Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1930
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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Full Text












1930


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1930
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1930
















1930


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1930
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1930




















CONTENTS

PAGE


BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF 4

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS 5

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 7

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS 15

COUNTY AGENT WORK 20

BOYS' CLUB WORK 40

DAIRYING 48

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 54

CITRICULTURE 56

POULTRY 62

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS .70 COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 72

HOME IMPROVEMENT 93

GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION 98

NEGRO MEN'S WORK 103

NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 112

















Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1930, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1930.
Respectf ully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with. law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TiGERT,
President, University of Florida.







BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola W. B. DAVIS, Perry A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry' J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist' FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm
Management
W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm
Management
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent
'In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
'Part-time.








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*


-County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents
Alachua.------F. L. Craft. Gainesville .Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer. Lake Butler; Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke) Calhoun -------------3J. G. Kelley .Blountstown
Calhoun and Liberty Blountstown ---- Miss Josephine Nimmo
Citrus and Sumter.I. R. Nolen . Inverness Citrus Inverness .-Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Dade (North) ----3. S. Rainey .Miami Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (South).------C. A. Steffani .Homestead DeSoto J. J. Heard. Arcadia
Dixie D. M. Treadwell ----.Cross City,
Duval W. L. Watson .Jacksonville . .Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) .A. S. Lawton .Jacksonville Duval (Asst.) .C. H. Magoon .Jacksonville Escambia.-----E. P. Scott. Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden Quincy Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton.------J. J. Sechrest .Jasper Hernando . J. H. Logan .Brooksville . Mrs. Florence Albert Highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer.-----Sebring Highlands and
Charlotte Mrs. May W. Hamilton
Hillsborough .C. P. Wright .Plant City (E) . Miss Motelle Madole Hillsborough Tampa (W) . Miss Allie Rush
Holmes Bonifay . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River.-----_W. E. Evans.------Vero Beach
Fort Pierce. Miss Ethyl Holloway Jackson Sam Rountree.------Marianna--. Miss Eleanor Clark
Jefferson.----E. H. Finlayson.----Monticello.------Miss Ruby Brown
Lafayette.----D. C. Geiger .Mayo Lake C. R. Hiatt .Tavares. Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Lee W. P. Hayman .Fort Myers . Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon G. C. Hodge .Tallahassee .Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy N. J. Albritton .Bronson
Liberty Dewey H. Ward . .Bristol
Madison. B. E. Lawton .Madison Manatee .--.---------L. H. Wilson .Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion Clyde H. Norton . Ocala Miss Tillie Roesel
Martin C. P. Heuck .Stuart
Okaloosa. Joseph W. Malone .-Crestview ---------- Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee. C. A. Fulford .Okeechobee Orange K. C. Moore .Orlando. Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola J. R. Gunn. Kissimmee.--_.Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts .W. Palm Beach . Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .Win. Gomme ._-----Clearwater.---Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk F.L. Holland .Bartow Miss Lois Godhey
Polk (Asst.) Bartow.------Miss Mosel Preston
St. Johns . E. H. Vance.-----St. Augustine .Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie._----A. Warren.----. Ft. Pierce . Miss Ethyl Holloway
Santa Rosa .1J. G. Hudson .Milton . . Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor .R. S. Dennis.-------Perry
Volusia T. A. Brown .DeLand Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla.----H. E. Hudson .Crawfordville Walton . 1itchell Wilkins ---- DeFuniak Springs _. Miss Eloise.McGriff Washington. Gus York. Chipley
*This list correct to December 31, 1930.






































Fig. I.-This display of vegetables, which won first prize at the 1930 South Florida Fair, gives an idea of the variety of Florida vegetable products.









REPORT FOR 1930


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June, 30, 1930, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1930.

Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.


FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal $ 77,646.71
Smith-Lever, State 48,872.25
Capper-Ketcham, Federal 25,941.28
U.S.D.A. Appropriation 21,000.00
State Appropriations 35,864.37
County Appropriations 159,562.79
$368,887A0
Expenditures
Administration $ 7,082.30
Publications . 8,157.45
County Agent Work 168,649.64
Home Demonstration Work 131,009.65
Boys' Club Work 6,119.77
Dairy Husbandry 5,125.83
Negro Extension Work 25,526.53
Plant Pathology 2,677.17
Poultry Husbandry 4,915.47
National Egg Laying Contest 7,000.00
Extension Schools, Farmers' Week 2,623.59
$368,887.40






Florida Cooperative Extension


ORGANIZATION
Agricultural Extension work during 1930 has been conducted in 53 different counties. At the close of the year 49 counties had county Extension agents. The supervisory force has been as follows: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work, three district agents for women's work, one State Home Demonstration Agent, one boys' club agent; and specialists as follows: Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist, Dairyman, Poultryman, Nutritionist, Food and Marketing Agent, Home Improvement Agent, Animal Husbandry Specialist, and one specialist in Farm Management.
CHANGES DURING YEAR
On July I Miss Virginia P. Moore was appointed Home Improvement Specialist for the State, and was relieved of the duties of Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent; July 15 Walter J. Sheely was appointed Extension Animal Husbandman; on August 15 Miss Mary A. Stennis resigned as Extension Nutritionist and her successor has not -yet been appointed.
The first appointment in the Agricultural Economics project was made on October I with Frank W. Brumley being appointed Agricultural Economist, Farm Management. At this time A. E. Mercer was appointed Extension Specialist in Marketing on part-time basis, to work in cooperation with the Inter-State Early Potato Committee. On November 1 H. G. Clayton, district agent for Southwest Florida, was appointed part-time Extension Economist to supervise organization and outlook work. This relieved Mr. Clayton of the supervision of several counties, the supervision of which was divided between the other district agents. W. R. Briggs, formerly county agent in Brevard County, was appointed Assistant in Farm Management on November 1; and Dr. J. E. Turlington, Agricultural Economist of the College of Agriculture was appointed as Extension Economist to head the work in agricultural economics in the Extension Service. Dr. Turlington will work on a part-time basis.
The revenue supporting Extension work in Florida comes from three sources: 1, appropriation by the United States Department of Agriculture, 2, appropriations by the Florida Legislature, and 3, county appropriations. Of these sources the county appropriations comprise the largest amount. County appropriations are authorized by a law permitting counties to levy one-half mill for agricultural development. This provision






Annual Report, 1930


makes it optional with the County Boards, consequently the work in the counties is dependent on county appropriations.
Because of a more difficult financial situation over the state generally, county appropriations for the current year have been somewhat reduced by county boards, and in three cases the county work has been discontinued, largely the result of county financial difficulties. Nevertheless, the number of counties continuing the work remains practically the same from year to year. This, however, has required some reorganization with agents working in more than one county and, in two cases, the Extension Service paying all the salary and travel of the agent. This, however, is only a temporary arrangement and will be modified as soon as conditions warrant the change.
For the most part the finances of the county have been provided by the county commissioners-with two exceptions, where either a part or all of the funds were provided by the county school board.
During the year just passed the average salary, including expenses, paid to county agents was $3,500 per year and to home agents $3,000 per year. This is a small reduction from 1929.
During the past year, it has been possible to increase the allotment to counties from $960 to $1080 per year and thereby relieve the counties to the extent of $10 per month on the salary of each agent. A still larger burden of the salary and expenses should be carried by the State and Federal governments.
COOPERATION OF STATE INSTITUTIONS
The Agricultural Extension Service, being a part of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, has had the cooperation of various departments of the Florida Experiment Station and.College of Agriculture. Through cooperation with the agronomist of the Experiment Station the cover crop and forage crop work has been strengthened by the distribution of a variety of plants and seeds that have been tested by the Experiment Station.
Cooperation of the veterinary department has resulted in the promotion of poultry work. - This made it possible for the Extension Service to utilize the knowledge gained in experiments in the control of diseases affecting poultry.
The Entomology and Plant Pathology departments of the Experiment Station have worked in close cooperation with the Citrus Specialist in carrying out demonstrations, conducting






Florida Cooperative Extension


meetings, and making recommendations to be used by the growers. The chemistry department has cooperated by assistance in recommendations for fertilizer applications, proper utilization of cover crops, etc. The horticultural department has worked closely in cooperation with the Extension Service in its work with vegetables, fruits, nuts, ornamentals, and landscape work. The. agricultural economics section of the Experiment Station has considered the interests of the Extension Service in its plans and has given full cooperation in the laying out of the agricultural economics program put into effect by the Extens ion Service during the past year.
The various departments of the Agricultural College and Experiment Station aided in providing a suitable program for Farmers' Week, county agent annual conference, boys and girls' short course, as well as assisted in programs conducted by county and home agents in the counties.
On July 1 a cooperative agreement was entered into with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., providing for an Animal Husbandry Specialist. The main purpose of this was to stimulate and improve production of beef cattle, principally in the area free of cattle ticks. This plan also proposes to introduce animal husbandry work with hogs and sheep in cooperation with county agents, district agents, and 4-H club work.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
During the campaign for the eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Extension agents cooperated in the eradication work. Their offices were used as a means of conveying information to growers on various aspects of the eradication plan. This work, however, was not as intensively carried out by county agents as during the year of 1929, but at no time during the active campaign were the county agents in the citrus. area entirely relieved of the responsibility of working towards the completion of the clean-up campaign.
The Extension Service has worked in full cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, assisting the specialists in assembling carloads of livestock and poultry for sale. It has also assisted in the sale of poultry, hogs, dairy products, and various other agricultural commodities. The specialists of the State Marketing Bureau have assisted on programs for Farmers' Week and on other similar occasions.
There has also existed cooperation with the office of the Com-





Annual Report, 1930


missioner of Agriculture, the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the office of the State Forester, and the State Board of Health in programs and plans that deal with the problems of the rural people.
Private enterprises have contributed liberally to the advancement of Extension work in the way of prizes and scholarships, mainly to stimulate 4-H club work.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS WORK INAUGURATED
Work in agricultural economics began October 1, 1930, and is just in the process of organization. Appointments have been made for specialists in farm management and in marketing. These agents will carry out enterprise studies beginning with poultry, citrus, and dairying, and will add to these as the work progresses. In marketing, plans are made to assist growers in establishing and perfecting cooperative marketing organizations in accordance with the plans of the Federal Farm Board. Attention will be given to non-cooperative marketing to assist in a study of market conditions affecting a variety of crops and farm and home products that enter into demonstrations conducted by county Extension workers.
An agreement has been made for outlook studies for the purpose of directing farmers in marketing methods. Also in organization in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau. As


Fig. 2.-Cueumbers ready to go to market. These were shipped by
growers' cooperative association.





Florida Cooperative Extension


these phases of the work are new, it was necessary to provide office and equipment. This has been secured in the lease of a building just off the campus of the University of Florida. Provision has been made for ample stenographic and clerical help.

FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
The ninth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was conducted on the University campus August 11 to 15, 1930. The attendance was 1,661. This is an annual event, occurring each year just after the close of Summer School at the University.
As usual, the program was directed by members of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension Service, and State Plant Board, with the assistance of workers from the State Marketing Bureau, Department of Agriculture, and other organizations.
- The dormitories and dining room of the University were made available to visitors at nominal rates.
Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture, farm crops, livestock, poultry, beekeeping, and home economics were conducted, General sessions of all visitors were held daily from 11 to 12 a.m. A display of agricultural implements and other goods of interest to farmers was arranged under a tent near the College of Agriculture building. Most of the exhibits were furnished by commercial concerns.
Music and other entertainment were features of the mid-day programs, while a special entertainment program was held each night. Wednesday afternoon was given over to the annual Farmers' Week picnic.
AWARDS TO CLUB MEMBERS
Business organizations, county officials, and individuals contributed prizes and awards to the value of $16,150 to 4-H club boys and girls and $560.50 to home demonstration club women during the year. Efficiency in club work and examination determined the winner in each case.
Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners:
A total of 499 4-H club girls from 35 counties were awarded free trips to the annual Girls' Club Short Course'in June at the State College for Women. These had a total value of $8,736.50, and were given by civic organizations and business men, county commissioners and school boards, federated women's clubs and





Annual Report, 1930


business and professional women's clubs, senior and junior home demonstration clubs and county councils.
County commissioners, businessmen's organizations, and commercial concerns donated 240 scholarships, valued at $3,100, to the Boys' Club Short Course at the University of Florida in June. Twelve of these were given by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau and seven by the L. & N. Railway Company.
As state winners, six girls and three boys were sent to the National Club Congress in Chicago, held in connection with the International Live Stock Show. The winners and donors were: Ruth Durrenberger, Orange County, Kerr Glass Company; Ruth Yates, Osceola County, Montgomery Ward & Co.; Dora Lee Bryant, Escambia County, Florida Department of Agriculture; Barbara Blasey, Escambia County, Quaker Oats Company; Lorene Duffy, Manatee County, Chicago Mail Order House; Ot. tie Lee Bass, Okaloosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Hugh Dukes, Union County, Armour & Company; Yutch Lee, Santa Rosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Nelson Reeves, Leon County, 4-H club fund. In addition, the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce sent Anabel Raulerson and William Clegg as winners in Alachua County, and the Leon County Bankers' Association sent Francis Moss, for his excellent dairy club work in that county.
Two boys and two girls were sent to the National 4-H Club Camp, Washington, D. C., for two weeks during June. The winners and donors were: Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs; Guilda Yates, Orange County, and Hugh Dukes, Union County, Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company; Wilson Roberts, Washington County, Barnett National Bank.
Horace A. -Moses, Eastern paper manufacturer, provided two scholarships, one for a girl and one for a boy, to the 4-H Leadership Training School at Springfield, Mass. These trips were won by Beulah Felts of Manatee County and Frederick Barber of Escambia County.
Frank E. Dennis gave a $250 scholarship to the University of Florida to Wilma Bassett of Jefferson County for raising and exhibiting the champion breeding pig. The State Bankers' Association gave $100 scholarships to Jack Platt of Marion, Marable Love of Leon, and Charles Stearns of Lake. Congressman Thomas Yon gave a $100 scholarship each to Arlington Henley of Walton County and Gladys McDuffy of Holmes County.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Thomas E. Wilson gave a $50 gold watch to the club boy having the best livestock project in the state. This was won by Arthur McNeeley of Marion County.
The State Junior Home Demonstration Council awarded a $200 scholarship to the State College for Women to Viola Yates of Hillsborough County. The State Senior Home Demonstration Council'provided a $100 loan fund. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs gave $50 awards to winners in poultry and gardening club work. Congresswoman Ruth Bryan Owen provided special awards in home improvement, the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau in home gardening, and Mrs. Geo. N. Powell for county gardening winners.
Plantings and seed, garden supplies and equipment, were awarded to girls and women for excellence in home gardening and home beautification. These were contributed by Griffing's Interstate Nurseries, Glen St. Mary Nurseries, Francis C. Stokes Seed Company, Royal Palm Nurseries, S. L. Allen Company, Stump and Walter Company, and the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau.
Cash awards for the encouragement of women's home demonstration work were made by the Celotex Company, Washburn Crosby Company, Northwestern Yeast Company, Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau, J. C. Penney Company, American Art Association, American Bemberg Corporation, Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company, Singer Sewing Machine Company, Sears, Roebuck & Co., and Thomas A. Edison, Inc.






Annual Report, 1930


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS
J. FaANcis COOPER, Editor
R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor

PUBLICATIONS

During the year ending June 30, 1930, three new extension bulletins were printed, three old ones were reprinted, 10 new circulars were issued, and one old one reprinted, in addition to the publication of a yearly calendar and a final report of the National Egg-Laying Contest, and the weekly publication of the Agricultural News Service. Exclusive of the News Service, the material published amounted to 344 printed pages, the largest amount of printing the Extension Service has done during one year recently. In all, 135,600 copies of these various publications were printed.
Following is a list of the publications issued during the year, with the number of pages contained in each, and the quantity of each which was printed.
Pages Edition
Bul. 56 Foods, Nutrition and Health 40 25,000
Bul. 57 Herbaceous Perennials for Florida 36 10,000
Bul. 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida 56 10,000
Bul. 50 Save the Surplus (Reprint) 48 10,000
Bul. 54 Vetch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement
(Reprint) 20 5,000
Bul. 55 Rejuvenating Furniture (Reprint) 12 5,000
Circ. 15 How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club . 8 4,200 Circ. 17 Program Building and Goals for Boys' 4-H Clubs . 8 3,000 Circ. 18 Boys' 4-H Club Officers and Their Duties. 8 5,100 Circ. 19 The Local 4-H Club Leader 8 4,200
Circ. 20 The Parents' Place in the Boys' 4-H Club Program 8 10,000 Circ. 21 Music Appreciation for Rural Communities, Clubs
and Homes 20 5,000
Circ. 22 The Succulent Peach 4 5,000
Circ. 23 Grape and Grape Products 4 5,000
Circ. 24 The Fig 4 5,000
Circ. 25 Pear Products 4 5,000
Circ. 972 Home Improvement (Reprint) 28 8,000
Final Report, Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. 16 1,500 1930 Calendar 12 9,600
Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 -weeks) 1 29,000

In addition, a number of miscellaneous supplies were printed. These included pads for the Home Egg-Laying Contest, certificates for the National Egg-Laying Contest, mortality chart, healthy chick chart, crop club record book, individual club member's record book, secretary's record book, boys' clubs, all ye garden record books, Farmers' Week window cards, stuffers programs.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Twelve monthly reports of the Third Florida National EggLaying Contest at Chipley were printed and distributed, the material for these being prepared and handled by the contest supervisor. Nine hundred copies of these were distributed each month. A mimeographed report of the Home Egg-Laying Contest, prepared by the Extension Poultryman and edited and distributed from this office, was distributed monthly, Poultry hints were mimeographed and distributed bimonthly.
Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision of the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration Office at Tallahassee. Many thousand copies of bulletins and various classes of supplies were distributed during the year from both the Tallahassee and Gainesville offices.

NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES
The Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, continued to be the principal means used f or the dissemination of extension information to the newspapers, and through them to their readers, the public. From eight tG 12 stories each week were sent out through this service. The stories were largely clipped and reprinted by the weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties of Florida.
Service to the daily papers of the state was provided through the Associated Press andthrough special stories and articles seent direct to the papers. During the year 151 stories were sent to the Associated Press and distributed by it to its 45 member papers in Florida. Sixty-one different special stories were sent td from one to 100 papers during the year. One of the stories, which went to 25 different papers, was accompanied by a mat of a two-column picture. The Extension Editor conducts a farm column in one of the larger state dailies ' and contributes to such a department in another daily. These farm columns are printed each Sunday during the year. They contain numerous stories concerning extension activities and hints.
During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. Stories of Farmers' Week activities were prepared for this page by the Extension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Numerous special Farmers' Week stories were sent





Annual Report, 1930


to other papers. Posters, stuffers, programs, and other Farmers' Week publicity materials were printed and distributed. . During the year 20 stories from this office were used by the monthly Farm and Grove Section of 50 Florida newspapers. The 20 stories amounted to 365 column inches. Six articles by other members of the staff, amounting to 105 column inches, were printed in this section during the year.
The services of this office and other departments of the College of Agriculture to farm papers of Florida, the South and the nation, are especially well received and widely used. Fifty-six stories, amounting to 2,046 column inches of printed material, which had been written by the Editorswere published in six different Florida farm papers during the year. Nine different stories, amounting to 140 column inches, were published in two different Southern farm papers, and two stories, amounting to 113 inches, were published in two national farm publications. In addition, various forms of material were sent to the United State Department of Agriculture for its publications.
Numerous articles by members of the staff, which had been edited in this officeand which amounted to hundreds of column inches of printed material, were published in Florida farm papers during the year. For instance, the November, 1930, issue of one Florida farm publication contained 22 stories from the College of Agriculture. These amounted to 507 inches or 42 columns-just exactly half of the space inside the paper not devoted to advertising.
In addition to material sent especially to farm papers, these papers clip and use considerable quantities of material from the weekly clipsheet.
RADIO
Thirty-minute daily farm programs were put on the air over WRUF during the year. These programs were planned and supervised by the Assistant Extension Editor. During the year, 312 programs went on the air, and 441 talks were given by staff members of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station and Agricultural Extension Service, farmers, and others. A total of 220 papers distributed by the Radio Service of the United State Department of Agriculture was read. Once each week a period was devoted to reading questions and answers. These were questions received by Station and Extension workers, and answered by them. Another weekly period was given to the






Florida Cooperative Extension


reading of farm news, taken largely from the Agricultural News Service.
Of the 441 talks, the Editors themselves prepared and read 24, Experiment Station staff members, 139, Extension Service workers, 135, teachers in the College of Agriculture, 39, 4-H club members, 34, and others, 70. Whenever the person who prepared the talk could give it, he was encouraged to do so. How ever, when the author was out of town or unable to be present, his talk was read by the Assistant Extension Editor. In addition, the Editors put on 90 humorous interlude features lasting about 3 minutes each.
In addition to the regular noon-day farm programs daily over WRUF, this station gave time to six monthly 4-H club programs of 30 minutes each, I special 4-H achievement program of 30 minutes,.and during the Boys' Club Short Course at the University in June, five boys made 3-minute talks. The total number of club talks during the year was 36.
During Farmers' Week, each noon-day program I was broadcast direct from the University auditorium, while it was being given foK the benefit of the assembled visitors. One of the evening entertainment programs was put on the air. An extra period, in the early evening, was given to allow visitors to Farmers' Week to go on the radio. In all, 42 Farmers' Week visitors made talks over WRUF during the week.
Again during the annual conference of county and home demonstration agents, the first week in October, the station generously gave an added half hour to the farm program each day. During the two daily periods for the week, 37 county and home demonstration agents spoke on subjects relating to their work.
The Assistant Editor made a study of the radio possibilities of WRUF, and found that about 23,000, or 39'percent of the 59,601 farms in Florida, are within 100 miles of WRUF. About 45,000, or 76 percent, are within 200 miles, and all are in 350 miles of the Station. About 80 percent of the farmers are in territory allotted to Eastern Standard Time, and the remaining 20 in the Central Standard Time area. Thus it is believed that the period 12:15 to 12:45, E. S. T., is as satisfactory as any noon-time period that could be obtained.
On November 8 a national-local 4-11 club achievement program was put on the air over three Florida stations, The first and last parts of the program came from Washington over the chain.





Annual Report, 1930


with the United States Department of Agriculture as sponsor. The middle 30 minutes came from each local station. The local programs for the three Florida stations were arranged and supervised by the Editors. Each program was approximately as follows: Opening music, followed by a talk by a 4-H club girl, then a talk by a home demonstration worker, then music, then a talk by a 4-H club boy, then a 4-H club leader, county agent, or business man, and closing music.
Some 10 or 12 different radio farm features were prepared in this office and sent to two state stations to be read as parts of their regular farm programs.
MISCELLANEOUS
Training in news writing was ' given by the Editor to 10 club boys and 40 club girls at their annual club short courses in June. The boys and girls were assisted in issuing mimeographed club papers daily during their separate short courses.
The club girls of one county were helped to start their camp paper, and later to start their county club mimeographed paper. Twenty girls and women of another county were given news training during their camp.
Two county agents were given personal help in their news writing work. Assistance was given in the preparation of two s . eries of motion picture slides for one agent. A Southern publisher was carried on a trip to some of the branch experiment stations, and was helped to obtain information for three different stories.
. A -series of weekly ad slogans, to be used in its regular weekly advertisements, was prepared for one bank. Each slogan began with the words, "Here is what the College of Agriculture says for this week:"





Florida Cooperative Extension


PART 11-MEN'S WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G. CLAYToN, District Agent W. T. NETTLEs, District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
County agents, with few exceptions, have offices located in county court houses; a few are located with chambers of commerce. These offices are, on the whole, very well equipped with office furniture, typewriters, demonstration material, bulletin racks, and supplies of bulletins. Only 337o of the agents have stenographic help; most of the offices have telephone service. With the exception of stationery and bulletins, the offices are equipped at the expense of the county.
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
County agents have devoted considerable time and energy this year to the fruit fly eradication work by assisting in putting on the bait spray campaign. A number of county agents issued shipping permits until the quarantine was raised in the summer.
County agents had an active part in fair work by assembling and putting on the county exhibits at the South Florida Fair, the Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Orange Festival, and various county fairs. They have also worked with agricultural committees of the chambers of commerce and service clubs in developing agricultural programs.
The State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee, with county Agent Hodge making all local arrangements. One hundred and fifty animals were exhibited at this show. The Agricultural Extension Service also cooperated with the Florida State Horticultural Society in their meetings in Marianna and Sebring.
PUBLICITY
County Agents have supplied to the press of Florida an average of 110 agricultural news items each. , They have sent out an average of 18 different circular letters, and have made 113, radio talks.





Annual Report, 1930


CONTESTS
The Jackson County Agent conducted a five-acre corn and a five-acre cotton contest during the year. Eleven county agents held 4-H Club contests. Some of these were held in connection with county fairs. The most outstanding one of the season was in Escambia County. Here the 4-H boys and girls held their contest together. Their program included a radio program of 30 minutes. One hundred boys displayed their project exhibits and records.
EDUCATIONAL TOURS
Twelve agents in the general farming area conducted well-organized tours of farmers, business men, and bankers. Eight had a published schedule. Their demonstrations were placarded and most of them showed demonstrations representing a very good cross-section of their program of work. Such things as citrus and vegetable demonstrations, corn after winter cover crops, different varieties of corn, side-dressing of corn with nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia, cotton varieties and fertilizers, peanut spacing, sugarcane varieties, hogs on early feed, swine sanitation, pasture development, beef. cattle and dairy cattle herd improvement, as well as poultry brooders and flocks, were shown. Seven of the agents had speaking programs at the noon hour calling attention to the facts learned from the demonstrations. Chambers of commerce and other civic bodies cooperated in furnishing picnic lunch to some of them. Six hundred and ten farmers and business men went on these 12 tours. Many others attended the lunches and speaking programs. As a result of these tours, Extension work was continued in at least. one county. Many farmers will follow the improved practices shown -next year.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
Internal parasites of swine are one of the problems in swine production. Last spring a number of the county agents went to Moultrie, Georgia, to visit the B. A. 1. field laboratory, under the supervision and direction of Dr. E. M. Neighbert, and to study the practices in sanitation demonstrations. They saw the simple equipment, the grazing crops, and the simple method of handling.
Late in the summer many county agents conducted motorcades of farmers to the Cummings Livestock Ranch at Donal-





Florida Cooperatiz e Extension


sonville, Georgia, to see what had been done there in herd and pasture improvement. As a result, many purebred sires have been purchased and a few pastures have been planned.





If









Fig. 3-First stop on the educational tour, in which growers see demonstrations of good practices.

To see how some dairy farmers are growing feeds, improving their herds, and installing new equipment, dairymen of Escambia County made a trip to Baldwin County, Alabama, dairies.
PROJECT WORK
All projects carried on by the Agricultural Extension Service are put into effect in the counties through the work of the county and home demonstration agents. State specialists and supervisors conduct their work in cooperation with the county agents.
County agent work is supervised by three district agents. One district comprises the general farming and livestock area of North and West Florida, a second comprises the counties in Northeast Florida and on the East Coast, a third comprises those counties lying from Gainesville south and west.
At the beginning of each year a program covering the year's activities is mapped out by each district agent, supervisor, and county worker. These are brought together and make up the state's program for the year. In some counties all of the specialists have actual projects under way, while in other counties only such projects as are adaptable are put into effect by the county agent. This definite program provides a working plan suitable to each county.






Annital Report, 1930


In carrying on projects, all possible assistance is secured from other divisions of the College of Agriculture.
The county agent work also includes the boys' club work; such work is a part of the regular duties of county agents. The club projects also correspond with the best methods in agriculture suited to the section. To illustrate, the corn growing demonstrations with 4-11 club boys are on the same basis as the demonstrations with adult farmers. Club work consists of livestock, poultry, horticulture, farm crops, forestry, and other active 4-H projects.
County agent work therefore extends into every agricultural activity of the county and is the representative of the state college of agriculture in each county where an agent is employed. A compiled statement of reports submitted by county and district agents for the calendar year ending December 31, 1930, follows.
SOILS
The present definite soil improvement program began in the fall of 1925. This called f or the use of vetch and Austrian winter peas to be grown on land in winter and early spring,


Fig. 4-This fine crop of Austrian winter peas is being turned under on
April 7, 1930. It made the succeeding crop of corn produce big yields.






Florida Cooperative Extension


turned into the land about April 1 each year, and followed by a summer crop (preferably corn) planted about two weeks later. In 1925-26 there were 10 demonstrations conducted, involving 10 acres. During 1929-30 there were 91 demonstrations involving 1,011 acres. Definite demonstrations have been conducted each year from 1925 to 1930. These demonstrations have produced 29.2 bushels of corn per acre against 12.4 bushels on the checks, an increased yield of 135%.
The following table shows how the practice of growing winter cover crops has increased:
Year No. Pounds Seed Sown Acres Planted
1925-26 200 10
1926-27 600 30
1927-28 6,000 250
1928-29 53,000 2,100
1929-30 110,000 4,500
1930-31 153,000 6,000
In groves it has been the practice to use cowpeas, native vegetation, and velvet beans as cover crops in summer. In the counties of Central Florida, it is the practice of letting one-half of the cultivatable lands "lie out" each year. This grows a crop of native vegetation which protects the land during the summer and is turned into the land next winter. This is apparently an economic practice with this land. It will produce from three to five bushels more corn per acre when planted than land that was cultivated.
For the last few years a few demonstrations of growing Crotalaria on land and among corn as a cover crop have been conducted. Most of these are too recent to show much results. One started in 1926 produced 41.2 bushels of corn as against 25.8 for check during the 1929 season. In 1930 it produced 30 bushels as against 16.8 bushels on check. This was in the droujht-affected area.
The soils in 10 of the Northwest Florida counties are rolling. Rainfall average in these counties ranges from 55 to 65 inches per annum. Much of the fields under tenant system of cultivation are now washed-off hillsides, depleted of soil. To show that these fields can be brought back to fertility and others can be conserved, the county agents in these counties last year conducted 211 demonstrations in terracing and soil conservation, involving 3,875 acres. The Walton County agent says, "I operated a machine on 12 farms. Many farmers did their own." The Escambia County agent says, "Fifteen demonstrations were held






Annual Report, 1930


this year. Five terracing drags were built." It is estimated that terracing of land is worth $5.00 per acre per annum.
In citrus fruit production the fertilizer cost on the average has been 50 to 60% of the total cost. A soil well supplied with organic matter is essential if maximum results are to be obtained from fertilizers. Also where the grower can supply this organic matter he is in position to utilize the cheaper chemical forms of nitrogen and the higher analysis fertilizers, thereby reducing the unit cost of plant food.
The work done by county agents with cover crops 'has been outstanding. This year, as a rule, cover crops did not yield as great a tonnage as in past years due to weather conditions in the spring. Crotalaria striata now ranks as the leading citrus cover crop among those cover crops which are seeded. County agents in the citrus and vegetable territory report that growers with whom they cooperated purchased 111,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed. An additional tonnage of Crotalaria seed was sown in other groves.
A limited amount of Crotalaria spectabilis from the Experiment Station was distributed in each county in the citrus district by the agents. This variety differs from striata in that it is less susceptible to pumpkin bug infestation, is less woody, and seeds uniformly late in the season. This is a promising variety and is looked upon with favor by most of the growers who have tried it. Seed from these plantings is being harvested and it seems probable that the future seed supply of this variety will be available from plantings in the state. This variety of Crotalaria is also being tried on truck soils and at this time is showing up well.
The citrus acreage planted to Crotalaria for a cover crop has been increased as rapidly as seed was available. Approximately 15% of the entire acreage was in Crotalaria in 1930. This percentage will vary in different counties, Highlands, Lee, and Osceola counties having the largest percentage of groves in Crotalaria.
IDuring the year, L. H. Alsmeyer, agent in Highlands County, was awarded a gold medal and a trip to the Chicago meeting of the American Society of Agronomy. These awards were made by the Soil Improvement Committee of the National Fertilizer Association and were awarded to six county agents in the Southern States for outstanding soil improvement work.
The cover crop work for soil improvement has been some of






Florida Cooperative Extension


the most -valuable work done by the extension agents. Results are seen in the improved condition of groves using Crotalaria, better quality of fruit, increased production, and reduced cost of production.
Fertilizer demonstrations have been conducted on the different soil types in the East Coast District, possibly the most outstanding of which is the use of manganese sulphate on heavy marl soils, and on the muck soils of the Everglades. Definite demonstrations have shown an increase as high as 76 crates of beans per acre, and with Irish potatoes, an increase from 65 to 285 bushels.
Fertilizer demonstrations involving the use of manganese sulphate, synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, hardwood ashes, landplaster, lime, and stable manure were carried on. Results point to the fact that manganese sulphate is very desirable on marl and muck soils for the growing of vegetables; that cheap inorganic sources of nitrogen are just as efficient as the pure organic sources; the growing of cover crops to incorporate organic matter in the soil is not only desirable, but essential to the continued productivity of the soil.




















Fig. 5-This corn, grown without commercial fertilizer, shows what Austrian peas turned under will do. Peas planted on this 30 acres failed to grow very well the first year. However, the second year they made good growth, and were followed by this corn crop.






Annual Report, 1930


FARM CROPS
Corn:-In addition to the use of cover crops to increase corn yields and reduce the cost per bushel, the county agents are demonstrating to the farmers two other improved practices in grow*ing corn; namely, the improved varieties and the intelligent use of commercial fertilizer. They are using Whatley's Prolific, Kilgore's Red Cob, and Tisdale's one-ear corn, all of which consistently yield about 20% more than other varieties. . The Florida Experiment Station has found that under most conditions in Florida the use of a top-dressing of some nitrogenous fertilizer, such as nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, or calcium nitrate, is about the only fertilizer treatment that will pay on corn. County agents have put this into effect through demonstrations And corn club boys' demonstrations and now it is a common practice to apply 100 pounds of nitrate of soda or its equivalent in other materials to corn when it is about 35 days old.
Oats and Rye:-The demonstrations conducted with these two crops deal with the better varieties and top-dressing with fertilizers. Twenty-seven demonstrations were conducted for grain production. There was an average increase of 8 bushels per acre. The highest yield per acre for this crop for years was secured this year. '
These crops are used in Florida very largely for winter and spring grazing. Because of drought, a short feed crop was produced this year. In view of this, county agents, by personal contact, circular letters, and newspaper articles, urged the farmers to increase their acreage this fall. There has been an increase of more than 25%.
Peanuts:-Peanuts are grown for two distinct purposes in Florida. The Spanish variety for commercial purposes and the runners for hog feed. It is the main crop used for the production of pork. The average yield is about 18 bushels per acre. One reason for this low yield is because they are planted in wide rows with mide spacing in the rows. By closer spacing, it has been proven that the yield per acre can be materially increased. On 65 demonstrations with closer spacing, the average increase in yield was 8 bushels. If this practice were followed by the commercial producers with their Spanish type alone, it would mean another half million dollars to them.
Planting corn and Spanish peanuts for early hog feed was more generally practiced this year than in the past.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Soybeans (Hay) :-Florida farmers and stockmen need a legume that will mature hay during the fall months, cure out easily, and yield well. This has been found in Otootan soybeans. On 19 demonstrations conducted this year, 7/8 ton more yield per acre was obtained than from cowpeas. It cured out well, giving a high quality hay.
Pasture and Forage :-Interest in improved pastures continued to grow, and with tick eradication in progress in a part of the districts, this interest should continue. The oldest of the demonstration pastures is only five years at this time, and pasture development is a type of project that requires a long time. There were 156 demonstrations on 3,891 acres this year, using 58,365 pounds of seed. The base grass in the pasture mixture is carpet, with the addition of Dallis, Bahia, lespedeza, or Bermuda grass, depending on soil types and condition. These pastures, after getting well sodded, will carry a cow per acre for about 9 months of the year, and will produce the equivalent of 250 pounds of beef per acre. Successfully established, these demonstrations should be worth $25,000 per annum to their owners as pastures, in addition to what the spread of their influence will be worth to the community in causing others to put them in.
Cotton :-Cotton is the main cash crop of the farmers of 10 Northwest Florida counties. Though low in price, it brought into these counties approximately $3,000,000. The average production per acre for the last five years has been 315 pounds seed cotton per acre. This year it has been 675 pounds. On 219 adult demonstrations conducted under the supervision of county agents, the yield was 1,056 pounds seed cotton per acre.
Sugarcane :-Mosaic disease and the nematode affect very materially the production of the old established varieties of sugarcane in the general farming area of Florida. The commercial producer has now turned to Cayana 10, a variety resistant to both mosaic and nematode. The county agents this year conducted 28 demonstrations to prove the superiority of the Cayana. It produced 100 gallons more per acre. Considerable increase of Cayana is expected next year as a result of these demonstrations.
HORTICULTURE
Citrus and truck are the chief money crops in the counties of Central and South Florida, the greater part of the agents' time being devoted to this horticultural work, especially in the






Annual Report, 1930


citrus counties. The agents in this territory have averaged 98 days devoted to horticulture, and have averaged 275 farm visits each on horticultural matters, and have each had an average of 811 calls for horticultural information. These agents perform a great amount of personal service work, making inspections at the request of growers in order to give proper advice on insect and disease control of truck crops and citrus, and on cultural practices and fertilization.
In the Voluntary Bait Spray Campaign to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly, county agents performed a worth while service in getting this spraying done in a complete manner. This job was done in a thorough manner, all agencies cooperating to the fullest extent.
The annual spring citrus meetings were held this year, and the program was devoted largely to reduction in production costs and improving the quality of the fruit. Twenty-one meetings were held in 10 counties during April and May and these were attended by 915 growers. These meetings were the best attended of any so far held where such subjects were discussed. Six hundred and ninety-three citrus demonstrations were conducted on 13,703 acres of groves. This is an increase of 100% over last year.
The outstanding features of the citrus work are the increased use of cover crops, particularly Crotalaria, and the greater use of inorganic fertilizers, with a tendency to cultivate less. These shifts are reducing costs and in most cases improving fruit quality. Fruit from demonstration groves where these shifts are in practice has topped the auction sales in two large markets this fall.
Ten agents have conducted tours of groups of growers to inspect demonstration groves and the experimental plots at the Citrus Experiment Station. Twenty-six such tours were conducted and 1,000 growers secured first hand information by seeing what was being done. These tours have been an effective means of getting this work before the growers.
Truck Crops:-A large part of the work with truck crops is carried on as personal service. Many factors enter into the growing of truck crops and these vary so widely as to require personal inspection in order to make correct recommendations. Insect and disease control, seed treatment, and fertilization are the main points on which truck growers call on county agents for aU This year Crotalaria spectabilis has been grown in dem-






Florida Cooperative Extension


onstration plots on truck farms. The results this far are encouraging and this work will be expanded the coming year. County agents report 390 demonstrations with truck crops, involving 5,049 acres.










