Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1929
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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1929


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1929 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1929


















COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK

IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1929 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1929


1929







CONTENTS
PAGE
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF . 4

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS . 5

REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS . 7
Fiftneial Statement, 7; Organization, 8; Lines of Work, 9; Farmers' Week, 11; Work With Mediterranean Fruit Fly, 12; Awards to 4-H
Club Members, 13.

PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS . 18
Bulletins, 18; News and Farm Paper Stories, 19; Radio, 20; Training in News Writing, 20.

COUNTY AGENT W ORK . 21
Publicity, 21; Community Program Building, 22; Soils, 23; Farm Crops, 23; Pastures, 28; Horticulture, 29; Truck Crops, 30; Insect Control, 31; Animal Husbandry, 32; Poultry Husbandry, 34; Rural
Engineering, 34; Agricultural Economics, 35.

Boys' CLUB W ORK . 37
Enrollment, 37; Organizations, 37; Leadership, 38; Special Occasions, 39; Club Camp, 39; Short Course, 39; Project Demonstrations,
40; Summary, 42.

DAIRYING . 43
Production Problems First,'4*3';* economic Changes'Aff*ecti*ng'* o*r*k', 43; Costs Reduced, 44; Production of Feed, 44; Farm Dairying in West Florida, 44; Distribution and Exchange of Sires, 45; Raising
Calves, 46; Production Records, 46; Organizations, 46.

CITRICULTURF . . 48
Melanose, 48; Scab, 49; Blue Mold, 49; Tree Trunk and Root Diseases, 49; Rust Mites, 50; Aphis, 50; Scale, 51; Cover Crops, 51;
Fertilizing, 52.

POULTRY . I . ; . I . 53
Situation, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Development by Projects, 154; Poultry Associations, 60; Junior Poultry Work, 60; National
Egg-Laying Contest, 61.

HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK . 63
Changes, 63; Assistance from State Staff, 63; Community Programs, 64; County Project Committees, 64; Program Development, 65; Supervisory Program, 66; Training of Personnel, 69; Publicity, 69; Program Development and Analysis, 70; Project Activities and
Results, 71; Strengthening the Organization, 75.

'HOME IMPROVEMENT W ORK . . 78
Program, 78; Goals and Accomplishments, 78.

HOME GARDENING, FOOD CONSERVATION AND MARKETING . 82
All-Year Garden Contest, 82; Perennial Planting, 82; Junior Garden Contest, 82; County Flower, 83; Conservation, 84; Marketing, 84.

FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH . ; . 86
Goals, 86; Methods, 87; Results, 89.

NEGRO WORK . _ ; * ik, . 92
Men's Work, , ns o

















Hon. Doyle E. Carlton
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1929, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1929.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman, Board of Control.

Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: J have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
JOHN J. TIGERS, President, University of Florida.










BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola W. B. DAVIS, Perry
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist E. F. DEBUsK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent LucY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Extension Nutritionist








COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
Home Demonstration
County County Agents Address Agents
Alachua . . F. L. Craft . Gainesville . Mrs. Grace F, Warren Bradford . T. D. Rickenbaker. . Starke . Miss Pearl Jordan Brevard . W. R. Briggs . Cocoa .
Broward . C. E. Matthews. Ft. Lauderdale Miss Ethyl Holloway Calhoun . John G. Kelly . Blountstown . . Calhoun and Liberty . Blountstown. Miss Josephine Nimmo Charlotte and
Highlands . Punta Gorda. Miss May Winfield
Citrus . Inverness . Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Citrus and Sumter. I. R. Nolen . Inverness . Dade (North) . J. S. Rainey . Miami . Miss Pansy Norton Dade (South) . C. H. Steffani .-Homestead . Dade (Asst.) . Miami . Miss Carrie Torbert DeSoto . J. J. Heard . Arcadia . . Duval . W. L. Watson . Jacksonville. Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) . A. S. Lawton . Jacksonville . Duval (Asst.) . C. H. Magoon . Jacksonville. . Escambia . E. P. Scott . Pensacola . Miss Ethel Atkinson Flagler . L. T. Nieland . Bunnell . Gadsden . Quincy . Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton . J. J. Sechrest . Jasper . . Hernando . J. H. Logan . Brooksville . Mrs. Florence Albert Highlands . L. H. Alsmeyer. Sebring . Miss May Winfield Hillsborough . C. P. Wright .".Plant City (E) Miss Motelle Madole . Tampa (W). Miss Allie Rush Holmes . Bonifay . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River . W. E. Evans . Vero Beach. Jackson . Sam Rountree . Marianna . Miss Mary Sue Wigley Jefferson . E. H. Finlayson. Monticello . Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette . D. C. Geiger . Mayo . Lake . C. R. Hiatt . Tavares . Mrs. Mary Allen Lee . W. P. Hayman. Fort Myers. Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon . G. C. Hodge . Tallahassee . Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy . N. J. Albritton . Bronson . . Liberty . Dewey H. W ard . Bristol . Madison . B. E. Lawton . Madison . Manatee . L. H. Wilson . Bradenton . Miss Margaret Cobb Marion . * . Clyde H. Norton . Ocala . Miss Tillie Roesel Martin . C. P. Heuck. Stuart . Okaloosa . Joseph W. Malone. Crestview . Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee . C. A. Fulford . Okeechobee . Orange . K. C. Moore . Orlando . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola . J. R. Gunn . Kissimmee. Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . M. U. Mounts . W. Palm Beach Mrs.-Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas . William Gomme . Clearwater . Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk . F. L. Holland . Bartow . Miss Lois Godbey .Bartow (Asst.) Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns.E. H. Vance .St. Augustine. Miss Anna Heist St. Lucie . Alfred Warren . Ft. Pierce . Santa Rosa . John G. Hudson . Milton . Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor . R. S. Dennis . Perry . . . Union . L. T. Dyer . Lake Butler. Miss Pearl Jordan Volusia . T. A. Brown . DeLand . Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla . D. M. Treadwell . Crawfordville . Walton . Mitchell Wilkins . DeFuniak Springs . Miss Eloise McGriff
W ashington . Gus York . Chipley .
*This list correct to December 31, 1929.





Fig. I.-Home demonstration agents help club women to save the surplus by canning.










REPORT FOR 1929


PART I-GENERAL

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
Dr. John J. Tigert,
President, University of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state.ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1929.
Respectfully'
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture Funds-.
Smith-Lever, Federal. $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State .48,872.25 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal. 18,774.46 Capper-Ketcham, Federal .20,000.00 U. S. D. A. Appropriation. 21,475.00 State Appropriations. 50,837.37 County Appropriations .144,108.96
$362,940.29

Expenditures
Administration . $ 7,687.64 Publications . 7,811.69 County Agent Work . 171,620.86 Home Demonstration Work .121,684.60 Boys' Club Work . 6,784.87 Dairy Husbandry. 5,193.36 Negro Extension Work. 22,517.47 Plant Pathology .5,337.05 Poultry Husbandry .4,687.43 Extension Schools, Farmers' Week . 2,579.48 National Egg-Laying Contest. 4,537.00 Balance . 2,999.34 $362,940.29






Florida Cooperative Extension


ORGANIZATION
The Agricultural Extension Service organization consists of supervisors as follows: director, vice-direct6r and county agent leader, three district agents, one state home demonstration agent, one assistant state agent, three district home demonstration agents; specialists': boys' club agent, citrus pathologist and entomologist, dairyman, poultryman, extension nutritionist, food and marketing agent, and two district agents for the Negro work.,
The revenue supporting extension work is provided from the following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States Department of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These appropriations are governed by Acts of Congress and the State Legislature and are administered by the Agricultural Extension Service. The authority for making county appropriations is provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy for agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting countyboards to enter into agreement with the Extension Service for the employment of county and home'demonstration agents. All appointments for extension work are approved by the State Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the UnitedStates Department of Agriculture before they become effective.
The cooperation in counties has remained about the same as in 1928, but with some interruption on account of reduced values and reduced business. Extension work in Florida is dependent on county appropriations, the average appropriation by counties being about'300 percent of the amount applied by the federal and state governments for the employment of county workers. Because of the more difficult financial situation' generally over the state, more trouble has been experienced the past year in securing county funds.
Extension work during the past year has been-,conducted in 52 Florida counties. In these counties agents are confronted with agricultural and home economics problems of practically every nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and in a position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan to provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents can be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricultural College and Experiment Station and Florida State College for Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are supplied with the latest information as published by the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture,






Annual Report, 1929


in addition to the help that. can be given by the extension specialists and subject matter workers in the colleges.

LINES OF WORK
COUNTY AGENT WORK
Special emphasis has been placed on soil improvement crops. The acreage of winter legumes has been increased in. every county where county agents were employed, followed by corn with increased yields. In the southern part of the state a soil improvement program, especially in citrus groves, using Crotalaria as a summer cover crop, wa s carried out. This required the securing of several tons of seed. These crops were handled according to the recommendations of the agronomy department of the Experiment Station.
In the fertilization of crops, county agents conducted work in cooperation with the agronomy department of the Experiment Station with corn, cotton, and peanuts. Demonstrations were conducted to establish pastures and this has met with ready response, due to an increased interest in livestock production in the farming area.
In livestock, the county agents have given the greatest attention to fattening hogs for the high markets. This has resulted in a large number of carloads of hogs being sold early in the season. For the most part they were sold cooperatively with the help of the State Marketing Bureau. More attention has been given to beef cattle than in past years and this has been stimulated by the eradication of the cattle tick. In the past five years a large number of range cattle has been sold off, thereby reducing the number of beef cattle in the state. In order to improve the quality and re-stock the ranges, special attention has been given to the management of beef cattle, and the introduction of high grade and purebred breeding stock.
The ranges of West Florida support.large flocks of range sheep. These sheep are kept mainly for wool production, very little attention being paid to the production of mutton. Each year there is a loss from parasites and an effort has been made in two counties to give treatment under the supervision of the county agents.

POULTRY AND DAIRY WORK
The poultry and dairy extension work has been carried along as usual and reports show an increase in production, In the poultry work it has been largely with farm flocks, although some






Florida Cooperative Extension


assistance has been given to the commercial flocks. This work has been a part of the home demonstration agents' programs and applies to practically every county.
In dairy work some manufacturing plants have been established in North Florida counties. These handle whole milk, also sour cream. They have made speedy progress under good management and have had a fairly prosperous year.

HORTICULTURE
As our most important horticultural crop is citrus, the grove problems have been the most important. Fertilization, irrigation, insect and disease control have been a large part of the agents' programs in the citrus counties. Due to the presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly the county agents were pressed into service in handling permits throughout central Florida, thereby reducing the amount of usual extension work with the groves in that section. Two district agents and one specialist were assigned to fruit fly work during the summer months. Furthermore, the greatest interest has centered around the fruit fly activities, making it difficult for the county agents to carry out their work in the usual way.
4-H CLUB WORK
The 4-H club work was conducted as usual under the direction of the Boys' Club Agent. Emphasis was given to the establishment of a 4-H camp for West Florida club work. This club site has been greatly improved by the addition of buildings paid for partly by the counties of West Florida.
It is planned to use this camp for club rallies and boys' and girls' 4-H club camps. The annual short courses for 4-H club members were held at the University and the State College for Women during the month of June. I -The extension program covered all projects and had the usual
response from the citizens of Florida. There is apparently need for greater emphasis to improve the ranges and increase the number of good beef cattle. There is also a demand for extension work in agricultural economics and for assistance in improving the standards and grades of vegetables and f ruit, and for cooperative marketing.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The Home Demonstration Work has its office at the State College for Women, Tallahassee. The financing of this work is






Annual Report, 1929


similar to that of county agent work, that is the central office contributes the same amount to the salaries of home demonstration agents as county agents. The state is divided into three districts, each supervised by a district agent. Two specialists are employed, in nutrition and in gardening and marketing, in addition to the assistant state home demonstration agent, who is responsible for a home improvement project. Each specialist conducts her work over the entire area where home agents are employed and conducts her work in cooperation with the plans of the district agents.
A short course for winners in girls' 4-H club work is held annually at the state College for Women, Tallahassee, where they are accommodated in the dormitories and dining hall at a nominal charge for meals and lodging. As far as possible county contests and state meetings are conducted jointly with club members and the supervisory staff in charge of men's work.

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
Negro extension work has its office at the Florida A. and M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee. It is conducted in two divisions, namely Farm Makers' Clubs and Home Makers' Clubs. The direct supervision of each of these is under a district agent who is supervised by the state leader and state home demonstration agent. The work is conducted in 14 counties with one agent in each, either a man or a woman.
The lines of work deal principally with crop production, livestock, boys' and girls' clubs, marketing, short courses and organizations. These Negro agents look to the subject matter specialists in the white district to guide them in their programs.
The annual short course is held at the Florida A. and M. College, where the faculty offers its cooperation, including board and lodging at actual cost, together with assistance from the faculty in conducting programs.

FARMERS'AND FRUIT GROWERS'WEEK
The eighth ann ual Farmers' and Fruit Growers'Week was conducted on the University campus August 13, to 18, 1929, with an attendance of 935.
The usual program covering many subjects of interest to farming people was given by members of the Agricultural College, Experiment Station, Extension Service and State Plant Board staffs, with assistance from the Florida State Marketing Bureau,






Florida Cooperative Extension


Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, and speakers from other organizations.
Due to the presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Central Florida the attendance from that section of the state was reduced. However, the usual interest was apparent from other sections of the state.
Farmers' Week opened at 11 a. in. Monday and continued until Friday noon. The dormitories and dining room of the college were made available to the visitors at a cost of $1.50 per day. 'Commercial firms were permitted to display agricultural implements and other goods that would be of interest to farmers. These were placed in a separate tent where electric lights and ample seating capacity were provided.
Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture, farm crops, livestock, poultry, bee-keeping and home economics were conducted. Each day at 11 A. in. the sectional programs closed so that visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear lectures.
Musical entertainment was provided throughout the program with a special entertainment feature for each night. One afternoon was devoted to a farmers' picnic at Hampton Beach, where lunch and entertainment was provided free of cost to visitors.
Farmers' and Fruit Growers! Week is an annual event occurring each year immediately following the summer school session. EXTENSION AGENTS'WORK WITH MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY
On receipt of the announcement that the Mediterranean Fruit Fly had been found in Florida in April, 1929, all county and supervisory agents were summoned to Orlando for information on the appearance and plans that would be undertaken to eradicate the fly. During this visit agents had an opportunity to see the grove where the infestation was very general and where a large amount of the fruit had dropped on account of the presence of the fly. It was possible to see the fly at all stages of development and get an insight as to its prevalence, appearance and its effect on fruit and vegetable hosts.
Following this, practically all county agents were pressed into emergency service in various ways. Many county agents were given charge of clean-up squads for the purpose of getting rid of fruit and vegetable hosts. District agents and specialists were assigned to special territories and carried on educational work in regard to presence and eradication of the Mediterranen fruit fly.






Annual Report, 1929


Two district agents were taken from their respective districts from May until September. The Citrus Specialist was placed in charge of all work in one county, having supervision over a number of men engaged in fruit fly eradication work. On September 1 all county agents were released from issuing permits and supervisory agents were permitted to return to their regular duties. This work, together with unusual anxiety on the part of the growers, interfered with and changed many plans in county agents' programs that had been made prior to finding the fly.
The request for these special services from the county agents came from the counties in which they were working, due to the fact that the county boards were not only appropriating funds to apply on the county agents' salaries but were supplying additional funds to help in eradication methods and preventing the spread of the fly to a much larger territory. The value of the county agents' services and the importance of having men and county workers in full sympathy and touch with the situation had the effect of bringing to the attention of many people the value of the services that could be quickly used in any case of emergency. In most of the counties where the fly was prevalent, this additional duty thrown on the agent in most cases doubled their duties and increased their traveling expenses to the same extent. The Extension Service is ready at all times to render such services or in any other department when the farmers' interests are involved.
AWARDS TO 4-H CLUB MEMBERS
Prizes and awards to a total value of 18,563 dollars were given to 4-H club boys and girls during the year for proficiency in their work. This is encouraging to both members and workers, indi.eating the high esteem in which club work is held by the business world. In each case the winner of an award was selected by an examination and the consideration of the member's efficiency in club work.
Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners:
The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three schola:rships valued at $100 each. The winners were as follows: Frederick Barber, Escambla, Gray Miley, Hillsboro, Hugh Dukes, Union County, for proficiency as determined by examination.
F. E. Dennis, Inc., appropriated $250 awarded to Hugh Dukes as a prize for the state champion in breeding pig club work.
Armour and Company gave a trip to the National Club Congress in Chicago, value $135, won by Dilworth Carter, Jefferson County, awarded for the state champion in the fat barrow club.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Leon County bankers and business men donated trip to Chicago, value $125, won by 0. C. Brown, dairy club champion, also donated Chicago trip, value $150, won by Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County, for proficiency in club work.
Marion County Board of Trade gave a trip to the National Dairy Show, value $125, won by John Williams, Marion County, awarded for dairy club champion.
Farm and Live Stock Record donated trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Cleveland Armstrong, f or the reserve champion barrow which was the progeny of a pig club sow.
The Synthetic Nitrogen Products Corporation donated trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Vernon Simmons, Hillsboro County, for producing the most corn on a club acre on which calcium nitrate was used as a side-dressing.
The L. & N. Railway Company contributed a trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Ralph Arant, Santa Rosa County, for the champion 4-H club boy in their district. They also gave a similar trip valued at $150 to Pearl Barber of Escambia County for proficiency in club work. They also contributed scholarships, value $115, to 4-H girls' club members from Jackson, Holmes, Walton, Santa Rosa and Escambia counties.
Congressman Tom Yon awarded two scholarships, value $100 each, won by Frederick Barber, Escambia County, and Evelyn Labbe, Walton County, for the 4-H club boy and club girl in the Third Congressional district who did the best leadership work.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company awarded two trips to the National 4-11 club camp, Washington, D. C., value $100 each. These were won by William Platt, Marion County, and Louise Owen, Nassau County, for state champion 4-H club boy and girl. Interested citizens contributed $100 to defray the expenses of Clifford Boyles of Nassau County to this camp.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a scholarship, value $100, won by Paul Simmons, Hillsboro County, for 4-H corn champion using nitrate of soda. This bureau also paid the expenses of attending the boys' 4-H Short Course (total value $70) for two boys in each of the following counties: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington, Calhoun, Union and Citrus. Also awarded prizes to a total value of $150 for the best three girls' club gardens fertilized with Chilean nitrate of soda in each of the three districts, and a prize of $50 to Mrs. H. M. Burgess, Holmes County, for best woman's garden in state; also a prize of $50 to the three communities in Gadsden County which had the largest percentage of their members completing garden work.'







Annual Report, 1929


Fig. 2.-Club boys and girls and state leaders at the National 4-H Club Camp in Washington. Left to right: Miss Flavia Gleason, state home demonstration agent; Clifford Boyles, Nassau County; Thelma Hood, Santa Rosa County; William Platt, Marion County; Louise Owen, Nassau County; and R. W. Blacklock, state boys' club agent.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The county commissioners and school boards of 40 counties provided expenses to the short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee for 4-H club members, value for boys $2,500 and for girls $3,790. These club members were selected according to their proficiency in 4-H club work.
Bankers, civic organizations, fairs and individuals contributed $2,165 to defray expenses to short courses for 4-H club members to attend short courses at Tallahassee. The selection was made on proficiency in 4-H club work.
Southern Cotton Oil Company donated expenses of a trip to Chicago, value $125, awarded to Lela Mae Duke, Walton County, for proficiency in nutrition work. They also gave miscellaneous articles to the value of $50 for salad demonstration winners from four counties.
S. L. Allen Company donated prizes valued at $108, awarded to 4-H club members in 12 counties for proficiency in garden work.
Horace A. Moses donated two trips to leadership training school, Springfield, Mass., to one boy and one girl formerly members of 4-H clubs who had demonstrated outstanding ability in leadership, value $200 each and awarded to Russell Henderson, Madison County, and Mary LaFuse, Lake County.
M ontgomery Ward & Company gave a trip to Chicago, value $150, awarded to Uceba Jones, Palm Beach County, for proficiency in 4-H chib work.
The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs awarded two scholarships, value,$50 each, for best poultry and gardening records in girls' 4-H club work, won by Anabel Raulerson, Alachua County, and Lena Bennett, Union County;.also trip to National 4-H Club camp, value $100, won by Thelma Hood, Santa Rosa County.
State Senator W. C. Hodges gave one scholarship, value $200, to F. S. C.W. for proficiency in girls' 4-H club work, won by Rosalie Hawthorn.
Scholarships for training club girls in home economics at the State College for Women were given by Dade, Hillsborough, Palm Beach and Orange counties. They had a total value of $2,599.
The Florida legislature awarded expenses to Chicago, value $300, for two 4-H club girls, Florence Smock, Lake County, and Mildred Hilliard, Hernando County, to compete in the National Health Contest.
The Soft Wheat Millers' Association provided $100 to be used for prizes to seven club women of five counties who won in the better baking contest at Farmers' Week.






Annual Report, 1929


The State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' Work provided one scholarship valued at $200, won by Hattie Fletcher, Gadsden County, for proficiency in club work. This scholarship was supplemented by a dining room scholarship awarded by the State College for Women, Tallahassee, valued at $200.
The Florida Power Corporation provided prizes to the value of $76.50 for some of the winners in the state home improvement contest. Other prizes to the value of $62.50 were donated to winners in this contest by interested individuals, the American Wallpaper Company, Corning Glass Works, and the Iglehart Company.
The Dixie Canner Company gave prizes to a total value of $121.80 to the home demonstration agent in each district having the highest average in canning. These prizes are being used in canning work in the counties.
. In the all-year garden contest prizes worth $160 were awarded
by the Francis C. Stokes Seed Company, Kilgore Seed Company, Glen St. Mary Nursery, Royal Palm Nurseries, Stumpp and Walter Nursery, and Reasoner Seed Company.
T. J. Appleyard, Inc., gave $50 to the State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' work to be used, in their scholarship fund, and a silver loving cup, valued at $25, to the standard girls' 4-H club in the state making highest score. This was awarded to the Glendale Club in Walton County. This firm also presented a silver loving cup, valued at $25, to the senior home demonstration council making the highest score. This was awarded to Lee County.
The Florida State College for Women contributed dining-room scholarships valued at $5,200 to 26 former club girls now attending the college.
The Extension Service gratefully acknowledges these contributions by interested citizens and business firms. They have contributed very much to the interest and value of extension work throughout the.state.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS
J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor
R. M. FULGHUm, Assistant Editor

BULLETINS
During the year 85,966 copies of 13 bulletins, circulars, calendars, and other extension material were published. These amounted to 302 printed pages. Also 28,560 copies of 42 issues of the Weekly Agricultural News Service were printed by the Extension Service. Following is a list of the publications issued during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929.
Title Pages Edition
Bul. 49-Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children. 56 5,000 Bul. 50-Save the Surplus (by Canning) .48 10,218 Bul. 51-Home Canning of Meat . 24 10,000 Bul. 52-Lessons for Pig Club Members .44 10,000 Bul. 53-Feeding the Dairy Cow . 40 7,500 Bul. 54-Vetch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement .16 5,142 Bul. 55-Rejuvenating Furniture . 12 5,000 Circ. 16-Agricultural Extension News and How to Write It 12 1,000 Circ. 974-First Year Sewing Program for Girls' Clubs
(Reprinted Twice) . 16 20,000 Circ. 976-Third Year Sewing Program for Girls' Clubs
(Reprint) . 8 5,000 Circ. 982-Standards and Score Cards for Home-Canned
Products (Reprint) .12 1,500 Final Report Second Florida National Egg-Laying Contest .16 1,200 1929 Calendar . 12 9,406 Weekly Agricultural News Service (42 weeks) .1 28,560

In addition, a number of record books, charts, pads, and other miscellaneous supplies were printed during the year. These included daily summary sheets and record cards, all-year garden contest, nutrition record book, chart for meal planning, sewing book, chart for food, nutrition and health, home egg-laying contest pads, club diplomas, and cards advertising demonstrations.
Fifty-one weekly and 12 monthly reports of the third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were issued and distributed from Chipley, the material for these being prepared and handled by the contest supervisor. Seven hundred copies of each were distributed. The first four weekly and eight monthly reports were printed, and the remaining 47 weekly and four monthly reports were mimeographed.
Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision of the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration office






. Annual Report, 1929


at Tallahassee. Thousands of copies of bulletins and various classes of supplies were distributed during the year.

NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES
As usual, the Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, was the principal means used to carry extension information to the people of Florida through the newspapers. Nine to 10 stories a week are sent out through this service, and are largely clipped and reprinted by weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties of Florida.
Service to daily papers of the state is provided through the mail service of the Associated Press. During the year ending November 30, 1929, 129 stories were sent to the state mail service of the Associated Press and were distributed by it to its 45 member papers.
From time to time special stories are sent directly to daily papers from this office. During the year 23 special stories were sent to dailies direct, and were used by these papers.
The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one of the state dailies and contributes to such a page in another. Both farm pages appear each Sunday, and numerous stories concerning extension activities and hints are printed.
During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The stories for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Numerous special Farmers' Week stories were sent to other dailies. Posters, stuffers, programs and other Farmers' Week publicity material were prepared and distributed.
A plan which was tried this year for the first time, and which was fairly successful, was the preparation of special stories about demonstrations and tours. Three different stories of this type were prepared and sent to 16 county agents to be turned over by them to their local papers. These were used by about threefourths of the papers in the 16 counties.
During the year 20 stories were used by the farm and grove section of 50 Florida papers. This section appears monthly, and the stories from this office used in it amounted to 479 column inches.
The service of this office to farm papers is especially well received and widely used. A total Qf 44 stories were sent to six different Southern and state farm papers during the year. These






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amounted to 1,656 column inches of printed material. Three stories, amounting to 50 inches of printed material, were sent to two national farm magazines during the year. In addition, many stories from the Agricultural News Service were clipped and printed by Florida farm papers.
Material was supplied at infrequent intervals to publications of the United States Department of Agriculture.

RADIO
Since the opening of state and University radio station WRUF on November 11, 1928, regular farm programs have been put on the air. For the first few weeks these occupied 15 minutes daily, later being changed to 30 minutes three times a week, and still later being changed to 30 minutes daily except Sunday. These programs were supervised by the Assistant Editor. , Extension specialists, Experiment Station staff members, the faculty of the College of Agriculture, and others wrote and delivered papers. Releases of the United States Department of Agriculture were read. The Extension Editor prepared and read 11 talks during the year ending November. 30, 1929.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING
Two girls from each county were trained in news writing at the Girls'Club Short Course, as were 10 outstanding boys at the Boys' Club Short Course. These club members evidenced considerable interest in their courses, and many of them are now helping to issue county club news sheets and to send in club news to the papers.
Three girls in the eastern part of Hillsborough County were trained to assist their home demonstration agent with publicity in the two Plant City papers. Each club secretary sends in a report, and the girls take the reports and work them into newspaper shape.
Some special training and help was given to one county agent at his office during the year, and talks on news writing were made at the annual conference of county and home demonstration agents.






Annual Report, 1929


PART 11-MENS WORK

COUNTY AGENT WORK
A. P. SPENCER, V * ice-Director and County Agent Leader
H. G CLAYToN, District Agent W. i . NETTLEs, District Agent J.LEE SMITH, District Agent

SPECIAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES
The regular work has been seriously interfered with by the Mediterranean fruit fly appearing in Florida. The federal quarantine went into effect upon three days' notice and all county agents were drafted as permit men in order to move the fruit and vegetable crop without delay. The county agents handled the situation in a creditable manner. Their efforts in getting a voluntiiry clean-up of fruits and vegetables by the growers were very effective. In an emergency of this kind the value of the Extension Service was clearly demonstrated, both to the growers and to the regulatory forces. Taking the whole year's work into consideration, the work accomplished has been satisfactory, although much'of the work was not of the exact nature as planned at the beginning of the year.
Storms during 1928 and early spring of 1929 virtually destroyed crops and credit of many farmers of the North and Northwest Florida territory. A Federal Farm Seed Loan Act was passed by Congress. The district and county agents assisted 561 farmers of 16 counties to secure loans amounting to nearly $250,000, of which $123,823.43 was from the Farmers' Seed Loan Office.

PUBLICITY
Special effort was made during 1929 to get the extension program and improved practices and results of demonstrations before the people. The county agents published numerous news articles in local newspapers pertaining to their demonstrations and projects. Pictures of demonstrations and county agents in action have been published in daily papers. Photographs of groups of farmers on demonstration tours have been in print. Thousands of circular letters were mailed to farmers. The Dis7 trict Agents and the Agricultural News Editor have prepared and published in the Agricultural News sheet, at opportune times, news articles pertaining to projects. This paper goes to all coun-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ty newspapers in the state who in turn copy many of these articles. Tours of farmers were conducted by the county agents of their respective counties assisted by the District Agent to the crop demonstrations. From 15 to 300 farmers were on each of these tours. Eighteen addresses were made by District Agents before civic organizations. A total of 212 project meetings were attended by 17,241 people in the interest of extension programs and projects. Eleven radio talks were made.

COMMUNITY PROGRAM BUILDING
The agents of nine counties, namely: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Calhoun, Jefferson and Madison, attended community meetings and, assisted by the District Agent, helped the people outline extension programs for the year. Twenty-four communities were assisted in such a way. Special features were considered, such as soil improvement, fertilizer, corn, cotton, and hogs. It was arranged that definite, concrete demonstrations be arranged for and conducted in the communities. The demonstrations were outlined and in many cases demonstrators secured. In virtually every one of these communities these demonstrations were successful and the composite resuits will be found on the following pages.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program wag cooperatively worked out 409 Voluntary county, community and local leaders. 599 Clubs carrying on extension work . 293 Memberships .3,237 Farm visits made by county agents*.*.34,407 Different farms visited . 13,596 Average number days spent in office . 91 Average number days spent in field. 221 Official letters witten. 53,408 Exhibits at fairs. 65
Community. 29
County. 3
State . 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held . 2,178 31,151 Extension schools and short courses held .29 3,028 Total attendance club members, junior encampments
and rallies. 598






Ann=1 Report, 1929


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils . . 314 90 Farm crops . 372 1,877 Horticulture . 336 2,2131/2 Forestry . 37 931/2
Rodents, predatory animals and birds . 106 416
Animal husbandry . 289 1,6241/2
Dairy husbandry . 178 610
Poultry husbandry . 245 7481/2
Rural engineering . 167 2931/2
Agricultural economics . 280 6991/2
Miscellaneous work . 117 915
Community activities . 26 1351/2
Total . 2,467 10,5951/2

Soli's
The care of the soil is a basic problem in Florida, due to climatic conditions, which are conducive to a quick burning out of the organic matter and a leaching of the available plant food elements. It is necessary to maintain the humus content of the soil in order to grow maximum crops and secure the greatest benefits from commercial fertilizers. This is especially true in commercial citrus production where the land is growing the same crop through a period of years. Where organic matter is returned to the soil in large quantities, citrus growers can use to advantage more of the cheaper forms of nitrogen.
Truck crops are rotated more or less and natural cover crops of the grasses and beggarweed follow these crops, which cover crops enable continued cropping of the same land. A cover crop which exactly fits into the system of growing truck crop has not been found yet and, for the present, cowpeas, beggarweed and
-velvet beans best supplement the natural cover crops. .
The efforts of county agents in Central and South Florida in soil improvement by the increased use of cover crops has been successful. Crotalaria has been the crop most used. Approximately 70,000 pounds of this seed was imported, being handled direct from the producers to the growers through the county agents' efforts. Crotalaria will produce more tonnage on light citrus soils than any other cover crop we grow. The results of this work is very evident and already the total seed available for 1930 has been arranged for by growers.
In the fall of 1925 an effort was started by the county agentof Bay County and the District Agent to grow hairy vetch during






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the winter to turn into the land to add humus and nitrogen to the soil. Two hundred twenty pounds of seed were planted on about ten one-acre plots. Some of these were successful, others failed. But how the interest and success has grown is shown by amount of seed sown each year.
It is as follows:
1926- 600 pounds of vetch.
1927- 6,000 pounds of Austrian Peas and Vetch
1928- 50,000 1929-105,760

About April 1 the Agronomist of the Experiment Station and District Agent visited 70 fields of Austrian peas and vetch, and


Fig. 3.-L. H. Alsmeyer, agent, Highlands County, in Crotalaria. County Agent Alsmeyer was one of six winners in a soil improvement conducted in the Southern States by a fertilizer association. His winning was the result of the work he had done in encouraging citrus growers of Highlands County to plant Crotalaria.

in the presence of groups of farmers assembled, cut the green material from an area and computed growth per acre. The growth ranged from 1,500 pounds to 24,000 pounds and averaged 9,763 pounds. This crop was then turned under and followed by other crops, principally corn. From reports obtained the crops grown






Annual Report, 1929


following this manure crop were from 100 to 200 per cent larger than in check plots.
Some of the land is too poor to grow these winter cover crops. During the spring, 1,000 pounds of Crotalaria striata was sown and our initial demonstrations in North and West Florida were started with it. This is a legume that grows in summer. There were as high as 48,000 pounds of green matter produced per acre on some of the plots.
Four seasons ago Mr. Newsome of'Blountstown secured a small package of Grotalaria seed and sowed it in a corn field. It has reseeded each year and during 1927 and 1928 the land was not farmed but the Crotalaria grew. The field was planted to corn this year. Where Crotalaria grew and where it didn't was fertilized alike 'with commercial fertilizer. The area on which the Crotalaria had grown produced 41.2 bushels per acre and the rest produced 25.4 -bushels per acre.
During the year 32'5 manure and cover crop, demonstrations consisting of 2,128 Acres have been conducted by the county agents, and now they have started underway 459 demonstrations consisting of,4,230 acres.
It has been the practice of our farmers to use only 233 pounds of a low grade fertilizer per acre to cotton and none or only a small amount of A low grade or poor fertilizer for corn. This year,. 459 demonstrations in fertilizing cotton with 400 pounds of acid phosphate, '100 pounds muriate of potash and 200 pounds nitrate of soda or 100 or more pounds of a nitrogen-carrying element applied to corn as a side-dressing, have been conducted. These have given gratifying results. This is a culmination of .a four-year campaign to educate the people to a better understanding of their fertilizer need. It has been stated by interested observers that considerable progress has been made in getting farmers to intelligently use commercial fertilizer.
Reports from agents in the southern district show that the use of manganese and copper sulphate on marshland has made marked improvement in the production of vegetables. Increase in the production of beans around Homestead, Dade County, are reported by the growers as high as 10047% and other vegetables from 25% to 50%y by the use of manganese. Other items do not show as high increase.
SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given. 1,562 Acres involved in completed demonstrations .5,920 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management . 2,582






Florida Cooperative Extension


Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers . 1,554 Tons commercial fertilizer involved . 18,788 Farmers taking better care of farm manures . 301 Farmers using lime or limestone . 124 Tons of lime or limestone so used . 1,022 Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvements . 631 Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under . 12,745

FARM CROPS
Corn.-The land in North and West Florida grown to corn equals 61.7% of the whole in cultivation. The average yield is a little less than 14 bushels per acre. The average cost is better than one dollar per bushel. Corn can usually be bought on the market for less than that. It cannot be sold on the market for


















Fig. 4-Five club boys in Hillsborough County produced over 100 bushels of corn on each of their acres.

a profit and it is too expensive to be converted into livestock which in turn would be placed on the market.
The farmers are small operators, farming only a small acreage. Therefore the cost of production must be reduced by increasing the production per acre. The county and district agents planned to do this by a more intelligent use of commercial fertilizer, by growing Austrian peas and vetch and turning them into the land, and by the use of better seed. Following the findings of the Alabama Experiment Station, 100 to 200 pounds per acre as a side-dressing of a fertilizing element carrying a quickly available nitrogen is being recommended.






Ann=1 Report, 1929


In line with these plans there have been 339 corn production demonstrations conducted with an average increased yield of 22 bushels of corn per acre at a cost of 66 cents per bushel. Approximately twice the acreage will be planted to corn following a winter cover crop in 1930 as was in 1929. There will be a considerable increase in amount of corn side-dressed with nitrogen.
In Hillsborough County 54 boys finished corn club work with an average yield of 67 bushels per acre. These boys planted corn after spring truck crops, used good seed and fertilized with nitrate of soda and calcium nitrate as a side-dressing.
In the southern section corn and sorghum are used extensively for silage on dairy farms. Demonstrations this year have shown the value of good silage with plenty of grain in it over poor silage.
CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Number demonstrations given . 684 Acreage grown under demonstrations . 1,736 Boys'and girls' clubs . 21 Acreage grown by club members . 357 Yield of cereals grown by club members.(bushels) . 15,824 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 1. . 850 Farmers who planted selected and improved seed . 463 Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time . 25
Cotton.-During the last six years the average Florida cotton grower has produced 374 pounds of seed cotton per acre per year and sustained a loss of approximately $10.00 per acre. During that time he has used nondescript seed and 233 pounds of low grade commercial fertilizer valued only at $3.44. During the same period there were conducted in North and West Florida 218 demonstrations using good seed of improved varieties, $9.26 worth of high grade commercial fertilizer. These demonstrations returned a net income of $32.92 per acre. Following this lead and the recommendation of Experiment Stations there were 288 demonstrations conducted that produced an average of 362 pounds seed cotton per acre more than the check by it, or a larger net income approximating $15.00 per acre.
In the Central Florida district three 5-acre cotton demonstrations gave an average increase of 209 pounds seed cotton.
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given . 151 Acreage grown under improved methods . '7581/2 Farms influenced to adopt better practice . 383 Boys' and girls' clubs . 32 M embers enrolled . 269 Acreage grown by club members . 137
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) . 127,667
Farmers who planted improved seed first time . 257






Florida Cooperative Extension


Peanuts.-It has been determined by research workers that the yield of Spanish peanuts can be increased more by thick spacing-closer rows and closer in the drill-than by any other means. There were conducted during the year 66 demonstrations to show the value of this close spacing. On one demonstration in Jackson County 90 bushels were produced as against 53 bushels on the check. This shows the ratio of increase on these 66 demonstrations.
Sugar Cane.-In virtually every farming county, the ordinary varieties of sugar cane are affected with mosaic and root-knot. Cayana-10 has proven to be resistant to both and yields considerably more syrup. The county agents of every county have conducted demonstrations this year to show this superiority. Some of them have conducted fertilizer demonstrations. The difference, in yield is shown by one demonstration in Jefferson County con-ducted on the place of W. J. Hatchett. The common sugar cane yielded 76% gallons per acre and the Cayana-10 right by it produced 307 gallons per acre. As a result of these demonstrations there will be hundreds of acres. planted to Cayana-1O next season.

