Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1926
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text






1926


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director


REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1926












1926


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN

AGRICULTURE AND HOME
ECONOMICS


Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1926











CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To GOVERNOR ------------------------------------------------------------ 3
BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF _ ------ -_ ------------------_ _ . . .
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS . - . . 5 R EPORT or D IRECTOR ---------------------------------------------------------- I . - . 7
Financial Statement, 7; Cooperating Agencies, 8; Cooperation in
the Counties, 9.
P UBLICATIONS . _-----_ -----_------ ----------- .
COUNTY A GENT A CTIVITIES . -- . - . . . --- 12
Summary of Activities, 12; Central and South Florida District, 16;
North and West Florida District, 24.
B oys' CLUB W ORK . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 30
Crop clubs, 31; Citrus and Ornamentals Clubs, 34; Livestock Clubs, 34; Annual Short Course. 37; Club Rallies and Camps, 37; Teaching Thrift in-Club Work, 38.
PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS . . . . - . 39 D AIRYING . . ------------------- . __ . . . - 47
Feeding Demonstrations, 47; Silos, 47; Purebred Sires, 48; Calf Club Work, 48; Dairy Tours, 49; Dairy Organization, 49; Fair Exhibits, 49.
CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY . __ . __ . . . -------- 50
Melanose, 50; Citrus Scab, 50; Blue Mold Decay, 51; Trunk and Root Diseases, 52; Rust Mite, 52; Citrus Aphid, 53; Scale and
Whitefly, 53.
PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY . _ . 54
Cucurbit Disease Control, 54; Spraying and Dusting of Irish Potatoes, 56; Mosaic of Sugar Cane, 57; Seedbed Disinfection., 57; Cotton Boll Weevil, 58; Two-Spotted Mite on Ferns, 58; Handbook on Truck Diseases, 58; Bean Seed Work, 58; Report of Bean Seed
Inspection Trip, 59.
P OULTRY W ORK . . . . . . 62 HOME DEMONSTRATION W ORK . 69
Supervisory Program, 69; Project Activities and Results, 71;
Strengthening the Home Demonstration Organization, 85.
FARMERS' WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS . . _ 88 FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS (Negro Work) -----_--_ . . 90























Hon. John W. Mai-tin,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SiR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1926, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1926.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control.






BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola E. L. WARTMANN, Citra A. H. BLANDING, Tampa E. W. LANE, Jacksonville W. B. DAVIS, Perry
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

OFFICERS, EXTENSION SERVICE, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
C. W. WARBURTON, Director C. B. SMITH, Chief STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director A. P. SPENCER,. M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary GRACE GREENE, Secretary to County Agent Leader K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent K. C. MOORE, B.S., District Agent (Resigned October 10, 1926) R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Pathologist and Entomologist (Resigned
September 30, 1926)
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent Lucy BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (Leave of absence, effective
October 15, 1926)
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ELOISE MCGRIFF, M.S., Acting District Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and and Nutrition Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent






COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTSAlachua -.F. L. Craft. Gainesville--------.Mrs. G. F. Warren
Baker-------J. H.Shpherd,.r.Mac.enn .
Bay---------.H. H. Whehttngo, Pnm Ciy. .

Brevard -.W. R. Briggs .Cocoa . Broward - C. E. Matthews . Fort Lauderdale. --- ---------Citrus-------.S. H. Hountree-.Inverness --------------- Mrs. E. W. Moore
Collier------------------------. .Everglade----------.Mrs. B. L. Vaden
Columbia -.C. A. Fulford-.Lake City---------.Mrs. M. S. Shook
Dade--------.S. S. Rainey . Miami---------.Miss Pansy I. Norton
Dade (Asst.). C. H. Steffani- -.Miami . DeSoto------------------------------ Aai-----------Arai.Mrs. N. B. Tucker
Duval-------.W. L. Watson-.Jacksonville---------- Miss Pearl Laffitte
Duval (Asst.). J. 0. Traxier--.Jacksonville ----Miss Louise M. Pickens
Duval (Asst.). H. B. Lansden .Jacksonville ------------------------Escambia ---Wingate W. Green. Pensacola --------Miss Josephine Nimmo
Flagler -.L. T. Nieland -.Bunnell .-----. --------Gadsden-------_-_--------- .--------- Quincy-----------.Miss Elise Laffitte
Hamilton .J. J. Sechrest -.Jasper.---------------.------------------Hardee------.J. A. Shealy ----Wauchula . . .--Highlands .L. H. Alsmeyer-.Sebring.-.--Hillsborough. H. T. Kelley -------- Plant City----------- Miss Motelle Madole
Hill sborough------------------------ ap----------- Tma_ .Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Holmes ----- ------------------------------ Bonifay ---------------Mrs. B. A. Caudle
Indian River. W. E. Evans .Vero Beach.---.------------.--Jackson ----E. P. Scott -------.Marianna -.Miss Mary Sue Wigley
Jefferson -.E. H. Finlayson-.Monticello.-----.---.-----------------.
Lafayette ---D. C. Geiger -.M ayo ------------------------------Lake--------.E. W. Jenkins .Tavares------------- .Miss Marie Cox
Lee---------.C. P. Wright ---.Fort Myers_.---Miss Sallie B. Lindsey
Leon--------.G. C. Hodge -----Tallahassee ------------ Mrs. H. C. Kellum
Levy--------.N. J. Allbritton .Bronson .__.
Liberty -.A. W. Turner-.Bristol. .-------Madison -.B. E. Lawton -.Madison.--------------------.----.---Manatee -.L. H. Wilson .Bradenton---------- Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion------.C. R. Hiatt-------.Ocala ----------- Miss Christine McFerroa
Martin-------.C. P. Heuck------.Stuart . ----.
Nassau-----------------------.Fernandina----------Miss Pearl Jordan
Okaloosa- H. . J. Hart ----------- Laurel Hill.-------------Okaloosa---.--------------------------- Crestview------------- Miss Bertha Henry
Okeechobee . S. H. Sherard ----Okeechobee. Orange -.K. C. Moore------.Orlando-----------.Mrs. N. W. Taylor
Osceola-.*J. R. Gunn . Kissimmee .------- :---Palm Beach . S. W. Hiatt-------.West Palm Beach-.Mrs. E. Y. Morgan
(Asst.) . M. U. Mounts-.West Palm Beach.__. Pasco-------.W. T. Nettles -__-Dade City--------.Mrs. H. A. Ticknor
Pinellas -.E. H. Hurlebaus .Clearwater-------.Miss Helen Kennedy
Polk ----------- F. L. Holland .Bartow------ ---.Miss Lois Godbey
(Asst.)---------------------.Bartow----------.Miss Mosel Preston
(Asst.)---------------------. I .Bartow-----------.Miss Bernice Lyle
St. Johns-.S. L. Scribner-.St. Augustine-.Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie-.Alfred Warren-. .Ft. Pierce.-------.---.------------.Santa Rosa .JS. G. Hudson .Milton-------.Miss Ethyl M. Holloway
Seminole-.B. P. Whitner, Jr.-.Sanford . Sumter . - ---------------*------------- Bushnell-.Miss Agnes D. Yeamanst
Suwannee --- ----------------------- .Live Oak ----------Miss Corinne Barker
Taylor. R. J. Dorsett-.Perry-------------.Mrs. A. P. Powel]
Union.'L. T. Dyer .Lake Butler . . Volusia-.T. A. Brown .DeLand------------.Miss Orpha Cole
(Asst.) . C. D. Case .DeLand . Wakulla -.E. W. Ingle------.Crawfordville. .
Walton-------Gus A. York -.De Funiak Spgs.-.Miss Agnes D. Yeamans
Washington . L. S. Carter . Chipley .1.
*This list is correct to December 31, 1926.
tTi-ansferred to Walton County near end of year.













k"Ap Ar rim


177M k,


WOOMEVIVInnse I











REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES

FOR 1926

With
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1926


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926 and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1926. 1 respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Receipts
College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal . _-----------_-_-- 8 58,872.25
Sm ith-Lever, State --------- ------------------------------- . 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal . ------ 15,496.08 Supplementary Smith-Lever, State . . 15,496.08 U. S. D. A. Appropriation -------------------------------- - . ------- . . 21,475.00
State A ppropriations . . . 22,100.00 County Appropriations . . _ 79,318.12

$261,629.78
Expenditures
A dm inistration . . . $ 99877.17 Printing and Publications . . 6,951.92 County A gents' work . ------- . 122,093.94 Home demonstration work . . . 72,897.67 Foods and M arketing -------- -------------------------------- . : --------------- . 3,707.34
D airy and N utrition . 3,600.00 Boys' club w ork ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------ 1.- 5,245.04
A nim al industry ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- 4,722.79
Negro farm and home makers'work ---------------------------------------------------- 16,500.42
Plant pathology and entomology . 9,548.77 Poultry industry . --------------------------------------------- 3,958.61
Extension schools and Farmers' Week . 2,526.11

$261,629.78






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATING AGENCIES
The Agricultural'Extension Division is one of the three departments of the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida. It carries on cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics under the provisions of the SmithLever Act passed by Congress in May, 1914. This extension work consists of giving instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics by field demonstrations ,and publications, the work to be carried out according to an agreement between the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture and the State Agricultural College.
The State of Florida, through the State Legislature, provides an offset appropriation of moneys equal to or exceeding those furnished by the Federal Government through the Smith-Lever Act. Counties desiring to cooperate provide additional funds to be applied to the salaries and expenses of county extension agents. It is also required that all appointees be selected and their appointments approved by the Board of Control of the University of Florida, and the United States Department of Agriculture, before becoming effective. These regulations, therefore, require a mutual plan of work between all cooperating agencies, and the funds expended must be accounted for as provided by the Smith-Lever Act.
During the calendar year 1926, 54 Florida counties cooperated in the employment of county extension agents. A list of counties and names of agents is given on page 5.
In the employment of county extension agents the county funds are usually provided by the boards of county commissioners and the county boards of public instruction, the Legislature of Florida having made it legal for said boards to make a levy for this purpose.
The fiscal year for the state extension activities begins July L' Prior to this a budget outlining expenditures is approved by the State Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture and provides for a plan for conducting demonstration work in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, livestock, poultry, and home economics. Counties desiring to cooperate make application through the office of the Director of Extension. As far as funds are available, counties are provided with county extension agents.






Annual Report, 1926


Small additional funds have been provided by the Legislature for expansion of extension work over that required to meet the provision of the Smith-Lever Act. These are as follows: A special fund to conduct extension work appropriated direct to the State College for Women, Tallahassee. This is conducted under the supervision of the State Home Demonstration Agent and is a part of the home economics extension program for the state.
By an act of the Legislature, a sum of money for the payment of county agents' salaries is dispensed through the office of the Commissioner of Agriculture on vouchers approved by the Director of Extension.
Other cooperative agencies are as follows: The Florida Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, and the State Plant Board, located at the University of Florida.
The Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, at Tallahassee, provides headquarters for the Negro extension work. This branch also receives subject matter assistance from the A. & M. College and all branches of extension work.
The Florida Live Stock Sanitary Board has helped many county agents to render valuable assistance to the livestock interests of Florida, particularly to dairymen, poultrymen and bog raisers.
The State Marketing Bureau, under the supervision of Commissioner L. M. Rhodes, has rendered valuable services to this office and to farmers with whom county agents work, in the marketing and disposal of agricultural products that would have been difficult to market otherwise.
The agricultural extension service works in close cooperation with fairs, -livestock, fruit, vegetable and other agricultural associations to promote agriculture and home economics throughout the rural sections of Florida.

COOPERATION IN THE COUNTIES
Agricultural extension work was originally designed to place county and home demonstration agents in every county, yet after 12 years of operation the limited funds provided have made iL possible to cooDerate with only 54 of the 67 counties, leaving 13 in which no work is being done. The amount of money allotted to extension work in Florida is relatively small compared with






Florida Cooperative Extension


that in other states, due to the fact that the Smith-Lever Act provides, that the allotment be made on the basis of the rural population of any state in proportion to the total population of the United States, and as the rural population of Florida is comparatively smaller than that of other states, both the Federal and State allotment of funds is comparatively small. This accounts for the inability to reach all counties of the state and can only be remedied by additional state appropriations. The Florida allotment to counties is smaller than in most other states, due to smaller appropriations of funds from State and Federal sources.
The average appropriation by counties in Florida is larger than in many other states and has shown an annual increase each year since 1914. This would indicate the approval ' of the taxpayers in the various counties and.a desire on the part of county boards to promote the welfare of Florida's agricultural interests.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926, through lack of funds, it has been impossible to cooperate with five counties which made liberal appropriations to conduct extension work. They made applications after the budget and allotments were set, and it was impossible to allot these counties the amount usually applied to counties. Four of these, however, cooperate in the employment-of county agents, the counties paying the entire salary and expenses and placing the direction of the work under the Agricultural Extension Division. In the fifth county the allotment was not sufficient to employ a competent agent.
In order to give-assistance to all the diversified farming interests of Florida, it would be necessary to provide for other projects that cannot now be undertaken with the present allotment of funds.






Annual Report, 1926


PUBLICATIONS
J. FRANCIS CoopFR, Editor
The following publications have been issued during the year: Bulletin No. Title No.Pages No. Copies
43 Club Work and the Farm Boy . - 20 5,000
44 Vegetable Crops of Florida ------------------ 48 15,000
45 Poultry Houses and Equipment . 24 10,000
46 Water and Sewerage Systems for
Florida Rural Homes . 24 10,000
Cooperative Annual Report . 100 1,500 Florida Pepper (Club paper) . 4 18,000 Yearly Calendar. . _ 12 8,540
Ten Lessons for Poultry Club Members ---------- ------------------------------------ . 16 5,000
Agricultural News Service . ------- 1 28,560 Vegetables and Serving ---------------------- 16 5,000
Breads for Home Demonstration
Clubs . ----------------------------------------- 20 10,000
Foods and Methods of Preparation . 52 5,000
Miscellaneous: The editor has supervised the mailing room, where all bulletins and other publications are mailed out, and where the multigraphing and mimeographing for the Experiment Station and Agricultural Extension Division are done.
A special "Farmers' Week" page was run in the Gainesville Sun each day during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Mimeographed Club Short Course News Sheets were prepared by the Editor and distributed at the short courses in Gainesville and Tallahassee.
Special stories on extension activities or containing farm information were prepared for Florida, Southern, and National farm papers. Numerous pictures of extension activities were furnished, both with and without special stories.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES A. P. SPENCER, State Leader
H. G. CLAYToN, District Agent
J. LEE SMIM, District Agent
K. C. MooRE, District Agent
The counties of Florida having agents were supervised by three district agents until October, 1926, when K. C. Moore resigned to take up county agent work, leaving the supervision to two district agents. The division of districts was made on the basis of the type of agriculture and also with a view of economy in travel.
The supervisory work has consisted of assistance to county agents in making plans and helping to carry them out, also giving assistance in maintaining the office organization, with reports, handling of meetings, fairs, etc. This part of the supervision has taken a little more than two-thirds of the district agents' time. In each county the agent works toward a systematized plan and the program is shaped so as to conform to the most satisfactory agricultural practices.
For the most part, the couny agents are equipped with offices or headquarters, with filing cases, typewriter, desk, bulletin rack, and, in a few cases, with stereopticon or motion picture outfits, all of which are paid for by funds appropriated by the county boards. It is recommended that where finances are sufficient and the work justifies, clerical assistance be provided in the offices and paid for by the county boards. Approximately 25 percent of the counties have complied with this request, which has proven valuable.
A statistical summary of activities follows: GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 357 Voluntary county, community and local leaders . __ . 518 Clubs carrying on extension work . ____ . 261 M em berships . ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 4,306
Farm'visits made by county agents ----------- - ------------------ --------- . _ -------- 23,649
Diff erent farm s visited . - . ----------------------------------------------------------- 9,771
Home visits made by county agents . 3,302 Different hom es visited . ------------------------------------------------- ------------- 2,110
Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work --- ------ 56,465 Average number days spent in office -------------------------------------------------------- 91.1
Average number days spent in field . ----------------- --------------- . 202.6
Official letters w ritten . ----------- ---------------- . . 35,897
E xhibits at fairs . . . _ _ . . . - 41
Com m unity ---------------- --- __ . ----------------------------------------- __ . 10
C ounty . __ . ------------------------ I ------- 29
State ------------------------- _ _ . -_ --------------_ 2







Annual Report, 1926


Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ------------------ . -_------------ 963 14,336
Extension schools and short courses held --------- . I ----- 19 534
Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies. ------ 434

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by County Agents
Number Days agents
communities devoted to
participating projects
Soils . ------ - . - . ----_------- . 160 409
Farm Crops . ___ . . ____ . 292 1,298Y2
H orticulture . . . ------------ 254 1,698%
Forestry . ____ -------- . 11 14
Rodents, predatory animals and birds.-. . __ . ----- 36 115
Animal husbandry . . . . 136 1,047Y2
Dairy husbandry -------------- -------------------------------- -------------- 103 7133/4
Poultry husbandry . . . 195 1,21OV2
Rural engineering . . _ 94 196
Agricultural economics . _ 158 538 1/4:
Miscellaneous work --- ____ . ---- _ . __ . 128 1,151/4
Community activities -----_----------- _ ----------------------- _ . _ 15 137


T otal . . _ --------------------------- --------- -------- . _ 1,582

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods ---_------------ ------- .
Boys' and girls' clubs ------------------------------------------------------------------------- _Acreage grown by club members ------------------------------------------------ .
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) . . .
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ----- . Farmers who planted selected or improved seed . Farmers who treated seed grain for smut. ----------- -------------------COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods. -------------------- -----------------Farms influenced to adopt better practice . ---------_-------------_---Boys' and girls' clubs --------------------------------------- _ i ---------- __ .
M em bers enrolled -------------------------------------- . _ ------- ----------------------Acreage grown by club members . __ -----------------------------------Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.). . -----------------Farmers who planted improved or certified seed -------------------------------Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases . Number farms treating seed for disease. . ----------------------- ----- _ . -----


8,530


396
41 106
4,0701/.
351 303
4



694 212
11 199
82 96,483
116 35 37


LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)


Number method demonstrations given . __ ----------------- ------------Number result demonstrations under way . ------_----------- __ . -----Number result demonstrations completed. ------------------------------------------Acres in completed demonstrations . .


233
245 711
11,4281/2







Florida Cooperative Extension


HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS
Number method demonstrations given . . . . 1,712, Number result demonstrations . ---- - . . 1,192 Result demonstrations completed during year . . 914
Acres involved in demonstrations - . . : . 10,117 N um ber of boys' clubs . - -------- . -------------------------- 27
M em bership ----------------------------------- ------------ ---------------- . 688
Number planting improved stock or seed . . 570 N um ber pruning . I . . - . ---------------- . I . - 152
Trees involved . . . ----- 125,693 Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests . - 639
A cres treated . . . . -------------------------------------- _ . 1,253
Number farms adopting improved practices ------------- . . 960

SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
M ethod Dem onstrations ------- . ------------- . . 117
Acreage grown under improved methods -, . - . - --- - ------- 4481/2
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . 360 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . -- . 246 Farmers who treated seed for disease . ------- . --- . . . - 88
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects . 62

DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Animals in completed demonstrations ------------------------------------------------ 565
Saving resulting from better practices . . $1,490
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices - . 297 Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires . . - . 67 Farms assisted in securing high grade or purebred females. . . 178
Farm ers who culled their herds ------------------------- . 93
A nim als in these herds . . . . . - . 1,431 A nim als discarded -.-. ---------- . --- --------------- -- . . 403
Farmers' associations who tested cows for production -------------------- 40
Cow s tested for production --. . ----------- -- . --- - . . 1,817
Farmers who fed better balanced rations --------------------- ---------------------- 145
Farmers who controlled insect pests - --- . . . - . - 157 Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis . . 173 Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods . . 237

HOG, DEMONSTRATIONS
Dem onstrations given . . . 710 Animals in completed demonstrations . . . L- . 4,238 Savings resulting from better practices . ------------------- -- ----- $8,700
Farmers who secured purebred sires . - ---------------------- ------------- - ------- 109
Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females --- - . 117
Farmers who fed better balanced rations . - 94 Farm ers culling breeding stock . . . - . 61 Number of animals culled out . . . ----- 267 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests . -- ------ 67

POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrators . . . 546 Birds is these demonstrations -------------------- ------------ ------------------ ------- 52,536
Saving resulting from better practices . . . $531,846







Annual Report, 1926 15

Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock . 393
Poultrymen who culled their flocks . . 388 Number of birds in these flocks . . 57,729 Num ber of birds discarded . . 18,022 Number of breed associations formed . . 5 M em bership . . --- __ -------- -----------_-- _ 166

SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrations --------------------------------------- . _ . _ 729
Acres involved in completed demonstrations.--. . __ . 2,694 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management --- __ . _ 1,372
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers-. . _._ 1,277
Tons commercial fertilizer involved --------------- ----------- ---------------- . 6,6341/2
Farmers taking better care of farm manures ------------------- ---------------- 308
Farmers using lime or limestone -------------------------------------------------- ------- 135
Tons of lime or limestone so used . ___ . . 7141/2 Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement . 154
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under . ----------- __ . 2,792

RURAL ENGINEERING
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Acres Number
Drainage systems installed ------- . . . 6,502 124 Irrigation system s installed . . . 288 30 Terraces constructed ------------ --------- _ ---------------------_---- ----------- 1,952 73
W ater system s installed . _ --------------------- ___ . 24
'H eating system s installed -------- . ------------ 2
Lighting system s installed . . _ ----- ----------------------------------- 14
Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled -------------- 194
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled . . . 386
Number sewage-disposal systems installed . ------------- ----_------ _ 14
Farm ers who cleared land . . 154 A cres cleared ----- -------------------------------------- . _ . ----- 3,187
Number of farms adopting above practices for first time-.-. ----------- 453

DEMONSTRATION IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
D em onstrations . _ . -----_ -------- 192
Farmers adopting control measures . . _. 691 A cres involved --------------------------------------------- ----_------------_-- --------- _ . 12,319

FARM MANAGEMENT
Number method demonstrations given ------------------------------------------------ 104
Farm account books distributed --- _ -------------------------------------------- _ ------ 294
Farm ers who kept records . . . 66 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts . . 86 Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts . 91
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming
systems according to recommendations . _ 242 Farmers advised relative to leases _. . _ . 286
of junior farm account clubs . . _ 12 3 assisted in keeping cost of production records ---------- ------- 197
Number of farms adopting improved -farm management practices 567







16 Florida Cooperative Extension

SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD
Supplies Purchased Products Sold
Value Saving Value Profit
Crates ----- __ . _ ------------- $ 6,960.00 $ 1,630.00 ---------------- .
Seeds, fertilizer, barrels,
dust, etc . . 115,187.71 24,257.84 $154,637.91 $ 85,277.13 Livestock ----------- . . 65.00 1 . 64,675.00 9,310.00
Poultry . . . . ----- 30,199.70 7,462.00
Fertilizer . 99,897.80 17,358.30 4,425.00 625.00 Seeds . . --- ----- . . 9,285.00 1,940.00 . ---------- .
Cukes . _ . --------------_ . 58,020.00 46,370.00
Citrus -------------------------------- _ 208.70 98.75 . .
Fruit trees -------------------------- 900.75 236.80 -------------- .
Dairying --------_-------------- __ 7,900.00 1,625.00 3,300.00 250.00
Sweet potatoes . --------- . . 4,500.00 300.00
Syrup cans & barrels . 2,000.00 600.00 . ------------Truck crops --------- . . . 39,630.00 .
Excelsior ----------------_--------- 1,234.00 207.00 ---------------- --------------Nursery stock & fertilizer 10,271.90 1,842.06 . . . Feeds . 2,755.52 496.80 . . I Fertilizer & eggs --------- ---- 9,800.00 3,500.00 683.60 1 105.00,

Total . $266,466.38 $ 53,792.55 $250,071.21 $149,689.13


CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA DISTRICTH. G. CLAYTON, District Agent
The work in this territory has been carried on in a satisfactory manner during the past year. About half of the agent have been granted salary increases, indicating an appreciation of the work being done. The close of the year finds the agricultural situation in a condition much improved over last year, County agent work is on a good safe basis and well thought ol in the counties cooperating.

SUMMARY DISTRICT AGENT'S VISITS
This agent has during the year ending November 30, madE 83 visits to county agents, each visit of one or more days. Ter) visits were made to counties without agents; 189 days wer( spent in the field and 103 in the office; 10 days were spent ft the Farm Seed Loan Office at West Palm Beach helping to sup, ply United States Department of Agriculture funds to storrr stricken farmers; 42 meetings with an attendance of 4,000 per. sons were attended, the district agent taking part in many oj the programs.
OFFICE ORGANIZATION
All couny agents have offices. Ten of these are at the respect) tive courthouses and five are situated at places other than court






Annual Report, 1926


houses. Five county agents have stenographers. The county agents in this territory have had experience in extension work which averages over four years per agent. Only one agent has had less than one year of such work.
There has been less changing of agents in this territory this year than last, changes being made in only two counties due to resignations. Every agent in the territory with two exceptions has had agricultural college training and these two have had years of practical farm experience.
Four agents have motion picture machines, purchased from county funds. Each agent has typewriter and some office equipment.
PROJECT WORK
All project work is divided under the following heads: (1) Soils, (2) farm crops, (3) horticulture (including truck crops, citrus, beautification), (4) forestry, (5) rodents, predatory animals and birds, (6) animal husbandry, (7) dairy husbandry, (8) poultry, (9) rural engineering (drainage, farm buildings, etc.),
(10) agricultural economics (including marketing and farm management), (11)- community activities - (fairs, community meetings, organizations, etc.), (12) miscellaneous.
Club work is carried as junior project work and comes mainly under numbers, (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8)'as listed above.
Each county agent in this territory is working on an average of 51/2 of the above projects. Every agent has projects (3) and
(8) in his plan of work. Forestry is not a project with any agent.
During the spring months interests other than agriculture were active and seemed to offer financial possibilities in excess of possible profits from agriculture. This drew interest away from the farms and kept growers during the spring months from cooperating with county agents in conducting as many demonstrations as had been planned.

SOILS
The soil is the basis of all present and future agricultural production and it is especially necessary under climatic conditions existing in Florida to so handle agricultural production that the soil is kept in a productive condition. Cover crops are essential to maintain a high producing soil. This fact is well






Florida Cooperative Extension


known to citrus growers, the majority of whom grow a cover crop each year. Truck growers have not given as much thought to cover crops as have the citrus growers, largely due to the fact that following the spring truck crop a volunteer crop of .crab grass appears and this is enough of a rotation to enable the same land to be used for truck crops year after year. However, each year more farmers are realizing the need for growing a legume cover crop and for this purpose at the present time velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweed and crotalaria are the best crops of the kind that we have.
In this territory during the past year county agents' reports show 36 demonstrations completed on 684 acres and that 153 farmers plowed under cover.crops on 1,673 acres for the first time. This type of work is each year converting additional farmers to the value of such practices.
This section of Florida buys each year a great amount of commercial fertilizer and, while many growers are fairly well posted, each year additional farmers are improving the practices they have been following. This year 144 farmers adopted improved practices involving 1,167 tons of fertilizer as a result of the efforts of county agents.

FARM CROPS
Four counties in this territory grow considerable acreages of corn, peanuts, velvet beans, sweet potatoes, etc. In Levy County the corn and peanuts grown for hog feed made good yields. In the other counties general farm crops are grown mainly as a follow-up crop after truck crops.
County agents have assisted farmers in purchase of seed and improved varieties. Forty demonstrations in seven counties involving 709 acres were carried on in the growing of legumes for forage and cover crops. Nineteen farmers in three counties planted improved sweet potato seed for the first time. Nine demonstrations in four.counties with Irish potatoes gave an average increase over ordinary methods of 321/_ bushels per acre.
HORTICULTURE
Citrus.-Citrus on a commercial scale is grown in all except two counties in this territory. A large part of the time of the county agents has been spent in work with citrus. The main






Amiual Report, 1926


problems from the production standpoint before the citrus grower are to improve the quality of the fruit and reduce the cost of production per box. This involves a number of phases of citrus production. In some cases economical control of insects and diseases will produce the desired results; in others the chief trouble is with the soil, which needs building up or spots in the groves need drainage; in still others, changes in fertilizer practices or increased fertilizer may be needed.
Rust mite control demonstrations were carried on in seven counties. Twelve demonstrations were carried out in the control of scale-insects. Seven demonstrations were conducted on melanose control. Friendly fungi to control scale and whitefly were introduced into 13 groves. In Orange County the county agent has certain typical groves for which he outlines the fertilizer, spraying schedule and cultural practices. Three of these groves so handled serve as object lessons to other growers. In a test on a grove of 1,600 trees to find the cause of shy bearing, with some trees results show failure to bear was due to wrong fertilizing and not to poor bud selection. Observation shows this


, 'V4

Fig. 2-The county agent helps club boys and girls to study citrus insects and diseases.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 3-Truck crops are an important source of farm income in Florida,
and county agents devote a great deal of attention to problems of
truck growers.

same condition is true in other groves of the county. Every agent in these citrus producing counties does a large amount of personal service work in the nature of inspection of groves to make recommendations as to spraying, culture, fertilization, etc. In the case of new settlers who have bought or planted groves, this service may call for from one to two to as many as eight o ' r ten visits a year. This type of service is much appreciated by the grower and is of value to the county. This is termed personal service work and not actual demonstration. By press articles, circular letters and personal contact, the agent is able to call the attention of the growers to the need for timely sprayings, especially in the case of such insects as whitefly, scale-insects and rust mites, thus catching these insects at the proper stage for best control.
The change in ownership and cutting up of large acreages of grove property has interfered with carrying on actual demonstrations this year, but has added to the personal service work.






Annual Report, 1926 21

Truck Crops.-The work on truck crops was mainly disease and insect control on tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants and Irish potatoes. One item of special value to the truck grower is seed treatment.
The use of improved seed is being increased through the county agents' activities. Test packages of Marglobe tomato seed were distributed to over 100 growers in this territory.
Truck growers also demand personal service work. New settlers coming in are served by inspection of their land, advice as to crops it is suited for, varieties of seed, fertilization, culture, spraying schedule, etc.
Bulb growing on a commercial scale is being carried on in only a few counties. This continues to look promising and the plantings to increase. No grower is known who made a failure during the year. This crop has not been grown long enough to test the markets and establish a selling system.
Other Fruits.-Grapes, Avocados and Mongoes.-Assistance has been rendered by county agents to growers of these fruits, especially with regard to information on spraying, culture and fertilizing.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Only one agent in this territory has been vaccinating hogs against cholera. He has treated over 13,000 hogs and has rendered a valuable service. In connection with the treating of hogs, this agent has encouraged better feeding, sanitation, marketing and the improvement of breeding stock. A cooperative selling organization was organized and is functioning, having handled five cars of hogs to date. Eight purebred boars and eight purebred sows have been brought into the county. Other agents have been working with the Live Stock Sanitary Board, whose agents do the actual work of treating hogs. Marion County has an active pig club and the boys had 40 good club pigs at the county fair and annual contest.
There is increased interest in growing hogs especially in Union, Alachua, Marion and Levy counties.
Beef Cattle,-Most of the beef cattle are range cattle which have sold at low prices for the past few years. There has been a small demand for good bulls to use on the ranges and an interest aroused in selling range cattle as yearlings.







Florida Cooperative Extension


DAIRYING

County agents have given considerable attention to the needs of dairymen. The trend in dairying is to produce whole milk either for local trade or for shipment to other markets in the state. Marion and Pasco counties are the leading counties of this territory in the shipment of milk.
Much interest is now manifest in securing better pastures, )and this is largely due to results obtained with demonstration pastures and meetings held. at such demonstrations.' A grass mixture of carpet, lespedeza, Dallis and Bahia grasses has given best results. Dairy associations have been organized in Marion, Manatee and Pasco counties. Also the first Bull Club in the State was organized in Marion County. This county also has the only dairy calf club in this territory.
Help has been given dairymen on feeding and care of dairy cows and on care and handling of milk. Plans have been furnished for 15 dairy barns and milk houses.
Marion County community dairy associations are buying feed cooperatively, holding regular meetings, and are working together to build up dairying. One association had a nice exhibit at the county fair.
Work done in Pasco County on keeping milk and feed records and in growing soiling crops, is having a real eff ect as the results are showing the value of such items to the dairymen. They have caused culling of boarder cows, home mixing of feeds and the growing of more feed. Twenty dairymen are keeping records.
Forty-one dairymen have been assisted in adopting better feeding methods, 25 in improving their methods of handling milk, 8 purebred bulls have been brought in and 40 farmers have been assisted in buying either high, grade or purebred COWS.
POULTRY
This is a live subject in this territory. New poultry farms are going in, farmers are increasing their flocks, good breeding stock is in demand. Active poultry associations are at work in almost every county. Culling demonstrations have been held by county agents in practically every county. The records






Annual Report, 1926


show 138 culling demonstrations were held, dealing with 20,000 birds from which 5,000 were culled.
Poultry associations are most active in marketing eggs and live poultry.
County agents have assisted poultrymen in planning poultry houses, purchase and sale of breeding stock, with feeding methods, sanitation, marketing of eggs, disease and insect control and the cooperative buying of supplies.
Poultry club work offers an opportunity to do club work in counties where other types of 'club work do not seem to be adapted. The county agents are taking this up as the main club, activity in some counties.
RURAL ENGINEERING
Drainage and the planning of farm buildings are the main items under this heading upon which work was done. County agents furnished plans for 48 poultry houses and 15 barns.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Most of the cooperative buying and selling in this territory was done by well organized associations. Some of these have been in existence for a number of years. The county agents work closely with these associations, but the members of the association do all the handling of the business. See page 16.
MISCELLANY EOUS
Storm Relief Work,-Following the storm of September 18, 1926, the county agents in Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee, Okeechobee and Highlands County agent, acting for Glades County, and the former agent of Hendry County performed a very creditable service to this area. Through their efforts a quick approximate survey of the needs of the farmers was ascertained, with lists of farmers who would absolutely have to have help in order, to get in even a part of a normal crop. Other extension and Experiment Station workers secured information about counties where no agents were located.
Through the offices of the Secretary of Agriculture, $300,000 was made available for loans to be used for the purchase offered, seed, fertilizer, gas and oil. The Federal Farm Seed Loan Office established an office in West Palm Beach with Dr. C. W. Warburton from Washington in charge and with Mr. L. E. White as disbursing officer.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The county agents furnished this office with lists of citizens fitted to serve on local and county committees for passing on the merits of applicants for loans before such applications came to the Seed Loan Office.
These agents spent approximately 60 days each in helping their farmers to secure this aid and aiding the Farm Seed Loan Office by furnishing information which permitted prompt action on applications for loans.
This disaster demonstrated that in a case of this kind an organization of county agents was a force resourceful and capable of meeting emergencies in an efficient manner.
Fair Work.-This is one activity which at times appears to consume too much of county agents' time. Some counties show at the State Fair, the South Florida Fair and hold a county fair. However, one of the needs of Florida is more settlers and the fairs offer a means of displaying agricultural products before prospective settlers, besides keeping agriculture before our own citizens.

NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA DISTRICT
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
About two-thirds of the time of the District Agent has been spent in the counties of the district with the agents, assisting them in, maintaining their office organization, reports, and records; assisting them in determining what their program of work for the year should be, or in analyzing their program; assisting them in their subject matter, their publicity, or other phases of their work. In doing this he has made 128 visits to counties. He has taken part in 61 extension meetings with an attendance of 3,089 farmers. The remainder of the time has been spent in the office, or in connection therewith, attending to records and reports, publicity, boys' short course, Farmers' Week program, and fairs.
SOILS
The rainfall in Florida is between 50 and 60 inches per annum. Conditions are such as to bring about a quick oxidization of the vegetable matter of the soil. Therefore, a need for lots of it. To supply this and to demonstrate its value, the extension service of North and West Florida has conducted or has under way, 12 demonstrations with soybeans or other legumes,






Annual Report, 1926


and 25 with oats and vetch, or rye. These crops were or will be plowed into the land at the proper time.
FARM CROPS
Corn: Approximately 62 percent of the cultivated land in this territory is grown to corn. According to Federal Government statistics, this corn is costing $1.12 per bushel. The production is only 15 bushels per acre. The market price at present is 75 cents a bushel. This is approximately what the corn is costing when labor is not counted. When a better preparation of the seedbed is made, better seed are used, and a better use of fertilizer is made, the production per acre can be increased and the cost of production correspondingly decreased. There were demonstrations conducted by the agents in this territory this year to show the method and value of more economical corn production. An example of the results is shown below:
Mr. G. M. Green of Columbia County says, "With the help of Mr. C. A. Fulford, the County Agent, I have this year produced on 10 acres of land, 375 bushels of corn at the low cost of a little more than 50 cents per bushel. Total cost was $191, which included all labor, man and mules, fertilizer and land rent. At 75 cents per bushel, it is easy to see that I made a profit of S90 on the 10 acres after deducting the cost."
Cotton: The average production of cotton in Florida this year was approximately 335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The cost of producing the yield is the same in every item, except fertilizer and seed, as that of the demonstrations conducted by the count y agents. With an added expense of $8 for better seed and more and better fertilizer, Okaloosa County's 22 club boys produced an average of 1,319 pounds per acre; an increase of 984 pounds over the state's average. These boys produced their seed cotton for 3.1 cents per pound.
Peanuts: Our demonstrations this year with peanuts were to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer for peanuts. At a field meeting at one, of -the se demonstrations, the demonstrator said: "The ' facts brought out are almost unbelievable, yet I knowthem to be true. Where land plaster was used 183 solid nuts were produced to 1.7 where it , was not used, and less pops." There were a great many of these demonstrations conducted this, year.
Sweet Potatoes: Several county, agents conducted demonstrations this year to show the value of early sweet potatoes






Florida Cooperative Extevsion


as a cash crop. The value in part. is shown by Henry L. Baker, a Washington County club boy, who put some time on the farm and the balance at public work. He says, "When I was at work on my crop, I was making the average of 34 cents per hour and when I was at public work I was making the average of 16-3/ cents per hour."
Soybeans: To show the value of soybeans as a hay crop as well as a soiling crop; 12 demonstrations were conducted.
HORTICULTURE Fruits: The commercial growing of satsumas, blueberries, grapes, and sand pears in West Florida is a new industry. In this territory the county agents have spent a good deal of time with the growers advising them of the proper methods of setting, cultivating, fertilizing and spraying these fruits. They have assisted them in pooling orders for trees. They have held method demonstrations in picking the fruit, and in packing it. The first carloads of fresh blueberries, grapes, and satsumas moved from this territory this season.
Beautification Work: T h e
grounds around
most farmsteads and public buildings in W e s t Florida are any-, thing but beau-' tiful. They are b a r e of lawn grass, rubbish is lying around, and no flowers and shrubbery a r e planted. The several agents
Fig. 4-County agent and grower discuss pruning conducting beauand other problems of grape growing. tification demon-






Annual Report, 1926


stations this year are the first ones in this district to conduct demonstrations along this line. R. R. Whittington, county agent of Bay County, did an outstanding piece of work. He reports: "The project of beautification of home grounds, I was able to put over far beyond my expectations. Twenty-six home grounds and three public ground demonstrations have been made in which I have assisted from the preparation of the grounds to the selection of the plants, planting, and advising the care for them through the year. The plans included hedges, borders, gardens, foundation plantings, and lawns. By these demonstrations so much interest has been aroused that I now have quite a number of requests to assist with beautification. work this winter."
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Swine: Practically every county agent in the North and West. Florida territory has been actively engaged in conducting both breeding and feeding demonstrations with swine this year. The agents have conducted 170 feeding demonstrations and 113 breeding demonstrations. They have assisted farmers in securing 63 males and 50 females. B. E. Lawton of Madison County has been able to place 125 breeding pigs on Madison farms this year. Club boys fed out 93 barrows which he helped them sell for approximately $2,200. He helped sell 60 registered pigs for club boys who were breeding pigs. He got some 50 farmers to, feed out several cars of hogs and put them on the August and September market * His boys exhibited 208 pigs at the county fair and 135 at the State Fair. One of his boys showed the grand champion Duroc sow in the open ring at the State Fair.
The county agents have vaccinated, hogs for the prevention 6f cholera on 552 f' VmisDAIRY HUSBANDRY
Besides assisting dairymen and farmers in building silos and modern barns, making their places more sanitary, extension workers of North and West Florida are assisting them in raising the standard of the herds. They are helping dairymen from other places to get established. They are assisting them to organize so that' they can economically market their products. They are assisting in putting in pastures. They have assisted in placing 41 purebred sires and 293 purebred or high grade dams on the farms this year. There are now 25 permanent pasture demonstrations being conducted. In one county where a.







Florida Cooperative Extension


year ago no dairy products were being marketed, more than 500 gallons of milk a day are now being shipped out.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
Poultry: The last two years have seen a wonderful development in the poultry industry of West Florida. There were in January, 1925, approximately 600,000 birds on the farms of this territory. The estimate now is 750,000. There are commercial flocks in every county now; then there were very few. The flocks on the farms have been increased and their standard raised. There is no force that has been as instrumental in this development as the extension workers of the College of Agriculture. The last year they have placed 20,244 purebred birds on the farms and culled 111 flocks composed of 10,093 birds. They have assisted in marketing poultry products.


















Fig. 5.-A poultry brooder house.

National Egg - Laying Contest: The Chipley Chamber of Commerce, cooperating with County Agent L. S. Carter, built a plant of 50 houses, costing over $10,000 and put up $5,000 for operating expenses for a National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley and requested the Extension Division of the College of Agriculture to take it over and conduct it. This was done and on November 1, 1926, the first Florida National EggLaying Contest began with 50 pens entered. Mr. E. F. Stanton, a practical poultryman, was put in charge. This plant will be






Annual Report, 1926


a great means- of stimulating interest in poultry in Florida and especially in this district.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Terracing: During this year 68 terracing demonstrations affecting 1,952 acres were conducted by the county agents, of Madison, Jefferson, Leon, and Okaloosa counties.
Poultry and Hog Houses: Forty-six poultry houses suitable to Florida conditions were built in this part of the state from plans furnished by couny agents and under their supervision.
Twenty-seven hog houses and barns were built under the agents' supervision.
Water and Light Plants: More water and light plants were installed in this district this season than e ,er before in one year.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
Purchases and Sales: The county agents of this territory have assisted in making a large number of purchases and cooperative sales during the year. See page 16.
The service rendered has been worth the time and attention given, but in performing this service the agents have rendered a larger service in showing the farmers how to pack a standard product or in advising the proper quantity and quality of fertilizer to use for various purposes.

MISCELLANEOUS
Extension Meetings: This year there were held 399 meetings with an attendance of 8,244 farmers, where such subjects as dairying, hogs, pastures, fruit culture, fertilizers, etc., were discussed. Through these meetings it has been possible to reach many farmers with the things they are most interested in. Fairs and Exhibits: There were 10 boys' and girls' club 3ontests held in this territory. These were the most successful ever held. More educational work was gotten over with them. Where there was no county fair, judging lessons were &en the boys. A judging contest was held at the Walton 'ounty Contest.
Eight counties of North and West Florida were represented .t the State Fair with exhibits. Only four county fairs were teld in the district. These county fairs are conducted largely y the county agents and are becoming more and more educaional each year.








BOYS' CLUB WORK
R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent

The year 1926 has been the most successful club year in Florida since the War. In 1018 and 1919, due to the emergency appropriations, county agents were employed in every county and assistant agents in several. With war-time fervor to help, it was an easy matter to enroll club members. The highest enrollment was reached in 1918 when 3,276 boys were enrolled in 'club work. Beginning with 1920 there was a decided drop in enrollment until 1923 when the bottom was reached. The lasting value of club work was beginning to be appreciated and the enrollment started up vard. Table I shows the enrollment for 1925 and 1926.

TABLE I.-CLUB ENROLLMENT FOR 1925 AND OCTOBER, 1926

4j
r. 4
r. Cd
k 4
0 _Cd 0
U PQ __ U U U 0 cc Al Ell-,

1926 ------------------------ 232 287 9 1301912 152597346 26 12389
1925 ----------_--------_- 1262 143 99 22 94225 11* 155 104 14 29 1158
Gain" in 1926 . 30144 -3 1108 97 71 . -3493332 -3 11231

','Peanut club.
'"Loss indicated by minus sign. The 1926 enrollment was increased 108 percent over that for 1925. This increase was obtained under the abnormal conditions resulting from the unusual real estate activity. During the fall of 1925 and the spring of 1926, interest in farming was low and agricultural club work. did not offer much inducement in comparison to the wages paid, even to boys, for work on subdivisions. Even so, the enrollment for 1926 was within 887 of that for 1918. There were 14 counties having boys in club work in 1918 which had no work in 1926. Considering only those counties having the work in 1926 and comparing their enrollment with the enrollment for the same counties in 1918, we find that 1926 enrollment exceeded that of 1918 by 293, Club work


Florida Cooperative Extension






Annual Report, 1926


is at its best mark and with the addition of several more counties employing agents for 1927, we expect to bring the enrollment up to that of 1918-19.
The greatest improvement was in the Central and South Florida districts. , West Florida has long held the leadership but
-was forced to yield in 1926. Each district showed an increase. The central district went from -130 in 1925 to 1,201 in 1926. The county agents in Pasco, Lee and Marion counties were responsible for the larger part of this increase.

CROP CLUBS

Cotton Club: The large yields and profits made in the cotton club in 1925 caused a decided increase in enrollment. The membership went from 94 in 1925 to 191 in 1926. The county agents of the cotton growing counties planned for better cotton acres as well as more of them. The boys were encouraged and aided in securing the right kind of fertilizer. In most counties an improved variety of seed was purchased for the club acres.
The outlook for a record crop was favorable. The acres had been well prepared, fertilized and properly cultivated. Nitrate of soda was applied as a side-dressing to most of the club acres. The boll weevil gave little trouble, although the boys were prepared to poison and some few did where it appeared advisable. When the cotton began to open the yield promised to be the, best average in the history of club work.
On September 18 a tropical hurricane struck Florida. While the most damage was done in the southern end of the Peninsula k-1he western end of the state was hit on September 19 by a storm of but little less intensity. The area severely injured by this storm included 150 of the 191 cotton club acres. Where -the boys had been able to gather their crop before September 1.9, the yields were excellent. On the acres not picked, the storm made it hardly worth while to gather the crop. The price had fallen to a place where storm cotton was not worth picking. Seveny-four boys reported. The returns ran from a loss to a profit of over $50 per acre where the cotton had been gatheredand sold before the price slumped. Table II gives a summary of reports from five counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE 11.-REsULTs OF Boys' CLUB WORK WITH COTTON.


00
V; 4



Okaloosa ---- 22 1319.1 $41.63 $ .031
Walton . 18 1107 39.51 .036
Washington . 6 1107 37.04 .034
Madison . 5 1217 42.60 .035
Escambia ---- 5 1191 42.40 .034

Average ----- 56 1207.6 $40.62 $ .0335


708 7
460 8
466 6.
700 9.4
590 5.6

678 7


In Okaloosa County, the agent, R. J. Hart, gave much attention to his cotton club work. Of the 22 boys reporting, 16 reported the use of from 400 to 800 pounds of 8-3-5 fertilizer under their cotton and the use of from 100 to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda as a side-dressing. The 16 reports show an average use of 512 pounds of 8-3-5 under the cotton and the application of 155.5 pounds of nitrate of soda. The average yield reported was 1,332 pounds of seed cotton per acre. The average for the state, as taken from the ginning report, is but 335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The club boys are showing the way in cotton production. The fertilizer plus the improved seed appears responsible for the increased yield as the methods used and cultivation given varies but slightly from what would be done by the average farmer in the cotton growing sections.
Corn Club: Although corn is the most important crop in Florida in number of acres planted (54 percent of the crop acres is planted to corn), the corn club, once the most popular, is losing in membership. The reason probably lies in the fact that under Florida conditions the corn club boy has less chance of getting his profit in cash than with any other project. Nearly all the corn club members report that their corn is used for feeding the home stock. In the cotton, pig and potato clubs, the articles produced are likely to be sold with a much better chance for the boy to get the profit from his work.






Annual Report, 1926


The storm leveled all the ungathered corn fields in West Florida with a resulting decrease in number of club boys reporting. Table III gives summary of reports from 55 club acres.
TABLE III.-REsui.Ts OF Boys' CLUB WORK WITH CORN,


4
County tC 1.4 0



Santa Rosa . 22 984 44.7 $22.94 $ .51+ Okaloosa . 13 339 26 13.28 .50+ Walton . 9 310 34.4 17.55 .50+ Liberty ----- . 6 211 35 23.27 .60+
Duval ------------- . . 5 173 34.6 23.53 .59+

TOTAL . 55 2017 36.6 $19.99 $ .52+

Sweet Potato Club: The enrollment in this club was less by three than for 1925. That year was rather disappointing in yield and profit, so that the boys were tempted to turn to cotton, which promised handsome profits.
In Washington County, 13 potato club members reported. This county is a fair example of the impossibility of a uniform report on sweet potatoes. The members planted one-fourth acre each with yields running from 16 bushels to 63 bushels on their plots. The reason for such. variation in- the yields is due to the fact that some dug and sold their potatoes in July while others allowed them to grow on until fall. Those digging in July made more profit on the average than those holding until fall, notwithstanding the higher yields. It is impossible to give worth while statistics on this crop. Truck Club: This type of club is new in boys' club work in Florida. It was found to be the only project in crop production work which would fit into conditions for southern Florida. Palm Beach, Pasco and Lee counties furnished 286 of the 846 enrolled in this club.
The spring gardens and truck plots did very well with most c)f the boys showing a profit. The storm of September 18 ob-






Florida Cooperative Extension


liberated everything started in Palm Beach and Lee counties. The boys have started fall gardens and the county agents report the plots coming nicely.
This club appears to offer an opportunity for the members to make spending money over a long period. The records are much harder to keep, but with more experience the boys will be able to show better record books.

CITRUS AND ORNAMENTAL CLUBS
Citrus Club: This club is proving popular in some counties but lacks a clearly defined revenue-producing feature. There is a need of more subject matter instruction in this club. The range of the subject is so great that it cannot be covered in one subject matter bulletin and still be concise enough for boys to follow.
Ornamental Clubs: This is a new idea in club work. Florida,, with all its wealth of ornamentals, is giving scanty attention to beautification. The club department decided that club work might be a help in promoting this needed work. The members should be able to make some money as well.
Thirty-six boys were enrolled in this project. As a beginning they were instructed in planting seeds of the more common kinds of palms and in caring for the young plants. Instructions were given in layering and rooting of cuttings from the more popular shrubs. The asparagus fern was used by a few boys with good results. ' This project can hardly be completed in a year's time, hence no detailed report is possible.

LIVESTOCK CLUBS
Calf Club: The systematic eradication of the fever tick and the increased demand for dairy products is bringing the dairy calf into more prominence.
Madison County put over the biggest calf club project attempted up to this time. Ninety-three Jersey calves, mostly purebreds, were placed with 73 boys and girls in July and August. This is reported to be the second largest Jersey calf club, in the United States. Though the tick had not been eradicated in that county, the boys and girls gave such attention to their calves that only two have died The calves were six months of age and under, which explains the small loss. The.time has been too short for worthwhile reports. The members exhibited






Anitual Report, 1926


65 of the calves at the county fair in November. The introduction of that many blooded animals will change the complexion of the milk producing cows in Madison County.
In Marion County, the result of a small start with four calves three years ago is to be seen. Three of these animals are now producing around 20 pounds of milk per day with their first calves. C. R. Hiatt, the county agent, expects to place more calves in 1927.
Duval County continues to work mostly with grades but expects to change to purebreds in the future.
Breeding Pig Club: The enrollment in this club doubled in 1926. The value of swine production as a source of revenue is beginning to be appreciated by the farmer. With this comes a demand for better blood. The pig club members are about the only ones producing purebred breeding swine in Florida today. This was demonstrated at the Florida State Fair, where but one Florida herd was shown, other than those shown by the club boys.
Some trouble was experienced in securing the right type of pigs for the increased enrollment. The club boys of Madison


Fig. 6-Russell Henderson, Florida's chanipion club boy, giving his county
agent the record of a sow which raised 31 pigs in three successive litters.








County had the largest supply in Florida. They sold over 60 breeding pigs to other club members in addition to those sold to farmers. This county has been the premier pig club county in the state for five years and was awarded first honors again.
Leon, Jefferson and Marion counties continue to improve. The improvement in Marion and Jefferson was perhaps the greatest in the state.
That Florida club boy s are raising the right type of breeding pigs was shown at the State Fair, where a club pig fed out by Russell Henderson of Madison County won the grand champion Duroc sow award in competition with the breeders. In addition to this grand championship, club pigs won three junior championships.
Barrow Club: The enrollment in this club fell off three from last year, due to the increased demand for boars for breeding purposes. The club boys have learned that it takes a good type pig to produce a winning barrow. The barrow show at the state fair was one of the best and largest yet, and 150 barrows were exhibited. All championships were won by club barrows.
As usual, F. E. Dennis, Inc., bought the barrows after the fair was over. Mr. Dennis is the staunchest supporter of pig club work in the state. He has bought every club barrow offered for sale in Florida. He gives the boys and girls a premium over the market price. He bought 127 barrows after the fair and paid a total of $2,794.17 for them.

TABLE IV.-RESULTS 0'r Boys' CLUB WORK WITH FAT BARROWS.

J:
U2
County - p 4
C; -4
E0 0 > Cd
z P4

Leon ---_------------- 21 1290 5074 3784 129 1.3 $ .061)
Madison . 21 1305 6024 4719 151 1.5 .051

Table IV gives the average cost of producing barrows by club members.
Poultry Club: Until 1925 the poultry club had been under the direction of the home demonstration agents. This project is new to county agents, but in two years has grown until it


Florida Cooperative Extension






Annual Report, 1926


is the largest club in number of members enrolled. Pasco County, with a membership of 166, leads. In counties where only a man agent is employed, the poultry club is popular with the girls wishing to do club work. In Washington County, nine of the fifteen reporting were girls.
With the assistance of the Extension Poultryman, a club bulletin for poultry club work was published. This small bulletin appears to have filled the need for a source of general information to club members.

ANNUAL SHORT COURSE

The plan of the 1926 short course was varied in no way from that of 1925. The 137 boys who attended were awarded diplomas or certificates at the end of the week. These certificates are taken home and oftentimes framed and serve as permanent inspiration for securing a college education.
The part which showed a decided improvement was the swimming meet. This feature was added in 1925. The first year it was difficult to induce boys to enter. The news of the meet and the medals to be won spread over the state, so the boys practiced at home and came prepared to try. It was necessary to run four heats in every race. Every section of the state was represented among the winners. We find that recreation features aid wonderfully in holding the older boys in club work.

CLUB RALLIES AND CAMPS

Club Rally: In April over 300 boysand girls of Pasco County attended a club-rally in Dade City. A monster parade was held, after which Mr. C. A. Cobb, Editor of Southern Ruralist, addressed the boys and girls. A picnic dinner and games fin,ished the day.
County Club Camps: In counties where club work is really successful, the club camp is a fixture. Fourteen camps were held in 1926, against nine for 1925. A total of 235 boys attended these camps.
Four counties. in.South Florida held camps for the first time. The state club agent'visited camps in Georgia and South Caroline to secure new ideas.
Club Motorcade: In place of a club camp, the agents of Colambia, Madison and Hamilton counties took some of their club







Florida Cooperative Extension


members on a trip through the western end of the state, visiting the satsuma, blueberry and grape growing localities. , The motorcade was entertained by civic associations along the route. .The members spent one night as guests of the Santa Rosa club ,boys at their camp. Forty boys taking the trip were given a broader idea of their native state and her resources.

TEACHING THRIFT IN CLUB WORK

To test the value of club work as an aid in developing the thrift habit among our rural boys, the following is placed on the bottom of the front cover of all club record books, "Every Club Member Should Have a Bank Account. Have you One?" This -Dlan has been in operation for three years. The result is pleasing as the percentage of members having bank accounts grows each year.
As this is the first year Walton County boys have been in club work, this county offers an opportunity when compared with Madison County, where club work has been established for 10 years, to test the efficacy of our work in increasing number of bank accounts among rural boys. The following table speaks for itself. If the member failed to answer the question, it was considered as if it had been answered in the negative.

No. No. Having No. Not Percentage Record Bank Having With Bank Books Aects. Bank Acets. Acets. Walton (work for I year) 31 6 25 19.3
Madison (work for 10 years)' 62 42 20 70
In 1920 we began to ask the question, "Have you a bank account?" of all boys attending the short course. 'In that year less than 50 percent of the best boys in the state, as all we're county winners, reported bank accounts. There has been gradual improvement until 1926. In 1926 135 boys filled out the card and of them 90, or 66 percent, reported bank accounts. Of the 45 boys answering "No," 23 had been in club work but one Year. After the boys had returned home, a letter was sent to every boy not reporting a bank account urging him to start one.
One is justified in believing that club work is an aid in teaching the country boy to save money as well as the means of making it.






Annual Report, 1926


PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist

In connection with extension animal husbandry Work there have been established a number of permanent pastures in various counties and on different soil types. Many of these demonstrations reported have been under way since 1924, as it usually requires at least two seasons' growth to give a. fair idea of the value of permanency of the pasture. This work was undertaken under the supervision of the Extension Animal Industrialist in cooperation with the agricultural departments of the Seaboard Air Line and the Florida East Coast railways. In each case the demonstration was located by the county agent and through his efforts much interest has been aroused in the value and permanency of these pastures. For the most part, the seed was furnished by the extension service and the railroads, and owners of the property prepared the land and sowed the seed. These are the first demonstrations that have been carried out in a systematic way in the state, and the results should have far reaching effect toward improving the grazing and cut-over lands of the state, as well as giving the dairymen and farmers a permanent pasture for their stock.
It is estimated that as a result of these permanent pasture grass demonstrations, not less than 1,000 acres have been seeded to permanent pastures during 1926, and a larger acreage will be seeded in 1927.
These permanent pasture grasses have been established in ,he following counties: Leon, Marion, Flagler, Madison, Heriando, Jefferson, Okeechobee, Duval, Bay, St. Johns, Suwaniee, St. Lucie, Gadsden, and Palm Beach.
The mixture, in nearly every case, was composed of 6 pounds )f carpet grass seed, 4 pounds of Dallis grass seed, 2 pounds 1.of 3ahia grass seed, and 3 pounds of lespedeza seed.

LEON COUNTY

The :pasture grass demonstration in Leon County is located )n the College Farm. The land selectedihad been in cultivation Wo several years, is high and sloping, and much of the topsoil lias been washed away. The surface is red clay and typical of
-,he red clay lands in Leon County. .






Florida Cooperative Extension


The seed was sown broadcast about May 1, 1924. The land was disked before seeding.
In this demonstration, seed of each variety was sown separately. The weather was dry at the time of seeding and continued dry for some time, with the result that a good stand of grass was not obtained. However, a thin stand of all the grasses was secured. Carpet grass has spread faster and covered more of the surface of the ground to date than any of the other grasses. There is also now a good seeding of Dallis. Bahia grass is thin, but is growing well and spreading.

z MARION COUNTY

The permanent pasture in Marion County is located on the farm of Mr. Chas. Painter, northeast of Ocala. The piece of land was an old field that had been in cultivation for a number of years. The soil is Noroflk sandy loam with a chocolate brown clay subsoil.
The seed mixture was sown broadcast April 25, 1924, on a well-prepared seedbed. The land had been plowed and harrowed and was in excellent condition for seeding.
In this pasture there is a good mixture of all of the grasses.

FLAGLER COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. A. S. Fowler about three miles southeast of Bunnell.
The land selected is typical flatwoods, but with no palmetto, and was part of an old field that had been in cultivation for several years. The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the seed mixture sown broadcast August 15, 1924.
A good stand of grass was obtained and all made a satisfactory growth. As in all of the other demonstrations, the carpet grass made a more rapid growth and spread faster than any of the others.
MADISON COUNTY

The permanent pasture grass demonstration in Madison County is located on the farm of Mr. A. Strickland, near Greenville. The land is well drained heavy loam soil.
The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared. Carpet. and Dallis grasses have made the'best growth.






Annual Report, 1926


A meeting of 24 farmers and dairymen was held at this pasture October 28, 1926. It was the opinion of a number of farmers that this pasture would carry two cows per acre for at least nine months during the year.
Mr. Strickland says: "Good permanent pastures will be the salvation of the livestock industry in Florida." He has faith in livestock in Florida, as he is adding purebred Guernsey cattle and Poland China hogs to his farming operations.
I I
HERNANDO COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. 0. P. Wernicke, about three miles southeast of Brooksville.
The land is good hammock, such as would be considered ideal trucking land in that section. The seed mixture was sown broadcast May 10, 1924, on well prepared land.
All of the grasses have made a good growth and have formed a complete sod.
On September 29, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture, attended by about 25 farmers and dairymen of Hernando and adjoining counties. It was estimated that this pasture would carry two cows per acre for at least nine months of the year.
Mr. Wernicke is increasing his acreage in permanent pastures.
JEFFERSON COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. W. W. Bassett, near Monticello.
The land is a sandy loam soil with a red clay subsoil, a sloping and well-drained soil that would probably produce 25 bushels of corn per acre without fertilizer.
In this demonstration all grasses have made uniform growth and are now covering the ground. There is a good stand over most of the field. Mr. Bassett began grazing this in 1925. Dur ing 1926 it was grazed very heavily.
On October 29, 1926, a meeting was held at Mr. Bassett's farm and this pasture was inspected. It was-the general opinion that all of the grasses were giving excellent results from a grazing standpoint. Mr. Bassett has the following to say regarding this demonstration:
"This, together with several other plantings of the same grasses, L e., carpet, lespedeza, and Dallis grass, have demon-






Florida Cooperative Extension


stated to me that a good stand of these grasses will easilycarry one to two head of cows per acre from April to October. Such pastures are invaluable to stockmen and dairymen, and ta even the small farmer with only a few cows.
"My hopes and needs are being fully realized by these grasses. and my acreage of them is being extended each year." Mr. Bassett seeded 75 acres to permanent pastures last year.

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. McWilliams about four miles northwest of Okeechobee City. The land is typical flatwoods originally covered'with scrub palmettos. The land was plowed and harrowed and a good seedbed prepared.
On December 10, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture demonstration, attended by 15 dairymen and farmers.
A good stand of carpet grass now covers the ground, and with it a good sprinkling of Dallis and Bahia.
This demonstration pasture has perhaps received more seYere grazing than, any of the other demonstrations. It was grazed very hard during the early spring and summer of 1926. In spite of this hard grazing, the grasses have grown and spread so that they now cover the ground. The appearance of this pasture now would indicate that it would carry one cow to the acre during the year.
DUVAL COUNTY

This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. Dwindle Smith about five or six miles northwest of Jacksonville. . It is typical pipe land. The land was disked and a good seedbed prepared.
The carpet and Dallis grasses have made a good growth and are furnishing excellent pasture. Mr. Smith has been, so well pleased with this demonstration that he has sown a large acreage to grasses since this first seeding.

BAY COUNTY

This permanent pasture grass demonstration is on the farm of Mr. E. 0. Miley. It is located -on cutover land, similar in all respects to thousands of acres of other lands in Bay County.






Annual Report, .1926


The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the seed mixture sown broadcast July 15, 1925. Carpet and Dallis grasses have made the best showing. There is a scattering stand of ,Bahia and lespedeza.
ST. JOHNS COUNTY

The pasture grass demonstration in St. Johns is on the farn. f Mr. Wolf on the highway between Hastings and St. Augstine. The land is typical scrub palmetto flatwoods soil. The and was cleared and disked, but left very rough. The seed nixture was sown broadcast June 21, 1924. A poor stand of grass was obtained, largely because a good seedbed had not been prepared. However, lespedeza germi-nated and grew well. The carpet grass during the summer of' 1925 made a good growth and spread well, so that now there is a good sod of carpet over a large portion of the pasture. Dallis and Bahia are now growing well and seeding freely. They do not spread and cover the ground as rapidly as does carpet grass.

SUWANNEE COUNTY

This pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of Franz Schmidt, about two miles southeast of Live Oak. The land is cutover pine land, Norfolk sandy loam soil.
The land was plowed and harrowed and a good seedbed prepared before sowing the seed. No lespedeza was sown with this mixture. The ground had been seeded to lespedeza theyear b efore. All of the grasses made a good growth on this, pasture.
ST. LUCIE COUNTY

The pasture demonstration in St. Lucie County is located on the' farm of Mr. Win. Garrup, four miles west and one and a half miles north of Ft. Pierce.
The piece of land selected is drained land generally spokenof as grassy flatwoods. The surface soil is a sandy loam with a brownish sandy subsoil with some clay.
The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the 3eed mixture sown September 15, 1925. There is a uniform stand of grass and it is making satisfactory growth. The carpet and Dallis grasses are the most ag-






Florida Cooperative Extension


aggressive and are making the most rapid growth. Although this grass has been planted less than a year and a half it has made a complete sod and completely covered the ground.
On December 9, 1926, a meeting, attended by 50 farmers and dairymen from Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin counties, was held at this demonstration pasture. It was the opinion of a number of the men present that the pasture would carry three cows per acre for the entire year.

NEW PASTURES

Pasture grass demonstrations were planted during 1926 in Gadsden and Palm Beach counties. The one in Palm Beach county is farther south than any other thus far established.

MISCELLANEOUS

Judging from the number of inquiries from county agents, farmers and dairymen for good stock and also for information regarding the feeding of stock, much more interest is being taken in livestock than there has been during the past two or three years. This is particularly true of dairy cattle and hogs.
Another noticeable fact is that prospective buyers are demanding a better quality of purebred animals. This is a good healthy sign.
During the year we have assisted in placing six purebred Jersey bull calves. These have all gone into communities that are developing along dairy lines.
Have assisted in placing 10 good purebred Poland China pigs. These pigs in most cases have gone to young farmers who are just getting started in the hog business. Their intentions are not so much the selling of purebred hogs as that of producing good meat hogs.
Letters coming to the office asking for information on feeding and care of livestock numbered 200.




DEMONSTRATIONS IN FLORIDA.


-1 -- --- Inp~AnAlIUP4 Vr � CI~IU LJInL


County


Leon


Marion


Name and Address
of Grower


State College for Women, Tallahassee,
Fla.
IMr. Chas. Painter
Ocala, Fla.


Grass Seed I Date Planted
Mixture-Pounds
Per Acre


Carpet Grass 6 - May 1, 1924 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet Grass 6 April 25, 1924 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3


Flagler - A. S. Fowler Carpet Grass 6
Bunnell, Fla. Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Madison A. Strickland Carpet Grass 6
Greenville, Fla. Dallis 4
Bahia 2I
_Lespedeza 3
Hernando 0.P. Wernicke Carpet Grass 6
Brooksville, Fla. Dallis 4 I
Bahia 21
Lespedeza 31
Jefferson W. W. Bassett Carpet Grass 6
Monticello, Fla. Dallis seeded before other seeds
were sown. Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3


Okeechobee


Mr. McWilliams Okeechobee City,
Fla.


Carpet Grass Dallis Bahia Lespedeza


Aug. 15, 1924


Kind of
Soil


Seedbed
Preparation


Red sandy Disced before
clay seeding


Sandy Plowed and
loam harrowed


Fhatwoods I


April 28, 1924 Well drained
heavy loam


May 10, 1924 Hammock I



April 28, 1924 Sandy loam I
clay subsoil I



May 21, 1925 Flatwoods I
heavy growth
palmetto


Plowed and harrowed


Condition of pasture December 30, 1926. Good growth-thin stand.



Good growth-% stand.


Good growth a n d good
stand.
Plowed up April, 1926.


Plowed and Good growth o f carpet, harrowed Dallis and lespedeza.


Plowed and Excellent growth and stand harrowed of all.


Plowed and Good growth of all. harrowed


Palmettos grubbed out and land plowed and harrowed


Good sod of carpet, thin
stand of Dallis and Bahia, fair stand of lespedeza.


I








TABLE V.-LOCATION, GRASS SEED MIXTURE, DATE OF PLANTING, KIND OF SOIL, AND SEEDBED PREPARATION OF PASTURE GRASS DEMONSTRATIONS IN FLORIDA-Continued.


Name and Address Grass Seed
of Growers Mixture-Pounds
Per Acre


Windle Smith I Carpet Gr Jacksonville, Fla. Dallis
IBahia
Lespedeza


E. 0. Miley
Panama City, Fla.


Mr. Wolf
Hastings, Fla.


Wm. Garrup
Ft. Pierce


Suwannee Franze Schmidt
Live Oak


Bradford State Farm
Raiford


Bradford State Farm


Bradford


ass 6
4 2 3


Duval Bay St. Johns St. Lucie I


State Farm I.Same as above


Date Planted


April 26, 1924


July 15, 1925 June 21, 1924 Sept. 15, 1925 May 3, 1924 July 10, 1924 July 10, 1924


SJuly 10, 1924


Kind of Seedbed Condition of pasture DeSoil . Preparation cember 30, 1926.


Flatwoods


Disced two or three times


Flatwoods Plowed and
harrowed


Flatwoods Disced twice with some poorly prepalmetto pared

Drained Plowed and
grassy flat- harrowed
woods
High pine Plowed and
harrowed


Flatwoods ISeed sown on!
wire grass
sod

Flatwoods I Disced
twice


Flatwoods


Plowed and disced twice


Carpet and Dallis growing
fine, some lespedeza.


All growing fine.


Carpet Grass -6 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet -Grass 6 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
ICarpet Grass 6 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
Carpet Grass 6 Dallis 4
Bahia 2

Carpet Grass 6 Dallis 4
Bahia 2
Lespedeza 3
1 Same as above


County


Good growth of carpet, Dallis, a n d lespedeza, some Bahia.

Excellent growth of carpet and Dallis, some Bahia.


Good growth of all.



Poor, thin stand of carpet.



Fair stand of carpet, some
Dallis and lespedeza.


Good stand carpet, some
Dallis, Bahia and lespedeza.






Annual Report, 1926


DAIRYING
H. L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman
The Extension Dairyman visited the following counties in 1926 in carrying on demonstrations of various kinds: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Bay, Washington, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Wakulla, Leon, Jefferson, Taylor, Madison, Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia, Baker, Nassau, Duval, Bradford, Alachua, St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando. Lake, Volusia, Brevard, Osceola, Hillsboro, Manatee, Sarasota, Lee, Highlands, Hendry, Glades, Indian River, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, and Dade.

FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS
the most important thing in a program to enlarge the dairy business in Florida is cheaper feeds, such as home-grown roughages and good pastures, with economical grain rations.
The Extension Dairyman cooperated with the Animal Industrialist and county district agents in holding field meetings at all of the pasture demonstration plots, where there were 845 farmers and business men getting first hand information about practical pasture work. There will be 150-175 pasture plots seeded in Florida in 1927 as a direct result of the field demonstrations held in, 12 counties.
The dairy agent carried on practical feeding demonstrations with the cooperation of the county agents with 365 dairymen .in 26 counties.
Forty-three dairymen kept an abbreviated system of dairy production records, showing an estimated cost of producing milk, ranging from IS to 57 cents a gallon. The average cost of milk produced by the dairymen was 37 cents a gallon, while the average 'cost of produce ' ng milk in the state will probably exceed 45 cents a gallon when all items of cost are accounted for.
The dairymen getting the lowest ' production costs are growing an abundance of pasture and roughages, and are carrying on other lines of farming in connection with their dairy work.

SILOS
The silo has proven to be a very necessary equipment in the production of milk at a low cost. There have been 34 silos built in the state as a part of the feed demonstration work.







Florida Cooperatire Exte)'ision


Building plans have been furnished to 27 dairymen as a part. of the dairy extension work.

PUREBRED SIRES
One purebred bull association was formed in Marion County with five registered bulls to be managed according to rules governing such associations. This means that constructive breeding methods providing for purchase and exchange of sires. will give maximum use of a bull throughout his life time, provided his daughters prove good. It also provides for the butchering of sires that do not prove worthy.
Eighty-seven registered bulls have been placed in dairies wanting better bulls, through the cooperation of the county agents and the Extension Dairyman.

CALF CLUB WORK
Organized calf club work was carried on in Duval and Madison counties with 69 boys and girls. Madison County put on


Fig. 7.-Calf club work in Florida was greatly increased in 1926.






Annual Report, 1926


the largest county calf show ever held in Florida and the second largest boys' calf exhibit ever held in the South as a direct result of dairy extension work. As in all other work, the Extension Dairyman cooperated with the State Club Leader, district agents and all others connected with club work in making this a success.
Madison County brought in 150 Jersey calves during 1926 as a result of the work of county agent and dairy agent. Of these, 103 were registered.

DAIRY TOURS

Dairy tours are valuable aids in arousing interest among dairymen to increase their efforts to improve their methods of dairy operation. Some may think the man past 80 years of age will not take on new ideas, but all that 'is needed to disprove such statements is to take a bunch of farmers and dairymen on a tour and watch them copy new ideas when they get back home.
The Extension Dairyman made six motorcades with 94 dairymen that 'gave splendid aid in awakening six counties to new and better ways of dairying.

DAIRY ORGANIZATION

Five county dairy organizations with a membership of 1 7 dairymen were formed as a means of improving dairy methods. These dairy organizations are greatly increasing the quality of their products through organized methods.
Cooperative buying of feeds in car-lots has netted a saving of over $2,500 to these organizations. Cooperative buying of bottles and crates in car-lot quantities has netted a I saving of four or five thousand -dollars.