Pr



j
I
Fig. 6-High grade disease-free bean seed from Western sources produced maximum yields in South Florida demonstrations.
Eighty-four demonstrations in home beautification where instructions and plans were furnished for beautifying home grounds, and 88 demonstrations in home gardening were conducted.
Grapes:-The results from demonstration plantings of cover crops in vineyards have convinced most of the growers of the value of cover crops, and this year, about two-thirds of the grape acreage grew cover crops, largely Crotalaria. This is a great increase over last year, and prospects are for a greater acreage to be so planted in 1931.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Hogs:-In order for hog production to be profitable, farmers must produce cheap corn and peanuts, haiTe a good supply of grazing crops, and the hogs must be marketed when prices are highest. These highest prices usually occur during September and October. Demonstrations were conducted with such grazing crops as oats, rye, peas, millet, and followed up with peas and corn or peanuts and corn, to be hogged down in July, August, and September. There were 30 of these demonstrations conducted in Northwest Florida this year. Severe drought inter-





Anniml Report, 1930


fered with successful completion of these plans in Northwest Florida. In Central and South Florida there were 56 demonstrations comprising 3,136 hogs. Sixty-two farmers were assisted by the county agents in securing purebred breeding stock.
In Levy County it is conservatively estimated that the hogs marketed early netted the farmers over $6,000 more than would have been the case under usual marketing methods. The cooperative associations encourage farmers to plan the year's work well in advance. Cooperative effort in production is an aid to early marketing. Cooperative hog shipping associations have been organized by county agents and the State Marketing Bureau.
In some counties the agents have to vaccinate hogs against cholera and swine plague. They advise and demonstrate to farmers methods of control for both external and internal parasites. The few agents who vaccinate hogs immune approximately 75,000 head this year.
During the year 106 farmers were aided in obtaining purebred sires and 108 purebred dams were purchased.
Sheep:-The 60,000 sheep in Florida are all in range flocks. Very few are ever fed. All are of mongrel breed. The numbers have been decreasing for approximately 20 years, the decrease largely due to internal parasites. In 1927 demonstrations in the control of these parasites were conducted. It was found that the treatment would cost only a few cents per head with the result that the fleeces would be increased approximately 1/4 pound each, and the lamb crop would show a good increase.
There were 12 method demonstrations to control internal parasites where 12,000 sheep were treated in 1930.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND COOPERATIVE SALES AND PURCHASES
The county agents cooperate closely with farmers' cooperative organizations and render assistance from time to time, especially with the newer organizations.
The Extension Service has cooperated with cooperative vegetable associations, the Federal Farm Board, and the State Marketing Bureau in the formation of a state-wide federation of vegetable cooperatives, The Florida Truck Growers, Inc.
This has been a year which has tested the strength of the cooperative associations and they have met conditions very well. The cooperation of the Federal Farm Board with organizations











PROGRAM SUMMARY


C) 4-3.
Program by Subjects




Cereals 191
Legumes and forage crops 385
Potatoes, 1. 123
Cotton 90
Tobacco, other special crops -------------- 57
Gardens, home beautification . ---------- 101
Market garden, truck crops --------------- 181
Fruits 235
Forestry 19
Rodents, misc. insects 119
Agri. engineer., home engineer --------- 177
Poultry 244
Dairy 174
Other livestock 262
Farm management 193
Marketing, farm and home --------------- 300
Community activities 40
Build, extension program of work . 147 Organization-exten. assoc. and comm. 27
Miscellaneous 54


27



1


35 99
143
6
32 62 133
84135 138 169 13 39
41 22


U2M
020

29 15 3
87 55 19 C)26 3




294 155 130 12 26 39 24 43 38 263 252 23 144 128 12 12 31 60
98 267 471 11 29 23 12 156 19


3 51 16
26 28 70


68 C)9


7-3 54

102
56

16
9 92


5 53


0C)C)



020


2, 8 40 3,04 768
4,036 3,440 1,042
476 1,108 289
1,175 1,808 474
625 777 289
853 1,352 359
4,131 6,976 1,349
4,486 9,569 1,568
29 97 73
884 1,488 2861/
1,072 1,495 446%
2,869 6,878 1,153
2,629 3,818 1,2831/
5,240 6,413 1,982
777 3,001 356
2,530 51840 939'/2
227 221 162
136 133 87
64 122 67
893 2,423 653







Annual Report, 1930


in the state has added strength and encouragement to the cooperative movement.
The county agents have assisted in the purchase of many tons of field seeds, hundreds of tons of commercial fertilizers, and
hundreds of head of cattle. These purchases have amounted to
over $130,414. Agents have assisted in sales amounting to $355,978. The greatest assistance rendered through this service
has been aiding farmers in getting the kind and quality of seed,
fertilizers, and stock they need.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of County Agents 47
Number of months service this year 553
County extension organizations or associations 4
Number of members of county organizations or associations -------- 606 Communities in counties where extension work should be conducted 561 Communities where extension program has been worked out by
agents and local committees 383
Voluntary county or community local leaders actively engaged in
forwarding extension program 372
Farm visits made in conducting extension work 35,878
Different farms visited 15,099
Home visits made in conducting extension work 2,593
Different homes visited 1,609
Office calls relating to extension work 59,914
Telephone calls relating to extension work 32,145
Days agents spent in office 3,940
Days agents spent in field .9,7351/2
News articles or stories published 2,182
.Individual letters written 45,817
Different circular letters prepared 751
Bulletins distributed 40,029
Radio talks made 138
Events at which extension exhibits were shown 49
Number Attendance
Training meetings for local leaders 29 348
Method demonstration meetings held 2,385 16,406
Meetings held at result demonstrations 557 6,498
Tours conducted 76 3,810
Other meetings of an extension nature not reported elsewhere 1,233 48,760
Meetings held by leaders not participated ir by agent
and not reported elsewhere 104 1,094
4-H Clubs
Voluntary county or community local leaders 115
Number of clubs. 131
Number of members enrolled 2,658
Number of members completing 1,215
Number of 4-H club members in school 2,496
Achievement days held 15
Total attendance at achievement days 2,432
Encampments held 17
Attendance at encampments 599
Meetings held not participated in by agent and not reported elsewhere 64
Attendance at meetings 1,338







34 Florida Cooperative Extension

CEREALS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, Rye, etc.)

'Method demonstration meetings held 211
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 534 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 5,012

- 4-H Club
Members enrolled 628
Members completing 296
Number of acres grown by club members completing 3431/2
Total yields of cereals grown by members completing . 10,724

LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Vetch, Lespedeza, Peanuts, Crotalaria, etc.)

Demonstration meetings held 397
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 1,124 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 15,348

4-11 Club
Members enrolled 41
Members completing 25
Acres grown by club members completing 37

POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
(Sweet and Irish)

Method demonstration meetings held 173
Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year (result) 128 Acres included in result demonstrations 764

4-11 Club
Members enrolled 152
Members completing 113
Acres grown by members completing 52

I COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 76
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 275 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 2,156

4-H Club
Members enrolled 249
Members completing 114
Acres grown by club members completing 159

TOBACCO DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held 21
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 36 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 68

4-H Club
Members enrolled 3
Members completing 2
Acres grown by club members completing. 6






Annual Report, 1930 35

OTHER DEMONSTRATIONS, SPECIAL CROPS

Demonstration meetings held 66
Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year . 56 Acres included in adult demonstrations (result) 118

4-11 Club
Members enrolled I
Members completing 1
Acres grown by club member completing 21/2

HOME AND MARKET GARDEN DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held 761
Result demonstrations completed or carried into -next year . 610 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 5,174

4-H Club
Members enrolled 417
Members completing 140
Acres grown by club members completing . 90

BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS DEMONSTRATION
Method demonstration meetings held - . 341
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . . 299

4-11 Club
Members enrolled 17
Members completing 4

HORTICULTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 517
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year -------- . 775 Acres included in adult result demonstrations 15,186

4-11 Club
Members enrolled 110
Members completing 55
Acres grown by club members completing 201/2

FORESTRY DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held 41
Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year . 14 Club members enrolled 26
Club members completing 23
Acres farm wood lot managed by club members completing . 22 Acres involved 35
Farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management 38
involving acreage of 3,349
Farms planting windbreaks according to recommendations ------------ 22
Farms assisted in other ways relative to forestry 10

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS

Demonstration meetings held 728
Demonstrations completed or.carried into the next year --- . 365 Pounds of poison used 7,191






Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ENGINEERING
Method demonstration meetings held 160
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 133 Farms following recommendations in installing drainage systems 170 Acres drained by such systems 4,264
Farms following recommendations in installing irrigation systems 270 Acres irrigated by such systems 1,189
Farms building terraces and soil-saving dams according to recommendations 239
Acres on which soil erosion was prevented by terraces and dams 4,299 Farms clearing land of stumps or boulders according to recommended methods 97
Families assisted with house-planning problems 44
Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished 7
Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished 8
Sewage-disposal systems installed according to recommendations 22 Water systems installed according to recommendations _-------------- 33
Lighting systems installed according to recommendations ------------ 21
Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were constructed
or remodeled this year according to plans furnished ------------ . 255
Buildings involved in preceding 330
Dairy barns 57
Hog houses 52
Poultry houses 146
Silos 13
'Other 62

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held 305
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 190 Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations . 57,748 Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed $13,048
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires Ito
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females -.-. ---- 96 Number of clubs organized 12
Flock improvement associations organized or reorganized . 7 Members in these associations 124
Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 80

4-H Club
Members enrolled 402
Members completing 150
Number of animals involved in work completed 5,699

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 201
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ------------ 217
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations . ---------- 2,514
Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed $15,899
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires 164
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ---- 128 Number of clubs organized 9
Members in clubs 66
Herd improvement associations organized or reorganized . 6 Members in these associations 83
Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 69






Annual Report, 1930 37

4-H Club
Members enrolled 182
Members completing 94
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ------- . 123

BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS

Method demonstration meetings held 27
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ------------ 34
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations . 1,726 Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed $1,630
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires 116
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females -------- 27 Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 3

4-H Club
Members enrolled 134
Members completing 3
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ---------------- 14

SHEEP DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 51
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ------------ 65
Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations __. ----- 7,393 Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed $1,871
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred rams 5
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females . 9 Number of clubs organized 1
Members in club 8

HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 98
Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 185 Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations . 9,400 Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed $10,380
Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires 213
Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females . 168 Number of clubs organized 8

4-H Club
Members enrolled 582
Members completing 221
Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed . . 329

FARM MANAGEMENT, CREDIT, INSURANCE, AND TAXATION
DEMONSTRATIONS
Method demonstration meetings held 83
Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year 157 Farms keeping farm accounts throughout the year under supervision of agents 109
Farms keeping cost-of-production records under supervision of
agents 138
Farms assisted in summarizing and interpreting their accounts 144 Farms assisted in making inventory or credit statements ---- _ ----- 383 Farm business or enterprise survey records taken during year . --- 150 Farms making recommended changes in their business as result of
keeping accounts or survey records 120






38 Florida, Cooperative Extension

Other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete farming
systems according to recommendations 416
Farms advised relative to leases 269
Farms assisted in obtaining credit 2,475
Different farms assisted in using outlook studies 939
Farms making readjustments inFarm crops 369
Truck crops 271
Livestock 553
Poultry 228

MARKETING (FARM AND HOME) DEMONSTRATIONS
Grain and Feed

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 2
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 5
Membership in associations organized and assisted 463
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with --- __$15,350 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $ 9,973

Cotton
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 4
Membership in associations organized and assisted 135
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with . $16,237 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $19,231
Dairy Products
Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 5
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 6
Membership 'in associations organized and assisted 493
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ---- $800,180 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $ 20,789
Fruits and Vegetables

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 14
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously orga-nized assisted by extension agents this year 6G
Membership in associations organized and assisted 2,285
Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $695,752 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with -.-.$1,916,540 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems ofStandardizing 227
Packaging and grading 352
Use of current market information 790

Poultry and Eggs
Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 16
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 15
Membership in associations organized and assisted 826






Annual Report, 1930 39

Value of products marketed by all associations worked with ---- $138,550 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $ 7,667 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted
with problems ofStandardizing 26
Packaging and grading 27
Use of current market information 31
Livestock

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 5
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 32
Membership in associations organized and assisted 1,407
Value of products marketed by all associations worked with . $109,738 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . $ 11,231 Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or
groups assisted with problems ofStandardizing 141
Packaging and grading 2
Use of current market information 107

Home and Other Products

Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during
the year 4
Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year 12
Membership in associations organized and assisted 797
Value of products marketed by associations worked with . $ 55,900 Value of supplies purchased by associations worked with . $169,301 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted
with problems ofStandardizing 30
Packaging and grading 19
Use of current market information 24

COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES

Communities surveyed or scored 8
Clubhouses, permanent camps, etc., built 1
Community or county-wide pageants or plays presented ---------------- 15
Communities developing recreation according to recommendations 15 School or other community grounds landscaped in accordance with
plans furnished 9
Clubs engaging in community activities (landscaping, fairs, etc.) 5 Number of different communities assisted in connection with community work 27

BEES, WEEDS, HANDICRAFT, MISCELLANEOUS
Method demonstration meetings held 12
Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . 13 4-H club members enrolled 10
4-H club members completing 5








BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT
There was a slight decrease in enrollment in boys' clubs during 1930, in part due to increasing demands made upon county agents by adult farmers. The seed loan work came at the time when the agents are usually enrolling new members and organizing their work. The demand for assistance in marketing is increasing, which has a tendency to force the agents to lessen the amount of time given to other lines of work.
The decrease is most noticeable in the counties where the seed loan work was the heaviest. The following tables show the gain and loss in the different projects.


C

0
0 0 0 0
U P4 E-4 0 04

TOTAL 1930 586 219 176316113 423462 224 196 197 2992 Total 1929 . . 6551 282 209391114 562456 334 160 48 3211 Gain or Loss I
in 1930 . -69 -63 -33 +5 -1 139 +6 +,36 +149 -219

CLUB ORGANIZATIONS
Local Clubs: The number of organized clubs continues to increase. The increased efficiency of organized work is apparent. Many local clubs are taking charge of securing the enrollment and collecting reports. The more responsibility which can be shifted to the club members the better the club work. . County Organizations: The next step after the local club is the county organization, usually called the county council. County organizations have been set up in Escambia, Hillsborough,, Walton, Lake, and Union counties. In Leon and Liberty counties all boys are enrolled in one big county club.
Escambia and Walton counties have the best organizations. The local clubs have federated and formed county councils. This develops leadership among the club members and enables the agent to do more and better club work with less personal effort.


Florida Cooperative Extension






Annual Report, 1930


A state organization was formed at the Short Course. This organization can be made of service in promoting club work throughout the state.
Chartered Clubs: A 4-11 club charter is available for all local clubs which meet certain requirements. The charter is signed by the United States Secretary of Agriculture, the State Director of Extension, and the State Club Agent. The first club in Florida to secure its charter was the Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County. It is hoped that many other clubs will meet the requirements and secure charters in 1931.
LEADERSHIP
The increased demands upon the county agents are having a serious effect upon 4-11 club work. Unless the older members can be trained to accept part of the responsibility, the efficiency of club work will be greatly lessened. The big need today is leadership training among the older boys. Unless this can be secured to offset the decreased time which can be given to club work by the county agents, 4-H club work cannot begin to meet its opportunities or its responsibilities.
During the last two years, some progress has been made in leadership training. The results have been encouraging. A start was made by calling together some of the older boys and giving them a little training in 4-H leadership. In 1929 a 3-day leadership camp was held at the West Florida 4-11 camp. In 1930 the most promising older boys in 10 counties were called together for a half day conference. The results secured warrant more time being given to this. It is hoped to increase the number of counties holding leadership meetings.
PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS
SOIL BUILDING
That Florida soils respond to a well planned improvement program has been demonstrated by the work done with covercrops. If 4-H club work is to accept its full responsibility, it must induce its members to demonstrate this important practice in farming. The number of boys using cover crops is increasing. In 1929, 23 boys planted cover crops while in 1930 53 boys demonstrated the possibility of increasing yields through the use of cover crops.
There are two rather outstanding examples of cover-crop






Florida Cooperative Extension


work by club boys. Paul Thompson of Jefferson County put on a real cover-crop demonstration. He planted a cover crop of Austrian winter peas on his club acre in the fall of 1928. He planted this acre to corn in the spring of 1929. In the fall of 1929 he planted 3/4 of this acre to cover crop and left the other 1/4 without. Two adjoining acres were planted to Austrian winter peas in the fall of 1929. The three acres were broken the latter part of March and well disked. Corn was planted two weeks later and the same cultivation was given the three acres.
The demonstration consisted of 2 acres with one cover crop, 3/4 acres with 2 cover crops, 1/ acre with one cover crop but a year elapsing since it was grown, and a check plot on which cover crop had never been grown. The results were: no cover crop 121/2 bushels, one cover crop but the second crop of corn, 303/t. bushels, one cover crop, 393/8 bushels, and two successive cover crops, 56 2/5 bushels per acre.
Hugh Dukes of Union County has increased his yield of corn in 3 years from 24 to 91 bushels. He did this through winter cover crops plus intelligent fertilization.
FARM CROPS
Corn: The 1930 weather was not favorable for corn production. The corn club acres in the southern part of the state were flooded. Some boys report having planted three times, due to the land being flooded. In the western part the drought reduced the yield nearly 30 percent. The largest yields were made in the counties lying between Alachua and Leon.
The unfavorable weather reduced the number to report. The yields were so small that the boys would not report them. The average yield in Santa Rosa County dropped from 38.6 bushels per acre in 1928 to 29.3 bushels in 1930.
Cotton: While the weather was unfavorable for corn, it suit-, ed cotton. The club acres produced the highest average yield in the history of club work in Florida. While the weather was decidedly favorable, the boys used better seed and more fertilizer than in the past. 4-H club boys produced an average of 1,141 pounds seed cotton per acre against an average of 931 pounds per acre for 1929.
It is interesting to note the correlation between yield and profit in cotton production. With 26 boys reporting an average yield of 1,723 pounds seed cotton at an average cost per acre of $36.82.,the average profit was $37.57, while for 10 boys report-






Annual Report, 1930


ing an average of 1,027 pounds seed cotton per acre at an average cost of $27.25 per acre the profit was $15.73 per acre.
Over 70% of the difference in cost per acre was due to cost of picking the extra 696 pounds seed cotton. The average yield of the state is much lower than the 1,027 pounds seed cotton of the low 10 boys. The high yield of the boys was due to better seed and more fertilizer of the kind most suitable for cotton. The cotton club boys are putting on real demonstrations in profitable cotton production under present conditions of a low price for cotton.
HORTICULTURE
The excessive rains in Southern Florida ruined most of the truck projects. One boy in Sumter County reported that his acre of tomatoes was three feet under water. The county agent reports that he saw the troughs for cucumbers floating in the field. The boys in Palm Beach County under the unfavorable weather conditions made profit ranging up to $91 per 1/8 acre.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
The number of breeding pigs raised by the club members held its own. The hard times kept the boys from buying good animals. There were some very good individuals raised but the average was not quite as good as in the past. The barrow club was not as popular if judged by the number reporting. A great many of the boys sold their barrows on the early, market and did not turn in record books. In 1931 the State Pig Club Contest will be held much earlier with an idea of inducing the boys to have their barrows ready for the early market when prices are higher.
Hugh Dukes of Union County raised the best barrow in the state. The pig was farrowed on March 11 and on November 25 weighed 342 pounds.
Arthur McNeeley of Marion County did the best pig club project. Arthur has a herd of purebred Poland Chinas. He raised and sold 16 head from his two sows and has 16 more weighing about 40 pounds each.
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
No increase in dairy club work was attempted in 1930. The principal dairy section was under dipping regulations for eradication of the cattle tick. When the eradication is complete an attempt will be made to increase the work in this project.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The results of dairy club work as seen in Madison County are worth while. Three years ago 155 calves were placed with club members. These calves with their offsprings have changed the type of milk cows to be found on the farms of that county.
Quite a few calves were placed with boys this fall in Madison and Marion counties.
Lamar Hartsfield of Leon County has his club cow on test for Register of Merit. It is certain that she will make a record entitling her to be named as a gold medal cow in her class.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
The work with poultry was enlarged to include management as well as production. It is hoped by this means to hiduce club members to take over the management of the farm flock. Several of these members entered the Home Egg Laying Contest with most satisfactory results.
To encourage club work with poultry and to offer special inducements, arrangements have been made with the Volusia County Fair Association to hold a State Poultry Show and Judging Contest in connection with this fair. The first show will be held on March 31, 1931.
One poultry club boy in Palm Beach County made a profit of $214 from his poultry club work. With this money he helped support his family while his father was out of work for several weeks.
SPECIAL, ACTIVITIES
The carrying out of project demonstrations is but part of 4-H club work. The social side of rural life is of importance as well as the matter of making a living. The necessary publicity must have special emphasis. Educational trips for outstanding achievement have proven of great value in promoting the work. The above activities take the larger part of the time of the State Club Agent and are considered of primary importance.
ANNUA T 4-H CLUB SHORT COURSE
This is the big occasion of the club year. The county champions are brought to the University for a week's visit. The close association with the college, and a working introduction to the work being done there, seems to make an enduring impression on the boys. Many boys have said that their visits to the University at the Short Course was what gave them the inspiration to work to return as regular students.






Annual Report, 1930


Fig. 7-These 4-H club boys staged their annual "fair" alongside the old county jail.

The 1930 Short Course was the largest one yet, with 237 boys representing 36 counties. The course was arranged as for the past three years, a mixture of work and play, with special training in leadership given to the older boys who had attended a previous Short Course.
SOCIAL MEETINGS
The 4-H boys and girls in several counties have met together for social good times. The boys and girls have planned these little affairs and have had complete charge of the programs. In nearly all instances a boy and a girl told the story of club work and what it meant to them. This form of advertising is invaluable. The first public speech one boy attempted was in support






Florida Cooperative Extension


of 4-H club work. -It was crude and lacked polish but it meant more to his audience than did that of more polished. speakers who followed him.
The good times and neighborly friendliness of these social meetings mean much in some rural communities. They are worth while, and more agents would do well to help their members plan for them.
CLUB RALLIES
This means of wholesome publicity is being used in some counties. In Escambia County an impressive rally was held. The United States Naval Station at Pensacola sent their band to lead the parade. Over 250 4-H boys and girls were in line. Lake County held their first club rally in 1930.
RADIO PROGRAMS
Station WRUF has been used in an effort to acquaint the general public with 4-H club work. Special club programs are put on the first Friday night of each month. A half hour program, 15 minutes of which is music, is given. Usually three boys or girls make short talks on the work they have done. Three of the boys attending the International Live Stock Show and Club Congress told of their trip on one of the programs. One night's program at the Short Course was broadcast.
CLUB CAMPS
The camp continues to grow in popularity. To help in the camp work Leland Hiatt was employed for three months during the summer. Mr. Hiatt is an expert swimmer as well as an experienced leader in boys' work.
Total of 530 boys from 18 counties attended camps during June, July, and August. The 4-H Camp in West Florida was enlarged and improved. More cottages were built, equipment for the kitchen and dining room added, and a 31/.). acre playground cleared and sowed to grass.
CORN EXHIBIT
An exhibit of corn produced and selected by the corn club boys was shown at the South Florida Fair. Nearly 10,000 ears were exhibited. Obie Hattaway of Walton County won $35 offered for the best bushel of corn.





Annual Report, 1930


STATE PIG CLUB SHOW
The Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored a State Pig Club Show. The contest was set for November 18 but a storm washing out several of the roads leading to Tallahassee forced the postponement for a week.
In all, 124 pigs were exhibited by boys from Marion, Union, Madison, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Wakulla, and Jackson counties.
. Champion barrow went to Hugh Dukes of Union County on a Poland China. Champion in breeding class went to Wilma Bassett of Jefferson County on a Poland China senior gilt.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
As 4-H club work's boast is that club work broadens the vision, several educational trips are offered to give some of the outstanding club boys an opportunity to see something of club work in its nation-wide scope.
Two boys represented Florida 4-11 club boys at the National 4-H Club Camp at Washington. One boy attended the Moses Leadership Training School for old club boys at Springfield, Massachusetts. Five boys won trips to the International Live Stock Show and 4-11 Club Congress at Chicago.
These trips are much sought after by the boys. Having such an attraction, they help to hold the older boys in club work and to secure a large percentage of records.





Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairyman
The dairy work has succeeded in the counties almost in direct proportion to the cooperation of the local dairymen and farmers in helping to formulate the plan of work. There has been an accumulation of interest in dairy organizations that has been building for the past four to five years. The fruits of this cooperative effort have yielded a much greater harvest in 1930 than in any previous year because dairymen now realize that the dairying business must be developed largely by the producers.
Counties that have reported substantial progress in dairy work this year are Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Alachua, Duval, Ma-rion, Flagler, Volusia, Lake, Orange, Hernando, Brevard, Hillsborough, Manatee, Lee, Osceola, Okeechobee, Indian River, Martin, Palm Beach, and Dade.
PERMANENT PASTURES AND FEED GROWING
County Agent reports show that the dairymen of Florida are giving unusual attention to the establishment of pastures and providing home grown feeds. This is in line with the Extension dairy program looking forward to an expansion of the dairy industry and greater competition.
The increased production, coupled with general business conditions, has brought a change in marketing conditions. There has been a considerable increase in the number of milk cows near the market centers.
The results of importations of purebred breeding stock, both male and female, are now in evidence in many sections of the state, particularly in Marion county where dairying is on a good, sound basis. There is an increase in the number of demonstrations of various kinds, dealing with method of feeding, pastures, and dairy cow testing.
Demonstrations in pastures, forage crops, and dairy management will be an important part of the county agent work during the coming year, largely due to the increased supply of milk and to the general interest in profitable dairying in this state.
FARM DAIRYING
Twenty counties have increased their farm dairying during the past year. Those who started by shipping cream without





Annual Report, 1930


providing good cows and a supply of home-grown feeds have not progressed very far, and in most instances have given up dairying more or less disgusted. Butterfat prices have been unusually low, and when the cream was collected once or twice a week at cream stations in small quantities and shipped long distances the quality was poor and the returns too low to get feed cost from the sale of cream. However, those few farmers who produce most of the feed are getting fair returns and enlarging their herds. Okaloosa and Walton county farmers have purchased a carload of high grade bred heifers and some registered bulls and have made provision to produce most of the feed. The purchases were financed by the banks and purchased cooperatively with the help of county agents. Plans are under way for purchasing more heifers, while the prices for dairy animals are low. There is a surplus of market milk in the larger cities and towns, resulting in lower prices for whole milk, thereby making it necessary to reduce the cost of production. City dairymen are moving onto farms where pastures are available.
SWEET, CREAM MARKET
Reports from the State Milk Inspection Department show that approximately 150,000 gallons of sweet cream were shipped into the state from October 1, 1929 to October 1, 1930. Plans are under way another year to work in cooperation with the State Inspection Department to get some farm dairy communities to producing sweet cream that will meet inspection requirements. Marion County is especially equipped to do this now.
DEMONSTRATIONS RAISING DAIRY CALVES
Improper management of calves has been a handicap to many dairymen. The general practice of killing off young calves causes dairymen to have to purchase cows at high expense. Raising the calves with nurse cows often proves unsatisfactory.
Six farmers in Duval County put on demonstrations with 36 calves in cooperation with the Extension Dairyman and the county dairy agent. Part of these calves were fed fresh whole milk, the others were fed milk made from skimmilk powders. The fresh milk- calves made good growth, while the calves on powdered milk made less growth but were in a healthy condition as long as they were fed fresh dry skimmilk powders of good quality.





Florida Cooperative Extension


It cost an average of $67 to raise a calf to 4 months of age when fed fresh whole milk. While with the lot fed on powdered milk the cost was $33 each. The market price of skimmilk powders was 9 cents a pound.
There has been a heavy loss with calves as a result of turning young calves on sod pasture grasses, where they become infested with intestinal worms. Many die, and many that live are under size and never develop properly as dairy cows. Nine demonstrations were conducted in Duval County to prevent parasite infestation by keeping the calves away from infested pastures until six to eight months of age, and giving proper feeding and management otherwise.
PRODUCTION RECORDS
Eighty-seven dairymen kept individual production records on 1,868 cows. These records are producing valuable information to stimulate interest in a feed growing program and production. costs.
DISTRIBUTION OF DAIRY ANIMALS
There has been a widespread interest in improving the clask; of dairy bulls. A sale of registered dairy animals was put on under the auspices of the State Dairymen's Association. Low prices of good breeding animals make this an opportune time for Florida dairymen to import some good dairy animals. One, hundred seventeen registered bulls have been placed on farms this year. Duval County with an all-time man doing dairy work, and an active county dairy association, has led all other counties this year with 39 placed in the county. From 1926 to 1930 the number of registered bulls in Madison County increased from 3 to 98, as a direct result of extension work.
At the instance of the North Marion Dairy Association, and. in cooperation with representatives of this association and other representatives from Alachua, Duval, Walton, Madison, and. Okaloosa counties, the Extension Dairyman made a trip into Tennessee for the purpose of selecting good dairy animals for bringing to Florida. Excellent Jersey heifers were obtainable, due to the shortage of feed resulting from the drought in Tennessee. These heifers had been grown under farm conditions, were good grazers, and were easily acclimated to conditions in Florida.
Twelve carloads, 485 Jerseys, were selected and brought to Florida. As a result of this work, other counties became inter-






Annual Report, 1930


ested, and 2,250 dairy cows and heifers were brought in to all parts of the state. The Agent in Hillsborough estimates that 735 of themwent to that county.
SILOS, DAIRY BARNS, AND MILK HOUSES
There have been 17 new silos built with a capacity of 2,250 tons of silage. Practically every silo in the state was filled. Farmers have found it practical to seed sorghum in the summer for fall silage. Special demonstrations were also carried on in methods of filling silos. It has been a common practice to cut silage in too long pieces, which caused spoiled silage and produced digestion troubles in the dairy herds.
Some pit and trench silos were built where farmers are selling cream and growing out dairy cows.
County agents helped farmers in remodeling 32 milk houses and six sleeping sheds and dairy barns. These sheds are needed in the winter to protect the'cows from the cold rains, and in the summer are used for shade.
STIMULATING THE SALE OF FLUID MILK
There has been a surplus of fluid milk in practically every consuming center in the state. An educational booth was put on at the State Fair, by County Agent A. S. Lawton in cooperation with the Duval County Dairymen's Association. This exhibit demonstrated the cleanly methods practiced by members of this association in producing milk. From 50 to 75 gallons of milk was distributed free each day in 2-ounce bottles with educational literature telling about the dairy industry in the county. This developed a cooperative spirit among dairymen, and the direct advertising contributed greatly to keeping down the surplus of fluid milk in Jacksonville during the summer.
In cooperation with Miss Mary Stennis, State Nutrition Agent, J. M. Scott, State Milk Inspector, J. M. Burgess, Department of Agriculture, a special milk week campaign was conducted. At that time articles were published in state publications and a series of radio talks were broadcast over Station WRUF. Milk and its various products were discussed. This all contributed to helping increase milk consumption.
QUALITY MILK DEMONSTRATION
An educational meeting was held in Ocala in the spring in cooperation with the U. S. Dairy Bureau. J. H. McClain, Extension






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dairy Specialist, helped in putting on a quality milk demonstration. Stress was placed on quality milk by freedom from contaminating surroundings, ample equipment to thoroughly cleanse and sterilize dairy utensils.
DUVAL COUNTY BETTER MILK LEAGUE
A major step in milk marketing was the formation of a league patterned after the Baltimore Bargaining League to take charge of the marketing of milk in Jacksonville. This work was accomplished through the Duval County Dairymen's Association, a producers' association that has been operating in Jacksonville for five years. Members of this association attended a gathering in Tallahassee for a conference with members of the Federal Farm Board. They later called in a special representative of the Farm Board to help in formulating contracts. They also sent delegates to Baltimore and Washington to get direct information from producers and others connected with the Baltimore Milk League. This league has 64 members and is marketing 85% of the market milk in Jacksonville. They are working in direct harmony with the city milk inspection department in bringing up the quality of milk in the dairies that are members of the association. A one cent tax on each gallon of milk produced by members of the league is used for the building of the association and as a sinking fund for future emergencies.
The league has multiplied the efforts of the county agents in conducting demonstrations in feed growing and herd improvement.
4-H DAIRY CLUBS
Counties doing 4-H dairy club work have been Leon, Madison, Okaloosa, Citrus, Orange, Hillsborough, Walton, Jackson, Alachua, and Jefferson. . The class of work has been gradually improving each year. With tick eradication completed in a large area of the state and with price of young animals low, dairy club enrollment is being pushed, especially in the farm dairy centers.
ORGANIZATIONS
Dairy organizations have proven themselves valuable to extension work. In counties where the farmers are associated together the extension work is more permanent. Some of the county organizations that are helping very materially in doing extension work are Escambia County Dairymen's Association,






Annual Report, 1930


Okaloosa County Producers' Association, Leon County Dairymen's Association, Duval County Dairymen's Association, Duval County Better Milk League, The Flagler-Volusia County Dairymen's Association, Pinellas County Dairymen's Association, Orange County Dairymen's Association, Hillsborough County Dairymen's Association, Polk County Dairymen's Association, Manatee County Dairymen's Association, Palm Beach County Dairymen's Association, and the Miami Home Milk League.
The State Dairymen's Association has given valuable aid in putting on the dairy program during Farmers' Week. Some 250 dairymen were present at the annual meeting held in Gainesville during Farmers' Week. The state president called a meeting of the board of directors and the chairmen of all the various committees in Gainesville. There was 100%o attendance. This is evidence of the interest being manifested by the dairymen in helping to carry on the business of dairying in the state.
The State Dairymen's Association rendered valuable service in helping with a registered dairy cattle sale at Monticello, October 28. Thirty registered animals, mostly bulls, were sold at that time. The Monticello Kiwanis Club, under the leadership of County Agent Finlayson, was host and provided sale barn, feed, and a special sales ring for the sale. In addition they served a free barbecue dinner to 450 people.
There was a State Guernsey Breeder's Association formed at the Farmers' Week meeting in Gainesville last summer. There. are plans to organize a State Jersey Association soon.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
W. J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry Extension work in Florida is being conducted by a cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Agricultural Extension Service of Florida, beginning July 22, 1930.
It is the policy of the Extension Agent in Animal Husbandry to work in cooperation with the representative livestock producers in working out plans for improving and developing the beef cattle and other livestock possibilities in Florida. This method will not only secure better cooperation, but will ' mean a better understanding of local problems in production and marketing.
As a basis, certain projects and plans of livestock development are submitted with an idea of working out a method of economical beef cattle, hog, and sheep production suitable to Florida conditions.
A conference of persons interested in livestock development was held during Farmers' Week for the purpose of developing a cooperative plan of work. Those attending were county and district agents, Dr. J. R. Ricks, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, and representative livestock owners. This was followed by personal visits to farmers, range cattle owners, and others who were financially interested in the best development of Florida's livestock interests.
In the tick-free area, interests and efforts are being centered on replacing scrub bulls with good bulls, growing feed and pasture, securing and developing a maximum, uniform good quality CALF CROP, good quality beef animals, fat calves, and one and two year old stockers.
There is a healthy interest in beef cattle development in Florida, as shown by requests for information on pasture, feed, and livestock development.
A survey of the calf crop in the tick-free area where good bulls have been used indicates that owners are well pleased with the growth and development of 'the calves. Returns from the sale of grade calves as compared with others of the same age show 2 cents more per pound in favor of the grade calves. Three men report grade calves sold for $20 each, while common calves the





Annual Report, 1930


same age sold for $12 to $15 each. One county agent reports 300 grade calves from purebred bulls worth $5 per head more than common calves of the same age.
Since July 23, reports show purebred bulls placed in the following counties: seven Herefords in Marion, six Red Polls in Baker, seven Angus in Sarasota, two Herefords in Clay, two Herefords in Dixie, three Herefords in Alachua, three Herefords in Levy, one Hereford in Leon, three Angus in Jefferson, and four Herefords in Taylor.
The tendency of growers in the tick-free area is to get purebred beef bulls, and to increase their herds, but -funds are short and good range cows are scarce. Some of the land owners and cattlemen are making efforts to secure breeding cattle from the area soon to begin tick eradication.
Since July the writer has assisted in programs at 14 meetings, discussing livestock, meats, marketing, and transportation, at farmers meetings, Kiwanis Clubs, Rotary Clubs, and Women's Clubs, and has made contacts with many farmers and business interests in behalf of livestock improvement.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRICULTURE
E. F. DEBusx, Citriculturist
Existing conditions during the year have resulted in many calls for information in the economic field of the citrus industry. More than ever before, growers are thinking of each grove operation as having a direct and important bearing on the efficiency of the grove as a paying business enterprise.
It is generally recognized that profitable citrus fruit production in Florida is dependent on these four factors: Quality fruit, low production cost per box, high yield per acre, and efficient marketing.
Our program of work is built around the first three factors above mentioned. We have not, as yet, taken up directly the marketing phases of the industry.
In the effort to produce quality fruit, judged by present standard, there are many factors with which to contend. In an effort to find out why fruit grades low, and thus get at a real basis for building a constructive program for the improvement of quality, a study of the lower grades of fruit in the packinghouses is being made from year to year. Twenty-eight blemishes have been noted as the causes of fruit going into the low grades or cull pile. Of the 28 blemishes noted, five are being controlled economically by spraying; six may be controlled by proper handling of the fruit from the tree to the packinghouse; the control of seven depends upon proper cultural practices and grove management; while the grower has no control over the remaining 10. The relative economic importance of the 28 blemishes, as they affect fruit quality, is being determined by counties or communities and by individual growers. Thus by a thorough analysis of conditions we find that the grove practices that produce the most satisfactory results in the improvement of fruit quality vary with the local conditions. For example, in a certain grove we found that the problem in producing quality was melanose control, and that the most effective and most economical control of melanose was by reducing the amount of oil spraying that was being done. Too much oil was being applied for scale control, with the result that many young twigs were being killed, leaving a source of infection for melanose. Under another condition it was- found that instead of spraying to kill thrips and prevent a blemish which was thought to be thrips marks, by leaving a strip of high cover crop growing between






Annual Report, 1930


the tree rows the so called thrips mark blemishes were greatly reduced. The strips of cover crop protected the young fruit against the scarring effect of the sand carried by the wind and thus corrected the trouble satisfactorily and left no demand for the expensive spraying.
In practical citrus fruit production, the most economical control of melanose, for example, may call for any operation from opening a drainage ditch or spooling a disc to prevent root pruning, to better fertilization or spraying with bordeaux-oil. A still wider range of operations is involved in reducing the box cost of production, which is closely tied up with yield per acre.
Our program of work adapts itself to conditions in any citrus producing section of the state. A certain amount of work has been done on one or more of the following projects in each and every county in which citrus is grown commercially: Melanose control, blue mold decay control, treatment of tree trunk and root diseases, scale and whitefly control, irrigation and drainage, citrus scab control, rust mite control, fertilizing and cover crops, and special service work.
MELANOSE CONTROL
The method of controlling melanose by spraying with 3-3-50 bordeaux mixture plus one percent oil in emulsion, when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in diameter is so generally practiced by growers, that except in a few backward communities, the time of our fieldmen can be spent more profitably by improving the grower's methods of control than by actually putting on result demonstrations. Therefore, much time has been devoted this year to improving methods of control by contact through field meetings, by visits to individual growers, by special letters, press articles, and radio talks. The results have been very satisfactory.
While the trees were blooming and setting fruit last spring,' weather conditions favorable for the development of melanose prevailed, resulting in a heavy early infection and consequently much dropping. Fortunately there was a heavy bloom and the dropping served only to thin the crop, and took with it much of what otherwise would have been a heavy melanose infected crop. The result is a heavy crop of fruit fairly free of melanose in spite of the fact that spraying as a rule was rendered ineffective because of the unusually frequent rains during spraying time.
Throughout the year much time has been devoted to indirect






Florida Cooperative Extension


control of melanose in years to come by correcting grove practices and conditions that result in the production of dead wood. This procedure is proving very effective.
CITRUS SCAB CONTROL
Our scab control work has been handled very much like that of our melanose control program., Since the effectiveness of spraying for scab control depends upon weather conditions, the grower's gues's is about as good as ours. What has been said about the effect of weather conditions last spring on melanose control may be said with reference to its relation to scab control. The worst scab-infected young fruit dropped early, but there was plenty of fruit left. The scabby fruit is going to the canneries and the fruit that is being shipped out is fairly free of scab. In many cases very little was accomplished by spraying because of unfavorable weather conditions.
BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL
Through our educational program, growers and packers quite generally understand that blue mold decay losses are very largely the result of improper handling of fruit from the tree to the car. It has been carefully estimated that about 70 percent of the fruit abrasions, caused by rough or improper handling, result in decay before the fruit is consumed.
In an effort to reduce the losses resulting from improper handling of fruit, demonstrations in the proper use of picking equipment have been given in seven of the leading citrus producing communities. Six meetings, with picking foremen, pickers, and growers, were held, at which time the reduction of blue mold decay by better picking and more careful handling of fruit was the chief subject discussed. Splendid cooperation has been received from growers, packinghouse managers, and officials of marketing organizations.
A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the pickinj and handling of fruit four years ago showed that the growers suffered a loss of 60 cents per box because of decay resulting from picking defects. Similar inspections made this year showed a loss of only 28 cents per box, figured on the same basis, or a saving of 32 cents per box under average market conditions.
This improvement has been brought about largely by more efficient packing supervision, more favorable labor conditions, and by the adoption of the "nipper type" fruit clipper.





