation, disease and insect control, and the conservation and use of the fruits and fruit products in the home. The exhibit was staffed continuously through a period of four days by various county agen ' ts and extension specialists who explained to thousands of interested people the lessons in the exhibit and the different phases and functions of the Extension Service. It was estimated that around 50,000 people viewed this exhibit alone.

The press of the state has cooperated 100 percent in getting before the people articles, news items and announcements, pertaining to the Extension activities. Four hundred and ninety-three articles on various phases of citrus culture were prepared by the

Annual Report, 1931

specialist and county agents of 16 counties (Polk, Dade, DeSoto, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Marion, Martin, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pinell as, and St. Lucie) and published in local and state papers.
Fif ty-nine radio talks 'were delivered on various citrus subjects from stations in Clearwater, St. Petersburg,.Tampa, Orlando, Miami and Gainesville by the specialist and 10 county agents (Holland, Heard, Alsmeyer, Wright, Hiatt, Hayman, Wilson, Moore. Gunn and Gomme). This is a very effective means of reaching the citrus growers of the state.

That citrus growers read matter pertaining to citrus culture is attested by the fact that 6,047 bulletins on different phases of citrus culture were called for and distributed from the offices of 15 county agents .(Holland, Steffani, Heard, Logan, Alsmeyer, Wright, Hiatt, Hayman, Wilson, Heuck, Moore, Gunn, Mounts, Gomme and Warren) during the year. .More than 5,000 letters on citrus subjects went out to growers from the offices of these county agents during the same period.
The Extension citriculturist is joint author with Dr. Arthur S. Rhoads of Experimcnt Station Bulletin 229, "Diseases of Citrus in Florida." This bulletin has been in course of preparation for more than three years, but was completed early this year and published in June.

Florida Cooperative Extension

J. E. TURLINGTON, Agricultural Economist
F. W. BitumLEY, Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
W. R. BRIGGS, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, Agricultural Economist, Marketing
Organized Extension work in Agricultural Economics in Florida is now a little more than one year old. There are two fulltime specialists in Farm Management and one in Marketing. The Marketing man began work on February 1, 1931. One of the District Agents gives a part of his time to outlook and organization activities, and the Agricultural Economist is also on part-time.
It has been a busy year for the agricultural. economists and the demands for securing economic information within the counties have been greater than our ability to comply with requests. The collection of seasonal commodity price data as affected by quantity and grades has been very popular, and the marketing specialist has been able to secure valuable and important data on prices by farmers for hogs, cucumbers, and tangerines.
Farm and enterprise surveys have also met with much favor in a number of counties and present requests in this field of work would keep the entire personnel of the department busy for more than two years if superficial data on ' ly were taken, analyzed And returned to the farmers in. each of the counties requesting that the work be done.
A grove record book has been prepared and distributed to citrus growers.
. Another record book suitable for commercial producers has been prepared jointly by the Poultry Specialist and Farm Management Specialist, and these are being used to good advantage by poultrymen.
Campus Extension activities by the Agricultural Economist have consisted of outlining and/or approving work to be carried out by the other Extension Economists; answering correspondence; radio talks; interviews with farmers and county agents; participation in County Agents' Week and Farmers' Week. He has been directly responsible for "The Florida Agricultural Extension Economist," a small paper mailed on the 15th of each month to railroad agents, bankers, cooperative associations, farm papers, county and home demonstration agents, Smith-Hughes teachers, Extension workers, and a group of selected farmers over the state. This publication has a monthly circulation of about 1,000 copies.
The whole-hearted cooperation of the Experiment Station and

Annual Report, 1931

Teaching staffs in Agricultural Economics in the preparing of the "Economist" and other economic activities has been extended.
Farming in Florida is generally specialized and the farmers are confronted with a number of production and management problems for each enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary that all Agricultural Economics work be closely allied with that of the subject matter departments. For this reason, the efforts of the Farm Management Specialist in 1931 have been largely cooperative with .those of the subject matter specialists in an effort to find the most profitable methods of crop and livestock production. Enterprise accounts for citrus, poultry, and dairy have been kept as means of aiding producers of these products.
During 1931 three groups of enterprise accounts were carried on, namely: citrus, poultry and dairy. A small number of farm. cash account books were distributed in one county.
Citrus Accounts:-During October, 1930, 25 to 40 citrus accounts were started in each of the following counties: Polk, Orange, Lake, Highlands, and Manatee. The objects of these accounts "were (1) to stimulate interest in record keeping and to determine the cost of producing fruit, and (2) to determine the most profitable methods of fertilizing, spraying, and producing quality fruit.
At present, sufficient cost records for 1931 have been completed in only two counties to prepare county summaries. A summary. of the 1931 expenses and receipts for Lake and Orange county groves is shown in Table V.
Number of groves . 82
Acres per grove . -- . 16.0
Average age . * . : "' ". *::: *::: . 17.0 Yield per acre (boxes) . . i85.8
Expenses per acre:
Labor and equipment . $ 24.32 Fertilizer . 39.50 Spray and dust materials . 3.10 Taxes . 11.17 M iscellaneous . 3.41
Average total expenses (except interest) . $ 80.27 Value of fruit per acre . 144.47 Value of fruit per acre over expenses (except interest). 64.20 Value of grove per acre . 969.00 Average percent return on investment . 6.1

