Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1923
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text






Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30,1914)
Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1923












Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women,
And United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director,



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 3% 1923,


















CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA 3
BOARD OF CONTROL, STAFF, SPECIALISTS, SPECIAL LECTURERS . 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS, LIST OF 5
LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7
Introduction 7
Organization 8
Outline of Projects 8
Publications 10
Extension Schools 11
Changes in Staff 14
Plans of Work 15
Conferences for Extension Workers 15
Committee Recommendations for Extension Work 15
Extension Work for Negroes 16
Outlook for 1924 16
Financial Statement 17
REPORT OF VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER 18
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA . 28 REPORT op DISTRICT AGENT, NORTHERN AND WESTERN FLORIDA . 33 REPORT oiF DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA . 38 REPORT OF Boys' CLUB AGENT 43
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST 50
REPORT OF EXTENSION DAIRYMAN 52
REPORT OF EXTENSION ENTOMOLOGIST & PLANT PATHOLOGIST ------------------_ 56
REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 63
REPORT OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK 78






















Hon. Gary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SiR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1923, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1923.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra. A. H. BLANDING, Leesburg. JOHN C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville. W. L. WEAVER, Perry.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee.
OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. C. W. WARBURTON, Director. C. B. SMITH, Chief.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. WILMON NEWELL, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader. RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor. RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK E. W. JENKINS, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. S. W. HIATT, District Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent.


COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent. MAY MORSE, Asistant State Agent. MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Agent. Resigned be
AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent. ELLEN LENOIR, District Agent. GLADYS SMITH, Assistant State Agent. FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent. VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent. LOUISE CARTER, Dairy and Nutrition Agent. Appoint
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agent. July RUBY McDAVID, District Agent. LucY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent.


fore July 1, 1923,




ted on or after 1, 1923.


SPECIALISTS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist. HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairyman. ED L. AYERS, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (resigned August 31,
1923).
JOHN R. SPRINGER, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (appointed October 1, 1923).
E. F. DEBUSK, Citrus Pathologist (appointed September 1, 1923). H. B. LANSDEN, Poultryman.
SPECIAL LECTURERS J. R. WATSON, Entomology.
0. F. BURGER, Citrus Diseases. R. W. RUPRECHT, Soils and Fertilizers. C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture. E. L. LORD, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery. A. L. SHEALY, Veterinary Science. G. F. WEBER, Vegetable Diseases. J. E. TURLINGTON, Farm Management.






Annual Report, 1923


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua . F. L. Craft . Gainesville Lou C. Hamilton Bay . R. R. Whittington-.Panama City Brevard . P. M. Childers ---.Cocoa Columbia . C. A. Fulford .Lake City. Mrs. Grace F. Warren Dade .J. S. Rainey . .Miami DeSoto Arcadia .Mrs. Nettle B. Crabill
Duval . W. L. Watson . Jacksonville Pearl Laffitte Elise Laffitte, Assistant
Escambia . J. Lee Smith . Pensacola Josephine Longley Gadsden Quincy Elo.ise McGriff
Hamilton . J. J. Sechrest . Jasper Hernando . J. T. Daniel . Brooksville . Mrs. W. J. Palmer Hillsborough-R. T. Kelley . Plant City. Mrs. Blanche G. Shore Tampa Mrs. Mary S. Allen
Jefferson . H. H. Rothe ----------_-_ Monticello
Lake . Leo H. Wilson -.Tavares Marie Cox
Lee . H. E. Stevens ---.Ft. Myers Lynn McNutt Leon . J. A. Mackintosh . Tallahassee Mrs. A. H. Peay Levy . N. J. Allbritton . Williston Liberty . A. W. Turner . Bristol Madison .B. E. Lawton . Madison Manatee . W. R. Briggs - . Bradentown Margaret Cobb Marion-. K. C. Moore . Ocala Christine McFerron Okaloosa . R. J. Hart . Laurel Hill Crestview Bertha Henry
Orange-.C. D. Kime . Orlando . Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola . J. R. Gunn. . . Kissimmee Palm Beach . J. A. Dew . West Palm Beach.-Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan Pasco . J. A. Shealy . Dade City . Mrs. Harriet Ticknor Polk . William Gomme . Bartow Lois Godbey
Putnam . D. A. Armstrong . Palatka Floresa Sipprell
St. Johns . 0. Traxler . St. Augustine Anna E. Heist St. Lucie . Alfred Warren . Ft. Pierce Santa Rosa . John G. Hudson . Milton . Mrs. Winnie W. McEwan Seminole . B. F. Whitner, Jr-.Sanford Sumter Bushnell Mae Morris
Suwannee ------- C. E. Matthews . Live Oak Luella M. Rouse
Taylor . R. J. Dorsett . Perry Anabel Peaden
Volusia . T. A. Brown . DeLand Orpha Cole
Wakulla . G. C. Hodge . Crawfordville Walton . J. W. Mathison . DeFuniak Springs . Josephine Nimmo
*This list is correct to December 31, 1923.


































FiG. I.-Some of the farm folk who attended Farmers'


Week at the University of Florida in August, 1923.









Report of General Activities for 1923 with
Financial Statement for the FiscalYear

Ending June 30, 1923



Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1923, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1923. 1 respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to the governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.
INTRODUCTION
During 1923 the Agricultu ral Extension Division of the University of Florida conducted extension work in 44 counties of the state, having in each county either a county agent, home demonstration agent, or both. Twenty-two counties employed one county and one home demonstration agent, 20 counties had one agent only and two counties had three agents. That -is, approximately two-thirds of the counties in the state are contributing to the salaries of county extension workers.
During the year the largest number of county agents employed was 38 and the largest number of home demonstration agents employed at one time was'32. Efforts were made to have both county and home demonstration agents in a larger number of counties. This, however, was not accomplished for the reason that those counties not employing. agents did not levy an assessment to pay for the service. With the present funds available it would not be possible to carry out extension work in Florida in all the counties on the present basis of county allotment.






Florida Cooperative Extension


As extension work advances, county workers are confronted with more new and complex problems. With the progress in agriculture and horticulture and advancement in improving rural homes, there continually comes a demand for unusual service on the part of agents. The Division is required to know intimately the needs of Florida's agricultural home life and to be able to locate the men and women of the communities who are rural leaders and, with the assistance of these leaders, to organize and direct county and community forces for the advancement of all phases of farm life.
There are agricultural interests in every county that are only indirectly related to agricultural, extension work as now organized. County extension workers often can assist in such work, and usually, do unless it requires a neglect of their regular duties. In fact, extension workers always endeavor to promote the best interests of their counties.
Where both county and home demonstration work is carried on in the same county, the plans of work must ' harmonize so as to strengthen the work of both agents. For this reason county and home demonstration agents usually have a joint office where they can keep in close touch with the work of each other. In these counties the general plans of work are designed for the ultimate good of both farm and home and of the county generally.
DIVISION OF THE WORK
The extension work for 1923 was divided into nine separate and definite branches. This necessarily required a division of funds and well-defined projects.
1. County Agent Work.--The state is divided into three districts, with a district agent incharge of each. Northern and western Florida, with H. G. Clayton as district agent, constitute one district. This territory comprises the general farming and livestock areas of the state. The problems of these counties are similar in many respects.
The next district, consisting of the central and southeastern portion, of Florida, is largely horticultural, having some general agriculture in the northern counties. This district is.under the supervision of E. W. Jenkins.
The counties of northern Florida and the each coast constitute another district. It is under the supervision of S. W. Hiatt.






Annual Report, 1923


This comprises a greater variety of problems, extending from the sub-tropical area of the state into the cotton area.
In each case the county agents look directly to the district agents for supervision and assistance.
2. Boys' Club Work.-This branch is supervised by R. W. Blacklock, boys' club agent, and has to do with the direction and management of boys' agricultural clubs. These clubs are organized by county agents. District agents assist in supervision, so that projects 2 and 3 are closely related. In the different areas of the state club work naturally varies. To illustrate, in counties where citrus and winter trucking are the main industries, the clubs are directed into these types of agriculture or horticulture.
3. Home Demonstration Work.-Home demonstration work is under the direct supervision of State Agent Flavia Gleason and Assistant State Agent Virginia P. Moore. The state is













FIG. 2-Home demonstration agents studying basketry at the 1923 conference.

divided into two districts, the northern and western being in charge of Ruby McDavid and the southern in charge of Lucy Belle Settle. The district agents have direct supervision over home demonstration agents and assist them in carrying out their various projects. Home demonstration work also has specialists in nutrition, dairy work, marketing and clothing, who assist home demonstration agents in carrying thru their plans of work.
4. Dairy Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The livestock work of the year was confined principally to dairying, hog raising and the production of feed crops. This work is headed by






Florida Cooperative Extension


John M. Scott, animal industrialist, and Hamlin L. Brown, extension dairyman. This work reaches into the greater part of the state. It is intended to develop the livestock industry according to the most imperative needs and with a view to assisting farmers and livestock owners who will benefit and who will carry out demonstrations designed to help their communities.
On account of the lack of interest in beef production, little was accomplished during the year in this project.
5. Entomology and Plant Pathology.-The constant demand for assistance in the control of insects and diseases of plants made it advisable to make this a special feature of extension work. County agents in the horticultural areas have many calls for such assistance, principally with citrus fruits and winter vegetables and to a lesser extent with farm crops. As the horticultural interests increase in importance and extent county agents are ' called on more often to give expert assistance; they look to the specialists for such help.
6. Poultry.-The demands on the poultry extension specialist have increased as poultry raising -has expanded. Home demonstration agents have made poultry a special feature in their programs. In counties not employing home demonstration agents, county agents take an active interest. This is a statewide project.
7. Negro Extension Work has been confined to 14 counties and is under the supervision of a local district agent, A. A. Turner. The counties getting the greatest benefit from this are in the northern part of the state, where the negro population is largest. The program of work for men is for economical production and some cooperative marketing. The women's work deals with poultry raising, gardening, cooking, foods, clothing and sanitation.
8. Publications.-The demand for bulletins and published literature requires that a supply of this be available for county workers. County and home demonstration agents distribute large quantities of agricultural literature from their offices, as they keep a supply of bulletins appropriate to the needs of their counties. This causes a constant demand on the bulletin supply furnished them from the Agricultural Extension Division, the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of, Agriculture.





Annual Report, 1923


The following publications were issued during the year:
Bulletin 36, 'ilrish Potatoes in Florida ------------------ 10,280 copies
44 37, "Diseases and Ailments of Cattle . 10,000 it 38, "Florida Poultry Production ---------------- 25,000
The 1922 Annual Report 2,040
The 1923 Farm and Home Calendar 6,880
Weekly News Service (52 issues) Bulletin 45, "Club Song Book" 5,000
it, 46, "Hand Book for First Year Sewing"_ 5,000 Nutrition Leaflets 200,000
Bulletin 47, "Pickles and Relishes" 25,000
is 29, "Milk" (Reprint) 5,000
It 31, "Home Canning with Picnic Dinner". 5,000

The Agricultural News Service, issued weekly and supplied to the newspapers and farm journals, contains timely news and informational farm articles. This service is also sent to county and home demonstration agents and others interested in agriculture and home development in the state. Approximately 700 copies are mailed out each week.
Distribution of Agricultural Literature and Information.-The Division supplies the state press with timely articles on agricultural subjects. This is directed from the office of the editor of the Agricultural Extension Division. County and home demonstration agents are given assistance in supplying their newspapers with such material as they can use. County Ni-orkers are encouraged to give every possible assistance to the! press in supplying community newspapers with such agricultural information as will be most beneficial to farmers and farm women. In some instances, an agricultural column is maintained, its editing being done thru the cooperation of county and home demonstration agents.
Division Cannot Meet Demands.L-It is impossible for the Agricultural Extension Division to give personal attention (or the personal visit of a specialist or county or home demonstration agent) to every request-for such service made upon it. It is, therefore, felt that the service rendered by the assistance of the state press greatly enhances the active service of the Division.
9. Extension Schools.-This project was planned to provide for various schools. For the most part, these were arranged by county and home demonstration agents or by specialists. During the year. the schools in northern counties were prinel-





Florida Cooperative Extension


pally to instruct farmers on the Florida method of boll weevil control. These were carried out in cooperation with the State Plant Board of Florida. Thirty-three meetings were held with an attendance of 1,722. These meetings were diversified in some cases, other interesting farm activities being included.
Citrus Field Meetings were conducted in the citrus area of the state, principally to instruct growers in the control of insect and disease pests, particularly melanose and stem-end rot. There were 39 citrus field meetings held; the attendance totaled 1,140.
Miscellaneous Schools covering other important phases of the 1923 program, principally dairying, livestock, hog raising and general crops were held. In all, a total of 48 miscellaneous meetings were held, with an attendance of 8,500.
The meetings held in the field were the most satisfactory and effective. Method demonstrations were emphasized in each field or grove and this was followed up by inspection work by county agents, also bulletins and circulars issued from the county agents' offices or from the main office at Gainesville.


FiG. 3.-Scott (Prof. John M) hands Fulford (County Agent C. A.) the
"bull." This purebred calf was won by Columbia County for having
the largest registered attendance at Farmers' Week last summer






Annual Report, 1923


, During the year county agents conducted and took an active part in 2,000 farm meetings. The attendance at these totaled 34,006.
The Second Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was held on the campus of the University, August 6-11. This consisted of instruction and entertainment to farm people. An appropriate program was carried out.
Those contributing to the program and to the success of the entire week were members of the staff of the College of Agriculture (including Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension Division and college proper) and of the State Plant Board and growers and farmers in the state. Representatives of the United States Department of Agriculture took active part.
Farmers and their families were permitted the use of the University dormitories, paying a 'maximum charge of $1 a day for board and room. The plan called for a general session each day, followed by sectional meetings. A special program was prepared for.the farm women under the direction of the home demonstration staff.
In carrying out this week the cooperation of other organized bodies interested in farm life was secured and valuable assistance rendered in making it a success. The expenses incidental to Farmers' Week were borne by direct appropriation by the Legislature. The registered attendance was 707.
10. Administration deals with all phases of extension work, the distribution and expenditure of funds, plans and policies and the working relationships of the various departments and projects.
Workers in Organization.--In conducting various phases of agricultural extension work during the year the following people were employed: a director, a county agent leader and vicedirector, three district agents for men's work, a boys' club agent, an extension dairyman, an animal industrialist (part time), a plant pathologist and entomologist, an extension poultryman and an editor.
For home demonstration work the following, workers were employed: a state home demonstration agent, an assistant state home demonstration agent, two district agents, a poultry club agent, a home dairy agent, a nutrition specialist, an assistant clothing specialist (part time).






Florida Cooperative Extension


One district (supervising) local agent for negro work was employed also by the Division.
ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS
The service is reinforced with assistance from the Florida Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the Florida State College for Women, the State Plant Board of Florida and the United States Department of Agriculture. The service from each is principally advisory but is definite and valuable.
There are other institutions such as the State Livestock Sanitary Board and State Marketing Bureau which, while having no official relation to the, Division, cooperate under a working relationship that is mutual and beneficial to all institutions cooperating.
CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF THE STAFF
During 1923 changes in personnel of the staff were as follows:
Gladys Smith, nutrition agent, resigned February 28.
On April 1, Isabelle S. Thursby was appointed assistant in nutrition and Madge Horn was appointed assistant in clothing, both working until June 30.
At the end of the fiscal year, June 30, the following agents resigned: Sarah W. Partridge, state home demonstration agent; Harriette B. Layton, assistant state home demonstration agent; Agnes I. Webster, district agent; Ellen LeNoir, district agent; May Morse, home dairy agent; Minnie Floyd, home poultry agent. This required the appointment of an entirely new staff to begin work on July 1, 1923.
These positions were filled by the following: Flavia Gleason, state home demonstration agent; Virginia P. Moore, assistant state home demonstration agent;.Ruby McDavid, dis trict agent; Lucy Belle Settle, district agent; Isabelle S. Thursby, food and marketing agent; Louise Carter, dairy and nutrition agent. .On July 1, N. W. Sanborn, extension poultryman, was assigned for full-time duty to the College of Agriculture and was succeeded by H. B. Lansden.
Among county and home demonstration workers various res-' ignations, new appointments and transfers took place, most of these occurring between July 1 and October 1. These changes were relatively few and in each case the new agent appointed had qualification's equal to, if not better than, those resigned. It is the policy of the administration to secure specially equipped






Annual Report, 1923 15

agents who have had training in an agricultural college. However, instances arise where this is not practical, owing to the limited amount of money available for the employment of agents.
PLANS OF WORK FOR THE YEAR'
All extension workers are required to have a plan of work at the beginning-of the year and are expected to carry out definite, organized extension work. As individual counties have their local problems it is important that the county plan be formulated largely by county and home demonstration agents.
District or supervisory agents submit their recommendations for the year's work, and specialists and leaders submit outlines to govern the work. These plans are assembled for consideration and conference at the beginning of the year.
County and home demonstration agents were assembled into three groups at convenient places for two-day sessions. As .these group meetings bring together both county and home demonstration agents, they provide an opportunity for the correlation of these two sides of the work. It is expected that each extension worker will give these problems preferred attention and alter his or her plan as little as possible.
At the conclusion of the group conferences the plans for the year are tabulated with recommendations from the supervising forces. This has been found helpful in correlating the various branches and projects and in bringing the greatest good to the whole in the end.
ANNUAL CONFERENCES OF COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
All extension workers meet in annual conference for instruction and correlation of work. 'The programs divide the agents into sections, with leaders for each, and bring them into joint sessions to discuss state-wide problems and policies. Assistance with these programs is given by the College of Agriculture, St te Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture and others. This conference is planned to last one week and is held at the University of Florida. It brings together all extension workers of the state and serves to correlate all phases of the work.
COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS
During the annual conference committees made up largely of county workers are assigned to submit recommendations con-






Florida Cooperative Extension


corning problems in which they will be interested. These are brought together in the form of recommendations to be used as a guide in formulating plans for the coming year.
CONFERENCES FOR NEGRO WORKERS
Negro extension work is a branch of the Division, designed particularly to meet the needs of rural negro people. It is systematized and so directed that it results in the general betterment of negro farmers and farm women.
The negro agents are called together once a year to discuss and arrange plans. The attention of the -negro agents is brought to the fact that their work is educational rather than the giving of individual service. It is, therefore, emphasized that so far as conditions permit the work be done thru organized clubs, principally with the boys and girls living on farms, assisting them in the most important farm problems of the community. At these negro agents' conferences subject matter is presented by members of the staff of the College of Agriculture, including the Experiment Station.
OUTLOOK FOR 1924
For 1924 the plans have not been modified to any great extent from those of 1923, except that there will be a reduced acreage of cotton, due to the generally unsatisfactory crop of 1923. As there is a possibility of better prices for hogs, farmers in the cotton-growing area will be urged to pay special attention to the production of hogs and feed crops, particularly where hogs can be marketed during September. Emphasis will be placed on increasing dairy products and providing home-grown feeds. Special emphasis will be given to the importance of poultry as an adjunct to every farmer's operations. Agents will stress the importance of increased plantings of fruit trees, both for home and commercial uses. Special attention will be given to the new satsuma interests of northern and western Florida. The program of each agent will emphasize diversification for farmers, emphasizing in particular dairying, poultry and hogs. In the citrus and vegetables areas county agents will give special attention to the control of insects and diseases that affect the marketing of citrus fruit. A specialist has been added to the staff to deal entirely with citrus pathological problems. He will work with citrus growers thru county agents, assisting them in the best and most economical methods of spraying.







Annual Report, 1923


County agents also will give due attention to reducing production costs of all crops by increased yields and by, economic methods in producing and handling crops.
In home demonstration work emphasis will be placed on poultry production, the home dairy, nutrition, conservation and the by-products of the farm, in addition to the recreational side of farm life. It is noteworthy that the increased financial support of extension work by counties indicates an enthusiastic interest on the part of the people receiving the benefits of this service.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
RECEIPTS
College of Agriculture Funds
Smith-Lever, Federal $ 58,872.25
Smith-Lever, State 48,872.25
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal 15,496.08
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State 15,496.08
'U. S. D. A. appropriations 22,500-00
State appropriations 9506.85
County appropriations 73:830.44
Total $244,573.95
EXPENDITURES
Administration $ 13,287.70
Printing and Publications 3,199.61
County agents' work 113,687.64
Home demonstration work 80,007.69
Boys' club work 5,457.44
Animal industry 4,772-73
Negro farm and home makers' work 15,033.83
Plant pathology and entomology 4,211.16
Poultry industry 4,310.45
Extension schools 569.66
Balance 36.04
Total $244,573.95






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND
COUNTY AGENT LEADER

At the beginning of the calendar year 1923 the county agents, supervisory agent s and district agents mapped out plans for the year's work and at group meetings brought these together for discussion, so that the year began with definite things under way thruout the state. These plans involved a few major projects and several minor ones. These. major projects involved:
(1) General farm crops and operations, (2) livestock interests,
(3) citrus fruit, (4) vegetables, (5) organization, (6) boys' club work. In some counties all of these were involved, but in most cases there was specialization which required much of the agents' time.
General farm crops and operations involved the production of corn and other ezereals, hay crops, soil-improvement crops, land preparation and marketing.
The livestock interests involved principally dairy and hog production, with special emphasis on establishing dairies and finding a market for dairy products. In hog production it was largely a matter of producing meat hogs, as there was relatively little interest in the production of purebred breeding stock.
The work in citrus fruit comprised principally the production of high-grade fruit, improving the grade and quality by holding diseases and insects in check, proper fertilization and cultivation.
In vegetable crops the main work consisted of proper fertilization and cultivation, checking diseases and insects and grading and packing the crops for shipment.
In organization work, the main feature was organizing principally for cooperatively purchasing and selling.
Club work consisted of the usual club organization work with boys in staple crops and livestock and the study of citrus culture, principally of insect and disease identification and control. , It would not be possible to compare the relative importance of these major projects, inasmuch as they differ in importance, depending on location and county.
Between January 1 and December 31, there was county agent work under way in 44 counties. Nine carried on the work for only short periods. The number of months total 4182/3.
Farmers in the general farming area had an unsatisfactory year in both production and marketing. Their program first






Annual Report, 1923


called for the largest acreage of cotton grown for several years. But disaster came during the spring months; heavy rains injured the crop to such an extent that the lowest yield in the history of the state was produced.