Annual Report, 1930


TREE TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASE TREATMENT
Owing to the very favorable growing season of the spring and summer, the demand for assistance in the control of such diseases as gumniosis, psorosis, and foot rot has been rather light. Here again the relation between the vitality of a tree, as affected by freeze, drought, and favorable growing conditions, and the development of these trunk and root diseases cannot be overlooked in their economic control. Efforts directed along lines of providing more favorable growing conditions for a tree - supplying organic matter, proper fertilization, and more adequate moisture control-are usually found to be more effective in the control of gummosis and psorosis, and a more economical practice over a period of years, than scraping the diseased area and applying a disinfectant. A combination of the two gives best results.
RUST MITE CONTROL
Rust mite control -is almost universally practiced in Florida citrus groves because it offers greater opportunity for profitable returns on the investment than the control of any other insect pest or disease. The Extension Service renders its greatest service by informing growers as to the proper time to spray or dust, by teaching growers to recognize the insect and to know at what stage in its development in his particular grove the spraying should begin.
SCALE AND WHITEFLY CONTROL
It has been observed that the entomogenous fungi keep the whitefly and scale under satisfactory control in many old groves, especially those in the hammocks. We have been studying these conditions with the hopes of finding factors that contribute to this natural control and that might possibly be introduced and developed in other groves and under other conditions less favorable to the development of entomogenous fungi, and thereby make possible natural control of pests under a wider range of conditions. We have had wonderful success in controlling whitefly by the use of the red aschersonia. Demonstrations have shown a saving of as high as $7.50 per acre over control by spraying with oil. But our greatest handicap in developing scale control by the use of entomogenous fungi lies in our inability, so far, to culture the scale fungi for general distribution.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Encouraging progress has been made in developing the conditions or factors that enter into natural scale control, even in the ridge section of the citrus belt. In one demonstration grove we find that, by reducing cultivation to about one-fourth that of the former practice, and growing a heavy cover-crop, and by not pruning out the center of the trees to "let the sunlight in", .a condition has been brought about which favors the development of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not been necessary to spray the grove for scale control for the last three years. This demonstration affects directly more than 1,000 acres of grove.
We have had an unusual peppering of Florida red scale over the state this year, but in many cases it has been satisfactorily controlled by one of the scale fungi. Climatic conditions during the year as a whole have been unusually favorable to natural control of grove parasites with the result that less than the usual amount of spraying has been necessary to give satisfactory control. We have devoted much time to increasing the'efficiency of spraying by improving equipment and better timing of applications.
FERTILIZING AND COVER CROPS
Demonstrations have been conducted in every part of the citrus belt showing that by the proper use of suitable cover crops the expensive organic fertilizers may be replaced by the cheaper chemical sources of plant food and by higher concentrates of both simple materials and mixtures. , No project has given more productive results than the cover crop fertilizer project, especial ly where Crotalaria strata has been used as the cover crop. Crotalaria was generally introduced to growers only about five years ago, and today it is by far the leading cover crop for citrus groves. More than 250,000 pounds of seed were planted in the citrus belt in addition to the large acreage reseeding itself from previous plantings.
The crying need of our sandy citrus soils is organic matter, produced by the growing of cover crops. It has been demonstrated that the cost of producing citrus fruits can be reduced 25 to 40 percent by the proper use of a good cover crop of Crotalaria, thereby growing an organic nitrogen at 10 to 12 cents a pound that will produce equally as satisfactory results in tree growth and quality fruit production as other forms of nitrogen that cost two or three times as much. The cost of fertilizer





Annual Report, 1930


represents 30 to 60 percent of the cost of producing citrus fruits, and approximately 56 percent of this cost is nitrogen when largely organics are used. This method points the way to reducing the cost of fruit production. In demonstration groves the results obtained indicate that proper cover cropping gives higher quality fruit, high r yield, lower cost of cultivation and control of disease and insect pests. In one demonstration grove of 165 acres the owner reports a labor and material production cost of 17 cents per box. His fruit is running 60 percent first grade.
Several growers are hauling into their groves old hay and other vegetable matter to supply additional humus.
IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
During the season of light rainfall-October to June-there is an accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (the form trees use) in the soils of Florida citrus groves, but a poor utilization, due to low soil moisture. On the other hand, during periods of heavy rainfall only traces of nitrate nitrogen are found in the soil because it is either taken up by the trees and cover crop as it is formed, or lost by leaching. This presents a problem in soil moisture control, the importance of which varies with the amount of rainfall during the dry seasons. Fortunately the rainfall during the year has been very favorably distributed through the months of usual low rainfall so that the need for grove irrigation has not been as apparent as usual, and consequently only limited opportunity for the development of the irrigation project has presented itself. Considerable assistance has been rendered growers in putting their irrigation plants in a con-' edition for higher efficiency for the time when they are needed, and in providing more adequate drainage facilities for their groves. Growers recognize more than ever the important relationship between moisture control and such diseases as melanose, wilt, withertip, gum diseases, and the so-called "tree decline".





Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY
N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultryman
Extension work in poultry is reaching a greater number of people each year, through the cooperation of the county and home demonstration agents. Considerably more interest has been manifested in the fundamentals of poultry production. County and home demonstration agents in 43 counties have conducted the poultry work in a much better way than ever before.
Conditions have arisen which make it necessary for the producer to analyze his business more closely. Lower egg prices have tended to help encourage such practices as efficient culling, efficient feeding, and securing quality birds to raise the level of egg production to a higher plane.
More interest has been shown in the Home Egg-Laying Contest. Producers are keeping records and are beginning to realize their value in improving the efficiency of their flocks.

THE PLAN OF WORK
During the year 1930 the same phases of work were emphasized as in 1929. Briefly, the phases were: Grow healthy chicks, grow green feed, practice culling, home egg-laying contest, and junior poultry work.
GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
This work is of great value, for if chick mortality is reduced, the cost of rearing a pullet is automatically lowered. Records show that if the young chicks can be kept free of diseases and parasites a higher quality pullet can be placed in the laying house. The quality of pullet that goes into the laying house will influence egg production and returns.
The Grow Healthy Chick program was centered around six fundamental factors, as follows: (1) Hatch early; (2) clean eggs and chicks; (3) clean brooder houses; (4) clean land; (5) balanced ration; (6) separation of pullets from cockerels.
This plan was effective in reducing chick mortality, The following data have been assembled from the records submitted:
No. of No. of clicks put Average
Records Under Brooder Mortality
1928 35 30,000 24.26
1929 38 22,000 13.87
1930 28 28,500 14.25






Annual Report, 1930


All of the producers fed a commercial feed; on about 5017o of the farms the feed was supplemented with milk, either dry or liquid. Green feed was fed from the first to fourth week. Growing mash was fed at 5 to 8 weeks. Pullets and cockerels were separated at approximately 6 weeks of age, one week earlier than last year.
Only one producer hatched the chicks in May.
The average mortality for the 1930 Grow Healthy Chick Campaign was 14.25%. The 20 producers who adopted the six factors had a chick mortality of 9.491/o. Five producers reported their losses due to the poor quality of the chicks. Their chick mortality averaged 36.350/o. Three producers reported their losses due to sanitation as far as land was concerned. Their chick mortality averaged 42.041/w.
Some of the heavy mortality was due to chilling, fire in brooder house, and coccidiosis.
It is evident that it is a paying proposition to adopt the six fundamentals. At the end of the eight weeks' period those producers who adopted the six factors had 91 chicks* left out of each 100, while those who failed to adopt either quality chicks or clean land had only 64 or 58 chicks left. This gives a saving of approximately 27 and 33% of chick losses, without considering the feed cost and the poorer quality pullets that would be put in the laying house.
This is one of the most important phases of successful poultry production.
GROW GREEN FEEDS
Although the feeding of green feed to poultry is relatively universal, yet it is essential to make plans and assist the producer in working out a green feed program. All agents have advocated the planting of various greens, and have given help as to kind, time, etc.
The following results from a farm management study by Frank Brumley, Extension Economist, Farm Management, show the value of such a program.






Florida Cooperative Extension


RELATION OF GREEN FEED TO EGGS PER BIRD Kind of Gree n Feed
Sprouted Oats
and Cut Feed Onlyin Range No Green Feed Number of f -arms -------- 1 42 -6-- 15
Eggs per bird . 1 160 149 134
Eggs-Nov. to Jan. 28 26 22
Pounds of feed
per bird - ------ ----------- 78 79 75
Val. of eggs over feed $2.35 $1.91 $1.70
CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
Maintaining a high producing flock is the aim of all successful poultry producers. There are many ways in which this can be accomplished. Very often a number of factors are so closely correlated that it is difficult to separate them. Proper feeding, housing, adopting a good sanitary program, and having quality birds all play their part.
No matter how well bred, how well managed a flock may be there are individuals in that flock which tend to lower the average egg yield. It is the task of the producer to segregate the heavy producers from the poor producers. The elimination of the poor producers will not only increase the average egg yield of the flock but will decrease the feed cost and increase the returns.
Culling demonstrations have been held for a good many years. The producers have learned to distinguish the difference between a high egg machine and a low egg machine. The Extension Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting 20 culling demonstrations.
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Five years ago a simple, yet rather complete, set of records was started under the name of the Home Egg-Laying Contest. This phase of the work was undertaken to have the poultry producers keep records of their endeavor. The records cover a period of one year. In the first five contests the records started November 1 and ended October 31, while in the sixth contest the opening date is October 1 and the closing date September 30.
These records which have been -kept by backyard producers, farm flock producers, and commercial poultrymen, have been of great value in helping them analyze their business and helping them solve some of their problems. Each year a larger number of records are being kept, which indicates their importance.
Some interesting results are noted in the five contests already held.







Annual Report, 1930


TABLE I

Year Number of Farms Number of Birds
1925 40 9,990
1926 74 20,959
1927 53 14,025
1928 55 15,804
1929 107 34,969
1930 170 48,323

Table I shows the number of records submitted the first month of each year, together with the number of birds involved.
Note the increase in the number of farms from the first year and also the increase in the number of birds involved.
In the 1929 contest, which just closed, 41 records were complete for the year.
In the 1930 contest which started October 1, there are more than four times as many farms as compared to the number in 1925 and practically five times as many birds.

TABLE II.-YEARLY PRODUCTION FOR FIVE YEARS. HOME, EGG-LAYING CONTEST.
Number Number Eggs
Year of Farms of Birds per Bird
1926 25 5,515 161.07
1927 29 6,620 160.04
1928 18 4,275 156.60
1929 38 7,893 158.46
1930 41 14,915 159.87
The yearly egg production per bird has varied very little during the five years. However, it is interesting to note that the last record of 159.87 was made with an average number of 14, 915 birds, while the best record in 1925, 161.07 eggs, was made with few farms and about one-third the number of birds.

TABLE III.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE FIFTH FLORIDA HOME EcG-LAYING CONTEST.
Month Backyard Farm Commercial Average
November 8.77 7.80 7.64 7.68
December 8.42 9.48 8.87 8.94
January 12.17 12.84 13.03 12.98
February 15.55 15.28 16.05 15.91
March 17.08 16.72 19.00 18.57
April 15.87 17.36 18.84 18.53
May 14.28 16.65 17.45 17.27
June 11.23 14.55 15.19 15.06
July 11.84 14.68 13.75 14.26
August 10.78 11.68 12.22 12.09
September 9.40 7.32 9.44 9.03
October 5.18 6.71 6.58 6.59
TOTAL 161.95 151.72 153.44 159.87






Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE IV.-WINTFR EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD (NOVEMBER THROUGH JANUARY).
Backyard Farm Commercial Average 1929-1930 26.37 31.17 28.92 28.95
1928-1929 31.91 29.26 28.66 28.96
1927-1928 40.70 23.30 26.30 25.80
1926-1927 33.10 28.80 25.90 28.20
1925-1926 22.10 1.7.70 25.70 24.00
In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to note the winter egg production (months of November, December, and January) for the five contests for the different groups and the average. In both the farm and commercial groups it is found that the winter egg production -is greater than in previous contests, only the backyard group is below the other two groups. This means that as winter egg production per bird increases, total egg production increases and returns per bird increase.
From the records tabulated pertinent information relative to the various phases of poultry management will be worked out. These facts given to the producer should result in greater efficiency.
JUNIOR POULTRY WORK
More interest has been. shown in the junior poultry work this year. Fourteen meetings were attended, at which time the junior work was explained and poultry management discussed.
The 4-H Boys' and Girls' Short Course poultry programs have been a means of instructing the juniors in poultry management.
A state poultry club show at DeLand is planned, together with a judging contest. The Volusia County Fair Association has been very kind in helping the Extension Service make these two new features possible.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
Local, county, and state poultry associations have assisted materially in carrying out the extension poultry program.
The American Poultry Association of Florida has helped in various ways in furthering the extension program, and has made it possible for club members to secure higher quality standardbred poultry. They have also fostered the junior poultry club show and judging contest.
The Florida BabyChick Association has as its motto "Better Quality Chicks". Accreditation work is handled under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee.
Community and county poultry associations have been active





Annual Report, 1930


in holding meetings with educational discussions as the main features. Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with the regular organized poultry associations.
Cooperative Poultry Associations have been more active this year. The Central Florida, The North Florida, The Gulf Coast, The West Coast and The East Coast associations are marketing eggs for the producers in their respective localities.
The State Marketing Bureau with its poultry marketing specialist has worked in close cooperation with the agents and the state office in an educational way.


Fig. 8-The home-made brick brooder has given good results in raising
healthy chicks. It is cheap and efficient.

HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS
During the past year, the county agents and home demonstrastation agents in West Florida have fostered a new type of brooder for their section of Florida. The plans were secured from the Extension Service. 'There was a need for better brooding equipment on the farm, cheap and efficient. This brick






Florida Cooperative Extension


brooder seemed to fill the need. Sixty brooders were installed in West Florida counties with good results.
CHICKENPOX VACCINATION
Each year there occur outbreaks of chickenpox in pullets as they come into production. The result is a loss in egg production, a tendency for an increase in the number of colds and roup, an increase in mortality, and a substantial decrease in returns.
Considerable interest has been taken in preventing chickenpox by vaccination in nine counties. It is generally done when the birds are from 12 to 16 weeks of age. There has been practically no chickenpox in flocks which were vaccinated. The cost has been from I cent to 2 cents per bird.
One commercial producer in Marion County did not vaccinate in 1929 and said the chickenpox outbreak cost him $600. In 1930 he vaccinated and has had no trouble with any of the allied diseases and secured satisfactory production during the winter, The county agent reports 14,000 pullets vaccinated this past summer.
Records are being taken now which will show the economic value of chickenpox vaccination.
POULTRY MEETINGS
The number of meetings attended by the Extension Poultryman was 3T and there were 931 people present. At these meetings timely poultry information'was presented, together with those phases of poultry production which were included in the plan of work.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
An intensive poultry program is presented during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from 40 to 125 peo le, and was the largest in five years.
PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Dr. E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, has cooperated with the Extension Service in this program by attending meetings, making farm visits, studying parasites and diseases, and making post mortem examinations.
An experiment on worm control is now under way. The Veterinary Department of the Experiment Station and the Exten-






Annual Report, 1930


sion Service are cooperating in this. Details of this work will be given at the end of the year.
NATIONAL EGG LAYING CONTEST
The Fourth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a successful close September 30, 1930. This contest ran from November 1, 1929 to September 30, 1930. There were 95 pens entered. The average egg production per bird for the 11 months' period was 188.7 eggs. The contest is located at Chipley and managed by E. F. Stanton. A complete report of the contest is available on request.
MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK
Judging was done at four county fairs last year, the Extension Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the open classes. The work was made educational as far as possible.
Thirty-four conferences were held with feed men, fair managers, and secretaries of chambers of commerce, relative to poultry problems in their localities.






Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
FRANK W. BRUmLEY, Economist, Farm Management
Extension work in farm management and agricultural economics in Florida began October 1, 1930. Since that time the activities of the work have been along three main lines, namely: farm management, outlook, and marketing.
FARM MANAGEMENT
The main purpose of Farm Management Extension is to teach farmers the fundamental principles that deal with the successful management of their farm business. In doing this an effort is made to study the methods used and the profits secured on a large number of farms to determine how the more successful ones differ from the less successful. During the months of October and November, the specialist attended the annual meeting of County Agents, made individual calls on County Agents, and had the following projects in progress:
1. Enterprise accounts: (a) Poultry Account Book prepared and 150 poultrymen started keeping accounts. (b) Citrus Account Book prepared and 200 citrus growers started keeping enterprise accounts.
2. Farm management meetings in counties where research studies have been made to return the results of these studies. Eleven meetings have been held in six counties with a total attendance of about 200 farmers. Results of poultry and dairy farm management studies previously made by the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station were discussed.
OUTLO OK
Three members of the staff were in Atlanta at the Southern Regional Outlook Conference, November 11-14. They carried with them the Florida outlook reports by commodities, prepared by the Extension commodity specialists. Following the Conference, an outlook report for Florida was prepared by those in attendance and the other extension specialists. It was published early in December and distributed to about 800 farmers, County Agents, bankers, and agricultural workers.
MARKETING
While there is no iull-time marketing specialist in the Extension Service, several of its members have been working with the





Annual Report, 1930


Fig. 9.-Tomatoes being packed in a grower-owned house.


State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board towards organizing cooperatively the vegetable growers of Florida into the Florida Vegetable Growers, Inc. At present, there are 50 or more large and small local vegetable cooperatives shipping vegetables out of Florida. Large enough volume of business has been secured for the state organization to operate on a low selling charge basis and much progress made towards combining more of the locals into the state organization.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PART III-WOMEN'S WORK

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent RuDy McDAVID, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
ORGANIZATION
Organization for the development of home demonstration work in Florida consists of a state home demonstration agent, three district agents, specialists in nutrition, home improvement, food conservation, part time assistance from poultry specialist, and 33 county home demonstration agents.
Home demonstration work for negroes has been conducted in seven counties throughout the year with a local district supervisor, who will report the work in detail.

]FINANCES
Broward was the only county in the state to discontinue home demonstration work during the year 1930. Decreases were realized in Santa Rosa, Palm Beach, Highlands, and Citrus counties. Increases were realized in Escambia, Lee, Hernando, Duval, and Orange counties. New appropriations were secured in St. Lucie and Indian River counties for one agent to work both counties, and in Pasco for the agent in Citrus County to give half time to work in Pasco.
The county finances in Bradford and Union counties would not permit the continuance of appropriations for both farm and home agents in each county, so an arrangement was made with the Board of County Commissioners in Union County to support the work of the farm agent and with Bradford County to finance the home agent, with the understanding that each agent should work in both counties. This plan works fairly satisfactorily.
Boards of county commissioners supply the larger proportions of the local appropriations. An exception to this is found in Lee and Highlands Counties where the school board supplies the county funds for the present appropriations.
School boards cooperate in 12 and commissioners in 28 counties in 4he budget for home demonstration work. Financial ar-






Annual Report, 1930


arrangements with the counties vary almost as much as the counties, and unfortunately the variation in amounts appropriated seems to be based on the counties' willingness or ability to pay instead of the agents' qualifications, length of service, or necessary expenses of conducting the work.
Four counties report definite appropriations for special home demonstration activities such as camps, 4-H club short courses, and Farmers' Week scholarships. Eleven counties include in their budget a definite amount for demonstration materials and supplies. Six counties supply the agents with county-owned cars.
All counties furnish offices for the agents. Nineteen counties provide laboratory-kitchens.
OFFICE ORGANIZATION
With three exceptions, agents' offices are in the county courthouses. These offices vary widely in completeness from the ideally equipped to the simplest. Dade county furnishes a splendid office in the new county courthouse consisting of a spacious general office with adequate display cases, wall space, bulletin racks and file cases; a private office for the agent; a lecture and demonstration room with seats for 300 people; a laboratory'kitchen, fully equipped; a supply room adjoining the kitchen; a storage room in the basement and indoor parking space for the agent's car, adjacent to the store room. In addition to this equipment, a full time office assistant is employed.
All of the offices are accessible, well lighted and healed and cared for by janitor service. They are equipped with desk, chairs, filing cabinets, bulletin racks, and some smaller equipment. Twenty-two have telephones. Twenty-seven have typewriters and 21 have mimeographs.
In keeping with plans made at the beginning of the year, special attention has been given to improved filing systems with marked effect on the accessibility of reference material and permanent office records.
CLERICAL ASSISTANCE
There is full time secretarial assistance provided in 12 counties and part-time in four others. In most of these counties secretarial assistance is shared with the county agricultural agent.






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LABORATORY KITCHENS AND WORK ROOMS
In Lee, Manatee, and Polk counties there is space enough in the kitchen for a large group to work and excellent equipment at hand for their convenience. Polk and Manatee counties have in the same suite a large work room for sewing and handcraft. Eastern Hillsborough County is establishing demonstration quarters at this time. Hernando County is remodeling an entire house with an acre of garden ground which will be used for club meetings, demonstrations, a center for market and exchange, as well as being in itself a result demonstration in cooperative interior and exterior beautification. The house has been cleaned and redecorated, the grounds landscaped and flower and vegetable gardens planted. The club members plan to open this to the service of the county in January. In Citrus, Lake, and Osceola there are fairly well equipped kitchens in which a great deal of work is carried on but these are not spacious enough to fill the same purpose as the ones mentioned previously. Highlands and Pinellas counties have large quarters but the equipment is yet inadequate for extensive community service.


'XI
Fig. 10-This demonstration kitchen is being used for a demonstration in crystallizing citrus fruits.





Annual Report, 1930


Escambia, St. Lucie, Volusia, Duval, Union, Broward, Palm Beach and Dade provide laboratory kitchens or work rooms. .Three of these rooms have been equipped this year. These centers are of great value to the agents, providing convenient places which can be used as working centers, as a place to give public demonstrations, to train leaders, or to allow the agent to familiarize herself with uses of local products,
I LOCAL WORKING CENTERS

It is gratifying to see the decided increase in the number of local and community work centers established for home demonstration clubs, both junior and senior. Alachua County has three club houses owned by home demonstration clubs, and two other clubs own land on which they will erect buildings late r. In Orange County two clubs own club houses, built and equipped by the women; two clubs own lots and have cash on hand to start buildings soon. In Duval County at least three clubs own their own buildings. Two. clubs in St. Johns own their club houses and two additional clubs have part ownership in community buildings. Three clubs in Volusia own their buildings. In Dade County 10 junior clubs have furnished their own club rooms.
In the northwest district there is a senior home demonstration club house in a rural community of Escambia, one in Holmes, and another in Leon. Club rooms are fitted up for use of women's home demonstration clubs in one rural community in Gadsden and another in Jefferson. In Leon County three junior clubs have their own club rooms.
In Central and Southwest Florida there are several club houses and many club rooms. These local work centers assist the agent in presenting her work to the people of the county and are good indications of the real stability of home demonstration work in the community.
METHODS USED TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF WORKERS CONFERENCES
State Home Demonstration Staff conferences are held once a month or bi-monthly as seems advisable, at which time reports of progress in development of the work are given and definite plans made for special events and further development of work in general.
An annual conference of all extension workers was held in





Florida Cooperative Extension


the early part of October. The county and home demonstration workers' program dealt for the main part with ways and means of home demonstration work meeting economic needs in the various counties of the state. Programs of work outlined by the specialists and methods of adapting to county needs and developing them received considerable attention.
SUBJECT MATTER ASSISTANCE
Specialists in home improvement, nutrition, food conservation including gardening; and poultry work keep the agents informed as to the best methods to employ in development of those phases of the work, provide them with usable, helpful material, assist with meetings, give lectures and demonstrations, and assist in training project leaders. District agents interpret and clarify some of the material on their supervisory visits. 'They also give spread to all worked out ideas and principles that are proving of value in other counties.
SPECIAL STUDY
The agents themselves feel keenly the need of keeping abreast of newer developments in the fields of agriculture and home economics. Eight took advantage of the opportunity afforded them through a special course of one month given for them in the School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, during the summer school session. One agent took a month's course in the Ambler School of Horticulture. Six agents are carrying extension courses offered by the General Extension Division of the University of Florida. Another is pursuing graduate study at the University during the year.
USE OF TIME
It is as important for an agent to thoughtfully plan her time as to do any other part of her work. In most of the counties home demonstration work has been established for a good many years. Increasing demands on the agents for assistance cannot be met without careful plans.
Agents use Saturday to check up week's work and as a general office day, when people of the county know that they can be found for personal conferences. Agents are advised and, as far as possible, they use Monday to plan the details of the week's work, assemble demonstration material, prepare material for newspaper, and such.






Annual Report, 1930


Although the year falls into rather natural divisions of time according to seasonal activities due to wide differences in seasons and consequent development of crops, it is not practicable to have all counties on the same general schedule. Achievement days are appropriately held in the spring of the year in South Florida and in the fall of the year in North Florida. This is also true of community and county fairs.

CLUBS AND COUNCILS
CLUBS
Thirty-one counties report 515 4-H clubs with a membership of 9,287. Four agents are also working with 182 boys. There are 266 adult home demonstration clubs with a membership of 6,269.
County home demonstration agents work with both the women and the girls. In order to render their best services to as many people as possible there are regularly organized senior and junior home demonstration clubs in each county. Monthly or bimonthly meetings are held with the agent present to instruct the club members in the demonstrations which they are conducting. Each club member actively engages in carrying on some definite demonstration in her home, although many people besides those in regularly organized clubs secure help and advice from the agents, through special leaflets, timely articles on seasonal activities appearing in magazines, local papers, mimeographed letters, and 'bulletins.
Agents find that home visits are the best means to form invaluable contacts with individual club members and others and to keep in close touch with demonstrations in the home. Thirtyone agents report 11,735 such visits into homes for a definite purpose and in addition 11 report 992 farm visits.
During the year there were 612 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 534 with the women's work. This is an increase of 293 over last year. Of the number working with girls' clubs, 325 are older 4-H club members. There were 234 training meetings held for local leaders, with an attendance of 1,558 leaders.
Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary requirements. There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among the girls. Enthusiasm has continued to'grow in this conneo-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tion, due to the fact that for the past two years recognition has been given during the State Short Course to the standard club making the best score for work accomplished. Buckingham Club in Lee County was the recipient of this honor in 1930 for work accomplished in 1929. The members of that club have a widespread influence for better club work in that county. One hundred and twenty-four girls have received certificates this year for the satisfactory completion of four years' club work. There are 600 girls who are carrying 4-H club work for their fourth year; 250 for the fifth; and 196 for six or more years.
COUNCILS
Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in the community is the formation of county councils composed of the president and one elected representative from each home demonstration club. There are 29 county councils for girls' work and 24 for women's work. They work with the agents in making and executing plans for the year's work. They decide on the local chairmen for the various projects; they are responsible for staging special events, such as achievement day programs, fair exhibits, etc.; they assist in the completion and collection of individual reports; the senior councils sponsor the girls' work, and help in securing local leaders, providing short course scholarships, etc.; they assist with publicity plans. In short, they lend a hand with all the many phases of work developing in a progressive county and back up in every way possible the efforts of the agent.
The president and one representative from each county council form the two state councils. The development of women and girls through their council work is remarkable. These representatives themselves feel the value of this training and the responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls, Florida State College for Women. This organization provides scholarship for attendance at Florida State College for Women, Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10 annually to the scholarship fund of the State Council.
The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the University of Florida. Splendid council reports were made this year. This council also provides a scholarship awarded to a College 4-11 club girl for attendance at the Florida State Col-





Annual Report, 1930


lege for Women. Considerable enthusiasm was shown again this year over the silver loving cup which was presented during the annual council meeting by the council to the county council scoring highest for the past year's work. Lee and Lake county councils tied for this honor. Lee, having won the previous year, was presented the cup for the first six months.
PROGRAMS OF WORK
State and county programs of work were made with the purpose of meeting the greatest needs of those taking advantage of home demonstration work. State and county councils gave special consideration to the economic background of the farm home in developing programs with the agents' help. Instruction and supervision has been directed to practical phases of the work that encourage conduct of demonstrations which make possible improvements in standards of living in the rural homes. More attention than ever before has been given to increasing the family cash income.
Programs -are presented for discussion and understanding during the agents' annual conference. The district agent, county agent, and specialist in joint conference decide what part or if the whole is applicable in the county specified. Available material is provided and needed assistance, so far as possible, is furnished the agent by the state office. All county programs of work have been followed up by the district agents this year. State and district agents have studied programs of work and reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and accomplishments achieved have been made.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out 524
Adult work-women 534
Voluntary county, community and local leaders-4-11 Club WorkWomen 287
Older girls 325
Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors 515
Membership 9,469
Clubs carrying on extension work with adults 266
Membership 6,269
Home visits made by agents 11,735
Different homes visited 5,717
Farm visits made by agents 992
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work. 44,971 Average number days spent in office 77
Average number days spent in field 223
Official letters written 54,152
Events at which exhibits were held 357






so Florida Cooperative Extension

Meetings held 12,165
Attendance 263,285
Tours conducted 58
Attendance 8,451
Achievement days held 161
Attendance 19,681
Encampments held 34
Attendance 1,961

PROGRAM SUMMARY Days
Number agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Home gardens 478 999
Market garden and truck crops 142 85
Fruits 135 101
Rodents and miscellaneous insects 14 20
Home engineering 99 1171/2
Poultry 312 465
Dairy 33 57
Farm management 4 14
Marketing 87 116
Foods and nutrition 447 1,133
Child training and care 98 160
Clothing 531 1,2W i
Home management 209 273
,House furnishings 439 574
Home health and sanitation 449 3561Y2
Community activities 345 2771/2
Miscellaneous 243 3531/,
Building extension program of work 341 226
Organization n-extens ion association and committee ---- 361 267

PROJECT ACTIVITIES

GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS

Home gardens and orchards are essential in every well balanced home demonstration program. Through gardening and perennial plantings we are working toward an all year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the family; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish means to increase
income.
Reports show that the need for growing home gardens and
fruits for family use has been felt generally and that there has
been statewide interest along this line. Probably the greatest progress in meeting economic needs has been made through the
home gardening program. The economist in food conservation
who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splendid cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer
concerns, federations of women's clubs, and individuals in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. Interest





Annual Report, 1930


has been stimulated through monthly letters carrying timely information; utilization score card; garden scores; suggestive canning budget for the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; demonstrations; all-year garden contests; and awards.
During the year 29 agents devoted 14.4clo of their time; held 1,531 meetings; published 419 news stories; made 2,717 home
-visits, and had 5,544 office calls in connection with this project. Women report 2,757 demonstrations carried in home gardening and 1,315 with the home orchard. There were 4,235 4-H
-club girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and 1,942 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part of the home garden program.
POULTRY
Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home demonstration program mainly for two reasons (1) for family nutrition, (2) to increase the family income.
There were 1,017 women who managed and reported on flocks with a total of 85,052 birds. They report a profit for their work of $47,241. Eight hundred and eleven girls raised 34,006 birds. Agents report increasing interest in management of the farm flock. There seems to be far more understanding and practice in keeping accurate records and general improvement of the ,flock accordingly.
Enthusiasm for the home poultry flock has been stimulated by the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries, and cooperation in marketing received from the State Marketing Bureau in addition to the regular work of the agents under leadership of the Extension Poultryman.
DAIRYING
It is our aim to improve the quality of milk for home consumption and to increase the use of milk products in the diet with the view to better nutrition, using the surplus to increase the family income. "Milk for Health" has been a slogan developed along with the nutrition program. In one county, where an intensive nutrition program has been carried, 16 women report having each bought a family cow during the year. Thirteen women in another county report having bought cows this year so that their families could have more milk to drink. Reports show that 18 families in other places have done likewise. Fortyseven women working with 141 cows report a profit of $3,415.





Florida Cooperative Extension


NUTRITION
The general plan and purpose of the nutrition work this year, as last, has been to put into operation a constructive and comprehensive food program including food selection, food preparation and meal planning for family, school lunch, group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying, and gardening. Results have been determined by the improvement shown in food selection and health scores of women club members, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better records in the health contests. The fact that in December, 1929, first place in the National Health Contest was won by Florida's representative, Florence Smock, increased enthusiasm in this phase of home demonstration work. Dora Lee Bryant, the 1930 representative, was in the group scoring second highest.







j









Fig. 11.-A mid-morning lunch of milk served to the smaller children in
a Walton County school by the girls of the 4-11 clubs.

A total of 5,557 girls and 2,550 women were reported as adopting improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demonstration agents. There were 2,586 homes reported as balancing meals for the year and 1,903 improved home packed lunches according to recommendations.






Annual Report, 1930


FOODS
Food selection and food preparation in the home demonstration program deal with serving well balanced meals, satisfying and attractive foods, and the importance of an all-year garden, a home poultry flock, and a sufficient milk supply. A total of 2,552 women and 3,918 girls carried definite programs throughout the year along these lines.
Food conservation assures a more varied diet in the home, eliminates waste offruit and vegetables in the garden, fields, groves, citrus packinghouses and canneries by. utilization of the surplus. It promotes the use of Florida products and furnishes another means for increasing the family income. There were 2,552 women and 2,892 girls reported as carrying definite canning programs this year. The girls canned 142,428 containers of products. The number is not available for the women. There were 1,445 homes assisted in planning a family food budget for a year, and 403 budgeted for expenditures for the year.
An exhibit of canned meats sent from Gadsden County to the National 4-11 Club Congress in Chicago won first place, while a canned fruit exhibit from Orange County won fourth place.
CLOTHING
In developing the clothing work with the women and girls the agents have made it fill a nMl need. Information received can always be applied immediately. There were 3,705 women and 9,173 girls who made garments under the agents' instruction. This means that they studied selection of the most practical materials, most suitable colors, combination of materials, patterns and how to use them. There were 2,336 women and 2,852 girls who reported definitely following recommendations in improving care, renovation, and remodeling of clothing. One agent is effectively developing a program along this line which she and her women term a "clothing conservation" program.
Interest in color, design, good workmanship, accessories, and personal grooming has very much increased through short courses culminating in dress revues held in the communities, at county-wide meetings, at the State Short Course for 4-11 Club Girls, and Farmers' Week.
At the State Short Course in June Lorene Duffy was adjudged the winner in a clothing contest for girls who have been carrying a clothing program for three or more years. She was given






Florida Cooperative Extension


a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress where she won third place in a national clothing contest for 4-11 club girls.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairying, and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make home improvement work more easily' accomplished. When the agent can help to increase the family income she is in a better position to discuss methods for home improvement. The home improvement work under the leadership of the specialist in home improvement has continued to see a splendid growth through the year.
Beautification of Home Grounds: It seems that there is more interest than ever before in improving the home grounds.
Throughout the year special attention has been 'given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery, foundation plantings, planting yards according to a plan, and the physical appearance of' dwellings and the entire premises.
Many clubs have made definitely planned trips into the woods. for native shrubbery. More of them have placed large orders with seedsmen and nurseries for seeds, plants, and shrubs. Seedsmen and nurseries have given splendid cooperation in furnishing supplies to be used for awards. Arrangements were made with seedsmen in some of the counties to buy good flower seed in quantity. These seed were portioned out in penny packages by the junior and senior councils and were sold to club members. One county reports having sold 2,500 of these packages and another over a thousand. In this way club members secured a variety of good seed at small cost.
As part of the home gardening and perennial plantings program the various counties have adopted a county flower to be grown by all club members. Some have adopted an annual and a perennial. It is felt that the general interest which prevails, in the growing of these flowers has had considerable to do with the fact that 2,322 women and 4,235 girls have carried definite. demonstrations in improving the home grounds during the year. Flower shows have been added in most of the counties.
Home furnishings, home management, home engineering,, home sanitation and thrift will be reported in detail by the home: improvement specialist.
Tours, educational trips and home improvement contests have helped to increase improvements along definite lines. Gratifying





Annual Report, 1930


are the splendid individual reports of home improvement that have come to the state office during the year. Ruth Yates of Osceola County was awarded a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress because of her excellent accomplishments in home improvement.
CHILD TRAINING AND CARE
Ten counties have had a series of demonstrations and lectures on this subject and report splendid response from the mothers. It is planned to follow this up in cooperation with the Bureau of Child Hygiene, State Board of Health.
MARKETING
Amazing are the splendid reports given by women in connection with the marketing of home products. Those products that have been marketed during the year consisted chiefly of poultry, and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits and vegetables; plants; baskets of native materials, Christmas wreaths of native materials, and home baked goods. Records were kept in four counties of sales of dairy products amounting to $1,420.98; in four counties of poultry products amounting to $17,298.91; in three counties of home canned and other products amounting to $8,503.45, making a total of $31,862.05 worth of home products sales of which records were kept. Interesting home marketing reports are made by Alachua, Palm Beach, Lake, Gadsden, Holmes, Volusia, and Dade counties.
The district. agent for East Florida and the economist in food conservation have included reports of the work in various counties and interesting statements along this line from individuals.
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Securing of club houses for club and community meetings became a realization in 28 counties during the year. The school lunch continues to command community interest. Ninety-two schools in 18 counties followed the agents' recommendations in serving hot lunch to 29,491 children. There were 191 pageants or plays presented by club members. Recreation programs were developed in 269 communities. There were 171 communities assisted in definitely improving hygienic practices. There were 53 school or other community grounds landscaped according to recommendations from home demonstration agents. A total of 345 communities were assisted in developing various community activities according to particular needs.





Florida Cooperative Extension


SPECIAL EVENTS
EXHIBITS
Although fairs are decreasing in number there were 357 events where home demonstration exhibits were shown during the year. Club members have taken charge of many of these exhibits and through them have assisted considerably in presenting developments in home demonstration work through community and county displays. EAibits demand a lot of time in planning and arranging and attention while on display, but it is usually felt that this time may be justified by the generous premium awards made to local women and girls by the fair management. Most of the prize money is spent for purchasing equipment for the home, for home beautification or other needs for a more satisfying home life.
ACHIEVEMENT DAYS
Community and county achievement days are observed at the culmination of the year's work. Although methods of handling achievement day programs vary somewhat, the purpose in hold.ing them is to give recognition to the club members for worthy endeavor and generally to diffuse knowledge relating to club work. Features of the program for the day include exhibits, reports from club members, demonstrations in improved practices by club members, talks by members of state staff and by local persons as county superintendent of education, county agents, council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates and pins in recognition for work accomplished as individuals, and in some way honoring those who have accomplished most as a club. The work is strengthened through the coming together of the people in the communities and from over the county for these occasions.
During the year there were 161 achievement days held, 60 for adults and 101 for 4-H club members. There was a total attendance of 19,681.
CAMPS
Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with an increasing number of adults.
There were 34 camps held during the summer of 1930. Eleven of these were for women, ' six for boys and girls, and 17 for girls only. There were 561 women, 1,140 girls, 110 boys, and 311 others, including instructors and leaders, who enjoyed the ree-




































Fig. 12-This exhibit of flowers attracted no little attention at the South Florida Fair.






Florida Cooperative Extension


reaction, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents. Two trained camp workers and three former 4-H club girls, one a junior in college and the other two recent graduates, and local leaders assisted agents with the camps.
EDUCATIONAL TOURS
One of the most effective ways of giving and receiving bene-fits from result demonstrations is by means of educational tours. Projects are often planned with a tour at the beginning for the purpose of making a survey and a preliminary scoring and one at the end to observe results and evidences of methods followed in obtaining these. Fifty-eight tours with an attendance of 11,218 were made during the year. The significance of these may be obtained from the following statements: In Marion County exterior beautification was the major project agreed upon. Tours were made in five of the six communities having women's clubs and 59 homes were scored and photographed. At the close of the year a final scoring was made by the same committee and a tour made to observe the progress. The Citrus County agent arranged for a group of people from her county to visit tung oil plots around Gainesville and her report shows 200 acres planted as a result. Western Hillsborough County had atour of 62 club members to visit Pinellas County to gain information in home improvement.
The home demonstration agent of Gadsden County invited all her senior club members and their husbands to visit the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee in April. The department heads greeted the club members and conducted them over the institution. The visitors were guests of the College for lunch. Every department of the College was visited. One of the most interesting places visited by the women was the kitchen showing the many pieces of electrical equipment.
While the girls of Liberty and Calhoun counties were in camp in July at Flastacowo, the College camp near Tallahassee, they visited the Capitol. The Governor greeted them and they were then conducted over the Capitol building. They also visited the hydro-electric plant several miles out of Tallahassee.
In December the agent in Gadsden County held a two-day poultry school for interested poultrymen. Each day there was a tour made to some of the nearby poultry f arms in the county





Annual Report, 1930


to study good points in the housing, breeding, and selection of poultry.
Dade County has held repeated tours to their demonstration thrift houses in different parts of the county. Alachua has conducted several home improvement tours; Volusia County conducted two tours to promote interest in a community cannery, one to Citrus County to a small community cannery and one to Bushnell to a potato canning factory. A small cannery was built at Samsula, a vegetable trucking section, as a result of these tours. Bradford County women arranged a tour to a large nursery in an adjoining county to study plantings and plants; Palm Beach County women visited two hatcheries to learn about battery brooders. The women of Duval County held a tour to yard beautification demonstrations in the east side of the county. Orange County women visited Alachua County to study their council work.
Volusia and St. Johns counties have regularly planned tours to nearby counties to become acquainted with historical spots in the state.
Four counties participated in an educational tour of the Jacksonville stores to learn what was available in household furnishings and to develop standards for purchasing such equipment for the home.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Club girls were awarded trips to the National Club Congress, the National Club Camp, and International Leadership Training School. Winners of these trips are listed in the Director's report, under the subject, "Awards to Club Members".
These trips have served to increase the enthusiasm and leadership ability of the members attending.
SHORT COURSE FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS
Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on the counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is 14 to 15. There were 499 girls, 35 local leaders, and 28 agents in attendance.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by extension workers and club members in various phases of home





Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration work. Outstanding features were project demonstrations, health contest, afternoon program for recognition of accomplishments, state council meeting, recreation, entertainment, special dinner the last evening with distinguished guests.
The climax of the Short Course was the last evening's program when Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen, introduced by Governor Doyle Carlton, gave an excellent talk. It was followed by a candle lighting service with Mrs. Carlton representing the spirit of home.
Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida State College for Women.
The State College for Women set aside one week between the spring and summer terms for the extension department to hold the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, laboratories, and classrooms were available. The college nurses rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The dietitian rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls because of the good food served.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS WEEK
The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University of Florida as much as the girls did the -Short Course. Demonstrations and instruction were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University professors, and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding features were exhibits, group work with women actually working where they felt they could be best benefitted, and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work. Mention of council activities was made elsewhere in this report. Music appreciation was a new feature that the women enjoyed.
Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federation of women's clubs.
4-11 COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the at-






Annual Report, 1930


tension and interest of other students to home demonstration work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished high school. Among the membership of this group are some of the most outstanding girls in College. Members of the club are most enthusiastic over the program that they are developing this year.
PUBLICITY
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES
Excellent cooperation is received from newspapers of the state. Thirty counties report 3,171 news articles or stories published. News articles are contributed regularly from all county home demonstration offices. In 14 counties a home demonstration column is maintained in the local papers. The Pinellas County agent reports the editing of a newspaper column which is published in seven county papers. Another splendid example of cooperation with the press is found in Eastern Hillsborough County. A report is given to the effect that because of the column the people of the rural communities have increased subscriptions until every home that has membership in home demonstration work is a subscriber to the paper and because of increased subscriptions the paper has divided the price of subscription between itself and the club member bringing in the sub description, with the result that a county club fund was established last year to aid in supplying scholarships to the State Short Course and to the County Local Leaders' Camp. Some of the councils are beginning to successfully edit a news column in the local papers.
The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the past three years given definite instructions in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county in attendance at the State Short Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work given them and as an outgrowth of it a good many of the girls' councils edit and publish their own news sheets. Several women's councils have similar publications which have created considerable interest among the club members. They are also keeping a scrapbook of the publicity received in the local papers.
RADIO
Twenty agents report 31 talks given over the radio. The agent in Pinellas County is now broadcasting every two weeks over WSUN in St. Petersburg. These talks, her news columns






92 Florida Cooperative Extension

and news sheets are adjudged the credit for stimulating the organization of two additional women's clubs during the year.
In November the 4-H club members in Escambia County began a series of programs to be given over the broadcasting station in Pensacola. Monthly 4-H club programs have been given over WRUF during the year with the home demonstration members taking alternate months. We participated in the National 4-H Club Achievement program by having programs given over WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD. Agents and nine successful demonstrators in home demonstration activities gave valuable talks over WRUF during Farmers' Week. - Ten home demonstration agents gave splendid talks on accomplishments in various phases of the work during agents' conference. These were preceded by splendid news articles in the local papers. Members of the state staff have given talks over WRUF at various times during the year.