FAIR EXHIBITS

The interest in dairy exhibits at the State Fair and the South Florida Fair has greatly improved. These associations are increasing the prizes each year and have provided for separate prizes for the producers and distributing plants another year.






Florida 'Cooperative Extension


CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY
E. F. DEBuSK, Pathologist-Entomologist

The approved plan of work in citrus disease and insect control provides in detail for definite projects in each of the citrus producing counties on melanose, citrus scab, blue mold decay, tree trunk and root diseases, rust mite, citrus aphid, scale and whitefly.
MELANOSE
The adopted methods of melanose control are spraying with 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion and pruning out dead branches. Demonstrations with either or both of these methods were conducted in the principal citrus producing counties. The unusual rainy season at spraying time, early in April, caused many of the co-operating growers to abandon melanose spraying, believing that results under the conditions could not make the operation profitable. However, despite the unfavorable season, the results of melanose spraying generally have been very satisfactory.
.Considerable, time has been devoted to instructing growers, through method demonstrations, press articles, field meetings and field visits, in detail as to the proper time and method of applying the Bordeaux and the follow-up oil spray. With more favorable labor conditions, pruning is being recommended in mdiny cases as a substitute for spraying. The economic phases of melanose control are being stressed through special press articles, reprints, and packers' bulletins to grower members.

CITRUS SCAB
Spraying demonstrations in scab control were conducted in the sections where scab is an important factor in the production of grapefruit of quality. Scab control on satsumas was also carried on this year, by spraying demonstrations, in four of the satsuma producing counties of West Florida.
Except in a few cases where conditions seemed to warrant the use of 1 to 30 or 1 to 40 lime-sulphur, homemade 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used. In some cases, spraying with 1 to 30 lime-sulphur immediately before the first flush of growth is found to be most economical. In all but extreme cases, successful efforts have been made to work out a spray schedule by which the grower can procure sat-






Annual Report, 1926


isfactory control of scab by one application of the spray material. In most cases the cost of scab control has been kept.within
-7 cents a box.
Last spring the same weather conditions that made melanose control difficult favored the development of citrus scab and rendered control measures less effective. Consequently, the fruit is not as free of scab this year as it was last year. On citrus fruit as well as with vegetables, the weather at spraying time in a large measure determines the effectiveness of a f fungicide applied.
BLUE MOLD DECAY

An attempt has been made to materially reduce the $3,500,000 annual losses from blue and green mold decay. It is known that this decay is due to fungi (Penicillium) which can enter the fruit and cause decay only through 'Cuts and abrasions in the rind. It has also been found that a large percentage of the wounds through which decay develops are made in picking and handling the fruit in the grove. In picking, the rind of the fruit is broken by clipper cuts, long-stem punctures, plugging by pulling, finger nail scratches and various forms of bruises and minor injuries. From this defective picking and handling, largely due to improper supervision, heavy decay results and consequent heavy discounts on the sale price of the fruit in the markets, often taking the grower's profits. Therefore war has been declared on defective picking and rough handling of the fruit from the tree to the packinghouse. In nine counties demonstrations have been conducted in the proper use of picking equipment and in careful handling of the fruit. More thorough supervision of the picking operations has been urged. In every case very marked improvement and a big saving to the grower have been the result of the demonstration. Demonstrations with three crews containing 30 pickers resulted in improvements and saving to the growers as follows: With inadequate supervision and improper use of picking equipment before demonstration, average picking defects __- -------- 14.2 After demonstration and adoption of better methods, picking defects ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5.3
Final cost of picking at 10 cents per box, before demonstration,
with 14.20/c defective ------------------------------------------------------------------- _ . 63 cents
Final cost of picking, after demonstration, 5.301o defective . 12 cents Saving in picking cost to grower, per box . - ------------ 51 cents
Additional cost per box of proper supervision and more careful
picking . -------------------------------------- ----------------------- ------ _ -----------_-------------- 1 Cent
Net saving per box on picking ------ ------------------------------------------------------- 50 cents






Florida Cooperative Extaision


In arriving at the "final cost of picking," the percentage of picking defects, the percentage of decay due to such defects and discount on the sale price of the fruit because of the decay, were taken as factors.
If the above 30 pickers pick 5 months or 100 days and pick an average of 30 boxes each per day or a total of 90,000 boxes and maintain the same high standard of picking throughout the season, which they no doubt will, this little piece of work will result in a saving of $45,000 to the growers whose fruit they handle. One county agent in his annual report says: "I believe I can save the growers of my county $100,000 on this project."
Special articles bearing on this project have been carefully prepared and used very effectively by the press. The leading fruit packing and shipping organizations of the state secured reprints of one article and placed same in the hands of their packing ouse managers and field foremen. Such cooperation is bound to give results.

TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES

Especial attention has been given to improving the methods of treating foot rot. Through demonstrations and the press, growers have been saved money by substituting the "machine method" of treating foot rot for the slow, expensive, hand method. The regular grove power spraying outfit is used, with one hose, open nozzle and high pressure, to wash the dirt away from the roots. Then the same outfit, adjusted for spraying, is used to spray Bordeaux mixture on to'the crown roots. Treating foot rot by the "machine method" reduces the cost about 75 percent.
In advanced stages of foot rot, many trees have been saved by building a mound of dirt or clay 18 to 30 inches high and 12 to 16 feet in diameter around 'the trunk of the diseased tree. Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and again become profitable producers.

RUST MITE

In addition to conducting dusting and spraying demonstrations in rust mite control in the principal citrus producing counties, much time has been devoted, through field meetings, field






Annual Report, 1926


visits, and the press, to instructing growers along the lines of more economical control of the rust mite. Many of the demonstrations were planned to teach growers that more economical rust mite control is to be attained through more timely and more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby reducing the total number of applications necessary. Certain growers are wasting money by making unnecessary and untimely applications. Three growers' organizations have been induced to purchase more efficient equipment and do all their rust mite control cooperatively or on a kind of "spray ring" plan. This method greatly reduces the per box cost of rust mite control. With pr oper equipment and timely applications, the cost of rust mite control should not exceed 4 cents per box with a normal crop. In many cases it is being done at a total cost of 2 cents per box.

CITRUS APHID

Except in a few small areas, the citrus aphid did not develop into a serious pest during the year. This was perhaps due to the dormant condition of trees during the winter of 1925-26, and to the development of natural parasites during the favorable weather of the early spring and summer. Consequently much less spraying and dusting was done during the year than was done in 1925, and only slight damage resulted to the citrus industry from infestations of this pest.

SCALE AND WHITEFLY

An effort has been made through method demonstrations, field meetings, and the press, to bring about more thorough fall and winter clean-up spraying for whitefly and scale. More general use of the red Aschersonia in whitefly control has been encouraged with gratifying results. The necessity of the extra oil emulsion spraying in June following an application of Bordeaux-oil for melanose control, to keep down scale infestations, has been stressed with satisfactory results.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY.
M. R.,ENSIGN, Pathologist-Entomologist

The plan of work submitted and approved at the beginning of this year carried with it four main lines of work as follows:
1. Cucurbit disease control by spraying and dusting and seed disinfection.
2. Control of late blight of Irish potatoes by spraying and dusting.
3. Bean leaf-hopper control.
4. Dissemination of mosaic-resistant variety of sugar cane.
During the year four other lines of work developed which may be classed as emergency and miscellaneous: (1) Cotton boll weevil control; (2) the control of the two-spotted mite on ferns; (3) preliminary work in securing disease-free bean seed, and (4) making a hand-book on truck diseases.

CUCURBIT DISEASE CONTROL

Demonstrations were started in cucumber mildew control in the following counties: Three demonstrations in Lake, two in Sumter, two in Orange, and four in Marion. Acts of Providence, however, practically rendered these ineffective. First of all, the winter temperatures were unusually low and prolonged, and it is the experience of growers that following such a winter the mildew is a negligible factor. It proved to be so in this case, for in none of the fields did this usually destructive disease do much damage until very late in the spring. In the second place, some of the heaviest rains attended by very cold weather came just after the cucumbers were planted and continued until after the normal shipping season was past. Competitive producers farther north ruined the price so that many' fields were abandoned before any results from the demonstrations could be secured. With only one grower, Mr. P. H. Briti of Winter Garden, were we able to get any data and this waw not very complete. Therefore, the following brief summary h, given as the deductions which the data seemed to justify.
1. It is most economical to use a traction sprayer in the control of mildew of cucumbers until the vines begin to rur well.
2. Use three nozzles to the row with a pressure of 150 tc 200 pounds.







Annual Report, 1926.


3. When the foliage becomes too thick and runners are sent out, then the power sprayer with a man on each lead of hose is necessary in order to cover the under side of the leaves. The spray gun properly operated gave excellent results.
4. Spraying every five days gave much better control than with longer intervals.
5. Dusted plots held up well until the latter part of the picking season, but this may have been due to the fact that mildew was not severe earlier.
Dusted plots produced fruit a few days in advance of sprayed plots, but the total yield was in favor of the sprayed plots.

TABLE VI.-RESULTS OF SPRAYING AND DUSTING FOR CONTROL OF LATE
BLIGHT OF IRISH POTATOES, HASTINGS, 1926.

Dusted Plots.-25-75 Copper Lime Dust
r Yield in Barrels Per Acre and Percent I Cost of Control



(Ngh) .
0V

) C; 0.-f 0a 0Q.
go - 0 zz 6 E-4
1. 15 days 37 67 112.9 23815.1 10 55 $11.25 1.20
Wet ! 5 applications
(Night) 1


10 days 29 Wet
(Night) I
5 days 39.9 Dry
(Day)
10 days I 37.2 Dry
(Day)



5 days I 50.8

10 days 47


15.5 - 33

11.9 21


2.5 3.2


64 20 / 32/ 4.3 4 61.5 Liquid Spray (5-5-50 Bordeaux) 73 15 /23 )2.3 j4 68.1


72 114 121


7 65


6.75 1 .14
3 applications

11.25 I .20
5 applications
I
6.75 1 .11
3 applications



8.60 .12
5 applications

5.16 .08
3 applications


Check: There was but a small patch left for check and the actual weights were not taken, but, judging from the way the plot turned out, there could not have been more than 25 bbls. No. l's and 16 bbls. No. 2's, 3's and 4's combined. This is a liberal allowance.


V.

VI







Florida Cooperative Extension


SPRAYING AND DUSTING OF IRISH POTATOES
Attempts were made to secure demonstrations in Palm Beach, Volusia, Flagler, and St. Johns. One demonstration in the latter was all that materialized.
The results secured through the cooperation of J. L. Scribner, county agent, on the Leonard Farms at Hastings, are significant and are given in Table VI.


Fig. 8.-County agent showing growers different grades of Irish potatoes
The higest total yields were produced on the sprayed plot slightly in favor of the 5-day interval. These 5-day interval sprayed plots also produced the highest percentage of grad No. 1's, with a total cost of $8.80 per acre. On the other hand the lowest yield was produced on the dusted plots when th plants were wet (night) at 10-day intervals. Comparing thes' with total net income, the spraying paid the highest dividend?
The data show an important difference between the income per acre from the plots dusted when the plants were dry an from the same number of applications when the plants wei wet. In putting on the dust during the day a canvas drag aboi 15 feet long was used, which confined the dust and insured much better distribution than when applied even to wet plant






Annual Report, 1926 57

Basing the figures on the prices obtained last year, the following comparisons are interesting: TABLE VII.-PROFITs FROM SPRAYING AND DuSTING FOR THE CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES
Dusted Plots (Average) Acre
Yielded 36.2 bbls. No. i's @ $7.50 . __ . . ------- . 271.50
Yielded 15.0 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 ------ - . . . ---- 75.00
Yielded 3.8 bbls. No. 3's @ $3.00 -_----------_-------- --_----------- ------_------ . 11.40
Total income, dusted acre ---------_------- ---------_---------_-- - ----------_-----_- $357.90
Total cost, control m easures . 9.00 Total income, other costs being equal . - . _$348.90
. Sprayed Plots (Average) Acre
Yielded 48.9 bbls. N o. I's @ $7.50 . - . $366.75 Yielded 14.5 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 ---------- --_-----_------ . . 72.50
Yielded 3 bbls. N o. 3's @ $3.00 ------------ _ -------------------------------------------- ------ 9.00
Total incom e sprayed plots ----_------------- . . . _$448.75
Cost of control ---- . __ . . ---------------_--- . __ 6.88
Total net income, other costs being equal . ------- . . $441.37
This shows a net income difference of $94.47 in favor of spraying. And in this year of good prices the second and third grade stuff brought a good price. In years of poor demand the spread would be even greater, for then only the No. 1's bring any money. It would appear that it would pay the potato grower to give the disease control feature some real thought and supervision.
MOSAIC OF SUGAR CANE

Since this is just the time of year when the agitation for the securing of Cayana cane is, made, nothing very specific has been accomplished. Two or three articles for the press have been prepared, calling attention to this matter. Cayana is making many friends and the possibilities of its ultimately displacing the susceptible varieties are very good.

SEEDBED DISINFECTION

Two commercial firms of Sanford were induced to buy a portable boiler and build two wooden pans for the steaming of celery beds. This equipment cost in the neighborhood of $1,500. It was July 7 before the equipment was at work, so that only a relatively limited -number of beds were sterilized. Beds were






Florida Cooperative Rxtension


treated for, varying time-intervals from 30 to 90 minutes. The steam pressure was maintained at nearly 100 pounds.
It is too early to secure results at this time. Indications are that the treatment will prove satisfactory in spite of the fact that the whole area was inundated because of the hurricane of July 29. This will interfere with a normal test, for the beds will undoubtedly be more or less re-contaminated.

COTTON BOLL WEEVIL

A series of meetings was held in the northern and western counties of the state, and farmers were urged to look upon boll weevil control as a matter of insurance. The provision of poison, the fall plowing of cotton land and the use of syrup mixtures for at least two applications, was urged. The results seem to be satisfactory.

TWO-SPOTTED MITE ON FERNS (Asparagus Plumosus)

An outbreak of the two-spotted mite on the Asparagus fern in Volusia County threatened to become, serious. The use of sulfur, the orthodox treatment, seemed at first not to work. The adults were apparently quite resistant to it, and dusting failed to get those on the ends of -the long sprays. By repeated use of sulfur the nymphs were killed and in 10 days the infestation was under control. The use of calcium cyanide as a fumigant was quite ineffective.

HANDBOOK ON TRUCK DISEASES

A series of 20 picture's showing symptoms of various trut. crop diseases common to the vegetables of Florida were madE up in a loose-leaf binder. Opposite each picture was a page oj information regarding the disease, including losses, and dis. tribution, symptoms, and control. These handbooks were distributed to county agents in truck growing territory.

BEAN SEED WORK

Losses'to bean growers due to seed-borne diseases mount u to nearly a half-million dollars annually. Last year 450 pounds of bean seed produced in the Western states, California, Colo, rado, and Idaho, were planted in about 20 different places h






Annual Report, 1926


Florida and, as a check, the. seed coming through 'the regular channels of trade were planted alongside. Many of these tests failed to show anything conclusive, due to weather unfavor.able to the growth of the beans (high water and cold rain) or to too dry weather for the development of any diseases. However, those that did show results were very conclusive and the Western-grown stuff showed at least 50 percent better than any of the checks, not only in the matter of freedom from anthracnose or bacterial blight, but in general vigor and productivity.
Since these demonstrations showed the Western seed to be so desirable, the writer was authorized to make a trip with Dr. L. L. Harter of the Bureau of Plant Industry to California, Idaho and Colorado to stimulate the growth of better bean seed with the object of getting on a basis of seed certification as soon as possible. The results of the trip are summarized below.

REPORT OF BEAN SEED INSPECTION TRIP

1. It is evident that anthracnose of beans and of bean seed grown in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Colorado occurs so infrequently as to render it of no concern to Florida bean growers.
2. Mosaic is general in the states mentioned above, and especially in the Twin Falls section, where the aphid is plentiful during the early part of the growing season, and aphids undoubtedly act as agents of inoculation. The. damage to the crop is considerable and continues to increase in severity from year to year. Seedsmen, strange to say, have so far disregarded this and other bean diseases. They very zealously rogue out any plants that are "off type" and from that standpoint the product is par excellence. But the inroads that diseases have made for the past two years, especially in the Twin Falls section, is compelling attention and Dr. Harter's and my visit there will stimulate more thought in that direction. The men heading the seed houses located in the West frankly state that they do not know anything about the disease problem and hence have done nothing along that line.
Arrangements were made to secure seed of several varieties showing 100 percent mosaic, which it is proposed to plant in wo bean growing sections of Florida to determine whether or ot mosaic expresses itself under Florida climatic conditions.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The evidence so far seems to indicate that it is not a serious menace to the spring crop. It may have more influence upon the fall crop. Further work along this line is needed and contemplated.
3. No bacterial blight, the greatest enemy of the bean in Florida, was found in some of the sections visited. It was problematical whether it was in the Twin Falls section, but it was very prevalent in the Greeley, Colorado, section. It was the only disease that was of any consequence in the latter place, but it was of such general occurrence, on both the leaves and the pods, that it would be unsafe to use seed from that quarter this year, at least.
It is, therefore, the bacterial blight problem that is para mount in the seed production of the Western states and of vita concern to the Florida and other Southern and Eastern beai growers. The very fact that all of the largest seed concerns have gone to the Western states shows clearly that they recog nize the arid conditions prevailing there as ideal to the produc tion of seed, yet, even with anthracnose eliminated, bacteria blight continues to be a real problem. These same seed house, have seed-producing areas in New York and Michigan and her( bacterial blight and anthracnose frequently take the crop an are present almost every year to a greater or less extent. Muc of the seed that goes into the retail seed houses serving th South and East comes from Michigan and New York plantings so that, unless the growers specify that they want Western grown seed, they are liable to get seed infected with not onl9 bacterial blight but anthracnose as well.
4. Note was made of the varietal susceptibility and resist ance of beans to the diseases studied and, while none was er tirely free in all sections visited, there was a range of suscel tibility that was quite evident.
Among the pole beans, the Brown Kentucky Wonder was tl freest from disease. At Eugene, Oregon, it wns entirely fr' from anthracnose and bacterial blight. Ther n occasion
plant that showed mild mosaic.
The Burpee's Stringless Green Pod was a"
strongest-growing bush variety in each sectioli the Giant Stringless as a close second. The Tennt Pod, much grown in Florida, but a very poorquality b,






Annual Report, 1926


in every case the most subject to all the diseases and a very weak grower.
A letter of information relative to the facts in the bean seed situation was mailed to each of the county agents in bean growing counties of the state and they were urged to use their good Offices to induce seed houses in their respective counties to buy seed in accordance with the facts presented herewith. The bean seed situation presents a parallel case with that of Irish potato seed, so far as the Florida producer is concerned and, in the writer's opinion, should be handled in a similar manner. Some of the best money that the State of Florida could xpend would be to have someone working in Florida in the winter or during the bean-producing season and then work in Lhe Twin Falls and Greeley sections during the months of seed production. As a result of the recent trip to these sections, 'here are a number of lines of work in these places that should )e undertaken immediately to insure the Florida bean grower

I constant supply of high-grade, disease-free seed.






Florida Cooperative Extension


POULTRY WORK
N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman
Interest in poultry production in practically all sections of the state has been at a very high pitch during the year. This has been true with the backyard poultry raiser, the farmer, the commercial poultryman, and the fancier.
This great stimulus in poultry production is due no doubt to the demand for poultry products-both meat and eggs. From estimates furnished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the State Marketing Commissioner, the production of poultry products is much below the consumption. Prices received during the current year for these products have helped to a great extent in the development of the industry.
The poultry work for the year consisted of the following projects:
1. Standardization of poultry flocks
2. Standardization of poultry products
3. Organization
a. State
b. County Poultry Associations
c. CommunityI
4. Boys' and Girls' poultry clubs
5. Home Egg-Laying Contest 6. Extension poultry schools
'7. Poultry tours of inspection
8. Culling demonstrations
9. Caponizing demonstrations 10. Miscellaneous
Standardhred flocks were increased materially by reason ol the fact that poultry breeders and hatcheries operated at ful' capacity. The beginners in poultry production secured Stan dardbred poultry, in a great many cases with high egg produc tion records. This project was carried out with junior clul members and adult demonstrators. Standardbred poultry wa increased in every county, these birds taking the place of moni grels.
The number and capacity of hatcheries in the state increas( considerably in 1926 over 1925, reaching a total of 350,000-el capacity. The hatcheries have run at full capacity during t' hatching months, and the commercial poultrymen and breede have sold to their. limit. The junior poultry club work has






Annual Report, 1926


creased. All of these agencies would indicate that there have ~been a greater number of Standardbred flocks in 1926 than in 1925.
Standardization of poultry products is one of the projects which, up to the present time, has not been stressed to any great extent, due to the fact that the demand was greatly in excess of production. However, a certain amount of fundamental work was given, so as to have the poultrymen in readiness when the time arrives for greater quality and uniformity, and standardization of grades.
Organization: Poultry associations throughout the state, whether they be state, county, or community, have been valuable agencies through which poultry information could be presented to a larger number of people. These associations have been of great value to the poultry raiser in that they presented timely poultry information and also assisted in marketing poultry products. Field meetings and demonstrations, as 'features, were held in connection with some of these associaUons.
There are 27 poultry associations in the state; five of which vere organized during the current year. In two counties the : ommunity poultry associations were replaced by county poultry associations and one county poultry association ceased to fIunction and was replaced by community poultry associations. "'he associations now organized operate in 26 counties, an inrease of four counties over the previous year. This shows that 8.8 percent of the counties in this state have poultry associalions,
The American Poultry Association of'Florida-a state organi4tion-serves the entire state.
In August, the Florida Baby Chick Association was organized, presenting the hatcheries and poultry raisers who have chicks r sale. The members are located in widely different sections lC the state. This was perhaps one of the greatest achievetents during the year. In effect its motto is, "To promote, )ster, and improve the baby chick industry and the allied ranches of poultry husbandry in Florida." Poultry products were graded by 13 associations, thus makg it possible for the producers to secure better prices for their oducts. More attention will be paid to this phase-of the pouly program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry Club Work with boys and girls continued with the same rules and regulations as the preceding year, with poultry hints to the juniors being issued in the club paper. Poultry breeders throughout the state have been a great help in the development o f this project.
Lectures a n d, d e m o n s t r ations were given at the boys' and girls' club short co ur s es a t Gainesville a n d Tallahassee.
The boys and girls poultry clubs increased' 40 percent, which is a marked advance. Contests were h elId at which the boys and girls exhibited their poult r y . Exhibits were held at the State Fair, South Florida Fair and several county fairs.
Home Egg2
Laying Contest The First Flor' ida Home Egg Laying Contes came to a ver successful clos October 31, 1 The Second Flo, Fig. 9.-Poultry is one of the important club projects ida Home Eg
of both boys and girls. Laying Contes







Annual Report, 1926


started November 1 with a total of 74 contestants. This contest is conducted practically along the same lines as the First, and is so arranged as to take care of backyard flocks, farm flocks, and commercial flocks. There are,30 counties represented in the Second Home Egg-Laying Contest, and the increase in number of contestants for this contest is approximately 100 percent.
Following are results of the First Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest:

TABLE VIII.-EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD PER MONTH IN THE HomE EGGLAYING CONTEST.


Best Backy'd Best Farm Best ComFlock Flock mere'l Flock


4.40 5.93 13.94

17.40 10.36 15.19

24.40 12.28 16.50

22.13 20.87 19.04

26.51 28.75 23.03

28.05 24.35 23.69

23.91 21.73 22.09

17.94 20.74 19.43

23.53 17.99 17.48

21.05 1' .62 16.03

19.26 8.95 12.02

20.54 5.69 11.66


249.12 191.26 210.10


Average


5.95 7.55

10.44 14.34 18.92

18.41 17.37

14.46


N ov. ._ .

D ee . . _Jan . . .

Feb . .

M ar . .

A pr. - . __ ---_ -----M ay .

June -_ ---------------_---


July . . 13.63

'A ug . . 11.22
Sept . . -------- 8.80

Det . . . 7.97


Yearly Total 167.28







Florida Cooperative Extension


TABLE IX.-STATISTICAL REPORT OF FIRST FLORIDA HOME EGO-LAYING CONTEST.

Best Back-I Best Farm Best Comn- Average for yard Flock I Flock I mercial Flock Entire Contest


Aver. No. Birds J 34 149 584 274

Total Eggs .--- 7,445 25,959 125,258 1,098,730
Eggs Per Bird -- 249.12 191.26 210.10 148.67
Total Cash Ex-J
pense. 372.88 325.28 1,891.35 998.69
Total Cash Receipt . 790.56 614.05 4,729.99 1,780.40
Net Return -- . 417.68 288.77 2,838.64 881.71

Net Return Per
Bird . 12.28 1.93 I4.86 3.21
Average Price of
Eggs ------.613 .328 .446 .466
Mortality (n o.
birds) .7 9 5 28
Note:-Net return is the difference between total cash expense and total cash receipt.

Extension Poultry Schools were conducted to present variouF phases of the industry, and to discuss the problems of the pro ducer. They were held when arranged by county agents and, home demonstration Agents. One- or two-day sessions were de voted to the discussion of various poultry subjects. Five ex~ tension poultry schools were held during the year, all of which were very successful.
Poultry Tours of inspection were conducted to illustrate bet-' ter methods of management. Two of these were held during the year.
Culling Demonstrations are of great importance and mudl work has been accomplished through them. These demonstra tions were a means of interesting the producer in better meh ods of management and effected savings for producers. Cull~ ing poultry continued to be a very important part of the extend sion program. It was in connection with these demonstration., that better feeding practices and disease and parasite preven. tion were illustrated.







Annual Report, 1926


Caponizing Demonstrations were conducted, but were not stressed due to the good broiler prices. Those conducted have proven profitable. There were 15 such demonstrations given.
Miscellaneous: Under this heading comes work such as that with commercial poultry farms, hatcheries, breeders, and fairs. Assistance was given in each instance to improve the quality of poultry. The above factors have been very important in the development of the poultry industry.


ig. 10.-Poultry club members and the county agent discuss poultry problems on the ground.

Meetings arranged by county and home demonstration agents 4vere held in various counties and communities. Timely poul'ry information was given.
Monthly circular poultry hints were distributed to the poulry raisers. Articles were written for the Agricultural News ervice and farm papers.
Interesting poultry programs were given at Farmers' Week, !5' periods being devoted to poultry. Assistance was obtained






Florida Cooperative Extension


from the College of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, county agents, and leading poultrymen.
No doubt the greatest poultry feat this year in this. state was the establishment of the Florida National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley, Florida. This contest was fostered and the plant erected by the Chipley Chamber of Commerce. Its entire management, including rules and regulations, reports, etc., are under the direction of the Extension Poultry Division. The contest was started November 1, 1926. Due to the fact that the contest was organized.at a late date, there are only 50 pens entered. The contest plant will accommodate 100 pens. It is wonderfully located, properly equipped and constructed and is one of the finest contest plants in the country. E. F. Stanton has been secured to supervise it.
Assistance was given to the commercial poultrymen relative to management, plans, feeding, and disease.
A number of fairs were visited to become acquainted with the breeders and also to assist with the boys' and girls' poultry club exhibits.






Annual Report, 1926


HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent
RuBY McDAVlD, District Agent
MARY E. KEOWN, District Agent
ELOISE McGRIFF, Acting District Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (on leave)
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent .
MARY A. STENNIS, Dairy and Nutrition Agent
The home demonstration organization consists of 35 county home demonstration agents-working .in 31 counties, a state agent, assistant state-agent, three districtagents, a dairy and nutrition agent, a foods and marketing : agent, and a poultry specialist who ,works with county agriculturaland home demonstration agents.
,An important change in our plan of organizationdiuring 1926 was the creating of a new district, giving three districts with three district agents. This change was not made until October and has been of greatest help so far in ,developing stronger plans of work for 1927.

SUPERVISORY PROGRAM

1. Objectives and Development: The main objectives of the state home demonstration staff for 1926 ,were developing and strengthening home demonstration work through better balanced county, club, and individual programs. of work, preparing and revising subject matter material for the agents' use; organization of county councils to assist the agents in development of the work as planned according to county needs.
During the year literature was prepared for the agents' use n poultry, food preparation, nutrition and health, installation ,f water and sewerage systems in rural homes, first, second, hird and fourth year sewing, and record books for nutrition and tome improvement work.
As a result of the attention given to the importance of couny councils, 80 percent of the counties have girls' home demontration councils functioning and 58 percent have active senior ,ome demonstration councils.
2. Equipment: Agents are furnished card filing cases and irge looseleaf books containing record sheets, outlines for all hases of the work, programs of work and special instructions






Florida Cooperative Extension


from the United States Department of Agriculture and the State office. Office and office equipment is furnished by some county organization, usually by the board of county commissioners. Nine counties provide stenographic assistance, 16 agents have typewriters provided, 15 have telephones, 11 have well equipped demonstration kitchens, 10 are furnished with cars from county funds, and 2 counties provide motion picture machines.
3. Filling Vacan cies: In filling county vacancies and new positions, preference is given to the college graduate-who has had at least two years' teaching experience, or similar or better qualifications. Sometimes poor salaries or local conditions cause the appointment of women with less training and experience whose personality, knowledge and practical experience with local conditions show good possibilities of them growing into successful home demonstration agents. Unexperienced
agents, before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged, with experienced agents and in the state office familiarizing themselves with requirements, plans of work, and available literature. They are given special duties during State Short Courses for Club Girls and Farmers' Week, and are given special attention during district and state conferences.
4. Agents Meetings: During 1926 two district conferences were held in the early part of January-to make plans for the year. At these meetings each agent submitted a program of work showing goals set. These programs were discussed andl shaped into an agreeable working plan in which specialists and county and home demonstration agents could fully cooperate. An attempt was made to standardize "The Florida Gift Package," by each agent preparing products and completing package under direction of the foods and marketing agent.
A state conference was held in October, at which plans wer discussed for completing the year'swork and for the develop ment of the 1927 work.

AGENTS' GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked
out . --------------------------- 52,
Voluntary county, community and local leaders actively engaged in
forwarding the extension program ------------- . . 63:







Annual Report, 1926


Clubs carrying -on extension workJunior . 586
A dult . . 227
Club members completing year's yearGirls _ . 5,862
W om en . . . 3,402
Girls judging or demonstration teams trained . . 90
Club girls entering college . . . ' 77
Farm visits m ade . 1,864
D ifferent farm s visited . 1,168
H om e visits m ade . . . 8,239
D ifferent hom es visited . 3,933
Office calls relating to extension w ork. . 20,755
Telephone calls relating to extension w ork . 11,073
A verage num ber of days spent in office . . 72
A verage num ber of days spent in field . . 208.5
Official letters w ritten . . 57,246
Exhibits at fairsCom m unity . ---------------- . __ . 42
County . 23
State . : . 2


Number
Training meetings for local leaders . . 122


,Method and result demonstration meetings held,. . 1,191 Institutes held . . __ . 17 Extension schools and short courses held . . 23 Junior club encampments held . 24

PROGRAM SUMMARY


Attendance
1,611
122,382 2,889 1,357 1,586


Communities Days Agents
Participating Devoted to
'Horticulture-home gardens, beautification of Project
home grounds . . 406 780 H om e dairy . - . 1 72 93 om e poultry . _ ------------------------------------- . 317 559%
ural engineering-home . 127 159
ome marketing . . 110 1381/2 oods -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 426 970Y2
nutrition . 409 673 ,lothing ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 511 1,256
lome management . 121 1211/2 iouse furnishings . 376 400 ,fome health and sanitation . 344 .360 community activities . . . 199 243 Z scellaneous ------------------------------------------------------------ 108 501%

PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS

Progress in home demonstration work this year has been
ased on the development of the productive phases of the work. s a result, goals set by home demonstration agents and results accomplishedd in fundamental home demonstration activities how a decided increase over last year. Clubs for women inluded more poultry and garden work in their programsand, Though varied conditions made varied programs necessary,






Florida Cooperative Exvtens ion


every bona fide club girl has conducted a living, growing demonstration. In connection with it she received assistance in food preparation and preservation, nutrition, development of health and sanitation, clothing, and interior and exterior home improvement.
The following paragraphs will give an idea of the purposes of and accomplishments through the projects that have received the major portion of the agents' attention: IHome Gardens: In addition to work as foods and marketing agent, Miss Isabelle Thursby has actea as leader for the home gardening project. Vegetable gardening was stressed with the























Fig. 11.-Every club girl is required to have a "living, growing" demoi
stration, such as a garden, a calf, or poultry. This one chose garde,
and has seven varieties of vegetables.
aim in view, first of all, of having a supply of vegetables fol use in the diet the year round and, second, to increase the faj ily income by marketing the surplus. Goals set in the begi fling of the year for developing this phase of the work we~ surpassed. Twenty-eight counties report improved practic~ according to methods used by agents in home gardening woll, as follows:







Amiual Report, 19,26


931

879 186
4,240 21', 4', 3 5 3


Individuals adopting improved practices in growing fruit trees ---------Individuals adopting improved practices in growing bush and small
fru it . ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------Individuals adopting improved practices in growing grapes ---- ------Individuals adopting improved practices in growing vegetables ---------Individuals saving improved stock or seed ----------- -------- --------------------_-Homes adopting improved practices in home gardening--. .


Home Poultry: The Extension Poultryman has aided home demonstration agents in giving timely assistance to the 2,483 homes in 27 counties reported as having adopted improved practices in home poultry work. This means that the women and girls representing these homes are learning how to select eggs for hatching; incubation; to care for baby chicks and entire


ig. 12-This club girl is leg-banding her chicks so she can keep records on them.

lock through the right kind of f feeding and housing; how to
-' cull for egg production; selection of birds for breeding pens; control of insects and marketing of poultry products. Of the homes mentioned above, 1,476 were directly assisted in increasIng the family income this year through poultry marketing.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Agents report that people of their counties have found that it pays to have good stock, cull, have good houses and proper feed to get good results. A number of flocks have been entered in the national and home egg-laying contests.
Home Dairying: Miss Mary A. Stennis, the Nutrition and Dairy Agent, has assisted in holding special dairy meetings where method demonstrations and illustrated talks were given to increase the quantity of milk produced on the farm, to improve the quality of all dairy products, and to create an interest in a greater use of dairy products. Eighteen counties report 640 homes as having this year adopted improved practices according to home demonstration agents' methods in home dairy work. One county reports eight new dairies, anothersix, and another that 15 families are keeping a home cow for the first time.
The Pasco County home demonstration agent says that following a campaign put on four years ago the production of milk was at times more than the housewife could handle; while at other times she did not have enough to use. There is now a milk depot that will take all surplus, and the club members have put in two or more cows, so as to have a milk supply the, year 'round. The amount of milk reported by club members representing 165 homes is given at 36,724 gallons, which, at 40 cents a gallon, would amount to $14,889.60.
Members also report 6,885 pounds of butter made, which, ai 50 cents a pound, is valued at $3,442.50. The value of butter sold was $1,425.85, leaving $2,016-65 worth used in the homes, which is a 70 percent increase over 1925 in consumption of dairy products in the home.
Nutrition: Nutrition work under the leadership of the Dairy and Nutrition Agent was conducted in a way that linked the gardening, dairying and poultry work with the family table. As a result, not only have better m I als been prepared and better food practices been adopted in the 4,908 homes reporting, bu school lunches have been improved.
Energy has been directed toward improvement of condition: under which children eat their school lunches, as well as im improvement of the lunch itself. Three-fourths of the counties have reported definite results. The statistical report show., 71 schools serving a hot dish for the first time, more than 2,00( girls and women preparing better school lunches.






Annual Report, 1926


In Lake County the club girls have helped to prepare and serve hot school lunch dishes. The Hillsborough County home agent has supervised the women's home demostration clubs in making possible school lunch equipment and management. Lee County has cooperated with the home economics teachers in effecting better lunches and comfortable quarters for all children to eat their lunches-the lunches they bring from home as well as the ones purchased at school. Leon County has worked out a plan of making vegetable soup at home and heating it in jars at school. This plan is used in one- and two-teacher schools. It places the responsibility upon the mother as well as upon the school.
Material in the form of recipes for 50 and 100 people has 'been supplied to larger schools; nutritional leaflets relating to children's school lunches have been given agents and teachers; lemonstrations, menus, recipes, for the individual lunch pre)ared at home, have been given.
Three counties which had begun county-wide programs for inderweight school children were assisted in completing the vork. Polk, Citrus, and Suwannee counties completed this york and Duval partially completed it. Agents were supplied vith nutrition programs. Teachers, principals, elder club girls ind women's clubs were used in carrying out these demonstraions.
In Suwannee County this program has been carried out in thorough way with the result that 327 underweight children vere brought up to normal; 932 children kept accurate food and health records; 18 schools were reached and given nutrition intruction; of the 374 club girls in the county, 136 were underTeight in April and only 59 in October. In Suwannee County, stressing the value of fruit in the diet )r each day in the year resulted in the setting out of satsumas, ranges, figs, peaches, pears, plums, berries, and grapes. A lant exchange in the clubs helped. Partly as a result of the utrition program, all except six of 429 club members (girls nd women) have gardens with at least one variety of green egetables. Through the nutrition work on milk, 59 women ad girls have started dairy records, 11 club members have clopted a calf club program. Teaching the people food for ealth has resulted in increased production.