FIG. 4-1rish potatoes grown by one of County Agent J. 0. Trailer's farm demonstrators.
In view of the excellent prospects for cotton, many farmers neglected to provide feed and other crops and to diversify. As a result, cotton failing, the sugar cane crop being short, feed for hogs being unprovided, these farmers have had a hard year. Consequently, the county agents in these counties have had one of the most trying of years.
Nevertheless, in spite of these unfavorable circumstances, there was the same strong demand for county agent service, many boards of county commissioners levying even a larger amount than prescribed by law in order to continue the service. The experience of the year has, therefore, demonstrated the importance of a well-rounded, diversified program in such areas. This has been so thoroly impressed on all that many counties which, a year ago, were inclined to fall back on the one-crop system are now backing a diversified program, emphasizing particularly hogs, dairying and poultry.
Counties in the southern part of the state have had a more prosperous year. With much activity in practically all lines of horticulture, with a large influx of winter tourists distributing large amounts of money, and with much road building in progress, the counties are in a prosperous condition. This has reflected on county agent work in this area. It has called f or






Florida Cooperative Extension


the agents to give assistance to newcomers, to direct in the production of high-grade fruit and to assist in conducting fairs and exhibits.
COMMUNITY WORK
The time has passed when county extension workers can serve their counties in a satisfactory way thru individual service. Therefore, it is necessary to work by communities. Programs of work are carried out thru community centers; in many cases the community programs differ but little. However, effort is made to secure leaders in these communities, so that the county agent's time may be conserved, he working thru the centers instead of with individuals. Even this has not sufficiently relieved the county agent from individual service, but it has simplified his work in that a greater number of people are rea hed with the same effort.
The agent in Lee County reports that 14 communities are making a study of citrus problems under his supervision and direction. He has arranged to meet each community at its center at regular intervals with a well-prepared program devoted to its particular citrus problems.
In the cotton-growing areas the agents use the communities as centers for assembling farmers, principally for the cooperative purchase of supplies. In Palm Beach County, communities in the Everglades have worked with the county and home demonstration agents in such a way that the efficiency of these workers has been increased.
Community programs of work are difficult to arrange, on account of the variety of interests and the lack of any community organizations for this purpose already in existence.
COOPERATION FROM OUTSIDE AGENCIES
County and home demonstration agents have had assistance from various boards and departments for the mutual benefit of all concerned. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with them, helping farmers to dispose of their produce. This is a service the farmers highly appreciate, particularly the small farmer. Poultry, eggs, sweet potatoes, watermelons, etc. were sold for satisfactory prices and in large quantities by such cooperation.
The State Livestock Sanitary Board cooperated with the agents in the control of animal diseases, principally diseases -of






Annual Report, 1923


hogs and dairy cattle. In the case of tubercular inspection, by mutual arrangement between the Livestock Sanitary Board and the county agents, many herds were tested. County agents were called upon also in reference to the movement of livestock from outside of their counties and, thru their connection with the Livestock Sanitary Board, they were able to give farmers. valuable service in this way.
County agents worked in close cooperation with the State Plant Board, first in the application of the Florida method of boll weevil control. This work was directed by the Plant Board and put into the counties by county agents thru. meetings, demonstrations and observations upon results of the application.
The agents cooperated with the State Department of Agriculture in sampling fertilizers for farmers, in giving definite information regarding the agriculture of the counties and in explaining the fertilizer inspection law.
There has been close cooperation between the Experiment Station and the county agents in many ways, the Station giving definite help in subject matter, assisting in conducting meetings, distributing grasses and in locating experimental work.
There has also been a definite cooperative relationship between the agricultural agencies of various railroads, in each case agricultural interests being bettered.
SUPERVISION OF WORK
The county agents were supervised by the state leader and three district agents. They were assisted by specialists in dairying, livestock and forage crops, also disease and insect control. During the year 625 visits, of from one to five days each were made to counties having agents by these supervisors and specialists.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Altho county fairs and community exhibits have been considered a minor project in county agent work they have occupied much of the agents' time. Between November 1 and April I these fairs are in progress in many counties and practically all of them call on the Division for assistance in arranging exhibits and in judging. District Agent S. W. Hiatt has given special work of this nature, stressing educational features and working out a score card system which places proper emphasis on different displays in order to make the exhibits most educational and instructive. In the larger fairs county and home






Florida Cooperative Extension


demonstration agents were largely responsible for the success of county booths. This has given them an opportunity to bring their work before their people and arouse greater interest in agricultural production and home life.
Fair associations cooperated liberally in allowing spaces for displaying boys' and girls' exhibits and allowing prizes for club members who exhibited hogs, poultry, canned products and domestic art.
State fair associations have looked to the extension offices for guidance in making up their catalogs, with a view to making satisfactory awards and maintaining the proper proportion of values on farmers' exhibits.
]INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF COUNTY AGENTS
Increasing the efficiency of county agents is a constant consideration of supervising officers. Their main purpose is to assist county agents in rendering the best possible service. County agents are called together for training and instruction by specialists who can assist them in their work. It has been found good practice for county agents to visit places outside of their counties where they can receive special instructions. In a few instances these visits took them outside of the state. They are kept in close touch with officials of the Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, who also cooperate in carrying out demonstration - ,vork.


FIG. 5-Demonstration grove observed and reported on by County Agent Wm. Gomme of Polk.







Annual Report, 1923 23

New agents are frequently placed with experienced county agents for a short time before taking up their work. This is done primarily to acquaint the new men with extension work.
1t has been -the practice for certain county agents to come together two or three times a year when they have problems
in common to study the best methods of carrying thru particular pieces of work. The county agents' offices are supplied with bulletins and illustrative material, which makes them the centers of agricultural information in the counties.

STATISTICS
The following statistics will give some idea of what was
accomplished in the major projects. As there are many minor projects that come into county agent work, much that took place during the year cannot be so reported. It has been emphasized that extension work is primarily educational and, therefore, cannot be correctly estimated in money values.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 295 Voluntary county, community and local leaders 2,618
Clubs carrying on extension work 164
Membership 3,698
Farm visits made by county agents 22,078
Different farms visited 8,192
Home visits made by county agents 4,116
Different homes visited 1,284
Office calls on agents relating. to extension work 30,270
Average number days spent in office 97
Average number days spent in field 203
Official letters written 25,481
Newspaper articles prepared for press 1,430
Circular letters sent out 1,598
Community buildings established 77
Exhibits at fairs 61
-Cornmunity 32
-County 17
-State 10
-Interstate 2
Number Attendance
Demonstration meetings held 607 15,395
Farmers' institutes held 105 2,296
Extension schools and short courses held 15 1,021
Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies. . 279 Club boys entering college 16
PROGRAM SUMMARY
Communities participating in various projects 1,077
Demonstrations 5,561
-Boll weevil control 361
-Dairying 96
-Poultry 249
-Citrus 2,185
-Other fruits 329







24 Florida Cooperative Extension

-Cooperative purchases and sales 201
-Truck crops 929
-Organization 6
-Soil improvement 446
-Livestock 255
-Community and county exhibits 14
-Club work 490
'Meetings held for definite project work 1,107
Attendance 13,667
General meetings held 893
Attendance 21,339
Voluntary community leaders 989
Days assistance by voluntary leaders 1,206
Cereal Demonstrations
(Corn, Oats, Etc.)
Demonstrators 72
Acreage grown under demonstration methods 532
Boys' and girls' clubs 69
'Acreage grown by club members 137
Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) 4,956
Value $3,728
Cost $1,136
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 232
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed 1,305
Farmers who grew selected seed for sale 100
Farmers who tested seed for germination 26
Farmers who treated seed grain for smut 50
1 Cotton Demonstrations

Demonstrators 264
Acreage grown under improved methods 1,045
Farms influenced to adopt better practice 1,121
Boys and girls' clubs 4
Members enrolled 97
Acreage grown by club members 42
Value of crops grown by club members $1,787
Cost $ 735
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed 351
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases ----- . 690

Legume Demonstrations
(Cowpeas, Soybeans, Velvet Beans, Etc.)
Demonstrators 354
Acreage grown under improved methods 4,444
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 537
Acreage in these farms 7,526
Farmers who planted selected seed 687
Farmers who grew selected seed for sale 3
Farmers who inoculated for these crops 9

Orchard Demonstrations
Demonstration orchards 1,212
Acreage of these orchards 12,703
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 1,262
Farmers who planted selected or improved stock 453
Farmers who pruned 1,527
Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated to control disease and
ingeet pe9t9 . 1,172
Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices 1,234







Annual Report, 1923 25

Truck and Garden Demonstrations
Demonstrators 283
Acreage in these demonstrations 21457%
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 280
Farmers who planted selected or improved seed 220
Farmers who pruned 253
Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated for disease and insect pests 769 Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices 756
Irish Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators 21
Acreage grown under improved methods 121
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 28
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed 56
Farmers who treated seed for disease 52
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects . 151 Crop improvement associations organized at suggestion of extension
service 1
Membership 42
Sweet Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators 44
Acreage grown under improved methods 96
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 60
Farmers who planted improved or certified seed 227
Farmers who grew improved or certified seed for sale 33
Farmers who treated seed to prevent disease 28
Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects . 30 Storage houses constructed 1
Capacity this house (bushels) 1,000
Dairy Cattle Demonstrations
Demonstrations 78
Animals in completed demonstrations 540
Saving resulting from better practices 9 percent
Value of animals raised by club members $750
Cost of such animals and products $500
Farmers influenced to adopt better practices 123
Animals on these farms 2,136
Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires 34
Purebred females secured 86
Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time 36
Farmers who culled their herds 65
Associations organized 2
Membership 140
Breed associations or clubs organized 2
Membership 49
Farmers not in associations who tested cows for production -------- . 13 Cows so tested 152
Farmers who fed better balanced rations 124
Farmers who controlled insect pests 68
Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis 331
Animals tested 10,342
Farmers who controlled other livestock diseases 298
Animals treated and cured 6,637
Herds accredited this year for the first time 28
Homes assisted in making butter and cheese 27

Demonstrators Rog Demonstrations 35
Animals in completed demonstrations 245
Savings resulting from better practices 10 per cent
Farmers who secured purebred sires 57






26 Florida Cooperative Extension

Purebred females secured 61
Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time 43
Farmers who fed better balanced rations 75
Farmers who controlled insect pests 60
Farmers who controlled livestock diseases 1,267
Animals treated and cured 37,648
Poultry Demonstrations
Demonstrators 1,295
Birds in these demonstrations 19,438
Farms influenced to adopt better practices 449
Birds on these farms 24,000
Saving resulting from better practices 6 per cent
Purebred roosters secured 194
Purebred hens secured 9,505
Farms securing purebred poultry for the first time 109
Farmers who culled their flocks 512
Breed associations organized 2
Membership these associations 68
Birds under test 1,200
Farmers who fed better balanced rations 238
Farmers who controlled insect pests 272
Farmers who controlled poultry diseases 360
Birds treated and cured 17,191
Soil Improvement Demonstrations
Demonstrations started or under way 1,023
Demonstrations completed 607
Acres involved in completed demonstrations 11,2411/4
Farmers influenced to change methods soil management 1,127
Acreage of farms changing methods 38,178
Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers 2,705
Acreage of these farms 51,208
Farmers who home-mixed fertilizer 398
Tons of fertilizer so mixed 2,452
Farmers taking better care of farm manures 727
Farmers using lime or limestone 147
Tons of lime or limestone so used 596
Farmers who plowed under cover or other green manure crops for
soil improvement 909
Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under 14,722
Miscellaneous Citrus Report, County Agent Work
Citrus properties visited 2,680
Citrus properties upon which extension work was conducted . 1,490 Acreage these properties 20,071
Citrus properties where extension programs were carried out . 1,095 Land owners visited before setting citrus 379
Growers who consulted agents before planting 485
Money saved growers by fertilizer recommendations of agents . $1,500 Demonstrations to control scab 72
Demonstrations to control. melanose 112
Demonstrations to control foot rot 127
Demonstrations to control dieback or wrenching 288
Demonstrations to control scale 433
Demonstrations to control whitefly 371
Demonstrations to control rust mite 477
Demonstrations to control other insect pests 35





Annual Report, 1923


Farm and Farmstead Improvements
(Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice)


Demonstrations Acres in these demonstrations


42 156



9 1
24 34 192
124 298 3,132


Number Acres
Drainage systems installed 476 6,511
Irrigation systems installed 22 4,767
Terraces constructed 109 1,245
Water systems installed Heating systems installed Lighting systems installed Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled Farmers assisted in care and operation of machinery Farmers who cleared land Acres cleared


Demonstration in Control of Rodents and Other Pests
Demonstrations 240
Farmers adopting control measures 691
Acres involved 12,272
Pounds of poisoned bait used 45,632

Farm Management
Farm account books distributed 134
Farmers who kept records 86
Farmers assisted in keeping accounts 37
Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts -------------- 69
Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations 120
Farmers advised relative to leases 42
Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records 34
Farmers who made better use of labor 163
Farmers who secured tractors, sprayers, milking machines or other
machinery to economize labor 512

Supplies Purchased and Produce Sold


Supplies Purchased Value Saving


Products Sold Value Profit


Seed
Seed and Calcium ----------_-------Seed and Dustguns . . Feed, Fertilizer, etc - ---------------Fertilizers Crates, Fillers and Feed . Crates and Fertilizer . Truck and Crates Tomatoes, Crates, etc . . Bluestone Spray
Truck
Strawberry Cups Fruits (Tree and Small) . Wool
Poultry, Feed, etc . . Livestock
Poultry


$ 1,624
1,500 13,777 6,100 56,865 256
440 780
2,000 1,200
'300 9,500

100


$ 339
150 2,677 1,113 16,906
20 45 180
200 100


$ 7,500
25,000 2,098
800
1,250 58,000


$ 2,647
5,000
393
210
61
25,000

1,500

7,500
1,760
360
$44,431


4,000
600
4,500 75,000
20
16,900
3,000
$26,250 $194,148


TOTALS $94,642






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL
AND SOUTHERN DISTRICT

The Supervisory Program of Work for 1923 for the counties of Alachua, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Osceola, Orange, Pasco and Polk included work in citrus, truck, livestock, poultry, corn, sweet potatoes, pastures, organization and club work.
Citrus work included plans for holding citrus meetings, organization of boys' citrus clubs and demonstrations and the control of diseases and insects. The work planned for truck crops included disease control and preparation for market. The usual work wi ' th hogs and cattle was included in the program. This consisted of control of diseases, introducing better blood and growing more feed and pastures. Organization and marketing were given all the assistance possible.
County Agents' Equipment.-Each county agent's office except one, is supplied with a typewriter. All offices have letter files and bulletin racks. Four counties furnish stenographic help which keeps the offices open while the agents are in the field, distribute bulletins, answer telephone calls and record all requests made of the county agents. All of the agents keep on file copies of their weekly reports and monthly time certificates. With the exception of two or three counties a card index system is used for recording daily visits to farmers and growers. These cards also are used to show assistance given to individuals and organizations in making purchases and sales. Three agents have sampling tubes which they use in taking samples of fertilizer to be analyzed for their demonstrators. Two agents are supplied with soil acidify testers.
Soil Improvement,-The most effective soil improvement work was done in citrus groves. In Lake and Orange demonstrations were carried out with grove irrigation -which -proved successful and created much interest. Large acreage was planted thruout the citrus area to cover crops. This is especially true with young groves. It sometimes takes several years to demonstrate the real value of cover crops to a grove. It is an admitted fact among experienced growers that such cover crops as velvet beans, beggarweed and cowpeas are essential in making a successful grove on high ridge land. Some work was done in growing cover crops in connection with regular field crops.





Annual Report, 1923


Cotton.--The work with cotton consisted largely of demonstrating how to control the boll weevil. This work was carried out in Marion, Levy and Alachua. In each county the work was given publicity thru the newspapers, by circular letters and by holding field meetings. The Florida method was used. In some cases, even tho the cotton had been planted at the specified time, when time came to treat the farmers thought the cotton too large and were unwilling to remove the squares from the plants as the method required. They thought that the expense of taking off of the plants the large number of squares which had already formed would be more than profits would justify. However, a number of demonstrators followed the method as closely as possible. Due to the heavy rains which occurred while the cotton was being poisoned it was impossible to get a thoro test.
Livestock County agents cooperated with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, in testing cattle for tuberculosis and in treating hogs to control cholera. This work was carried out in practically every county in the district. In Hernando, Marion and Alachua, the county agents assisted farmers in improving the grade of dairy cattle. This was done by purchasing better-bred cows and grading up the native cows by the use of well-bred sires.
The county agent of Alachua, assisted by the district agent, gave a demonstration in cutting and curing pork on the farm. The sugar-cured method, described in Farmers' Bulletin 1186, was practiced, the amount of each ingredient used in the cure being increased by 50 percent. From former experience it seems that the amount of each material suggested in this bulletin is not, sufficient in the warin climate of Florida., By increasing the amount no difficulty in curing the meat, where cold storage was used for cooling, was experienced.
Corn.-Little work was done with corn. However, in most of the counties some attention was given to the selection of seed. This was especially true of Marion, Levy and Alachua.
Sweet Potatoes.-7-The county agent of Marion carried out six demonstrations with sweet potatoes. These demonstrations have been conducted for two years. The purpose has been to show how the yield could be increased by the selection of seed. The work is not yet complete and actual results are not obtainable. However, the Marion County Fair Association offered






Florida Cooperative Extension


a prize for the best bunch of sweet potatoes exhibited at that fair. Each of these demonstrators exhibited a bunch of potatoes which had been taken from the demonstration plot. The best bunch contained 20 well-formed potatoes.
Citru&-A series of citrus meetings were arranged by county agents in each of the citrus counties, which includes every county in the district except Alachua and Levy. The purpose of these meetings was to assist the growers in producing better fruit. Diseases, insects and their control were studied. Better methods of cultivation and fertilization were also discussed.
Practical demonstrations in the control of melanose were carried out in Lake, Marion, 'Manatee, Orange and Hernando. The bordeaux-oil solution recommended by the plant pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station was used according to directions for this purpose. Some good results were obtained but, from the amount of scale on the fruit where this material was used, the necessity of following the melanose treatment with applications of oil to control scale was demonstrated clearly. Some work was done to control dieback, which consists largely of soil treatment, the use of bluestone and cultural methods.
The three insects which received the most attention of county agents in their citrus work were rust mite, whitefly and scale. In a few cases demonstrations were carried out along this line. However, in most cases the work consisted of cooperation with the grower by assisting him in mixing his sprays and applying them properly.
Truck Crops,-The main work with truck crops was the con-trol of insects and diseases. Special efforts were made to help Williston farmers to control downy mildew and angular leaf spot of cucumbers. A 4-4-50 boraeaux mixture was the spray used for this purpose. The intention was to show the cucumber growers by a few demonstrations that it was both practical and profitable to control these diseases. Six farmers who had equipment were enlisted as demonstrators and worked with. In some cases the spraying was not done early enough. However, when used properly, even after the disease appeared in the fields, results were satisfactory. One man increased his acre yield from 15 to 170 hampers. Another farmer made seven hampers to the acre on the unsprayed portion of his field and 220 hampers to the acre on the sprayed portion. In each case the sprayed plants were green and produced fruit from 15 to 20 days






Annual Report, 1923


longer than where unsprayed. This work was conducted with the spring crop.
About 100 acres were planted in cucumbers for a fall crop. As a result of the work which had been done in the spring 98 percent of the total acreage in the fall was sprayed with even better results than were obtained in the spring. Another evidence of the effect of this work is that the Williston growers purchased more than 25 power sprayers to use in spraying their crops in the future. Some work along this same line was carried out in Marion and Alachua.
The county agent of Manatee did some effective work in inducing farmers to disinfect seed and seedbeds. This work was also carried on by other agents. The agent of Osceola was successful in starting farmers in the vicinities of Kissimmee and St. Cloud to growing strawberries. It was largely due to his efforts, working thru the two local organizations of growers at these points, that the strawberry industry was established in those areas.
Dairying.-Three counties in the district-Alachua, Marion and Herfiando-have dairies or creameries which handle the milk produced in those respective localities. The creamery at Gainesville was established during the year. Here it is planned to use sour cream and make butter only .
Poultryi-In some counties, especially those that had not home demonstrations agents, the county agents were active in promoting poultry work. This is especially true of Marion. The county agent here held demonstration meetings showing how to cull and care for the flock. In Alachua the Alachua County Creamery Company purchased and installed a 10,000egg incubator. The purpose of this is that the farmer may get chickens hatched at a reasonable cost. See poultry specialist's report.)
Pastures.---The county agents of Marion, Hernando, Levy and Alachua, by cooperating with the forage crops specialist of the Experiment Station, provided the farmers with such grasses as were thought best for a permanent pasture. The plants sent out were Bahia and Carpet grasses and lespedeza. Small
amounts of thegrass or seed were sent out to a few farmers to be used for demonstrations. The county agent of Marion reported about twenty farmers growing Napier grass.





Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 6.-Club boys planting a permanent pasture at the University.

Organization.-Some organization work has been done in several different counties. In Alachua the LaCrosse Potato Growers' Association was organized. The members of this association purchased seed and fertilizer and marketed their potatoes cooperatively. The association is composed of 15 members who are growing 150 acres of potatoes. They will sell thru one sales agent and have entered into a five-year contract. In this same county the Alachua County Marketing Association was formed along similar lines. Marion, Lee, Manatee, Osceola and Hillsborough have cooperative associations among their farmers.
Club Work.---The three principal lines of club work conducted in the district consisted of corn, pig and citrus clubs. Hillsborough, Alachua and Hernando held boys' club contests. Citrus club work was carried out in Osceola, Orange and Lake.
While the citrus club work was undertaken this year for the first time and the plans are not completely worked out, it gives promise of being one of the most popular clubs for the boys in this district.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT,
NORTHERN AND WESTERN DISTRICT

Supervisory Program for 1923,-The district agent made out a general plan of work for the district and county agents selected from this such items as they expected to push in their counties during the year and incorporated them into their plans of work.
This plan included such items as: corn culture, sweet potato culture, boll weevil control, hogs, dairying, cooperative selling andbuying, satsumas and other fruits, club work, poultry work, watermelons and other truck crops, insect and disease control, organization, fairs and exhibits, soil improvement, records and reports.
Seasonal conditions were unfavorable for growing crops, it being the wettest season for many years.
County Agents' Equipmenti--Of eleven county agents in this territory, one has clerical and office help, seven have typewriters, seven have offices at their court houses, two have special offices and two have offices in their homes. Demonstration equipment is confined to a few terracing levels, pruning shears, spray pumps and hog cholera vaccination outfits.
Program SupervisionCounty programs of work were supervised by the district agent, who rendered help wherever possible. Assistance in development of county programs was given county agents by assisting them in studying needs of their counties and suggesting and outlining ways and means of developing them. This year, several counties tried fall trucking on a small scale, hoping to find a new money crop which would add to the farm income.
Boll Weevil Control.-Inasmuch as these northern and western counties are the cotton-growing counties of Florida, most of the boll weevil control work by the Florida method was carried out in this district. With a definite plan for carrying out this method in the counties growing cotton, a series of meetings was arranged well in advance of the planting season to give the farmers first-hand information as to methods of application and results . to expect. George D. Smith, of the State - Plant Board, gave valuable assistance in presenting'the method to the -farmers. Owing to the publicity that had been - given- the method, it was possible to put on demonstrations in all the cotton coun-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ties, the Plant Board and Washington office supplying workers during May and June in counties that did not have agents.
Weather conditions were unfavorable for growing cotton and varying results were secured from the treatment. However, on an average, the Morida method showed up well. I Satsuma Culture.-As this is a new industry, assistance by representatives of the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station and county agents was valuable to many inexperienced growers. Growers' meetings were arranged and it was thru these that much help was given. These field meetings proved particularly helpful in getting the growers together to discuss problems as they occurred in the new plantings.
Other assistance to agents in this district was in judging county fairs, holding club contests, holding club and farm meetings on fertilizer, boll weevil control, satsumas, fruit growing, trucking, etc. In all, 51 farm and club meetings were attended by this agent, at which there was a total attendance of 3,140.
Publicity.-The newspapers are the best means in the counties of informing the people. They have cooperated with county and home demonstration agents by furnishing space in their columns for giving notice of meetings and for articles on farm and home topics.
Other Accomplishments of the year may be summarized as follows:
Corn Culture.-Due to the unfavorable growing season and the increased acreage to cotton, it was a bad corn year. In this territory, 341 acres were included in demonstrations. About 167 farmers used improved seed and 85 began growing selected seed for sale. In all, 35 adults and 181 boys were enrolled to conduct demonstrations, which showed a small increase in production.
Sweet Potatoes.-The acreage in sweet potatoes was materially reduced this year, the late wet spring and low prices being main causes. One new storage house was constructed in the district. A hundred sixty-eight (168) farmers used improved seed, and 46 farmers and club boys completed demonstrations.
'Hogs.-Due to high cotton prices and low hog prices, not as much was accomplished as was anticipated, especially in summer marketing of hogs. In Madison County cooperative selling seemed to be on a stable basis; nine carloads were shipped in a satisfactory manner.





Annual Report, 1923


Demonstrations were carried on with 115 farmers and club boys in the district, in which 305 hogs were involved. County agents helped farmers bring in 50 purebred boars and 64 purebred sows. About 15,570 hogs were inoculated against cholera on 994 farms.
Cooperative Sales and Purchases.-This movement is showing a steady increase; $24,699.46 was saved to the farmers this year, the agents being largely responsible. In addition to this, various cooperative associations saved their members much. Immediate financial savings are not the only returns; especially in fertilizers, higher-grade goods are being used. In one county only one farmer insisted on a 10-2-2 fertilizer formula, while only a few years ago this was the only one used. In some localities cooperative buying is being encouraged by business men.
Satsumas and Other Fruits.-Approximately 100,000 satsuma trees were set out in the western counties during January and February. Figuring 70 trees to the acre, this would amount to 1,428 acres. Up to this time, there were about 1,700 acres, most of which were set in 1922. About 200,000 trees were sold this year for planting early in 1924. This will give an idea of the growth of this industry during the last two years.
The season of 1923 was favorable for growing young trees and practically all of the plantings made good growth. The few bearing groves produced heavy crops of good-quality fruit.
The satsuma industry is new to these growers and they are eager for information and advice. Grove inspections, fertilizer


FIG. 7.-Escambia is one of the foremost counties in boys' club work.
Here are shown a few of the boys gathered at the club camp.






Florida Cooperative Extension


information, planting advice, advice on cover crops, cultural methods, spraying information and aid in securing trees are principal aids given the growers. , It was largely individual work; county agents did it in a fine manner.
Good progress was made with sand pear and blueberry 'plantings. It is the district agent's opinion that for small plantings of from one to two acres to the farm, the blueberry offers attractive possibilities. Some large plantings were made and their future will be closely watched.
Ninety-eight fruit meetings with an attendance of 7,474 people were held in the district. The purpose of these was to interest farmers in growing fruit and to instruct them in varieties and cultural methods. Officials of the State Plant Board and industrial agents of the railroads rendered assistance at many of these meetings.
Watermelons and Other Truck Crops.-Excessive rains and anthracnose made the watermelon crop almost a total failure. Other truck crops did fairly well. Fall truck crops of beans, cabbage, beets, pepper and cucumbers and tomatoes were tried. This was a new venture f or this part of Florida. Beans and cucumbers did well. Frost killed most of the peppers and tomatoes and some beans. Beets are being shipped as the year end s and cabbage will be ready in January. The shipping was handled largely by truck growers' associations organized by efforts of county agents. The members of these associations agree to plant only small acreages. Varieties and times of plantings, etc., are agreed upon and products are shipped cooperatively. From results already secured, it is known that there will be more of this next year.
Fairs and Exhibits.-' This was a successful year for fairs. In this territory, there were held seven county fairs and the InterState Fair and Satsuma Festival. Four counties showed at the State Fair in Jacksonville and four others showed at Pensacola in the Inter-State Fair. There were three new county fairs this year in this territory.
Soil Improvement.-In almost every county some work was done in the growing of legumes as soil-improvement crops. Terracing demonstrations were conducted successfully in two counties.
Miscellaneous.-Little fertilizer sampling was done. Homemixing is on the increase in about half the territory. Coopera-






Annual Report, 1923 37

tive buying has lessened the margin that formerly existed between mixed and unmixed goods.
Budding and grafting were taught club members and farmers thruout the satsuma areas. Most of this work was done with satsumas. Nursery stock was scarce and there are a number of farmers in every county growing their own nursery trees.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN DISTRICT I

Supervisory Program for 1923.-The program for this district in brief included corn, potato, cotton and peanut culture, hog raising, cooperative sales and purchase of farm supplies, improving citrus and other fruits and vegetables, soil improvement, organizations, fairs and exhibits, poultry, dairying,' club work and the control of insects and diseases.
From this general program for the district, each county selected such projects as were peculiarly adapted to its soil and climatic conditions and good work was done in all, altho adverse weather conditions were responsible for poor results with such crops as corn, cotton and peanuts.
County Agents' Equipment -One county agent was supplied with an office assistant who served as secretary of the county farm bureau, and who worked under his direction. Two counties furnished their agents with stenographic help. Six counties furnished their agents with filing cases, typewriters, etc. One county furnished a complete office and equipment, including library and laboratory appliances. Three counties supplied their agents with little or nothing in the way of assistance or equipment. All agents are supplied with card-index filing systems.
Vacancies and new positions were filled as far as possible by men selected for special fitness for such position by reason of technical and practical training and personality, etc.
The county agents in this district were supplied with direct assistance from specialists of the College of Agriculture and State Plant Board.
Boll Weevil Assistance.-A series of meetings were conducted in the cotton-growing counties to acquaint farmers with the Florida method of boll weevil control. Later field meetings were held and demonstrations were given under the supervision of district and county agents. Special assistance was given by the State Plant Board, under whose direction the Florida method was demonstrated.
Citrus Wcrk Field and other meetings were held for the purpose of arousing interest and giving information principally on controlling insect and disease pests of citrus. Field meetings were advertised and held in some centrally located grove best suited to the kind of meeting planned. Specimens were collected and explained to the growers. A microscope was used and proved






Annual Report, 1923


valuable in identifying specimens that could not be readily seen with the naked eye. Attention was also given to fertilization and cultural methods. Specialists of the Experiment Station were particularly helpful in carrying out these programs.
Dairy WorkThe assistance of Experiment Station specialists was valuable in carrying out the work in dairying. They supervised grass plantings and assisted in formulating rations for dairy herds. Some excellent progress was made in dairy work, one county making decided improvement in the sanitary conditions of its dairies.
Considerable improvement was made in the whole-milk dairy situation in at least four counties. Better dairy equipment was secured, better sanitation observed and better markets secured. Milk demands during the tourist season cannot be supplied locally and large quantities are shipped in.
Farm dairying, particularly among small farmers, with the sale of sour cream as a basis of revenue, received attention in several counties. A number of farmers were induced to ship cream and were well pleased with results. Several permanent pastures were established.
Small Fruits.-Thd growing of small fruits was stressed and faculty and staff members of the College of Agriculture gave valuable assistance. Much interest was aroused in grape culture and some valuable aid was rendered to those starting vineyards.
Project Activities, as undertaken and carried out, are listed below:
1 1. Corn Culture.-Demonstrations in this project were interfered with by continuous rains which resulted in total losses in many instances. Reports show an increase in number of farmers selecting seed, and in the use of carbon bisulphide to destroy the corn weevil.
2. Potatoes-Sweet and Irish.-Some progress was made in seed selection and grading of sweet potatoes. Much was accomplished in the Irish potato areas thru a campaign for the use of only high-grade seed. There was an increase of about 40 percent in the plantings of leguminous crops on Irish potato land this year and considerable improvement was made in drainage systems.
3. Cotton.-Five counties growing cotton made a consistent effort to increase production by the use of better seed, the use of high-grade fertilizer and the application of the Florida method of bollweevil control. However, owing to adverse weather con-





Florida Cooperative Extension


editions, results as a whole were unsatisfactory. Only on a few well-favored fields were profitable yields reported.
4. Peanuts.-Three counties growing peanuts report an increase in acreage, mostly planted for hog feed. Heavy continuous rains during the blooming period cut the yield materially.
5. Hogs.-Three counties raise many hogs and in these much work was done to prevent hog cholera thru the use of the serum and virus treatment. A slight increase in hog pasture crops was shown and more hogs than usual were marketed during spring and late summer months. Low prices for the last two years have slowed up hog production.

















FIG. 8.-Club boys learning the "why of a corn planter" at short course. 6. Cooperative Sales and Purchase of Farm Supplies.-Five counties have active organizations thru which a certain amount of farm supplies; such as, fertilizer, calcium arsenate, dust guns, barrels, crates, seed, etc.; are purchased and thru which the marketing of potatoes, watermelons, hogs, poultry, etc., are handled extensively. Three counties alone showed a net saving to farmers of $60,215.19. In some counties this work was handled thru the farm bureau and in others thru commodity organizations, being done effectively in both cases.
7. Citrus Fruits.-Seven counties in this territory grow citrus fruits on a commercial scale. Demonstrations in controlling diseases and insects, fertilizing and better cultural methods were conducted in these counties with more or less definite results. A series of citrus field meetings were conducted in all counties.






Annual Report, 1923


8. Vegetables.-Eleven counties specialize in the commercial growing and shipping of truck crops, particularly tomatoes, Irish and sweet potatoes, watermelons, cucumbers, celery, lettuce, peppers, eggplants and green beans. Assistance is being rendered the grower thru county and district agents and specialists, particularly in controlling insects and fungous -diseases, and in marketing. Uniformly good results were obtained, altho there are many problems yet to be solved. The -Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, cooperated in improving grades and packing.
9. Soil Improvement.-In the general-farming area, efforts were made to increase the planting of legumes and cover crops. In the trucking area there was a noticeable increase in acreage of legumes planted following the winter and spring vegetable crops. Some increase was also noted in cover crops in citrus groves. More work is needed along this line.
10. Organizations.-Three counties have farm bureau organizations thru which fertilizers, seed, calcium arsenate, etc., are purchased cooperatively and farm products are sold. Five commodity organizations in four counties satisfactorily handle a large amount of Irish potatoes, celery, lettuce and other vegetables.
Two new associations were organized recently on the lower east coast. They are the Avocado Association, Dade County, and Pineapple Growers' Association, West Palm Beach.
The following is an example of the benefits derived from organization: The Hastings Potato Growers' Association, the inception and organization of which came thru the county agent's efforts, saved its members $44,527.19 last season in the purchase of supplies and in the selling of produce. The success of the organization was so marked that its membership and acreage is expected to increase 100 percent next year.
11. Fairs and Exhibits.-During the year there were held in this district three community fairs, four county fairs and one state fair (Jacksonville). Four counties exhibited at the State Fair, six at the South Florida Fair, Tampa, and one at the TriCounty Fair, Orlando. A county fair association was organized in Volusia and buildings are being put up for fair in January.
This district agent judged the agricultural and horticultural exhibit at nine county fairs and the State Fair, and agricultural products and county booths at the South Florida Fair. He is chairman of the exhibit committees of both State and South Flor-






42 Florida Cooperative Extension

ida Fairs and was called in conference by officials of eight fairs during the year.
He has endeavored to bring out the educational feature of fairs, making them of increased value to the agricultural interests of the state.
12. Poultry.-Increased interest is being manifested thruout the district in poultry production. This work was encouraged by extension workers in all counties thru personal efforts, tours and the organization of poultry associations. Improvements were made in breeds, culling and marketing. However, much more work is needed along these lines.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT

Supervisory Program.-The supervisory work with boys' clubs was divided between the boys' club agent and the three district agents. The former had general supervision over all club work and looked after state contests and annual short courses.
Development of Organized Clubs.-The rural districts being thinly settled, the county agents formerly had decided organized club work impractical. The need of teaching organization to the boys is so great that the 1923 program attempted organized clubs in at least three counties, to determine if it really is impractical.
Clay, Alachua and Escambia Counties were selected in which to attempt this work. Of these the work in Escambia was the most successful. J. Lee Smith, county agent, was interested in organization and gave it the necessary thought and time. The results were all that had been expected. The work will be carried still further next year.
The development of a county club program is best illustrated in Escambia; Mr. Smith laid out a definite program. It consisted of organized clubs for certain communities, a county club camp, community club contests and a county contest in connection with the Inter-State Fair. Local leaders were made the key of the local club programs. Every detail of this program was carried out. Community club contests were held, but were successful only where the local leaders were active.


FIG. 9.-Club boys learning how to prune a citrus tree.






Florida Cooperative Extension


A Typical Community Program as Formed and Carried out in Escambia County.-Byrnville is a small community in the
-northern part of Escambia County. There are not over 20 farms in this particular community. Mr. Smith visited the school and explained the plans for a club organization. The boys who were interested were divided into two teams for a contest in securing more members for the organization. This contest lasted until the next meeting when the club was organized and officers elected.
The club, with the advice of the county agent, elected 0. 0. Tisdale as local leader and began work. Each member was enrolled in at least one club project and was expected to report at each meeting on the work done since the last meeting. The record books were brought to meetings for inspection and in this way were kept up-to-date.
The club as an organization decided to work for perfect attendance at the club camp and county contest and for 100-percent reports. Under the leadership of Mr. Tisdale, all these aims were accomplished.
Off ice Organization-County agents report names and prniects of club members to the boys' club agent. These names are kept on file in both the Gainesville office and the county agents' offices. Many county agents are improving in their methods of keeping club records.
Program Development and Analysis.-Efforts were made to assist county agents in laying out suitable plans for their respective counties and assistance was given whenever asked. The extension dairyman helped organize and promote a calf club in St. Johns County. In the cotton club, assistance in boll weevil control was given by the assistant entomologist of the State Plant Board. All the boys were taught to use the Florida method.


FIG. IO.-"Learning by doing." Club boys applying the Florida method of boll weevil control.






Annual Report, 1923


Project Activities and Results. Work was carried on under the following projects: Corn, cotton, Irish potatoes, swe et potatoes, peanuts, pig breeding, pig feeding, bee, calf and citrus.
In the corn club a boy selected an acre of land and produced as many bushels of corn as possible. Results varied with the seasons in different localities. The best and largest corn clubs are in the western counties.
Cotton work was begun this year under the expectation that the new Florida method of boll weevil control would enable the boys to produce a fair yield. The method of weevil control was handicapped by excessive rainfall at the crucial time. A few demonstrations proved exceptionally good.
Irish potato club members were restricted to St. Johns County in the so-called Hastings area. The results were good. It does not seem advisable to attempt this club in other localities under Florida conditions.
Sweet potato club work is usually the most profitable to the member. Yields are uniformly high with costs comparatively low.
The pig clubs, both feeding and breeding, were reduced in number, due largely to the general tendency of the farmer to quit livestock because of low prices. Many fine animals were raised last year.
Calf clubs were not encouraged because of tick conditions. A small dairy calf club was started in St. Johns County with results still to be determined.
Plan of Organization for Citrus Clubs.-Citrus clubs were attempted for the first time in four counties. The increasing number of growers depending upon oranges and grapefruit for their living makes it imperative that some training in citrus culture be given their sons. The method of carrying on this work is still undetermined. Several plans were tried and all appeared to offer good ideas. This promises to become the largest and best club. It will take another year at least to decide how best to conduct it.
Club Prizes4--The question of prizes is still unsettled. The agents could not agree whether to give several small prizes or a few large ones. It seems advisable to offer small prizes in the counties and leave the larger ones for the state. The best prizes in the counties are scholarships to the annual short course. In the state, prizes are either scholarships to the College of Agriculture or educational trips.








PublicityThe state press was always anxious for stories of club work. County papers published lists of prizes and prize winners. The Agricultural News Service carried club items which, were copied by papers thruout the state.
The value of publicity to club work is great. Community newspapers seem the best agency for this purpose, and county agents were urged more and more to take advantage of this method of reaching the reading public.
Club Enrolbnent The accompanying chart gives facts and figures, concerning the boys' clubs of the year:

CLUB I Enrolled Reported Acres Yield I Value I Cost
Corn _-------------_- 11, 152 152 1,711 700.001 $2,433.00
Cot . 121 27 27 ,1,291 lb,. 111,629.10 411*70
Peanuts . . 30 18 18 544 bu. 680.001 182.54 Potatoes . 20 14 1 % 331 bu. 495.001 297.00 S.- Potatoes -------- 71 22 2 % 726 bu. 544.001 145.00
There were 150 boys enrolled for citrus club work. This is a new club. Plans have not been worked out whereby results can be tabulated. It promises to be a long-time club, one hard to get definite money results from. Miscellaneous enrollments reported by county agents number 92. Several agents also enrolled boys in truck and garden clubs.
Boys' Short Course Attendance at the short course is limited to the prize-winning boys in the counties and is the highest reward given in a county contest. One hundred of the best farm boys in Florida spent the week of May 28 at the University, carrying away with them a better knowledge of the value of the College of Agriculture and the Experiment Station.

