Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1928
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text






1928


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEwELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1928















1928


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME

ECONOMICS


Agricultural E xtension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1928










CONTENTS
PAGE
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF . . 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS . REPORT OF D IRECTOR -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
Financial Statement, 7; Organization; 8; Lines of Work, 10; 4-H
Club Work, 12; Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 13.
PUBLICATION S -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
Bulletins 14; National Egg-Laying Contest Reports, 15; News and
Farm Paper Stories, 15; Training fn News Writing, 16.
COUNTY A GENT W ORK . 17
County Programs, 17; Specialists' Work with County Agents, 19; Boys' Club Work, 19; Extension Meetings, 20; State Meetings, 20;
Outside Activities, 20; County Agent Programs of Work, 21.
BOYS' CLUB W ORK . 32
Crop Clubs, 32; Livestock Clubs, 33; The State Fair, 35; Annual Short Course, 35; Club Camps, 36; Educational Trips, 36; Agricultural Scholarships, 38; A Boys' and Girls' Flower Show, 39; A
Leader Developed by Club Work, 39.
DAIRYING . _ . 40
Reducing Production Costs, 40; Feeding Demonstrations,, 41; Dairy Tours, 42; Distribution and Exchange of Dairy Breeding Stock, 42; Dairy Production Records, 43; Dairy Herd Improvement Association, 43; Better Balanced Rations, 43; Fair Exhibits, 44;
Dairymen2s Organizations, 44
VTRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY . . 45
Melanose and Stem-end Rot Control, 45; Blue Mold Decay Control, 46; Citrus Scab Control, 46; Psorosis. and Gummosis Control, 47; Rust Mite Control, 47; Citrus Aphid Control, 48; Whitefly and
Scale Control, 48; Fertilizer Demonstrations, 49; Irrigation, 49.
POULTRY . 53
Program of Work, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Poultry Development by Projects, 54; Poultry Associations, 59; Junior Poultry
Clubs, 61; Miscellaneous, 62.
HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK . . . 64
Organization in the Counties, 64; Supervisory Program, 65; Office Organization, Records and Reports, 67; Maintenance and Training of Personnel, 67; Program Development and Analysis, 68; Publicity, 68; Project Activities and Results, 69; Strengthening the Organization, 77.
NEGRO EXTENSION W ORK . 81
Negro Extension Meetings, 81; County Meetings, 82; Fair Exhibits,
82; Results of Year's Work, 83; Negro Women's Work, 85.



















Hon. Doyle E. Carlton,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1928, including a fiscal report for the year ending June' 30, 1928.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control.










BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola W. B. DAVIS, Perry E. W. LANE, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent







COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
Home Demonstration
County County Agents Address Agents
Alachua-.F. L. Craft-------.Gainesville-.Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Baker-------.W. H. Rumif- .Macdlenny------------------------.
Bradford-.T. D. Rickenbakem-Starke----.-------.-.
Brevard-.W. R. Briggs-.Cocoa----------------------------. .
Broward-.C. E. Matthews-.Ft. Lauderdale ----Miss Ethyl Holloway
Calhoun-.John G. Kelley-.Blountstown-----------------------.
Calhoun and Liberty-----------.Blountstown-.Miss Josephine Nimmo
Charlotte and Highlands--------.Punta Gorda.Miss May Winfield Citrus------------------.------Inverness-.Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore
Citrus and
Sumter -.I. R. Nolen-------.Inverness ----------------------------Columbia.-------.-.Lake City---------.Mrs. Lassie Black
Dade .S. . S. Rainey- im-----------Mim.Miss Pansy Norton
Dade (Asst.X- .C. H. Steffani--.Homestead Miss Carrie Torbert (Miami) Duval-------.W. L. Watson -----Jacksonville--------.Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.) J. 0. Traxler--.Jacksonville-----------------------.
Duval (Asst.) C. H. Magoon--.Jacksonville -------------------------.
Escambia-.E. P. Scott-------. .Pensacola --------------Miss Della Stroud.
Flagler -.L. T. Nieland-.Bunnell ------------------------.--. .
Gadsden---------------------.Quincy --_-------------- Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton-. S. Sechrest .Jasper---------.------------------Hernando-.John H. Logan-.Brooksville---------- Mrs. Florence Albert
Highlands-.L. H. Alsmeyer .Sebring--------------------------.
Hillsborough X1. P. Wright .Plant City- (E)-.Miss Motelle Madole Tampa (W)-------.Mrs. Mary S. Allen Holmes----------------------.Bonifay--------.Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle
Indian River.W. E. Evans .Vero Beach------ ----------------------.
Jackson -.S. H. Rountree-.Marianna-.Miss Mary Sue Wigley Jefferson ----E. H. Finlayson-.Monticello -------------------------------_Lafayette-.D. C. Geiger .Mayo----------------- .---------Lake--------.C. RI. Hiatt. Tavares -.Miss Christine McFerron
Lee---------.W. P. Hayman-.Ft. Myers-------.Miss Anna Mae Sikes
Leon--------.G. C. Hodge-.Tallahassee-.Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum
Levy--------. .N. J. Allbritton ---Bronson ----------_-----------------------------Liberty -.A. W. Turner -.Bristol---.--- ----------------------------.
M adison -.B. E. Lawton -.M adison --- ------------------------Manatee-.L. H. Wilson-.Bradenton -------.Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion-.Clyde H. Norton .Ocala-------------.Miss Tillie Roesel
Martin -.C. P. Heuck -.Stuart -------------------------------------Nassau ----A. S. Lawton-.Fernandina_----------- Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa-.R. J. Hart--------.Crestview ---_ -----Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee ---- C. A. Fulford-.Okeechobee-----------------------.
Orange-.K. C, Moore-.Orlando--------.Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola-.J. R. Gunn-------.Kissimmee-. --------- Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach . W. Hiatt--.W. Palm Beach -Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan Palm Beach
(Asst.) ----M. U. Mounts-_.W. Palm Beach -.Miss Bernice Lyle
Pinellas -----William Gomme .Clearwater-------.Mrs. Joy Belle Hess
Polk--------.F. L. Holland-.Bartow----. ---------- Miss Lois Godbcy
Bartow (Asst.)-.Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns ---E. H. Vance-.St. Augustine----.-----Miss Anna Heist
St. Lucie.Alfred Warren-.Ft. Pierce------------------------.
Santa Rosa .John G. Hudson-.Milton-----------.Miss Martha Moore
Sarasota ----P. M. Childers-.Sarasota-------------------------.
Suwannee and
Hamilton -. W. W. Green-_.Live Oak-------------------------.
Taylor------.R. S. Dennis -----Perry------------.Mrs. Anabel Powell
Union-------.L. T. Dyer-------.Lake Butler-.----------------------------Volusia -----T. A. Brown -.DeLand-------------.Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla -----D. M. Treadwell _-Crawfordville -----_ ----------------Walton -.Mitchell Wilkins .DeFuniak Springs ---Miss Eloise MeGriff Washington .Gus York--------.Chipley--------. .-----------------*This list correct to December 31, 1928.



























71
fig.














q.



Fig. I.-Working for a better Florida agriculture-- Florida's county and home demonstration agents-










REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1928

With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1928



Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1928. 1 respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal . $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State ---------------------------------------------- 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal -------------- 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State . 15,496.08 U. S. D. A. Appropriation . . . 21,475.00 State Appropriations . : --- 43,058.92 County Appropriations . . 186,696.08
$389,966.66
Expenditures
Administration . _--------_---------_-__ 8,803.31
Printing and Publications ------------------------------------------ 6,010.67
County Agent W ork ---------------------------------------------------- 184,406.02
Home Demonstration Work . 124,376.72 Foods and Marketing . . . 4,271.30 Dairy and Nutrition ----------------------------------------- . 4,100.00
Boys' Club W ork . . . . 7,664.41 Dairy Husbandry . 4,795.95 Negro Agents' Club Work ----_--------------- . _ 20,304.15
Plant Pathology and Entomology . . 5,410.42 Poultry Husbandry ------------------- . . 4i757.97
Extension Schools and Farmers' Week . . 2,565.74 Florida National Egg Laying Contest . 12,500.00
$389,966.66






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR

The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida is conducted as one of the three divisions of the College of Agriculture and according to cooperative terms contained in the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. During the past year, no changes of importance have taken place. The relationship of the University of Florida in cooperation with the county boards has been the same since the beginning of Extension work in this state.
While the headquarters for all Extension work is at the University, the offices of the. State Home Demonstration Agent are located at the State College for Women, and the office of the Negro agents is located at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee.
Extension work in Florida may be divided under three main headings: (a) Agricultural work for men and boys, (b) home demonstration work for women and girls, and (c) Negro work in agriculture and home economics.

ORGANIZATION

The organization consists of supervisors as follows: director, vice-director and county agent leader, three district agents, one state home demonstration, one assistant state agent, three district home demonstration agents; specialists: boys' club agent, citrus pathologist and entomologist, dairyman, poultryman, home dairy and nutrition agent, food and marketing agent, and one district agent for the Negro work.
The revenue supporting Extension work is provided from the following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States Department of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These appropriation's are governed by Acts of Congress and the State Legislature and are administered by the Agricultura I Extension Division. The authority for making county appropriations is provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy for agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting county boards to enter into agreement with the Extension Division for the employment of county and home demonstration agents. All appointments for extension work are approved by







Annual Report, 1928


the State Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture before they become effective.
Agricultural Extension work in Florida has not materially changed since 1927. The legislature of 1927 made increased appropriations to conduct Extension work, during the biennium, but the amounts were still not sufficient to carry out all the work for which there is a steady demand. The cooperation in counties has remained about the same ' as in 1927, but with some interruption on account of reduced values and reduced business. Extension work in Florida is dependent on county appropriations
-the average appropriation by counties is about 300 percent of the amount applied by the federal and state governments for the employment of county workers. Because of Ae more
difficult financial situation generally over the state, more trouble has been experienced the past year in securing county funds. There has been no increase in the number of county agents; however, there has been a slight increase in the number of home demonstration agents employed.
Extension work during the past year has been conducted in 52 Florida counties. In these counties agents are confronted with agricultural 'and home economics problems of practically every nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and in a position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan to provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents can be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricultural College and Experiment Station and Florida's State College for Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are supplied with the latest information as published by the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture, in addition to the help that can be given by the Extension Specialists and subject matter workers in the colleges.
All extension agents submit programs of work at the beginning of the year, and as a basis for this, the extension specialists make recommendations governing the entire area, and the county agents, in cooperation with district agents, apply the specialists' plans as far as conditions will permit. The purpose is to systematize the projects undertaken by the Extension Service and have them carried out cooperatively between extension specialist and the county workers.






Florida Cooperative Extension


LINES OF WORK

There is a decided demand for Extension work in Agricultural Economics. Requests are coming for costs of production and for help in establishing new cash crops. There has been a demand for assistance for improving the standards and grades of vegetables and fruits, and for cooperative marketing.
There is an increased interest in the production of beef cattle in counties where tick eradication has m a d e progress. Several carloads of purebred and
- -_4 g r a d e breeding
stock have been placed on the ranges for the improvement of the Pig. 2.-Tick eradication is followed by the intrO- native stock. At auction of more purebred beef cattle into Florida the same time, there has been a general reduction in the number of native cattle, leaving these open ranges almost free of livestock. An effort is being made to re-stock these with better animals and to introduce better pastures so that this large area will begin to bring in large revenues.
The elimination of the cattle tick has made it possible to make better progress in dairying. Through the efforts of the county agents and dairy specialist a number of high grade and purebred dairy animals have been shipped into Florida to improve the dairy herds. Much of this has been done through club work, and where the ticks have been held in check these importations have been satisfactory and profitable. In addition to this, stock







Annual Report, 1928


raisers have made a decided attempt to improve pastures, and during the spring of 1928 the Agricultural Extension Division distributed through extension agents' efforts about four tons of carpet grass seed.
There has been some interest in the erection of silos and in the more economical feeding of dairy cattle. Some progress has been made to interest dairymen in the keeping of records and in the elimination of unprofitable cattle. The dairy calf club work has made progress in counties where the cattle tick is under control.
There was a decided increase in the number of poultry flocks and hatcheries during 1927; however, there has been some retrenchment since March of 1928, as the large hatcheries were unable to find sale for their baby chicks, and the number of commercial poultry plants is slightly reduced. The entries in the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were reduced from 96 to 81. The number of improved birds on farms, however, has increased, and the improvement of the farm flock is decidedly greater than at any previous time. The Extension Poultryman is unable to meet the demands, and county agents who take a special interest in farm poultry are finding their work profitable and more appreciated.
The number of counties cooperating with the Extension Division in the employment of county workers is largely de-pendent on the abilities of the respective counties to finance the work. With larger allotments from state and federal sources, it is evident there would be a demand for work in both agriculture and home economics in practically every Florida county.
'It is evident that county and home demonstration agents must render personal services well as carry out cooperative county projects. The demand for trained men continues to increase, and this is particularly true in sections of Florida where the agriculture is specialized. County agents are called upon to serve in many capacities that in some cases are somewhat aside from the real agricultural problems. A small part of the agents have as a part of their duties the vaccination of hogs, and assist in a personal way in many such undertakings. Many others work in cooperation with the State Livestock Sanitary Board in the vaccination of hogs against cholera.






Florida Cooperative Extension


4-H CLUB WORK

The railroads have expressed their appreciation for extension work by offering trips and scholarships to club members. The State Bankers' Association has made contributions and indicated support of organized 4-H club work. County boards and individuals have contributed to funds to provide scholarships for the attendance of girls and boys at short courses at the State College for Women and at the College of Agriculture. Scholarships have been provided so that successful club members can take a course of study in agriculture at the University of Florida. The citizens and business men of West Florida have made possible, at a cost of several thousand dollars, the erection and operation of a boys' club camp located on the ' Choctawhatchee Bay. On the whole, the boys and girls 4-H clubs are receiving recognition from leading interests.
The club work in Central and South Florida, due to the character of crops produced, has been more difficult to establish. As yet the character of club work offered to the boys of that section has not been easy to handle, due to the speculative nature of the crops and the absence of typical farm conditions. The girls' club work in these sections, however, has made substantial progress and is being generally recognized as an important part of extension work.







Annual Report, 1928


I FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK

The Seventh Annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was conducted on the University campus August 13-18, 1928, with an attendance of 1,200 people from all parts of Florida.
Board and room was furnished to visitors by the University of Florida at the actual cost of $1.50 per day. Provision was made for visitors to occupy dormitory rooms.
The program was divided into sections covering subjects related to farm life, such as, farm crops, livestock and dairying, vegetable crops, citrus and subtropical fruits, pecans, small fruits, and ornamentals, bee-keeping, poultry, home economics and agricultural economics. Each section was further divided by subjects, furnishing a variety of topics suitable to the wishes of those who attended.
The program committee secured speakers from the various departments of the College of Agriculture, Agricultural Extension Division, Experiment Station, State College for Women and State Plant Board and other institutions. Growers also took part in the programs. Assistance was furnished by the State Department of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, Live Stock Sanitary Board and other departments of the state government.
Each day at 11 A. M. all sectional programs closed, so that visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear a popular lecture. The night programs were entirely entertainment consisting of music, plays, etc. One afternoon was devoted to a farmers' picnic where lunch and entertainment was provided free of cost to the visitors.
The home economics section had special programs for women. This was carried out under the direction of the State Home Demonstration staff.
Throughout the week a total of 200 programs were carried on consisting of laboratory studies, agricultural and home economics lectures, inspirational and entertainment periods.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Title Pages
Poultry Houses and Equipment (Reprint) -------------------------------------------- 20
Culling for Egg Production ------------ 12
Flowering Bulb Culture in Florida 36 Second Year Sewing (Reprint) . 12 Third Year Sewing (Reprint) ------ 8 Fourth Year Sewing (Reprint) ------ 12 Why Grow Tomatoes . 22 Florida Club Songs -------------_----------- 56
First Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ------------------------------------------------ 12
Agricultural News Service ------------ I
Calendar ------- ------------------------------------ - 12
Florida Pepper (Club Paper) . 2 Ten Lessons for Poultry Club M em bers ---------------------------------------------- 16


Copies

10,333 10,000 13,000 10,000 10,000 5,000 10,050 5,000

1,250 28,560 (42 wks.) 8,819 81,600

8,255


Bul. 45

Bul. 47 Bul. 48 Circ. 975 Circ. 976 Circ. 977 Cire. 980 H.D. Bul. 45 Final Report,

Weekly 1928
9 issues


Extension publications are distributed from the mailing room, which is under the Editors' supervision. Formerly, classified mailing lists were maintained, and whenever a bulletin was issued, it was sent to all names of a certain classification. For instance, a bulletin on horticulture was sent to all mailing list names of those who were interested in horticulture. However, this practice has been changed in an effort to avoid wasting bulletins and to see that they reach only people who arereally interested in the individual bulletin. The mailing list now maintained is general. When a new bulletin is issued, a card giving its title and a short resume of its contents is mailed to the entire list. Those who are interested in the particular bulletin can return the card and a copy of the bulletin will be sent them. Thus, only those particularly interested in the bulletin at hand receive a copy of it.
Of course, copies of any bulletins are sent free on special request at any time.


PUBLICATIONS

J. Francis Cooper, Editor
Ernest G. Moore, Assistant Editor

The following publications were issued by the Agricultural Extension Division during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1929. All of these were edited and proof-read by the Extension Editors.






Annual Report, 1928


NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST REPORTS

Fifty-one weekly progress reports of the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were printed during the fiscal year. Each of these was of four pages. They were sent to 750 people each week. A final report, 12 pages in length, was printed and distributed.
NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES

The weekly Agricultural News Service was the principal means used to carry extension information to the people through the newspapers. An average of about nine stories each week, some relating to extension work and others to the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, and the State Plant Board, were sent out through this service.
That the papers used these stories is indicated by a check and compilation made by the Assistant Editor. During the year the Editors received on their exchange desk copies of 90 weekly papers. This is approximately three-fourths of the weeklies published in Florida, and should give a fairly accurate indication of the use the Florida papers made of material contained in the clip-sheet.
Actual measurement of Agricultural News Service stories reprinted in the 90 weeklies received in the editorial office showed that a total of 38,980 column inches were used during the year. Since the 90 weeklies represent only three-f fourths of those published in the state, and it seems fair to believe that the 90 received were representative, it is estimated that a total of 51,970 column inches of Agricultural News Service material was reprinted by Florida weekly papers during the year. This is equivalent to approximately 1,000 column inches or 50 columns each week.
A total of 121 stories were sent to the Associated Press during the year. These were distributed by the Associated Press to its 48 member papers in.Florida.
The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one Florida daily paper. This page runs each Sunday, and contains stories of Extension work.
During Farmers' Week, a Farmers' Week page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The stories for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors.







Florida Cooperative Extension


About 12 special news stories were prepared and distributed directly to one or more Florida newspapers during the year. Six special stories, amounting to 45 inches of printed matter, were prepared for two different national farm news publications during the year.
A total of 50 different stories were prepared by the Editors and published in eight different Florida and Southern farm papers during the year. These amounted to 1,495 inches of printed matter. In addition, these farm papers reprinted many stories from the Agricultural News Service.
Copies of. press bulletins, circulars, etc., were sent to farm paper editors as they became timely during the year, and were published.
It should be remembered that the Editors devote a considerable portion of their time to work for the Experiment Station.

TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING

The Editor conducted a two-day news writing training school in which 14 club boys and girls of Gadsden County were given training, and two one-day schools in which 25 club girls of Volusia County were instructed.
The Assistant Editor gave short lessons in news writing to 11 boys attending the annual club short course, and assisted them in issuing a daily mimeographed club short course newspaper.
The Editor attended the Girls' Club Short Course at Tallahassee and trained two girls from each county in news writing. Two short course newspapers were issued and read at assembly.
During the fiscal year, the Extension Editor made a'trip to Chipley to advise with the supervisor of the National Egg-Laying Contest concerning the monthly reports of the contest. As a result, the supervisor has since that time issued monthly press bulletins dealing with the progress of the contest. These press bulletins are used in many of the papers, and are copied almost exactly as they are each month by the Associated Press and sent to its members.







Annual Report, 1928


COUNTY AGENT WORK

A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader
H. G. Clayton, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent

Forty-eight counties are represented in the report for 1923 as employing county agents in conducting agricultural extension work. The counties are divided into three districts each supervised by a district agent. During the calendar year there were 13 changes in the personnel of county agents, including transfers and new appointments. This is about the usual number and less than that in 1927. There were four more counties in the work in 1928 than in 1927.
The work in the counties has been carried along with about the usual program; however, there has been some reduction in -county finances that has interfered with the progress and caused uncertainty in the minds of agents as to the continuation of their work. A reduction in the amount paid to county agents was made in Madison, Palm Beach, and Broward counties, while an increase was given in Nassau, Okaloosa, Liberty, and Washington counties. Some reduction was made by county boards in miscellaneous expenditures. This was principally for clerical help and fair expenses.
Two county agents were appointed to work in two counties each. These were paid entirely from funds secured through the passage of the Capper-Ketcham Act by Congress. The work of agents in these four counties is confined largely to boys' club work. The county in each case provides an office but does not contribute to the salary and expenses of the agent. This, however, is considered a temporary arrangement and it is hoped that the work can be enlarged and the counties affected to such an extent that the county boards would favor the advisability of cooperating in a financial way.

COUNTY PROGRAMS

Each county agent has a program of work made at the beginning of the year to be used as a basis for conducting extension work, and while these programs conform to very definite projects, there are still many instances where the county agent's time is taken up with things secondary to his program, due largely to







18 Florida Cooperative Extension

the demand made on his services for conducting contests, fairs, and various assistance called for by business men, farmers, and newcomers.
The recommendations of committees made during the regular annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents are used as a guide in making up county programs.
Owing to the variation in agriculture and demands, a program that is flexible must be adopted in practically every county. This is particularly true in Central and South Florida counties where there have been large expenditures made for advertising and a general developing situation that is responsible for the incoming of many people not accustomed to agriculture. In this section, on the whole, the programs throughout the year have more nearly conformed to the original plans than in any previous year. This is, due to a better understanding of the taxpayers and the greater appreciation of the public generally for improved agriculture by systematic plans and methods.
It is gratifying to know that extension work has been carried on in 48 counties in 1928 as against 44 in 1927 in spite of the fact that there has been general retrenchment in all lines of business and many phases of county work aside from extension have been dropped because of the lack of funds.
In most of- the counties the agents are supplied with convenient offices with telephones and other necessary equipment. In about 30 percent of the offices the agents are supplied with clerical services for either part or all of the time, and this expense is borne by the county; usually such clerical help is divided by the county and home demonstration agent, whose offices are usually together or adjoining.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out . . -_---------------- -------------------------------------------------------- 451
Voluntary county, community and local leaders . 595, .Clubs carrying on extension work . 237 M em berships . 3,855 Farm visits made by county agents . 37,189 Different farm s visited ------------------------------------------------ . 13,082
Average number. days spent in office . _ . 79 Average number days spent in field . 224 Official letters written . . --- 47,858 Exhibits at fairs . . 63
Com m unity ------------------------------------------------------- ------------_- 21
County . 40 State . ---------------------- 2








Annual Report, 1928 19

Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held --------------------- ---_-_------------------ 1,972 28,057
Extension schools and short courses held . 25 717 Total attendance club members, junior encampments
and rallies . 782

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities -devoted to
,participating projects
Soils ----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------- 301 904
Farm crops ------------------------------------------------------ ------------- 349 1,886Y2
H orticulture -------------------------------------------------------------------- 274 1,9981/2
Forestry -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 76
Rodents, predatory animals and birds --------------- ------ 91 193
Animal husbandry . . 288 1,820 Dairy husbandry ---------------------------------------- . 153 6011/2
Poultry husbandry --------------- --1 . 237 1,058
Rural engineering . ------------------------------------- - 176 426
Agricultural economics -------------------------------------- --------- 268 650
M iscellaneous work: ------------------------------------------------------ 113 839 %
Community activities . -------------------------------- . 20 213
Total ---------------------- I --------------------------------------------- 2,288 10,666%

SPECIALISTS' WORK WITH COUNTY AGENTS

The Extension Division has three specialists for men's work and their programs are submitted to county agents at the' beginning of the year, who in turn incorporate them in the county plans. The specialists' work is confined to citrus culture, dairying, and poultry. It enables the county agents to have the assistance of experts in the direction of their programs. Since these specialists have offices at the College of Agriculture, they in turn work in cooperation with workers in the Experiment Station who are constantly making investigations.
(A report of the specialists' work is included in this report in a later chapter).

BOYS' CLUB WORK

County agents conduct boys' club work as a part of their regular duties, with the assistance of the boys' club agent located at the state headquarters. Boys' club work is an important part of the county agent's work, particularly in the general farming area. It applies best in the sections adapted to the growing of corn, cotton, peanuts, and general farm crops. It has been more difficult to secure the best results in the, horticultural section of Florida, except in the organization of the boys' club for






Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry. The county agents are responsible for the enrollment and membership of clubs and for making local arrangements for club boys to continue their work. They also assume responsibility for securing finances for special prize trips and scholarships. In some counties club work constitutes 75 percent of the. county agent's work.
EXTENSION MEETINGS

Extension meetings are conducted largely at the request of local leaders and county agents. The number and character of these vary. There were 1,740 meetings of a general nature with an attendance of 23,366 held during the year. In addition there were 25 extension schools and short courses with an attendance of 717. In these meetings, assistance was rendered by the county agents, and in most cases with the additional help of -district agents and specialists. These meetings were held for the purpose of instruction, cooperative purchases and sales, for social purposes, and for the planning of programs. Most of these meetings were held in counties having county agents.

STATE MEETINGS

The annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents was conducted in October, lasting one week. The program called for a series of conferences where the agents were divided according to the type of agriculture that engaged their attention in their home counties. Those taking part in the program are not confined to the extension organization, as assistance was drawn from the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, State Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture, and State College for Women. A part of the home demonstration agents' meeting was held at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, and their program while there was confined to strictly home economics subjects. During the time the home demonstration agents were in session with the county agents, the program was so arranged that agricultural matters affecting both sides of the work were discussed.

OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES

Due to the financial arrangements and the general interest in agriculture by people only indirectly connected with it, county






Annual Report, 1928


agents are called upon to perform a variety of duties. Perhaps the largest of these is the management of county fairs and exhibits at state fairs. The fair organizations have relied very heavily on the extension organization for the success of their fairs. County boards, after having made appropriations for state fairs, feel that it is the responsibility of the county agent to see that the exhibit is secured and properly arranged. This applies particularly to the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville, and the South Florida Fair at Tampa, and to some extent the same help was given with the larger county fairs. In these instances both county and home demonstration agents have been called upon to serve on committees or to take the active responsibility for the success of the displays of the county. These fairs offer in return an opportunity to exhibit extension work, particularly boys' and girls' club work. They have also contributed space and funds for a display of the Negro extension work. In these cases, too, the Negro agents assume the responsibility for a display of the farmers' products.

COUNTY AGENT PROGRAMS OF WORK
The following facts are taken from annual reports of county agents submitted to the state office for 1928.
SOILS
The county agents' work on the soils programs has been for the purpose of improving the productiveness of the soils, principally with the use of cover crops, and this has varied in the different sections.
In the general farming area the county agents have conducted 96 cover crop demonstrations. Some of these were summer crops such as cowpeas, velvet beans, soybeans, crotalaria, etc.; others were winter crops such as rye, oats, hairy vetch, and Austrian winter peas. The fall of 1927 the county agents conducted vetch and Austrian winter pea demonstrations, using 6,000 pounds of seed, and the fall of 1928 they started 243 demonstrations, using 50,000 pounds of seed.
Florida farmers need to make a more liberal use of commercial fertilizers. Most of them use only a little kainit or a little acid phosphate on most field crops. Others use a small amount of a complete fertilizer without much knowledge of







Floridat Cooperative Extension


what they are about. District and county agents have for two or three years been attacking this problem from two angles. First, by a series of meetings explaining the use of the different plant food elements, and second, by some concrete, definite demonstrations. They held 96 meetings and conducted many demonstrations i n
r line with this attack.
In o n e horticultural c o u n t y,
SHighlands, according to the best
available records,
there were 10 acres
,of crotalaria, 58
acres of beggarweed, 125 acres of
cowpeas, and 15
acres of velvet
beans grown in
S1926. A cover crop
campaign was put
on by the county
agent in 1927. Fol.
j lowing this, a careFig. 3.-County agents of northern and westernfuchk:soe Florida are showing their farmers that Aus- that 952 acres of trian peas make a good winter cover crop. crotalaria, 33 5 acres of beggarweed, 376 acres of cowpeas, and 40 acres of velvet beans were grown in the county. Continuing this through 1928, there were grown by 101 growers in this county 2,838 acres of crotalaria, 539 acres of beggarweed, 873 acres of cowpeas, and 201 acres of velvet beans, or a total of 4,451 acres in legume cover crops. In addition there were approximately 2,000 acres of cover crops which were seeded from the plantings of the previous years. The growing of these crops has been of much value to the citrus industry of this section.
In the horticultural territory during the year 1928, county agents conducted 191 demonstrations with soils, involving 2,079 acres. Four hundred and sixteen farmers adopted improved fertilizer practices this year, involving 2,583 tons of fertilizer.








Annual Report, 1928


One hundred and fifty-two farmers plowed under cover crops for the first time on 4,232 acres. A total of 756 farmers adopted improved practices in some phase of soils work during the year.

SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrations given . 1,544 Acres involved in completed demonstrations . 6,641 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management . 2,357 Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers . 1,912 Tons conunercial fertilizer involved . . 11,611 Farmers taking better care of farm manures . 401 Farmers using lime or limestone . . 111 Tons of lime or limestone so used . . . 11982 Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement . 330 Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under . 10,349 FARM CROPS
Corn-Approximately 62 percent of the land grown to any crop in the general farming territory is grown to corn. According to federal statistics, an average of 15 bushels of corn is being produced per acre at a cost of approximately $1.12 per bushel. It is known that when a better seedbed is made, better seed used, and a more liberal amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used, the production per acre can be increased and the cost correspondingly decreased. There were 248 demonstrations composed of 405 acres conducted this year to show a more economical method of corn production. On. these demonstrations there were produced 18,920 bushels of corn at a cost of approximately 54 cents per bushel. If these better methods were generally used, it would mean approximately 8,651,280 bushels more corn to the 16 general farming counties, worth $6,000,000 at present prices.

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Number demonstrations given . _ . . 872' Acreage grown under demonstrations -------------------------------------------------------- 1,976
Boys' and girls' clubs . . . 34 Acreage grown by club members ------- ------------ . . 216
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) . 8,469 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 935 Farmers who planted selected and improved seed ------------------------------------ 397
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time . 30 COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Number demonstrations given ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 257
Acreage grown under improved methods . 408 Farms influenced to adopt better practice . 209 Boys' and girls' clubs . ----- -- . . 32 M em bers enrolled . 250







Florida Cooperative Extension


Acreage grown by club members ---------------------------------------------------------------- 117
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ----------------------------------------- . 54,933
Farmers who planted improved seed first time ----------------------------- . 125
Cotton-The average prod ' auction of cotton per acre in Florida for 1928 was approximately 275 pounds of seed cotton. The cost of producing this yield is approximately the same in every item, except fertilizer and seed, as that of the 90 demonstrations conducted by the county agents of the 16 counties which compose the cotton belt of the state. With an added expense of approximately $12 per acre for better seed and more and better fertilizer, these demonstrators produced 83,227 pounds of seed cotton, or an average of 925 pounds per acre. If the methods advanced by the county agents had been followed in growing this 94,000 acres of cotton, it would probably have meant a great part of $3,000,000 more to these 16 counties.
Peanuts-Peanuts are grown in Florida for hog feed and for commercial purposes. Most of those grown for hog feed are of the runner type and those for market, the bunch type. The latter is of the Spanish variety. Demonstrations were conducted this year to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer on the running type and closer spacing of & bunch. The county agents of this territory conducted 95 demonstrations. The yields in the demonstrations were about two and one-half times the average of the farmers. Many farmers will follow the methods used on these demonstrations another year.

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given . 692 Number result demonstrations under way . 927 Number result demonstrations completed . 564 Acres in completed demonstrations . 5,631
Pastures-There has been considerable interest, chiefly among the dairymen, in establishing permanent pastures. This interest has come about from seeing results obtained on some demonstration pastures started three years ago, and as a result of competition in the dairy business which has caused dairymen to want to grow feed in order to reduce production costs. Fifty-three demonstrations with pastures were conducted by the agents in 10 counties, and the 516 acres involved were seeded to improved grasses, chiefly carpet grass, Dallis grass, and lespedeza.






Annual Report, 1928


HORTICULTURE
Citrus-In the spring a series of citrus field meetings was scheduled covering the citrus belt, 21 meetings being held in 11 counties of this territory, with a total attendance of 580 growers. Fertilization, cover crops, irrigation, and insect and disease control were the main subjects discussed. These meetings were conducted largely as roundtable discussions between extension workers and small groups of growers. The district agents took part in 24 of these field meetings held in 12 counties. These small meetings of interested growers are very helpful and growers take an active part in the discussion of production problems.
During the year 102 demonstrations were conducted involving 3,141 acres of groves.
Truck Crops-The work on truck crops for the year consisted largely of insect and disease control on tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, watermelons, beans, and cabbage. The importance of seed treatment and the planting of the best seed .available have been stressed. Truck crops are expensive to produce and are subject to many disease and.insect pests. The county agents do a large part of the truck work as personal service work; however, some demonstrations in varieties, spraymixing, and with fertilizers are carried on. During the year the agents in the truck territory reported 64 demonstrations involving 201 acres of truck crops. One hundred and forty-nine farmers sprayed or dusted 766 acres for insect and disease control who had not sprayed or dusted before; 244 farmers adopted improved practices with truck crops.
The growing of bulbs on a commercial scale is being carried on in a few counties. The plantings have, as a rule, done well and are gradually being increased.

SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Number of demonstrations given . . _'- . 518 Acreage grown under improved methods -------------- --------------------------------- 2,0471/1
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 724 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . __ . 231 Farmers who treated seed for disease ----- __ ----------------------------------------- 200
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects ------ 238
Other Fruits-Grapes, Avocados, Mangoes, Etc.-The grape acreage is being increased. somewhat and grape growers are gradually working out the best ways to handle this crop. Grapes are relatively new in Florida, and there were many points to be






26 Florida Cooperative Extension

worked out under Florida conditions. County agents have kept up with the best practices and methods and have been of much service to new growers with little experience in grape culture.
Assistance and information have been rendered growers on spraying, culture, and fertilization of mangoes, avocados, and other tropical fruits.
The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes, and pears in West Florida is a new industry. The county agents have spent a good deal of time with the growers advising them of the proper methods of setting, cultivating, fertilizing, and spraying of these fruits. The district and county agents, made a tour of the satsuma groves in the fall to advise best means of putting them into the winter. The county agents have assisted the growers in pooling orders for trees, in picking the fruit, in packing it, and in selling it.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given . . 2,502 Number result demonstrations . -----------_---- 1,294
Result demonstrations completed during year . 1,511 Acres involved in demonstrations . 17,036 N um ber of boys' clubs . . 19 M em bership . 488 Number planting improved stock or seed first time . 934 Number pruning first time . 180 Trees involved . . 68,670 A cres involved . . 76 Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests . 931 A cres treated . . 32,785% Number farms adopting improved practices . . 385 BEAUTIFICATION
Until two years ago no beautification work had been undertaken by North Florida county agents. This last season two or three of them did a splendid piece of work at it. They assisted in beautifying 226 homes.
In ornamental work the county agent of Okeechobee County cooperated with the woman's club and parent teachers' association, and 28 home grounds, as well as the school grounds and city park, were beautified. Forty-three club boys in Palm Beach County completed their project in ornamental club work. This work was largely a matter of growing the ornamentals in pots and later transferring them to their home grounds for beautification.






Annual Report, 1928


ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Hogs-One of the most consistent revenue-producers of North Florida is swine. The county agents' work with swine takes on about four aspects; namely, fattening, breeding, cholera control, and marketing. There were 67,000 hogs vaccinated against cholera for 1,500 farmers during the year. There were hundreds of breeding and feeding demonstrations conducted. The county agents have placed purebred hogs on the farms of North Florida the last season. Therefore, there are at present more purebred and high grade hogs on the farms than at any time since the deflation in 1920. Several car-lot sales were conducted. There were 306 pigs shown at the State Fair by 4-H club members.
Starting two years ago with nothing, the county agent In Nassau this year has 250 purebred bogs owned by the club boys and has placed 60 purebred boars with the farmers of the county.
One cooperative hog selling association was organized during the year, and it has handled four cars of hogs to date.
The association organized in Levy County last year has marketed several cars of hogs.

HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Dem onstrations given . --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,886
Animals in completed demonstrations ------------ ---------------------------- ------ 12,137
Savings resulting from better practices . ----------------------------------- $10,834.88
Farmers who secured purebred sires . . ----------------------------------- 262
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females . 233 Farmers who fed better balanced rations ------------ _ _----------------------- . 253
Farmers culling breeding stock ---------------------_- _ --------------------------------- 100
Number of animals culled out -------- . ------ --------- ------ -----------------_-- 699
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests _---------------------------- 188
Farmers who vaccinated for cholera ---------------- . 1,903
Number farms adopting improved practices_ . ---------- --------_----- 2,034

Dairy Husbandry-Purebred and high grade Jerseys have been brought into Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Leon, Jefferson, and Madison counties. In addition to assisting dairymen and farmers in raising the standards of their herds, county agents are assisting them in building silos and modern barns, and in making their places more sanitary. They are helping dairymen from other places get established. They are assisting them put in permanent pastures.
In Volusia County the agent was instrumental in getting a dairyman to build two silos into which was placed 180 tons of corn silage in June. The actual cost of the silage, every expense






Porida Cooperative Extension


being carefully charged, was $5.25 per ton. Forty-five cows were fed on this silage till November with the milk production keeping up about the same as when animals were fed beet pulp and a commercial feed. The silo was filled again in November with kaffir corn, amber sorghum, and Texas seeded ribbon cane grown on the same land the corn silage was grown on. By this means nearly 400 tons of silage was produced on 35 acres of land in one year. The owner so thoroughly believes in silage as an economical milk producer that he says he never expects to be without silage again as long as he is in the dairy business.
Some good work in record keeping and cow testing has been carried on in Duval County, with the result that the dairymen have changed their methods of feeding and producing feed in many instances, and poor cows have been culled out.
Several thousand pounds of pasture grass seed were sown as a result of interest aroused by the county agents this year, with the result that there are many good pastures in the process of development.
The dairy business has improved slightly over last year. There has been less surplus milk than last year. Dairymenare producing more home-grown feeds and planting pastures. Thirty-five calves from Tennessee were placed in Marion County during the year. The Marion County agent is carrying on some demonstration cow-test work with seven farm dairymen whose herds embrace 60 cows.
County agents have conducted 16 demonstrations with dairy cattle, involving 675 cows. They have assisted 17 farmers in securing purebred bulls. On 13 farms the herds were culled; 165 animals were discarded from a total of 700. On 167 farms improved practices were adopted.
DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Num ber dem onstrations given ----- : ---------------------------------------------------------------- 407
Animals in completed demonstrations . -------------- 2,188
Savng resulting from better practices . . $8,505 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ----- ----------- ----------- ----- 586
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires . . ------- 56 Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females . 127 Farmers who culled their herds . . _ -------- . - . --- 93
A nim als in these herds -------------------------------- . _ . _ . ---- 2,598
A nim als discarded . . . . . . 1,050 Farmers' associations who tested cows for production. . . 32 Cows tested for production . __ . - 701 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . . . . 171 Farmers who controlled insect pests ----- ----------_----- -------------- ------------------- 33
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis ---------------------------------- _ . 73
Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods . 244







Annual Report, 1928


Poultry-In the poultry industry the weeding out process which began last year has continued. The industry appears to be on a safer basis at this time. Market conditions have been fairly good during most of the year.
County agents conducted 65 demonstrations with 17,900 birds. Forty farmers were assisted in the purchase of purebred males. Eighty-one culling demonstrations were held and from 16,777 birds, 2,736 culls were removed.
Poultrymen were assisted in feeding balanced rations, and 76 poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices.
The poultry industry has not grown much in West Florida during the last year, but the county agents have been busy in assisting the poultrymen to get better stock, in culling, and with their feeding problems. These demonstrations have directly affected 15,000 birds.
A poultry club member in Union County purchased 140 baby chicks, raised 134, and made a profit of $2.40 each on a club poultry project this year.
POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrations given --------- * -------------------------------------------------------------------- 867
Birds in these dem onstrations ----------------- -------------------------------------------- 51,750
Saving resulting from better practices ------------------------------------------------ $13,632.44
Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock . 362 Poultrymen who culled their flocks ---------------------------------------------------- 386
Number of birds in these flocks ---------------------------------------------------------- 59,703
Number of birds discarded . __ . 10,432 Number of breed associations formed --- . _ 3 M em bership ----------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 92
RURAL ENGINEERING
Drainage and Irrigation-Irrigation and the construction of farm buildings have been the phases of rural engineering where most work has been done. County agents assisted 99 farmers in installing irrigation on 3,699 acres of land and 69 in improving the drainage on 1,427 acres. Plans were furnished for the construction of 84 farm buildings composed of poultry houses, barns, milk rooms, and silos.
Terracing-During the last year the county agents in those counties that contain any rolling lands conducted terracing demonstrations. This work is of untold value to the farmers affected. A splendid piece of work of this kind was done by County Agent R. J. Hart of Okaloosa County. He assisted in terracing 66 farms comprising 1,725 acres.







Florida Cooperative Extension


RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)


Acres Number
413 7,524 213
7,156 2,682
3,622 137
60 11 15
244 374
16
346
5,601
1,083


Demonstrations given . __ .
Drainage systems installed ----- . - .
Irrigation systems installed ------------------ --------------------------Terraces or soil dams constructed -----------------------------------W ater systems installed .
Heating systems installed .
Lighting systems installed . ----------------------------------Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were
constructed or remodeled .
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled . Number sewage-disposal systems installed .
Farmers who cleared land .
Acres cleared .
Number of farms adopting above practices for first
time ------------------------------------------------------------- I -------- ----------- _


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
This year the county agents of the West Florida territory have assisted the farmers and growers to perfect organizations and assisted these organizations in the purchase of $178,682 worth of fertilizers, nursery stock, feeds, seeds, truck crates, sirup cans and barrels, purebred hogs. and cows. They have in this way saved to the farmers $23,703 to be spent in other ways, making their homes more comfortable and their farms more profitable. This saving of money, of course, was desirable and helpful. But the great benefit came in the county agent making this contract at the most opportune time to teach and persuade the farmers to use higher grade fertilizers and to use them more intelligently than was their common practice. In the same way he could see that they got the best seeds, the best nursery stock, or the breed of * animals most needed. In this way, this contact was of untold value to the farmers.
By promoting car-lot cooperative sales of produce and livestock, the county agents have brought thousands of dollars into the territory. But it was not in the sale itself that the greatest service was rendered to the individual farmers and to the community-it was in demonstrating the proper method of pack and quality, as well as orderly marketing. Local markets have been thus relieved. The sales amounted to $161,000.
In Palm Beach County the agent was instrumental in getting established a government inspection service of vegetables in the Everglades, and in the establishment of a marketing service station in the county during the shipping season.







Annual , Report, 1928'


In Duval and Volusia counties dairymen have been keepin-accurate records of cost of milk production and cost of producing feed, with the result that many changes have been made in methods of feeding, and the culling out of unprofitable cows has gotten to be a well established habit.
County agents assisted in forming nine marketing and growers' associations during the year in the South Florida territory.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Number method demonstrations given . 264 Farm account books distributed . 238 Farm ers who kept records . . 89 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts -------------------------------------------------------- 132
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts -----_------ 85
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations . 415 Farmers advised relative to leases . . 291 Number of junior farm account clubs . 12 Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records . 247 Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices. . 294 FORESTRY
There are millions of acres of cut-over land in North and West Florida. Most of this land is bringing no revenue-to the owners. It is burned over every year. The second growth of pine is trying to come back. By control of fire it will soon be producing a good revenue again. Some of the land needs reseeding. During the year a few seedbeds have been established to supply seedlings, and, in addition, the county agents of this territory have started 26 fire control demonstrations consisting of approximately 150,000 acres.
RODENT CONTROL
Control of rodents and predatory animals was a minor project in the programs of work of county agents. However, they conducted demonstrations in fumigation of corn weevils and the control of ground moles and rodents, particularly in some counties where rats cause damage to crops.
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Dem onstrations given . 2,272 Acres in completed demonstrations . . _ 7,851 Farmers adopting control measures . ------- . 2,481 A cres involved . 50,750






Florida Cooperative Extension


BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. Blacklock, Boys' Club Agent

Four-H club work was conducted in 34 of the 48 counties employing county agents during 1928. Members in these counties started 2,679 club projects. As a boy is not considered enrolled until he has actually begun work in his project, this represents real club workers. The enrollment was divided as follows: corn 442, cotton 285, potato 150, truck 276, citrus 26, poultry 472, breeding pig 366, fat barrow 332, calf 206, miscellaneous 124. The enrollment per county ran from 265 in Escambia to 7 in Hernando. The number of projects carried on decreased 198 from that of 1927. This decrease was caused by the county agent work being discontinued in Pasco County where 421 were enrolled in 19 7. Among the projects, the cotton and corn clubs showed the greatest increase, and the poultry club the greatest decrease.
The county agents are proving that the organizing of the members in the different communities into clubs enables the agent to accomplish more and better 4-H work. The officers of the clubs accept some of the responsibility in keeping up interest in the work. The agent is able to meet with the clubs and comes in contact with all the members without so many home visits.
The most important factor in a 4-11 organization is the local leader. Wherever an interested person can be secured as leader, good work in that community is assured. Ex-club members are proving to be the best source of leadership material. Nassau, Escambia, Washington, Jackson, Leon, Orange, Palm Beach, Highlands, and Flagler counties have all club members in local organizations. Some of the best club work in the state is being done in these counties with the largest percentage of reports.

CROP CLUBS
CORN
Four hundred and forty-two acres of corn were planted by 4-H club boys in 1928. This gives an increase of 119 over 1927. The offering of a scholarship to the College of Agriculture by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau helped cause the increase. The yields were normal. Gray Miley of Hillsborough County produced the highest yield-104.5 bushels. In Hi.ls-







Annual Report, 1928


borough County 19 boys raised 1,064 bushels of corn-an average of 56 bushels per acre.
An attempt is being made to have crop club boys plant a winter legume on their club acres in order to develop a soil building program along with production.
COTTON
Two hundred and eighty-five boys planted an acre of cotton each in 1928. The largest enrollment was in Okaloosa County where 98 boys planted cotton as a club project. The yield was slightly lower than normal, due to very unfavorable weather at planting time-some boys replanting three times. In Okaloosa County 44 boys produced 40,831 pounds of seed cotton on 44 acres
-an average of 928 pounds of seed cotton per acre.

SWEET POTATO
This club shows a profit on almost every project; still it is not a favorite with the boys. Perhaps the potatoes are used for the family, which keeps the boy from receiving any cash profit for his work.
TRUCK
Accurate records from this club are hard to get, as so much is used by the family, and the gathering of the crop is spread over a long period. The best truck club members are in Palm Beach County. This year all gardens were absolutely destroyed by the hurricane, but the 4-H boys were among the first to replant.

LIVESTOCK CLUBS
PIG
This club project continues to be a great favorite. Enrollment in fattening pig clubs is increasing. An attempt is being made to have the boys feed out at least one barrow from every litter produced by club breeding pigs. A trip to the International Club Congress is offered by the State Fair to the boy having the best barrow, the progeny of his own club pig.
CALF
With the gradual eradication of the tick, calf club work will expand. Leon County did an exceptionally fine piece of work in 1928. Fourteen boys and girls purchased purebred calves. All calves were-well cared for and all were shown at the State Fair.




































Fig. 4.-This club boy sees the rainbow with the pot of learning at its feet.








Annual Report, 1928


Many of the calves purchased in 1926 by the Madison County boys are in milk. The cows raised by the boys are much better than the average found on the farms. Calves from the original heifers were shown in the club contest this year.

THE STATE FAIR

The final exhibition of 4-H club work was at the Florida State Fair held in Jacksonville November 22 to December 1. At this time the best products and animals from the various counties were brought together.
The livestock exhibit was the largest ever held, consisting of 306 pigs, 30 cows and 50 chickens.
In the competition for the best 10 breeding pigs, Madison County won 1st and Nassau 2nd.
The exhibit of Leon County in the calf club was excellent, every calf being fitted for show and all being equipped with 4-H club blankets.
George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon County won the championship in the calf club on a fine Jersey heifer.
orange County won sweepstakes in the poultry club department.
Gordon Henderson of Madison exhibited the grand champion barrow. Gordon's pig was an exceptionally smooth Duroc-Jersey junior barrow. This pig was grand champion not only in the club department, but also in the open ring. Gordon really won two prizes on one pig as his champion pig was also winner as the best pig raised from a pig club sow.
The reserve champion barrow-a Chester White-belonged to Richard Bradford of Leon County. The reserve in the contest for best barrow, the progeny of a pig club sow, went to Herbert Jones of Nassau County.
Frank Ward of Nassau County won the grand championship in the breeding pig class on a Poland China boar.

ANNUAL SHORT COURSE
The major prizes in county contests are scholarships to the Club Short Course. The importance to club work of as many boys as possible making a visit to the state university has made a short course scholarship the first prize in each project in most counties. The inspiration received makes even the best club








Florida Cooperative Extension


members better and does more than any other one thing in holding and increasing interest in club work.
New features were added in the 1928 course. Each boy registered was given a note-book containing much practical information to supplement the instruction given in the regular classes. Inspirational articles and definite leadership instructions which the boys would have as reference throughout the year increased the value of the note-book. Advanced leadership training was given the boys who had attended previous short courses. Examinations for five scholarships to the College of Agriculture were given. Another new feature was a banquet on Friday night of the week spent in Gainesville.

CLUB CAMPS
The growth in both number and size of county 4-11 camps has proven the need for recreational facilities in rural life. The West Florida 4-11 camp which is located in the Choctawhatchee National Forest is a reality. While not complete, a dining hall and kitchen and sevencottages have been completed. The plan proposed is for the 10 counties west of the Appalachicola River to use this location for summer club camps. In 1928 boys from Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Holmes, and Calhoun counties, and girls from Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, and Washington counties used the camp.
The success of this regional camp has shown the advantage of this method over the unequipped county camp.
Seventeen counties held boys 4-H camps in 1928; 550 boys attended. Leland Hiatt was employed as assistant club agent to assist with the camp. Mr. Hiatt, a champion swimmer and Licensed Red Cross examiner, gave lessons in swimming and life saving.
EDUCATIONAL TRIPS
An opportunity to see what is going on in the outside world has a wonderful value to the farm boy. The horizon of his life is widened and his desires increased by visiting distant places. He receives inspiration "to do" and oftentimes instruction in how "to do".
In 1928 13 Florida 4-H club boys were given trips. Three boys represented Florida as a judging. team at the National Dairy








Annual Report, 1928


Show held in Memphis. Two boys attended the second National 4-H Club Camp held annually at Washington, D. C. One boy attended the Moses Leadership Training School at Springfield, Massachusetts. Seven boys visited Chicago during the International Live Stock Show and Club Congress.
Florida entered a demonstration team at the National Dairy Show for the first time. Rhydon Owens of Nassau County and Allen Phelps of Jefferson County made up the team. Phelps, Owens, and Bennie Dennard of Duval County composed a 4-1i dairy judging team which competed at the National Dairy Show.
For the first time, Florida was included in the list of states to be represented at the Moses Leadership Training School held in connection with Camp Vail at the Eastern States Exposition. This school is sponsored and all expenses paid by Mr. A. H. Moses, a wealthy manufacturer of New England, who was born on a farm and who is interested in the advancement of rural youth. Ernest Young of Madison County was awarded the trip for 1928.
The big event in the National Club year is the National Club Camp at Washington, D. C. At this camp the two outstanding club boys and the outstanding club girls from each state in the Union gather for a week's instruction and recreation. Raymond ,Crabtree of Duval County and Hoyt English of Hillsborough. County represented Florida 4-H club boys at the 1928 National Camp.
Gordon Henderson of Madison County, Herbert Jones of Nassau, Ernest Young of Madison, Rhydon Owens of Nassau, Richard Bradford of Leon, Ben McLaughlin of Marion, and George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon represented Florida club boys at the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago in connection with the International Live Stock Show. These boys had an opportunity to see the University of Illinois on this trip, in addition to the sights of Chicago and the stock show.
The value of these trips to club work is a potent factor in holding boys in the work. The winner of one of the Chicago trips tried five times before he was successful. Other boys are bending every effort to win next year. These trips seem to offer a fine incentive for better work on the part of the boys.








Florida Cooperative Extension


AGRICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIPS

The following boys were winners of scholarships to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, during 1928.
Frank E. Ward of Nassau County won the Frank E. Dennis scholarship given annually to the boy showing the Grand Champion in the breeding pig class at the Florida State Fair.
William Platt of Marion County, Samuel Bradshaw of Pasco County, and Donald Mowatt of Bay County won the three bankers' scholarships.
Gray Miley of Hillsborough County and Russell Williams of Union County won the Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau scholarships.
Over $10,000 was contributed by friends of 4-H club work as prizes. The larger part of this was given in the form of educational trips and scholarships.
Frank E. Dennis has given annually a $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture for the past 10 years as a prize to the pig club member showing the grand champion breeding pig at the state pig club contest.
The Florida Bankers' Association gives three $100-scholarships annually. The scholarships are awarded through exami' nations given at the short course.
The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a $150 and a $100 scholarship as prizes in the corn club work.
The Atlantic Coast Line Railway gave $100 for the expenses of a boy to the National Club Camp in Washington.
The DeLaval Separator Company contributed $100 toward the expenses of a demonstration team at the National Dairy Show at Memphis.
The Florida State Fair, in addition. to the regular premiums, paid the expenses of one boy to the National Club Camp and contributed two trips to Chicago.
Armour and Company annually give a trip to Chicago to the pig club member showing the grand champion barrow at the State Fair.
Frank E. Dennis, Inc., and Farris and Co., contributed $200 each toward the premiums in the fat barrow show at the State Fair.







Annual Report, 1928


In addition to the contributors to state winners, the boards of county commissioners, chambers of commerce, luncheon clubs, and private individuals throughout the state contribute thousands of dollars for local and county premiums.

A BOYS' AND GIRLS' FLOWER SHOW
R. R. Whittington, county agent in Bay County, became very much interested in beautification work. He was able to induce the county commissioners to allow him to use the courthouse lawn as a demonstration. This helped. Still the work did not progress as rapidly as he wished; so he mada use of the boys and girls as demonstrators. Boys and girls were to use the home grounds as a demonstration. The results were about 26 homes beautified by the growing of shrubs and flowers.
To further interest the public, a flower show was held in September. At this show each boy and girl brought a basket of flowers raised in the contest. Pictures of the homes taken before and after show marked improvements. One interesting feature is the increased interest on the part of all the family in keeping the home and its surroundings more attractive.

A LEADER DEVELOPED BY CLUB WORK
Lewis Floyd, a 24-year-old 4-H club boy, has set a record that demonstrates the value of club work as a school for developing agricultural leaders.
Three years ago Lewis organized the Barrineau Park 4-H Club. He has served as local leader for three years.and his club can boast the following accomplishments for this year. Every boy of club age within four miles of the schoolhouse is a member; every member made a complete report of his project and sent an exhibit to the county contest; with one exception, all members were present at the contest; the club won the cup offered for the best local club in the county for the third year, thereby winning permanent possession. One of the members won the medal offered to the outstanding club member in the county. This club meets regularly and is an outstanding example of what local leadership can accomplish in developing a rural community.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING
Hamlin L: Brown, Extension Dairyman

Among the dairying problems which received the attention of the Extension Dairyman during the year were: Production problems, especially feeding practices, introduction of purebred sires, record keeping, culling poor cows, and marketing.
Production problems were considered of prime importance. Except for a few months in the year, there is an adequate supply of fluid milk for domestic consumption produced in Florida. Expansi6n, then, of the dairy industry is possible only when production costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profitable manufacture of milk into by-products, such as butter, cheese, condensed milk and powdered milk.
The growing of forage, and pastures and better practices in feeding were among the production problems stressed during the year. These two factors are under the control of the individual dairyman, and proper practices regarding them will go far towards reducing costs of production. Economic conditions have made it necessary to stress feed production above everything else.
The introduction of purebred sires and the systematic culling out of low producing cows were two other items which received major attention during 1928.
In order to combat outside competition of inferior quality milk, it has been necessary to stress better methods of handling milk to improve quality. Attention was also given to dairy organizations to look after the interests of dairying in the various consuming centers and looking forward to legislation to protect the dairy interests of the state against unfair competition from off grade milk being shipped into the state.

REDUCING PRODUCTION COSTS
Production costs can be'reduced; first, by better feeding practices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd improvement associations in every dairy center of the state; fourth, by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding and culling.






Annual Report, 1928


MAKE DAIRYING A GREATER ECONOMIC FACTOR IN THE STATE
It is hoped by improving the methods of production in the state to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural county, where feed crops can be grown profitably. By extending this industry into these counties the monthly farm sales will be increased, and by furnishing the essential food elements supplied by milk, farm-grown foods that formerly have been purchased with proceeds out of the farm income will be produced on the farm.
FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS

The one important problem in feeding cows for profit in Florida is the production of cheap roughages. Pastures and silage with soiling and grazing crops offer the best solution to this feeding problem in the greater portion of the state. Hay crops of cowpeas, soybeans and similar plants make cheap roughage for the farm.
There were about 150 acres seeded to permanent pastures. Four thousand pounds of carpet grass seed were cooperatively distributed to farmers for demonstration pastures. County agents planned these demonstrations and arranged for groups of farmers to visit them. Sixty-five meetings at dairy demon-strations helped to promote improvement in dairy practices. News stories also assisted in getting pastures mowed during the year to kill out the weeds and help spread the permanent pasture sod.
Silos are coming into more general use by dairymen. Corn -and sorghum were used as silage crops.
In some cases where there was a light corn crop farmers planted sorghum after the corn was harvested to fill their silos. Some feeding records kept by dairymen have furnished information about the value of silage as a feed in Florida. Forty-one silos were built in 1928 with a capacity of over 4,200 tons in Polk, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, and Manatee, Leon, Hernando counties.
The county agents in Hillsborough, Marion, Flagler, Indian River, St. Johns, Volusia, St. Lucie and Duval counties conducted 27 demonstrations with stock beets and carrots and found them practical for the small dairyman who has rich soil with plenty of labor.






Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRY TOURS
Four dairy tours were made to Marion County to study firit hand what seems to be a practical, workable dairy program that is being carried on by the farmers around Ocala in cooperation with the Southland Creamery. A total of 158 interested persons got information on dairy production and marketing problems in these motorcades.
A successful dairy tour was made by 18 farmers a ' nd business men of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties into Baldwin County, Alabama. They visited successful dairymen to study the producers' problems, then visited the cooperative creamery, and a corporation owned creamery to get information on creamery organization methods.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY BREEDING STOCK

There are two cooperative bull clubs in Marion and Santa Rosa counties. Twenty-nine registered heifers were brought into Marion County as a part of the herd improvement ' , In Santa Rosa County farmers expect to get 8 years' service from each bull, through a system of exchange. By this arrange.ment each bull is moved to a different community every* two years to avoid in-breeding.
The farmers of Santa Rosa County purchased 36 high grade bred heifers to start a dairy community in a section where the bull club was formed. They plan to market the cream cooperatively at a creamery in Pensacola until the business will justify building a plant in the community.
Because of efforts being made to promote creameries in seven localities not ready for them because of lack of production, the Extension Dairyman has carefully studied the situation in each case and has recommended that these communities ship cream until the volume of cream is sufficient to justify the building of a creamery. There are creameries and milk distributing plants operating at Pensacola, Tallahassee, Madison, Ocala, Tampa, Jacksonville, Orlando, Palm Beach and Miami, within the state, and nearby creameries in Alabama and Georgia. Cream may be sh ipped from any new dairy communities in the state until the volume of cream will support a local plant.





Annual Report, 1928


With the eradication of the cattle tick from the northern and western portion of the state, there is an increased interest fn dairying.
DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS

This work is planned to get production records and the cost of production and to use this information as a basis for culling the herds and proportioning the feed to production.
There are dairy records collected from 83 herds of 1,542 cows in fifteen counties. The records indicate the average production of a cow to be about 4,200 pounds of milk with 197 pounds of butterfat in a year.
317 low producing and unprofitable cows have been culled from these herds and seventeen dairymen have modified their methods of feeding by feeding each according to production.

DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION
One dairy herd improvement association was organized in Duval County with 352 cows. The cows have been tested once every thirty days. This demonstration is of practical value tri the dairymen in the county.
Beet pulp is generally used by 109 dairies in Duval county. BY replacing beet pulp with corn silage at the rate of I pound of beet pulp to two and one-half pounds silage, estimating beet pulp at $55 per ton, corn silage was worth $22 a ton when fed to replace beet pulp. The cost of producing silage should not exceed $6 to $8 per ton.
One dairyman who was feeding all cows alike changed to feeding them according to production and thereby increased his returns'103 percent for each dollar spent for feed.
The records for one month brought out that in one herd with 45 cows all the cows were getting the same amount of grain and roughage feed without regard to production. Eight of these cows were fed at a loss of $25.99 for the month. The cost of producing milk in this herd during April was more than twice the cost of a similar herd where the cows were fed according to production.
BETTER BALANCED RATIONS

One hundred and forty-eight farmers with 2,345 cows have practiced better feeding methods during the year. The price of protein in commercial dairy feeds is higher than for carbohy-






Florida Cooperative Extension


drates in most places but in Florida the carbohydrates cost about as much as the proteins. This, together with the small amount of roughage the Florida dairyman feeds with his grain ration, gives a very high protein content. Many dairymen are feeding rations with a nutritive ratio as narrow as 1 :2 / when it should be 1:5.
FAIR EXHIBITS
There has been considerable improvement in the quality of dairy products shown at the fairs, both county and state. The method of displaying in refrigerators and ice boxes has improved each year.
Three counties exhibited dairy calves at the State Fair this year. The county fairs offer the best opportunity for educational work.

DAIRY CLUBS OR DAIRYMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS

In addition to the State Dairymen's Association there are dairy organizations in Leon, Duval, Marion (South and North), Pasco, Pinellas, Manatee, Polk, Orange, Volusia, Flagler, Madison, Palm Beach, Sarasota and Escambia counties. Some of -them are doing e.fective work in the cooperative purchase of dairy feeds. The annual meeting of the State Dairymen's Association was held in Gainesville during Farmers' Week.
The dairymen of Sarasota are marketing their milk cooperatively through a central distributing plant. The county agents have been very active in trying to help them in making a practical marketing association.






Annualt Report, 1928


CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY

E. F. DeBusk, Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist

The plan of work submitted at the beginning of the year embodied (1) the control of melanose and stem-end rot, (2) blue mold decay, (3) citrus scab, (4) psorosis and gummosis, (5) rust mites, (6) citrus aphids, (7) whitefly and scale, and (8) fertilizing. An additional project on citrus grove irrigation was taken up after the plan of work had been submitted. Considerable time has been devoted to special service work, so that nearly every phase of citrus culture has received attention. Citrus meetings or schools were held in which problems of the growers were discussed.

MELANOSE AND STEM-END ROT CONTROL

As a result of educational efforts, the economic importance of melanose and stem-end rot control is becoming more generally recognized among packers as well as growers. Through spraying demonstrations, growers' meetings, press articles and other means of educating growers during the last six years, the method of controlling melanose and stem-end rot is generally known and quite generally practiced.
In a grove where more than 12 percent of the crop is usually marked by melanose to such a degree as to place it in the russet grade or lower, very satisfactory profits may be expected from spraying with home-made 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in diameter. However, quite a number of growers will not use Bordeaux mixture in their groves because it kills the much valued entomogenous fungi. These growers are attempting to control melanose and stem-end rot by pruning out the dead wood. Of course, most of the growers who spray for melanose control supplement the spraying by pruning out the dead wood. Pruning has, as a rule, given very satisfactory results, especially in the control of the Diplodio type of stem-end rot. But these pruning operations are very expensive; and since they must be repeated often to keep trees even comparatively free of dead wood, often run the cost of melanose and stem-end rot control by this method extremely high and leaves a doubt as to the operation being profitable. Consequently, this problem has caused more attention to be directed toward the cause of the production, of dead






Florida Cooperative Extension


wood and the practicability and economy of removing that cause.
In three grove irrigation demonstrations, the fact has been clearly brought out that the deficiency of soil moisture during the spring and fall droughts is largely responsible for the production of dead wood in many of the heavy-bearing, non-irrigated,. groves. It is now being demonstrated quite generally that the most effective and most economical way of controlling melanose and sem-end rot is through the prevention of dead wood by applying irrigation water to the trees when it is needed. Some interesting demonstrations along this line are being worked up.

BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL

Through educational efforts, growers and packers quite generally understand that blue. and green mold decay are largely the result of defective picking and otherwise improper handling of the fruit.
. The penalty for improper handling of fruit is clearly set forth in Table I of the 1927 Annual Report, showing the final cost of defective picking or losses to the grower in terms of cents per box. These facts have been presented to packinghouse managers, picking foremen, pickers and growers throughout the citrus belt through meetings, press articles and special bulletins
-of, packing organizations. Splendid cooperation has been given by all concerned.
A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the picking and handling of the fruit of the state shows that very gratifying improvements have been made. For example, two years ago a large number of picking inspections showed 15.5 percent picking defects, while a similar inspection made during 1928 showed only 10.7 percent picking defects. By again referring to Table I of the 1927 -Annual Report, it will be seen that this improvement means a saving to the grower of 22 cents per box.
As a goal, we are striving to reduce the picking defects to 4 percent, with a still further saving to the grower of 38 cents per-box through bluemold decay control.

CITRUS SCAB CONTROL
Scab control, from the grower's standpoint, is.not as serious a:-problem I in grapefruit production as melanose control. This is largely due to the fact that it has been demonstrated that scab can be satisfactorily and eeonornically controlled by spraying






Annual Report, 1928


with liquid lime-sulphur which, at the same time, controls red spiders and the rust mite, while melanose control, by spraying, necessitates the use of Bordeaux-oil.
However, in cases where scab infection is very heavy, demonstrations show that one or two applications of home-made 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent of oil emulsion, to reduce the scab to a "clean-up", are highly desirable. Where two applications are needed, one should be made just before the spring flush of growth and the second as soon as the petals have fallen. Where both melanose and scab are to be controlled, the second application should be delayed a few days. As a rule, growers have scab under satisfactory commercial control. The approved control measures are generally understood.

PSOROSIS AND GUMMOSIS CONTROL
Since the unprecedented drought of 1927 and the freezes of the winter of 1927-28 there has been an unusual development of psorosis and gummosis throughout the citrus belt. It seems that any shock that lowers the vitality of citrus trees may result in renewed development of cases of these diseases of old standing as well as in new outbreaks. In response to the demands for assistance, a number of demonstrations in the proper treatment of these diseases have been given.
The treatment for psorosis and gummosis consists of scraping off the outer bark only, of the diseased area, scraping back a few inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disinfectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some other mild tree wash or paste. The effectiveness of the treatment depends largely upon the thoroughness of its application.