Florida Cooperative Exvtension


In Citrus County, where 790 children formed the demonstration, the nutrition work increased interest in gardening and conservation work among adults.
Gradual effort has been made during the year to interest the


Fig. 13.-Nutrition programs increase interest in gardening. These club
girls are taking beans directly "from field to can"

agents in a nutrition program which has for its purpose th~ building up of the girl club members first. The plan is then t~ have the "up to average" club members, the teacher who interested and cooperative, and the women's home demonstra1 tion club of the community work together in making a demon1 stration in bringing a group of 10, 20, or 30 underweight chili dren up to normal. This plan is being used for the followin~ reasons:
1. The county-wide program is too burdensome an undertak ing for a home demonstration agent alone.
2. Girls who have learned to bring themselves up to norm are the most suitable leaders in bringing other children to th right food and health habits.
3. One teacher in a school can nearly always be found wh will make a capable local leader in this program.
4. Club girls need to do some community service and this






Annual Report, 1926


together with lunch room improvement, has been chosen as that service.
Programs for underweight club girls have also been stressed. All clubs in eight counties and some clubs in every county have given special attention to this problem, using production and utilization of fruits, vegetables, milk, and eggs as a basis.
In Dade County, the home demonstration agent made a splendid demonstration using the summer camp for girls with an enrollment of 172 girls as a beginning. The diet was made up of club products largely. Forty-five girls who were underweight made an average gain of 3.2 pounds the week of the camp. Follow-up plans carried the good work through the year.
Of the 1,600 enrollment at short courses and camps for girls in 1926, 1,500 were served milk every day and practically 1,500 drank it. Less than 20 failed in this. Of the 1,500, 1,000 drank a quart a day, and 500 drank a pint daily. Not in every camp could weights be checked but gains were evident. Fully onethird of the 1,600 were not accustomed to drink milk at home.
(The special counties mentioned are used as illustrations of the work accomplished in a number of counties. Eighteen counties held camps at which better nutrition was stressed.)
Nutrition Programs for Women, a series of eight, to be used in connection with food and nutrition programs for girls, have been prepared. The women's work has also been based on productive work and has had for its goal not only better food preparation. but better selection and utilization with a view to better nutrition and health. In regular club meetings, in the community, gatherings, in short course, camps, Farmers' Week at the University, demonstrations have been given to agents, specialists, women and girls. Food selection and meal planning as well as food preparation have been worked out in the program and as a climax a rather interesting contest was planned from the state office. This contest was in menu planning and in working out recipes and was open to all counties who would enter as many as 10 women. All menus and recipes entered were returned by the specialist, with criticisms and suggestions. As a special community service, the women have served as leaders in nutrition for girls, have assisted in health contests and have improved school lunches.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Foods: Food work includes food preparation and preservation and forms a part of the dairy, garden, poultry and nutrition programs. Miss Isabelle Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent, and Miss Mary Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent, assist the agents in development of this project. Through work with foods, women and girls are learning how to use farm products to the best advantage for the health, happiness and well-being of the family. Records show that 2,002 women and 2,804 girls completed food preparation demonstrations as outlined for the


Fig. 14.-Adult club members learn a great deal about food preparation and balanced diets.

year and that 4,561 homes have adopted improved practices in food preparation. Special attention was given to the value and preparation of vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products.
Also, 3,932 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices this year in food preservation. This phase of the food work has been stressed so as to preserve food for home use, thus protecting health, reducing cost of transporting food from a distance, encouraging the live-at-home idea; insuring a varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products into marketable shape.







Annual Report, 1926


SUMMARY OF FOODS WORK
Individuals adopting improved practices in bread making . . 1,663 Individuals adopting improved practices in meat cookery . ----------- 1,512
Individuals adopting practices in vegetable cookery . --------- 4,696 Individuals adopting improved practices in preparation of dairy
product dishes ----------------------------- . _ -------------------------------------------------- 1,202
Individuals, adopting improved practices in meal preparation and
service _ ------------------------------ ------- ----------------- -------_---- _ ------------------------------ 4,058
Homes budgeting the family food supply ----------------------------------------------- 273
Number homes providing better food storage for first time -------------- 281
Food preserved for home use:
Quarts fruits and vegetables canned ------------------------------------------------------ 298,165
Quarts m eats and fish canned-.-. ------------------------------------------------- - . 26,277
Quarts jelly and preserves made -------------------------------------------------------------- 95,965
Quarts fruit juices m ade -----------_-- . . 13,672
Q uarts pickles m ade . _ 30,071. Pounds fruits and vegetables dried . ----------------- _---------------- . . 3,699
Pounds m eat cured ---------- --------------------------------------------------- ------------------------ 67,415

Clothing: The clothing program is designed to fill a need
felt by all women and girls who must do their own sewing. It covers selection and construction, remodeling and renovation, millinery, costume designing and wardrobe planning. A total of 6,074 homes in 30 counties are reported as having adopted improved practices relative to the clothing work.

SUMMARY OF CLOTHING WORK
Individuals adopting improved practices in renovation and remodeling . -------------------------------------- 5,089
Individuals adopting improved practices in millinery . . 1,439 Individuals adopting improved practices in costume designing . 1,624 Individuals adopting improved practices in infant wardrobe planning . . - -_-_-_ -_ ------_ -------- . 1,959
Individuals adopting improved practices in adult wardrobe planning 1,251 Dresses and coats m ade . * ----------- . ----------- . 29,792
Undergarments made - ------------------- --------_------- -------_-_------ : -------_-_------ 22,375
H ats m ade . --------------------------- . - . 2,072

Home Impro.vement: - The outstanding home improvement work during the year has resulted from home improvement contests under the leadership of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Assistant
State Home Demonstration Agent.
A total of 1,509 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices in home management. This means that women and girls are learning to plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor-saving equipment; to arrange furniture and house plans for convenience; to use improved laundry practices; to keep accounts and make budgets.
Reports show that some of the labor-saving appliances that have been added to the homes mentioned above are as follows:







80 Florida Cooperatire Exte)isiov

Electric or gasoline irons __ -------_----------- ------ ---- ---- - ---- --------- -------- 173
D ilv ers ------_ ------------ --------- ------------------ - ____ --------- - ------ -------------- 52
L ig h ts -------------- --------- --------- ----- ------ - ------- ---- --- -- ------ -------------------- 2 7,
W oodb ox es . --------- --- - ------------ -- ------------- -- ---------------- - ------ ---- 17
E lectric sew ing m achine --------- --- ----- ---- ------ ----------- - ------------- ---- _ _ . 22
S h elves (k itch en ) - ------------- ------- ------- ------ -- ----- ---- ------- - ----- --- --- . . 22
T ables covered w ith zinc ----------- ------------------------------------ ------------- ---- 15
P ressure cook ers --------------------------------- ------------------ - - ----------------------- . 84
Ju ice ex tractors ------------------- - ------------------ ------------------- ---------------------_ ---- - 36
E lectric refrigerators ------------------------------------------------- --------------------- - - - - -------- 17
Electric fans, pumps, gas stoves, study tables, fly traps, can sealers, wringers, built-in ironing boards, tea wagons, heating outfits, brushes, iceless refrigerators, and electric stoves have also been added in smaller numbers.
Reports show that 3,453 homes adopted improved practices
in house furnishings. This includes work in selection, arrangement, repairing and remodeling of furnishings; also work in wall, woodwork and floor treatment.

Number of rooms improved:
B edroom s -------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- 1,688
L iving room s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 600
D ining room s -------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------_ _ - --------- _ 667
O th er room s ------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------- - ---- 575


Fig. 15.-A cheery rural sitting room which has been made by improving an old room.






Annual Report, 1926


Twenty-three counties report 3,015 homes as' having adopted some of the improved practices in home sanitation-378 sanitary closets were installed; 401 homes screened and 575 homes adopted improved practices in controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects, all for the first time.
Considerably more has been done this year toward the installation of lights and water systems in rural homes and more farm homes have been remodeled than home demonstration records show for any previous year.
Nineteen counties report homes as adopting improved practices in rural engineering as follows: Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished ---------------------------------- 43
Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished ------------------------------------ 127
Sewage disposal systems,, installed according to plans furnished . 68 Water systems installed according to plans furnished . _ . 71 Heating systems installed according to plans furnished . 20 Lighting systems installed according to plans furnished --------------_-------- 73
Poultry houses constructed, according to plans furnished . I . 166 Homes adopting improved practices in rural engineering ------- : . 487
Miss Motelle Madole, home demonstration agent in eastern Hillsborough County, says that 50 percent of her senior -club members have electricity in their homes. At "Better Homes Week" last March the ladies were accompanied by their husbands on an inspection tour, with a view to getting a more modern and convenient home arrangement in lights, water and electrical equipment. One club member's husband is the COM7 unity electrician, and it is through him that many labor-sav ing devices have been introduced to his community.
Beautification of Home Grounds: In beautification of home grounds, emphasis has been given to the use of native shrubbery. Plans and suggestions for planting home and school grounds furnished by College of Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to the agents in this connection. Twenty counties report 810 home grounds planted during the year, according to landscape plans.
Progress in beautification of home grounds in Volusia County is portrayed in the following quotation from Miss Orpha
Cole's report:
"The work of the past two years on beautification of home grounds is showing all over the county, although there is yet so much to do. Open lawns are more appreciated than ever be-






Florida Cooperative Extension


fore and there is a very great tendency away from the lawn whose space is all broken up with shrubbery here and there. Foundation and border plantings are much more used now. An effort is made to have continuous bloom throughout the year. Ten thousand gladioluses, 5,000 narcissi, 3,000 Easter lilies, 2,000 amaryllis and 200 tulips are reported, besides vines, pansies galore, calendula, petunias, snapdragons, etc."
Home Marketing: There is a growing interest in the standardization and marketing of home products. County councils are including considerably more along this line in their 1927 programs of work. Escambia, Dade and Pasco county councils


Fig. 16.-Adult club members making the "Florida gift package."

have recently opened markets for club products. Markets in Volusia and Lee counties continue to grow. Miss Sallie Lindsey, home demonstration agent in Lee County, makes the following statement:
"Home marketing has made decided progress the past year. A number of home demonstration women have made use of the curb market to sell their products for several years. During the past year 10 new members were added. One woman has






Annual Report 1926


standardized guava paste and guava jelly, and is now supplying the local hotels with a high class product. She has designed an attractive box for her paste, and puts it up in pound and quarter packages. Her profit from sales of guava products off of trees in her own yard was $550 this year. She is now standardizing roselle products and is supplying two tourist hotels with roselle sauce.
"Two Women have standardized candied citrus peels of all kinds, and are finding a sale for all they can prepare. They put their products in uniform containers and guarantee all packitges to be alike. One of these women made $700 on such sales this year. Another woman has succeeded in marketing successfully the Florida Gift Package.
"Three club women and one club girl have standardized hooked rugs, and are marketing them successfully. Mabel Will iams of Alva, a second-year club girl, has completed two rugs which have been sold for $15 each, and has orders for two more."
Community Activities: Some idea of the various community activities undertaken through home demonstration -work may be had from the following extracts taken from home demonstration agents' reports:
Lee County: "The Alva Home Demonstration Club took for its community project the redecoration and refurnishing of the Methodist parsonage. When the project was selected, a worse looking house could not have been chosen. There were very few windows in the house, and they were in the wrong place. It had been papered many times with dark red and green paper and that was partly off and hanging down.
"A definite plan of work was then made, and costs worked out as accurately as possible. The finance committee raised $200 and the Conference gave $300.
"The workers were divided into groups and a chairman of each group' was appointed. One group refinished floors, one made cur ' tains, one-worked over the old furniture, and one made seat covers and pillows.
"The result of the work was a transformation for the house, and renewed interest in improving their own homes on the part of the women. Ten women have refinished their floors, 12 have made fire screens and trash baskets, 11 have refinished old fur-






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 17-The motion picture show is used by county and home demonstration agents to help with community entertainment and instruction programs.

nature, 15 have made definite improvements in their kitchens, and 8 have made new draperies for their living rooms as a result of the demonstration on the old parsonage. The above figures represent only one community."
Volusia County: "DeLand club has already started work on raising funds for a permanent home for their market. They have arranged a series of suppers and social evenings together to promote friendliness among rural people around DeLand. Glenwood has started funds for a community house and placed signs at the entrances to their city. All clubs have cooperated in making the county flower show a success. All clubs also cooperated with other organizations in sending relief to sufferers in the hurricane district."
Taylor County: "Spring Warrior, which is the largest rural and farm community, has an active organization known as the Spring Warrior Community Council. Farmers, housewives, club boys and girls are members. The county and home demonstration agents are advisers and ex-officio members. This organization meets once each month for a business hour, pertaining to







Annual Report, 1926


the different problems of the community, and then a social hour is enjoyed."
Miscellaneous: 279 women and girls in four counties completed definite work in rag rug making. Three of these counties report attractive marketing of the home-made rugs.
A total of 1,313 women and girls are reported as having learned the art of turning such native materials as pine needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other attractive articles.

STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION
In addition to the agents' meetings and county and state councils referred to elsewhere in this report, home demonstration work has been strengthened through the development of the following activities:
1. Demonstration Teams: In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and to encourage club members in giving public demonstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving public demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members, and abil-


Fig. 18.-A Florida home demonstration club canning team.







Florida Cooperative Extension


ity to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 63 such teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work. There were 27 judging teams that functioned at fairs and contests during the year. . 2. Contests and Rallies: Through contest days when club exhibits were on display, demonstrations and programs given by club members, the work was improved, because (1) of opportunity for county workers and supervisors to determine the county-wide response, (2) the opportunity of getting the work before the public, and (3) the prevailing community and county club spirit. The getting together and club reports given at the county rallies inspire club members to make a success of their undertakings not only for themselves but for their communities and counties.
3. Camps: Home demonstration agents conducted 24 camps during the spring and summer months. Five of these were for women, five for boys and girls, while the others were for club girls and local leaders. Club members were required to complete club work up-to-date in a way satisfactory to the agent before permission was given to attend camp. In some instances the girls and boys were required to earn the money for camp expenses.
These camps were excellent for recreation, leadership development, and in making it possible to give special demonstrations and instruction which could not have been presented otherwise.
4. Awards for State Prize Winners: The State Federatiofi of Women's Clubs gave $100, divided into two $50 prizes, one going to the girl making the best garden record for the year and the other to the girl making the best poultry record. It was requested that this money be used for educational purposes.
Five outstanding home demonstration club girls in the state were given trips to Chicago to attend the International Club Congress for Boys and Girls. These trips were financed by the South Florida Fair Association, Florida East Coast Railway, Seaboard Air Line Railway, Marion County Chamber of Com , merce, and Montgomery Ward and Company.
5. Scholarships: Interest in extension work in home economics led the following counties to make appropriations for full scholarships for training in home economics at the Florida







Annual Report, 1926


State College for Women: Hillsborough, two-,'Dade, three; Palm Beach, one; and Orange, one.
The College for Women gave dining room scholarships to seven club girls this year, and the business manager was instrumental in securing two loan scholarships for other deserving club girls who impressed him with their ability during the State Short Course for Club Girls. One of the senators, likewise impressed with the work of the girls during the State Short Course, granted a scholarship.
6. State Short Course: The State Short Course for Club Girls, held annually at the Florida State College for Women, is the outstanding event in the club year and proves to be' an invaluable stimulus in securing the best type of work, as the short course is attended only by girls who have done outstanding work in their counties. Short Course scholarships are provided by club members themselves, county commissioners, school boards, civic clubs, women's clubs, banks, merchants and individuals interested in the work.
The Short Course consists of instruction, demonstrations, and contests in the various phases of home demonstration work. Ample time is given to entertainment and recreation.
Girls who attend the Short Courses realize a desire to go to college. Many of them, as a result, find a way to become StU7 dents and graduates of the Florida State College for Women. They develop into the beft kind of leaders.
7. Farmers' Week: Just as the State Short Course for Club Girls was an important event in the year for club girls, so was Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week for the women. It gave them an opportunity to spend a week at the University of Florida, availing themselves of the recreation and instruction provided by the agricultural and home economics workers.
8. Cooperation With Other Organizations: The home demonstration organization has received and given much valuable assistance in cooperating with many other organizations. The press extends splendid publicity to home demonstration work throughout the state. County and city officials, chambers of commerce, business men's organizations, county and state fair associations, the health and educational departments, county and state federations of women's clubs, and business and professional women's clubs have all proven good friends to the work by giving financial and personal aid and moral support for its development.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARMERS'WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS

Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was conducted on the University campus during August. While this was one of the agricultural extension activities, all branches of the College of Agriculture, including the teaching division, the Florida Experiment Station and the University of Florida in general, contributed in making this successful. Also the State Plant Board contributed in every possible way to the success in carrying out the program. The programs were divided into sections where special, general and entertainment programs were provided each day. A special section was made for the home demonstration program, under the supervision of the home demonstration extension staff.
The dormitories and dining hall facilities were made available


Fig. 19-This farmer inter-plants potatoes with corn, and gets two crops.






Annual Report, 1926 89

to visitors at actual cost. The auditorium, class-rooms and laboratories of the entire University were utilized in conducting the program. The attendance for 1926 was the largest on record, and numbered 1,248, representing 60 counties.
Citrus schools and field meetings were conducted under the direct supervision of the district agents and specialists in counties where the meetings were arranged by the county agents. These schools were intended to give practical instruction to farmers and growers and acquaint them with the results of experimental work by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FARM AND HOME MAKERS'CLUBS (NEGRO WORK)
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
Farm and home makers' club work in Florida was carried on this year in the following counties: Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Levy, Sumter, Orange, Putnam, St. Johns, Gadsden, Duval, and Hillsboro'ugh. The last three counties dropped out at the close of the past fiscal year, June 30, 1926. Reports for the agents of those counties will include only demonstrations carried to date. There were 16 local agents, eight men and eight women, whose terms were 9 to 10 months, depending on local conditions.
The work undertaken and carried on under supervision of agents, had principally to do with farm and home improvement. However, a definite effort was made to assist farmers to obtain better prices for their surplus products through cooperative marketing. Satisfactory results were obtained in the marketing of truck and garden crops in Sumter, Marion, Alachua, St. Johns, and Suwannee counties.

COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS

The Negro farmers of Florida have 12 local farmers' cooperative associations organized around central shipping points and chartered under the Florida State Legislative Act of 1923; all of which are headed by farmers who stand out as examples of good business men and leading farmers of their respective communities. These farmers have, through their local agents, worked out practical methods of cooperative marketing and cooperative purchasing, and despite low prices, have obtained very satisfactory returns from their vegetable crops.

STAPLE CROPS

Farmers in the staple crop counties received low prices for cotton and peanuts, and many have become discouraged with the results. A system for the cooperative marketing of certain staple crops will be tried out next fall with hogs, poultry, eggs, potatoes, and syrup. Vegetables adapted to North and West Florida counties will be grown on a small scale as a cash crop and home supply.






Annual Report, 1926


LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY

Negro farmers marketed their corn and peanuts through hogs this year to a good advantage; this gave them a market at home for the surplus crops thus fed.
Members of Farm and Home Makers' Clubs are paying more attention to poultry raising. Jackson County led the others in poultry production, increasing their production by 5,000 birds of the standard breeds. This increase was largely through the work of the local agent.
DAIRYING

The amount of dairy work done was about the same as last year. The value of milk for the young chicks and pigs is offering inducements for a greater milk production in communities where there are no ready markets for dairy products. This promises to induce farmers who have not been interested in cows before to keep cows.

MEETINGS

Aside from the several group meetings held in counties for training local leaders, two state meetings were held this year as follows:
1. The state meeting of farmers under auspices of the Florida Farmers' Cooperative Association met at Jacksonville on November 26. Staple and truck farmers from nine counties met and, with the aid of local agents, made their plans for 1927 including: crops to raise, acreage involved, credits'and methods of marketing.
2. The annual Local Agents' Conference met at the Florida A. & M. College on December 9 and 10, in connection with the Farmers' Conference which convened on December 8, 1926. Specialists from the State Agricultural College and the Florida State College for Women were present and took charge of the lectures and general instruction. The instructors at the Florida A. & M. College rendered valuable aid during the Agents' Conference.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS

The exhibits of our work at the South Florida Fair at Tampa and the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville enabled us to present







92 Florida Cooperative Extension

samples of club work done under supervision of agents to the
public for inspection. In each case much appreciation was expressed by visitors, the Fair management, and the press. Some county fairs maintain - Negro departments which give local
agents an opportunity to exhibit club Work.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1925-November 30, 1926
GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 80
Voluntary county, community and local leaders . . Clubs carrying on extension work . . -- . 106
M em berships . - . 1,267 Farm visits made by local agents - . 3,079 Different farms visited ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 852
Home visits made by local agents . 1,602 Different hom es visited ----------------- --------------------------------------------------------------- 657
Office calls on agents relating to extension work . 1,933 Average number of days spent in office . . 56
Average number of days spent in field . I . 166 Official letters w ritten ---------------- . . 1,394
E xhibits at fairs . . 9
C ounty . . -- . 7 State ---------------------------------- - . ; . -- . 2
Number Attendance
Farmers' meetings held ------------ . :- . 136 3,948
Total attendances club members, junior encampments and rallies --------- 350

PROGRAM SUMMARY
Of Outlined Projects by Local Agents
Number Days Agents
Communities Devoted to
Participating Projects
Soils . ------------- . -------- . 18 174
Farm Crops ---------------------------------- . -- . 10 82
Dairy H usbandry . 10 -----Poultry Husbandry . - . . . 4 40
T otal . ------ . 42 296

CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS
(Corn, Oats, etc.)
Acreage grown under demonstration methods . . . 6,664
Boys' and girls' clubs . . 27 Acreage grown by club members . . 156 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) . . 1,750 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . 28 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed -------------------------------------- 337
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Acreage grown under improved methods . 390 Farms influenced to adopt better practice . 34 Boys' and girls' clubs --------------------- . . 10
M em bers enrolled . ----------- . 47
Acreage grown by club members . . 30







Annual Report, 1926 93

Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) . . 1,200 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed . 32 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases . 26

LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.)
Number method demonstrations given . . -- . 174 Number result demonstrations under way . . 165 Number result demonstrations completed . . --------- 164
Acres in completed demonstrations . ------------------------------------------------------ 2,381

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE DEMONSTRATIONS
M ethod dem onstrations . . -------- . . ------------ 92
Result dem onstrations . . -------- - - . 3
Acreage grown under improved methods ---. . ------------------------- - . 199
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . . - . 61 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed --------- . ------- 37

LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
D em onstrators . --------------------------------- 55
Animals in completed demonstrations - . . 8,199 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock . 11
Farmers culling breeding stock --------------------------------------------------------------- -- 202
Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests ---------------------------------- 25
1 RURAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL OF CROP PESTS

Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled . 4
Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled . 56 Farm ers who cleared land . 2 A cres cleared . r . 4 Number of farms adopting above practices for the first time ------------ - 8
Demonstrations to control crop pests . . 10 Farmers adopting control measures . . . 10 A cres involved . . 200
DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS
D em onstrations . . 10 Farmers adopting control measures . : ------ 10 A cres involved . --------------- ------------- . . . . 200
SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD
Value Profit
Truck crops, pork and eggs . $17,775 $ 5,332 Peanuts and poultry . 6,000 1,210 Cucum bers . 9,129 3,818
Total . $32,904 $10,360









INDEX


Activities of county. agents, 12
home agents, 70 Agents, list of, -5 Agricultural economics, 23, 29 Animal husbandry, 21, 27, 39, 47 Aphid, citrus, 53

Barrow clubs, 36 Bean seed inspection trip, 59
work, 58
Beautification, 26, 81 Beef cattle, 21 Blacklock, R. W., report of, 30 Blue mold decay, 50 Board of Control and Staff,4 Boll weevil, 58 Boys' club work, 30 Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 47 Bulletins published, list of, 11

Calf clubs, 34, 48 Camps, club, 37, 86 Central Florida district, 16 'Cereal demonstrations, summary, 13 Citrus clubs, 34
pathology-entomology, 50
work of agents, 18
Clayton, H. G., report of, 12, 16 Clothing work, 79 Club work, boys', 30 Commissioner of Agriculture, cooperating, 9
Community activities, 83 Contests, 86 Cooper, J. Francis, report of, 11 Cooperating agencies, 8, 87 Corn, 25
clubs, 32
Cotton boll weevil, 58
clubs, 31
demonstrations, summary, 13
work, 25
Counties, coperation of, 8, 9 County agent activities, 12 Cucurbit disease control, 54

Dairy cattle demonstrations, summary, 14
husbandry, 27


Dairying, 22,:47 home, 74
Dairyman, report of, 47 DeBusk,, E. F., report of, 50 Demonstration teams, 85 Director, report of, 7 District agents' reports, South.F!lorida, 16
West Florida, 24

Economics, 23, 29 Editor, report of, 11 Egg-laying contest, home, 64
national, 28, 68
Engineering, rural, 15, 29 Ensign, M. R., report of, 54 Entomology, 50, 54 Extension schools, 88

Fairs, cooperation with, 8
work with, 24, 29
Farm and home makers' clubs, 90 Farm crops work, 18, 25 Farm management, 15 Farmers' Week, 88 Ferns, two-spotted mite on, 58 Financial statement, 7 Fiscal year, 8 Florida A. & M. College, cooperating, 9
Foods work, 78 Forage crop demonstrations, summary, 13
Fruits, 26

Gardens, 72 General activities, county agents,
summary, 12
Gleason, Flavia, report of, 69

Handbook on truck diseases, 58 Hog demonstrations, summary, 14 Home demonstration work, 69 Home egg-laying contest, 64 Home improvement, 79 Horticultural demonstrations, summary, 14
Horticulture, 18, 26





Annual Report, 1926


Irish potato demonstrations, 56
summary, 14

Keown, Mary E., report of, 69

Legume demonstrations, summary,
13
Live Stock Sanitary Board, cooperating, 9

McDavid, Ruby, report 'of, 69 McGriff, Eloise, report of, 69 Marketing, home, 82 Mebrbof, N. R., report of, 62 Melanose, 50 Mildew, cucumber, 54 Moore, V. P., report of, 69 Mosaic of sugar cane, 57

National Egg-Laying Contest, 28 Negro work, 90 North Florida district, 24 Nutrition, 74


Rural engineering, 15, 23 Rust mite, 52

Scab, citrus, 50 Scale, citrus, 53 Scholarships, 86 Schools, extension, 88 Scott, John M., report of, 39 Seedbed disinfection, 57 Settle, Lucy B., report of, 69 Short course, club, 37, 87 Smith, J. Lee, report of, 12, 24 Soil improvement demonstrations,
15
Soils work, 17, 24 South Florida district, 16 Soybeans, 26 Spencer, A. P., report of, 12 Staff, 4
State College for Women, cooperating, 9
State leader, report of, 12 State Marketing Bureau, cooperating, 9
Statistical summary of county agent
work, 12
Negro work, 92
Stennis, Mary A., report of, 69 Storm relief work, 23 Sugarcane mosaic, 57 Slimmary of activities, c o u n t y
agents, 13
home agents, 70
Supplies purchased, 16 Sweet potato clubs, 33
demonstrations, 14
work, 25
Swine, 27

Thrift in club work, 38 Thursby, Isabelle S., report of, 69 Truck crop clubs, 33
work of agents, 21
Trunk diseases, citrus, 52 Two-spotted mite on ferns, 58

U. S. Department of Agriculture,
cooperating, 8'


Office organization in
24


counties, 16,


Organization, dairy, 49 poultry, 62 Ornamental clubs, 34

Pasture demonstrations, 39 Pathology-entomology, 50, 54 Peanuts, 25 Pig club, 35 Potato demonstrations, 14, 56 Program summary, county agents,
13
home agents, 70
Poultry demonstrations, summary,
14
Poultryman, report of, 62 Poultry, clubs, 36, 64 work, 22, 28, 62, 73 Products sold, 16 Project work, 17, 71 Publications, 11

Rallies, club, 37, 86 Rodent control demonstrations, 15 Root diseases, citrus, 52


West Florida district, 24 Whitefly, citrus, 53




Full Text

PAGE 1

1926 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION W0RI( IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILM0N NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE I FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1926 \

PAGE 2

1926 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORI( IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILM0N NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1926

PAGE 3

CONTENTS PAGE LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR ............................................................ 3 BOARD OF CONTROL AND STAFF ..... . ...... . . .. . ..... ..... . ..... ...... .. ..... ..... ... . . ... ... .... .. ...... . 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS ................................................ 5 REPORT OF DIRECTOR ....................... . . ."............ .. ...... . .............. . .............................. 7 Financial Statement, 7; Cooperating Agencies, 8; Cooperation in the Counties, 9. PUBLICATIONS ... ... ............ ... ...... . .... . . .. ..... .. ....... .. ..... .. ............. . . .............................. 11 COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES .. .. .... ~ ... .. ............. . ............ .. ....... .. .... .... .................... . 12 Summary of Activities, 12; Central and South Florida District, 16; North and West Florida District, 24. Boys' CLUB WORK ... . ..................................................... . . . ............. .. ...... . .............. 30 Crop clubs, 31; Citrus and Ornamentals Clubs, 34; Livestock Clubs, 34; Annual Short Course, 37; Club Rallies and Camps, 37; Teach ing Thrift in Club Work, 38. PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS .. . . . ..................... . .. . .. .. .......... . ...... ... . . . 39 DAIRYING 47 Feeding Demonstrations, 47; Silos, 47; Purebred Sires, 48; Calf Club Work, 48; Dairy Tours, 49; Dairy Organization, 49; Fair Ex hibits, 49. CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY ........ . ............... . ..... .. ....... . . . ..... ... ... .... .... .... ..... 50 Melanose, 50; Citrus Scab, 50; Blue Mold Decay, 51; Trunk and Root Diseases, 52; Rust Mite, 52; Citrus Aphid, 53; Scale and Whitefly, 53. PLANT PATHOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY ...... . ............... .... .... .. ............... . ..... . ..... .. . 54 Cucurbit Disease Control, 54; Spraying and Dusting of Irish Po tatoes, 56; Mosaic of Sugar Cane, 57; Seedbed Disinfection, 57; Cotton Boll Weevil, 58; Two-Spotted Mite on Ferns, 58; Handbook on Truck Diseases, 58; Bean Seed Work, 58; Report of Bean Seed Inspection Trip, 59. POULTRY WORK ' 62 HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ............................ . ..................................... .. ...... 69 Supervisory Program, 69; Project Activities and Results, 71; Strengthening the Home Demonstration Organization, 85. FARMERS' WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS ............. . ....... . ...... . ....................... 88 FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS (Negro Work) 90

PAGE 4

Hon . .John H'. Martin, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1926, in cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1926. Respectfully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Board of Control.

PAGE 5

BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola E. L. w ARTMANN, Citra A. H. BLANDING, Tampa E. W. LANE, Jacksonville W. B. DAVIS, Perry J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee OFFICERS, EXTENSION SERVICE, U. S. DEPART~IENT OF AGRICULTURE C. w. WARBURTON, Director C. B. SMITH, Chief STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc .• Director A. P. SPENCER,M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary GRACE GREENE, Secretary to County Agent Leader K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent K. C. MOORE, B.S., District Agent (Resigned October 10, 1926) R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist and Entomologist M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Pathologist and Entomologist (Resigned September 30, 1926) N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (Leave of absence, effective October 15, 1926) MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., District Agent ELOISE MCGRIFF, M.S., Acting District Agent MARY A. STENNIS, M.A., Home Dairy and and Nutrition Agent ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent

PAGE 6

COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS : Alachua . . ...... . . F. L. Craft .. ... . ........ Gainesville . . .. . . ......... . Mrs. G. F. Warren Baker .... ... ..... J. H. Shepherd; Jr ... Macclenny . . . .. . ...... .. ... . ............. .. .. . . . ........ . : . .... . Bradford . . .. . ... R. F. Ward ... . .......... Starke . . . .................. . ......... . ....... , ...... '. . . ...... ... . Bay ................ R. R. Whittington .. Panama City ................................. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . Brevard ..... . .... W. R. Briggs .......... Cocoa . .......................................... . . . .. . ... ... : .. . .. . Broward , ... . ... C. E. Matthews .... Fort Lauderdale .................................... . .. .. . Citrus ........ .. .. S. H. Rountree ...... Inverness .. . ................... Mrs. E. W. Moore Collier ..... . . .. . . ....................................... Everglade .................... Mrs. B. L. Vaden Columbia . ... .. . . C. A. Fulford .......... Lake City .................... Mrs. M. S. Shook Dade ........... .. . J. S. Rainey ............ Miami . ........ . .......... Miss Pansy I. Norton Dade (Asst.) .. C. H. Steffani .......... Miami ................................................... . .. ' . ... . . DeSoto ... . ..... . .... . ................................. Arcadia ........................ Mrs. N. B. Tucker Duval .. . ..... .... W. L. Watson ........ Jacksonville . .. . ...... . ... Miss Pearl Laffitte Duval (Asst.) .. J. 0. Traxler .......... Jacksonville ........ Miss Louise M. Pickens Duval (Asst.) . . H. B. Lansden ........ Jacksonville ............................ . .. . ........ ....... . . . Escambia .. . ... Wingate W. Green .. Pensacola .. .. ..... . .. Miss Josephine Nimmo Flagler .. . .... .. . L. T. Nieland ........ Bunnell .... . ............................................. .. . .... . Gadsden ...... . . . ....... . . . ........................... Quincy . : ...................... Miss Elise Laffitte Hamilton .... . . J. J. Sechrest ........ Jasper . . ... . ...... . . ... ............................ .. .... .. .... . . . Hardee . . . ....... J. A. Shealy ............ Wauchula .......................................... . .. .. . .. ... . Highlands ...... L. H. Alsmeyer ...... Sebring . ........................................... , ...... , . . ... . Hillsborough .. R. T. Kelley ............ Plant City ................ Miss Motelle Madole Hillsborough .. .. .................................... Tampa ..... .. .. . .............. Mrs. Mary S. Allen Holmes ................................................ Bonifay ........................ Mrs. B. A. Caudle Indian River .. W. E. Evans .......... Vero Beach ......................................... .. : . .... . Jackson . . .. . .. . E. P. Scott .............. Marianna ..... . . . .... Miss Mary Sue Wigley Jefferson ........ E. H. Finlayson ...... Monticello ....... .............................. . .. . .. . .. . ...... . Lafayette . . .. . . D. C. Geiger .......... Mayo . .. ..... ...................... . ....... . .. . ....... . . .. . . ... . .. . Lake ..... . .... . ... E. W. Jenkins ........ Tavares .... .. . ..... . ............... Miss Marie Cox Lee .. . ......... . . . .. C. P. Wright ...... . ... Fort Myers . .. . ...... Miss Sallie B. Lindsey Leon .............. G. C. Hodge .......... Tallahassee ....... .. . . ... . ... Mrs. R. C. Kellum tf;:rty_-.-.. ..___-_~: tv. AJ~b:~!~ 0 ~.:::::: :~i~~t .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ::: ::: :::::: Madison .......... B. E. Lawton .......... Madison ........................................ . .......... '. .. . .. . Manatee ...... . . L. H. Wilson .......... Bradenton ...... . ....... Miss Margaret Cobb Marion ... . ... . .. C. R. Hiatt .............. Ocala ................ Miss Christine McFerron Martin ... : ... .. . C. P. Heuck ............ Stuart .. . ......................................... . . .. ...... . .... . Nassau ................................................ Fernandina ................ Miss Pearl Jordan Okaloosa ........ R. J. Hart ................ Laurel Hill .................................... : .. .. . . . . .... . Okaloosa ..... . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . ........................ Crestview ........ . ......... Miss Bertha Henry Okeechobee .. S. H. Sherard ........ Okeechobee . .. .. . . . ......................... ... ..... .. . : .. .. .. . Orange .. . ..... . . K. C. Moore ..... . . . . . .. Orlando ........................ Mrs. N. W. Taylor Osceola ...... . . . : J. R. Gunn ............ . . Kissimmee ........ . ........... . ................ . . . . . ......... . Palm Beach . .. . S. W. Hiatt .............. West Palm Beach. , .... Mrs. E. Y. Morgan (Asst.) .... M. U. Mounts ......... . West Palm Beach . . ...................... . ....... .. ... . Paisco ............ W. T. Nettles ........ . . Dade City ..... . ....... . .. Mrs. H. A. Ticknor Pinellas .. . .. ... E. H. Hurlebaus . ..... Clearwater ..... . ........ Miss Helen Kennedy Polk ................ F. L. Holland .......... Bartow .... . ....... . ........... Miss Lois Godbey (Asst.) ..... .. . . ................................. Bartow ... . ..... . .. . ......... Miss Mosel Pre1,ton (Asst.) .... ... ....... . ............................ Bartow ........................ Miss Bernice . Lyle St. Johns .... . . J. L. Scribner .......... St. Augustine .......... Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie .... . . Alfred Warren .. , ... Ft. Pierce ................................................... . Santa Rosa .. J. G. Hudson .......... Milton .............. Miss Ethyl M. Holloway Seminole ........ B. F. Whitner, Jr ... Sanford . . ........................................... . .. .. . . . .. .. . Sumter . ...... ; ................... : ..................... Bushnell... .... . .. Miss Agnes D. Yeamanst Suwannee .... , .. . .................................... Live Oak . . ..... . ........ Miss Corinne Barker Taylor ........... , R. J. Dorsett .......... Perry ......... . .................. Mrs. A. P. Powell Union ........... . . . L. T. Dyer .............. Lake Butler .................... . . . ......... . .. . .... .. . . . . . . Volusia ... . ... : . . T. A: Brown .......... DeLand . ... ...................... Miss Orpha Cole (Asst.) .. .. C. D. Case . ............ .-DeLand . .. ... . .. . ........ . . . . . ..................... . .. ... : .. .. . . . Wakulla ...... . . E. W. Ingle ......... . .. Crawfordville . .......... . ...................... .. . . . . .. . .. . Walton ... . .. . .. . Gus A. York .......... De Funiak Spgs ... Miss Agnes D. Yeamans Washington . . L. S. Carter ............ Chipley .. .... ... . .. .... : .............. . ......................... . *This list i s correct to December 31, 1926 . -rTran.sferr e d to Walton County near end of year.