"To learn by doing" is a motto in club work, and this underlay the plan of the short course of 1923.
The boys who attended received practical training by doing actual work on the College and Station farms, hearing lectures on each subject before starting the work. They went into the dairy barn and mixed feed for the College herd; they went into the horticultural grounds and put buds into seedlings, they planted a part of the College campus to grass, they studied farm machinery by actually working on them.
Leadership and cooperation are prime essentials in agriculture. To develop these qualities, the boys were divided into squads, each electing its leader. The squads worked as units at work and recreation. Care was taken to see that boys from


Florida Cooperative Extension






Annual Report, 1923


different parts of the state were together so as to foster a spirit of state-wide consciousness rather than of sectionalism.
The short course has proved a strong incentive to boys to go to college. The boys see the University, talk with the professors, realize something of the value of college training, and many go home determined to return as regular students. The number of club boys in the University is increasing yearly.
Recreation is a part of the course and precautions are taken to keep all play under the supervision of competent leaders. The evenings are used for moving pictures, stunts and games.
Club Camps.-The club camp is one of the best means of popularizing club work. The unit is usually the county, altho two or three counties held joint camp. When attendance at the camp is placed on the merit basis, it serves as a reward for work accomplished. The enjoyment of three or four days spent at a camp is a worth-while break in the monotony of country life.


FIG. 11-Club, boys receiving instruction in diving at one of the camps.






Florida Cooperative Extension


.The camps were carefully supervised that a healthful, social atmosphere might be maintained. In, 1923 an instructor (Leland Hiatt) was employed to teach swimming and life-saving. This feature was a valuable, addition and every boy who wished to learn was taught swimming and diving. Prizes were awarded to those showing the greatest improvement. Various games were taught and a spirit of good sportsmanship maintained.
Enough instruction along agricultural and home-making lines was given to make the boys' time profitably spent. Seven county camps were -held with a total attendance of over 200; Alachua, Taylor, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Escambia, Bay and Clay Counties held camps.
Scholarships.-The State Bankers' Association annually gives three $100 scholarships to students attending the College of Agriculture to be awarded club boys in western, central and southern Florida. The bankers have been giving these scholarships for several years and the winners have made enviable records. They are urged to remain in school until they graduate. Of the boys who have entered college on a bankers' scholarship, not one has failed to pass all the work taken. The first scholarship boy to receive his degree will be Milledge Baker of Suwannee County, one of the first to win a scholarship. Baker will graduate in June, 1924, an honor man of his class, having been elected to Phi Kappa Phi, the highest scholastic honor a student can win here.
The bankers are giving the state three college-bred men every year. The winners for 1923 were, for western Florida, Jesse Spurlin of Okaloosa County; for central Florida, Pete Leivonen of Alachua County; and for southern Florida, Ernest Sanders of Volusia County.
Exhibits.-To bring the value of club work before the people and to improve agricultural displays, farm products of club boys were shown at the State Fair and at the South Florida Fair. The pig club exhibit at the State Fair attracted attention and prizes were won in the open ring on the club pigs. A PolandChina barrow fed out by Charles Reams, a Madison County club boy, was declared grand champion of the 1923 show. This was the first grand championship won by a club member.
The boys met in competition in county contests for county championships in the various clubs. Contest day is a big event in many counties.






Annual Report, 1923


Team Demonstrations.-The boys' club agent attended the National Dairy Show at Syracuse to study the team demonstration idea as developed in northern states. While these demonstrations were restricted to dairy lines, the method of holding the demonstrations was illustrated and valuable information gathered.













FIG. 12-Showing club boys how to resuscitate the drowned, one of the
many practical things taught at the club camps and short courses.
An attempt will be made to add this form of work to Florida club projects. The citrus club appears to offer a splendid opportunity for team demonstration.
Story of Charles Reams of Madison County.-Charles Reams of Madison County has been a member of the boys' pig club for three years. Last year he f ed out and showed at the State Fair a pen of Duroc-Jersey barrows. He produced pork at a profit and also won first prize in class on his pigs.
This year he decided to do better and asked his county agent, B. E. Lawton, to buy him three barrows of the type to make prize winners. Mr. Lawton bought three purebred Poland-China barrows from the College of Agriculture farm for Charles and told him how to feed and care for them.
Charles entered his barrows in the club show of the State Fair. They were so good they were entered in the open ring. When the judge had finished, he had awarded first prize to Charles' pen of three and champion over all breeds to his best pig. Of course, he won in the club show and was awarded the Armour & Company trip to the International Livestock Show.
One of the big breeders bought the three barrows at the State Fair and showed them at the International. They stood third in a big class. This shows that Florida pigs can win, and that Florida club boys can win.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF JOHN M. SCOTT, ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST
The work of the year closing was similar to that of previous years. This may be outlined as follows:
(1) Attending farmers' meetings and making personal visits to farmers on the farm.
(2) Advising farmers and dairymen, thru county agents, regarding the feeding and care of livestock and the growing of grasses and forage crops.
(3) Distributing seed and propagating vegetative material of a number of pasture grasses that promise to become of value as permanent pasture grasses.
Meetings and Lectures,-During the year meetings in a number of counties were attended and lectures were given as follows:
Alachua: at Waldo a meeting in interest of the Alachua County Creamery on "Necessity of Home-Grown Feed for Economical Milk Production."
. Columbia: at Lake City on "Feeds for Dairy Cows." The group meeting of county agents was attended at this time and grasses and forage crops were discussed with them.
Duval: at Jacksonville at a meeting of the livestock men of the state; assisting in the organization of a state livestock association.
Hillsborough: at Tampa, discussing feeds and forage crops for the dairy cow with a number of farmers and dairymen.
Jefferson: at Monticello; attended county fair and gave a talk on "The Outlook for Dairying and Poultry in Jefferson County."
Leon: visited a number of farmers and dairymen with the county agent, looking over grass demonstrations. . Marion: - attending county fair and judged the livestock on exhibit.
Palm Beach: attended a meeting of the State Dairy Association and spoke on "The Importance of the Purebred Sire." Visited a number of dairymen in the county, advising them regarding the handling of their herd, etc.
Seminole: attended group meeting of county agents.
St. Lucie: visited two dairymen who were just starting in the dairy work. Advised them as to crops to grow and where they could buy additional dairy stock.
Suwannee: in company with the county agent, visited eight farmers in the county who were trying out some of the new and promising grasses. In nearly every case the grass was found






Annual Report, 1923


growing well and the farmers were pleased with them; Bahia grass was most promising.
Volusia: attending meeting of the cattle raisers' association and spoke on "What the Experiment Station can do for the cattle raisers of Florida."
Advice to FarmersDuring the last six months more farmers made inquiries regarding the feeding of dairy cows than at any time during the last two years.
The animal industrialist had an active part at the annual meeting of the county agents.
The answering of correspondence required much time. This correspondence d ' ealt almost entirely with forage crops, the feeding of livestock and the handling of milk, etc.
Farmers' and Fruit Growers' WeekThe animal industrialist I was in charge of the livestock program for Farmers' and Fruit
Growers' Week.
The Animal Husbandry Department of the Experiment Station offered as a prize to the county having the largest registered attendance, a registered Jersey bull calf. Columbia County won, having an attendance of 113.
Distribution of Grasses.-Arrangements were made with the Bureau of Plant Industry, thru C. V. Piper, to distribute 'a limited amount of grass seed. In nearly all cases the seed were distributed thru county agents.
Material was sent to 35 counties in the state, 9 different states and 3 foreign countries. In some counties as many as ten farmers received this material. In other cases, one and two farmers in a county received it.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF HAMLIN L. BROWN, DAIRY SPECIALIST

Main Dairy Problems Undertaken.-The two main dairy problems were to develop farm dairying and to work out practical methods of consuming the summer surplus of milk in tourist centers. The former of these problems is common to all states of the South, while the latter is essentially a Florida problem.
Farm Dairying-where the milk is skimmed on the farm, the skimmilk fed to calves, poultry and pigs and the cream sold to a creamery-is proving successful in many communities of the South and has entered Florida in certain counties.

















FiG. 13-Learning some of the fine points in judging the dairy cow.

Visits to Dairies.-Crisp and Turner Counties, Georgia, having made a success at farm dairying and being convenient to the northern counties of the state, five motorcades were conducted from Leon, Suwannee, Columbia and Alachua Counties to study dairying conditions there. In all, 128 people, representing leading farmers and business men, went on these motorcades to study conditions first hand.
It is the policy of the dairy specialist to get local leaders interested in dairy possibilities by such visits to communities where farm dairying is being done, and finally to get these local leaders to deliver the message to the bulk of the people rather than to give so much personal advice and publicity directly. In many cases local people were assisted in preparing articles for the






Annual Report, 1923


newspapers, which articles appeared under or over their own names.
Dairy Development in Florida ln Alachua County there has just been -completed a creamery and cold storage plant with a large number of Alachua County business men and farmers supporting it. In this same. county plans are now completed for organized bull-club-association work and cow-club work with the organized boys' clubs. These come within the 1924 dairy program.
Columbia and Suwannee Counties have shipped sour cream to Georgia and Florida creameries. The farmers here have followed the advice of their county agents, secured better cows and will continue to ship cream until they are. able to support 9 creamery of their own.
Washington and Jackson Counties are without county agents but showed interest in farm dairying. A packing plant and a wholesale poultry market is at Chipley in Washington County, and these have interested local farmers in establishing a creamery in connection therewith to develop their dairying program, "the cow, the hen and hog," along with their general agricultural development.
I Prices and Supplies.-The supply and demand for liquid milk as produced in Florida will not control the price of milk here. Much whole milk and two solid carloads of,40-percent cream are shipped into Florida every day during the winter or tourist season, plus approximately $14,000,000 worth of condensed -milk, powdered milk, butter and cheese, and this imported supply is what is going to govern the prices Florida farmers will get for their milk and milk products.
This problem becomes greater each year as the state increases in population, justifying the establishment of more central milkdistributing plants like those at Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, St. Pbtersburg, Miami, West Palm Beach and Pensacola. These plants buy a portion of Florida milk locally and supplement their needs with unsweetened condensed milk and milk powders, also with sweet unsalted butter.
Icecream plants are using dairy products produced outside of Florida almost entirely. Central distributing plants, with equipment for homogenizing these concentrated, imported, elemental dairy products into liquid milk were established but recently, not exceeding five or six years in any of the cities or towns in the state and within the last two years in most of them.





Florida Cooperative Extension


A successful cooperative creamery was completed at Brooksville (Hernando County) in January, 1923. It paid local farmers a net wholesale price of over $4 a hundred pounds during the last 12 months by utilizing the summer surplus of milk in making leecream, chocolate milk, butter and buttermilk. This plant exceeded expectations the first year. The farmers were well pleased.
Cooperative work along production lines has proved successful with Brooksville farmers. They purchased seed oats cooperatively to plant 300 acres, and are buying concentrated dairy feeds cooperatively in carload lots, paying cash. They purchased seven carloads of cows cooperatively. A committee of three trained dairymen personally selected the cows. They were auctioned off as a method of placing values., Six purebred bulls were purchased.
One of the banks of Brooksville financed the purchase of the cows and are financing other dairy loans. The president highly commends the dairy undertaking.
This is expected to prove a demonstration plant. Dairy farmers of neighboring towns will be interested and instructed by seeing this plant. This Hernando community has plenty of good hammock land, suited for growing corn, cane, Napier grass, Para grass and cowpeas for silage, and for growing soiling crops and hay. Its lands are ideal for permanent pastures of Dallis, Carpet, Bermuda and Bahia grasses and lespedeza.
Dairy Club Work The most successful club work was carried on in cooperation with a Smith-Hughes school at Lemon City, in Dade County. The teacher in charge, John L. Butts, is an agricultural graduate of Mississippi A. & M. He took direct charge of the work and successfully completed it. His records show cost of feed, care and other items of expense, as well as income and net profits. There were seven grade cows in the club. They were purchased at rather high prices. One of the local -banks and private individuals assisted in financing the project.
A Jersey calf club, with 37 purebred Jersey calves, was organized in St. Johns County under the supervision of County Agent J. 0. Trailer as a part of a program to develop dairying on a large scale in that county.
The dairy work was started under the plans of the St. Johns County Agricultural Advisory Committee. One of the members of this committee possessed considerable dairying experience and had the money and ability as an individual to operate a dairy






Annual Report, 1923


successfully. He insisted that a county program be tried out on the same scale that had been proposed for his particular farm. The committee supported him. The first carload of calves was brought into the county months ago and it seems that about 75 percent of them will make good.
Improving Dairying Condition&-Dairy associations of St. Johns and Volusia Counties put on campaigns with their local dairymen to improve the quality of milk and to increase consumption, hoping thereby to do away with the summer surplus.
Thru these local dairymen's associations, barns and dairy equipment were improved. St. Johns dairymen spent something like $10,000 for such improvements.
Educational Work at Fairs.-The dairy specialist judged contests at the State Fair in Jacksonville where 145 club boys were interested and at the South Florida Fair in Tampa where these boys numbered 60. This was in cooperation with the College of Agriculture and Smith-Hughes vocational agricultural schools, teaching students how to select dairy cattle.
An attempt was made to create interest in educational fair exhibits, cooperating in this attempt with Fred L. Craft, county agent of Alachua County. An educational exhibit was arranged to show the farm dairy program as connected with a general farm program. This gave effective results in advertising the dairy program.






Florida Cooperative, Extension


REPORT OF ED L. AYERS, ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT PATHOLOGIST'

Due to the mild winter and the early beginning of the summer rainy season, the insect and plant disease problems of the year were numerous. A number of definite projects for the control of insects and plant diseases were begun and completed with the assistance of district and county agents.
Vegetable Schools.-During the year three successful schools were held, at Bradentown (Manatee County), at Samsula (Volusia County) and at Davie (Broward County). The attendances of these schools averaged over one hundred, and much enthusiasm was displayed. The schools consisted of lectures and the exhibiting of some serious insects and diseases with directions for their control.
.Citrus Schools-Thirty citrus schools were held, with a total attendance of more than fifteen hundred actual citrus growers. Most of these schools were held in April and May, or early enough in the season for the grove owners or managers to follow instructions during the ensuing year in the control of insects and diseases, particularly melanose (Phomopsis citri) and rust mite (Phyllocoptes oleivorus).
These meetings ranged from a few hours to all day, and, in most instances two or three lecturers were present. Highpowered microscopes and binoculars were carried along and the growers were taught to recognize different diseases and insects and were shown some of the smaller ones, like rust mite, under high power, so they could get clearly in mind the appearance of the insect. These meetings met with much enthusiasm wherever held, and in a number of instances the work was commended by resolutions and the desire expressed for other and more comprehensive meetings in the future.
Spraying Methods.-Experience of the previous year showed a need for better spraying methods, particularly for truck crops. The failure of recommended remedies had often been due to the use of poor spraying machinery and improper methods of application. Efforts were made this year to improve spraying methods as follows: (1) To increase the power of spraying machines in' use, thereby increasing the pressure. It is impossible to do efficient spraying with less than 100 pounds pressure to the
'This report is for the period beginning December 1, 1922, and ending August 30, 1923.






Annual Report, 1923


nozzle. Effort was made to induce growers to procure machines delivering from 125 to 200 pounds pressure. (2) Assisting growers to know the proper spraying material to use. They often use materials which do not give satisfactory results. (3) To assist growers in studying and procuring proper equipment, extensions, nozzles for their spraying machinery, etc. For example, in cucumber spraying some growers were found trying to spray with an extension ten feet long and the nozzle set straight on the end of the extension. Nozzles for this particular type of spraying should be set at an angle of 90 degrees on the end of a threefoot extension, thereby making it 'easy to reach all portions of the plant.
Watermelons.-The most important troubles of the watermelon were aphis (Aphis gossypii) and anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenarium). The aphids came on early during the season but were readily checked by spraying with:
Nicotine sulphate (40 percent solution) Y pint
Laundry soap 5 pounds
Water 50 gallons
Dusting with various forms of nicotine dust also gave good results. Anthracnose increased rapidly after the beginning of the rainy season, and regardless of the fact that more growers were prepared for spraying than ever before, due to previous campaigns of extension plant pathologists from the United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Extension Division, the melons broke down early because of continued rains.
Cantaloupes.-The principal cantaloupe diseases were anthracnose (Colletotrichum lagenarium) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis). Of the two downy mildew was the more serious. Good results were obtained from early spraying but the crop was a failure because of heavy rains.
Cucumbers.-The work on cucumber disease was centered in the vicinity of Williston, in Levy County, and as a result the growers purchased more than twelve power spraying machines. Their chief diseases were angular leaf spot (Bacterium lachrymans) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis). Of the two, the latter was more abundant but was more easily controlled. There were six definite demonstrations in the control of cucumber diseases and the demonstrations showed a production of 175 crates to the acre on sprayed plots, while the unsprayed plots yielded only from fifteen to twenty crates. The spraying material used was 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dusting experiments were observed in Sumter and other counties where copper lime was frequently and freely used, but the results did not compare satisfactorily with those of spraying.
Celery,-In cooperation with the entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station, two and a half acres of celery seedbeds were treated to control nematode (Heterodera radicicola) with sodium cyanide and with calcium cyanide. The beds treated with sodium cyanide showed splendid results, while the calcium-cyanide experiments needed to be repeated, due to some improper handling of the seedbeds.
The celery leaf tyer (Phlyetaenia ferrugalis) did thousands of dollars worth of damage in the Sanford area and destroyed most of the late crop of celery. The adults (moths) lay their eggs on the outer portion of the celery- leaves. These eggs hatch into worms or caterpillars, which begin feeding first on these outer leaves and then go downward into the heart of the celery stalk. Soon after the eggs have hatched, spraying with arsenate of lead, using high pressure, is an effective control measure. But it is next to impossible to do effective work after the worms have reached the inside of the bunches. Most of the growers waited until too late before asking for assistance. They immediately began to spray with low-pressure machines (in most cases) and obtained poor results. A number of growers also tried trapping the moths by putting out bright lights over shallow pans of kerosene. They caught many, more than half of which were females, but the number of eggs which these females contained was not determined. There is doubt, therefore, as to the -effectiveness of this method of control. A number of old moths with battered and broken wings are readily attracted to the light,* while the younger, egg-laying moths are not.
The garden flea-hopper (Halticus citri) is always a serious pest of celery. It can be controlled reasonably well in the seedbed with kerosene emulsion but cannot be controlled with the nicotine sprays so commonly-used. This pest proved troublesome in the fields this year and efforts were made to control it by the use of calcium-cyanide dust. This dust killed about 75 percent of the flea-hoppers present, when applied with a power dusting machine, but there were traces of the cyanide on the celery a week after the dusting and it is, therefore, not a safe method.
Tomatoes.-There was a large amount of nail-head rust in most of the tomato-producing areas. Some headway was made in the control of this disease with bordeaux mixture, but heavy






Annual Report, 1923


rains interfered and the results obtained were not entirely satisfactory. There were also many worms present. Among these the tomato fruit worm (Heliothis obsoleta) and the horn worms (Phiegethontius sp.) were serious, but they were controlled by dusting with calcium arsenate.
Lumber Yard Disease-Early in the year there was a call for assistance from a Pinellas County lumber yard in which the lumber was being destroyed by a fungus. This fungus was identified by the associate plant pathologist of the Experiment Station as Poria incrassata. The following recommendations were made:
(1) Destroy all lumber showing fungous infection. (2) Treat the soil immediately beneath and around the yard with formaldehyde. (3) Replace wood piling with concrete. (4) Raise the floor two feet from the ground. (5) Remodel the building containing the lumber so as to afford the greatest possible amount of sunlight and air.
Asparagus Plumosus Nanus.-A survey of this industry for the year showed 327 / acres planted to it. There were numerous requests. for assistance and several days were spent in making a survey of the different producing areas and giving instructions for treating various insects and diseases. Various specimens of grasshoppers, cutworms and caterpillars were found in abundance, but they were readily controlled by the use of the Kansas bait, made as follows:
Bran 20 pounds
Paris green or sodium arsenite 1 pound
Water 2%~ gallons
Lemons, oranges or cantaloupes 3 or 4
Syrup 2 quarts
The paris green and bran should be thoroly mixed (dry). The lemons (rind, pulp and juice) should be thoroly grated or chopped and added to the water. Moisten the bran with the water until the whole is damp, not sloppy, so that when sown broadcast over the land it will fall in small flakes. Last of all add the syrup and thoroly knead it into the bran.
A disease was also found, the cause of which has not been determined, but spraying witt bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal copper carbonate proved effective. This disease is called by the growers either rust or anthracnose. Red spider is another serious pest which is controlled by spraying with lime sulphur at the rate of 1 gallon to 60 gallons of water, or by dusting with sulphur. In dusting it is important not to use an excess of






60 Florida Cooperative Extension

sulphur; some growers have used from 200 to 400 pounds to the acre at each application. To what extent the soil will stand this element no -one knows, for sulphur greatly increases soil acidity.