RUST MITE CONTROL
Through a series of meetings and by means of press articles, the economy and practicability of more thorough rust mite control has been stressed. Demonstrations in rust mite control have everywhere produced unmistakable economic results.
In spite of the fact that rust mite control is almost universally practiced after a fashion, recent results of dusting and reports on the grading of fruit going through a large number of packinghouses as to rust mite injury, show conclusively that one of the greatest opportunities for profitable investment for a large percentage of our growers is in more thorough rust mite control.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CITRUS APHID CONTROL
The freezes of the last two winters, keeping down new growth upon which citrus aphids must subsist, have greatly assisted in preventing this pest being carried over to the spring growth. This, together with other factors not fully understood, resulted in a light infestation of aphids over the state during 1928. Consequently, the damage done to citrus by this pest during the yea,, has been very light.
The following instructions in aphid control have been kept constantly before growers by means of press articles and by letters, and have been followed by a large number of growers:
1. Go through the young grove at intervals during the winter, up to the time of the general flush of new growth in the spring, clip off and destroy or dip, all new growth within reach. Also destroy as far as practicable the cudweed and fireweed.
2. Spot dust with hand duster until the infestation becomes more or less general, using 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust.
3. Spray with. 40 percent nicotine sulphate, 1 pint to 100 gallons of water, plus a spreader; or Derrisol, 1 pint to 100 gallons of water; before leaves have become badly curled.
4. After leaves have become curled, fumigate under tents with 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust or calcium cyanide.
Every effort is made to protect the new growth and blossoms just as they make their appearance, as this is the critical "aphid stage."~
WHITEFLY AND SCALE CONTROL
The use of red aschersonia in whitefly control has been encouraged. Several hundred cultures have been distributed to growers, covering acres running into the thousands and saving them many thousand's of dollars on the spraying bill.
In one demonstration where the cost of spraying the bearing grove with oil emulsion for the summer brood of whiterfly was $9 per acre, a 15-acre block was sprayed with red aschersonia culture, at the beginning of the rainy season, at a total cost of $1.46 per acre. The control results where the parasitic fungus was used were naturally delayed somewhat, owing to the fact that time is required for the fungus to develop, but by the end of summer the results were equal to those of the oil emulsion Spraying. In addition to a saving on the cost of whitefly control this year,' the beneficial fungus has become well established in






Annual Report, 1928


the grove and will keep whitefly under satisfactory control during the next year or two, at least, if weather conditions are favorable.
Natural control of scale is claiming more attention from year to year. Growers are urged to pay more attention to the development of parasitic scale fungi in their groves, to spray with oil emulsion only when it is needed, and then do a very thorough job.
An effort is made to keep before growers the fact that oil sprays are injurious to citrus trees, and therefore, should not be applied until they are needed, and then the job should be done in a manner that will give maximum results in the control of the pest. A poor job of spraying with oil emulsion often results in more being lost through injury to the trees than is gained in pest control.
It has been demonstrated that grove irrigation, even with the surface method, facilitates natural control of scale and whitefly as well as rust mites.

FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS

Demonstrations with the use of nitrate of soda as a top-dressing to increase the size of early grapefruit, oranges and tangerines, were put on in six counties this year. The results cannot be reported at this time as complete reports are not in, due to the fact that picking has been delayed on account of unsatisfactory market prices.
A number of demonstrations have shown that growers may substitute the inorganic nitrogen carriers for the higher priced organic sources with equal results and at a great saving on the cost of fertilizing the grove.

IRRIGATION

In the investigations and control of melanose and stem-end rot it has been found that dead wood is the source of the trouble, and consequently the removal of all dead wood by pruning is recommended.
Growers find pruning out dead wood to the extent of appreciably controlling melanose and stem-end rot to be a very expensive operation and perplexing problem, especially where the operation must be repeated annually. While the production of a small amount of dead wood in old, heavy-bearing trees may be regarded as a natural condition, the necessity for pruning






Florida Cooperative Extension


out large amounts of dead wood annual , as is too often the case, should be looked upon with more concern than that of mere disease control. In addition to harboring disease, much dead wood means reduced production of fruit, a devitalized tree and consequently may result in outbreaks of withertip, psorosis or other troubles.
With the foregoing facts before us, an effort has been made to find the underlying cause of so much dead wood in many of our groves, and, if practicable and economical, remove the cause.
Our observations and demonstrations in grove irrigation clearly bring out the fact that the fundamental cause of an overwhelming percentage of the dead wood produced in many of the heavy-bearing groves is the direct result of soil moisture deficiency.
While the citrus belt of Florida can boast of an annual rainfall of more than .50 inches, which is in excess of the total annual needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of the bearing groves suffer from lack of soil moisture at times during the spring and fall in five years out of seven because of inadequate monthly and weekly, distribution of this total amount of rainfall. A study of the rainfall records of the Weather Bureau of the last 35 years, and the needs of the trees, brings out the fact that, during that period, the number of years in which the rainfall of each of the dry months was insufficient to supply the needs of the trees was as follows: January, 10; February, 16; March, 24; April, 25; May, 15; September, 2; October, 10; November, 23; December, 10.
The most apparent results of a deficiency of soil moisture are dropping of bloom and young fruit, and dropping of fruit in the fall and winter. But the real effects go much further. Growers are beginning to take into consideration the effect upon size and quality of the fruit, upon the economic use of fertilizers, upon. the cover crop and the consequent effect upon the organic content of the soil and the more permanent effect upon the tree as manifested in dead twigs and branches and susceptibility to disease and insect attacks.
Correcting this deficiency of soil moisture is therefore a problem of very great economic importancewith many citrus fruit growers of the state.






Annual Report, 1928


The most practicable and most economical method of grove irrigation in Florida is known as the surface method. The water is pumped, usually by a centrifugal pump, from a lake or well through a permanent main to the highest part of the grove. From outlets in this main the water is carried by gravity through lines of hose or movable conductor pipe to all parts of the grove.
The work in grove irrigation has been largely along the line of teaching growers the economy and efficiency of installations of large capacity. Growers have made the mistake of installing plants with capacities ranging from 175 to 350 gallons per minute where installations of 450 to 1,000 G. P. M. capacity would be far more efficient and economical. This mistake is largely due to the belief that mains should be made of wrought iron or steel pipe, and to the fact that the price per foot of adequate sizes of such piping is almost prohibitive.
These conditions have caused our efforts to be directed toward finding a substitute for iron pipe by which adequate installations can be made at a reasonable cost. A demonstration line of 8-inch concrete pipe was laid at a cost of about one-third the cost per foot of an iron pipe line of the same size. The line has stood the test under a working head of more than 45 feet, and is found to be very practicable and economical as a permanent water main in surface irrigation. Following this demonstration a number of installations have been made in which 8 and 10-inch concrete pipe has been used. This is not only"resulting in a large saving to growers on the cost of installation but is enabling them to install adequate irrigation plants that can be operated economically.
To make practicable the distribution of a large volume of water in surface irrigation without erosion, and economically, the writer has worked out a method by which one man can handle any quantity of water up to 1,000 gallons per minute, eliminating erosion and making a uniform distribution. . The method involves the use of the usual conductor pipe or conductor hose, a set of outlet crosses equipped with cut-off valves, and two to six distributing nozzles with hose connections to the outlet crosses in the conductor line. The entire cost of the equipment will range from $50 to $150, in addition to the usual conductor line, depending, in a measure, upon the length of the conductor lines but mainly upon the amount of water to be handled. In addition to the other advantages mentioned, the use of the method reduces the labor cost of irrigation 50 to 75 percent.






52 Florida Cooperative Extension

With the old type installation, employing small mains, and with the old method of distributing water, the total pumping and distributing cost often runs as high as $3.50 per acre inch; with the large mains and the use of the labor-saving devices mentioned above, the total cost of pumping and applying water often comes within $1.00 per acre inch.






Annual Report, 1928


POULTRY
N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman
Poultry conditions in 1926-1927 were conducive to the development of the industry in the state, whereas during 1927-1923 conditions were reversed. This past spring relatively high prices of feed and low prices of eggs brought about a reduction in the number of chicks purchased, also a reduction in the number of adult birds on the farm. However, as the season advanced, the outlook appeared more promising for those who were able to cope with the adverse conditions.
Still in view of the above facts, the producers were eager to study more than ever before economical production, together with the adoption of some of the more accepted poultry practices.

PROGRAM OF WORK

The poultry population during the past year has not increased; apparently, from reports given by baby chick producers and offi. cers of some of the poultry associations throughout the state, there is a slight reduction. No doubt this has been brought about by relatively high prices of feed during the spring months and low prices of eggs, causing a reduction in the number of both chicks and laying birds. Although the number has been reduced the quality of birds on the farms has been improved, the producer realizing that more economical production in all phases of poultry work is necessary if success is to be obtained.
Existing poultry conditions have emphasized more clearly the development and putting into practice of those phases of economical production as outlined in the poultry extension program.

METHODS OF CONDUCTING THE WORK

The various phases of poultry husbandry were presented to the poultry producers in a number of different ways, the method depending on the local situation.
Some of the most important methods were as follows:
Meetings were arranged by county and home demonstratioA agents. These meetings were held in practically all sections of the state. Poultry problems were discussed.
Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate better methods and practices.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee.
Monthly circular poultry hints.
Home Egg-Laying Contest reports.
Articles.
Farmers' Week-an intensive poultry program presented.
Farm visits.
PROJECTS

The plan of poultry extension work was completely revised for the year just ended, the number of major projects being reduced and changed to meet the conditions that have developed in the state.
The four projects which were emphasized during the year were:
1. Grow healthy chicks.
2. Grow green feeds.
3. Practice culling.
4. Home Egg-Laying Contest.
In making this change itis well to understand that none of the projects as outlined the previous year were entirely discontinued, but in the main they were absorbed in the four projects listed above.
POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS
GROW HEALTHY CHICKS Clean, healthy young stock is the key to success in poultry management. The number and the quality of pullets are dependent on the rearing of chicks.
A heavy mortality occurs in the rearing of young chicks and if this mortality can be reduced the cost of production is lowered. With this in view a Grow Healthy Chick Campaign was started with the 1928 baby chick season. Its purpose was to stimulate an increased interest in raising more and better chicks.
The program was developed around six fundamental factors; namely,
1. Hatch early.
2. Clean chicks and eggs.
3. Clean brooder houses.
4. Clean land.
5. Balanced ration.
6. Separation of pullets from cockerels.







Annual Report, 1928


Information circulars on these factors were distributed by the county and home demonstration agents, together with a disease chart and a mortality chart.
The results of Florida's first Grow Healthy Chick Campaign have been tabulated from the records sent in.
There were 35 poultry producers who were in this campaign and who kept records on mortality and answered the questions that were listed on the mortality chart. About 30,000 chicks were placed under the brooder, the number per farm ranging from 11 to 3,104, the average being 845.
Twenty-four producers reported that they fed milk in some form, 14 feeding liquid milk and 10 dry milk; 29 farmers used some brand of commercial feed, while 6 mixed their own. Only one producer used the all-mash method, all of the rest feeding scratch.
Green feed was given the chicks in all cases except one. The time of beginning to feed green feed ranged from the start to the fourth week, with the average being at the end of the second week.
Pullets were separated from the cockerels at about the sixth week. However, the time ranged from the fourth to the sixteenth week. Only two producers did not separate pullets from cockerels.
The baby chick mash was changed to growing mash on the average at the sixth week-, this period ranged from the second to the tenth week.
Twenty-seven producers hatched all their chicks before May 1, five producers hatched some chicks in May but the greater per centage in the earlier months. Only three producers hatched all chicks in May.
The poultry producers reported mortality as due to different causes such as coccidiosis, pneumonia, OVERHEATING, change of feed, BROODER TROUBLE, EQUIPMENT, weather, CHILLED, and poor shipment.
Mortality Through 8th Week
A total of 29,573 chicks were placed under the brooder and at the end of the eighth week 7,176 chicks had been lost. The average mortality was 24.26 percent. The average mortality per farm ranged from 1 to 54.54 percent.








Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE I.-WEEKLY MORTALITY ON 33 FARMS IN PERCENT.


Disease


3.90 3.90 2.82

2.34 1.16 .57

.48 .48


Average


7.52

4.10 2.94 2.46 1.25 .62 .50

.49


Week Accident


.3.6

2.-- .20



53. .02





7.----. .02




Average . 4.23


NOTE :-The difference between the average mortality shown here and that mentioned in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that two producers did not report weekly mortality.

TABLE 11.-CORRELATION oF FACTORS ADOPTED WITH MORTALITY.


aote No. Farms Percent Mortality Factors Not Adopted


6 15 I .65-18.20 1

5 I 3 25.6-34.42 Clean chicks and eggs

5 2 15.0-29.50 I Clean brooder houses

5 1 20.50 1Balanced ration

4 4 17.01-39.21 Clean chicksBrooder houses

4 1 19.38 Clean chicksSep. Ckls and Pullets

4 1 47.09 Clean chicksBalanced ration

3 1 I 28.25 Clean chicksI Balanced rationClean brooder houses

3 1 41.42 Clean chicks___________________________________ I_____________________________________ __________B rooder_____________________h ou ses______ B oo e h u e
__________- _________ -_____________ -Sep. Ckls. and Pullets
3 farms report mortality due to overheating, poor equipment.
3 farms omiitted from above tabulation due to insufficient records.


15.65 19.88







Annual Report, 1928


GROW GREEN FEEDS
-Realizing that the feeding of green feed to all classes of poultry has been found to be necessary for maintaining health and for more efficient assimilation of food to secure the desired results, a program emphasizing green feeds was put on.
Sixteen counties cooperated in this project, the county agent furnishing the producer with an article on the value of green feed, the schedule of planting green feed, and a record card. The record cards will not be returned to this office until spring when one year will have elapsed.
During the demonstrations, not only was culling discussed but also proper feeding, disease and parasite control, and other factors relative to economical poultry production.
HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST
The primary purpose of the contest was to stimulate better methods in poultry production by analyzing the records obtained and discussing them with the producers., Three such contests have been completed and the fourth was started the first of November, 1928.
The rules and regulations are as follows: Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry flock, have standardbred poultry and send report to agent's office monthly.
The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the number of birds, as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds, farm flock 51-250 birds, and commercial flock over 250 birds.
Monthly reports are sent to the contestants showing the distribution of production with other timely information.
Some of the results of the Home Egg-Laying Contests have been tabulated to show the monthly egg production and average for the year, percent culling, percent mortality, feed prices, egg prices. Table III shows the average monthly egg production for the backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks for the three contests, together with the total egg production per bird for the year. It is of interest to note the total average egg producion for each group and the increase each year. The average production in the second contest shows an increase of 4.8 eggs over the first, and an increase of 2.7 eggs in the third contest over the second.








TABLE III.-DISTRIBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE HOME EGG-LAYING CONTESTS.


Average


Month Backyard Flock Farm Flock Com
111925-2611926-2711927-28111925-2611926-2711927-28111925-26

November ---------- 3.8 9.3 11.0 3.0 7.4 5.6 7.1

December . 6.5 10.3 14.6 5.9 9.5 8.0 7.8
January -------------- 11.8 13.5 15.1 8.8 11.9 9.7 10.8

February --- -------- 15.2 15.9 15.3 13.8 15.6 15.3 14.0
March ---------------- 20.0 19.7 18.3 17.6 19.4 18.4 19.2

April ------------------ 19.6 21.6 17.5 16.6 '17.9 17.7 19.1

May -------------------- 18.0 19.9 16.9 16.0 15.0 16.8 18.1
June -------------------- 14.9 18.7 15.5 12.7 14.5 13.6 15.8
July -------------------- 14.3 18.3 17.3 13.2 13.9 11.9 13.5

August . 11.2 15.5 15.0 11.5 9.4 11.1 10.9 September ---------- 11.9 14.1 9.7 7.3 8.0 10.7 7.2

October ----------------- 10.5 7.9 5.2 7.8 6.0 7.8 5.5

Total - -------------- 157.6 184.6 185.0 134.2 1.48.3 160,9 148.9


Increase or
Decrease -------- 27.0 .4 14.1 1.2.6


1926-2711927-28111925-2611926-271 1927-28

5.2 5.6 6.0 1 7.1 5.7

9.2 8.4 7.6 9.5 8.4
11.5 12.3 10.4 11.6 11.7 15.6 16.3 14.3 15.6 16.0 19.1 19.3 18.9 19.1 19.0 18.1 18.2 18.4 18.2 18.1 17.2 18.0 17.4 17.0 17.7 14.0 15.7 14.5 15.7 15.3 15.3 15.1 13.6 14.9 14.3 12.1 10.8 11.2 11.5 11.0 8.6 8.2 8.8 8.6 8.8

4.8 6.1 8.0 5.2 6.4
150.6 154.7 149.1 153.9 156.6



1.7 4.1 1 4.8 2.7


nercial Flock 11










TABLE IV.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE CULLING PERCENT,
1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST.
I Backyard Farm Commercial Average for Month I
Flock Flock Flock Contest

November . 0.00 1.94 2.44 2.30
December . 0.00 3.66 3.72 3.62
January . 0.00 3.64 3.46 3.41 February ---_----------- ------ 2.47 2.53 2.09 2.11
March . . 2.56 9.15 1.02 2.63 April ---------------- * ------------- 3.57 2.47, 2.28 2.35
May . . 1.83 6.38 4.89 5.10 June . .94 5.32 5.10 5.05 July . 9.61 10.31 4.24 5.63 August . 2.08 5.37 5.12 5.15 September . 4.25 5.81 4.88 5.06
October . 43.93 6.87 7.94 8.30

Average . 46.03 1 59.20 37.44 41.46


This increase would tend to indicate that the producers throughout the state are paying more attention to the various phases of poultry management such as feeding, breeding, etc. Table IV shows the average and monthly percent of culling for the different groups and the average for the entire contest. Table V shows the average percent of mortality in the three groups and the average for the entire contest. The farm flock group is the only one that is exceedingly high, the average for the entire contest being 9.42 percent.
Table VI shows the average price of eggs for each month for the different groups.

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS

Poultry associations have been of material help in poultry extension work. In Florida there are two state organizations, the American Poultry Association -of Florida, and the Florida


Annual Report, 1928







60 Florida Cooperative Extension

TABLE V.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE MORTALITY IN PERCENT,
1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST.

Month Backyard Farm Commercial Average for
Flock Flock Flock Contest

November ---------------------- 0.00 1.12 .62 .52
December ---------------------- 1.58 1.28 .52 .68
January . ---------- -------- 0.00 1.56 43' .62
February . 1.65 '84 .49 .59
M arch . . 0.00 1.02 .63 .69
April ------------------------------ .89 2.47 .80 1.12
M ay . . 1.83 1.90 1.07 1.24 June -------_------------------- _1 .94 2.19 1.08 1 1.29
July -------------------------------- 0.00 1.86 1.25 1.35
August -------------------------- 0.00 1.94 1 .69 .94
September . 0.00 1.60 '90 1.02
October ---------------------- 0.00 1.50 .89 1.02

Average . ----------- 1 6.34 1 17.99 1 7.63 1 9.42
1 1 1 1

Baby Chick Association. In addition to these, there are a number of county and community poultry associations.
The American Poultry Association, with headquarters at DeLand, has assisted materially in developing standardbred poultry to a higher plane. The members of this organization have cooperated with the Gainesville office and with the county and home demonstration agents in furnishing the junior poultry club members with better stock. They also have assisted with educational meetings.
The Florida Baby Chick Association, an organization of baby chick producers, has strived to furnish the chick buyer with a better grade of chicks each year. The supervision and accreditation of poultry flocks has been started under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. The association has assisted with educational meetings and in fostering the Grow Healthy Chick Campaign.







Annual Report, 1928 61

TABLE V1.-EGG PRICES, 1927-28.

Backyard Farm Commercial
Month Flock Flock Flock Average

November ------------------- _1 $0.56 $0.54 $0.48 $0.49
December . . 1 55 .55 .46 .48
January ----- -------------------- 1 52 .51 .44 .45
February . 34 .34 29 .30
M areb -_------------ . .31 30 .25 .26
April -----_----------- --------- 29 .29 .25 .26
M ay . 25 .28 .29 .29
June --_-------- ------------------- 1 .30 .32 .29 .29
July ---_--------- . 38 36 33 .33
August ------ . ------------ 1 .41 41 .36 1 .37
September -----------_--------- 1 .49 .50 .47 1 .47
October _-------------------_--- .51 .57 51 52


The community and county poultry associations have held meetings at regular intervals and the meetings in the main were of an educational nature. A few associations have done marketing and buying cooperatively.
Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with the regular organized poultry associations.

JUNIOR POULTRY CLUBS

Du ring the past year the rules and regulations of the junior poultry club work were changed. The requirements were made more rigid and a different plan was to be inaugurated during the year.
Contests were held in different communities and countries which the members exhibited their poultry. In most sections the quality of birds exhibited was better than the preceding year. The junior management club work will be started the first of the year and with this new plan it is expected that more efficient poultry, work will be possible.










MISCELLANEOUS
The hatchery capacity in Florida has increased to a total of a million eggs as compared with about 800,000 the preceding year.
The hatcheries and poultry breeders have cooperated with the Extension Division in placing better chicks and stock out on the farms. The number of mongrel chickens in the state is decreasing rapidly.
Poultry producers and marketing organizations are beginnin.to realize the importance of putting out a quality product and with this in view it is possible to see a decided step in advance along this particular line. Some are resorting to cold storage.
Commercial poultry production has demanded more attention than ever before. Some of the main points under consideration were feeding, management, diseases, and egg production. Economical egg production is of great importance to Florida producers.
Poultry shows were visited and judging was done. Educational features were employed as much as possible.
Considerable time was spent in connection with the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest. A brief summary of the second contest is given below.
The egg production was 190.93 eggs per bird for 51 weeks.
Table VII shows the feed consumption per bird for the light and heavy breeds and the average for the contest.
TABLE VIL-FEED CONSUMPTION PER BIRD PER YEAR IN POUNDS,
FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST.

Feed Heavy Breeds Light Breeds Average

Mash . 40.42 36.71 37.54 Scratch . . 39.33 33.08 34.48 Oats . 5.65 5.65 5.65 Semi-solid buttermilk . 12.18 12.18 12.18
Grit . 2.28 1.83 1.93 Shell . 3.50 3.37 3.41 Charcoal . .51 .42 .44

Total . 103.87 93.24 95.63
--------------


Florida Cooperative Extension








Annual Report, 1928 63

TABLE VIII.-POUNDs FEED REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN EGGS AND COST.

Breed Pounds Feed Per Dozen Feed Cost Per Dozen
Eggs Eggs

Heavy -----------------------_--- 1 7.92 $0.264

Light . 5.56 .187


Av erage -_----------------------- 6.01 .201


AVERAGE FEED COST PER 100 POUNDS
M ash ------ -------------------------------------------------------------------- --------- $3.40
Scratch ----- . ----------------------- --------------------------------------------- 3.25
Sem i-solid Butterm ilk -------------- --------------------------------------- 4.75
O ats . . 2.70 G rit ---------------------------------------------- - ---------------------------------------- 1.10
Shell . 1.10 Charcoal ----------------------------------- . . _ 3.00

FEED COST PER BIRD
H eavy breeds ------------- . . $3.47
Light breeds ---------------------------------------------- _ ------------------------ 3.12
A verage . . ----------------------------------------- 3.20

Table VIII shows the number of pounds of feed to produce one dozen eggs and the feed cost per dozen eggs for the light and heavy breeds and averages for the contest.

MORTALITY
Average mortality was 15.1 percent, most of which was due to ovarian trouble.







Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Flavia Gleason, State Agent
Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Agent
Ruby McDavid, District Agent
Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent
Mary E. Keown, District Agent
Isabelle S. Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent
Mary A. Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent

ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK IN COUNTIES
Home demonstration workers in Florida feel encouraged over the progress that home demonstration work has made during the year. Regardless of the prevailing financial depression, home demonstration work has received continued financial support -in all organized counties and four additional counties have made appropriations for developing the work within their bounds.
The year 1928 closes with, home demonstration work being definitely developed in 35 counties under the leadership of 34 county home demonstration agents and three assistant home demonstration agents. Two of these agents are working in two counties each and are paid from Capper-Ketcham funds. An. appropriation is waiting for the appointment of an agent in. Jefferson County January 1. Therefore, home demonstration. work will be conducted in at least 36 counties during 1929. We have had two transfers. One assistant agent who was married during the summer is the only one who has resigned during the year. Polk County, because of finances, dropped one of the two assistants on June 30. This worker has been serving as assistant to the home demonstration agent in Palm Beach County for the past three months, doing emergency work following the storm. Six of the 35 counties have had the work too short a time for the agents to"sumbit statistical reports. However, narrative reports which they have submitted give some idea as to the way the work is developing.
Statistical reports submitted from 29 counties show that home demonstration clubs were organized and actively functioning in 541 communities. In these communities there were 544 clubs with a membership of 10,405 girls and 207 clubs with a membership of 6,508 women. Of this number 8,057 girls and 5,421 women completed a full year's work in demonstrations conducted in the home according to home demonstration methods. Although the reports from 31 counties in 1927 show a few more women and







Annual Report, 1928


girls enrolled, the 29 counties reporting this yeaf show a considerable increase in the number of members completing the year's work. This was due to the fact that there were no interruptions caused by changing agents.

SUPERVISORY PROGRAM

In Florida the necessity for a-varied program in different seetions of the state is realized. However, for the general development of home demonstration work throughout the state, the supervisory program was built around five main objectives for 1928. These were:
1. Development of the type of programs that will h1l the greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration work.
2. Leadership development to assist agents in executing program plans for the year.
3. To further develop community and county organizations, especiallythe local home demonstration clubs and county councils.
4. To reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form a closer contact with the rural homes.
5. To extend home demonstration work into a larger number of counties.
Development of these objectives has been as follows:
(1) As in 1927, there was general interest in establishin.demonstrations in what are termed the fundamentals of home demonstration work. Outstanding accomplishments were increased in those things that develop profit, comfort, culture, power and influence. Gardening, home dairying and poultry have formed the basis for nutrition- work. Increasing interest in nutrition has, according to many agents, created a greater interest in many communities for producing foodstuff at home. The live-at-home program, including gardening, home dairying and poultry work, has contributed to better foods and nutrition practices, assisted in developing effective home improvement and, through the marketing of surplus products, has assisted girls and boys in some homes in furthering their education.
(2) It is the policy to urge the selection of real leaders for women's work from among the women who, because of their accomplishments in their own homes, are naturally capable leaders in a particular phase of work, and are so recognized by other women in the neighborhood.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the girls' clubs. However, well trained, understanding women can render considerably more assistance to the agents in the capacity of local leaders. One district agent reports that the project leaders are organized into county leadership clubs in several of the counties over which she has supervision. Members of these clubs assist the agents in presentation of some of the subject matter. During the year there were 366 local leaders actively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 299 with the women's work. There were 163 training meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 2,311 leaders.
Certificates of standardization are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reachand maintain the necessary requirements. There are at present 180 of these standard clubs. Recognition will be given to the standard club making highest score in the state this year.
(3) Following the organization of local home demonstration clubs is the formation of county councils. These county organizations are composed of two delegates, president and one other, from each club in the county. They help to plan and execute plans for the year's home demonstration work. They are general promoters and boosters of home demonstration work. With the exception of the counties in which home demonstration agents have recently been appointed, all have girls' county councils functioning in the conduct of the work in the county and state. Seventy-Ave percent of the counties have county councils for women's work.
The State Council for Girls' Club Work meets annually during the State Short Course for Club Girls. Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, serves as adult advisor for this group.
The Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week.
(4) The fourth point in the program of work was to reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form closer contact with the rural homes. Reports state that 312 more women completed the work this year than last. There were 11,159 home visits made by county home demonstration agents, an increase of 1,347 over the previous year. These visits wert: made to and contacts formed in 5,505 homes.







Annual Report, 1928


OFFICE ORGANIZATION, RECORDS AND REPORTS

It is encouraging to see demonstration and office equipment supplied more generally and more generously by the county boards as satisfactory results become more evident.
Thirteen counties provide stenographic assistance. The stenographers take care of office calls in so far as they can in the agent's absence, and render general clerical assistance to the agents. Sixteen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have telephones, 14 have well equipped demonstration kitchens; 10 agents are furnished cars from county funds and two counties provide motion picture machines.

MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL

Home demonstration work has been considerably strengthened during the year because of the fact that the agents remained "on the job". New positions have been filled with well trained, competent women. They are either college graduates with teaching experience and a good background for home demonstration work or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged with experienced agents and in the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans of work and available literature. They are given special duties at State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week and special attention during district-and state conferences. , The district agent assists in forming contacts in the county.
Three district conferences were held early in the year. County and state programs of work were discussed in detail with county, district and state workers. Subject matter training which seemed to be the most needed was given. However, for the most part the meetings were filled with conferences on developing the work throughout the year.
The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held at Florida State College for Women October 4 through the morning of October 10. This was done in order that the agents might have access to the home economics laboratories and take advantage of subject matter information given by the home economics resident staff and instructors in the department of in-







Florida Cooperative Extension


dusirial 'arts. The agents met in joint conference with all extension workers in Florida at University of Florida, October 11 and 12.

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS

Requirements- regarding individual'and club programs are made by the state office. For instance, every club girl is required to establish a demonstration in some type of productive work as gardening, dairying or poultry work in addition to the home economics phases of her work. At the end of four years of home demonstration work, a girl is awarded a certificate in recognition of her work. There were 531 recipients of these during 1928.
Programs of work and reports are studied carefully by-the state and district agents. Comparisons are made of goals set at beginning of the year and accomplishment as the work advances. State and district agents discuss plans for strengthening the work during visits into the counties and at agents' conferences.
PUBLICITY

The Agricultural News Service carries timely articles of home demonstration work. During the State Short Course7 for Club Girls, the agricultural extension editor gave definite instructions, in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county represented. Thegirls were most enthusiastic over the work a'nd',contributed articles daily for a club news sheet. As a result of this work and that begun by two other county councils, many of the girls' councils now edit and publish their own county club paper.
A collection of 98 articles gathered in one week's time from some of the largest papers in the state show that home demonstration articles have a wide circulation. The press is generous in the use of home demonstration articles. Home demonstration work received much publicity during the year through fairs, Farmers' Week, State Short Course for Club Girls, county contests, window displays, camps, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, men's organizations, and other cooperating agencies.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out . ------------------_--------- -------------------------------------------------------------------- 541
Voluntary county, community and local leaders -------------------------------------- 366








Annual Report, 1928


Clubs carrying on extension work with juniors . 544
M em bership -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------- - 10,405
Clubs carrying on extension work with adults ---------------------------------------- 207
M em bership ------------------------------------------------- -- --------------- ---------------------------- - 6,508
H om e visits m ade by agents . . - 11,159
D ifferent hom es visited ---------------------------------------------- --------------------------------- 5,505
Farm visits m ade by agents -------------------- ------------------------------- . 749
D ifferent farm s visited -------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- 461
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work . 40,453 A verage num ber days spent in office . 61
A verage num ber days spent in field . 234
Official letters w ritten -------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- 63,854
Exhibits at fairs . ---------------------------------------------------- 85
Com m unity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36
County ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 27
Exhibits at 2 state fairs -------------------------------------------------------- 22
M eetings held -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8,944
A ttendance --------------------------- ------------- -------------------------------------------------- ----------- 221,763
Extension schools and short courses held -------------------------- ----------- -------- - 43
A ttendance . 2,428


PROGRAM SUMMARY
Number
communities
participating
Hom e gardens ------------------------------------------- ---------- 415
Beautification of home grounds ---------------------- 28
Home dairy . . 56
Hom e poultry --------------------------------------------- . 3M
Rural engineering ---------------------------------------------- 114
Hom e marketing . ------------------------------------------------- 146
Foods ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 454
Nutrition . . 394
Clothing . . -- --------- 507
Hom e managem ent . 218
H ouse furnishings . ----------------------------------------- - 417
Home health and sanitation ---- ----------------------- 387
Community activities . 319
M iscellaneous . 230


Days agents ,devoted to
projects
828 U
21 59
459
1261/
1501/2.
1587Y2
946 1898
2181/ 633%
3611/4 538 Y2 8821/2


PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS

HOME GARDENS AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS

With the gardening and perennial plantings we are working toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for the home; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs-and flowers; to-furnish means to increase income. The foods and marketing agent-wh' serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured sWe6dd cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, the State Federation of Women's Clubs, and individuals in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. In all '2,42







Florida Cooperative Extension


women and 4,322 girls have worked definitely along this line, and 4,016 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices in home garden work.
In the all-year garden contest Thelma Hood of Santa ' Rosa County was winner of the $50 offered by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for the most outstanding gardening results accomplished by a 4-H club girl, money to be used for educational purposes. Of her garden the county home demonstration agent, Miss Ethyl Holloway, says: "Perhaps the most outstanding demonstration is that of Thelma Hood, 14-year-old club girl in Mt. Carmel community. She took over the family garden and began a series of plantings in January. In this garden she planted during the year 40 varieties of vegetables, and during June she took an exhibit from her garden to Short Course in Tallahassee, consisting of 30 varieties, quality stuff. All surplus was disposed of either fresh or by canning. She canned a little more than 300 jars which she valued at $38.10. Her fresh tomatoes sold for $47.60. Other vegetables sold amounted to $44.86, used fresh at home, $80.10, making a total of $210.69. Her expenses including fertilizer, seed and spray, were $74.20, leaving a net profit of $126.49".
Mrs. H. M. Burgess of Holmes County was winner of sweepstakes for an outstanding variety, successive plantings, utilization of surplus and in a wealth of beautiful flowers. At the county contest this fall, Mrs. Burgess exhibited 26 varieties of vegetables from her garden.
POULTRY
The main phases of home poultry work as stressed by the agents under the leadership of the extension poultryman were: growing health chicks, growing green feed, culling, and the home egg-laying contest. According to reports from 23 counties, the total profit on result demonstrations conducted under supervision of home demonstration agents amounted to $37,922.80. Improved poultry practices were adopted in 3,004 homes during the year.
Guilda Yates of Orange County was the winner of the $50 prize offered by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for the best accomplishments in poultry work as carried on by 4-H club girls. The money will be presented with the understanding that it is to be used for educational purposes only.