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given.8390 Number result demonstrations under way . 462 Number result demonstrations completed .383 Acres in completed demonstrations. 4,566

PASTURES
The native range in West Florida is poor, producing very little beef and it is practically no good for dairy cattle. In grazing experiments conducted by the Animal Husbandry and Agronomy departments of the Experiment Station it has been seen that an acre of improved pasture will produce approximately 250 pounds of beef, furnishing about 9 months grazing, an abundance of cheap feed. The county agents have started during the year 43 pasture demonstrations involving 484 acres. A few successful pastures have been established. Many more will be established during 1930.
In Central Florida interest in improvement of pastures is gradually increasing. -The first of the demonstration pastures are now four years *old. Pasture work is a long-time type of project and several years yet will be required to get this going on a big scale. This year 23 demonstrations were completed on






Annual Report, 1929


396 acres. These demonstration pastures are of small size but are effective in showing the value of improved grasses. Carpet, Bahia, Dallis and lespedeza are the grasses being seeded in most of the demonstrations.
One demonstration in Martin County reports a planting of five acres in mixed grasses in May and this fall was supporting 15 to 20 cows. The dairyman on whose farm this demonstration was carried on estimated a yearly saving on his feed bill alone of $215.00.
HORTICULTURE
Citrus and truck crops are the chief money crops in most of the Central and South Florida territory. The greater part of the county agents' time is devoted to work in horticulture. A great amount of personal service work is required, such as inspections of groves and truck crops for insects and diseases in order to give advice on control measures and on methods of cultivation and fertilization. Each grove and truck crop is a unit in itself and requires this personal inspection by the agent in order to make proper and timely recommendations.
A series of citr us field meetings had been planned and arranged for in the spring. The purpose 'was to stress cover crops, insect and disease control, fertilization and irrigation. The fruit fly was discovered just prior to the dates for beginning these meetings, so the program was changed to permit a thorough discussion of the fruit fly and give growers first-hand information on this pest and the proposed control measures. Fifteen such meetings were held in eight citrus counties during April with an attendance of 870 growers. In such small meetings conducted largely as round table discussions growers had an opportunity to take an active part in the discussions.
Ninety-two demonstrations were carried to completion on 2,755 acres of citrus; 264 growers adopted improved practices in some phase of citrus production.
The three phases of citrus culture where the most, outstanding work of the year has been done are (1) assistance rendered in fruit fly eradication work, (2) increased acreage in legume cover crops, (3) changes in fertilizer practices ih conjunction with cover crop work where costs of production were lowered by (a) reducing fertilizer per application made possible by growing legume cover crops and (b) use of cheaper forms of nitrogen where organic matter had been added to the soil by cover crops turned in.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Six agents have conducted groups of growers from their counties to inspect fertilizer experimental plots at the citrus station at Lake Alfred. These experiments have been running for eight years now and results are becoming apparent.
The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes and pears in West Florida is a relatively new industry. County agents .have demonstrated to the growers the proper methods of setting, spraying, pruning and cultivating. They have this year conducted cover crop demonstrations, using Crotalaria. Picking bags and clippers where shown and proper methods of using them demonstrated. Packinghouses and sales organizations have been organized and established.

HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given . 2,305 Number result demonstrations . 1,870 Result demonstrations completed during yeai . 1,272 Acres involved in demonstrations . 9,224% Number of boys' clubs . 78 M em bership . 470 Number planting improved stock or seed first time . 1,258 Number pruning first time . 436 Trees involved . 33,141 Acres involved . ; . I . 475 Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests . 5,803 A cres treated . 3,707 Number farms adopting improved practices . 2,059

TRUCK CROPS
A large part of the work in connection with growing truck crops such as beans, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, peppers, tomatoes and watermelons is carried on as personal service work similar to much of the citrus work. Soil types and conditions vary so widely that personal inspection is required to make correct recommendations. Seed treatment, fertilization, insect and disease control, spraying and spray mixing are major lines of truck crop work.
During the year 54 demonstrations involving 347 acres of truck crops were reported by the agents in this territory. One hundred and forty-four farmers sprayed or dusted truck crops who had not previously sprayed or dusted these crops, and 259 farmers adopted improved practices with truck crops.
SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Number of demonstrations given . 428 Acreage grown under improved methods . 1,317 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 436 Farmers who planted improved or certified geed . 255






Annual Report, 1929


Farmers who treated seed for disease . 115 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects . 204
Grapes.-The growing of grapes in Florida is -a relatively new industry which has been making good progress. Many of the problems have been worked out, in part, at least. At this time enough demonstrations have been made to prove the value of Crolataria as a cover crop in vineyards. This work is being pushed, especially in Lake County, which county has the largest acreage in grapes. Results this year were so evident that plans are already under way to seed several of the largest vineyards in the county to Crotalaria next spring. The grape is a heavy feeder and our best adapted soils for this fruit cannot produce the best crops unless quantities of organic matter are added to the soil.
INSECT CONTROL
A few definite corn weevil control demonstrations were conducted during the year. More cribs were fixed and more corn treated with carbon disulphide this fall than ever before. Eighteen cribs have been built and several thousand bushels of corn fumigated, using four pounds of carbon disulphide to one thousand cubic feet of space. Farmers' meetings will be held at these next summer.
Thirty-eight boll weevil control demonstrations were conducted.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations given . 11.1 . 2,654 Acres in completed demonstrations . 4,227 Farmers adopting control measures . 5,695 Acres involved . 18,604 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Swine.-Swine is one of the most consistent revenue-producing crops the North Florida farmer has. Many farmers yet grow them for home or local consumption. These hogs are permitted to run on the range, resulting in losses during the spring and summer from starvation. Others are small and under-nourished when placed on feed. Many are of scrub stock. These conditions prevented the farmers from placing the hogs on the market when prices were highest, in August, September and October.
Extension agents planned in 1926 to improve this situation. That year on October 28 the first car was sold cooperatively.
By getting farmers to put in grazing crops such as rye and oats, peas and rape, and supplementing this with sweet potatoes and






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corn, the hogs were larger when fattening feeds were ready. Farmers have planted early corn, peas, and Spanish peanuts to be pastured in July. As a result of this 314 farmers marketed 2,458 head during August and September. Better than 100 cars were shipped cooperatively by October 28, 1929, in addition to many trucked to market. This gave an increased income from these hogs of approximately $25,000.
There have been 116 purebred sires and 98 dams placed on the farms this year as a result, of county agent activity.
In Central Florida the Cooperative Hog Marketing Association in Levy County has had the best year since it was organized. This association has grown to such an extent that the membership has more than doubled during the current year. The association at Newberry is functioning and is in position to go through the year much better than last year. These two associations have marketed 18 cars of hogs to date.
Only two agents in this territory inoculate hogs'. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board takes care of this work in other counties.
Fifty-one farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars and 58 in securing high grade or purebred females. One hundred and forty-two farmers were influenced to inoculate as a preventive against hog cholera and 359 were assisted in adopting improved practices with hogs.,
The two counties in the district with the best pig clubs were Marion and Sumter.
HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given . . 1,342 Animals in completed demonstrations . 9 . . 9,183 Savings resulting from better practices . $12,317.64 Farmers who secured purebred sires . . .' . . I . 209 Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females . 182 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . 208 Farmers culling breeding stock . 86 Number of animals culled out . :,**, *** --1 . 2,669 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests . I . 214 Farmers who vaccinated for cholera . . 2,057 Number farms adopting improved practices . 2,170
Beef Cattle In Central and South Florida dipping to eradicate the cattle tick was begun by state and federal forces in one county (Levy) of the district this year. The coming spring two other counties (Marion and Alachua) are prepared to begin this work. Beef cattle appear likely to command a good market price for several years. Interest is good for bringing in improved bulls as soon as ticks have been eradicated. Pasture work will






Annual Report, 1929


be pushed in these counties during the coming year. Farmers were assisted in the purchase of three purebred bulls and. one feeding demonstration is now in progress.
The tick has now been eradicated from North and West Florida counties. Beef cattle production is now assuming a more important role. Heretofore it has been strictly a "range scrub" proposition. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board has introduced many Aberdeen-Angus bulls and a few cows. The county agents have assisted farmers in getting 82 bulls and 29 cows during the recent year. They are influencing farmers in some instances to care for them better, They have assisted in assembling and marketing a few carloads of beef cattle.
Sheep,-There are approximately 43,000 sheep in North and Northwest Florida. The number has been decreasing for years. These sheep are on the range. Wild animals and dogs kill some each year. But internal parasites-worms-are responsible for the largest mortality. By drenching with a solution of nicotine sulphate and copper sulphate these can be removed. Demonstrations on three flocks have been conducted during the last two seasons. The results show stronger sheep, less mortality among them, 25% increase in the lamb - crop and 1/4-pound heavier fleeces. The influence of these demonstrations is spreading and next season the county agents will carry the message to all sheep owners and many more flocks will be treated.
Dairy CattleThe dairy situation has made substantial progress. More home-grown feed is being produced and more attention being given to improved pastures than ever before. Marion, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, and Madison counties are conducting dairying on a sound basis and are beginning to secure'tlie benefits from the calves and -heifers imported since 1927. The exhibits of dairy cattle at the Marion County fair this fall were the best ever shown at this fair.
County agents conducted 28 demonstrations with dairymen, 1,247 head of cattle being involved in these demonstrations. They assisted in the purchase of 4 purebred bulls, 70 purebred heifers and in culling 10 herds, 436 head were culled and 98 culls taken from the herds. They assisted 204 dairymen in adopting improved practices.
DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given . 419 Animals in completed demonstrations . *--," 3,008 Saving resulting from better practices . $5,678 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 800 Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires . 62






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Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females . 121 Farmers who culled their herds . 61 Animals in these herds . 1,958 Animals discarded . 484 Farmers' associations who tested cows for production . 37 Cows tested for production . 2,067 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . . 264 Farmers who controlled insect pests . . 67 Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis . . 69 Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods . 186

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
The program of the Extensi o n Poultryman in "growing healthy chicks" was stressed by practically every agent in the district. Sanitation and the control of parasites has been a feature of the work also this year. The agents have backed the "Home EggLying Contest" as part of the extension poultry program, some very gratifying results having been obtained through the feeding of home-grown feed for egg production.
County agents conducted 119 demonstrations with 17,452 birds during the year, and 193 culling demonstrations were conducted where 24,811 birds were culled, over 5,000 culls being removed; 336 poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices with some phase of their poultry work.

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given . 770 Birds in these demonstrations . 49,813 Saving resulting from better practices . $ 8,685.53 Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock . 342 Poultrymen who culled their flocks . 1,920 Number of birds in these flocks . 57,312 Number of birds discarded . 14,040

RURAL ENGINEERING
There are rolling lands in Jackson, Escambia, Hamilton, Jefferson, Leon, Okaloosa, Washington, Walton, Santa Rosa, and Madison counties. There is an average rainfall of from 55 to 67 inches per year in those counties. The county agents of these counties conducted during the year 151 terracing demonstrations affecting 3,857 acres of land.
Forty-nine farmers and growers were assisted in installing or improving the drainage systems where 1,832 Acres were drained. Thirty-five farmers and growers were assisted in installing irrigation systems on 757 acres. They have been advised on and furnished plans for constructing 62 farm houses, 32 barns, 6 hog






Annual Report, 1929


houses, 40 poultry houses, 5 silos, and 42 miscellaneous farm buildings.
Irrigation systems in citrus groves and trucking sections have been installed on a number of farms this year. In one county more than 40 water-control systems were put in the past year. Water control in the vegetable area is developing very fast. These control systems consist in a series of dykes and pumps by which in case of excessive rains water can be pumped off or in the case of dry weather pumped in on the crops.

RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Demonstrations given . 502
Drainage systems installed . 44,227 224 Irrigation systems installed . 5,125 290 Terraces or soil dams constructed . 3,902 155 W ater systems installed . 34
Heating systems installed . 1
Lighting systems installed . 12
Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were
constructed or remodeled . 162
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled . 295
Number sewage-disposal systems installed . 17
Farmers who cleared land . 309
Acres cleared . 5,710
Number of farms adopting above practices for first
tim e . 838

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
In north and west Florida counties there were at the beginning of the year 21 small cooperatives existing in the territory and during the year 8 have been added. The county agents have assisted in the organization of these and advised their management.
In central and south Florida counties there are a number of good strong farmers' cooperative organizations that have been in existence for several years. The county agents cooperate with these organizations and render any assistance they can, and work inclose contact with these organizations. During the year county agents report assisting in forming 16 new farmers' organizations. These organizations purchased $433,893 worth of supplies, and sold $735,169 worth of products.
In addition to the above there were four satsuma marketing organizations perfected, two of which in cooperation with the Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange built packing plants and marketed approximately 40 cars of fruit.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Last year through the cooperation of the county agent in St. Johns County there was organized a Live-at-Home program contest. Many farmers signed up for the contest but due to the quarantine regulations which necessitated the destruction of a large number of fruits and vegetables, only a few finished the contest. There were more than 25 varieties of fruits and vegetables preserved and canned during the year by the contestants and in addition to the milk, butter, eggs, and poultry and meats killed for home consumption the average food produced by each contestant averaged up to $300. Value of hay, pasture, feeds grown for livestock and fresh vegetables were not estimated in the above figures.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Number method demonstrations given . 183 Farm account books distributed . 196 Farmers who kept records . . 110 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts . 97 Farmers who chafiged methods as result of keeping accounts . 62 Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems
according to ' recommendations . 315 Farmers advised relative to leases . 442 Number of junior farm account clubs . 10 Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records . 243 Number of fArms adopting improved farm management practices . 161







Annual Report, 1929


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent

The enrollment in boys' clubs as reported on September 15 showed a gain of practically 20 percent over that of 1928. This gain is encouraging. The increased enrollment was not confined to one or two clubs but was general in all projects. The calf club was the only one to show any appreciable loss in membership and this was caused by the fact that at the time the boys should have been getting their animals, the county agents were engaged in the fruit fly work.
The following figures show the enrollment in different projects, the first figures being for 1928 enrollment and the second, in each case, being for 1929-Corn, 442 and 655; cotton, 285 and 282; potato, 150 and 209; truck, 276 and 391; citrus, 26 and 114; poultry, 472 and 562; pig, 366 and 456; barrow, 332 and 334; calf, 206 and 160; miscellaneous, 124 and 48; total 2,679 and 3,211.

LOCAL CLUBS
There has been a gradual increase in the number of organized clubs. . The county agents are discovering that organizing the boys of the community into a club increases the percentage of reports as well as secures a larger enrollment. The thinly populated sections offer a difficulty for successful organization in some counties. This difficulty is being overcome through the consolidated schools in some cases.
In 1929 there were 212 local clubs with 2,702 members. These club organizations are from 21 counties.

COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS
The work of organizing the local clubs into a county organization has not been carried out in many counties. There are county 4-H club councils in Escambia, Hillsboro, Walton, Suwannee, and Hamilton counties. More work needs to be done in perfecting county organizations.
OUTSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS
The most efficiently organized county is Union County with L. T. Dyer as County Agent. Boys' club work has been conducted in this county for three years. In this time, the organizations have been built up until three good local clubs are functioning. It is a small county and does not have many farms. At first there was little enthusiasm for club work, but each year it has increased






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through the efforts of the three local clubs until now club. work is the most popular phase of extension work.
The enrollment was increased 70 percent over that of 1928 and every project was reported excepting one. In this case, hogs got into the boy's corn acre and destroyed the crop. This is the best record of reports ever received in the State.
The largest organization is in Escambia County where the boys are organized into 19 clubs with a total enrollment of 325. This county was the first to form a county council for Boys' 4-H work. . An example, of what a good local club can accomplish is that of the Allentown club in Santa Rosa County. This local club under its president, Ralph Arant, not only secured reports from all its members but one, but also took complete charge of the county club contest program.
LEADERSHIP
The need for efficient local leaders and the seeming impossibility of securing adults, has forced us to turn to developing leaders from, among the members. We were encouraged to attempt this by the fact that our few good adult leaders were former club members who had an understanding of the real- aims and purposes of the 4-H program.
In some counties work in leadership was started by bringing s I ome of the older boys to the county seat when an all-day meeting was held. The results were so satisfactory that a 3-day leadership school was held in October at the 4-H camp in West Florida. At this time, four older boys and four older girls from each of the eight counties having county or home demonstration agents in that territory together with their agents were invited. A program of leadership was developed with especial reference to leadership in recreation and to training for holding county contests. The results were beyond expectation. The agents attending have reported that it was the best help they have received in their club work.
I In 1930 we will attempt to hold 1-day training schools in every county where the agents are interested and at least three joint schools will be held in the state.
- Among the best member leaders in the State are Frederick Barber of Escambia County, Arlington Henley of Walton County, and Hugh Dukes of Union County. These boys have been active in helping in all phases of the work. They have been leaders not only of the work in their communities but have visited other communities and helped arouse enthusiasm.







Annual Report, 1929


SPECIAL OCCASIONS
The need for a better understanding of 4-H club aims and ideals is one of the great problems in promoting club work. 'To make the public realize that we have an organization worthy of commendation and support is but a part of our work. We must secure a better understanding of what we are attempting among the people most concerned-the farmer and his family. Publicity is the best means of doing this. Not only through the press but by means of public appearances of the boys and girls themselves. We are using rally days, camps, picnics, contest days, demonstration teams and public club meetings to let the world know what we are doing. Six rally days, which were attended by 1,100 boys, 19 county camps attended by 875 boys, eight picnics attended by 600 boys and 25 contests attended by over 3,000 people were held during the year. Demonstrations were put on in 12 counties and many public meetings of the local clubs added to the attempts made to let the public know what we are attempting.
The 4-H club initiation ceremony has proven a popular means of explaining the purpose of the work. Walton County used this ceremony as a large part of a meeting at the county seat. It was necessary to rent a big hall and charge admission. The town's people came out as well as many farmers and their families. The result was that the 4-11's and their meaning were understood and appreciated by everyone who attended.
WEST FLORIDA 4-H CLUB CAMP
The regional camp in the Choctawhatchee National Forest is growing in size. One cottage was added this year. Dining room equipment was improved and a sanitary sewerage system for the control cottage was added.
A total of 355 boys and girls from seven counties attended the camp during July and August. A leadership training school was held at the camp in October. The capacity of the camp is but 60 at the present time. More cottages are needed.
STATE SHORT COURSE
The 1929 short course was conducted along the same line's a s for the past three years. Thirty-four counties were represented by 202 boys. The inspiration received from this trip is illustrated by the boy who said that he won a thousand and two dollars in club work last year-two dollars in cash and a trip to the short course.






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PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS SOIL BUILDING
If 4-H club work is to be of real service in improving agricultural conditions it must do its part in increasing the fertility of the soil. An attempt is being made to interest the crop club members in planting their club acres to a winter cover crop. Twenty-three boys planted their club plots to a winter cover crop of Austrian winter peas and vetch.
Yutch Lee of Santa Rosa County gives a good example of a successful demonstration of the value of a winter cover crop in its effect on the following crop. He planted his acre to Austrian peas, using 300 pounds of acid phosphate. The crop was planted in the fall of 1928. He planted the acre to corn in the spring of 1929 and produced 67 bushels without the use of commercial fertilizer. Using no fertilizer the cost was reduced to 18c per bushel.

FARM CROPS
(1) CornThe average yield of club acres for 1929 was 43.4 bushels per acre. The state average is around 14 bushels, which shows that the club boys are demonstrating better methods of corn production. The largest yields at the lowest cost were produced in Hillsborough County when the corn was grown as a catch crop after the ground had been highly fertilized for winter vegetables. In this county 54 boys reported an average yield of 67.6 bushels per acre. Five boys produced over 100 bushels each, or an average of 107.5 bushels per acre.
(2) CottonThe work of cotton club boys has given the best illustration of how club work can be used to demonstrate in a practical way better methods of production. The 137 boys reported produced 127,677 pounds of seed cotton, or an average of 931 pounds per acre. This is an average increase of 359 pounds per acre over that for the state. Better seed and improved fertilization were responsible for the increase.
In Santa Rosa County 26 boys reported average yields of 814 pounds. The year 1929 was unfavorable for cotton, as nearly all boys had to replant and the stand was poor. Twenty-two of these boys made an average profit of $27.70. Four of them had an average loss of $8.44. It is interesting to note that of those reporting a loss, the yields were under 400 pounds seed cotton per acre.
In Walton County 12 boys produced an average of 660 pounds seed cotton per acre. Eleven of them made an average profit of $22.09. One boy produced 206 pounds and suffered a loss of $9.90.







Annual Report, 1929


HORTICULTURE
This covers citrus, truck, and garden clubs. The storms in South Florida destroyed the gardens one time but the boys replanted. The profits varied from a slight loss to over $200 profit. Six boys in Hillsborough County produced 9,850 quarts of strawberries at a profit of $890.50. In the same county 5 boys in the truck club produced 1,150 hampers of vegetables at a profit of $976.00.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
The pig club continues to grow. The enrollment was increased about 15 percent. In the fat barrow work a new plan was begun. Under the new plan the club member plants two acres to feed crops; one to early corn and Spanish peanuts, the other to field corn and runner peanuts. The first one should be ready for hogging off by July 1, at which time three barrows weighing about 70 pounds each are turned into this acre. By August I to 15 the second acre is'ready and the pigs are taken from first acre and put on the second. The pigs are ready for market by October 1. The results were satisfactory and we hope to increase the enrollment in this club for 1930.
Hugh Dukes of Union County is an example of a wide-awake pig club boy. Hugh grew out three barrows and one gilt in 1928. He sold these and bought a fine registered Poland China sow from a breeder who exhibited at the Florida State Fair. The sow presented him with 10 pigs of which he raised eight. Hugh took exceptional care of these. He sold three and kept five. He planted feed crops and grew out three nice barrows. He saved two gilts and made them weigh over 200 pounds at 6 months. He showed his gilt at the State Pig Club contest and won the Frank Dennis $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture.
Dillworth Carter of Jefferson County took three barrows from a litter raised by his 1928 pig club pig. He raised them and won Grand Champion Club barrow at the State Pig Club show.
DAIRY HUSBANDRY
With a gradual eradication of the cattle tick, interest is increasing in the dairy club. Madison County is getting well supplied with purebred Jerseys, due to the 200 head of calves imported for the dairy club members.
Leon County had 22 members in the dairy club who'exhibited 27 animals. This club has studied feeding and showing their animals. The Leon County Dairy Club exhibit is the best in the State. The banks and business men of the County are behind this project. The first prize dairy club boy is awarded a trip to







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the National Club Congress at Chicago, the second prize boy is awarded a purebred calf. 0. C. Brown won the Chicago trip on a bred heifer which he raised in 1928 club work.
John Williams of Marion County is starting a little herd. He has two cows and two heifers which he has raised in his club work.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project has not come up to our hopes and expectations. A new plan has been worked out for 1930. Under this plan the member can either manage the present farm flock or start in with enough pullets or baby chicks to make it worth his efforts. The smallness of the possible profits under the old plan of one setting of eggs seemed to be the big drawback.
Jack Platt of Marion County has a record which is exceptional. He began his third year in the poultry club with 100 laying pullets and hens. He put 400 eggs in a hatchery and got 370 chicks of which he raised 325. During the year he spent $158.50 for feed sold $385.30 worth of eggs, and $97.00 worth of fryers. He ended the year with 275 purebred pullets and hens. His profit for the year was $518.40.
Lena Bennett of Union County did a good job of trapnesting. Lena started the year with 34 pullets. She culled and lost down to 24. Of these' one laid 298 eggs in one year and six laid over 275 eggs each. In addition to her pullets she bought 100 more chicks and raised 91 of them. Her profit for the year is $187.13.

SUMMARY
PROJECT WORK
Of the 2,774 boys enrolled carrying 3,211 projects, 1,159 reported, with five South Florida counties out as they will not hold contests until January. There were over 2,000 farms touched by club work and $88,981.16 worth of animals and products produced by members reporting. This left the members reporting with Approximately $33.75 average profit.
MEMBERS ATTENDING COLLEGE
Four boys entered the College of Agriculture in September, 1929, on scholarships won for excellent club work. Forty-seven others were influenced to attend college this year. One county agent reported that one boy bad saved enough from his club work to pay his college expenses for two years. The influence of 4-H club work on its members in inducing them to secure a better education is one of the strongest reasons why club work is growing in strength and in the good will of the public.






Anmtal Report, 1929


DAIRYING
HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
PRODUCTION PROBLEMS OF FIRST IMPORTANCE
The expansion of the dairy industry in Florida is possible only when production costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profitable manufacture of milk into butter, I cheese, condensed and powdered milk.
There is an adequate supply of fluid milk for domestic consumption produced in the state except during the tourist seasons. This extra supply had best be shipped in rather than produced at home until Florida dairymen produce milk for manufacturing purposes that may be used as fluid milk for a few months during the tourist season.
Production problems that seemed most important were the growing of forage and pasture, with better practices in feeding. A system of records that would supply information to the dairyman will help in improving present conditions.
The introduction of purebred sires and systematic culling of low producing herds are items in the 1929 dairy program that have received attention this year.
In farm dairying the production problems have been featured as most important. During 1929 nine counties have opened creameries.
ECONOMIC CHANGES AFFECTING WORK
Plans are being laid to have more feed grown in the future, to stress better methods of handling milk to improve quality, to have dairy organizations to look after the interests of dairying in legislation, and to protect the dairy interests of the state against unfair competition of off-grade milk being imported into Florida. The Florida milk law was passed during the 1929 session of the State Legislature.
Methods to improve the class of dairy cows by systematic culling, by the importation of purebred sires, and by the keeping of individual farm production records have been practiced to the improvement of the dairy herds of Florida. The 1919 United States Census gives Florida 71,641 cows with an annual production of 1,307 pounds of milk per cow. The 1928 census gives Florida 62,940 cows with an annual production of 2,614 pounds of milk per cow. The Experiment Station, in a survey of 250 dairy farms with 12,550 cows, gives an average production of 4,327 pounds per cow.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PRODUCTION COSTS REDUCED
Production costs can be reduced; first, by better feeding practices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd improvement association in every dairy center of the state; fourth, by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper feeding practices and a's a basis for constructive breeding and culling.
MAKE DAIRYING A GREATER ECONOMIC FACTOR IN THE STATE It is hoped, by improving the methods of production in the state, to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural county where feed crops can be grown profitably.
PRODUCTION OF FEED
Information from dairy records and economic surveys show production costs are high because there is a shortage of pasture and grazing crops. Too much roughage is bought instead of being grown on Florida diary farms. This in illustrated in the dairy survey made in the Tampa and the Ocala areas. Fifty-eight farms around Tampa fed the average cow 4,745.5 pounds of grain a year costing $110.00. On 29 farms in the Ocala area the average cow consumed 2,400.2 pounds of grain at a cost of $55.63, and produced more milk.
In the Tampa area the milk production cost was $2.82 a hundred pounds. In the Ocala area it was $1.52 a hundred pounds. Pasture, silage and other home-grown roughage represent the difference.
PASTURES
There has been encouraging progress made along this line during 1929. Ninety-one farmers seeded 1,081 acres to permanent pastures in the state, with the advice of the county agents. Dairymen are learning the value of fertilizing the permanent pastures and keeping them mowed.
The county agent of Marion County reports that dairymen of the North Marion County Dairymens' Association reduced by 50 percent the amount of grain feed purchased over 1928 by having good pastures.
SILOS
Fourteen new silos with a capacity of 2,600 tons were built and most of the silos formerly constructed were used.
FARM DAIRYING IN WEST FLORIDA COUNTIES
There has been increased interest in the production of sour cream. Progress in some counties has been very pronounced.






Annual Report, 1929


Foundation work was done in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa several years ago.
Two farmer-owned and operated cream stations at Laurel Hill and Baker were established in January, 1929. The county agent reports that $18,000 worth of cream was marketed from these two stations this year. Mrs. C. S. Howell of Baker purchased two calves in 1924. Mrs. Howell sold $161 worth of cream from these two cows from January 1 to October 15, 1929. She spent $11 for concentrates. The home-grown feed consisted of 5 acres of Bermuda, lespedeza, and carpet grass pasture, 1/2 acre of cat-tail millet fed as a soiling crop, and velvet beans. Mrs. .Howell raised two heifer calves also which were valued at $35 each and in addition had milk and butter for a family of three.
J. W. Malone, county agent, has arranged for people of the county to purchase a carload of bred heifers early in 1930. He also plans to enlarge the home-grown feed program another year, and organize a cooperative bull club association.
Two very successful all-day farm demonstration schools were held at Baker and Laurel Hill in September to enlarge the dairy work. Three hundred and sixty people attended these schools.
Santa Rosa County farmers bought a carload of bred Jersey heifers in 1928, and these animals are showing up in a good way now. In the Allentown community farmers are raising the calves on separator skimmed milk. . They have a cooperative bull club of four blocks and are securing more registered bulls.
Jefferson and Madison counties each has a creamery. Four hundred and forty high grade Jersey cows and heifers and some registered bulls have been bought by farmers. The Jefferson County Creamery buys cream from West Florida counties some 200 miles distant, also from Georgia.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES
The extension workers placed 67 purebred bulls with farmers. There are three cooperative bull clubs, with two to be organized early in 1930. There is much to be done in proven sire work and the building of proper quarters for bulls out on the farms if dairymen are to make substantial progress in improving their farm herds. A large percentage of the farm bulls are being killed before the farmer has a chance to know whether they possess the powbr to improve the herd.
The counties making most progress with cooperative bull club associations are Marion, Santa Rosa, and Madison. Walton and Okaloosa counties are to organize cooperative clubs in 1930.






Florida Cooperative Extension


RAISING DAIRY CALVES
The demonstrations in raising dairy calves are causing an improvement in the quality of calves. There were 121 4-H calf club members enrolled this year, with 91 completing the work.' This represents a few members in a large number of counties. The outstanding results with registered calves is being done principally in Leon, Madison and Marion counties. G. C. Hodge, county agent in Leon County, has featured the purebred calf club and has grown out some well developed calves. A noticeable improvement indicates a genuine interest in the development of the heifers the second year.
The state club leader has agreed to change the name from the 4-H calf club to the 4-H dairy club another year, with the view Ito placing the high awards on the completed dairy demonstration which is the mature milking cow. The dairy club work to take the boy through four years' training.
1h Madison County B. E. Lawton, county agent, estimates that the $3,000 invested in 155 heifer calves in 1927 has increased to over $20,000 in value. Proper feeding practices have done much to remove that erroneous idea that calves cannot be grown successfully in the state.

DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS
The increased number of dairy production records in the state is giving good material for organizing demonstrations for dairy work. County agents report 59 dairies keeping records on 1,327 cows, 78 farms with 1,727 cows culled 456 cows in 1929.
Through the county agents the practice of feeding grain mixtures rather low in protein to the poor producers in the winter months with a view of butchering low producers has been encouraged. This puts them in beef condition with enough milk to pay the feed bills.
With the 15-year cycle for low price for dairy products approaching in 1930 dairymen are being urged to cull closely.

DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS
There are local dairy organizations in 13 counties: Duval, Marion, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Manatee, Palm Beach, Dade, Orange, Polk, Leon, Escambia, and Okaloosa. They are working principally on production and marketing problems.
The Leon County milk producers' association is also assisting in the 4-H dairy club. They contributed $78 for this year's prize






Annual Report, 1929 47

money. The meetings are held in the farm homes and the 4-H club members hold joint meetings with them.
The North Marion Dairy Association orders the grain feeds cooperatively: in carloads. At the county fair this association collected the dairy animals exhibited with an association truck. This association also collects the milk from the farms, grinds feed and fills silos cooperatively.
The Duval County association has paid for the equipment for a testing laboratory costing $260. They are now spending approximately $1,500 in advertising the dairy work in their county.
Flagler County and Volusia County dairymen hold their meetings jointly, at the farms of the members. These meetings are held at the noon hour in the form of a luncheon and after lunch they have a field meeting to discuss dairy problems.
The Florida State Dairymen's Association held its annual meeting at Farmers' Week in Gainesville in August with a large attendance.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRICULTURE
E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist
The two fundamental problems in the production and marketing of Florida citrus fruits are (a) improving the quality of the fruit and (b) reducing the cost of production. All extension activities in citriculture have centered around these two problems.
The main factors affecting the quality and cost of production may be summed up as disease and pest control, soil fertility, and soil moisture control. Our program of work in disease control, therefore, provides for definite projects in the control of (a) melanose, (b) citrus scab, (c) blue mold decay, and (d) tree trunk and root diseases. The projects in pest control include (a) rust mites, (b) citrus aphis, (c) scale, and (d) whitefly. The soil fertility work consists of projects with cover-crops and fertilizers. Soil moisture control work has had to do with improving methods of irrigations and providing better drainage.
In addition to the above regular projects, considerable time has been devoted to special service work; so that every phase of citriculture has received attention. Citrus meetings or schools were held in practically every commercial citrus producing county.
On April 6, just when our extension program for the year was getting well under way, the Mediterranean fruit fly was discovered in Orange County and later found in 20 of the leading citrus producing counties of the state. Growers all over the citrus belt were thrown -into such confusion and fear as to the outcome that many of the regular grove operations were either greatly modified or abandoned to reduce maintenance costs to the minimum. For months every extension man in the eradication area devoted practically all of his time directly or indirectly to eradication of the pest; consequently our extension citrus program could not be carried out as planned at the beginning of the year.
IMELANOSE CONTROL
The program for melanose control was perhaps affected more than any other project, since the spraying season for the control of this disease April 15 to May 10, came while the confusion and excitement over the outbreak of the Mediterranean fruit fly was most intense. There was considerable spraying done, however, with satisfactory results. More attention than usual had been given to the matter of soil moisture control and to correcting other conditions in the grove that so often result in the production of much dead wood in the trees during late fall, winter, and early






Annual Report, 1929


spring, followed by a heavy melanose infection. Improper oil spraying in the fall, especially when followed by low temperature, often results in numerous dead small twigs, perhaps the most fertile source of melanose infection the following spring. Heavy dropping of f ruit in the fall or winter caused directly or indirectly by a deficiency of soil moisture, is usually accompanied by a heavy melanose infection the following spring, coming from the numerous "buttons" and dead ends of twigs from which the fruit dropped. Perhaps the most economical melanose control has resulted from correcting cultural practices and grove conditions productive of dead wood in the trees. The old adage is still true: "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". Fortunately it has not been a "bad melanose year", owing largely to the dry spring following a warm winter, and the loss from melanose has been below the average.
SCAB CONTROL
Scab control is not a serious problem. Control measures have been very definitely established and are fairly economical. Of course there is room for improvement. It is largely from this standpoint that the project is presented. Except in a few cases where conditions seemed to warrant the use of I to 25 or 1 to 40 lime-sulphur solution, homemade 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1/2 to 1 percent oil emulsion has been used. In some cases spraying with I to 25 or 1 to,30 lime-sulphur solution immediately before the first flush of growth was found to be the most economical practice. In all but extreme cases successful efforts have been made to work out a spray schedule by which the grower can attain satisfactory scab control with one application of the spray material. The cost of scab control should not exceed 7 cents per box.

BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL
Under the conditions it was not possible in any way to measure results of our educational efforts in reducing the losses from blue mold decay this year. However, outstanding improvements in the methods of handling citrus fruits, which are bound to result in less blue mold decay, have come about during the last two years through the efforts of the large marketing organizations.
TREE TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES FOOT ROT
Through demonstrations a number of growers have adopted the "machine method" of treating foot rot and are saving 75 per-






Florida Cooperative Extension


cent of the cost of the old hand method. The regular grove power spraying outfit.is.used, with one hose, open nozzle and high pressure, to wash,;,tbe ' dirt away from the roots. The same outfit adjusted for spraying is used to spray a strong Bordeaux mixture on to the crown roots. Many trees in advanced stages of foot rot are being saved by building a mound of soil or clay 18 to 30 inches high and 12 to 16 feet in diameter around the trunk of the diseased tree. Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and again become profitable producers.
GUMMOSIS AND PSOROSIS
Gummosis and psorosis have not been as prevalent during the year as during previous years. Fairly satisfactory results have been attained in the treatment of these diseases by scraping off the outer bark only, of the diseased areas, scraping back a'few inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disinfectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some other mild tree wash or paste. It seems that any shock that lowers the vitality of a citrus tree may result in renewed development of cases of these diseases of old standing as well as in new outbreaks. The most important thing, therefore, in the control of these diseases is to keep the trees vigorous.

RUST MITE CONTROL
A special rust mite control campaign was planned at the beginning of the year, to reach the principal citrus producing counties, but had to be abandoned upon the advent of the Mediterranean fruit fly. However, several dusting and spraying demonstrations were carried through, and many growers were instructed in more economical rust mite control. The demonstrations were designed to teach growers how to attain more economical rust mite control by more timely and more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby reducing the number of necessary applications. Several organi-' zations have been induced to purchase more efficient equipment and do their rust mite-control cooperatively, thus greatly reducing the per box cost. With proper equipment and timely applications the -average cost of rust mite control should not exceed 4 cents per box with a normal crop of fruit. In many groves it is being done at a total cost of 2 cents per box.
CITRUS APHIS CONTROL
Owing to weather conditions and natural control the citrus aphis did not develop into a serious pest during the year, except






Annual Report, 1929


in a few small areas. Consequently very little artificial control of this pest was practiced.
SCALE CONTROL
In scale control our efforts have been directed toward improving the method so as to obviate much of the injury resulting from oil spraying and to increase the efficiency of scale control measures. In many cases the efficiency of oil emulsion spraying for scale control is so low, because of improper application or low temperature, that the loss through oil injury to the trees is greater than that which might have resulted from leaving the trees unsprayed. Demonstrations are proving that too much oil spraying is being done in many of the groves. An oil spray should be applied only when conditions warrant its use, and then it should be applied in a manner that will give the highest percentage of kill practicable.
In an increasing percentage of the old groves of the State scale control is admirably taken care of by the scale fungi, while in these groves the problem of whitefly control is largely solved by the brown fungus and occasional reintroduction of the red aschersonia. The use of this natural control of scale and whitefly is increasing and is being taken into consideration more and more in planning the scale and whitefly control program.
COVER CROPS
Instead of being handicapped by the presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, as was the case with most of the projects in our program of work this year, the cover crop work received a great stimulus. This is accounted for by the fact that growers, having no assurance that they would be permitted to sell their 1929-30 crop of fruit, or even the next crop, began to think and plan for maintaining their groves through an indefinite period of no returns. It was then that our Crotalaria cover-crop demonstrations of the previous year became extremely popular and the demand.for Crotalaria seed began to increase very rapidly. On the strength of one visit to a Crotalaria cover-crop demonstration in a bearing grove, where the grower's records showed that by making use of the leguminous cover crop the cost of fertilizing the grove had been reduced about 50 percent, and at the same time his grove was kept in a most excellent condition, an order for 20,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed was placed for planting in the spring of 1930.
Our cover-crop work during the coming year promises to be extremely popular and very productive of results. Already more






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than 100 tons of Crotalaria seed have been ordered for planting this coming spring.
. FERTILIZING
A great saving in the cost of fertilizing citrus groves is resulting from the use of inorganic nitrogen compounds in connection with cover crops, and through the use of higher analysis and cooperative purchasing.


Fig. 5-County agents and group of farmers visiting the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred to study fertilizer experiments.

It has been clearly demonstrated that an inorganic nitrogen at 15 cents a pound will give the same results in tree growth and fruit production as an organic nitrogen at 40 cents a pound. Since the cost of fertilizer represents 30 to 60 percent of the total cost of producing citrus fruits and approximately 58 percent of this cost is nitrogen, a great opportunity for reducing the cost of production is presented to the grower who has been using largely the organic forms of nitrogen.






Annual Report, 1929


POULTRY
N. R. MEHRHoF, Extension Poultryman
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest

SITUATION
The poultry industry in Florida apparently is now on a much .sounder basis than it has been for some time. As stated in previous reports, there has been quite a fluctuation in this industry. That is, there was a so-called "chicken boom" which naturally increased the number very rapidly and at the same time resulted in a great many people entering the poultry business who had no conception of it. Naturally a certain length of time was necessary for the inefficient and inexperienced either to change methods of management or get out of the poultry business.
This change of conditions has brought about a healthy state for the poultry enterprise. The producers are now really analyzing their business more closely and are adopting those fundamentals which are conducive to success.
During the early part of the year, there apparently was a decrease in the sale of chicks, but as the season advanced and conditions improved, the demnd for baby chicks exceeded the output. This resulted in securing fewer early pullets for winter egg production. Even after the baby chick season was at a close, the demand for pullets of various ages increased as the summer and fall months made their appearance. It is conservative to say that this demand far exceeded the supply. Apparently this alone would justify th e statement that the poultry industry is on the rise.
Egg prices held up better in the spring than the preceding year and with the formation of marketing agencies, the producers appear to be more optimistic over this industry.
The breeders and hatcheries have been able to supply a better chick to the producer, thus demonstrating the improvement of quality poultry on the farms.
Interest in all of these phases of poultry management which are essential for success has increased.
Such fundamentals as chick production, culling, disease control, and record keeping were more popular than in preceding years. METHODS OF CONDUCTING POULTRY EXTENSION WORK
The dissemination of poultry information was accomplished by employing various methods. In some cases all of the methods suggested were used.