PAGE 7

Fig. !.-County club rally days create interest in club work among both club members and others of the county . <"+ Cl:) ;;:l c,, "'" C ;;:l

PAGE 8

REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1926 With Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1926 Hon. P. K. Yonge, Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the fina.ncial state ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926 and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1926. I respectfully request that you transmit the same in accordance with law, to His Excellency, the Governor of Florida. Respectfully, WILMON NEWELL, Director. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Receipts College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal ... .. ................. .. ............................ . ..... .... ...... .. $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State .......... . ............... .. ........................................... ... 48,872.25 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ........................................ 15,496.08 Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ......................... ... ...... ... ....... . . 15,496.08 U. S. D. A. Appropriation . .. ........ .. ....... ... .. . ....... . .... . ... . .. . ...................... 21,475.00 State Appropriations ............... ... ..... ... ............... . .................. . ....... .. ........ .. 22,100.00 County Appropriations .............. .. ........ .. ......... .. .. ........ . .... .. ....... .. .... .. .... 79,318.12 $261,629.78 Expenditures Administration ... ... ........ . . . ..... .. ........... . .... ...... ....... .. ..... . .... _ ..... .............. '. . ... . $ 9,877.17 Printing and Publications ....................................................... ........... . ... 6,951.92 County Agents' work ....................................... . ........................... . .......... 122,093.94 Home demonstration work . . ....... . ... . ...... .... ... . . .... ...... . ................ ... ....... . . 72,897.67 ~~71: ::t~~t~~g .. :: : :::::::: :: ::::::: :::: :::::::::::::::: : ::::::: : ::::::::::::::::: : ::::::::::: ~:i~i:it !~~aI 1 ~~d'i:~f:y :: : :::::::::::::::: :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : : !;~~t~t Negro farm and home makers' work ... ... ................ . ....... .. ...... . ... .... :..... 16,500.42 Plant pathology and entomology ... ,...... . ........ . . .................................. . .. 9,548.77 Poultry industry . . ....... ........ .. ... ... ..... ........... . .. .... .. . ... ... ........ . ...... ... ....... ... . 3,958.61 Extension schools and Farmers' Week.: .......•........•..... , .. . ......... . .. :.... . .. 2,526.11 $261,629.78

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension COOPERATING AGENCIES The AgriculturaI'Extension Divisionis one of the three de ,' partments of the College of Agriculture of the University of / Florida. It carries on cooperative extension work in agricul ture and home economics under the provisions of the Smith Lever Act passed by Congress in May, 1914. This extension work consists of giving instruction and practical demonstra tions in agriculture and home economics by field demonstrations and publications, the work to be carried out according to an agreement between the Secretary of the United States Depart ment of Agriculture and the State Agricultural College. The State of Florida, through the State Legislature, provides an offset appropriation of moneys equal to or exceeding those furnished by the .Federal Government through the Smith-Lever Act. Counties desiring to cooperate provide additional funds to be applied to the salaries and expenses of county extension agents. It is also required that all appointees be selected and their appointments approved by the Board of Control of the University of Florida, and the United States Department of Agriculture, before becoming effective. These regulations , therefore, require a mutual plan of work between all cooperating agencies, and the funds expended must be accounted for as pro vided by the Smith-Lever Act. During the calendar year 1926, 54 Florida counties cooper ated in the employment of county extension agents. A list of counties and names of agents is given on page 5. In the employment of county extension agents the county funds are usually provided by the boards of county commission ers and the county boards of public instruction, the Legislature of Florida having made it legal for said boards to make . a levy for this purpose. The fiscal year for the state extension activities begins July 1. Prior to this a budget outlining expenditures is approved by the State Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture and provides for a plan for conducting demon stration work in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, livestock, poultry, and home economics. Counties desiring to cooperate make application through the office of the Director of Exten :aion. As far as funds are available, counties are provided with county e~tension agents.

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1926 9 Small additional funds have been provided by the Legisla ture for expansion of extension work over that required to meet the provision of the Smith-Lever Act. These are as follows : A special fund to conduct extension work appropriated direct to the State College for Women, Tallahassee. This is conducted under the supervision of the State Home Demonstration Agent and is a part of the home economics extension program for the state. By an act of the Legislature, a sum of money for the payment of county agents' salaries is dispensed through the office of the Commissioner of Agriculture on vouchers approved by the Di rector of Extension. Other cooperative agencies are as follows: The Florida Ex periment Station, the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, and the State Plant Board, located at the Univer sity of Florida. The Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, at Tallahassee, pro vides headquarters for the Negro extension work. This branch also receives subject matter assistance from the A. & M. Col lege and all branches of extension work. The Florida Live Stock Sanitary Board has helped many county agents to renqer valuable assistance to the livestock in terests of Florida, particularly to dairymen, poultrymen and hog raisers. The State Marketing Bureau, under the supervision of Com missioner L. M. Rhodes, has rendered valuable services to this office and to farmers with whom county agents work, in the marketing and disposal of agricultural products that would have been difficult to market otherwise. The agricultural extension service works in close coopera tion with fairs, .livestock, fruit, vegetable and other agricultu ral associations to promote agriculture and home economics throughout the rural sections of Florida. COOPERATION IN THE COUNTIES Agricultural extension work was originally designed to place county and home demonstration agents in every county, yet after 12 years of operation the limited funds provided have made it pos sible to cooperate with only 54 of the 67 counties, leaving 13 in which no work is being done. The amount of money allotted to extension work in Florida is relatively small compared with

PAGE 11

10 Florida Cooperative Extension that in other states, due to the fact that the Smith-Lever Act provides that the allotment be made on the basis of the rural population of any state in proportion to the total population of the United States, and as the rural population of Florida is comparatively smaller than that of other states, both the Fed eral and State allotment of funds is comparatively small. This accounts for the inability to reach all counties of the state and can only be remedied by additional state appropriations. The Florida allotment to counties is smaller than in most other states, due to smaller appropriations of funds from State and Federal sources. The average appropriation by counties in Florida is larger than in many other states and has shown an annual increase each year since 1914. This would indicate the approval of the taxpayers in the various counties and a desire on the part of county boards to promote the welfare of Florida's agricultural interests. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1926, through lack of funds, it has been impossible to cooperate with five counties which made liberal appropriations to conduct extension work. They made applications after the budget and allotments were set, and it was impossible to allot these counties the amount usually applied to counties. Four of these, however, cooperate in the employment of county agents, the counties paying the entire salary and expenses and placing the direction of the work under the Agricultural Extension Division. In the fifth county the allotment was not sufficient to employ a competent agent. In order to give . assistance to all the diversified farming inter ests of Florida, it would be necessary to provide for other proj ects that cannot now be undertaken with the present allotment of funds.

PAGE 12

Annual Report, 1926 11 PUBLICATIONS J. FRANCIS COOPER, Editor The following publications have been issued during the year: Bulletin No. Title No. Pages 43 Club Work and the Farm Boy............ l!O 44 Vegetable Crops of Florida.................. 48 45 Poultry Houses and Equipment.......... 24 . 46 Water and Sewerage Systems for Florida Rural Homes ...................... 24 Cooperative Annual Report .................. 100 Florida Pepper (Club paper)............ 4 Yearly Calendar...................................... 12 Ten Lessons for Poultry Club Members ...................................................... 16 Agricultural News Service ................ 1 Vegetables and Serving ...................... 16 Breads for Home Demonstration No. Copies 5,000 15,000 10,000 10,000 1,500 18,000 8,540 5,000 28,560 5,000 Clubs .......... _......................................... 20 10,000 Foods and Methods of Preparation.... 52 5,000 Miscellaneous: The editor has supervised the mailing room, where all bulletins and other publicaticfns are mailed out, and where the multigraphing and mimeographing for the Experi ment Station and Agricultural Extension Division are done. A special "Farmers' Week" page was run in the Gainesville Sun each day during Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, and copies of the paper were distributed free to visitors. Mimeo graphed Club Short Course News Sheets were prepared by the Editor and distributed at the short courses in Gainesville and Tallahassee. Special stories on extension activities or containing farm in formation were prepared for Florida, Southern, and National farm papers. Numerous pictures of extension activities were furnished, both with and without special stories.

PAGE 13

12 Florida Cooperative Extension COUNTY AGENT ACTIVITIES A. P. SPENCER, State Leader H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent J. LEE SMITH, District Agent K. C. MOORE, District Agent The counties of Florida having agents were supervised by three district agents ~ntil October, 1926, when K. C. Moore re signed to take up county agent work, leaving the supervision to two district agents. The division of disricts was made on the basis of the type of agriculture and also with a view of economy in travel. The supervisory work has consisted of assistance to county agents in making plans and helping to carry them out, also giv ing assistance in maintaining the office organization, with re ports, handling of meetings, fairs, etc. This part of the super vision has taken a little more than two-thirds of the district agents' time. In each county the agent works toward a system atized plan and the program is shaped so as to conform to the most satisfactory agricultural practices. For the most part, the couny agents are equipped with offices or headquarters, with filing cases, typewriter, desk, bulletin rack, and, in a few cases, with stereopticon or motion picture outfits, all of which are paid for by funds appropriated by the county boards. It is recommended that where finances are suf ficient and the work justifies, clerical assistance be provided in the offices and paid for by the county boards. Approximately 25 percent of the counties have complied with this request, which has proven valuable. A statistical summary of activities follows: GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 357 Voluntary county, community and local leaders........................................ 518 Clubs carrying on extension work ............................................................ 261 Memberships 4,306 Farm 'visits made by county agents ........................................................ 23,649 Different farms visited .............................. : ................................................. 9,771 Home visits made by county agents ........................................................ 3,302 Different homes visited .............................................................................. . 2,110 Telephone and office calls on agents relative to extension work. ......... 56,465 Average number days spent in office ........................................................ 91.1 Average number days spent in field .......................................................... 202.6 ~~~ibiis l~\teJ:ir:'ri~~~~ ... Community ... : ...................................................................................... 10 County .................................................................................................. 29 State 2

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Annual Repmt, 1926 13 Number Farmers' meetings held ........... .... ... .. .................... . .. ...... . ..... . 963 Extension schools and short cours es held .. .. ...... ..... ... .. . .. .... . 19 Attendance 14,336 534 434 Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies .. .. ... . PROGRAM SVMMARY Of Outlined Projects by County Agents Number Days agents communities devoted to participating projects Soils . . ............... ............. ............. . .. ..... ... . ................ .... . ....... ... .. . 160 409 Farm Crops ... .. ..... ...... ................ . .. ........... ............. ..... . ........ . 292 1,298 Horticulture .... ...... . ..... ............... ...... ..................... .............. .. 254 1,698 Forestry ............ ......... .. ... . . ........................ . .............. . .............. 11 14 Rodents, predatory animals and bird s... ...... ......... . ....... .. 36 115 Animal husbandry .. ........ ... . ..... . .. . . . ..... . .. ....... ..... . ....... . ....... .. 136 1,047 Dairy husbandry .. . .. .... .. . .... . . . ... . . ..... ............ . ... .. ........ . ... ... ... . 103 713 Poultry husbandry ............................. . ... .... ......... . . ..... . ..... . . . 195 1,210 Rural engineering . . ... . ............... .... ... .. .. .... ........... ... .... ... ....... 94 196 Agricultural economics ................ .... ..................... ...... .. ...... . 158 538 Miscellaneous work ...... ........... . . ... . ............ ...... ...... ... .......... 128 1,151 Community activities ....................... .... ............ .... ............... 15 137 Total .............. .. .. .......... .. ... . ... ..... .... .. .... . . ... ... . ..... .. ... .. . .. .... 1,582 CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats, etc.) Acreage grown under demonstration methods ............................. ...... . Boys' and girls' clubs . .. ... .. ... . . ... . .... .... .. ......... ...... . ................. ... .. ..... ... . : .. . Acreage grown by club members ..... ... ...... . .. . ... .... . .. . .. ........ . ....... .... ... .. . . Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) .. .. . ............... ... . ... . Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ... ... ... . ...................... . . ... . Farmers who planted selected or improved seed ............................. . . . Farmers who treated seed grain for smut ... ............ .... . ................ ... .. . COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Acreage grown under improved methods ........ .. .. ............. ...... : ...... ..... .. . Farms influenced to adopt better practice ..... ........... . .... ........... . ... .. . .. . Boys' and girls' clubs ................. . .... .... ................ , ..... . .......... ........... .. .. ..... . Members enrolled ..... . .. . ............. . .. . .... ....... ........... .... . . . ............ .......... ... . .... . Acreage grown by club members ..... .. ...... . ... .. ....... . ..... .. ..... .......... .......... . Yield grown by junior club memb e rs (Lbs.) .... ............... .. . .... . . Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .. .... ................ .. .. ..... . Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and disease s .. .. ... . Number farms treating seed for disease ................... . .................... .. . .... . LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.) Number method demonstrations given ................. . .......................... ..... . Number result demonstrations under way ...... ... .... . ..................... . .. ... .. . Number result demonstrations completed ........... ..... ...................... ..... . Acres in completed demonstrations .. .. .. . . . . ...... ............ . ......... ............ ... .. . 8,530 396 41 106 4,070 351 303 4 694 212 11 199 82 96,483 116 35 37 233 2.45 711 11,428

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATIONS Number method demonstrations given ...... ... ............... .... ..................... . Number result demonstrations ........................................... , ............ . . . .. . Result demonstrations completed during year . .. : ............................. . Acres involved in demonstrations ..... .... ... .. ...... : ............. ....... ................ . Number of boys' clubs ........................ .... ............... .... ............................ . Membership .. ............... .... ........... ...................... . . , ... ......... .. . ....................... . Number planting improved stock or seed ... . . , ..................................... . Number pruning . .... . ...... . . ......... . ... ..... ....... ............ ............. ... ..................... . Trees involved .......... : ..... . .......... . . .......... ........ . ... . ........ , .............................. . Number spraying or treating for diseases and insect pests . .......... . Acres treated ....... ................ ..... .......... ....... ....... . ................ .. ............. .. ..... . Number farms adopting improved practices ...... . ..................... . ........ . SWEET AND IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS Method Demonstrations . ............. .. ................ . . .. ........... ... ...................... . Acreage grown under improved methods .......... ... ........................ . .. ... . Far mers influenced to adopt better 'Practices ......... . ... . ..... ............ ... ... . Farmers who planted improved or certified seed .. .... ............. .. .......... . Farmers who treated seed for disease ........ ..... ............. .. . .... ............ .. .. . Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects ... . DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Animals in completed demonstrations .... . . ........ ......... .' ..... .............. . . .... . Saving resulting from better practices ..... . .. . ...... ..... ............. .... ...... . .. . . Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ................................... . Farmers assisted in securinir purebred sires ............. .... .................... . Farms assisted in securing high grade or purebred females . ........ . Farmers who . culled their herds .......... . ...................................... . ......... . Animals in these herds .... ........ .... . ..... ......... ... . .. . ...... . ......................... .... . . Animals discarded .... . ...................................... . .... , ........ ........... ........ ....... . Farmers' associations who tested cows for production ... .......... ... ... . Cows tested for production ........... .... .......... .. .. .... ............. ....... ....... ... .... . Farmers who fed better balanced rations .... . . ................ .. ............ ..... . . . Farmers who controlled insect pests ... ............. ........... ........ .......... . .. . .. . Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis ..................................... . Number of farms adopting more sanitary production methods .... . .. . HOG . DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrations given ....... ...... ............ ....... ... .. .................. .... ....... ... ........ . Animals in completed demonstrations ....... . . . . .. ............ . . . . , ........... . .. . . ... . Savings resulting from better practices .... . ........... : ..... . ...... ....... .. ... .... . Farmers who secured purebred sires .... . , . .. .. ... .............. ...... . ................ . Farmers assisted in obtaining purebred females ... .. . ... ............ ... . . Farmers who fed better balanced rations ............... ... ................... .. . Farmers culling breedingstock ......... ........ .......... ........ ......... . ........... .. . .. . Number of animals culled out .. . ........ . ............................................... . Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests . .... .. .. .............. ..... . . POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS 1,712 1,192 914 10,117 27 688 570 152 125,693 638 1,253 960 117 448 360 246 88 62 565 $1,490 297 67 178 93 1,431 403 40 1,817 145 157 173 237 710 4,238 $8,700 109 117 94 61 267 67 Demonstrators .................................................. . . ................. ... .... .. .............. 546 Birds is these demonstrations ................................................................ 52,536 Saving resulting from better practices .............................. : ................. $531,846

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Annual Report, 1926 Number of farms assisted in securing purebred breeding stock. ..... Poultrymen who culled their flocks .............. . ........... .... ....... ... ...... ... .... . Number of birds in these flocks ........................................................... . Number of birds discarded ................. . ........................................... . ..... . Number of breed associations formed ................................................. . Membership ............ .. ......... . .......... .. ........ .. . .... ... ............... ....... . . .. .. ..... . ....... . SOIL IMPROVEMENT DEMONSTRATIONS . Demonstrations ..... .... ........ . .. .. ................ . .......... .... .................................... . Acres involved in completed demonstrations . . ..................................... : Farmers influenced to change methods soil management .... ...... ..... . Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers ............. . Tons commercial fertilizer involved . . : . . ....... ... . .... .. .......................... . . ... . Farmers taking better care of farm manures ................................... . Farmers using lime or limestone ..... . ............ . ......... . . ..................... .. .... . ~ons of lime or limestone so used .. .... . .. ........ .... ....... .. .................... .. ..... . Farmers who plowed under cover crops for soil improvement . .. .... . Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under .... ..... ........ ...... . RURAL ENGINEERING (Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice) Acres Drainag~ systems installed .. .. .. ." .... .. . . ...... . .. .. . . . ..... . .... ... ............ 6,502 Irrigation systems installed ..... . ..... . .............................................. 288 Terraces constructed ...... . ... ....... ... ....... ... ........ ...... ..... . . J 1,952 Water systems installed . ..... .... ....... ..... .. . .... ..... ................... . ............. . Heating systems installed ................................................................ . .... . Lighting systems installed ........ .. ................. .... ........ . ......... .... ........ .. .... . Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled ....... .. .... . Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled .................. . .... . Number sewage-disposal systems installed . . ........... . ........ . .... ............ . Farmers who cleared land ...... . . .... ....... .... ....... ... ....... .... ....... ...... ............ . Acres cleared .. ... . .. ......... .. ....................... . ... .... ...... ............. : .............. ..... .. . ~umber of farms adopting above practices for first time ......... . ..... . 15 393 388 57,729 18,022 5 166 729 2,694 1,372 1,277 6,634 308 135 714 154 . 2,792 Number 124 30 73 24 2 14 194 386 14 154 3,187 453 DEMONSTRATION IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations ............... . ......... ..... ....... .... ....... ... , ....... ... ....... . . .. ........ . ..... . Farmers adopting control measures ......... . . ... ......... . . .. ........ .. ..... . ........ . Acres involved ....... . ......... . ......... ... ......... .. ......... . .......... ... ........ ......... ... .... . FARM MANAGEMENT 192 691 12,319 Number method demonstrations given....... . ...................... ... ............... 104 Farm account books distributed ..... ... ........ ... ... . ........................... .. . . .... 294 Farmers who kept records .................. .. ...... .. . . ....... . : ............................. 66 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts ... ...... . .... ........ .. . . .. . . . . . . ..... .. ..... 86 Farmers who changed . methods as result of keeping accounts...... 91 Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations ............................ ... ..... 242 ~ armers advised relative to leases ............. . ................................. .. ..... 286 umber of junior farm account clubs .. ......... ...... ...... .... .. .. . ....... ..... .... 12 armers assisted in keeping cost of produciion records . .......... ...... . 197 umber of farms adopting improved farm management practices 567

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD Supplies Purchased Products Sold Value Saving Value Profit Crates .................................. $ 6,960.00 $ 1,630.00 Seeds, fertilizer, barrels, dust, etc ........................... 115,187.71 24,257.84 $154,637.91 $ 85,277.13 Livestock ...................... ..... 65.00 54,675.00 9,310.00 Poultry ................................ . ............ . --------------30,199.70 7,452.00 Fertilizer ............................ 99,897.80 17,358.30 4,425.00 625.00 Seeds .................................. 9,285.00 1,940.00 ___________ ,. ____ Cukes ................................................. . 58,020.00 46,370.00 Citrus .................................. 208.70 98.75 ---------------Fruit trees .......................... 900.75 236.80 -----------------------Dairying ............ ,............... 7,900.00 1,625.00 3,300.00 250.00 Sweet potatoes .................. . .............. . 4,500.00 300.00 Syrup cans & barrels........ 2,000.00 600.00 --------------Truck crops ...................... . ..•............ ---------------39,630.00 Excelsior ............................ 1,234.00 207.00 ---------------Nursery stock & fertilizer 10,271.90 1,842.06 ---------------Feeds .................................. 2,755.52 496.80 Fertilizer & eggs .............. 9,800.00 3,500.00 683.60 105.00. Total ............................ $266,466.38 $ 53,792.55 $250,071.21 $149,689.13 i CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA DISTRICT~ H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent The work in this territory has been carried on in a satisfac. tory manner during the past year. About half of the agentf have been granted salary increases, indicating an appreciation of the work being done. The close of the year finds the agricul tural situation in a condition much improved over last year. County agent work is on a good safe basis and well thought of in the counties cooperating. SUMMARY DISTRICT AGENT'S VISITS This agent has during the year ending November 30, madE 83 visits to county agents, each visit of one or more days. Ter} visits were made to counties without agents; 189 days wen spent in the field and 103 in the office; 10 days were spent ir the Farm Seed Loan Office at West Palm Beach helping to sup ply United States Department of Agriculture funds to storrr stricken farmers; 42 meetings with an attendance of 4,000 per. sons were attended, the district agent taking part in many oJ the programs. OFFICE ORGANIZATION All couny agents have offices. Ten of these are at the respecl tive courthouses and five are situated at places other than court!

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Annual Report, 1926 17 houses. Five county agents have stenographers. The county agents in this territory have had experience in extension work which averages over four years per agent. Only one agent has had less than one year of such work. There has been less changing of agents in this territory this year than last, changes being made in only two counties due to resignations. Every agent in the territory with two exceptions has had agricultural college training and these two have had years of practical farm experience. Four agents have motion picture machines, purchased from county funds. Each agent has typewriter and some office equipment. PROJECT WORK All project work is divided under the following heads: (1) Soils, (2) farm crops, (3) horticulture (including truck crops, citrus, beautification), ( 4) forestry, (5) rodents, predatory ani mals and birds, (6) animal husbandry, (7) dairy husbandry, (8) poultry, (9) rural engineering (drainage, farm buildings, etc.), (10) agricultural economics (including , marketing and farm management), (11 ) ' community activities (fairs, community meetings, organizations, etc.), (12) miscellaneous. Club work is carried as junior project work and comes mainly under numbers, (2), (3), (6), (7), and (8) as listed above. Each county agent in this territory is working on an average of 5 of the above projects. Every agent has projects (3) and (8) in his plan of work. Forestry is not a project with any agent. During the spring months interests other than agriculture were active and seemed to off er financial possibilities in excess of possible profits from agriculture. This drew interest away from the farms and kept growers during the spring months from cooperating with county agents in conducting as many demonstrations as had been planned. SOILS The sofl is the basis of all present and future agricultural ; production and it is especially necessary under climatic condi tions existing in Florida to so handle agricultural production that the soil is kept in a productive condition. Cover crops are essential to maintain a high producing soil. This fact is well 2

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension known to citrus growers, the majority of whom grow a cover crop each year. Truck growers have not given as much thought to cover crops as have the citrus growers, largely due to the fact that following the spring truck crop a volunteer crop of crab grass appears and this is enough of a rotation to enable the same land to be used for truck crops year after year. How ever, each year more farmers are realizing the need for grow ing a legume cover crop and for this purpose at the present time velvet beans, cowpeas, beggarweed and crotalaria are the best crops of the kind that we have. In this territory during the past year county agents' reports show 36 demonstrations completed on 684 acres and that 153 far'mers plowed .under cover . crops on 1,673 acres for the first time. This type of work is each year converting additional farmers to the value of such practices. This section of Florida buys each year a great amount of commercial fertilizer and, while many growers are fairly well posted, each year additional farmers are improving the prac tices they have been following. This year 144 farmers adopted improved practices involving 1,167 tons of fertilizer as a result of the efforts of county agents. FARM CROPS Four counties in this territory grow considerable acreages of corn, peanuts, velvet beans, sweet potatoes, etc. In Levy Coun ty the corn and peanuts grown for hog feed made good yields. In the other counties general farm crops are grown mainly as a follow-up crop after truck crops. County agents have assisted farmers in purchase of seed and improved varieties. Forty demonstrations in seven counties in volving 709 acres were carried on in the growing of legumes for forage and cover crops. Nineteen farmers in three counties planted improved sweet potato seed for the first time. Nine demonstrations in four. counties with Irish potatoes gave an average increase over ordinary methods of 32 bushels per acre. HORTICULTURE Citrus.-Citrus on a commercial scale is grown in all except two counties in this territory. A large part of the time of the county agents has been spent in work with citrus. The main

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Annual Report, 19 2 6 19 problems from the production standpoint before the citrus grower are to improve the quality of the fruit and reduce the c ost of production per box. This involves a number of phases of citrus production. In some cases economical control of in s ects and diseases will produce the desired results; in others the chief trouble is with the soil, which needs building up or spots in the groves need drainage; in still others , changes in fertilizer practices or increased fertilizer may be needed. Ru st mite control demonstration s were carried on in seven counties . Twelve demonstrations were carried out in the con trol of scale insects. Seven demonstrations were co nducted on melanose control. Friendly fungi to co ntrol scale a nd whitefly were introduced into 13 groves. In Orange County t he county agent has certain typical groves for which he outlines the fer tilizer, spraying schedule and cultural practices. Three of these groves so handled se rve as object le ss on s to other growers . In a test on a grove of 1,600 trees to find the cause of shy bearing , with some trees results show fai lur e to . bear was due to wrong fertilizing and not to poor bud s election. Observ . ation s how s thi s Fig. 2 . -T he cou nty agent helps c lub boys and g irl s to st ud y cit rus i n sects a nd diseases.

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20 Florida Coopera . ti ve E x tension Fig. 3.-Truck crops are an important source of farm income in Florida, and county agents devote a great deal of attention to problems of truck growers. same condition is true in other groves of the county . Every age nt in these citrus producing counties does a large amount of personal service work in the nature of inspection of groves to make recommendations as to spraying, cu l ture, fertilization, etc. In the case of new settlers who have bought or planted groves, this service may call for from one to two to as many as eight or ten visits a year. This type of service is much appre ciated by the grower and is of value to the county. This is termed personal service work and not actual demonstration. By press articles, circular letters and personal contact, the agent is able to call the attention of the growers to the need for timely sprayings, especially in the case of such ' insects as whitefly , scale-insects and rust mites, thus catching these insects at the proper stage for best control. The change in ownership and cutting up of large acreages of grove property has interfered with carrying on actual demon strations this year, but has added to the personal service work.

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Annual Report, 1926 21 Truck Crops.-The work on truck crops was mainly disease and insect control on tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants and Irish potatoes. One item of special value to the truck grow er is seed treatment. The use of improved seed is being increased through the county agents' activities. Test packages of Marglobe tomato seed were distributed to over 100 growers in this territory. Truck growers also demand personal service work. New set tlers coming in are served by inspection of their land, advice as to crops it is suited for, varieties of seed, fertilization, cul ture , spraying schedule, etc. Bulb growing on a commercial scale is being carried on in only a few counties. This continues to look promising and the plantings to increase. No grower is known who made a fail ure during the year. This crop has not been grown long enough to test the markets and establish a selling system. Other Fruits.-Grapes, Avocados and Mongoes.-Assistance has been rendered by county agents to growers of these fruits, especially with regard to information oh spraying, culture and fertilizing. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Only one agent in this territory has been vaccinating hogs against cholera. He has treated over 13,000 hogs and has ren dered a valuable service. In connection with the treating of hogs, this agent has encouraged better feeding, sanitation, mar keting and the improvement of breeding stock. A cooperative selling organization was organized and is functioning, having handled five cars of hogs to date. Eight purebred boars and eight purebred sows have been brought into the county. Other agents have been working with the Live Stock Sanitary Board, whose agents do the actual work of treating hogs. Marion County has an active pig club and the boys had 40 good club pigs at the county fair and annual contest. There is increased interest in growing hogs especially in Union, Alachua, Marion and Levy counties. BeefCattle.-Most of the beef cattle are range cattle which have sold at low prices for the past few years. There has been a small demand for good bulls to use on the ranges and an inter est aroused in selling range cattle as yearlings,

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension DAIRYING County agents have given considerable attention to the needs of dairymen. The trend in dairying is to produce whole milk either for local trade or for shipment to other markets in the state. Marion and Pasco counties are the leading counties of this territory in the shipment of milk. Much interest is now manifest in securing better pastures, J and this is largely due to results obtained with demonstration pastures and meetings held . at such demonstrations: A grass mixture of carpet, lespedeza, Dallis and Bahia grasses has given best results. Dairy associations have been organized in Mar ion, Manatee and Pasco counties. Also the first Bull Club in the State was organized in Marion County. This county . also has the only dairy calf club in this territory. Help has been given dairymen on feeding and care of dairy cows and on care and handling of milk. Plans have been fur nished for 15 dairy hams and milk houses. Marion County community dairy associatio,ns are buying feed cooperatively, holding regular meetings, and are working to gether to build up dairying. One association had a nice exhibit at the county fair. Work done in Pasco County on keeping milk and feed records and in growing soiling crops, is having a real effect as the re . sults are showing the value of such items to the dairymen. They have caused culling of boarder cows, home mixing of feeds arid the growing of more feed. Twenty dairymen are keeping records. Forty-one dairymen have been assisted in adopting better feeding methods, . 25 in improving their methods of handling milk, 8 purebred bulls have been brought in and 40 farmers have been assisted ju buying either high grade or purebred cows. POULTRY This is a live subject in this territory. New poultrr farms . are going in, farmers are increasing their flocks, good breed ing stock is in demand. Active poultry associations are at work in almost every county. Culling demonstrations have been held by county agents in practically every county. The records

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Annual Report, 1926 23 show 138 culling demonstrations were held, dealing with 20,000 birds from which 5,000 were culled. Poultry associations are most active in marketing eggs and live poultry. County agents have assisted poultrymen in planning poultry houses, purchase and sale of breeding stock, with feeding meth ods, sanitation, marketing of eggs, disease and insect control and the cooperative buying of supplies. Poultry club work offers an opportunity to do club work in counties where other types of club work do not seem to be adapted. The county agents are taking this up as the main cluh activity in some counties. RURAL ENGINEERING Drainage and the planning of farm buildings are the main items under this heading upon which work was done. County agents furnished plans for 48 poultry houses and 15 barns. ARGICULTURAL ECONOMICS Most of the cooperative buying and selling in this territory was done by well organized associations. Some of these have been in existence for a number of years. The county agents work closely with these associations, but the members of the association do all the handling of the business. See page 16. MISCELLANEOUS Storm Relief Work.-Following the storm of September 18, 1926, the county agents in Dade, Broward, Palm Beach, Lee, Okeechobee and Highlands County agent, acting for Glades County, and the former agent of Hendry County performed a very creditable service to this area. Through their efforts a quick approximate survey of the needs of the farmers was as certained, with lists of farmers who would absolutely have to have help in order to get in even a part of a normal crop. Other extension and Experiment Station workers secured information about counties where no agents were located. Through the offices of the Secretary of Agriculture, $300,000 was made available for loans to be used for the purchase of.feed, seed, fertilizer, gas and oil. The Federal Farm Seed Loan Office established an office in West Palm Beach with Dr. C. W. War burton from Washington in charge and with Mr. L. E. White as disbursing officer.