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These expenses and receipts are for the same year, namely, 1931. A great many of the expenses for 1931 probably have more influence on the 1932 and following crops than for the crop harvested during that year. Therefore, the results of different cultural, fertilization, and disease control methods cannot be compared to best advantage until the 1932 and later crops are harvested. At present the greatest use of the records has been to return each citrus grower's record compared with the average for other growers in his county. From this comparison, he could tell where his grove expenses, receipts, or yields were high or low compared with other growers' records.
Further study of 65 of these records was made in regard to methods of fertilization used in 1929-30 to produce the crop harvested in 1930-31, during this year's record. This information was obtained from the growers at the beginning of the year when the 1930-31 record was started.
The indications from these, 65 records were that after due allowance was made for age of trees, potash seemed to be the most important of all the fertilizing elements. This was followed by ammonia. Addition of phosphoric acid beyond a minimum amount did not seem to increase the yield for the year in question.
Fifteen of the 65 groves were fertilized with high analysis goods or materials. On these groves, the cost per acre and cost per box of fruit was lower than for the other groves. The data indicated that this may have been due in part to better buying, lower costs of materials and the use of less phosphoric acid.
Poultry Accounts:-A simple record book was prepared by the Extension Poultry Specialist in 1925 and has been used for six years in the Home Egg-Laying Contest. All poultrymen wanting to keep records do not care to enter the Home Egg-Laying Contest. For their use a poultry account book was prepared by the Farm Management Specialist in October, 1930, and distributed for use during 1930-31. Records for flocks in the Home Egg-Laying Contest and those kept in poultry account books are now being summarized for the 1930-31 poultry management study. For 1931-32 the record books of the poultry and farm management specialists have been combined and perforated blanks supplied for mailing in the data for the Home Egg-Laying Contest.
Twelve of the records for commercial flocks sent in for the Home Egg-Laying Contest in 1929-30 were complete enough to work out the cost of producing eggs. On 17 farms the records were complete enough to work out such factors as eggs per bird,

Annual Report, 1931 75

percent mortality, feed costs, prices received for products, percent culled, etc.
Table VI shows the average cost and returns of producing eggs on the 12 farms having complete records. The average size of flock was 652 birds, producing an average of 167 eggs per bird. The average cost of $4.38 includes both cash and non-cash items, such as interest, depreciation on land, buildings and birds. It also includes the labor of the operator and his family at 30c per hour. The cost for man labor of $.82 was $.05 more than the returns above other costs, thereby causing a loss of this amount.
Cost Items Average Cost for 12 Farms
Per Bird Per Dozen Eggs
Food . $2.23 $0.159
Man labor . .82 .058
Horse labor . .02 .001
Truck and auto . .06 .004
Land and fences . .08 .007
Buildings . 16 .011
Equipment . :04 .003
": . .08
Interest on Birds . :: . .006
Depreciation on Birds . .83 .059
Miscellaneous . .06 .005
Total Costs . 4.38 $0.313
Credit Items
Eggs sold . $4.26 $0.304
Eggs eaten . .05 .004
Other credits . .02 .002
Total Credits . $4.33 $0.310
Profits . $0.05 $0.003

From the limited number of 12 records, it is possible to show
two factors that affected the cost of production. They were (1) eggs per bird and (2) number of layers.

Costs Per Dozen
Average 5 Flocks Under Average 7 Flocks Over Cost Items 150 Eggs per Bird 150 Eggs per Bird
Feed . $0.182 $0.152
Man labor . .073 .053
Horse labor . .002 .000
Auto and truck . .008 .003
Land and fences . .005 .006
Buildings . .013 .011
Equipment . .002 .003
Depreciation . 073 .055
Interest . .005
Miscellaneous . .005 .005
Total Costs . $0.370 $0.293

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CostIt I ms Average 7 Flocks
Under 506 Layers
Feed * bo* $0.169
M an la r . I . .069 Horse labor . .002 Auto and truck . . .008 Land and Fences . .008 Buildings . .009 Equipment . .003 Depreciation . .050 Interest . .006 Miscellaneous . .003
Total Costs . $0.327

Per Dozen
Average 5 Flocks Over 500 Layers
.052 .001
.002 .005 .013 .003
.064 .006 .005

Other comparisons were made between farms having different winter egg production, percent culled, percent ' mortality, and pounds.of feed per bird. They are shown in detail in the report of the Extension Poultry Specialist.
Dairy Accounts:-The dairy industry over the country is going through a severe crisis. Prices of fluid milk around Florida cities have been fairly satisfactory to producers but with the present surplus, lower prices are very likely to occur. During a period of adjustment, it is necessary to study the most profitable methods of feeding, rates of producing, culling and replacement of cows, and labor efficiency in order to produce milk as economically as possible. Dairy enterprise records were started in Duval and Marion counties in February, 1931. Up to date, sufficient results have not been tabulated and completed to make any comparisons.
General Farming Accounts:-In January, 1931, approximately 25 of the general farm cash account books prepared by the Experiment Station were distributed in Washington County. During the year, cash account books and books for farm enterprises have been distributed as called for throughout the state. With present force, it will probably be impossible to summarize any of these account books.
Special Enterprise Surveys:-There are ways other than accounting for securing information regarding the successful operation of farms and economical methods of producing crop and livestock products. The survey method offers a very satisfactory method of securing such facts at a low cost. During the year 1931, two such surveys were made, namely:
1. Comparative cost of harvesting potatoes by hand and by
- machine diggers in the Hastings Area.

. Annual Report, 1931

2. Relative yields and cost of producing corn under various
methods used in West Florida.
The common method of digging potatoes in the Hastings area up to the present has been by hand with rakes. Many growers have used machine diggers in the area, trying to overcome the labor problem and the injury resulting to the new potatoes from the rakes, but because of the large initial cost, heavy repairs, poor adaptability of the old-type digger to the area, dislike of the laborers towards the digger, and large amount of rainy weather during harvesting season, the number of diggers in the area has increased very slowly.
In the spring of 1931 after the digging season, a number of growers were visited and the attitudes of a large percentage were found to be more favorable towards diggers. The field men who inspect potatoes at harvest time for four shipping organizations estimated that 47 out of their 196 growers harvested their potatoes with diggers. This indicates about three times as many growers in the area using diggers as in 1925, when a labor study was made in the same area.
Because of this apparent change in attitude and method of harvesting in the area, two weeks were spent in visiting potato growers and records were secured for 81 farms in the Hastings Area. Fifteen of these farms, averaging 39 acres in potatoes, contracted most of their harvesting operations and it was impossible to study the costs by operations. A summary of harvesting costs are shown in Table IX.
The farms using diggers had a cost of $ .273 per barrel compared to $ .326 for those not using diggers. The saving of $ .053 was not all in the digging and picking up operation. The farms using diggers were 11 acres larger than those using rakes and saved 2c of the 5c on operations other than digging and picking up. For this year with a yield of almost 60 barrels, the digging and picking up operation was done 3c per barrel cheaper by machine than with rakes. If the costs per acre to dig an acre of potatoes with a digger were the same, regardless of yield, a yield of 40 barrels per acre could be dug with a digger and picked up as cheaply as they could be dug with rakes at the rates for the 1931 season. Below 40 barrels the cost would be higher and above 40 it would be less, under the prevailing rates and costs for this season.