Annual Report, 1928


HOME DAIRYING
The dairy and nutrition agent working with the county home demonstration agents has, through the nutrition work, increased to a great extent the use of milk and milk products in the diet. Milk for health campaigns served as a good means for bringing this about. A total of 407 women and 178 girls have taken up definite work in improving home dairy practices.
HOME IMPROVEMENT
The home improvement work under the leadership of the assistant state home demonstration agent has seen a splendid growth through the year.
Emphasis has been given to the importance of installing sanitary closets, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects to the extent that 24 counties report 3,801 homes as having improved sanitary practices of this kind.
According to the reports from 19 counties, 611 homes followed instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineering in the homes. This means that more people each year are constructing and remodeling dwellings according to plans furnished; installing sewage disposal systems, water systems, heating systems and especially lighting systems since big power lines are beginning to serve the rural districts. Special instruction was given the agents during the annual meeting on buying standards for electrical equipment.
More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents this year to the beautification of home grounds with the result that 5,064 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home grounds. Club girls and women in some of the counties adopted county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show. This aided materially in the beautification program.
That women and girls are learning to plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor saving devices; to arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry practices, and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact that 2,460 homes improved practices in home management work during the year.
A total of 1,246 women and 1,859 girls have completed the year's work in house furnishings, which included selection, arrangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all, 693 women and 881 girls worked over walls, woodwork, and floors







Florida Cooperative Extension


and 3,218 homemakers in 28 counties have been reported as adopting improved practices relative to the house furnishings work conducted by the home demonstration agents.
The home improvement campaign which terminated at the Florida State Fair, the work accomplished at the State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' Week, and increase in the family income through the productive phases of work, were important factors in promotion of home improvement work.
NUTRITION
Nutrition work under the leadership of the dairy and nutrition agent was conducted in a way that linked the gardening, dairying and poultry work with the family table. As a result, better meals have been prepared, better f ood practices adopted and better school lunches provided. A total of 6,375 homes, an increase over last year of 2,203 homes, were reported as adopting improved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demonstration agents. A hot dish at noon was served for the first time at 41 schools. A nutrition contest was conducted and a trip to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress was awarded to Kathleen Reese of Hillsborough County for showing the greatest improvement as a result of her nutrition work.


Fig. 5.-Adult home demonstration members learn meal planning and
preparation in their nutrition work.







Annual Report, 1928


A long-time nutrition program was put into effect in the state this year for the first time. The first year's results have been quite encouraging. Better leadership by the women in the girls' nutrition program, in the health contest, and in preparing better school lunches, has been noted. More effective cooperation has been secured in the milk-for-health campaigns and in securing school lunch equipment.
A number of contests-such as salad contests, baking contests, menu-planning contests, posture contests, etc.-have materially aided the nutrition work during the year.
Nutrition work had an important place in determining the winner of the trip to National Club Congress awarded to Quinelle Fuller, Columbia County, for scoring highest in the State Health Contest. She tied for second place in the National Health Contest. These contests have had a splendid influence in interesting the girls in nutrition work and results are proving valuable demonstrations.
FOODS
The preparation of foods forms a part of various club programs, is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying gardening, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show that 2,462 women and 3,523 girls completed food preparation demonstration outlined for the year and 29 counties report 5,471 homes adopting improved practices in food preparation. The nutrition and foods and marketing agents are leaders in this phase of home demonstration work.










Fig. 6-Home demonstration women can vegetables that are pleasing to
the eye as well as to the palate.

Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and marketing agent has been encouraged so. as to preserve food







Florida Cooperative Extension'


for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, insuring varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products into marketable shape. Reports show that 4,007 homes adopted improved practices in food preservation this year. Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves and pickles were made; fruit juices were extracted. and preserved.
CLOTHING
Girls often become club members and conduct the required living and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage of the clothing work. This includes proper selection of materials, construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; millinery, costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe' planning. A total of 2,523 women and 4,924 girls completed clothing programs as outlined for the year. Twenty-nine county reports show that 7,372 homemakers adopted improved practices in this phase of home demonstration work. There is no leader for this phase of the work. It is supervised by the district agents.
HOME MARKETING
Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly of poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wire grass, palmetto or honeysuckle, and rag rugs. Four curb markets and two home demonstration shops functioned to the advantage of club members throughout the year. These have been established and managed mainly through women's home demonstration councils. Walton, Volusia, Palm Beach, Citrus and Dade counties carry interesting reports of marketing home products.
For money made from sale of vegetables, aside from supplying the family table, Mrs. Margaret Nicholson ($1,353.54), and Mrs. C. F. Rumph ($407.50), have been awarded garden plows to the value of $22.50 and $17.50 respectively.
Miss Orpha Cole, home demonstration agent for Volusia County, makes the following statement regarding marketing of home products: "The greatest success of the five years' history of the home demonstration exchange has been realized this year









































Fig. 7.-Through efforts of county home demonstration agents, 41 Florida communities were induced to serve hot school lunches this year. C







Florida Cooperative Extension


and their deposits for the year have been brought to $5,123.12. Products consist mainly of cooked foods, preserved and crystallized products and flowers. Additional sales promoted by the agent aggregate $213.20. These consist chiefly of pears, figs, grapes, bulbs and jars. Four people were assisted in marketing their entire fruit crop. Marketing is in progress at.present on the chayote crop.
"Other than amounts mentioned in the foregoing items, 25 women have reported the following amounts: Poultry, $909.13; flowers, $5.90; baking, $74.25; crystallized fruits, $16.25; and miscellaneous, $32.30; totaling $2,914.52. Combined with the previous items it gives a total record of $8,494.84 for home demonstration women."
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES
Community activities vary according to the needs of the community as seen by the borne demonstration agents and the club members. Home demonstration clubs have been the means of club houses being erected and equipped for community meetings. The club house in Holmes County is invaluable to the people of Leonia community, which is about 18 miles from town.
The school lunch is a community activity in which schools in 41 communities have been induced to serve a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. Club members assisted with 22 community fairs. I
Eighty-one school and community grounds were planted this year according to landscape plans furnished by the home demonstration agents. Rural libraries are being established. A total of 319 communities carried some definite community work as a part of the year's program.

MISCELLANEOUS
A total of 1,093 women and girls in five counties completed definite work in rug making and 1,846 women and girls are reported as having learned the art of turning such native materials as'pine needles and, wire grass into baskets, trays and other articles. In all, 1,0831-women and girls have completed definite workingn crafts, and 236 homes are reported as standardizing these Iniscellahe'6i*-Articles for- market.







Annual Report, 1928


STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION
STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS
This year's state short course was by far the most satisfactory yet held. The Florida State College for Women closed the spring term early, allowing ample time for the extension department to -condudt the short course before opening of the summer term. Dormitories, laboratories, and class rooms were available. The College nurses rendered valuable assistance by keeping the infirmary open and giving the girls necessary. medical care during the week.
The 441 girls in attendance had won scholarships awarded in the counties as a result of outstanding achievements in various phases of work. Scholarships were provided by club members themselves, county commissioners, school boards, women's clubs, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals.
The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by extension workers and home demonstration club members in various phases of the work. Outstanding features were the health contest, home impro-vement work, team demonstrations in.the afternoon, and meeting of the state council. Ample recreation and entertainment were provided. ,Girls who attend the short course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida -State College for Women.
Because of the, growing interest, number and service of local leaders, a special period was given over to work with them. At other times they observed work with the girls. There were 36 leaders in attendance.
FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK
The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University as much as the girls did the short course. Demonstrations and instruetion were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University professors, and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding features were exhibits, group work with women actually working where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work.







Florida' Cooperative Extension


Most of the women paid their own way. However, more women were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federations of women's club.
CAMPS
There were 36 camps held during the spring and summer. Eight of these camps were for women, 12 for boys and girls and 16 for the girls entirely. Local leaders attended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps. There were 378 women, 1,791 girls and 190 boys who enjoyed the recreation, instruction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the home demonstration agents.
CONTESTS
Through county contests held in the various counties supporting home demonstration work, club exhibits were displayed, demonstrations given by club members and the county agents and- supervisors had a means of observing the county-wide response to the work; analyze the work for improvement; get the work before the public, and create a better community and club .spirit.
RALLIES
Various plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. One county held a rally for the women's clubs once each two months with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same county had a community rally or picnic once a year in each comumity with good attendance. The pleasure of getting together and hearing and giving club reports, has inspired club members, women and girls, to better their individual work and that of the community and the county.
FAIRS
Home demonstration exhibits were on display at community fairs, county fairs, the Florida State Fair, the South Florida Fair and the exposition at Toronto, Canada.
Through funds provided by the Florida State Fair, women and girls having accomplished the most outstanding results in either home improvement, nutrition, gardening, canning, poultry work, or home dairying were given a trip to the State Fair to give demonstrations in the home demonstration booths. These







Annual Report, 1928


women and girls appreciated the recognition, discussed their work with the public, gave demonstrations and added tremendous interest to the home demonstration exhibits. Similar demonstrations were provided for by the South Florida Fair.
DEMONSTRATION TEAMS
In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and encourage club members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members and ability to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 94 such teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work.
SCHOLARSHIPS TO THE FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
The State College for Women gave dining room scholarships to 10 club girls this year. The business manager secured the continuation of two loan scholarships for other deserving club girls. Senator W. C. Hodges of Leon County continued the scholarship which he began in 1926 as a result of interest aroused through the State Short Course. Continued interest in extension work in home economics led the following counties to make appropriations for full scholarships for training in home economics: Hillsborough County, two; Dade, three; Palm Beach, one; and Orange, one.
Club girls are enthusiastic over the scholarship fund provided by club girls of th6 state through the State Council, which enables an outstanding and deserving club girl to be in college this year.
OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS
Because of their splendid record as club members, Laura Case of Orange County and Whitlock Fennell of Dade County were sent as delegates to the National Club Camp in Washington, D. C., in June. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company provided funds for these trips.
Quinnelle Fuller, Columbia County, winner in the state health contest for club girls; Kathleen Reese, Hillsborough County, winner in nutrition contest and Mildred Gunson, Gadsden Coun-







Florida Cooperative Extension


ty, for well rounded club work, were awarded trips to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago. Finances were provided by South Florida Fair Association, commercial firms and individuals.


















Fig. 8-Five Florida club girls were given trips to the International Club
Congress as rewards for outstanding club work.
Olive Verne Whitten, president of the College 4-H Club, a former club member and now training for home demonstration agent work, represented Florida Club Girls at a National Leadership Training School held in Springfield, Massachusetts,. in'September. Because of the splendid type of 4-H club work that boys and girls in Florida are doing, Florida was invited to send 1 boy and 1 girl to this Leadership Training School, with expenses paid by Mr. A. H. Moses of Massachusetts.
C'ub members have returned from these national meetings with enlarged vision of club work and enthusiasm which they have passed on to others who have heard their inspiring reports.
4-11 COLLEGE CLUB
Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State College for Women are banded together in an organization for promotion of club work. This club continues to attract the attention and interest of other students in home demonstration work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they have finished high school. Among the membership of this group are some of the most outstanding girls in college.







Annual Report, 1928


NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
(Farm and Home Makers' Clubs)
MEN'S WORK
A. A. Turner, Local District Agent, Tallahassee
County Local Agent Address
Alachua . . W illiam Stockton . .Gainesville Bradford .-. ------_------_-----_-- . J. W . Keller . . _ . . Starke
Colum bia ---------------------------------- E. S. Belvin ---------------------------------------- Lake City
Jackson . -J. E. Granberry . M arianna Jeff erson . M . E. Groover . M onticello M arion -------------------------------------- W illiam B. Young ----------------------_------ Ocala
Suwannee ------------------------------- * C. T. Evans --- ----------- -------------- . Live Oak
(Corrected to December 31, 1928.)
During 1928 extension work with Negroes in agriculture and home economics has been carried on in 16 counties. Men agents have been employed in Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia, Bradford, Alachua, and Marion counties, and women agents have been employed in Duval, Leon, Madison, Marion, Orange, St. Johns, and Sumter counties. Three other counties have been without agents but the district agent has had the cooperation of local leaders in these counties, making it possible to carry on a limited amount of work where there is some local organization.
The Negro extension work has the same supervision as all other extension work; however, the headquarters for the district supervisors is at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, where office space has been provided in the Agricultural Building of that institution. The College has offered its cooperation and the facilities of its agricultural equipment and has cooperated with the Agricultural Extension Division in making it possible to hold short courses and other schools of instruction for the benefit of the Negro extension agents. One clerical assistant is in charge of the office when the district supervisor is on field work. The work has the supervision of the state leader for men's work and of the state home demonstration agent for the women's work; in addition, an assistant was employed for five months to give help to county home demonstration workers.
NEGRO ]EXTENSION MEETINGS
The Negro Farm Boys' and Girls' State 4-H Club Short Course was held at the Florida A. & M. College during April. The county workers were responsible for bringing together 82 boys and girls. These groups were selected because of their 4-H club







Florida Cooperative Extension


work and each county having agents had representatives from their clubs present. The expense of travel for these 4-11 club members was borne by the counties represented. The program consisted of instruction and entertainment provided by the Agricultural Extension Division and the Florida A. & M. College. In carrying out the program, the supervisory staff of extension work was present, and assistance was obtained from T. M. Campbell, the field agent of the United'States Department of Agriculture, who has headquarters in Tuskegee.
The county workers were assembled for three days instruction at the Florida A. & M. College at a general extension conference for the purpose of outlining programs and plans for the future.
COUNTY MEETINGS
County meetings were conducted throughout the year in all the counties having agents. These were conducted in schoolhouses and other public places and the programs were arranged between the county workers and the local district agent. Sixtynine of these meetings were conducted, with an attendance of 2,453.
Ten of the local agents accompanied by Negro farmers and their wives attended the Annual Farmers' Conference and Southern Farm Boys' and Girls' 4-11 Club Camp held at Tuskegee Institute the first week in December. The expenses of this trip were borne by individual members, and, where club members attended, their expenses'were borne by local organizations. The purpose of this meeting was primarily to promote 4-11 club camp methods for Negro boys and girls.
FAIR EXHIBITS
Fair exhibits were displayed by Negro farmers under the direction of the Negro district agent at the South Florida Fair and at the State Fair. The exhibits were creditable and received the approval of the fair authorities and extension agents. The exhibits consisted of displays of the products produced by 4-11 club members and colored farmers with whom the agents had cooperated. The exhibits were creditable and well arranged, and the expenses of these exhibits were paid by the fair associations and the counties exhibiting.






Annual Report, 1928


RESULTS OF YEAR'S WORK
In the men's work seven agents were employed, giving 63 months of service, or an average of approximately 10 months. There were six county farm associations primarily for the purchase and sale of farm products. These had a membership of 183. The total number of communities was 66, and there were 74 junior and 72 adult community leaders who assisted the agents in carrying out their programs. Thirty-one former 4-H club members were reported to have entered the Florida A. & M. College. There were 4,660 farm visits made, to 928 farms. The agents distributed 1,404 agricultural bulletins supplied to them from the Agricultural College and the U. S. D. A. There were 11 community fairs and six county fairs.
Soils
The work with soils consisted principally of the turning under of cover crops and terracing. These cover crop demonstrations were principally winter cover crops with oats, part of which was used for pastures and the remaining growth turned under. For summer cover crops, the main ones were cowpeas and native grasses. These were utilized for soil improvement purposes. The soils demonstration work involved the use of commercial fertilizers. These agents assisted the farmers in securing the right formulas as approved by the Florida Experiment Station for the various crops. Other work consisted of the care of manure and rotation of crops. Special mention is made of rotations in the peanut growing area where it is inadvisable to follow the usual practice of planting peanuts year after year on the same land.
Cereals
The principal cereals involved in demonstrations were corn and oats. The results of the demonstrations were with corn an increase of 33 percent over adjoining crops. This increase was brought about by seed selection, cultivation, and proper spacing. The oat demonstrations were conducted primarily to have a winter cover crop and to provide grain for feeding the livestock during the spring months. It was recommended that the oat crop be sown earlier than usual in the fall and a larger amount of seed used than is the general practice. With the cereals, too, the boys did the best club work. There were 291 boys enrolled and 127 completed the work.






Florida Cooperative' Extension


Hay and Forage Crops
Hay and forage crop demonstrations were principally of legumes and native grasses. It was impossible to get any acre Nveighings on the tonnage produced, as the colored farmers are without scales or other ways of weighing the hay. There were a few demonstrations with soybeans. Other demonstrations, were with velvet beans and peanuts. These were pastured off by livestock and were not harvested. The 4-H club members used principally peanuts in their demonstrations.
Horticultural Crops
The vegetable work was primarily with Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and vegetable gardens. An effort was made to increase the yield by securing better seed and following the improved methods of cultivation and fertilization. Through the assistance of the Gainesville office the local district agent was able to secure cooperation from the farmers principally in seed selection. In many cases the usual practice of securing sweet potato slips from volunteer vines had resulted in a low yield. Demonstrations were intended to show the value of getting cuttings and draws from beds where good seed had been planted. The Irish potato crop is general on the Negro farms, being an important food crop. The few demonstrations of Irish potatoes were principally with seed improvement and fertilization. Other horticultural crops were in the control of insect aad disease pest , of peaches, plums, strawberries, and a few satsumas. In this horticultural work the selling of the products was an important item in the county worker's program.
Livestock
The principal work in livestock was with dairy cattle, swipe, and poultry. For the most part, colored farmers are not in a position to do very much with dairying. If possible, encouragement is given to have dairy cows on as many farms as they can be properly cared for. The main emphasis is placed on the production of the proper feeds and sanitary methods of handling the milk and butter.
With hogs the work was primarily in placing improved stock on the farms. The best work was done with clubs, and 34 4-H club boys f ed out and cared for the animals that had been secured through the efforts of the agents. Emphasis was placed on better sires and better females. Some cooperative marketing






Annual Report, 1928


was done with hogs. This was usually in cooperation with the agents when cooperative sales were being made.
In poultry work the agents gave assistance to the farmers in culling and feeding and the control of insects and diseases. Due to the. low prices, a number of people who had become interested in poultry found it necessary to dispose of their flocks as they had not provided equipment and feed; however, those who were equipped to handle the poultry in the proper way profited by their efforts. It has been difficult for the agents to get the cooperation of the farmers in the production of green feeds, and, because of this, the feeding methods have been expensive and in some cases unprofitable.
The 4-H club work shows so me improvement over former years. A part of it has been difficult to handle, due to the tenant system so prevalent in the negro farming areas. The rules and regulations governing 4-H clubs with white boys and girls have been applied to the Negro clubs. Wherever the club work has received reasonable attention and there is community interest manifested, the results correspond very closely with other 4-H clubs and with these Negro agents the club work forms an important part of their program.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
County Local H. D. Agent Address
Duval . Olive L. Smith . Jacksonville, 1005 W . 12th Leon . . ------ Alice W . Poole . Tallahassee Madison . Althea Ayer -------------------_-- Madison
Marion . . Idella Ransom . Reddick Orange . Mamie E. W right . Orlando St. Johns . Mary A. Caldwell . . St. Augustine Sumter . --------- Diana H. Finlayson . Webster
The Negro work in Florida is a part of the Extension Service. The women work directly under the supervision of the State Home Demonstration office with A. A. Turner, Local Agent, in charge of both the women and men local agents. Susie L. Turner has been a temporary agent from time to time. A marked improvement has been noted the past year in demonstration work f or Negroes, due to the fact that she was in closer touch with the women agents.
The foods and marketing agent and the assistant state home demonstration agext have frequently met with the Negro women for conferences and instruction at the local and state meet-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ings., There is a wholesome cooperation between the white home demonstration agents and the Negro women agents. ''
Following are some statistics as compiled from the local home demonstration agents' reports:
There are 2,357 girls in demonstration club work, 317 boys, 88 men and 516 women. The local women agents instruct the boys and men as well as the girls and women. It is remarkable what the local agents in Madison and Sumter counties are doing to lead the men and boys on to better practices in their farm methods, in getting feed and forage for their animals, in bring ing up a better grade of hogs, cows and poultry, by securing purebred males. Both these agents as well as other local agents have secured a real interest from the white citizens because of their practical and direct work to better the farm and home conditions of rural colored people.
There were 2,543 home visits made to the colored homes by the local agents to conduct various demonstrations in gardening, home improvement, canning and food preparation with the girls and women, and advise on seeds, planting, and better livestock with the men and boys. More thought has been given to sanitary premises. The past year in the, Negro homes 126 outdoor toilets have been made, 140 houses were screened for the first time, 385 fly traps were made and methods of controlling the flies were studied, 84 houses have been whitewashed, and attempts were made to clean up and beautify 641 houses. There were winter gardens grown for the first time by 631 boys, girls and women. A marked improvement in the diet of the Negro families has been reported because of more attention given to the growing and serving of green food for the family. Increased income through the growing of poultry was reported from 445 homes. A number of counties are stressing a dairy cow for every home. Better preparation and serving of food is reported.
The Negro exhibits at state fairs have shown marked improvement from year to year and have served as a means of bringing about better quality in sewing, canning, etc.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1927-November 30, 1928 GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 66 Voluntary county, community and local leaders ------ . 146 Clubs carrying on extension work . . 100 M em berships --_-------------------- _ -_----_ ------- _ -------------------------------- . -1,763
Farm visits made by local agents --------------------------------------------------- ------------- A,660







Annual Report, 1928


D ifferent farm s visited . ------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- 938
Office calls on agents relating to extension work . . 2,014 E xhibits at fairs . . . . 8
C ounty . . 6 State . - . . 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held . 12 570
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils . 36 207 Farm Crops . . 47 490 Dairy Husbandry . -------------------------------------- --------- 6 29
Poultry Husbandry ------------------------------- . - . 20 100
Total -------------------------------------------------- --------- 109 826
CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats. etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods . . 4,745 B oys' and girls' clubs ------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- 45
Acreage grown by club members . . . . 303 1/ Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) . -- . 12,735 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . - . 258 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed . -- . 140 COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods -------- --------------------------------------- 922
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . - . 192 Boys' and girls' clubs ------------------------------- --------------- ------------------------- -------- 12
M em bers enrolled . ------------------------------- . 59
Acreage grown by club members ------------------------------------------------- -------------- 125
Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) . 12,750 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . 29 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases . 31
LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given ------------------------------------------------ --- 380
Number result demonstrations under way . - . - . 566 Number result demonstrations completed ------------------------------------------------ 581
Acres in completed demonstrations ------------------------------------------------------------- 5,140
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrations given . . . 367 Dem onstrations com pleted . 116 Animals in completed demonstrations . . . 2,576 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock. . - . 23
Farmers culling breeding stock . . -- . . . . 18 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ----------------------------------- 26
RURAL ENGINEERING
Buildings on farms constructed or remodeled --------------------- -- ----------------- 29
Farm ers w ho cleared land . --------------------------------------------------------- --------- . 8
A cres cleared -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 205
Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time . 71
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS D em onstrations ----------------- ----------------------------------------------------- . 121
Farmers adopting control measures . . 343 A cres involved . ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------------- 142









INDEX


Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural economics, 30 Agricultural News Service, 15 Animal husbandry, 27 Aphid, citrus, control, 48 Associations, poultry, 59 Austrian peas, 21 Avocados, 25

Balanced rations, dairy, 43 Beautification, 26 Blue mold decay control, 46 Board of Control and staff, 4 Boys' Club Work, 19, 32 Breeding stock, dairy, exchange of,
42
Bulletins issued, 14

Calf clubs, 33 Camps, club, 36, 78 Cereals work, 83 Citrus, 25
pathology and entomology, 45 Clothing, 74 Club camps, 36, 78
contests, 78
short courses, 35, 77
trips, 36
Club work, 12
at State Fair, 35
poultry, 61
College club, 4-H, 80 Community activities, 76 Contests, club, 78 Cooper, J. Francis, work of, 14 Corn, 23
club, 32
Costs, reducing dairy, 40 Cotton, 24
club, 33
County agent programs, 21
work, 17
County programs, 17 Cover crops, 21 Cowpeas, 21 Crop clubs, 82 Crotalaria, 21


Dairy tours, 42 Dairying, 40
home, 71
Demonstration teams, 79 Director, report of, 8 Drainage, 29

Economics, agriculture!, 30 Egg-laying contest, home, 57
national, 62 Engineering, 29 Entomology, citrus, 45 Extension organization, 8

Fair exhibits, club, 35
dairy, 44
home demonstration, 78
Negro, 82
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week,
13, 77
Farm crops work, 23 Farm paper stories, 15 Feeding demonstrations, 41 Fertilizer demonstrations, citrus, 49 Financial statement, 7 Flower show, club, 39 Foods, 73
Forage crops, 84 Forestry, 31 Fruits, 25

Gardens, home, 69 Grapes, 25
Green feeds, poultry, 57 Grow healthy chicks, 54 Gummosis control, 47

Hay crops, 84 Herd improvement, 43 Hogs, 27
Home demonstration work, 64
Negro, 85
Home Egg-lay:ng Contest, 57 Home improvement, 71 Home marketing, 74 Horticulture, 25 Horticultural crops, 84


Dairy breeding stock, 42 Dairy husbandry, 27


Improvement, home, 71 Irrigation, 29, 49







Annual Report, 1928


Leader developed by Lines of work, 10 Livestock clubs, 33
work, 84


club work, 39


Mailing room supervision, 14 Mangoes, 85 Marketing, home, 74 Meetings, extension, 20
Negro, 82
state, 20
Melanose control, 45 Moore, E. G., work of, 14

National Egg-Laying Contest, 62
reports, 15 Negro work, 81 News and farm paper stories, 15 News writing, training in, 16 Nutrition, 72

Oats, 21 Organization, dairy, 44
extension, 8
home demonstration, 64
Outside activities of county agents,
20

Pastures, 24 Peanuts, 24 Perennial plantings, 69 Pig clubs, 3 Poultry, 29, 53
associations, 59
bomne, 70


Production records, dairy, 43 Psorosis control, 47 Publications, 14 Publicity, bomne demonstration, 68

Rallies, club, 78 Reducing dairy costs, 40 Rodent control, 31 Rust mite control, 47

Scab control, citrus, 46 Scale control, 48 Scholarships, club, 38, 79 Short courses, club, 35, 77 Soils work, 21, 83 Specialists work with county agents,
19
Staff , 4
State fair club work, 35 Stem-end rot control, 45 Sweet potato club, 33

Terracing, 29 Training in news writing, 16 Trips, club, 36, 79 Truck crops, 25
clubs, 33

Velvet beans, 21 Vetcb, 21

Whitefly control, 48 Winter cover crops, 21 Work, lines of, 10




Full Text

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1928 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILM0N NEWELL, Directol" REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1928

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1928 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORI( IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILM0N NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1928

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CONTENTS PAGE BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF...... .... .. . ..... ... .......................... ..... ...... .. . ..... ...... ... . 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ....................•.... . ...•....... . .......... 5 REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7 Financial Statement, 7; Organization, 8; Lines of Work, 10; 4-H Club Work, 12; Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 13. PUBLICATIONS .. . ........... . . . . .. ............ . .. ........... .. . . . . ............... . ......... .. . . . . .................... 14 Bulletins, 14; National Egg-Laying Contest Reports, 15; News and Farm Paper Stories, 15; Training in News Writing, 16. COUNTY AGENT WORK : .... .. ..... . .•..... . ............. . ..... . ... .............. 1 7 County Programs, 17; Specialists' Work with County Agents, 19; Boys' Club Work, 19; Extension Meetings, 20; State Meetings, 20; Outside Activities, 20; County Agent Programs of Work, 21. BOYS' CLUB WORK ................... .. ... . . . ...•..........•...................................................... 32 Crop Clubs, 32; Livestock Clubs, 33; The State Fair, 35; Annual Short Course, 35; Club Camps, 36; Educational Trips, 36; Agricul tural Scholarships, 38; A Boys' and Girls' Flower Show, 39; A Leader Developed by Club Work, 39. DAIRYING .......................................•.. .... ........... . .......... . ..... .. ...... .... .. . . ....... ......... . .... . 40 . Reducing Production Costs, 40; Feeding Demonstrations, 41; Dairy Tours, 42; Distribution and Exchange of Dairy Breeding Stock, 42; Dairy Production Records, 43; Dairy Herd Improvement Association, 43; Better Balanced Rations, 43; Fair Exhibits, 44; Dairymen's Organizations, 44 ' CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY ••.•......•.•..... , ........................... . .•. . ..... .. ...• 45 Melanose and Stem-end Rot Control, 45; Blue Mold Decay Con trol, 46; Citrus Scab Control, 46; Psorosis and Gummosis Control, 47; Rust Mite Control, 47; Citrus Aphid Control, 48; Whitefly and Scale Control, 48; Fertilizer Demonstrations, 49; Irrigation, 49. POULTRY ........................... .. ..........•. . .......... .. . .. . . ........ . ..................... ...... . . ... . .... . . . ... . . 53 Program of Work, 53; Methods, 53; Projects, 54; Poultry Develop ment by Projects, 54; Poultry Associations, 59; Junior Poultry Clubs, 61; Miscellaneous, 62. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 64 Organization in the Counties, 64; Supervisory Program, 65; Office Organization, Records and Reports, 67; Maintenance and Training of Personnel, 67; Program Development and Analysis, 68; Pub licity, 68; Project Activities and Results, 69; Strengthening the Or ganization, 77. NEGRO EXTENSION WORK 81 Negro Extension Meetings, 81; County Meetings, 82; Fair Exhibits, 82; Results of Year's Work, 83; Negro Women's Work, 85.

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Hon. Doyle E. Carlton, Governor of Florida, . Tall,ahassee, Florida. _ SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1928, in cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1928. Respectfully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control. . .......

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BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola W. B. DAVIS, Perry E. W. LANE, Jacksonville A. H. BLANDING, Tampa FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc .• Director A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor ERNEST G. MOORE, M.S., Assistant Editor E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Specialist E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, B.S., District Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent MARYE. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ISABELLE s. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and Nutrition Agent

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COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* Home Demonstration County County Agents Address Agents Alachua .. ... ... F. L. Craft ........ . ..... Gainesville .......... . . Mrs. Grace F. Warren Baker ....... . .... W. H. Rumff .......... Macclenny ............................ ... ............. . ........ . Bradford ........ T. D. Rickenbaker .. Starke ........................................................... . Brevard . ... ..... . W. R. Briggs ..... . .... Cocoa ............... ..... ............. ..... ........... ... ..... ... . . Broward ........ C. E. Matthews ...... Ft. Lauderdale .... ... Miss Ethyl Holloway Calhoun .......... John G. Kelley ...... Blountstown . .. . ... ................ .. .............. , ... . ..... . Calhoun and Liberty ........................ Blountstown ........ Miss Josephine Nimmo Charlotte and Highlands ................ Punta Gorda ................ Miss May Winfield Citrus ........ . ................. .. ...................... Inverness . .. ... .... Mrs. Elizabeth W. Moore Citrus and Sumter ........ I. R. Nolen .............. Inverness ........... ...... ...................................... : Columbia ... '. .......................................... Lake City ........... . ........ Mrs. Lassie Black Dade ................ J. S. Rainey ............ Miami ........................ Miss Pansy Norton Dade (Asst.) .. C : H. Steffani ........ Homestead Miss Carrie Torbert (Miami) Duval .............. W. L. Watson ... . ...... Jacksonville ................ Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) J. 0. Traxler .......... Jacksonville ..... .. ............... .... .............. .... ..... . Duval (Asst.) C. H. Magoon ........ Jacksonville ....... . .................. . ................. . .... . Escambia . . ... ... E. P. Scott ............ .. . Pensacola ......... .. ........... Miss Della Stroud Flagler .......... L. T. Nieland .......... Bunnell ......... . .. .... ............. ..... . . .......... .. .. .... ... . Gadsden .... . .............. . .......................... Quincy .. .... . .......... . .. . ..... Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton ........ J. J. Sechrest .. : ....... Jasper ... ............. .. .............. ... ............... .•... ..... Hernando ...... John H. Logan ........ Brooksville ........ . ..... Mrs. Florence Albert Highlands .. . ... L. H. Alsmeyer ...... Sebring ....................................... '.:': ......... .. .... . Hillsborough .. C. P. Wright ............ Plant City' (E) .. .. .... Miss Motelle Madole Tampa (W) ....... ........ . Mrs. Mary S. Allen Holmes ...... . .............. .. ......................... Bonifay ............... . .. Mrs. Bettie A. Caudle Indian River .. W. E. Evans ............ Vero Beach ... .... ................................... .. ..... . Jackson .......... S. H. Rountree ........ Marianna .............. Miss Mary Sue Wigley Jefferson ........ E. H. Finlayson •..... Monticello .......... . ................ ... ......... . ... . .. . ...... . Lafayette ...... D. C. Geiger ............ Mayo . .......... ... .... . .................. . ................. . .. .. . . Lake ................ C. R. Hiatt .............• Tavares .. .......... Miss Christine McFerron Lee ............. . .... W. P. Hayman ...... ~.Ft. Myers .............. Miss Anna Mae Sikes Leon ................ G. C. Hodge .......... , .Tallahassee ............. . Mrs. Ruth C. Kellum Levy ............. N. J. Allbritton ...... Bronson ................................................... .' ..... . Liberty .......... A. W. Turner .... . ..... Bristol . ... .. . ..... ... . . ..................................... . .... . Madison ....... B. E. Lawton ........ .. . Madison ............ ... ................ . . . ................ .. ..... . Manatee .... .. .. L. H. Wilson ............ Bradenton .......... ...... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ......... ... Clyde H. Norton .... Ocala .............................. Miss Tillie Roese! Martin ..... .. . .. . . C. P. Heuck ....... . .... Stuart ................................. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . ... .. .... . Nassau ........ A. S. Lawton .......... Fernandina ....... .... ....... Miss Pearl Jordan Okaloosa ........ R. J. Hart ................ Crestview ...... .... ........ Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee .... C. A. Fulford .. .. . .. ... Okeechobee ........ .. .............. . .......................... . Orange . . .. ..... ... K. C. Moore ............ Orlando ................. . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ... .... ... J. R. Gunn .... .... . . .... Kissimmee ... . ... .. . .. . .. ... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . . S. W. Hiatt .... . ..... . . W. Palm Beach .. .. Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan Palm Beach (Asst.) ........ M. U. Mounts ....... W. Palm Beach ............ Miss Bernice Ly:e Pinellas .... ... . .. William Gomme .... Clearwater ................ Mrs. Joy Belle Hess Polk .... .... . ... . . . . F. L . Holland ... . . ... .. Bartow ............. .... . ...... .... Miss Lois Godbey Bartow (Asst.) .. . ..... Miss Mosel Preston St. Johns ... . . . E. H. Vance .... ... ..... St. Augustine .... .... .......... Miss Anna Heist St. Lucie .. . ..... Alfred Warren ........ Ft. Pierce ........ . ............................................ . Santa Rosa .... John G. Hudson . . .... Milton ..... .......... .... . .... Miss Martha Moore Sarasota . .... . . . P . M. Childers ... . . ... Sara s ota . ... .... . .... . . .. .. ......... .. . . ............... . . .... .. . Suwannee and Hamilton .... W. W. Green ..... . .... Live Oak .......... . ................. .. .................... . . .. Taylor ..... . . ... .. R. S. Dennis ...... .. ... Perry .. .. ........... ... . ... .... Mrs. Anabel Powell Union .... ..... . . . L. T. Dyer ....... .. . .. .. Lake Butler . . .. ..................... . .................. . .... . Volusia ............ T. A . Brown . . .. . .. . .. DeLand ............................ Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla ......... . D. M. Treadwell .... Crawfordville . ........... ....... ... . ........ .......... ...... . Walton .... ..... . Mitchell Wilkins .... DeFuniak Springs ... ,Miss Eloise McGriff Washington . ... Gus York ........... . .... Chipley ............ .. .. . ............. ...... ............. ... ..... . *This list correct to December 31, 1928.