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension The county agents furnished this office with lists of citizens fitted to serve on local and county committees for passing on the merits of applicants for loans before such applications came to the Seed Loan Office. These agents spent approximately 60 days each in helping their farmers to secure this aid and aiding the Farm Seed Loan Office by furnishing information which permitted prompt ac tion on applications for loans. This disaster demonstrated that in a case of this kind an or ganization of county agents was a force resourceful and capable of meeting emergencies in an efficient manner. Fair Work.-This is one activity which at times appears to consume too much of county agents' time. Some counties show at the State Fair, the South Florida Fair and hold a county fair. However, one of the needs of Florida is more settlers and the fairs offer a means of displaying agricultural products before prospective settlers, besides keeping agriculture before our own citizens. NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA DISTRICT J. LEE SMITH, District Agent About two-thirds of the time of the District Agent has been spent in the counties of the district with the agents, assisting them in. maintaining their office organization, reports, and rec ords; assisting them in determining what their program of work for the year should be, or in analyzing their program; assisting them in their subject matter, their publicity, or other phases of their work. In doing this he has made 128 visits to counties. He has taken part in 61 extension meetings with an attendance of 3,089 farmers. The remainder of the time has been spent in the office, or in connection therewith, attending to records and reports, publicit;y:, boys' short course, Farmers' Week program, and fairs. SOILS The rainfall in Florida is between 50 and 60 inches per an num. Conditions are such as to bring about a quick oxidization of the vegetable matter of the soil. Therefore, a need for lots of it. To supply this and to demonstrate its value, the exten sion service of North and West Florida has conducted or has under way, 12 demonstrations with soybeans or other legumes,

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Annual Report, 1926 25 and 25 with oats and vetch, o.r rye. These crops were or will be plowed into the land at the proper time. FARM CROPS Corn: Approximately 62 percent of the cultivated land in this territory is grown to corn. According to Federal Govern ment statistics, this corn is costing $1.12 per bushel. The pro duction is only 15 bushels per acre. The market price at pres ent is 75 cents a bushel. This is approximately what the corn is costing when labor is not counted. When a better prepara tion of the seedbed is made, better seed are used, and a better use of fertilizer is made, the production per acre . can be in creased and the cost of production correspondingly decreased. There were demonstrations conducted by the agents in this ter ritory this year to show the method and value of more _ econom ical corn production. An example of the results is shown below: Mr. G. M. Green of Columbia County says, "With the help of Mr. C. A. Fulford, the County Agent, I have this year produced on 10 acres of land, 375 bushels of corn at the low cost of a little more than 50 cents per bushel. Total cost was $191, which included all labor, man and mules, fertilizer and land rent. At 75 cents per bushel, it fs easy to see that I made a profit of S90 on the 10 acres after deducting the cost." Cotton: The average production of cotton in Florida this year was approximately 335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The cost of producing the yield is the same in every item, except fertilizer and seed, as that of the demonstrations conducted by the county agents. With an added expense of $8 for better seed and more and better fertilizer, Okaloosa County's 22 club boys produced an average of 1,319 pounds per acre; an increase of 984 pounds over the state's average. These boys produced their seed cotton for 3.1 cents per pound. Peanuts: Our demonstrations this year with peanuts were to show the value of land plaster as a fertilizer for peanuts. At a field meeting at on~ of these demonstrations, the demonstra tor said: "The _facts brought out are almost unbelievable, yet I know , them to be true. Where land plaster was used 183 solid nuts were produced to 17 where it ' was not used, and less pops." There were a great many of these demonstrations conducted this year. Sweet Potatoes: Several county . agents conducted demon strations this year to show the value of early sweet potatoes

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension as a cash crop . The value in part.is shown by Henry L. Baker , a Washington County club boy, who put some time on the farm and the balance at public work. He says, "When I was at work on my crop, I was making the average of 34 cents per hour and when I was at public work I was making the average of 16 cents per hour." Soybeans: To show the value of soybeans as a hay crop as well as a soiling crop; 12 demonstrations were conducted. HORTICULTURE Fruits: The commercial growing of sa tsumas, blueberries, grapes , and sand pears in West Florida is a new industry. In this territory the county agents have spent a good deal of time with the growers advising them of the proper methods of set ting , cultivating, fertilizing and spraying these fruits. They have assisted them in pooling orders for trees. They have held method demonstration s in picking the fruit , and in Fig . 4.-County agent and grower discuss pruning and other problems of grape growing. packing it. The first carloads of fresh blueberries, grapes, and sat sumas moved from this terri tory this seas on. Beautification Work: The grounds around most farmsteads and public build ings in West Florida are any, thing but beau1 tiful. They are bare of lawn grass, rubbish is lying around, and no flowers and shrubbery are p I a n t e d. The several agents conducting beau tification demon

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Annual Report, 1926 27 strations this year are the first ones in this district to conduct demonstrations along this line. R . . R. Whittington, county agent of Bay County, did an outstanding piece of work. He re ports: "The project of beautification of home grounds, I was able to put over far beyond my expectations. Twenty-six home grounds and three public ground demonstrations have been made in which I have assisted from the preparation of the grounds to the selection of the plants, planting, and advising the care for them through the year. The plans included hedges, borders, gardens, foundation plantings, and lawns. By these demonstrations so much interest has been aroused that I now have quite a number of requests to assist with beautification work this winter." ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Swine: _ Practically every county agent in the North and West Florida territory has been actively engaged in conducting both breeding and feeding demonstrations with swirie this year. The agents have conducted 170 feeding demonstrations and 113 breeding demonstrations. They have assisted farmers in secur ing 63 males and 50 females. B. E. Lawton of Madison County has been able to place 125 breeding pigs on Madison farms this year. Club boys fed out 93 barrows which he helped them sell for approximately $2,200. He helped sell 60 registered pigs for club boys who were breeding pigs. He got some 50 farmers to feed out several cars of hogs and put them on the August and September market. His boys exhibited 208 pigs at the county fair and 135 at the State ,Fair. One of his boy s showed the grand champion Duroc sow in the open ring at the State Fair. The county age'nts have vaccinated , hogs for the ptev--ention of cholera on 552 fiirfus: tI;t); ' . " ' DAIRY HUSBANDRY Besides assisting dairymen and farmers in building silos and modern barns, making their places more sanitary, extension workers of North and West Florida are assisting them in rais ing the standard of the herds. They are helping dairymen from other places to get established. They are assisting them to or ganize so that" they can economically . market their products. They are assisting in putting in pastures. They have assisted in placing 41 purebred sires and 293 purebred or high grade dams on the farms this year. There are now 25 permanent pas ture demonstrations being conducted. In one county where a

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28 Florida Cooperative Extension year ago no dairy products were being marketed , more than 500 ga llon s of milk a day are now being shipped qut. POULTRY HUSBANDRY Poultry: The l ast two years have seen a wonderful develop ment in the poultry industry of West Florida. There were in January, 1925, approximately 600,000 birds on the farms of this terriory. The estimate now is 750,000. There are com mercial flocks in every county now; then there were very ' few. The flocks on the farms have been in creased and their standard raised. There is no force that has been as instru mental in this development as the extension workers of the College of Agriculture. The . last year they have placed 20,244 purebred birds on the farms and culled 111 flocks composed of 10 , 093 birds . They have assisted in marketing poultry products . Fig. 5.-A poultry brooder house. National Egg Laying Contest: The Chipley Chamber of Commerce, cooperating with County Agent L. S. Carter, built a plant of 50 houses, costing over $ 10,000 and put up $5,000 for operating expenses for a National Egg-Laying Contest at Chipley and requested the Extension Division of the Col lege of Agriculture to take it over and conduct it. This was done and on November 1 , 1926, the first Florida National Egg Laying Contest began with 50 pens entered. Mr. E. F. Stanton, a practical poultryman, was put in charge. This plant will be

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Annual Report, 1926 29 a great means of stimulating interest in poultry in Florida and especially iri this district. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Terracing: During this year 68 terracing demonstrations affecting 1,952 acres were conducted by the county agents of Madison, Jefferson, Leon, and Okaloosa counties. Poultry and Hog Houses: Forty-six poultry houses suitable to Florida conditions were built in this part of the state from plans furnished by couny agents and under their supervision. Twenty-seven hog houses and barns were built under the agents' supervision. Water and Light Plants: More water and light plants were installed in this district this season than e\ 1 er before in one year. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Purchases and Sales: The county agents of this territory have assisted in making a large number of purchases and co operative sales during the year. See page 16. The service rendered has been worth the time and attention given, but in performing this service the agents have rendered a larger service in showing the farmers how to pack a standard product or in advising the proper quantity and quality of fer tilizer to use for various purposes. MISCELLANEOUS Extension Meetings: This year there were held 399 meet ings with an attendance of 8,244 farmers, where such subjects as dairying, hogs, pastures, fruit culture, fertilizers, etc., were discussed . . Through these meetings it has been possible to reach many farmers with the things they are most interested in. Fairs and Exhibits: There were 10 boys' and girls' club contests held in this territory. These were the most success ful ever held. More educational work was gotten over with them. Where there was no county fair, judging lessons were 5 iven the boys. A judging contest was held at the Walton -;ounty Contest. Eight counties of North and West Florida were represented ,t the State Fair with exhibits. Only four county fairs were teld in the district. These county fairs are conducted largely ,y the county agents and are becoming more and more educa ional each year.

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30 Florida Coop e rati ve Ext e ns i on BOYS' CLUB WORK R. W. BLACKLOCK, B o ys ' Club Agent The year 1926 has been the most successful club year in Florida since the War. In 1918 and 1919, due to the emergency .appropriations, county agents were employed in every county .and assistant agents in several. With war-time fervor to help, it was an easy matter to enroll club members . The highest en rollment was reached in 1918 when 3,276 boys were enrolled in dub work. Beginning with 1920 there was a decided drop in enrollment until 1923 when the bottom was reached. The last ing value of club work was beginning to be appreciated and the enrollment started . up~ ard . Table I shows the enrollment for 1925 and 1926. TABLE !.-CLUB ENROLLMENT F OR 1925 AND OCTOBER, 1926 li
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Annual Report, 1926 31 is at its best mark and with the addition of several more coun ties employing agents for 1927, we expect to bring the enroll ment up to that of 1918-19. The greatest improvement was in the Central and South Flor ida districts. West Florida has long held the leadership but was forced to yield in 1926. Each district showed an increase. The centi:al district went from 130 in 1925 to 1,201 in 1926. The coun'ty agents in Pasco, Lee and Marion counties were re sponsible for the larger part of this increase. CROP CLUBS Cotton Club: The large yields and profits made in the cot ton club in 1925 caused a decided increase in enrollment. The membership went from 94 in 1925 to 191 in 1926. The county agents of the cotton growing counties planned . for better cotton acres as well as more of them. The boys were encouraged and aided in securing the right kind of fertilizer. In most counties an improved variety of seed was purchased for the club acres. The outlook for a record crop was favorable. The acres had been well prepared, fertilized and properly cultivated. Nitrate of soda was applied as a side-dressing to most of the club acres. The boll weevil gave little trouble, although the boys were pre pared to poison and some few did where it appeared advisable. When the cotton began to open the yield promised to be the . best average in the history of club work. On September 18 a tropical hurricane struck Florida. While the most damage was done in the southern end of the Peninsula the western end of the state was hit on September 19 by a storm of but little less intensity. The area severely injured by this storm included 150 of the 191 cotton club acres. Where the boys had been able to gather their crop before September 19, the yields were excellent. On the acres not picked, the storm made it hardly worth while to gather the crop. The price had fallen to a place where storm cotton was not worth picking . . Seveny-four boys reported. The returns ran from a loss to a profit of over $50 per acre where the cotton had been gath ered 1 , and sold before the price slumped. Table II gives a sum mary of reports from five counties.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE IL-RESULTS OF BOYS' CLUB WORK WITH COTTON. ~ "' "O et, Q) :>. -~ (1) ..., .., ~Cl.l~ 0 ::, . ..., 0 I 0 tf.)~ >..o 0 t.) z <...:iu r Okaloosa --22 1319.1 Walton 18 1107 Washington 6 1107 Madison 5 1217 Escambia 5 1191 ..., Q) rn 0.., u< . > Q) < ii. $41.63 39.51 37.04 42.60 42.40 ----0 ..., ..., .., "' 0 8;3 t.) et, Q) > Q) Q) < ii. rl.l ----$ .031 .036 .034 .035 .034 708 460 466 7 8 6.3 700 9.4 590 l 5.6 Average ) 56 l 1207.6 I $40.62 l $ .0335 I 678 I 7 In Okaloosa County, the agent, R. J. Hart, gave much atten tion to his cotton club work. Of the 22 boys reporting, 16 re ported the use of from 400 to 800 pounds of 8-3-5 fertilizer under their cotton and the use of from 100 to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda as a side-dressing. 'l'he 16 reports show an average use of 512 pounds of 8-3-5 under the cotton and the application of 155.5 pounds of nitrate of soda. The average yield reported was 1,332 pounds of seed cotton per acre. The average for the state, as taken from the ginning report, is but 335 pounds seed cotton per acre. The club boys are showing the way in cotton production. The fertilizer plus the improved seed appears responsible for the increased yield as the methods used and cultivation given varies but slightly from what would be done by the average farmer in the cotton growing sections. Corn Club: Although corn is the most important crop in Florida in number of acres planted (54 percent of the crop acres is planted to corn), the corn club, once the most popular, is los ing in membership. The reason probably lies in the fact that under Florida conditions the corn club boy has less chance of getting his profit in cash than with any other project. Nearly all the corn club members report that their corn is used for feeding the home stock. In the cotton, pig and potato clubs, the articles produced are likely to be sold with a much better chance for the boy to get the profit from his work.

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Annual Report, 1926 33 The storm leveled all the ungathered corn fields in West Flor ida with a resulting decrease in number of club boys reporting. Table III gives summary of reports from 55 club acres. TABLE III.-RESULTS OF Boys' CLUB WORK WITH CORN . . County ( Santa Rosa 22 Okaloosa 13 Walton ........................ ..\ 9 Liberty 6 984 339 310 211 173 44.7 26 34.4 35 34.6 Duval ................... 5 TOTA~ ....... ... ... 5-5-~-2-01-7---e--36.6 . I _., Q) r/1 i-< 0 <:) c,)~ $22.94 13.28 17.55 23.27 23.53 ..., r/1 0 :::s c,) i:q $ .51+ .50+ .50+ .60+ .59+ 1-;19.9; T;-~5~~Sweet Potato Club: The enrollment in this club was less by three than for 1925. That year was rather disappointing in yield and profit, so that the boys were tempted to turn to cot ton, which promised handsome profits. In Washington County, 13 potato club members reported. This county is a fair example of the impossibility of a uniform report on sweet potatoes. The members planted one-fourth acre each with yields running from 16 bushels to 63 bushels on their plots. The reason for such variation in the yields is due to the fact that some dug and sold their potatoes in July while others allowed them to grow on until fall. Those digging in July made more profit on the average than those holding until fall, notwithstanding the higher yields. It is impossible to give worth while statistics on this crop. Truck Club: This type of club is new in boys' club work in Florida. It was found to be the only project in crop production work which would fit into conditions for southern Florida. Palm Beach, Pasco and Lee counties furnished 286 of the 346 enrolled in this club. The spring gardens and truck plots did very well with most of the boys showing a profit. The storm of September 18 ob3

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34 . Florida Cooperative Extension !iterated everything started in Palm Beach and Lee counties. The boys have started fall gardens and the county agents re port the plots coming nicely. This club appears to off er an opportunity for the members to make spending money over a long period. The records are much harder to keep, but with more experience the boys will be able to show better record books. CITRUS AND ORNAMENTAL CLUBS Citrus Club: This club is proving popular in some cour1ties but lacks a clearly defined revenue-producing feature. There is a need of more subject matter instruction in this club. The range of the subject is so great that it cannot be covered in one subject matter bulletin and still be concise enough for boys to follow. Ornamental Clubs: This is a new idea in club work. Florida,. with all its wealth of ornamentals, is giving scanty attention to beautification. The club department decided that club work might be a help in promoting this needed work. The members should be able to make some money as well. Thirty-six boys were enrolled in this project. As a beginning they were instructed in planting seeds of the more common kinds of palms and in caring for the young plants. Instruc tions were given in layering and rooting of cuttings from the more popular shrubs. The asparagus fern was used by a few boys with good results. _ This project can hardly be completed in a year's time, hence no deailed report is possible. LIVESTOCK CLUBS Calf Club: The systematic eradication of the fever tick and the increased demand for dairy products is bringing the dairy calf into more prominence. Madison County put over the biggest calf club project at tempted up to this time. Ninety-three Jersey calves, mostly purebreds, were placed with 73 boys and girls in July and Aug ust. This is reported to be the second largest Jersey calf club , in the United States. Though the tick had not been eradicated in that county, the boys and girls gave such attention to their calves that only two have died. The calves were . six months of age and under, which explains the small loss. The . time has been too short for worthwhile reports. The members exhibited/

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. 4 nnu al R evort, 19 2 6 3fi 65 of the ca l ves at the county fair in No v ember. The introduc tion of that many b lo oded a nimal s will cha n ge the comp l exion of the milk producing cows in Madison County. In Marion County, the result of a s mall start with four ca l ves three years ago is to be see n. Three of th es e anima l s are now produc in g around 20 pound s of milk per day with their fir st ca lve s. C. R. Hiatt, the county agent, expect s to place mor e calves in 1927. Duval County continue s to work mostly with grades but ex pects to change to purebred s in the future. Breeding Pig Club: The e nrollment in thi s club doubled in 1926. The value of sw in e production as a so ur ce of revenue is beg innin g to be appreciated by the farmer . With this come s a demand for better blood. The pig club members are about the only ones producing purebred breeding sw ine in Florida to day. This was demon strated at the Florida State Fair , where but one Florida h e rd was show n , other than those s hown by the club boys. Some trouble was experie n ~ed in sec uring the right type of pigs for the increased e nrollment. The club boys of Madison Fig. 6 . Russell Henderson , Florida's c hampi on club boy, g iving hi s county agent the r ec ord of a sow which raised 3 1 pig s in three s ucce ss i ve li t t ers .

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension County had the largest supply in Florida. They sold over 60 breeding pigs to other club members in addition to those sold to farmers. This county has been the premier pig club county in the state for five years and was awarded first honors again. Leon, Jefferson and Marion counties continue to improve. The improvement in Marion and Jefferson was perhaps the greatest in the state. That Florida club boys are raising the right type of breeding pigs was shown at the State Fair, where a club pig fed out by Russell Henderson of Madison County won the grand champion Duroc sow award in competition with the breeders. In addition to this grand championship, club pigs won three junior cham pionships. Barrow Club: The enrollment in this club fell off three from last year, due to the increased demand for boars for breeding purposes. The club boys have learned that it takes a good type pig to produce a winning barrow. The barr9w show at the state fair was one of the best anc.I largest yet, and 150 barrows were exhibited. All championships were won by club barrows. As usual, F. E. Dennis, Inc., bought the barrows after the fair was over. Mr. Dennis is the staunchest supporter of pig club work in the state. He has bought every club barrow of fered for sale in Florida. He gives the boys and girls a premium over the market price. He bought 127 barrows after the fair and paid a total of $2,794.17 for them. TABLE IV.-RESULTS OF BOYS' CLUB WORK . WITH FAT BARROWS. -; -; 0.0 t.s >, ii; .i.o,s Ill +l ;;.; ..., "Cl ..., C!l -~-+-> ... a, a, =~ County 0.0 z zr:,:. , i:: .., a, .., a, > ; >..ci 0 a, ~!s: ~!s: 0
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Annual Report, 1926 37 is the largest club in number of members enrolled. Pasco Coun ty, with a membership of 166, leads. In counties where only a man agent is employed, the poultry club is popular with the girls wishing to do club work. In Washington County, nine of the fifteen reporting were girls. With the assistance of the Extension Poultryman, a club bul letin for poultry club work was published. This small bulletin appears to have filled the need for a source of general informa tion to club members. ANNUAL SHORT COURSE The plan of the 1926 short course was varied in no way from that of 1925. The 137 boys who attended were awarded diplomas or certificates at the end of the week. These certificates are taken home and oftentimes framed and serve as permanent in spiration for securing a college education. The part which showed a decided improvement was the swim ming meet. This feature was added in 1925. The first year it was difficult to induce boys to enter. The news of the meet and the medals to be won spread over the state, so the boys practiced at home and came prepared to try. It was necessary to run four heats in every race. Every section of the state was represented among the winners. We find that recreation features aid wonderfully in holding the older boys in club work. CLUB RALLIES AND CAMPS Club Rally: In April over 300 boys . and girls of Pasco Coun ty attended a club _ rally in Dade City. A monster parade was held, after which Mr. C. A. Cobb, Editor of Southern Ruralist, addressed the boys and girls. A picnic dinner and games fin . ished the day. ' County Club Camps: In counties where club work is really : successful, the club camp is a fixture. Fourteen camps were j held in 1926, against nine for 1925. A total of 235 boys attend ed these camps. Four counties in _ South Florida held camps for the first time. The state club agent visited camps in Georgia and South Caro line to secure new ideas. Club Motorcade: In place of a club camp, the agents of Col umbia, Madison and Hamilton counties took some of their club

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension members on a trip through the western end of the state, visit ing the satsuma, blueberry and grape growing localities. , The motorcade was entertained by civic associations along the route . . The members spent one night as guests of the Santa Rosa club boys at their camp. Forty boys taking the trip were given a broader idea of their native state and her resources. TEACHING THRIFT IN CLUB WORK To test the value of club work as an aid in developing the thrift habit among our rural boys, the following is placed on the bottom of the front cover of all club record books, "Every Club Member Should Have a Bank Account. Have you One?" This plan has been in operation for three years. The result is pleasing as the percentage of members having bank accounts grows each year. As this is the first year Walton County boys have been in club work, this county offers an opportunity when compared with Madison County, where club work has been established for 10 years, to test the efficacy of our work in increasing number of bank accounts among rural boys. The following table speaks for itself. If the member failed to answer the question, it was considered as if it had been answered in the negative. Walton (work for 1 year) Ma;dis~n (work for 10 years) ' No . Record Books 31 62 No. Having No. Not Percentage Bank Having With Bank Accts. Bank Accts. Accts . 6 , 25 19.3 42 20 70 . In 1920 we began to ask the question, "Have you a bank ac cotint ?" of all boys attending the short course. In that year less than 50 percent of the best boys in the state, as all were coirnty winners, :reported bank accounts. There has been grad ual improvement until 1926. In 1926 135 boys filled out the card and of them 90, or 66 percent, reported bank accounts. Of the 45 boys answering "No," 23 had been in dub work but one year. After the boys had returned home, a letter was sent to every boy not reporting a bank account urging him to start one. One is justified in believing that club work is an aid in teach ing the country boy to save money as well as the means of making it.

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Annual Report, 1926 39 PERMANENT PASTURE DEMONSTRATIONS JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist In connection with extension animal husbandry work there have been established a number of permanent pastures in vari ous counties and on different soil types. Many of these demon strations reported have been under way since 1924, as it usu ally requires at least two seasons' growth to give a fair idea of the value of permanency of the pasture. This work was under taken under the supervision of the Extension Animal Industri alist in cooperation with the agricultural departments of the Seaboard Air Line and the Florida East Coast railways. In each case the demonstration was located by the county agent and through his efforts much interest has been aroused in the value and permanency of these pastures. For the most part, the seed was furnished by the extension service and the rail roads, and owners of the property prepared the land and sowed the seed. These are the first demonstrations that have been carried out in a systematic way in the state, and the results should have far reaching effect toward improving the grazing and cut-o , ver lands of the state, as well as giving the dairymen and farmers a permanent pasture for their stock. It is estimated that as a result of these permanent pasture grass demonstrations, not less than 1 , 000 acres have been seed ed to permanent pastures during 1926, and a larger acreage will e seeded in 1927. These permanent pasture grasses have been established in ; he following counties: Leon, Marion, Flagler, Madison, Her iando, Jefferson, Okeechobee, Duval, Bay, St. Johns, Suwan1ee, St. Lucie, Gadsden, and Palm Beach. The mixture; in nearly every case, was composed of 6 pounds >f carp . et grass seed, 4 pounds of Dallis grass seed, 2 pounds of i3ahia grass seed, and 3 pounds of lespedeza seed. LEON COUNTY The pasture grass demonstration in Leon County is located m the College Farm. The land selected had been in cultivation for several years, is high and sloping, and . much of the topsoil \Jas been washed away. , The surface is red clay and typical of : he red clay lands in Leon County. :

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension The seed was sown broadcast about May 1, 1924. The land was disked before seeding. In this demonstration, seed of each variety was sown sepa rately. The weather was dry at the time of seeding and con tinued dry for some time, with the result that a good stand of grass was not obtained. However, a thin stand of all the grasses was secured. Carpet grass has spread faster and covered more of the surface of the ground to date than any of the other grasses. There is also now a good seeding of Dallis. Bahia grass is thin, but is growing well and spreading. MARION COUNTY The permanent pasture in Marion County is located on the farm of Mr. Chas. Painter, northeast of Ocala. The piece of land was an old field that had been in cultivation for a number of years. The soil is Noroflk sandy loam with a chocolate brown clay subsoil. The seed mixture was sown broadcast April 25, 1924, on a well-prepared seedbed. The land had been plowed and harrowed and was in excellent condition for seeding. In this pasture there is a good mixture of all of the grasses. FLAGLER COUNTY This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. A. S. Fow ler about three miles southeast of Bunnell. The land selected is typical flatwoods, but with no palmetto, and was part of an old field that had been in cultivation for sev eral years. The land w,as plowed and a good seedbed prepared, , and the seed mixture .sown broadcast August 15, 1924. A good stand of grass was .obtained and all made a satisfac tory growth. As in all of the other demonstrations, the car pet grass made a more rapid growth and spread faster than any of the others. MADISON COUNTY The permanent pasture grass demonstration in Madison County is located on the farm of Mr. A. Strickland, near Green-i ville. The land is well drained heavy loam soil. , The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared. Carpet .and Dallis grasses have made the best growth.

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Annual Report, 1926 41 A meeting of 24 farmers and dairymen was held at this pa8ture October 28, 1926. It was the opinion of a number of farm ers that this pasture would carry two cows per acre for at least nine months during the year. Mr. Strickland says: "Good permanent pastures will be the salvation of the livestock industry in Florida." He has faith in livestock in Florida, as he is adding purebred Guernsey cattle and Poland China hogs to his farming operations. HERN ANDO COUNTY This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. 0. P. Wer nicke, about three miles southeast of Brooksville. The land is good hammock, such as would be considered ideal trucking land in that section. The seed mixture was sown broadcast May 10, 1924, on well prepared land. All of the grasses have made a good growth and have formed a complete sod. On September 29, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture, attended by about 25 farmers and dairymen of Hernando and adjoining , counties. It was estimated that this pasture would carry two cows per acre for at least nine months of the year. Mr. Wernicke is increasing his acreage in permanent pas tures. JEFFERSON COUNTY 'fhis permanent pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. W. W. Bassett, near Monticello. The land is a sandy loam soil with a red clay subsoil, a sloping and well-drained soil that would probably produce 25 bushels of corn per acre without fertilizer. In this demonstration all grasses have made uniform growth and are now covering the ground. There is a good stand over most of the field. Mr. Bassett began grazing this in 1925. Dur ing 1926 it was grazed very heavily. On October 29, 1926, a meeting was held at Mr. Bassett's farm and this pasture was inspected. It was• the general opin ion that all of the grasses were giving excellent results from a grazing standpoint. Mr. Bassett has the following to say re garding this demonstration: "This, together with several other plantings of the same grasses, i.e., carpet, lespedeza, and Dallis grass, have demon

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42 Florida Coop e rative Extension strated to me that a good stand of these grasses will easily carry one to two head of cows per acre from April to October. Such pastures are invaluable to stockmen and dairymen, and to even the small farmer with only a few cows. "My hopes and needs are being fully realized by these grasses arid my acreage of them is being extended each year." Mr. Bassett seeded 75 acres to permanent pastures last year. OKEECHOBEE COUNTY This permanent pasture grass demonstration 1s located on the farm of Mr. McWilliams about four miles northwest of Okeechobee City. The land is typical flatwoods originally cov ered with scrub palmettos. The land was plowed and harrowed and a good seedbed prepared. On December 10, 1926, a meeting was held at this pasture demonstration, attended by 15 dairymen and farmers. A good stand of carpet grass now covers the ground, and with it a good sprinkling of Dallis and Bahia. : This demonstration pasture has perhaps received more se \1ere grazing than any of the other demonstrations. It was grazed very hard during the early spring and summer of 1926. In spite of this hard grazing, the grasses have grown and spread so that they now cover the ground. The appearance of this pasture now would indicate that it would carry one cow to the acre during the year. DUVAL COUNTY This demonstration is located on the farm of Mr. Windle Smith about five or six miles northwest of Jacksonville. It is typical pine land. The land was disked and a good seedbed prepared. . The carpet and Dallis grasses have made a good growth and are furnishing excellent pasture. Mr. Smith has been . so well pleased with this demonstration that he has sown a large acre age to grasses since this first seeding. . . ' ' . BAY COUNTY This permanent pasture grass demonstration is on: the farm -of Mr. E. 0. Miley. It is located on cutover land, similar in all respects , to thousands of acres of other lands 'in Bay County.

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A.nnnal Report, .1926 43 The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the serd mixture sown broadcast July 15, 1925. Carpet and Dallis grasses have made the best showing. There is a scattering stand of ,Bahia and lespedeza. ST. JOHNS COUNTY The pasture grass demonstration in St. Johns is on the farm_ f Mr. Wolf on the highway between Hastings and St. Aug stine. The land is typical scrub palmetto flatwoods soil. The and was cleared and disked, but left very rough. The seed nixture was sown broadcast June 21, 1924. A poor stand of grass was obtained, largely because a good seedbed had not been prepared. However, lespedeza germi nated and grew well. The carpet grass during the summer of 1925 made a good growth and spread well, so that now there is a good sod of carpet over a large portion of the pasture. Dallis and Bahia are now growing well and seeding freely. They do not spread and cover the ground as rapidly as does carpet grass. SUWANNEE COUNTY This pasture grass demonstration is located on the farm of Franz Schmidt, about two miles southeast of Live Oak. The land is cutover pine land, Norfolk sandy loam soil. The land was plowed and harrowed and a good seedbed pre pared before sowing the seed. No lespedeza was sown with this mixture. The ground had been seeded to lespedeza the year b_efore. All of the. grasses made a good growth on this . pasture. ST. LUCIE COUNTY The pasture demonstration in St. Lucie County is located on the ; farm of Mr. Win. Garrup, four miles west and one and a half miles north of Ft. Pierce. The piece of land selected is drained land generally spoken of as grassy flatwoods. The surface soil is a sandy loam with a brownish sandy subsoil with some clay. The land was plowed and a good seedbed prepared, and the ~eed mixture sown September 15, 1925. There is a uniform stand of grass and it is making satisfac tory growth. The carpe~ and Dallis grasses are the most ag

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension gressive and are making the most rapid growth. Although this grass has been planted less than a year and a half it has made a complete sod and completely covered the ground. On December 9, 1926, a meeting, attended by 50 farmers and dairymen from Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin coun ties, was held at this demonstration pasture. It was the opinion of a number of the men present that the pasture would carry three cows per acre for the entire year. NEW PASTURES Pasture grass demonstrations were planted during 1926 in Gadsden and Palm Beach counties. The one in Palm Beach county is farther south than any other thus far established. MISCELLANEOUS Judging from the number of inquiries from county agents, farmers and dairymen for good stock and also for information regarding the feeding of stock, much more interest is being taken in livestock than there has been during the past two or three years. This is particularly true of dairy cattle and hogs. Another noticeable fact is that prospective buyers are de manding a better quality of purebred animals. ':I'his i~ a good healthy sign. During the year we have assisted in placing six purebred Jersey bull calves . These have all gone into communities that are developing along dairy lines. Have assisted in placing 10 good purebred Poland China pigs. These pigs in most cases have gone to young farmers who are just getting started in the hog business. Their intentions are not so much the selling of purebred hogs as that of producing good meat hogs. Letters coming to the office asking for information on feed ing and care of livestock numbered 200.

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County Leon Marion Flagler Madison Hernando Jefferson .X-L1rt:J.,l,1,J.'i1U, ~"""u '------, .. _ -----~.<'REPARATION OF PASTURE GRASS DEMONSTRAT[ONS IN FLORrDA. of Grower j Mixture-Pounds Per Acre Kind of Soil I Seedbed I Preparation Condition of pasture De cember 30, 1926. Name and Address I Grass Seed I Date Planted State College I Carpet Grass 6 M.,_.a_y_l _ ,-1,..,9_2_4_-;-~R,--ed-,----sa_n_d""y---,c=D'"'i-sc _ e _ d-b,--e f'""o_r_e'I ""'G cco od growth-thin stand. for Women, Dallis 4 clay seeding I Tallahassee, Bahia 2 j Fla. I Lespedeza 3 I Mr. Chas. Painter Carpet Grass 6 April 25, 1924 I Sandy \ Plowed and Bahia 2 I I Ocala, Fla. Dallis 4 I loam harrowed Lespedeza 3 I A. S. Fowler \ Carpet Grass 6/ 1 Aug. 15, 1924 I Flatwoods I Plowed and I Good growth and good Bunnell, Fla. Dallis 4 r \ harrowed I stand. Bahia 2 •, 1 I I / Plowed up April, 1926. I Lespedeza 3 I 1 ------,-----------A. Strickland Carpet Grass 6 April 28, 1924 Well drained: Plowed and \ Good growth of carpet, Greenville, Fla. Dallis 4 heavy loam I harrowed , . Dallis and lespedeza. Bahia 2 \ 1 Lespedeza 3 I o. P. Wernicke Carpet Grass i:l T May . 10, 1924 I Hammock I Plowed and I Excellent growth and stand Brooksville, Fla. Dallis 4 I I I harrowed \ of all. Bahia 2 I I Lespedeza 3 l I _ . _ _ I _ . . . ----W. W. Bassett I Carpet Grass 6 I April 28, 1924 Sandy loam I Plowed and I Good growth of all. Monticello, Fla. Dallis seeded be1 1 clay subsoil harrowed I fure~~~~s I were sown. I i Bahia 2 II ..,,..,---=----:---;..-=-=--=-=--====c--+.c::L'--e~sp,_e"-'d'--e'--z""a __ --=3-,-1-=-:c----=---=-::-:::--i-:ccc Okeechobee Mr. McWilliams Carpet Grass 6 May 21, 1925 I Flatwoods I Palmettos I Good sod of carpet, thin Okeechobee City, Dallis 4 heavy growth grubbed out I ~tand of Dallis and BaFla. Bahia 2 palmetto and land hia, fair stand of lespeLespedeza 3 plowed and deza. I --_ _ __ .. . . _ __ __ -•----_!ia _ ri:owed _ '___ ______ _

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TABLE V.-LOCATION, GRASS SEED MIXTURE, DATE OF PLANTlNG, KIND OF SOIL, AND DEMONSTRATIONS IN FLORIDA-Continued. SEEDBED PREPARATION OF PASTURE GRASS County i NameancfAd
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Annual Report, 1926 47 DAIRYING H. L. BROWN, Extension Dairyman The Extension Dairyman visited the following counties in 1926 in carrying on demonstrations of various kinds: Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Bay, Washington, Jackson, Liberty, Gadsden, Wakulla, Leon, Jefferson, Taylor, Madison, Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia, Baker, Nassau, Duval, Bradford, Alachua, St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler, Marion, Citrus, Sumter, Hernando. Lake, Volusia, Brevard, Osceola, Hillsboro, Manatee, Sarasota, Lee, Highlands, Hendry, Glades, Indian River, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Okeechobee, and Dade. FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS The most important thing in a program to enlarge the dairy business in Florida is cheaper feeds, such as home-grown rough ages and good pastures, with economical grain rations. The Extension Dairyman cooperated with the Animal Indus trialist and county district agents in holding field meetings at all of the pasture demonstration plots, where there were 845 farmers and business men getting first hand information about practical pasture work. There will be 150-175 pasture plots seeded in Florida in 1927 as a direct result of the field demon strations held in 12 counties. The dairy agent carried on practical feeding dem'.>nstrations with the cooperation of the county agents with 365 dairymen in 26 counties. Forty-three dairymen kept an abbreviated system of dairy production records, showing an estimated cost of producing milk, ranging from 18 to 57 cents a gallon. The average cost of milk produced by the dairymen was 37 cents a gallon, while the average cost of produci_ng milk in the state will probably exceed 45 cents a gallon when all items of cost are accounted for. The dairymen getting the lowest production costs are grow ing an abundance of pasture and roughages, and are carrying on other lines of farming in connection with their dairy work. SILOS The silo has proven to be a very necessary equipment in the production of milk at a low cost. There• have been 34 silos built in the state as a part of the feed demonstration work.

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48 Flo ri da Co op e rat ive E x tensi o n Building plans have been furnished to 27 dairymen as a part of the dairy exte nsion work. PUREBRED SIRES One purebre9 bu ll assoc iation was formed m Marion Cou nt y with five registered bull s to be man age d accord in g to rule s gover ning s u ch assoc iation s . This means that constr u ct i ve breeding m et hod s providing for purchase and exc hange of s ire s w ill give maximum u se of a bull throughout hi s life tim e , pro vided his daughter s prove good. It also provides for the butch ering of s ir es that do not prove worthy. Eighty seven registered bulls have been placed in dairie s wanting better bulls, through the cooperat ion of the co unt y agents a nd the Exten s ion Dairyman. CA LF CLUB WORK Organized calf club work was carried on in Duval and Mad ison counties with 69 boys and girls. Madison County put on Fig. 7 . -Calf club work in Florida was greatly increased in 1926.