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Meetings arranged by the county or home demonstration agent made it possible to bring to the producers that information which was timely and pertinent. At these meetings the latest authentic information available was presented and discussed. Meetings made it possible to reach a greater number of people and to acquaint them with the desired information. Poultry meetings were held in most sections of the state. Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate better methods and practices.
Poultry information was presented to the junior poultry.club members at their short courses. "Poultry Hints" were prepared every two months and distributed to the agents throughout the state. The agent in turn distributed them to poultry producers.
Each month a report of the Home Egg-Laying Contest is sent to each contestant and to all agents. This report shows the results of the contest and gives poultry suggestions. Articles for publication were prepared.
An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers' Week. This is an opportunity for all poultry enthusiasts to get together and discuss their problems.
Personal visits during the year to the various poultry farms offered a splendid method of being of assistance to the producer.

PROJECTS
The special projects during the year were:
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feed.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home Egg-Laying Contest.
5. Junior poultry clubs.
POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS GROW HEALTHY CHICKS
Successful poultry production is dependent to a great extent upon the rearing of chicks. It is from these chicks that the pullet crop is to be developed, and unless the pullets are reared without any serious handicaps, such as diseases and parasites, a quality pullet cannot be put in the laying house.
The grow. healthy chick campaign was put on through the cooperation of county agents and home demonstration agents and poultry producers. The first campaign was conducted in 1928 with some very interesting results which will be compared with the results secured in 1929.






Annual Report, 1929


Fundamentally, the grow healthy chick campaign was started to reduce chick mortality which would influence the quality of .pullets produced.
Briefly, the workings of this campaign were as follows:
1. Enrollment of producers by means of postcards, letters, newspaper publicity and personal visits,
2. News articles distributed by -agents to producers discussing the six factors involved. These sent at intervals of 7 to 10 days. Disease cards, mortality cards likewise distributed to producers.
3. At the end of season record cards were collected by the agents and sent to Gainesville for tabulation.
The 1929 grow healthy chick campaign involved these six fundamental factors:
1. Hatch early
2. Clean eggs and chicks.
3. Clean br ooder houses.
4. Clean land.
5. Balanced ration.
6. Separation of pullets and cockrels.
The following data have been assembled from the records submitted: There were 38 poultry raisers who kept records on chick mortality. This number is three more than last year, but only 22,000 chicks were put under the brooder in the 1929 campaign as compared to 30,000 in the 1928 campaign.
The number of chicks per producer ranged from 26 to 4j000, the average being 579, as compared with 84 'in the first campaign.
Twenty producers reported feeding milk in addition to what may have been already in the mash; 14 feeding liquid milk and
6 dry milk.
All producers except one used some brand of commercial feed. All fed scratch feed.
All fed some type of green feed except four, who did not report
-one way or the other. The time of feeding the green feed ranged from the start to four weeks, the average being two weeks.
Pullets and cockrels were separated at approximately the 7th week, one week later than in the first campaign.
Growing mash was fed at the 5th and 6th weeks.
Only five producers hatched part of their chicks after the first of May. The great percentage of chicks were hatched during February, March and. April.
A total of 21,985 chicks on 38 farms were placed under the brooder and at the end of eight weeks 3,049 chicks had been lost.







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This represents a mortality of 13.87 percent, or 10.39 percent less than in the first campaign. TABLE I.-PERCENT OF MORTALITY BY WEEKS ON 38 FARMS IN 1929 AND 33 FARMS IN 1928.


Week

1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 .
8


Accident 1928 1929 3.63 1.00 .20 .15 .12 1.50 .12 .47 .09 .06 .05 .19
.02 .04 .01 .03
4.23 3.45


Disease 1928 1929 3.90 2.06 3.90 1.73 2.82 1.48 2.34 .37 1.16 .15 .57 .24 .48 .18 .48 .43 15.65 6.66


Average 1928 1929
7.52 3.06 4.10 1.88 2.94 2.98 2.46 .84 1.25 .21 .62 .43 .50 .22 .49 .46
*19.88 *10.11


*The difference between the two average mortalities given here and quoted in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that six producers did not report weekly mortality.

It is of interest to see in 1929 a reduction of 9 percent in losses due to diseases.
The average mortality per farm ranged from 1 percent to 47 percent.
Twenty producers had a chick mortality of less than 10 percent.
Ten producers had a chick mortality of from 10 to 20 percent.
Eight producers had a chick mortality of over 20 percent.


TABLE II.-ANALYSIS OF THE 1929 CHICK CAMPAIGN. Number of Factors Number of Mortality
Adopted Farms in percent Factors n
6 17 1.00-10.21 .
5 5 3.84-13.32 Hatch e
5 5 11.44-37.25 Clean la
5 1 36.91 Clean e


ot Adopted . .
arly nd


os and chicks
16.03 Sep. pullets and
cockrels
11.94-23.95 Balanced ration


Four farms reported mortality due to chilling.
Two farms were omitted, due to insufficient records.
These results are much better than those obtained in the first campaign, which t6nds to show that the producers are studying their conditions much more closely and apparently are adopting those practices which are fundamental for successful chick production. Clean land is one of the factors to which more consideration should be given.
No doubt some of the high mortality was due to some management practice not included in the campaign, such as chilling and






Annual Report, 1929


overheating. These factors will be overcome as the producer secures more experience in the poultry business.

GROW GREEN FEEDS
This particular phase of work was advocated at all times during the year. All extension agents have stressed the value of green feed in the daily diet of poultry. Apparent sickness, lower production, etc., can be traced to a great extent to a lack of this important part of a feeding program.
It has been rather difficult to secure definite results which would materially assist in furthering this project.
Publicity data discussing the importance of green feed and also the various types of greens to be planted with instructions as to when, how, where, etc., were distributed to producers. No doubt this material has brought about some improved conditions relative to green feed.
Observations of poultry farms have emphasized more and more the importance of green feed, a ' nd there is no doubt that efficiency in growth or in production would be increased if a suitable green feed program were worked out on each farm.

CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS
The maintenance of a high.producing flock is the goal of all successful poultry producers. This is accomplished by adopting a few management practices, such as feeding, housing, sanitation, and quality birds.
Even though these factors are practiced. it is necessary to be able to eliminate those individuals which for some reason or other do not prove to be profitable producers. The elimination of the poorer egg producers will not only increase the average egg yield but will also reduce the feed cost and increase the returns.
A systematic procedure of culling should be practiced and the producers throughout the state are realizing this and endeavoring to carry it to completion. During the past year the Extension Poultryman gave 25 culling demonstrations. At the culling demonstrations, the various characters of a high and low producer were discussed, after which the people present handled a number of birds, they themselves deciding the merits of the individual. These demonstrations offered a splendid opportunity to discuss other management practices such as feeding, disease and parasite control, and other factors pertaining to economical poultry production.






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HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST
Every poultry producer in the state of Florida should keep a record on his or her poultry business. - A simple yet complete record enables the producer to learn more about the business and make. the necessary improvements.
The Home Egg-Laying Contest was started four years ago. Records for the four years are now complete. The fifth contest started the first of November. The main purpose of the contest was to stimulate better methods in poultry production, first, by having the producers keep records, second, by analyzing the results obtained and then attempting to find a way of improving the efficiency of the poultry farm.
The rules and regulations of the Home Egg-Laying Contest are as follows:
Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry flock.
Entrant must have standard-bred poultry.
Entrant must send reports to agent's office monthly.
The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the number of birds as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds; farm flock, 51-250 birds; and commercial flock, over 250 birds.
Monthly reports showing the results for the month and to date, together with timely poultry information, are sent to the cantestants and to farm papers. At the end of the year a summary is sent to each contestant.
The results of. the Fourth Home Egg-Laying Contest are included in this report, showing the monthly egg production, average total production for the year, percent culling, and percent mortality.
Table IV shows the average monthly egg production for the backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks, together with the. total egg production per bird for the year.
The average egg production per bird in the four contests is worthy of comment. In the first contest the production per bird was 149.1 eggs, while in the second it was 153.9 eggs, an increase of 4.8 per bird. The average for the third contest was 156.6 eggs, an increase of 2.7 over the production in the second contest. The average egg production in the fourth contest was 160.30, an increase of 3.70 eggs above the production in the third contest. The production over the four years shows an increase of 11.22 eggs per bird. Evidently this increase would tend to indicate greater efficiency in poultry production.







Annual Report, 1929


TABLE III.-DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE FOURTH FLORIDA EGG-LAYING CONTEST.


Month Backyard
November . 7.38 December . 10.27 January . 14.26 February . 16.18 March . 18.84 April . 18.69 M ay . 17.61 June . 13.79 July . 15.20 August . 12.64 September . 10.31 October . 6.89
Total . 198.60


'Farm Commercial
7.63 6.49
8.49 8.63
13.14 13.55
16.26 15.41
19.44 20.10
18.32 19.59
16.68 19.13
15.48 16.36
12.61 14.54
9.95 11.32
7.51 7.37
4.87 4.60
149.88 161.16


Average
6.76 8.70 13.50 15.62 19.93 19.18 18.48
16.04 14.20 11.05
7.54 4.75
160.32


TABLE IV-WINTER EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD JANUARY).
Backyard Farm
1928-1929 . 31.91 29.26 1927-1928 . 40.70 23.30 1926-1927 . 33.10 28.80 1925-1926 . 22.10 17.70


(NOVEMBER THROUGH


Commercial
28.66 26.30 25.90 25.70


Average 28.96 25.80 28.20
24.00


In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to note the winter egg production (months of November, December and January) during the four contests for the three different groups and the average for the entire contest. It will be seen in Table IV that in every case except with the backyard flocks the winter egg production is higher in the fourth contest than in any other. This would tend to indicate that the producers are hatching earlier and thus bringing their pullets into production in the early fall so as to secure a greater gross return per bird.
The percent of culling during the year was heaviest during August, September, and October. The average for the year was 50.28.
The average culling percentage for the different classes of flocks for the entire year were:
Percent
Backyard group . "*******' 76.45 Farm group . --****- 76.64 Commercial group . 41.88

The mortality was 2 percent higher in the fourth contest than in the third.
The average mortality for the entire contest was 11.66 percent. In the different flocks the mortality percentages were as follows:' Percent
Backyard group . 16.66 Farm group . 15.42 Commercial group . 10.11






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Greater interest is being manifested by the producers throughout the state in the Fifth Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest, and indications point toward a greater number of contestants than ever before.
POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS
The various poultry associations have been a means of extending poultry information, and improving poultry conditions in general.
The two state organizations known as the American Poultry Association of Florida and the Florida Baby Chick Association have assisted the Extension Service in developing greater efficiency among the producers. The former organization with headquarters at DeLand has fostered standard-bred poultry and assisted materially in helping the juniors secure high quality stock. The members have been of great help in educational programs. The latter organization with headquarters at Plant City has for its motto BETTER QUALITY CHICKS. The members have cooperated with the local agents and with the Gainesville office in attempting to deliver better chicks each year. Accreditation work is under way and handled under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. I
The community and county poultry associations have been a means of stimulating interest and enthusiasm in the producer. Much educational work was accomplished through meetings.
During the past year interest in cooperative marketing has increased and two regional organizations have been formed whichfrom all reports are operating successfully.
The State Marketing Bureau has employed a Poultry Marketing Specialist who has worked in close cooperation with the local agents and the Gainesville office. When this work is developed sufficiently, the poultry industry will as a result develop.
Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with the regular organized poultry associations.

JUNIOR POULTRY WORK

Each year at Gainesville and Tallahassee a short course is held, at which time the outstandingclub members assemble. At these short courses intensive poultry instructions are given. This has been of material. help in the junior poultry work.
Club'contests were held in various. communities and counties at which the members exhibited their poultry. The number of









poultry club members has been reduced during the past year due primarily to the change in requirements which were made more
rigid.

NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a
very successful close October 23, 1929. A brief summary of the
Third Contest as compared to the others is as follows:
The high individual was a Single Comb White Leghorn which
laid 309 eggs during the 51 weeks,
In comparing the egg production we find that the average egg
yield has increased each year. In the first contest it was 186.5,
in the second 190.9, and in the third 200.7 eggs per bird.
The feed consumption per bird for the three contests is shown
in Table V. The total feed consumption is about the same f or the three years but in the last contest there was quite a marked difference in the mash and scratch consumption. In the first two contests the mash consumption was greater than the scratch while
in the third the reverse was true.

TABLE V.-FEED CONSUMPTION PER BIRD IN POUNDS.
Heavy Breeds Light Breeds 11 Average
1926-1 1927-1 1928- 1926-1 1927-1 1928- 1926-1.1927-1 1928FEED 1 271 281 29 271 281 29 1 27 281 29
Mash . 38.39 40.421 26.35 67.661 36.71 27.56 37.861 37.54 27.31 Scratch . 34.35 39.33 50.87 29-111 33 1 38:74 30.61 34.42 41.25 Oats . 7.91 5.65 4.77 7.9 65 4 9 7.93 5.65 4.79 Semi-Solid I I
Buttermilk . 9.37 12.18 13.8011 9.42 12.18 13.88 9.40 12.18 13.86 Grit . 2.76 2. 28 2.62 2.65 1. 83 2.47 2.68 1.93 2.50 Shell . 4.24 3.50 3.62 4.60 3.371 3.61 4.50 3.41 3.61 Charcoal . .61 .51 .47 .60, .42 .46 .60 .44 .46 Total . 1 97.631103.871102.50 92.021 93.241 91.6111 93.581 95.631 93.47 Total without
grit, shell
and charcoal 1 90.0j 97.561 95.79184.1711 87.591 85.0711 85.801 89.8j 87.22

Table VI shows the amount of feed'required to produce one
dozen eggs for the light and heavy breeds for the three contests.
It also shows the relative feed cost per dozen eggs for the heavy and light breeds and the average of the two for the three contests.
In the third contest the feed cost per dozen eggs was considerably lower than in either of the other two contests. Both the increase in production and the lower cost of feed brought this
condition about.


Annual Report, 1929







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The number of pounds to produce a dozen eggs has been lowered each year, due primarily to an increase in total average egg production, for the total feed consumption is practically the same for each contest for the light and heavy breeds. The efficiency of the hen is increased when feed consumption per dozen eggs is lowered.

TABLE VI.-POUNos FEED REQUIRED AND COST OF FEED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN EGGS.
Total F Ieed Con- Feed Consumption Total feed cost Breed sumption exclud'g grit, shell prdzneg
IIand charcoal pe doeIeg
1211927-11928-111926-11927-I 1928-1'1926-1 1927-11928l2 2 92728 29 27 281 29
Heavy.7.831 7.921 6.711 7.211 7.441 6.271 . 2361 .2641 .200 Light.6.10 5.56 5.36 5.58 5.221 498' 186 .1871 .161
Average .6.52 6.01 5.59 5.98 5.64 5:2011 :198 .201 .168

FEED COST PER BIRD PER YEAR
The feed cost per bird per year for the heavy and light breeds and the average is as follows:
Heavy Breeds 11Light Breeds Average
1211927- 1928- 1926- 1927- 1928-111926-11927-1192892I 2 29 7 28 29 27 28 29
1 3.211 3.471 3.0211 3.041 3.121 2.7211 3.091 3.201 2.78

The feed cost for the heavy breeds is 30 cents higher than the light breeds in the third contest.
The average price of feed per 100 pounds delivered at Chipley was: Mash, $3.21; Scratch, $2.85; Oats, $2.48; Semi-solid Buttermilk, $4.06; Grit, $1.10; Shell, $1.10; Charcoal, $3.00. The price of mash, scratch, and semi-solid buttermilk were lower than in the second contest.
MORTALITY
During the third contest the total number of birds lost was 159 or 14.98 percent. The percent mortality in the third contest was slightly lower than in the second contest.







Annual Report, 1929


PART III-WOMEN9S WORK
COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON State Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, district Agent
Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent

CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION
This report covers the work of 34 county home demonstration agents and three assistant agents working in 35 counties. Home demonstration agents'at the close of the year are working in 33 counties in Florida. Three of these workers have two counties each. Four of these six counties are making appropriations for the support of the work. The other two counties do not have sufficient funds for the employment of both a county agricultural and a county home demonstration agent. The entire salary of the agent in these two counties is, therefore, paid from State and Federal funds, this year.
There were some reductions but increases in other instances make the county appropriations remain about the same regardless of bank failures, Mediterranean fruit fly, and other reverses that made retrenchment in county budgets necessary. It seems that home demonstration work has held its place because of the welldeveloped program that is meeting the needs of the people whom it serves: Programs are flexible enough to be readjusted to most emergency situations.
There has been no change in the personnel of the state staff. Among the county workers there have been six resignations, including three where the work was discontinued, two transfers and four new appointments. Counties in which home demonstration work has been dropped during the year include Columbia, Nassau, Putnam and Taylor.

ASSISTANCE RENDERED BY STATE SUPERVISOR AND ASSISTANTS
State and district supervisors study the conditions in each county and discuss these with the agent and representatives from various communities in the county. Publicity is given to the purpose and methods of developing home' demonstration activities through public talks by the supervisors, newspaper articles and reports before the appropr!Ating bodies. Supervisors help to







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determine the best time for club enrollment, program development and necessary changes in programs because of unexpected conditions. They assist in organization of local clubs, county councils and development of leaders to assist in carrying out the year's program of work. They assist in providing material and equipment needed.

COMMUNITY PROGRAMS OF EXTENSION WORK
Community programs with which home demonstration agents, work are almost altogether with women and girls. Community exhibits with educational and recreational programs are helping to bring the entire communities together socially and with a better understanding of home demonstration work. However, the number of communities is increasing in which monthly joint programs are developing. One of the district agents makes the following statement: "With the year just closed, there is to be noted an enlargement. of the community home demonstration clubs for women into an organization, separate from but supplementary to them, in which there is a membership of men, women, and children brought together for a larger social life. One such club is on Pine Island and was formed by a club woman who attended Farmers' Week and received there the idea on which her group was formed, this idea being that good and pleasure can come from the enjoyment that the majority have in meeting together for community music. This same interest, stimulated by the home demonstration agent, resulted with benefit in the observance of Music Week. In Marion County the women's club of the Shady Community has a similar organization by the name of the Sing and Smile Club which includes the men in its membership and has evening meetings of the nature suggested by its name."
Organized home demonstration clubs are functioning in 595 communities in Florida. They have a membership of 10,280 girls and 6,312 women. The work has been extended into 54 more communities than last year.

COUNTY PROJECT COMMITTEES
Project committees were appointed by the county home demonstration councils for work in the home demonstration clubs. Their duties have been to help in the promotion of the projects such as home gardening, and marketing of products; to secure records; to be responsible for exhibits; to give demonstrations when advisable; and to serve as leaders in helping the home demonstration agents develop the plans for continued growth of interest and







Annual Report, 1929


results through gardening or whatever the project might be. Instructional meetings for local leaders are being held regularly under the direction of county home demonstration agents, in counties having a good many voluntary leaders. In this way the project leaders understand the limitation of their duties and become acquainted with the standards and general purposes of home demonstration work.
COUNTY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
County home demonstration programs are based upon (1) individual, community and county needs as seen by the agent, those taking advantage of home demonstration work and state supervisors; (2) upon available assistance from county and state officers.
Our plan for developing programs of work is to work through county councils consisting of the president and one other delegate from each home demonstration club.
Some of the factors considered in developing a county program and a statement regarding results are found in the following extract from the report submitted by the home demonstration agent in Gadsden County: "Since all other phases of club work are more or less dependent upon the production of fruits, vegetables, poultry, eggs and dairy products, all club members in the county are required to have something living and growing and to keep records of results. The aim has been to have more and better balanced meals, better health, better clothing and some of the little comforts and conveniences which should be in every home. It isn't such a hard task to persuade people to adopt higher standards of living if they have the money necessary for maintaining these higher standards. The task is to show the people with whom you are working how to add to the family income. In an attempt to carry out this thought the 1929 motto is 'Produce more and sell more.'
"As a result of the effort put into assisting and encouraging club members to grow more vegetables and poultry for home use and some for sale, they have in the county, pantries filled with a variety of canned fruits and vegetables, new bank accounts, new pieces of furniture, more shrubs, roses and other plants, better poultry yards and houses, several homes screened, some new coats, dresses and hats that would never have been bought except for the few chickens, vegetables or canned products sold. Four women have been so successful with poultry this year as to show their husbands in dollars and cents that all cash needs of the family were met with money from the sale of chickens and eggs."







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SUPERVISORY PROGRAM
For the general development of home demonstration work throughout the state we had the same five main objectives in 1929 as in 1929. These are outlined in the following paragraphs:
First, development of the type of programs that would fill the greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration work. A study of the county reports will reveal the fact that the, economic aspect formed a background for programs developed.
The agents gave more of their time to the development of home gardening, foods and nutrition, clothing and home improvement than to any other.project activities. Consequently,. there-is a noticeable increase in the number of homes adopting improved practices along these lines over those of Jast.y.ear. Among the increases it is interesting to observe the growth in marketing of home products. Emphasis given to the live-at-home program including gardening, home dairying and poultry work has contributed to better foods and nutrition practices, through the marketing of surplus products girls and boys have been assisted in furthering their education, and effective improvements have been secured in many homes.
Second, leadership development to assist agents in executing plans for the year. Although local leaders can be held responsible for only a small part of the development of home demonstration programs, they can be of considerable assistance to the agents when properly chosen and instructed. It is the policy of the state staff to urge only the selection of real leaders, women who are understanding, well trained, who because of their acc'omplishments in their own home are capable leaders in a particular phase of work, and are so recognized by other women in the neighborhood. Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the younger girls' clubs. A successful 4-H leadership training camp was held for older boys and girls at the West Florida Camp prior to county contest days this fall. Each county in the camp territory was permitted to send four girls and four boys for special instruction in the making and carrying out of constructive programs 13resented on contest day. Conducting the camp were the two District Agents, Boys' Club Agent and State Home Demonstration Agent, assisted by the county and home demonstration agents from the counties represented and Mr. H. P. Jackson of the American Playground and Recreation Association. This camp resulted in general improvement in the management of exhibits and educational programs in connection with them.







Annual Report, 1929


During the year there were 455 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 408 with the women's work. This is an increase of 298 over last year. There were 162 training meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 4,631 leaders. The attendance is an indication of the increasing interest among the volunteer leaders. . Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary requirements.' There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among the girls' organization. Enthusiasm has soared in this connection this year due to the'fact that a silver loving cup was presented at this year's State Short Course to the standard club- making the best score for work accomplished in 1928. Glendale Club in Walton County was the recipient of this honor. The members of that club have a widespread influence for better club work in. that county. One hundred and twenty-four girls have received certifleates this year for the satisfactory completion of four years' club work. There are 560 girls who have carried 4-11 club work for four or more years. ' One hundred and eight club girls entered college this year. It is encouraging to see the figures in the last two items increase annually.
Third, to further develop community and county organizations, especially the local home demonstration clubs and county councils.
There are 807 active home demonstration clubs in the state; 561 of these are girls' 4-H clubs and 240 for women's work, an increase of 17 clubs in girls' work and 39 clubs in women's work.
Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in the community is the formation of county councils composed of the president and one elected 'representative from each home demonstration club. There are 29 councils for girls' work and 24 for women's work. They help to plan and execute plans for the year's work. They are promoters and boosters of home demonstration work. The president and one representative from each county council form the two state councils. The development of women and girls through their council work is remarkable. These representatives themselves feel the value of this training and the response ability it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls, Florida State College for Women. This organization is providing a former club girl with a scholarship for attendance at Florida State College for Women. Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10 annually to the Scholarship Fund of their State Council.






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The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the University of Florida. Splendid reports were made at the council meeting this year. This council is providing a scholarship fund to be awarded to a 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State 'College for Women. Considerable enthusiasm is shown over the silver loving cup which was presented during the annual meeting by the state council to the county council scoring highest for the past year's work. Lee County Council was the recipient but will have to retain it for three years to become the owner.
Fourth, to reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form a closer contact with the rural homes.
A total of 6,312 women are enrolled in home demonstration work; 5,580 of these women carried definite programs throughout, the year, adopting improved practices and establishing demonstrations in their homes. A total of 13,181 visits were made into 6,363 homes, which was a gain of 2,022 home visits over 1928. It is believed that contacts formed through home visits with a purpose are invaluable in home demonstration work.
Fifth, to extend home demonstration work into a larger number of counties.
As explained earlier in this report, increases this year offset ,the loss in number of counties financially supporting home demonstration work. An effort is made to make the programs in home demonstration work so desirable that an extension into other counties just as soon as finances will permit will be demanded.
OFFICE ORGANIZATION, RECORDS AND REPORTS
Agents file in their offices daily, monthly and annual records and reports of their work; individual and club records and usable material for advancement of the work. They are supplied with the necessary record books and report blanks by the State Extension office. Demonstration and office equipment is furnished usually by the board of county commissioners.
Outstanding among demonstration equipment is that found in the new splendidly equipped kitchen in Lee County. A small but well equipped kitchen has also been provided this year in Escambia County. Broward and Duval counties have provided and equipped demonstration kitchens for the agents this year. These new additions bring the number of well-equipped demonstration kitchens for the agents' use up to 17. Special rooms in communities for holding club meetings are growing in number and demonstration equipment furnished.






Annual Report, 1929


Twelve counties provide stenographic assistance. The stenographers take care of office calls in so far as they can in the agent's absence, and render general clerical assistance to the agents. Sixteen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have telephones; 10 agents are furnished cars from county funds.

MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
Home demonstration work has been considerably strengthened during the year because of the fact that the agents remained "on the job". New positions have been filled with well-trained, competent women. They are either college graduates with teaching experience and a good background for home demonstration work or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced agents, bef ore assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged with experienced agents and in the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans* of work and available literature. They are given special duties at State Short Course for Clubairls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week and special attention during district and state conferences. The district ag ent assists in forming contacts in the county.
Because of shortage of state funds, district meetings usually held at, the beginning of the year were dispensed with. Staff conferences were held once every two months instead of once a month to avoid duplication of travel.
The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held in joint conference with all extension workers in Florida at the University of Florida, September 30 to October 4. For the most part the program consisted of lectures and conferences on developing the work throughout the year.

PUBLICITY
Newspapers and farm papers are generous in the use of home demonstration material furnished. Some of the agents maintain columns in the weekly papers. One agent interested an editor in her county in sending the paper at one-half the subscription price to families where there is a club member. Club secretaries or club reporters in turn must supply the paper with club news.
The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the last two years given definite instructions in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county in attendance at the State Short. Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work he gives them. As a result many of the girls' councils edit and publish their own county club papers. Home demonstration work received






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publicity during the year through fairs, Farmers' Week, State Short Course for Club Girls, county contests, window displays, camps, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Business and Professional Women's Clubs, men's organizations and other cooperating agencies and the use of radios. The agents and women in two counties have been giving a series of radio talks on home demonstration work. Occasional. programs have been given via the radio in other counties. Delegations of club girls from four counties have broadcasted over state radio station WRUF. Home demonstration talks were given over WRUF during Better Homes Week, just prior to Farmers'Week, agents'annual conference and Christmas Day.

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS
State-wide programs, including those of specialists, are made with the purpose in view of developing the work in a way that will best serve the people. These programs are presented for discussion and understanding -during the agents' annual conference. The district agent, county agent and specialist in joint conference decide what part or if the whole is applicable in the county specified. Available material is provided and needed assistance, so far as possible, is furnished the agent by the state office. All county programs of work have'been followed up by the district agents this year. State and district agents have studied programs of work and reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and accomplishments achieved have been made.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 595 Voluntary county, community and local leaders . 863 Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors . 561 M em bership . 10,280 Clubs carrying on extension work with adults . 246 M em bership . 6,312 Home visits made by agents . 13,181 Different homes visited . 6,363 Farm visits made by agents . 1,169 Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work . 50,064 Average number days spent in office . 80 Average number of days spent in field . 213 Official letters written . 83,002 Exhibits at fairs . 91
Com m unity . 51 County . 28 State . 12
M eetings held . 1,404 A ttendance . 80,052 Extension schools and short courses held . 22 Attendance . 2,686







Annual Report, 1929


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Number
communities
participating
Home gardens . 455
Beautification of home groun s . 23 Home dairy . 57
Home poultry . . 343 Rural engineering . 165
Home marketing . 150
Foods . 491 Nutrition . 412
Clothing . 549
Home management . 268 House furnishings . 388 Home health and sanitation . 397 Community activities . . 328 M iscellaneous . 274


Days agents devoted to projects
928 33 39
4873/4
178
1231/2 9891/2
797
1,4061/2
267,/2
704
3941/2 3621/2
5441/2


PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS
Other members of the state home demonstration staff have dealt in detail with the home demonstration project activities, including outstanding stories of the work. Therefore, this report will be confined to brief statements of the developments in the state as a whole.
The objectives in project activities are the same as last year. Goals were higher and in most cases accomplishments exceeded goals set and surpassed those of last year.

HOME GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS
With the gardening and perennial plantings we are continually working toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the home; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish means to increase income. The foods and marketing agent who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splendid cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, Federation of Women's Clubs and individuals in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. In all 13,353 women and 5,272 girls have worked definitely along this line. A total of 5 999 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices in home garden work, which means an increase of 1,861 individuals and an increase in more than a thousand homes adopting improved practices in gardening over last year. Interest has been stimulated through monthly letters carrying timely information; utilization score card; garden scores; suggestive canning budget for the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; demonstrations; all-year garden contests; and awards. Excellent individual records have come to the state office as a result of these contests. The agents






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report 1,017 demonstrations and 928 days devoted to this phase of work.
POULTRY
Home demonstration agents working under the leadership of the Extension Poultryman stressed growing healthy chicks, growing green feed, culling, and home egg-laying contest. Fifteen counties report a profit of $51,823.24 on result demonstrations conducted under the supervision of home demonstration agents and the Extension Poultryman.
HOME DAIRYING
There seems to be an increasing interest in home dairying and use of milk and milk products in the diet. This is believed to be due to some extent to the information obtained through nutrition programs. Seventeen counties report 877 homes as having adopted improved practices in home dairy work this year, an increase of 311 homes over those reported in this project for 1928.
NUTRITION
The general plan and purpose of the nutrition work this year has been to put into operation a constructive and comprehensive food program, including food selection and preparation and meal planning for family, school lunch- ' group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying and gardening. Results have been determined by the improvement shown in food selection and health scores of women club members, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nutrition and by better records in the health contests,
The fact that the National Health Contest was won by Florida's representative, Florence Smock, will create far more enthusiasm in this phase of home demonstration work. A total of 6,554 homes were reported as adopting improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demonstration agents. Thirty-five schools were induced for the first time to serve a hot dish or lunch at noon. A trip to the National Club Congress was awarded to Lela Mae Duke of Walton County for showing the greatest improvement as a result of her nutrition work.
FOODS
The preparation of foods has a place on various club programs, is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying gardening, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show that 3,526 women and 4,954 girls completed food preparation demon-






Annual Report, 1929


stations outlined for the year, an increase of 2,592 individuals over last year. Thirty-four counties report 5,865 homes adopting improved practices in food preparation. The nutrition and foods and marketing agents are leaders in this phase of home demonstration work.
Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and marketing agent has been encouraged so as to preserve food for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting food from a distance, encouraging the live--at-home idea, insuring varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products into marketable shape. Reports show that 5,379 homes adopted improved practices in food preservation this year. Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves and pickles were made; fruit juices were extracted and preserved. The increase of 1,372 homes following instruction given by home demonstratioil agents this year has been brought about largely as a result of the Mediterranean fruit fly.

CLOTHING
Girls often become club members and conduct the required living and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage of the clothing work. This includes proper selection of materials, construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; millinery, costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe planning. A total of 2,652 women and 5,357 girls completed clothing programs as outlined for the year. Thirty-one county reports show that 7,917 homes adopted improved practices in this phase of home demonstration work. There is no leader for this phase of the work, it is supervised by the district agents.

HOME MARKETING
Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly of poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wiregrass and palmetto, and rag rugs. Four curb markets and two home demonstration shops functioned to the advantage of club members throughout the year. These have been established and managed mainly through women's home demonstration councils. Walton, Volusia, Palm Beach, Gadsden, Holmes and Dade counties carry interesting reports of marketing home products. Reports on home marketing for the year are not complete. Those submitted thus far show that in three counties records have been kept of home products sold valued at $47,027.91 with a profit of $20,492.80.






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HOME IMPROVEMENT
Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairying and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make home improvement work more easily accomplished. When the agent can help to increase the family income she is in a better position to discuss methods for home improvement. The home improvement work under the leadership of the assistant state home demonstration agent has seen a splendid growth through the year.
Emphasis has been given to the importance of sanitation, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects to the extent that 26 counties report 3,650 homes as having improved sanitary practices.
According to the reports from 20 counties, 586 homes followed instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineering in the homes. This means that more people each year are constructing and remodeling dwellings according to plans furnished; installing sewerage systems, water systems, heating systems and especially lighting systems, since big power lines are beginning to serve the rural districts. Special instruction was given the agents during the annual meeting on buying standards and use of electrical equipment.
More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents this year to the beautification of home grounds, with the result that 4,813 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home grounds, and 561 of these have beautified theirgrounds according to a landscape plan. Club girls and women in some of the counties adopted county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show. This aided materially in the beautification program.
That women and girls are learning to plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor-saving devices; to arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry practices; and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact that 2,677 homes improved practices in home management work during the year.
A total of 1,831 women and 1,705 girls have completed the year's work in house furnishing, which included selection, arrangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all, 1,321 women and 704 girls worked over walls, woodwork, and floors and 3,984 homes in 33 counties have been reported as adopting improved practices relative to the house furnishings work conducted by the home demonstration agents.






Annual Report, 1929


COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Interest in securing of club houses for club and community meetings and kitchens for demonstration purposes has increased considerably this year. The school lunch continues to command community interest. This year 13 counties report 35 communities induced to serve a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. These lunches were served to 4,845 children. Club members assisted with 51 community fairs. Ninety-eight school and community grounds were planted this year according to landscape plans furnished by the home demonstration agents. There were 408 communities that carried some definite community work as a part of the year's program.
MISCELLANEOUS
A total of 1,065 women and girls in five counties did definite work in rug-making and 1,060 women and girls are reported as having learned the art of turning such native materials as pine needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other articles. There were 2,180 women and girls who did definite work in crafts. Many of these articles have been marketed individually and in home demonstration shops.

STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION In addition to individual visits, club meetings, agents' meetings, county and state councils mentioned elsewhere in this report, home demonstration work has been strengthened through the following activities:
STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS
Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on the counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is 14 or 15 years. There were 461 girls, 37 local leaders and 31 agents in attendance. Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by extension workers and club members in various phases of home demonstration work. Outstanding features were project demonstrations in the afternoon, health contest, afternoon program for recognition of accomplishment.






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A special period of instruction once a day was given over to work with the leaders. At other times they observed work with the girls.
Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida State College for Women.
The Florida State College for Women set aside a Week between the spring and summer terms for the extension department to hold the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, laboratories, and class rooms were available. The college nurses rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The dietitian rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls because of the good food served.

FARMERS'AND FRUIT GROWERS'WEEK
The women enjoyed Farmers' Weekat the University of Florida as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations and instruction were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University professors, and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding features were exhibits, group work with women actually working where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work. Mention of council activities was mad ' e elsewhere in this report. Music appreciation was a new feature that the women enjoyed.
Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federatimis of women's club.

COUNTY CAMPS
There were 43 camps held during the spring and summer. Thirteen of these camps were for women, four for boys and girls, and 26 for girls only. Local leaders and two special camp workers attended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps. There were 412 women, 1,315 girls and 65 boys who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents.
CONTESTS
Through county contests, club exhibits were displayed, demonstrations were given by club members, and the agents and super-






Annual Report, 1929


visors had a means of observing the county-wide response to the work; analyze the work for improvement; get the work before the public; and create a better community and club spirit. The part taken by local people and contestday programs rendered by club members themselves have been invaluable in selling the importance of club work to the public.

RALLIES
Varied plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. Hillsborough County has continued to hold a rally for the women's clubs once each two months with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same county had a community rally or picnic once a year in each community with good attendance. The pleasure of getting together and hearing and giving club reports has inspired club members, women and girls, to better their individual work and that of the community and the county. The plan of having rallies for seniors and community picnics at least once a year has extended with good results into most of the other counties.
DEMONSTRATION TEAMS
In order to train leaders, develop efficiency, and encourage club members in giv! ng public demonstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members, and ability to interest others in home demonstration methods. , Home demonstration agents trained 190 such teams, more than twice the number trained in 1928. These girls were invaluable in interesting other girls, and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work.

4-H COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the attention and interest of other students to home demonstration work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished high school. Among the membership of this group 'are some of the most outstanding girls in College. Members of the club areenthusiastic over the program they are developing this year.






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HOME IMPROVEMENT
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
Home improvement has made good progress and is responsible for a greater awakening in the improvement of the rural homes.
PROGRAM OF WORK
The 1929 program of work has included the following projects:
1. Home management.
2. Rural engineering.
3. House furnishings.
4. Thrift.
5. Home sanitation.,
6. Beautification of home grounds.
7. Electrification.
Too many homes have the "temporary" atmosphere; the bi g problem is to make "homes" instead of "temporary places", and to arouse interest in the belief that it is possible to have better and more substantial homes in rural sections that are properly planned for beauty, convenience, and comfort, within and without.
GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
All counties in which there were home improvement projects or phases of work for one or more years were requested to have 24 or more completed demonstrations. Any one of eight projects could be selected (kitchen, dining room, living room or bedroom improvement, sanitary premises, exterior beautification, old house remodeled or new house built). The selection was determined according to the immediate needs in the county.
It has been found best to approach the home management project in connection with a kitchen improvement demonstration. This concrete demonstration is linked with other projects in home improvement. There were 904 kitchens in 24 counties planned and re-arranged for convenience in saving time, labor, and energy and for improved appearance. There were 465 women in 13 counties following a systematized plan of household work; 2,139 women obtained labor-saving equipment; 593 women in 22 counties followed improved laundry practices; in nine counties 433 women made budgets and kept accounts; 122 washing machines and 397 kitchen sinks were installed; 2,677 women improved their practices in every day housekeeping. A number of women wore pedometers before and after improvement to really prove that they did save steps because of the re-arrangement of the kitchens, and because of better planning of the daily duties in the home.