Annual Report, 1923


REPORT OF JOHN R. SPRINGER, EXTENSION ENTOMOLOGIST AND PLANT PATHOLOGIST

The work of this specialist was started October 1.
*Bean Jassid Control.-Three counties-Alachua, 'Marion and Putnam-specializing in the growing of fall beans were visited, and thru the county agents, many growers were helped in controlling the bean jassid (Empoasca 'Mali), probably the most serious pest of fall-grown beans.
The control recommended consisted of applications of 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture which acted as a repellant and carrier, with the addition of 2/5 of a pint of 40 percent nicotine-sulphate solution to each 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture. The spray was applied in most instances with a power sprayer, covering three or four rows at a time.
Cucumber Diseases.-Spraying fall cucumbers to control downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was of importance in three counties-Alachua, Levy and Osceola Counties, specializing in this crop. Considerable time was spent in these counties assisting the county agents with their demonstrations. Bordeaux mixture (4-4-50) was applied every ten days and oftener if weather conditions made more frequent applications necessary. Thoro wetting of the plants, particularly the under surface of the leaves, was emphasized.
Land Crab Control.-The first ten days of November were spent in Dade County, cooperating with the United -States Biological Survey, conducting demonstrations to control land crabs on the low coastal tomato lands. This work was the surveying of conditions relative to land-crab infestations and demonstrating a practical method of control. The method was demonstrated at five convenient points. The method consists of squirting approximately ten drops of carbon bisulphide into each crab burrow and covering the entrance of the burrow with earth.
The newspapers gave excellent cooperation and carried between twenty and thirty articles bearing on the campaign. A check as to the results of this method of control and the extent to which'the plans were adopted will be made in the spring.
Seedbed Disinfection. - The necessity of producing thrifty, healthy plants in seedbeds for field transplanting and the elimination of much wastage due to damping-off fungi are apparent, and three demonstrations in different localities were started with this end in view. Fifteen days before the seed were planted






62 Florida Cooperative Extension

the beds were disinfected with formaldehyde. One part of formaldehyde was added to 50 parts of water and half a gallon of this solution was applied to each square foot of seedbed surface. The treated surface was immediately covered with canvas or sacks to confine the gas. This covering was left on for 48 hours. Diseased spots in seedbeds were also treated with corrosive-sublimate solution, I part to 1000 parts of water. This latter treatment was given to prevent further spread of the damping-off fungi, which had developed in seedbeds: not disinfected.
Some interest also was created relative to seed disinfection.
A general survey of areas in which Asparagus plumosos nanus is grown was made for the purpose of outlining a program leading to an economical and successful control of insects and diseases on this crop.






Annual Reportj 1923


REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK By FLAviA GLEASON
State Home Demonstration Agent
Status of -Home Demonstration Work.-Beginning work in Florida on July 15, the state agent found well-organized and well-established home demonstration work. All vacancies on the state staff were filled and the workers began work on the following dates: district agent for southern and eastern Florida, August 13; district agent for northern and western Florida, August 15; assistant state agent, August 25; food and marketing agent, October 1; dairy and nutrition agent, December 1.
Due to the work of the former home demonstration staff, county home demonstration agents, and assistance from the county agent staff, county officials, women's clubs and the present home demonstration workers, all counties supporting the work at the time the present staff took up its duties, continued their appropriations, with the exception of Washington, which had only a short-time appropriation, and Jackson County, which had failed to appropriate at a previous meeting. The agent of the latter county worked thru August, being furloughed in July. An appropriation was made by the county commissioners of Madison County but, since the school board did not appropriate funds, it was not sufficient to support a worker.
In September, Marion County, which had not had a home demonstration agent for several years, made an appropriation. providing for one. Pinellas and Collier Counties made appropriations for agents to begin work January 1. Thru the cooperation of the county commissioners of Duval and the Duval Anti-Tuberculosis Association an assistant home demonstration agent was placed in that county to begin work October 1.
The year closes with 28 counties providing for home demonstration work with 30 home demonstration agents (two agents in both Duval and Hillsborough). The state staff is composed of six officials and specialists and of three clerical assistants. Altogether, there are 47 persons engaged in this phase of extension work.
Responsibilities of State Staff.-The state office is, responsible for the securing of county appropriations, appointing satisfactory agents and the general supervision of the workthruoutthe state. Assistance is given along such lines as developing community, county and state organizations, working out programs,










































FIG. 14.-Prize winners gathered at the Florida State College for Women for the 1923 short course.






Annual Report, 1923


in furnishing subject-matter assistance, training leaders and helping with fairs.
Agents in food conservation and marketing, poultry and dairying and nutrition are responsible for the subject matter given to agents. During the year they assisted in developing these projects in the state. The supervisory force often gave subjectmatter assistance. District conferences or group meetings will be held early in January to make definite plans for the year's work. State meetings for subject-matter assistance and to begin formulation of plans of work for next year were held -in September.
Equipment of Agents.-Agents are supplied with loose-leaf note books in which are recorded individual enrollments and records, community and county organizations, agents' yearly programs of work, results )btained, letters of instruction and other useful material. Weekly, monthly and annual reports are kept on file in county and state offices.
Most home demonstration agents have offices and equipment in county court houses. One agent has an off ice in the city hall. Two have off ices with their chambers of commerce and one is located in the women's club house. These offices are equipped for filing records, bulletins and other supplies. Five counties furnish clerical help. Demonstration kitchens are equipped for the use of the agents in five counties. Agents in four counties have access to kitchens in women's federation club houses. Cars are furnished to agents in five counties.
Limited funds are provided for demonstration material in 24 counties. Well-equipped demonstration kitchens and clerical help greatly increase the efficiency of agents' work.


FIG. 15.-Club girls learning how to can fruit and vegetables.














PROGRAM SUMMARY


Counties Commu- Leaders Days No. re- Meeting at demonspecial- Method sults rtrations and in
Title of project report- nities ist demon- demon- projects
ing partici- No. Days as- helped strations strapating assist- sistance tions Attend- Number
ing rendered ance
Poultry 25 1,176 71 105 31 626 458 618 11,407
Horticulture 23 60 22 50 2 210 1,190 175 1,088
Dairying 6 9 2 40 3 17 118 97 695 .
Food conservation . 20 146 68 110 61 403 1,689 333 4,524
Home improvement --------------- 11 108 36 146 1 292 886 173 3,616
Foods and nutrition . 26 185 81 330 41 479 1,248 796 26,865
Sewing 20 288 291 1,063 24 1,186 4,221 1,752 21,455
Millinery and clothing . 18 137 96 75 26 229 5,221 1,306 4,965
Basketry 8 29 17 25 6 37 60 26 350
Miscellaneous 5 58 22 35 . 35 304 62 250 "
TOTAL I 162 1 2,196 706 I 1,979 1 195 I 3,514 I 15,395 1 5,338 1 75,215






Annual Report, 1923


Summary of WorkThe report which follows has been compiled and written according to information contained in annual reports from home demonstration agents and supervisory staffs for both the first and second parts of the year. It has been the purpose of the present state staff to carry forward during the last six months of 1923 the great program of work already started. Only the most definite results obtained and supported by records are dealt with in this report.
General activities covering reports of 30 home demonstration agents for terms of service averaging 101/2 months follow:

Farm visits made in conducting extension work 7,297
Different farms visited 2,935
Home visits made in conducting extension work . 10,776 Different homes visited 4,926
Office calls relating to extension work 13,893
Days agents spent in office 1,846
Days agents spent in field 5,445
Letters written 18,014
Circular letters prepared and sent out 1,043
Copies of such circular letters 13,793
Extension articles written by agents and published in
community newspapers 1,441

PROJECT ACTIVITIES
Foods and Nutrition.-Food and nutrition work a-.' carried on by home demonstration agents included the following:
1. Food selection and body requirements. Special emphasis was given to reasons for using fruits, vegetables, unrefined cereals, poultry and dairy products in the diet. Reports show that 1,744 women served better-selected food at home as a result of this work, and that 1,490 girls have demonstrations under way in this phase of the work.
2. Food preparation and utilization developed thru demonstrations and the study of principles of cookery.
"Interest in bread making is growing. Santa Rosa, Columbia, Duval, Madison and Walton Counties stressed this work. A tricounty contest in which bread teams from Madison, Duval and Columbia competed was held April 26 at Lake City. General cookery was taught in all counties but usually as a minor project."' Twenty-seven school lunches were established during the year.

'Unless otherwise indicated, passages of this report set off by quotation marks are from the report of Miss Sarah W. Partridge, who resigned as state home demonstration agent June 30, 1923.






Florida Cooperative Extension


3. Child feeding and care thru which study is given to bring children to normal weight and health received emphasis from the workers.
"'Nutrition programs were established and clinics were held in many of the counties in cooperation with the State Board of Health,, . with women's clubs and school authorities, resulting in such corrective work as 'treatment for hookworm, dental work and the adopting of a nutrition program for study." Reportsshow 616 mothers in 18 counties as having changed practices in child feeding and care.
4. Food preservation was stressed so as to preserve food for home use,-thus practicing thrift, toreduce cost of transporting food from a distance, to insure a varied diet all thru the year, and to put surplus. products into marketable. shape.
Twdnty-eight counties reported that 1,804 Women and 873 girls during 1923 canned 58,543 quarts'of fruit, 70,013 quarts of vegetables, 10,519 quarts of meats and fish, 62,845 glasses -of jelly, 27,962 quarts of preserves, 16,116 quarts of pickles, 8,294 quarts of fruit juices, and 3,763 quarts of vinegar.
"During June special fish work was done at a group meeting of the agents at Cedar Keys under the direction of specialists from the Washington office. Eighteen fine products were made from nine varieties of fish. Among the fish used were some for which there is no market."
Clothing. - Twenty-six counties reported 1,469 women and, 3,364 girls as carrying clothing work consisting of selection, construction, remodeling and renovating millinery and other articles. Millinery proved to be one of the most popular phases of the clothing program. Six hundred twelve women were reported as. making 2,119 hats, and 52.0 girls as making 953 hats during the year at an average value of $3.50 each hat.
The millinery work was developed the first part of the year thru schools conducted by the district. agent of the northern and western district, by county agents, and for three months by an experienced milliner, appointed as assistant clothing specialist. The agents were given a special course at the annual. meeting in September by an expert milliner employed for thig. purpose.
Other articles numbering 1,183 were made or remodeled bywomen; and 6,059 other articles were made, remodeled or renovated by club'girls participating in the clothing project.




































FiQ. 16.-Home demonstration agents brushing up on the fine points of making hats at the 1923 conference.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Household Management and Home Furnishings.-As a result of the higher standards of living which developed with home demonstration work was the work with household management and home furnishings. Three hundred seventy-two women and 1,218 girls were enrolled and as a result, according to budget accounts and reports kept during the year, 750 household furnishings were made or refinished, 1,668 kitchens were rearranged and 1,504 rooms were improved thru furnishings and decorations. Twenty-six counties reported that 175 homes were influenced to change practices in keeping budgets and accounts,

















FIG. 17-Some of the women and girls taught to make hats by Home Demonstration Agent Bertha Henry in Okaloosu County.
215 to improve equipment, 81 to plan work more carefully and 809 to improve furnishings. Twenty-three dwellings were constructed and 219 remodeled according to plans furnished by home demonstration agents. The following labor-saving devices were installed:
Hand washing machines 20
Power washing machines 13
Fireless cookers 100
Hand sweepers 66
Power vacuum cleaners 24
Kitchen cabinets 58
Wheel trays 68
Iceless refrigerators 78
Electric or gasoline irons 140
Home Health and Sanitation.-Fifteen counties reported that 86 homes were given instruction in home nursing and first aid; that 1,010 homes were influenced to adopt better sanitary prae-






Annual Report, 1923


tices; that 75 sanitary closets were installed; that 236 houses were screened, and that 2 sewerage-disposal systems were installed.
Horticulture.-The figures below indicate the results of work done along horticultural lines:
Club members who planted fruit trees 565
Club members who planted bush or small fruits 587
Club members who planted grapes 102
Club members who planted part-year gardens 434
Club members who planted all-year gardens 635
Club members who planted flowers and shrubs 1,563
Club members who planted by a plan 165
Club members who marketed garden and canned products- 756 Club members who saved seed and stock 430
Club members who sprayed or otherwise tried to control
disease or insect pests 448
Interest is growing rapidly in the beautifying of home and school grounds, planting of flowers, evergreens and small shrubs being made according to plans.
Home Dairying.-The object of home dairy work is to increase the quantity, improve the quality and stimulate greater use of dairy products in Florida. The figures below indicate the extent of results attained in this project:
Club members carrying on demonstrations in milk production 223
Club members making butter 146
Club members making cheese .114
Club members standardizing dairy products for market . 41 Cows purchased for home use 75
Club members increasing the use of milk and other dairy
products in the diet during the year 2,400
Schools establishing milk lunches 22
"A dairy club in every county and a d airy cow on every farm" is the slogan adopted for 1924 home dairy work. Dairy club .project lessons adopted to be conducted under the supervision of the home dairy and nutrition agent are as follows:
January-Value of Keeping Dairy Records.
February-Hints on Feeding Dairy Cows.
March-Proper Handling of Milk and Milk Utensils.
April-Natritive Value of Milk and Milk Products.
May-Raising Dairy Calves.
June-Value of Purebred Bulls.
July-Breeds of Dairy Cows.
August-Making Choice Farm Butter.
September-Simple Farm Remedies for the Dairyman.
October-Selecting Dairy Cows.
November-Making Cottage and Cream Cheese.
December-Don'ts for the Dairyman.






Florida Coo perative Extension


Poultry.-Poultry is a chief source of income to farm women and girls. Reports from a number of club members show that juniors not only made and saved money for educational purposes but helped support their families by means of this phase of extension work. The following report given by Cecil Rowan, a first-year poultry club member in Gadsden County, shows his accomplishments in 1923:
"A hundred ninety-nine eggs set; 174 chicks hatched ; 146 chickens raised to maturity; 72 chickens sold for $49.15; 1,720 eggs produced; total value $203.89; cost $60.50; net profit $143.39. Have on hand 50 well-selected chickens. Any boy or girl who lives on the farm can raise poultry enough to buy their books and clothing as I do. I also give my mother some spending money."














FIG. iS. Thiis (lob girl and demonstration flock are boasts of AMis. Nellie
WV. Taylor, home demionstration agent of Orange County.
The number of club members who kept poultry records and reported (luring the year were:
Purchasing standard-broil eggs ----------1,286
Purchasing standard-bred fowls -----------1,029
Securing males to improve flock --------------- --------- 785
C ulling flock -------------- ---- --- ----- ----- 408
U sing incubators ------------------ - --------- --- ----- 253
An egg-laying contest was conducted in the state beginning November 1, 1922. and continued thni October, 19293 The average egg production from the ten highest flocks reported was 169.9 eggs for each female. The individual flock which was reported each month and ranked highest in the contest, had an average of 211.84 eggs for each female.
Marketing.-Home demonstration agents in 15 counties report marketing of dairy and poultry products; 10 reported marketing






Annual Report, 1923


of vegetables; 10 canned fruits and vegetables; 3 crystallized products; 8 showed marketing of miscellaneous products such as baskets, and other articles made from pine needles, honeysuckle, wire grass and palmetto. Four hundred forty-nine women and 95 girls were reported as - working during the year to standardize products for markets.
Home demonstration products were sold thru egg circles, po'ltry associations, women's exchanges and curb markets. Interest in standardizing and marketing products grew.
Community Improvement.-That community spirit was developed thru home demonstration work is proved by the fact that organized clubs studied the needs of their communities and worked on community problems. The following, as reported under this project during the first part of the year by the agent of Lee County and the former state agent, is a good example of the result of such work:
"At Ft. Myers a market for women's articles that are produced at home and for which money can be obtained has been maintained. Some of the things sold cost only time to produce and bring in pin money when marketed properly.
"At East Ft. Myers a lunch room where a well-planned meal can be served to children at cost has been established. The work was begun by the teachers. When they needed help the local home demonstration club gave it. They bought scales and gave a nutrition course. Next year they intend adopting the school as a community project.
I "The Australian pines set out at Tice will enhance the beauty
of the highway and the value of property. On this project $125 was spent.
"The Bonita Springs community has been aided. The home ,demonstration club made $600 by food sales, entertainments, etc., to build a road to the beach. The men did the, work and the women furnished the money."
Additional extracts from the report of the Lee County agent follows:
"The clubs made money for scholarships. The cook book project was begun last year. We have pushed the sale, of the books this year and used the money for scholarships.
"In this way we may give back to the county college-bred women. The Home Bureau made up money ($300) enough to send four girls and a cht:perone to Tallahassee for the Short Course."






Florida Cooperative Extension


Organization.-Figures tabulated below indicate the scope of home demonstration club work:
CommunWomen Juniors ities
Clubs doing home demonstration work .212 '546 127 Membership 3,805 5,186 597
Excellent county organizations were and are being developed as a result of a broader outlook engendered. This came as a result of the activities of wide-awake community organizations.
County councils of women's clubs, home bureaus and home demonstration councils with home demonstration boards of directors helped to develop home demonstration work. For example, in Hillsborough County there were 18 adult home demonstration clubs organized into a county council which assisted in working out club problems and home demonstration plans. Their program for the year's work was worked out as follows: The women discussed in their local meetings the subjects on which they were especially anxious to have help. The subjects receiving the greatest number of requests were chosen.
The president and one member from each club formed the board of directors. At the regular board meeting each list of subjects was discussed. Those for which there were the greatest number of requests from the clubs were included in the county program. This county council held a rally once every two months, bringing together members of the home demonstration clubs from all over the county. The program for the day consisted of songs, demonstrations by members of the clubs as well as by the agents and a picnic dinner. Reports from each club were read with enthusiasm and a banner awarded to the leading club.
Junior County Councils.-Junior home demonstration councils in Palm Beach and Volusia Counties proved a great source of help in developing home demonstration work with the girls and boys. In four counties the junior clubs were represented in the women's club councils.
Contests,-County contests in girls' work were held in almost all counties where there were home demonstration agents. Exhibits showing the different phases of work as carried out by club members were on display and judged. These contests were well attended and aroused much interest among adults as well as juniors.
Rallies and Camps.-Thirteen junior camps and 20 rallies were held with an attendance of 2,611 girls. Camps were popular and






Annual Report, 1923


proved excellent for recreation and a means of giving special instruction and training to club members in groups that could not be given otherwise. Regular programs were carried out, and the honor system, which always added to the success of the camps, was observed.












FIG. 19-Club girls prepared for a swim at the club camp in Orange County.
Short Courses and Scholarships.-"The state Short Course for prize-winning girls was held at the State College for Women in April. Ninety-two prize-winning scholarship girls attended. It is said that this was not only the best attended, but also the best short course for club girls yet held in the state. Scholarships were provided by county boards, organizations of men or of women, by banks, business houses and interested individuals."
As encouragement to club girls the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs gives annually two $50 scholarships for educational purposes. These are awarded to the girls doing the best work in poultry and gardening, and are helpful in developing the productive side of the work.
Montgomery Ward & Company gave $140 to defray the expenses of the state's outstanding club girl to attend the Boys' and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago, December 2-8. Genevieve McCallum of Palm Beach County won and made this trip.
"As a result of home demonstration work in Polk County, the federation of women's clubs of that county maintains a club scholarship to Montverde Industrial School.
"Palm Beach County gives a home economic scholarship to the Florida State College for Women.
Orange County has established a full home economics scholarship to the Florida State College for Women.