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Annual Report, 1926 49 the largest county calf show ever held in Florida and the sec ond largest boys' calf exhibit ever held in the South as a direct result of dairy extension work. As in all other work, the Ex tension Dairyman cooperated with the State Club Leader, dis trict agents and all others connected with club work in making this a success. Madison County brought in 150 Jersey calves during 1926 as a result of the work of county agent and dairy agent. Of these, 103 were registered. DAIRY TOURS Dairy tours are valuable aids in arousing interest among dairymen to increase their efforts to improve their methods of dairy operation. Some may think the man past 30 years of age will not take on new ideas, but all that is needed to disprove such statements is to take a bunch of farmers and dairymen on a tour and watch them copy new ideas when they get back i home. The Extension Dairyman made six motorcades with 94 dairy men that gave splendid aid in awakening six counties to new and better ways of dairying. DAIRY ORGANIZATION Five county dairy organizations with a membership of 127 dairymen were formed as a means of improving dairy methods. These dairy organizations are greatly increasing the quality of their products through organized methods. Cooperative buying of feeds in car-lots has netted a saving of over $2 , 500 to these organizations. Cooperative buying of bottles and crates in car-lot quantities has netted a saving of four or five thousand ~ aollars . FAIR EXHIBITS The interest in dairy exhibits at the State Fair and the South Florida Fair has greatly improved. These associations are in creasing the prizes each year and have provided for separate prizes for the producers and distributing plants another year. 4

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension CITRUS PATHOLOGY-ENTOMOLOGY E. F. DEBUSK, Pathologist-Entomologist The approved plan of work in citrus disease and insect con trol provides in detail for definite projects in each of the citrus producing counties on melanose, citrus scab, blue mold decay, tree trunk and root diseases, rust mite, citrus aphid, scale and whitefly. MELANOSE The adopted methods of melanose control are spraying with 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion and prun ing out dead branches. Demonstrations with either or both of these methods were conducted in the principal citrus producing counties. The unusual rainy season at spraying time, early in April, caused many of the co-operating growers to abandon mel anose spraying, believing that results under the conditions could not make the operation profitable. However, despite the unfavorable season, the results of melanose spraying generally have been very satisfactory. Considerable time has been devoted to instructing growers, through method demonstrations, press articles, field meetings and field visits, in detail as to the proper time and method of applying the Bordeaux and the follow-up oil spray. With more favorable labor conditions, pruning is being recommended in many cases as a substitute for spraying. The economic phases of melanose control are being stressed through special press articles, reprints, and packers' bulletins to grower members. CITRUS SCAB Spraying demonstrations in scab control were conducted in the sections where scab is an important factor in the production of grapefruit of quality. Scab control on satsumas was also carried on this year, by spraying demonstrations, in four of the satsuma producing counties of West Florida. Except in a few cases where conditions seemed to warrant the use of 1 to 30 or 1 to 40 lime-sulphur, homemade 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture plus 1 percent oil emulsion was used. In some cases, spraying with 1 to 30 lime-sulphur immediately be fore the first flush of growth is found to be most economical. In all but extreme cases, successful efforts have been made to work out a spray schedule by which the grower can procure sat

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Annual Report, 1926 51 isfactory control of scab by one application of the spray mate rial. In most cases the cost of scab control has been kept within 7 cents a box. Last spring the same weather conditions that made melanose control difficult favored the development of citrus scab and rendered control measures less effective. Consequently, the fruit is not a s free of scab this year as it was last year. On citrus fruit as well as with vegetables, the weather at spray ing time in a large measure determines the effectiveness of a fungicide applied. BLUE MOLD DECAY . An attempt has been made to materially reduce the $ 3,500 , 000 annual losses from blue and green mold decay. It is known that this decay is due to fungi (P e nicilliu , m) which can enter the fruit and cause decay only through cuts and abrasions in the rind. It has also been found that a large percentage of the wounds through which decay develops are made in picking and handling the fruit in the grove. In picking, the rind of the fruit is broken by clipper cuts, long-stem punctures, plugging by pulling, finger nail scratches and various forms of bruises and minor injuries. From this defective picking and handling, largely due to improper supervision, heavy decay results and consequent heavy discounts on the sale price of the fruit in the markets, often taking the grower's profits. Therefore war has been declared on defective picking and rough handling of the fruit from the tree to the packinghouse. In nine counties dem onstrations have been conducted in the proper use of picking equipment and in careful handling of the fruit. More thorough supervision of the picking operations has been urged. In every case very marked improvement and a big saving to the grower have been the result of the demonstration. Demonstrations with three crews containing 30 pickers resulted in improve ments and saving to the growers as follows: With inadequate supervision and improper use of picking equipment before demonstration, average picking defects .............. . . 14.2 % After demonstration and adoption of better methods, picking defects . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .... . ... . .. ............... . ... ... ... . . . .. .... .. .... . . ... .... .. ..... .. . ......... . .. ... . . 5.3 % Final cost of picking at 10 cents per box before demonstration . with 14.2 % defective ........ . . . ... .. .. . . . . .... . . . . '. .. ..... .. ... . .. .... . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . '. . 6 3 c e nt s Final cost of picking, after demonstration, 5.3 % defective . . .. . .. .... ... 12 c e nts Saving in picking cost to gro w er, per box ..... .... .... . ......... ..... ..... .... .. . .. 51 c e nts Addi~io!"al cost per bo x of proper sup e rvision and more careful p1ck1ng ....... . .. . . . ..... .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . ...... . .. ...... . ... . .... . ...................... . . .. .. .... .. . ....... 1 c e nt Net sa v ing per box on picking ...... . . . .... . . ....... .. ... . ..... . . . .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . .... .. .. .. 50 c e nt s

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension In arriving at the "final cost of picking," the percentage of picking defects, the percentage of decay due to such defects and discount on the sale price of the fruit because of the decay, were taken as factors. If the above 30 pickers pick 5 months or 100 days and pick an average of 30 boxes each per day or a total of 90,000 boxes and maintain the same high standard of picking throughout the season, which they no doubt will, this little piece of work will result in a saving of $45,000 to the growers whose fruit they handle. One county agent in his annual report says: "I believe I can save the growers of my county $100,000 on this project." Special articles bearing on this project have been carefuHr prepared and used very effectively by the press. The leading fruit packing and shipping organizations of the state secured reprints of one article and placed same in the hands of their packingh'ouse managers and field foremen. Such cooperation is bound to give results. TRUNK AND ROOT DISEASES Especial attention has been given to improving the methods of treating foot rot. Through demonstrations and the press, growers have been saved money by substituting the "machine method" of treating foot rot for the slow, expensive, hand method. The regular grove power spraying outfit is used, with one hose, open nozzle and high pressure, to wash the dirt away from the roots. Then the same outfit, adjusted for spray ing, is used to spray Bordeaux mixture on to 'the crown roots. Treating foot rot by the "machine method" reduces the cost about 75 percent. In advanced stages of foot rot, many trees have been saved by building a mound of dirt or clay 18 to 30 inches high and 12 to 16 feet in diameter around the trunk of the diseased tree. Trees treated in this manner develop new root systems and again become profitable producers. RUST MITE In addition to conducting dusting and spraying demonstra tions in rust mite control in the principal citrus producing coun ties, much time has been devoted, through field meetings, field

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Annual Report, 1926 53 visits, and the press, to instructing growers along the lines of more economical control of the rust mite. Many of the demon strations were planned to teach growers that more economical rust mite control is to be attained through more timely and more thorough dusting and spraying, thereby reducing the to tal number of applications necessary. Certain growers are wasting money by making unnecessary and untimely applica tions. Three growers' organizations have been induced to pur chase more efficient equipment arid do all their rust mite con trol cooperatively or on a kind of "spray ring" plan. This meth od greatly reduces the per box cost of rust mite control. With proper equipment and timely applications, the cost of rust mite control should not exceed 4 cents per box with a normal crop. In many cases it is being done at a total cost of 2 cents per box. CITRUS APHID Except in a few small areas, the citrus aphid did not develop into a serious pest during the year. This was perhaps due to the dormant condition of trees during the winter of 1925-26, and to the development of natural parasites during the favor able weather of the early spring and summer. Consequently mu'ch less spraying and dusting was done during the year than was done in 1925, and only slight damage resulted to the citrus industry from infestations of this pest. SCALE AND WHITEFLY An effort has been made through method demonstrations, field meetings, and the press, to bring about more thorough fall and winter clean-up spraying for whitefly and scale. More gen eral use of the red Aschersonia in whitefly control has been en couraged with gratifying results. The necessity of the extra oil emulsion spraying in June following an application of Bor deaux-oil for melanose control, to keep down scale infestations, has been stressed with satisfactory results.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension PLANT PATHOLOGY ' AND ENTOMOLOGY M. R: _ ENSIGN, Pathologist-Entomologist The plan of work submitted and approved at the beginning of this year carried with it four main lines of work as follows: 1. Cucurbit disease control by spraying and dusting and seed disinfection. 2. Control of late blight of Irish potatoes by spraying and dusting. 3. Bean leaf-hopper control. 4. Dissemination of mosaic-resistant variety of sugar cane. During the year four other lines of work developed which may be classed as emergency and miscellaneous: (1) Cotton boll weevil control; (2) the control of the two-spotted mite on ferns; (3) preliminary work in securing disease-free bean seed, and ( 4) making a hand-book on truck diseases. CUCURBIT DISEASE CONTROL Demonstrations were started in cucumber mildew control in the following counties: Three demonstrations in Lake, two in Sumter, two in Orange, and four in Marion. Acts of Provi dence, however, practically rendered these ineffective. F-irst of all, the winter temperatures were unusually low and prolonged, and it is the experience of growers that following such a win ter the mildew is a negligible factor. It proved to be so in this case, for in none of the fields did this usually destructive dis ease do much damage until very late in the spring. In the sec ond place, some of the heaviest rains attended by very cold weather came just after the cucumbers were planted and con tinued until after the normal shipping season was past. Com, petitive producers farther north ruined the price so that many i fields were abandoned before any results from the demonstra tions could be secured. With only one grower, Mr. P. H. Britt of Winter Garden, were we able to get any data and this wa~ not very complete. Therefore, the following brief summary h given as the deductions which the data seemed to justify. 1. It is most economical to use a traction sprayer in the control of mildew of cucumbers until the vines begin to run well. 2. Use three nozzles to the row with a pressure of 150 tc 200 pounds.

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. Annual Report, 1926 55 3. When the foliage becomes too thick and runners are sent out, then the power _ sprayer with a man on each lead of hose is n_ecessary in order to cover the under side of the leaves. The spray gun properly operated gave excellent results. 4. Spraying every five days gave much better control than with longer intervals. 5. Dusted plots held up well until the latter part of the pick ing season, but this may have been due to the fact that mildew was not severe earlier. Dusted plots produced fruit a few days in advance of sprayed plots, but the total yield was in f~vor of the sprayed plots. TABLE VI.-RESULTS OF SPRAYING AND DUSTING FOR CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT OF IRISH POTATOES, HASTINGS, 1926. I. II. III. 0 z --IV. Dusted Plots -25-75 Copper Lime Dust l Cost of Control 1 5 Wdaeyts I 37 l 67 1 1 12.9123 5.1 110 155 I $11.25T -~ 5 applications (Night) j I I lOWdeatys / 29 / 61 115.5 I 33 2.51 6 I 47 I 6.75 I .14 I I 3 appllications (Night) I I l 6Ddrayys I 39.9 I 72111.9121 1' 3.21 7 r 55 r 11.25 I .20 I I 6 applications (Day) I I I \ l;gt~s , 37.2164120 132 I 4.31 4161.51 /:;p~icati~;s -, --, Liquid Spray (5-5-50 Bo~~e~=~ )-1 I -,--, ,-'---c--V. 1 5 days I 50.8 / 73115 / 23 / 2.3 / 4 j 68.1 I 8.60 I .12 , \ . I I I I i , ' 5 appycations VI I 3 applications I/ 10 days 147 172114 1 1 21 1 1 4 II 7 l 66 I 5.16 I .08 . I •---~----~-~-~ ~--~-~ ----Check: There was but a small patch left for check and the actual weights were not taken, but, judging from the way the plot turned out, there could not have been more than 25 bbls. No, l's and 16 bbls. No. 2's, 3's and 4's combined. This is a liberal allowance.

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56 Florida Cooperative E xtension SPRAYING AND DUSTING OF IRISH POTATOES Attempts were made to secure demonstrations in Palm Beach, Volusia, Flagler , and St. Johns. One demonstration in the lat ter was all that materialized. The results secured through the cooperation of J. L. Scrib ner , county agent, on the Leonard Farms at Hastings, are sig nificant and are given in Table VI. I Fig. 8 . -County agent showing growers different grades of Iri s h potatoel The higest total yields were produced on the sprayed plots slightly in favor of the 5-day interval. These 5-day interv~ spraye d plots also produced the highest percentage of grad No. l' s, with a total cost of $8.8 0 per acre. On the other hand the lowe st yield was produced on the dusted plots when th plants were wet (night) at 10-day intervals. Co mparing thes 1 with total net income, the spraying paid the highest dividend/ Th e data s how an important difference between the incom per acre from the plots dusted when the plants were dry an from the same number of applications when the plants wei wet. In putting on the dust during the day a canvas drag abo1 15 feet long was used, which c onfined the dust and insured much better distribution than when applied even to wet plant

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Annual Report, 1926 57 Basing the figures on the prices obtained last year, the fol lowing comparisons are interesting: TABLE VIL-PROFITS FROM SPRAYING AND DUSTING FOR THE CONTROL OF LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES Dusted Plots (Average) Acre Yielded 36.2 bbls. No. l's @ $7.50 . ... ......... .. ........... ... .. : ..... ......... ...... ...... . . $271.50 Yielded 15.0 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 ..... ............ ... .. .......................... . ........... 75.00 . Yielded 3.8 bbls. No. 3's @ $3.00 ....... . ..... ....... . . ... .......... . . .... ....... ..... ........ 11.40 Total income, dusted acre . .......... .. .. ...... . ........................ .... ... . .. . ... ... .. . $3 57 : 90 Total cost, control measures ..... ....... ..... ....... . ....... .. ....... ....... .. ... .. .... .. . 9.00 Total income, other costs being equal ....... , ........ . ..... ....... . .............. $348.90 . Sprayed Plots (Average) Acre Yielded 48.9 bbls. No. l's @ $7.50 .. . .. .... .... .......................... ... .... . .... ..... . $366.75 Yielded 14.5 bbls. No. 2's @ $5.00 .... .......... .... ..................... ... ............ ... . .. 72.50 Yielded 3 bbls. No. 3's @ $3.00 .......................... . ......... : .............. . ... . .... .... . . 9.00 Total income sprayed plots . ....... ....... ..................... ..... ....... . ............... $ 448. 75 Cost of control .......................................... . ............... . .. .... ..... ........... . .... 6 .88 Tot a l net income, other costs being equal.. .. ...... .......... ..... .. ... .......... $441.37 This shows a net income difference of $9 4.47 in favor of spraying. And in this year of good prices the second and third grade stuff brought a good price. In years of poor demand the spread would be even greater, for then only the No. l's bring any money. It would appear that . it would pay the potato grower to giye the disease control feature some real thought and supervision. MOSAIC OF SUGAR CANE Since this is just the time of year when the agitation for the securing of Cayana cane is . made, nothing very specific has been accomplished. Two or three articles for the press have been prepared, calling attention to this matter. Cayana is making many friends and the possibilities of its ultimately displacing the susceptible varieties are very good. SEEDBED DISINFECTION Two commercial firms of Sanford were induced to buy a port able boiler and build two wooden pans for the steaming of eelery beds. This equipment cost in the neighborhood of $1,500. It was July 7 before the equipment was at work, so that only a relatively limited number of beds were sterilized. Beds were

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58 Florida Cooperative Ex:tension treated fo.r varying time-inter.vals from 30 to 90 minutes. The steam pressure was maintained at nearly 100 . pounds. It is too early to secure results at this time. Indicatim1s are that the treatment will prove satisfactory in spite of the fact that the whole area was inundated because of the hurricane of July 29. This will interfere with a normal test, for the beds will undoubtedly be more or less re~contaminated. COTTON BOLL WEEVIL A series of meetings was held in the northern and western counties of the state, and farmers were urged to look upon boll weevil control as a matter of insurance. The provision of poi son, the fall plo~ing of cotton land and the use of syrup mix tures for at least two applications, was urged. The results seem to be satisfactory. TWO-SPOTTED MITE ON FERNS (Asparagus Plumosus) An outbreak of the two-spotted mite on the Asparagus fern in Volusia County threatened to become. serious. The use of sulfur, the orthodox treatment, seemed at first not to work. The adults were apparently quite resistant to it, and dusting fai1ed to get those on the ends of the long sprays. By repeated use of sulfur the nymphs were killed and in 10 days the infesta tion was under control. The use of calcium cyanide as a fumi gant was quite ineffective. HANDBOOK ON TRUCK DISEASES A series of 20 picture"s showing symptoms of various tru(;. crop diseases common to the vegetables of Florida were mad up in a loose-leaf binder. Opposite each picture was a page o1 information regarding the disease, including losses, and dis• tribution, symptoms, and control. These handbooks were dis tributed to county agents in truck growing territory. BEAN SEED WORK . I Losses 'to bean growers due to seed-borne diseases mount uJ to nearly a half-million dollars annually. Last year 450 pound~ of bean seed produced in the Western states, California, Colo, rado and Idaho, were planted in about 20 different places il

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' Annual Report, 1926 59 Florida and, as a check, the . seed coming through ' the regular channels of trade were planted alongside. Many of these tests failed to show anything conclusive, due to weather unfavor able to the growth of the beans (high water and cold rain) or to too dry weather for the development of any diseases. How ever, those that did show results were very conclusive and the Western-grown stuff showed at least 50 percent better than any of the checks, not only in the matter of freedom from an thracnose or bacterial blight, but in general vigor and produc tivity. Since these demonstrations showed the Western seed to be so desirable, the writer was authorized to make a trip with Dr. L. L. Harter of the Bureau of Plant Industry to California, Idaho and Colorado to stimulate the growth of better bean seed with the object of getting on a basis of seed certification as soon as possible. The results of the trip are summarized below. REPORT OF BEAN SEED INSPECTION TRIP 1. It is evident that anthracnose of beans and of bean seed grown in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Colorado occurs so infrequently as to render it of no concern to Florida bean growers. 2. Mosaic is general in the states mentioned above, and es ' pecially in the Twin Falls section; where the aphid is plentiful during the early part of the growing season, and aphids un doubtedly act as agents of inoculation. The . damage to the crop is considerable and continues to increase in severity from year to year. Seedsmen, strange to say, have so far disregard ed this and other bean diseases. They very zealously rogue out any plants that are "off type" and from that standpoint the product is par excellence. But the inroads that diseases have made for the past two years, especially in the Twin Falls section, is compelling attention and Dr. Harter's and my visit there will stimulate more thought in that direction. The men heading the seed hom~es located in the West frankly state that they do not know anything about the disease problem and hence have done nothing along that line. i Arrangements were made to secure seed of several varieties [ howing 100 percent mosaic, which it is proposed to plant in wo bean_ growing sec:ions of Florida t? dete~min_e whether or ot mosaic expresses itself under Florida . climatic conditions.

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension The evidence so far seems to indicate . that it , is not a serious menace to the spring crop. It may have more influence upon the fall crop. Further work along this line is needed and con templated. 3. No bacterial blight, the greatest enemy of the bean . in Florida, was found in some of the sections visited. It was prob lematical whether it was in the Twin Falls section, but it was very prevalent in the Greeley, Colorado, section. It was the only disease that was of any consequence in the latter place, but it was of such general occurrence, on both the leaves and the 1 pods, that it would be unsafe to use seed from that quarter thi:;, 1 year, at least. It is , therefore, the bacterial blight problem that is para mount in the seed production of the Western states and of vita concern to the Florida and other Southern and Eastern bea1 growers. The very fact that all of the largest seed concerns have gone to the Western states shows clearly that they recog nize the arid conditions prevailing there as ideal to the produc tion of seed, yet , even with anthracnose eliminated, bacteria blight continues to be a real problem. These same seed housei have seed-producing areas in New York and Michigan and her• bacterial blight and anthracnose frequently take the crop anc I are present almost every year to a gre . ater or less extent. . Muc~ of the seed that goes into the retail seed houses serving th1 South and East comes from Michigan and New York plantings so that, unless the growers specify that they want Westernj grown seed, they are liable to get seed infected with not onI~ bacterial blight but anthracnose as well. 4. Note was made of the varietal susceptibility and resisl ance of beans to the diseases studied and, while none was er tirely free in all sections visited, there was a range of suscer tibility that was quite evident. Among the pole beans, the Brown Kentucky Wonder was t~ freest from disease. At Eugene, Oregon, it WHS entirely fr1 from anthracnose and bacterial blight. Ther -ri occasion) plant that showed mild mosaic. The Burpee's Stringless Green Pod was , strongest-growing bush variety in each sectioi. the Giant Stringless as a close second. The Tennt. Pod, much grown in Florida, but a very poor . quality b,

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Annual Report, 1926 61 in every case the most subject to all the diseases and a very weak grower. A letter of information relative to the facts in the bean seed situation was mailed to each of the county agents in bean grow ing counties of the state and they were urged to use their good offices to induce seed houses in their respective counties to buy seed in accordance with the facts presented herewith. The bean seed situation presents a parallel case with that of Irish potato seed, so far as the Florida producer is concerned and, in the writer's opinion, should be handled in a similar man ner. Some of the best money that the State of Florida could expend would be to have someone working in Florida in the winter or during the bean-producing season and then work in the Twin Falls and Greeley sections during the months of seed production. As a result of the recent trip to these sections, there are a number of lines of work in these places that should oe undertaken immediately to insure the Florida bean grower constant supply of high-grade, disease-free seed.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension POULTRY WORK N. R. MEHRHOF, Extension Poultryman Interest in poultry production in practically all sections of the state has been at a very high pitch during the year. This has been true with the backyard poultry raiser, the farmer, the commercial poultryman, and the fancier. This great stimulus in poultry production is due no doubt to the demand for poultry products-both meat and eggs. From estimates furnished by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the State Marketing Commissioner, the production of poul try products is much below the consumption. Prices received during the current year for these products have helped to a great extent in the development of the industry. The poultry work for the year consisted of the following projects: 1. Standardization of poultry flocks 2. Standardization of poultry products 3. Organization a. State t b. County Poultry Associations c. Community J 4. Boys' and Girls' poultry clubs 5. Home Egg-Laying Contest 6. Extension poultry schools 7. Poultry tours of inspection 8. Culling demonstrations 9. Caponizing demonstrations 10. Miscellaneous Standardbred flocks were increased materially by reason o1 the fact that poultry breeders and hatcheries operated at ful capacity. The beginners in poultry production secured Stan , dardbred poultry, in a great many cases with high egg prodUC i tion records. This project was carried out with junior ell members and adult demonstrators. Standardbred poultry wa increased in every county, these birds taking the place of mo grels. The number and capacity of hatcheries in the state increas 1 considerably in 1926 over 1925, reaching a total of 350,000-er capacity. The hatcheries have run at full capacity during f hatching months, and the commercial poultrymen and . breede have sold to their limit. The junior poultry club work has i

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Annual Report, 1926 creased. All of these agencies would indicate that there have been a greater number of Standardbred flocks in 1926 than in 1925. Standardization of . poultry products is one of the projects which, up to the present time, has not been stressed to any great extent, due to the fact that the demand was greatly in excess of production. However, a certain amount of funda mental work was given, so as to have the poultrymen in readi ness when the time arrives for greater quality and uniformity, and standardization of grades. Organization: Poultry associations throughout the state, whether they be state, county, or community, have been val. . uable agencies through which poultry information could be presented to a larger number of people. These associations have been of great value to the poultry raiser in that they pre sented timely poultry information and also assisted in market ing poultry products. Field meetings and demonstrations, as 1 features, . were held in connection with some of these associa tions. There are 27 poultry associations in the state; five of which vere organized during the current year. In two counties the ~ ommunity poultry associations were replaced by county poul try associations and one county poultry association ceased to ' Unction and was replaced by community poultry associations. 0 Phe associations now organized operate in 26 counties, an in rease of four counties over the previous year. This shows that 8.8 percent of the counties in this state have poultry associa lions. The American Poultry Association of Florida_;a state organi ation-serves the entire state. In August, the Florida Baby Chick Association was organized, ~presenting the hatcheries and poultry raisers who have chicks l)r sale. The members are located in widely different sections t the state. This was perhaps one of the greatest achieve fents during the year. In effect its motto is, "To promote, ~ster, and improve the baby chick industry and the allied ~anches of poultry husbandry in Florida." . Poultry products were graded by 13 associations, thus mak l g it possible for the producers to secure better prices for their mducts. More attention wiH be paid to this phase _ of the poul y program.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension Poultry Club Work with boys and girls continued with the same rules and regulations as the preceding year, with poultry hints to the juniors being issued in the club paper. Poultry breeders throughout the state have been a great help in the development o f this project. Lectures a n d demons tr tions were given at the boys' and gir l s' club s hort cou r ses at Gainesville a n d Tallahas s ee. The boys and girls p o u 1 t r y clubs increased 1 40 percent, which / is a marked ad va nc e. C ontest s were he 1 d at which the boy s and girls exhib ited their poul try . Exhibits were held at the State Fair , South Florida Fair and severa l co unt ~ fairs . / Home Egg Laying Contest The First Flor ida Home Egg' . Laying Contes . came to a ver , successful clos October 31, 192 The Second Flo Fig. 9 . -Poultry is one of the important club proj ects ida Home Eg of both boys and girls. Laying Contes

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Annual Report, 1926 65 started November 1 with a total of 74 contestants. This con test is conducted practically along the same lines as the First, and is so arranged as to take care of backyard flocks, farm flocks, and commercial flocks. There are 30 counties repre sented in the Second Home Egg-Laying Contest, and the in crease in number of contestants for this contest is approximate ly 100 percent. Following are results of the First Florida Home Egg-Laying Contest: TABLE VIII.-EGG PRODUCTION PER BIRD PER MONTH IN THE HOME EGG LAYING CONTEST. -Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May une J J A uly ug. Sept. Jct. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yearly Total 5 I ) Average 5.95 7.55 : 10.44 14.34 18.92 18.41 17.37 14.46 13.63 11.22 8.80 7.97 167.28 \ Best Backy'd I Best Farm I Best ComI Flock Flock \ mere'! Flock I 4.40 5.93 13.94 17.40 10.36 15.19 24.40 12.28 16.50 22.13 20.87 19.04 26.51 28.75 23.03 28.05 24.35 23.69 23.91 21.73 22.09 17.94 20.74 19.43 23.53 17.99 17.48 21.05 13.62 16.03 19.26 8.95 12.02 20.54 5.69 11.66 249.12 191.26 210.10

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension TABLE IX.-STATISTICAL REPORT OF FIRST FLORIDA HOME EGG-LAYING CONTEST. --I Best Back-I Best Farm ) Best ComAverage for _ yard Flock I Flock mercial Flock Entire Contest I j Aver. No. Birds J 34 1' 149 1' 584 274 Total Eggs ---------) 7,445 25,959 125,258 1,098 , 730 Eggs Per Bird ____ / 249.12 . 191.26 210.10 148.67 Total Cash Ex~/ pense 3'72.88 325.28 1,891.35 998.69 Total Cash Receipt 790 . 56 614.05 4 , 729 . 99 1,780.40 Net Return --------417.68 288.77 2,838.64 881.71 I N etBi~et~~~----~~-~-1 12.28 1.93 4.86 3.21 Average Price of Eggs -. .613 .328 .446 .466 Mortality (no. birds) 7 9 5 28 Note:-Net return is the difference between total cash expense and total cash receipt. Extension Poultry Schools were conducted to present variom phases of the industry, and to discuss the problems of the pro ducer. They were held when arranged by county agents and home demonstration agents. Oneor two-day sessions were de 1 voted to the discussion of various poultry subjects. Five tension poultry schools were held during the year, all of whic~ were very successful. Poultry Tours of inspection were conducted to illustrate bet 1 ter methods of management. Two of these were held durin!' the year. _ Culling Demonstrations are of great importance and mucr , work has been accomplished through them. These demonstra, tions were a means of interesting the producer in better methl ods of management and effected savings for producers. C11ll1 ing poultry continued to be a very important part of the exten sion program. It was in connection with these demonstration that better feeding practices and disease and parasite preven tion were illustrated.

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Annual Report, 1926 67 Caponiz in g Demonstrations were conducted, but were not stressed due to the good broiler prices. Those conducted have proven profitable. There were 15 s uch demonstrations given. Miscellaneous: Under this heading co me s work s uch as that with co mmercial poultry farm s, hatcheries, breeders, and fairs. Assi sta nce was given in each instance to improve the quality of poultry . The above factors ha ve been very important in the development of th e poultry indu st ry . Fig. 10.-Po ultry club members and the co unty agent discuss poultry I problems on the ground. Meetings arranged by county and home demonstration agents (vere held in various counties and co~munities. Timely poul1. ry information was given. Monthly circular poultry hints were distributed to the poul try raisers. Articles were written for the Agricultural News .,ervice and farm papers. Interesting poultry programs were given at Farmer s' Week, ~5 periods being devoted to poultry. Assistance was obtained

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension from the College of Agriculture, State Marketing Bureau, coun ty agents, and leading poultrymen. No doubt the greatest poultry feat this year in this state was the establishment of the Florida National Egg-Laying Con test at Chipley, Florida. This contest was fostered and the plant erected by the Chipley Chamber of Commerce. Its en tire management, including rules and regulations, reports, etc., are under the direction of the Extension Poultry Division. The contest was started November 1, 1926. Due to the fact that the contest was organized at a late date, there are only 50 pens entered. The contest plant will accommodate 100 pens. It is wonderfully located, properly equipped and constructed and is one of the finest contest plants in the country. E. F. Stanton has been secured to supervise it. Assistance was given to the commercial poultrymen relative to management, plans, feeding, and disease~ A number of fairs were visited to become acquainted with the breeders and also to assist with the boys' and _girls' poul try club exhibits.

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Annual Report, 1926 HOME. DEMONSTRATION WORK FLA_\'.IA GLEASON, State Agent VIRGINIA P. l\1OORE, Assistant State , Agent RUBY MCDAVID , District Agent MARY _ E. KEOWN, . District Agent ELOISE MCGRIFF, Acting District Agent LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent (on leave) ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Foods and Marketing Agent MARY A. STENNIS, Dairy and Nutrition Agent fiff The home demonstration organization , consists of 35 county home demonstration agents working :in 3_1 countiE]s; a state agent, assistant state , agent, three dist~ict , ::tmmts, a dairy . and nutrition agent, a foods and marketing , a&'~nt, and a poultry specialist :whQ , works with county agricultm;al,and home demon. •, . .. . \.,. , . . . . stration agents. .An important change in our plan of , organization,d1.,1ring 1926 was the creating of a new district, giving tpree districts with three district 3:ge~ts. This change was not made until October and has been of greatest help so far in _ developing stronger ! plans of work for 1927. . , ..,; ' SUPERVISORY PROGRAM 1. Objectives and Development: The main objectives of the state home demonstration _ staff _for 1926 ,were . developing and strengthening home demonstration work through better . bal anced county, club, and individual programs. of work, preparing ind revising subject ma~ter material for the agents' use; organi zation of county councils to assist the agents in . development of the work as planned according to county needs. ' During the year literature was prepared for . the agents' use n poultry, food preparation, nutrition and health, installation ,f water and sewerage systems in rural homes, first, second, hird and fourth year sewing, and record books for nutrition and tome improvement work. As a result of the attention given to t _ he importance of coun Y councils, 80 percent of the counties have girls' home demon , tration councils f1,mctioning and . 58 percent have active senior ome demonstration councils. 2. Equipment: Agents are furnished card filing cases and Lrge looseleaf books containing record sheets, outlines for all hases of the work, programs of work and special instructions

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70 Florida Cooperative E x tension from the United States Department of Agriculture and the State office. Office and office equipment is furnished by some county organization, usually by the board of county commis sioners . Nine counties provide stenographic assistance, 16 agents have typewriters provided, 15 have telephones, 11 have well equipped demonstration kitchens, 10 are furnished with cars from county funds, and 2 counties provide motion picture machines. 3. Filling Vacancies: In filling county vacancies and new . positions, preference is given to the college graduate-who has had at least two years' teaching experience, or similar or better qualifications. Sometimes poor salaries or local conditions cause the appointment of women with less training and experi. ence whose personality, knowledge and practical experience with local conditions show good possibilities of thell?growing into successful home demonstration agents. Unexperienced agent s , before assuming the responsibility of county work, spend as much time as can be arranged, with experienced agents and in the state office ; familiarizing themselves with require ments, plans of work, and available literature~ They are given special duties during State Short Courses for Club Girl s and Farmers' Week, and are given special attention during district and state conferences. 4. Agents Meetings: During 1926 two district conferences were held in the early part of January . to make plans for t . he, 1 year. At these meetings each agent submitted a program of work showing goals set. These programs were discussed and shaped into an agreeable working plan in which speciali s ts and county and home demonstration agents could fully cooperate. An attempt was made to standardize "The Florida Gift Pack age , " by each agent preparing products and completing pack age under di:rection of the foods and marketing agent. A state conference was held in October, at which plans wer~ discussed for completing the year's w , ork and for the develop 1 ment of the 1927 work. AGENTS' GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities ' where extension program was cooperatively worked out . . ...... . . . ............. . . ... ...... . ... .... ... . . ...... .. . .... . ... . .. . . . .... . ... . ... . . ... .... . ... . ......... ...... 52t Voluntary county, community and local leaders actively engaged in forwar _ ding the extension program . ... ... .. . . . ..... .. . .. . .... . . .. . . .... ... . . . ...... .... . 63 ;

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Annual Report, 1926 71 Clubs carrying on extension work. Junior ......... . ....................... . ... . .................... . ................................................. 586 Adult ......... . .................... .. ......... ................... ... ....................... ... ... .. . .. ......... 227 Club members completing year's yearGirls ........ . .. . .......................... .. ... . ...... . ........................................................... 5,862 Women .. .... . .. ........................... .............................................. ... .................... 3,402 Girls judging or demonstration teams trained ....... :.............. . ................. 90 Club girls entering college ...................... . .... .. ............................................. 77 Farm visits made ............. . . .... ..................................................... . ................... 1,864 Different farms visited .............................................................. . ... . ............... 1,168 Home visits made 8,239 Different homes visited ..................................... . ................ ... ....................... 3,933 Office calls relating to extension work. ..................................................... 20,755 Telephone calls relating to extension work ........................................ , ..... 11,073 Average number of days spent in office...... .. ...................... . . . ................... 72 Average number of days spent in field.... ..... .......................... .. ................. 208.5 Official letters written ................................... .. . , ........ , ....... .. . .. . . .................... 57,246 Exhibits at _fairs. Community ........ .. .. . .......... ...... ...... . ........ .. ... .... .......... . ..... .. . ... ... ... .... ... .......... 42 County . . .. . ...... ... ....... .. . . . ... . .... ..................... ... . . . ..... . .. ......... .. ..... . . . .. . ... .. ....... . .. 23 State ....... . ... . ... . ................... .. ...................... ........ . ... ................. . ...... : .............. 2 Number Training meetings for local leaders .......................... :..... 122 . Method and result demonstration meetings held.......... 5,991 ~:~~01~;~i ;h~~"t"~~~~~;~ .. h;id:: ::::: : :: : :: :::::::: : :: Junior club encampments held .................. ... .................. . 24 PROGRAM SUMMARY Attendance 1,611 122,382 2,889 1,357 1,586 1Horticulture-home gardens, beautification of Communities Days Agents Participating Devoted to Project home grounds .... . .. ........ ......... .... .... .............. .. ... .. .. Home dairy ....... . ................. .. .. .. ........................ .. ... ,.. .. ' ; ome poultry ....................... ..... .................... . .. .. ...... . ural engineering-home ............................... .. ... .. ome marketing ............... . . ............ ............ ... . ... ... .. . ~~~itio~ .. ::: :::::::::::::::::::::: :: :: ::: :::: : :: :: :::::::::::::: : ::: :: :::: ::Iothing ... ... . ........................... .. ..................... .... .. .... .. . fome management ................................................. . :louse furnishings .................... , .......................... .. .. . ,Iome health and sanitation ...................... , .......... . ::ommunity activities ..................................... . ....... . 11iscellaneous ... ... .................... . .................... ... . .. ...... . 406 72 317 127 110 426 409 511 121 376 344 199 108 PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS 780 93 559 159 138 970 673 1,256 121 400 360 243 501 Progress in home demonstration work this year has been ased on the development of the productive phases of the work. s a result, goals set by home demonstration agents and results ccomplished in fundamental home demonstration activities how a decided increase over last year. Clubs for women in luded more poultry and garden work in their programs and, !though varied conditions made varied programs necessary,

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72 Florida Cooperative E x tension every bona fide club girl has conducted a living, growing demon stration. In connection with it she received assistance in food preparation and preservation, nutrition, development of health and sanitation, clothing, and interior and exterior home im provement. The following paragraphs will give an idea of the purposes of and accomplishments through the projects that have received the major portion of the agents' attention: Home Gardens: In addition to work as foods and marketing agent, Miss Isabelle Thursby ' has acteci as leader for the home gardening project. Vegetable gardening was stressed with the Fig. 11.-Every club girl i s required to have a " living, growing" demo st rati o n, s uch as a garden, a calf, or poultry. This one chose garde and has seven varieties of vegetables. J' aim in view, first of all, of having a supply of vegetables fo use in the diet the year round and, second, to increase the fa ily income by marketing the surplus . Goals set in the begi . ning of the year for developing this phase of the work we~ surpassed. Twenty-eight counties report improved practic according to methods used by agents in home gardening wor . as follows:

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Annual Rep01t , 1 n6 '73 Individuals adopting improved practices in growing fruit trees .... . . . ... 931 Individuals adopting improved practices in growing bush and small fruit . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . ....................... . ........ . .. . ........... . .. .. . .. . . .................... . ........ . . .. . .. . 879 Individual s adopting improved practices in growing grapes ...... . ......... 186 Individuals adopting improved practices in growing vegetab l es .......... . 4,240 Individuals saving improved stock or seed ..... . ............ . ....... . .... . ...... . .. . . .. . 2U• Homes adopting improved practices in home gardening ... . .................... "1;35 :3 Home Poultry: The Extension Poultryman has aided home demonstration agents in giving timely assistance to the 2,483 homes in 27 cou nti es reported as having adopted improved prac tices in home poultry work. This means that the women and girls representing these homes are learning how to select eggs for hatching; incubation ; to care for baby chicks and entire :1 Fig. 12.-This c lub girl is leg-banding h er chicks so she can keep records on them. lock through the right kind of feeding and housing; how to ull for egg production; se lection of birds for breeding pens ; ontrol of insect s and marketing of poultry products. Of the .: pomes menti.one? above, I _,4 76 were directly assisted in in~reas l ng the fam ily mcome this year through poultry marketmg.