Annual Report, 1930


HOME IMPROVEMENT
VIMINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement
Home improvement in the rural sections of Florida is making
-progress. Interest in this project has increased greatly in the last few years; however, our goal for the rural homes of Florida is yet far in the field of endeavor.
In spite of adverse financial conditions, a desire for better and more attractive homes and home surroundings is apparent. Entire families are awakening to the needs and possibilities of the rural home.
The home improvement project is coordinated with the pro-ductive and conservation projects in a definite way. All members of the family are encouraged to produce and conserve with an objective in a home improvement accomplishment in mind such as water, lights, bathroom, a new house, remodeled house, or paint. Facts and figures for the accomplishment of the things to be done are thoroughly gone into, then suggestions made as to how the money for same may be obtained.
The plan of work for home improvement in the state includes the following: Beautification of home grounds, home engineering, home management, home furnishing,'home sanitation, thrift, and electrification.
LEADERS
County and community leaders assist the home agent in bringing to the attention of all club members the importance of the home improvement project; they distribute literature; they visit the demonstrations that are being developed in the home, giving suggestions and advice. They are usually members of the county home demonstration council, or they may be appointed by the county home demonstration agent.
The county home demonstration agent always directs the work with the assistance of the state office which assists with plans, meetings, and subject matter material, and assists in preparing exhibits, tours, fairs, achievement days, contests, and working bees.
DEMONSTRATIONS
The lessons in home improvement are taught by demonstrations in the homes of the community. Demonstrations of good practices as found in rural homes are made use of whether these are in the homes of demonstration club members or not, so a






Florida Cooperative Extension


leveling up of the community is noticeable. This arouses local interest and pride on the part of the people. Public demonstrations in house furnishings, thrift, conveniences, and electric labor savers are given from time to time to arouse interest of all home demonstration club members in the home improvement phase of work so that definite projects may be undertaken.
TOURS
Tours to completed demonstrations awaken a healthful competition in the communities. An educational tour of inspection properly arranged ' with merchants before purchases were to be made was conducted in Jacksonville; 22 women desiring to make purchases took advantage of it. High grade and cheap furniture were compared; the good and poor types of rugs, with analysis of the weave, design and color of each, the comparison of the "American made" with the imported rugs by a rug expert; the study of linens; pyrofax or bottled gas, kerosene, and electric stoves, washing machines, mangles, lighting systems, and home appliances were demonstrated.
FAIRS AND CONTESTS
Outstanding exhibits in home improvement were displayed at county fairs and contests in Dade, Palm Beach, Alachua, Escambia, Leon, Walton, Holmes, Liberty, Calhoun and Volusia counties.
WORKING BEES
One of the most effective methods employed to bring about the accomplishment of home improvement projects in the community, is the working bee,.where all the women meet at the home of a neighbor to help "fix up" the new house or the old house which has been remodeled. House furnishing via the thrift route is practiced. Groups work on rejuvenating furniture, rug making, window draperies, passe partouting pictures, chair bottoming, upholstering, and construction of furniture from boxes. These working bees may last two or even three days if the entire house is to be "fixed up". A one-room working bee is usually done in one day. All work for the various groups is planned in advance with the v ' various leaders by the county home demonstration agent and state specialist. The assembling and arrangement of the room to present an artistic and satisfying result is most convincing to all the neighbors who knew it






Annual Report, 1930


."before", and it is also convincing that much beauty may be had at small cost.' These working bees may safely be called schools of instruction and inspiration; even the men become interested. All have learned while they worked.
RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED
In spite of the depression, investments in home'improvement have gone steadily forward. One requirement the past year has been for the entire family -to work and plan together. First they are required to read the "Questions to Make You Think" and the reference subject matter. In this way they get into their thinking the need of more home improvement and a higher standard of living is built up. The budget of the family income is studied and wise spending is encouraged. The entire physical home, interior and exterior, is studied and all members of a family are encouraged to pool their savings and spend it for an improvement to be enjoyed by all.
Beautification of Home Grounds: Grass in grassless yards, foundation plantings, group plantings, whitewash on fences and out-buildings, paint on houses, are in growing evidence. The picture of the entire home, with its well planned house, a green lawn, foundation plantings, group plantings, trees, the poultry yard, the garden, the grazing lot for the cow and a brood sow, are the standards set for the thrifty farm families, and many thousand are working toward this end-, 6,557 demonstrations were started and are being continued.
Home Engineering: This is a part of the home improvement program that goes more slowly than most of it, due to expenses involved. However, reports show that during the year agents assisted 549 families with house planning problems. There were 22 houses constructed and 133 remodeled according to plans furnished by the agents. It is the aim to furnish information that will be beneficial in building or remodeling after a plan that will save time and energy; protect health of the occupants; and to have well built and attractive buildings of all kinds. Eleven counties report 159 sewage disposal systems installed; 16 report 107 water systems and 23 heating systems installed. Eight report 71 lighting systems installed. There were 166 poultry houses and 128 other buildings remodeled according to plans furnished.
Home Management: It is gratifying to see the interest that women and girls are taking in programs dealing with every day






Florida Cooperative Extension


housekeeping activities. These programs deal with keeping home accounts, budgeting expenditures, buying, use of time, obtaining right kind of labor-saving equipment, recommended methods for home laundering, and care of the house. There were 1,026 women and 1,707 girls who worked definitely with some of these problems during the year. The use of pedometers convinced many women of the need for rearranging or securing new equipment. There were 1,568 homes that reported assistance in adjustments in home-making to gain more satisfactory standards of living.


Fig. 13-The members of one home demonstration club met at their club
house and made hooked rugs.

Home Furnishings: During the year 2,219 women and 2,310 girls carried demonstrations in house furnishings and thereby added materially to the attractiveness of the inside of their homes. It has been truthfully said that "the living room in hundreds of Florida homes is now an attractive gathering place for the family, and a place conducive to the development of a 'higher life' within the home."
While kitchens and living rooms have probably received more attention, other rooms and the house in its entirety come in for






Annual Report, - 1930


a study. Special attention has been given to walls', floors, woodwork, repairing and remodeling of furnishings, selection and arrangement of furnishings.
Home Sanitation: In programs brought before all home demonstration club members, junior and adults, emphasis is given to the necessity for "good every day housekeeping", cleanliness in interior and exterior of homes, with the result that 3,158 homes followed recommendations of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects; 1,285 homes screened for the first time; 583 homes built sanitary toilets.






Florida Cooperative Extension


GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST
November of this year saw the close of the third all-year garden contest. Thirty counties participated and 20 counties submitted completed material. As in the past the "Kitchen Card" to show the daily serving of at least two fresh vegetables, the canning budget to show what is needed to supplement the yield of the garden and grove, the complete story of the gardener's activities and photographs of same, were asked of every contestant, both demonstrators for the county and individual demonstrators as before.
The purpose of this contest is to teach the value of the fresh fruits and vegetables in the family diet and to point out the fact that farm women by their gardens assist in the maintenance of their homes. Through the records made, club members have emphasized the garden as a worth while factor in the upkeep of the home.
The number of all-year county demonstrators increased from eight in 1929 with finished records to 20 counties reporting in 1930. These records show unusual interest in the garden project and mainly are detailed and accurate.
The following is a summary of six senior all-year garden records from Gadsden County:
SUMMARY OF PROFIT FOR SIX ALL-YEAR GARDENS, GADSDEN COUNTY, 1930
Value of
JVegs. used
Name of in home Value
All-Year Garden Fresh- Vegs. Tbtal Total Net
Demonstrator Canned Sold Receipt Cost- Profit
Mrs. $ 289.80 $103.90 $ 393.70 $ 81.85 $ 311.85
Mrs. Fletcher . 346.75 74.65 421.40 83.45 337.95 Mrs. C. E. Blount 166.80 9.29 176.09 39.45 136.64 Mrs. C. Edwards . 186.15 128.02 314.17 231.71
Mrs. J. J. Rowan . 132.10 14.31 146.41 20.00 126.41 Mrs. Henry Todd . 447.30 121.90 569.20 83.45 485.75
TOTAL . $1,568.90 1 $45V7- _$2.020.97'J $396.6-61 $1,630.31 AWARDS
Seeds:-Gadsden County, because of the general excellence of the records, wins sweepstakes-garden seeds to the amount of $25; Holmes County, a close second because of the large all-year garden enrollment and the splendid stories of accomplishment,






Annual Report, 1930


wins second sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $15; and Okaloosa, third sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $10, awarded by Francis C. Stokes Seed Company. .Other Awards :-The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs gave $50 to be used for educational purposes, to the 4-H club girl making the best record in gardening and canning. The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau awarded $100 in cash for the best four gardens in the state.
Fruit Trees and Ornamentals:-Besides these cash awards, fruit trees and ornamentals to the value of $75 donated by interested nurserymen of the state, $10 in flower seeds or bulbs from a northern nurseryman, Stumpp and Walter, and a garden plow from S. L. Allen Company, Inc., are further awards distributed to the senior garden members.
JUNIOR GARDEN WORK
There are 4235 girls enrolled in gardening who grow vegetables and flowers and who have perennial plantings started as required in their productive program. In addition, there are gardens among the junior club members that are easily comparable to the senior all-year gardens, as none of the juniors enrolled has stopped with the minimum requirements. These requirements are the same as in 1929.
Awards :-In each of the three home demonstration districts, three prizes were offered by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau to winners in the junior garden contest.
The following is a summary of the cash value of seven junior gardens taken from six of the county records:


0 0le
-00

Louise RooksGadsden . $ 105.50 1 $ 26.00 $ 131.50 $ 25.35 $ 96.15 Eunice NixonAlachua.---. 218.07 32.67 250.74 16.20 234.54 Annabel Raulerson-I
Alachua . 452.83 28.42 481.25 10.81 470.44 lone SummersCalhoun . 79.78 50.10 129.88 40.55 89.33 Edna BurgessHolmes. . 85.00 18.23 103.23 6.53 96.70
Leone ArnoldOkaloosa . 121.30 .35 121.65 11.25 110.40 Mae Gavins-Walton 89.15 5.32 94.47 23.40 71.07
TOTAL 1$1,151.63 1 $161.09 1 $1,312.72 $134.09 1 $1,168.63




Full Text

PAGE 1

1930 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIV~TIES FOR 1930 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENr FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1930

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1930 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORI{ IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING WILM0N NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1930 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1930

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CONTENTS PAGE BOARD llF CONTROL AND STAFF ............... ,................ ................................... 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ................................................ 5 REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR .................................... :............................................... 7 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS .................................................................................. 15 COUNTY AGENT WORK 20 BOYS' CLUB WORK 40 DAIRYING ........................................................................... ................................... 48 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY -54 CITRICULTURE .................................. . ............................... . .... :.... . ......................... 56 POULTRY 62 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ........ .................... . ..... .............................................. 70 COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............... : .......................................... 72 HOME IMPROVEMENT : ..................... 93 GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION .............................................................. 98 NEGRO MEN'S WORK 103 NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............................................................ 112

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Hon. Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1930, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1930. Hon. P. K. Yonge, Respectfully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control. Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you trans mit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida.

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BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola w. B. DAVIS, Perry A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK w. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry' J. E. TURLINGTON, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist• FRANK W. BRUMLEY, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management W. R. BRIGGS, B.S.A., Assistant Agricultural Economist, Farm Management COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent 1 ln cooperation with U. S. D. A. 'Part-time.

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS * County County Agents Address Home Demonstration Agents Alachua .. .................. F. L. Craft ................ Gainesville ...... .. Mrs. Grace F. Warren Bradford and Union L. T. Dyer ........ ..... ... Lake Butler; Miss Pearl Jordan (Starke) Calhoun ... .... ..... . ....... J. G. Kelley .............. Blountstown ................................................. . Calhoun and Liberty ..................................... Blountstown .... Miss Josephine Nimmo Citrus and Sumter .. !. R. Nolen ................ :Inverness ..................................... ... ...... . ...... . Citrus .............................................................. Inverness ...... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Dade (North) ........ .. J. S. Rainey ............ Miami ........................ Miss Pansy Norton Dade (South) .... . ..... C. A. Steffani . .. ..... .. Homestead .................... .......... . .... . .. .... . . .. ..... . DeSoto . . . .. .. . ...... .. ..... . .J. J. Heard ................ Arcadia ... ...................... ... .. ..... ..... .. . . ... . ... .. . ... . Dixie .......................... D. M. Treadwell .... Cross City .... .. ................ ..... .... ...................... . Duval ........ .. .............. W. L. Watson .......... Jacksonville .............. Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) . ......... A. S. Lawton ............ Jacksonville ................................... . ............. . Duval (Asst.) ... . . ... .. C. H. Magoon ...... . . Jacksonville . ......... ... ........ ......... . .......... ........ . Escambia ......... . ........ E. P. Scott ................ Pensacola .............. Miss Ethel Atkinson Gadsden ... ....................... ................ .. .. ........ ... Quincy ........... . . ...... .... . Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton .. ................ J. J. Sechrest ........ .. . . Jasper ............................................................. . Hernando .... ... .. .. ....... J. H. Logan ............ Brooksville ............ Mrs. Florence Albert Highlands ...... . ......... L. H. Alsmeyer ........ Sebring ................................. ..... : ..... . ..... . . ..... . Highlands and Charlotte .. . .. ... .... ..... ................................... . . . . . . . .... ... ............... Mrs. May W. Hamilton Hillsborough ......... ... C. P. Wright ............ Plant City (E) .... Miss Motelle . Madole Hillsborough ................................................. Tampa (W) .................... Miss Allie Rush Holmes . ........................ ............................. . .... Bonifay .. . ..... ........ Mrs. Bettie A . Caudle Indian River ... , ........ W. E. Evans ............ Vero Beach Fort Pierce .... ....... . Miss Ethyl Holloway Jackson ...................... Sam Rountree .......... Marianna ................ Miss Eleanor Clark Jefferson .. ................ E. H. Finlayson . ..... Monticello .................... Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette ............. .. ... D. C. Geiger ...... ...... Mayo . . ................................. .. ........................ . Lake ......... .. . .. .. ... . ... : .. C. R. Hiatt ..... .... . . . .. Tavares .................... Mrs. Mary S. Allen Lee . ... . .... .... ...... . ... . . .. . W . . P. Hayman ........ Fort Myers ......... ... Miss Anna Mae Sikes Leon .......................... G. C. Hodge ............ Tallahassee ..... , .. Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy ................ . ... . ..... N. J. Albritton ........ Bronson .. . ......................................... ..... . ... .... . Liberty .. ... ..... . .. . ... .. ... Dewey H. Ward ...... Bristol . .......... ............................. . ..... . ..... . ...... . Madison . . .... : .... . ... : .... B. E. Lawton .......... Madison ....... : ................................................. . Manatee ...... ..... . ...... .. L. H. Wilson ............ Bradenton ... ... ...... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ...................... Clyde H. Norton .. .. Ocala ... .... ................... Miss Tillie Roese} Martin ... . . ....... . ...... ... C. P. Heuck .. . .. .. .. .. . Stuart ........................................... ....... ......... . Okaloosa .... .. . ........... Joseph W. Malone .. Crestview ... ..... .......... Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee .. . ........... C. A. Fulford .......... Okeechobee ....................... . ........................... . Orange ....... .. .. . ....... ... K. C. Moore ............ Orlando ................ Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola . . ...... .. . ........... J. R. Gunn ... : . ........ ... Ki ss immee .................. Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach .. . . .......... M. U. Mounts ..... ... .. W. Palm Beach .... Mrs. Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas .................... Wm. Gomme ........... Clearwater ............ Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk ............. .. . ............ F. L. Holland ... .. ....... Bartow ........................ Miss Lois Godbey Polk (Asst.) . . ............................................. Bartow .................... Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns .................. E. H. Vance ........ . ..... St. Augustine ........ Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie .. .... ..... ....... A. Warren .......... . ..... Ft. Pierce ............ Miss Ethyl Holloway Santa Rosa .... .......... J. G. Hudson ......... . .. Milton . ............. ...... Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor ..... .. ..... ...... . .... .R. S. Dennis ............ Perry ...... ......... ....................... .. . . ... . . . ... .... ...... . Volusia . .. . .. ....... . ........ T. A. Brown ............ DeLand .... ... ... ................ Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla .................... H. E. Hudson .......... Crawfordville ................................. , ...... .. . .. .. . Walton . . ....... . . ... ... .... .Mitchell Wilkins .... DeFuniak Springs .. Miss Eloise McGriff Washington ... .. ......... Gus York .................. Chipley ................................... ..... . ........... ... . . . * This li st correct to December 31, 19 30.

PAGE 7

Fig . 1. Thi s display of vegetables , which won first prize a ~ the 1930 South Florida Fair , gives an id e a of the variety of Florida vegetab l e products.

PAGE 8

REPORT FOR 1930 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Tigert, President, University of Florida. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state~ ment for the fisca~ year ending June . 30, 1930, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1930. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Receipts College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal ............... ................... ...... ... ......................... $ 77,646.71 Smith-Lever, State ........................................................................ 48,872.25 Capper-Ketcham, Federal ............ . .... ... .. .. .................................... 25,941.28 U;S.D.A. Appropriation ....................... . ....... .... ............................. 21,000.00 State Appropriations ...................... ....... .. .... ................................. 35,864.37 County Appropriations ................. .................. ......... . .. . .................. 159,562.79 $368,887.40 Expenditures Administration ................. . . . . ............. .. . ... ........ . .......... ............ . ........ ........ $ 7,082.30 Publications ..................... . .............. .......... ... .. .. .... . .. . . . . ..... .. ............. . ....... . 8,157.45 County Agent Work .................. ........ . .............. ... ........ ..... . .................. 168,649.64 Home Demonstration Work .................................................................. 131,009.65 Boys' Club Work ................................ .............................. ...................... 6,119.77 Dairy Husbandry ..................... ,...................... . ..... ....... ........................... 5,125.83 Negro Extension Work ........... ................. . . . . . . ..... ................................ 25,526.53 Plant Pathology .................................... ....... .. ........................................ 2,677.17 Poultry Husbandry .................................. . . .... . . . . . .............................. : ...... 4,915.47 National Egg Laying Contest ............... .. . . ... . ..................................... 7,000.00 Extension Schools, Farmers' Week ......... .. ...... , .................................. 2,623.59 $368,887.40

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension ORGANIZATION Agricultural Extension work during 1930 has been conducted in 53 different counties. At the close of the year 49 counties had county Extension agents. The supervisory force has been as fol lows: Director, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader, three district agents for men's work, three district agents for women's work, one State Home Demonstration Agent, one boys' club agent; and specialists as follows: Citrus Pathologist and Ento mologist, Dairyman, Poultryman, Nutritionist, Food and Mar keting Agent, Home Improvement Agent, Animal Husbandry Specialist, and one specialist in Farm Management. CHANGES DURING YEAR On July 1 Miss Virginia P. Moore was appointed Home Im provement Specialist for the State, and was relieved of the duties of Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent; July 15 Walter J. Sheely was appointed Extension Animal Husbandman; on August 15 Miss Mary A. Stennis resigned as Extension Nutri tionist and her successor has not yet been appointed. The first appointment in the Agricultural Economics project was made on October 1 with Frank W. Brumley being appointed Agricultural Economist, Farm Management. At this time A. E. Mercker was appointed Extension Specialist in Marketing on part-time basis, to work in cooperation with the Inter-State Early Potato Committee. On November 1 H. G. Clayton, dis trict agent for Southwest Florida, was appointed part-time Ex tension Economist to supervise organization and outlook work. This relieved Mr. Clayton of the supervision of several counties, the supervision of which was divided between the other district agents. W.R. Briggs, formerly county agent in Brevard Coun ty, was appointed Assistant in Farm Management on November 1; and Dr. J. E. Turlington, Agricultural Economist of the Col lege of Agric11lture was appointed as Extension Economist to head the work in agricultural economics in the Extension Serv ice. Dr. Turlington will work on a part-time basis. The revenue supporting Extension work in Florida comes from three sources: 1, appropriation by the United States De partment of Agriculture, 2, appropriations by the Florida Legis lature, and 3, county appropriations. Of these sources the coun ty appropriations comprise the largest amount. County appro priations are authorized by a law permitting counties to levy one-half mill for agricultural development. This provision

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1930 9 makes it optional with the County Boards, consequently the work in the counties is dependent on county appropriations. Because of a more difficult financial situation over the state generally, county appropriations for the current year have been somewhat reduced by county boards, and in three cases the county work has been discontinued, largely the result of county financial difficulties. Nevertheless, the number of counties con tinuing the work remains practically the same from year to year. This, however, has required some reorganization with agents working in more than one county and, in two cases, the Extension Service paying all the salary and travel of the agent. This, however, is only a temporary arrangement and will be modified as soon as conditions warrant the change. For the most part the finances of the county have been pro vided by the county commissioners-with two exceptions, wher,e either a part or all of the funds were provided by the county school board. During the year just passed the average salary, including ex penses, paid to county agents was $3,500 per year and to home agents $3,000 per year. This is a small reduction from 1929. During the past year, it has been possible to increase the allot ment to counties from $960 to $1080 per year and thereby relieve the counties to the extent of $10 per month on the salary of each agent. A still larger burden of the salary and expenses should be carried by the State and Federal governments. COOPERATION OF STATE INSTITUTIONS The Agricultural Extension Service, being a part of the Col lege of Agriculture of the University of Florida, has had the co operation of various departments of the Florida Experiment Station and .College of Agriculture. Through cooperation with the agronomist of the Experiment Station the cover crop and forage crop work has been strengthened by the distribution of a variety of plants and seeds that have been tested by the Ex periment Station. Cooperation of the veterinary department has resulted . in the promotion of poultry work. This made it possible for the Exten sion Service to utilize the knowledge gained in experiments in the control of diseases affecting poultry. The Entomology and Plant Pathology departments of the Ex periment Station have worked in close cooperation with the Citrus Specialist in carrying out demonstrations, conducting

PAGE 11

10 Florida Cooperative Extension meetings, and making recommendations to be used by the grow ers. The chemistry department has cooperated by assistance in recommendations for fertilizer applications, proper utiliza tion of cover crops, etc. The horticultural department has worked closely in cooperation with the Extension Service in its work with vegetables, fruits, nuts, ornamentals, and landscape work. The agricultural economics section of the Experiment Station has considered the interests of the Extension Service in its plans and has given full cooperation in the laying out of the agricultural economics program put into effect by the Exten sion Service during the past year. The various departments of the Agricultural College and Ex periment Station aided in providing a suitable program for Farmers' Week, county agent annual conference, boys and girls' short course, as well as assisted in programs conducted by coun ty and home agents in the counties. On July 1 a cooperative agreement was entered into with the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., providing for an Animal Husbandry Specialist. The main purpose of this was to stimulate and improve production of beef cattle, principally in the area free of cattle ticks. This plan also proposes to intro duce animal husbandry work with hogs and sheep in cooperation with county agents, district agents, and 4-H club work. COOPERATION WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS During the campaign for the eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Extension: agents cooperated in the eradication work. Their offices were used as a means of conveying information to growers on various aspects of the eradication plan. This work, however, was not as intensively carried out by county agents as during the year of 1929, but at no time during the active cam paign were the county agents in the citrus. area entirely relieved of the responsibility of working towards the completion of the clean-up campaign. The Extension Service has worked in full cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau, assisting the specialists in assembling carloads of livestock and poultry for sale. It has also assisted in the sale of poultry, hogs, dairy products, and various other agri cultural commodities. The specialists of the State Marketing Bu reau have assisted on programs for Farmers' Week and on other similar occasions. , There has also existed cooperation with the office of the Com

PAGE 12

Annual R e port, 1930 11 missioner of Agriculture, the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the office of the State Forester, and the State Board of Health in programs and plans that deal with the problems of the rural people. Private enterprises have contributed liberally to the advance ment of Extension work in the way of prizes and scholarships, mainly to stimulate 4-H club work. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS WORK INAUGURATED Work in agricultural economics began October 1, 1930, and is just in the process of organization. Appointments have been made for specialists in farm management and in marketing. These agents will carry out enterprise studies beginning with poultry, citrus, and dairying, and will add to these as the work progresses . In marketing , plans are made to assist growers in es tablishing and perfecting cooperative marketing organizations in accordance with the plans of the Federal Farm Board . At tention will be given to non-cooperative marketing to assist in a study of market conditions affecting a variety of crops and farm and home products that enter into demonstrations con ducted by county Extension workers. An agreement has been made for outlook studies for the pur pose of directing farmers in marketing methods. Also in or ganization in cooperation with the State Marketing Bureau. As Fig. 2.-Cucumber s ready to go to market. These were shipped by grower s ' cooperat i ve association . .

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension these phases of the work are new, it was necessary to provide office and equipment. This has been secured in the lease of a building just off the campus of the University of Florida. Pro vision has been made for ample stenographic and clerical help. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK The ninth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was con ducted on the University campus August 11 to 15, 1930. The at tendance was 1,661. This is an annual event, occurring each year just after the close of Summer School at the University. As usual , the program was directed by members of the Col lege of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Extension Service, and State Plant Board, with the assistance of workers from the State Marketing Bureau, Department of Agriculture, and other organizations. The dormitories and dining room of the University were made available to visitors at nominal rates. Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture, farm crops, livestock, poultry, beekeeping, and home economics were conducted. General sessions of all visitors were held daily from 11 to 12 a.m. A display of agricultural implements and other goods of interest to farmers was arranged under a tent near the College of Agriculture building. Most of the exhibits were furnished by commercial concerns. Music and other entertainment were features of the mid-day programs, while a special entertainment program was held each night. Wednesday afternoon was given over to the annual Farmers' Week picnic . .NW ARDS TO CLUB MEMBERS Business organizations, county officials, and individuals con tributed prizes and awards to the value of $16,150 to 4-H club boys and girls and $560.50 to home demonstration club women during the year. Efficiency in club work and examination de termined the winner in each case. Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners: A total of 499 4-H club girls from 35 counties were awarded free trips to the annual Girls' Club Short Course . in June at the State College for Women. These had a total value of $8,736.50, and were given by civic organizations and business men, county commissioners and school boards,. federated women's clubs and

PAGE 14

Annual Report, 1930 13 business and professional women's clubs, senior and junior home demonstration clubs and county councils. County commissioners, businessmen's organizations, and com mercial concerns donated 240 scholarships, valued at $3,100, to the Boys' Club Short Course at the University of Florida in June. Twelve of these were given by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Edu cational Bureau and seven by the L. & N. Railway Company. As state winners, six girls and three boys were sent to the National Club Congress in Chicago, held in connection with the International Live Stock Show. The winners and donors were: Ruth Durrenberger, Orange County, Kerr Glass Company; Ruth Yates, Osceola County, Montgomery Ward & Co.; Dora Lee Bryant, Escambia County, Florida Department of Agricul ture; Barbara Blasey, Escambia County, Quaker Oats Company; Lorene Duffy, Manatee County, Chicago Mail Order House; Ot:. tie Lee Bass, Okaloosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Hugh Dukes, Union County, Armour & Company; Yutch Lee, Santa Rosa County, L. & N. Railway Company; Nelson Reeves, Leon County, 4-H club fund. In addition, the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce sent Anabel Raulerson and William Clegg as win ners in Alachua County, and the Leon County Bankers' Associ ation sent Francis Moss, for his excellent dairy club work in that county. Two boys and two girls were sent to the National 4-H Club Camp, Washington, D. C., for two weeks during June. The win ners and donors were: Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County, Flor ida Federation of Women's Clubs; Guilda Yates, Orange County, and Hugh Dukes, Union County, Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company; Wilson Roberts, Washington County, Barnett Nation al Bank. Horace A. Moses, Eastern paper manufacturer, provided two scholarships, one for a girl and one for a boy, to the 4-H Leader ship Training School at Springfield, Mass. These trips were won by Beulah Felts of Manatee County and Frederick Barber of Escambia County. Frank E. Dennis gave a $250 scholarship to the University of Florida to Wilma Bassett of Jefferson County for raising and exhibiting the champion breeding pig. The State Bankers' Asso ciation gave $100 scholarships to Jack Platt of Marion, Marable Love of Leon, and Charles Stearns of Lake. Congressman Thomas Yon gave a $100 scholarship each to Arlington Henley of Walton County and Gladys McDuffy of Holmes County.

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14 Florida Cooperative E x tension Thomas E. Wilson gave a $50 gold watch to the club boy hav ing the best livestock project in the state. This was won by Arthur McNeeley of Marion County. The State Junior Home Demonstration Council awarded a $200 scholarship to the State College for Women to Viola Yates of Hillsborough County. The State Senior Home Demonstration Council" provided a $100 loan fund. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs gave $50 awards to winners in poultry and gar dening club work. Congresswoman Ruth Bryan Owen provided special awards in home improvement, the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau in home gardening, and Mrs. Geo. N. Powell for county gardening winners. Plantings and seed, garden supplies and equipment, were awarded to girls and women for excellence in home gardening and home beautification. These were contributed by Griffing's Interstate Nurseries, Glen St. Mary Nurseries, Francis C. Stokes Seed Company, Royal Palm Nurseries, S. L. Allen Company, Stumpp and Walter Company, and the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau. Cash awards for the encouragement of women's home demon stration work were made by the Celotex Company, Washburn Crosby Company, Northwestern Yeast Company, Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau, J. C. Penney Company, American Art !Association, American Bemberg Corporation, Aluminum Cooking Utensil Company, Singer Sewing Machine Company, Sears, Roebuck & Co., and Thomas A. Edison, Inc.

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Annual Report, 1930 15 PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor PUBLICATIONS During the year ending June 30, 1930, three new extension bulletins were printed, three old ones were reprinted, 10 new circulars were issued, and one old one reprinted, in addition to the publication of a yearly calendar and a final report of the National Egg-Laying Contest, and the weekly publication of the . Agricultural News Service. Exclusive of the News Service, the material published amounted to 344 printed pages, the largest amount of printing the Extension Service has done during one year recently. In all, 135,600 copies of these various publica tions were printed. Following is a list of the publications issued during the year, with the number of pages contained in each, and the quantity of each which was printed. Bul. Bul. Bui. Bui. Bui. Pages 56 Foods, Nutrition and Health .................................... 40 57 Herbaceous Perennials for Florida ............................ 36 58 Vegetable Crops of Florida ....................................... 56 50 Save the Surplus (Reprint) ........................................ 48 54 Vetch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement (Reprint) .......................................................................... 20 Bui. 55 Rejuvenating Furniture (Reprint) ............................ 12 Circ. 15 How to Organize and Conduct a Boys' 4-H Club.... 8 Circ. 17 Program Building and Goals for Boys' 4-H Clubs.... 8 Circ. 18 Boys' 4-H Club Officers and Their Duties ................ 8 Circ. 19 The Local 4-H Club Leader ........................................ 8 Circ. 20 The Parents' Place in the Boys' 4-H Club Program 8 Circ. 21 Music Appreciation for Rural Communities, Clubs and Homes ........................................................................ 20 Circ. 22 The Succulent Peach ...................................................... 4 Circ. 23 Grape and Grape Products ........................................ 4 Circ. 24 The Fig ....................... .................................................... 4 Circ. 25 Pear Products ................................................................ 4 Circ. 972 Home Improvement (Reprint) .................................... 28 Final Report, Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest .... 16 1930 Calendar ...................................................................................... 12 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks) .,........................ 1 Edition 25,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 5,000 5,000 4,200 3,000 5,100 4,200 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 8,000 1,500 9,600 29,000 In addition, a number of miscellaneous supplies were printed. These included pads for the Home Egg-Laying Contest, certifi cates for the National Egg-Laying Contest, mortality chart, healthy chick chart, crop club record book, individual club mem ber's record book, secretary's record book, boys' clubs, all ye garden record books, Farmers' Week window cards, stuffers programs.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension Twelve monthly reports of the Third Florida National Egg Laying Contest at Chipley were printed and distributed, the material for these being prepared and handled by the contest supervisor. Nine hundred copies of these were distributed each month. A mimeographed report of the Home Egg-Laying Con test, prepared by the Extension Poultryman and edited and dis tributed from this office, was distributed monthly. Poultry hints were mimeographed and distributed bimonthly. Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision of the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration Office at Tallahassee. Many thousand copies of bulletins and various classes of supplies were distributed during the year from both the Tallahassee and Gainesville offices. NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES The Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, continued to be the principal means used for the dissemination of extension information to the newspapers, and through them to their read ers, the public. From eight to 12 stories each week were sent out through this service. The stories were largely clipped and reprinted by the weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties of Florida. Service to the daily papers of the state was provided through the Associated Press and through special stories and articles sent direct to the papers. During the year 151 stories were sent to the Associated Press and distributed by it to its 45 member papers in Florida. Sixty-one different special stories were sent to from one to 100 papers during the year. One of the stories, which went to 25 different papers, was accompanied by a mat of a two-column picture. The Extension Editor conducts a farm column in one of the larger state dailies, and contributes to such a department in another daily. These farm columns are printed each Sunday during the year. They contain numerous stories concerning extension activities and hints. During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. Stories of Farmers' Week activities were prepared for this page by the Ex tension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Numerous special Farmers' Week stories were sent

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Annual Report, 1930 17 to other papers. Posters, stuffers, programs, and other Farmers' Week publicity materials were printed and distributed. During the year 20 stories from this office were used by the monthly Farm and Grove Section of 50 Florida newspapers. The 20 stories amounted to 365 column inches, Six articles by other members of the staff, amounting to 105 column inches, were printed in this section during the year. The services of this office and other departments of the College of Agriculture to farm papers of Florida, the South and the nation, are especially well received and widely used. Fifty-six stories, amounting to 2,046 column inches of printed material, which had been written by the Editors, . were published in six different Florida farm papers during the year. Nine different stories, amounting to 140 column inches, were published in two different Southern farm papers, and two stories, amounting to 113 inches, were published in two national farm publications. In addition, various forms of material were sent to the United State Department of Agriculture for its publications. Numerous articles by members of the staff, which had been edited in this office and which amounted to hundreds of column inches of printed material, were published in Florida farm papers during the year. For instance, the November, 1930, issue of one Florida farm publication contained 22 stories from the College of Agriculture. These amounted to 507 inches or 42 columns-just exactly half of the space inside the paper not de voted to advertising. In addition to material sent especially to farm papers, these papers clip and use considerable quantities of material from the weekly clipsheet. RADIO Thirty-minute daily farm programs were put on the air over WRUF during the year. These programs were planned and supervised by the ,Assistant Extension Editor. During the year, 312 programs went on the air, and . 441 talks were given by staff members of the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station and Agricultural Extension Service, farmers, and others. A total of 220 papers distributed by the Radio Service of the United State Department of Agriculture was read. Once each week a period was devoted to reading questions and answers. These were questions received by Station and Extension workers, and answered by them. Another weekly period was given to the

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension reading of farm news, taken largely from the Agricultural News Service. Of the 441 talks, the Editors themselves prepared and read 24, Experiment Station staff members, 139, Extension Service workers, 135, teachers in the College of Agriculture, 39, 4 ... H club members, 34, and others, 70. Whenever the person who pre pared the talk could give it, he was encouraged to do so. How ever, when the author was out of town or unable to be present, his talk was read by the Assistant Extension Editor. In ad dition, the Editors put on 90 humorous interlude features last ing about 3 minutes each. In addition to the regular noon-day farm programs daily over WRUF, this station gave time to six monthly 4-H club programs of 30 minutes each, 1 special 4-H achievement program of 30 minutes, and during the Boys' Club Short Course at the Uni versity in June, five boys made 3-minute talks. The total num ber of club talks during the year was 36. During Farmers' Week, each noon-day program was broad cast direct from the University auditorium, while it was being given foi: the benefit of the assembled visitors. One of the even ing entertainment programs was put on the air. An extra period, in the early evening, was given to allow visitors to Farm ers' Week to go on the radio~ In all, 42 Farmers' Week visitors made talks over WRUF during the week. Again during the annual conference of county and home dem onstration agents, the first week in October, the station gener ously gave an added half hour to the farm program . each day. During the two daily periods for the week, 37 county and home demonstration agents spoke on subjects relating to their work. The Assistant Editor made a study of the radio possibilities of WRUF, and found that about 23,000, or 39' percent of the 59,601 farms in Florida, are within 100 miles of WRUF. About 45,000, or 76 percent, are within 200 miles, and all are in 350 miles of the Station. About 80 percent of the farmers are in territory allotted to Eastern Standard Time, and the remaining 20 in the Central Standard Time area. Thus it is believed that the period 12 :15 to 12 :45, E. S. T., is as satisfactory as any noon-time period that could be obtained. On November 8 a national-lo . cal 4-H club achievement program wa~ put on the air over three Florida stations. The first and last parts of the program came from Washington over the chain.