Florida Cooperative Extension


"Where home demonstration work was established, interest in the local schools was intensified. Club's were active in providing better equipment for schools and assisting in providing longer school terms. In communities where there are no high schools, many club girls found a way to attend the county high school as a step toward a college education. In one county alone there are ten country girls in high school as a result of club work."
The short course for women during Farmers' Week at the University of Florida was attended by 1,73 women who took advantage of the courses offered.
Traveling, Libraries.-During the early part of the year 475 well-selected books were donated to this branch of extension work to be used as a nucleus for traveling libraries. Fifteen cases for the transportation of these books in the counties were provided. Those who used these libraries show marked appreciation of them.
Fairs.-Home demonstration exhibits were made at 38, community, 25 county and 2 state fairs during 1923. Each county seemed keenly interested in developing the fairs of the state thru good exhibits. Fair associations were liberal in their app ropriations for premiums offered for home demonstration work.
Publications.-The following publications went to press during the first part of the year:
Bulletin 44-Handbook for Second Year Sewing.
Bulletin 45-FIorida Club Songs.
Bulletin 46-Handbook for First Year Sewing.
Bulletin 47-Pickles and Relishes.
A nutrition demonstration (20 leaflets) pamphlet also was published.
Puhlicity.-Newspapers of the state are -liberal in printing
-timely articles and in using space for the support of home demonstration work. Many of the home demonstration agents maintained news columns in their local newspapers. Others report that the newspapers always publish articles when supplied by them. Much publicity was given to home demonstration work thru community, county, district and state fairs, Farmers' Week, the girls' Short Course, contests, camps and the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs.
Outlook -In counties where there is no home demonstration agent there seems to be a lack of understanding of the work which, together with a lack of county funds, hinders the exten-






Annual Report, 1923 77

sion . of. home demonstration work. However, taking the state as a whole, it is most encouraging to, find the interest and support which home demonstration work is receiving from state officials, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, state, county and local organizations and people in general. There are splendid possibilities f or future development.
Much time, thought and work will- be given during the ensuing year to food conservation, standardizing and marketing byproducts from Florida fruits and vegetables. Living at home and home improvement will be stressed largely thru poultry raising, gardening, dairying, household management, health and sanitation, nutrition and the use of Florida products.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF A. A. TURNER, LOCAL (COLORED) DISTRICT
AGENT, IN CHARGE OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK.
Negro extension work thru farm and home makers' clubs was conducted in 14 counties during 1923. Alachua, Columbia, Suwannee, Jackson, Washington, Gadsden, Madison and Marion Counties employed farm agents and St. Johns, Orange, Jefferson, Duval, Leon, Sumter, and Madison Counties employed home agents.
The terms of agents were for nine or ten months, depending on local conditions. The work accomplished had principally to do with production and farm and home improvement. However, a definite effort was made to assist in cooperative marketing; in this satisfactory results were secured, particularly in marketing truck and garden crops.
The control of boll weevils by the Florida method was carried out systematically but, owing to adverse weather conditions, a low yield of cotton was produced. The agents were supplied with calcium arsenate and dust guns and given definite instruction for carrying out the demonstrations.
Poultry work was especially emphasized, the local agents, especially the women, making this a major project.
The following paragraphs give the accomplishments of the several main projects:
1. Field and Garden Clubs,-An attempt was made last year, as in past years, to teach practical methods of farming, gardening and trucking by demonstrating on small plots how to grow certain crops best adapted to the needs of the people in the community where grown. It was found in some counties that truck crops and even some fruits can be raised along with staple crops, thereby bringing the farmer more ready cash. The growing of truck crops in connection with staple crops has reached the northern counties and is being tried out to supplement the cash from staple crops which come off later in the year. The truck crops are planned for early, markets.
Heavy rainfall not only ruined cotton, but did untold damage to the corn crop, the average yield for boys being around 29 bushels and for men 16 bushels. The average yield of sweet potatoes was 85 bushels for boys and 70 bushels for men and women. The average yield of peanuts was 44 bushels for boys.
2. Pig, Clubs.-There was little interest in pig work from the standpoint of purchasing purebreds. Owing to a low price for






Annual Report, 1923


market hogs, there was a tendency to use purebred boars and grade sows. However, the usual amount of pork was produced and put on the market. Cholera was checked bythe active interest of the agents by having hogs inoculated at the proper time.
3. Poultry Clubs.-One outstanding result accomplished in the poultry club was the plan by which club members in western Florida (where markets were poor) sold chickens, eggs, and turkeys at good prices in Orlando. Arrangements were made for handling club produce during the tourist season. For instance, turkeys shipped from Chipley to Orlando sold for 50 cents a pound live weight when they were selling for only 25 cents, f. o. b., Chipley. Chickens and eggs were sold in many cases on the same basis.
4. Dairy Clubs.-Some progress was made in interesting colored farmers in owning and keeping two or more good dairy cows. Dairy work develops slowly in Florida on account of the Texas cattle tick, yet more farmers are building fences and making pastures in which they can keep up their cows and protect them from the open range and the tick.
A Leon County farmer perhaps did more in dairying than an y* other negro in the state. He has built his dairy herd up to 40 cows and receives 30 cents a gallon for his milk shipped to Jacksonville. His receipts averaged $115 a week. Leon, Alachua, Marion, and Jackson made great progress in dairying.
5. Farm and Home Improvement Clubs.-Along with the lessons in better farming and livestock and poultry raising, the agents taught the fundamentals of good health, comfort and convenience on the farm and in the home. The home was taken as the basis of, operation and every effort was made to make it a better place in which to live.
Teaching industry and thrift among the club members and patrons was an important work. Results along this line were accomplished by improving the home and its premises. This work consisted of planting fruit trees, screening, whitewashing, repairing houses and outbuildings, cleaning wells, building sanitary toilets and making household supplies and conveniences.
Fairs and Exhibits.-The greatest opportunity to make the farm and home makers' club movement popular is thru county and state fairs. Exhibits of the work done by club members and patrons were displayed and inspected and examined by white and colored. Nothing did more toward gaining sentiment in favor of the work than these exhibits; and nothing did more toward






Florida Cooperative Extension


developing the educational side of the work in all its phases than these exhibits at state and county fairs.
The following statement was made in the Jacksonville Journal on November 23, by Oscar Mills, President of the Southeastern Fair, Atlanta, Georgia: "The colored department of the Florida State Fair is a revelation to me. It is something we have been trying to get in Atlanta for a number of years. The building,, filled as it is with unusual accomplishments under the direction of Superintendent Turner, reflects much credit upon the colored people. If there were more southern fairs that would interest themselves in this way, there would be a considerable decrease in migration of ngroes to the north."
Cooperating Agencies,-Most cooperation was from the Negro Farmers' Union, a cooperative marketing association, operating among negro farmers in several counties. During the year negro farmers of Marion County sold cooperatively $52,000 worth of truck crops.
The business manager of this association and -a widely known trucker and shipper of -Ocala volunteered to supervise the grading and packing schools to be held in.the various countiesnext season. A successful colored potato grower of Hastings also did much to interest his people in better living and farming. It was 'thru this medium that club members and patrons were able to market their truck crops in carrots. This phase of the work made good progress.
Meetings.-Two meetings were held to train local agents. Many important subjects were presented by lecturers and thru demonstrations by subject-matter specialists from the University of Florida and the Florida State College for Women. Nine hun-. dred forty-nine field meetings were held, with a total attendance of 20,276.
Length of Term,-The local agents worked this year, on an average, -nine months, both men and women; and, there being only one agent in a county, each was taught to work among the clubs of both sexes. This plan enables them to be more useful in the community, but handicaps them in reporting all the work done.'
From 1,292 boys' and girls' club reports of things done the following tables have been compiled to show the scope of the work:







Annual Report, 1923


1. Field and, Garden Clubs5: ACRES YIELD VALUE

Corn harvested 224 6,496 bus. $6,496
Sweet potatoes harvested . 172 14,445 bus. 10,844 Irish potatoes harvested.43- 1,510 bbls. 5,185
Peanuts harvested 130 5,850 bus. 8,775
Treated cotton harvested . . 56 7,000 lbs.~ 2,100
Tobacco harvested 2 2,214 lbs. 1,107
Tomatoes harvested 49 3,521 crts. 8,802
Beans harvested 36 1,080 hprs. 1,350
Watermelons harvested. 13 1 carload 338
Cucumbers harvested '9 358 erts. 753
2. Pig Clubs: -NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Hogs sold on foot 140 19,191 $1,151
Cured pork sold 25 1,250 250
3. Poultry Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Chickens sold 2,524 7,527 $1,909
Eggs sold 630 doz. 189
4. Dairy Clubs: NUMBER GALLONS VALUE
Cows kept 19
Milk produced 930 $187
Cream sold 243 166
Pounds butter made 91 36
5. Farm and Home Improvement
Clubs: NUMBER
Fruit trees planted 541
Grape vines planted '194
Houses screened 87
Houses whitewashed 274
Houses painted 47
Homes remodeled 19
Homes purchased 8
Pieces handicraft made .413 Bars soap made 1,051
Wells cleaned and covered . 5
Sanitary toilets made ---------------- 10
Fireless cookers made.r. 53 Containers filled (qts.).-----21,140
TOTAL VALUE $49,,638







Florida Cooperative Extension


A thousand and seventy-two men and women, who did demonstration work sent in interesting reports, from which the following tables have been compiled:

1. Field and Garden Clubs: ACRES YIELD VALUE
Corn harvested 688 11,114 bus. $11,114
Sweet potatoes harvested----------. 332 23,660 bus. 17,745
Irish potatoes harvested . 96 2,904 bus. 9,364 Peanuts harvested 250 10,000 bus 15,000
Treated cotton harvested----------. 314 31,400 lbs. 9,420
Tobacco harvested 3 3,660 lbs. 1,830
Tomatoes harvested 223 15,610 erts. 39,025
Beans harvested 361 10,830 bprs. 13,537
Melons harvested 578 35 cars 8,816
Cucumbers harvested 78 2,337 crts. 4,928
2. Pig -Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Hogs sold on foot 586 82,000 $4,920
Cured pork sold 80 8,660 1,732
3TTPo ul1try Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE
Chickens sold 2,356 8,594 $2,283
Turkeys sold 175 1,925 770
4. -Dairy Clubs: NUMBER GALLONS VALUE
Cows kept 185
Milk produced 49,850 $9,970
5. Farm and Home Improvement
Clubs: NUMBER
Fruit trees planted 1,423
Grape vines planted 712
Houses screened 315
Houses whitewashed 515
Houses painted 168
Homes remodeled 299
Homes purchased 43
Pieces handicraft made----------. 635
Bars soap made 3,604
Wells cleaned and covered . 16
Sanitary toilets made . 16 Fireless cookers made-----------. 268
Baths installed in farm homes_ 11
Containers filled (qts.). 54,385
Total value .$150,454.00








INDEX


Administration as project, 13 Agricultural News Service, 11 Alachua County Creamery, 31 Appointment of workers, 14 Asparagus plunosus nanus. 59, 62 Ayersj Ed L., report of, 56

Bean Jassid control, 61 Blacklock, R. W., report of, 43 Blueberry culture, 36 Boll weevil control, 12, 33, 38, 44 Boys' citrus clubs, 45
club enrollment, 46
club exhibits, 48
club prizes, 45
clubs, organization of, 43
club work, 9
short courses, 46
Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 52 Bulletins issued during year, 11

Camps and rallies for girls, 74 for club boys, 47 Cantaloupe troubles, 57 Cantaloupes,. work with, 57 Carter, Louise, appointment of, 14 Cereal demonstrations, 24 Celery leaf tyer, 58 troubles, 58 work, 58
Citrus clubs for boys, 45
demonstrations, 26 field meetings, 12
production, 40
schools, 56
work,. 30, 38
Clayton, H. G., report of, 33 Clothing, work in, 68 Club boys' exhibits, 48
camps, 47
enrollment, 46
prizes for boys, 45 work, 32
work, dairy, 54 work, projects, 45 Clubs, colored persons, 78 organized, development of, 43 College of Agriculture, cooperation
of, 14


Community improvement in home
demonstration work, 73
work of county agents, 20
Committee recommendations, 15 Conferences of negro workers, 16
of white workers, 15
Cooperation among , negro farmers, 80
of other institutions, 14
Cooperative organizations, 41
sales and purchases of farmers,
40
Corn culture, 39
work, 29, 34
Cotton culture, 39 demonstrations, 24
work, 29
County agents, activities of, 23
increasing efficiency of, 22
number employed, 7
work in communities, 20 County agent work, 8
extent of, 18 projects of, 8
Creamery, cooperative, establishment at Brooksville, 54
organization of, 31
Cucumber troubles,- 57, 61

Dairy cattle demonstrations, 25
club work, 54
conditions, improvement of, 55 development in Florida, 53 husbandr;, 9
problems worked on, 52 products of Florida, supply of
and demand for, 53
visits by farmers, .52 work, 31, 39 Demonstrations, cereal, 24
citrus, 26
cotton, 24
dairy cattle, 25 hog, 25
Irish potatoes, 25 legumes, 24 orchard, 24 poultry, 26 rodents, etc., to control, 21






Florida Cooperative Extension


soil improvement, 26
sweet potato, 25
truck and garden, 25
Diseases of plants, to control, 30 Disinfecting seedbeds, 61

Educational work at fairs, 55 Egg-laying contests, 72 Entomology, 10 Equipment of county agents, 28,
33, 38
of home demonstration agents, 65 Exhibits and fairs, 21, 36, 41
of club boys, 48
Extension agents, work of, 7, 8
projects, 8
schools, 11, 12
work, division of, 8 work, statistics, 23
workers, 13

Fairs and exhibits, 21, 36, 41
and exhibits, negro extension
work in connection with, 79 Fairs, educational work at, 55
home demonstration participation in, 76
Farm dairying, 39, 52 Farmstead improvements, 27 Farmers, meetings of, 34 Farmers' Week, 13, 51 Fertilizer, home-mixing of, 36
sampling, 36
Field meetings, 12 Financial statement, 17 Florida State College for Women,
cooperation of, 14
Floyd, Minnie E., resignation of, 14 Forage crops, 9 Fruits, small, work with, 39 Funds received and expended, 17

Garden demonstrations, 25 Girls' contests, 74
rallies and camps, 74
short courses, 75
Gleason, Flavia, appointment of, 14
report of, 63
Grasses, distribution of, 51


Hiatt, Leland, instructor in swimming, 48
S. W., report of, 38
S. W., work with fairs, 21 Hog demonstrations 25
raising, 34,, 40
Horn, Madge, appointment of, 14 Horticulture, home demonstration
work in, 71
Rome demonstration agents, equipment of, 65
employed, 7
project activities, 67
Home demonstration staff, appointment of, 63
Home demonstration work, 9
report of, 63
status and scope of, 63, 66
summary of, 67
Home dairy work, 71
furnishings, 70
health and sanitation, 70
Household management and home
furnishings, 70

Improvements, farmstead, 27 Irish potato culture, 39
demonstrations, 25

Jenkins, E. W., report of, 28

Land crabs, control of, 61 Lansden, H. B., appointment of, 14 Layton, Harriette B., resignation
of, 14
Leaf tyer of celery, 58 Legume demonstrations, 24 LeNoir, Ellen, resignation of, 14 Libraries traveling, 76 Livestock work, 29 Lumber yard disease, 59

Marketing in home demonstration
work, 72
McDavid, Ruby, appointment of, 14 Meetings of negro farmers, 80 Millinery work, 68 Moore, Virginia P., appointment
of, 14
Morse, May, resignation of, 14







Annual Report, 1923


Scott, John M., report of, 50 Seed beds, disinfecting, 61 Settle, Lucy Belle, appointment of,
14
Short courses for boys, 46 1, for girls, 75 Smith, Gladys, resignation of; 14
George, D., assistance of, 33 J. Lee, club leadership of, 43
Soil improvement work, 26, 28, 36,
41
Spencer, A. P., report of, 18 Spraying methods, 56 Staff, changes in, 14 State Livestock Sanitary Board,
cooperation of, 20
State Marketing Board, cooperation of, 20 v
State Plant Board, cooperation of,
14, 21
Statistics of work done, 23 Supervision of work, 21, 33, 43 'Sweet potato culture, 39
demonstrations, 25
work, 29, 34

,Thursby, Isabelle S., appointment
of, 14
,Tisdale, 0. 0., local club leader, 44 Tomato troubles, 58 Tomatoes, work with, 58 Truck crops, 36 ,Truck crop work, 30 Truck demonstrations, 25 Turner, A. A., report of, 78
United States Department of Agriciilture, cooperation of, 14

Vegetable production, 41
schools, 56

Webster, Agnes I., resignation of,
14
Watermelon culture, 36
troubles, 57
work with, 57


Negro extension work, 10
scope of, 81, 82 ,report of, 78
Negro workers, conferences of, 16 Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7 Newspapers, cooperation of, 11
as help to extension work, 34

Orchard demonstrations, 24 Organization of county agent work,
18
Organizations, cooperative, 41 Organization work, 32
among women, 74 Outlook for 1924, 16

Partridge, Sarah W., resignation
of, 14
Pasture work, 31 Peanut culture, 40 Plan of work, 15, 33 Plant Pathology, 10 Poultry, 10
demonstrations, 2 6
home demonstration work in, 72 Poultry work, 31, 42 Projects of county agent work, 18 Publications, 10
Home demonstration, 76 Publicity, 34, 46, 76 Purchases and sales of farmers, 27

Reams, Charles, story of as club
boy, 49
Resignations of workers, 14 Rodent control demonstrations, 27
Sales and purchases of farmers,
27, 35, 40
Sanborn, N. W., transfer of, 14 Sand pear culture, 36 Sanitation in the home, 70 Satsuma culture, 34 I plantings, 35 Scholarships -for club boys, 48 for club girls, 75 Schools, citrus, 56 vegetable, 56




Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics IActa of May 8 and June 30, 1914) Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women, , And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1923

PAGE 2

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics (Acta of May Sand June SO, 1914) Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1923 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1923

PAGE 3

CONTENTS PAGE LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA.. . ..... . ......... . . .. . . ... .. ....... . ... 3 BOARD OF CONTROL, STAFF, SPECIALISTS, SPECIAL LECTURERS....... .. . ... ....... 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS, LIST OF ...•. : •. : . . . . .. .... . . ..• . ..... : . 5 LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL........... .. . . ......... 7 REPORT OF . DIRECTOR ...•...............•.... ... ............•.............•............ . . . . 7 Introduction ...................................... .. ...................................... . . . . . . ... . .... . . . . .. 7 Organization ...................... , .. . .... : . .. . ...... ,................................... . .... . .. . . . ........ 8 Outline of Projects ............................................................. . ..... . . . . .. . . ... . ..... 8 Publications ............................ . .. .. . . : .................................... . . , ...... : . .... ... . . .. .... 10 Extension Schools ..................... '. .. . ................................... . ....... .. ... . .. . ......... 11 Changes in Staff .......... . ..... . . . . . .......................................... . ... . ...... .. ... .. . . . . ... 14 Plans of Work .................... . .. .. . . ................................... . . .... ... . .... .. . .. .... . . . .... 15 Conferences for Extension Workers ......... . ........................ . . . . . . . .. . . . ... .. ... . . 15 Committee Recommendations for Extension Work .......... .. . .. ... . . .. ... . . .. . 15 Extension Work for Negroes . . ... . .... . .... : .....•... , ...... . ..... . .. . . . . . ...... . . . ... . . .. .. . . . . 16 Outlook for 1924 ........... . . .. ... ... . ... . . .. . .... . ..... . ..... . .. . .......... . . ... . . ....... .. .. .. ....... . .. 16 Financial Statement . . .. . ........ .. ... . .................................. . .. . .. .. . . .. .. ... .. ...... . ... 17 REPORT OF VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER..... . .... .. . . ....... ... .. . ..... 18 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA ...••.. : . . ........ 28 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTHERN AND WESTERN FLORIDA: . . .......... 33 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA . ......... 38 REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT . ...... . . . .. ......•...•......•..•.....•.........•.........•..•........... . . 43 REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST . .. ..... . . : ..••............ : .............. . . .. . .. ... . . . •.. .... . .... 50 REPORT OF EXTENSION DAIRYMAN .......... .. .............................. . •.... . ........... . ... , ... . . 52 REPORT OF EXTENSION ENTOMOLOGIST & PLANT PATHOLOGIST . . .. . .... . . .. . .... . . 56 REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK. , .. . ... . ...... . ... . ...... . ............. . . . ... . ......... 63 REPORT OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK . . ........... . . . . . ......... . ... . ... ... .. . .... . . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. . . 78 .

PAGE 4

Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agri culture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1923; in cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1923. Respectfully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman of the Board of Control.

PAGE 5

4 Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola. E. L. W ARTMANN, Citra. A. H. BLANDING, Leesburg. JOHN C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville. W. L. WEAVER, Perry. J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. C. w. WARBURTON, Director. C. B. SMITH, Chief. STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. WILM0N NEWELL, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader. RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor. RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor. COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK E. w. JENKINS, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. S. W . HIATT, District Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent. COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. ) HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent.! MAY MORSE, Assistant State Agent. MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Agent. Resigned before July 1, 1923 , AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent. ELLEN LENOIR, District Agent. GLADYS SMITH, Assistant State Agent. . FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent. } VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Assistant State Agent. LOUISE CARTER, Dairy and Nutrition Agent. Appointed on or after ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Food and Marketing Agen.t. July 1, 1923. RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent. . LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent. SPECIALISTS JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist. HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairyman. . ED L. AYERS, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (resigned August 31, 1923). JOHN R. SPRINGER, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (appointed October 1, 1923). E. F. DEBUSK, Citrus Pathologist (appointed September 1, 1923). H.B. LANSDEN, Poultryman. SPECIAL LECTURERS J. R. WATSON, Entomology. O. F. BURGER, Citrus Diseases. R. W. RUPRECHT, Soils and Fertilizers . C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture. E. L. LORD, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery. A. L. SHEALY, Veterinary Science. G. F. WEBER, Vegetable Diseases. J. E. TURLINGTON, Farm Management.