Annual Report, 1929


The definite kitchen improvement work has created much enthusiasm for all home work.
Rural Home Engineering: Eighty-eight sewerage systems and 114 water systems have been installed in 16 counties; 153 lighting systems in 11 counties; 64 heating systems in 5 counties; 43 new homes in 9 counties have been completed where plans and personal help have been supplied by extension agents; and a few women drew their own house plans, taking ideas from plans sent from the state office. There are many marked improvements in a community after the successful remodeling of a home is shown. In all, 586 homes did something on the subject of rural engineering the past year by installing lights, water systems, and by building new homes and remodeling old ones.
Special demonstrations in house furnishings were given at group meetings of the home demonstration club members in a special room improvement project. Curtains, shades, rugs, draperies, etc., are considered and shown or made in connection with the study of wall and floor improvement work * The repairing and remodeling of furniture, walls, floors and woodwork and the making of artistic accessories and pictures were considered in the lientire room" demonstrations. There were 2,272 bedrooms, 1,306 living rooms, 901 dining rooms, and 1,698 kitchens improved in 35 counties having home demonstration work.
Thrift work is stressed in connection with the house furnishing problem. Women vie with each other to make the most artistic furnishings out of discarded materials. Thrift work has made use of used burlap and cotton sacks that contained fertilizer, feed, cotton, flour and sugar, making these into artistic house furnishings. These sacks are cleaned, bleached and trimmed with a stenciled design, or an embroidered motif in wool or with dyed stockings which have been cut into strips for embroidery, or with the application of felt and cretonne designs.
Attractive curtains, draperies, runners for tables, couch covers, bedspreads, soft pillows, footstool covers, etc., are made from these sacks. Mrs. Bettie Caudle, home demonstration agent of Holmes County, was the first person to make use of these burlap sacks in this way. After seeing one home improved in this way many women have taken up living room improvement. In Dade County after the storm of 1926 women were eager to make their storm-worn homes look better; there was little money. Because of this dire distress, the home demonstration agent and women listened to any plan that would be a "dollar extender." The Dade






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County home demonstration agent and club members have been enthusiastic workers in making artistic draperies and even clothing from discarded feed and fertilizer sacks. Others have made artistic articles for sale. Other home demonstration agents have popularized this work.
Home Sanitation: People have been indifferent to the mosquito and taken it as a matter of course. When people study home sanitation they realize that the mosquito breeding places, the poorly constructed outdoor toilet or no toilet, and unscreened houses are causing sickness and retarding their progress physically and financially. There were 370 sanitary toilets built; 481 homes screened; there were 3,650 homes in 28 counties'where sanitary practices have been adopted.
Exterior Beautification: The "tying the house to the ground" by lattice and foundation plantings, the open, green, grassy lawns, and group plantings for screenings have been stressed, hoping to overcome the indifference to the appearance of the houses that are hoisted high on pillars which look as if they are ready to jump, grassless yard, and to, improve the unkept and neglected surroundings.
Definite demonstrations in exterior beautification were made in 561 homes; there were 235 demonstrations in painting and whitewashing of the homes in 18 counties; 4,813 different homes were beautified by planting grass in yards, etc. Many of the houses once beautified but-which had become drab and painless, have been improved because of the exterior beautification project undertaken by home demonstration club members.
People are becoming more electrically minded. The power companies have given splendid cooperation. Two county kitchens which were electrified will help in teaching just how electricity can be utilized in labor-saving. Special instructions on reading meters and electric appliances for the home-maker have been presented in lectures at the state meeting and at Farmers' Week.
SUBJECT MATTER TEACHING
The subject matter in home improvement work is taught by lecture demonstrations illustrated by pictures showing the "before" and "after" improvements; articles displayed, and tours to special finished demonstrations in the homes.
Subject matter material is studied by club members who have signed up for home improvement work. Lecture demonstrations were given at regular meetings at the State Short Course, at Farmers' Week, and at other important gatherings of club members.






Annual Report, 1929


All home demonstration club members enrolled in home improvement are requested to cut from magazines good picture suggestions on each project; this awakens the interest of the entire membership on this particular project. The girls usually make the improvement in their own rooms; also they do creditable work in exterior beautification, home sanitation and better practices in dishwashing, table setting, cleaning of rooms, etc., and often encourage their family in having the house remodeled, or a new one built and appropriately furnished or painted.

AN OUTSTANDING DEMONSTRATION
Special attention is directed to a long-time demonstration conducted by Mrs. Pattie Mills of Alachua County, assisted by Mrs. Grace Warren, home demonstration agent. Mrs. Mills improved her kitchen and dining room three years ago. She then undertook a long-time demonstration which continued an additional 18 months; this included exterior and interior beautification of the entire house, sanitation, and beautification of the home grounds. Mrs. Mills was also a demonstrator in poultry, rabbit, and dairy, and gardening as the productive phases of her home demonstration club work.
She planted 300 bulbs, a variety of vines and shrubs, St. Augustine grass for her lawn; removed rickety fences and gates and rusting farm machinery from under the beautiful live oak trees. The barn and stock pens were placed in the rear lot. The front entrance to the house was shifted for convenience and appearance to a different side of the house. The utilization of the rooms was changed. A modern kitchen, was made on the back porch, several windows were added, the old kitchen was made into a charming dining room, the dining room into a lovely living room. The old parlor was made into a sewing room and spare bedroom. The hall, living room, bedroom, and dining room were papered; the woodwork was painted white, the floors were painted or waxed, and rugs were made or purchased. The house was painted, the outbuildings were whitewashed, and the stock and poultry were "fenced in."
In recognition of this outstanding demonstration Mrs. Mills was awarded third prize ($200) in a contest offered by the Southern Ruralist for home improvement in the South in 1929. Mrs. Mills paid for these improvements from the sale of her poultry, dairy products, garden and prize money. A tour to this home, conducted during Farmers' Week, aroused much interest in this excellent demonstration.






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HOME GARDENING, FOOD CONSERVATION
AND MARKETING
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent

The purpose of the gardening project is to establish demonstrations for a year-round supply of fresh vegetables and a constant supply of fruit maturing each month-for better health, for improvement and beautification of the home acres, and to increase the family income through the sale of surplus garden and orchard products.
ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST
The second all-year-garden contest closed November 1.
The kitchen card showing daily serving of vegetables, -(checked as fresh or as canned from the garden surplus), was required of each contestant. At least two fresh vegetables were served daily from the garden. A budget of the canned vegetables and fruits needed to supplement the yield of the garden, a complete story of the gardener's activities and photographs also were required of each contestant.
Holmes County reports 265 all-year home gardeners with records -showing a profit of $2,683.00, besides feeding large families, from these gardens. Twice during the year floods swept this county, and gardens had to be replanted each time.
Osceola has this encouraging report to make: "Our campaign 'a garden for every home' has gone over almost 100 percent. In almost every case some new vegetables are being grown."~ PERENNIAL PLANTING
It is possible to have fresh fruit from the Florida orchard or grove each month in the year. Florida produces a wide range of fruit, including strawberries, blueberries, peaches, pears, persimmons, pecans, bunch and muscadine grapes, and a wealth of tropical fruits-avocadoes, coconuts, guavas, loquats, pineapple, banana, tamarind, and citrus.
JUNIOR GARDEN CONTEST
Two garden contests were conducted among club girls during the year.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau offered for the 4-H club girls enrolled in gardening $150.00 in prizes-$50.00 in each district. The donors were willing to accept the plan of work as already outlined for gardening requirements for Florida 4-H club girls.






Annual Report, 1929


The S. L. Allen Company offered a garden plow, valued at $7.50 for the outstanding garden club girl in each home demonstration county. Also a plow valued at $18.00 to the girl having the most outstanding garden in the state. Miss Annabel Rauletson, Alachua County, qualified as the state garden champion. Annabel had a net profit of $282.13 from sales of fruits and vegetables from her garden.- Fifteen counties qualified for the S. L. Allen Company award, and in time received the award.
How well the gardening program has been carried out by the junior club members may be understood from the following extracts from a few of the reports:
Duval: "Every one of the 176 girls had a garden and planted seven or more varieties of vegetables, including 7,775 Marglobe tomato plants. The gardening extended beyond foodstuffs. Girls planted flowers for beautification, but as the Marigold had been selected as the County Flower, special attention was devoted to this. Seventeen varieties were tried out."
Walton: "Junior club members enrolled in gardening have shown some good results. Eighty-nine girls grew 22,199 pounds of vegetables. They received for vegetables sold $691.50. One girl sold $105.50 worth of strawberries besides those used at home. The variety of vegetables grown has increased. Among those recently added are endive, celery, parsley, spinach and chayote."
. THE COUNTY F LOWER
The program of beautification has been f further extended by the selecting of a County Flower. The selection of one flower and cooperating to make that outstanding has been undertaken by all but three counties. An annual is usually chosen first. This year many counties selected both an annual and a perennial.
The flower idea is giving zest and color to the vegetable program.
From Nassau: "It seems that this year there has been not only a greater increase in the interest in home beautification than ever before, but gardening as well has doubled over previous years in the county. When the program was made up last fall by the council, it was decided to continue our work with the chrysanthemum, our county home demonstration flower, and retain it as the annual county flower and add the rose as our perennial."

COUNTY FLOWER SHOW
It was suggested that during the height of the bloom of the county flower, a flower show be held and original flower songs, playlets, etc., be given as part of an educational program. This






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phase of gardening work has been carried on and has added much interest and color to the gardening program. Many counties have been encouraged to hold their first flower show. From indications it seems that the flower show will be a county event for which every home demonstration woman and girl will work. The foods and marketing agent has been told that- the friendly competition and amiable rivalry has done much to promote the flower-growing idea.
Just as the flower show is becoming a social event in the larger cities, and visitors are attracted from remote sections to them at flower show time, so do we in Florida home demonstration'circles believe that from our beginnings, visitors who, attend our shows will become interested in the horticultural and agricultural possibilities of the section, and will naturally be attracted to the advantages of the section as a place to establish their homes.
Thirteen home demonstration flower shows have been held dur ing the year.
FOOD CONSERVATION
Food Conservation has as its purpose to secure a more balanced and healthful diet in the home by conserving surplus fruits and vegetables from the home garden, trucking fields, groves and packinghouses; canning surplus meats at butchering time; culled chickens in the seasons of low market price; fish and game in order to distribute a supply throughout the year, and to provide the use of Florida products and furnish means of increasing incomes of girls and women in the home.

CONSERVATION SUMMARY
Kind of Food Women' Girls
Foods and vegetables canned . 341,458 67,4701/2 Meats and fish . 25,621% 2,628 Jelly and preserves made . 33,610% 20,283 Pickles made . 27,949 6,920 Fruits and vegetables, dried. i . 4,453 975 Meats cured . 185,700 1,779 Crystallized fruit . 1,063 .
MARKETING
The purpose of the marketing project is to enlarge sources of revenue from the sale of surplus crops, to establish curb, roadside, and home industry markets and to encourage buying necessary equipment and materials cooperatively.
Garden work has not only provided the families with the necessary vegetables and a means for making a little extra spending money, but it represents an open window through which the home






Annual Report, 1929


demonstration women and girls can see and acquire many of the beautiful things needed and desired, in providing the added comforts and conveniences for "more abundant living."
Polk . County: "The Lakeland curb market continues to fill a long-felt need, providing a market for vegetables for the farm. Many small truckers are growing summer vegetables, since they have this outlet for them. There are a number of people who are developing good business, marketing products, from information from this office. The Lewises have more orders than they can fill for their weaving, Mrs. Norris' pewter shop is gaining a reputation, Mr. Brown's candied fruit brings him a very satisfactory income. Mrs. Bizzell, Mrs. Baugh and Mrs. Flood have developed a good trade for their marmalades and jellies. Mrs. Stearns and Mrs. Devineaux are gaining quite a reputation for their rugs and there is a constant demand for the Bennett's brooms and cross stitch. Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Belcher and Mrs. Lampp have marketed a number of leather articles. The market in the craft shop has slowly become known and we dispose of a goodly number of articles."
Another county reports that: "Eight individuals sold $178.80 worth of canned products. Seventeen women and girls sold $1,213.50 worth of fruits and vegetables."






Florida Cooperative Extension


FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH
MARY A. STENNis, Extension Nutritionist

THE PROBLEM
"The Optimal Child" is the theme of the continuou's educational program for girls, women, and all the family. To overcome the health handicap due to undernourishment or mal-nourishment is the special aim of the extension nutrition program. Repeated studies for three years showed the outstanding needs to be as follows: (1) Increased use in families of fresh whole milk, fresh fruits, vegetables arid eggs. (2) Better understanding of the natural health advantages offered in Florida, such as sunshine, out-door living, all-year swimming. (3) Prevention of certain defects by proper food and health habits and the correction of defects already acquired.
THE PLAN
The plan for the solution of the problem has included both adult and child health education programs, definite and practical, and, at the same time, fundamental in the teaching of the principles of nutrition involved in the feeding of the family.
The adult program covers "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women's Clubs", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children", and "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young Children." The girl's program includes the following: "Watch-Us-Grow Demonstration" (girls 10 to 12 years of age), "Food, Nutrition and Health for Girls", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children", and a special year's training (for girls 15 or more years of age) in team or single demonstrations in salads, baking, and in other food preparation; in participation in the state health or health improvement achievement features.

GOALS
The following goals were set for 1929:
Women's Clubs: To complete the material for the second program entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children;" to continue, in the counties, the first program "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women;" to make plans for writing the third program for women entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young Children;" to continue community activities in cooperation with girls' clubs; to revise the material in use in "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women."






Annual Report, 1929


Girls' Clubs: To prepare and put into use a simplified "WatchUs-Grow" program, as preliminary to the more advanced program; to continue the program, "Food, Nutrition and Health for Girls," and to revis e the program material; to put into use more thoroughly the material in Bulletin 49, "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children;" stressing improvement of school lunches prepared at home and at school; to outline course for fifth and sixth year club girls; to continue activities in the following community, countyand state features:
1. Milk-for-health movements.
2. Lunchroom menus.
3. Health and nutrition achievement.

METHODS
Every nutrition program includes fundamentals of principle and of practice for the good of individuals, families, and communities. ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL such as photographs, slides, charts, food and food equipment, posters, animals, and children have been used to interpret the idea to the public. Women's clubs and girls' clubs, adopting nutrition as a major problem, have carried out PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATIONS as follows: Nine counties, better baking and nutrition; 17 counties, salad making demonstration (community and county), using Florida fruits and vegetables; 24 counties, posture demonstrations in every community; five counties, assistance with countywide milk-for-health programs; 20 counties, assistance with county health achievement days and with county and state nutrition achievement programs. Other community problems have been BETTER SCHOOL LUNCHES, MILK SURVEYS, BETTER 4-H CAMP MENUS.
PUBLICITY has been an important feature in the methods of presenting the program. Four state nutrition news letters (five page editions) were written. Occasions of awards for best records in nutrition and health have been used to feature nutrition material in the newspapers. Every news item has carried at least a few lines of program or subject matter. Health contests, achievement day programs, and milk-for-health programs have been occasions of popular, public, county-wide interest. The publications of the Department of Public Instruction, the ParentTeachers'Association Magazine, the Home Economics State News Letter, and The Florida Review of the State Department of Agriculture have carried many articles relating to the extension nutri-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tion program and newspaper clippings, relating to Florida's 4-H health program, have been made from almost every state. Five out-of-state magazines have carried articles. Exhibits of material were made at the State Short Course for club'girls, state agents' meeting, and Farmers' Week. Material was supplied for seven county fairs, and slides were used by eight counties. Radio was used in December. Special timely articles for holidays and particular occasions were written. The nutritionist served, in 1929, as editor of the State Home Economics News. Other publications in 1929 have been (1) revised women's nutrition circular 979,
(2) revised girls' circular 978, (3) -revis ed watch-us-grow cards,
(4) revised girls' record book, (5) completed Bulletin 49, "Food Nutrition and Health for Young Children."
COOPERATION WITH OTHER STATE AGENCIES has made the nutrition and health program better known this year. The following relationships have been effected: (a). Service of physicians of the State Board of Health in the county and state health contests. '(b).- Nutrition material supplied State Board of Child Welfare for use in state institutions. (c). Service on the executive committee of the State Health Council. (d). Service as chairman of home economics and school lunch committee of the State Parent-Teachers Association. Assistance has been generously given by the State Department of Agriculture in sending the 4-H club health contestants to attend the Boys' and Girls' Club Congress in Chicago and in the publication of nutrition articles with photographs.
Awards f or Achievement have helped to stimulate and maintain effort in producing a number of definite demonstrations to be used as much needed illustrative material.
Appropriate small awards of glassware or silver for highest achievement in using Florida fruits and vegetables in practical, everyday salads have been very happy endings each year for a plan of from 10 to 15 county-wide programs in salad demonstrations.
Five to seven trips to Farmers' Week for women ranking highest in the nutrition program and in better home baking has resulted in a collection of a number of well organized reports of work accomplished.
Three trips to the National Boys'and Girls' Club Congress for girls making best records in health and in health improvement, have very definitely caught and held the interest of advanced club members in planning and carrying out the year's program in a complete, finished form.






Annual Report, 1929


. Very small awards for achievement in posture have wrought splendid improvement and have glorified the effort.
The award of entrance in the national health contest by the state 4-11 health winner has gained the intense interest not only of every club girl but of almost every Florida girl.
All awards are reserved strictly for club members who have thoroughly completed the educational program of work. No contest, as such, exists. The award is for highest achievement in the educational program and its practical application to oneself, to the home, to the club and to the community.

RESULTS
Girls in 24 counties have carried a constructive long-time program in food, nutrition and health, including a preliminary program of growth work followed by the program of food value, selection, use, preparation and care. Evidences of good results have been noted particularly in the "health girls" selected in the counties each year. The state winner in health has, each year, raised the health score of Florida in the national health contest from thirteenth to seventh to second to first. Health improvement has been noted by physicians who throughout the state have made physical and medical examinations. It is estimated that in four years milk consumption has increased by 25 percent. The National Health Champion of 4-H girls in 1929 is a Lake County girl.
Women's clubs each year, for three, have gradually majored in food, nutrition and health, about 10 counties annually adopting this major project and the following year making it a minor project. Always the agents have reported increased interest in gardening, in the use of milk and fruit, in the care and correction of children, as well as in the improvement in food and health habits.
Miss Matilda Roesel, Marion County home demonstration agent, in giving results which have come to her county and clubs following a major nutrition program, says:
"There is a decided interest in better school lunches. A survey is being made and later the state score will be used to raise the standard of lunches.,
"Gardening (vegetables) has become more interesting to'the women. A year ago they showed very little interest and now they are ready to make plantings a project for 1930 and will also increase vegetable plantings.






Florida Cooperative Extension


"The selection of a major program and project and the carrying of a consecutive educational program throughout the year has now become an established fact. The women will never again be willing to do otherwise. They are working out a similar plan for next year on another subject.


Fig. 6-Florence Smock, a Lake County club girl (right),
was declared to be the healthiest club girl in the United States in 1929, winning this honor at the National Club
Congress in Chicago.

"Gain, in number of clubs and club members, has been evident all the year. Not only have the original clubs gained in strength but two new clubs have come in and will carry the major nutrition program this year. The type of program has gained the interest."
Lee County reports every club (women's) completing the Unit I program this year and good results showing in "better gardening, more dairy cows for milk supply, more canning of vegetables and fruits, three new school lunchrooms and decided improvement in others. Achievement Day programs were carried out by every






Annual Report, 1929


community." Following the year's program in nutrition the women have adopted "canning.and food conservation" for a major project.
Miss Eloise McGriff, home demonstration agent in Walton County, says, "As a result of our major project in food, nutrition and health the interest in gardening has greatly increased. Club girls have come to look on the garden as a most important factor in maintaining good health. Garden records of a number of vegetables served became more interesting. Salad making, practically new to most farm homes in this county, has become a popular way of using the garden."
Other results which may be counted are as follows
Milk-for-health has become a state-wide slogan among girls' and women's clubs. Child feeding demonstrations of 80 children and animal feeding demonstrations in 15 counties have resulted in at least an increase in milk consumption of 25 percent. As a result of the past three years' milk work, the State Milk Inspection Bureau, the State Department of Agriculture, the State Marketing Bureau, the State Parent-Teachers' Association have volunteered to cooperate in making April, 1930, Milk-for-Health month in Florida.
Salads in Florida have become more than style; they are now the habit.
School lunch improvement has made a small but sure beginning.
Better posture among club girls at least is observed.
Achievement Day programs in the nutrition program have shown better planning, better records, better understanding of a constructive program with a worthwhile goal.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PART-IV-NEGRO WORK
The headquarters for the Negro Extension work is at the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. There are two district agents, namely A. A. Turner, district agent for men and boys' work, and Julia A. Miller, district agent for women and girls' work. The College has cooperated since 1915 in supplying office space, heat and lights and has made available such other facilities of the college as may be useful in carrying on the work. During the periods when short courses are held or when the local agents assemble there the president and college faculty have extended all possible cooperation. Stenographic service is employed by the Extension service with one person to serve both district agents.
The Negro work has the same supervision as the other extension work. These district agents report to the state leader and state home demonstration agent for subject matter and supervision. Appointments are made on the recommendation of the district agents when workers are assigned to counties.
During the past year Gadsden County ha; been supplied with a local agent. In order to do this the work was discontinued in Bradford. This change was made due to the large number of Negro farmers in Gadsden County and the evident greater usefulness of the service under such conditions.
Negro extension work has been conducted in'eight counties for men's work as follows: Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia, Gadsden, Bradford, Alachua and Marion; and for women's work in seven counties, namely in Duval, Leon, Madison, Marion, Orange, St. Johns and Sumter.
These counties are selected because of the relatively large agricultural negro population, for statistics show that a large percent of the farmers in these counties are negroes than any other counties-the total of which show that 40 percent of the farmers in these counties operating farms are negroes and 60 percent are white farmers. This includes both tenants and owners.
This, however, does not include all the Negro farmers in Florida, but with limits on the funds that can be spent for this work, the counties named represent the number that can be profitably served by the agricultural Extension Division.






Annual Report, 1929


NEGRO MEN'S WORK
(Farm Makers' Clubs)

A. A. Turner, Local District Agent
County Local Agent Address
Alachua . William Stockton . Gainesville Bradford . J. W. Keller . Starke (resigned June 30, '29)
Columbia . E. S. Belvin . Lake City Gadsden . A. W . Bowls . Quincy Jackson . J. E. Granberry . Marianna Jeff erson . M. E. Groover . Monticello Marion . W . B. Young . Ocala Suwannee . C. T. Evans . Live Oak

WORK IN COUNTIES
Programs of work, are required January I to guide the county workers through the year. Recommendations are made, from the supervising office, Gainesville, as to type of work and subject matter. This program conforms in each case to the type of agri-, culture and the crops grown by the farmers in each county. The program includes organization work, club work, sanitation and exhibits. A summary of the agents' work shows as follows:
In 1929 the agents have worked in 88 communities of eight counties. They had the assistance of 151 voluntary leaders of the rural section in the organization of 129 junior clubs and 122 adult clubs to promote 4-H club work and such community activities as social betterment, sanitation and rural improvement. These efforts were responsible for a membership of 643 boys and 214 girls in the 4-H club. They also enrolled 704 men and 119 women in demonstration clubs, In each case about 50 percent of these members completed their project work.
In the junior work there were 164 boys and 94 girls who had continued their 4-H club work through a period of four or more years.
There were 2,431 visits made to 685 different farms and there were also 1,453 visits to 565 different homes. The agents had 1,928 requests for services at their office. They spent one day each week at office headquarters and the remainder of the time with farmers throughout the counties.
The agents assisted in the management of 8 community fairs, four county fairs and two state fairs. They held 570 demonstration meetings with a total attendance of 3,397. They also helped in the programs with 22 farmers' meetings where there was an attendance of 1,377.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM CROPS
Corn. The Negro men completed 81 demonstrations of corn on an acreage of 10,950. These demonstrations produced an increase of 31/2 bushels per acre over adjoining fields.
Oats. There were 31 demonstrations with oats conducted on 576 acres. Inasmuch as these oats were grazed off or cut for hay the crop could not be measured and the results could be determined only by the condition of the crop.
Rye. There were 17 demonstrations with an acreage of 385. This was also grazed off so no record of this is available.
Legumes. The legume crops were soybeans, Austrian winter peas and winter vetch. There were 327 demonstrations on 23,968 acres. These crops were either plowed under or grazed off.
Cotton. There were 43 demonstrations conducted with cotton with an acreage of 619. This resulted in an increase of 80 pounds of seed cotton per acre.
Tobacco. Work with tobacco was of a general nature, and concerned seedbeds, harvesting and curing, inasmuch as most crops of tobacco are supervised by a tobacco demonstrator whose services are paid f or by the growers on a percentage basis.
Horticultural Crops. The horticultural crops consisted primarily of vegetables for market and canning, with home gardens and home tree fruits.
Some work was done with strawberries and grapes. A total of 90 demonstrations were carried through the year on approximately 30 acres. This work concerned fertilizer, cultural methods and control of insects and diseases, and applied principally to the home gardens, as most of the Negro men's work is outside the commercial horticultural area of Florida.
Livestock. The demonstrations with dairy cattle totaled 20, involving 194 animals; beef cattle 3, involving 191; hogs 94, involving 1,575; and with poultry 88, involving 1,690 individuals.
With the exception of hogs, these demonstrations were with the small farmer, having only a few animals and requesting help to make improvement in securing animals of a greater production and in better feeding methods. In the case of hogs, the work was largely with the control of hog cholera by vaccination and better sanitary conditions. The estimated saving in the case. of hogs amounted to $8,065 in disease control alone.
In the hog program the agents have been directed by county agents and.district agents in the preparation of feeds. They have bought their feeds cooperatively under the direction of county agents, obtaining thereby the benefits of cooperative marketing.






Annual Report, 1929


Through cooperative purchase and sales three local associations with 113 members purchased supplies amounting to $5,538 and sold cooperatively farm products valuing $34,495.
Reference is made to some outstanding accomplishments as follows:
J. E. Granberry, local agent, Jackson County, reports 74 soil building demonstrations using Austrian winter peas and vetch. Through the use of winter peas on 20 acres of land the winter crop was not turned under. These plantings were made according to the recommendations of the white county and district agents.
One farmer sold $600 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $275. A second farmer sold $890 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $240, These hogs were sold cooperatively and netted the farmers $153 above the price they would have received without the cooperative selling.
A farmers' cooperative association with 105 members bought $935 worth of fertilizer, also stored 60 tons of peanuts in a cooperative storage house.
M. E. Groover, Jefferson County, reports demonstrations with soybeans, 26 of these were completed with an increase of 10 bushels per acre on 600 acres. With peanuts 29 demonstrations were completed with an increase of 10 bushels per acre on 500 acres.
One demonstrator sold $100 worth of okra off one-half acre of garden and put up 200 quarts of canned okra. Also sold $78 worth of other vegetables. Other farmers sold their garden crops on local markets. In one case the total sales amounted to $350.
NEGRO FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS
The district agents had numerous requests for organizations of colored farmers in 18 counties for the purpose of organization in order that they might benefit from the federal marketing act. These requests came from individual Negro farmers, teachers and Negro leaders. A series of meetings were held at convenient places where representatives from the leading Negro agricultural communities of Florida were present. Those appearing on the program were representatives of the Extension service, State Marketing Bureau, State Department of Agriculture and from United States Bureau of Agricultural Economics. These organizations proposed to combine their credit, assist farmers in securing loans from the Intermediate Credit bank. A state organization was tentatively arranged. The state expects to proceed with the organization as fast as the locals can organize themselves.







Florida Cooperative Extension


FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
The local district agents with the cooperation of the county workers placed creditable exhibits on'display at the South Florida Fair, Tampa, and the State Fair, Jacksonville. These exhibits were representative of the products grown by farmers cooperating with the agents. The fair association cooperated liberally, providing lights and accommodations so as to make a creditable display. These exhibits aroused much interest and favorable comment and showed an improvement over exhibits of former years.
SHORT COURSES
The short course was provided by the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, for 4-H Negro club members. The college cooperated in accommodating the club members and provided meeting places.
The expense of transporting club members to the college was taken care of from local sources in the counties where the club members carried out their work. These club members were accompanied by local county agents.
The annual meeting of Negro agents was held at Tallahassee under the supervision of th ' e local district agent where the agents gathered for instruction.
Other meetings for Negro extension work. These were arranged under the direction of the state leader and the state home demonstration agent.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1928-November 30, 1929 GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 88 Voluntary county, community and local leaders . 151 Clubs carrying on extension work . 251 M em berships . 1,680 Farm visits made by local agents . I . 2,431 Different farms visited . 685 Office calls on agents relating to extension work . 1,928 Exhibits at fairs . . 12
County . 8 State . 4
i ;i e Attendance
Farmers' meetings held . 7 1,032
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils . 69 222
Farm Crops . 71 296
Dairy Husbandry . 61 70
Poultry Husbandry . 52 70
Total . 273 658







Annual Report, 1929 97

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods . 11,917 Boys' and girls' clubs . 51 Acreage grown by club members . 457
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) . 3,584 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 421 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed . 241

COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods. 619
Farmers influenced to adopt better practi * . 149
Boys' and girls' clubs . 11 M em bers enrolled . 117 Acreage grown by club members . 121
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) . 35,466 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . 44 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases . . 47

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given . 569 Number result demonstrations under way . 579
Number result demonstrations completed . 182 Acres in completed demonstrations . 887

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrations given . 319 Demonstrations completed . 205 Animals in completed demonstrations . 3,758 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock . 48 Farmers culling breeding stock . 68 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests . 40

RURAL ENGINEERING
Building on farms constructed or remodeled . 62 Farmers who cleared land . 25 A cres cleared . 284 Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time . 90

DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
Dem onstrations . 278 Farmers adopting control measures . 292 A cres involved . 976






Florida Cooperative Extension


NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
(Home Makers' Clubs)
Julia A. Miller, Local Dist. Home Dem. Agent
County Local Home Dem. Agent Address
Duval . Olive L. Smith . Jacksonville, 1005 W. 12th St.
Leon . Alice W. Poole . Tallahassee Madison . Althea Ayer . Madison Marion . Idella Ransom . Reddick Orange . Mamie E. Wright . Orlando .St.Johns . Mary A. Caldwell . St. Augustine Sumter . Diana H. Finlayson . Webster ORGANIZATION
The survey made in the seven counties served by home agents in January, 1929, showed that the most outstanding needs for Negro home demonstration work were: Organization, definite programs to fit local home needs, systematic planning on part of the local home agents, and more contact with the general public and organizations working in the same field. '
In making plans for year 1929, organization was an important factor. A junior and senior home demonstration club in each community with a needful and practical program, and a county council for every county was the goal set. The plans ultimately resulted in the organizing of 96 junior clubs and 75 adult clubs in 97 different communities out of the 171 available in the territory for organization.
Home demonstration work now being conducted in seven counties among Negro citizens is wielding a very good influence toward the comfort and efficiency of the "home maker". The desire for and interest in better farm and home practices were demonstrated during 1929 by 1,028 women and 1,565 girls living in 97 different communities and sections of the State. A total of 2,593 demonstrations in gardening, food preparation, clothing, food preservation, sanitation, home improvement, poultry and other miscellaneous projects affecting the home life were undertaken. Of the 2,593 demonstrations there were 1,128 completed at a profit.
County councils of home demonstration clubs have been organized in six different counties. These county councils have helped the agent in reaching more people and helping with many hard problems.
PR04ECT ACTIVITIES
FOODS
Nothing is needed more among rural colored people of Florida than an increase in production of home-grown foods. and an adequate supply for the family meals. In teaching the selection of foods to farm women, 29 extension schools were held by agents.






Annual Report, 1929


Exhibits were made of five groups of needed foods that could be provided from home sources: 1, vegetables and fruits; 2, milk, meat, eggs and cheese; 3, cereal foods; 4, sugar or sugar foods as honey, jelly, etc., and 5, fats and fatty foods, as meat, butter and lard. Using this method of demonstrating growing food supply, gardens, poultry, dairy products, hogs, and improved production in quality and quantity were subjects discussed and emphasized. A total of 3,006 people attended these schools.
One agent says: "A two-day extension school was held at Edisto.' Four counties were reached. A total of 150 people attended these schools regularly. At the close of the two-day session a home makers' club was organized at Edisto with an enrollment of 15. The first community demonstration garden was planted by this club."
As result of the extension schools one agent writes: "February was a busy month for club work. There were 15 vegetable and flower gardens planted this month by club members. This number exceeded previous years. Our aim is a garden for each home. On Arbor Day 100 fruit trees suited to this climate were planted by club boys."
There are 782 women and 1,004 girls carrying demonstrations, in gardening, 513 women and 661 girls in poultry, and 122 women and 441 girls in dairying.
FOOD PREPARATION
Proper food preparation, together with selection and production, have had their place in our program. The preparation of vegetables for the table and the making of palatable and wholesome breads have been undertaken by 794 women and 1,314 girls representing 794 different homes.
Five bread contests were held by home demonstration club members. The preparation of foods is appealing to the club people and results can readily be seen in counties served by agents.
FOOD PRESERVATION
To encourage a year-round, adequate food supply for the family meals, demonstrations have been conducted by 565 women and 1,209 girls in food preservation. At certain seasons of the year the truck growers, after gathering produce of market quality, open fields to citizens. The home demonstration agents have played a large part in encouraging the preservation of vegetables and fruits which would otherwise be wasted.
As result of demonstrations conducted this year, 5,797 quarts of fruits were canned for home use by women and 6,751 quarts by




Full Text

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y AGR'L. EX P . sTA, U,a,RAR Ii 80lal qi!. MICH IG AN~ , !~ .., p .1~\>NCE O F A GH\ . ANO, ~. . , . 1929 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1929 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1929

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1929 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILM0N NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1929 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1929

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CONTENTS PAGE BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF , , . . . . . 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS , .......•• , . . 5 REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Financial Statement, 7; Organization, 8; Lines of Work, 9; Farmers' Week, 11; Work With Mediterranean Fruit Fly, 12; Awards to 4-H Club Members, 13. PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS ......•...••....•••••........... , ...••.•. , 18 Bulletins, 18; News and Farm Paper Stories, 19; Radio, 20; Training in News Writing, 20. COUNTY AGENT WORK............................................. 2f Publicity, 21; Community Program Building, 22; Soils, 23; Farm Crops, 23; Pastures, 28; Horticulture, 29; Truck Crops, 30; Insect Control, 31; Animal Husbandry, 32; Poultry Husbandry, 34; Rural Engineering, 34; Agricultural Economics, 35. BOYS' CLUB WORK................................................ 37 Enrollment, 37; Organizations, 37; Leadership, 38; Special Occa sions, 39; Club Camp, 39; Short Course, 39; Project Demonstrations, 40; Summary, 42. DAIRYING .........•..............•......•...... , ........••...•. , 43 Production Problems First, 43; Economic Changes Affecting Work, 43; Costs Reduced, 44; Production of Feed, 44; Farm Dairying in West Florida, 44; Distribution and Exchange of Sires, 45; Raising Calves, 46; Production Records, 46; Organizations, 46. CITRICULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Melanose, 48; Scab, 49; Blue Mold, 49; Tree Trunk and Root Dis eases, 49; Rust Mites, 50; A phis, 50; Scale, 51; Cover Crops, 51; Fertilizing, 52. POULTRY ................•.................. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Situation, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Development by Projects, 54; Poultry Associations, 60; Junior Poultry Work, 60; National Egg-Laying Contest, 61. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............. , .......... , . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Changes, 63; Assistance from State Staff, 63; Community Pro grams, 64; County Project Committees, 64; Program Development, 65; Supervisory Program, 66; Training of Personnel, 69; Publicity, 69; Program Development and Analysis, 70; Project Activities and Results, 71; Strengthening the Organization, 75. HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK ................................ : •...... Program, 78; Goals and Accomplishments, 78. HOME GARDENING, FOOD CONSERVATION AND MARKETING.............. 82 All-Year Garden Contest, 82; Perennial Planting, 82; Junior Garden Contest, 82; County Flower, 83; Conservation, 84; Marketing, 84. FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH ..................•............. ; . . . 86 Goals, 86; Methods, 87; Results, 89. NEGRO WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Men's Work, 93; Women's Work, 98.

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Hon. Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to . transmit herewith the report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Univer sity of Florida, for the calendar year 1929, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1929 . Hon. P. K. Yonge, . Respectfully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control. Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. JOHN J. TIGERT, President, University of Florida.

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BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola W. B. DAVIS, Perry E.W. LANE, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., Presid_ent of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent . J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Extension Nutritionist

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* Home Demonstration County County Agents Address Agents Alachua .... ........ F. L. Craft ......... Gainesville ... Mrs. Grace F, Warren Bradford ........... T. D. Rickenbaker ... Starke . . . . . . . Miss Pearl J ord~n Brevard ............ W. R. Briggs ....... Cocoa . . . . . . . . .................... . Broward ............ C. E. Matthews ....• Ft. Lauderdale Miss Ethyl Holfoway Calhoun ............ John G. Kelly ....... Blountstown.. . ................... . Calhoun and Liberty ..................... Blountstown .. Miss Josephine Nimmo Charlotte and Highlands ........................... Punta Gorda .. Miss May Winfield Citrus ................................. Inverness .... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Citrus and Sumter ... I. R. Nolen ........ Inverness . . . . . ................... . Dade (North) ....... J. S. Rainey ........ Miami ....... Miss Pansy Norton Dade (South) ....... C.H. Steffani ...... -Homestead ....................... . 1 Dade (Asst.) .......................... Miami........ Miss Carrie Torbert DeSoto ............. J. J. Heard ........ Arcadia . . . . . . .................... . Duval .......•.....• W. L. Watson ...... Jacksonville ... Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) ..•.... A. S. Lawton ....... Jacksonville... . .................... . Duval (Asst.) ....... C. H. Magoon ...... Jacksonville... . .................... . Escambia ........... E. P. Scott ......... Pensacola .... Miss Ethel Atkinson Flagler ............. L. T. Nieland ....... Bunnell . . . . . . . .................... . Gadsden ............................... Quincy. . . . . . . Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton ........... J. J. Sechrest ....... Jasper . . .. . . . . ................... .. Hernando .......... ,'J. H. Logan ....... Brooksville ... Mrs. Florence Albert Highlands . . ........ L. H. Alsmeyer ..... Sebring ...... Miss May Winfield Hillsborough ........ C. P. Wright ...... Plant City (E 1 Miss Motelle Madole ...................•.................... Tampa (W) .. Miss Allie Rush Holmes ..............................•• Bonifay . . . . . Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River ...•...• W. E. Evans ....... Vero Beach ......................... . Jackson .....•...... Sam Rountree ..... Marianna .... Miss Mary Sue Wigley Jefferson ........... E. H. Finlayson ..... Monticello ... Miss Ruby Brown Lafayette ........... D. C. Geiger ....... 'Mayo ...... , . . ..................... . Lake ..............• C. R. Hiatt ......... Tavares . . . . . Mrs. Mary Allen Lee ................ W. P. Hayman ...... Fort Myers ... Miss Anna Mae Sikes Leon ............... G. C. Hodge ........ Tallahassee .. Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy ............... N. J. Albritton ..... Bronson . . . . . . .................... . Liberty ............ Dewey H. Ward .... Bristol ............................ . Madison ............ B. E. Lawton ....... Madison .......................... . Manatee ............ L. H. Wilson ....... Bradenton ... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ........ : . ..• Clyde H. Norton ..•. Ocala ........ Miss Tillie Roese! Martin ............• C. P. Heuck ........ Stuart .. . . . . . . ..................... . Okaloosa ........... Joseph W. Malone .. Crestview .... Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee ......... C. A. Fulford ...... Okeechobee . . . ..................... . Orange ............. K. C. Moore ........ Orlando ..... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ............. J. R. Gunn ......... Kissimmee ... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach ........• M. U. Mounts ....... W. Palm Beach Mrs.•Edith Y. Barrus Pinellas ....•....... William Gomme .... Clearwater . . . Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk ............... F. L. Holland ...... Bartow . . . . . . Miss Lois Godbey ........................................ Bartow (Asst.) Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns .......•.•• E. H . Vance ....... St. Augustine. Miss Anna Heist St. Lucie ........... Alfred Warren ' , ... Ft.Pierce ........................... . Santa Rosa ......... John-G. Hudson .... Milton ....... Miss Eleanor Barton Taylor ............. R. S. Dennis ....... Perry ..... : . . ..................... . Union .............. L. T. Dyer ......... Lake Butler. .. Miss Pearl Jordan Volusia ............. T. A. Brown ....... DeLand ...... Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla ............ D. M. Treadwell .... Crawfordville ..................... .. Walton ............. Mitchell Wilkins ... DeFuniak . Springs .... Miss Eloise McGrifl' Washington .. ; ...... Gus York .......... Chipley ............................ . *This list correct to December 31, 1929.

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Fig. 1. Home demonstration agents help club women to save the surplus by canning.