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Fig . 1.-Working for a better Florida agricultureFlorida's county and h ome demonstration agents.

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REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1928 With Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1928 Hon. P. K. Yong e , Chairman, Board of Conl'rol. SIR: I have the honor to submit her e with the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Di v ision, College of Agricultur a, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1928. I respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. Re s pectfully, '\\ 7 ILMON NEWELL, Di r ector. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Receipts College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal ....... . .. . .. .... .. . .......... .... . . . . ... . $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State ....... ... .... . .. .. ....... . ........... . . .. . . . . 48,872.25 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .. ... . . . .. . .. . 15,496.08 Supplementary Smith-Lever , S t ate . . .. ... . .. . . .. . .. . 15,496.08 U. S. D. A. Appropriation .. . . ..... . . . . . .. . . . . .. ..... . .. .. . .. .. .... . 21,475.00 State Appropriations .. . ... ....... . .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. .... .... . .. .. . . .. .. , .. , 43,058.92 County Appropriations . ...... . ... .. ... .... . . . . , ......... . . .... . . . . .. .. 186,696.08 Expenditures Administration . ... .. . . . .. . ... ... .. .. .. ... . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . ... . .. . . .. ....... . . 8,803.31 Printing and Publications .. .... .. ..... . .. ... ...... ... ... .. . .. .. .... 6 , 010.67 County Agent Work .. .. ..... . . .. . . . . .. ...... . . . .. ......... ... . . . . :. . . .. 184,406.02 Home Demonstration Work .. .. ... . .. .... .. .. . . ..... , .. . ...... .... . 124,376.72 Foods and Marketing .................. ......... .................. . . . . . 4,271.30 Dairy and Nutrition . . .. ................. ... . .... .. . ........... .. . . . . . . . . . 4,100.00 Boys ' Club Work ........ ......... ...... .. . . .. 7,664.41 Dairy Husbandry . . . . . . ........ . ...... . . .. . .. . .. . . ... . ..... . .... .... . . . . . . . 4,795 . 95 Negro Agents' Club Work .... . . .. .. . . .. ....... . . . ........... . . . .. .. 2 0,304 . 15 Plant Pathology and Entomology . . ............ . ... . .. . . .. .. . . . 5,410.42 Poultry Husbandry .............. ... .. . ... .. . .. . . .......... . ... .. .. . . . .. . 4,757.97 Extension Schools and Farmers' Week .................. . . 2,565.74 Florida National Egg Laying Contest ........... . ... ... . . 12,500.00 $389,966.60 $ 3 89,966.66

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida is conducted as one of the three divisions of the College of Agriculture and according to cooperative terms contained in the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. During the past year, no changes of importance have taken place. The relationship of the Uni versity of Florida in cooperation with the county boards has been the same since the beginning of Extension work in this stab,. While the headquarters for all Extension work is at the Uni versity, the offices of the . State Horne Demonstration Agent are located at the State College for Women, and the office of the Negro agents is located at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes at Tallahassee. Extension work in Florida may be divided under three main headings: (a) Agricultural work for men and boys, (b) home demonstration work for women and girls, and (c) Negro work in agriculture and home economics. ORGANIZATION The organization consists of supervisors as follows: director, vice-director and county agent leader, three district agents, one state home demonstration, one assistant state agent, three dis trict home demonstration agents; specialists: boys' club agent, citrus pathologist and entomologist, dairyman, poultryrnan, home dairy and nutrition agent, food and marketing agent, and one district agent for the Negro work. The revenue supporting Extension work is provided from the following sources: (1) appropriations by the United States De partment of Agriculture, (2) appropriations by the legislature of the State of Florida, and (3) county appropriations. These appropriations are governed by Acts of Congress and the State Legislature and are administered by the Agricultural Extension Division. The authority for making county appropriations is provided in a clause permitting county boards to make a levy for agriculture and home economics purposes, thereby permitting county boards to enter into agreement with the Extension Di vision for the employment of county and home demonstration agents . . . AH appointments for extension work are approved by

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Annual Report, 1928 the State Board of Control and by the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture before they become effective. Agricultural Extension work in Florida has not materially changed since 1927. The legislature of 1927 made increased ap propriations to conduct Extension work, during the biennium, but the amounts were still not sufficient to carry out all the work for which there is a steady demand. The cooperation in counties has remained about the same as in 1927, but with some interruption on account of reduced values and reduced business. Extension work in Florida is dependent on county appropriations -the average appropriation by counties is about 300 percent of the amount applied by the federal and state governments for the employment of county workers. Because of the more difficult financial situation generally over the state, more trouble has been experienced the past year in securing county funds. There has been no increase in the number of county agents; however, there has been a slight increase in the number of home demonstration agents employed. Extension work during the past year has been conducted in 52 Florida counties. In. these counties agents are confronted with agricultural and home economics problems of practically every nature. In order that everyone shall be well informed and in a position to take a leading part in the counties, it is the plan to provide every facility so that the efficiency of these agents can be increased. This is done by conferences with the Agricul tural College and Experiment Station and Florida's State College for Women staffs during annual meeting. These agents are sup plied with the latest information as published by the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agri culture, in addition to the help that can be given by the Extension Specialists and subject matter workers in the colleges. All extension agents submit programs of work at the beginning of the year, and as a basis for this, the extension specialists make recommendations governing the entire area, and the county agents, in cooperation with district agents, apply the specialists' plans as far as conditions will permit. The purpose is to sys tematize the projects undertaken by the Extension Service and have them carried out cooperatively between extension specialist and the county workers.

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10 Florida Cooperativ e E x tension LINES OF WORK There is a decided demand for Extension work in Agricultural Economics. Request s are coming for costs of production and for help in establishing new cash crops. There has been a demand r.-----;;::----::;--= = ==---= ;,,::-::-=-:=::----,-,,,=---;;--, ,=-, for assistance for i m p r o v i n g the s t a n d a r d s and grades of vege tables and fruits, a nd for cooperative marketing. There is an in creased interest in the production of beef cattle in coun ties w h e r e tick eradication has m a d e progress. Several carloads of p u r e b r e d and g r a d e breeding stock have been p 1 a c e d on the ranges for the im provement of the li'ig. 2.-Tick eradication i s followed by the intr o native s tock. At duction of more purebred beef cattle into Florida the sa me time, there ha s been a general reduction in the number of native cattle, leaving these open ranges almost free of livestock. An effort i s being made to re-stock these with better animals and to introduce better pastures so that this large area will begin to bring in large revenues. The elimination of the cattle tick ha s made it possible to mak e better progress in dairying. Through the efforts of the co unt y agents and dairy specia li st a number of high grade and purebred dairy animals ha ve been shipped into Florida to improve the dair y herd s . Much of this has been done through club work, and where the ticks have been held in check these importations have been satisfactory and profitable. In addition to this, s tock

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Annual Report, 1928 11 raisers have made a decided attempt to improve pastures, and during the spring of 1928 the Agricultural Extension Division distributed through extension agents' efforts about four tons of carpet grass seed. There has been some interest in the erection of silos and in the more economical feeding of dairy cattle. Some progress has been made to interest dairymen in the keeping of records and in the elimination of unprofitable cattle. The dairy calf club work has made progress in counties where the cattle tick is under control. There was . a decided increase in the number of poultry flocks and hatcheries during 1927; however, there has been some re trenchment since March of 1928, as the large hatcheries were unable to find sale for their baby chicks, and the number of commercial poultry plants is slightly reduced. The entries in the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were reduced from 96 to 81. The number of improved birds on farms, however, has increased, and the improvement of the farm flock is decidedly greater than at any previous time. The Extension Poultryman is unable to meet the demands, and county agents who take a special interest in farm poultry are finding their work profitable and more appreciated. The number of counties cooperating with the Extension Division in the employment of county workers is largely de . pendent on the abilities of the respective counties to finance the work. With larger allotments from state and federal sources, it is evident there would be a demand for work in both agricul ture and home economics in practically every Florida county. It is evident that county and home demonstration agents must render personal service . as well as carry out cooperative county projects. The demand for trained men continues to increase, and this is particularly true in sections of Florida where the agriculture is specialized. County agents are called upon to serve in many capacities that in some cases are somewhat aside from the real agricultural problems. A small part of the agents have as a part of their duties the vaccination of hogs, and assist in a personal way in many such undertakings. Many others work in cooperation with the State Livestock Sanitary Board in the vaccination of hogs against cholera.

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension 4-H CLUB WORK The railroads have expressed their appreciation for extension work by offering trips and scholarships to club members. The State Bankers' Association has made contributions and indicated support of organized 4-H club work. County boards and in dividuals have contributed to funds to provide scholarships for the attendance of girls and boys at short courses at the State College for Women and at the College of Agriculture. Scholar ships have been provided so that successful club members can take a course of study in agriculture at the University of Florida. The citizens and business men of West Florida have made pos sible, at a cost of several thousand dollars, the erection and operation of a boys' club camp located on the , Choctawhatchee Bay. On the whole, the boys and girls 4-H clubs are receiving recognition from leading interests. The club work in Central and South Florida, due to the character of crops produced, has been more difficult to establish. As yet the character of club work offered to the boys of that section has not been easy to handle, due to the speculative nature of the crops and the absence of typical farm conditions. The giris' club work in these sections, however, has made substantial progress and is being generally recognized as an important part of extension work.

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Annual Report, 1928 13 FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK The Seventh Annual Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was conducted on the University campus August 13-18, 1928 , with an attendance of 1,200 people from all parts of Florida. Board and room was furnished to visitors by the University of Florida at the actual cost of $1.50 per day. Provision was made for visitors to occupy dormitory rooms. The program was divided into sections covering subjects re lated to farm life, such as, farm crops, livestock and dairying, vegetable crops, citrus and subtropical fruits, pecans, small fruits, and ornamentals, bee-keeping, poultry, home economics and agricultural economics. Each section was further divided by subjects, furnishing a variety of topics suitable to the wishes of those who attended. The program committee secured speakers from the various departments of the College of Agriculture, Agricultural Exten sion Division, Experiment Station, State College for Women and State Plant Board and other institutions. Growers also took part in the programs. Assistance was furnished by the State Department of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, Live Stock Sanitary Board and other departments of the state governmen'.t. Each day at 11 A. M. all sectional programs closed, so that visitors might assemble in the auditorium to hear a popular lecture. The night programs were entirely entertainment con sisting of music, plays, etc. One afternoon was devoted to a farmers' picnic where lunch and entertainment was provided free of cost to the visitors. The home economics section had special programs for women. This was carried out under the direction of the State Home Demonstration staff. Throughout the week a total of 200 programs were carried on consisting of laboratory studies, agricultural and home economics lectures, inspirational and entertainment periods.

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14 Florida Cooperative . Extension PUBLICATIONS J. Francis Cooper, Editor Ernest G. Moore, Assistant Editor The following publications were issued by the Agricultural Extension Division during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928. All of these were edited and proof-read by the Extension Editors. Bul. 45 Bul. 47 Bul. 48 Circ. 975 Circ. 976 Circ. 977 Circ. 980 H.D. Bul. 45 Final Report, Weekly 1928 9 issues Title Pages Poultry Houses and Equipment (Reprint) 20 Culling for Egg Production . .. .. ....... 12 Flowering Bulb Culture in Florida 36 Second Year Sewing (Reprint) .... 12 Third Year Sewing (Reprint)...... 8 Fourth Year Sewing (Reprint) ...... 12 Why Grow Tomatoes ...................... 22 Florida Club Songs ..... . ......... ... ........ 56 First Florida National Egg-Laying Contest ......... . ............. .. ................ . ...... 12 Agricultural News Service ... ......... 1 Calendar ....... ... . . ..... . .. ... .. .. ............. . ..... 12 Florida Pepper (Club Paper) .. ...... 2 Ten Lessons for Poultry C 1 u b Members ........... . .......... ....... ....... . ......... 16 Copies 10,333 10,000 13,000 10,000 10,000 . 5,000 10,050 5,000 1,250 28,560 (42 wks.) 8,819 81,600 8,255 Extension publications are distributed from the mailing room, which is under the Editors' supervision. Formerly, classified mailing lists were maintained, and whenever a bulletin was issued, it was sent to all names of a certain classification. For instance, a bulletin on horticulture was sent to all mailing list names of those who were interested in horticulture. However, this practice has been changed in an effort to avoid wasting bulletins and to see that they reach only people who are really interested in the individual bulletin. The mailing list now main tained is general. When a new bulletin is issued, a card giving itstitle and a short resume of its contents is mailed to the entire list. Those who are interested in the particular bulletin can re turn the card and a copy of the bulletin will be sent them. Thus, only those particularly interested in the bulletin at hand receive a copy of it. Of course, copies of any bulletins are sent free on special re quest at any time.

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Annual Report, 1928 15 NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST REPORTS Fifty-one weekly progress reports of the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest were printed during the fiscal year. Each of these was of four pages. They were sent to 750 people each week. A final report, 12 pages in length, was printed and dis tributed. NEWS AND FARM PAPER STORIES The weekly Agricultural News Service was the principal means used to carry extension information to the people through the newspapers. An average of about nine stories each week, some relating to extension work and others to the Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, and the State Plant Board, were sent out through this service. That the papers used these stories is indicated by a check and compilation made by the Assistant Editor. During the year the Editors received on their exchange desk copies of 90 weekly papers. This is approximately three-fourths of the weeklies published in Florida, and should give a fairly accurate indica tion of the use the Florida papers made of material contained in the clip-sheet. Actual measurement of Agricultural News Service stories re printed in the 90 weeklies received in the editorial office showed that a total of 38,980 column inches were used during the year. Since the 90 weeklies represent only three-fourths of those pub lished in the state, and it seems fair to believe that the 90 re".' ceived were representative, it is estimated that a total of 51,970 column inches of Agricultural News Service material was re printed by Florida weekly papers during the year. This is equiv alent to approximately 1,000 column inches or 50 columns each week. A total of 121 stories were sent to the Associated Press during the year. These were distributed by the Associated Press to its 48 member papers in Florida. The Extension Editor conducts a farm page in one Florida daily paper. This page runs each Sunday, and contains stories of Extension work. During Farmers' Week, a Farmers' Week page was run in one of the Gainesville dailies from Tuesday through Friday. The stories for this page were prepared by the Extension Editors, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension About 12 special news stories were prepared and distributed directly to one or more Florida newspapers during the year. Six special stories, amounting to 45 inches of printed matter, were . prepared for two different national farm news publications during the year. A total of 50 different stories were prepared by the Editors and published in eight different Florida and Southern farm papers during the year. These amounted to 1,495 inches of printed matter. In addition, these farm papers reprinted many stories from the Agricultural News Service. Copies of press bulletins, circulars, etc., were sent to farm paper editors as they became timely during the year, and were published. It should be remembered that the Editors devote a considerable portion of their time to work for the Experiment Station. TRAINING IN NEWS WRITING The Editor conducted a two-day news writing training school in wh1ch 14 club boys and girls of Gadsden County were given training, and two one-day schools in which 25 club girls of Volusia County were instructed. The Assistant Editor gave short lessons in news writing to 11 boys attending the annual club short course, and assisted them in issuing a daily mimeographed club short course newspaper. The Editor attended the Girls' Club Short Course at Tallahassee and trained two girls from each county in news writing. Two short course newspapers were issued and read at assembly. During the fiscal year, the Extension ' Editor made a trip to Chipley'to advise with the supervisor of the National Egg-Laying Contest concerning the monthly reports of the contest. As a result, the supervisor has since that time issued monthly press bulletins dealing with the progress of the contest. These press bulletins are used in many of the papers, and are copied almost exactly as they are each month by the Associated Press and sent to its members.

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Annual Report, 1928 COUNTY AGENT WORK A. P. Spencer, County Agent Leader H. G. Clayton, District Agent J. Lee Smith, District Agent W. T. Nettles, District Agent 17 Forty-eight counties are represented in the report for 1923 as employing county agents in conducting agricultural extension work. The counties are divided into three districts each super vised by a district agent. During the calendar year there were 13 changes in the personnel of county agents, including transfers and new appointments. This is about the usual number and less than that in 1927. There were four more counties in the work in 1928 than in 1927. The work in the counties has been carried along with about the usual program; however, there has been some reduction in county finances that has interfered with the progress and caused un certainty in the minds of agents as to the continuation of their work. A reduction in the amount paid to county agents was made in Madison, Palm Beach, and Broward counties, while an increase was given in Nassau, Okaloosa, Liberty, and Washington counties. Some reduction was made by county boards in miscel laneous expenditures. This was principally for clerical help and fair expenses. Two county agents were appointed to work in two counties each. These were paid entirely from funds secured through the passage of the Capper-Ketcham Act by Congress. The work of agents in these four counties is confined largely to boys' club work. The county in each case provides an office but does not contribute to the salary and expenses of the agent. This, how ever, is considered a temporary arrangement and it is hoped that the work can be enlarged and the counties affected to such an extent that the county boards would favor the advisability of cooperating in a financial way. COUNTY PROGRAMS Each county agent has a program of work made at the be ginning of the year to be used as a basis for conducting extension work, and while these programs conform to very definite projects, there are still many instances where the county agent's time is taken up with things secondary to his program, due largely to

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension the demand made on his services for conducting contests, fairs, and various assistance called for by business men, farmers, and newcomers. The recommendations of committees made during the regular annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents are used as a guide in making up county programs. Owing to the variation in agriculture and demands, a program that is flexible must be adopted in practically every county. This is particularly true in Central and South Florida counties where there have been large expenditures made for advertising and a general developing situation that is responsible for the incoming of many people not accustomed to agriculture. In this section, on the whole, the programs throughout the year have more nearly conformed to the original plans than in any previous year. This is due to a better understanding of the taxpayers and the greater appreciation of the public generally for improved agri culture by systematic plans and methods. It is gratifying to know that extension work has been carried on in 48 counties in 1928 as against 44 in 1927 in spite of the fact that there has been general retrenchment in all lines of business and rriany phases of county work aside from extension have been dropped because of the lack of funds. In most of the counties the agents are supplied with convenient offices with telephones and other necessary equipment. In about 30 percent of the offices the agents are supplied with clerical services for either part or all of the time, and this expense is borne by the county; usually such clerical help is divided by the county and home demonstration agent, whose offices are usually together or adjoining. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out ..... .. ...... . ................... .. .......................... . ..... .. ............. .. . . ... .. ................... 451 Voluntary county, community and local leaders............. ... .................. 595 .Clubs carrying on extension work ........ .. .. . .......................... . .................... 237 Memberships .......................... , ..................................................................... 3,855 Farm visits made by county agents ...... . ....................... ... .. . : ................... 37,189 Different farms visited . . . .. ......... . ....................... . .. .. ....... . ....... ..... .. . ............ 13,082 Average number . days spent in office .... .. ... ... ......... . ........ .. . . .. . .. . ............ 79 Average number days spent in field ..... . .... . .. ... .............. . ................. : ..... 224 Official letters written .............................. .. ....................... ... ................... .47,858 Exhibits at fairs ............. .. ........................... . ....................... .... .................... 63 Co . mm unity ....................................... . .......................... .. .... 21 ~f:t~ty .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::: : 4g

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Annual Report, 1928 Number Farmers' meetings held .................................................. 1,972 Extension schools and short courses held..... . .............. 25 Total attendance club members, junior encampments 19 .Attendance 28,057 717 and rallies ........... .. ............ .. .............. . . . .... . ..... .. ........... . ........... .. .. . . . ...... . . 782 PROGRAM SUMMARY Of Outlined Projects by County Agents Number communities . participating Soils ................ . ........................................ . .............. . ......... 301 Farm crops .. .. ......................... .. ........... . . .. ...................... 349 Horticulture .. .... ...... . . ..... ......... . . . ........... ... . . ...... ...... ......... 274 Forestry 18 Rodents, predatory animals and birds.......... ... ......... 91 Animal husbandry .. . . . ...... . ..... . ........... . . .. . .. ..... . .. . . ... ....... 288 Dairy husbandry ........ . ............. . . . ............... . . ..... . .. : ......... 153 Poultry husbandry .... . ............. . ....... : ...... : ...................... 237 Rural engineering . . ............. .. . . ..................................... 176 Agricultural economics ......... . ... . ......... .. . . ...... .. . . . . . . ....... 268 Miscellaneous work .... . .......... . ............. . . , . . ...... . . '. ........... 113 Community activities . .......... .. ...................................... 20 Total . . ... . ........ . . . ... . ... , .... .... . .................................. 2,288 Days agents devoted to . projects 904 1,886 1,998 . 76 193 1,820 601 1,058 426 650 839 , 213 10,666 1 /4 SPECIALISTS' WORK WITH COUNTY AGENTS The Extension Division has three specialists for men's work and their programs are submitted to county agents at the be ginning of the year, who in turn incorporate them in the county plans. The specialists' work is confined to citrus culture, dairy ing, and poultry. It enables the county agents to have the as sistance of experts in the direction of their programs. Since these specialists have offices at the College of Agriculture, they in turn work in cooperation with workers in the Experiment Station who are constantly making investigations, (A report of the specialists' work is included in this . report in a later chapter). BOYS' CLUB WORK County agents conduct boys' club work as a part of their regular duties, with the assistance of the boys' club agent located at the state headquarters. Boys' club work is an important part of the county agent's work, particularly in the general farming area. It applies best in the sections adapted to the growing of corn, cotton, peanuts, and general farm crops. It has been more difficult to secure the best results in the . horticultural section of Florida, except in the organization of the boys' club for

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension poultry. The county agents are responsible for the enrollment and membership of clubs and for making local arrangements for club boys to continue their work. They also assume responsibility for ~ecuring finances for special prize trips and scholarships. In some counties club work constitutes 75 percent of the . county agent's work. EXTENSION MEETINGS Extension meetings are conducted largely at the request of local leaders and county agents. The number and character of these vary. There were 1,740 meetings of a general nature with an attendance of 23,366 held during the year. In addition there were 25 extension schools and short courses with an attendance of 717. In these meetings, assistance was rendered by the county agents, and in most cases with the additional help of district agents and specialists. These meetings were held for the pur pose of instruction, cooperative purchases and sales, for social purposes, and for the planning of programs. Most of these meet ings were held in counties having county agents. STATE MEETINGS The annual meeting of county and home demonstration agents was conducted in October, lasting one week. The program called for a series of conferences where the agents were divided according to the type of agriculture that engaged their attention in their home counties. Those taking part in the program are not confined to the extension organization, as assistance was drawn from the College of Agriculture, Experiment Station, State Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture, and State College for Women. A part of the home demonstration agents' meeting was held at the State College for Women, Talla hassee, and their program while there was confined to strictly home economics subjects. During the time the home demonstra tion agents were in session with the county agents, the program was so arranged that agricultural matters affecting both sides of the work were discussed. OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES Due to the financial arrangements and the general interest in agriculture by people only indirectly connected with it, county

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Annual Report, 1928 21 agents are called upon to perform a variety of duties. Perhaps the largest of these is the management of county fairs and exhibits at state fairs. The fair organizations have relied very heavily on the extension organization for the success of their fairs. County boards, after having made appropriations for state fairs, feel that it is the responsibility of the county agent to see that the exhibit is secured and pr9perly arranged. This ap plies particularly to the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville, and the South Florida Fair at Tampa, and to some extent the same help was given with the larger county fairs. In these instances both county and home demonstration agents have been callerl upon to serve on committees or to take the active responsibility for the success of the displays of the county. These fairs offer in return an opportunity to exhibit extension work, particularly boys' and girls' club work. They have also contributed space and funds for a display of the Negro extension work. In these cases, too, the Negro agents assume the responsibility for a dis play of the farmers' products. COUNTY AGENT PROGRAMS OF WORK The following facts are taken from annual reports of county agents submitted to the state office for 1928. SOILS The county agents' work on the soils programs has been for the purpose of improving the productiveness of the soils, prin cipally . with the use of cover crops, and this has varied in the different . sections. In the general farming area the county agents have con ducted 96 cover crop demonstrations. Some of these were summer crops such as cowpeas, velvet beans, soybeans, crotalaria, etc.; others were winter crops such as rye, oats, hairy vetch, and Austrian winter peas. The fall of 1927 the county agents conducted vetch and Austrian winter pea demonstra tions, using 6,000 pounds of seed, and the fall of 1928 they started 243 demonstrations, using 50,000 pounds of seed. Florida farmers need to make a more liberal use of com mercial fertilizers. Most of them use only a little kainit or a little acid phosphate on most field crops. Others use a small amount of a complete fertilizer without much knowledge of

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22 Flo rida Cooperative E x t ension what they are about . District and county agents have for two or three years been attacking this problem from two angles. First, by a series of meetings explaining the use of the different plant food elements, a nd second, by some concrete, definite demonstrations. They held 96 meetings and conducted many demonstrations in line with this at tack. In one horti cultural county, Highlands , accord ing to the be s t ava ilable record . -,, there were 10 acres of crotalaria , 58 ac re s of beggar weed, 125 ac r es of cowpeas, and 15 acres of v e 1 v e t beans g r o w n in 1926. A cov er crop campaign was put on by the county agent in 1927. Fol lowing this, a care ful check , s howed Fig. 3 . -Co unt y agents of northern and western Florida are s how i ng their farmers t hat Austhat 952 acres of trian peas mak e a good winter cover crop . crotalaria, 3 3 5 acre s of beggarweed, 376 acres of cowpeas, and 40 acres of ve lvet beans were grown in the county. Continuing this through 1928, there were grown by 101 growers in this county 2,838 acres of crotalaria, 539 acres of beggarweed, 873 acres of cowpeas, and 201 acres of velvet beans, or a total of 4,451 acres in legume . cover crops. In addition there were approximately 2,000 acres of cover crops which were seeded from the -plantings of the pr ev ious years. The growing of the se crops has been of much va lue to the citrus industry of this section. In the horticultural territory during the year 1928, county agents conducted 191 demonstrations with soils, involving 2,079 acres. Four hundred and s i xteen farmer s adopted improv e d fertilizer practices thi s year, in v olving 2 , 583 tons of fertilizer.

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Annual Report, 1928 23 One hundred and fifty-two farmers plowed under cover crops for the first time on 4,232 acres. A total of 756 farmers adopted improved practices in some phase of soils work during the year. SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given ........ . ... . ..... .. . . ...... . ... .... . .. ...... . .................. .. .. . .. .. ........... 1,544 Acres involved in completed demonstrations .. ...... ...... ... . ... . . ... .... . . . . . ... . . .. . . .. 6,641 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management . . .... . ............... 2,357 Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers.................... 1,912 Tons commercial fertilizer involved ........ . . . .................................... . ............ 11,611 Farmers taking better care of farm manures........... . . ........... .. ... . ...... . ....... 401 Farmers using lime or limestone ....... . .... ... ........ . .. . ... . . .. ......... ..... . . .. . . . .. .. .. ... 111 Tons of lime or limestone so used . ........ ... . . ............ . ... . .. _............................. 1,982 Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement.............. 330 Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under . . ........................... : 10,349 FARM CROPS Corn-Approximately 62 percent of the land grown to any crop in the general farming territory is grown to corn. According to federal statistics, an average of 15 bushels of corn is being produced per acre at a cost of approximately $1.12 per bushel. It is known that when a better seedbed is made, better seed used, and a more liberal amount of nitrogenous fertilizer used, the production per acre can be increased and the cost correspondingly decreased. There were 248 demonstrations composed of 405 acres conducted this year to show a more economical method of corn production. On, these demonstrations there were produced 18,920 bushels of corn at a cost of approximately 54 cents per bushel. If these better methods were generally used, it would mean approximately 8,651,280 bushels more corn to the 16 gen-' eral farming counties, worth $6,000,000 at present prices. CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats, etc.) Number demonstrations given .'. ............ ..... . . ............................... . ... .............. 872. Acreage grown under demonstrations .... . . ............. : : .. . ... : ......................... .. . 1,976 Boys' and girls' clubs ... . . . . ........ . . . . . .. .. . .. . .... . . .. . . .. . ... . .. . ... . ..... . . .. .... . . . . . ...... . .... . .... 34 Acreage grown by club members ........ .. . . .............. . . .. . . ...... ,........................ . 216 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ................................ 8,469 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices....... . .. . ........... ...... .............. 935 Farmers who planted selected and improved seed. .. . . ............ . . . .. . . . .. ......... 397 Farmers who treated seed grain for smut, first time....... . ... . ..... . ........... . 30 COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Number demonstrations given . . .. ............... . ........... . ............... ,. . ..... . .............. 257 Acreage grown under improved methods .. .............. . . . .. . ....... . .. . . . . .. ......... . . . 408 Farms influenced to adopt better practice .................. . . . .......... .. .... . ............ 209 Boys' and girls' clubs .............. . . ................... . ................ . .................. .. ............. 32 Members enrolled .... . ............... . ... . ................................. . ............... . .. .. ............. 250

PAGE 25

24 Florida Coop e rative E x tension Acreage grown by club members ......... ... . . ...... .... .. . .. . .. . ............. . ... .. .... . ....... 117 Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) .. ................. . .. .. ...... ... . . .. . .. .. .... 54,933 Farmers who planted improved seed fir s t time . . . .. . . .. ...... .. . . . ..... .... .. ... . ..... 125 Cotton-The average prod.uction of cotton per acre in Florida for 1928 was approximately 275 pounds of seed cotton. The cost of producing this yield is approximately the same in every item, except fertilizer and seed , as that of the 90 demonstrations con ducted by the county agents of the 16 counties which compose the cotton belt of the state. With an added expense of ap proximately $12 per acre for better seed and more and better fertilizer, these demonstrators produced 83,227 pounds of seed cotton; or an average of 925 pounds per acre. If the methods advanced by the county agents had been followed in growing this 94,000 acres of cotton, it would probably have meant a great part of $3,000,000 more to these 16 counties. Peanuts--Peanuts are grown in Florida for hog feed and for commercial purposes. Most of those grown for hog feed are of the runner type and those for market, the bunch type. The latter is of the Spanish variety. Demonstrations were conducted this year to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer on the running type and closer spacing of the bunch. The county agents of this territory conducted 95 demonstrations. The yields in the demonstrations were about two and one-half times the average of the farmers. Many farmers will follow the methods used on these demonstrations another year. LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts , etc.) Number method demonstrations given .. .. ....... . ..... . .. . . .. ..... . ...... .. . . .. .... . ... .. . . 692 Number result demon s trations under way .. .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . . ..... . ..... ... . . .... .. .. .. .. .. 927 Number re s ult demonstrations completed . ...... ... ..... . . ........ . . . .............. . . . ..... 564 Acres in completed d e monstrations . . .. ... .. .. . ........ .. . .. . . . . ... .. .. . ... . . ..... .. . . . ..... . .. 5,631 Pastures--There has been considerable interest, chiefly among the dairymen, in establishing permanent pastures. This interest has come about from seeing results obtained on some demonstra tion pastures started three years ago, and as a result of competi tion in the dairy business which has caused dairymen to . want to grow feed in order to reduce production costs. Fifty-three dem onstrations with pastures were conducted by the agents in 10 counties, and the 516 acres involved were seeded to improved grasses, chiefly carpet grass, Dallis grass, and lespedeza.

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Annual Report, 1928 25 HORTICULTURE Citrus-In the spring a series of citrus field meetings was scheduled covering the citrus belt, 21 meetings being held in 11 counties of this territory, with a total attendance of 580 growers. Fertilization, cover crops, irrigation, and insect and disease con trol were the main subjects discussed. These meetings were conducted largely as roundtable discussions between extension workers and small groups of growers. The district agents took part in 24 of these field meetings held in 12 counties. These small meetings of interested growers are very helpful and growers take an active part in the discussion of production problems. During the year 102 demonstrations were conducted involving 3,141 acres of groves. Truck Crops-The work on truck crops for the year consisted largely of insect and disease control on tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, watermelons , beans, and cabbage. The im portance of seed treatment and the planting of the best seed _ available have been stressed. Truck crops are expensive to produce and are subject to many disease and . insect pests. The county agents do a large part of the truck work as personal service work; however, some demonstrations in varieties, spray mixing, and with fertilizers are carried on. During the year the ag _ ents in the truck territory reported 64 demonstrations involv ing 201 acres of truck crops. One hundred and forty-nine farmers sprayed or dusted 766 acres for insect and disease con trol who had not sprayed or dusted before; 244 farmers adopted improved practices with truck crops. The growing of bulbs on a commercial scale is being carried on in a few counties. The plantings have, as a rule, done well and are gradually being increased. SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATION$ Number of demonstrations given .. ... . . .... .... . ... . . ... . .... .. .. .. . . . .. . .... . :... ... ....... 518 Acr ea ge grown und e r improved methods ........ . .... . , ... . . ... .......... .... .. . .. .... . 2,047 1 A Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . .. . .. . . . ... . ............. .. ... . .. .. . ... 724 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed ... .. . . .. ............ ..... . ..... . . 231 Farmers who tr e ated seed for disea s e . .... . .. . . . . . ... . . . .. ... . . .. . ..... ..... . .. .. . . . ... 200 Farmer s who sprayed or dusted t o control di s ease s and insect s . . . . .. 238 Other Fruits-Grapes, Avocados, Mangoes, Etc.-The grape acreage is being increased . somewhat and grape growers are gradually working out the be s t ways to handle this . crop. Grapes a r e r~latively new in Florida, and there were many points to be

PAGE 27

26 Florida Cooperative Extension worked out under Florida conditions. County agents have kept up with the best practices and methods and have been of much service to new growers with little experience in grape culture. Assistance and information have been rendered growers on spraying, culture, and fertilization of mangoes, avocados, and other tropical fruits. The commercial production of satsumas, blueberries, grapes, and pears in West Florida is a new industry. The county agents have spent a good deal of time with the growers advising them of the proper methods of setting, cultivating, fertilizing, and spray ing of these fruits. The district and county agents made a tour of the satsuma groves in the fall to advise best means of putting them into the winter. The county agents have assisted the growers in pooling orders for trees, in picking the fruit, in pack ing it, and in selling it. HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS Number method demonstrations given .................................................... 2,502 Number result demonstrations ........................................ ... .. ... ................ 1;294 Result demonstrations completed during year .................. . ..................... 1,511 Acres involved in demonstrations .......... ... ............................ . .................. 17,036 Number of boys' clubs ........... : ................ '. ,.................................................. 19 Membership ................. . ...... ... ....................... .. ....... . .............. . ........ . .. .. .......... .. 488 Number planting improved stock or seed first time... .... ..................... 934 Number pruning first time .... .. :......................................... . ...... . ............. . 180 Trees involved ................... . .................................................. ... .. ... ................ 68,670 Acres involved ............................................. . .......................... . ..................... 76 Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests.............. 931 Acres treated .......................... .. ............... ...... ............. : ..... . ........... . . ..... ......... 32,785 % Number farms adopting improved practices . .... . ..... .. .. .... .. .. .. ... ............ 385 BEAUTIFICATION Until two years ago no beautification work had been under taken by North Florida county agents. This last season two or three of them did a splendid piece of work at it. They assisted in beautifying 226 homes. In ornamental work the county agent of Okeechobee County cooperated with the woman's club and parent teachers' associa tion, and 28 home grounds, as well as the school grounds and city park, were beautified. Forty-three club boys in Palm Beach County completed their project in ornamental club work. This work was largely a matter of growing the ornamentals in pots and later transferring them to their home grounds for beautifi cation.