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Annual Report, 1930 19 with the United States Department of Agriculture as sponsor. The middle 30 minutes came from each local station. The local programs for the three Florida stations were arranged and supervised by the Editors. Each program was approximately as follows: Opening music, followed by a talk by a 4-H club girl, then a talk by a home demonstration worker, then music, then a talk by a 4-H club boy, then a 4-H club leader, county agent, or business man, and closing music. Some 10 or 12 different radio farm features were prepared in this office and sent to two state stations to be read as parts of their regular farm programs. MISCELLANEOUS Training in news writing was, given by the Editor to 10 club boys and 40 club girls at their annual club short courses in June. The boys and girls were assisted in issuing mimeographed club papers daily during their separate short courses. The club girls of one county were helped to start their camp paper, and later to start their county club mimeographed paper. Twenty girls and women of another county were given news training during their camp. Two county agents were given personal help in their news writing work. Assistance was given in the preparation of two series of motion picture slides for one agent. A Southern pub lisher was carried on a trip to some of the branch experiment stations, and was helped to obtain information for three dif ferent stories. A series of weekly ad slogans, to be used in its regular weekly advertisements, was prepared for one bank. Each slogan be gan with the words, "Here is what the College of Agriculture says for this week:"

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension PART II-MEN'S WORK COUNTY AGENT WORK , A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent W. T. NETTLES, District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent County agents, with few exceptions, have offices located in county court houses; a few are located with chambers of com merce. These offices are, on the whole, very well equipped with office furniture, typewriters, demonstration material, bulletin racks, and supplies of bulletins. Only 33 % of the agents have stenographic help; most of the offices have telephone service. With the exception of stationery and bulletins, the offices are equipped at the expense of the county. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES County agents have devoted considerable time and energy this year to the fruit fly eradication work by assisting in putting on the bait spray campaign. A number of county agents issued shipping permits until the quarantine was raised in the sum mer. County agents had an active part in fair work by assembling and putting on the county exhibits at the South Florida Fair, the Central Florida Exposition, the Florida Orange Festival, and various county fairs. They have also worked with agricul tural committees of the chambers of commerce and service clubs in developing agricultural programs. The State Pig Club Show was held at Tallahassee, with county Agent Hodge making all local arrangements. One hundred and fifty animals were exhibited at this show. The Agricultural Extension Service also cooperated with the Florida State Horticultural Society in their meetings in Marianna and Sebring. PUBLICITY County Agents have supplied to the press of Florida an aver age of 110 agricultural news items each. They have sent out an average of 18 different circular letters, and have made 113. radio talks.

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Annual Report, 1930 21 CONTESTS The Jackson County Agent conducted a five-acre corn and a five-acre cotton contest during the year. Eleven county agents held 4-H Club contests. Some of these were held in connection with county fairs. The most outstanding one of the season was in Escambia County. Here the 4-H boys and girls held their contest together. Their program included a radio program of 30 minutes. One hundred boys displayed their project exhibits and records. EDUCATIONAL TOURS Twelve agents in the general farming area conducted well-or ganized tours of farmers, business men, and bankers. Eight had a published schedule. Their demonstrations were placarded and most of them showed demonstrations representing a very good cross-section of their program of work. Such things as citrus and vegetable demonstrations, corn after winter cover crops, different varieties of corn, side dressing of corn with nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia, cotton varieties and fer tilizers, peanut spacing, sugarcane varieties, hogs on early feed, swine sanitation, pasture development, beef. cattle and dairy cattle herd improvement, as well as poultry brooders and flocks, were shown. Seven of the agents had speaking programs at the noon hour calling attention to the facts learned from the dem onstrations. Chambers of commerce and other civic bodies co operated in furnishing picnic lunch to some of them. Six hun. dred and ten farmers and business men went on these 12 tours. Many others attended the lunches and speaking programs. As a result of these tours, Extension work was continued in at least one coqnty. Many farmers will follow the improved practices shown next year. EDUCATIONAL TRIPS Internal parasites of swine are one of the problems in swine production. Last spring a number of the county agents went to Moultrie, Georgia, to visit the B. A. I. field laboratory, under the supervision and direction of Dr. E. M. Neighbert, and to study the practices in sanitation demonstrations. They saw the simple equipment, the grazing crops, and the simple method of handling. Late in the summer many county agents conducted motor cades of farmers to the Cummings Livestock Ranch at Donal

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22 Flo ri d a Coop era ti ve E x t ensi o n sonville, Georgia, to see what had been done there in herd and pasture improvement. As a result, many purebred sires have been purchased and a few pastures have been planned. F i g . 3 . Fir st s t op o n t h e ed uc at i o nal to ur, in whi c h g r o w e r s s e e d e m o s tra t i o n s of go o d practic es. To see how some dairy farmers are growing feeds, improving their herds, and installing new equipment, dairymen of Escam bia County made a trip to Baldwin County , Alabama, dairie s . PROJECT WORK All project s carried on b y the Agricultural Extension Servic e are put into effect in the counties through the work of the county a:n,d home demonstration agents. State specialists and super visors conduct their work in cooperation with the county agent s . County agent work is supervised by three district agents. One district comprises the general farming and livestock area of North and West Florida, a second comprise s the counties in Northeast Florida and on the East Coast, a third comprises those counties lying from Gainesville south and w e st. At the beginning of each y ear a program co v ering the year' s activities i s mapped out by each distri c t agent, supervisor, and county worker. These are brought together and make up the state's program for the year. In some counties all of the special ists have actual projects under way, while in other counties only such projects as are adaptable are put into effect by the county agent. This definite program provides a working plan suitable to each county.

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Ann ual R eport, 1930 23 In carrying on projects, all possible assistance is secured from other divisions of the College of Agriculture. The county agent work also includes the boys' club work; such work is a part of the regular duties of county agents. The club projects also correspond with the best methods in agricul ture suited to the section. To illustrate, the corn growing dem onstrations with 4-H club boys are on the same basis as the dem onstrations with adult farmers. Club work consists of livestock, poultry, horticulture , farm crops, forestry, and other active 4-H projects. County agent work therefore extends into every agricultural activity of the county and is the representative of the state col lege of agriculture in each county where an agent is emp lo yed . A aompiled statement of reports submitted by county and dis trict agents for the calendar year ending December 31, 1930, fol lows. SOILS The present definite soil improvement program began in the fall of 1925. This called for the use of vetch and Austrian winter peas to be grown on land in winter and early spring, Fig . 4.-This fine crop of Austrian winter peas is being turned under on April 7, 1930. It made the succeeding cro p of corn produce big yields.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension turned into the land about April 1 each year, and followed by a summer crop (preferably corn) planted about two weeks later. ln 1925-26 there were 10 demonstrations conducted, involving 10 acres. During 1929-30 there were 91 demonstrations involv ing 1,011 acres. Definite demonstrations have been conducted each year from 1925 to 1930. These demonstrations have pro duced 29.2 bushels of corn per acre against 12.4 bushels on the checks, an increased yield of 135 % . The following table shows how the practice of growing winter cover crops has increased : Year 1 1925-26 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 No. Pounds Seed Sown 200 600 6,000 53,000 110,000 153,000 Acres Planted 10 30 250 2,100 4,500 6,000 In groves it has been the practice to use cowpeas, native vege tation, and velvet beans as cover crops in summer. In the coun ties of Central Florida, it is the practice of letting one-half of the cultivatable lands "lie out" each year. This grows a crop of native vegetation which protects the land during the summer and is turned into the land next winter. This is apparently an economic practice with this land. It will produce from three to five bushels more corn per acre when planted than land that was cultivated. For the last few years a few demonstrations of growing Cro talaria on land and among corn as a cover crop have been con ducted. Most of these are too recent to show much results. One started in 1926 produced 41.2 bushels of corn as against 25.8 for check during the 1929 season. In 1930 it produced 30 bushels as against 16.8 bushels Oh check. This was in the drought-af f ected area. The soils in 10 of the Northwest Florida counties are rolling. Rainfall average iri these counties ranges from 55 to 65 inches per annum. Much of the fields under tenant system of culti vation are now washed-off hillsides, depleted of soil. To show that these fields can be brought back to fertility and others can be conserved, the county agents in these counties last ye ar con ducted 211 demonstrations in terracing and soil conservation, in volving 3,875 acres. The Walton County agent says, "I operated a machine on 12 farms. Many farmers did their own." The Escambia County agent says, "Fifteen demonstrations were held

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Annual Report, 1930 25 this year. Five terracing drags were built." It is estimated that terracing of land is worth $5.00 per acre per annum. In citrus fruit production the fertilizer cost on the average has been 50 to 60% of the total cost. A soil well supplied with organic matter is essential if maximum results are to be ob tained from fertilizers. Also where the grower can supply this organic matter he is in position to utilize the cheaper chemical forms of nitrogen and the higher analysis fertilizers, thereby reducing the unit cost of plant food. The work done by county agents with cover crops has been outstanding. This year, as a rule, cover crops did not yield as great a tonnage as in past years due to weather conditions in the spring. Crotalaria striata now ranks as the leading citrus cover crop among those cover crops which are seeded. County agents in the citrus and vegetable territory report that growers with whom they cooperated purchased 111,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed. An additional tonnage of Crotalaria seed was sown in other groves. A limited amount of Crotalaria sp e ctabilis from the Experi ment Station was distributed in each county in the citrus district by the agents. This variety differs from striata in that it is less susceptible to pumpkin bug infestation, is less woody, and seeds uniformly late in the season. This is a promising variety and is looked upon with favor by most of the growers who have tried it. Seed from these plantings is being harvested and it seems probable that the future seed supply of this variety will be avail able from plantings in the state. This variety of Crotalaria is also being tried on truck soils and at this time is showing up well. The citrus acreage planted to Crotalaria for a cover crop has been increased as rapidly as seed was available. Approximately 15 % of the entire acreage was in Crotalaria in 1930. This per centage will vary in different counties, Highlands, Lee , and Os ceola counties having the largest percentage of groves in Cro talaria. During the year, L. H. Alsmeyer, agent in Highlands County, was awarded a gold medal and a trip to the Chicago meeting of the American Society of Agronomy. These awards were made by the Soil Improvement Committee of the National Fertilizer Association and were awarded to six county agents in the South ern States for outstanding soil improvement work. The cover crop work for soil improvement has been some of

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26 Flor ida Cooperati ve E x tension the mo ~ aluable work done by the extension agents. Result s are seen in the improved condition of groves using Crotalaria, better quality of fruit, increased production, and reduced cost of production. Fertilizer demonstrations have been conducted on the dif ferent soil types in the East Coast District, possibly the most outstanding of which is the use of manganese sulphate on heavy marl soils, and on the muck soils of the Everglades . Definite demonstrations have shown an increase as high as 76 crates of beans per acre, and with Irish potatoes, an increase from 65 to 285 bushels. Fertilizer demonstrations involving the use of manganese sulphate, synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, hardwood ashes, land plaster, lime , and stable manure were carried on. Results point to the fact that manganese sulphate is very desirable on marl and muck soils for the growing of vegetables; that cheap in organic sources of nitrogen are just as efficient as the pure or ganic sources; the growing of cover crops to incorporate organic matter in the soil is not only desirable, but essential to the con tinued productivity of the soil. ,f Fig. 5 . -This corn, grown w i t h o u t co mm e r c ial fertilizer, s h ows what Aus trian peas turned under will do. Peas planted o n t hi s 3 0 acres failed to grow very well th e fir st year. However , the second year t h ey m ade good g r owt h, and were fo ll owe d by t hi s corn crop.

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Ann u al Report; 1930 27 FARM CROPS Corn :-In addition to the use of cover crops to increase corn yields and reduce the cost per bushel, the county agents are dem onstrating to the farmers two other improved practices in grow fog corn; namely, the improved varieties and the intelligent use of commercial fertilizer. They are using Whatley's Prolific, Kil gore's Red Cob, and Tisdale's one-ear corn, all of which consist ently yield about 20 % more than other varieties. The Florida Experiment Station has found that under most conditions in Florida the use of a top-dressing of some nitrog enous fertilizer, such as nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, or calcium nitrate, is about the only fertilizer treatment that will pay on cor:ri. County agents have put this into effect through demonstrations and corn club boys' demonstrations and now it is a common practice to apply 100 pounds of nitrate of soda or its equivalent in other materials to corn when it is about 35 days old. Oats and Rye:-The demonstrations conducted with these two crop s deal with the better varieties and top-dressing with fer tilizers. Twenty-seven demonstrations were conducted for grain production. There was an average increase of 8 bushels per acre. The highest yield per acre for this crop for years was se cured this year. These crop s are used in Florida very largely for winter and spring grazing. Because of drought, a short feed crop was pro duced this year . In view of this, county agents, by personal contact, circular letters, and newspaper articles, urged the farm ers to increase their acreage this fall. There has been an in crease of more than 25 % . Peanuts :-Peanuts are grown for two distinct purposes in Florida. The Spanish variety for commercial purposes and the runners for hog feed. It is the main crop used for the produc tion of pork. The average yield is about 18 bushels per acre . One reason for this low yield is because they are planted in wide rows with wide spacing in the rows. By closer spacing, it has been proven that the yield per acre can be materially increased. On 65 demonstrations with closer spacing, the average increase in yield was 8 bushels. If this practice were followed by the commercial producers with their Spanish type alone, it would mean another half million dollars to them. Planting corn and Spanish peanuts for early hog feed was . more generally practiced this year than in the past .

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension Soybeans (Hay) :-Florida farmers and stockmen need a legume that will mature hay during the fall months, cure out easily, and yield well. This has been found in Otootan soybeans. On 19 demonstrations conducted this year, % ton more yield per acre was obtained than from cowpeas. It cured out well, giving a high quality hay. Pasture and Forage :-Interest in improved pastures continu ed to grow, and with tick eradication in progress in a part of the districts, this interest should continue. The oldest of the demonstration pastures is only five years at this time, and pas ture development is a type of project that requires a long time. There were 156 demonstrations on 3,891 acres this year, using 58,365 pounds of seed. The base grass in the pasture mixture is carpet, with the addition of Dallis, Bahia, lespedeza, or Bermuda grass, depending on soil types and condition. These pastures, after getting well sodded, will carry a cow per acre for about 9 months of the year, and will produce the equivalent of 250 pounds of beef per acre. Successfully established, these demon strations should be worth $25,000 per annum to their owners as pastures, in addition to what the spread of their influence will be worth to the community in causing others to put them in. Cotton :-Cotton is the main cash crop of the farmers of 10 Northwest Florida counties. Though low in price, it brought into these counties approximately $3,000,000. The average pro duction per acre for the last five years has been 315 pounds seed cotton per acre. This year it has been 675 pounds. On 219 adult demonstrations conducted under the supervision of county agents, the yield was 1,056 pounds seed cotton per acre. Sugarcane :-Mosaic disease and the nematode affect very materially the production of the old established varieties of sugarcane in the general farming area of Florida. The commer cial producer has now turned to Cayana 10, a variety resistant to both mosaic and nematode. The county agents this year conducted 28 demonstrations to prove the superiority of the Cayana. It produced 100 gallons more per acre. Considerable increase of Cayana is expected next year as a result of these demonstrations. HORTICULTURE Citrus and truck are the chief money crops in the counties of Central and South Florida, the greater part of the agents' time being devoted to this horticultural work, especially in the

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Annual Report, 1930 29 citrus counties. The agents in this territory have averaged 98 days devoted to horticulture, and have averaged 275 farm visits each on horticultural matters, and have each had an average of 811 calls for horticultural information. These agents perform a great amount of personal service work, making inspections at the request of growers in order to give proper advice on insect and disease control of truck crops and citrus, and on cultural practices and fertilization. In the Voluntary Bait Spray Campaign to combat the Medi terranean fruit fly, county agents performed a worth while serv ice in getting this spraying done in a complete manner. This job was done in a thorough manner, all agencies cooperating to the fullest extent. The annual spring citrus meetings were held this year, and the program was devoted largely to reduction in production costs and improving the quality of the fruit. Twenty-one meetings were held in 10 counties during April and May and these were attended by 915 growers. These meetings were the best at tended of any so far held where such subjects were discussed. Six hundred and ninety-three citrus demonstrations were con ducted on 13,703 acres of groves. This is an increase of 100% over last year. The outstanding features of the citrus work are the increased use of cover crops, particularly Crotalaria, and the greater use of inorganic fertilizers, with a tendency to cultivate less. These shifts are reducing costs and in most cases improving fruit qual ity. Fruit from demonstration groves where these shifts are in practice has topped the auction sales in two large markets this fall. Ten agents have conducted tours of groups of growers to in spect demonstration groves and the experimental plots at the Citrus Experiment Station. Twenty-six such tours were con ducted and 1,000 growers secured first hand information by see ing what was being done. These tours have been an effective means of getting this work before the growers. Truck Crops:-A large part of the work with truck crops is carried on as personal service. Many factors enter into the growing of truck crops and these vary so widely as to require personal inspection in order to make correct recommendations. Insect and disease control, seed treatment, and fertilization are the main points on which truck growers call on county agents for aid. This year Crotalaria spectabilis has been grown in dem

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30 Florida Coop er ati ve E x t ensi o n onstration plots on truck farms. The results this far are en couraging and this work will be expanded the coming year. County agents report 390 demonstrations with truck crops, in volving 5,049 acres. Fig. 6. High grade disease-free bean seed from Western sources pro duced maximum yields in South Florida demonstrations . Eighty-four demonstrations in home beautification where in structions and plans were furnished for beautifying home grounds, and 88 demonstration s in home gardening were con ducted. Grapes:-The results from demonstration plantings of cover crops in vineyards have convinced most of the growers of the value of cover crops, and this year, about two-thirds of the grape acreage grew cover crops, largely Crotalaria. This is a great increase over last year, and prospects are for a greater acreage to be so planted in 1931. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Hogs:-In order for hog production to be profitable, farmer s must produce cheap corn and peanuts , have a good supply of grazing crops, and the hogs must be marketed when prices are highest. These highest prices usually occur during September and October. Demonstrations were conducted with such graz ing crops as oats, rye, peas, millet, and followed up with peas and corn or peanuts and corn, to be hogged down in July, Aug ust, and September. There were 30 of these demonstrations conducted in Northwest Florida this year. Severe drought inter

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Annual Report, 1930 31 fered with successful completion of these plans in Northwest Florida. In Central and South Florida there were 56 demonstra tions comprising 3,136 hogs. Sixty-two farmers were assisted by the county agents in securing purebred breeding stock. In Levy County it is conservatively estimated that the hogs marketed early netted the farmers over $6,000 more than would have been the case under usual marketing methods. The co operative associations encourage farmers to plan the year's work well in advance. Cooperative effort in production is an aid to early marketing. Cooperative hog shipping associations have been organized by county agents and the State Marketing Bureau. In some counties the agents have to vaccinate hogs against cholera and swine plague. They advise and demonstrate to farmers methods of control for both external and internal para sites. The few agents who vaccinate hogs immuned approxi mately 75,000 head this year. During the year 106 farmers were aided in obtaining purebred sires and 108 purebred dams were purchased. Sheep:-The 60,000 sheep in Florida are all in range flocks. Very few are ever fed. All are of mongrel breed. The numbers have been decreasing for approximately 20 years, the decrease largely due to internal parasites. In 1927 demonstrations in the control of these parasites were conducted. It was found that the treatment would cost only a few cents per head with the result that the fleeces would be increased approximately pound each, and the lamb crop would show a good increase. There were 12 method demonstrations to control internal para sites where 12,000 sheep were treated in 1930. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND COOPERATIVE SALES AND PURCHASES The county agents cooperate closely with farmers' cooperative organizations and render assistance from time to time, especial ly with the newer organizations. The Extension Service has cooperated with cooperative vege table associations, the Federal Farm Board, and the State Mar keting Bureau in the formation of a state-wide federation of veg etable cooperatives, The Florida Truck Growers, Inc. This has been a year which has tested the strength of the co operative associations and they have met conditions very well. The cooperation of the Federal Farm Board with organizations

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PROGRAM SUMMARY "' ! I i I i:: ..., I "' Q) ' OIi Q) -~ ,,:, '"' s Q) Q) ,;; "' i:: s ' Q)i:: "' Q) I ,,:, i:: 3 ..., 0 Q) (l) . Q) _.., .=:,,:, .....,:,;.;:: •,-!•-~ Q) .=: 0 c~ "' ~[ .2l OIi <.) .Q) I ~,.o <.)"' '"'"' -~ <.) :>.1, 'H 81' P. 0'"' > 0 ----------------------------~--------" Cereals .. ........ .... ........ 191 126 29 155 130 68 2,840 3,074 768 Legumes and forage crops 385 124 87 155 190 269 4,036 3,440 1,042 Potatoes, I. 123 27 12 26 39 8 476 1,108 289 Cotton --------------------------.-----------------------------90 73 8 64 35 16 1,175 1,808 474 Tobacco, other special crops -----------------57 31 24 43 38 9 625 777 289 Gardens, home beautification ---------------101 35 10 58 53 10 853 1,352 359 Market garden, truck crops -------------------181 99 26 252 315 92 4,131 6,976 1,349 Fruits ---------------------------------------------------------235 143 144 128 282 I 73 4,486 9,569 1,568 Forestry -------------------------------------19 6 2 I 57 39 I 4 29 97 73 Rodents, misc. insects --------------------119 32 12 31 60 17 884 1,488 286 Agri. engineer., home enginee:r -----------177 62 9 26 47 7 1,072 1,495 446 Poultry --------------------•-----------------244 133 113 259 203 102 2,869 6,878 1,153 Dairy ---------------...................... ---------------.. 174 84 129 156 169 56 2,629 3,818 1,283 Other livestock -------.................................. 262 135 65 149 172 53 5,240 6,413 1,982 Farm management 193 138 10 81 62 11 777 3,001 356 Marketing, farm and home .................... 300 169 78 277 201 76 2,530 5 840 939 Community activities 40 13 2 28 28 7 227 221 162 Build. extension program of work 147 39 6 20 15 2 136 133 87 ~1!::n:~!ii;/~~~~: ... a.~.~~~: .. ~~~~~~.~: .. I 27 41 I 3 51 16 5 64 122 67 54 22 I 26 28 70 13 893 2,423 653

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Annual Report, 1930 33 in the state has added strength and encouragement to the co operative movement. The county agents have assisted in the purchase of many tons of field seeds, hundreds of tons of commercial fertilizers, and hundreds of head of cattle. These purchases have amounted to over $130,414. Agents have assisted in sales amounting to $355,978. The greatest assistance rendered through this service has been aiding farmers in getting the kind and quality of seed, fertilizers, and stock they need. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Number of County Agents . ......... . .... . .......... .. ...... .... ..... ... .... . ........ ....... ...... 47 Number of months service this year . ......... . .... .... ............ ........ . ......... . .. 553 County extension organizations or associations ................... .. ........... 4 Number of members of county organizations or associations .. . .... . 606 Communities in counties where extension work should be conducted 561 Communities where extension program has been worked out by agents and local committees ..................................... .... ..... .. ............ 383 Voluntary county or community local leaders actively engaged in forwarding extension program ... .... . . .... . . .. , .... ....... . . . ..... . . 372 Farm visits made in conducting extension work .... .... .. ................. . .... 35,878 Different farms visited ....... . ......... .. ... .. .. . ................. .. .............................. 15,099 Home visits made in conducting extension work ................................ 2,593 Different homes visited ............................................................................ 1,609 Office calls relating to extension work .... .. . .. .... .. ............. ..... ..... . .. .. .. ... 59,914 Telephon e calls relating to extension work ....... . ........ ..... .... ...... ... ..... . 32,145 Days agents spent in office . .... . ........ ...... ... ................................. .. . ... ... ... 3,940 Days agents spent in field .. ... ....... ... ... .. ........ . ....... . . ... ... . ....................... 9,735 News articles or stories published ..... ..... ... .. . ... .... .... .... ... ....... ..... .... .. .... 2,182 Individual letters written . . ............... . ... ..... ... ........ . ........ ... ............. ... ....... 45,817 Different circular letters prepared .... ..... ...... .... ...... . ...... ... ...... ..... ..... .. ... 751 Bulletins distributed ............ ......... . .......................................................... 40,029 Radio talks made ............................................. .... ......... ..... .... ..... ..... ... . ....... 138 Events at which extension exhibits were shown ................... ... ...... .... 49 Number Training meetings for local leaders ........... .. ...... ..... ... .. .. ..... 29 Method demonstration meetings held .... .. .............. .. . ..... ... . 2,385 Meetings held at result demonstrations ...... . . . ....................... 557 Tours conducted .. .... .... ............ ....... ............. .. ....... ... ... . .. .... ....... . 76 Attendance 348 16,406 6,498 3,810 Other meetings of an extension nature not reported elsewhere .. ..... ............... . ........ ..... ..... . ......... . ............... .... ............. 1,233 Meetings held by leaders not participated . iri by agent and not reported elsewhere ............................................ 104 4-H Clubs Voluntary county or community local leaders ... .... ... . .................. ...... . Number of clubs ................... .. ..... ....... .... .............. ... .. . ...... ... ... ..... .. ..... ..... . . Number of members enrolled .............. .. ........ . ........................................ . Number of members completing ....... . ............................. . .................. . .. . Number of 4-H club members in school ........................................ . .. . Achievement days held ................... . .. ............ ......... .. .... .. .... ................. ... . Total attendance at achievement days . .................................................. . Encampments held ........................................... . ........ . .............................. . Attendance at encampments ..... .. ... ........ .. ........ . ... .. .. .... . .......... ... .... .. ....... . Meetings held not participated in by agent and not reported elsewhere ............. .. ......... ... ................ ... .... .... ...... .... ........................ .. ....... ... . . Attendance at meetings .. ... ... ...... ...... .. ....... .. .... .. . ... ....... ... ...... .... ....... ... .... . 2 48,760 1,094 115 131 2,658 1,215 2,496 15 . 2,432 17 599 64 1,338 .

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34 Florida Cooperat i ve Extension CEREALS DEMONSTRATIONS (Com, Oats, Rye, etc.) 'Method demonstration meetings held ...... . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . ... .. .. ... . . ... .. .. . ..... .. .. 211 Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year .. ....... . .. 534 Acres included in adult result demonstrations .... .. .. .. .. . . ...... ... . . ... .... ... . 5,012 -H Club Members enrolled . . ....... .. .... . .............. . .. ... . .. .. . .............. ... . . ... ..... . . .............. 628 Members completing .. . . ... ... . .. . .. . . . .. . .... ... .. .... ....... . ................ . . . . ... .. . .. . ... . .... .. 296 Number of acres grown by club members completing . ... ....... .... . . . ...... 343 Total yields of cereals grown by members completing .... .. ......... . .. . . 10,724 LEGUMES AND FORAGE OROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Vetch, Lespedeza, Peanuts, Crotalaria, etc.) Demonstration meetings held ..... .. . ... ... .. . . .... . .. . .......... . ... . .. . . .. . . ... ... .... . .... . . 397 Adult demonstrations completed or carried . into next year . . ...... .. .. 1,124 Acres included in adult result demonstrations .. . . .. .. . ..... .. . ... . .. . .. . ..... 15,348 4-H Club Members enrolled ....... . .. .. . . . . . .. .................. . . .. .. . ................. . .... . . . ................... 41 Members completing . . _ . .. . .. . .. ... . .... .. . .. . ... ... ... . .. . . ............. .... .. ........... ............. 25 Acres grown by club members completing . .. . . .. . . . ........ . ... .. . ... . . . .. .... .. . .... 37 POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS (Sweet and Irish) Method demonstration meetings held ... . ..... ............... ...... . .... . . ............... 173 Adult demonstrations completed or carried into next year (result) 128 Acres included in result demonstrations . . . ... .. . ..... . . ........... .. .. .... . ........ 764 4-H Club Members enrolled .... . . .. . .. . .. .. . ...... . ............ . ... . ..... . .............. . ... . . . . . .................. 152 Members completing .. . ...... . . ................... . ... . ....................... .. . . . . .................. 113 Acres grown by members completing ... .................... . ... .... ................. . . 52 . CO'ITON DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held . . . .. .. . .. . .... . ....... . ... . ... .. . . . . . .. ...... . . . .. . 76 Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 275 Acres included in adult result demonstrations ............. . ... . .................. 2,156 4-H Club Members enrolled .. ..... . .. . . ... . .. . ... .. . . . . ... ..... . . . . .. ... . . . .. ... .. . . . .. .. . . ... . .. .. .. . . ........ . . 249 Members completing .. . ..... .. ...... .. . ... . .. . ..... ... . . ... . ... . ... .. ...... ... .. .. .. . ... . . . . . ... . .. . .. 114 Acre s grown by club members completing ...... .. .. . . . ... ...... ... . . . . . . . ... . . .. . 159 TOBACCO DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held .. . . . .............. .. ... .. ... . . . . . ...... . ..... . ... 21 Result demon s trations completed or carried into next year .. .. ........ 36 Acres included in adult re s ult demonstrations . . . .... . .. ... ......... . .. . .... . . 68 4-H Club Members enrolled .......... . ............................ . .......................... . . . . .. ................ 3 Members completing .... .. . .. .. . .............. . .. . . .. . . .. . ................ .. .. . ....... . ............... 2 Acres grown by club members completing_ 6

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Annual Report, 1930 35 OTHER DEMONSTRATIONS, SPECIAL CROPS Demonstration meetings held ................................................................ 66 Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year .... 56 Acres included in adult demonstrations (result) ...... . ......................... 118 4-H Club Members enrolled .... . . . ............... .... . ... .............. .. ................ ..... ............... . ..... 1 Members completing .......................................................................... . ..... 1 Acres grown by club member completing .. .. .................................. . ..... 2 HOME AND MARKET GARDEN DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held .... ..... . . ............. .... ............. .. . ... ..... 761 Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ..... . ...... 610 Acres included in adult result demonstrations ......... . .......................... 5,174 4-H Club Members enrolled ........ .... ............................... . ............... .. .................... ... .... 417 Members completing .................. . . . .............. ... ................................. . ........ 140 Acres grown by club members completing ............................. . .. ... .... 90 BEAUTIFICATION OF HOME GROUNDS DEMONSTRATION Method demonstration meetings held .... ..... .. ..... ........ .......... ...... . .. .... ..... 341 Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year . .. ......... 299 4-H Club Members enrolled ......................................... .... . ...... . ...................... . ......... ... 17 Members completing . .................. .. .............. . ... . ............... .. ......................... 4 HORTICULTURE DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held .. . .. .. ...... ....................................... 517 Result demonstration s completed or carried into next year ... .... . . ... 775 Acres included in adult result demonstrations ....... ........ ............. ..... ... 15,186 4-H Club Members enrolled .... ..... ............................... . .. .. ...... .. ........................ .... ...... . Members completing ... ......... ............... ........ ... . ....... ........ ......... .... ............ . Acres grown by club members completing ... .................. . ............ ....... .. . FORESTRY DEMONSTRATIONS 110 55 20 Method demonstration meetings held ... ... :... ..... . ........ ..... .......... . . ........ ... 41 Result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year.... 14 Club members enrolled ...... :....................... ... ................ .. . .. ........... .. .. .... ... 26 Club members completing ... ......... . ... ....... . ...... .. . ..... ..... : . .. .. . ....... ... .. .......... 23 Acres farm wood lot managed by club members completing ... . ... ..... 22 Acres involved ................................................................................... .. ....... 35 Farms assisted in forest or wood-lot management ............... ...... ... 38 involving acreage of ......... .... ................. ...... ......... ........... ...... ........... . 3,349 Farms planting windbreaks according to recommendations ............ 22 Farms assisted in other ways relative to forestry ...... . ... .. . .. ............ . 10 DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstration meetings held . ..... . ............... . .. .......... ......... ........ .............. 728 Demonstrations completed or carried into the next year ...... . . ... ..... 365 Pounds of poison used ................ ..... ....... . ...... . . .... ............. ...... ............ .. .... .. 7,191

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36 Florida Cooperative E,etension AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ENGINEERING Method demonstration meeting s held .......................... .. ... .... ........ ...... . Re s ult demonstrations completed or carried into next year . .. ... . . Farms following recommendation s in installing drainage sys tems Acres drained by such systems .. ... . ....................................... ... .. ......... . Farms following recommendations in installing irrigation systems Acres irrigated by such systems ............................................. ..... . . .. .... . . Farms building terraces and soils aving dams according to recommendations ........................ .......... . . .................................. .. . ...... . .. . . .. ..... . Acr es on which soil erosion was prevented by terraces and dams Farms clearing land of stumps or boulders according to recommended methods .................. ..... . .. ... . ....................... .. ....... .... , . . ... ...... . .. . Families assisted with house-planning problems ............... . . .... ..... . .... . Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished ........................... . Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished ............. . .... .. . . . . . . . . Sewage-disposal systems install e d according to recommendation s Water s ystems installed according to recommendations ............ . .. . Lighting systems installed according to recommendations .. ......... . Farm s on which buildings other than dwellings were constructed or remodeled this year according to plans furnished ........ ... .... . Buildings involved in prec e ding .. . .... .... ..... .......................... ...... .. .. . .... . . .... . Dairy barns .... .... ...... ....... ... . ........ . ...................... ... ... .... . ..... 57 Hog houses ........... . .... . . .. . ..... .. .... ................................ . .... . .. .. 52 Poultry houses ............. ..... ... . .................................. ...... ... . . . 146 Silos ................... ... .. . ..... . .. .... . .. .... ......... ........................ ... . . . ... 1 3 Other ............. ........ .. . . ... .. . .... . .. . . ........ ........................ .. ... . .... .. 62 POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS 160 133 170 4,264 270 1,189 239 4,299 97 44 7 8 22 33 21 255 330 Method demonstration meetings held . .. . .. .... ... . .... .. ................. '....... . . ...... 305 Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ............ 190 Animals involved in these completed result demonstration s . .. ......... 57,748 Profit or saving on result d e monstrations completed ................... . . ... $13,048 Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ...... . .. . .... .......................... 110 Farm s assisted in obtainin g high-grade or purebred females . ....... 96 Number of clubs organized ... ........ ... .. .... .............................. . .. . .. . ... .......... 12 Flock improvement association s organized or reorganiz e d . .. .. ... .... 7 Members in these associations ...... ...... .............................. .. . . ......... .. .. . 124 Farms not in associations ke e ping performance records of animals 80 4-H Club Members enrolled ........ ...... . ... . . .. ..... . .. .... ..... . . . .. .... .. ......... .. .. ..... . .. . .... ... ... . .... . Members completing' .... .. .... .............. . ..... .. ......... . .. .... .. . . ......... ........ . ........... . Numb e r of animals involved in work completed .... .. . . .. ..... . ... . . ... .... ... . DAIRY CATILE DEMONSTRATIONS 402 . 150 5,699 Method demonstration me et ings held ... .... ...................... . .. ... .. .. . ... , ....... . 201 Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year .. . .. .. .... . 217 Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........ .... 2,514 Profit or saving on result demon s trations completed .......... .. ... .. .. .... . $15,899 Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires .................... .............. . ..... 164 Farms assisted in obtaining high -g rade or purebred females .... 128 Number of clubs organized. ... .. ... . . ...... .. ............................... .. ..... . .. .... .. .. .. .. 9 Members in clubs ................ . . . .... ... .. . ....... . ......................... .... ....... . .. . . . .. .... ... 66 H e rd improvement association s organized or reorganized... . . .... . ..... . 6 Members in these associations .. ... . ............. . .. ....... ... ....... .. . .. .... ... . ..... . ...... 83 Farm s not in association s keeping performance record s of animal s 69

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Annual Report, 1930 37 4-H Club Members enrolled .. . .. . .. .. .... . ..... . . . . ... . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . ... . ...... ... . . . . . .. . .. . .. . ... . .. . .. ........ . . 182 Member s completing . ......... . .... . .... .. ..... ...... . .. . ......... .. . . .. . . ................ . . .. .. ...... 94 Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ... ....... .. . ... 128 BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Method d e monstration meetings held .... ... .......................................... . . . Result demonstrations completed or carried into next year ........... . Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations ........ ... . Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed .................... , .. . Farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ..... . . . . . ............ . .... . .. .. .. . . Farm s assist e d in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ... . ... . Farms not in associations keeping performance records of animals 4-H Ciub 27 3 4 1,726 $1,6 3 0 116 27 3 Member s enrolled ............. . .... . .. .. .... . . ... . ... ..... .... . .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. ..... .. ........ . .. . 1 3 Memb e rs c ompleting . ..... . ..... . ... ... .. . ............ ...... ...... .... ..... . .. .. . . . ... ..... .. ..... . . . . 3 Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed .... . ........ . .. 14 SHEEP DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held .... . ... . ..... . ................................... . . Result demonstrations completed or carri e d into next year ........... . Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations .. .. ... . Profit or s a ving on result demonstrations completed ............... .. . . .... . Farms assisted in obtaining purebr e d rams . .. . .. . .. . .. . .............. . .... ...... . . Farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females . . ... . . . Number of clubs organized ... . . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. .... .. .. .. ........ .. . . ..... ....... .. . . ... . . ..... . Members i n club . . . .. . . ...... . .. . . ... .. . . .. . .. . ...... . ..... . ....... .. ....... . .. . ... ......... . .. . . .. .. .. .. . HOG DEMONSTRATIONS 51 65 7,393 $1,871 5 9 1 8 Method demonstration meetings held . . . . . ... .. . .. . .. ....... . . .............. . ..... . . ... . . 98 Result demonstrations completed or carri e d into next year ..... . .. . ... 185 Animals involved in these completed result demonstrations .. . .. . .. 9,400 Profit or saving on result demonstrations completed ........................ $10,380 Farms a s sisted in obtaining purebred sires .. .. ............................... . .. 21 3 Farm s as s ist e d in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ..... . . . 168 Number of clubs organized ...... . ... .... . ................... . ..... ............. . .......... . . .. .. 8 4-H Club Members enrolled . ........... . .. . ... . ..... . .... . ... . ... ...... . . .. . . .... . . . .. ... . ............... . .. . .. . .. . 582 Members completing .. .. .. ..... . . . .. .. . . . . .... .. . ... . ... . . .. . ... ... . .... . ... . . ... . .... . .. . ... ... . . . . .. 221 Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed . ... .. . . ... . . . 3 29 FARM MANAGEMENT, CREDIT, INSURANCE, AND TAXATION DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstration meetings held .. . ... . .. . .... .. .. ... ........................ .. . . . .. 83 Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year 157 Farms k e eping farm accounts throughout the year under supervision of agents ..................... . .. .. ... .. . ..... ..... ..... ............................ .. . .. 109 Farms keeping cost-of-production re c ords under supervision of agents . . .. ... . . .. ...... . .. . ............ ..... .. ..... . . . . .... . .... . . . . .. . . .................. . .... . ..... .. . 138 Farms assisted in summarizing and interpreting their accounts 144 Farms assi s ted in making inventory or credit statements .... .... ... . 383 Farm bu s iness or enterprise survey records taken during year . . . . 150 Farms making recommended changes in their business as result of keeping accounts or survey records . . .... . ......... ... . .. . . . .. . .. . ........ . .. . ... 120

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension Other farms adopting cropping, livestock, or complete farming systems according to recommendations . .. ..... . .. . . . .............. . . .. . . . . ... . Farms advised relative to leases .. . .. .... . ............ . ................ . . . ...... ..... .... .. . Farms assisted in obtaining credit .... .. .. . ................ . .......... . . . . ... .... . . . .... . . Different farms assisted in using outlook studies ...................... . .... . Farms making readjustments inFarm crops .............. . .. . . .. .......................................... . ................. . Truck crops ............... . ... .... .................................................. .. .. .... . Livestock ..................... ...... ................................................. . . ... .... . Poultry ................................. . ................................................ .... ... . 416 269 2,475 939 369 271 553 228 MARKETING (FARM AND HOME) DEMONSTRATIONS Grain and Feed Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year ...... . . . ..... . ........ .. .... . .. .... ............................................................ 2 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year ........................ .. ...... 5 Membership in associations organized and assisted ................ .. .......... 463 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with .. ... . .. $15,350 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ........ $ 9,973 Cotton Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year ................. .. ............. 4 Membership in associations organized and assisted .................... . .. ... .. 135 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with .... . ....... $16,237 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with .... $19,231 Dairy Products Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year ................................................................................................ 5 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year .................. .. .... .. ...... 6 Membership ' in associations organized and assisted ..... . ......... ... ...... 493 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with . . .. $800,180 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with . ....... $ 20,789 Fruits and Vegetables Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year ....................................................................................... .. . ... ... 14 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year ............................ . ... 66 Membership in associations organized and assisted .... ... ..... . . ....... ..... 2,285 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with .. . . $695,752 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with . . . . $1,916,540 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems of. Standardizing .......... . . ..... ................................................... .. ........ 227 Packaging and grading ..... .. ............................................ ... .. . . . ... 352 Use of current market information .......................... . ..... : ... 790 Poultry and Eggs Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year ............................... ... . .. . . .... . ........... . . . ........ . ... . ................. ... . . ... 16 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year . ...... . . .. .. . . ... ... . . .. . . . .... 15 Membership in associations organized and assisted .. . ........... ... .. ..... .... 826

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Annual Report, 1930 39 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with .... $138,550 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ...... $ 7,667 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems ofStandardizing ..................................... ......................................... 26 Packaging and grading .............................................................. 27 Use of current market information ........................................ 31 Livestock Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year.................................................................................................. 5 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year................................. 32 Membership in associations organized and assisted ........................ 1,407 Value of products marketed by all associations worked with .... $109,738 Value of supplies purchased by all associations worked with ...... $ 11,231 Number of farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems ofStandardizing .............................................................................. 141 Packaging and grading ............................................................ 2 Use of current market information ...................................... 107 Home and Other Products Cooperative marketing associations or groups organized during the year .................................................................................................. 4 Cooperative marketing associations or groups previously organized assisted by extension agents this year ................................ 12 Membership in associations organized and assisted ........................ 797 Value of products marketed by associations worked with ............ $ 55,900 Value of supplies purchased by associations worked with ............ $169,301 Farms or homes not in cooperative associations or groups assisted with problems ofStandardizing ............................ .................................................. 30 Packaging and grading ............................................................ 19 Use of current market information ........................................ 24 COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Communities surveyed or scored ......................................................... ,.. 8 Clubhouses, permanent camps, etc., built ............................................ 1 Community or county-wide pageants or plays presented ................ 15 Communities developing recreation according to recommendations 15 School or other community grounds landscaped in accordance with plans furnished .......... ....... ........ ........................................................... 9 Clubs engaging in community activities (landscaping, fairs, etc.) 5 Number of different communities assisted in connection with community work ....... :................................................................................ 27 BEES, WEEDS, HANDICRAFT, MISCELLANEOUS Method pemonstration meetings held .................................................... 12 Adult result demonstrations completed or carried into next year .... 13 4-H club members enrolled .................................................................... 10 4-H club members completing ................................................................ 5

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' CLUB WORK R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent ENROLLMENT There was a slight decrease in enrollment in boys' clubs during 1930, in part due to increasing demands made upon county agents by adult farmers. The seed loan work came at the time when the agents are usually enrolling new members and organ izing their work. .The demand for assistance in marketing is increasing, which has a tendency to force the agents to lessen the amount of time given to other lines of work. The decrease is most noticeable in the counties where the seed loan work was the heaviest. The following tables show the gain and loss in the different projects. i ! rn I ::s i 0 0 c., : Q) co IN rn i::: c., c., : Q) >. : :l== ; ,-< ,-< i i::: 0 rn I'< I 0 ..., ..-.: .., I 0 Q) o.i o.i I i::: I ..., ol g : .b '3 I I'< .... <) I I'< .., .., l ~ I'< o.i rn . . I 0 I 0 0 M '•,...c 0 :l:i::, ol 0 0 0 0 i:i.. E-< 1 0 il.. j'.:Q 0 E-< E-< I I I I I ., I I T~-TAL 1930 .. ( 586( 219 176\316 113 423 462 224 196 197 2992 Total 1929 ........ 1 6551 282 209 391 114 562 456 334 160 48 3211 Gain or Loss I in 1930 ............ -691-63 -33 +5 -11-139 +6 -110 +.36\+ 1491-219 I . I CLUB ORGANIZATIONS Local Clubs: The number of organized clubs continues to in crease. The increased efficiency of organized work is apparent. Many local clubs are taking charge of securing the enrollment and collecting reports. The more responsibiljty which can be shifted to the club members the better the club work. County Organizations: The next step after the local club is the county organization, usually called the county council. County organizations have been set up in Escambia, Hills borough, Walton, Lake, and Union counties. In Leon and Lib erty counties all boys are enrolled in one big county club. Escambia and Walton counties have the best organizations. The local clubs have federated and formed county councils. This develops leadership among the club members and enables the agent to do more and better club work with less personal effort.