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REPORT FOR 1929 PART I-GENERAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR Dr. John J. Ti'.gert, President, University of Florida. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state-• . ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929, and a summary of the activities of the Service for the calendar year 1929. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Receipts College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal ...... .' . ................ $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48,872.25 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal.... ... . . . 18,774.46 Capper-Ketcham, Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,000.00 U. S. D . A. Appropriation. ...... ... . ... . .. .. . 21,475.00 State Appropriations .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50,837.37 County Appropriations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144,108.96 Expenditul'es Administration ................................. $ Publications ..... . ......... . .. .. ........ .. . . ... . County Agent Work ........................ . . . . Home Demonstration Work ..................... . Boys' Club Work ............................... . Dairy Husbandry .............................. . Negro Extension Work ........... . ............. . Plant Pathology . .. ; ........................ ... . Poultry Husbandry ................... .. ... .. . .. . Extension Schools, Farmers' Week ............... . National Egg-Laying Contest .................... . Balance ..••.................................. .. 7,687.64 7,311.69 171,620.36 121,684.60 6,784.87 5,193.36 22,517.47 5,337.05 4,687.43 2,579.48 4,537.00 2,999.34 $362,940.29 $362,940.29

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8 Florida Cooperative . Extension ORGANIZATION The Agricultural Extension Service organization consists of supervisors as follows: director, vice-director and county agent leader, three district agents, one state home demonstration agent, one assistant state agent, thr~e district home demonstration agents; specialists : boys' club agent, citrus pathologist and ento mologist, dairyman, poultryman, extension nutritionist, food and marketing agent, and two district agents for the Negro work. The revenue supporting extension work is provided from the following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States De. partment of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These appropriations are governed by Acts of Congress and the State Legislature and are administered by the Agricultural Extension Service. The authority for making county appropriations is provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy for agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting county boards to enter into agreement with the Extension Service for the employment of county and home demonstration agents. All appointments for extension work are approved by the State Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture before they become effective. The cooperation in counties has remained about the same as in 1928, but with some interruption on account of reduced values and reduced business. Extension work in Florida is dependent on county appropriations, the average appropriation by counties being about ' 300 percent of the amount applied by the federal and state governments for the employment of county workers. Be cause of the more difficult financial situation generally over the state, more trouble has been experienced the past year in securing county funds. Extension work during the past year has been . conducted in 52 Florida counties. In these counties agents are confronted with agricultural and home economics problems of practically every nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and in a position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan to provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents can be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricultural College and Experiment Station and Florida State College for Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are supplied with the latest information as published by the Florida Experi ment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture,

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Annual Report, 1929 9 in addition to the help that . can be given by the extension special ists and subject matter workers in the colleges. LINES OF WORK COUNTY AGENT WORK Special emphasis has been placed on soil improvement crops. The acreage of winter legumes has been increased in . every county where county agents were employed, followed by corn with in creased yields. In the southern part of the state a soil improve ment program, especially in citrus groves, using Crotalaria as a summer cover crop, wa s carried out. This required the securing of several tons of seed. These crops were handled according to the recommendations of the agronomy department of the Experi ment Station. In the fertilization of crops, county agents conducted work in cooperation with the agronomy department of the Experiment Station with corn, cotton, and peanuts. Demonstrations were conducted to establish pastures arid this has met with ready re sponse, due to an increased interest in livestock production in the farming area. In livestock, the county agents have given the greatest atte~ tion to fattening hogs for the high markets. This has resulted in a large number of carloads of hogs being sold early in the season. For the most part they were sold cooperatively with the help of the State Marketing Bureau. More attention has been given to beef cattle than in past years and this has been stimulated by the eradication of the cattle tick. In the past five years a large num ber of range cattle has been sold off, thereby reducing the number of beef cattle in the state. In order to improve the quality and re-stock the ranges, special attention has been given to the man agement of beef cattle, and the introduction of high grade and purebred breeding stock. The ranges of West Florida supportlarge flocks of range sheep. These sheep are kept mainly for wool production, very little atten tion being paid to the production of mutton. Each year there is a loss from parasites and an effort has been made in two counties to give treatment under the supervision of the county agents. POULTRY AND DAIRY WORK The poultry and dairy extension work has been carried along as usual and reports show an increase in production. In the poultry work it has been largely with farm flocks, although some

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension assistance has been given to the commercial flocks. This work has been a part of the home demonstration agents' programs and applies to practically every county. In dairy work some manufacturing plants have been estab lished in North Florida counties. These handle whole milk, also sour cream. They have made speedy progress under good man agement and have had a fairly prosperous year. HORTICULTURE As our most important horticultural crop is citrus, the grove problems have been the most important. Fertilization, irrigation, insect and disease control have been a large part of the agents' programs in the citrus counties. Due to the presence of the Med iterranean fruit fly the county agents were pressed into service in handling permits throughout central Florida, thereby reducing the amount of usual extension work with the groves in that sec tion. Two district agents and one specialist were assigned to fruit fly work during the summer months. Furthermore, the greatest interest has centered around the fruit fly activities, making it . difficult for the county agents to carry out their work in the usual way. 4-H CLUB WORK The 4-H club work was conducted as usual under the direction of the Boys' Club Agent. Emphasis was given to the establish ment of a 4-H camp for West Florida club work. This club site has been greatly improved by the addition of buildings paid for partly by the counties of West Florida. It is planned to use this camp for club rallies and boys' and girls' 4-H club camps. The annual short courses for 4-H club members were held at the University and the State College for Women during the month of June. The extension program covered all projects and had the usual response from the citizens of Florida. There is apparently need for greater emphasis to improve the ranges and increase the num ber of good beef cattle. There is also a demand for extension work in agricultural conomics and for assistance in improving the standards and grades of vegetables and fruit, and for coop erative marketing. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK The Home Demonstration Work has its office at the State Col lege for Women, Tallahassee. The financing of this work is

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Annual Report, 1929 11 similar to that of county agent work, that is the central office contributes the same amount to the salaries of home demonstra tion agents as county agents. The state is divided into three districts, each supervised by a district agent. Two specialists are employed, in nutrition and in gardening and marketing, in addition to the assistant state home demonstration agent, who is responsible for a home improvement project. Each specialist conducts her work over the entire area where home agents are employed and conducts her work in cooperation with the plans of the district agents. A short course for winners in girls' 4-H club work is held annually at the state College for Women, Tallahassee, where they are accommodated in the dormitories and dining hall at a nominal charge for meals and lodging. As far as possible county con tests and state meetings are conducted jointly with club members and the supervisory staff in charge of men's work. NEGRO EXTENSION WORK Negro extension work has its office at the Florida A. and M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee. It is conducted in two divi sions, namely Farm Makers' Clubs and Home Makers' Clubs. The direct supervision of each of these is under a district agent who is supervised by the state leader and state home demonstra tion agent. The work is conducted in 14 counties with one agent in each, either a man or a woman. The lines of work deal principally with crop production, live stock, boys' and girls' clubs, marketing, short courses and organ. izations. These Negro agents look to the subject matter special ists in the white district to guide them in their programs. The annual short course is held at the Florida A. and M. Col lege, where the faculty offers its cooperation, including board and lodging at actual cost, together with assistance from the faculty in conducting programs. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK The eighth annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was con ducted on the University campus August 13, to 18, 1929, with an attendance of 935. The usual program covering many subjects of interest to farm ing people was given by members of the Agricultural College, Experiment Station, Extension Service and State Plant Board staffs, with assistance from the Florida State Marketing Bureau,

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, and speakers from other organizations. Due to the presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Central Florida the attendance from that section of the state was reduced. However, the usual interest was apparent from other sections of the state. Farmers' Week opened at 11 a. m. Monday and continued until Friday noon. The dormitories and dining room of the college were made available to the visitors at a cost of $1.50 per day. com mercial firms were permitted to display agricultural implements and other goods that would be of interest to farmers. These were placed in a separate tent where electric lights and ample seating capacity were provided. Sectional programs covering such divisions as horticulture, farm crops, livestock, poultry, bee-keeping and home economics were conducted. Each day at 11 a. m. the sectional programs closed so that visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear lectures. Musical entertainment was provided throughout the program with a special entertainment feature for each night. One after noon was devoted to a farmers' picnic at Hampton Beach, where lunch and entertainment was provid~d free of cost to visitors. Farmers' and Fruit Growers( Week is an annual event occurring each year immediately following the summer school session. EXTENSION AGENTS' WORK WITH MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY On receipt of the announcement that the Mediterranean Fruit Fly had been found in Florida in April, 1929, all county and supervisory agents were summoned to Orlando for information on the appearance and plans that would be undertaken to eradicate the fly. During this visit agents had an opportunity to see the grove where the infestation was very general and where a large amount of the fruit had dropped on account of the presence of the fly. It was possible to see the fly at all stages of development and get an insight as to its prevalence, appearance and its effect on fruit and vegetable hosts. Following this, practically all county agents were pressed into emergency service in various ways. Many county agents were given charge of clean-up squads for the purpose of getting rid of fruit and vegetable hosts. District agents and specialists were assigned to special territories and carried on educational work in regard to presence and eradication of the Mediterranen fruit fly.

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Annual Report, 1929 13 Two district agents were taken from their respective districts from May until September. The Citrus Specialist was placed in . charge of all work in one county, having supervision over a number of men engaged in fruit fly eradication work. On September 1 all county agents were released from issuing permits and super visory agents were permitted to return to their regular duties. This work, together with unusual anxiety on the part of the grow ers, interfered with and changed many plans in county ' agents' programs that had been made prior to finding the fly. The request for these special services from the county agents came from the counties in which they were working, due to the fact that the county boards were not only appropriating funds to apply on the county agents' salaries but were supplying additional funds to help in eradication methods and preventing the spread of the fly to a much . larger territory. The value of the county agents' services and the importance of having men and county workers in full sympathy and touch with the situation had the effect of bringing to the attention of many people the value of the services that could be quickly used in any case of emergency. In most of the counties where the fly was prevalent, this addi tional duty thrown on the agent in most cases doubled their duties and increased their traveling expenses to the same extent. The Extension Service is ready at all times to render such services or in any other department when the farmers' interests are involved. AW ARDS TO 4-H CLUB MEMBERS Prizes and awards to a total value of 18,563 dollars were given to 4-H club boys and girls during the year for proficiency in their work. This is encouraging to both members and workers, indi cating the high esteem in which club work is held by the business world. In each case the winner of an award was selected by an examination and the considertion of the member's efficiency in club work. Following is a list of the awards, with some of the winners: The Florida Bankers' Association contributed three scholar ships valued at $100 each. The winners were as follows: Fred erick Barber, Escambia, Gray Miley, Hillsboro, Hugh Dukes, Union County, for proficiency as determined by examination. F. E. Dennis, Inc., appropriated $250 awarded to Hugh Dukes as a prize for the state champion in breeding pig club work. Armour and Company gave a trip to the National Club Con gress in Chicago, value $135, won by Dilworth Carter, Jefferson County, awarded for the state champion in the fat barrow club.

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension Leon County bankers and business men donated trip to Chicago, value $125, won by 0. C. Brown, dairy club champion, also donated Chicago trip, value $150, won by Mary Effa Bradley, Leon County, for proficiency in club work. Marion County Board of Trade gave a trip to the National Dairy Show, value $125, won by John Williams, Marion County, awarded for dairy club champion. Farm and Live Stock Record donated trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Cleveland Armstrong, for the reserve champion barrow which was the progeny of a pig club sow. The Synthetic Nitrogen Products Corporation donated trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Vernon Simmons, Hillsboro County, for producing the most corn on a club acre on which calcium nitrate was used as a side-dressing. The L. & N. Railway Company contributed a trip to Chicago, value $135, won by Ralph Arant, Santa Rosa County, for the champion 4-H club boy in their district. They also gave a similar trip valued at $150 to Pearl Barber of Escambia County for pro ficiency in club work. They also contributed scholarships, value $115, to 4-H girls' club members from Jackson, Holmes, Walton, Santa Rosa and Escambia counties. Congressman Tom Yon awarded two scholarships, value $100 each, won by Frederick Barber, Escambia County, and Evelyn Labbe, Walton County, for the 4-H club boy and club girl in the Third Congressional district who did the best leadership work. The Atlantic Coast Line Railway Company awarded two trips to the National 4-H club camp, Washington, D. C., value $100 each. These were won by William Platt, Marion County, and Louise Owen, Nassau County, for state champion 4-H club boy and girl. Interested citizens contributed $100 to defray the ex penses of Clifford Boyles of Nassau County to this camp. The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a schol arship, value $100, won by Paul Simmons, Hillsboro County, for 4-H corn champion using nitrate of soda. This bureau also paid the expenses of attending the boys' 4-H Short Course (total value $70) for two boys in each of the following counties: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington, Calhoun, Union and Citrus. Also awarded prizes to a total value of $150 for the best three girls' club gardens fertilized with Chilean nitrate of soda in each of the three districts, and a prize of $50 to Mrs. H. M. Burgess, Holmes County, for best woman's garden in state; also a prize of $50 to the three communities in Gadsden County which had the largest percentage of their members completing garden work.

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Annual R e port, 19 29 15 Fig. 2 . -Cl ub boy s and girls and state l eaders at t h e National 4-H Club Ca mp in Wa s hington. Left to rig ht: Mi ss Fl avia Gleaso n , state home d e o n s tration agent; Clifford Boyle s, Nassau Co unty; Thelma Hood, Santa Ro sa Co unty; William Platt, Marion County; L o ui se Ow e n, Nassau Co unt y; and R. W. Bla c klock, state boys' club agent.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extenswn The county commissioners and school boards of 40 counties provided expenses to the short courses at Gainesville and Talla hassee for 4-H club members, value for boys $2,500 and for girls $3,790. These club members were selected according to their proficiency in 4-H club work. Bankers, civic organizations, fairs and individuals contributed $2,165 to defray expenses to short courses for 4-H club members to attend short courses at Tallahassee. The selection was made on proficiency in 4-H club work. Southern Cotton Oil Company donated expenses of a trip to Chicago, value $125, awarded to Lela Mae Duke, Walton County, for proficiency in nutrition work. They also gave miscellaneous articles to the value of $50 for salad demonstration winners from four counties. S. L. Allen Company donated prizes valued at $108, awarded to 4-H club members in 12 counties for proficiency in garden work. Horace A. Moses donated two trips to leadership training school, Springfield, Mass., to one boy and one girl formerly mem bers of 4-H clubs who had demonstrated outstanding ability in leadership, value $200 each and awarded to Russell Henderson, Madison County, and Mary LaFuse, Lake County. Montgomery Ward & Company gave a trip to Chicago, value $150, awarded to Uceba Jones, Palm Beach County, for proficiency in 4-H club work. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs awarded two scholar ships, value $50 each, for best poultry and gardening records in girls' 4-H club work, won by Anabel Raulerson, Alachua County, and Lena Bennett, Union County; also trip to National 4-H Club camp, value $100, won by Thelma Hood, Santa Rosa County. State Senator W. C. Hodges gave one scholarship, value $200, to F. S. C. W. for proficiency in girls' 4-H club work, won by Rosalie Hawthorn. Scholarships for training club girls in home economics at the State College for Women were given by Dade, Hillsborough, Palm Beach and Orange counties. They had a total value of $2,599. The Florida legislature a"'.arded expenses to Chicago, value $300, for two 4-H club girls, Florence Smock, Lake County, and Mildred Hilliard, Hernando County, to compete in the National Health Contest. The Soft Wheat Millers' Association provided $100 to be u~ed for prizes to seven club women of five counties who won in the better baking contest at Farmers' Week.

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Annual Report, 1929 17 The State Home Demonstration Council for Girls' Work pro vided one scholarship valued at $200, won by Hattie Fletcher, Gadsden County, for proficiency in club work. This scholarship was supplemented by a dining room scholarship awarded by the State College for Women, Tallahassee, valued at $200. The Florida Power Corporation provided prizes to the value of $76.50 for some of the winners in the state home improvement contest. Other prizes to the value of $62.50 were donated to winners in this contest by interested individuals, the American Wallpaper Company, Corning Glass Works, and the Iglehart Company. The Dixie Canner Company gave prizes to a total value of $121.80 to the home demonstration agent in each district having the highest average in canning. These prizes are being used in canning work in the counties. In the all-year garden contest prizes worth $160 were awarded by the Francis C. Stokes Seed Company, Kilgore Seed Company, Glen St. Mary Nursery, Royal Palm Nurseries, Stumpp and Walter Nursery, arid Reasoner Seed Company. T. J. Appleyard, Inc., gave $50 to the State Home Demonstra tion Council for Girls' work to be used in their scholarship fund, and a silver loving cup, valued at $25, to the standard girls' 4-H club in the state making highest score. This was awarded to the Glendale Club in Walton County. This firm also presented a sil ver loving cup, valued at $25, to the senior home demonstration council making the highest score. This was awarded to Lee County. The Florida State College for Women contributed dining-room scholarships valued at $5,200 to 26 former club girls now attend ing the college. The Extension Service gratefully acknowledges these contri butions by interested citizens and business firms. They have contributed very much to the interest and value of extension work throughout the state.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension PUBLICATIONS AND NEWS J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor R. M. FULGHUM, Assistant Editor BULLETINS During the year 85,966 copies of 13 bulletins, circulars, calen dars, and other extension material were published. These amount ed to 302 printed pages. Also 28,560 copies of 42 issues of the Weekly Agricultural News Service were printed by the Extension Service. Following is a list of the publications issued during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929. Title Pages Bui. 49-Food, Nutrition and Health for School Chiidren . . . 56 Bui. 50-Save the Surplus (by Canning) . . ....... . ...... . . 48 Bul. 51-Home Canning of Meat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Bul. 52-Lessons for Pig Club Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Bul. 53-Feeding the Dairy Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Bui. 54-V e tch and Austrian Peas for Soil Improvement .... 16 Bui. 55-Rejuvenating Furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Circ . 16-Agricultural Extension News and How to Write It . . 12 Circ. 974-First Year Sewing Program for Girls' Clubs ( Reprinted Twice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Circ. 976-Third Year Sewing Rrogram for Girls' Clubs (Reprint) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Circ. 982-Standards and Score Cards for Home-Canned Products (Reprint) ... . ................ . ...•. 12 Final Report Second Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ... 16 1929 Calendar .......... .. ...... ; ... .... .............. ; . . 12 Weekly Agricultural News ~ervice (42 weeks) ........ .. . ; . 1 Edition 5,000 10,218 10,000 10,000 7,500 5,142 5,000 1,000 20,000 5,000 1,500 1,200 9,406 28,560 In addition, a number of record books, charts, pads, and other miscellaneous supplies were printed during the year. These in cluded daily summary sheets and record cards, all-year garden contest, nutrition record book, chart for meal planning, sewing book, chart for food, nutrition and health, home egg-laying contest pads, club diplomas, and cards advertising demonstrations. Fifty-one weekly and 12 monthly reports of the third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were issued and distributed from Chipley, the material for these being prepared and handled by the contest supervisor. Seven hundred copies of each were dis tributed. The first four weekly and eight monthly reports were printed, and the remaining 47 weekly and four monthly reports were mimeographed. Distribution of Extension publications and printed supplies is handled from the mailing room, which is under the supervision of the Editors. Home demonstration bulletins and circulars are distributed, usually, from the State Home Demonstration office

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. Annual Report, 1929 19 at Tallahassee. Thousands of copies of bulletins and various classes of supplies were distributed during the year. NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES As usual, the Agricultural News Service, weekly clipsheet, was the principal means used to carry extension information to the people of Florida through the newspapers. Nine to 10 stories a week are sent out through this service, and are largely clipped and reprinted by weekly newspapers in the agricultural counties of Florida. Service to daily papers of the state is provided through the mail service of the Associated Press. During the year ending November 30, 1929, 129 stories were sent to the state mail service of the Associated Press and were distributed by it to its 45 mem ber papers. From time to time special stories are sent directly to daily papers from this office. During the year 23 special stories were sent to dailies direct, and were used by these papers. The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one of the state dailies and contributes to such a page in another. Both farm pages appear each Sunday, and numerous stories concerning extension activities and hints are printed. During Farmers' Week a special page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The stories for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Numerous special Farmers' Week stories were sent to other dailies. Posters, stuff ers, programs and other Farmers' Week publicity material were prepared and distributed. A plan which was tried this year for the first time, and which was fairly successful, was the preparation of special stories about demonstrations and tours. Three different stories of this type were prepared and sent to 16 county agents to be turned over by them to their local papers. These were used by about three fourths of the papers in the 16 counties. During the year 20 stories were used by the farm and grove section of 50 Florida papers. This section appears monthly, and the stories from this office used in it amounted to 479 column inches. The service of this office to farm papers is especially well re ceived and widely used. A total of 44 stories were sent to six dif ferent Southern and state farm papers during the year. These

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension amounted to 1,656 column inches of printed material. Three stories, amounting to 50 inches of printed material, were sent to two national farm magazines during the year. In addition, many stories from the Agricultural News Service were clipped and printed by Florida farm papers. Material was supplied at infrequent intervals to publications of the United States Department of Agriculture. RADIO Since the opening of state and University radio station WRUF on November 11, 1928, regular farm programs have been put on the air. For the first few weeks these occupied 15 minutes daily, later being changed to 30 minutes three times a week, and still later being changed to 30 minutes daily except Sunday. . These programs were supervised by the Assistant Editor. Extension specialists, Experiment Station staff members, the faculty of the College of Agriculture, and others wrote and delivered papers. Releases of the United States Department of Agriculture were read. The Extension Editor prepared and read 11 talks during the year ending November.30, 1929. TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING Two girls from each county were trained in news writing at the Girls' Club Short Course, as were 10 outstanding boys at the Boys' Club Short Course. These club members evidenced considerable interest in their courses, and many of them are now helping to issue county club news sheets and to send in club news to the papers. Three girls in the eastern part of Hillsborough County were trained to assist their home demonstration agent with publicity in the two Plant City papers. Each club secretary sends in a report, and the girls take the reports and work them into news paper shape. " Some special training and help was given to one county agent at his office during the year, and talks on news writing were made at the annual conference of county and home demonstra tion agents.

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Annual Report, 1929 PART II-MEN'S WORK COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader H. G: CLAYTON, District Agent W. T. NETTLES, District Agent J,LEE SMITH, District Agent SPECIAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES 21 The regular work has been seriously interfered with by the Mediterranean fruit fly appearing in Florida. The federal quar antine went into effect upon three days' notice and all county agents were drafted as permit men in order to move the fruit and vegetable crop without delay. The county agents handled the situation in a creditable manner. Their efforts in getting a vol untary clean-up of fruits and vegetables by the growers were very effective. In an emergency of this kind the value of the Extension Service was clearly demonstrated, both to the growers and to the regulatory forces. Taking the whole year's work into consideration, the work accomplished has been satisfactory, al though much of the work was not of the exact nature as planned at the beginning of the year. Storms during 1928 and early spring of 1929 virtually destroyed crops and credit of many farmers of the North and Northwest Florida territory. A Federal Farm Seed Loan Act was passed by Congress. The district and county agents assisted 561 farmers of 16 counties to secure loans amounting to nearly $250,000, of which $123,823.43 was from the Farmers' Seed Loan Office. PUBLICITY Special effort was made during 1929 to get the extensi6ri pro gram and improved practices and results of demonstrations be fore the people. The county agents published numerous news articles in local newspapers pertaining to their demonstrations and projects. Pictures of demonstrations and county agents in action have been published in daily papers. Photographs of groups of farmers on demonstration tours have been in print; Thousands of circular letters were mailed to farmers. The ::bis 7 . trict Agents and the Agricultural News Editor have prepared and published in the Agricultural News sheet, at opportune times, news articles pertaining to projects. This paper goes to all coun

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension ty newspapers in the state who in turn copy many of these ar ticles. Tours of farmers were conducted by the county agents of their respective counties assisted by the District Agent to the . crop demonstrations. From 15 to 300 farmers were on each of these tours. Eighteen addresses were made by District Agents before civic organizations. A total of 212 project meetings were attended by 17,241 people in the interest of extension programs and projects. Eleven radio talks were made. , COMMUNITY PROGRAM BUILDING The agents of nine counties, namely: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Calhoun, Jefferson and Madison, attended community meetings and, assisted by the Dis trict Agent, helped the people outline extension programs for the year. Twenty-four communities were assisted in such a way. Special features were considered, such as soil improvement, ferti lizer, corn, cotton, and hogs. It was arranged that definite, con crete demonstrations be arranged for and conducted in the com munities. The demonstrations were outlined and in many cases demonstrators secured. In virtually every one of these communi ties these demonstrations were successful and the composite re sults will be found on the following pages. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 409 Voluntary county, community and local leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Clubs carrying on extension work ....................... . ........ 293 Memberships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,237 Farm visits made by county agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34,407 Different farms visited ............................. . ........... 13,596 Average number days spent in office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Average number days spent in field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 . Official letters witten ............................... .. ........... 53,408 Exhibits at fairs . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Community ............ ........ . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 County ......... . ......... . ........... , . . . . . . . . . . 36 State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Number Farmers' meetings held . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,178 Extension schools and short courses held . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Total attendance club members, junior encampments Attendance 31,151 3,028 and rallies ................. , ........... , . , , , , , , 598

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Annual Report, 1929 PROGRAM SUMMARY Of Outlined Projects by County Agents Number communities participating Soils .......................................... 314 Farm crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 Horticulture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 Forestry . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Rodents, predatory animals and birds ............ 106 Animal husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Dairy husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Poultry husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Rural engineering ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Agricultural economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Miscellaneous work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Community activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Total •................................. 2,467 SOILS 23 Days agents devoted to projects 969 1,877 2,213 93 416 1,624 610 748 293 699 915 135 10,595 The care of the soil is a basic problem in Florida, due to climatic conditions, which are conducive to a quick burning out of the organic matter and a leaching of the available plant food elements. It is necessary to maintain the humus content of the soil in order to grow maximum crops and secure the greatest benefits from commercial fertilizers. This is especially true in commercial citrus production where the land is growing the same crop through a period of years. Where organic matter is returned to the soil in large quantities, citrus growers can use to advantage more of the cheaper forms of nitrogen. Truck crops are rotated more or less and natural cover crops of the grasses and beggarweed follow these crops, which cover crops enable continued cropping of the same land. A cover crop which exactly fits into the system of growing truck crop has not been found yet and, for the present, cowpeas, beggarweed and -velvet beans best supplement the natural cover crops. The efforts of county agents in Central and South Florida in soil improvement by the increased use of cover crops has been successful. Crotalaria has been the crop most used; Approxi mately 70,000 pounds of this seed was imported, being handled direct from the producers to the growers through the county agents' efforts. Crotalaria will produce more tonnage on light citrus soils than any other cover crop we grow. The results of this work is very evident and already the total seed available for 1930 has been arranged for by growers. In the fall of 1925 an effort was started by the county agent of Bay County and the District Agent to grow hairy vetch during

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension the winter to turn into the land to add humus and nitrogen to the soil. Two hundred twenty pounds of seed were planted on about ten one-acre plots. Some of these were successful, others failed. But how the interest and success has grown is shown by amount of seed sown each year. It is as follows: 1926600 pounds of vetch . 19276,000 pounds of Austrian Peas and Vetch 192850,000 " " " " " " 1929-105,760 " " " " About April 1 the Agronomist of the Experiment Station and District Agent visited 70 fields of Austrian peas and vetch, and Fig. 3.-L. H. Alsmeyer, agent, Highlands County, in Crotalaria. County Agent Alsmeyer was one of six winners in a soil improvement conducted in the Southern States by a fertilizer association . His winning was the result of the work he had done in encouraging citrus growers of Highlands County to plant Crotalaria. in the presence of groups of farmers assembled, cut the green material from an area and computed growth per acre. The growth ranged from 1,500 pounds to 24,000 pounds and averaged 9,763 pounds. This crop was then turned under and followed by other crops, principally corn. From reports obtained the crops grown

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Annual Report, 1929 25 following this manure crop were from 100 to 200 per cent larger than in check plots. Some of the land is too poor to grow these winter cover crops. During the spring, 1,000 pounds of Crotalaria striata was sown and our initial demonstrations in North and West Florida were started with it. This is a legume that grows in summer. There were as high as 48,000 pounds of green matter produced per acre on some of the plots. Four seasons ago Mr. Newsome ofBlountstown secured a small package of Crotalaria seed and sowed it in a corn field. It has reseeded each year and during 1927 and 1928 the land was not farmed but the Crotalaria grew. The field was planted to corn this year. Where Crotalaria grew and where it didn't was fer tilized alike with commercial fertilizer. The ,area on which the Crotalaria had grown produced 41.2 bushels per acre and the rest produced 25.4 -bushels per acre. During the year 325 manure and cover crop . demonstrations consisting of 2,128 acres have been conducted .by the .county agents, and now they have started underway.459 demonstrations consisting of, 4,230 acres. ' --. It has be~ the practice of our farmers to use only 233 pounds of a low grade fertilizer per acre to cotton and none or only a small amount of aJow grade or poor fertilizer for corn. This year,. 459 demonstrations in fertilizing cotton with 400 pounds of acid phosphate, 100 pounds muriate of potash and 200 pounds nitrate of soda or 100 or more pounds of a nitrogen-carrying element applied to corn as a side-dressing, have been conducted. These have given gratifying results. This is a culmination of .a four-year campaign to educate the people to a better understand ing of their fertilizer need. It has been stated by .interested ob servers that considerable progress has been made in getting farmers to intelligently use commercial fertilizer. Reports from agents in the southern district show that the use of manganese and copper sulphate on marshland has made marked improvement in the production of vegetables. Incrcease in the production of beans around Homestead, Dade County, are report ed by the growers as high as 100% and other vegetables from 25% to 50% by the use of manganese. Other items do not show as high increase. SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,562 Acres involved in completed demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,920 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,582

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26 Florida Cooperative B x t ension Farmer s following advice in u se of commerci a l fertilizers .......... . Tons comme r cial fertilizer involv e d ....... . . . .. . ................. . Farmer s taking b et ter care of farm manur es . . ......... ..... . .... . Farmer s u s ing lim e or lim est one ... ... . . . . ..... ....... . .. . . .. . . . Ton s of lime or limeston e so u se d ..... ....... . ....... ..... ... . .. . Farmer s who plowed und e r cover crop s for s oil improvement s ..... . Acres of c ov e r and green manur e so plow e d under . . ..... .. . . . . . ... . FARM CROPS 1,554 18,788 301 124 1,022 6 3 1 12,745 Corn . -The land in North and West Florida grown to corn equals 61.7 % of the who le in cu lti vat ion. The average y ield i s a little le ss than 14 bushels per acre. The average cost is better than one dollar per bushel. Corn can usually be bought on the market for le ss than that . It cannot be sold on the market for Fig. 4.-Five c lub boys in Hill s borough Cou nt y produced over 100 bushel s of corn on each of their acres. a profit and it is too expensive to be converted into livesto ck which in turn would be placed on the market. The farmers are small operators, farming only a s mall acreage. Therefore the cost of production mu st be reduced by increa sing the production per acre. The county and district agents planned to do this by a more intelligent use of commercial fertilizer, by growing Austrian peas and vetch and turning them into the land, and by the use of better seed. Following the findings of the Alabama Experiment Station, 100 to 200 pound s per acre as a side -dr essing of a fertilizing e l ement carrying a quickly availab l e nitrogen is being recommended.

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Annual Report, 1929 27 In line with these plans there have been 339 corn production demonstrations conducted with an average increased yield of 22 bushels of corn per acre at a cost of 66 cents per bushel. Ap proximately twice the acreage will be planted to corn following a winter cover crop in 1930 as was in 1929. There will be a con~ siderable increase in amount of corn side-dressed with nitrogen. In Hillsborough County 54 boys finished corn club work with an average yield of 67 bushels per acre. These boys planted corn after spring truck crops, used good seed and fertilized with nitrate of soda and calcium nitrate as a side-dressing. In the southern section corn and sorghum are used extensively for silage on dairy farms. Demonstrations this year have shown the value of good silage with plenty of grain in it over poor silage. CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats, etc.) Number demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 Acreage grown under demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,736 Boys' and girls' clubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Acreage grown by club members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ................. 15,824 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 Farmers who planted selected and improved seed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Cotton.-During the last six years the average Florida cotton grower has produced 37 4 pounds of seed cottqn per acre per year and sustained a loss of approximately $10.00 per acre. During that time he has used nondescript seed and 233 pounds of low grade commercial fertilizer valued only at $3.44. During the same period there were conducted in North and West Florida 218 demonstrations using good seed of improved varieties, $9.26 worth of high grade commercial fertilizer. These demonstrations re turned a net income of $32.92 per acre. Following this lead and the recommendation of Experiment Stations there were 288 dem onstrations conducted that produced an average of 362 pounds seed cotton per acre more than the check by it, or a larger net income approximating $15.00 per acre. In the Central Florida district three 5-acre cotton demonstra tions gave an average increase of 209 pounds seed cotton. COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Number demonstrations given .............................. . . Acreage grown under improved methods ...................... . Farms influenced to adopt better practice ..................... . Boys' and girls' clubs ....................................... . Members enrolled ................................. .. ..... . . . Acreage grown by club members ............... . ............. . Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ................... . Farmers who planted improved seed first time ................. . 151 ' 758 383 32 269 137 127,667 257

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension Peanuts.-It has been determined by research workers that the yield of Spanish peanuts can be increased more by thick spacing-closer rows and closer in the drill-than by ariy other means. There were conducted during the year 66 demonstra tions to show the value of this close spacing. On one demonstra tion in Jackson County 90 bushels were produced as against 53 bushels on the check. This shows the ratio of increase on these 66 demonstrations. Sugar Cane.-In virtually every farming county the ordinary varieties of sugar cane are affected with mosaic _ and root-knot. . Cayana-10 has proven to be resistant to both and yields consider. ably more syrup. The county agents of every county have con ducted demonstrations this year to show this superiority. Some of them have conducted fertilizer demonstrations. The difference in yield is shown by one demonstration iri Jefferson County conducted on the place of W. J. Hatchett. The common sugar cane yielded 76 gallons per acre and the Cayana-10 right by it pro duced 307 gallons per acre. As a result of these demonstrations there will be hundreds of acres . planted to Cayana-10 next season. LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.) Number method demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Number result demonstrations under way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Number result demonstrations . completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Acres in completed demonstrations ........................... , . . . 4,566 PASTURES The native range in West Florida is poor, producing very little beef and it is practically no good for dairy cattle. In grazing . experiments conducted by the Animal Husbandry and Agronomy departments of the Experiment Station it has been seen that an acre of improved pasture will . produce approximately 250 pounds of beef, furnishing about 9 months grazing, an abundance of cheap feed. The county agents have started during the year 43 pasture demonstrations involving 484 acres. A few succecssful pastures have been established. Many more will be established during 1930. In Central Florida interest in improvement of pastures is . gradually incre-asing. The first of the demonstration pastures are now .four years old. Pasture work is a long-time type of project and several years yet will be required to get this going on a big scale. This year 23 demonstrations were completed on \ \ \

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Annual Report, 1929 29 396 acres. These demonstration pastures are of small size but are effective in showing the value of improved grasses. Carpet, Bahia, Dallis and lespedeza are the grasses being seeded in most of the demonstrations. One demonstration in Martin County reports a planting of five acres in mixed grasses in May and this fall was supporting 15 to 20 cows. The dairyman on whose farm this demonstration was carried on estimated a yearly saving on his feed bill alone of $215.00. HORTICULTURE Citrus and truck crops are the chief money crops in most of the Central and South Florida territory. The greater part of the county agents' time is devoted to work in horticulture. A great amount of personal service work is required, such as inspections of groves and truck crops for insects and diseases in order to give advice on control measures and on methods of cultivation and fertilization. Each grove and truck crop is a unit in itself and requires this personal inspection by the agent in order to make proper and timely recommendations. A series of citrus field meetings had been planned and ar ranged for in the spring. The purpose was to stress cover crops, insect and disease control, . fertilization and irrigation~ The fruit fly was discovered just prior to the dates for beginning these meet ings, so the program was changed to permit a thorough discus sion of the fruit fly and give growers first-hand information on this pest and the proposed control measures. Fifteen such meet ings were held in eight citrus counties during April with an at tendance of 870 growers. In such small meetings conducted largely as round table discussions growers had an opportunity to take an active part in the discussions. Ninety-two demonstrations were carried to completion on 2,755 acres of citrus; 264 growers adopted improved practices in some phase of citrus production. The three phases of citrus culture where the most outstanding work of the year has been done are (1) assistance rendered in fruit fly eradication work, (2) increased acreage in legume cover crops, (3) changes in fertilizer practices in C<>njunction with cover crop work where costs of production wer e lowered by (a) reducing fertilizer per application made possible by growing legume cover crops and (b) use of cheaper forms of nitrogen where organic matter had been added to the soil by cover crops turned in.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension Six agents have conducted groups of growers from their coun ties to inspect fertilizer experimental plots at the citrus station at Lake Alfred. These experiments have been running for eight years now and results are becoming apparent. The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes and pears in West Florida is a relatively new industry. County agents .have demonstrated to the growers the proper methods of setting, spraying, pruning and cultivating. They have this year conducted cover crop demonstrations, using Crotalaria. Picking bags and clippers where shown and proper methods of using them demon strated. Packinghouses and sales organizations have been or ganized and established. HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS Number method demonstrations given ........................ . Number result demonstrations ............................... . Result demonstrations completed during year .................. . Acres involved in demonstrations ............................ . Number of boys' clubs .................................... .. . . Membership .................... . .... . ....................... . Number planting improved stock or seed first time ....... .. .... . Number pruning first time ...... . ................... : ........ . Trees.involved ................. .. ...................... . .... . Acres involved ..... , .............. : . .. . . ................. ; .. Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests ...... . Acres treated ............................................... .. Number farms adopting improved practices ................... . . TRUCK CROPS 2,305 1,870 1,272 9,224 78 470 1,258 436 33,141 475 5,803 3,707 2,059 A large part of the work in connection with growing truck crops such as beans, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, peppers, tomatoes and watermelons is carried on as personal service work similar to much of the citrus work. Soil types and conditions vary so widely that personal inspection is required to make correct recommendations. Seed treatment, fertilization, insect and disease control, spraying and spray mixing are major lines of truck crop work. During t_he year 54 demonstrations involving 347 acres of truck crops were reported by the agents in this territory. One hundred and forty-four farmers sprayed or dusted truck crops who had not previously sprayed or dusted these crops, and 259 farmers adopt ed improved practices with . truck crops. SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS Number of demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Acreage grown under improved methods ..... .. .................... 1,317 Farmers influenced to adopt better practicM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

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Annual Report, 1929 31 Farmers who treated seed for disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects . , . . . . . 204 Grapes.-The growing of grapes in Florida is a relatively new industry which has been making good progress. Many of the problems have been worked out, in part, at least. At this time enough demonstrations have been made to prove the value of Crolataria as a cover crop in vineyards. This work is being pushed, especially in Lake County, which county has the largest acreage in grapes. Results this year were so evident that plans are already under way to seed several of the largest vineyards in the county to Crotalaria next spring. The grape is a heavy feeder and our best adapted soils for this fruit cannot produce the best crops unless quantities of organic matter are added to the soil. INSECT CONTROL A few definite corn weevil control demonstrations were con ducted during the year. More cribs were fixed and more corn treated with carbon disulphide this fall than ever before. Eighteen cribs have been built and several thousand bushels of corn fumi gated, using four pounds of carbon disulphide to one thousand cubic feet of space. Farmers' meetings will be held at these next summer. Thirty-eight boll weevil control demonstrations were conducted. DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations given ................... ._ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,654 Acres in completed demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,227 Farmers adopting control measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,695 Acres involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,604 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Swine.-Swine is one of the most consistent revenue-producing crops the North Florida farmer has. Many farmers yet grow them for home or local consumption. These hogs are permitted . to run on the range, resulting in losses during the spring and summer from starvation. Others are small and under-nourished when placed on feed. Many are of scrub stock. These conditions prevented the farmers from placing the hogs on the market when prices were highest, in August, September and October. Extension agents planned in 1926 to improve this situation. That year on October 28 the first car was sold cooperatively. By getting farmers to put in grazing crops such as rye and oats, peas and rape, and supplementing this with sweet potatoes and