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Annual Report, 1928 27 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Hogs-One of the most consistent revenue-producers of North Florida is swine. The county agents' work with swine takes on about four aspects; namely, fattening, breeding, cholera con trol, and marketing. There were 67,000 hogs vaccinated against cholera for 1,500 farmers during the year. There were hundreds of breeding and feeding demonstrations conducted. The county agents have placed purebred hogs on the farms of North Florida the last season. Therefore, there are at present more purebred and high grade hogs on the farms than at any time since the deflation in 1920. Several car-lot sales were conducted. There were 306 pigs shown at the State Fair by 4-H club members. Starting two years ago with nothing, the county agent in Nassau this year has 250 purebred hogs owned by the club boys and has placed 60 purebred boars with the farmers of the county. One cooperative hog selling association was organized during the year, and it has handled four cars of hogs to date. The association organized in Levy County last year has marketed several cars of hogs. HOG DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given ......................... . . . .... .. . ... . . ...................................... 1,886 Animals in completed demonstrations ............ .... ................................ 12,137 Savings resulting from better practices ............................................ $10,834.88 Farmers who secured purebred sires . . ....... .. :...................................... 262 Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females................................ 233 Farmers who fed better balanced rations ........................ :................... 253 Farmers culling breeding stock ............. .. ...... . ...................................... 100 Number of animals culled out ................................................................ 699 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests .. ....................... .. . .. 188 Farmers who vaccinated for cholera............ . .. .... .... ........ ............... .... .. 1,903 Number farms adopting improved practices ...... .............. . ................. 2,034 Dairy Husbandry-Purebred and high grade Jerseys have been brought into Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Leon, Jefferson, and Madison counties. In addition to assisting dairymen and farmers in raising the standards of their herds, county agents are as sisting them in building silos and modern barns, and in making their places more sanitary. They are helping dairymen from other places get established. They are assisting them put in permanent pastures. In Volusia County the agent was instrumental in getting a dairyman to build two silos into which was plac~d 180 tons of corn silage in June. The actual cost of the silage, every expense

PAGE 29

28 Florida Cooperative Extension being carefully charged, was $5.25 per ton. Forty-five cows were fed on this silage till November with the milk production keeping up about the same as when animals were fed beet pulp and a commercial feed. The silo was filled again in November with kaffir corn, amber sorghum, and Texas seeded ribbon cane grown on the same land the corn silage was grown on. By this means nearly 400 tons of silage was produced on 35 acres of land in one year. The owner so thoroughly believes in silage as an eco nomical milk producer that he says he never expects to be with out silage again as long as he is in the dairy business. Some good work in record keeping and cow testing has been carried on in Duval County, with the result that the dairymen have changed their methods of feeding and producing feed in many instances, and poor cows have been culled out. Several thousand pounds of pasture grass seed were sown as a result of interest aroused by the county agents this year, with the result that there are many good pastures in the process of development. The dairy business has improved slightly over last year. There has been less surplus milk than last year. Dairymen are produc ing more home-grown feeds and planting pastures. Thirty-five calves from Tennessee were placed in Marion County during the year. The Marion County agent is carrying on some demonstra tion cow-test work with seven farm dairymen whose herds em brace 60 cows. County agents have conducted 16 demonstrations with dairy cattle, involving 675 cows. They have assisted 17 farmers in securing purebred bulls. On 13 farms the herds were culled; 165 animals were discarded from a total of 700. On 167 farms improved practices were adopted. DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Number demonstrations given . ....... . . . . ..... .. ................................... . .. . .. ......... . 407 Animals in completed demonstrations . .. ... .......................... . .... ......... . ..... . . .. 2,188 Sav;ng resulting from better practices .............................. . ...... ...... . ........ .. $8,505 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ...................... .. .. . ... .......... 586 Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires............................ ..... .. ... .... . . 56 Farmers assisted in securing high grade or purebred females .... . ... .. . ... 127 Farmers who culled their herds ..... . ... . ......................................... ......... . .... ... 93 Animals in these herds .............. .. .. ...... ........ .. . .. ................ . .... ................. . .... .. 2,598 Animals discarded ......................... .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .......... . ................ . .. .. .. ... ... .. . .... .. . . 1,050 Farmers' associations who tested cows for production .. . ... ..... . . .. . ...... .. . . .. 32 Cows tested for production .. . .. . .. ... ...... .. ... .... . ...... ....... ... ... . . . . .. . ..... ... . .... .... . . .. 701 Farmers who fed better balanced rations . . . ... . . ........ . .... .. .. ..... . ... . .. . ..... . ..... . 171 Farmers who controlled insect pests . .... ... .. . . .. .. .. ..... ... .. . .. . . . .. .. ... ....... .. ....... . 33 Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis .......................... . ... .. .... ... . . . 73 Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods ..... .... . 24-i

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Annual Report, 1928 29 Poultry-In the poultry industry the weeding out process which began last year has continued. The industry appears to be on a safer basis at this time. Market conditions have been fairly good during most of the year. County agents conducted 65 demonstrations with 17,900 birds. Forty farmers were assisted in the purchase of purebred males. Eighty-one culling demonstrations were held and from 16,777 birds, 2,736 culls were removed. Poultrymen were assisted in feeding balanced rations, and 76 poultrymen were influenced to adopt improved practices. The poultry industry has not grown much in West Florida during the last year, but the county agents have been busy in assisting the poultrymen to get better stock, in culling, and with their feeding problems. These demonstrations have directly af fected 15,000 birds. A poultry club member in Union County purchased 140 baby chicks, raised 134, and made a profit of $2.40 each on a club poultry project this year. POULTRY DEMONSTRATION~ Demonstrations given .............................................................................. 867 Birds in these demonstrations .............................................................. 51,750 Saving resulting from better practices ................................................ $13,632.44 Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock.... 362 Poultrymen who culled their flocks .................................................... 386 Number of birds in these flocks ................ , ......................................... 59,703 Number of birds discarded .................................................................... 10,432 Number of breed associations forl)led ................................................. 3 Membership ................................................................................................ 92 RURAL ENGINEERING Drainage and Irrigation-Irrigation and the construction of farm buildings have been the phases of rural engineering where most work has been done. County agents assisted 99 farmers in installing irrigation on 3,699 acres of land and 69 in improving the drainage on 1,427 acres. Plans were furnished for the con struction of 84 farm buildings composed of poultry houses, barns, milk rooms, and silos. Terracing-During the last year the county agents in those counties that contain any rolling lands conducted terracing demonstrations. This work is of untold value to the farmers affected. A splendid piece of work of this kind was done by County Agent R. J. Hart of Okaloosa County. He assisted in terracing 66 farms comprising 1,725 acres.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension RURAL ENGINEERING (Things Done with Agent s ' Assistance and Advice) Acres Demonstrations given .. . ...... .. . . ........ ... . .. . . . . . .. ... . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . ..... . Drainage systems installed ... .. . .. ... . . .. .. ........ . ... . .. ..... . ...... .. .. 7,524 Irrigation systems installed . ......... ...... . . ...... ..... , ....... .... . . . . . 7,156 Terraces or soil dams constructed . .... .......... . . . ........... . .. . ... 3,622 Water systems installed ...... . ... . . .. .... .. ...... . ... ... .... . ......... .. .... . Heating systems installed ..... . .... . .. . . ... .. . .. . .... . . . .. . ... .. ..... . .... . Lighting systems installed ... . ......... . . . ....................... . . . .. . .. . Farms on which buildings other than dwellings were constructed or remodeled .... . ... . . . .. . ... . ...... . .. . . .. ....... . . . . . .. . Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled . .... . Number sewage-disposal systems installed ............... .. .. . Farmers who cleared land .... . .. . ........ .. . . ........ ... .. . . . . . ..... . . . . .. . Acres cleared . . . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . ..... .. . . .. . .. . ... . . .. .... ..... .. .... .. ... . . .. .... . . .. . . Number of farms adopting above practices for first time ........ . ............................ . .. . .......... . ............... . ........ . . .... . . AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Number 413 213 2,682 137 60 11 15 244 374 16 346 5,601 1,083 This year the county agents of the West Florida territory have assisted the farmers and growers to perfect organizations and assisted these organizations in the purchase of $178,682 worth of fertilizers, nursery stock, feeds, seeds, truck crates, sirup cans and barrels, purebred hogs and cows. They have in this way saved to the farmers $23,703 to be spent in other ways, making their homes more comfortable and their farms more profitable. This saving of money, of course , was desirable and helpful. But the great benefit came in the county agent making this contract at the most opportune time to teach and persuade . the farmers to use higher grade fertilizers and to use them more intelligently than was their common practice. In the same way he could see that they got the best seeds, the best nursery stock , or the breed of animals most needed . In thi s way, this contact was of untold value to the farmers. By promoting car-lot cooperative sales of produce and live stock; the county agents have brought thousands of dollars into the territory. But it was not in the sale itself that the greatest service was rendered to the individual farmers and to the com munity-it was in demonstrating the proper method of pack and quality, as well as orderly marketing. Local markets have been thus relieved. The sales amounted to $161,000. In Palm Beach County the agent was instrumental in getting established a government inspection service of vegetables in the Everglades, and in the establishment of a marketing service sta tion in the county during the shipping season.

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Annual Report, 1928 . 31 In Duval and Volusia counties dairymen have been keeping accurate records of cost of milk production and cost of producing feed, with the result that many changes have been made in methods of feeding, and the culling out of unprofitable cows has gotten to be a well established habit. County agents assisted in forming nine marketing and grow ers' associations during the year in the South Florida territory. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Number method demonstrations given .... ..... . . ... ....... .. .. . .......... .... ............ .. .. 264 Farm account books distributed ...... ... ........... .. ............. .. ......................... .. .. 238 Farmers who kept records ............................................................................ 89 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts .......... ..... ..................................... :... 132 Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts.............. 85 Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations .......... .. .......................................... 415 Farmers advise:d :relative to leases ............... , ............... . ............. . ............ . ... 291 Number of junior farm account clubs .......... .... , ........................ .'.. .............. 12 Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records....... . . .. .......... .. ... 247 Number of farms adopting improved farm management practices... ... 294 FORESTRY There are millions of acres of cut-over land in North and West Florida. Most of this land is bringing no revenue to the owners. It is burned over every year. The second growth of pine is trying to come back. By control of fire it will soon be producing a good revenue again. Some of the land needs reseeding. During the _ year a few seedbeds have been established to supply seedlings, and, in addition, the county agents of this territory have started 26 fire control demonstrations consisting of approximately 150,000 acres. RODENT CONTROL Control of rodents and predatory animals was a minor pro ject in _ the programs of work of county agents. However, they conducted demonstrations in fumigation of corn weevils and the control of ground moles and rodents, particularly in some coun ties where rats cause damage to crops. DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations given ... .......... ........ .. . . ........ .. .......... ......... .... ..... .... . ........ . ... .. .. 2,272 _ Acres in completed demonstrations ............................................................ 7,851 Farmers adopting control measures . . ............. ...... ....................... .. ......... ..... 2,481 Acres involved .............. . . ... ...................... ... ...................... . ............... .. .............. 50,750

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension BOYS' CLUB \'l 7 ORK R. W. Blacklock, Boys' Club Agent Four-H club work was conducted in 34 of the 48 counties em ploying county agents during 1928. Members in these counties started 2,679 club projects. As a boy is not considered enrolled until he has actua1ly begun work in his project, this represents real club workers. The enrollment was divided as follows: corn 442, cotton 285, potato 150, truck 276, citrus 26, poultry 472, breeding pig 366, fat barrow 332, calf 206, miscellaneous 124. The enrollment per county ran from 265 in Escambia to 7 in Her nando. The number of projects carried on decreased 198 from that of 1927. This decrease was caused by the county agent work being discontinued in Pasco County where 421 were en rolled in 1927. Among the projects, the cotton and corn clubs showed the greatest increase, and the poultry club the greatest decrease. The county agents are proving that the organizing of the mem bers in the different communities into clubs enables the agent to accomplish more and better 4-H work. The officers of the clubs accept some of the responsibility in keeping up interest in the work. The agent is able to meet with the clubs and comes in con tact with all the members without so many home visits. The most important factor in a 4-H organization is the local leader. Wherever an interested person can , b _ e secured as leader, good work in that community is assured. Ex.:.club members are proving to be the best source of leadership material. Nassau, Escambia, Washington, Jackson, Leon, Orange, Palm Beach, Highlands, and Flagler counties have all club members in local organizations. Some of the best club work in the _ state is being done in these counties with the largest percentage of reports. CROP CLUBS CORN Four hundred and forty-two acres of corn were planted by 4-H club boys in 1928. This gives an increase of 119 over 1927. The offering of a scholarship to the College of Agriculture by the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau helped cause the increase. The yields were normal. Gray Miley of Hillsborough County produced the highest yield-104.5 bushels. In HLls

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Annual Report, 1928 33 borough County 19 boys raised 1,064 bushels of corn-an average of 56 bushels per acre. An attempt is being made to have crop club boys plant a winter legume on their club acres in order to develop a soil building program along with production. COTTON Two hundred and eighty-five boys planted an acre of cotton each in 1928. The largest enrollment was in Okaloosa County where 98 boys planted cotton as a club project. The yield was slightly lower than normal, due to very unfavorable weather at planting time-some boys replanting three times. In Okaloosa County 44 boys produced 40,831 pounds of seed cotton on 44 acres -an average of 928 pounds of seed cotton per acre. SWEET POTATO This club shows a profit on almost every project; still it is not a favorite with the boys. Perhaps the potatoes are used for the family, which keeps the boy from receiving any cash profit for his work. TRUCK Accurate records from this club are hard to get, as so much is used by the family, and the gathering of the crop is spread over a long period. The best truck club members are in Palm Beach County. This year all gardens were absolutely destroyed by the hurricane, but the 4H boys were among the first to replant. LIVESTOCK CLUBS PIG This club project continues to be a great favorite. Enrollment in fattening pig clubs is increasing. An attempt is being made to have the boys feed out at least one barrow from every litter produced by club breeding pigs. A trip to the International Club Congress is offered by the State Fair to the boy having the best barrow, the progeny of his own club pig. CALF With the gradual eradication of the tick, calf club work wi:l expand. Leon County did an exceptionally fine piece of work in 1928. Fourteen boys and girls purchased purebred calves. All calves were"'Well cared for and all were shown at the State Fair.

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Fig. 4.-T hi s club b oy sees the rainb ow wi t h th e pot o[ learning a t it s fe et. -, I

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Annual Report, 1928 35 Many of the calves purchased in 1926 by the Madison County boys are in milk. The cows raised by the boys are much better than the average found on the farms. Calves from the original heifers were shown in the club contest this year. THE STATE FAIR The final exhibition of 4-H club work was at the Florida State Fair held in Jacksonville November 22 to December 1. At this time the best products and animals from the various counties were brought together. The livestock exhibit was the largest ever held, consisting of 306 pigs, 30 cows and 50 chickens. In the competition for the best 10 breeding pigs, Madison County won 1st and Nassau 2nd. The exhibit of Leon County in the calf club was excellent, every calf being fitted for show and all being equipped with 4-H club blankets. George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon County won the championship in the calf club on a fine Jersey heifer. Orange County won sweepstakes in the poultry club depart ment. Gordon Henderson of Madison exhibited the grand champion barrow. Gordon's pig was an exceptionally smooth Duroc-Jersey junior barrow. This pig was grand champion not only in the club department, but also in the open ring. Gordon really won two prizes on one pig as his champion pig was also winner as the best pig raised from a pig club sow. The reserve champion barrow-a Chester White-belonged to Richard Bradford of Leon County. The reserve in the contest for best barrow, the progeny of a pig club sow, went to Herbert Jones of Nassau County. Frank Ward of Nassau County won the grand championship in the breeding pig class on a Poland China boar. ANNUAL SHORT COURSE The major prizes in county contests are scholarships to the Club Short Course. The importance to club work of as many boys as possible making a visit to the state university has made a short course scholarship the first prize in each project in most counties. The inspiration received makes even the best club

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension members better and does more than any other one thing in hold ing and increasing interest in club work. New features were added in the 1928 course. Each boy regi:; tered was given a note-book containing much practical infomia tion to supplement the instruction given in the regular classes. Inspirational articles and definite leadership instructions which the boys would have as reference throughout the year increased the value of the note-book. Advanced leadership training was given the boys who had attended previous short courses. Ex aminations for five scholarships to the College of Agriculture were given. Another new feature was a banquet on Friday night of the week spent in Gainesville. CLUB CAMPS The growth in both number and size of county 4-H camps has proven the need for recreational facilities in rural life. The West Florida 4-H camp which is located in the Choctawhatchee Na tional Forest is a reality. While not complete, a dining hall and kitchen and seven cottages have been completed. The plan pro posed is for the 10 counties west of the Appalachicola River to use t~is location for summer club camps. In 1928 boys from Escambia, Okaloosa, Walton, Washington, Jackson, Holmes, and Calhoun counties, and girls from Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, and Washington counties used the camp. The success of this regional camp has shown the advantage of this method over the unequipped county camp. Seventeen counties held boys 4-H camps in 1928; 550 boys at tended. Leland Hiatt was employed as assistant club agent to assist with the camp. Mr. Hiatt, a champion swimmer and Licensed Red Cross examiner, gave lessons in swimming and life saving. EDUCATIONAL TRIPS An opportunity to see what is going on in the outside world has a wonderful value to the farm boy. The horizon of his life is widened and his desires increased by visiting distant places. He receives inspiration "to do" and oftentimes instruction in how "to do". In 1928 13 Florida 4-H club boys were given trips. Three boys , represented Florida as a judging team at the National Dairy

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Annual Report, 1928 37 Show held in Memphis. Two boys attended the second National 4-H Club Camp held annually at Washington, D. C. One boy at tended the Moses Leadership Training School at Springfield, Massachusetts. Seven boys visited Chicago during the Interna tional Live Stock Show and Club Congress. Florida entered a demonstration team at the National Dairy Show for the first time. Rhydon Owens of Nassau County and Allen Phelps of Jefferson County made up the team. Phelps, Owens, and Bennie Dennard of Duval County composed a 4-H dairy judging team which competed at the National Dairy Show. For the first time, Florida was included in the list of states to be represented at the Moses Leadership Training School }leld in connection with Camp Vail at the Eastern States Exposition. This school is sponsored and all expenses paid by Mr. A. H .. Moses, a wealthy manufacturer of New England, who was born on a farm and who is interested in the advancement of rural youth. Ernest Young of Madison County was awarded the trip for 1928. The big event in the National Club year is the National Club Camp at Washington, D. C. At this camp the two outstanding club boys and the outstanding club girls from each state in the Union gather for a week's instruction and recreation. Raymond Crabtree of Duval County and Hoyt English of Hillsborough County represented Florida 4-H club boys at the 1928 National Camp. Gordon Henderson of Madison County, Herbert Jones of Nassau, Ernest Young of Madison, Rhydon Owens of Nassau, Richard Bradford of Leon, Ben 1\1:cLaughlin of Marion, and George Apthorp, Jr., of Leon represented Florida club boys at the National 4-H Club Congress held in Chicago in connection with the International Live Stock Show. These boys had an op portunity to see the University of Illinois on this trip, in ad dition to the sights of Chicago and the stock show. The value of these trips to club work is a potent factor in hold ing boys in the work. The winner of one of the Chicago trips tried five times before he was successful. Other boys are bend ing every effort to win next year. These trips seem to offer a fine incentive for better work on the part of the boys.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension AGRICULTURAL SCHOLARSHIPS The following boys were winners of scholarships to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, during 1928. Frank E. Ward of Nassau County won the Frank E. Dennis scholarship given annually to the boy showing the Grand Cham pion in the breeding pig class at the Florida State Fair. William Platt of Marion County, Samuel Bradshaw of Pasco County, and Donald Mowatt of Bay County won the three bank ers' scholarships. Gray Miley of Hillsborough County and Russell Williams of Union County won the Chilean Nitrate Educational Bureau scholarships. Over $10,000 was contributed by friends of 4-H club work as prizes. The larger part of this was given in the form of educa tional trips and scholarships. Frank E. Dennis has given annually a $250 scholarship to the College of Agriculture for the past 10 years as a prize to the pig club member showing the grand champion breeding pig at the state pig club contest. The Florida Bankers' Association gives three $100-scholar ships annually. The scholarships are awarded through exami~ nations given at the short course. The Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational Bureau gave a $150 and a $100 scholarship as prizes in the corn club work. The Atlantic Coast Line Railway gave $100 for the expenses of a boy to the National Club Camp in Washington. The DeLaval Separator Company contributed $100 toward the expenses of a demonstration team at the National Dairy Show at Memphis. The Florida State Fair, in addition to the regular premiums, paid the expenses of one boy to the National Club Camp and contributed two trips to Chicago. Armour and Company annually give a trip to Chicago to the pig club member showing the grand champion ba . rrow at the State Fair. Frank E. Dennis, Inc., and Farris and Co., contributed $200 each toward the premiums in the fat barrow show . at the State Fair.

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Annual Report, 1928 39 In addition to the contributors to state winners, the boards of county commissioners, chambers of commerce, luncheon clubs, and private individuals throughout the state contribute thousands of dollars for local and county premiums. A BOYS' AND GIRLS' FLOWER SHOW R.R. Whittington, county agent in Bay County, became very much interested in beautification work. He was able to induce the county commissioners to allow him to use the courthouse lawn as a demonstration. This helped. Still the work did not progress as rapidly as he wished; so he made use of the boys and girls as demonstrators. Boys and girls were to use the home grounds as a demonstration. The results were about 26 homes beautified by the growing of shrubs and flowers. To further interest the public, a flower show was held in Sep tember. At this show each boy and girl brought a basket of flowers raised in the contest. Pictures of the homes taken be fore and after show marked improvements. One interesting fea ture is the increased interest on the part of all the family in keeping the home and its surroundings more attractive. A LEADER DEVELOPED BY CLUB WORK Lewis Floyd, a 24-year-old 4-H club boy, has set a record that demonstrates the value of club work as a school for developing agricultural leaders. Three years ago Lewis organized the Barrineau Park 4-H Club. He has served as local leader for three years and his club can boast the following accomplishments for this year. Every boy of club age within four miles of the schoolhouse is a member; every member made a complete report of his project and sent an exhibit to the county contest; with one exception, all members were present at the contest; the club won the cup offered for the best local club in the county for the third year, thereby winning permanent possession. One of the members won the medal offered to the outstanding club member in the county. This club meets regularly and is an outstanding example of what local leadership can accomplish in developing a rural community.

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40 Florida Cooperativ e Extension DAIRYING Hamlin !': Brown, Extension Dairyman Among the dairying problems which received the attention of the Extension Dairyman during the year were: Production problems, especially feeding practices, introduction of purebred sires, record keeping, culling poor cows, and marketing. Production problems were considered of prime importance. Except for a few months in the year, there is an adequate supply of fluid milk for domestic consumption produced in Florida. Ex pansion, then, of the dairy industry is possible only when pro duction costs are reduced sufficiently to permit the profitable manufacture of milk into by-products, such as butter, cheese, condensed milk and powdered milk. The growing of forage , and pastures and better practices in feeding were among the production problems stressed during the year. These two factors are under the control of the individu:11 dairyman, and P . roper practices regarding them will go far towards reducing costs of production. Economic conditions have made it necessary to stress feed production above everything else. The introduction of purebred sires and the systematic culling out of low producing cows were two other items which received major attention during 1928. In order to combat outside competition of inferior quality milk, it has been necessary to stress better methods of handling milk to improve quality. Attention was also given to dairy organiza tions to look after the interests of dairying in the various con suming centers and looking forward to legislation to protect the dairy interests of the state against unfair competition from off grade milk being shipped into the state. REDUCING PRODUCTION COSTS Production costs can be ' reduced; first, by better feeding prac tices; second, by having all pasture and forage crops home-grown with an abundance for each animal; third, by having dairy herd improvement associations in every dairy center of the state; fourth, by having individual herd records to serve as guides for proper feeding practices and as a basis for constructive breeding and culling.

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Annual Report, 1928 41 MAKE DAIRYING A GREATER ECONOMIC FACTOR IN THE STATE It is hoped by improving the methods of production in the state to be able to extend the dairy industry into every agricultural county, where feed crops can be grown profitably. By extending this industry into these counties the monthly farm sales will be increased, and by furnishing the essential food elements sup plied by milk, farm-grown foods that formerly have been pur chased with proceeds out of the farm income will be produced on the farm. FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS The one important proble~ in feeding cows for profit in Florida is the production of cheap roughages. Pastures and silage with soiling and grazing crops offer the best solution to this feeding problem in the greater portion of the state. Hay crops of cow peas, soybeans and similar plants make cheap roughage for the farm. There were about 150 acres seeded to permanent pastures. Four thousand pounds of carpet grass seed were cooperatively distributed to farmers for demonstration pastures. County agents planned these demonstrations and arranged for groups of farmers to visit them. Sixty-five meetings at dairy demon strations helped to promote improvement in dairy practice.-;;. News stories also assiste(l in getting pastures mowed during the year to kill out the weeds and help spread the permanent pasture sod. Silos are coming into more general use by dairymen. Corn and sorghum were used as silage crops. In some cases where there was a light corn crop farmers planted sorghum after the corn was harvested to fill their silos. Some feeding records kept by dairymen have furnished infor mation about the value of silage as a feed in Florida. Forty-one silos were built in 1928 with a capacity of over 4,200 tons in Polk, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, and Manatee, Leon, Hernando counties. The county agents in Hillsborough, Marion, Flagler, Indian River, St. Johns, Volusia, St. Lucie and Duval counties conducted 27 demonstrations with stock beets and carrots and found them practical for the small dairyman who has rich soil with plenty of labor.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension DAIRY TOURS Four dairy tours were made to Marion County to study first hand what seems to be a practical, workable dairy program that is being carried oil by the farmers around Ocala in cooperation with the Southland Creamery. A total of 158 interested per sons got information on dairy production and marketing prob lems in these motorcades. A successful dairy tour was made by 18 farmers and businesd men of Escambia and Santa Rosa counties into Baldwin County, Alabama. They visited successful dairymen to study the pro ducers' problems, then visited the cooperative creamery, and a corporation owned creamery to get information on creamery organization methods. DISTRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE OF DAIRY BREEDING STOCK There are two cooperative bull clubs in Marion and Santa Rosa counties. Twenty-nine registered heifers were brought into Marion County as a part of the herd improvement . . In Santa Rosa County farmers expect to get 8 years' service from each bull, through a system of exchange. By this arrange ment each bull is moved to a different community everY two years to avoid in-breeding. The farmers of Santa Rosa County purchased 36 high grade . bred heifers to start a dairy community in a section where the bull club was formed. They plan to market the cream coopera tively at a creamery in Pensacola until the business will justify building a plant in the community. Because of efforts being made to promote creameries in seven localities not ready for them because of lack of production, the Extension Dairyman has carefully studied the situation in each case and has recommended that these communities ship cream until the volume of cream is sufficient to justify the building of a creamery. There are creameries and milk distributing plants operating at Pensacola, Tallahassee, Madison, Ocala, Tampa, Jacksonville, Orlando, Palm Beach and Miami, within the state, and nearby creameries in Alabama and Georgia. Cream may be shipped from any new dairy communities in the state until the volume of cream will support a local plant.

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Annual Report, 1928 43 With the eradication of the cattle tick from the northern and western portion of the state, there is an increased interest fn dairying. DAIRY PRODUCTION RECORDS This work is planned to get production records and the cost of production and to use this information as a basis for culling the herds and proportioning the feed to production. The~e are dairy records collected from 83 herds of 1,542 cows in fifteen counties. The records indicate the average production of a cow to be about 4,200 pounds of milk with 197 pounds of butterfat in a year. 317 low producing and unprofitable cows have been 1_;ulled from these herds and seventeen dairymen have modified their methods of feeding by feeding each according to production. DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION One dairy herd improvement association was organized in Duval County with 352 cows. The cows have been tested once every thirty days. This demonstration is of practical value to the . dairymen in the county. Beet pulp is generally used by 109 dairies in Duval county. By replacing beet pulp with corn silage at the rate of 1 pound of beet pulp to two and one-half pounds silage, estimating beet pulp at $55 per ton, corn silage was worth $22 a ton when fed to replace beet pulp. The cost of producing silage should not exceed $6 to $8 per ton. One dairyman who was feeding all cows alike changed to feed ing them according to production and thereby increased his re turns 103 percent for each dollar spent for feed. The records for one month hr.ought out that in one herd with 45 cows all the cows were getting the same amount of grain and roughage feed without regard to production. Eight of these cows were fed at a loss of $25.99 for the month. The cost of pro ducing milk in this herd during April was more than twice the cost of a similar herd where the cows were fed according to pro duction. BETTER BALANCED RATIONS One hundred and forty-eight farmers with 2,345 cows have practiced better feeding methods during the year. The price of protein in commercial dairy feeds is higher than for carbohy

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.44 Florida Cooperative Extension drates in most places but in Florida the carbohydrates cost about as much as the proteins. This, together with the small amount of roughage the Florida dairyman feeds with his grain ration, gives a very high protein content. Many dairymen are feeding rations with a nutritive ratio as narrow as 1 :2 when it should be 1:5. FAIR EXHIBITS There has been considerable improvement in the quality of dairy products shown at the fairs, both county and state. The method of displaying in refrigerators and ice boxes has improved each year. Three counties exhibited dairy calves at the State Fair this year. The county fairs offer the best opportunity for educational work. DAIRY CLUBS OR DAIRYMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS In addition to the State Dairymen's Association there are dairy organizations in Leon, Duval, Marion (South and North), Pasco, Pinellas, Manatee, Polk, Orange, Volusia, Flagler, Madison, Palm Beach, Sarasota and Escambia counties. Some of them are doing efective work in the cooperative purchase of dairy feeds. The annual meeting of the State Dairymen's Association was held in Gainesville during Farmers' Week. The dairymen of Sarasota are marketing their milk coopera tively through a central distributing plant. The county agents have been very active in trying to help them in making a prac tical marketing association.