Average acres per farm . 71 61 65 . 39 60,
Average yield per acre
(bbls.) . 63 57 59 . 60 60

The average acreage dug by a digger was 89 acres. The smallest
number of acres dug by one machine was 12 and the highest 200.
The chief method used in lowering the cost per acre for a digger was to use each digger on a large number of acres. With yield remaining the same, the cost per barrel increased as the number of acres per digger decreased. It cost an average of 6.6c per barrel to dig where diggers were used on less than 75 acres and only
3.2c. where they were used on over 100 acres.
Farmers in Florida potato areas are having to study methods
of producing and harvesting potatoes at lowest possible costs.
After two unprofitable years, the prospects for next year seem little better. There is a greater opportunity to lower costs prior to harvest than at harvest time, since about two-thirds to threefourth; of the total cost per barrel comes prior to harvest in the form of fertilizer, seed, labor, and general farm expenses. At harvest time, saving in cost of barrels and labor is also possible.
The two most important factors affecting the labor saving as a
whole were size of farm and yield per acre. For farms of like size* and having the same yield per acre, the most important factor was securing the greatest output per day from crews used for each operation. A more detailed report is being prepared for distribution before potato harvest season in 1932.

During the year, meetings were held to discuss the results of
four different studies already made by the Agricultural Economics Departments of the Agricultural College, Experiment Station or
Extension Service. The four studies that were covered were:

Florida Cooperative Extension

Cost per Barrel Dug Percent Cost on Cost

of 15 Farms Total Contracting Cost Digging $ 1.0 $ .
51.7 .
12.6 .
18.2 .
13.9 .
$100.00 $ .381

Farms $ .

$ .311

26 Farms 40 Farms Operation Using Mch. Using
Diggers Rakes
Barring off . $ .001 $ .007 Digging and picking up. .138 .169 Checking . .007 .009 Hauling to grader . .035 .040 Grading and coopering. .053 .056
,Hauling to market . .039 .045
Total Cost . $ .273 $ .326

Average for 66 Farms $ .003
.156 .008 .038 .053
$ .300

Annual Report, 1931

1. Poultry farm management in commercial areas of Florida.
2. Summary of dairy farms in six producing areas of Florida.
3. Citrus accounts in five counties in Florida.
4. Survey of general farming in Jackson County.

In addition to the "Economist" and radio talks used to disseminate agricultural economics information, a great deal of material has been mimeographed. An effort has been made to have some of the charts presented at each meeting, mimeographed for the farmers to take home and study over afterwards.

The following projects have received the attention of the Marketing Economist since his appointment on February 1, 1931:
1. Seasonal trend of cucumber prices by grad6--Sumter and
Levy counties.
2. Hog prices by grade and seasons-Alachua, Calhoun, Duval,
Escambia, Gadsden, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Marion, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Suwannee, Taylor, Walton, and Washington counties,. and Moultrie,
3. New York auction prices of tangerines for the seasons 192728 through 1930-31. Data for this study were obtained f rom
the files of the Florida Citrus Exchange at Tampa.
4. Potato ma keting and, containers-Alachua, Escambia and
St. Johns counties.
5. Truck transportation in handling farm products and laws
affecting motor truck transportation-Dade, Duval, Hills,borough, Leon, Orange, Palm Beach, and Polk counties.
6. Advisory work with cooperative marketing organizationsDeSoto, Duval, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Orange, Osceola, Seminole, and Taylor counties.
7. Conferences and meetings on agricultural credit-Alachua,
Escambia, Manatee, and Okaloosa counties, and Andalusia,
Information was secured from two of the most important cucumber areas of the state, Levy and Sumter counties. This study showed that as the season progressed, the price of cucumbers de-

lined quite rapidly and that as competing areas-came into production, Florida producers received lower and lower prices until receipts were not enough to pay freight charges. The seasonal distribution of Florida's own production is also an important factor in determining the prices received, as is shown in Table X.

Greenhouse Other
Week Ending Fla. Cucumbers Texas Ala. La. Ga. S. C. States Imports Mar. 22 . 3 4 . . . . . 3
Mar. 29 . 6 2 . . . . . 2
Apr. 5 . : 25 5 . . . . .
Apr. 12 . 72 8
Apr. 19 . 50 11 . . . . .
Apr. 26 . 40 13 10
May 3 . 31 20 183
May 10 . 58 26 271 2 2
May 17 . 242 22 242 71 3
May 24 . 203 16 80 201 . 1 4 4
May 31 . 63 23 19 338 14 37 142 11
May 14 . 8 11 13 46 21 25 327 97
June 7 . 32 17 31 191 33 56 441 34
Totals . 833 178 849 849 73 119 914 147 5

The above table refers only to car-lot shipments from other states during Florida's shipping season. Taken from the weekly summary of car-lot shipments, bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Farm prices were obtained from 19 marketing organizations, 15 of which were cooperative. Only three of these organizations have prices for four seasons, 12 had prices for two or more seasons, while seven had.records for only one season. Prices were also obtained from Swift & Company at Moultrie and National Stock Yards at Jacksonville. There seems to be a close relationship between the price that Florida producers received for their hogs and the price paid by packers. The spread between farm prices and packer prices seems to get narrower until about Christmas time. The apparent narrower spread before Cbristmas is partly due to the falling trend of prices during this season. Local dealers sometimes have to hold hogs four or five days before getting . enough to ship. As the season progresses, more hogs are marketed. This makes it possible to assemble a shipping unit more quickly, thereby lessening the time required to get these hogs from farm to packer,

Florida Cooperative Extension

Annual Report, 1931

The spread between farm prices and packer prices does not seem to be as wide now as it was a f ew years ago. Better quality hogs and more accessible market information are important factors in narrowing this differential.
The prices paid by Southern packers follow the same general trend as those paid by packers in the corn belt. During the summer months, Southern packers pay relatively more for their hogs than do the Chicago packers. During this season, very few hogs are marketed in the Southeast. Consequently, Southern packers must bid on the same hogs as Chicago packers and pay freight over longer distances.