PAGE 6

Annual Report, 1923 5 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Alachua . . ...... .. .. F. L. Craft . . ... .. ... . . ... . . Gainesville . ........ ... .. .... ....... Lou C. Hamilton Bay ......... . ..... . .. . . R. R. Whittington . .... Pariama City ... . . . .... . .... . ..•. ... . . ... .. ...... .. ........ . ... Brevard .. P. M. Childers .. .. .. . .... Cocoa . . ... . . .. . ..... . ........... . .. ... , .. . .................... . ... . Columbia ......... . C. A. Fulford . ... . ....... Lake City . . : ............. Mrs. Grace F. Warren Dade ................. . J . S. Rainey .. . ...... .. ..... Miami ...... . ..................... . . . . .. .. . ...................... .. . DeSoto .......... . . .. ... .. .................. . . . ........... Arcadia ... . ............. ..c..Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill Duval.. . ..... , . . ... . . W. L. Watson .. .. . . ...... Jacksonville . . . ................ . .. .... .. Pearl Laffitte . Elise Laffitte, Assistant Escambia ......... . J. Lee Smith ... . ...... . . Pensacola . .. .. . .. . .. . ......... . Josephine Longley *!:fi:~~::::::::::J:j: s~~h;~~t.._. ..~~j:S~i:_-___-.._-_-_-_-_-.'.::._-...._-_-. __-. . .~~~.~~ : ~~.~ .. Hernando ......... J. T. Daniel... . . ........... Brooksville .................... Mrs. W. J. Palmer Hillsborough ... R. T. Kelley ............... Plant City ................ Mrs. Blanche G. Shore Tampa ... . . .. . . .................. Mrs. Mary S. Allen Jefferson .. . ...... . . H. H. Rothe ..... . ......... Monticello .............. . .. . . .. .. .... ................ . ... . ... .. . Lake . . . .. . ...... ... ... Leo H. Wilson . . Tavares ... .. . . .... .. ..... . .. .. . . . . . . ........... Marie Cox Lee .. .. .... . .... . ...... . H. E. Stevens .... . .. . . .... Ft. Myers .. . . . ........ . ....... . ..... . . . . . Lynn McNutt Leon .................. J. A. Mackintosh .... . . Tallahassee ....... . ................ Mrs. A. H. Peay Levy .................. N. J. Allbritton . ......... Williston .......................... . ............................ . M~M;l;;:.-.-.-.-.~.-. : : . ~: : l~r!!:: : :::::::::fl1dI~~n : ::::::'.:::::::::::::::::: : : :: :=::::::::::::::'.:::=::::: Manatee ......... . . W. R. Briggs. , .. ......... Bradentown ........................ .. Margaret Cobb Marion .... .. . a K. C. Moore . . Ocala . .. .. ... . .......... . . . ...... Christine McFerron Okaloosa .... .. .. . . . R. J. Hart ..... . .. . ..... . ... Laurel Hill Crestview . .. . . .. . .. .. . ......... . .. ... .. . . Bertha Henry Orange ........... ... C. D. Kime .............. . .. Orlando . . . . . ............... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ......... . . . . . J. R. Gunn .... . . . :., ....... Kissimmee .... . , ................ . . .. . .......................... . Palm Beach . ... . J. A. Dew ................... West Palm Beach .. Mrs. Edith Y. Morgan Pasco ..... . ....... . ... J. A. Shealy . . . . . . ......... Dade City . ................. Mrs. Harriet Ticknor Polk . ..... . ............ William Gomme .. ...... Bartow .. . ................... . .... . .......... Lois Godbey Putnam ......... . .. . D. A. Armstrong .. . ... Palatka . . .... ... ....... . ..... . . . . .. . . Floresa Sipprell St. Johns .. . . . ..... . J . O . Traxler ... . .. . . . . . .. . St . Augustine ...... . .. .... .... . .. . .. Anna E. Heist St . Lucie ... . . . ..... Alfred Warren . ......... Ft. Pierce .... . .... .. ... . ..... . ............ .. ............ . ..... . Santa Rosa ...... John G. Hudson ..... .. . Milton .. . ............. Mrs. Winnie W. McEwan Seminole ......... .. B. F. Whitner, Jr ..... Sanford Sumter .................................................... Bushnell .. ........................ .. ......... .:Mae Morris Suwannee ... . .. . . . C. E. Matthews . . ...... .Live Oak ......................... . ... Luella M. Rouse Taylor . ..... , . .. ..... R. J. Dorsett ......... . .... Perry --. Anabel Peaden Volusia ..... . ....... T. A. Brown ... . . ........ DeLand . . . . . ........ . ........ . .... . ............ Orpha Cole Wakulla . ........... G. C. Hodge ...... . ........ . Crawfordville .... . .. . .......... . ........... . ..... . ... . .. . .. . . Walton ... . ......... . J. W. Mathison . ........ DeFuniak Springs ......... . . Josephine Nimmo *This list is correct to December 31, 1923.

PAGE 7

FIG. 1.-Some of the farm folk who attended Farmers' Week at the Univiersity of Florida in August, 1923.

PAGE 8

Report of General Activities for 1923 with Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1923 Hon. P. K. Yonge, Chairman, Board of Control. Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. '.Dhis report embodies the financial state ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1923, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1923. I re spectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with law, to the governor of the State of Florida. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION WILMON NEWELL, Director. During 1923 the Agricultural Extension Division of the Uni versity of Florida conducted extension work in 44 counties of the state, having in each county either a county agent, home demonstration agent, or both. Twenty-two counties employed one county and , one home demonstration agent, 20 counties had one agent only and two counties had three agents. That is, approximately two-thirds of the counties in the state are con tributing to the salaries of county extension workers. During the year the largest number of county agents em plo'yed was 38 and the largest number of home demonstration agents employed , _ at one time was 32. Efforts were made to have both county and home demonstration agents in a larger number of counties. This, however, was not accomplished for the reason that those counties not employing agents did not levy an assessment to pay for the service. With the present funds available it would not be possible to carry out . extension work in Florida in all the counties on the present basis of county allotment.

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension As extension work advances, county workers are confronted with more new and complex problems. With the progress in agriculture and horticulture and advancement in improving rural homes, there continually comes a demand for unusual service on the part of agents. The Division is required to know intimately the needs of Florida's agricultural home life and to be able to locate the men and women of the communities who are rural leaders and, with the assistance of these leaders, to organize and direct county an1d community forces for the ad vancement of all phases of farm life. There are agricultural interests in every county that are only indirectly related to agricultural. extension work as now organ ized. County extension workers often can assist in such work, and usually . do unless it requires a neglect of their regular duties. In fact, extension workers always endeavor to promote the best interests of their counties. Where both county and home demonstration work is carried on in the same county, the plans of work must . harmonize so as to strengthen the work of both agents. For this reason county and home demom~tration agents usually have a joint office where they can keep in close touch with the work of each other. In these counties the general plans of work are designed for the ultimate good of both farm and home and of the county generally. DIVISION OF THE WORK The extension work for 1923 was divided into nine separate and definite branches. This necessarily required a division of funds and well-defined projects. 1. County Agent Work.-The state is divided into three districts, with a district agent in charge of each. Northern and western Florida, with H. G. Clayton as district agent, constitute one district. This territory comprises the general farming and livestock areas of the state. The problems of these counties are similar in many respects. The next district, consisting of the central and southeastern portion of Florida, is largely horticultural, having some general agriculture in the northern counties. This district is under the supervision of E.W. Jenkins. The counties of northern Florida and the each coast constitute another district. It is under the supervision of S. W. Hiatt.

PAGE 10

Annual R.eport, 19 23 9 This comprises a greater variety of problems, extending from the sub-tropical area of the state into the cotton area. In each case the county agents look directly to the district agents for supervision and assistance. 2. Boys' Club Work.-This branch is supervised by R. W. Blacklock, boys' club agent, and has to do with the direction and management of boys' agricultural clubs. These clubs are organized by county agents. District agents assist in super vision, so that projects 2 and 3 are closely related. In the different areas of the state club work naturally varies. To illustrate, in counties where citrus and winter trucking are the main industries, the clubs are directed into these types of agri culture or horticulture. 3: Home Demonstration Work.-Home demonstration work is under the direct supervision of State Agent Flavia Gleason and Assistant State Agent Virginia P. Moore. The state is Fm. 2.-Home demonstration agents studying basketry at the 1923 con f e rence. divided into two districts, the northern and western being in charge of Ruby McDavid and the southern in charge of Lucy Belle Settle. The district agents have direct supervision over home demonstration agents and assist them in carrying out their various projects. Home demonstration work also has specialists in nutrition, dairy work, marketing and clothing, who assist home demonstration agents in carrying thru their plans of work. 4. Dairy Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The livestock work of the year was confined principally to dairying, hog raising and the production of feed crops. This work is headed by

PAGE 11

10 Florida Cooperative Extension John M. Scott, animal industrialist, and Hamlin L. Brown, ex tension dairyman. This work reaches into the greater part of the state. It is intended to develop the livestock industry according to the most imperative needs and with a ' view to as sisting farmers and livestock owners who will benefit and who will carry out demonstrations designed to help their communities. On account of the lack of interest in beef production, little was accomplished during the year in this project. 5. Entomology and Plant Pathology.-The constant demand for assistance in the control of insects and diseases . of plants maide it advisable to make this a special feature of extension work. County agents in the horticultural areas have many calls for such assistance, principally with citrus fruits and winter vegetables and to a lesser extent with farm crops. As the horticultural interests increase in importance and extent county agents are called on more often to give expert assistance; they look to the specialists for such help. 6. Poultry.-The demands on the poultry extension spe cialist have increased as poultry raising has expanded. Home demonstration agents have made poultry a special feature in their programs. In counties not employing home demonstration agents, county agents take an active interest. This is a state wide project. 7. Negro Extension Work has been confined to 14 counties . and is under the supervision of a local district agent, A. A. Turner. The counties getting the greatest benefit from this , are in the northern part of the state, where the negro population is largest. The program of work for men is for economical pro duction and some cooperative marketing. The women's work deals with poultry raising, gardening, cooking, foods, clothing and sanitation. 8. Publications.-The demand for bulletins and published literature requires that a supply of this be available for county workers. County and home demonstr~tion agents distribute large quantities of agricultural literature from their offices, as they keep a supply of bulletins appropriate to the needs of their comities. This causes a constant demand on the bulletin supply furnished them from the Agricultural Extension Division, the . ,_ . , I Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture.

PAGE 12

Annua~ Report,1923. 11 The following publications were issued during the year: Bulletin 36, ''Irish Potatoes in Florida" ................ 10,280 copies " 37, "Diseases and Ailments of Cattle"s ... 10,000 " " 38, "Florida Poultry Production" .............. 25,000 " The 1922 Annual Report ............................. , ............ ,... 2,040 " The 1923 Farm and Home Calendar ........................................... 6,880 " Weekly News Service (52 issU.es) ................................................. ~28,515 " Bulletin 45, "Club Song Book" ........................................ ;. ........................... ,000 " " 46, "Hand Book for First Year Sewing" .. 5,000 " Nutrition ~eaflets .................................................... : ................................... :---200, 000 " Bulletin 47, "Pickles and Relishes" --------------------,000 " " 29, "Milk" (Reprint) .................................... 5,000 " " 31, "Home Canning with Picnic Dinner" .. 5,000 " The Agricultural News Service, issued weekly and supplied to the newspapers and farm journals, contains timely news and informational farm articles. This service is also sent to county and home demonstration agents and others interested in agri culture and home development in the state. Approximately 700 copies are mailed out each week. Distribution of Agricultural Literature and lnformation.-The Division supplies the state press with timely articles on agri cultural subjects. This is directed from the office of the editor of the Agricultural Extension Division. County and home demonstration agents are given assistance in supplying their newspapers with such material as they can use. County work ers are encouraged to give every possible assistance to the' press in supplying community newspapers with such agricultural in. formation as will be most beneficial to farmers and farm women. In some instances, an agricultural column is maintained, its editing being done thru the cooperation of county and home demonstration agents. Division Cannot Meet Demands.-It is impossible for the Agricultural Extension Division to give personal attention ( or the personal visit of a specialist or county or home demonstration agent) to every request-for such service made upon it. It is, therefore, felt that the service rendered by the assistance of the state press greatly enhances the active service of the Division. 9. Extension Schools.-This project was planned to provide for various schools. For the most part, these were arranged by county and home demonstration agents or by specialists. During the year the schools in northern counties were princi

PAGE 13

12 Florida Cooperative Ext ensi on pally to instruct farmers on the Florida method of boll weevil control. These were carried out in cooperation with the State Plant Board of Florida. Thirty-three meetings were held with an attendance of 1,722. These meetings were diversified in some cases, other interesting farm activities being included. Citrus Field Meetings were conducted in the citrus area of the state, principally to instruct growers in the control of insect and disease pests, particularly melanose and stem-end rot. There were 39 citrus field meetings held; the attendance totaled 1,140. Miscellaneous Schools covering other important phases of the 1923 program, principally dairying, livestock, hog raising and general crops were held. In all, a total of 48 miscellaneous meetings were held, with an attendance of 8,500. The meetings held in the field were the most satisfactory and effective. Method demonstrations were emphasized in each field or grove and this was followed up by inspection work by county agents, also bulletins and circulars issued from the county agents' offices or from the main office at Gainesville. FiG. 3.-Scott (Prof. John M.) hands Fulford (County Agent C. A.) the "b ull." This purebred calf was won by Columbia County for having the largest registered attendance at Farmers' Week last summer

PAGE 14

Annual Report, 1923 13 During the year county agents conducted and took an active part in 2,000 farm meetings. The attendance at these totaled 34,006. The Second Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week was held on the campus of the University, August 6-11. This consisted of instruction and entertainment to farm people. An appropriate program was carried out. Those contributing to the program and to the success of the entire we_ek were members of the staff of the College of Agri culture (including Experiment Station, Agricultural Extension Pivision and college proper) and of the State Plant Board and growers and farmers in the state. Representatives of the Uni ted States Department of Agriculture took active part. Farmers and their families were permitted the use of the University dormitories, paying a maximum charge of $1 a day for board and room. The plan called for a general session each day, followed b'y sectional meetings. A special program was prepared for .the farm women under the direction of the home demonstration staff. In carrying out this week the cooperation of other organized bodies interested in farm life was secured and valuable assist ance rendered in making it a success. The expenses incidental to Farmers' Week were borne by direct appropriation by the Legislature. The registered attendance was 707. 10. Administration deals with all phases of extension work, the distribution and expenditure of funds, plans and policies and the working relationships of the various departments and projects. Workers in Organization.-In conducting various phase~ of agricultural extension work during the year the following people were employed: a director, a county agent leader and vice d_irector, three district agents for men's work, a boys' club agent, an extension dairyman, an animal industrialist (part time), a plant pathologist and entomologist, an extension poultryman and an editor. For home demonstration work the following workers were employed: a state home demonstration agent, an assistant state home demonstration agent, two district agents, a poultry club agent, a home dairy agent, a nutrition specialist, an assistant clothing specialist (part time).

PAGE 15

14 Florida Cooperative Extension One district (supervising) local agent for negro work was employed also by the Division. ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS The service is reinforced with assistance from the Florida Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture, the Florida State College for Women, the State Plant Board of Florida and the United States Department of Agriculture. The service from each is principally advisory but is definite and valuable. There are other institutions such as the State Livestock Sani tary Board and State Marketing Bureau which, while having no , official relation to the Division, cooperate under a working re lationship that is mutual and beneficial to all institutions coop erating. CHANGES IN PERSONNEL OF THE STAFF During 1923 changes in personnel of the staff were as follows: Gladys Smith, nutrition agent, resigned February 28. On April 1, Isabelle S. Thursby was appointed assistant in nutrition and Madge Horn was appointed assistant in clothing, both working until June 30. At the end of the fiscal year, June 30, the following agents resigned: Sarah W. Partridge, state home demonstration agent; Harriette B. Layton, as.c3istant state home demonstration agent; Agnes I. Webster, district agent; Ellen LeNoir, district agent; May Morse, home dairy agent; Minnie Floyd, home poultry agent. This required the appointment of an entirely new staff to begin work on July 1, 1923. These positions were filled by the following: Flavia Gleason, state home demonstration agent; Virginia P. Moore, assistant state home detnonstration agent; Ruby McDavid, district agent; _ Lucy Belle Settle, district agent; Isabelle S. Thursby, food and marketing agent; Louise Carter, dairy and nutrition agent, On July 1, N. W. Sanborn, extension poultryman, was as signed for full-time duty to the College of Agriculture and was succeeded by H. B. Lansden. Among county and home demonstration workers various resignations, new appointments' and transfers took place, most of these occurring between July 1 and October I. These changes were relatively few and in each case the new agent appointed had qualifications equal to, if not better than, those resigned. It is the policy of the administration to secure specially equipped

PAGE 16

Annual Report, 1923 15 agents who have had training in an agricultural college. How ever, instances arise where this is not practical, owing to the limited amount of money available for the employment of agents. PLANS OF WORK FOR THE YEAR All extension workers are required to have a plan of work at the beginning . of the year and are expected to carry out defi nite, organized extension work. As individual counties have their local problems it is important that the county plan be formulated largely by county and home demonstration agents. District or supervisory agents submit their recommendations for the year's work, and specialists and leaders submit outlines to govern the work. 'These plans are assembled for consider ation and conference at the beginning of the year. County and home demonstration agents were assembled into three groups at convenient places for two-day sessions. As these group meetings bring together both county and home demonstration agents, th~y provide an opportunity for the cor relation of these two sides of the work. It is expected that each extension worker will give these problems ' preferred at tention and alter his or her plan as little as possible. At the conclusion of the group conferences the plans for the year are tabulated with recommendations from the supervising forces. This has been found helpful in correlating the various branches and projects and in bringing the greatest good to the wh9le in the end. ANNUA)'., CONFERENCES OF COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRA TION AGENTS All extension workers meet in annual conference for instruc tion and correlation of work. The programs divide the agents into sections, with leaders for each, and bring them into joint sessions to discuss state-wide problems and policies. _ Assistance with these programs is given by the College of Agriculture, St~te Plant Board, United States Department of Agriculture and others. This conference is planned to last one week and is held at the University of Florida. It brings together all exten sion workers of the state and serves to correlate all phases of the work. COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS During the annual conference committees made up largely of county workers are assigned to submit recommendations con/

PAGE 17

16 Florida Cooperative Extension cerning problems in which they will be interested. These are brought together in the form of recommendations to be used as a guide in formulating plans for the coming year. CONFERENCES FOR NEGRO WORKERS Negro extension work is a branch of the Division, designed particularly to meet the needs of rural negro people. It is sys tematized and so directed that it results in the general better ment of negro farmers and farm women. The negro agents are called together once a year to discuss and arrange plans. The attention of the negro agents is brought to the fact that their work is educational rather than the giving of individual service. It is, therefore, emphasized that so far as conditions permit the work be done thru organized clubs, principally with the boys and girls living on farms, assisting them in the most important farm problems of the community. At these negro agents' conferences subject matter is presented by members of the staff of the College of Agriculture, including the Experiment Station. OUTLOOK FOR 1924 For 1924 the plans have not been modified to any great extent from those of 1923, except that there will be a reduced acreage of cotton, due to the generally unsatisfactory crop of 1923. As there is a possibility of better prices for hogs, farmers in the cotton-growing area will be urged to pay special attention to the production of hogs and feed crops, particularly where hogs can be marketed during September. Emphasis will be placed on increasing dairy products and providing home-grown feeds. Special emphasis will be given to the importance of poultry as an adjunct to every farmer's operations. Agents will stress the importance of increased plantings of fruit trees, both for home and commercial uses. Special attention will be given to the new satsuma interests of northern and western Florida. The program of each agent wiH emphasize diversification for farmers, emphasizing in particular dairying, poultry and hogs. In the citrus and vegetables areas county agents will give special attention to the control of insects and diseases that affect the marketing of citrus fruit. A specialist has been added to the staff to deal entirely with citrus pathological problems. He will work with citrus growers thru county agents, assisting them in the best and most economical methods of spraying.