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension corn, the hogs were larger when fattening feeds were ready. Farmers have planted early corn, pea s , and Spanish peanuts to be pastured in July. As a result of this 314 farmers marketed 2,458 head during August and September. Better than 100 cars were shipped cooperatively by October 28, 1929, in addition to many trucked to market. This gave an increased income from these hogs of approximately $25,000. There have been 116 purebred sires and 98 dams placed on the farms this year as a result of county agent activity. In Central Florida the Cooperative Hog Marketing Association in Levy County has had the best year since it was organized. This association has grown to such an extent that the member' ship has more than doubled during the current year. The asso ciation at Newberry is functioning and is in position to go through the year much better than last year. These two associations have marketed 18 cars of hogs to date. Only two agents in this territory inoculate hogs. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board takes care of this work in other coun'." ties. Fifty-one farmers were assisted in securing purebred boars and 58 in seccuring high grade or purebred females. One hundred and forty-two farmers were influenced to inoculate as a preventive against hog cholera and 359 were assisted in adopting improved practices with hogs. The two counties in the district with the best pig clubs were Marion and Sumter. HOG DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations gi v en . .. . . . ......•... . .... . .. .. .. .. .... . . . . . . . 1,342 Animals in completed demon s tration s . . ... . •... ... . .... . . . . . 9 , 183 Savings resulting from better practices . ... . , .. . .. ... . . ........ $ 12,317.64 Farmers who secured purebred sires ... , .. , . .......... ; . . . . . . . . 209 Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females ..... : . . . . . . . . . . 182 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Farmers culling breeding stock ... . ... . ............... ........ 86 Number of animals culled out . ......... . ...... . .... . . . . .. '" . . . 2,669 Farmers who controll e d insect and disease pests . . .. . . . . ... ... .. .. 214 Farmers who vaccinated for cholera ; .. : . , ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,057 Number farms adopting improved practices . ; , .. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,170 Beef Cattle.-In Central and South Florida dipping to eradi cate the cattle tick was begun by state and federal forces in one county (Levy) of the district this year. The coming spring two other counties (Marion and Alachua) are prepared to begin this work. Beef cattle appear likely to command a good market price for several years. Interest is good for bringing in improved bulls as soon as ticks have been eradicated. Pasture work will

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Annual Report, 1929 33 be pushed in these counties during the coming year. Farmers were assisted in the purchase of three purebred bulls and . one feeding demonstration is now in progress. The tick has now been eradicated from North and West Flor ida counties. Beef cattle production is now assuming a more important role. Heretofore it has been strictly a "range scrub" proposition. The State Live Stock Sanitary Board has introduced many Aberdeen-Angus bulls and a few cows. The county agents have assisted farmers in getting 82 bulls and 29 cows during the recent year. They are influencing farmers in some instances to care for them better. They have assisted in assembling and marketing a few carloads of beef cattle. Sheep.-There are approximately 43,000 sheep in North and . Northwest Florida. The number has been decreasing for years. These sheep are on the range. Wild animals and dogs kill some each year. .But internal parasites-worms-are responsible for the largest mortality. By drenching with a solution of nicotine sulphate and copper sulphate these can be removed. Demonstrations on three flocks have been conducted during the last two sea sons; The results show stronger sheep, less mortality among them, 25% increase in the lamb crop and -pound heavier fleeces. The influence of these demonstrations is spreading and next sea son the county agents will carry the message to all sheep owners and many more . flocks will be treated. Dairy Cattle.-The dairy situation has made substantial prog ress. More home-grown feed is being produced and more atten tion , being given to improved pastures than ever before. Marion, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, and Madison counties are conduct ing dairying on a sound basis and are beginning to secure tlie bene fits froni the calves and heifers imported since 1927. The ex hibits of dairy cattle at the Marion County fair this fall were the best ever shown at this fair. County agents conducted 28 demonstrations with dairymen, . 1,247 head of cattle being involved inthese demonstrations. They assisted in the purchase of 4 purebred bulls, 70 purebred heifers and in culling 10 herds, 436 head were culled and 98 culls taken from the herds. They assisted 204 dairymen in adopting im proved practices. DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Number demonstrations given ................................. . . . 419 Animals in completed demonstrations , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,008 Saving resulting from better practices ............................. $5,678 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ......... ;............. 800 Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females . . . . . . . . 121 Farmers who culled their herds ....... . .......... . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Animals in these herds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,958 Animals discarded ....... . ....•... . ...... . ....... .. . .. . ..... . . . . 484 Farmers' associations who tested cows for production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Cows tested for production .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,067 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Farmers who controlled insect pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods . . . . . 186 POULTRY HUSBANDRY The program of the Extension Poultryman in "growing healthy chicks" was stressed by practically every agent in the district. Sanitation and the control of parasites has been a feature of the work also this year. The agents have backed the "Home Egg Lying Contest" as part of the extension poultry program, some very gratifying results having been obtained through the feed ing of home-grown feed for egg production. County agents conducted 119 demonstrations with 17,452 birds during the year, and 193 culling demonstrations were conducted where 24,811 birds were culled, over 5,000 culls being removed; 336 poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices with some phase of their poultry work. POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Birds in these demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49,813 Saving resulting from better practices .. . ............ . ......... $ 8,685.53 Number of farms assisted in securing purebr e d breeding stock . . . . 342 Poultrymen who culled their flocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,920 Number of birds in these flocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57,312 Number of birds discarded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,040 RURAL ENGINEERING There are rolling lands in Jackson, Escambia, Hamilton, Jeffer son, Leon, Okaloosa, Washington, Walton, Santa Rosa, and Mad ison counties. There is an average rainfall of from 55 to 67 inches per year in those counties. The county agents of these counties conducted during the year 151 terracing demonstrations affecting 3,857 acres of land. Forty-nine farmers and growers were assisted in installing or improving the drainage systems where 1,832 acres were drained . Thirty-five farmers and growers were assisted in installing irri gation systems on 757 acres. They have been advised on and furnished plans for constructing 62 farm houses, 32 barns, 6 hog

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Annual Report, 1929 35 houses, 40 poultry houses, 5 silos, and 42 miscellaneous farm buildings. Irrigation systems in citrus groves and trucking sections have been installed on a number of farms this year. In one county more than 40 water-control systems were put in the past year. Water control in the vegetable area is developing very fast. These control systems consist in a series of dykes and pumps by which in case . of excessive rains water can be pumped off or in the case of dry weather pumped in on the crops. RURAL ENGINEERING (Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice) Acres Demonstrations given .....•. . .... .. ... . ..... .. ... . . Drainage systems installed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44,227 Irrigation systems installed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,125 Terraces or soil dams constructed. . .................. 3,902 Water systems installed ........................... . Heating systems installed .... ...• ..... . ............ Lighting systems installed ............. . .... . ..... . Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were constructed or remodeled ................... .. . Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled ... . Number sewage-disposal systems installed .......... . Farmers who cleared land ........................ . Acres cleared .................................. . . Number of farms adopting above practices for first time ..................... .. .. . .... .. . . ... .. . . AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Number 502 224 290 155 34 1 12 162 295 17 309 5,710 838 In north and west Florida counties there were at the beginning of the year 21 small cooperatives existing in the territory and during the year 8 have been added. The county agents have assisted in the organization of these and advised their manage ment. In central and south Florida counties there are a number of good strong farmers' cooperative organizations that have been in existence for several years. The county agents cooperate with these organizations and render any assistance they can, and work in close contact with these organizations. During the year county agents report assisting in forming 16 new farmers' organizations. These organizations purchased $433,893 worth of supplies, and sold $735,169 worth of products. In addition to the above there were four satsuma marketing organizations perfected, two of which in cooperation with the Gulf Coast Citrus Exchange built packing plants and marketed approximately 40 cars of fruit.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Last . year through the cooperation of the county agent in St. Johns County there was organized a Live-at-Home program con test. Many farmers signed up for the contest but due to the quarantine regulations which necessitated the destruction of a large number of fruits and vegetables, only a few finished the contest. There were more than 25 varieties of fruits and vege tables preserved and canned during the year by the contestants and in addition to the milk, butter, eggs, and poultry and meats killed for home consumption the average food produced by each contestant averaged up to $300. Value of hay, pasture, feeds grown for livestock and fresh vegetables were not estimated in the above figures. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Number method demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Farm account books distributed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Farmers who kept records .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts. . . . . . . . . . 62 Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Farmers advised relative to leases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Number of junior farm account clubs ............................... 10 Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices. . . . . 161

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Annual Report, 1929 37 BOYS' CLUB WORK R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent The enrollment in boys' clubs as reported on September 15 showed a gain of practically 20 percent over that of 1928. This gain is encouraging. The increased enrollment was not confined to one or two clubs but was general in all projects. The calf club was the only one to show any appreciable loss in membership and this was caused by the fact that at the time the boys should have been getting their animals, the county agents were engaged in the fruit fly work. The following figures show the enrollment in different projects, the first figures being for 1928 enrollment and the second, in each case, being for 1929-Corn, 442 and 655; cotton, 285 and 282; potato, 150 and 209; truck, 276 and 391; citrus, 26 and 114; poul try, 472 and 562; pig, 366 and 456; barrow, 332 and 334; calf, 206 and 160; miscellaneous, 124 and 48; total 2,679 and 3,211. LOCAL CLUBS There has been a gradu_al increase in the number of organized clubs. The county agents are discovering that organizing the boys of the community into a club increases the percentage of reports as well as secures a larger enrollment. The thinly popu lated sections offer a difficulty for successful organization in some counties. This difficulty is being overcome through the consoli dated schools in some cases. In 1929 there were 212 local clubs with 2,702 members. These club organizations are from 21 counties. COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS The work of organizing the local clubs into a county organiza tion has not been carried out in many counties. There are county 4-H club councils in Escambia, Hillsboro, Walton, Suwannee, and Hamilton counties. More work needs to be done in perfecting county organizations. OUTSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS The most efficiently organized county is Union County with L. T. Dyer as County Agent. Boys' club work has been conducted in this county for three years. In this time, the organizations have been built up until three good local clubs are functioning. It is a small county and does not have many farms. At first there was little enthusiasm for club work, but each year it has increased

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension through the efforts of the three local clubs until now club work is the most popular phase of extension work. _ The enrollment was increased 70 percent over that of 1928 and every project was reported excepting one. In this case, hogs got into the boy's corn acre and destroyed the crop. This is the best record of reports ever received in the State. The largest organization is in Escambia County where the boys are organized into 19 clubs with a total enrollment of 325. This county was the first to form a county council for Boys' 4-H work. An example of what a good local club can accomplish is that of the Allentown club in Santa Rosa County. This local club under its president, Ralph Arant, not only secured reports from all its members but one, but also took complete charge of the county club contest program; LEADERSHIP The need for efficient local leaders and the seeming impossibility of securing adults, has forced us to turn to developing leaders from . among the members. We were encouraged to attempt this by the fact that our few good adult leaders were former club members who had an understanding of the real aims and purposes of the 4-H program. In some counties work in leadership was started by bringing some of the older boys to the county seat when an all-day meeting was held. The results were so satisfactory that a 3-day leader ship school was held in October at the 4-H camp in West Florida. At this time, four older boys and four older girls from each of the . eight counties having county or home demonstration agents in that territory together with their agents were invited. A pro gram of leadership was developed with especial reference to leadership in recreation and to training for holding county con tests. The results were beyond expectation. The agents attend ing have reported that it was the best help they have received in their club work. ' In 1930we will attempt to hold 1-day training schools in every county where the agents are interested and at least three joint schools will be held in the state. Among the best member leaders in the State are Frederick Barber of Escambia County, Arlington Henley of Walton County, and Hugh Dukes of Union County. These boys have been active in helping in all phases of the work. They have been leaders not only of the work in their communities but have visited other communities and helped arouse enthusiasm.

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Annual Report, 1929 39 SPECIAL OCCASIONS The need for a better understanding of 4-H club aims and ideals is one of the great problems in promoting club work. , To make the public realize that we have an organization worthy of com mendation and support is but a part of our work. We must secure a better understanding of what we are attempting among the people most concerned-the farmer and his family. Publicity is the best means of doing this. Not only through the pfe~s but by means of public appearances of the boys and girls themselves. We are using rally days, camps, picnics, contest days, demonstra tion teams and public club meetings to let the world know what we are doing. Six rally days, which were attended by 1,100 boys, 19 county camps attended by 875 boys, eight picnics attended by 600 boys and 25 contests attended by over 3,000 people were held during the year. Demonstrations were put on in 12 counties and many public meetings of the local clubs added to the attempts made to let the public know what we are attempting. The 4-H club initiation ceremony has proven a popular means of explaining the purpose of the work. Walton County used this ceremony as a large part of a meeting at the county seat. It was necessary to rent a big hall and charge admission. The town's people came out as well as many farmers and their families. The result was that the 4-H's and their meaning were understood and / appreciated by everyone who attended. WEST FLORIDA 4-H CLUB CAMP The regional camp in the Choctawhatchee National Forest is growing in size. One cottage was added this year. Dining room equipment was improved and a sanitary sewerage system for the control cottage was added. A total of 355 boys and girls from seven counties attended the camp during July and August. A leadership training school was held at the camp in October. The capacity of the camp is but 60 at the present time. More cottages are needed. STATE SHORT COURSE The 1929 short course was conducted along the same lines ltS for the past three years. Thirty-four counties were represented by 202 boys. The inspiration received from this trip is illustrated by the boy who said that he won a thousand and two dollars in club work last year-two dollar's in cash and a trip to the short course.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension PROJECT DEMONSTRATIONS SOIL BUILDING If 4-H club work is to be of real service in improving agricultural conditions it must do its part in increasing the fertility of the soil. An attempt is being made to interest the crop club members in planting their club acres to a winter cover crop. Twenty-three boys planted their club plots to a winter cover crop of Austrian winter peas and vetch. Yutch Lee of Santa Rosa County gives a good example of a successful demonstration of the value of a winter cover crop in its effect on the following crop. He planted his acre to Austrian peas, using 300 pounds of acid phosphate. The crop was planted in the fall of 1928. He planted the acre to corn in the spring of 1929 and produced 67 bushels without the use of commercial fer tilizer. Using no fertilizer the cost was reduced to 18c per bushel. FARM CROPS (1) Com.-The average yield of club acres for 1929 was 43.4 bushels per acre. The state average is around 14 bushels, which shows that the club boys are demonstrating better methods of corn production. The largest yields at the lowest . cost were produced in Hillsborough County when the corn was grown as a catch crop after the ground had been highly fertilized for winter vegetables. In this county 54 boys reported an average yield of 67.6 bushels per acre. Five boys produced over 100 bushels each, or an average of 107.5 bushels per acre. (2) Cotton.-The work of cotton club boys has given the best illustration of how club work can be used to demonstrate in a practical way better methods of production. The 137 boys re ported produced 127,677 pounds of seed cotton, or an average of 931 pounds per acre. This is an average increase of 359 pounds per acre over that for the state. Better seed and improved ferti. lization were responsible for the increase. In Santa Rosa County 26 boys reported average yields of 814 pounds. The year 1929 was unfavorable for cotton, as nearly all boys had to replant and the stand was poor. Twenty-two of these boys made an average profit of $27.70. Four of them had an average loss of $8.44. It is interesting to note that of those report ing a loss, the yields were under 400 pounds seed cotton per acre. In Walton County 12 boys produced an average of 660 pounds seed cotton per acre. Eleven of them made an average profit of $22.09. One boy produced 206 pounds and suffered a loss of $9.90.

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Annual Report, 1929 41 HORTICULTURE This covers citrus, truck, and garden clubs. The storms in South Florida destroyed the gardens one time but the boys re planted. The profits varied from a slight loss to over $200 profit. Six boys in Hillsborough County produced 9,850 quarts of straw berries at a profit of $890.50. In the same county 5 boys in the truck club produced 1,150 hampers of vegetables at a profit of $976.00. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY The pig club continues to grow. The enrollment was increased about 15 percent. In the fat barrow work a new plan was begun. Under the new plan the club member plants two acres to feed crops; one to early corn and Spanish peanuts, the other to field corn and runner peanuts. The first one should be ready for hog ging off by July 1, at which time three barrows weighing about 70 pounds each are turned into this acre. By August 1 to 15 the second acre is' ready and the pigs are taken from first acre and put on the second. The pigs are r~ady for market by October 1. The results were satisfactory and we hope to increase the enroll ment in this club for 1930. Hugh Dukes of Union County is an example of a wide-awake pig club boy. Hugh grew out three barrows and one gilt in 1928. He sold these and bought a fine registered Poland China sow from a breeder who exhibited at the Florida State Fair. The sow pre sented him with 10 pigs of which he raised eight. Hugh took exceptional care of these. He sold three and kept five. He planted feed crops and grew out three nice barrows. He saved two gilts and made them weigh over 200 pounds at 6 months. He showed his gilt at the State Pig Club contest and won the Frank Dennis $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture. Dillworth Carter of Jefferson County took three barrows from a litter raised by his 1928 pig club pig. He raised them and won Grand Champion Club barrow at the State Pig Club show. DAIRY HUSBANDRY With a gradual eradication of the cattle tick, interest is increas ing in the dairy club. Madison County is getting well supplied with purebred Jerseys, due to the 200 head of calves imported for the dairy club members. Leon County had 22 members in the dairy club who exhibited 27 animals. This club has studied feeding and showing their animals. The Leon County Dairy Club exihibt is the best in the State. The banks and business men of the County are behind this project. The first prize dairy club boy is awarded a trip to

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension the National Club Congress at Chicago, the second prize boy is awarded a purebred calf. 0. C. Brown won the Chicago trip on a bred heifer which he raised in 1928 club work. John Williams of Marion County is starting a little herd. He has two cows and two heifers which he has raised in his club work. POULTRY HUSBANDRY This project has not come up to our hopes and expectations. A new plan has been worked out for 1930. Under this plan the member can either manage the present farm flock or start in with enough pullets or baby chicks to make it worth his efforts. The smallness of the possible profits under the old plan of one setting of eggs seemed to be the big drawback. Jack Platt of Marion County has a record which is exceptional. He began his third year in the poultry club with 100 laying pullets and hens. He put 400 eggs in a hatchery and got 370 chicks of which he raised 325. During the year he spent $158.50 for feed, sold $385.30 worth of eggs, and $97.00 worth of fryers. He ended the year with 275 purebred pullets and hens. His profit for the year was $518.40. Lena Bennett of Union County did a good jobof trapnesting. Lena started the year with 34 pullets. She culled and lost down to 24. Of these one laid 298 eggs in one year and six laid over 275 eggs each. In addition to her pullets she bought 100 more chicks and raised 91 of them. Her profit for the year is $187.13. SUMMARY PROJECT WORK Of the 2,774 boys enrolled carrying 3,211 projects, 1,159 re ported, with five South Florida counties out as they will not hold contests until January. There were over 2,000 farms touched by club work and $88,981.16 worth of animals and products produced by members reporting. This left the members reporting with approximately $33.75 average profit. MEMBERS ATTENDING COLLEGE Four boys entered the College of Agriculture in September, 1929, on scholarships won for excellent club work. Forty-seven others were influenced to attend college this year. One county agent reported that one boy had saved enough from his club work to pay his college expenses for two years. The influence of 4-H club work on its members in inducing them to secure a better education is one of the strongest reasons why club work is grow ing in strength and in the good will of the public.

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Annu,al Report, 1929 43 DAIRYING HAMLIN L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman PRODUCTION PROBLEMS OF FIRST IMPORTANCE The expansion of the dairy industry in Florida is possible only when production costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profit able manufacture of milk into butter, cheese, condensed and powdered milk. There is an adequate supply of fluid milk for domestic consump tion produced in the state except during the tourist seasons. This extra supply had best be shipped in rather than produced at home until Florida dairymen produce milk for manufacturing purposes that may be used as fluid milk for a few months during the tourist season. Production problems that seemed most important were the growing of forage and pasture, with better practices in feeding. A system of records that would supply information to the dairy man will help in improving present conditions. The introduction of purebred sires and systematic culling of low producing herds are items in the 1929 dairy program tliat have received attention this year. In farm dairying the production problems have been featured as most important. During 1929 nine counties have opened cream eries. ECONOMIC CHANGES AFFECTING WORK Plans are being laid to have more feed grown in the future, to stress better methods of handling milk to improve quality, to have dairy organizations to look after the interests of dairying in legis lation, and to protect the dairy interests of the state against unfair competition of off-grade milk being imported into Florida. The Florida milk law was passed during the 1929 session of the State Legislature. Methods to improve the class of dairy cows by systematic cull ing, by the importation of purebred sires, and by the keeping of individual farm production records have been practiced to the improvement of the dairy herds of Florida. The 1919 United States Census gives Florida 71,641 cows with an annual produc tion of 1,307 pounds of milk per cow. The 1928 census gives Flor ida 62,940 cows with an annual production of 2,614 pounds of milk per cow. The Experiment Station, in a survey of 250 dairy farms with 12,550 cows, gives an average production of 4,327 pounds per cow.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension PRODUCTION COSTS REDUCED Production costs can be reduced; first, by better feeding prac tices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd improvement association in every dairy center of the state; fourth, by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding and culling. MAKE DAIRYING , A GREATER ECONOMIC FACTOR IN THE STATE It is hoped, by improving the methods of production in the state, to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural county where feed crops can be grown profitably. PRODUCTION OF FEED Information from dairy records and economic surveys show production costs are high because there is a shortage of pasture and grazing crops. Too much roughage is bought instead of being grown on Florida diary farms. This in illustrated in the dairy survey made in the Tampa and the Ocala areas. Fifty-eight farms around Tampa fed the average cow 4,745.5 pounds of grain a year costing $110.00. On 29 farms in the Ocala area the average cow consumed 2,400.2 pounds of grain at a cost of $5~.63, and pro duced more milk. In the Tampa area the milk production cost was $2.82 a hundred pounds. In the Ocala area it was $1.52 a hundred pounds. Pas ture, silage and other home-grown roughage represent the dif ference. PASTURES There has been encouraging progress made along this line dur ing 1929. Ninety-one farmers seeded 1,081 acres to permanent pastures in the state, with the advice of the county agents. Dairy men are learning the value of fertilizing the permanent pastures and keeping them mowed. The county agent of Marion County reports that dairymen of the North Marion County Dairymens' Association reduced by 50 percent the amount of grain feed purchased over 1928 by hav ing good pastures. SILOS Fourteen new silos with a capacity of 2,600 tons were built and most of the silos formerly constructed were used. FARM DAIRYING IN WEST FLORIDA COUNTIES There has been increased interest in the production of sour cream. Progress in some counties has been very pronounced.

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Annual Report, 1929 45 Foundation work was done in Okaloosa and Santa Rosa several years ago. Two farmer-owned and operated c~eam stations at Laurel Hill and Baker were established in January, 1929. The county agent reports that $18,000 worth of cream was marketed from these two stations this year. Mrs. C. S. Howell of Baker purchased two calves in 1924. Mrs. Howell sold $161 worth of cream from these two cows from January 1 to October 15, 1929. She spent $11 for concentrates. The home-grown feed consisted of 5 acres of Bermuda, lespedeza, and carpet grass pasture, acre of cat-tail millet fed as a soiling crop, and velvet beans. Mrs. Howell raised two heifer calves also which were valued at $35 each and in addition had milk and butter for a family of three. J. W. Malone, county agent, has arranged for people of the county to purchase a carload of bred heifers early in 1930. He also plans to enlarge the home-grown feed program another year, and organize a cooperative bull club association. Two very successful all-day farm demonstration schools were held at Baker and Laurel Hill in September to enlarge the dairy work. Three hundred and sixty people attended these schools. Santa Rosa County farmers bought a carload of bred Jersey heifers in 1928, and these animals are showing up in a good way now. In the Allentown community farmers are raising the calves on separator skimmed milk. . They have a cooperative bull club of four blocks and are securing more registered bulls. Jefferson and Madison counties each has a creamery. Four hundred and forty high grade Jersey cows and heifers and some registered bulls have been bought by farmers. The Jefferson County Creamery buys cream from West Florida counties some 200 miles distant, also from Georgia. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY SIRES The extension workers placed 67 purebred bulls with farmers. There are three cooperative bull clubs, with two to be organized early in 1930. There is much to be done in proven sire work and the building of proper quarters for bulls out on the farms if dairy men are to make substantial progress in improving their farm herds. A large percentage of the farm bulls are being killed be fore the farmer has a chance to know whether they possess the power to improve the herd. The counties making most progress with cooperative bull club associations are Marion, Santa Rosa, and Madison. Walton and Okaloosa counties are to organize cooperative clubs in 1930.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension RAISING DAIRY CALVES The demonstrations in raising dairy calves are causing an improvement in the quality of calves. There were 121 4-H calf club members enrolled this year, with 91 completing the work. This represents a few members in a large number of counties. The outstanding results with registered calves is being done prin cipally in Leon, Madison and Marion counties. G. C. Hodge, county agent in Leon County, has featured the purebred calf club and has grown out some well developed calves. A noticeable im provement indicates a genuine interest in the development of the heifers the second year. The state club leader has agreed to change the name from the 4-H calf club to the 4-H dairy club another year, with the view to placing the high awards on the completed dairy demonstration which is the mature milking cow. The dairy club work to take the boy through four years' training. Jin Madison County B. E. Lawton, county agent, estimates that the $3,000 invested in 155 heifer calves in 1927 has increased to over $20,000 in value. Proper feeding practices have done much to remove that erroneous idea that calves cannot be grown suc cessfully in the state. DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS The increased number of dairy production records in the state is giving good material for organizing demonstrations for dairy work. County agents report 59 dairies keeping records on 1,327 cows, 78 farms with 1,727 cows culled 456 cows in 1929. Through the county agents the practice of feeding grain mix tures rather low in protein to the poor producers in the winter months with a view of butchering low producers has been encour aged. This puts them in beef condition with enough milk to pay the feed bills. With the 15-year cycle for low price for dairy products ap. proaching in 1930 dairymen are being urged to cull closely. DAIRY ORGANIZATIONS There are local dairy organizations in 13 counties: Duval, Marion, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Manatee, Palm Beach, Dade, Orange, Polk, Leon, Escambia, and Okaloosa. They are working principally on production and marketing problems. The Leon County milk producers' association is also assisting in the 4-H dairy club. They contributed $78 for this year's prize

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Annual Report, 1929 47 money. The meetings are held in the farm homes and the 4-H club members hold joint meetings with them. The North Marion Dairy Association orders the grain feeds cooperatively , in carloads. At the . county fair this association collected the dairy animals exhibited with an association truck. This association also collects the mtlk from the farms, grinds feed and fills silos cooperatively. The Duval County association has paid for the equipment for a testing laboratory costing $260. They are now spending ap proximately $1,500 in advertising the dairy work in their county. Flagler County and Volusia County dairymen hold their meet ings jointly, at the farms of the members. These meetings are held at the noon hour in the form of a luncheon and after lunch they have a field meeting to discuss dairy problems. The Florida State Dairymen's Association held its annual meeting at Farmers' Week in Gainesville in August with a large attendance.

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48 Florfda Cooperative Extension CITRICULTURE E. F. DeBusk, Extension Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist The two fundamental problems in the production and market ing of Florida citrus fruits are (a) improving the quality of the fruit and (b) reducing the cost of production. All extension activities in citriculture have centered around these two problems. The main factors affecting the quality and cost of production may be summed up as disease and pest control, soil fertility, and soil moisture control. Our program of work in disease control, .. therefore, provides for definite projects in the control of (a) melanose, (b) citrus scab, (c) blue mold decay, and (d) tree trunk and root diseases. The projects in pest control include (a) rust mites, (b) citrus aphis, (c) scale, and (d) whitefly. The soil fertility work consists of projects with cover-crops and fer tilizers. Soil moisture control work has had to do with improving methods of irrigations and providing better drainage. In addition to the above regular projects, considerable time has been devoted to special service work; so that every phase of citri culture has received attention. Citrus meetings or schools were held in practically every commercial citrus producing county. On April 6, just when our extension program for the year was getting well under way, the Mediterranean fruit fly was discov ered in Orange County and later found in 20 of the leading citrus producing counties of the state. Growers all over the citrus belt were thrown into such confusion and fear as to the outcome that many of the regular grove operations were either greatly modified or abandoned to reduce maintenance costs to the minimum. For months every extension man in the eradication area devoted prac tically all of his time directly or indirectly to eradication of the pest; consequently our extension citrus program could not be carried out as planned at the beginning of the year. MELANOSE CONTROL The program for melanose control was perhaps affected more than any other project, since the spraying season for the control of this disease April 15 to May 10, came while the confusion and excitement over the outbreak of the Mediterranean fruit fly was most intense. There was considerable spraying done, however, with satisfactory results. More attention than usual had been given to the matter of soil moisture control and to correcting other conditions in the grove that so of ten result in the production of much dead wood in the trees during late fall, winter, and early

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Annual Report, 1929 49 spring, followed by a heavy melanose infection. Improper oil spraying in the fall, especially when followed by low temperature, often results in numerous dead small twigs, perhaps the most fertile source of melanose infection the following spring. Heavy dropping of fruit in the fall or winter caused directly or indirectly by a deficiency of soil moisture, is usually accompanied by a heavy melanose infection the following spring, coming from the numer ous "buttons" and dead ends of twigs from which the fruit dropped. Perhaps the most economical melanose control has re sulted from correcting cultural practices and grove conditions productive of dead wood in the trees. . The old adage is still true: "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". Fortunately it has not been a "bad melanose year", owing largely to the dry spring following a warm winter, and the loss from melanose has been below the average. SCAB CONTROL Scab control is not a serious problem. Control measures have been very definitely established and are fairly economical. Of course there is room for improvement. It is largely from this standpoint that the project is presented. Except in a few cases where conditions seemed to warrant the use of 1 to 25 or 1 to 40 lime-sulphur solution, homemade 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1/2 to 1 percent oil emulsion has been used. In some cases spraying with 1 to 25 or 1 to .30 lime-sulphur solution immediately before the first flush of growth was found to be the most economical practice. In all but extreme cases successful efforts have been made to work out a spray schedule by which the grower can attain satisfactory scab control with one application of the spray ma terial. The cost of scab control should not exceed 7 cents per box. BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL Under the conditions it was not possil:>le in any way to measure results of our educational efforts in reducing the losses from blue mold decay this year. However, outstanding improvements in the methods of handling citrus fruits, which are bound to result in less blue mold decay, have come about during the last two years through the efforts of the large marketing organizations. TREE TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES FOOT ROT Through demonstrations a number of growers have adopted the "machine method" of treating foot rot and are saving 75 per

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension cent of the cost of the old hand method. The regular grove power spraying ou,tfitis used, with one hose, open nozzle and high pres sure, to washt th~ . dirt away from the roots. The same outfit ad justed for spraying is used to spray a strong Bordeaux mixture on to the crown roots. Many trees in advanced stages of foot rot are being saved by building a mound of soil or clay 18 to 30 inches high andl2 to 16 feet in diameter around the trunk of the diseased tree. Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and again become profitable producers. GUMMOSIS AND PSOROSIS Gummosis and psorosis have not been as prevalent during the year as during previous years. Fairly satisfactory results have been attained in the treatment of these diseases by scraping off the outer bark only, of the diseased areas, scraping back a few inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disiri f ectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some other mild tree wash or paste. It seems that any shock that lowers the vitality of a citrus tree may result in renewed development of cases of these diseases of old standing as well as in new outbreaks. The most important thing, therefore, in the control of these dis eases is to keep the trees vigorous. RUST MITE CONTROL A special rust mite control campaign was planned at the begin ning of the year, to reach the principal citrus producing counties, but had to be abandoned upon the advent . of the Mediterranean fruit fly. However, several dusting and spraying demonstrations were carried through, and many growers were instructed in more economical rust mite control. The demonstrations were designed to teach growers how to attain more economical rust mite control by more timely and more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby reducing the rtumber of necessary applications. Several organizations have been induced to purchase more efficient equipment and do their rust mite-control cooperatively, thus greatly reducing the per box cost. With proper equipment and timely applications the average cost of rust mite control should not exceed 4 cents per box with a normal crop of fruit. In many groves it is being done at a total cost of 2 cents per box. . CITRUS APHIS CONTROL Owing to weather conditions and natural control the citrus aphis did not develop into a serious pest during the year, except

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Annual Report, 1929 51 in a few small areas. Consequently very little artificial control of this pest was practiced. SCALE CONTROL In scale control our efforts have been directed toward improving the method so as to obviate much of the injury resulting from oil spraying and to increase the efficiency of scale control measures. In many cases the efficiency of oil emulsion spraying for scale control is so low, because of improper application or low tempera ture, that the loss through oil injury to the trees is greater than that which might have resulted from leaving the trees unsprayed. Demonstrations are proving that too much oil spraying is being done in many of the groves. An oil spray should be applied only when conditions warrant its use, and then it should be applied in a manner that will give the highest percentage of kill practicable. In an increasing percentage of the old groves of the State scale control is admirably taken care of by the scale fungi, while in these groves the problem of whitefly contro . l is largely solved by the brown fungus and occasional reintroduction of the red ascher sonia. The use of this natural control of scale and whitefly is increasing and is being taken into consideration more and more in planning the scale and whitefly control program. COVER CROPS Instead of being handicapped by the presence of the Mediter ranean fruit fly, as was the case with most of the projects in our program of work this year, the cover crop work received a great stimulus. This is accounted for by the fact that growers, having no assurance that they would be permitted to sell their 1929-30 crop of fruit, or even the next crop, began to think and plan for maintaining their groves through an indefinite period of no re turns. It was then that our Crotalaria cover-crop demonstra tions of the previous year became extremely popular and the demand for Crotalaria seed began to increase very rapidly. On the strength of one visit to a Crotalaria cover-crop demonstration in a be~ring grove, where the grower's records showed that by making use of the leguminous cover crop the cost of fertilizing the grove had been reduced about 50 percent, and at the same time his grove was kept in a most excellent condition, an order for 20,000 pounds of Crotalaria seed was placed for planting in the spring of 1930. Our cover-crop work during the coming year promises to be extremely popular and very productive of results. Already more

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension than 100 tons of Crotalaria seed have been ordered for planting this coming spring. FERTILIZING A great saving in the cost of fertilizing citrus groves is resulting from the use of inorganic nitrogen compounds in connection with cover crops, and through the use of higher analysis and cooper ative purchasing. Fig. 5.-County agents and group of farmers visiting the Citrus Experi ment Station at Lake Alfred to study fertilizer experiments. It has been clearly demonstrated that an inorganic nitrogen at 15 cents a pound will give the same results in tree growth and fruit production as an organic nitrogen at 40 cents a pound. Since the cost of fertilizer represents 30 to 60 percent of the total cost of producing citrus fruits and approximately 58 percent of this cost is nitrogen, a great opportunity for reducing the cost of pro duction is presented to the grower who has been using largely the organic forms of nitrogen.

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Annual Report, 1929 53 POULTRY N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Florida National Egg-Laying Contest SITUATION The poultry industry in Florida apparently is now on a much .sounder basis than it has been for some time. As stated in pre vious reports, there has been quite a fluctuation in this industry. That is, there was a so-called "chicken boom" which naturally increased the number very rapidly and at the same time resulted in a great many people entering the poultry business who had no conception of it. Naturally a certain length of time was necessary for the inefficient and inexperienced either to change methods of management or get out of the poultry business. This change of condtions has brought about a healthy state for the poultry enterprise. The producers are now really analyzing their business more closely and are adopting those fundamentals which are conducive to success. During the early part of the year, there apparently was a de crease in the sale of chicks, but as the season advanced and con ditions improved, the demnd for baby chicks exceeded the output .. This resulted in securing fewer early pullets for winter egg pro duction. Even after the baby chick season was at a close, the demand for pullets of various ages increased as the summer and fall months made their appearance. It is conservative to say that this demand far exceeded the supply. App.arently this alone would justify the statement that the poultry industry is on the rise. Egg prices held up better in the spring than the preceding year and with the formation of marketing agencies, the producers ap pear to be more optimistic over this industry. The breeders and hatcheries have been able to supply a better chick to the producer, thus demonstrating the improvement of quality poultry on the farms. Interest in all of these phases of poultry management which are essential for success has increased. Such fundamentals as chick production, culling, disease control, and record keeping were more popular than in preceding years. METHODS OF CONDUCTING POULTRY EXTENSION WORK The dissemination of poultry information was accomplished by employing various methods. In some cases all of the methods suggested were used.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension Meetings arranged by the county or home demonstration agent made it possible to bring to the producers that information which was timely and pertinent. At these meetings the latest authentic information available was presented and discussed. Meetings made it possible to reach a greater number of people and to acquaint them with the desired information. Poultry meetings were held in most sections of the state. Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate better methods and practices. Poultry information was presented to the junior poultry club members at their short courses. "Poultry Hints" were prepared every two months and distributed to the agents throughout the state. The agent in turn distributed them to poultry producers. Each month a report of the Home Egg-Laying Contest is sent to each contestant and to all agents. This report shows the results of the contest and gives poultry suggestions. Articles for publi cation were prepared. An intensive poultry program was presented during Farmers' Week. This is an opportunity for all poultry enthusiasts to get together and discuss their problems. Personal visits during the year to the various poultry farms offered a splendid method of being of assistance to the producer. PROJECTS The special projects during the year were: 1. Grow healthy chicks. 2. Grow green feed. 3. Practice culling. 4. Home Egg-Laying Contest. 5. Junior poultry clubs. POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS GROW HEALTHY CHICl{S Successful poultry production is dependent to a great extent upon the rearing of chicks. It is from these chicks that the pullet crop is to be developed, and unless the pullets are reared without any serious handicaps, such as diseases and parasites, a quality pullet cannot be put in the laying house. The grow . healthy chick campaign was put on through the cooperation of county agents and home demonstration agents and poultry producers. The first campaign was conducted in 1928 with some very interesting results which will be compared with the results secured in 1929.