The study covered the three crop seasons beginning in 1928-29 and ending in 1930-31. We found considerable variation in prices of different sizes within the season as well as between years. The spread between the prices of large and small tangerines was greater during the seasons 1928-29 and 1930-31 than that for the season 1929-30. The total citrus crop was smaller for 1929-30 than for either of the other years studied. I The average spread between 120's and 250's for the season 1928-29 was 57c per half strap in favor of the 120's. The greatest difference in prices between these sizes occurred in November and December, when an average of $1.25 more per half strap was paid for the 120's. This differential became narrower until about the middle of March and after that time, the 250's brought a higher average price than the 120's.
The three-year average showed that 144's brought the highest price of all sizes, the 250's brought the lowest, the difference being 47c. The three-year average price of 120's was 34c higher than that of 250's. The three-year study shows that when Florida has a large crop the price declines as the season progresses, but the larger sizes fall faster than the smaller ones. When the Florida crop is small there is a tendency for the price to rise, the medium sizes rising fastest.
Our conclusion with reference to thinning is that it will probably pay when the individual farmer has a heavy crop the same season that the total crop for the state is large. During seasons when the state crop is small, thinning does not seem to offer the same economic advantage.
Prices for all three years indicate that large tangerines bring

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better prices when marketed early. This might mean that more spot picking than is being practiced now is advisable.

Six of the more important potato dealers of the state were interviewed to obtain their opinions and experiences with different kinds of potato containers. A number of farmers also were interviewed to get the farmer's viewpoint.
The double-head barrel is the principal type of container used in the Hastings-LaCrosse-Bunnell section. The bushel crate is quite popular in South Florida, while in West Florida the 100pound sack is used almost exclusively. Most of the experimenting with different types of containers has been done in the Hastings-LaCrosse-Bunnell section. With but few exceptions, the dealers of this section agree that the double-head barrel is best for them. However, some sacks have been used. West Florida thinks that the barrel would be out of the question for them, while some sections of South Florida lean toward the use of barrels.
Some points in favor of the barrel are:
1. Trade preference (which may be founded on some f undamental basis).
2. Trade is accustomed to think of Hastings potatoes as those in double-head barrels.
3. Eastern markets prefer barrels.
4. Barrels protect potatoes better.
5. Easier to sell.
Some points against the use of the barrel are:
1. Initial cost comparatively high.
2. Large storage capacity necessary.
3. Additional coopering necessary.
4. Losses from barrels coming apart before being used.
5. Expensive overhead if they have to be carried over.
6. Barrel adds materially to the weight of a car of 600 bushels of potatoes.
Some points favoring sacks:
1. Initial cost low.
2. Very little storage room required.
Some points against sacks:
1. Potatoes show discoloration.
2. Percentage of rejections greater.
3. Have to sell price arrival in order to dispose of sacks.

Annual Report, 1931

4. Shows up rot easier.
5. Potatoes do not carry well in sacks.
6. Harder to sell.

The motor truck is becoming an important method of transportation for Florida's farm products. Not only does the farmer use the motor truck for farm use, but also to deliver his produce to wholesalers, retailers, and consumers in cities many miles from his farm.
An attempt was made to ascertain approximately the relative importance to the farmer of the motor truck as a means of getting farm produce to market. A number of farmers, cooperatives, dealers, and motor truckmen have been visited, and figures and estimates on volume of produce handled by truck have been s'ecured.
Estimates indicate that between two and three million boxes of citrus were sold to truckers during the 1930-31 citrus season. Polk County dealers estimate that between 6 and 10 percent of their citrus was sold to truckers. Estimates in Hillsborough County indicate that, excluding strawberries, 50 percent of all farm produce was hauled to market by motor truck. The opinions of several wholesale grocers of Jacksonville is that 60,percent of the fruits and vegetables that came into Jacksonville from Florida farms was brought in by truck. They estimated that between 85 and 95 percent of the vegetables brought in from a radius of 200 miles came by truck.
An attempt was also made to find out how much livestock and livestock products were hauled to market by motor truck. In only a few instances did we find specific examples where live hogs and cattle were carried more than 150 miles by truck-the majority being transported less than 100 miles.'
Poultry and eggs seem to be moving greater distances by truck than cattle and hogs,

It has been the policy of the Agricultural Economist in Marketing to place more emphasis on improvement of existing marketing organizations than on encouraging the formation of new organizations. Improvement work has consisted mostly of discussing

84 Florida Cooperative Extension

with managers of marketing organizations ' some of the important factors of success of the successful organizations.
Work done with prospective organizations consists of making preliminary study of the efficiency of present organizations and probable success of prospective organizations.

Other miscellaneous work included conferences, radio talks and articles for publication. Seven talks were made over the radio and light articles were written for publication.
Agricultural marketing work has been done in 38 counties of Florida, and in Moultrie, Georgia, and Andalusia, Alabama.

Annual Report, 1931

CARLYLE CARR, Specialist in Rodent Control
On July 1, 1931,.the Agricultural Extension Service and the U. S. Biological Survey entered into a cooperative arrangement for rodent control work in the State of Florida. This report covers from that time until the end of. the year. This is a new phase of Extension work as far as outlined projects are concerned. The work being entirely new, it is necessary to limit activities to one or two special problems until it can be determined to what extent the work could be adapted to the larger part of the state.
In undertaking this work, the cooperation of the State Game Commission of Florida was secured so that there might be uniformity of action in any problem that seemed important enough to undertake. As the work has progressed, cooperation has been received from civic organizations, from agricultural teachers in high schools, boards of county commissioners, and others vitally interested in the undertaking.
To date, only one important undertaking has occupied most of the entire time of the Specialist and this is of sufficient importance to warrant all the effort that has been made. This has been in one important agricultural area located in Dade County near Homestead and known as the East Glade. Farming is largely devoted to vegetable growing and is conducted over scattered tracts of 40 or 80 acres, surrounded by wild lands overgrown with a dense growth of vegetation, which affords an ideal hiding and breeding place for destructive rodent pests. This East Glade region, covering an area approximately seven miles long and four miles wide, is largely used for the growing of winter tomatoes, and at one time 12,000 acres were planted to this crop. For many years farmers in this region have complained of damage from rats and have asked for help from state and federal agencies. In 1924 the U. S. Biological Survey, in cooperation with the State Extension Service, inspected the 12,000 acres of tomatoes and estimated that cotton rats injured the crop to the extent of $44,000 that year. An average of 10 percent of all crops of the area was destroyed by rats. No complaint was heard the year following the 1928 hurricane, as most of the pests were destroyed in this storm. In 1930, however, these rats had multiplied to large numbers again. They overran 6,000 acres of tomatoes and 6,000 acres of truck crops, leaving a heavy damage.
Realizing that this great loss meant the difference of profit or