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Annual Report, 1928 15 CITRUS PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY E. F. DeBusk, Citrus Pathologist-Entomologist The plan of work submitted at the beginning of the year em bodied (1) the control of melanose and stem-end rot, (2) blue mold decay, (3) citrus scab, (4) psorosis and gummosis, (5) rust mites, (6) citrus aphids, (7) whitefly and scale, and (8) fertiliz ing. An additional project on citrus grove irrigation was taken up after the plan of work had been submitted. Considerabl~ time has been devoted to special service work, so that nearly every phase of citrus culture has received attention. Citrus meetings or schools were held in which problems of the growers were discussed. MELANOSE AND STEM-END ROT CONTROL As a result of educational efforts, the economic importance of melanose and stem-end rot control is becoming more generally recognized among packers as well as growers. Through spray ing demonstrations, growers' meetings, press articles and other means of educating growers during the last six years, the method of controlling melanose and stem-end rot is generally known and quite generally practiced. In a grove where more than 12 percent of the crop is usually marked by melanose to such a degree as to place it in the russ,~t grade or lower, very satisfactory profits may be expected from spraying with home-made 3-3~50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 per cent oil emulsion when the fruit is about one-fourth inch in diam eter. However, quite a number of growers will not use Bor deaux mixture in their groves because it kills the much valued entomogenous fungi. These growers are attempting to control melanose and stem-end rot by pruning out the dead wood . Of course, most of the growers who spray for melanose control sup plement the spraying by pruning out the dead wood. Pruning has, as a rule, given very satisfactory results, especially in the control of the Diplodia type of stem-end rot. But these pruning operations are very expensive; and since they must be repeated often to keep trees even comparatively free of dead wood, often run the cost of melanose and stem-end rot control by this method extremely high and leaves a doubt as to the operation being profitable . Consequently, this problem has caused more atten tion to be directed toward the cause of the production of dead

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension wood and the practicability and economy of removing that cause. In three grove irrigation demonstrations, the fact has been clearly brought out that the deficiency of soil moisture during the spring and fall droughts is largely responsible for the produc tion of dead wood in many of the heavy-bearing, non-irrigated, groves. It is now being demonstraterl quite generally that the most effective and most economical way of controlling melanose and sem-end rot is through the prevention of dead wood by ap plying irrigation water to the trees when it is needed. Some interesting demonstrations along this line are being worked up. BLUE MOLD DECAY CONTROL Through educational efforts, growers and packers quite gen erally understand that blue . and green mold decay are largely the result of defective picking and otherwise improper handling of the fruit. The penalty for improper handling of fruit is clearly set forth in Table I of the 1927 Annual Report, showing the final cost of defective picking or losses to the grower in terms of cents per box. These facts have been presented to packinghouse managers, picking foremen, pickers and growers throughout the citrus belt through meetings, press articles and special bulletins of. packing :organizations. Splendid cooperation has been given by all concerned. A recent checking up on conditions as they relate to the pick ing and handling of the fruit of the state shows that very grati fying improvements have been made. For example, two years ago a large number of picking inspections showed 15.5 percent picking defect1?, while a similar inspection made during 1928 showed only: 10.7 percent picking defects. By again referring to Table I of the 1927 Annual Report, it will be seen that thisim provement means a saving to the grower of 22 cents per box . . As a goal, we are striving to reduce the picking defects to ,1 percent, with _ a . still further saving to the grower of 38 cents per box through blue mold decay control. CITRUS SCAB CONTROL Scab control, from the grower's standpoint, is. not as serious a; : problem in grapefruit production as melanose control. This is h ' fr gely due to the fact that it has been demonstrated that scab can be satisfactorily and economically . controlled by spraying

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Annual Report, 1928 47 with liquid lime-sulphur which, at the same time, controls red spiders and the rust mite, while melanose control, by spraying, necessitates the use of Bordeaux-oil. However, in cases where scab infection is very heavy, demon strations show that one or two applications of home-made 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent of oil emulsion, to reduce the scab to a "clean-up", are highly desirable. Where two applica tions are needE;d, one should be made just before the spring flush of growth and the second as soon as the petals have fallen. Where both melanose and scab are to be controlled, the second applica tion should be delayed a few days. As a rule, growers haye scab under satisfactory commercial control. The approved control measures are generally understood. PSOROSIS AND GUMMOSIS CONTROL Since the unprecedented drought of 1927 and the freezes of the winter of 1927-28 there has been an unusual development of psorosis and gummosis throughout the citrus belt. It seems that any shock that lowers the vitality of citrus trees may result in renewed development of cases of these diseases of old standing as well as in new outbreaks. In response to the demands for assistance, a number of demonstrations in the proper treatment of these diseases have been given. The treatment for psorosis and gummosis consists of scraping off the outer bark only, of the diseased area, scraping back a few inches beyond the edge of the affected area, and applying a disin fectant in the form of lime-sulphur, Bordeaux paste or some other mild tree wash or paste. The effectiveness of the treat ment depends largely upon the thoroughness of its application. RUST MITE CONTROL Through a series of meetings and by means of press .articles, the economy and practicability of more thorough rust mite control has been stressed. Demonstrations in rust mite control have everywhere produced unmistakable economic results. In spite of the fact that rust mite control is almost uniyer~ sally practiced after a fashion, recent results of dusting and reports on the grading of fruit going through a large number of packinghouses as to rust mite injury, show conclusively that one of the greatest opportunities for profitable investment for a large percentage of our growers is in more thorough rust mite control:

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension CITRUS APHID CONTROL The freezes of the last two winters, keeping down new . growth upon which citrus aphids must subsist, have greatly assisted in preventing this pest being carried over to the spring growth. This, together with other factors not fully understood, resulted in a light infestation of aphids over the state during 1928. Con sequently, the damage done to citrus by this pest during the year has been very light. The following instructions in aphid control have been kept constantly before growers by means of press articles and by letters; and have been followed by a large number of growers: 1. Go through the young grove at intervals during the winter, up to the time of the general flush of new growth in the spring, clip off and destroy or dip, all new growth within reach. Also destroy as far as practicable the cudweed and fireweed. 2, Spot dust with hand duster until the infestation becomes more or less general, using 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust. 3. Spray with 40 percent nicotine sulphate, 1 pint to 100 gallons of water, plus a spreader; or Derriso!, 1 pint to 100 gal lons of water; before leaves have become badly curled. 4. After leaves have become curled, fumigate under tents with 3 percent nicotine sulphate-lime dust or calcium cyanide. Every effort is made to protect the new growth and blossoms just as they make their appearance, as this is the critical "aphid stage." WHITEFLY AND SCALE CONTROL The use of red aschersonia in whitefly control has been en couraged. Several hundred cultures have been distributed to growers, covering acres running into the thousands and saving them many thousands of dollars on the spraying bill. In one demonstration where the cost of spraying the bearing grove with oil emulsion for the summer brood of whiterfly was $9 per acre, a 15-acre block was sprayed with red aschersonia culture, at the beginning of the rainy season, at a total cost of $1.46 per acre. The control results where the parasitic fungus was used were naturally delayed somewhat, owing to the fact that time is required for the fungus to develop, but by the end of summer the results were equal to those of the oil emulsion spraying. in addition to a saving on the cost of whitefly control this year, the beneficial fungus has become well established in

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Annual Report , 1928 49 the grove and will keep whitefly under satisfactory control during the next year or two, at least, if weather conditions are favorable. Natural control of scale is claiming more attention from year to year. Growers are urged to pay more attention lo the develop ment of parasitic scale fungi in their groves, to spray with oil emulsion only when it is needed, and then do a very thorough job. An effort is made to keep before growers the fact that oil sprays are injurious to citrus trees, and therefore, should not be applied until they are needed, and then the job should be done in a manner that will give maximum results in the control of the pest. A poor jcib of spraying with oil emulsion often results in more being lost through injury to the trees than is gained in pest control. It has been demonstrated that grove irrigation, even with the surface method, facilitates natural control of scale and whitefly as well as rust mites. FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations with the use of nitrate of soda as a top-dress ing to increase the size of early grapefruit, oranges and tanger ines, were put on in six counties this year. The results cannot be reported at this time as complete reports are not in, due to the fact that picking has been delayed on account of unsatisfac tory market prices. A number of demonstrations have shown that growers may substitute the inorganic nitrogen carriers for the higher priced organic sources with equal results and at a great saving on the cost of fertilizing the grove. IRRIGATION In the investigations and control of melanose and stem-end rot it has been found that dead wood is the source of the trouble, . and consequently the removal of all dead wood by pruning is recommended. Growers find pruning out dead wood to the extent of ap preciably controlling melanose and stem-end rot to be a very expensive operation and perplexing problem , especially where the operation must be repeated annually. While the production of a small amount of dead wood in old, heavy-bearing trees may be regarded as a natural condition, the necessity for pruning

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension out large amounts of dead wood annually, as is too often the case, should be looked upon with more concern thari that of mere disease control. In addition to harboring disease, much dead wood means reduced production of fruit, a devitalized tree and consequently may result in outbreaks of withertip, psorosis or other troubles. With the foregoing facts before us, an effort has been made to find the underlying cause of so much dead wood in many of our groves, and, if practicable and economical, remove the cause. Our observations and demonstrations in grove irrigation clear ly bring out the fact that the fundamental cause of an over whelming percentage of the dead wood produced in many of the heavy-bearing groves is the direct result of soil moisture de ficiency. While the citrus belt of Florida can boast of an annual rain fall of more than 50 inches, which is in excess of the total annual needs of citrus trees, a large percentage of the bearing groves suffer from lack of soil moisture at times during the spring and fall in five years out of seven because of inadequate monthly and weekly distribution of this total amount of rainfall. .\ study of the rainfall records of the Weather Bureau of the last 35 years, and the needs of the trees, brings out the fact that, during that period, the number of years in which the rainfall of each of the dry months was insufficient to supply the needs of the trees was as follows: January, 10; February, 16; March, 24; April, 25; May, 15; September, 2; October, 10; November, 23; December, 10. The most apparent results of a deficiency of soil moisture are dropping of bloom and young fruit, and dropping of fruit in the fall and winter. But the real effects go much further. Growers are beginning to take into consideration the effect upon size and quality of the fruit, upon the economic use of fertilizm-s, upon. the cover crop and the consequent effect upon the organic content of the soil and the more permanent effect upon the tree as manifested in dead twigs and branches and susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Correcting this deficiency of soil moisture is therefore a prob lem of very great economic importance with many citrus fruit growers of the state.

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Annual Report, 1928 51 The most practicable and most economical method of grove irrigation in Florida is known as the surface method. The water is pumped, usually by a contrifugal pump, from a lake or well through a permanent main to the highest part of the grove. From outlets in this main the water is carried by gravity through lines of hose or movable conductor pipe to all parts of the grove. The work in grove irrigation has been largely along the line of teaching growers the economy and efficiency of installations of large capacity. Growers have made the mistake of installing plants with capacities ranging from 175 to 350 gallons per minute where installations of 450 to 1,000 G. P. M. capacity would be far more efficient and economical. This mistake is largely due to the belief that mains should be made of wrought iron or steel pipe, and to the fact that the price per foot of adequate sizes of such piping is almost prohibitive. These conditions have caused our efforts to be directed toward finding a substitute for iron pipe by which adequate installations can be made at a reasonable cost. A demonstration line of 8-inch concrete pipe was laid at a cost of about one-third the cost per foot of an iron pipe line of the same size. The line has stood the test under a working head of more than 45 feet, and is found to be very practicable and economical as a permanent water main in surface irrigation. Following this demonstration a number of installations have been made in which 8 and 10-inch concrete pipe has been used. This is not only resulting in a large saving to growers on the cost of installation but is enabling them to in stall adequate irriga"tion plants that can be operated economically. To make practicable the distribution of a large volume of water in surface irrigation without erosion, and economically, the writer has worked out a method by which one man can handle any quantity of water up to 1,000 gallons per minute, eliminating erosion and making a uniform distribution. The method involves the use of the usual conductor pipe or conductor hose, a set of outlet crosses equipped with cut-off valves, and two to six dis tributing nozzles with hose connections to the outlet crosses in the conductor line. The entire cost of the equipment will range from $50 to $150, in addition to the usual conductor line, depend ing, in a measure, upon the length of the conductor lines but mainly upon the amount of water to be handled. In addition to the other advantages mentioned, the use of the method reduces the labor cost of irrigation 50 to 75 percent.

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension With the old type installation, employing small mains, and with the old method of d~stributing water, the total pumping and distributing cost often runs as high as $3.50 per acre inch; with the large mains and the use of the labor-saving devices mentioned above, the total cost of pumping and applying water often comes within $1.00 per acre inch.

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Annual Report, 1928 53 POULTRY N. R. Mehrhof, Extension Poultryman Poultry conditions in 1926-1927 were conducive to the develop ment of the industry in the state, whereas during 1927-1928 conditions were reversed. This past spring relatively high prices of feed and low prices of eggs brought about a reduction in the number of chicks purchased, also a reduction in the number of adult birds on the farm. However, as the season advanced, the outlook appeared more promising for those who were able to cope with the adverse conditions. Still in view of the above facts, the producers were eager to study more than ever before economical production, together with the adoption of some of the more accepted poultry practices. PROGRAM OF WORK The poultry population during the past year has not increased; apparently, from reports given by baby chick producers and offi cers of some of the poultry associations throughout the state, there is a slight reduction. No doubt this has been brought about by relatively high prices of feed during the spring months and low prices of eggs, causing a reduction in the number of both chicks and laying birds. Although the number has been reduced the quality of birds on the farms has been improved, the pro ducer realizing that more economical production in all phases of poultry work is necessary if success is to be obtained. Existing poultry conditions have emphasized n,.()re clearly the development and putting into practice of those phases of eco nomical production as outlined in the poultry extension program. METHODS OF CONDUCTING THE WORK The various phases of poultry husbandry were presented to the poultry producers in a number of different ways, the method depending on the local situation. Some of the most important methods were as follows: Meetings were arranged by county and home demonstration agents. These meetings were held in practically all sections of the state. Poultry problems were discussed. Demonstrations were conducted to illustrate better methods and practices.

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54 Florida Cooperati ve Extension Boys' and girls' short courses at Gainesville and Tallahassee. Monthly circular poultry hints. Home Egg-Laying Contest reports. Articles. Farmers' Week-an intensive poultry program presented. Farm visits. PROJECTS The plan of poultry extension work was completely revised for the year just ended, the number of major projects being reduced and changed to meet the conditions that have developed in the state. The four projects which were emphasized during the year were: 1. Grow healthy chicks. 2. Grow green feeds. 3. Practice culling. 4. Home Egg-Laying Contest. In making this change it is well to understand that none of the projects as outlined the previous year were entirely discontinued, but in the main they were absorbed in the four projects listed above. POULTRY DEVELOPMENT BY PROJECTS GROW HEALTHY CHICKS Clean, healthy young stock is the key to success in poultry management. The number and the quality of pullets are d e pendent on the rearing of chicks. A heavy mortality occurs in the rearing of young chicks and if this mortality can be reduced the cost of production is lowered. With this in view a Grow Healthy Chick Campaign was started with the 1928 baby chick season. Its purpose was to stimulate an increased interest in raising more and better chicks. The program was developed around _ six fundamental factors; namely, 1. Hatch early. 2. Clean chicks and eggs. 3. Clean brooder houses . 4. Clean land. 5. Balanced ration. 6. Separation of pullets from cockerels.

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Annual Report, 1928 55 Information circulars on these factors were distributed by the county and home demonstration agents, together with a disease chart and a mortality chart. The results of Florida's first Grow Healthy Chick Campaign have been tabulated from the records sent in. There were 35 poultry producers who were in this campaign and who kept records on mortality and answered the questions that were listed on the mortality chart. About 30,000 chicks . were placed under the brooder, the number per farm ranging from 11 to 3,104, the average being 845. Twenty-four producers reported that they fed milk in some form, 14 feeding liquid milk and 10 dry milk; 29 farmers used some brand of commercial feed, while 6 mixed their own. OnJy one producer used the all-mash method, all of the rest feeding scratch. Green feed was given the chicks in all cases except one. The time of beginning to feed green feed ranged from the start to the fourth week, with the average being at the end of the second week. Pullets were separated from the cockerels at about the sixth week. However, the time ranged from the fourth to the six teenth week. . Only two producers did not separate pullets from cockerels. The baby chick mash was changed to growing mash on the average at the sixth week; this period ranged from the second tci the tenth week. Twenty-seven producers hatched all their chicks before May l, five producers hatched some chicks in May but the greater per centage in the earlier months. Only three producers hatched all chicks in May. The poultry producers reported mortality as due to different causes such as coccidiosis, pneumonia, OVERHEATING, change of feed, BROODER TROUBLE, EQUIPMENT, weather, CHILLED, and poor shipment. Mortality Through 8th Week A total of 29,573 chicks were placed under the brooder and at the end of the eighth week 7,176 chicks had been lost. The aver age mortality was 24.26 percent. The average mortality per farm ranged from 1 to 54.54 percent.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE !.-WEEKLY MORTALITY ON 33 FARMS IN PERCENT. Week 1 ........................... . 2 3 ........................... . 4 ........................... . 5 ........................... . 6 7 8 I Average Accident 3.62 .20 .12 .12 .09 .05 .02 .01 4.23 Disease Average 3.90 7.52 3.90 4.10 2.82 2.94 2.34 2.46 1.16 1.25 .57 .62 .48 .50 .48 .49 15.65 19.88 NOTE:-The difference between the average mortality shown here and that mentioned in the preceding paragraph is due to the fact that two producers did not report weekly mortality. TABLE IJ.-CORRELATION OF FACTORS ADOPTED WITH MORTALITY. Factors No. Farms I Percent Mortality I Factors Not Adopted Adopted 6 15 .65-18.20 5 3 25.6-34.42 Clean chicks and eggs 5 2 15.0-29.50 Clean brooder houses 5 1 20.50 Balanced ration 4 4 17.01-39.21 Clean chicksBrooder houses 4 1 19.38 Clean chicksSep. Ckls and Pullets 4 1 47.09 Clean chicksBalanced ration 3 1 28.25 Clean chicksBalanced rationClean brooder houses 3 1 41.42 Clean chicksBrooder houses Sep. Ckls. and Pullets 3 farms report mortality due to overheating, poor equipment. 3 farms omitted from above tabulation due to insufficient records.

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Annual Report, 1928 57 GROW GREEN FEEDS Realizing that the feeding of green feed to all classes of poultry has been found to be necessary for maintaining health and for more efficient assimilation of food to secure the desired results, a program emphasizing green feeds was put on. Sixteen counties cooperated in this project, the county agent furnishing the producer with an article on the value of green feed, the schedule of planting green feed, and a record card. The record cards will not be returned to this office until spring when one year will have elapsed. During the demonstrations, not only was culling discussed but also proper feeding, disease and parasite control, and other fac tors relative to economical poultry production. HOME EGG-LA YING CONTEST The primary purpose of the contest was to stimulate better methods in poultry production by analyzing the records obtained and discussing them with the producers. Three such contests _ have been completed and the fourth was started the first of November, 1928. The rules and regulations are as follows: Entrant must keep record for one year on entire poultry flock, have standardbred poultry and send report to agent's office monthly. The flocks are divided into three groups, depending on the number of birds, as follows: Backyard flock, 1-50 birds, farm flock 51-250 birds, and commercial flock over 250 birds. Monthly reports are sent to the contestants showing the dis tribution of production with other timely information. Some of the results of the Home EggLaying Contests have been tabulated to show the monthly egg production and average for the year, percent culling, percent mortality, feed prices, egg prices. Table III shows the average monthly egg production for the backyard flocks, farm flocks and commercial flocks for the three contests, together with the total egg production per bird for the year. It is of interest to note the total average egg pro ducion for each group and the increase each year. The average production in the second contest shows an increase of 4 . 8 eggs over the first, and an increase of 2.7 eggs in the third contest over the second.

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TABLE Ill.-DISTRJBUTION OF EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD IN THE HOME EGG-LAYING CONTESTS. Month I I Backyard Flock I I Farm Flock I I Commercial Flock I I Average ------111925-26] 1926-2711927-28/l 1925-261 1926-271 1927-2SI J 1925-26 I 1926-27l 1927-2B I I 1925-26 ! 1926-271 1927-28 ---------1 1 I I November 3 .8 9.3 11.0 3.0 7.4 5.6 7.1 5.2 5.6 6.0 7.1 5.7 December I 6.5 10.3 14 . 6 5.9 9.5 8.0 7 . 8 9.2 8.4 7.6 9.5 8.4 January --11.8 13 . 5 15 . 1 8.8 11.9 9 . 7 10.8 11.5 12.3 10 . 4 11 . 6 11.7 February ------15.2 15.9 15.3 13.8 15.6 15.3 14.0 15.6 16.3 14.3 15.6 16.0 March 20 . 0 19.7 18.3 17.6 19.4 18.4 19.2 19.l 19.3 18 . 9 19.1 19.0 .. , April . -19.6 21.6 17.5 16.6 '17.9 17.7 19 . 1 18.1 18 . 2 18.4 18.2 18 . 1 May 18.0 19.9 16 . 9 16.0 15.0 16.8 18.l 17.2 18.0 17.4 17.0 17.7 June -------) ) 14 . 9 18.7 15.5 12.7 14.5 1 3 .6 15.8 14.0 15.7 14.5 15 . 7 15.3 July --14 . 3 18.3 17.3 13.2 13.9 11.9 13 . 5 15.3 15.1 13 . 6 14.9 1 4 .3 August 11.2 15.5 15.0 11.5 9.4 11.1 10.9 12.1 10.8 11.2 11.5 11.0 September . .. . . . .. . . 11 11.9 I 14.1 9.7 7.3 8.0 10.7 7.2 8.6 8.2 8.8 8.6 8.8 October 10.5 7.9 5.2 7.8 6.0 7 . 8 5 . 5 4 . 8 6.1 8 . 0 5 . 2 6.4 Total ..... . . . ........... 157.6 184.6 185.0 134.2 148.3 160.9 148 . 9 150.6 154.7 149.1 153 . 9 156.6 I I I I' I I II Increase or 1! I I Decrease \ 27.0 .4 14.1 12.6 1.7 ' 1 4.1 'i'1 4.8 2.7 I I Cl 00

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Annual Report, 1928 TABLE IV.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE CULLING PERCENT, 1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST. 59 Month Backyard Farm I Commercial I Average for Flock Flock Flock Contest November 0.00 1.94 2.44 2.30 December 0.00 3.66 3.72 3.62 January 0.00 3.64 3.46 3.41 February 2.47 2.53 2.09 2.11 March -----------------------2.56 9.15 1.02 2.63 April 3.57 2.47 _ 2.28 2.35 May 1.83 6.38 4.89 5.10 June oooo O Oo o OoooOOOOoH o oo o oooooOOoO .94 5.32 5.10 5.05 July 9.61 10.31 4.24 5.63 August ----. 2.08 5.37 5.12 5.15 September -----------4.25 5.81 4.88 5.06 October ----------------------1 43.93 6.87 7.94 8.30 I Average 46.03 59.20 37.44 41.46 This increase would tend to indicate that the producers throughout the state are paying more attention to the various phases of poultry management such as feeding, breeding, etc. Table IV shows the average and monthly percent of culling for the different groups and the average for the entire contest. Table V shows the average percent of mortality in the three groups and the average for the _ entire contest. The farm flock group is the only one that is exceedingly high, the average for the entire contest being 9.42 percent. Table VI shows the average price of eggs for each month for the different groups. POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS Poultry associations have been of material help in poultry extension work. In Florida there are two state organizations, the American Poultry Association _ of Florida, and the Florida

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE V.-MONTHLY AND AVERAGE MORTALITY IN PERCENT, 1927-28 HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST. Month November December January ......................... . February ....................... . March ............................. . April ............................. . May June July August ......................... . September ...................... ! I October .......................... ! I I Average .......................... ! _I Backyard Flock 0.00 1.58 0.00 1.65 0.00 .89 1.83 .94 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.34 Farm Flock 1.12 1.28 1.56 .84 1.02 2.47 1.90 2.19 1.86 1.94 1.60 1.50 17.99 I Commercial I Average for Flock Contest .62 .52 .43 .49 .63 .80 1.07 1.08 1.25 .69 .90 .89 7.63 .52 .68 .62 .59 .69 1.12 1.24 1.29 1.35 .94 1.02 1.02 9.42 Baby Chick Association. In addition to these, there are a number of county and community poultry associations. The American Poultry Association, with headquarters at DeLand, has assisted materially in developing standardbred poultry to a higher plane. The members of this organization have cooperated with the Gainesville office and with the county and home demonstration agents in furnishing the junior poultry club members with better stock. They also have assisted with educational meetings. The Florida Baby Chick Association, an organization of baby chick producers, has strived to furnish the chick buyer with a better grade of chicks each year. The supervision and accreditation of poultry flocks has been started under the super vision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. The association has assisted with educational meetings and in fostering the Grow Healthy Chick Campaign.

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Annual Report, 1928 61 TABLE VI.-EGG PRICES, 1927-28. Month Backyard Farm I Commercial I Average Flock Flock Flock ! I November -------------------' $0.56 $0.54 $0.48 $0.49 I December ________________________ I .55 .55 .46 .48 I I .44 .45 January ------------------------1 .52 .51 I I .29 .30 February --------------------1 .34 .34 I I March --------------------------1 .31 .30 .25 .26 I I April --------------------------------1 .29 .29 .25 .26 I May ----------------------------1 .25 .28 .29 .29 June ----------------------------1 .30 .32 .29 .29 I July --------------------.38 .36 .33 .33 August -------------------------1 .41 .41 .36 .37 I September ---------------1 .49 .50 .47 .47 October __________________________ \ .51 .57 .51 .52 I The community and county poultry associations have held meetings at regular intervals and the meetings in the main were of an educational nature. A few associations have done market ing and buying cooperatively. Demonstrations and field meetings were held in connection with the regular organized poultry associations. JUNIOR POULTRY CLUBS During the past year the rules and regulations of the junior poultry club work were changed. The requirements were made more rigid and a different plan was to be inaugurated during the year. Contests were held in different communities and counties at which the members exhibited their poultry. Iri most sections the quality of birds exhibited was better than the preceding year. The junior management club work will be started the :first of the year and with this new plan it is expected that more efficient poultry. work will be possible.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension MISCELLANEOUS The hatchery capacity in Florida has increased to a total of a million eggs as compared with about 800,000 the preceding year. The hatcheries and poultry breeders have cooperated with the Extension Division in placing better chicks and stock out on the farms. The number of mongrel chickens in the state is decreas ing rapidly. Poultry producers and marketing organizations are beginning to realize the importance of putting out a quality product and with this in view it is possible to see a decided step in advance along this particular line. Some are resorting to cold storage. Commercial poultry production has demanded more attention than ever before. Some of the main points under consideration were feeding, management, diseases, and egg production. Eco nomical egg production is of great importance to Florida pro ducers. Poultry shows were visited and judging was done. Educa tional features were employed as much as possible. Considerable time was spent in connection with the Florida. National Egg-Laying Contest. A brief summary of the second contest is given below. The egg production was 190.93 eggs per bird for 51 weeks. Table VII shows the feed consumption per bird for the light and heavy breeds and the average for the contest. TABLE Vll.-FEED CONSUMPTION PER BIRD PER YEAR IN POUNDS, FLORIDA NATIONAL EGG-LAYING CONTEST. Feed I Heavy Breeds I Light Breeds I Average ---------, Mash 40.42 36.71 37.54 Scratch 39.33 33.08 34.48 Oats -------------------------------------5.65 5.65 5.65 Semi-solid buttermilk ...... 12.18 12.18 12.18 Grit 2.28 1.83 1.93 Shell ---------------------------------3.50 3.37 3.41 Charcoal ---------------------.51 .42 .44 I I Total 103.87 I 93.24 95.63

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Annual Report, 1928 63 TABLE VIII.-POUNDS FEED REQUIRED TO PRODUCE ONE DOZEN Eoos AND COST. Breed ! Pounds Feed Per Dozen\ Feed Cost Per Dozen Eggs Eggs Heavy Light ............................. . 7.92 5.56 $0.264 .187 I Average 6.01 .201 AVERAGE FEED COST PER 100 POUNDS Mash ...................................................................................... $3.40 Scratch .................................................................................. 3.25 Semi-solid Buttermilk ...................................................... 4.75 Oats ...................................................................................... 2.70 Grit ........................................................................................ 1.10 Shell ..................................................................................... 1.10 Charcoal .................................................... •......................... 3.00 FEED COST PER BIRD Heavy breeds ...................................................................... $3.47 Light breeds ........................................................................ 3.12 Average ................................................................................ 3.20 Table VIII shows the number of pounds of feed to produce one dozen eggs and the feed cost per dozen eggs for the light and heavy breeds and averages for the contest. MORTALITY Average mortality was 15.1 percent, most of which was due to ovarian trouble.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Flavia Gleason, State Agent , Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Agent Ruby McDavid, District Agent Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent Mary E. Keown, District Agent Isabelle S. Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent Mary A. Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK IN COUNTIES Home demonstration workers in Florida feel encouraged over the progress that home demonstration work has made during the year. Regardless of the prevaling financial depression, home demonstration work has received continued financial support in all organized counties and four additional counties have made appropriations for developing the work within their bounds. The year 1928 closes with . home demonstration work being definitely developed in 35 counties under the leadership of 34 county home demonstration agents and three assistant home demonstration agents. Two of these agents are working in two counties each and are paid from Capper-Ketcham funds. An appropriation is waiting for the appointment of an agent in Jefferson County January 1. Therefore, home demonstration work will be conducted in at least 36 counties during 1929. We have had two transfers. One assistant agent who was married during the summer is the only one who has resigned during the year. Polk County, because of finances, dropped one of the two assistants on June 30. This worker has been serving as assistant to the home demonstration agent in Palm Beach County for the past three months, doing emergency work following the storm. Six of the 35 counties have had the work too short a time for the agents to sumbit statistical reports. However, narrative reports which they have submitted give some idea as to the way the work is developing. Statistical reports submitted from 29 counties show that home demonstration clubs were organized and actively functioning in 541 communities. In these communities there were 544 clubs with a membership of 10,405 girls and 207 clubs with a member ship of 6,508 women. Of this number 8,057 girls and 5,421 women completed a full year's work in demonstrations conducted in the home according to home demonstration methods. Although the reports from 31 counties in 1927 show a few more women and

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Annual Report, 19 2 8 65 girls enrolled, the 29 counties reporting this year show a con siderable increase in the number of members completing . the year ' s work. This was due to the fact that there were no inter ruptions caused by changing agents. SUPERVISORY PROGRAM In Florida the _ necessity for a-varied program in different sec tions of the state is realized. However, for the general develop ment of home demonstration work throughout the state, the supervisory program was built _ around five main objectives for 1928. These were: 1. Development of the type of programs that will fill the greatest need of those taking advantage of home demonstration work. 2. Leadership development to assist agents in executing pro gram plans for the year. 3. To . further develop community and county organizations, especially the local home demonstration clubs and county councils. 4. To reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form a closer _ contact with the rural homes. 5. To extend home demonstration work into a larger number of counties. Development of these objectives has been as follows: (1) As in 1927, there was general interest in establishing demonstrations in what are termed the fundamentals of home demonstration work. Outstanding accomplishments were in creased in those things that develop profit, comfort, Culture, power and influence. Gardening, home dairying and poultry have formed the basis for nutrition work. Increasing interest in nutrition has, according to many agents, created a greater inter est in many communities for producing foodstuff at home. The live-at-home program, including gardening, home dairying and poultry work, has contributed to better foods and nutrition prac tices, assisted in developing . effective home improvement and, through the marketing of surplus products, has assisted girls and boys in some homes in furthering their education. (2) It is the policy to urge the selection of real leaders for women's work from among the women who, because of their accomplishments in their own homes, are naturally capable leaders in a particular phase of work, and are so recognized by other women in the neighborhood.

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66 Florida Cooperati ve Extension Older club girls are developing into good leaders among the girls' clubs. However, well trained, understanding women can _ render considerably more assistance to the agents in the capacity , of local leaders. One district agent reports that the project l . ead e rs are organized into county leadership clubs in several of the counties over which she has supervision. Members of these clubs assist the agents in presentation of some of the sub ject matter. During the year there were 366 local leaders ac tively engaged in forwarding the extension program with the girls and 299 with the women's work. There were 163 training meetings held for local leaders with an attendance of 2,311 leaders. Certificates of standardiz a tion are given to the various local clubs as soon as they reach and maintain the necessary require ments. There are at present 180 of these standard clubs. Recog nition will be given to the standard club making highest score in the state this year. (3) Following the organization of local home demonstration clubs is the formation of county councils. These county or ganizations are composed of two delegates, president and one other, from each club in the county. They help to plan and execute . plans for the year's home demonstration work. They are general promoters and boosters of home demonstration work. With the exception of the counties in which home demonstration agents have recently been appointed, all have girls' county councils functioning in the conduct of the work in the county and state , Seventy-:fj,ve percent of the counties have county councils for women's work. The State Council for Girls' Club Work meets annually during the State Short Course for Club Girls. Miss Lucy Belle Settle, District Agent, serves as ad~lt advisor for this group. 'I'he Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work meets annually during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. (4) The fourth point in the program of work was to reach more adults with home demonstration work and to form closer contact with the rural homes. Reports state that 312 more women completed the work this year than last. There were 11 , 159 home visits made by county home demonstration agents , an increase of 1,347 over the previous year. These visits were made to and contacts formed in 5,505 homes.