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Annual Report, 1929 55 Fundamentally, the grow healthy chick campaign was started to reduce chick mortality which would influence the quality of pullets produced. . Briefly, the workings of this campaign were as follows: 1. Enrollment of producers by means of postcards, letters, newspaper publicity and personal visits. 2. News articles distributed by agents to producers discussing the six factors involved. These sent at intervals of 7 to 10 days. Disease cards, mortality cards likewise distributed to producers. 3. At the end of season record cards were collected by the agents and sent to Gainesville for tabulation. The 1929 grow healthy chick campaign involved these six fundamental factors: 1. Hatch early 2. Clean eggs and chicks. 3. Clean br9oder houses. 4. Clean land. 5. Balanced ration. 6. Separation of pullets and cockrels. The following data have been assembled from the records sub mitted: There were 38 poultry raisers who kept records on chick mortality. This number is three more than last year, but only 22,000 chicks were put under the brooder in the 1929 campaign as compared to 30,000 in the 1928 campaign. The number of chicks per producer ranged from 26 to 4,000, the average being 579, as compared wi . th ~45in the first campaign. Twenty producers reported feeding milk in addition to what may have been already in the mash; 14 feeding liquid milk and 6 dry milk. All producers except one used some brand of commercial feed. All fed scratch feed. All fed some type of green feed except four, who did not report one way or the other. The time of feeding the green feed ranged from the start to four weeks, the average being two weeks. Pullets and cockrels were separated at approximately the 7th week, one week later than in the first campaign. Growillg mash was fed at the 5th and 6th weeks. Only five producers hatched part of their chicks after the first of May . . . The great percentage of chicks were hatched during February, March and April. A total of 21,985 chicks on 38 farms , were placed under the brooder and at the end of eight weeks 3,049 chicks had been lost.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension This represents a mortality of 13.87 percent, or 10.39 percent less than in the first campaign; TABLE !.-PERCENT OF MORTALITY BY WEEKS ON 38 FARMS IN 1929 AND 33 FARMS IN 1928. Week Accident Disease Average 1928 1929 1928 1929 1928 1929 1 ................. 3.63 1.00 3.90 2.06 7.52 3.06 2 ........... . ... .20 .15 3.90 1.73 4.10 1.88 3 ................. .12 1.50 2.82 1.48 2.94 2.98 4 ................. .12 .47 2.34 .37 2.46 .84 5 ................... .09 .06 1.16 .15 1.25 .21 6 ................. .05 .19 .57 .24 .62 .43 7 .................. .02 .04 .48 .18 .50 .22 8 ................. .01 .03 .48 .43 .49 .46 Weekly Averages. 4.23 3.45 15.65 6.66 *19.88 *10.11 * The difference between the two average mortalities given here and quoted in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that six producers did not report weekly mortality. It is of interest to see in 1929 a reduction of 9 percent in losses due to diseases. The average mortality per farm ranged from 1 percent to 47 percent . . Twenty producers had a chick mortality of less than 10 percent. Ten producers had a chick mortality of from 10 to 20 percent. Eight producers had a chick mortality of over 20 percent. TABLE IL-ANALYSIS OF THE 1929 CHICK CAMPAIGN. Number of Factors Number of Mortality Adopted Farms in percent Factors not Adopted 6 17 1.00-10.21 ................. 5 5 3.84-13.32 Hatch early 5 5 11.44-37.25 Clean land 5 1 36.91 Clean eggs and chicks 5 1 16.03 Sep. pullets and cockrels 5 3 11.94-23.95 Balanced ration Four farms reported mortality due to chilling. Two farms were omitted, due to insufficient records. These results are niuch better than those obtained in the first campaign, which tends to show that the producers are studying their conditions much more closely and apparently are adopting those practices which are fundamental for successful chick pro duction. Clean land is one of the factors to which more consid eration should be given; No doubt some of the high mortality was due to some manage ment practice not included in the campaign, such as chilling and

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Annual Report, 1929 57 overheating. These factors will be overcome as the producer secures more experience in the poultry business. GROW GREEN FEEDS This particular phase of work was advocated at all times during the year. All extension agents have stressed the value of green feed in the daily diet of poultry. Apparent sickness, lower pro duction, etc., can be traced to a great extent to a lack of this important part of a feeding program. It has been rather difficult to secure definite results which would materially assist in furthering this project. Publicity data discussing the importance of green feed and also the various types of greens to be planted with instructions as to when, how, where, etc., were distributed to producers. No doubt this material has brought about some improved conditions rela tive to green feed. Observations of poultry farms have emphasized more and more the importance of green feed, and there is no doubt that efficiency in growth or in production would be increased if a suitable green feed program were worked out on each farm. CULLING DEMONSTRATIONS The maintenance of a high _producing flock is the goal of all successful poultry producers. This is accomplished by adopting a few management practices, such as feeding, housing, sanitation, and quality birds. Even though these factors are practiced it is necessary to be able to eliminate those individuals which for some reason or other do not prove to be profitable producers. The elimination of the poorer egg producers will not only increase the average egg yield but will also reduce the feed cost and increase the returns. A systematic procedure of culling should be practiced and the producers throughout the state are realizing this and endeavoring to carry it to completion. During the past year the Extension Poultryman gave 25 culling demonstrations. At the culling dem onstrations, the various characters of a high and low producer were discussed, after which the people present handled a number of birds, they themselves decididg the merits of the individual. These demonstrations offered a splendid opportunity to discuss other management practices such as feeding, disease and parasite control, and other factors pertaining to economical poultry pro duction.

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME EGG-LA YING CONTEST Every poultry producer in the state of Florida should keep a record on his or her poultry business. A simple yet complete record enables the producer to learn more about the business and make the necessary improvements. The Home Egg-Laying Contest was started four years ago. Records for the four years are now complete. The fifth contest started the first of November. The main purpose of the contest was to stimulate better methods in poultry production, first, by having the producers keep records, second, by analyzing the results obtained and then attempting to find a way of improving the efficiency of the poultry farm. The rules and regulations of the Home Egg-Laying Contest are as follows: Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry flock. Entrant must have standard-bred poultry. Entrant must send reports to agent's office monthly. The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the num ber of birds as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds; farm flock, 51-250 birds; and commercial flock, over 250 birds. Monthly reports showing the results for the month and to date, together with timely poultry information, are sent to the con testants and to farm papers. At the end of the year a summary is sent to each cont~stant. The results of the . Fourth Home Egg-Laying Contest are in cluded in this report, showing the monthly egg production, aver age ~otal production for the year, percent culling, and percent mortality. Table IV shows the average monthly egg production for the backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks, together with the . total egg production per bird for the year. The average egg production per bird in the four contests is worthy of comment. In the first contest the production per bird was 149.1 eggs, while in the second it was 153.9 eggs, an increase of 4.8 per bird. The average for the third contest was 156.6 eggs, an increase of 2.7 over the production in the second contest. The average egg production in the fourth contest was 160.30, an in crease of 3.70 eggs above the production in the third contest. The production over the four years shows an increase of 11.22 eggs per bird. Evidently this increase would tend to indicate greater efficiency in poultry production.

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Annual Report, 1929 59 TABLE 111.-DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER Brno IN THE FOURTH FLORIDA EGG-LAYING CONTEST. Month Backyard Farm November . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.38 7.63 December . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.27 8.49 January ..................... 14.26 13.14 February . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.18 16.26 March . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.84 19.44 April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.69 18.32 May ......... . ............... 17.61 16.68 June ......... . ............... 13.79 15.48 July ......................... 15.20 12.61 August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.64 9.95 September ................... 10.31 7.51 October . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.89 4.87 Total .................. 198.60 149.88 Commercial 6 . 49 8.63 i3.55 15.41 20.10 19.59 19.13 16.36 14.54 11.32 7.37 4.60 161.16 Average 6.76 8.70 13.50 15.62 19.93 19.18 18.48 16.04 14.20 11.05 7.54 4.75 160.32 TABLE IV.-WINTER EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD (NOVEMBER THROUGH JANUARY). Backyard 1928-1929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.91 1927-1928 .................... 40.70 1926-1927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.10 1925-1926 .................. . ; 22.10 Farm 29.26 23.30 28.80 17.70 Commercial 28.66 26.30 25.90 25.70 Average 28.96 25.80 28.20 24.00 In analyzing the monthly egg production it is of interest to note the winter egg production (months of November, December and January) during the four contests for the three different groups and the average for the entire contest. It will be seen in Table IV that in every case except with the backyard flocks the winter egg production is higher in the fourth contest than in any other. This would tend to indicate that the producers are hatch~ ing earlier and thus bringing their pullets into production in the early fall so as to secure a greater gross return per bird. The percent of culling during the year was heaviest during August, September, and October. The average for the year was 50.28. The average culling percentage for the different classes of flocks for the entire year were: Percent Backyard group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76.45 Farm group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76.64 Commercial group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.88 The mortality was 2 percent higher in the fourth contest than in the third. The average mortality for the entire contest was 11.66 percent. In the different flocks the mortality percentages were as follows: Percent Backyard group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.66 Farm group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.42 Commercial group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.11

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension Greater interest is being manifested by the producers through out the state in the Fifth Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest, and indications point toward a greater number of contestants than ever before. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS The various poultry associations have been a means of extend ing poultry information, and improving poultry conditions in general. The two state organizations known as the American Poultry Association of Florida and the Florida Baby Chick Association have assisted the Extension Service in developing greater effi ciency among the producers. The former organization with head quarters at DeLand has fostered standard-bred poultry and as sisted materially in helping the juniors secure high quality stock. 'i'he members have been of great help in educational programs. The latter organization with headquarters at Plant City has for it~ motto BETTER QUALITY CHICKS. The members have cooperated with the local agents and with the Gainesville office in attempting to deliver better chicks each year. Accreditation work is under way and handled under the supervision of the State Livestock Sanitary Board. The community and county poultry associations have been a means of stimulating interest and enthusiasm in the producer. Much educational work was accomplished through meetings. During the past year interest in cooperative marketing has increased and two regional organizations have been formed which from all reports are operating successfully. The State Marketing Bureau has employed a Poultry Marketing Specialist who has worked in close cooperation with the local agents and the Gainesville office. When this work is developed sufficiently, the poultry industry will as a result develop. Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with the regular organized poultry associations. JUNIOR POULTRY WORK Each year at Gainesville and Tallahassee a short course is held, at which time the outstanding dub members assemble. At these short courses intenshre poultry instructions are given. This has been of material help in the junior poultry work. Club contests were held in various communities and counties at which the members exhibited their poultry. The number of

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Annual Report, 1929 61 poultry club members has been reduced during the past year due primarily to the change in requirements which were made more rigid. NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST The Third Florida National Egg-Laying Contest came to a very successful close October 23, 1929. A brief summary of the Third Contest as compared to the others is as follows: The high individual was a Single Comb White Leghorn which laid 309 eggs during the 51 weeks. In comparing the egg production we find that the average egg yield has increased each year. In the first contest it was 186.5, in the second 190.9, and in the third 200.7 eggs per bird. The feed consumption per bird for the three contests is shown in Table V. The total feed consumption is about the same for the three years but in the last contest there was quite a marked difference in the mash and scratch consumption. In the first two contests the mash consumption was greater than the scratch while in the third the reverse was true. TABLE V.-FEED CONSUMPTION PER BIRD IN POUNDS. Heavy Breeds Light Breeds II Average FEED 11926-I 1927-1 1928: 271 281 29 1926-1 1927-1 1928-11 1926-1 1927-, 192827 28 29 27 28 29 Mash ......... 38.39 40.42 26.35 67.66 36.71 27.56 37.86 37.54 27.31 Scratch •...... 34.35 39.33 50.87 29.15 33.08 38.84 30.61 34.42 41.25 Oats ......... 7.91 5.65 4.77 7.94 5.65 4.79 7.93 5.65 4.79 Semi-Solid Gr!tu~~~~~l-~ : : / 9.37 12.18 13.80 9.42 12.18 13.88 9.40 12.18 13.86 2.76 2.28 2.62 2.65 1.83 2.47 2.68 1.93 2.50 Shell ......... , 4.24 3.50 3.62 4.60 3.37 3.61 4.50 3.41 3.61 Charcoal ...... .61 .51 .47 .60 .42 .46 .60 .44 .46 Total ....... I 97 .63l103.87J102.50 92.021 93.24I 91.61l1 93.58I 95.63I 93.47 Total without I grit, shell and charcoal 90.02 97.56 95.79184.17 87.59 85.07 II 85.80 89.85 87.22 Table VI shows the amount of feed required to produce one dozen eggs for the light and heavy breeds for the three contests. It also shows the relative feed cost per dozen eggs for the heavy and light breeds and the average of the two for the three contests. In the third contest the feed cost per dozen eggs was consider ably lower than in either of the other two contests. Both the increase in production and the lower cost of feed brought this condition about.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension The number of pounds to produce a dozen eggs has been low ered each year, due primarily to an increase in total average egg production, for the total feed consumption is practically the same for each contest for the light and heavy breeds. The efficiency of the hen is increased when feed consumption per dozen'eggs is lowered. TABLE Vl.-POUNDS FEED REQUIRED AND COST OF FEED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN EGGS. Breed I Total Feed ConI /Feed ~ons~mptionl I Total feed cost sumption exclud g grit, shell d g s and charcoal per ozen e g l 1926-, 1927-11928-J 11926-J 1927-11928-11 1 1926-11927-1192827 28 291 271 28 29 27 28 29 Heavy .......... , 7.83, 7.92, 6.71,17.2117.441 6.27'1 .236, .2641.200 Light .......... 6.10 5.56. 5.36 5.58 5.221 4.98 1 .186 .187 .161 Average ........ 6.52 6.01 5.59 5.98 5.64 5.20 .198 .201 .168 FEED COST PER BIRD PER YEAR The feed cost per bird per year for the heavy and light breeds and the average is as follows: J Heavy Breeds J l Light Breeds JI Average l l926-l1927-11928-111926-11927-11928-111926-11927-1192827I 28 29 27 28 29 27 28 29 I 3.211 3.471 3.0211 3.041 3.121 2.1211 3.091 3.201 2.78 The feed cost for the heavy breeds is 30 cents higher than the light breeds in the third contest. The average price of feed per 100 pounds delivered at Chipley was: Mash, $3.21; Scratch, $2.85; Oats, $2.48; Semi-solid Butter milk, $4.06; Grit, $1.10; Shell, $1.10; Charcoal, $3.00. The price of mash, scratch, and semi-solid buttermilk were lower than in the second contest. MORTALITY During the third contest the total number of birds lost was 159 or 14.98 percent. The percent mortality in the third contest was slightly lower than in the second contest.

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Annual Report, 1929 63 PART 111-WoMEN'S WORK COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent MARYE. KEOWN, District Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION This report covers the work of 34 county home demonstration agents and three assistant agents working in 35 counties. Home demonstration agents at the close of the year are working in 33 counties in Florida. Three of these workers have two counties each. Four of these six counties are making appropriations for the support of the work. The other two counties do not have sufficient funds for the employment of both a county agricultural and a county home demonstration agent. The entire salary of the agent in these two counties is, therefore, paid from State and Federal funds, this year. There were some reductions but increases in other instances make the county appropriations remain about the same regardless of bank failures, Mediterranean fruit fly, and other reverses that made retrenchment in county budgets necessary. It seems that home demonstration work has held its place because of the well developed program that is meeting the needs of the people whom it serve s: Programs are flexible enough to be readjusted to most emergency situations. There has been no change in the personnel of the state staff. Among the county workers there have been six resignations, including three where the work was discontinued, two transfers and four new appointments. Counties in which home demonstra tion work has been dropped during the year include Columbia, Nassau, Putnam and Taylor. ASSISTANCE RENDERED BY STATE SUPERVISOR AND ASSISTANTS State and district supervisors study the conditions in each county and discuss these with the agent and representatives from various communities in th _ e county. Publicity is given to the pur pose and methods of developing home demonstration activities through public talks by the supervisors, newspaper articles and reports before the appropria.ting . bodies. Supervisors help to

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension determine the best time for club enrollment, program development and necessary changes in programs because of unexpected con ditions. They assist in organization of local clubs; county councils and developmen~ of leaders to assist in carrying out the year's program of work. They assist in providing material and equip ment needed. COMMUNITY PROGRAMS OF EXTENSION WORK Community programs with which home demonstration agents work are almost altogether with women and girls. Community exhibits with educational and recreational programs are helping to bring the entire communities together socially and with a better , , understanding of home demonstration work. However, the num ber of communities is increasing in which monthly joint programs are developing. One of the district agents makes the following statement: "With the year just closed, there is to be noted an enlargement of the community home demonstration clubs for women into an organization, separate from but supplementary to them, in which there is a membership of men, women, and children brought together for a larger social life. One such club is on Pine Island and was formed by a club woman who attended Farmers' Week and received there the idea on which her group was formed, this idea being that good and pleasure can come from the enjoy . ment that the majority have in meeting together for community music. This same interest, stimulated by the home demonstra tion agent, resulted with benefit in the observance of Music Week. In Marion County . the women's club of the Shady Commnity has a similar organization by the name of the Sing and Smile Club which includes the men in its membership and has evening meet ings of the nature suggested by its name." Organized home demonstration clubs are functioning in 595 communities in Florida. They have a membership of 10,280 girls and 6;312 women. The work has been extended into 54 more com munities than last year. COUNTY PROJECT COMMITTEES Project committees were appointed by the county home demon stration councils for work in the home demonstration clubs. Their duties have been to help in the promotion of the projects such as home gardening, and marketing of products; to secure records; to be responsible for exhibits; to give demonstrations when advis able; and to serve as leaders in helping the home demonstration agents develop the plans for con~inued growth of interest and

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Annual Report, 1929 65 results through gardening or whatever the project might be. Instructional meetings for local leaders are being held regularly under the direction of county home demonstration agents, in coun ties having a good many voluntary leaders. In this way the project leaders understand the limitation of their duties and become acquainted with the standards and general purposes of home demonstration work. COUNTY PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT County home demonstration programs are based upon (1) indi vidual, community and county needs as seen by the agent, those taking advantage of home demonstration work and state super visors; (2) upon available assistance from county and state officers. Our plan for developing programs of work is to work through county councils consisting of the president and one other delegate from each home demonstration club. Some of the factors considered in developing a county program and a statement regarding results are found in the following extract from the report submitted by the home demonstration agent in Gadsden County: "Since all other phases of club work are more or less dependent upon the production of fruits, vege tables, poultry, eggs and dairy products, all club members in the county are required to have something living and growing and to keep records of results. The aim has been to have more and better balanced meals, better health, better clothing and some of the little comforts and conveniences which should be in every home. It isn't such a hard task to persuade people to adopt higher standards of living if they have the money necessary for main taining these higher standards. The task is to show the people with whom you are working how to add to the family income. In an attempt to carry out this thought the 1929 motto is 'Produce more and sell more/ "As a result of the effort put into assisting and encouraging club members to grow more vegetables and poultry for home use and some for sale, they have in the county, pantries filled with a variety of canned fruits and vegetables, new bank accounts, new pieces of furniture, more shrubs, roses and other plants, better poultry yards and houses, several homes screened, some new coats, dresses and hats that would never have been bought except for the few chickens, vegetables or canned products sold. Four women have been so successful with poultry this year as to show their husbands in dollars and cents that all cash needs of the family were met with money from the sale of chickens and eggs."

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension SUPERVISORY PROGRAM For the general development of home demonstration work throughout the state we had the same five main objectives in 1929 as in 1928. These are outlined in the following paragraphs: First, development of the type of programs that would fill the greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration work. A study of the county reports will reveal the fact that the economic aspect formed a background for programs developed. The agents gave more of their time to the development of home gardening, foods and nutrition, clothing and home impwvr,pient than to any other project activities. Consequently there.is a noticeable increase in the nm;nber of h~mes ,adopth{g improved practices ~long these lines over those of'laf;t. year. . A:iong the increases it is interesting to observe the growth in marketing of home products. Emphasis given to the live-at-home program including gardening, home dairying and poultry work has con tributed to better foods and nutrition practices, through the mar keting of surplus products girls and boys have been assisted in furthering their education, and effective improvements have been secured in many homes. . Second, leadership development to assist agents in executing plans for the year. Although local leaders can be held respon sible for only a small part of the development of home demonstra tion programs, they can be of considerable assistance to the agents when properly chosen and instructed: It is the policy of the state staff to urge only the selection of real leaders, women whoare understanding, well trained, who because of their accomplish ments in their own home are capable leaders in a particular phase of work, and are so recognized by other women in the neighbor hood. Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the younger girls' clubs. A successful 4-H leadership training camp was held for older boys and girls at the West Florida Camp prior to county contest days this fall. Each county in the camp terri tory was permitted to send four girls and four boys for special instruction in the making and carrying out of constructive pro-. grams presented on contest day. Conducting the camp were the two District Agents, Boys' Club Agent and State Home Demon stration Agent, assisted by the county and home demonstration agents from the counties represented and Mr. H. P. Jackson of the American Playground and Recreation Association. This camp resulted in general improvement in the management of exhibits and educational programs in conne.ction with them.

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Annual Report , 1929 67 During the year there were 455 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 408 with the women's work. This is an increase of 298 over last year. There were 162 training meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 4,631 Je aders. The attendance is an indication of the increasing interi:!st among the volunteer leaders. Certificates of Standardization are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary requirements . There are at present 217 of these standard clubs among the girls' organization. Enthusiasm has soared in this connection this year due to the fact that a silver loving cup was presented at this year's State Short Course to the standard clubmaking the be s t score for work accomplished in 1928. Glendale Club in Wal ton County was the recipient of this honor. The members of that club have a widespread influence for better club work in that county. One hundred and twenty-four girls have received cer tificates this year for the satisfactory completion of four years' club work. There are 560 girls who have carried 4-H club work for four or more years. . One hundred and eight club girls entered college this year. It is encouraging to see the figures in the last two items increase annually. Third, to further develop community and county organizations, especially the local home demonstration clubs and county councils. There are 807 active home demonstration clubs in the state; 561 of these are girls' 4-H clubs and 240 for women ' s work, an increase of 17 clubs in girls' work and 39 clubs in women's work. Following the organization of home demonstration clubs in the community is the formation of county councils compo s ed of the president and one elected representative from each home demon stration club. There are 29 councils for girls' work and 24 for women's work. They help to plan and execute plans for the year's work. They are promoters and boosters of home demonstration work. The president and one representative from each county council form the two state councils. The development of women and girls through their council work is remarkable . These repre sentatives themselves feel the value of this training and the r e sponsibility it entails. The State Council for Girls' Work holds its annual meeting during the State Short Course for Club Girls, Florida State College for Women. This organization is providing a former club girl with a scholarship for attendance at Florida State College for Women. Each county council has made itself responsible for sending $10 annually to the Scholarship Fund of their-State Council.

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension The State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week at the University of Florida. Splendid reports were made at the council meeting this year. This council is providing a scholarship fund to be awarded to a 4-H club girl for attendance at the Florida State college for Women. Considerable enthusiasm is shown over the silver loving cup which was presented during the annual meeting by the state council to the county council scoring highest for the past year's work. Lee County Council was the recipient but will have to retain it for three years to become the owner. Fourth, to reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form a closer contact with the rural homes. A total of 6,312 women are enrolled in home demonstration work; 5,580 of these women carried definite programs throughout the year, adopting improved practices and establishing demon strations in their homes. A total of 13,181 visits were made into 6,363 homes, which was a gain of 2,022 home visits over 1928. It is believed that contacts formed through home visits with a pur pose are invaluable in home demonstration work. Fifth, to extend home demonstration work into a larger number of counties. As explained earlier in this report, increases this year off set the loss in number of counties financially supporting home demon stration work. An effort is made to make the programs in home demonstration work so desirable that an extension into other counties just as soon as finances will permit will be demanded. OFFICE ORGANIZATION, RECORDS AND REPORTS Agents file in their offices daily, monthly and annual records and reports of their work; individual and club records and usable material for advancement of the work. They are supplied with the necessary record books and report blanks by the State Exten sion office. Demonstration and office equipment is furnished usually by the board of county commissioners. Outstanding among demonstration equipment is that f ouhd in the new splendidly equipped kitchen in Lee County. A small but well equipped kitchen has also been provided this year in Escam bia County. Broward and Duval counties have provided and equipped demonstration kitchens for the agents this year. These new additions bring the number of well-equipped demonstration kitchens for the agents' use up to 17. Special rooms in communi ties for holding club meetings are growing in number and demon stration equipment furnished.

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Annual Report, 1929 69 Twelve counties provide stenographic assistance. The stenog raphers take care of office calls in so far as they can in the agent's absence, and render general clerical assistance to the agents. Six teen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have telephones; 10 agents are furnished cars from county funds. MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL Home demonstration work has been considerably strengthened during the year because of the fact that the agents remained "on the job". New positions have been filled with well-trained, com petent women. They are either college graduates with teaching experience and a good background for home demonstration work or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged with experienced agents and in the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans of work and available literature. They are given special duties at State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week and special attention during district and state conferences. The dis trict agent assists in forming contacts in the county. Because of shortage of state funds, district meetings usually . held at the beginning of the year were dispensed with. Staff con ferences were held once every two months instead of once a month to avoid duplication of travel. The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held in joint conference with all extension workers in Florida at the University of Florida, September 30 to October 4. For the most part the program consisted of lectures and conferences on devel oping the work throughout the year. PUBLICITY Newspapers and farm papers are generous in the use of home demonstration material furnished. Some of the agents maintain columns in the weekly papers. One agent interested an editor in her county in sending the paper at one-half the subscription price to families where there is a club member. Club secretaries or club reporters in turn must supply the paper with club news. The editor of the Agricultural News Service has for the last two years given definite instructions in writing . newspaper stories to two girls from each county in attendance at the State Short Course. Club members are enthusiastic over the work he gives them. As a result many of the girls' councils edit and publish their own county club papers . Home demonstration work received

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension publicity during the year through fairs, Farmers' Week, State Short Course for Club Girls, county contests, window displays, camps, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, Business and Pro fessional Women's Clubs, men's organizations and other cooper ating agencies and the use of radios. The agents and women in two counties have been giving a series of radio talks on home demonstration work. Occasional . programs have been given via the radio in other counties. Delegations of club girls from four counties have broadcasted over state radio station WRUF. Home demonstration talks were given over WRUF during Better Homes Week, just prior to Farmers' Week, agents' annual conference and Christmas Day. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS State-wide programs, including those of specialists, are made with the purpose in view of developing the work in a way that will best serve the people. . These programs are presented for discus sion and understanding -during the agents' annual conference. The district agent, county agent and specialist in joint conference decide what part or if the whole is applicable in the county speci fied. Available material is provided and needed assistance, so far as possible, is furnished the agent by the state office. All county programs of work have been followed up by the district agents this year. State and district agents have studied programs of work and reports very carefully. Comparisons of goals set and accomplishments achieved have been made. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out Voluntary county, community and local leaders ......... . ......... . Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors ................... . Membership ' .................................................. . Clubs carrying on extension work with adults ................ ... .. . Membership .................................. , ........... . .... . Home visits made by agents .................................... . Different homes visited ........................................ . Farm visits made by agents ..................................... . Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work ..... . Average number days s pent in office ... : ......................... . Average number of days spent in field , .......................... . Official letters written .............. . .... . ........... . .... .. ... . Exhibits at fairs ................... . ..................... .... . Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 County ........ . ............................. 28 State ....................................... 12 Meetings held ........................ . . Attendance ................................................. . Extension schools and short courses held ......................... . Attendance ................... . ......•... , , , . , .. , .. , 595 863 561 10,280 246 6,312 13,181 6,363 1,169 50,064 80 213 83,002 91 1,404 80,052 22 2,686

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Annual Report, 1929 PROGRAM SUMMARY Number communities participating Home gardens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Beautification of home grounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Home dairy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Home poultry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Rural engineering . . ........ : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Home marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Foods..... . .. . ... . . .. .... . .. . ... . . . ...... . . 491 Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Clothing . .. ....... .. .. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Home man a gement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 House furnishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Home health and sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Community activities . . . .... . .. . ... . : . . . . . . . . 328 Miscellaneou s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS 71 Days agents devoted to projects 928 33 39 487 178 123 989 797 1,406 267 704 394 362 644 Other members of the state home demonstration staff have dealt in detail with the home demonstration project activities, including outstanding stories of the work. Therefore, this report will be confined to brief statements of the developments in the state as a whole. The objectives in project activities are the same as last year. Goals were higher and in most cases accomplishments exceeded goals set and surpassed those of last year. HOME GARDEN AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS With the gardening and perennial plantings we are continually working toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the home; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plant ings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to fur ni s h means to increase income. The foods and marketing agent who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splen did cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, Federation of Women's Clubs and individuals in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. In all 13,353 women and 5 , 272 girls have worked definitely along this line. A total of 5 ; 999 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices in home garden work, which means an increase of 1,861 individuals and an increase in more than a thousand homes adopting improved practices in gardening over last year. Interest has been stimu lated through monthly letters carrying timely information; utili zation score card; garden scores; suggestive canning budget for the family; exhibits; posters; lectures; demonstrations; all-year garden contests; and awards. Excellent individual records have come to the state office as a result of these contests. The agents

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension report 1,017 demonstrations and 928 days devoted to this phase of work. POULTRY Home demonstration agents working under the leadership of the Extension Poultryman stressed growing healthy chicks, grow ing green feed, culling, and home egg-laying contest. Fifteen counties report a profit of $51,823.24 on result demonstrations conducted under the supervision of home demonstration agents and the Extension Poltryrnan. HOME DAIRYING There seems to be an increasing interest in home dairying and use of milk and milk products in the diet . . This is believed to be due to some extent to the information obtained through nutrition programs. Seventeen counties report 877 homes as having adopted improved practices in home dairy work this year, an in crease of 311 homes over those reported in this project for 1928. NUTRITION T . he general plan and purpose of the nutrition work this year has been to put into operation a constructive and comprehensive food program, including food selection and preparation and meal planning for family, school lunch; group or community meals. This program has been closely related to the productive program of poultry raising, home dairying and gardening. Results have been d . etermined by the improvement shown in food selection and health scores of women club members, by increased use of milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables in the family diet; by improvement of school lunches; by increased enrollment of girls in food and nu trition and by better records in the health contests. The fact that the National Health Contest was won by Florida's representative, Florence Smock, will create far more enthusiasm in this phase of home demonstration work. A total of 6,554 homes were reported as adopting improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demonstration agents. Thirty-five schools were induced for the first time to serve a hot dish or lunch at noon. A trip to the National Club Congress was awarded to Lela Mae Duke of Walton County for showing the greatest improvement as a result of her nutrition work . . FOODS The preparation of foods has a place on various club programs, is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying garden ing, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show that 3,526 women and 4,954 girls completed food preparation demon

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Annual Report, 1929 73 strations outlined for the year, an increase of 2,592 individuals over last year. Thirty-four counties report 5,865 homes adopting improved practices in food preparation. The nutrition and foods and marketing agents are leaders in this phase of home dem onstration work. Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and marketing agent has been encouraged so as to preserve food for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, insuring varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home prod ucts into marketable shape . Reports show that 5,379 homes adopted improved practices in food preservation this year. Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves and pickles were made; fruit juices were extracted and preserved. The in crease of 1,372 homes following instruction given by home demon stration agents this year has been brought about largely as a result of the Mediterranean fruit fly. CLOTHING Girls often become club members and conduct the required liv ing and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage of the clothing work. This includes proper selection of materials, construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; millinery, costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe planning. A total of 2,652 women and 5,357 girls completed clothing programs as outlined for the year. Thirty-one county reports show that 7,917 homes adopted improved practices in this phase of home demonstration work. There is no leader for this phase of the work, it is supervised by the district agents. HOME MARKETING Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly of poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wiregrass and palmetto, and rag rugs. Four curb markets and two home demonstration shops functioned to the advantage of club members throughout the year. These have been established and managed mainly through women's home demonstration councils. Walton, Volusia, Palm Beach, Gadsden, Holmes and Dade counties carry interesting reports of marketing home products. Reports on home market ing for the year are not complete. Those submitted thus far show that in three counties records have been kept of home products sold valued at $47,027.91 with a profit of $20,492.80.

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT Successful home gardening, poultry production, home dairying and the marketing of the surpluses of these products make home improvement work more easily accomplished. When the agent can help to increase the family income she is in a better position to discuss methods for home improvement. The home improve ment work under the leadership of the assistant state home dem onstration agent has seen a splendid growth through the year. Emphasis has been given to the importance of sanitation, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects to the extent that 26 counties report 3,650 homes as having im proved sanitary practices. According to the reports from 20 counties, 586 homes followed instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineering in the homes. This means that more people each year are con structing and remodeling dwellings according to plans furnished; installing sewerage systems, water systems, heating systems and especially lighting systems, since big power lines are beginning to serve the rural districts. Special instruction was given the agents during the annual meeting on buying standards and use of . electrical equipment. More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents this year to the beautification of home grounds, with the result that 4,813 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home grounds, and 561 of these have beautified their,grounds according to a landscape plan. Club girls and women in some of the counties adopted county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show. This aided materially in the beautification program. That women and girls are learning to plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor-saving devices; to arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry prac tices; and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact that 2,677 homes improved practices in home management work during the year. A total of 1,831 women and 1,705 girls have completed the year's work in house furnishing, which included selection, ar rangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all, 1,321 women and 704 girls wor!{ed over walls, woodwork, and floors and 3,984 homes in 33 counties have been reported as adopting im proved practices relative to the house furnishings work conducted by the home demonstration agents.

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Annual Report, 1929 75 COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Interest in securing of club houses for club and community meetings and kitchens for demonstration purposes has increased considerably this year. The school lunch continues to command community interest. This year 13 counties report 35 communities induced to serve a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. These lunches were served to 4,845 children. Club members assisted with 51 community fairs. Ninety-eight school and community grounds were planted this year according to landscape plans fur nished by the home demonstration agents. There were 408 corri munities that carried some definite community work as a part of the year's program . MISCELLANEOUS A total of 1,065 women and girls in five counties did definite work in rug-making and 1,060 women and girls are reported as having learned the art of turriing such native materials as pine needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other articles. There were 2,180 women and girls who did definite work in crafts. Many of these articles have been marketed individually and in home demonstration shops. STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION In addition to individual visits, club meetings, agents' meetings, county and state councils mentioned elsewhere in this report, home demonstration work has been strengthened through the following activities: STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS Each year the State Short Course increases in attendance in spite of the individual requirements and restrictions placed on the counties. The morale, type of programs, and results seen in counties are improvements brought about to some extent by the fact that those in attendance must be county winners, awarded scholarships, and 12 years of age or over. The average age is 14 or 15 years. There were 461 girls, 37 local leaders and 31 agents in attendance. Scholarships for club girls and leaders were provided by club members, county commissioners, school boards, women's c,ubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals. The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by extension workers and club members in various phases of home demonstration work. Outstanding features were project demon strations in the afternoon, health contest, afternoon program for recognition of accomplishment.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension A special period of instruction once a day was given over to work with the leaders. At other times they observed work with the girls. Girls who attend the Short Course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida State College for Women. The Florida State College for Women set aside a week between the spring and summer terms for the extension department to hold the Short Course without interruption. Dormitories, labora. tories, and class rooms were available. The college nurses rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary medical care during the week. The dietitian rendered a service that is outstanding in the minds of the girls because of the good food served. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK The women enjoyed Farmers' Weekat the University of Florida as much as the girls did the Short Course. Demonstrations and instruction were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University professors, and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding fea tures were exhibits, group work with women actually working where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work. Mention of council activities was mad . e elsewhere in this report Music appreciation was a new feature that the women enjoyed. Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federations of women's club. COUNTY CAMPS There were 43 camps held during the spring and summer. Thir teen of these camps were for women, four for boys and girls, and 26 for girls only. Local leaders and two special camp workers attended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps. There were 412 women, 1,315 girls and 65 boys who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents. CONTESTS Through county contests, club exhibits were displayed, demon strations were given by cltib members, and the agents and super

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Annual Report, 1929 77 visors had a means of observing the county-wide response to the work; analyze the work for improvement; get the work before the public; and create a better community and club spirit. The part taken by local people and contest tlay programs rendered by club members themselves have been invaluable in selling the impor tance of club work to the public. RALLIES . Varied plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. Hills borough County has continued to hold a rally for the women's clubs once each two months with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same county had a community rally or picnic once a year in each community with good attendance. The pleas ure of getting together and hearing and giving club reports has inspired club members, women and girls, to better their individual work and that of the community and the county. The plan of having rallies for seniors and community picnics at least once a year has extended with good results into most of the other coun ties. DEMONSTRATION TEAMS In order to train leaders, develop efficiency, and encourage club IlJ,embers in giving public demonstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members, and ability to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 190 such teams, more than twice the number trained in 1928. These girls were invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work. 4-H COLLEGE CLUB Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the attention and interest of other students to home demonstration work and en courage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished high school. Among the membership of this group are some of the most outstanding girls in College. Members of the club are enthusiastic over the program they aredeveloping this year.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME IMPROVEMENT VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent Home improvement has made good progress and is responsible for a greater awakening in the improvement of the rural homes. PROGRAM OF WORK The 1929 program of work has included the following projects: 1. Home management. 2. Rural engineering. 3. House furnishings. 4. Thrift. 5. Home sanitation., 6. Beautification of home grounds. 7. Electrification. Too many homes have the "temporary" atmosphere; the big problem is to make "homes" instead of "temporary places", and to arouse interest in the belief that it is possible to have better and more substantial homes in rural sections that are properly planned for beauty, convenience, and comfort, within and without. GOALS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS All counties in which there were home improvement projects or phases of work for one or more years were requested to have 24 or more completed demonstrations. Any one of eight projects could be selected (kitchen, dining room, living room or bedroom im provement, sanitary premises, exterior beautification, old house remodeled or new house built). The selection was determined according to the immediate needs in the county. It has been found best to approach the home management project in connection with a kitchen improvement demonstration. This concrete demonstration is linked with other projects in home improvement. There were 904 kitchens in 24 counties planned and re-arranged for convenience in saving time, labor, and energy and for improved appearance. There were 465 women in 13 counties following a systematized plan of household work; 2,139 women obtained labor-saving equipment; 593 women in 22 counties fol lowed improved laundry practices; in nine counties 433 women made budgets and kept accounts ; 122 washing machines and 397 kitchen sinks were installed; 2,677 women improved their prac tices in every day housekeeping. A number of women wore pedom eters before and after improvement to really prove that they did save steps because of the re-arrangement of the kitchens, and because of better planning of the daily duties in the home.

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Annual Report, 1929 79 The definite kitchen improvement work has created much en thusiasm for all home work. Rural Home Engineering: Eighty-eight sewerage systems and 114 water systems have been installed in 16 counties; 153 lighting systems in 11 counties; 64 heating systems in 5 counties; 43 new homes in 9 counties have been completed where plans and personal help have been supplied by extension agents; and a few women drew their own house plans, taking ideas from plans sent from the state office. There are many marked improvements in a com munity after the successful remodeling of a home is shown. In . all, 586 homes did something on the subject of rural engineering the past year by installing lights, water systems, and by building new homes and remodeling old ones, Special demonstrations in house furnishings were given at group meetiRgs of the liome demonstration club members in a special room improvement project. Curtains, shades, rugs, dra peries, etc., are considered and shown or made in connection with the study of wall and floor improvement work: The repairing and remodeling of furniture, walls, floors and woodwork and the mak ing of artistic accessories and pictures were considered in the "entire room,. demonstrations. There were 2,272 bedrooms, 1,306 living rooms, 901 dining rooms, and 1,698 kitchens improved in 35 counties having home demonstration work. Thrift work is stressed in connection with the house furnishing problem. Women vie with each other to make the most artistic furnishings out of discarded materials. Thrift work has made use of used burlap and cotton sacks that contained fertilizer, feed, cotton, flour and sugar, making these into artistic house furnish ings. These sacks are cleaned, bleached and trimmed with a stenciled design, or an embroidered motif in wool or with dyed stockings which have been cut into strips for embroidery, or with the application of felt and cretonne designs. Attractive curtains, draperies, runners for tables, couch covers, bedspreads, soft pillows, footstool covers, etc., are made from these sacks. Mrs. Bettie Caudle, home demonstration agent of Holmes County, was the first person to make use of these burlap sacks in this way. After seeing one home improved in this way many women have taken up living room improvement. In Dade County after the storm of 1926 women were eager to make their storm-worn homes look better; there was little money. Because of this dire distress, the home demonstration agent and women listened to any plan that would be a "dollar extender... The Dade

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension County home demonstration agent and club members have been enthusiastic workers in making artistic draperies and even cloth ing from discarded feed and fertilizer sacks. Others have made artistic articles for sale . . Other home demonstration agents have popularized this work. Home Sanitation: People have been indifferent to the mosquito and taken it as a matter of course. When people study home san itation they realize that the mosquito breeding places, the poorly constructed outdoor toilet or no toilet, and unscreened houses are causing sickness and retarding their progress physically and financially. There were 370 sanitary toilets built; 481 homes screened; there were 3,650 homes in 28 counties where sanitary practices have been adopted. Exterior Beautification: The "tying the house to the ground" by lattice and foundation plantings, the open, green, grassy lawns, and group plantings for screenings have been stressed, hoping to overcome the indifference to the appearance of the houses that are hoisted high on pillars which look as if they are ready to jump, grassless yard, and to improve the unkept and neglected sur roundings. Definite demonstrations in exterior beautification were made in 561 homes; there were 235 demonstrations in painting and whitewashing of the homes in 18 counties; 4,813 different homes were beautified by planting grass in yards, etc. Many of the houses once beautified but which had become drab and paintless, have been improved because of the exterior beautification project undertaken by home demonstration club members. People are becoming more electrically minded. The power com panies have given splendid cooperation. Two county kitchens which were electrified will help in teaching just how electricity can be utilized in labor-saving. Special instructions on reading meters and electric appliances for the home-maker have been pre sented in lectures at the state meeting and at Farmers' Week. SUBJECT MATTER TEACHING The subject matter in home improvement work is taught by lecture demonstrations illustrated by pictures showing the "be fore" and "after" improvements; articles displayed, and tours to special finished demonstrations in the homes. Subject matter material is studied by club members who have signed up for home improvement work. Lecture demonstrations were given at regular meetings at the State Short Course, at Far mers' Week, and at other important gatherings of club members.