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loss to the farming industry in this region, the Agricultural Extension Service and the Biological Survey, cooperating with the State Game Commission, tested out poisoned bait combinations during the past summer to determine an effective, economical, poisoned bait adaptable for campaign purposes which would not jeopardize beneficial wild animal life of the area. The sliced, raw, sweet potato was found by'these tests to be craved by rats but ignored by beneficial animals. This bait was prepared as follows:
Twelve quarts (approximately 12 pounds) of washed, unpeeled, raw sweet potatoes were sliced 3/32 to 1/8 inch in thickness and from 1/2,to I inch in diameter. One ounce of strychnine alkaloid and one ounce of soda were mixed together and sifted over the sliced sweet potatoes, and the poisoned bait was mixed with them until the strychnine-soda mixture evenly coated the bait. They were then immediately distributed for the rats.
The poisoned sweet potatoes proved to be such a fine poisoned bait that one could use them even in a sweet potato patch and obtain an apparently perfect kill of rats. The cotton rat, a rather dumb animal as compared to its cousin, the Norway rat, and the roof rat do not resent the taste of strychnine and readily consume a lethal dose. It likewise appears to be decidedly susceptible to strychnine poisoning, usually expiring quickly close to the place it consumes the poisoned bait.
Upon completion of these tests, arrangements were made by the cooperating institutions to assist the farmers in bringing the cotton rats in the area under control by poisoning all heavily infested areas at the same time. As these animals are migratory, it was planned to scatter poisoned baits on both -sides of the highways and ditches, and over or about the cultivated lands, immediately following the equinoxial storms when it was thought the high waters would drive the rats to the high ground. It was decided that the latter half of October was best suited for the campaign.
The work in South Dade was largely handled by C. H. Steff ani, county agent, (South) Dade County, located at Homestead. Mr. Steffani secured the interest of the farmers and then presented the matter to the Board of County Commissioners, inasmuch as there would be some expense involved in the purchase of supplies. The Dade County Board responded with an agreement to pay for

Annual Report, 1931

$200 worth of supplies. The supplies were 400 ounces of strychnine alkaloid at .44 per ounce. Other expenses involved were for tools, mixing box, knives, etc. To help out, the farmers donated 3,000 pounds of cull sweet potatoes to be used as bait and agreed to distribute this over their respective farms. This, together with the cooperation of the county board, farmers and other local people, made it possible to go ahead with the plans and put on a campaign for the destruction of the rats in the area.
Before any plans were made an inspection of the territory was needed and this inspection was made by the Deputy and Assistant Game Commissioner, the County Agent, and the project leader. The inspection showed that Marsh hens, raccoons, and a number of miscellaneous birds of no importance, were observed in the territory to be worked over.
The campaign was organized in the territory, sweet potatoes were sliced in a box for the purpose. The farmers donated labor and the Smith-Hughes teachers cooperated with the County Agent so that the campaign could be carried out without unnecessary delay or expense. Consideration was given to the bait used with some modification that was needed. This was worked over until a satisfactory bait was agreed upon.
It was first decided that the bait should be distributed by hand. However, this proved tedious and consumed too much time. Later it was found that the bait could be distributed from a truck. It seemed unnecessary to take any particular precaution to place the baits in the runways of rats and it was found that the rats came in contact with it from either the bottom or the top of the rows. In either case the rats readily ate it, although it was preferable to place it where the rats could get at it without being disturbed.
Seven actual working days were necessary to cover completely the East Glade. Three thousand pounds of bait, or 450,000 separate baits, were distributed. It required 109.5 man days to complete the work. One truck and one auto each were used for seven days.
400 ounces of strychnine and supplies . $200.00 3,000 pounds sweet potatoes at 2%c per pound . 75.00 109.5 man days at $2.00 per day . 219.00 1 truck for seven days at $5.00 per day . 35.00 1 auto for 7 days at $5.00 per day . 35.00 Total cost to county, farmers and cooperators . $564.00

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It was difficult even to approximate the number of rats destroyed. However, there was every evidence that large numbers had been killed by the poison, for in the course of two days buzzards made their appearance there to feed on the dead rats. . Observations were made to see if the buzzards * were destroyed by the poison, but in no case did it appear to be effective. A close inspection and check was made over the territory by the deputy Game Commissioner and Rodent Control Specialist to see if valuable animal life had been poisoned. While there was evidence that large numbers of rats had been killed, no animals of importance had been destroyed;
The cost of this poison was approximately 27c per acre and 9 pounds of bait was used. Results seemed to indicate that by scattering the bait every 10 feet in every other. row, a satisfactory kill would have been obtained at even a little lower cost.
It was apparent that to make the rat campaign successful it must be followed up by additional campaigns, so a second campaign was put on from October 15-30. Also it was apparent that it would require systematic poisoning at regular intervals to bring these destructive pests under control in this area. The cotton rat is migratory in its habits and when food becomes scarce, travels from place to place in search of additional food, so it must be expected that the rats would come in from wild territory and again infest the crops. It was evident that there must be.systematic poisoning at regular intervals and that about 30 days might elapse between the campaigns to be most successful.
This work is being studied and will be followed up as conditions demand. It is expected that as conditions vary the methods for poisoning rats also must be modified. Exceeding care must be taken to see that valuable wild life will not be destroyed. It is the purpose of the Extension Service and the Biological Survey to cooperate with the State Game Commission and carry out this work in a larger way without any destruction of valuable wild life. It is recognized, too, that any methods adapted must be carried out at a minimum cost and that there must be concerted action in any campaign, if the undertaking is to succeed.