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Anmiat R e port, 1930 41 A state organization was formed at the Short Course. This or ganization can be made of service in promoting club work throughout the state. Chartered Clubs: A 4-H club charter is available for all local clubs which meet certain requirements. The charter is signed by the United States Secretary of Agriculture, the State Di rector of Extension, and the State Club Agent. The first club in Florida to secure its charter was the Lake Worth Club of Palm Beach County. It is hoped that many other clubs will meet the requirements and secure charters in 1931. LEADERSHIP The increased demands upon the county agents are having a serious effect upon 4-H club work. Unless the older members can be trained to accept part of the responsibility, the efficiency of club work will be greatly lessened. The big need today is leadership training among the older boys. Unless this can be secured to off set the decreased time which can be given to club work by the county agents, 4-H club work cannot begin to meet its opportunities or its responsibilities. During the last two years, some progress has been made in leadership training. The results have been encouraging. A start was made by calling together some of the older boys and giving them a little training in 4-H leadership. In 1929 a 3-day leadership camp was held at the West Florida 4-H camp. In 1930 the most promising older boys in 10 counties were called together for a half day conference. The results secured war rant more time being given to this. It is hoped to increase the number of counties holding leadership meetings. PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS SOIL BUILDING That Florida soils respond to a well planned improvement program has been demonstrated by the work done with cover crops. If 4-H club work is to accept its full responsibility, it must induce its members to demonstrate this important prac tice in farming. The number of boys using cover crops is in creasing. In 1929, 23 boys planted cover crops while in 1930 53 boys demonstrated the possibility of increasing yields through the use of cover crops. There are two rather outstanding examples of cover-crop

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension work by club boys. Paul Thompson of Jefferson County put on a real cover-crop demonstration. He planted a cover crop of Aus trian winter peas on his club acre in the fall of 1928. He planted this acre to corn in the spring of 1929. In the fall of 1929 he planted of this acre to cover crop and left the other with out. Two adjoining acres were planted to Austrian winter peas in the fall of 1929. The three acres were broken the latter part of March and well disked. Corn was planted two weeks later and the same cultivation was given the three acres. The demonstration consisted of 2 acres with one cover crop, acres with 2 cover crops, acre with one cover crop but a year elapsing since it was grown, and a check plot on which cover crop had never been grown. The results were : no cover crop 12 bushels, one cover crop but the second crop of corn, 303/4. bushels, one cover crop, 39% bushels, and two successive cover crops, 56 2/5 bushels per acre. Hugh Dukes of Union County has increased his yield of corn in 3 years from 24 to 91 bushels. He did this through winter cover crops plus intelligent fertilization. FARM CROPS Corn: The 1930 weather was not favorable for corn produc tion. The corn club acres in the southern part of the state were flooded. Some boys report having planted three times, due to the land being flooded. In the western part the drought reduced the yield nearly 30 percent. The largest yields were made in the counties lying between Alachua and Leon. The unfavorable weather reduced the number to report. The yields were so small that the boys would not report them. The average yield in Santa Rosa County dropped from 38.6 bushels per acre in 1928 to 29.3 bushels in 1930. Cotton: While the weather was unfavorable f9r corn, it suit ed cotton. The club acres produced the highest average yield in the history of club work in Florida. While the weather was decidedly favorable, the boys used better seed and more fer tilizer than in the past. 4-H club boys produced an average of 1,141 pounds seed cotton per acre against an average of 931 pounds per acre for 1929. It is interesting to note the correlation between yield and profit in cotton production. With 26 boys reporting an average yield of 1,723 pounds seed cotton at an average cost per acre of $36.82 the average profit was $37.57, while for 10 boys report

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Annual Report, 1930 43 ing an average of 1,027 pounds seed cotton per acre at an average cost of $27.25 per acre the profit was $15.73 per acre. Over 70 % of the difference in cost per acre was due to cost of picking the extra 696 pounds seed cotton. The average yield of the state is much lower than the 1,027 pounds seed cotton of the low 10 boys. The high yield of the boys was due to better seed and more fertilizer of the kind most suitable for cotton. The cotton club boys are putting on real demonstations in profit able cotton production under present conditions of a low price for cotton. HORTICULTURE The excessive rains in Southern Florida ruined most of the truck projects. One boy in Sumter County reported that his acre of tomatoes was three feet under water. The county agent reports that he saw the troughs for cucumbers floating in the field. The boys in Palm Beach County under the unfavorable weather conditions made profit ranging up to $91 per 1/4 acre. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The number of breeding pigs raised by the club members held its own. The hard times kept the boys from buying good ani mals. There were some very good individuals raised but the average was not quite as good as in the past. The barrow club was not as popular if judged by the number reporting. A great many of the boys sold their barrows on the early market and did not turn in record books. In 1931 the State Pig Club Con test will be held much earlier with an idea of inducing the boys to have their barrows ready for the early market when prices are higher. Hugh Dukes of Union County raised the best barrow in the state. The pig was farrowed on March 11 and on November 25 weighed 342 pounds. Arthur McNeeley of Marion County did the best pig club project. Arthur has a herd of purebred Poland Chinas. He raised and sold 16 head from his two sows and has 16 more weighing about 40 pounds each. DAIRY HUSBANDRY No increase in dairy club work was attempted in 1930. The principal dairy section was under dipping regulations for eradication of the cattle tick. When the eradication is complete an attempt will be made to increase the work in this project.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension The results of dairy club work as seen in Madison County are worth while. Three years ago 155 calves were placed with club members. These calves with their offsprings have changed the type of milk cows to be found on the farms of that county. Quite a few calves were placed with boys this fall in Madison and Marion counties. Lamar Hartsfield of Leon County has his club cow on test for Register of Merit. It is certain that she will make a record entitling her to be named as a gold medal cow in her class. POULTRY HUSBANDRY The work with poultry was enlarged to include management as well as production. It is hoped by this means to induce club members to take over the management of the farm flock. Sev eral of these members entered the Home Egg Laying Contest with most satisfactory results. To encourage club work with poultry and to offer special in ducements, arrangements have been made with the Volusia County Fair Association to hold a State Poultry Show and Judg ing Contest in connection with this fair. The first show will be held on March 31, 1931. One poultry club boy in Palm Beach County made a profit of $214 from his poultry club work. With this money he helped support his family while his father was out of work for several weeks. SPECIAL ACTIVITIES The carrying out of project demonstrations is but part of 4-H club work. The social side of rural life is of importance as well as the matter of making a living. The necessary publicity must have special emphasis. Educational trips for outstanding achievement have proven of great value in promoting the work, The above activities take the larger part of the time of the State Club Agent and are considered of primary importance. ANNUAL 4-H CLUB SHORT COURSE This is the big occasion of the club year. The county cham pions are brought to the University for a week's visit. The close association with the college, and a working introduction to the work being done there, seems to make an enduring impression on the boys. Many boys have said that their visits to the University at the Short Course was what gave them the inspiration to work to return as regular students.

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A nnua l R e po rt, 19 3 0 45 Fig. 7. Th ese 4-H club boy s st aged t h e ir annual "fair" along s ide th e ol d co unt y jail. The 1930 Short Course was the largest one yet, with 237 boys representing 36 counties. The course was arranged as for the past three years, a mixture of work and play, with special train ing in leadership given to the older boys who had attended a previous Short Course. SOCIAL MEETINGS The 4-H boys and girls in several counties have met together for social good times. The boys and girls have planned the se little affairs and have had complete charge of the programs. In nearly all instances a boy and a girl told the story of club work and what it meant to them. This form of advertising is invalu able. The first public speech one boy attempted was in support

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension of 4-H club work. It was crude and lacked polish but it meant more to his audience than did that of more polished speakers who followed him. The good times and neighborly friendliness of these social meetings mean much in some rural communities. They are worth while, and more agents would do well to help their mem bers plan for them. CLUB RALLIES This means of wholesome publicity is being used in some counties. In Escambia County an impressive rally was held. The United States Naval Station at Pensacola sent their band to lead the parade. Over 250 4-H boys and girls were in line. Lake County held their first club rally in 1930. RADIO PROGRAMS Station WRUF has been used in an effort to acquaint the general public with 4-H club work. Special club programs are put on the first Friday night of each month. A half hour pro gram, 15 minutes of which is music, is given. Usually three boys or girls make short talks on the work they have done. Three of the boys attending the International Live Stock Show and Club Congress told of their trip on one of the programs. One night's program at the Short Course was broadcast. CLUB CAMPS The camp continues to grow in popularity. To help in the camp work Leland Hiatt was employed for three months during the summer. Mr. Hiatt is an expert swimmer as well as an experienced leader in boys' work. A , total of 530 boys from 18 counties attended camps during June, July, and August. The 4-H Camp in West Florida was enlarged and improved. More cottages were built, equipment for the kitchen and dining room added, and a 3 acre play ground cleared and sowed to grass. CORN EXHIBIT An exhibit of corn produced and selected by the corn club boys was shown at the South Florida Fair. Nearly 10,000 ears were exhibited. Obie Hattaway of Walton County won $35 offered for the best bushel of corn.

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Annual Report, 1930 47 STATE PIG CLUB SHOW The Leon County Chamber of Commerce sponsored a State Pig Club Show. The contest was set for November 18 but a storm washing out several of the roads leading to Tallahassee forced the postponement for a week. In all, 124 pigs were exhibited by boys from Marion, Union, Madison, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Wakulla, and Jackson coun ties. Champion barrow went to Hugh Dukes of Union County on a Poland China. Champion in breeding class went to Wilma Bassett of Jefferson County on a Poland China senior gilt. EDUCATIONAL TRIPS As 4-H club work's boast is that club work broadens the vision, several educational trips are offered to give some of the outstand ing club boys an opportunity to see something of club work in its nation-wide scope. Two boys represented Florida 4-H club boys at the National 4-H Club Camp at Washington. One boy attended the Moses Leadership Training School for old club boys at Sp . ringfield, Massachusetts. Five boys won trips to the International Live Stock Show and 4-H Club Congress at Chicago. These trips are much sought after by the boys. Having such an attraction, they help to hold the older boys in club work and to secure a . large percentage of records.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension DAIRYING HAMLIN L . BROWN, Dairyman The dairy work has succeeded in the counties almost in direct proportion to the cooperation of the local dairymen and farm ers in helping to formulate the plan of work. There has been an accumulation of interest in dairy organizations that has been building for the past four to five years. The fruits of this co operative effort have yielded a much greater harvest in 1930 than in any previous year because dairymen now realize that the dairying business must be developed largely by the producers. Counties that have reported substantial progress in dairy work this year are Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Alachua, Duval, Ma : rion, Flagler; Volusia , Lake , Orange, Hernando, Brevard, Hills borough, Manatee, Lee, Osceola, Okeechobee, Indian River, Mar, tin, Palm Beach, and Dade. PERMANENT PASTURES AND FEED GROWING County Agent reports show that the dairymen of Florida are giving unusual attention to the establishment of pastures and providing home grown feeds. This is in line with the Extension dairy program looking forward to an expansion of the dairy in dustry and greater competition. The increased production, coupled with general business con ditions, has brought a change in marketing conditions. There has been a considerable increase in the number of milk cows near the market centers. The results of importations of purebred breeding stock, both male and female, are now in evidence in many sections of the state, particularly in Marion county where dairying is on a good, sound basis. There is an increase in the number of dem onstrations of various kinds, dealing with method of feeding, pastures, and dairy cow testing. Demonstrations in pastures, forage crops, and dairy manage ment will be an important part of the county agent work during the coming year, largely due to the increased supply of milk and to the general interest in profitable dairying in this state . FARM DAIRYING Twenty counties have increased their farm dairying during the past year. Those who started by shipping cream without

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Annual Report, 1930 49 providing good cows and a supply of home-grown feeds have not progressed very far, and in most instances have given up dairy ing more or less disgusted. Butterfat prices have been unusual ly low, and when the cream was collected once or twice a week at cream stations in small quantities and shipped long distances the quality was poor and the returns too low to get feed cost from the sale of cream. However, those few farmers who pro duce most of the feed are getting fair returns and enlarging their herds. Okaloosa and Walton county farmers have pur chased a carload of high grade bred heifers and some registered bulls and have made provision to produce most of the feed. The purchases were financed by the banks and purchased co operatively with the help of county agents. Plans are under way for purchasing more heifers, while the prices for dairy animals are low. There is a surplus of market milk in the larger cities and towns, resulting in lower prices for whole milk, there by making it necessary to reduce the cost of production. City dairymen are moving onto farms where pastures are available. SWEET , CREAM MARKET Reports from the State Milk Inspection Department show that approximately 150,000 gallons of sweet cream were shipped into the state from October 1, 1929 to October 1, 1930. Plans are under way another year to work in cooperation with the State Inspection Department to get some farm dairy com munities to producing sweet cream that will meet inspection re quirements. Marion County is especially equipped to do this now. DEMONSTRATIONS RAISING DAIRY CALVES Improper management of calves has been a handicap to many dairymen. The general practice of killing off young calves causes dairymen to have to purchase cows at high expense. Raising the calves with nurse cows often proves unsatisfactory. Six farmers in Duval County put on demonstrations with 36 calves in cooperation with the Extension Dairyman and the county dairy agent. Part of these calves were fed fresh whole milk, the others were fed milk made from skimmilk powders. The fresh milk calves made good growth, while the calves on powdered milk made less growth but were in a healthy condition as long as they were fed fresh dry skimmilk powders of good quality.

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension It cost an average of $67 to raise a calf to 4 months of age when fed fresh whole milk. While with the lot fed on powdered milk the cost was $33 each. The market price of skimmilk pow ders was 9 cents a pound. There has been a heavy loss with calves as a result of turning young calves on sod pasture grasses, where they become in fested with intestinal worms. Many die, and many that live are under size and never develop properly as dairy cows. Nine dem onstrations were conducted in Duval County to prevent parasite infestation by keeping the calves away from infested pastures until six to eight months of age, and giving proper feeding and management otherwise. PRODUCTION RECORDS Eighty-seven dairymen kept individual production records on 1,868 cows. These records are producing valuable information to stimulate interest in a feed growing program and production costs. DISTRIBUTION OF DAIRY ANIMALS There has been a widespread interest in improving the class of dairy bulls. A sale of registered dairy animals was put on under the auspices of the State Dairymen's Association. Low prices of good breeding animals make this an opportune time for Florida dairymen to import some good dairy animals. One hundred seventeen registered bulls have been placed on farms this year. Duval County with an all-time man doing dairy work, and an active county dairy association, has led all other counties this year with 39 placed in the county. From 1926 to 1930 the number of registered bulls in Madison County increased from 3 to 98, as a direct result of extension work. At the instance of the North Marion Dairy Association, and in cooperation with representatives of this association and other representatives from Alachua, Duval, Walton, Madison, and Okaloosa counties, the Extension Dairyman made a trip into Tennessee for the purpose of selecting good dairy animals for bringing to Florida. Excellent Jersey heifers were obtainable, due to the shortage of feed resulting from the drought in Ten nessee. These heifers had been grown under farm conditions~ were good grazers, and were easily acclimated to conditions in Florida. Twelve carloads, 485 Jerseys, were selected and brought to Florida. As a result of this work, other counties became inter

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Annual Report, 1930 .51 ested, and 2,250 dairy cows and heifers were brought in to all parts of the state. The Agent in Hillsborough estimates that 735 of them went to that county. SILOS, DAIRY BARNS, AND MILK HOUSES There have been 17 new silos built with a capacity of 2,250 tons of silage. Practically every silo in the state was filled. Farmers have found it practical to seed sorghum in the summer for fall silage. Special demonstrations were also carried on in methods of filling silos. It has been a common practice to cut silage in too long pieces, which caused spoiled silage and pro duced digestion troubles in the dairy herds. Some pit and trench silos were built where farmers are sell ing cream and growing out dairy cows. County agents helped farmers in remodeling 32 milk houses and six sleeping sheds and dairy barns. These sheds are needed in the winter to protect the cows from the cold rains, and in the summer are used for shade. STIMULATING THE SALE OF FLUID MILK There has been a surplus of fluid milk in practically every consuming center in the state. An educational booth was put on at the State Fair, by County Agent A. S. Lawton in cooperation with the Duval County Dairymen'~ Association. This exhibit demonstrated the cleanly methods practiced by members of this association in producing milk. From 50 to 75 gallons of milk was distributed free each day in 2-ounce bottles with educational literature telling about the dairy industry in the county. This developed a cooperative spirit among dairymen, and the direct advertising contributed greatly to keeping down the surplus of fluid milk in Jacksonville during the summer. In cooperation with Miss Mary Stennis, State Nutrition Agent, J. M. Scott, State Milk Inspector, J. 1\1. Burgess, Department of Agriculture, a special milk week campaign was conducted. At that time articles were published in state publications and a series of radio talks were broadcast over Station WRUF. Milk and its various products were discussed. This all contributed to helping increase milk consumption. QUALITY MILK DEMONSTRATION An educational meeting was held in Ocala in the spring in co operation with the U.S. Dairy Bureau. J. H. McClain, Extension

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension Dairy Specialist, helped in putting on a quality milk demonstra tion. Stress was placed on quality milk by freedom from con taminating surroundings, ample equipment to thoroughly cleanse and sterilize dairy utensils. DUVAL COUNTY BETTER MILK LEAGUE A major step in milk marketing was the formation of a league patterned after the Baltimore Bargaining League to take charge of the marketing of milk in Jacksonville. This work was accom plished through the Duval County Dairymen's Association, a producers' association that has been operating in Jacksonville for five years. Members of this association attended a gather ing in Tallahassee for a conference with members of the Federal Farm Board. They later called in a special representative of the Farm Board to help in formulating contracts. They also sent delegates to Baltimore and Washington to get direct in formation from producers and others connected with the Balti more Milk League. This league has 64 members and is market ing 85 o/o of the market milk in Jacksonville. They are working in direct harmony with the city milk inspection department in bringing up the quality of milk in the dairies that are members of the association. A one cent tax on each gallon of milk pro duced by members of the league is used for the upbuilding of the association and as a sinking fund for future emergencies. The league has multiplied the efforts of the county agents in conducting demonstrations in feed growing and herd improve ment. 4-H DAIRY CLUBS Counties doing 4-H dairy club work have been Leon, Madison, Okaloosa, Citrus, Orange, Hillsborough, Walton, Jackson, Alach ua, and Jefferson . . The class of work has been gradually im proving each year. With tick eradication completed in a large area of the state and with price of young animals low, dairy club enrollment is being pushed, especially in the farm dairy centers. ORGANIZATIONS Dairy organizations have proven themselves valuable to ex tension work. In counties where the farmers are associated together the extension work is more permanent. Some of the county organizations that are helping very materially in doing extension work are Escambia County Dairymen's Association,

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Annual R e port, 1930 53 Okaloosa County Producers' Association, Leon County Dairy men's Association, Duval County Dairymen's Association, Du val County Better Milk League, The Flagler-Volusia County Dairymen's Association, Pinellas County Dairymen's Associa tion, Orange County Dairymen's Association, Hill s borough Coun ty Dairymen's Association, Polk County Dairymen's Association, Manatee County Dairymen's Association , Palm Beach County Dairymen's Association, and the Miami Home Milk League. The State Dairymen's Association has given valuable aid in putting on the dairy program during Farmers' Week. Some 250 dairymen were present at the annual meeting held in Gaines ville during Farmers' Week. The state president called a meet ing of the board of directors and the chairmen of all the various committees in Gainesville. There was 100 % attendance. This is evidence of the interest being manifested by the dairymen in helping to carry on the business of dairying in the state. The State Dairymen's Association rendered valuable service in helping with a registered dairy cattle sale at Monticello, Oc tober 28. Thirty registered animals, mostly bulls, were sold at that time. The Monticello Kiwanis Club, under the leadership of County Agent Finlayson, was host and provided sale barn, feed, and a special sales ring for the sale. In addition they serv ed a free barbecue dinner to 450 people . There was a State Guernsey Breeder's Association formed at the Farmers' Week meeting in Gainesville last summer. There are plans to organize a State Jersey Association soon.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension ANIMAL HUSBANDRY W. J. SHEELY, Agent in Animal Husbandry Animal husbandry Extension work in Florida is being con ducted by a cooperative plan between the Bureau of Animal In dustry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Agricultural Exten sion Service of Florida, beginning July 22, 1930. It is the policy of the Extension Agent in Animal Husbandry to work in cooperation with the representative livestock pro ducers in working out plans for improving and developing the beef cattle and other livestock possibilities in Florida. This method will not only secure better cooperation, but will . mean a better understanding of local problems in production and mar keting. As a basis, certain projects and plans of livestock development are submitted with an idea of working out a method of economi cal beef cattle, hog, and sheep production suitable to Florida conditions. A conference of persons interested in livestock development was held during Farmers' Week for the purpose of developing a cooperative plan of work. Those attending were county and district agents, Dr. J. R. Ricks, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Dr. J. V. Knapp, State Veterinarian, and representative livestock owners. This was followed by personal visits to farmers, range cattle owners, and others who were financially interested in the best development of Florida's live stock interests. In the tick-free area, interests and efforts are being centered on replacing scrub bulls with good bulls, growing feed and pas ture, securing and developing a maximum, uniform good quality CALF CROP, good quality beef animals, fat calves, and one and two year old stockers. There is a healthy interest in beef cattle development in Flor ida, as shown by requests for information on pasture, feed, and livestock development. A survey of the calf crop in the tick-free area where good bulls have been used indicates that owners are well pleased with the growth and development of the calves. Returns from the sale of grade calves as compared with others of the same age show 2 cents more per pound in favor of the grade calves; Three men report grade calves sold for $20 each, while common calves the

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Annual Report, 1930 55 same age sold for $12 to $15 each. One county agent reports 300 grade calves from purebred bulls worth $5 per head more than common calves of the same age. Since July 23, reports show purebred bulls placed in the fol lowing counties: seven Herefords in Marion, six Red Polls in Baker, seven Angus in Sarasota, two Herefords in Clay, two Herefords in Dixie, three Herefords in Alachua, three Herefords in Levy, one Hereford in Leon, three Angus in Jefferson, and four Herefords in Taylor. The tendency of growers in the tick-free area is to get pure bred beef bulls, and to increase their herds, but funds are short and good range cows are scarce. Some of the land owners and cattlemen are making efforts to secure breeding cattle from the area soon to begin tick eradication. Since July the writer has assisted in programs at 14 meetings, discussing livestock, meats, marketing, and transportation, at farmers meetings, Kiwanis Clubs, Rotary Clubs, and Women's Clubs, and has made contacts with many farmers and business interests in behalf of livestock improvement.

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56 Florida Cooperativ e Extension CITRICULTURE E. F. DEBUSK, Citriculturist Existing conditions during the year have resulted in many calls for information in the economic field of the citrus indus try. More than ever before, growers are thinking of each grove operation as having a direct and important bearing on the ef ficiency of the grove as a paying business enterprise. It is generally recognized that profitable citrus fruit produc tion in Florida is dependent on these four factors: Quality fruit, low production cost per box, high yield per acre, and efficient marketing. Our program of work is built around the first three factors above mentioned. We have not, as yet, taken up directly the marketing phases of the industry. In the effort to produce quality fruit, judged by present stand"'" ard, there are many factors with which to contend. In an effort to find out why fruit grades low, and thus get at a real basis for building a constructive program for the improvement of quality, a study of the lower grades of fruit in the packinghouse s is being made from year to year. Twenty-eight blemishes have been noted as the causes of fruit going into the low grades or cull pile. Of the 28 blemishes noted, five are being controlled economically by spraying; six may be controlled by proper handling of the fruit from the tree to the packinghouse; the control of seven depends upon proper cultural practices and grove management; while the grower has no control over the re maining 10. The relative economic importance of the _ 28 blem ishes, as they affect fruit quality, is being determined by counties or communities and by individual growers. Thus by a thorough analysis of conditions we find that the grove practices that pro duce the most satisfactory results in the improvement of fruit quality vary with the local conditions. For example, in a certain grove we found that the problem in producing quality was mel anose control, and that the most effective and most economical control of melanose was by reducing the amount of oil spraying that was being done. Too much oil was being applied for scale control, with the result that many young twigs were being killed, leaving a source of infection for. melanose. Under an other condition it was found that instead of spraying to kill thrips and prevent a blemi s h which was thought to be thrips marks, by leaving a strip of high cover crop growing between

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Annual Report, 1930 57 the tree rows the so called thrips mark blemishes were greatly reduced. The strips of cover crop protected the young fruit against the scarring effect of the sand carried by the wind and thus corrected the trouble satisfactorily and left no demand for the expensive spraying. In practical citrus fruit production, the most economical con trol of melanose, for example, may call for any operation from opening a drainage ditch or spooling a disc to prevent root pruning, to better fertilization or spraying with bordeaux-oil. A still wider range of operations is involved in reducing the box cost of production, which is closely tied up with yield per acre. Our program of work adapts itself to conditions in any citrus producing section of the state. A certain amount of work has been done on one or more of the following projects in each and every county in which citrus is grown commercially: Melanose control, blue mold decay control, treatment of tree trunk and root diseases, scale and whitefly control, irrigation and drainage, citrus scab control, rust mite control, fertilizing and cover crops, and special service work. MELANOSE CONTROL The method of controlling melanose by spraying with 3-3-50 bordeaux mixture plus one percent oil in emulsion, when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in diameter is so generally prac ticed by growers, that except in a few backward communities, the time of our fieldmen can be spent more profitably by improv ing the grower's methods of control than by actually putting on result demonstrations. Therefore, much time has been devoted this year to improving methods of control by contact through field meetings, by visits to individual growers, by special letters, press articles, and radio talks. The results have been very satis factory. While the trees were blooming and setting fruit last spring; weather conditions favorable for the development of melanose prevailed, resulting in a heavy early infection and consequently much dropping. Fortunately there was a heavy bloom and the dropping served only to thin the crop, and took with it much of what otherwise would have been a heavy melanose infected crop. The result is a heavy crop of fruit fairly free of melanose in spite of the fact that spraying as a rule was rendered ineffective because of the unusually frequent rains during spraying time. Throughout the year much time has been devoted to indirect

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension control of melanose in years to come by correcting grove prac tices and conditions that result in the production of dead WO!Jd. This procedure is proving very effective. CITRUS SCAB CONTROL Our scab control work has been handled very much like that of our melanose control program. Since the effectiveness of spraying for scab control depends upon weather conditions, the grower's guess is about as good as ours. What has been said about the effect of weather conditions last spring on melanose control may be said with reference to its relation to scab control. The worst scab-infected young fruit dropped early, but there was plenty of fruit left. The scabby fruit is going to the can neries and the fruit that is being shipped out is fairly free of scab. In many cases very little was accomplished by spraying because of unfavorable weather conditions. BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL Through our educational program, growers and packers quite generally understand that blue mold decay losses are very largely the result of improper handling of fruit from the tree to the car. It has been carefully estimated that about 70 percent of the fruit abrasions, caused by rough or improper handling, result in decay before the fruit is consumed. In an effort to reduce the losses resulting from improper handling of fruit, demonstrations in the proper use of picking equipment have been given in seven of the leading citrus produc ing communities. Six meetings, with picking foremen, pickers, and growers, were held, at which time the reduction of blue mold decay by better picking and more careful handling of fruit was the chief subject discussed. Splendid cooperation has been received from growers, packinghouse managers, and officials of marketing organizations. A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the pick ing and handling of fruit four years ago showed that the growers suffered a loss of 60 cents per box because of decay resulting from picking defects. Similar inspections made this year show ed a loss of only 28 cents per box, figured on the same basis, or a saving of 32 cents per box under average market conditions. This improvement has been brought about largely by more efficient packing supervision, more favorable labor conditions, and by the adoption of the "nipper type" fruit clipper.

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Annual Report , 1930 59 TREE TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASE TREATMENT Owing to the very favorable growing season of the spring and summer, the demand for assistance in the control . of such diseases as gummosis, psorosis, and foot rot has been rather light. Here again the relation between the vitality of a tree, as affected by freeze, drought, and favorable growing conditions, and the development of these trunk and root diseases cannot be overlooked in their economic control. Efforts directed along lines of providing more favorable growing conditions for a tree supplying organic matter, proper fertilization, and more adequate moisture control-are usually found to be more effective in the control of gummosis and psorosis, and a more economical practice over a period of years, than scraping the diseased area and applying a disinfectant. A combination of the two gives best results. J RUST MITE CONTROL Rust mite control is almost universally practiced in Florida citrus groves because it offers greater opportunity for profitable returns on the investment than the control of any other insect pest or disease. The Extension Service renders its greatest service by informing growers as to the proper time to spray or dust, by teaching growers to recognize the insect and to know at what stage in its development in his particular grove the spraying should begin. SCALE AND WHITEFLY CONTROL It has been observed that the entomogenous fungi keep the whitefly and scale under satisfactory control in many old groves, especially those in the hammocks. We have been studying these conditions with the hopes of finding factors that contribute to this natural control and that might possibly be introduced and developed in other groves and under other conditions less fav orable to the development of entornogenous fungi, and thereby make possible natural control of pests under a wider range of conditions. We have had wonderful success in controlling white fly by the use of the red aschersonia. Demonstrations have shown a saving of as high as $7.50 per acre over control by spraying with oil. But our greatest handicap in developing scale control by the use of entomogenous fungi lies in our inability, so far, to culture the scale fungi for general distribution.

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension Encouraging progress has been made in developing the con ditions or factors that enter into natural scale control, even in the ridge section of the citrus belt. In one demonstration grove we find that, by reducing cultivation to about one-fourth that of the former practice, and growing a heavy cover-crop, and by not pruning out the center of the trees to "let the sunlight in", a condition has been brought about which favors the develop ment of the scale fungi to the extent that it has not been neces sary to spray the grove for scale control for the last three years. This demonstration affects directly more than 1,000 acres of grove. We have had an unusual peppering of Florida red scale over the state this year, but in many cases it has been satisfactorily controlled by one of the scale fungi. Climatic conditions during the year as a whole have been unusually favorable to natural control of grove parasites with the result that less than the usual amount of spraying has been necessary to give satisfactory control. We have devoted much time to increasing the'efficiency of spraying by improving equipment and better timing of ap plications. FERTILIZING AND COVER CROPS Demonstrations have been conducted in every part of the citrus belt showing that by the proper use of suitable cover crops the expensive organic fertilizers may be replaced by the cheaper chemical sources of plant food and by higher concentrates of both simple materials and mixtures .. No project has given more pro ductive results than the cover crop fertilizer project, especially where Crotalaria striata has been used as the cover crop. Cro talaria was generally introduced to growers only about five years ago, and today it is by far the leading cover crop for citrus groves. More than 250,000 pounds of seed were planted in the citrus belt in addition to the large acreage reseeding itself from previous plantings. The crying need of our sandy citrus soils is organic matter, produced by the growing of cover crops. It has been demon strated that the cost of producing citrus fruits can be reduced 25 to 40 percent by the proper use of a good cover crop of Crota laria, thereby growing an organic nitrogen at 10 to 12 cents a pound that will produce equally as satisfactory results in tree growth and quality fruit production as other forms of nitrogen that cost two or three times as much. The cost of fertilizer

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Annual Report, 1930 61 represents 30 to 60 percent of the cost of producing citrus fruits, and approximately 56 percent of this cost is nitrogen when largely organics are used. This method points the way to reducing the cost of fruit production. In demonstration groves the results obtained indicate that proper cover cropping gives higher quality fruit, higher yield, lower cost of cultivation and control of disease and insect pests. In one demonstration grove of 165 acres the owner reports a labor and material production cost of 17 cents per box. His fruit is running 60 percent first grade. Several growers are hauling into their groves old hay and other vegetable matter to supply additional humus. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE During the season of light rainfall-October to June-there is an accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (the form trees use) in the soils of Florida citrus groves, but a poor utilization, due to low soil moisture. On the other hand, during periods of heavy rainfall only traces of nitrate nitrogen are found in the soil because it is either taken up by the trees and cover crop as it is formed, or lost by leaching. This presents a problem in soil moisture control, the importance of which varies with the amount of rainfall during the dry seasons. Fortunately the rain fall during the year has been very favorably distributed through the months of usual low rainfall so that the need for grove ir rigation has not been as apparent as usual, and consequently only limited opportunity for the development of the irrigation project has presented itself. Considerable assistance has been rendered growers in putting their irrigation plants in a condition for higher efficiency for the time when they are needed, and in providing more adequate drainage facilities for their groves. Growers recognize more than ever the important rela tionship between moisture control and such diseases as melanose, wilt, withertip, gum diseases, and the so-called "tree decline".

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY N. R. MEHRHOF, Poultryman Extension work in poultry is reaching a greater number of people each year, through the cooperation of the county and home demonstration agents. Considerably more interest has been manifested in the fundamentals of poultry production. County and home demonstration agents in 43 counties have con ducted the poultry work in a much better way than ever before. Conditions have arisen which make it necessary for the pro ducer to analyze his business more closely. Lower egg prices have tended to help encourage such practices as efficient culling, efficient feeding, and securing quality birds t . o raise the level of egg production to a higher plane. More interest has been shown in the Home Egg-Laying Con test. Producers are keeping records and are beginning to realize their value in improving the efficiency of their flocks. THE PLAN OF WORK During th . e year 1930 the same phases of work were empha sized as in 1929. Briefly, the phases were: Grow healthy chicks, grow green feed, practice culling, home egg-laying con test, and junior poultry work. GROW HEALTHY CHICKS This work is of great value, for if chick mortality is reduced, the cost of rearing a pullet is automatically lowered. Records show that if the young chicks can be kept free of diseases and parasites a higher quality pullet can be placed in the laying house. The quality of pullet that goes into the laying house will influence egg production and returns. The Grow Healthy Chick program was centered around six fundamental factors, as follows: (1) Hatch early; (2) clean eggs and chicks; (3) clean brooder houses; (4) clean land; (5) balanced ration; (6) separation of pullets from cockerels. This plan was effective in reducing chick mortality. The fol lowing data have been assembled from the records submitted: 1928 1929 1930 No. of Records 35 38 28 No. of chicks put Under Brooder 30,000 22,000 28,500 Average . Mortality 24.26 13.87 14.25

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Annual Report, 1930 63 All of the producers fed a commercial feed; on about 50% of the farms the feed was supplemented with milk, either dry or liquid. Green feed was fed from the first to fourth week. Grow ing mash was fed at 5 to 8 weeks. Pullets and cockerels were separated at approximately 6 weeks of age, one week earlier than last year. Only one producer hatched the chicks in May. The average mortality for the 1930 Grow Healthy Chick Cam paign was 14.25%. The 20 producers who adopted the six fac tors had a chick mortality of 9.49%. Five producers reported their losses due to the poor quality of the chicks. Their chick mortality averaged 36.35 % . Three producers reported their losses due to sanitation as far as land was concerned. Their chick mortality averaged 42.04%. Some of the heavy mortality was due to chilling, fire in brooder house, and coccidiosis. It is evident that it is a paying proposition to adopt the six fundamentals. At the end of the eight weeks' period those pro ducers who adopted the six factors had 91 chicks left out of each 100, while those who failed to adopt either quality chicks or clean land had only 64 or 58 chicks left. This gives a sav ing of approximately 27 and 33 % of chick losses, without con sidering the feed cost and the poorer quality pullets that would be put in the laying house. This is one of the most important phases of successful poultry production. GROW GREEN FEEDS Although the feeding of green feed to poultry is relatively universal, yet it is essential to make plans and assist the pro ducer in working out a green feed program. All agents have advocated the planting of various greens, and have given help as to kind, time, etc. The following results from a farm management study by Frank Brumley, Extension Economist, Farm Management, show the value of such a program.

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64 Florida Cooperative E x tension RELATION OF GREEN FEED TO EGGS PER BIRD I Kind of Green Feed I Sprouted Oats I I I and Cut Feed I Only in Range j No Green Feed Number of 42 6 I 15 Eggs per bird ... ...... . .. .. ! 160 149 I 134 Eggs-Nov. to Jan .. .. . J 28 26 I 22 Po;e~dsbi~1 ~~~~ 78 79 / I 75 Val. of eggs over feed $2.35 $1.91 $1.70 CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS Maintaining a high producing flock is the aim of all success ful poultry producers. There are many ways in which this can be accomplished. Very often a number of factors are so closely correlated that it is difficult to separate them. Proper feed ing, housing, adopting a good sanitary program, and having quality birds all play their part. No matter how well bred, how well managed a flock may be there are individuals in that flock which tend to lower the aver age egg yield. It is the task of the producer to segregate the heavy producers from the poor producers. The elimination of the poor producers will not only increase the average egg yield of the flock but will decrease the feed cost and increase the returns. Culling demonstrations have been held for a good many years. The producers have learned to distinguish the difference be tween a high egg machine and a low egg machine. The Exten sion Poultryman has assisted the agents in conducting 20 cull ing demonstrations. HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST Five years ago a simple, yet rather complete, set of records was started under the name of the Home Egg-Laying Contest. This phase of the work was undertaken to have the poultry pro ducers keep records of their endeavor. The records cover a period of one year. In the first five contests the records started November 1 and ended October 31, while in the sixth contest the opening date is October 1 and the closing date September 30. These records which have been kept by backyard producers, farm flock producers, and commercial poultrymen, have been of great value in helping them analyze their business and help ing them solve some of their problems. Each year a larger num ber of records are being kept, which indicates their importance. Some interesting results are noted in the five contests already 'held.