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Annual Report, 1929 81 All home demonstration club members enrolled in home im provement are requested to cut from magazines good picture sug gestions on each project; this awakens the interest of the entire membership on this particular project. The girls usually make the improvement in their own rooms; also they do creditable work in exterior beautification, home sanitation and better prac tices in dishwashing, table setting, cleaning of rooms, etc., and often encourage their family in having the house remodeled, or a new one built and appropriately furnished or painted. AN OUTSTANDING DEMONSTRATION Special attention is directed to a long-time demonstration con ducted by Mrs. Pattie Mills of Alachua County, assisted by Mrs. Grace Warren, home demonstration agent. Mrs. Mills improved her kitchen and dining room three years ago. . She then undertook a long-time demonstration :which continued an additional 18 . months; this included exterior and interior beautification of the entire house, sanitation, and beautification of the home grounds. Mrs. Mills was also a demonstrator in poultry, rabbit, and dairy, and gardening as the productive phases of her home demonstra tion club work. She planted 300 bulbs, a variety of vines and shrubs, St. Augus tine grass for her lawn; removed rickety fences and gates and rusting farm machinery from under the beautiful live oak trees. The barn and stock pens were placed in the rear lot. The front entrance to the house was shifted for convenience and appearance to a different side of the house. The utilization of the rooms was changed. A modern kitchen was made on the back porch, several windows were added, the old kitchen was made into a charming dining room, the dining room into a lovely living room . The old parlor was made into a sewing room and spare bedroom. The hall, living room, bedroom, and dining room were papered; the wood work was painted white, the floors were painted or waxed, and rugs were made or purchased. The house was painted, the out buildings were whitewashed, and the stock and poultry were "fenced in." In recognition of this outstanding demonstration Mrs. Mills was awarded third prize ($200) in a contest offered by . the South ern Ruralist for home improvement in the South in 1929. Mrs. Mills paid for these improvements from the sale of her poultry, dairy products, garden and prize money. A tour to this home, conducted during Farmers' Week, aroused much interest in this excellent demonstration.

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME GARDENING, FOOD CONSERVATION AND MARKETING ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent The purpose of the gardening project is to establish demon strations for a year-round supply of fresh vegetables and a con stant supply of fruit maturing each month-for better health, for improvement and beautification of the home acres, and to increase the family income through the sale of surplus garden and orchard products. ALL-YEAR GARDEN CONTEST The second all-year-garden contest closed November 1. The kitchen card showing daily serving of vegetables, (checked as fresh or as canned from the garden surplus), was required of each contestant. At least two fresh vegetables were served daily from the garden. A budget of the canned vegetables and fruits needed to supplement the yield of the garden, a complete story of the gardener's activities and photographs also were required of each contestant. Holmes County reports 265 all-year home gardeners with rec ords ,showing a profit of $2,683.00, besides feeding large families, from these gardens. Twice during the year floods swept this county, and gardens had to be replanted each time. Osceola has this encouraging report to make: "Our campaign 'a garden for every home' has gone over almost 100 percent. In almost every case some new vegetables are being grown." PERENNIAL PLANTING It is possible to have fresh fruit from the Florida orchard or grove each month in the year. Florida produces a wide range of fruit, including strawberries, blueberries, peaches, pears, persim mons, pecans, bunch and muscadine grapes, and a wealth of trop ical fruits-avocadoes, coconuts, guavas, loquats, pineapple, banana, tamarind, and citrus. JUNIOR GARDEN CONTEST Two garden contests were conducted among club girls during the year. The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau offered for the 4-H club girls enrolled in gardening $150.00 in prizes-$50.00 in each district. The donors were willing to. accept the plan of work as already outlined for gardening requirements for Florida 4-H club girls.

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Annual Report, 1929 83 The S. L. Allen Company offered a garden plow, valued at $7.50 for the outstanding garden club girl in each home demonstration county. Also a plow valued at $18.00 to the girl having the most outstanding garden in the state. Miss Annabel Raulerson, Alachua County, qualified as the state garden champion. Annabel had a net profit of $282.13 from sales of fruits and vegetables from her garden., Fifteen counties qualified for the S. L. Allen Com pany award, and in time received the award. How well the gardening program has been carried out by the junior club members may be understood from the following ex tracts from a few of the reports: Duval: "Every one of the 176 girls had a garden and planted seven or more varieties of vegetables, including 7,775 Marglobe tomato plants. The gardening extended beyond foodstuffs. Girls planted flowers for beautification, but as the Marigold had been selected . as the County Flower, special attention was devoted to this. Seventeen varieties were tried out." Walton: "Junior club members enrolled in gardening have shown some good results. Eighty-nine girls grew 22,199 pounds of vegetables. They received for vegetables sold $691.50. One girl sold $105.50 worth of strawberries besides those used at home. The variety of vegetables grown has increased. Among those recently added are endive, celery, parsley, spinach and chayote." THE COUNTY FLOWER The program of beautification has been further extended by the selecting of a County Flower. The selection of one flower and cooperating to make that outstanding has been undertaken by all but three counties. An annual is usually chosen first. This year many counties selected both an,annual and a perennial. The flower idea is giving zest and color to the vegetable program. From Nassau: "It seems that this year there has been not only a greater increase in the interest in home beautification than ever before, but gardening as well has doubled over previous years in the county. When the program was made up last fall by the coun cil, it was decided to continue our work with the chrysanthemum, our county home demonstration flower, and retain it as the annual county flower and add the rose as our perennial." COUNTY FLOWER SHOW It was suggested that during the height of the bloom of the county flower, a flower show be held and original flower songs, playlets, etc., be given as part of an educational program. This

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension phase of gardening work has been carried on and has added much interest and color to the gardening program. Many counties have• been encouraged to hold their first flower show. From indications it seems that the flower show will be a county event for which every home demonstration woman and girl will work. The foods and marketing agent has been told that the friendly competition and amiable rivalry has done much to promote the flower-growing idea. Just as the flower show is becoming a social event in the larger cities, and visitors are attracted from remote sections to them at flower show time, so do we in Florida home demonstration circles believe that from our beginnings, visitors who attend our shows will become interested in the horticultural and agricultural possi bilities of the section, and will naturally be attracted to the advan tages of the section as a place to establish their homes. Thirteen home demonstration flower shows have been held dur:.. ing the year. FOOD CONSERVATION Food Conservation has as its purpose to secure a more balanced and healthful diet in the home by conserving surplus fruits and vegetables from the home garden, trucking fields, groves and packinghouses; canning surplus meats at butchering time; culled chickens in the seasons of low market price ; fish and game in order to distribute a supply throughout the year, and to provide the use of Florida products and furnish means of increasing incomes of girls and women in the home. CONSERVATION SUMMARY Kind of Food Foods and vegetables canned ..................... . Meats and fish ........................•... , .... . Jelly and preserves made ....................... . Pickles made ................................... . Fruits and vegetables, dried. ; .................... . Meats cured ................. : .................. . Crystallized fruit ......... : ..................... . MARKETING Women' 341,458 25,621 33,610 27,949 4,453 185,700 1,063 Girls 67,470 2,628 20,283 6,920 975 1,779 The purpose of the marketing project is to enlarge sources of revenue from the sale of surplus crops, to establish curb, roadside, and home industry markets and to encourage buying necessary equipment and materials cooperatively. Garden work has not only provided the families with the neces sary vegetables and a means for making a little extra spending money, but it represents an open window through which the home

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Annual Report, 1929 85 demonstration women and girls can see and acquire many of the beautiful things needed and desired, in providing the added com forts and conveniences for "more abundant living." Polk . County: "The Lakeland curb market continues to fill a long-felt need, providing a market for vegetables for the farm. Many small truckers are growing summer vegetables, since they have this outlet for them. There are a number of people who are developing good business, marketing products, from information from this office. The Lewises have more orders than they can fill for their weaving, Mrs. Norris' pewter shop is gaining a reputa tion, Mr. Brown's candied fruit brings him a very satisfactory income. Mrs. Bizzell, Mrs. Baugh and Mrs. Flood have developed a good trade for their marmalades and jellies. Mrs. Stearns and Mrs. Devineaux are gaining quite a reputation for their rugs and there is a constant demand for the Bennett's brooms and cross stitch. Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Belcher and Mrs. Lampp have marketed a number of leather articles. The market in the craft shop has . slowly become known and we dispose of a goodly number of articles." Another county reports that: "Eight individuals sold $178.30 worth of canned products. Seventeen women and girls sold $1,213.50 worth of fruits and vegetables."

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension FOOD, NUTRITION AND HEALTH MARY A. STENNIS, Extension N_utritionist THE PROBLEM "The Optimal Child" is the theme of the continuous educational program for girls, women, and all the family. To overcome the health handicap due to undernourishment or mal-nourishment is the special aim of the extension nutrition program. Repeated studies for three years showed the outstanding needs to be as follows: (1) Increased use in families ' of fresh whole milk, fresh fruits, vegetables and eggs. (2) Better understanding of the natural health advantages offered in , Florida, such as sunshine, out-door living, all-year swimming. (3) Prevention of certain defects by proper food and health habits and the correction of defects already acquired. THE PLAN The plan for the solution of the problem has included both adult and child health education programs, definite and practical, and, at the same time, fundamental in the teaching of the principles of nutrition involved in the feeding of the family. The adult program covers "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women's Clubs", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Chil dren", and "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young Children." The girl's program includes the following: "Watch-Us-Grow Demon stration" (.girls 10 to 12 years of age), "Food, Nutrition and Health for Girls", "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Chil dren", and a special year's training (for girls 15 or more years of age) in team or single demonstrations in salads, baking, and in other food preparation; in participation in the state health or health improvement achievement features. GOALS The following goals were set for 1929: Women's Clubs: To complete the material for the second pro gram entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children;" to continue, in the counties, the first program "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women;" to make plans for writing the third pro gram for women entitled "Food, Nutrition and Health for Young Children;" to continue community activities in cooperation with girls' clubs; to revise the material in use in "Food, Nutrition and Health for Women."

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Annual Report, 1929 87 Girls' Clubs: To prepare and put into use a simplified "Watch Us-Grow" program, as preliminary to the more advanced pro gram; to continue the program, "Food, Nutrition and Health for Girls/' and to revise the program material; to put into use more thoroughly the material in Bulletin 49, "Food, Nutrition and Health for School Children;'' stressing improvement of school lunches prepared at home and at school; to outline course for fifth and sixth year club girls; to continue activities in the following community. county and state features: 1. Milk-for-health movements. 2. Lunchroom menus. 3. Health and nutrition achievement. METHODS Every nutrition program includes fundamentals of principle and of practice for the good of individuals, families. and com munities. ILLUSTRATIVE MATERIAL suc;h as photographs, slides, charts, food and food equipment, posters, animals, and children have been used to interpret the idea to the public. Women's clubs and girls' clubs, adopting nutrition as a major problem, have carried out PRACTICAL DEMONSTRATIONS as follows: Nine counties, better baking and nutrition; 17 counties, salad making demonstration ( community and county), using Florida fruits and vegetables; 24 counties, posture demonstra tions in every community; five counties, assistance with county wide milk-for-health programs; 20 counties, assistance with coun ty health achievement days and with county and state nutrition achievement programs. Other community problems have been BETTER SCHOOL LUNCHES, MILK SURVEYS, BETTER 4-H CAMP MENUS. PUBLICITY has been an important feature in the methods of presenting the program. Four state nutrition news letters (five page editions) were written. Occasions of awards for best records in nutrition and health have been used to feature nutrition material in the newspapers. Every news item has carried at least a few lines of program or subject matter. Health contests, achievement day programs, and milk-for-health programs have been occasions of popular, public, county-wide interest. The pub lications of the Department of Public Instruction, the Parent Teachers• Association Magazine, the Home Economics State News Letter, and The Florida Review of the State Department of Agri culture have carried many articles relating to the extension nutri

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension tion program and newspaper clippings, relating to Florida's 4.:H health program, have been made from almost every state. Five out-of-state magazines have carried articles. Exhibits of material were made at the State Short Course for club girls, state agents' meeting, and Farmers' Week. Material was supplied for seven county fairs, and slides were used by eight counties. Radio was used in December. Special timely articles for holidays and par ticular occasions were written. The nutritionist served, in 1929, as editor of the State Home Economics News. Other publications in 1929 have been (1) revised women's nutrition circular 979, (2) revised girls' circular 978, (3) -revised watch-us-grow cards, (4) revised girls' record book, (5) completed Bulletin 49, "Food . Nutrition and Health for Young Children." COOPERATION WITH OTHER STATE AGENCIES has made the nutrition and health program better known this year. The following relationships have been effected: (a). Service of physi cians of the State Board of Health in the county and state health contests. (b) .' Nutrition material supplied State Board of Child Welfare for use in state institutions. ( c). Service on the execu tive committee of the State Health Council. (d). Service as chair man of home economics and school lunch committee of the State Parent-Teachers; Association. Assistance has been generously given by the State Department of Agriculture in sending the 4~H club health contestants to attend the Boys' and Girls' Club Con gress in Chicago and in the publication of nutrition articles with photographs. Awards for Achievement have helped to stimulate and maintain effort in producing a number of definite demonstrations to be used as much needed illustrative material. Appropriate small awards of glassware or silver for highest achievement in using Florida fruits and vegetables in practical, everyday salads have been very happy endings each year for a p!an of from 10 to 15 county-wide programs in salad demonstra tions. Five to seven trips to Farmers' Week for women ranking high est in the nutrition program and in better home baking has resulted in a collection of a number of well organized reports of work accomplished. Three trips to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress for girls making best records in health and in health improvement, have very definitely caught and held the interest of advanced club members in planning and carrying out the year's program in a complete, finished form.

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Annual Report, 1929 89 Very small awards for achievement in posture have wrought splendid improvement and have glorified the effort. The award of entrance in the national health contest by the state 4-H health winner has gained the intense interest not only of every club girl but of almost every Florida girl. All awards are reserved strictly for club members who have thoroughly completed the educational program of work. No con test, as such, exists. The award is for highest achievement in the educational program and its practical application to oneself, to the home, to the club and to the community. RESULTS Girls in 24 counties have carried a constructive long-time pro gram in food, nutrition and health, including a preliminary pro gram of growth work followed by the program of food value, selection, use, preparation and care. Evidences of good results have been noted particularly in the "health girls" selected in the counties each year. The state winner in health has, each year, raised the health score of Florida in the national health contest from thirteenth to seventh to second to first. Health improve ment has been noted by physicians who throughout the state have made physical and medical examinations. It is estimated that in four years milk consumption has increased by 25 percent. The National Health Champion of 4-H girls in 1929 is a Lake County girl. Women's clubs each year, for three, have gradually majored in food, nutrition and health, about 10 counties annually adopting this major project and the following year making it a minor project. Always the agents have reported increased interest in gardening, in the use of milk and fruit, in the care and correctiori of children, as well as in the improvement in food and health habits. Miss Matilda Roesel, Marion County home demonstration agent, in giving results which have come to her county and clubs following a major nutrition program, says: "There is a decided interest in better school lunches. A survey is being made and later the state score will be used to raise the standard of lunches . . "Gardening (vegetables) has become more interesting to the women. A year ago they showed very little interest and now they are ready to make plantings a project for 1930 and will also iricrease vegetable plantings.

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension "The selection of a major program and project and the carrying of a consecutive educational program throughout the year has now become an established fact. The women will never again be willing to do otherwise. They are working out a similar plan for next year on another subject. , Fig. 6.-Florence Smock, a Lake County club girl (right), was declared to be the healthie s t club girl in the Uniter! States in 1929, winning this honor at the National Club Congress in Chicago. "Gain, in number of clubs and club members, has been evident ail the year. Not only ha ve the original clubs gained in strength but two new clubs have come in and will carry the major nutrition program this year. The type of program has gained the interest." Lee County reports every club (women's) completing the Unit I program this year and good results showing in "better garden ing, more dairy cows for milk supply, more canning of vegetables and fruits, three new school lunchrooms and decided improvement in others. Achievement Day programs were carried out by every

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Annual Report, 1929 91 community." Following the year's program in nutrition the women have adopted "canning and food conservation" for a major project. Miss Eloise McGriff, home demonstration agent in Walton County, says, "As a result of our major project in food, nutrition and health the interest in gardening has greatly increased. Club girls have come to look on the garden as a most important factor in maintaining good health. Garden records of a number of vege tables served became more interesting. Salad making, practically new to most farm homes in this county, has become a popular way of using the garden." Other results which may be counted are as follows: Milk-for-health has become a state-wide slogan among girls' and women's clubs. Child feeding demonstrations of 80 children and animal feeding demonstrations in 15 counties have resulted in at least an increase in milk consumption of 25 percent. As a result of the past three years' milk work, the State Milk Inspec tion Bureau, the State Department of Agriculture, the State Mar keting Bureau, the State Parent-Teachers' Association have vol unteered to cooperate in making April, 1930, Milk-for-Health month in Florida. Salads in Florida have become more than style; they are now the habit. School lunch improvement has made a small but sure beginning. Better posture among club girls at least is observed. Achievement Day programs in the nutrition program have shown better planning, better records, better understanding of a constructive program with a worthwhile goal.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension PART IV-NEGRO WORK The headquarters for the Negro Extension work is at the Flor ida A. and M. College, Tallahassee. There are two district agents, namely A. A. Turner, district agent for men and boys' work, and Julia A. Miller, district agent for women and girls' work. The College has cooperated since 1915 in supplying office space, heat and li,ghts and has made available such other facilities of the college as may be useful in carrying on the work. During the periods when short courses are held or when the local agents assemble there the president and college faculty have extended all possible cooperation. Stenographic service is employed by the Extension service with one person to serve both district agents. The Negro work has the same supervision as the other exten si_on work. These district agents report to the state leader and state home demonstration agent for subject matter and super vision. Appointments are made on the recommendation of the district agents when workers are assigned to counties. During the past year Gadsden County has been supplied with a local agent. In order to do this the _ work was discontinued in Bradford. This change was made due to the large number of Negro farmers in Gadsden County and the evident greater useful ness of the service under such conditions. Negro extension work has been conducted in eight counties for men's work as follows: Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia, Gadsden, Bradford, Alachua and Marion; and for women's work in seven counties, namely in Duval, Leon; Madison, Marion, Orange, St. Johns and Sumter. These counties are selected because of the relatively large agri cultural negro population, for statistics show that a large percent of the farmers in these counties are negroes than any other coun ties-the total of which show that 40 percent of the farmers in these counties operating farms are negroes and 60 percent are white farmers. This includes both tenants and owners. This, however, does not include all the Negro farmers in Florida, but with limits on the funds that can be spent for this work, the counties named represent the number that' can be profitably served by the agricultural Extension Division.

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Annual Report, 1929 93 NEGRO MEN'S WORK (Farm Makers' Clubs) A. A. Turner, Local District Agent County Local Agent Address Alachu a .............. . . William Stockton .... . ...... Gainesville Bradford ... .. ... . ...... J. W . Keller ... . .. . .. .. .... Starke (r es igned June 30, '29) Columbia .. . ............ E. S. Belvin ............... Lake City Gadsden ... .. ... . ... . .. . A. W. Bowls .... . ......... . Quincy Jackson ......... . ... . .. J. E. Granberry .. .......... Marianna Jefferson ......... , ..... M. E. Groover .............. Monticello Marion ... . ........ . . . .. W. B. Young . . . .. . . ........ Oc a la Suwannee ......... . .... C. T . Evans ... . .......... . Live Oak WORK IN COUNTIES . Programs of work are required January 1 to guide the county workers through the year. Recommendations are made from the supervising office, Gainesville, as to type of work and subject matter. This program conforms in each case to the type of agri culture and the crops grown by the farmers in each county. The program includes organization work, club work, sanitation and exhibits. A summary of the agents' work shows as follows: In 1929 the agents have worked in 88 communities of eight counties. They had the assistance of 151 voluntary leaders of the rural section in the organization of 129 junior clubs and 122 adult clubs to promote 4-H club work and such community activities as social betterment; sanitation and rural improvement. These efforts were responsible for a membership of 643 boys and 214 girls in the 4-H club. They also enrolled 704 men and 119 women in demonstration clubs. In each case about 50 percent of these members completed their project work. In the junior work there were 164 boys and 94 girls who had continued their 4-H club work through a period of four or more years. There were 2,431 visits made to 685 different farms and there were also 1,453 visits to 565 different homes. The agents had 1,928 requests for services at their office. . They spent one day each week at office headquarters and the remainder of the time with farmers throughout the counties. The agents assisted in the management of 8 community fairs, four county fairs and two state fairs. They held 570 demonstra tion meetings with a total attendance of 3,397. They also helped in the programs with 22 farmers' meetings where there was an attendance of 1,377.

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM CROPS Corn. The Negro men completed 81 demonstrations of corn on an acreage of 10,950. These demonstrations produced an increase of 3 bushels per acre over adjoining fields. Oats. There were 31 demonstrations with oats conducted on 576 acres. Inasmuch as these oats were grazed off or cut for hay the crop could not be measured and the results could be determined only by the condition of the crop. Rye. There were 17 demonstrations with an acreage of 385. This was also grazed off so no record of this is available. Legumes. The legume crops were soybeans, Austrian winter peas and winter vetch. There were 327 demonstrations on 23,968 acres. These crops were either plowed under or grazed off. Cotton. There were 43 demonstrations conducted with cotton with an acreage of 619. This resulted in an increase of 80 pounds of seed cotton per acre. Tobacco. Work with tobacco was of a general nature, and con cerned seedbeds, harvesting and curing, inasmuch as most crops of tobacco are supervised by a tobacco demonstrator whose ser vices are paid for by the growers on a percentage basis. Horticultural Crops. The horticultural crops consisted primar ily of vegetables for market and canning, with home gardens and home tree fruits. Some work was done with strawberries and grapes. A total of 90 demonstrations were carried through the year on approximate ly 30 acres. This work concerned fertilizer, cultural methods and control of insects and diseases, and applied principally to the home gardens, as most of the Negro men's work is outside the commer cial horticultural area of Florida. Livestock. The demonstrations with dairy cattle totaled 20, involving 194 animals; beef cattle 3, involving 191 ; hogs 94, in volving 1,575; and with poultry 88, involving 1,690 individuals. With the exception of hogs, these demonstrations were with the small farmer, having only a few animals and requesting help to make improvement in securing animals of a greater production and in better feeding methods. In the case of hogs, the work was largely with the control of hog cholera by vaccination and better sanitary conditions. The estimated saving in the case. of hogs amounted to $8,065 in disease control alone. In the hog program the agents have been directed by county agents and district agents in the preparation of feeds. They have bought their feeds cooperatively under the direction of county agents, obtaining thereby the benefits of cooperative marketing.

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Annual Report, 1929 95 Through cooperative purchase and sales three local associations with 113 members purchased supplies amounting to $5,538 and sold cooperatively farm products valuing $34,495. Reference is made to some outstanding accomplishments as follows: J. E. Granberry, local agent, Jackson County, reports 74 soil building demonstrations using Austrian winter peas and vetch. Through the use of winter peas on 20 acres of land the winter crop was not turned under. These plantings were made accord ing to the recommendations of the white county and district agents. One farmer sold $600 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $275. A second farmer sold $890 worth of hogs at a feed cost of $240, These hogs were sold cooperatively and netted the farmers $153 above the price they would have received without the cooperative selling. A farmers' cooperative association with 105 members bought $935 worth of fertilizer, also stored 60 tons of peanuts in a co operative storage house. M. E. Groover, Jefferson County, reports demonstrations with soybeans, 26 of these were completed with an increase of 10 bush els per acre on 600 acres. With peanuts 29 demonstrations were completed with an increase of 10 bushels per acre on 500 acres. One demonstrator sold $100 worth of okra off one-half acre of garden and put up 200 quarts of canned okra. Also sold $78 worth of other vegetables. Other farmers sold their garden crops on local markets. In one case the total sales amounted to $350. NEGRO FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS The district agents had numerous requests for organizations of colored farmers in 18 counties for the purpose of organization in order that they might benefit from the federal marketing act. These requests came from individual Negro farmers, teachers and Negro leaders. A series of meetings were held at convenient places where representatives from the leading Negro agricultural communities of Florida were present. Those appearing on the program were representatives of the Extension service, State Marketing Bureau, State Department of Agriculture and from United States Bureau of Agricultural Economics. These organ izations proposed to combine their credit, assist farmers in secur ing loans from the Intermediate Credit bank. A state organiza tion was tentatively arranged. The state expects to proceed with the organization as fast as the locals can organize themselves.

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension FAIRS AND EXHIBITS The local district agents with the cooperation of the county workers placed creditable exhibits on display at the South Florida Fair, Tampa, and the State Fair, Jacksonville. These exhibits were representative of the products grown by farmers cooperating with the agents. The fair association cooperated liberally, pro viding lights and accommodations so as to make a creditable dis play. These exhibits aroused much interest and favorable com ment and showed an improvement over exhibits of former years. SHORT COURSES The short course was provided by the Florida A. and M. College, Tallahassee, for 4-H Negro club members. The college cooperated in accommodating the club members and provided meeting places. The expense of transporting tlub members to the college was taken care of from local sources in the counties where the club members carried out their work. These club members were ac companied by local county agents. The annual meeting of Negro agents was held at Tallahassee under the supervision of th,e local district agent where the agents gathered for instruction. Other meetings for Negro extension work. These were ar ranged under the direction of the state leader and the state home demonstration agent. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1928-November 30, 1929 GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 88 Voluntary county, community and local leaders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Clubs carrying on extension work ... ............... . ........ ...... 251 Memberships .. . .................. .. ...... . ........................ 1,680 Farm visits made by local agents . ................. . ................. 2,431 Different farms visited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Office calls on agents relating to extension work ....... . ............. 1,928 Exhibits at fairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 County............................ . .......... . . ... . 8 State ............ . ........ .. .............. , . . . . . . . . 4 Number Attendance Farmers' meetings h.eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1,032 PROGRAM SUMMARY Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents Number Communities Participating Soils .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Farm Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Dairy Husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Poultry Husbandry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Days Agents Devoted to Projects 222 296 70 . 70 658

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Annual Report, 1929 CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS ( Corn, Oats, etc.) Acreage grown under demonstration methods .................... . Boys' and girls' clubs ........................................... . Acreage grown by club members ............................... . Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ................. . Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . .................... . Farmers who planted selected or improved seed .................. . COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Acreage grown under improved methods ......................... . Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ..................... . Boys' and girls' clubs ............................. ........... , .. Members enrolled ......................... . . .. .. : .............. . Acreage grown by club members ................................ . Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ...................... . Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................. . Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases ..... . LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.) 97 11,917 51 457 3,584 421 241 619 149 11 117 121 35,466 44 47 Number method demonstrations given............................ 569 Number result demonstrations under way. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 Number result demonstrations completed ......... '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Acres in completed demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Demonstrations completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Animals in completed demonstrations ....... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,758 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock............ 48 Farmers culling breeding stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 RURAL ENGINEERING Building on farms constructed or remodeled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Farmers who cleared land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Acres cleared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time........ 90 DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Farmers adopting control measures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Acres involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension NEGRO HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK (Home Makers' Clubs) Julia A. Miller, Local Dist. Home Dem. Agent County Local Home Dem. Agent Address Duval ............... Olive L. Smith ................ Jacksonville, 1005 W.12th St. Leon ...............• Alice W. Poole ................ Tallahassee Madison .. . .......... Althea Ayer .................. Madison Marion .............• Idella Ransom ................ Reddick Orange ............... Mamie E. Wright ......... : ... Orlando . St. Johns ............. Mary A. Caldwell ..... .. ...... St. Augustine Sumter ......... . ..... Diana H. Finlayson ........... Webster ORGANIZATION The survey made in the seven counties served by home agents in January, 1929, showed that the most outstanding needs for Negro home demonstration work were: Organization, definite programs to fit local home needs, systematic planning on part of the local home agents, and _ more contact with the general public and organizations working in the same field. In making plans for year 1929, organization was an important factor. A junior and senior home demonstration club in each community with a needful and practical program, and a county council for every county was the goal set. The plans ultimately resulted in the organizing of 96 junior clubs and 75 adult clubs in 97 different communities out of the 171 available in the terri tory for organization. Home demonstration work now being conducted in seven coun ties among Negro citizens is wielding a very good influence toward the comfort and efficiency of the "home maker". The desire for and interest in better farm and home practices were demonstrated during 1929 by 1,028 women and 1,565 girls living in 97 different communities and sections of the State. A total of 2,593 demon $trations in gardening, food preparation, clothing, food preserva tion, sanitation, home improvement, poultry and other miscel laneous projects affecting the home life were undertaken. Of the 2,593 demonstrations there were 1,128 completed at a profit. County councils of home demonstration clubs have been organ ized in six different counties. These county councils have helped the agent in reaching more people and helping with many hard problems. PROJECT ACTIVITIES FOODS Nothing is needed more among rural colored people of Florida than an increase iri production of home-grown foods and an ade quate supply for the family meals. In teaching the selection of foods to farm women, 29 extension schools were held by agents.

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Annual Report, 1929 99 Exhibits were made of five groups of needed foods that could be provided from home sources: 1, vegetables and fruits; 2, milk, meat, eggs and cheese; 3, cereal foods; 4, sugar or sugar foods as honey, jelly, etc., and 5, fats and fatty foods, as meat, butter and lard. Using this method of demonstrating growing food supply, gardens, poultry, dairy products, hogs, and improved production in quality and quantity were subjects discussed and emphasized. A total of 3,006 people attended these schools. One agent says: "A two-day extension school was held at Edisto. Four counties were reached. A total of 150 people at tended these schools regularly. At the close of the two-day ses sion a home makers' club was organized at Edisto with an enroll ment of 15. The first community demonstration garden was planted by this club." As result of the extension schools one agent writes: "February was a busy month for club work. There were 15 vegetable and flower gardens planted this month by club members. This num ber exceeded previous years. Our aim is a garden for each home. On Arbor Day 100 fruit trees suited to this climate were planted by club boys." There are 782 women and 1,004 girls carrying demonstrations. in gardening, 513 women and 661 girls in poultry, and 122 women and 441 girls in dairying. FOOD PREPARATION Proper food preparation, together with selection and produc tion, have had their place in our program. The preparation of vegetables for the table and the making of palatable and whole some breads have been undertaken by 794 women and 1,314 girls representing 794 different homes. Five bread contests were held by home demonstration club members. The preparation of foods is appealing to the club people and results can readily be seen in counties served by agents. FOOD PRESERVATION To encourage a year-round, adequate food supply for the family meals, demonstrations have been conducted by 565 women and 1,209 girls in food preservation. At certain seasons of the year the truck growers, after gathering produce of market quality, open fields to citizens. The home demonstration agents have played a large part in encouraging the preservation of vegetables and fruits which would otherwise be wasted. As result of demonstrations conducted this year, 5,797 quarts of fruits were canned for home use by women and 6,751 quarts by

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100 Florida Cooperative Extension girls. Two pressure cookers were placed in local clubs and one Burpee sealer. A total of 656 different homes reported improved practices in food preservation. CLOTHING Nothing is more appreciated by the farm women and girls than the instructions they receive relative to clothing work. The local home agents placed special emphasis on selection of materials for making garments, construction, renovation of garments, and selection of ready-made clothing, as hose, shoes and clothing decorations. This phase of the work has been helped and encour aged to a very large extent by commercial agencies as the Singer Sewing Machine Company, Peter Pan Cotton Fabric Company, and many other such companies. The clothing contest conducted in five counties and the dress shows created a new desire on the part of the farm women and girls to dress better. There are 794 women and 1,449 girls doing work in clothing this year. Women reported having made 181 hats and 2,726 dresses. The girls reported having made 263 hats and 1,365 dresses. One agent says: "Six communities made exhibit in clothing. The outstanding exhibits made were the thrift exhibits which showed the use of burlap sacks and feed sacks. Twenty-three dresses were made from meal sacks and two from feed sacks were ex hibited. The clothing work reported this year affects 794 dif ferent homes." HOME IMPROVEMENT The local agents have worked hand in hand with the housewife toward guiding her in home improvements. The agents have been especially useful in helping the housewife to spend money wisely in improvements in and about the home. Often when a club member is ready to build she first seeks the advice of her local home agent. Most of the project work conducted by women this year has been in beautification of yards and home surroundings, yet the agents have assisted as many as 15 women iri building and remod eling the houses. A total of 54 houses were painted; one school ground was planted according to plans; and 231 different homes were improved. One agent says: "To get my rural people interested in better home life, I had a miniature dwelling house built and carried in my car throughout the county. This served to show the people a well-planned home at least expense. As result nine homes were improved this year. Of this nine, one has installed gas lights.

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Annual Report, 1929 101 Mary Speed, Tallahassee, remodeled her home by suggestions given her. Two bedrooms were added with two windows in each room. The lumber was gotten from their own field and carried to the mill and dressed and with the help of a brother, the house was built. Mary's garden and poultry paid for the paint, which amounted to $52.45. Two beds were refinished, five chairs painted and two mattresses reconditioned. Curtains were remodeled, rugs made and Mary is now enjoying the comforts in her new home." HOUSE FURNISHINGS Selection of furniture, making box furniture, rug-making, mak ing draperies, and picture framing received the attention of the club members. The agent in Marion says: "Remilla Johnson, Reddick, took an old organ and made from the wood which was in it a library table and a settee. The job is neatly done. Five women worked over their old iron beds by using paints and enamel. Draperies from the croker bags and cretonne and window curtains from the feed sacks have been made by five adults." There are 651 women and 1,066 girls doing house furnishing work. As result of the demonstrations carried 121 bedrooms were improved, 78 living rooms, and 302 different homes. HOME HEALTH SANITATION The national Negro health movement with the county health nurse, State Health Department, school teachers and rural minis ters cooperating with the local home agent has had a great influ ence upon the health and sanitation of the rural home. The health sanitation campaign was conducted in each county served by local agents. A total of 101 sanitary toilets were in stalled. The number of homes screened was 49, and homes con trolling flies and other insects for the first time numbered 127. HOME GARDENS The home garden project is the most difficult project undertaken this year. The agents find it unusually hard to make the larger percent of rural people see the necessity of having a home garden with something growing for the table each day in the year. The open truck fields in sections of the state give large supplies of vegetables at certain seasons and these fields serve to lessen the attitude toward home production of vegetables and fruits on the part of the home maker. However, each agent reports a considerable increase in the number of home gardens this year as a result of successful demon

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102 Florida Cooper:ative Extension stration gardens. One demonstrator not only had enough vege tables to supply her family needs but sold fresh products amount ing to $88.55. HOME POULTRY The local home demonstration agent has had a great influence upon the selection of poultry, care of poultry, and making poultry pay the farm home. However, a very small percent of the projects undertaken were completed for 1929. . One agent says: "At the beginning of the year a survey was made to investigate the club members' poultry projects. I found that all of the members had some kind of chickens, ducks, turkeys, or other fowl on their yards. They only needed to build up their flocks by placing eggs, cockerels a:r;id purebred baby chicks. One of the three methods was put before each owner and I succeeded in getting one boy and three girls and four women to improve their flocks. Seven families were directly influenced iri increasing the families' income through poultry. Reports from result demon strations under way show $251 profit on a flock of 528 birds plus those used for home use, and 33 different homes have followed better practices." Another agent says: "Arimentha Morall, South Jacksonville, reports having sold $72.55 worth of eggs from her flock of 45 hens and fryers valued at. $45.45." There were 513 homes that used improved practices as result of Extension methods. NEGRO SHORT COURSE AT A. & M. COLLEGE A joint short course for Negro farm and home demonstration club folks was held at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, June 18-19-20, 1929. The club folks traveled by way of bus and private cars. Monday, June 17, was given for registra tion. Those from each county represented arrived on time and properly registered before midnight Monday. The citizens of each county gave their cooperation to the movement by furnishing private cars and making liberal charges so that the trip to the short course could be made possible. The commissioners of Duval County provided scholarships for Negro club girls to attend the short course. Three busses were chartered by the club folks. With 187 girls and 25 adult leaders enrolled at the short course, the work was organized in.to group activities. The program was arranged to affect six phases of home demonstration work as car ried on in the counties by local home demonstration agents. Lec tures, demonstrations, recreation and visits to places of interest in Tallahassee were included in the program that made the short course invaluable to those in attendance.

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INDEX Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural economics, 35 Agricultural News Service, 18, 19 Animal husbandry, 41 Austrian peas, 23, 24 Awards to club members, 13 Beautification, home, 80 Blue mold decay control, 49 Boys' club work, 37 Bulletins issued, 18 Cattle, beef, 32 dairy, 33 Cereal demonstrations, 27 Citrus, 29, 48 pathology and entomology, 48, 49, 50, 51 Clothing, 73 Club camps, 10 short courses, 10 contests, 76 Club work, 10, 37, 42, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 75 Club members, awards to, 13 College club, 4-H, 77 Community activities, 22, 75 Corn,40 Cotton, 27, 40 County agent work, 9, 12, 21, 29 Cover crops, 9 Crotalaria, 9, 23, 25 Dairy breeding stock, 45 Dairy husbandry, 41 Dairy organizations, 46 Dairying, 9, 43, 46 home, 72 Demonstration teams, 77 Director, report of, 7 Engineering, 34, 79, 80 Extension organization, 63 Extension work with Mediterranean fruit fly, 12 :il.egro, 11 Fair exhibits, club negro, 96 Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 11, 76 Farm crops work, 26, 40 negro,94 Farm programs, radio, 20 Fertilizer demonstrations, 9 citrus, 52 Financial statement, 7 Flower, county, 83 Flower show, 83 Foods,72,84 Food, nutrition and health, 86, 87, 88, _ 89, 90, 91 Foot rot, 49 Forage crops, demonstrations, 28 Fruit fly work, 10 Gardens, home, 82 Grapes, 31 Green feeds, poultry, 57 Gummosis and psorosis, 50 Hogs, 31 Home demonstration work, 10 negro, 11 Home egg-laying contest, 58 Home improvement, 78, 80, 81 Home marketing, 73, 84 Horticulture, 10, 29, 41 Horticultural demonstration, 30 Insect control, 31 Lines of work, 9 Livestock work, 9 Marketing, home, 73, 84 . Mediterranean fruit fly, county agents' work, 12 i Melanose control, 48 Meetings, negro, 96 National egg-laying contest, 61 reports, 18

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104 Florida Cooperative Extension Negro work, 92, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102 News and farm paper stories, 19 News writing, training in, 20 Nutrition, 72 Oranization, extension, 8, 63 dairy, 46 negro,95,98 Pastures, 28, 44 Peanuts, 28 Perennial plantings, 82 Poultry, 9, 34, 42, 53, 57, 72 associations, 60 Publications, 18 Publicity, county and home demon stration, 21, 69, 70, 71 Radio, WRUF farm programs, 20 Rallies, club, 77 Rodent control, 31 Rust mite control, 50 Scab control, 49 Sheep, 33 Short course, club, 10, 39 negro,11 Soils work, 23 improvement demonstrations, 25, 40 project demonstrations, 40 Sugar cane, 28 Sweet potato demonstrations, 30 Training in news writing, 20 Truck crops, 23, 30 Vetch, 23, 24 WRUF farm programs, 20