Annual Report, 1931


FLAVIA GLEASON, State Home Demonstration Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Home Demonstration Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Home Demonstration Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Home Demonstration Agent
The plan of organization for the development of home demonstration work in Florida has been the same in 1931 as in previous years. The work has been conducted in 35 counties by 32 home demonstration agents. Eighteen county councils for women's work and 23 for girls' work with 1,387 local leaders have been of invaluable assistance to the agents in promotion of home demonstration work during 1931.
The work has been cooperatively conducted by the agents and local people in 548 communities with a membership of 6,959 women in organized home demonstration clubs and 8,968 girls in organized 4-H clubs. These clubs have met monthly and'in some instances bi-monthly with the home demonstration agents for subject matter assistance worked out by the agent, local people and the state home demonstration staff, according to outstanding needs.
The year closes with 29 county home demonstration agents at work in 29 counties, showing a loss of three agents. One of these was from Hernando, a county providing full-time work; Pasco, Highlands and Charlotte, because of financial conditions, discontinued the appropriations which provided for part-time work in each county. Because of unsatisfactory financial arrangements the State Office withdrew the work from St. Lucie and Indian River counties.
Arrangements have been made for the establishment of home demonstration work in Taylor County beginning January 1.
Staff members have centered their attention almost entirely on the work in counties where home demonstration work was already organized, doing very little to secure additional counties in view of the present financial situation. However, there is a statewide appreciation for the home demonstration program and work of the agents. In two instances recently where some type of work was wanted that would render the greatest assistance to the people

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of the counties for money to be expended, home demonstration work was that decided upon by the local people themselves.
Home demonstration work among Negroes has been conducted in seven counties throughout the year. Financial arrangements have been made to establish the work in an additional county beginning January 1. The Negro District Agent's report carries information in detail concerning the work as conducted among Negroes in Florida.
The State Home Demonstration Staff had for their main objectives during 1931 the. development of home demonstration programs that would meet the greatest needs of those taking advantage of this service, giving special attention to (1) the economic situation in relation to the farm home, (2) assistance home demonstration agents needed, (3) development of rural leadership, (4j the securing of more usable records and reports for information on home demonstration accomplishments.
Home demonstration programs in the various counties were developed, in so far as was possible, according to the needs and desires of the people to be served. Although programs have varied in the many counties, a "live-at-home" program was needed generally and has been followed. It has dealt largely with home gardening, poultry flock, home dairying, and food conservation for good nutrition of the family and to increase the family income. In addition to food and f eed production, programs were developed to bring about more abundant living.
The needs for this type of program, as seen by members of state staff, were stressed at agents' annual conference. Agents, special-, ists and district agents discussed together varying conditions in the various counties with information already secured from local people, usually through county councils, as to assistance desired during ensuing year.
With obtainable facts at hand the agent and council members formulate their county programs which are then submitted for suggestions and approval by district and state workers.
Home Demonstration Agents' programs of work for the year and plans for development have been checked carefully by State and District Agents working together with the idea in view of offering any assistance possible for strengthening the develop-

Annual. Report, 1931

ment of the work in the various counties. At the close of the year results were checked and comparisons made as to goals set and results obtained. Results in almost all instances exceeded goals set. However, it is felt that the analysis reveals the clear understanding which the agents have of their respective counties.
Reports reveal that there have been greater accomplishments in such activities as home canning, home gardening, the home p poultry flock, home dairying and beekeeping than during any other year since the war. The development of home industries and marketing of home products far surpassed goals set at the beginning of the year.
That the programs developed this year must have met a need may be judged by the high attendance at meetings of adults, the percentage of completions of 4-H club members, and the increasingly large number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work. Women who have been members of home demonstration clubs for years and years are very active in their clubs and the establishment of demonstrations in their homes.
That the rural women themselves are more and more looking to the Home Demonstration Agent for assistance is shown by the larger number participating in home demonstration activities under direction of the agent each year. This year there was an increase of seven clubs and 690 members in work with the women. There was a decrease of 18 clubs and 319 members in work with girls. The feeling is that the decrease was due for the most part to consolidation of schools and perhaps to the elimination of inactive members. In this connection it is interesting to find 78% of the 4-H club girls completed their year's work, the highest which we have had. Last year the percentage of completions was 6917o. There is a gratifying increase in the number of older girls remaining in 4-H club work. This year there were 643 in 4th year, 344 in 5th and 246 in the 6th year of 4-H club work. . There is increasing evidence of responsibility being assumed by club girls in assisting the agents in making preparations for meetings, demonstrations, achievement days, and exhibits; assisting the younger club members with various activities and with community recreation.
Subject Matter Assistance:-1h an effort to provide inspiration and additional subject matter assistance on practical phases of our work that would encourage conduct of demonstrations which

Florida Cooperative. Extension

make possible improvement in standards of living in rural homes, the state staff secured the assistance of various members of the School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, to meet with agents and various groups of women and girls for special work in nutrition, school lunch, weaving, clothing and textiles. Special assistance was secured from the Bureau of Child Hygiene and State Board of Health in development of demonstrations in health practices and child care and training. Assistance has been secured from the University of Florida in development of various phases of the work.
Material for use by the agents in development of project activities was revised and brought up to date during the year.
District meetings of the Home Demonstration Agents for particular assistance in food conservation, nutrition and home improvement were held during the month of April.
Commercial demonstrators have been used occasionally if their subject matter demonstrations, in our judgment, supplemented to advantage those already under way in the various counties.
More contests with awards in various phases of the work were inaugurated by way of additional encouragement to those who work so faithfully under the agents' leadership in putting into practice methods recommended.
Maintenance and Training of Personnel:-Home demonstration work has been established for many years in all counties where it is being financially supported and has come to be considered as a recognized institution in the county affairs. The losses of appropriations that occurred were in counties that were not on the same level of development. None of them had sufficient funds to support well trained, full-time workers.
There has been no change of agents in any county during the year except that the agent in Lee County received appointment as Extension Nutritionist and a new agent with master's degree from the School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, was appointed to succeed her.
All home demonstration workers have shown their eagerness for all of the helpful subject matter assistance that they can secure. Although it was generally felt that this was not a year for extension workers to be off of th& job even for study, seven agents pursued studies for credit through classes of the General Extension Division of the University of Florida. One of the district agents and two county workers continued their studies for master's degrees in connection with their regular work.