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Year 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 Annual Report, 1930 TABLE I Number of Farms 40 74 53 55 107 170 Number of Birds 9,990 20,959 14,025 15,804 34,969 48,323 65 Table I shows the number of records submitted the first month of each year, together with the number of birds involved. Note the increase in the number of farms from the first year and also the increase in the number of birds involved. In the 1929 contest, which just closed, 41 records were com plete for the year. In the 1930 contest which started October 1, there are more than four times as many farms as compared to the number in 1925 and practically five times as many birds . . TABLE II.YEARLY PRODUCTION FOR FIVE YEARS. HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST. Number Number Eggs Year of Farms of Birds per Bird 1926 25 5,515 161.07 1927 29 6,620 160.04 1928 18 4,275 156.60 1929 38 7,893 158.46 1930 41 14,915 159.87 The yearly egg production per bird has varied very little dur ing the five years. However, it is interesting to note that the last record of 159.87 was made with an average number of 14,915 birds, while the best record in 1925, 161.07 eggs, was made with few farms and about one-third the number of birds. TABLE III.-MONTHLY EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE FIFTH FLORIDA HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST. Month Backyard November .. ........ .. .......... . ................. 8.77 December . .......... . ......... ..... .............. 8.42 January . . . . . . ....... ..... .... . . ... ........ . . .... ... 12.17 February . ... ..... ........ ..... ..... ......... .... .. 15.55 March ....... ... ........ .. ........ .... ........ .. ...... 17.08 April .. . . .. . .. . ........ . .. . ............................ 15 . 87 May ... . ....... . .................... .. ......... . ........ 14.28 June ......... .... ........ .. ........ . .................. 11.23 July ........... .. ... . ... ... . .. . .. .. . .. . ..... . ... . ..... 11.84 August ... .. ..... . .... . .. . ................. . . .. ...... 10.78 September .. ...... .. . .... ................ ... ...... 9.40 October ... . . ..... . . : ........................ . . . .... 5.18 TOTAL .... . ......... .. ......... .. ........ ... ...... 161 95 3 Farm 7.80 9.48 12.84 15.28 16.72 17.36 16.65 14 . 55 14 . 68 11.68 7.32 6 . 71 151.72 Commercial 7.64 8.87 13.03 16 . 05 19.00 18 . 84 17.45 15.19 13.75 12.22 9.44 6.58 153.44 Average 7.68 8.94 12.98 15.91 18.57 18.53 17.27 15.06 14.26 12.09 9.03 6.59 159.87

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE IV.-WINTER EGG PROD U CTION PER BIRD (NOVEMBER THROUGH JANUARY). Backyard 192 9 -1930 26.37 1928-1929 31.91 1927-1928 40.70 1 9 26-1927 33.10 1925-1926 22.10 Farm 31.17 29.26 23.30 28.80 17.70 Commercial 28.92 28.66 26.30 25.90 25.70 Average 28.95 28.96 25.80 28.20 24.00 In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to note the winter egg production (months of November, December, and January) for the five contests for the different groups and the average. In both the farm and commercial groups it is found that the winter egg production is greater than in previous con tests, only the backyard group is below the other two groups. This means that as winter egg production per bird increases, total egg production increases and returns per bird increase. From the records tabulated pertinent information relative to the various phases of poultry management will be worked out. These facts given to the producer should result in greater efficiency. JUNIOR POULTRY WORK More interest has been shown in the junior poultry work this year. Fourteen meetings were attended, at which time the jun , ior work was explained and poultry management discussed. The 4-H Boys' and Girls' Short Course poultry programs have been a means of instructing the juniors in poultry management. A state poultry club show at DeLand is planned, together with a judging contest. The Volusia County Fair Association has been very kind in helping the Extension Service make these two new features possible. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS Local, county, and state poultry associations have assisted materially in carrying out the extension poultry program. The American Poultry Association of Florida has helped in various ways in furthering the extension program, and has made it possible for club members to secure higher quality standard bred poultry. They have also fostered the junior poultry club show and judging contest. The Florida Baby Chick Association has as its motto "Better Quality Chicks". Accreditation work is handled under the super vision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. Community and county poultry associations have been active

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A n n u al R e po r t , 19 3 0 67 in holding meetings with educational discussions as the main features . Demonstrations and field meetings were held in con nection with the regular organized poultry associations. Cooperative Poultry Associations have been more active this year. The Central Florida, The North Florida, The Gulf Coast, The West Coast and The East Coagt associations are marketing eggs for the producers in their respective localities. The State Marketing Bureau with its poultry marketing specialist has worked in close cooperation with the agents and the state office in an educational way. Fig. 8.-The home-made brick brooder has given good results in raising healthy chick s . It is cheap and efficient. HOME-MADE BRICK BROODERS During the past year, the county agents and home demonstra station agents in West Florida have fostered a new type of brooder for their section of Florida. The plans were secured from the Extension Service. 'There was a need for better brood ing equipment on the farm, cheap and efficient. This brick

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension brooder seemed to fill the need. Sixty brooders were installed in West Florida counties with good results. CHICKENPOX VACCINATION Each year there occur outbreaks of chickenpox in pullets as they come into production. The result is a loss in egg produc tion, a tendency for an increase in the number of colds and roup, an increase in mortality, and a substantial decrease in returns. Considerable interest has been taken in preventing chickenpox by vaccination in nine counties. It is generally done when the birds are from 12 to 16 weeks of age. There has been practically no chickenpox in flocks which were vaccinated. The cost has been from 1 cent to 2 cents per bird. One commercial producer in Marion County did not vaccinate in 1929 and said the chickenpox outbreak cost him $600. In 1930 he vaccinated and has had no trouble with any of the allied diseases and secured satisfactory production during the winter. The county agent reports 14,000 pullets vaccinated this past summer. Records are being taken now which will show the economic value of chickenpox vaccination. POULTRY MEETINGS The number of meetings attended by the Extension Poultry man was 37and there were 931 people present. At these meet ings timely poultry information was presented, together with those phases of poultry production which were included in the plan of work. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK An intensive poultry program is presented during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. The daily attendance in the poultry section ranged from 40 to 125 people, and was the largest in five years. PARASITE AND DISEASE CONTROL Dr. E. F. Thomas, Assistant Veterinarian, has cooperated with the Extension Service in this program by attending meetings, making farm visits, studying parasites and diseases, and making post mortem examinations. An experiment on worm control is now under way. The Vet erinary Department of the Experiment Station and the Exten

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Annual Report, 1930 69 sion Service are cooperating in this. Details of this work will be given at the end of the year. NATIONAL EGG LAYING CONTEST The Fourth Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a successful close September 30, 1930. This contest ran from No vember 1, 1929 to September 30, 1930. There were 95 pens en tered. The average egg production per bird for the 11 months' period was 188.7 eggs. The contest is located at Chipley and managed by E. F. Stanton. A complete report of the contest is available on request. MISCELLANEOUS AND EMERGENCY WORK Judging was done at four county fairs last year, the Extension Poultryman handling the junior poultry exhibits and in some cases the open classes. The work was made educational as far as possible. Thirty-four conferences were held with feed men, fair man agers, and secretaries of chambers of commerce, relative to poultry problems in their localities.

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS FRANK W. BRUMLEY, Economist, Farm Management Extension work in farm management and agricultural eco nomics in Florida began October 1, 1930. Since that time the activities of the work have been along three main lines, namely: farm management, outlook, and marketing. FARM MANAGEMENT The main purpose of Farm Management Extension is to teach farmers the fundamental principles that deal with the successful management of their farm business. In doing this an effort is made to study the methods used and the profits secured on a large number of farms to determine how the more successful ones differ from the less successful. During the months of October and November, the specialist attended the annual meeting of County Agents, made individual calls on County Agents, and had the following projects in progress: 1. Enterprise accounts: (a) Poultry Account Book prepared and 150 poultrymen started keeping accounts. (b) Citrus Ac count Book prepared and 200 citrus growers started keeping enterprise accounts. 2. Farm management meetings in counties where research studies have been made to return the results of these studies. Eleven meetings have been held in six counties with a total at tendance of about 200 farmers. Results of poultry and dairy farm management studies previously made by the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station were discussed. OUTLOOK Three members of the staff were in Atlanta at the Southern Regional Outlook Conference, November 11-14. They carried with them the Florida outlook reports by commodities, prepared by the Extension commodity specialists. Following the Con ference, an outlook report for Florida was prepared by those in attendance and the other extension specialists. It was pub lished early in December and distributed to about 800 farmers, County Agents, bankers, and agricultural workers. MARKE'J;,ING While there is no full-time marketing specialist in the Exten sion Service, several of its members have been working with the

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Annual R e po rt, 19 30 71 Fig. 9 . Tomato es being packed in a g row er-ow n ed hou se. State Marketing Bureau and the Federal Farm Board towards organizing cooperatively the vegetable growers of Florida into the Florida Vegetable Growers, Inc. At present, there are 50 or more large and small local vegetable cooperatives shipping vegetables out of Florida. Large enough volume of business has been secured for the state organization to operate on a low selling charge basis and much progress made towards combining more of the locals into the s tate organization.

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension PART III-WOMEN'S WORI{ COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent ORGANIZATION Organization for the development of home demonstration work in Florida consists of a state home demonstration agent, three district agents, specialists in nutrition, home improvement, food conservation, part time assistance from poultry specialist, and 33 county home demonstration agents. Home demonstration work for negroes has been conducted in seven counties throughout the year with a local district super visor, who will report the work in detail. FINANCES Broward was the only county in the state to discontinue home demonstration work during the year 1930. Decreases were realized in Santa Rosa, Palm Beach, Highlands, and Citrus coun ties. Increases were realized in Escambia, Lee, Hernando, Duval, and Orange counties. New appropriations were secured in St. Lucie and Indian River counties for one agent to work both counties, and in Pasco for the agent in Citrus County to give half time to work in Pasco. The counti finances in Bradford and Union counties would not permit the continuance of appropriations for both farm and home agents in each county, so an arrangement was made with the Board of County Commissioners in Union County to support the work of the farm agent and with Bradford County to finance the home agent, with the understanding that each agent should work in both counties. This plan works fairly satisfactorily. Boards of county commissioners supply the larger proportions of the local appropriations. An exception to this is found in Lee and Highlands Counties where the school board supplies the county funds for the present appropriations. School boards cooperate in 12 and commissioners in 28 coun ties in the budget for home demonstration work. Financial ar

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Annual Report, 1930 73 rangements with the counties vary almost as much as the coun ties, and unfortunately the variation in amounts appropriated seems to be based on the counties' willingness or ability to pay in stead of the agents' qualifications, length of service, or necessary expenses of conducting the work. Four counties report definite appropriations for special home demonstration activities such as camps, 4-H club short courses, and Farmers' Week scholarships. Eleven counties include in their budget a definite amount for demonstration materials and supplies. Six counties supply the agents with county-owned cars. All counties furnish offices for the agents. Nineteen counties provide laboratory-kitchens. OFFICE ORGANIZATION With three exceptions, agents' offices are in the county court houses. These offices vary widely in completeness from the ideally equipped to the simplest. Dade county furnishes a splen did office in the new county courthouse consisting of a spacious general office with adequate display cases, wall space, bulletin racks and file cases; a private office for the agent; a lecture and demonstration room with seats for 300 people; a laboratory kitchen, fully equipped; a supply room adjoining the kitchen; a storage room in the basement and indoor parking space for the agent's car, adjacent to the store room. In additio:n to this . equipment, a full time office assistant is employed. All of the offices are accessible, well lighted and heaied and cared for by janitor service. They are equipped with desk, chairs, filing cabinets, bulletin racks, and some smaller equip ment. Twenty-two ha.ve telephones. Twenty-seven have type writers and 21 have mimeographs. In keeping with plans made at the beginning of the year, special attention has been given to improved filing systems with marked effect on the accessibility of reference material and per manent office records. CLERICAL ASSISTANCE There is full time secretarial assistance provided in 12 coun ties and part-time in four others. In most of these counties secretarial assistance is shared with the county agricultural agent.

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74 Fl ori da Coop er at ive E x t en sio n LABORATORY KIT C HENS AND WORK ROOMS In Lee, Manatee, and Polk counties there is space enough in the kitchen for a large group to work and excellent equipment at hand for their convenience. Polk and Manatee counties have in the same suite a large work room for sewing and handcraft. Eastern Hil1sborough County is establishing demonstration quarters at this time. Hernando County is remodeling an entire house with an acre of garden ground which will be used for club meetings , demonstrations , a center for market and exchange, as well as being in itself a result demonstration in coop _ erative in terior and exterior beautification. The house has been cleaned and redecorated, the grounds landscaped and flower and vege table gardens planted. The club members p lan to open this to the service of the county in January. In Citrus, Lake, and Osce ola there are fairly well equipped kitchens in which a great deal of work is carried on but these are not spacious enough to fill the same purpose as the one s mentioned previously. Highlands and Pinellas counties have large quarters but the equipment is yet inadequate for extensive community service. Fig. 10.-This demonstration kitchen is being used for a demonstration in crystallizing citrus fruits.

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Annual Report, 1930 75 Escambia, St. Lucie, Volusia, Duval, Union, Broward, Palm Beach and Dade provide laboratory kitchens or work rooms . . Three of these rooms have been equipped this year. These cen ters are of great value to the agents, providing convenient places which can be used as working centers, as a place to give public demonstrations, to train leaders, or to allow the agent to famil iarize herself with uses of local products. LOCAL WORKING CENTERS It is gratifying to see the decided increase in the number of local and community work centers established for home demon stration clubs, both junior and senior. Alachua County has three club houses owned by home demonstration clubs, and two other clubs own land on which they will erect buildings late . r. In Orange County two clubs own club houses, built and equipped by the women; two clubs own lots and have cash on hand to start buildings soon. In Duval County at least three clubs own their own buildings. Two clubs in St. Johns own their club houses and two additional clubs have part ownership in community buildings. Three clubs in Volusia own their buildings. In Dade County 10 junior clubs have furnished their own club rooms. In the northwest district there is a senior home demonstra tion club house in a rural community of Escambia, one in Holmes, and another in Leon. Club rooms are fitted up for use of women's home demonstration clubs in one rural community in Gadsden and another in Jefferson. In Leon County three junior clubs have their own club rooms. In Central and Southwest Florida there are several club houses and many club rooms. These local work centers assist the agent in presenting her work to the people of the county and are good indications of the real stability of home demonstration work in the community. METHODS USED TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF WORKERS CONFERENCES State Home Demonstration Staff conferences are held once a month or bi-monthly as seems advisable, at which time reports of progress in development of the work are given and definite plans made for special events and further development of work in general. An annual conference of all extension workers was held in

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension the early part of October. The county and home demonstration workers' program dealt for the main part with ways and means of home demonstration work meeting economic needs in the vari ous counties of the state. Programs of work outlined by the specialists and methods of adapting to county needs and develop ing them received considerable attention. SUBJECT MATTER ASSISTANCE Specialists in home improvement, nutrition, food conserva tion including gardening; and poultry work keep the agents in formed as to the best methods to employ in development of those phases of the work, provide them with usable, helpful material, assist with meetings, give lectures and demonstrations, and assist in training project leaders. District agents in~erpret and clarify some of the material on their supervisory visits. They also give spread to all worked out ideas and principles that are proving of value in other counties. SPECIAL STUDY The agents themselves feel keenly the need of keeping abreast of newer developments in the fields of agriculture and home eco nomics. Eight took advantage of the opportunity afforded them through a special course of one month given for them in the School of Home Economics, Florida State College for Women, during the summer school session. One agent took a month's course in the Ambler School of Horticulture. Six agents are carrying extension courses offered by the General Extension Division of the University of Florida. Another is pursuing graduate study at the University during the year. USE OF TIME It is as important for an agent to thoughtfully plan her time as to do any other part of her work. In most of the counties home demonstration work has been established for a good many years. Increasing demands on the agents for assistance cannot be met without careful plans. Agents use Saturday to check up week's work and as a general office day, when people of the county know that they can be found for personal conferences. Agents are advised and, as far as possible, they use Monday to plan the details of the week's work, assemble demonstration material, prepare material for newspaper, and such.

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Annual Report, 1930 77 Although the year falls into rather natural divisions of time according to seasonal activities due to wide differences in seasons and consequent development of crops, it is not practicable to have all counties on the same general schedule. Achievement days are appropriately held in the spring of th~ year in South Florida and in the fall of the year in North Florida. This is also true of community and county fairs. CLUBS AND COUNCILS CLUBS Thirty-one counties report 515 4-H clubs with a membership of 9,287. Four agents are also working with 182 boys. There are 266 adult home demonstration clubs with a membership of 6,269. County home demonstration agents work with both the women and the girls. In order to render their best services to as many people as possible there are regularly organized senior and jun ior home demonstration clubs in each county. Monthly or bi monthly meetings are held with the agent present to instruct the club members in the demonstrations which they are con ducting. Each club member actively engages in carrying on some definite demonstration in her home, although many people besides those in regularly organized clubs secure help and ad vice from the agents, through special leaflets, timely articles on seasonal activities appearing in magazines, local papers, mimeographed letters, and 'bulletins. Agents find that home visits are the best means to form in valuable contacts with individual club members and others and to keep in close touch with demonstrations in the home. Thirty one agents report 11,735 such visits into homes for a definite purpose and in addition 11 report 992 farm visits. During the year there were 612 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 534 with the women's work. This is an increase of 293 over last year. Of the number working with girls' clubs, 325 are older 4-H club members. There were 234 training meetings held for local leaders, with an attendance of 1,558 leaders. Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary require ments. There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among the girls. Enthusiasm has continued to grow in this connec:.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension tion, due to the fact that for the past two years recognition has been given during the State Short Course to the standard club making the best score for work accomplished. Buckingham Club in Lee County was the recipient of this honor in 1930 for work accomplished in 1929. The members of that club have .a widespread influence for better club work in that county. One hundred and twenty-four girls have received certificates this year for the satisfactory completion of four years' club work. There are 600 girls who are carrying 4-H club work for their fourth year; 250 for the fifth; and 196 for six or more years. COUNCILS Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in the community is the formation of county councils composed of the president and one elected representative from each home demonstration club. There are 29 county councils for girls' work and 24 for women's work. They work with the agents i11 making and executing plans for the year's work. They decide on the local chairmen for the various projects; they are respon sible for staging special events, such as achievement day pro grams, fair exhibits, etc.; they assist in the completion and col lection of individual reports; the senior councils sponsor the girls' work, and help in securing local leaders, providing short course scholarships, etc. ; they assist with publicity plans. In short, they lend a hand with all the many phases of work de veloping in a progressive county and back up in every way pos sible the efforts of the agent. The president and one representative from each county coun cil form the two state councils. The development of women and girls through their council work is remarkable. These repre sentatives themselves feel the value of this training and the responsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls, Florida State College for Women. This organization provides scholarship for attendance at Florida State College for Women. Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10 annually to the scholarship fund of the State Council. The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the University of Florida. Splendid council reports were made this year. This council also provides a scholarship awarded to a College 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State Col

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Annual R e po r t, 1930 79 lege for Women. Considerable enthusiasm was shown again this year over the silver loving cup which was presented during the annual council meeting by the council to the county council scoring highest for the past year's work. Lee and Lake county councils tied for this honor. Lee, having won the previous year, was presented the cup for the first s ix months. PROGRAMS OF WORK State and county programs of work were made with the pur pose of meeting the greatest needs of those taking advantage of home demonstration work. State and county councils gave special consideration to the economic background of the farm home in developing programs with the agents' help. Instruc tion and supervision has been directed to practical phases of the work that encourage conduct of demonstrations which make possible improvements in standards of living in the rural homes. More attention than ever before has been given to increasing the family cash income. Programs are presented for discussion and understanding during the agents' annual conference . The district agent, coun ty agent, and specialist in joint conference decide what part or if the whole is applicable in the county specified. \Available material is provided and needed assistance, so far as possible, is furnished the agent by the state office. All county programs of work have been followed up by the district agents this year. State and district agents have studied programs of work and reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and accom plishments achieved have been made. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out . . .. . . . . .. .... . . .. . .... ... . . ... .... . . .. ...... . . ... . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. ... . ... .. ... .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . .... . . .. . . .... . . Adult work-women Voluntary county, community and local leaders-:-4-H Club WorkWomen ...... .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . ........... . ... . ...... . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .... . . .. ....... . ......... . . ... . . . ... . .. . . Old e r girls ......................... . ....... . ... . . . ... . .. ..... . ... . .. . ............... .. . .. . ... . . . Clubs carrying on extension work with junior s .. .. ................. .. . . .......... . Membership . . ........................................... . . .. .. . . .. . . ... . . . ........................... . . .. .. . .. . Clubs carrying on extension work with adults ............................. .... .. . Membership . . .. . .................................. . ... .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .... . .................................. . . . . Home visits made by agents .. . ...... . .. . . . .. .. . ... . ... . . .............................. . .... .. . . Different homes visited .• : .................... .. .. .. . . . . . . .... . ... . ............................. ... .. . . Farm visits made by agents ... . . . . . ..... . .. . . .. . . .. . . . ... . ....... ... ........................ . ... . Telephone and office calls on agents relati v e to extension work ... . Average number days spent in office . ... . .. ... . ... . . . ... ... . . . .. . . ... . . . .... . . . .. .. .... . Averag e number days spent in field ... . .. . . . .......... . . . ... .. .... . ... . . . . . ... . .... .. .... . . Official letter s written . . ...... . ...... . . . ... . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. .... .. . .. .. . . . . . .. ... ... . ........ ... .. . . .. . . Events at which exhibits were held . . . .. . .. ... .. ... ... . .. . . .. .. . ... . .... .. .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . 524 5 3 4 287 3 25 515 9,469 266 6,269 11,735 5 , 717 992 44,971 77 223 54,152 357

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension Meetings held ....................................... .. .......................... . ......................... . .. 12,165 Attendance ................. .. ........... .. . ... .................... .. .............. .... .......... .. ............ .. 263,285 Tours conducted ..... .. ............... . ............ . ............. . ....... .... .. .. ....... ........... ..... . . . . 58 Attendance .. ....... ....... . . .. .......... ........ ..... .. . .. .. . .. . ... ....... ... ... .. . ............ . . . ............. ; 8,451 Achievement days held .................................................. ... ........................... 161 Attendance ... .. .......... .. ........................................ .... ........... ...... ......... ... ............ 19,681 Encampments held ... ... .............. ... ..... . . .. . ............ .......... ..... . ......... .. . .. ....... .... .. 34 Attendance ..... .. ... ... . ................................ . ........... ..... .... ........ . . ......... .... .......... .. 1,961 PROGRAM SUMMARY Number communities participating Home gardens .......... ..... ........ .. . ....... ................ .. . ..... ..... ....... . 478 Market garden and truck crops ...................................... 142 Fruits .......... .. ....................................... . . . ............. . . . .............. 135 Rodents and miscellaneous insects ............................. .. . 14 Home engineering ... ..... .... . ... ..... ..... ....... . .. ... . ... ...... ...... ....... 99 Poultry .................................................................................. 312 Dairy .... ...................... .... ........... . ............. . ......... ..... ........... ..... 33 Farm management . .. ................ ........ .... . ............. ......... ...... .. 4 Marketing .......... ..... . .. ..... ........... ........... .. ..... ....... .... .......... ... 87 Foods and nutrition . .... ........................... , ......... . .. .... ..... . ... . . 447 Child training and care .................... .. ............................ .. 98 Clothing ..................... . ....................... .. .. . .. . .... .. ... . . .............. 531 Home management .. ... .. . ... .. . .... . ..... ..... ...... ...... . . . ........ ... . .... 209 House furnishings .............................................................. 439 Home health and sanitation ............................. . .......... .... 449 Community activities ......... .. ............. . ............................... 345 Miscellaneous ........................... ... .......... . ............................... 243 Building extension program of work .......... .. . .. .. ,...... . ... 341 Organization-extension association and committee .... 361 PROJECT ACTIVITIES GARDENING AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS Days agents devoted to projects 999 85 101 20 117 465 57 14 116 1,133 160 1,266 . 273 574 356 2771/z 353 226 267 Home gardens and orchards are essential in every well bal anced home demonstration program. Through gardening and perennial plantings we are working toward an all year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the family; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic orna mentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish means to increase income. Reports show that the need for growing home gardens and fruits for family use has been felt generally and that there has been statewide interest along this line. Probably the greatest progress in meeting economic needs has been made through the home gardening program. The economist in food conservation who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splendid cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, federations of women's clubs, and individuals in pro moting better gardens and more perennial plantings. Interest

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Annual Report, 1930 81 has been stimulated through monthly letters carrying timely in formation; utilization score card; garden scores; suggestive -canning budget for the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; dem onstrations; all-year garden contests; and awards. During the year 29 agents devoted 14.4 o/o of their time; held 1,531 meetings; published 419 news stories; made 2,717 home visits, and had 5,544 office calls in connection with this project. Women report 2,757 demonstrations carried in home garden ing and 1,315 with the home orchard. There were 4,235 4-H dub girls who carried demonstrations in home gardening and 1,942 who followed definite plans in planting perennials as part . of the home garden program. POULTRY Development of the home poultry flock is a part of the home demonstration program mainly for two reasons ( 1) for family . nutrition, (2) to increase the family income. There were 1,017 women who managed and reported on flocks with a total of 85,052 birds. They report a profit for their work of $47,241. Eight hundred and eleven girls raised 34,006 birds. Agents report increasing interest in management of the farm flock. There seems to be far more understanding and practice in keeping accurate records and general improvement of the flock accordingly. Enthusiasm for the home poultry flock has been stimulated by the Home Egg-Laying Contest, tours to flocks and hatcheries, .and cooperation in marketing received from the State Marketing Bureau in addition to the regular work of the agents under leadership of the Extension Poultryman. DAIRYING It is our aim to improve the quality of milk for home con : sumption and to increase the use of milk products in the diet with the view to better nutrition, using the surplus to increase the family income. "Milk for Health" has been a slogan de veloped along with the nutrition program. In one county, where an intensive nutrition program has been carried, 16 women re port having each bought a family cow during the year. Thirteen women in another county report having bought cows this year . so that their families could have more milk to drink. Reports show that 18 families in other places have done likewise. Forty~ .seven women working with 141 cows report a profit of $3,415.

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82 Flor i da Cooperat ive E x tension NUTRITION The general plan and purpo s e of the nutrition work this yea r, as last , has been to put into operation a constructive and com prehensive food program including food selection, food prep aration and meal planning for family, school lunch, group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying, and gar dening. Results have been determined by the improvemen t s hown in food selection and health scores of women club mem bers, by increased use of milk , eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better record & in the health contests. The fact that in December, 1929, first place in the National Health Contest was won by Florida's rep resentative, Florence Smock, increased enthusiasm in this phase of home demonstration work. Dora Lee Bryant, the 1930 rep resentative, was in the group scoring second highest. F i g. 11. A mid-m o rnin g lun c h o f mi l k se r ve d to t h e s maller childr e n in a Walton County s chool b y th e girl s of the 4-H club s . A total of 5,557 girls and 2,550 women were reported as adopt ing improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demonstration agents. There were 2,586 homes reported as balancing meals for the year and 1,903 improved home packed lunches according to recommendations.

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Annual Report, 1930 83 FOODS Food selection and food preparation in the home demonstra tion program deal with serving well balanced meals, satisfying and attractive foods, and the importance of an all-year garden, a home poultry flock, and a sufficient milk supply. A total of 2,552 women and 3,918 girls carried definite programs through out the year along these lines. Food conservation assures a more varied diet in the home, eliminates waste of fruit and vegetables in the garden, fields, groves, citrus packinghouses and canneries by utilization of the surplus. It promotes the use of Florida products and furnishes another means for increasing the family income. There were 2,552 women and 2,892 girls reported as carrying definite can ning programs this year. The girls canned 142,428 containers of products. The number is not available for the women. There were 1,445 homes assisted in planning a family food budget for a year, and 403 budgeted for expenditures for the year. An exhibit of canned meats sent from Gadsden County to the National 4-H Club Congress in Chicago won first place, while a canned fruit exhibit from Orange County won fourth place. CLOTHING In developing the clothing work with the women and girls the agents have made it fill a real need. Information received can always be applied immediately. There were 3,705 women and 9,173 girls who made garments under the agents' instruc tion. This means that they studied selection of the most prac tical materials, most suitable colors, combination of materials, patterns and how to use them. There were 2,336 women and 2,852 girls who reported definitely following recommendations in improving care, renovation, and remodeling of clothing. One agent is effectively developing a program along this line which she and her women term a "clothing conservation" program. Interest in color, design, good workmanship, accessories, and personal grooming has very much increased through short courses culminating in dress revues held in the communities, at county'-wide meetings, at the State Short Course for 4-H Club Girls, and Farmers' Week. At the State Short Course in June Lorene Duffy was adjudged the winner in a clothing contest for girls who have been carry ing a clothing program for three or more years. She was given

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress where she won third place in a national clothing contest for 4-H club girls. HOME IMPROVEMENT Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairying, and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make home improvement work more easily accomplished. When the agent can help to increase the family income she is in a better position to discuss methods for home improvement . The home improvement work under the leadership of the specialist in home improvement has continued to see a splendid growt!t through the year. Beautification of Home Grounds: It seems that there is more interest than ever before in improving the home grounds. Throughout the year special attention has been given to open lawns, the use of native shrubbery, foundation plantings, plant ing yards according to a plan, and the physical appearance of dwellings and the entire premises. Many clubs have made definitely planned trips into the woods . for native shrubbery. More of them have placed large orders with seedsmen and nurseries for seeds, plants, and shru . bs. Seeds men and nurseries have given splendid cooperation in furnish ing supplies to be used for awards. Arrangements were made with seedsmen in some of the counties to buy good flower seed in quantity. These seed were portioned out in penny packages by the junior and senior councils and were sold to club mem bers. One county reports having sold 2,500 of these packages and another over a thousand. In this way club members secured a variety of good seed at small cost. As part of the home gardening and perennial plantings pro gram the various counties have adopted a county flower to be grown by all club members. Some have adopted an annual and a perennial. It is felt that the general interest which prevails . in the growing of these flowers has had considerable to do with the fact that 2,322 women and 4,235 girls have carried definite demonstrations in improving the home grounds during the year. Flower shows have been added in most of the counties. Home furnishings, home management, home engineering, . home sanitation and thrift will be reported in detail by the home improvement specialist. Tours, educational trips and home improvement contests have helped to increase improvements along definite lines. Gratifying:

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Annual Report, 1930 85 are the splendid individual reports of home improvement that have come to the state office during the year. Ruth Yates of Osceola County was awarded a trip to the National 4-H Club Congress because of her excellent accomplishments in home im provement. CHILD TRAINING AND CARE Ten counties have had a series of demonstrations and lectures on this subject and report splendid response from the mothers. It is planned to follow this up in cooperation with the Bureau of Child Hygiene, State Board of Health. MARKETING Amazing are the splendid reports given by women in con nection with the marketing of home products. Those products that have been marketed during the year consisted chiefly of poultry, and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits and vegetables; plants; baskets of native materials, Christ mas wreaths of native materials, and home baked goods. Records were kept in four counties of sales of dairy products amounting to $1,420.98; in four counties of poultry products amounting to $17,298.91; in three counties of home canned and other pro ducts amounting to $8,503.45, making a total of $31,862.05 worth of home products sales of which records were kept. Interesting home marketing reports are made by Alachua, Palm Beach, Lake, Gadsden, Holmes, Volusia, and Dade counties. The district agent for East Florida and the economist in food conservation have included reports of the work in various coun ties and interesting statements along this line from individuals. COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Securing of club houses for club and community meetings be came a realization in 28 counties during the year. The school lunch continues to command community interest. Ninety-two schools in 18 counties followed the agents' recommendations in serving hot lunch to 29,491 children. There were 191 pageants or plays presented by club members. Recreation programs were developed in 269 communities. There were 171 communities assisted in definitely improving hygienic practices. There were 53 school or other community grounds landscaped according to recommendations from home demonstration agents. A total of 345 communities were assisted in developing various community activities according to particular needs.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension SPECIAL EVENTS EXHIBITS Although fairs are decreasing in number there were 357 Vents where home demonstration exhibits were shown during the year. Club members have taken charge of many of these ex hibits and through them have assisted considerably in present ing developments in home demonstration work through com munity and county displays. Exhibits demand a lot of time in planning and arranging and attention while on display,. but it is usually felt that this time may be justified by the generous prem ium awards made to local women and girls by the fair manage ment. Most of the prize money is spent for purchasing equip ment for the home, for home beautification or other needs for a more satisfying home life. ACHIEVEMENT DAYS Community and county achievement days are observed at the eulmination of the year's work. Although methods of handling achievement day programs vary somewhat, the purpose in hold ing them is to give recognition to the club memb . ers for worthy endeavor and generally to diffuse knowledge relating to club work. Features of the program for the day include exhibits, reports from club members, demonstrations in improved prac tices by club members, talks by members of state staff and by local persons as county superintendent of education, county agents, council meetings, recreation, awarding of certificates and pins in recognition for work accomplished as individuals, and in some way honoring those who have accomplished most as a club. The work is strengthened through the coming together of the people in the communities and from over the county for these occasions. During the year there were 161 achievement days held, 60 for adults and 101 for 4-H club members. There was a total at tendance of 19,681. CAMPS Camps are popular with 4-H club members and with an in creasing number of adults. There were 34 camps held during the summer of 1930. Eleven of these were for women, six for boys and girls, and 17 for girls only. There were 561 women, 1,140 girls, 110 boys, and 311 others, including instructors and leaders, who enjoyed the rec

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Fig. 12.-This exhib i t of flowers attracted no little attention at the So uth Florida Fair. k c:o Co c:::, 00 -:i

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension reation, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents. Two trained camp workers and three former 4-H club girls, one a junior in college and the other two recent graduates, and local leaders assisted agents with the camps. EDUCATIONAL TOURS One of the most effective ways of giving and receiving bene fits from result demonstrations is by means of educational tours. Projects are often planned with a tour at the beginning for the purpose of making a survey and a preliminary scoring and one at the end to observe results and evidences of methods followed in obtaining these. Fifty-eight tours with an attendance of 11,218 were made during the year. The significance of these may be obtained from the following statements: In Marion County exterior beautification was the major project agreed upon. Tours were made in five of the six communities having women's clubs and 59 homes were scored and photographed. At the close of the year a final scoring was made by the same committee and a tour made to observe the progress. The Citrus County agent arranged for a group of people from her county to visit tung oil plots around Gainesville and her report shows 200 acres planted as a result. Western Hillsborough County had a tour of 62 club members to visit Pinellas County to gain infor mation in home improvement. The home demonstration agent of Gadsden County invited all her senior club members and their husbands to visit the Flor ida State College for Women at Tallahassee in April. The de partment heads greeted the club members and conducted them over the institution. The visitors were guests of the College for lunch. Every department of the College was visited. One of the most interesting places visited by the women was the kitchen showing the many pieces of electrical equipment. While the girls of Liberty and Calhoun counties were in camp in July at Flastacowo, the College camp near Tallahassee, they visited the Capitol. The Governor greeted them and they were then conducted over the Capitol building. _ They also visited the hydro-electric plant several miles out of Tallahassee. In December the agent in Gadsden County held a two-day poultry school for interested poultrymen. Each day there was a tour made to some of the nearby poultry farms in the county

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Annual Report, 1930 89 to study good points in the housing, breeding, and selection of poultry. Dade County has held repeated tours to their demonstration thrift houses in different parts of the county. Alachua has con ducted several home improvement tours; Volusia County con ducted two tours to promote interest in a community cannery, one to Citrus County to a small community cannery and one to Bushnell to a potato canning factory. A small cannery was built at Samsula, a vegetable trucking section, as a result of these tours. Bradford County women arranged a tour to a large nursery in an adjoining county to study plantings and plants; Palm Beach County women visited two hatcheries to learn about battery brooders. The women of Duval County held a tour to yard beautification demonstrations in the east side of the county. Orange County women visited Alachua County to study their council work. Volusia and St. Johns counties have regularly planned tours to nearby counties to become acquainted with historical spots in the state. Four counties participated in an educational tour of the Jack sonville stores to learn what was available in household furnish ings and to develop standards for purchasing such equipment for the home. OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS Club girls were awarded trips to the National Club Congress, the National Club Camp, and International Leadership Train ing School. Winners of these trips are listed in the Director's report, under the subject, "Awards to Club Members". These trips have served to increase the enthusiasm and leader ship ability of the members attending. SHORT COURSE FOR 4-H CLUB GIRLS Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on the counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is 14 to 15. There were 499 girls, 35 local leaders, and 28 agents in attendance. The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by extension workers and club members in various phases of home

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension demonstration work. Outstanding features were project dem onstrations, health contest, afternoon program for recognition of accomplishments, state council meeting, recreation, entertain ment, special dinner the last evening with distinguished guests. The climax of the Short Course was the last evening's pro gram when Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen, introduced by Governor Doyle Carlton, gave an excellent talk. It was followed by a candle lighting service with Mrs. Carlton representing the spirit of home. Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida State College for Women. The State College for Women set aside one week between the spring and summer terms for the extension department to hold the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, labora tories, and classrooms were available. The college nurses ren dered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The dietitian rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls because of the good food served. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS WEEK The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University of Flor ida as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations and instruction were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University pro fessors, and home economics workers in business firms. Out standing features were exhibits, group work with women ac tually working where they felt they could be best benefitted, and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work. Mention of council activities was made elsewhere in this report. Music appreciation was a new feature that the women enjoyed. Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federation of women's clubs. 4-H COLLEGE CLUB Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the at

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Annual Report, 1930 91 tention and interest of other students to home demonstration work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished high school. Among the membership of this group are some of the most outstanding girls in College. Members of the club are most enthusiastic over the program that they are developing this year. PUBLICITY NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Excellent cooperation is received from newspapers of the state. Thirty counties report 3,171 news articles or stories pub'" Iished. News articles are contributed regularly from all county home demonstration offices. In 14 counties a home demonstra tion column is maintained in the local papers. The Pinellas County agent reports the editing of a newspaper column which is published in seven county papers. Another splendid example of cooperation with the press is found in Eastern Hillsborough County. A report is given to the effect that because of the col umn the people of the rural communities have increased sub scriptions until every home that has membership in home dem onstration work is a subscriber to the paper and because of in creased subscriptions the paper has divided the price of sub scription between itself and the club member bringing in the subscription, with the result that a county club fund was estab lished last year to aid in supplying scholarships to the State Short Course and to the County Local Leaders' Camp. Some of the councils are beginning to successfully edit a news column in the local papers. The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the past three years given definite instructions in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county in attendance at the State Short Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work given them and as an outgrowth of it a good many of the girls' councils edit and publish their own news sheets. Several women's councils have similar publications which have created considerable interest among the club members. They are also keeping a scrapbook of the publicity received in the local papers. RADIO Twenty agents report 31 talks given over the radio. The agent in Pinellas County is now broadcasting every two weeks over WSUN in St. Petersburg. These talks, her news columns

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension and news sheets are adjudged the credit for stimulating the or ganization of two additional women's clubs during the year. In November the 4-H club members in Escambia County be gan a series of programs to be given over the broadcasting station in Pensacola. Monthly 4-H club programs have been given over WRUF during the year with the home demonstra tion members taking alternate months. We participated in the National 4-H Club Achievement program by having programs given over WJAX, WSUN, and WIOD. Agents and nine suc cessful demonstrators in home demonstration activities gave valuable talks over WRUF during Farmers' Week. Ten home demonstration agents gave splendid talks on accomplishments in various phases of the work during agents' conference. These were preceded by splendid news articles in the local papers. Members of the state staff have given talks over WRUF at various times during the year.