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Annual Report, 1928 67 OFFICE ORGANIZATION, RECORDS AND REPORTS It is encouraging to see demonstration and office equipment supplied more generally and more generously by the county boards as satisfactory results become more evident. Thirteen counties provide stenographic assistance. The stenographers take care of office calls in so far as they can in the agent's absence, and render general clerical assistance to the agents. Sixteen agents have typewriters provided, 16 have telephones, 14 have well equipped demonstration kitchens; 10 agents are furnished cars from county funds and two counties provide motion picture machines. MAINTENANCE AND TRAINING OF PERSONNEL Home demonstration work has been co~siderably strengthened during the year because of the fact that the agents remained "on the job". New positions have been filled with well trained, competent women. They are either college graduates with teaching experience and a good background for home demonstra tion work or successful, experienced agents. Inexperienced agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged with experienced agents and in the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans of work and available literature. They are given special duties at State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week and special attention during district and state conferences .. The district agent assists in forming contacts in the county. Three district conferences were held early in the year. County and state programs of work were discussed in detail with county, district and state workers. Subject matter training which seemed to be the most needed was given. However, for the most part the meetings were filled with conferences on developing the work throughout the year. The annual meeting of home demonstration agents was held at Florida State College for Women October 4 through the morn ing of October 10. This was done in order that the agents might have access to the home economics laboratories and take ad vantage of subject matter information given by the home economics resident staff and instructors in the department of in

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension . . dustrial arts. The agents met in joint conference with al1 ex tension workers in Florida at University of Florida, October 11 and 12. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS Requirements . regarding individual and club programs are made by the state office. For instance, every club girl is required to establish a demonstration in some type of productive work as gardening, dairying or poultry work in addition to the home economics phases of her work. At the end of four years of home demonstration work, a girl is awarded a certificate in recognition of her work. There were 531 recipients of these during 1928. Programs of work and reports are studied carefully by the state and district agents. Comparisons are made of goals set at beginning of the year and accomplishment as the work ad vances. State and district agents discuss plans for strengthen ing the work during visits into the counties and at agents' con ferences. PUBLICITY The Agricultural News Service carries timely articles of home demonstration work. During the State Short Course' for Club Girls, the agricultural extension editor gave definite instruction;l in writing newspaper stories to two girls from each county repre sented. The girls weremost enthusiastic over theworkandcon tributed articles daily for a club news sheet. As a result of this work and that begun by two other county councils, many of the girls' councils now edit and publish their own county club . paper. A collection of 98 articles gathered in one week's time from sonie of the largest papers in the state show that home demon stration articles have a wide circulation. The press is generou:; in the use of home demonstration articles. Home demonstra tion work received much publicity during the year through fairs. Farmers' Week, State Short Course for Club Girls, county con tests, window displays, camps, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, men's organizations, and other cooperating agencies. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked . out .................. . ...... . . .... . ........ .. ...... . ...... .. ....... . ...... .. ....... . ,, .... . . . .............. . .... . Voluntary county, community and local leaders ............... .. ...... . ........ . .... . 541 366

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Annual Report , 19 2 8 Club s carrying on extension work with junior s. ....... .. . . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . ..... .... .. . 544 Membership ......... . ............... . ....... ... ........... . .... .. ........ ... ....... .. ....... '. ........ ... ...... .. . 10,405 Clubs carrying on extension work with adults. .... .... .. . .. .... ...... .. ....... .... ... 207 Membership .. . ............. . . . ...... .. ........ .. ... . .. . . . .... . . .. ..... ... . . .... . . .. ......... .. .... ... ........ . . 6,508 Home visits made by agents ............. . . . ..... ... ...... . . . . . ...... . ......... . ..... . . .. ...... .. . 11,159 ~:=e~siti~!d:it~e~g~;;i~::::: : ::::::::: : ::::::: ::: ::::: :::: ::::::: : ::::::::: :: ::::::. : :::::: : : : Different farms visited ... . ... ...... . .. ... . .... . . .. .... . . .. . .. .... .. ,. . .... .. ...... . . ..... ..... ..... .. . 461 Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work. .... ... 40,453 Average number days spent in office . . ... ... .. .. .. .. . .... ..... .. .... .. ................... . .. 61 Average nuinber days spent in field . . . ... . .. . ... . ..... . ......................... .. ..... ... ... 234 ~~l1tits 1 i;;;e}!ir':r~~~~~ . . .. ::::::::::: :::: :::::: : ::: : ::::: :: :::::::: : :: : : : ::: :: : : :: :: : : :::::~::.: . . , . .. . .. . 63 8 ~: Community .... ........ . ....... .. ......... . ...... .... ..... . .......... .. ....... .. ....... . ..... 36 County . ....... .. .. . .... ..... .. . .. . .. .. ........ . ... . .. ..... . .. ... ...... . ......... . ..... .. . . ..... 27 Exhibits at 2 state fairs .... .. ......... . ..... . ......... . . . ................ . ..... 22 Meetings held ... .. ........ .. ..... . . . ...................... : ... . ....... . .... . ... ........ ..... ..... ... ..... .... . 8,944 Attendance .. ...... . . .. . . .... . ... . ...... ... ..... . . . ...... . .. . .... . . . ... . . .. ....... .... ........ ... .... . .. . . . ..... ... 221 , 763 Extension schools and short courses held . . . ....... .. ..... . .. . ..... . .. : ........ . ...... . .. 43 Attendance . ....... ... . . . . .. .. . . .. . .... .. ...... .. ........ . . . .. . . .... ....... . . . ..... ... .... .. . ... . . ..... ..... . ... . . . 2,428 PROGRAM SUMMARY Number communities participating Home gardens ...... . ..... . .. .. ... . .. . .... . . .. ....... . ...... . . . . .. .. 415 Beautification of home ground s ...... .. ...... .. ...... 28 Home dairy ............ . . .. . . ..... . , ........ ... ............ .... .. ... . 56 Home poultry .. . ........ .. ...... . .......... . ....... . ....... . . .. .... 334 Rural engineering ... .... ... . . . .. . ..... . . . ... . . ..... ... . ... . . ... 114 Home marketing . . ..... . . . ...... ... ..... ... ....... .. .... : .. . . . .... 146 Foods .. ........ . ....... .. ....... . ..... . .. . ........ .. ....... . ...... . ........ 454 Nutrition . .. . . .... ,............ . ....... .. ....... . . . . .. .. . ... . ..... .. ..... 394 Clothing ... . . . ......................... . ......... .. ...... .. . . ...... .. ..... 507 Home management . .. .. ... .. . . .. .. .... ... ... .. . . ..... ..... ... . 218 House furnishings .. . . . ..... . . .. ..... . .......... .. .............. 417 Home health and sanitation ... . . . .... ...... .... ... .. . . . 387 Community activities . . ... . ......... . ... . ..... .... ..... . . .. .... 319 Miscellaneou s .... . ........ . ........ ... ...... .. ...... .. . .. .... . ....... 230 Days agents devoted to projects 828 21 59 459 126 150 . 1587 946 1898 218 633 3611/4 538 882 PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS HOME GARDENS AND PERENNIAL PLANTINGS With the gardening and perennial plantings we are :working toward an all-year supply of fresh fruits and vegetables for tlie home ; to improve and beautify grounds by decorative plantings of economic ornamentals, native shrubs and flowers; to furnish means to increase income. The foods and marketingagen.t"who serves as leader for this phase of the work has secured splendid cooperation from seed dealers, nurseries, fertilizer concerns, the State Federation of Women's Clubs, and individuals in promoting better gardens and more perennial plantings. In all 2,422

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension women and 4,322 girls have worked definitely along this line, and 4,016 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices in home garden work. In the all-year garden contest Thelma Hood of Santa Rosa County was winner of the $50 offered by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs for the most outstanding gardening results accomplished by a 4-H club girl, money to be used for educa tional purposes. Of her garden the county home demonstration agent, Miss Ethyl Holloway, says: "Perhaps the most outstand ing demonstration is that of Thelma Hood, 14-year-old club girl in Mt. Carmel community. She took over the family garden and began a series of plantings in January. In this garden she planted during the year 40 varieties of vegetables, and during June she took an exhibit from her garden to Short Course in Tallahassee, consisting of 30 varieties, q,uality stuff. All surplus was disposed of either fresh or by canning. She canned a little more than 300 jars which she valued at $38.10. Her fresh tomatoes sold for $47.60. Other vegetables sold amounted to $44.86, used fresh at home, $80.10, making a total of $210.69. Her expenses including fertilizer, seed and spray, were $74.20, leaving a net profit of $126.49" . . Mrs. H. M. Burgess of Holmes County was winner of sweep., stakes for an outstanding variety, successive plantings, utiliza tion of surplus and in a wealth of beautiful flowers. At the county contest this fall, Mrs. Burgess exhibited 26 varieties of vegetables from her garden. POULTRY The main phases of home poultry work as stressed by the agents under the leadership of the extension poultryman were: growing health chicks, growing green feed, culling, and the home egg-laying contest. According to reports from 23 counties, the total profit on result demonstrations conducted under super vision of home demonstration agents amounted to $37,922.80. Improved poultry practices were adopted in 3,004 homes during the year. Guilda Yates of Orange County was the winner of the $50 prize offered by the Florida F _ ederation of Women's Clubs _ for the best accomplishments in poultry work as carried on by 4-H club girls. The money will be presented with the understanding that it is to be used for educational purposes only.

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Annual Report, 1928 71 HOME DAIRYING The dairy and nutrition agent working with the county home demonstration agents has, through the nutrition work, increased to a great extent the use of milkand milk products in the diet. Milk for health campaigns served as a good means for bringing this about. A total of 407 women and 178 girls have taken up definite work in improving home dairy practices. HOME IMPROVEMENT The home improvement work under the leadership of the assistant state home demonstration agent has seen a splendid growth through the year. Emphasis has been given to the importance of installing sani tary closets, screening homes, controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects to the extent that 24 counties report 3,801 homes as having improved sanitary practices of this kind. According to the reports from 19 counties, 611 homes fol lowed instructions and adopted improved practices in rural engineering in the homes. This means that more people each year are constructing and remodeling dwellings according to plans furnished; installing sewage disposal systems, water sys tems, heating systems and especially lighting systems since big power lines are beginning to serve the rural districts. Special instruction was given the agents during the annual meeting on buying standards for electrical equipment. More demonstrations and time have been given by the agents this year to the beautification of home grounds with the result that 5,064 homes have done definite work in beautifying the home grounds. Club girls and women in some of the counties adopted county flowers and held a flower contest and flower show. This aided materially in the beautification program. That women and girls are learning to plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor saving devices; to arrange furniture for convenience; to use improved laundry practices, and to keep accounts and budgets is seen by the fact that 2,460 homes improved practices in home management work during the year. A total of 1,246 women and 1,859 girls have completed the year's work in house furnishings, which included selection, ar rangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings. In all, 693 women and 881 girls worked over walls, woodwork, and floors

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72 Flo ri da Co op e rat ive E x t e n s ion a nd 3,218 homemakers in 28 counties have been reported as adopting improved practices relative to the house furnishings work conducted by the home demonstration agents. The home improvement campaign which terminated at the Florida State Fair, the work accomplished at the State Short Course for Club Girls and Farmers' Week, and increase in the family income through the productive phases of work , were im portant factors in promotion of home improvement work. NUTRITION Nutrition work under the leadership of the dairy and nutrition agent was conducted in a way that linked the gardening, dairying and poultry work with the family table. As a result, better meals have been prepared, better food practices adopted and better school lunches provided. A total of 6,375 homes, an increase over last year of 2,203 homes, were reported as adopting im proved practices in nutrition work as conducted by home demon stration agents . A hot dish at noon was served for the first time at 41 schools. A nutrition contest was conducted and a trip to the National Boys' and Girls' Club Congress was awarded to Kathleen Reese of Hillsborough County for showing the great est improvement as a result of her nutrition work. Fig. : 5.-Adult home demonstration . members learn meal planning and preparation in their nutrition work . .

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Annual R eport, 19 28 73 A long-time nutrition program was put into effect in the state this year for the first time. The first year's re s ult s have been q uit e enco uraging. Better leadership by the women in the girls' nutrition program, in the health contest, a nd in preparing bett e r school lunches, has been noted. More effective cooperation ha s been secured in the milk-for-health campaigns and in securing sc hool lunch equipment. A number of contests-such a s s alad contests, baking contests, menu-planning contests, posture contests, etc.-have materiall y aided the nutrition work during the year. Nutrition work had a n important place in det e rmining the winner of the trip to National Club Congress awarded to Qui nelle Fuller, Columbia County, for scoring highest in the State Health Contest. She tied for second place in the National Health Contest . These contests have had a splendid influen c e in inter esting the girls in nutrition work and re s ults ar e proving valu able demonstration s. FOODS The preparation of foods form s a part of various club pro grams, is a part of the work outlined for club members carrying gardening, dairying, home poultry and nutrition. Reports show that 2,462 women and 3,523 girls completed food preparation demonstration outlined for the year and 29 counties report 5,471 homes adopting improved practices in food preparation . The nutrition and food s and marketing agents are leaders in this phase of home demon s tration work. Fig. 6. Home demonstration women can vegetable s that ar e pleasing to the eye as well as to the palate . Food preservation work under the leadership of the foods and marketing agent has been en _ couraged so . as to preserve food

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transport ing food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea, in suring varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products into marketable shape. Reports show that 4,007 homes adopted improved practices in food preservation this year. Fruits, vegetables, meat and fish were canned; jelly, preserves and pickles were made; fruit juices were extracted . and pre served. CLOTHING Girls often become club members and conduct the required living and growing demonstrations in order to have advantage of the clothing work. This includes proper selection of mate rials, construction, renovation and remodeling of garments; mil linery, costume designing, making of a clothing budget and wardrobe planning. A total of 2,523 women and 4,924 girls com pleted clothing programs as outlined for the year. Twenty-nine county reports show that 7,372 homemakers adopted improved practices in this phase of home demonstration work. There is no leader for this phase of the work. It is supervised by the distri . ct agents. HOME MARKETING Home products standardized and marketed consisted chiefly of poultry and poultry products, canned goods, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, baskets made of pine needles, wire grass, palmetto or honeysuckle, and rag rugs. Four curb markets and two home demonstration shops functioned to the advantage of club members throughout the year. These have been estab lished and managed mainly through women's home demonstra tion councils. Walton, Volusia, Palm Beach, Citrus and Dade counties carry interesting reports of marketing home products. For money made from sale of vegetables, aside from supply ing the family table, Mrs. Margaret Nicholson ($1,353.54), and Mrs. C. F. Rumph ($407.50), have been awarded garden plows to the value of $22.50 and $17.50 respectively. Miss Orpha Cole, h,bme demonstration agent for Volusia Coun ty, makes the following statement regarding marketing of home products: "The greatest success of the five years' history of the home demonstration exchange has been realized this year

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Fig . 7.-Through efforts of county home demonstration agents, 41 Florida communities were induced to serve hot school lun c he s this year.

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension and their deposits for the year have been brought to $5,123.12. Products consist mainly of cooked foods, preserved and crystal lized products and flowers. Additional sales promoted by the agent aggregate $213.20. These consist chiefly of pears, figs, grapes, bulbs and jars. Four people were assisted in marketing their entire fruit crop. Marketing is fo progress at present on the chayote crop. "Other than amounts mentioned in the foregoing items, 25 women have reported the following amounts: Poultry, $909.13; flowers, $5.90; baking, $7 4.25; crystallized fruits, $16.25; and miscellaneous, $32.30; totaling $2,914.52. Combined with the previous items it gives a total record of $8,494.84 for home demonstration women." COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES Community activities vary according to the needs of the com munity as seen by the home demonstration agents and the club members. Home demonstration clubs have been the means of club houses being erected and equipped for community meet ings. The club house in Holmes County is invaluable to the peo ple of Leonia community, which is about 18 miles from town. The school lunch is a community activity in which schools in 41 communities have been induced to serve a hot dish or school lunch for the first time. Club members assisted with 22 com munity fairs. Eighty-one school and community grounds were planted this year according to landscape plans furnished by the home demonstration agents. Rural libraries are being established. A total of 319 communities carried some definite community work as a part of the year's program. MISCELLANEOUS A total of 1,093 women and girls in five counties completed definite work in rug making and 1,846 women and girls are re ported as having learned the art of turning such native mate rials as'pine . needl~s and wire grass into _ baskets, trays and other article~. In all, ' l,083 < women and girls have completed definite . work \ \P. craft!;! (,Ji jnd ,' 236 homes ar _ ~ , . ~ ; eported as standardizing these 'miscella:tie-trctt' nttlcles formarket.

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Annual Report, 1928 STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION STATE SHORT COURSE FOR CLUB GIRLS 77 This year's stat~ short course was by far the most satisfac tory yet lield. The Florida State College for Women closed the spring term early, allowing ample time for the extension depart ment to conduct the short course before opening of the sum mer term. Dormitories, laboratories, and class rooms were avail able. The College nurses rendered valuable assistance by keep ing the infirmary open and giving the giris necessary medical care during the week. The 441 girls in attendance had won scholarships awarded in the counties as a result of outstanding achievements in various phases of work. Scholarships were provided by club members themselves, county commissioners, school boards, women's club::;, men's clubs, banks, merchants and interested individuals. The course consisted of instruction and demonstrations by ex tension workers and home demonstration club members in various phases of the work. Outstanding features were the health contest, home impro.vement work, team demonstrations in the afternoon, and meeting of the state council. Ample recre ation and entert~inment were provided. Girls who attend the short course usually develop into the best leaders and realize a desire to go to college. Many of them as a result find a way to become students and graduates of the Florida State College for Women. . . . ;, Beca_use of the growing interest, number and service of local leaders, a special period was given over to work with them. At other times-they observed work with the girls. There were 36 leaders in attendance. FARMERS' AND FRUIT GROWERS' WEEK The women enjoyed Farmers' Week at the University as much as the girls did the short course. Demonstrations and instruc tion were given in various phases of work by state and county extension workers, club members, University professors, and home economics workers in business firms. Outstanding fea tures were exhibits, group work with women actually working where they felt they could be best benefited and meetings of the State Home Demonstration Council for Women's Work.

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78 Florida Cooperative Extension Most of the women paid their own way. However, more wo men were present with expenses paid due to the work of the county councils and support of county federations of women's club. CAMPS There were 36 camps held during the spring and summer. Eight of these camps were for women, 12 for boys and girls and 16 for the girls entirely. Local leaders attended and assisted home demonstration agents with the camps. There were 378 women, 1,791 girls and 190 boys who enjoyed the recreation, in struction, fellowship, and leadership development of the camps conducted by the. home demonstration agents. CONTESTS Through county contests held in the various counties support ing home demonstration work, club exhibits were displayed, demonstrations given by club members and the county agent:,; and supervisors had a means of observing the county-wide re sponse to the work; analyze the work for improvement; get the work before the public, and create a better community and club spirit. RALLIES Various plans are followed regarding rallies. Counties holding them usually have one a year featuring work with juniors. One county held a rally for the women's clubs once each two months with an average attendance of about 250 women. That same county had a community rally or picnic once a year in each com munity with good attendance. The pleasure of getting together and hearing and giving club reports, has inspired club members, women and girls, to better their individual work and that of the community and the county. FAIRS Home demonstration exhibits were on display at community fairs, county fairs, the Florida State Fair, the South Florida Fair and the exposition at Toronto, Canada. Through funds provided by the Florida State Fair, women and girls having accomplished the most outstanding results in either home improvement, nutrition, gardening, canning, poultry work, or home dairying were given a trip to the State Fair to give demonstrations in the home demonstration booths. These

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Annual Report, 1928 79 women and girls appreciated the recognition, discussed their work with the public, gave demonstrations and added tremen dous interest to the home demonstration exhibits. Similar dem onstrations were provided for by the South Florida Fair. DEMONSTRATION TEAMS In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and encourage club members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in vari ous phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members and ability to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 94 such teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work. SCHOLARSHIPS TO THE FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN The State College for Women gave dining room scholarships to 10 club girls this year. The business manager secured the ccmtinuation of two loan scholarships for other deserving club girls. Senator W. C. Hodges of Leon County continued the schol arship which he began in 1926 as a result of interest aroused through the State Short Course. Continued interest in extension work in home economics led the following counties to make ap propriations for full scholarships for training in home eco nomics: Hillsborough County, two; Dade, three; Palm Beach, one ; and Orange, one. Club girls are enthusiastic over the scholarship fund provided by club girls of the state through the State Council, which en ables an outstanding and deserving club girl to be in college this year. OUT-OF-STATE TRIPS Because of their splendid record as club members, Laura Case of Orange County and Whitlock Fennell of Dade County were sent as delegates to the National Club Camp in Washington, D. C., in June. The Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company provided funds for these trips. Quinnelle Fuller, Columbia County, winner in the state health contest for club girls; Kathleen Reese, Hillsborough County, _ winner in nutrition contest and Mildred Gunson, Gadsden Coun

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80 Florida Cooperative E x tension ty, for well rounded club work, were awarded trips to the Na tional Boys' and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago. Financ es were provided by South Florida Fair Association , commercial firms and individual s . Fig. 8.-Five Florida c'.ub girls were given trips to the International Club Congress as reward s for outstanding club work. Olive Verne Whitten, president of the College 4-H Club, a for mer club member and now training for home demonstration agent work, represented Florida Club Girls at a National Leader ship Training School held in Springfield, Massachusetts, .in sep tember. Because of the splendid type of 4-H club work that boys and girls in F l orida are doing, Florida was invited to send 1 boy and 1 girl to thi s Leadership Training School, with ex penses paid by Mr. A. H. Moses of Massachusetts. C'.ub members have returned from these national meetin g., with enlarged vision of club work and enthusiasm which they have passed on to others who have heard their inspiring reports. 4 H COLLEGE CLUB Former club girls who are in attendance at Florida State Col lege for Women are banded together in an organization for pro motion of club work. This club continues to attract the atten tion and interest of other students in home demonstration work and encourage club girls to go to College as soon as they hav e finished high school. Among the membership of this group are some of the most outstanding girls in college .

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Annual Report, 1928 81 NEGRO EXTENSION WORK (Farm and Home Makers' Clubs) MEN'S WORK A. A. Turner, Local District Agent, Tallahassee County Local Agent Address Alachua William Stockton ' Gainesville Bradford W. Keller Starke Columbia ....... . ... .. . . .. . ................ E . . S. Belvin ...... . . . . . ................. . .. . . .. .. . . . Lake City Jackson .................................... J. E. Granberry ...... . ......................... . . Marianna Jefferson .......... .. ...................... M. E. Groover ... . ... . ..................... ... .... Monticello Marion ............ . .. .... ................... William B. Young ....................... . ...... Ocala Suwannee --C. T. Evans Live Oak (Corrected to December 31, 1928.) During 1928 extension work with Negroes in agriculture and home economics has been carried on in 16 counties. Men agents have been employed in Jackson, Jefferson, Suwannee, Columbia, Bradford, Alachua, and Marion counties, and women agents have been employed in Duval, Leon, Madison, Marion, Orange, St. Johns, and Sumter counties. Three other counties have been without agents but the district agent has had the cooperation of local leaders in these counties, making it possible to carry on a limited amount of work where there is some local organization. The Negro extension work has the same supervision as all other extension work; however, the headquarters for the district supervisors is at the Florida A. & M. College, Tallahassee, where office space has been provided in the Agricultural Building of that institution. The College has offered its cooperation and the facilities of its agricultural equipment and has cooperated with the Agricultural Extension Division in making it possible to hold short courses and other schools of instruction for the benefit of the Negro extension agents. One clerical assistant is in charge of the office when the district supervisor is on field work. The work has the supervision of the state leader for men's work and of the state home demonstration agent for the women's work; in addition, an assistant was employed for five months to give help to county home demonstration workers. NEGRO EXTENSION MEETINGS The Negro Farm Boys' and Girls' State 4-H Club Short Course was held at the Florida A. & M. College during April. The coun ty workers were responsible for bringing together 82 boys and girls. These groups were selected because of their 4-H club

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension work and each county having agents had representatives from their clubs present. The expense of travel for these 4-H club members was borne by the counties represented. The program consisted of instruction and entertainment provided by the Agri cultural Extension Division and the Florida A. & M. College. In carrying out the program, the supervisory staff of extension work was present, and assistance was obtained from T. M. Campbell, the field agent of the United ~ States Department of Agriculture, who has headquarters in Tuskegee. The county workers were assembled for three days instruction at the Florida A. & M. College at a general extension conference for the purpose of outlining programs and plans for the future. COUNTY MEETINGS County meetings were conducted throughout the year in all the counties having agents. These were conducted in school houses and other public places and the programs were arranged between the county workers and the local district agent. Sixty nine of these meetings were conducted, with an attendance of 2,453. Ten of the local agents accompanied by Negro farmers and their wives attended the Annual Farmers' Conference and South ern Farm Boys' and Girls' 4-H Club Camp held at Tuskegee In stitute the first week in December. The expenses of this trip were borne by individual members, and, where club members attended, their expenses were borne by local organizations. The purpose of this meeting was primarily to promote 4-H club camp methods for Negro boys and girls. FAIR EXHIBITS Fair exhibits were displayed by Negro farmers under the di rection of the Negro district agent at the South Florida Fair and at the State Fair. The exhibits were creditable and received the approval of the fair authorities and extension agents. The exhibits consisted of displays of the products produced by 4-H club members and colored farmers with whom the agents had , cooperated. The exhibits wer~ creditable and well arranged, and the expenses of these exhibits were paid by the fair associations and the counties exhibiting.

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Annual Report, 1928 83 RESULTS OF YEAR'S WORK In the men's work seven agents were employed, g1vmg 63 months of service, or an average of approximately 10 months. There were six county farm associations primarily for the pur chase and sale of farm products. These had a membership of 183. The total number of communities was 66, and there were 7 4 junior and 72 adult community leaders who assisted the agents in carrying out their programs. Thirty-one former 4-H club members were reported to have entered the Florida A. & M. College. There were 4,660 farm visits made, to 928 farms. The agents distributed 1,404 agricultural bulletins supplied to them from the Agricultural College and the U. S. D. A. There were 11 community fairs and six county fairs. Soils The work with soils consisted principally of the turning under of cover crops and terracing. These cover crop demonstrations were principally winter cover crops with oats, part of which was used for pastures and the remaining growth turned under. For summer cover crops, the main ones were cowpeas and native grasses. These were utilized for soil improvement purposes. The soils demonstration work involved the use of commercial fer tilizers. These agents assisted the farmers in securing the right formulas as approved by the Florida Experiment Sta tion for the various crops. Other work consisted of the care of manure and rotation of crops. Special mention is made of rotations in the peanut growing area where it is inadvisable to follow the usual practice of planting peanuts year after year on the same land. Cereals The principal cereals involved in demonstrations were corn and oats. The results of the demonstrations were with corn an increase of 33 percent over adjoining crops. This increase was brought about by seed selection, cultivation, and proper spacing. The oat demonstrations were conducted primarily to have a win ter cover crop and to provide grain for feeding the livestock dur ing the spring months. It was recommended that the oat crop be sown earlier than usual in the fall and a larger amount of seed used than is the general practice. With the cereals, too, the boys did the best club work. There were 291 boys enrolled and 127 completed the work.

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension Hay and Forage Crops Hay and forage crop demonstrations were principally of le gumes and native grasses. It was impossible to get any acre weighings on the tonnage produced, as the colored farmers are without ~cales or other ways of weighing the hay. There were a few demonstrations with soybeans. Other demonstrations, were with velvet beans and peanuts. These were pastured off by livestock and were not harvested. The 4-H club members used principally peanuts in their demonstrations. Horticultural Crops The vegetable work was primarily with Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes and vegetable gardens. An effort was made to increase the yield by securing better seed and following the improved methods of cultivation and fertilization. Through the assistance of the Gainesville office the local district agent was able to se cure cooperation from the farmers principally in seed selection. In many cases the usual practice of securing sweet potato slip,
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Annual R e port, 1928 85 was done with hogs. This was usually in cooperation with the agents when cooperative sales were being made. In poultry work the agents gave assistance to the farmers in culling and feeding and the control of insects and diseases. Due to the low prices, a number of people who had become interested in poultry found it necessary to di s pose of their flocks as they had not provided equipment and feed; however, those who were equipped to handle the poultry in the proper way profited by their effort s . It ha s been difficult for the agents to get the co operation of the farmers in the production of green feeds, and, because of this , the feeding methods have been expensive and in some cases unprofitable. The 4-H club work s hows s ome improvement over former years. A part of it has been difficult to handle, due to the tenant system so prevalent in the negro farming areas. The rules and regulations governing 4-H clubs with white boys and girls have been applied to the Negro clubs. Wherever the club work has received reasonable attention and there is community interest manifested, the results correspond very closely with other 4-H club s and with these Negro agents the club work forms an im portant part of their program. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK County Local H. D. Agent Address Duval ...... .. . .. . . . . ..... . .. .. . .. . Oliv e L. Smith . . .. ... . ... . .. .. .. Jacksonville, 1005 W. 12th Leon ... . ..... .... ....... .. . .... .... Alice W. Poole . .. . . . . .... .. .... . Tallahas s ee Madison ..... . .............. .. ... Althea Ayer ... ..... . . ... ... ..... .. , Madison Marion ..... . .. ... ... . .. . . ... . .. .. Idella Ransom ..... .. .. . .......... Reddick Orange . . .. . . ... . ....... . ....... Mamie E. Wright . . .......... .. Orland o St. Johns . . . .. . . ...... .. . .. . . .. . Mar y A. Caldwell .. . . . .. ... . . . . St. Augu s tine Sumter ..... . . ... ....... . .. . ...... Diana H. Finlayson . ......... Webster The Negro work in Florid a is a part of the Extension Service. The women work directly under the supervision of the State Home Demonstration office with A. A. Turner, Local Agent, in charge of both the women and men local agents. Susie L. Turner has been a temporary agent from time to time. A marked im provement has been noted the past year in demonstration work for Negroes, due to the fact that she was in closer touch with the women agents. The foods and marketing agent and the assistant state home demonstration ageat have frequently met with the Negro wo men for conferences and instruction at the local and state meet

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension ings. There is a wholesome cooperation between the white home demonstration agents and the Negro women agents. Following are some statistics as compiled from the local home demonstration agents' reports: There are 2,357 girls in demonstration club work, 317 boys, 88 men and 516 women. The local women agents instruct the boy s and men as well as the girls and women. It is remarkable what the local agents in Madi s on and Sumter counties are doing to lead the men and boys on to better practices in their farm methods, in getting feed and forage for their animals, in bring ing up a better grade of hogs, cows and poultry, by securing purebred males. Both these agents as well as other local agents have secured a real interest from the white citizens because of their practical and direct work to better the farm and home con ditions of rural colored people. There were 2,543 home visits made to the colored homes by the local agents to conduct various demonstrations in garden ing, home improvement, canning and food preparation with the girls and women, and advise on seeds, planting, and better live stock with the men a nd boy s . More thought has b e en given to sanitary premi s es. The pa s t year in the . Negro homes 126 out door toilets have been made , 140 houses were screened for the first time, 385 fly traps were made and methods of controlling the flie s were s tudied, 84 houses have been whitewashed, and at tempts were made to clean up and beautify 641 houses. There were winter gardens grown for the first time by 631 boys, girls and women. A marked improvement in the diet of the Negro families has been reported because of more attention given to the growing and serving of green food for the family. Increased income through the growing of poultry was reported from 445 homes. A number of counties are stressing a dairy cow for every home. Better preparation and serving of food is reported. The Negro exhibits at state fairs have shown marked improve ment from year to year and have served as a means of bringing about better quality in sewing, canning, etc. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1 9 27-November 30, 1928 GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communitie s where extension pro g ram wa s cooperatively wor k ed out 66 Voluntary county, c ommunity and local leaders .. ... . ..... . . ..... ....... . . . . . .. .. . ... 146 Club s carrying on ext e nsion work .......... ... .... ... . . ... . . . . ...... .. . . . .. .. . ........ .... .. . . .. . . . 100 Memb e rships . .. . ...... . ...... ... . .. .. . ... ... .. .... . .... .... ....... . . . . . ....... ... . .. . ... .... .. . .. . . .. . ... . . . .. ...... 1,763 Farm visits made by local agent s .. .. ......... ........ . . ........ . . .... . . ........ .. . ..... ......... . .4,660

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Annual Report, 1928 87 Different farms visited .................................................................................... 938 Office calls on agents relating to extension work ...................................... 2,014 Exhibits at fairs ................................................................................................ 8 County .............................................................................................. 6 State .................................................................................................. 2 Number Attendance Farmers' meetings held .............................................. 12 570 PROGRAM SUMMARY Of Outlined Projects for Local Agents Number Communities Participating 36 Soils ........................................................................... . Farm Crops ............................................................. . Dairy Husbandry ................................................... . Poultry Husbandry ............................................... . 47 6 20 Total ............................................................ 109 CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats. etc.) Days Agents Devoted to Projects 207 490 29 100 826 Acreage grown under demonstration methods .................................... 4,745 Boys' and girls' clubs .................................................................................. 45 Acreage grown by club members .......................................................... 303 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) ............................ 12,735 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ...................................... 258 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed .................................. 140 COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Acreage grown under improved methods ................................................ 922 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ........................................ 192 Boys' and girls' clubs ...................................................................................... 12 Members enrolled ............................................................................................ u9 Acreage grown by club members ................................................................ 125 Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ............................................ 12,750 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .................................... 29 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases........ 31 LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.) Number method demonstrations given ...................................................... 380 Number result demonstrations under way ................................................ 566 Number result demonstrations completed ................................................ 581 Acres in completed demonstrations ............................................................ 5,140 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given .................................................................................... 367 Demonstrations completed ............................................................................ 116 Animals in completed demonstrations ........................................................ 2,576 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock........................ 23 Farmers culling breeding stock .................................................................... 18 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests .................................... 26 RURAL ENGINEERING Buildings on farms constructed or remodeled .......................................... 29 Farmers who cleared land ....................................... :..................................... 8 Acres cleared .................................................................................................... 205 Number of farms adopting other practices for the first time................ 71 DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations ................................................................................................ 121 Farmers adopting control measures .......................................................... 343 Acres involved .................................................................................................. 142

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INDEX Agents, list of, 5 Agricultural economics, 30 Agricultural News Service, 15 Animal husbandry, 27 Aphid, citrus, control, 48 Associations, poultry, 59 Austrian peas, 21 Avocados, 25 Balanced rations, dairy, 43 Beautification, 26 Blue mold decay control, 46 Board of Control and staff, 4 Boys' Club Work, 19, 32 Breeding stock, dairy, exchange of, 42 Bulletins issued, 14 Calf clubs, 33 Camps, club, 36, 78 Cereals work, 83 Citrus, 25 pathology and entomo'.ogy, 45 Clothing, 74 Club camps, 36, 78 contests, 78 short courses, 35, 77 trips, 36 Club work, 12 at State Fair, 35 poultry, 61 College club, 4-H, 80 Community activities, 76 Contests, club, 78 Cooper, J. Francis, work of, 14 Corn, 23 club, 32 Costs, reducing dairy, 40 Cotton, 24 club, 33 County agent programs, 21 work, 17 County programs, 17 Cover crops, 21 Cowpeas, 21 Crop clubs, 32 Crotalaria, 21 Dairy breeding stock, 42 Dairy husbandry, 27 Dairy tours, 42 Dairying, 40 home, 71 Demonstration teams, 79 Director, report of, 8 Drainage, 29 Economics, agricultura!, 30 Egg-laying contest, home, 57 national, 62 Engineering, 29 Entomology, citrus, 45 Extension organization, 8 Fair exhibits, club, 35 dairy, 44 home demonstration, 78 Negro, 82 Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, 13, 77 Farm crops work, 23 Farm paper stories, 15 Feeding demonstrations, 41 Fertilizer demonstrations, citrus, 49 Financial statement, 7 Flower show, club, 39 Foods, 73 Forage crops, 84 Forestry, 31 Fruits, 25 Gardens, home, 69 Grapes, 25 Green feeds, poultry, 57 Grow healthy chicks, 54 Gummosis control, 47 Hay crops, 84 Herd improvement, 43 Hogs, 27 Home demonstration work, 64 Negro, 85 Home Egg-lay:ng Contest, 57 Home improvement, 71 Home marketing, 74 Horticulture, 25 Horticultural crops, 84 Improvement, home, 71 "irrigation, 2!l, 49

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Annual Report, 1928 Leader developed by club work, 39 Lines of work, 10 Livestock clubs, 33 work, 84 Mailing room supervision, 14 Mangoes, 85 Marketing, home, 74 Meetings, extension, 20 Negro, 82 state, 20 Melanose control, 45 Moore, E . G., work of, 14 National Egg-Laying Contest, 62 reports, 15 Negro work, 81 News and farm paper stories, 15 News writing, training in, 16 Nutrition, 72 Oats, 21 Organization, dairy, 44 extension, 8 hom e demonstration, 64 Outside activities of county agents, 20 Pastures, 24 Peanuts, 24 Perennial plantings, 69 Pig clubs, 33 Poultry, 29, 53 associations, 59 home, 70 Production records, dairy, 43 Psorosis control, 47 Publications, 14 Publicity, home demonstration, 68 Rallies, club, 78 Reducing dairy costs, 40 Rodent control, 31 Rust mite con~rol, 47 Scab control, citrus, 46 Scale control , 48 Scholarships, club, 3 8, 79 Short courses, club, 35, 77 Soils work, 21, 83 Specialists work with county agents, 19 Staff, 4 State fair club work, 35 Stem-end rot control, 45 Sweet potato club, 33 Terracing, 29 Training in news writing, 16 Trips, club, 36, 79 Truck crops, 25 clubs, 33 Velvet beans, 21 Vetch, 21 Whitefly control, 48 Winter cover crops, 21 Work, lines of, 10