Annual Report, 1931

The annual conference for Extension workers was held early in October.
State home demonstration staff conferences were held monthly in the office of the State Home Demonstration Agent. These were for the purpose of making plans, discussing methods, studying needs and progress in development of home demonstration activities.
Use of Time:-All agents report increased requests for their services. To meet the extra demands, in so far as it is possible, they have given serious thought to planning their time. Effective field work must be preceded by well ordered planning accomplished in office hours. To be equipped for field work, Monday has been set aside for necessary planning of the week's work. This is not a day offered to the public but is spent in the private office. Demonstrations are arranged ,, materials collected, news items written, and similar duties performed which will contribute to the smooth execution of the great volume of work that the week may bring forth. Saturday is set aside for office day open to callers who are encouraged to come for conferences of a professional nature.
The monthly itineraries of the agents have been planned with special care to save both time and travel expense. The agents have 'regular schedules for meeting all clubs and plan definitely for any special events they need to sponsor. Copies of the itineraries are attached to the annual program of work of the counties submitted in January for approval by the state and district agents.
The apportionment of the agents' time is approximately onethird to work with women, one-third to girls' work, and one-third to special events and miscellaneous demands connected with work for both girls and women and with general county activities.
That the agents realize the importance of farm home visits in order to understand conditions and thus render the most worthwhile service is shown by the fact that they made 16,217 such visits. This is an increase of 4,190 over the number made by them in 1930. Reports show 93 less method demonstration meetings held this year but an increase in attendance at these meetings by 15,220.

County boards provide the agents with good offices, usually in the county courthouse. They are well lighted, well heated and for the most part well equipped with the necessities for good office

Florida -Cooperative Extension

management. There are 18 demonstration kitchens provided for the use of the respective agents and their club members. Another is in the process of completion. With but one exception they are at the agent's headquarters.
During each year we find an increase ing number of club houses or rooms equipped for the permanentuse of the clubs. There were 68 additional ones established this year.
Closely related to good office organization ' n and management is the securing of usable records and reports. Records from 4-11 club girls are obtained from the record books kept by each girl on each phase of work she undertakes. In addition to a larger number of girls submitting records for the year's work there is noticeably marked improvement in the records themselves.
There is developing among the women a real pride in their home demonstration accomplishments with far more records being submitted by them. The agents have largely brought this about by making use of reports submitted wherever possible and through the appointment of some one in the club whose duty it is to promote and secure reports from the club members.
Various report forms have been used in securing reports from the women.

During the year there were 683 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 653 with the women's - work. This is an increase of 190 over last year. Of the number working with girls' clubs, 365 are older 4-11 club members. There were 221 training meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 2,248 leaders. This was a decrease of 13 leaders' meetings, with an increase of 690 in attendance over last year.
Bayshore Club in Lee County scored highest for work accomplished by a Standard 4-H club for girls in 1930 and was given recognition for this accomplishment during the 1931 Short Course. The members of that club have a widespread influence for better club work in that county.
Demonstration Teams:-Three hundred twenty-nine demonstration teams and 67 judging teams of girls showing proficiency in various phases of 4-11 club work have assisted in the presenting of subject matter to other girls on many occasions.
Councils:-There are 23 county councils for girls' work and 18 for women's work functioning to advantage in development of

Annual Report, 1931

home demonstration work. These councils are composed of the president and one elected delegate from each club.
The county councils are valuable channels for extending the spread of home demonstration work. Well informed committee chairmen or local leaders made responsible for certain phases of the work have been of greatest assistance to the agents during the year in extending subject matter information and in work with special events. Achievement exhibits of both girls and women have f further extended home demonstration information to the county people. The women are showing more interest than ever before in the girls' work. Senior councils have as one of their responsibilities the sponsoring-of 4-H club work in their respective counties. Many senior clubs furnish scholarships to the State Short Course f or 4-H Club Girls.
The president and one other representative from each county council form the two state councils. The development of women and girls through their council work is remarkable. These representatives themselves feel the value of this training and the responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls, Florida State College for Women. This organization provides a scholarship for a girl attending Florida State College for Women. Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10 annually to the scholarship fund of their State Council. This council adopted the following program of work:
1. To assist counties in maintaining 100% record goal.
2. To assist counties in uniform system of reporting and producing programs of a high standard.
3. To help conduct contests, camps, and rallies.
4. To assist counties inputting on the sanitation project ofthe state.home improvement program in rural districts and small towns.
5. To assist in strengthening the requirement that every club member establish a permanent, ever-enlarging home demonstration.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the University of Florida. This council also provides a scholarship awarded to a 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State College for Women. Considerable enthusiasm was shown again this year over the silver loving cup which was presented during the annual council meeting by the council to the county council scor-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ing highest for the past year's work. Lee County Council again won this honor and the cup for its permanent property.
Members of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work adopted the following program:
1. In view of the economic situation of the state, special emphasis should be given to the development of farm resources by growing more all-year gardens, producing better poultry, increasing the family milk supply, improving the physical appearance of the home, using local materials as far as possible, and widening the outlook of, the members of the family by study of better literature and good music.
2. Each council shall be encouraged to arrange for adequate publicity on their work through securing the cooperation of the local press.
College 4-H Club:-The College 4-H Club is composed of former 4-H club girls who present satisfactory records of achievement in active 4-11 club work and of scholarship in college. it has a membership at present of 80 girls who are in college. Forty-three members of the freshman class belong to this group. The main objectives of the club are to encourage other 4-H club girls to enter college; to develop an appreciative interest in college life; to promote the program of 4-H club work in Florida. I . Sebolarships:-Scholarships awarded 4-H club girls for study at Florida State College for Women during the present college year follow: To Mabel ' Williams, Lee County,, by State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' Work; to Beulah Felts, Manatee County, by Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work; to Lou Dell Underwood, Holmes County, by Congressman Tom Yon, for leadership accomplishments.
The County Commissioners of Dade County awarded scholarships to five girls, three of whom are club girls. After this. all of the five are to go to deserving 4-H club girls, according to a letter received by the President of Florida State College for Women.
Thirteen of the members of the College 4-H Club hold dinifigroom scholarships.
Betty McDaniel, Jackson County, has been selected as one of the six girls in the South to receive a $500 scholarship offered by International Harvester Company.