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension Agents report that people of their counties have found that it pays to have good stock, cull, have good houses and proper feed to get good results. A number of flocks have been entered in the national and home egg-laying contests. Home Dairying: Miss Mary A. Stennis, the Nutrition and Dairy Agent, has assisted in holding special dairy meetings where method demonstrations and illus.trated talks were given to increase the quantity of milk produced on the farm, to im prove the quality of all dairy products, and to create an inter est in a greater use of dairy products. Eighteen counties re port 640 homes as having this year adopted improved practices according to home demonstration agents' methods in home dairy work One county reports eight new dairies, another six, and another that 15 families are keeping a home cow for the first time. The Pasco County home demonstration agent says that fol lowing a campaign put on four years ago the production of milk was at times more than the housewife could handle, while at other times she did not have enough to use. There is nqw a milk depot that will take all surplus, and the club members have put in two or more cows, so as to have a milk supply the, year 'round. The amount of milk reported by club members representing 165 homes is given at 36,724 gallons, which, a1 40 cents a gallon, would amount to $14,889.60. Members also report 6,885 pounds of butter made, which, at 50 cents a pound, is valued at $3,442.50. The value of butte1 sold was $1,425.85, leaving $2,016.65 worth used in. the homes, which is a 70 percent increase over 1925 in consumption of dairy products in the home. Nutrition: Nutrition work under the l~adership of the Dairy and Nutrition Agent was conducted in a way that linked th.e. gardening, dairying and poultry work with the family table. As a result, not only have better meals been prepared and betteli food practices been adopted in the 4,908 homes reportin,g, bu~ school lunches have been improved. Energy has been directed toward improvement of condition: under which children eat their school lunches, as well as im provement of the lunch itself. Three-fourths of the countiei have reported definite results. The statistical report showi 71 schools serving a hot dish for the first time, more than 2,00( girls and women preparing better school lunches.

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Annual Report, 1926 75 In Lake County the club girls have helped to prepare and serve hot school lunch dishes. The Hillsborough County home agent has supervised the women's home demostration clubs in making possible school lunch equipment and management. Lee County has cooperated with the home economics teachers in ef fecting better lunches and comfortable quarters for all children to eat their lunches-the lunches they bring from home as well as the ones purchased at school. Leon County has worked out a plan of making vegetable soup at home and heating it in jars at school. This plan is used in oneand two-teacher schools. It places the responsibility upon the mother as well as upon the school. Material in the form of recipes for 50 and 100 people has ibeen supplied to larger schools; nutritional leaflets relating to ~hildren's school lunches have been given agents and teachers; iemonstrations, menus, recipes, for the individual lunch pre; iared at home, have been given. Three counties which had begun county-wide programs for mderweight school children were assisted in completing the vork. Polk, Citrus, and Suwannee counties completed this vork and Duval partially completed it. Agents were supplied vith nutrition programs. Teachers, principals, elder club girls md women's clubs were used in carrying out these demonstra ions. In Suwannee County this program has been carried out in . thorough way with the result that 327 underweight children vere brought up to normal; 932 children kept accurate food and 1ealth records; 18 schools were reached and given nutrition in truction; of the 374 club girls in the county, 136 were under reight in April and only 59 in October. In Suwannee County, stressing the value of fruit in the diet )reach day in the year resulted in the setting out of satsumas, ranges, figs, peaches, pears, plums, berries, and grapes. A lant exchange in the clbs helped. Partly as a result of the utrition program, all except six of 429 club members (girls nd women) have gardens with at least one variety of green egetables. Through the nutrition work on milk, 59 women nd girls have started dairy records, 11 club members have dopted a calf club program. Teaching the people food for ealth has resulted in increased production.

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7 6 Fl orida Coo p era t ive E x t ensfon In C itru s C oun ty, w her e 790 children form e d the demon s tra tion , th e nutrition w ork increa s ed intere s t in gardening and c on s er v ation work among adult s . :. Gradual effort ha s b ee n made during the year to intere s t the I Fig . 1 3. -Nutrition programs increase interest in gardening. girls are taking beans directly "from field to can". agent s in a nutrition program which has for its purpose th~ , building up of the girl club members first. The plan is then tq have the "up to average" club members, the teacher who i interested and cooperative, and the women's home demonstra tion club of the community work together in making a demon stration in bringing a group of 10, 20, or 30 underweight chil dren up to normal. This plan is being used for the followin reason s : 1. The county-wide program is too burdensome an undertak ing for a home demonstration agent alone. 2. Girls who have learned to bring themselves up to norm l are the most suitable leaders in bringing other chi ldr en to th r ight food and health habits. 3 . One teacher in a school can nearly always be found wh will make a capable local leader in this program . _ 4 . Club girl s need to do s om e c ommunit y s ervice and thi J

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Annuai R e po r t, 19 2 6 77 together with lunch room improvement, has been cho s en as that service. Programs for underweight club girls have also been stre ss ed. All club s in eight counties and some clubs in every county have given special attention to this problem, _ using production and utilization of fruits, vegetables, milk , and eggs as a basis. In Dade County, the home demonstration agent made a splen did demonstration using the summer camp for girls with a n enrollment of 172 girls as a beginning. The diet was made up of club products largely. Forty-five girls who were under weight made an average gain of 3.2 pounds the week of the camp. Follow-up plans carried . the good work through the year. Of the 1,~00 enrollment at short courses and camps for girls in 1926, 1,500 were served milk every day and practically 1,500 drank it. Less than 20 failed in this. Of the 1,500, 1,000 drank a quart a day, and 500 drank a pint daily. Not in every camp could weights be checked but gains were evident. Fully one third of the 1,600 were not accustomed to drink milk at home. (The special counties mentioned are used as illustrations of the work accomplished in a number of counties. Eighteen coun ties held camps at which better nutrition was stressed.) Nutrition Programs for Women, a series of eight, to be used in connection with food and nutrition programs for girls, have been prepared. The women's work has also been based on pro ductive work and has had for its goal not only better food prep aration but better selection and utilization with a view to better nutrition and health. In regular club meetings, in the commun ity . gatherings, in short course, camps, Farmers' Week at th e University, demonstrations have been given to agents, special ists, women and girls. Food selection and meal planning as well as food preparation have been worked out in the program and as a climax a rather interesting contest was planned from the state office. This contest was in menu planning and in working out recipes and was open to all counties who would enter as many as 10 women. All menus and recipes entered were re turned by the specialist, with criticisms and suggestions. A::i a special community service, the women have served as leaders in nutrition for girls, have assisted in health contests and have improved school lunches.

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78 Florida Cooperati v e E x tension Foods: Food work includes food preparation and preserva tion and forms a part of the dairy, garden, poultry and nutrition programs. Miss Isabelle Thursby, Foods and Marketing Agent, and Miss Mary Stennis, Dairy and Nutrition Agent, assist the agents in development of this project. Through work with foods, women and girls are learning how to use farm products to the best advantage for the health, happiness and well-being of the family. Records show that 2,002 women and 2,804 girls completed food preparation demonstrations as outlined for the Fig. 14.-Adult club members learn a great deal about food preparation and balanced diets. year and that 4,561 homes have adopted improved practices in food preparation. Special attention was given to the value and preparation of vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products. Also, 3,932 homes are reported as having adopted improved practices this year in food preservation. This phase of the food work has been stressed so as to preserve food for home use, thus protect ing health, reducing cost of transporting food from a distance, encouraging the li ve -at-home idea; insuring a varied diet all through the year, and putting surplus home products into marketable shape.

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Annual Rep01t, 1926 SUMMARY OF FOODS WORK 79 Individuals adopting improved practices in bread making . . . ................. 1,663 Individual s adopting improved practices in meat cookery .. . .. .... .. . ........ 1,512 Individuals adopting practices in vegetable cookery . . . . ..... .. . .... . .. . . ... . .... . 4,696 Individuals adopting improved practices in preparation of dairy product dishes . ... . . ........ .. .... . ... .. ........ ... . .... . . ............. . . . ............... .. ............... 1,202 Individuals . adopting improved practices in meal preparation and service .. .......... . .. .. . ............. .. . .. ... . ......... .. . . .. ... ........ ... .. .. . . . . ......... .... . . ... ........ . .. 4,058 Homes budgeting the family food supply . ........ .. . .. . .. ............. . . ... ............ . 273 Number homes providing better food s torage for first time ... . .. ...... . . .. 281 Food pr es erved for home use: . Quarts fruits and vegetables canned .. . .. . .............. . . . ................ . .............. 298,165 Quarts meats and fish canned . .......... . .. . ................ . .. . ... . ....... . . . . .. .... . .. . ... . . . 26 , 277 Quarts j e lly and preserves made ... . ... . . . . ... ....... . ....... ... .. . ......... . . ..... .. . ...... . . 95,965 Quarts fruit juice s made . .. . ... . .. . .. . .. . . . .. ... .... . ....... .. . . .... . ... . . . .. .. ... ... . . . ........ .. 13,672 Quarts pickles made . . ........ . . .. ............. .. ..................... . .. . . . ............. .... ........... 30,071. Pounds fruits and vegetables dried..... ....... ............. .. ............... . . .. . .. ........... 3,699 Pounds m ea t cured .. .. ...... ........ . . . . ........ .. .. .. .... . ....... ... . . . . .. . ..... . .... .. . .. ... . ......... . 67,415 Clothing: The clothing program is designed to fill a need felt by all women and girls who must do their own sewing. It covers selection and construction, remodeling and renovation, millinery, costume designing and wardrobe planning. A total of 6,074 homes in 30 counties are reported as having adopted improved practices relative to the clothing work. SUMMARY OF CLOTHING WORK Individuals adopting improved practices in renovation and remodels ing .... .. .. ....... . ...... .. ............ .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . ... . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .... . .. ... ... . ..... . ... . .. . .............. . . 5,089 Individuals adopting improved practices in millinery ... . ... .... . . . .......... .. 1,439 'Individuals adopting improved practices in costume designing ........ ... 1,624 Individuals adopting improved practices in infant wardrobe planning . .. . ... .......... .. . .. .................. . ........... ........ . . ......... . .. .. ................ , ... .. . . ......... . 1,959 Individuals adopting improved practices in adult wardrobe planning' 1,251 Dresses arid coats made .... . . . . . . . . ... .. ." .. . ... . . . ........ ....... . . . ..... . .... . ... . . .. ... .. .. . ......... 29,792 Undergarments made . .... . ... ..... ... . ....... . .. ... . ....... . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .......... : ....... . .. ......... 22,375 Hats made ................. . .......... . . . . .. . ... , ........ ... .. . .. . .......... . . .. . ... ........... ... . . ............ . . 2,072 Home Improvement: The outstanding home improvement work during the year has resulted from home improvement con tests under the leadership of Miss Virginia P. Moore, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. A total of 1,509 homes are reported as having adopted im proved practices in home management. This means that women and girls are learning to . Plan household work systematically; the importance of using labor-saving equipment; to arrange furniture and house plans for convenience; to use improved Jaundry practices; to keep accounts and make budgets. Reports show that some of the labor-saving appliances that have been added to the homes mentioned above are as follows:

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80 F l o ri d a Coop er at ive E x t ension El e ctri c o r g a so lin e ir o n s ............................ . .......................... . ....... . ............... 1 73 Di Iv e r s ........... . .. . .... ...................... ........................ 5 2 Light s .... . ............... -----------............... ........ .... . ........... 2 ' ; Woodbo xe s ............... . .. .... ............... .. .. ......... . ......... 17 El e ctric s ewing ma c hin e .... .... .............. ...... .............. ..... . 2~ Shelves (kitchen) .......... .. ..... ..... ............ ............ .... .... ...... 22 Tables covered with zin c . .... . ..... . .................. ..................... 15 Pressure cookers ................. .................................. ..................... .. 84 Juice e xtractors .... ..... ............ . ............................ ....... .. .... ...... ........ 3 6 Electric refrigerator s ....................................... ......... .. ................ . 1 7 Electric fans, pump s , gas stoves, study table s , fly traps, can sea l ers, wr in gers, bui lt-in ironing boards, tea wagons , heating outfits, brushes, iceless refrigerators, and e l ectr ic stoves have also been added in sma ller number s. R eports s how that 3,453 home s adopted improved pract ice s in hou se furnishings . This include s work in se lection , arra nge ment, repairing and remodeling of furni s hings; a l so wor k in wall, woodwork and floor treatment . Number of rooms improved: B edrooms .................................................................. ... . Living rooms ..................... . ..................................................... . .. . ...... . Dining rooms .................................................... . ................ .. ........ . ...... . .......... . Other rooms 1,688 600 667 575 Fig. 15.-A cheery rural sitting room which ha s been made by improving an old room .

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Annual Report, 1926 81 Twenty-three counties report 3,015 homes as having adopted some of the improved practices in home sanitation--.:.378 sani tary closets were installed; 401 homes screened and 575 homes adopted improved practices in controlling flies, mosquitoes and other insects, all for the first time. Considerably more has been done this year toward the instal lation of lights and water systems in rural homes and more farm homes have been remodeled than home demonstration rec ords show for any previous year. Nineteen counties report homes as adopting improved prac tices in rural engineering as follows: Dwellings constructed according to plans furnished............ ........... ....... .. .. 43 Dwellings remodeled according to plans furnished .... ........ ........ .............. .. 127 Sewage disposal systems )nstalled according to plans furnished . . .. . ... . ... 68 Water systems installed according to plans furnished......... ........ ............. 71 Heating systems installed according to plans furnished..... . .................. . . 20 Lighting systems installed according to plans furnished .. . ..... .... ........... . 73 Poultry houses constructed, according to plans furnished ..................... . ... 166 Homes adopting improved practices in rural engineering ....... : ................ 487 Miss Motelle Madole, home demonstration agent in eastern Hillsborough County, says that 50 percent of her senior club members have electricity in their homes. At "Better Homes Week" last March the ladies were accompanied by their hus bands on an inspection tour, with a view to getting a more mod ern and convenient home arrangement in lights, water and electrical equipment. One club member's husband is the com munity electrician, and it is through him that many labor-sav~ ing devices have been introduced to his community. Beautification of Home Grounds: In beautification of home grounds, emphasis has been given to the use of native shrub bery. Plans and suggestions for planting home and school grounds furnished by College of Agriculture and United States Department of Agriculture have been of valuable assistance to the agents in this connection. Twenty counties report 810 home grounds planted during the year, according to landscape plans. Progress in beautification of home grounds in Volusia Coun ty is portrayed in the following quotation from Miss Orpha Cole's report: "The work of the past two years on beautification of home grounds is showing all over the county, although there is yet so much to do. Open lawns are more appreciated than ever be6

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82 Florida Cooperative E xtensi o n fore and there is a very great tendency away from the lawn whose space is all broken up with shrubbery here and there. Foundation and border plantings are much more used now. An effort is made to have continuous bloom throughout the year. Ten thousand gladioluses, 5,000 narcissi, 3,000 Easter lilies, 2,000 amaryllis and 200 tulips are reported, besides vines, pan s ies galore, calendula, petunias, s napdragons , etc." Home Marketing: There is a growing interest in the stand ardization and marketing of home products. County councils are including considerably more along this line in their 1927 programs of work. Escambia, Dade and Pasco county councils Fig. 16.-Adult club members making the "Florida gift package." have recently opened markets for club products. Markets in Volusia and Lee counties continue to grow . Miss Sallie Lind sey, home demonstration agent in Lee County, makes the fol lowing statement: "Home marketing has made decided progress the past year. A number of home demonstration women have made use of the curb market to seil their products for several years. During the past year 10 new members were added. One woman ha s

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Annual Report; 1926 83 standardized guava paste and guava jelly; and is now supply ing the local hotels with a high class product. She has designed . an attractive box for her paste, and puts it up in pound arid quarter packages. Her profit from sales of guava products off of trees in her own yard was $550 this year, She is now stand ardizing roselle products 8:nd is supplying two tourist hotels ivith roselle sauce, / "Two women have standardized candied citrus peels of all kinds, and are finding a sale for all they can prepare. They put their products in uniform containers and guarantee all pack ages to be alike. One of these women made $700 on such sales this year. Another woman has succeeded in marketing suc cessfully the Florida Gift Package. "Three club women and one club girl have standardized hooked rugs, and are marketing them successfully. Mabel Wil liams of Alva, a second-year club girl, has completed two rugs which have been sold for $15 each, and has orders for tw9 more." Community Activities: Some idea of the various community activities undertaken through home demonstration -work may be had from the following extracts taken from home demon stration agents' reports: Lee County: "The Alva Home Demonstration Club took for its community project the redecoration and refurnishing of the Methodist parsonage. When the project was selected, a worse looking house could not have been chosen. There were very few windows in the house, and they were in the wrong place. It had been papered many times with dark red and green paper and that was partly off and hanging clown. "A definite plan of work was then made, and costs worked out as accurately as possible. The finance committee raised $200 and the Conference gave $300. "The workers were divided into groups and a chairman of each group' was appointed. One group refinished floors, one made curtains, one .worked over the old furniture, and one made seat covers and pillows. "The result of the work was a transformation for the house, and renewed interest in improving their own homes on the part of the women. Ten women have refinished their floors, 12 have made fire screens and trash baskets, 11 have refinished old fur

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84 Florida Coop e rati'1 :e E x tens i on Fig. 17.-The motion picture show is used by county and home demonstra tion agents to hel _ p with community entertainment and instruction programs. niture, 15 have made definite improvements in their kitchens, and 8 have made new draperies for their living rooms as a re sult of the demonstration on the old parsonage. The above fig ures represent only one community." Volusia County: "DeLand club has already started work on raising funds for a permanent home for their market. They have arranged a series of suppers and social evenings together to promote friendliness among rural people around DeLand. Glenwood has started funds for a community house and placed signs at the entrances to their city. All clubs have cooperated in making the county flower show a success . . All clubs also cooperated with other organizations in sending relief to suffer ers in the hurricane district." Taylor County: "Spring Warrior, which is the largest rural and farm community, has an active organization known as the Spring Warrior Community Council. Farmers, housewives, club boys and girls are members. The county and home demonstra tion agents are advisers and ex-officio members. This organi zation meets once each month for a business hour, pertaining to

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Annual Report, 19 2 6 85 the different problems of the community, and then a s oci a l hour is enjoyed." Miscellaneous: 279 women and girls in four counties com pleted definite work in rag rug making. Three of these coun ties report attractive marketing of the home-made r~gs. A total of 1,313 women and girls are reported as having learned the art of turning such native materials as pine needles and wire grass into baskets, trays and other attractive articles. STRENGTHENING THE HOME DEMONSTRATION ORGANIZATION In addition to the agents' meetings and county and state councils referred to elsewhere in this report, home demonstra tion work has been strengthened ; through the development of the following activities: 1. Demonstration Teams: In order to train leaders, develop efficiency and to encourage club members in giving public dem onstrations, teams of two girls each were trained in giving pub lic demonstrations in various phases of home demonstration work. These girls were chosen in the local clubs and counties because of their efficiency, success as club members, and abil Fig. 18.-A Florida home demonstration club canning team.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension ity to interest others in home demonstration methods. Home demonstration agents trained 63 such teams and found them to be invaluable in interesting other girls and as demonstrations to the public of the value of club work. There were 27 judg ing teams that functioned at fairs and contests during the year. 2. Contests and Rallies: Through contest days when club e xhibits were on display, demonstrations and programs given by club members, the work was improved, because (1) of oppor tunity for county workers and supervisors to determine the county-wide response, (2) the opportunity of getting the work before the public, and (3) the prevailing community and county club spirit. The getting together and club reports given at the county rallies inspire club members to make a success of their undertakings not only for themselves but for their com munities and counties. 3. Camps: Home demonstration agents conducted 24 camps during the spring and summer months. Five of these were for women, five for boys and girls, while the others were for club . girls and local leaders. Club members were required to com plete club work up-to-date in a way satisfactory to the agent before permission was given to attend camp. In some instances the girls and boys were required to earn the money for camp expenses. These camps were excellent for recreation, leadership devel opment, and in making it possjble to give special demonstrations and instruction which could not have been presented otherwise. 4. Awards for State Prize Winners: The State Federation of Women's Clubs gave $100, divided into two $50 prizes, one going to the girl making the best garden record for the year and the other to the girl making the best poultry _ record. It was requested that this money be used for educational purposes. Five outstanding home demonstration club girls in the stat~ were given trips to Chicago to attend the International Club Congress for Boys and Girls. These trips were financed by the South Florida Fair Association, Florida East Coast Railway, Seaboard Air Line Railway, Marion County Chamber of Com ~ merce, and Montgomery Ward and Company. 5. Scholarships: Interest in extension work in home eco n9mics led the following counties to make appropriations for full scholarships for training in home economics at the Florida

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Annual Report, 1926 87 State College for Women: Hillsborough, two; Dade, three; Palm Beach, one; and Orange, one. The College for Women gave dining room scholarships to seven club girls this year, and the business manager was in strumental in securing two loan scholarships for other deserv ing club girls who impressed him with their ability during the State Short Course for Club Girls. One of the senators, like wise impressed with the work of the girls during the State Short Course, granted a scholarship. 6. State Short Course: The State Short Course for Club Girls, held annually at the Florida State College for Women, is the outstanding event in the club year and proves to be' an in valuable stimulus in securing the best type of work, as the short course is attended only by girls who have done outstand ing work in their counties. Short Course scholarships are pro vided by club members themselves, county commissioners, school boards, civic clubs, women's clubs, banks, merchants and individuals interested in the work. The Short Course consists of instruction, demonstrations, and contests in the various phases of home demonstration work. Ample time is given to entertainment and recreation. Girls who attend the Short Courses realize a desire to go to college. Many of them, as a result, find a way to become stu dents and graduates of the Florida State College for Women. They develop into the best kind of leaders. 7. Farmers' Week: Just as the State Short Course for Club Girls was an important event in the year for club girls, so was Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week for the women. It gave them an opportunity to spend a week at the University of Florida, availing themselves of the recreation and instruction provided by the agricultural and home economics workers. 8. Cooperation With Other Organizations: The home dem onstration organization has received and given much valuable assistance in cooperating with many other organizations. The press extends splendid publicity to home demonstration work throughout the state. County and city officials, chambers of commerce, business men's organizations, county and state fair associations, the health and educational departments, county and state federations of women's clubs, and business and pro fessional women's clubs have all proven good friends to the ~ork by giving financial and personal aid and moral support for rts development.

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88 Florida Coop e rati ve E x t e nsion FARMERS' WEEK AND EXTENSION SCHOOLS Farmers ' and Fruit Growers ' Week was conducted on the University campus during August. While this was one of the agricultural extension ac tivities , all branches of the College of Agriculture, including the teaching divi s ion, the Florida Ex periment Station a nd the University of Florida in general, con tributed in makin g this s u ccessf ul. Also the State Plant Board c ontributed in every possible way to the s u ccess in carrying out the program. Th e program s were divided into sect ion s where specia l , general and enterta inment programs were provided each d ay . A special section was made for the home demonstra tion program, unde r the supervision of the home demonstration extension sta ff. The dormitorie s a nd dining h a ll facilities were made available Fig. 19 . -This farmer i nter-plant s potatoes with co rn, and gets two crops.

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Annual Report, 1926 89 to visitors at actual cost. The auditorium, class-rooms and lab oratories of the entire University were utilized in conducting the program. The attendance for 1926 was the largest on rec ord, and numbered 1,248, representing 60 counties. Citrus schools and field meetings were conducted under the direct supervision of the district agents and specialists in coun ties where the meetings were arranged by the county agents. These schools were intended to give practical instruction to farmers and growers and acquaint them with the results of ex perimental work by the Florida Agricultural . Experiment Sta tion.

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS (NEGRO WORK) A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent Farm and home maktrs' club work in Florida was carried on this year in the following counties: Jackson, Leon, Jefferson, Madison, Suwannee, Columbia, Alachua, Marion, Levy, Sumter, Orange, Putnam, St. Johns, Gadsden, Duval, and Hillsborough. The last three counties dropped out at the close of the past fiscal year, June 30, 1926. Reports for the agents of those counties will include only demonstrations carried to date. There were 16 local agents, eight men and eight women, whose terms were 9 to 10 months, depending on local conditions. The work undertaken and carried on under supervision of agents, had principally to do with farm and home improvement. However, a definite effort was made to assist farmers to ob tain better prices for their surplus products through coopera tive marketing. satisfactory results were obtained in the mar keting of truck and garden crops in Sumter, Marion, Alachua, St. Johns, and Suwannee counties. ' COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS The Negro farmers of Florida have 12 local farmers' coopera tive associations organized around central shipping points and chartered under the Florida State Legislative Act of 1923; all of which are headed by farmers who stand out as examples of good business men and leading farmers of their respective communities. These farmers have, through their local agents, worked out practical methods of cooperative marketing and co operative purchasing, and despite low prices, have obtained very satisfactory returns from their vegetable crops. STAPLE CROPS Farmers in the staple crop counties received low prices for cotton and peanuts, and many have become discouraged with the results. A system for the cooperative marketing of cer tain staple crops will be t~ied out next fall with hogs, poultry, eggs, potatoes, and syrup. Vegetables adapted to North and West Florida counties will be grown on a small scale as a cash crop and home supply.

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Annual Report, 1926 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY 91 Negro farmers marketed their corn and peanuts through hogs this year to a good advantage; this gave them a market at home for the surplus crops thus fed. Members of Farm and Home Makers' Clubs are paying more attention to poultry raising. Jackson County led the others in poultry production, increasing their production by 5,000 birds of the standard breeds. This increase was largely through the work of the local agent. DAIRYING The amount of dairy work done was about the same as last year. The value of milk for the young chicks and pigs is offer ing inducements for a greater milk production in communities where there are no ready markets for dairy products. This promises to induce farmers who have not been interested in cows before to keep cows. MEETINGS Aside from the several group meetings held in counties for training local leaders, two state meetings were held this year as follows: 1. The state meeting of farmers under auspices of the Flor ida Farmers' Cooperative Association met at Jacksonville on November 26. Staple and truck farmers from nine counties met and, with the aid of local agents, made their plans for 1927 including: crops to raise, acreage involved, credits and methods of marketing. 2. The annual Local Agents' Conference met at the Florida A. & M. College on December 9 and 10, in connection with the Farmers' Conference which convened on December 8, 1926. Specialists from the State Agricultural College and the Florida State College for Women were present and took charge of the lectures and general instruction. The instructors at the Flor ida A. & M. College rendered valuable aid during the Agents' Conference. FAIRS AND EXHIBITS The exhibits of our work at the South Florida Fair at Tampa and the Florida State Fair at Jacksonville enabled us to present

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension samples of club work done under supervision of agents to the public for inspection. In each case much appreciation was ex pressed by visitors, the Fair management, and the press. Some county fairs maintain• Negro departments which give local agents an opportunity to exhibit club work. STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS December 1, 1925-November 30, 1926 GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 80 Voluntary county, community and local leaders ......... .. ..... :................... 144 Clubs carrying on extension work .... ... ........................ ... . . ....................... . 106 Memberships . ................ . .. . ....... . ......... . .. . . . .... . .. .. ... . . . ........... . .. . . .... ....................... 1,267 Farm . visits made by local agents . . . . .. ..... .. . . .. ......... ... . . . ... . .... .. . .. .... ..... .. . . . . . . 3,079 Different farms visited ... . . .................... . . ... . . . ... .......... . . . . . . .......... ....... .. ... . . . .. ... 852 Home visits made by local agents . . ... . .. . . ... . ....... . ... ... .. .. . . ... . . .. .. . . ... ..... . . . ...... 1,602 Different homes visited . . . ... . ........... . . .. . . . .. ...... . .......... . :... .... . ... . .... .. . .............. . . 657 Office calls on agents relating to extension work. ...... . . .. ..................... . . 1,933 Average number of days spent in office .. :................... . .. . ......................... . . 56 Average number of days spent in field . ... . . ... : ..... , ...... . ...... : . . ...... : ............. . . 166 Official letters written .... . .................. . ..... .. . .. ... . ..... . . . ... . .... . .. .. .. . . . ... . .. . .... . ........ 1,394 Exhibits at fairs .... . .... ...... . . ... .. .... . ......... ... . .. .... . . '. .... .. ... . .. . ... ... . .. ...... . ....... . ..... . 9 County .......... . . .. ... .... . .. . .. .. . ... . ....... . .. . . ... . , .... 7 State ................ ... . . . . ............... . ..... . .... .. .... . . . ....... ,...... .. . . . ... .. . . .... .. . ..... 2 Number Attendance Farmers' meetings held . .. , . . .............. .. . . . .. ....................... 136 3,948 Total attendances club members, junior encampments and rallies .. ,'..... 350 PROGRAM SUMMARY Of Outlined Projects by Local Agents Number Days Agents Communities Devoted to Participating Projects Soils ... ...... . .. ...... . ......... . . .. .. ... . .... . . ....... . .. .... ... ... . ... ... . ....... . Farm Crops . . .. .. ... .. ..... . . . .. . . . . ... .. . ...... . .. ... .. ...... .. . ............. . Dairy Husbandry ... . .... . . ....... .............. ... . . .. .. . . ... ... . .... .. .. . Poultry Husbandry . . . . .... . ..... . .. . . ......... . .. . . ..... ... .. . . . .. ..... . Total CEREAL DEMONSTRATIONS (Corn, Oats, etc.) 18 174 10 82 10 4 40 42 296 Acreage grown under demonstration methods .. , .. . ....... ... .. . .. .. .. : ............ . . . . 6,664 Boys' and girls' clubs . .. . .. . ........... :......... . .. . .................... . .. .. . .. . . .... . ................. . 27 Acreage grown by club members .......... . ....................... . . .. ......... . .............. .. 156 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) .... ... ......................... 1,750 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices ............... . .... . ........... ,......... 28 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed.......... ... ......................... 337 COTI'ON DEMONSTRATIONS Acreage grown under improved methods .. . .. . .......... .... . . . ...... : .......... . ...... . . 390 Farms influenced to adopt better practice .................... . . . ...................... . .. 34 Boys' and girls' clubs ....................................................... . . .. ......................... 10 Members enrolled .......... .. ... . ....................... . ....... ,................................ . ........... 47 Acreage grown by club members .... . .. . .. .. .......................... . ....................... . . . . 30

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Annual Report, 1926 93 Yield grown by junior club members (Lbs.) ............................................ 1,200 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed...................................... 32 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases.......... 26 LEGUME AND FORAGE CROPS DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, soybeans, velvet beans, peanuts, etc.) Number method demonstrations given ..................................................... . 174 165 164 Number result demonstrations under way ............................................... . Number result demonstrations completed ............................................... . Acres in completed demonstrations ........................................................... . 2,381 FRUIT AND VEGETABLE DEMONSTRATIONS Method demonstrations .................................................................................. 92 Result demonstrations .................................................................................... 3 Acreage grown under improved methods ., ............................................... 199 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices .......................................... 61 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed.................................... 37 LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrators .................................................................................................. 55 Animals in completed demonstrations ........................................................ 8,199 Farmers who secured purebred sires and breeding stock........................ 11 Farmers culling breeding stock .................................................................... 202 Farmers who controlled insect and disease pests .................................. 25 RURAL ENGINEERING AND CONTROL OF CROP PESTS Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled.................... 4 Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled.............................. 5G . Farmers who cleared land .......................................................................... 2 Acres cleared ...................................................................... ,............................. 4 Number of farms adopting above practices for the first time.............. 8 Demonstrations to control crop pests ........................................................ 10 Farmers adopting control measures .......................................................... 10 Acres involved .................................................................................................. 200 DEMONSTRATIONS IN CONTROL OF RODENTS AND OTHER PESTS Demonstrations ................................................................................................ 10 Farmers adopting control measures ............................................... , .......... 10 Acres involved ........................................................................................ : ....... 200 SUPPLIES PURCHASED AND PRODUCTS SOLD Value Truck crops, pork and eggs .................................................. $17,775 Peanuts and poultry ................................................................ 6,000 Cucumbers .................................................................................. 9,129 Total .................................................................................... $32,904 Profit $ 5,332 1,210 3,818 $10,360

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INDEX Activities of county agents, 12 home agents, 70 Agents, list of, Agricultural economics, 23, 29 Animal husbandry, 21, 27, 39, 47 Aphid, citrus, 53 Barrow clubs, 36 Bean seed inspection trip, 59 work, 58 Beautification, 26, 81 Beef cattle, 21 Blacklock, R. W., report of, 30 Blue mold decay, 50 Board of Control and Staff, 4 Boll weevil, 58 Boys' club work, 30 Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 47 Bulletins published, list of, 11 Calf clubs, 34, 48 Camps, club, 37, 86 Central Florida district, 16 Cereal demonstrations; summary, 13 Citrus clubs, 34 pathology-entomology, 50 work of agents, 18 Clayton, H. G., report of, 12, 16 Clothing wor}{, 79 Club work, boys', 30 Commissioner of Agriculture, cooperating, 9 Community activities, 83 Contests, 86 Cooper, J . F'rancis, report of, 11 Cooperating agencies, 8, 87 Corn, 25 clubs, 32 Cotton boll weevil, 58 clubs, 31 demonstrations, summary, 13 work, 25 Counties, coperation of, 8, 9 County agent activities, 12 Cucurbit disease control, 54 Dairy cattle demonstrations, sum mary, 14 husbandry, 27 Dairying, 22, ' 47 home, 74 Dairyman, report of, 47 . DeBusk, E. F., report of, 50 Demonstration teams, 85 Director, report of, 7 ' District agents' reports, South Fiorida, 16 . West Florida, 24 Economics, 23, 29 Editor, report of, 11 Egg-laying contest, home, 64 national, 28, 68 Engineering, rural, 15, 29 Ensign, M. R., report of, 54 Entomology, 50, 54 Extension schools, 88 Fairs, cooperation with, 8 work with, 24, 29 Farm and home makers' clubs, 90 Farm crops work, 18, 25 Farm management, 15 Farmers' Week, 88 Ferns, two-spotted mite on, 58 Financial statement, 7 Fiscal year, 8 Florida A. & M. College, coopera ting, 9 Foods work, 78 Forage crop demonstrations, summary, 13 Fruits, 26 Gardens, 72 General activities, county agents, summary, 12 Gleason, Flavia, report of, 69 Handbook on truck diseases, 58 Hog demonstrations, summary, 14 Home demonstration work, 69 Home egg-laying contest, 64 Home improvement, 79 Horticultural demonstrations, summary, 14 Horticulture, 18, 26

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Annual Report, 1926 95 Irish potato demonstrations, 56 summary, 14 Keown, Mary E., report of, 69 Legume demonstrations, summary, 13 Live Stock Sanitary Board, cooper ating, 9 McDavid, Ruby, report of, 69 McGriff, Eloise, report of, 69 Marketing, home, 82 Mehrhof, N. R., report of, 62 Melanose, 50 Mildew, cucumber, 54 Moore, V. P., report of, 69 Mo s aic of sugar cane, 57 National Egg-Laying Contest, 28 Negro work, 90 North Florida district, 24 Nutrition, 7 . 1 Office organization in counties, 16, 24 Organization, dairy, 49 poultry, 62 Ornamental clubs, 34 Pasture demonstrations, 39 Pathology-entomology, 50, 54 Peanuts, 25 Pig club, 35 Potato demonstrations, 14, 56 Program summary, county agents, 13 home agents, 70 Poultry demonstrations, summary, 14 Poultryman, report of, 62 Poultry clubs, 36, 64 work, 22, 28, 62, 73 Products sold, 16 Project work, 17, 71 Publications, 11 Rallies, club, 37, 86 Rodent control demonstrations, 15 Root diseases, citrus, 52 Rural engineering, 15, 23 Rust mite, 52 Scab, citrus, 50 Scale, citrus, 53 Scholarships, 86 Schools, extension, 88 Scott, John M. , report of, 39 Seedbed disinfection, 57 Settle, Lucy B., report of, 69 Short course, club, 37, 87 Smith, J. Lee, report of, 12, 24 Soil improvement demonstrations, 15 Soils work, 17, 24 South Florida district, 16 Soybeans, 26 Spencer, A. P., report of, 12 Staff, 4 Stat e College for . . Women, coopera ting, 9 State leader, report of, 12 State Marketing Bureau, cooperating, 9 Statistical summary of county ag e nt work, 12 Negro work, 92 Stennis, Mary A., report of, 69 Storm relief work, 23 Sugarcane mosaic, 57 Summary of activities, C O U n t y agents, 13 home agents, 70 Supplies purchased, 16 Sweet potato 'clubs, 33 demonstrations, 14 work, 25 Swine; 27 Thrift in club work, 38 Thur s by, Isabelle S., report of, 69 Truck crop clubs, 33 work of agents, 21 Trunk diseases, citrus, . 52 Two-spotted mite on ferns, 58 U. S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating, 8 West Florida district, 24 Whitefly, citrus, 53