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Annual Report, 1930 93 HOME IMPROVEMENT VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Specialist in Home Improvement Home improvement in the rural sections of Florida is making -progress. Interest in this project has increased greatly in the last few years; however, our goal for the rural homes of Florida is yet far in the field of endeavor. In spite of adverse financial conditions, a desire for better and more attractive homes and home surroundings is apparent. Entire families are awakening to the needs and possibilities of the rural home. The home improvement project is coordinated with the pro ductive and conservation projects in a definite way. All mem bers of the family are encouraged to produce and conserve with an objective in a home improvement accomplishment in mind such as water, lights, bathroom, a new house, remodeled house, or paint. Facts and figures for the accomplishment of the things to be done are thoroughly gone into, then suggestions made as to how the money for same may be obtained. The _ plan of work for home improvement in the state includes the folJowing: Beautification of home grounds, home engineer ing, home management, home furnishing, home sanitation, thrift, and electrification. LEADERS County and community leaders assist the home agent in bring ing to the attention of all club members the importance of the home improvement project; they distribute literature; they visit the demonstrations that are being developed in the home, giving suggestions and advice. They are usually members of the county home demonstration council, or they may be appointed by the county home demonstration agent. The county home demonstration agent always directs the work with the assistance of the state office which assists with plans, meetings, and subject matter material, and assists in preparing exhibits, tours, fairs, achievement days, contests, and working bees. DEMONSTRATIONS The lessons in home improvement are taught by demonstra tions in the homes of the community. Demonstrations of good practices as found in rural homes are made use of whether these are in the homes of demonstration club members or not, so a

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension leveling up of the community is noticeable. This arouses local interest and pride on the part of the people. Public demonstra tions in house furnishings, thrift, conveniences, and electric labor savers are given from time to time to arouse interest of all home demonstration club members in the home improvement phase of work so that definite projects may be undertaken . . TOURS Tours to completed demonstrations awaken a healthful com petition in the communities. '.An educational tour of inspection properly arranged_ with merchants before purchases were to be made was conducted in Jacksonville; 22 women desiring to make purchases took advantage of it. High grade and cheap furni ture were compared; the good and poor types of rugs, with analysis of the weave, design and color of each, the comparison of the "American made" with the imported rugs by a rug ex pert; the study of linens; pyrofax or bottled gas, kerosene, and electric stoves, washing machines, mangles, lighting systems, and home appliances were demonstrated. FAIRS AND CONTESTS Outstanding exhibits in home improvement were displayed at county fairs and contests in Dade, Palm Beach, Alachua, Es cambia, Leon, Walton, Holmes, Liberty, Calhoun and Volusia counties. WORKING BEES One of the most effective methods employed to bring about the accomplishment of home improvement projects in the commun ity, is the working bee, .where all the women meet at the home of a neighbor to help "fix up" the new house or the old house which has been remodeled. House furnishing via the thrift route is practiced. Groups work on rejuvenating furniture, rug making, window draperies, passe partouting pictures, chair bottoming, upholstering, and construction of furniture from boxes. These working bees may last two or even three days if the entire house is to be "fixed up". A one-room working bee is usually done in one day. All work for the various groups is planned in advance with the v_arious leaders by the county home demonstration agent and state specialist. The assembling and arrangement of the room to present an artistic and satisfy~ ing result is most convincing to all the neighbors who knew it

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Annual Report, 1930 95 ."before", and it is also convincing that much beauty may be had at small cost: These working bees may safely be called schools of instruction and inspiration; even the men become interested. All have learned while they worked. RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED In spite of the depression, investments in home improvement have gone steadily forward. One requirement the past year has been for the entire family to work and plan together. First they are required to read the "Questions to Make You Think" and the reference subject matter. In this way they get into their thinking the need of more home improvement and a higher standard of living is built up. The budget of the family income is studied and wise . spending is encoura;ged. The entire physical home, interior and exterior, is studied and all members of a family are encouraged to pool their savings and spend it for an improvement to be enjoyed by all. Beautification of Home Grounds: Grass in grassless yards, foundation plantings, group plantings, whitewash on fences and out-buildings, paint on houses, are in growing evidence. The picture of the entire home, with its well planned house, a green lawn, foundation plantings, group plantings, trees, the poultry yard, the garden, the grazing lot for the cow and a brood sow, are the standards set for the thrifty farm families, and many thousand are working toward this end; 6,557 demonstrations were started and are being continued. Home Engineering: This is a part of the home improvement program that goes more slowly than most of it, due to expenses involved. However, reports show that during the year agents assisted 549 families with house planning problems. There were 22 houses constructed and 133 remodeled according to plans fur nished by the agents. It is the aim to furnish information that will be beneficial in building or remodeling after a plan that will save time and energy; protect health of the occupants; and to have well built and attractive buildings of all kinds. Eleven counties report 159 sewage disposal systems installed; 16 report 107 water systems and 23 heating systems installed. Eight re port 71 lighting systems installed. There were 166 poultry houses and 128 other buildings remodeled according to plans furnished. Home Management: It is gratifying to see the interest that women and girls are taking in programs dealing with every day

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96 Flo ri da Coop e rat ive E x t ensi o n housekeeping activities. These programs deal w ith keeping home accounts, budgeting expenditures , buying, u se of time, obtaining right kind of labor-saving equipment, recommended methods for home laundering, and care of the house. There were 1,026 women and 1,707 gir ls who worked definitely with some of these problems during the year. The use of pedometers convinced many women of the need for rearranging or securing new equipment. There were 1 , 568 homes that reported assist ance in adjustments in home-making to gain more sati s factory standards of living. Fig . 1 3 . The member s of one home demonstration club met at their club house and made hooked rug s . Home Furnishings: During the year 2,219 women and 2,310 girls carried demonstrations in house furnishings and thereby added materially to the attractiveness of the inside of their homes. It has been truthfully said that "the living room in hun dreds of Florida homes is now an attractive gathering place for the family, and a place conducive to the development of a 'higher life' within the home." While kitchens and li ving rooms have probably received more attention, other rooms and the house in its entirety come in for

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Annual Report, 1930 97 a study. Special attention has been given to wans , floors, wood work, repairing and remodeling of furnishings, selection and ar rangement of furnishings. Home Sanitation: In programs brought before all home dem onstration club member/'!, junior and adults, emphasis is given to the necessity for "good every day housekeeping", cleanliness in interior and exterior of homes, w _ ith the result that 3,158 homes followed recommendations of controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects; 1,285 homes screened for the first time; 583 homes built sanitary toilets. 4

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension GARDENING AND FOOD CONSERVATION ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST November of this year saw the close of the third all-year garden contest. Thirty counties participated and 20 counties submitted completed material. As in the past the "Kitchen Card'' to show the daily serving of at least two fresh vegetables, the canning budget to show what is needed to supplement the yield of the garden and grove, the complete story of the garden er's activities and photographs of same, were asked of every contestant, both demonstrators for the county and individual demonstrators as before. The purpose of this contest is to teach the value of the fresh fruits and vegetables in the family diet and to point out the fact that farm women by their gardens assist in the maintenance of their homes. Through the records made, club members have emphasized the garden as a worth while factor in the upkeep of the home. The number of all-year county demonstrators increased from eight in 1929 with finished records to 20 counties reporting in 1930. These records show unusual interest in the garden project and mainly are detailed and accurate. The following is a summary of six senior all-year garden records from Gadsden County : SUMMARY OF PROFIT FOR SIX ALL-YEAR GARDENS, GADSDEN COUNTY, 1930 I Value of I [Vegs. used Name of I in home Value . All-Year Garden FreshI Vegs. Total Total Demonstrator Canned Sold I Receipt Cost Mrs. Bowen--::-:::.:.~$ 289.so-l1os--:-9cf $~393~70 ____ $ :8X Mrs. Fletcher 346.75 74.65 421.40 83.45 Mrs. C. E. Blount 166.80 9.29 176.09 39.45 Mrs. C. Edwards 186.15 128.02 314.17 82.46 Mrs. J. J. Rowan 132.10 14.31 146.41 20.00 Mrs. Henry Todd .. / 447.30 121.90 569.20 83.45 TOTAL ............ 1 $f,568:9,n-$4irfo7"1 -$2:if20:91 1 $390.6(; I AWARDS Net Profit $ 311~8-5 337.95 136.64 231.71 126.41 485.75 $1,630.31 Seeds:-Gadsden County, because of the general excellence of the records, wins sweepstakes-garden seeds to the amount of $25; Holmes County, a close second because of the large all-year garden enrollment and the splendid stories of accomplishment,

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Annual Report, 1930 99 wins second sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $15; and Oka loosa, third sweepstakes-seeds to the value of $10, awarded by Francis C. Stokes Seed Company . . Other Awards:-The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs gave $ 50 to be used for educational purposes, to the 4-H club girl making the best record in gardening and canning. The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau awarded $100 in cash for the best four gardens in the state. Fruit Trees and Ornamentals:-Besides these cash awards, fruit trees and ornamentals to the value of $75 donated by in terested nurserymen of the state, $10 in flower seeds or bulbs from a northern nurseryman, Stumpp and Walter, and a garden plow from S. L. Allen Company, Inc., are further awards di s tributed to the senior garden members. JUNIOR GARDEN WORK There are 4235 girls enrolled in gardening who grow vege tables and flowers and who have perennial plantings started as required in their productive program . In addition, there are gardens among the junior club members that are easily com parable to the senior all-year gardens, as none of the juniors en rolled has stopped with the minimum requirements. The s e re quirements are the same as in 1929. Awards:-In each of the three home demonstration districts, three prizes were offered by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Edu cational Bureau to winners in the junior garden contest. The following is a summary of the cash value of seven junior gardens taken from six of the county records: Nam e of Club Girl Louise Rooks/ Gadsden . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. $ 105 . 50 $ 26.00 $ 131.50 $ 25 . 35 $ 96 . 15 Eunice NixonI Alachua .. .. . . ..... ... .... 1 218.07 32.67 250. 7 4 16.20 234.54 Annabel RaulersonI lo~~as~~~~~ ; -= 452 . 83 Calhoun . . .. . . . . .......... 79 . 78 28.42 50.10 481.25 129.88 10.81 40.55 470.44 89.33 Edna BurgessHolme s . .... .. ..... . ... . .. . 85 . 00 18.23 103.23 6.53 96.70 Leone AmoldMi?ek~~~l:s-=w~it~~ 1 :i:ri . 5::~ I 1 :u~ ~t!g 1 ~tt~ '!'Q'J.'~L _ _ ...... . . ....... . .... .. .. ! $1,151.63 I $1 6 Dfa _ l _ $1,312.72 I $134.09 I $i ~ f6s .s:r

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100 Florida Cooperative Extension THE COUNTY FLOWER The county flower project was launched in the spring of 1928, as a means of adding more interest and color to the vegetables and fruit growing program. The idea of selecting one flower in particular and cooperating to make that outstanding all over a county, has grown until today every home demonstration county except one has chosen a flower, usually an annual. The interest in this project has been state-wide. Many coun ties have grown their chosen flower in sufficient quantities to hold a show. This has not been done in Florida in previous years. So in promoting the idea of adding color and zest in our vegetable garden, the county flower has taken a regular place in the annual program of every county and county flower contest. The County Flower Dress Revue: As a means of extending recognition to the work carried under the county flower project, each county was permitted to enter one or more girls in a county flower dress revue, in conjunction with a style show which was given as a part of the clothing work at the annual state short course. The flower costumes were allowed 50 % of the total score and were judged for beauty and originality. The other 50% of the score was added according to the excellence of the girl's garden who impersonated the county flower for garden work in general in the county. No girl could be entered in the revue who was not a bonafide gardener herself. FOOD CONSERVATION Food conservation has taken the specialist in more than half of the counties of the state. At the close of the strawberry ship ping season in Bradford County a program was promoted to make use of the waste strawberries that were usable. It was found that canning pure strawberry juice was an art almost unknown to that county. More than 200 gallons of pure straw berry juice were pasteurized. Experiments made with the juice stored at ordinary room temperature showed no loss of flavor more than six months later; 'the juice imparted the full, fresh deliciousness of the strawberry in sherbets, ice cream and punch. Samples of preserves sent the commissary department of a well known railway drew warm praise and orders which could not be filled. Club members realize that balanced meals, even with the year

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Annual Report, 1930 101 round garden in Florida, require definite conservation through out the year; that canning "in season" saves money, labor, time and energy "out of season"; that when fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish are canned by scientific methods when they are abund ant, the life giving vitamins and mineral salts in them are ready to take their place in balanced meals. Canning budgets have been given more thought in 1930 con servation projects than before and the garden canning program for 1931 is planned for further growth in this respect. Reports from the home demonstation agents in Bradford, Palm Beach, Citrus, Hernando, Gadsden, and other counties ex press the interest in their conservation programs and show that farm women are making a nice profit out of garden and fruit products that usually go to waste in the average garden. FOOD PREPARATION The necessity of encouraging the housewife to realize the im portance of well-balanced meals and diet and the need for a plentiful supply of milk, eggs, fruit, and vegetables is the pur pose of this project. A special effort has been made to find uses for native Florida fruits and vegetables and to work out methods for making them into appetizing and attractive dishes. MARKETING The marketing of a product is often much more difficult than its production. Lack of business experience and little contact with the business world are reasons why rural women are often at a loss to know how to dispose of their products to advantage. Many who garden enthusiastically, hoping to realize money from it, become discouraged when the green grocery refuses to handle their products or when the children who peddle the products report that everybody else has grown the same thing. Through the efforts of the home demonstration agents, farm women have been encouraged to market various commodities. Many are able to assist materially in the support of the family and make it possible to have some of .the finer things, provide cultural advantages and some of the surplus luxuries. Road-side Markets: A model road-side market was attempted at annual agents' meeting. Exhibits were made for the purpose of interesting county workers in establishing attractive stands, selling standardized products at vantage points over the state.

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102 Florida Cooperative Extension Wreath Making: The making of wreaths from Florida's na tive wealth and from her exotics, especially in South Florida, was a fascinating project of unlimited possibilities put before the home demonstration agents at Annual Agents' meeting in Octo ber, 1929. Two interested members of the Federated Garden Clubs of Florida from Jacksonville presented the problem of wreath making in a splendid manner. Headway in wreath mak ing has been made in several counties. EXHIBITS AND . PROGRAMS DEVELOPED A varied exhibit of citrus products-preserved and crystallized -was made and posters were designed for the Florida Orange Festival at Winter Haven; original fruit, flower, and vegetable pageants and vegetable exhibits previously promoted at the Cen tral Florida Exposition held in late February in Orlando were again given in 1930. These original play-pageants are built around the productive work featured in the counties partici pating; a garden program, the cookery and canning of vege tables, a home orchard program, including the serving and can ning of fruits and fruit juices, and a baking for market program with demonstrations by the prize winning marketing women themselves in the baking of choice breads, cakes, and pastries, featuring Florida fruits and nuts, was developed for Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week.

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Annual Report, 193.0 103 PART IVNEGRO WORI( NEGRO MEN'S WORK A. A. TURNER, District Agent Negro agents are employed in those counties in Florida hav ing the largest negro rural population engaged in farming, name ly Jackson, Jefferson, Marion, Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, and Gadsden. This report also includes a report of the work in 11 additional counties where the district agent was able to cooperate with local citizens in a limited way to better their agriculture. This work also carried with it some additional help for the boys and girls clubs, with fairs and exhibits and rural organizations. The work is under the supervision of the College of Agricul ture, University of Florida, as provided for in the terms of the Smith-Lever Act. The agents make their headquarters at the Negro A. and M. College and are provided with office space and other facilities of the college. The president of that college is always ready to extend every cooperation in any program the negro agents put on and the Extension Service renders the same cooperation when the opportunity affords in furthering the work of the agricultural department of the A. and M. College. Each year at the A. and M. College, the 4-H club _members are brought together for their annual meeting and joint programs are carried out. These programs are with the assistance of the white agents of the state but under the immediate direction of the negro district agents. EXTENSION WORK IN COUNTIES NOT HA YING LOCAL AGENTS The work in these counties is necessarily limited to organiza tion and promoting work and is therefore less effective than in those counties having a representative. It can be carried out only when someone assumes the leadership and wm work in co:.. operation with the Extension people. Those who cooperated in this the past year represented leading farmers, principals of schools, negro agents erigaged in Smith-Hughes work, and citi zens who are interested in such events as fairs, institutions, and rural gatherings. During the early part of the year, through the efforts of the district agent, a very general survey was made of the colored

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104 Plorida Cooperative Extension farming interests in 25 counties. This survey, although in complete, will give some indication as to the farming interests. The survey covered 3,435 negro owned farms, comprising 101,405 acres. These farms were for the most part accessible to fairly good roads and schools. The survey also shows that there were 4,804 tenants operating on land owned by both white and colored farmers. In this report around 80 percent of the Negro farmers owning land lived in the following counties: Jackson, Gadsden, Suwannee, Marion, Madison, Columbia, and Alachua: These counties are the ones where local agents are employed. In this area the type of agriculture is mostly general farming and livestock raising, with some vegetable and fruit growing in limited areas. The survey also shows that the rural people of this section use their churches and rural centers for meetings conducted. There are nine distinct community centers that foster organi zations for the welfare of the negro people. These promote agri culture, health, educational and recreational projects. In the same area it is found that the schools are in fairly good condition and that the citizens had taken advantage of school facilities. There were 527 rural homes completely screened, and 114 have a water system in the house. These counties also have assistance from the State Board of Health, where public health nurses are employed at intervals. These nurses cooperate with the Extension agents. While much of this survey is aside from the work of the Agri cultural Extension agents, it is significant that such progress is under way and it increases the efficiency of the Extension agents when the rural people and outside agents cooMrate to bring about a better living condition among these rural people. During the year there has been a tendency to return to the farms as a means of livelihood. During the past five years a large number of the rural negroes had located in cities and en gaged in public work, but when the demand for their services was lessened they have naturally returned to their farms. This, however, has not materially increased the production from these homes except as they need to supply food and other supplies to the family. SUBJECT MATTER . In the direction of programs, subject matter that applies to ~xtension work generally is used for the benefit of the negro

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Annual Report , 1930 105 farmers. At the beginning of each year the supervisory agent outlines the program, guided by the recommendations of those engaged in research at the University of Florida. The negro agents are supplied with all the literature such as bulletins, pamphlets, and circulars, and they use these as a guide in carrying out their demonstrations and recommenda tions. In the rural negro community centers that are well established, the y conduct programs, a large part of which have to do with the agriculture of the community. Where it is practical, rep resentatives of the Extension Service and the Experiment Sta tion appear before such audiences and assist with their pro grams. Appropriate 4-H club programs are also provided. The most direct connection with most of these counties is through the help of the county agents. The negro agent can look to the county agent for such assistance as he may need. ACTIVITIES A report from seven negro agents shows that there were 64 rural communities having Extension programs cooperatively worked out between the local communities and the Extension agents. In these communities 131 men and 64 women took an active part. There was a total of 1,628 visits made to the homes and farms, and 1,640 visits were made to the agents' offices for assistance. These agents personally distributed 1,187 bulletins. In addition to personal visits and calls the agents were largely engaged in method demonstration meetings. There were 657 of such meeting~ held with a total attendance of 2,257. There were many other events conducted throughout the year largely under the direction of the local agents that affected the welfare of the negroes located on the farms of this state. Special atten tion is directed toward improving the income of the rural farm ers. As a large part of the territory where agents are employed depends on cotton as the main cash crop , some special emphasis is given to improving the varieties in the North Florida coun ties. In Leon County, some members of the Leon County Farmers' Association cooperated with A. A. Turner, supervisor, in co operation with the Lewis State Bank at Tallahassee and with the advice of the county agent, carried out demonstrations to com pare the purple foliage variety of cotton with other varieties raised in that section. The Lewis State Bank supplied the seed

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106 Florida Cooperative Extension and turned it over to the farmers to test. Demonstrations in dicated that the varieties grown compared :favorably with others in the section and the interest aroused brought about better cultural methods and improved the yields over the . ordinary methods. Inasmuch as the Florida Experiment Station is con ducting research work on varieties and fertilization of cotton, the result of these tests will not be used as a basis for future recommendations, but the reports made by these negro agents will add some information to the value of this variety on the types of soil used for cotton growing in Leon County. A final report on the tests made shows that this cotton yielded from 500 to 680 pounds of Unt cotton per acre. The returns, after deducting the cost of fertilizer, range from $25 to $45 per acre. The plots were all fertilized alike, using a mixture that analyzed 4-8-6, applied at the rate of 400 pounds per acre. As a result of this work, the negro farmers in that county were interested in adopting a balanced system of agriculture for the following year as agreed upon between the leaders in conference with the district and county agents. CORN DEMONSTRATIONS The negro agents conducted 212 demonstrations with corn on 640 acres. On account of the dry season for a large part of the area the yield was cut short and gave usually about 14 bushels to the acre. The question of fertilizer was an important one with the negro farmers. Only a few of them used fertilizer on corn and those who adopted improved practices did it through better fertilization and cover crops. While the average yield on these demonstrations was 14 bushels per acre, several plots yielded considerably in excess of this. One farmer in Leon County reported 24 bushels per acre, another reported 51 bushels per acre without the use of commercial fertilizer. There were 63 result demonstrations with oats, a part of which was harvested for hay or seed but the greater part was used for winter pasture, so that the actual yields were impossible to de termine. Other demonstrations were conducted with rye and miscellaneous crops. LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS These demonstrations were with winter cover crops, such as Austrian winter peas and vetch. The demonstrations were con".' ducted principally in Jefferson County, where 130 acres of vetch ,

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Annual Report, 1930 107 and peas were planted. This crop was turned under and the ground planted to the spring crop for soil improvement. Other forage crops were lespedeza, cowpeas, velvet beans, and soybeans used principally for grazing livestock and feed for poultry. There was a total of 415 demonstrations of 3,012 acres. There were also demonstrations with peanuts used largely for hog feeding. There were 266 peanut demonstrations on 2,785 acres. As these crops are not harvested, the actual yield cannot be reported. POTATOES; TOBACCO;VEGETABLES There were 22 demonstrations with Irish potatoes and 114 with sweet potatoes on a total of 539 acres. These demonstra tions resulted in an increased yield of 13 bushels of Irish and 46 bushels of sweet potatoes over those grown with the usual practices. There were 10 demonstrations on 33 acres with tobacco, giv ing an average yield of 1,208 pounds per acre, or an increase of approximately 400 pounds over those of average conditions. There were demonstrations in fruits and garden vegetables totaling 226 on an area estimated at 130 acres. As these plots were small the acreage could not be accurately measured. These demonstrations were principally to promote the gardens to be used by the farmers. POULTRY The poultry demonstrations numbered 28, with a total of 1,399 birds involved. These were on feeding methods, culling, poul try diseases, and parasite control. LIVESTOCK The livestock demonstrations were with dairy cattle, beef cat tle, and hogs. There were a total of 200 demonstrations involv ing 112 dairy cattle, 45 beef cattle, and 1,660 hogs. These dem onstrations were in feeding, management, and control of animal parasites and hog cholera. These demonstrations are directed toward the improvement of the quality of the livestock and more economical methods of feeding. The colored farmers cooperate in sales of hogs, arranged by county agents. These farmers profited to the same extent as white farmers when the hogs were s9ld cooperatively and were graded in the same manner, giving them the value of the co operative sales. The negro agents also give assistance in the marketing of

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108 Florida Coop e rative Extension miscellaneous products of the farmers consisting of corn, water melons, miscellaneous vegetables, poultry, eggs, meat, garden vegetables, and miscellaneous products. Most of this was done through individual sales and cooperative sales were used only with . such products as hogs, tobacco, and in a few cases with poultry. 4-H CLUB WORK Reports show that 128 boys and 16 girls completed their club work as reported by these agents. In the management of these clubs there were 69 local leaders who assisted the agent. There were 657 demonstration meetings held for the benefit of club members with a total attendance of 2,257. These local leaders assisted the Extension workers in conducting the meetings and achievement days and there was an attendance of 410 who took part. At state meetings and on the encampments there were 169 boys and four girls attending. The principal event was at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, where the 4-H club members were assembled for the annual meeting and other meetings of a miscellaneous nature. Of the productive clubs, there were 135 demonstrations in corn and 35 in other cereal demonstrations. These represented an acreage of 180 acres. Of other crops grown by club . members there were 69 demonstrations with peanuts on 130 acres and with vegetables including sweet and Irish potatoes there were 86 demonstrations on approximately 80 acres. In home gardening and beautification there were 132 members enrolled. As these gardens were principally for home use and little of it was in tended to be sold, it encouraged the live at home program. SHORT COURSE The short course for negro 4-H farm boys and girls was held at the Florida A. and M. College June 17, 18, and 19. The agents were responsible for bringing the club members to the institu tion to take part in the three days' program. The expenses of club members was paid locally, usually by their parents or friends. In some cases the county board or local associations assisted in financing the expenses of the trip. This short course was attended by 80 4-H club boys and 204 girls. COOPERATING AGENCIES The negro extension work had the full cooperation of the A. and M. College at Tallahassee . Without the support and co

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Annual Report, 1930 109 operation of the president and faculty, the work would have been handicapped on several occasions. The assistance given by members of the faculty of that institution was valuable, not only in the short course held at the college but in subject matter presented on programs. Mr. J. F. Williams, who is in direct supervision of the Smith-Hughes work, also cooperated. This help was particularly valuable in counties where the Extension agents are not employed. The Florida State Marketing Bureau in Jacksonville has given this work every possible help, particularly in the marketing of farm products and poultry, also in the cooperative marketing of hogs in counties where cooperative shipments were arranged between the State Marketing Bureau and the county agent. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board, State Department of Health, and fair associations have contributed all possible help in carry ing out the programs of negro Extension work throughout the state. TRAINING FOR LOCAL AGENTS A training school was conducted at Orangeburg, S. C., during the month of August, 1930, to give training and instruction to county workers interested in negro Extension work. This ar rangement was made by the Washington office and provided for instruction as to methods and subject matter material best suited to the needs of the agents working in these respective states. The course was provided free of cost to those who at tended, the agents only being required to defray their own per sonal expense for board and lodging. The time was allowed by the Agricultural Extension Service. All of the Florida agents attended except those prevented by sickness. The faculty was selected from agricultural colleges of the South, two of which, the agent in foods and marketing, and the home improvement specialist, were from the Extension Service of Florida. STATISTICAL REPORT GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program has been worked out by agents and local committees .. ... ............. .. ........... .. .......................... . .. 64 Number of 4-H clubs ......................... . .......................................................... 126 Number of 4-H club members completing ............................................ 302 Farm visits made in conducting extension work ..... .. ............ . . .. ........... 2,216 Number of different farms visited .. . ....................................................... .. 752 Calls relating to Extension work . ... ...................... .. ............. .... ............... 1,640 Days agents spent in office .... ...... ...... ......... .... ~ 247

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110 Florida Cooperative Extension Number of days agents spent in field ....... . . ... . . ............. . ......... .. .. . ............ 1,085 Number of news articles or stories published ...... : .. ........... : ............. . . 40 Number letters written ..... . .... . .. . .......... . .. . ...... .. . . .. . ............. . ..... . ... ... . . ..... . .. . .. l,624 Number bulletins distributed .... , .... . ... .. ... . ...... . ........... .. ............ . .... . ....... .. 1,187 Number events at which extension exhibits were shown ................ 19 Number Training meetings for local leaders ........... .. . ........... . .......... 39 Method demonstration meetings held .... ,..... . ............ .. ......... 657 Meetings held at result demonstrations ... . .................. . ....... 75 Achievement days held ... . . .. . .... .......... . . .. . . . . ...... . ... . ........ . ... . ... .. . 7 Encampments held ..... . ......... .. ............. . ........................... . ...•..... 4 Other meetings ...... :............... . ............. . ............ .. ....................... 21 Meetings held by local leaders or committeemen not participated in by agent and not reported elsewhere 22 CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats, Rye, etc.) Attendance 195 2,257 869 710 394 976 172 Method demonstration meetings held ........... . ......................... .. .. . ........... . 56 Adult demonstrations completed or continued ........ . .......... . . .. ... . ....... . . 171 Total number of acres included in adult demonstrations . . . . . . ......... . 1,425 4-H Club Number of 4-H club members enrolled .......... . .......... . ................ . ........ . . ... 342 Number of 4-H club members completing ............................. . ............ ... . 170 Number of acres grown by club members completing . ..... . .. .. ........ ... . . 180 LEGUMES AND FORAGE CROPS (Vetch, Lespedza, Pastures) Number of method demonstrations held .... . . . .......... .. . . ....... .. .. . .............. . 8 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or continued .... 42 Total number , of acres included in adult result demonstrations .... 425 Number of 4-H club members enrolled ... .. ... . ..................... . ..... . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . 106 Number of 4-H club members completing . . .. .. ........................ . .............. . 32 Number of acres grown by club members completing ........ .. .............. 53 Soybeans, Cowpeas, etc. Number of method demonstration meetings held ..... . ......... . .... . ...... ... 124 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or carried into the next year ...... . .............. . ...... . ............................................... . .......... . 601 Total number of acres included in adult result demonstrations ....... . 5,611 Number of 4-H club members enrolled ... :... . ............. ... ............. . .. .. ... . ...... 182 Number of 4-H club members comI>.l . eting ......................... .. . ... . . ...... . . .. . 132 Number of acres grown by club members completing ......... ... ............ 310 POTATOES, COTTON, TOBACCO Number of method demonstration meetings held ... ... ........... . .............. 128 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or continued . . . . 226 Total number of acres included in adult result demonstrations . ... 1,168 Number of 4-H club members enrolled ........ : ........................ .. .. . ......... . 161 Number of 4-H club members completing .............. .. ............. .. ........... .. 123 Number of acres grown by dub members completing ... . .. .. .. . : ..... . . .... . 119

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Annual Report, 1930 VEGETABLES, FRUITS, ETC. 111 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or continued.......... 267 Total number of acres included in adult result demonstrations .... 149 Number of 4-H club members enrolled .................................................. 130 Number of 4-H club members completing ............................................ 121 AGRICULTURAL AND HOME ENGINEERING Number of method demonstrations held .......................................... :..... 16 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or continued .... 15 Number of farms building terraces and soil saving dams to control erosion according to recommendations .................................... 8 Acres on which soil erosion was so prevented ...................................... 375 Number of farms clearing land of stumps or boulders according to recommended methods ........................................................................ 52 Number of families assisted with house-planning problems ............ 14 Number of dwellings constructed according to plans furnished .... 10 Number of dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished 14 POULTRY, DAIRY CATTLE, BEEF Number of method demonstration meetings held ................................ 65 Number of adult result demonstrations completed or continued .... 359 Animals involved in these completed adult result demonstrations .... 3,221 Number of 4-H club members enrolled ................................................ 213 Number of 4-H club members completing ............................................ 389 Number of animals involved in 4-H club work completed ................ 302 Number of farms assisted in obtaining purebred sires ........................ 29 Number of farms assisted in obtaining high-grade or purebred females ................................. 78

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112 Flo1ida Coop e rnt ive E x t ensi o n NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK J U LIA MILL E R , Di s trict Ag e n t ORGANIZATION Negro home demonstration work is conducted in seven coun ties, nam~ly: Orange, Sumter, Marion, St. Johns, Duval, Mad ison, and Leon. No additional agents have been appointed for 1930. However, work with negro citizens has been undertaken in two counties-Volusia and Alachua-not employing agents. In the seven countie s worked by agent s there are 102 com munities in which the home demonstration program has be e n cooperatively worked out by agents and with the assistance of 282 local leaders representing their respe c tive communities. There are 102 organized clubs among women and girls with 952 women enrolled and 1,551 girls. County councils of negro home demonstration clubs are organized in s ix counties. Fig. 1 4.A Duval Co un ty g ard e n for h e alth and econom y. HOME GARDENING A large number of the people do not realize the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits . Therefore the growing of such vegetables as spinach, carrots, onions, turnip greens and lettuce for home use was stressed. To encourage this project the cham

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Annual Report, 1930 113 bers of commerce of Orange County and St. Johns County do nated garden seed. President J. R. E. Lee of the Florida A. and M. College offered . a prize for the best all year round garden record in the state. This was won by Annie Little of Marion County. Extension schools were held in five counties placing special emphasis on the home garden. The gardening program as it has developed has helped to feed the family and provide a more bal anced everyday food supply. Accurate reports from club members show that 335 women and 297 girls carried gardens through the year, cultivating 964 acres in gardens; 13,404 jars of canned products were preserved; 90 homes balanced the family meals; 102 communities partici pated in the garden program; 245 meetings were held and 537 home visits made; 596 office calls and 196 days were devoted to the home garden project. HOME POULTRY There were 119 demonstrations given in poultry in 107 com munities of seven different counties; 169 meetings were held, 5 news articles written, 2 circular letters relative to poultry, 152 days devoted to work in poultry. As results 181 demonstrations involving 27,851 birds were carried through the year with women and girls. One egg circle was organized, 13 homes were assisted in obtaining purebred cockerels and a total saving on ' projects in poultry amounted to $1,772.50. HOME DAIRY Through the efforts of the agents, 76 women carried demon strations through the year in three counties. Thirty-nine dem onstrations were given, including cottage cheese making, butter making, and sanitary handling of milk and cream . Twenty-one meetings were held, two news stories published, 92 home visits, 45 office calls in relation to dairy work, and 54 days were de voted to home dairy work. FOODS AND NUTRITION The selection and preparation of food for . the family have re ceived increasing attention. Vegetables from the home garden, fruits, milk, and eggs are being used to a greater degree and are better selected and better prepared. Demonstrations have been given in improved methods of 5

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114 Florida Cooperative Extension cooking and preparing meals, using the pressure cooker and other time-saving appliances. Special demonstrations were given in milk drinks, school lunch, vegetable cookery, and raw vegetables in the diet. Five county bread contests were held with 390 women and 830 girls competing. At these contests exhibits were made in yeast breads, corn muffins, biscuits, and plain cakes. The commissioners in Sumter and Duval counties donated prizes for the nutritional contests. As a result of demonstrations given, 220 homes balanced the family meals. Seven schools introduced the hot school lunch. A total of 251 homes improved methods of feeding their children; 102 communities took part in the foods and nutrition program; 228 meetings were held; 208 office calls and 181 days were de voted to foods and nutrition work. CHILD TRAINING AND CARE There are five groups of women in four different coun ties devoting the major part of their program to child training. A total of 91 homes report adopting better adult habits with respect to training children in the home. HOME MANAGEMENT Improvement in managing the home can be seen in the average club members' homes. The keeping of the secretary record books and garden and poultry record books have served to interest the housewives in keeping home accounts. One hundred kitchens were rearranged; 97 homes obtained additional labor-saving equipment; 298 women and 138 girls report keeping fair home accounts through the year. Sixty-eight meetings were held, one news article written and publishe d, 200 homes were visited, 54 office calls were made, and specialists helped two days in relation to home management. A total of 122 days were devoted to this line of work. HOME IMPROVEMENT The projects in home improvement this year have been mainly in improving the kitchen, the bedroom, and back and front yards. However, the agents have assisted eight women in obtaining plans for constructing dwellings, 12 women in remodeling their dwellings according to plans, and eight homes have installed lighting systems.

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Annual Report, 1930 115 Refinishing old furniture, making box furniture, rug making, picture framing, and making draperies and furniture covers have been the special activities undertaken by the club members. A home improvement pageant, "A Pack of Nonsense," was presented in three counties and at the state short course. This pageant was a demonstration of "before" and "after" home im provement, emphasizing the utilization of the discarded feed sacks in and about the farm home. It served to influence a large number of our people to improve their home and surroundings. The agents conducted a total of 471 demonstrations in home improvement with women and 419 with girls. One hundred fourteen meetings were held, two news stories written, and 208 home visits made in relation to home improvement work. One hundred sixteen days were devoted to home improvement work this year. HOME HEALTH AND SANITATION The State Health Department, county nurses, school teachers, and rural ministers have cooperated with the Negro Home Dem onstration Agents in carrying on health and sanitation work. Mass meetings and a demonstration in screening against flies and building sanitary toilets have been held in each county. CLOTHING There were 232 demonstrations given in clothing with 604 women and 830 girls enrolled and carrying demonstrations through the year. There were 109 girls and 91 women who used the clothing budget for the first time, 401 women and 229 girls improved children's clothing. A total of 546 women and 812 girls followed recommendations as to improving, care, renovating, and remodeling clothing. Two hundred thirty-three meetings were held, five circular letters written, 292 home visits made, and 108 office calls made in relation to clothing. A total of 182 days were devoted to this line of work. NEGRO SHORT COURSE, 1930 The short course held at Florida A. and M. College, Tallahas see, June 17, 18, 19, 1930, brought together 249 club girls, 52 adult women local leaders, 80 club boys, and 14 men, represent ing 13 different counties. The delegations arrived Monday, June 15, and were properly registered by those in charge.

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116 Florida Cooperative E x tension The commissioners of St. Johns, Duval, and Orange counties gave donations to help with the expenses of the trip to Talla hassee. Two buses were chartered by club folks. PROGRAM SUMMARY Number of counties where work is undertaken ......... . .. .... ... .. ............... 7 Number organized girls' clubs .............. .... ......................... .. .. ..... .............. 102 Number 4-H girls enrolled .... : ...................................... .... . . . . : . . ...... .. ,.... ... . 1,552 Number organized women's clubs ......................... ,.......... .. .... .... ...... .... .... 102 Number of women enrolled in clubs . ... . .. . ........... .... ......... . . . ........... ....... ... 952 Number of women carrying proje c ts through the year .................... 604 Number of girls carrying projects through the . year ... . ............ ..... ..... 830 Number of home visits made ............... . . . .. ... .. . .............. .. ... ............... ....... . 2,769 Number of farm visits made ................... : . ........................ . :.. . .... ............. . 330 Number of office calls .............................. . .............. : ............ ... . ... ............... 2,271 Number of telephone calls ................................................ . ....................... 750 Number of days agents spent in field ... . . ..................... : . ... .. . .................. 1,547 Number of . days agents spent in office .. . .. . ............ ... , .... . .......... . . . .. .... . ... . . 413 News stories published ... . ..... .. ....... .... ............. . ...... : ............ : ........................ 71 Individual letters written ................................................... : ... .. .............. ..... 4,254 Circular letters written ........................................ .... ,.............. . ..... ............. 37 Bulletins distributed ................................................................. ~.. ................ 3,955 Extension exhibits shown ........ .............. , .... .... .. , .................. , . ...................... 35 Extension schools held .. . .. .... ... ... .......... , ... . .. .. .......... ........... .. . ::... .............. ... 46 METHOD DEMONSTRATIONS GIVEN Home gardens ............................................................................ . ................ . Market garden and truck ....................... . . . . .......... ; .......... .. . . .. ..................... . Fruits ................................ . .. .. ................. ........ .................. ................... ' ........ . Agricultural engineering ................................................... . ....... . ... ............ . Poultry .. ........ .............. ..... ....... .. ......... ..... .................................................... . Dairy .................................. . .. .. . . . .. ..... ....... ........... .. .. .. . .. . . .... ...... .. . .................... . Foods and nutrition ..... ... . .. .. .... ........ ............. . .. , ........ :.,.: .......... . .. ................ . Child training and care ................................... : ....................................... . Clothing ... .... ..................... ... ....................... .. ...... . ...................... : ..... .............. . House furnishing .......... .. ............................ ...... ........ : .......... ... .. . .................. . Home management ...... . ... . .... ............. ... .... ........ ................. . .. . . .. ................ . Home health and sanitation ......... ........ .. . .... . ... .... , ................ . ...... . ..... ......... . ~i:~lan~:~u~c~=~~e:st~;tI~~;:::::::::::::::::::'.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Total of all demonstrations ............ . . ... . ........ , ..... : .............................. . Supervising Agent spent 232 days in field and 79 days in office; 218 102 12 8 119 39 230 39 232 84 92 178 27 116 1,496

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Annual Report, 1930 117 INDEX Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural economist, 11, 31, 37, 70 Agricultural News Service, 16 Animal husbandry, 30, 39, 54 Austrian peas, 23 A wards to club members, 12 Beautification, home, 35, 84 Beef cattle, 37, 54 Bulletin list, 15 Camps, 46, 86 Changes in staff, 8 Child training, 85 Citrus, 24, 28, 56 Clothing, 83 Club work, 12, 19, 33, 40, 77 Community activities, 39, 85 Cooperative associations, 31, 38, 66 County agent work, 20, 33 Corn, contests, 21 cover crops, 24 demonstrations, 27, 34, 42 Cotton, contests, 21 cooperative marketing, 38 demonstrations, 28, 34, 42 Crotalaria, 24, 29, 30 Dairying, boys' clubs, 36 cooperative marketing, 38 demonstrations, 36, 48 home, 81 Egg laying contest, home, 64 national, 69 Engineering, 36 Farm paper stories, 16 Farm radio programs, 17, 91 Farm tours, 21, 29 Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 12, 90 Financial statement, 7 Foods, 83, 98 Forestry, 35 Gardening, 35, 80, 98 Grapes, 30 Hogs, 30, 37 Home demonstration w~rk, 72 Home egg laying contest, 64 Home grounds beautification, 35 Home improvement, 84, 93 Horticulture, 28, 35, 38 Legumes, 23, 24, 34 List of bulletins, 15 List of staff, 4 Livestock, 30, 39, 54 Mediterranean fruit fly, 20, 29 National egg laying contest, 69 Negro home demonstration work, 112 Negro men's work, 103 News stories, 16, 91 News writing training, 19 Nutrition work, 82 Oats and rye, 27 Organization, 8 Pasture work, 28, 48 Peanuts, 27 Poultry, 36, 38, 62, 81 Potatoes, 34 Program Summary, 32, 80 Projects, 22 Publications, 15 Radio programs, 17, 91 Rodent control, 35 Rye and oats, 27 Sheep, 31, 37 Short courses, 44, 89 Soils work, 23, 41 Soybeans for hay, 28 Staff, list of, 4 Sugarcane, 28 Summary of program, 32, 80 Summer cover crops, 24, 34 Tobacco, 34 Tours, 21, 29, 88 Truck crops, 29 Vetch, 23 Winter cover crops, 23 Women's work, 72 WRUF farm programs, 17, 46