Timely material for the press, news letters, exhibits, radio talks, and programs, demonstration teams, tours, and lectures have been

Annual Report, 1931

the means largely used, in keeping club members and the public informed as to home demonstration work throughout the year. With the increasing demands on the agents' time they have used the news columns for spreading information and assisting new members in the organization. In this connection the agents report 3,428 news articles published regarding the work in the counties. The press of the state is very cooperative. In addition to the articles reported there has been generous use of the material released for publication through the Associated Press and the Agricultural News Service. Scholarships referred to elsewhere have afforded excellent news stories.
Achievement exhibits have been displayed in each county with splendid results that prove they are worth the time and effort involved. Most of these exhibits have been set up competitively and carefully judged for place, but the gratifying thing is that the response of the women and girls was just as fine when no awards were made (except ribbons) as when money prizes were available. Club members have a genuine pride in their accomplishments and a feeling of responsibility for extending their knowledge to others. These exhibits have all been staged in connection with a special program conducted by the women and girls themselves, with special speakers from local business organizations of the county or from the Extension Service. Most of the events have been arranged by the County Councils, both Senior and Junior. Every county had an achievement program for 4-H clubs.
Radio talks of accomplishments were given daily by women in attendance during Farmers' Week and by home demonstration agents during Agents' Annual Conference.
Members of the State Staff have given a series of talks over WRUF and occasional talks over other broadcasting stations in the state throughout the year. Once a month a 4-H club program given for the most part by 4-H club members goes on the air from WRUF. The home demonstration staff alternates with the agricultural staff in assuming responsibility for these programs.
One or more of the State Staff have been present to discuss some phase of home demonstration work at the following statewide meetings of cooperating organizations: State Horticultural Society, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Florida Council on Education, Health and Welfare, Florida Parent Teachers' Association, Florida Social Workers' Conference, executive meetings of Home Economic Association, district home economics meetings,

Florida Cooperative Extension

State Beautification Committee of State Chamber of Commerce, Florida State College for Women Alumnae meetings (the state agent is a member of the Faculty Committee f or cooperation with the alumnae), State Health Association, and Committee for May Day Celebration.

Home demonstration workers receive splendid cooperation from the organizations listed above, civic clubs, the press, the State Board of Health, and innumerable individuals who have at heart the welfare of home demonstration work. Assistance is generously received from faculty members of the Florida State College for Women and the University of Florida.
Dr. William G. Dodd, Dean of School of Arts and Science, Florida State College for Women, in speaking to a group of educators assembled in Jacksonville, paid high tribute to county home demonstration agents in speaking of them as "the most effective influence we have within the state today toward the removal of offensive and jarring contrasts to the harmonious beauty of the environment nature has given us."

In the development of project activities emphasis was placed on a "live-at-home" program. This dealt directly with the home garden and orchard, the poultry flock and the milk supply first as a part of good nutrition for the family and second as a means of increasing the family income. In addition to the food and feed proposition the " ' live-at-home" program dealt with more abundant living for the farm family.
Gardening and Perennial Plantings:-There has been widespread interest in home gardening this year. Agents have given 14 .o of their time to the promotion of this phase of home demonstration work. Reports reveal interesting demonstrations that have been conducted and used advantageously in convincing othors that it's a mistaken idea that many farm families can buy their vegetables cheaper than they can grow them. Of the 3,441 women and 3,328 girls gardening throughout the year under direction of the home demonstration agents, many have submitted reports showing how the home garden supplied fruits and vegetables in the daily diet, and cash for the purchase of other necessities. Holmes, Walton and Gadsden counties carry particularly convincing stories of home gardening in 1931.

Afinual Report, 1931

One club member shows a profit of $560 on her garden. Another ,says: "I served an average of five vegetables on my table every day and sold $300 worth, besides canning 350 jars and giving a great deal to my neighbors. With the money from my garden I am able to send my two daughters to high school and three others to grammar school."
One agent states that the 4-H girls in the county who reported on their work realized a profit of $2,741 on their gardens. The women demonstrators of the same county realized a profit of $4,396.10.
Some idea of the growing interest in this phase of home demonstration work may be obtained from the following table:
Women Market Tree Bush
Demonstrators Gardens Crops Fruits Fruits Grapes
1931 . 3,441 1,088 700 721 190
1930 . 2,757 737 554 632 129
Gain . 684 351 146 89 61
1931 . 3,328 516 741 702 299
1930 . 2,835 230 650 612 126
Gain . 493 286 91 90 173

The economist in food conservation has served as lea der for home gardening work. Her report deals with this project in detail.
There is considerably more interest in the calendar orchard than previously. The number of fruit trees planted in the calendar orchards this year exceeded those of last year but the outlay of cash in securing desirable plantings keeps the number from increasing as rapidly as desirable.
Poultry:-Although the* poultry industry is reported to have decreased during 1931, poultry activities increased among home demonstration women and 4-H club girls. Reports from 25 counties show that women worked with 175,388 birds and from 23 of these counties comes the report that the women realized a profit of $52,980.39 on their poultry flocks. In learning the poultry business 1,175 4-H club girls worked with 49,434 birds during the year. The poultry demonstrations conducted followed directions supplied by the home demonstration agents and the Extension Poultryman in baby chick growing, proper sanitation, housing, feeding, culling, breeding and all phases of flock management. The Home Demonstration Agents gave 87o' of their time to the de-