PAGE 18

Annual Report, 1923 County agents also will . give due attention to reducing produc tion costs of all crops by increased yields and by . economic , methods in producing and handling crops. In home demonstration work emphasis . will be placed on poultry production, the home dairy, nutrition, conservation and the by-products of the farm, in addition to the recreational side of farm life. It is noteworthy that the increased financial sup port of extension work by counties indicates an enthusiastic interest on the part of the people receiving the benefits of this service. FINANCIAL STATEMENT RECEIPTS College of Agriculture Funds----Smith-Lever, Federal ....... . ....... . ............. .. ....................................... $ 58,872.25 Smith-Lever, State ... . ............................................................ . ......... 48,872.25 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .......... . ............................... 15,496.08 Supplementary Smith-Lever, State .............................................. 15,496.08 . U. S. D. A. appropriations ........................................... !.......... .. .............. 22,500.00 State appropriations ......................................... . .............. . .. , ............... ,.... 9,506.85 County appropriations .......... . . ... ..... . . .. ... ..... ...... .. .... . ......... .. .................... 73,830.44 Total.. . .. ....... .. ........... . ...... .. . .. ..................................................... $244,573.95 EXPENDITURES Administration .. .. . . ... . . ... .... .. ............................... . ...................... .. ..... . ........ $ 13,287.70 Printing and Publications ............... ... . .. ... .. ....... . ...... . ...... . ,.. . ........... ..... .... 3,199.61 County agents' work . .. ................... ..... ..... .. ... ...... ...... . ...... . ....... . ..... . . ... .... . 113,687.64 Home demonstration work..................................................... .. ....... ... ..... 80,007.69 Boys' club work... . ..... ... . . ..... .. .............. . ...................................................... 5,457.44 Animal industry................................. . ...... .. .............. .. .............................. 4,772.73 Negro farm and home makers' work... ..... .. . .. . . .. ........... . ....... ...... . . ... . .... 15,033 . 83 Plant pathology and entomology.... . ........ .. ............. . ....................... .. ...... 4,211.16 Poultry industry ....... . ....... . ....... . ...... . ............................................... .... .... 4,310.45 Extension schools ... . . . ....... ... ............ .. ..................................... .. ............... 569.66 Balance ...... .. ....... . ............... . ........ . ...... . ........ ........ .... ... . .. .... .......... ............ .. 36 . 04 TotaL ................................. . ...... ... .......... , ...... .......... . .......... .. ..... $244,573.95

PAGE 19

18 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER At the beginning of the calendar year 1923 the county agents, supervisory agents and district agents mapped out plans for the year's work and at group meetings brought these together for discussion, so that the year began with definite things under way thruout the state. These plans involved a few major proj ects and several minor ones. These. major projects involved: (1) General farm crops and operations, (2) livestock interests, (3) citrus fruit, (4) vegetables, (5) organization, (6) boys' club work. In some counties all of these were involved, but in most cases there was specialization which required much of the agents' time. General farm crops and operations involved the production of corn and other Gereals, hay crops, soil-improvement crops, land preparation and marketing. The livestock interests involved principally dairy and hog production, with special emphasis on establishing dairies and finding a market for dairy products. In hog production it was largely a matter of producing meat hogs, as there was relatively little interest in the production of purebred breeding stock. The work in citrus fruit comprised principally the production of high-grade fruit, improving the grade and quality by holding diseases and insects in check, proper fertilization and cultivation. In vegetable crops the main work consisted of proper ferti lization and cultivation, checking diseases and insects and grad ing and packing the crops for shipment. In organization work, the main feature was organizing prin cipally for cooperativeI;y purchasing and selling. Olub work consisted of the usual club organization work with boys in staple crops and livestock and the study of citrus cul ture, principally of insect arid disease identification and control. It would not be possible to compare the relative importance of these major projects, inasmuch as they differ in importance, depending on location and county. Between January 1 and December 31, there was county agent work under way in 44 counties. Nine carried on the work for only short periods. The number of months total 4182/2. Farmers in the general farming area had an unsatisfactory year in both production and marketing. Their program first

PAGE 20

Annual R eport, 1923 19 called for the largest acreage of cotton grown for several years. But disaster came during the spring months; heavy rains in jured the crop to such an extent that the lowest yield in the his tory of the state was produced. FIG. 4.-Irish potatoes grown by one of County Agent J. 0. Traxler's farm demonstrators. In view of the excellent prospects for cotton, many farmers neglected to provide feed and other crops and to diversify. As a result, cotton failing, the sugar cane crop being short, feed for hogs being unprovided, these farmers have had a hard year. Consequently, the county agents in these counties have had one of the most trying of years. Nevertheless, in spite of these unfavorable circumstances, there was the same strong demand for county agent service, many boards of county commissioners levying even a larger amount than prescribed by law in order to continue the service. The experience of the year has, therefore, demonstrated the importance of a well-rounded, diversified program in such areas. This has been so thoroly impressed on all that many counties which, a year ago, were inclined to fall back on the one-crop system are now backing a diversified program, emphasizing particularly hog s, dairying and poultry. Counties in the southern part of the state have had a more prosperous year. With much activity in practically all lines of horticulture, with a large influx of winter tourists distrib uting large amounts of mone y, and with much road building in progress, the counties are in a prosperous condition. This has reflected on county agent work in this area. It has called for

PAGE 21

20 Florida Cooperative Extension the agents to give assistance to newcomers, to direct in the production of high-grade fruit and to assist in conducting fairs and exhibits-. COMMUNITY WORK The time has passed when county extension workers can serve their counties in a satisfactory way thru individual service. Therefore, it is necessary to work by communities. Programs of work are carried out thru community centers; in many cases the community programs differ but little. However, effort is made to secure leaders in these communities, so that the county agent's time may be conserved, he working thru the centers instead of with individuals. Even this has not sufficiently re lieved the county agent from individual service, but it has simplified his work in that a greater number of people are reached with the same effort. The agent in Lee County reports that 14 communities are making a study of citrus problems under his supervision and direction. He has arranged to meet each community at its center at regular intervals with a well-prepared program devoted to its particular citrus problems. In the cotton-growing areas the agents use the communities as centers for assembling farmers, principally for the coopera tive purchase of supplies. In Palm Beach County, communities in the Everglades have worked with the county and home dem onstration agents in such a way that the efficiency of these workers has been increased. Community programs of work are difficult to arrange, on account of the variety of interests and the lack of any commu nity organizations for this purpose already in existence. COOPERATION FROM OUTSIDE AGENCIES County and home demonstration agents have had assistance from various boards and departments for the mutual benefit of all concerned. The State Marketing Bureau has worked in close cooperation with them, helping farmers to dispose of their produce. This is a service the farmers highly appreciate, par ticularly the small farmer. Poultry, eggs, sweet potatoes, water melons, etc. were sold for satisfactory prices and in large quan tities by such cooperation. The State Livestock Sanitary Board cooperated with the agents in the control of animal diseases, principally diseases _of

PAGE 22

Annual Rep01t, 1923 21 hogs and dairy cattle. In the case of tubercular inspection, by mutual arrangement between the Livestock Sanitary Board and the county agents, many herds were tested. County agents were called upon also in reference to the movement of livestock from outside of their counties and, thru their connection with the Livestock Sanitary Board, they were able to give farmers val uable service in this way. County agents worked in close cooperation with the State Plant Board, first in the application of the Florida method of boll weevil control. This work was directed by the Plant Board and put . into the counties by county agents thru meetings, demonstrations and observations upon results of the application. The agents cooperated with the State Department of Agri culture in sampling fertilizers for farmers, in giving definite information regarding the agriculture of the counties and in ex plaining the fertilizer inspection law. There has been close cooperation between the Experiment Station and the county agents in many ways, the Station giving definite help in subject matter, assisting in conducting meetings, distributing grasses and in locating experimental work. There has also been a definite cooperative relationship be tween the agricultural agencies of various railroads, in each case agricultural interests being bettered. SUPERVISION OF WORK The county agents were supervised by the state leader and three district agents. They were assisted by specialists in dairying, livestock and forage crops, also disease and insect control. During the year 625 visits, of from one to five days ' each were made to counties having agents by these :mpervisors and specialists. FAIRS AND EXHIBITS Altho county fairs and community exhibits have been con sidered a minor project in county agent work they have occupied much of the agents' time. Between November 1 and April 1 these fairs are in progress in many counties and practically all of them call on the Division for assistance in arranging ex hibits and in judging. District Agent S. W. Hiatt has given special work of this nature, stressing educational features and working out a score card system which places proper emphasis on different displays in order to make the exhibits most edu cational and instructive. In the larger fairs county and home

PAGE 23

22 Florida Cooperative Extension demonstration agents were largely responsible for the success of county booths. This has given them an opportunity to bring their work before their people and arouse greater interest in agricultural production and home life. Fair associations cooperated liberally in allowing spaces for displaying boys' and girls' exhibits and allowing prizes for club members who exhibited hogs, poultry, canned products and domestic art. State fair associations have looked to the extension offices for guidance in making up their catalogs, with a view to making satisfactory awards and maintaining the proper proportion of values on farmers' exhibits. INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF COUNTY AGENTS Increasing the efficiency of county agents is a constant con sideration of supervising officers. Their main purpose is to assist county agents in rendering the best possible service. County agents are called together for training and instruction by specialists who can assist them in their work. It has been found good practice for county agents to visit places outside of their counties where they can receive special instructions. In a few instances these visits took them outside of the state. They are kept in close touch with officials of the Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture, who also cooperate in carrying out demonstration work. FIG. 5.-Demonstration grove observed and reported on by County Agent Wm. Gomme of Polk.

PAGE 24

Annual Report, 1923 . 23 New agents are frequently placed with experienced county agents for a short time before taking up their work. This is done primarily to acquaint the new men with extension work. It has been the practice for certain county agents to come together two or three times a year when they have problems in common to study the best methods of carrying thru particular pieces of work. The county agents' offices are supplied with bulletins and illustrative material, which makes them the centers of agricultural information in the counties. STATISTICS The following statistics will give some idea of what was accomplished in the major projects. As there are many minor projects that come into county agent work, much that took place during the year cannot be so reported. It has been empha sized that extension work is primarily educational and, there fore, cannot be correctly estimated in money values. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Communities where extension program was cooperatively worked out 295 Voluntary county, community and local leaders .................. . ..................... 2,618 Clubs carrying on extension work................. . ......... ...... ........................ ... ...... 164 Membership ........................................................................................................ 3,698 Farm visits made by county agents . . ........................................ . .............. . .... 22,078 Different farms visited ......... .. ......... .. ....... , ..... .. ............. . ................................... 8,192 Home visits made . by county agents .............. . ........................ .. .. . ....... .. ......... 4,116 Different homes visited ...... . .... . ..... . .......... . ..... .. ............ . .... . ...... .. . .. ................... 1,284 Office calls on agents relating to extension work. ................................... 30,270 Average number days spent in office.......... .. ......................... ...... ................. 97 Average number days spent in field. .. ......... . ............................ .. ................... 203 Official letters written . ......... ... ................... ...... .. . ......... . . .. ......... . . . ....... . . ..... . . ... . 25,481 Newspaper articles prepared for press ......... . ............. . ........... .. ..................... 1,430 Circular letters sent out ......... ,., ..................... . .............. .. .......... ....... ....... . . .... .... 1,598 Community buildings established... .... ...................................... . .................... 77 Exhibits at fairs ................. . . . ... . ....... .. ........... .... ........... . . . .. ... . . ; ... . ......... : . ... . ....... 61 -Community .. . .......................... .... ......... ... ........ . . . ... ,.. ..... ... .......... 32 =~i~~ty. :::::::::: : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::::::.:::::::::::: :::: ::::: tJ -Interstate ........................................... . ............... .. ........... .... ...... 2 Number Attendance Demonstration meetings held........ . .. . ........... .. ....................... 607 15,395 Farmers' institutes held................... ... .............. .. .. ....... .. . .. . .... . 105 2 , 296 Extension schools and short courses held ............... . ..... .... . 15 1,021 Total attendance club members, junior encampments and rallies.......... 279 Club boys entering college .. , ........................ .. .... ,......... .. .............. .... ..... .. ........ 16 PROGRAM SUMIIIARY Communities participating in various projects.......................................... l,077 Demonstrations ................................................. , ......................... . .... . ......... . ...... . 5,561 -Boll weevil control .......... .. .. ... ....... . ... ... .. . .... . ..... . ..................... 361 -Dairying ............................................... . .................................... 96 -Poultry ......... .. ...................... ...... .......... . .............. . ............ .. ........ 249 -Citrus ............. . .. ..... ... . ............. . ................ . ....... . ............. .... ....... 2,185 -Other fruits .. . . ..... ... : . .. . . ........ ........ ...... ....... ....... .... ......... . .. ........ .. 329

PAGE 25

24 Florida Cooperative Extension -Cooperative purchases and sales .... ..... ... . .. . .. ..... .... . .. . .. .. ........ . 201 -Truck crops ............ . .. . ....... ... .. ........ .... .. . ............ : ........................ 929 ff !1:~1~~~~~~~:: :: ::::::::::::::: ::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ~ti --,-Community and county exhibits .. ......................................... . 14 -Club work ........................... .' .. .... . .. .. .................................... .. ..... 490 Meetings held for definite project work. ......... : ...................... ........... . ... ... .... 1,107 t!!~~!in:e~ti;g~h~ld:::::::::::::::::: : ::::::::::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ::::::: :::: :::::: 13 'i~i Attendance ............................................. 21,339 Voluntary community leaders ..... . . . ..... ,.......................................................... 989 Days assistance by voluntary leaders ...................................... , ........ ...... ....... 1,206 Cereal Demonstrations (Corn, Oats, Etc.) Demonstrators ................................ .... ..... . . ... ... .. .................. : .. . . ... ...... . : .. ..... .... . ... 72 Acreage grown under demonstration methods ................ , ..... . .......... ..... ...... 532 Boys' and girls' clubs ....................................................................... . .. . ...... . . ... .. 69 . Acreage grown by club members.. .. .... ... . .... ............................... .............. .. .. . .. 137 Yield of cereals grown by club members (bushels) .............. ...... .. . .. . . ..... .. 4,956 Value ............................................ . .. ... .... .. .......................................................... $3, 728 Cost ..................................................................................................... . .... ......... ... $1,136 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices............................. . .......... . .. . .. 232 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed .................................. . ..... 1,305 Farmers who grew selected seed for sale......................................... . .... ... ... .. 100 Farmers who tested seed for germination., ....................... . .. . ,.... ..... . .. .. ........ 26 Farmers who treated seed grain for smut.................................................... 50 ' Cotton Demonstrations Demonstrators ..... .... ....... .... .. . ........ .. . .. . ..... . ... ........... . .. . ....... ...... ..... ............ ....... . . 264 Acreage grown under improved methods .... ..... ..... .. ............ ...... ........ ... ... ..... . 1,045 Farms influenced to adopt better practice .. : .......................... . ........... .. ...... .. . 1,121 Boys and girls' clubs.......... .... .............. . .................................................. ... ........ 4 Members enrolled ....................................... ,...................................................... 97 Acreage grown by club members . .......... . ........................................................ 42 Value of crops grown by club members ...................................................... $1,787 Cost . .......................................................... ......................................................... $ 735 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed............................ . . .. ...... 351 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control insects and diseases.......... 690 Legume Demonstrations (Cowpeas, Soybeans, Velvet Beans, Etc.) Demonstrators . . ....... .......... ..... .. ...... ..... ... . . . ..... .... ........... ........ ....... . . . ................ . Acreage grown under improved methods ........... , ....................................... . Farmers influenced to adopt better practices . ..................... . ..... . ...... . ..... .. .. . Acreage in these farms ...... .. . .... .. .. .. . ........... ... . .. .................................... .. ....... . . Farmers who planted selected seed . ........... . .......................................... . .. . .... . Farmers who grew selected seed for sale ............................................... . ... .. . Farmers who inoculated for these crops ..................................................... . Orchard Demonstrations 354 4,444 537 7,526 687 3 9 Demonstration orchards ............ . ... . . ..... . . ..... .. ....................................... . ...... . ... 1,212 Acreage of these orchards ............... . . . .................................................. .... . . .. .. .. 12,703 Farmers ip.fluenced to adopt better practices.................... . ... .... .... .. ............ 1,262 Farmers who planted selected or improved stock........................... . .......... 453 Farmers who pruned .. . .................. . . .. . .. .... .. ........................... ..... ..... ,.... . ... . ......... 1,527 Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated to control disease and in!!:ect pests ............................. ... ............................................. .. ......... 1,172 Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices .......... . .. . .......... 1,234

PAGE 26

Annual Report, 1923 25 Truck and Garden Demonstrations Demonstrators , ...................................... ,.......................................................... 283 Acreage in these demonstrations .................................................................. 2,457 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 280 Farmers who planted selected or improved seed........................................ 220 Farmers who pruned ........................................................................................ 253 Farmers who sprayed or otherwise treated for disease and insect pests 769 Farmers who followed other improved cultural practices........................ 756 Irish Potato Demonstrations Demonstrators .................................................................................................. 21 Acreage grown under improved methods.................................................... 121 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 28 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed........................................ 56 Farmers who treated seed for disease ................................................ :........... 52 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects............ 151 Crop improvement associations organized at suggestion of extension service ................................................................ ................................. 1 Membership ........................................................................ ............................... 42 Sweet Potato Demonstrations Demonstrators .................................................................................................. 44 Acreage grown under improved methods.................................................... 96 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 60 Farmers who planted improved or certified seed ............................ '. ........... 227 Farmers who grew improved or certified seed for sale............................ 33 Farmers who treated seed to prevent disease............................................ 28 Farmers who sprayed or dusted to control diseases and insects ..... ,...... 30 Storage houses constructed ......... ,.................................................................. 1 Capacity this house (bushels) ...................................................................... 1,000 Dairy Cattle Demonstrations Demonstrations .................................................................................................. 78 Animals in completed demonstrations............................................................ 540 Saving resulting from better practices .................................................... 9 percent Value of animals raised by club members .................................................... $750 Cost of such animals and products ........................................................... :.... $500 Farmers influenced to adopt better practices.............................................. 123 Animals on these farms .................................................................................... 2,136 Farmers assisted in securing purebred sires................................................ 34 Purebred females secured................................................................................ 86 Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time........................ 36 Farmers who culled their herds...................................................................... 65 Associations organized .................................................................................... 2 Membership ........................................................................................................ 140 Breed associations or clubs organized............................................................ 2 Membership ...................................................................................................... 49 Farmers not in associations who tested cows for production.................. 13 Cows so tested .................................................................................................. 152 Farmers who fed better balanced rations...................................................... 124 Farmers who controlled insect pests............................................................ 68 Farmers who tested animals for tuberculosis.............................................. 331 Animals tested .................................................................................................. 10,342 Farmers who controlled other livestock diseases .......... :........................... 298 Animals treated and cured ........................ :..................................................... 6,637 Herds accredited this year for the first time ............................. ,.................. 28 Homes assisted in making butter and cheese.............................................. 27 Hog Demonstrations Demonstrators .................................................................................................. 35 Animals in completed demonstrations............................................................ 245 Savings resulting from better practices ........................................ 10 per cent Farmers who secured purebred sires .......................... :................................... 57

PAGE 27

26 Florida Cooperative Extension Purebred females secured ................................................................................ 61 Farmers who secured purebred animals for the first time...................... 43 Farmers who fed better balanced rations.................................................. 75 Farmers who controlled insect pests............................................................ 60 Farmers who controlled livestock diseases ............................. , .................... 1,267 Animals treated and cured .............................................................................. 37,648 Poultry Demonstrations Demonstrators .................................................................................................. 1,295 Birds in these demonstrations .......................................................................... 19,438 Farms influenced to adopt better practices.................................................. 449 Birds on these farms ........................................................................................ 24,000 Saving resulting from better practices: ............................................... 6 per cent Purebred roosters secured ....... ,...................................................................... 194 Purebred hens secured ........ , ............................................................................. 9,505 Farms securing purebred poultry for the first time.................................. 109 Farmers who culled their flocks...................................................................... 512 Breed associations organized .......................................................................... 2 Membership these associations ...................................................................... 68 Birds under test ................................................................................................ 1,200 Farmers who fed better balanced rations.................................................... 238 Farmers who controlled insect pests.............................................................. 272 Farmers who controlled poultry diseases.................................................... 360 Birds treated and cured .............................................................................. ...... 17,191 Soil Improvement Demonstrations Demonstrations started or under way .......................................................... 1,023 Demonstrations completed ............................................................................ 607 Acres involved in completed demonstrations .......................................... 11,241 Farmers influenced to change methods soil management .......................... 1,127 Acreage of farms changing methods ............................................................ 38,178 Farmers following advice in use of commercial fertilizers ...................... 2,705 Acreage of these farms .................................................................................... 51,208 Farmers who home-mixed fertilizer.............................................................. 398 Tons of fertilizer so mixed.............................................................................. 2,452 Farmers taking better care of farm manures............................................ 727 Farmers using lime or limestone.................................................................. 147 Tons of lime or limestone so used.................................................................. 596 Farmers who plowed under cover or other green manure crops for soil improvement .............................................................................. 909 Acres of cover and green manure so plowed under .................................... 14,722 Miscellaneous Citrus Report, County Agent Work Citrus properties visited .................................................................................... 2,680 Citrus properties upon which extension work was conducted.................. 1,490 Acreage these properties ......................................... , ........................................ 20,071 Citrus properties where extension programs were carried out.............. 1,095 Land owners visited before setting citrus ...................................... ,............. 379 Growers who consulted agents before planting.......................................... 485 Money saved growers by fertilizer recommendations of agents ............ $1,500 Demonstrations to control scab...................................................................... 72 Demonstrations to control .melanose.............................................................. 112 Demonstrations to control foot rot................................................................ 127 Demonstrations to control dieback or frenching ................................ :....... 288 Demonstrations to control scale...................................................................... 433 Demonstrations to control whitefly................................................................ 371 Demonstrations to control rust mite.............................................................. 477 Demonstrations to control other insect pests.............................................. 35

PAGE 28

Annual Report, 1923 Farm and Farmstead Improvements (Things Done with Agents' Assistance and Advice) Demonstrations . ........................... .. ............................................ . ................ . ..... . 27 Acres in these demonstrations .. . ........ .. .................... . ..... .... .......... . .. . .... ...... . .... . 42 156 Number Acres Drainage systems installed.......................... . ....................... 476 6,511 Irrigation systems installed.... . .. .. ...... . ....... . ................. . ... . .. 22 4,767 Terraces constructed ........ ... ...... . ................... . ....................... 109 1,245 Water systems installed ...................... ... ................................. .. ......... . ......... . ... . Heating systems installed ............................ . ......... . ........................... . ...... .. .... . Lighting systems installed ............... . . . .................................... .. ...... ... ....... . .... . Farms on which buildings were constructed or remodeled . . .... . .. ....... . .... . Buildings on these farms constructed or remodeled .......... . ...................... . Farmers assisted in care and operation of machinery ........................ . .... . Farmers who cleared land .. ...... .... ...... .. ......... ... ..... . ........................... . .. ........... . Acres cleared ......... ... ................. .. ......... .. .... ... ....... ..... ........................ . ............ . Demonstration in Control of Rodents and Other Pests 9 1 24 34 192 124 298 3,132 Demonstrations . ... ... ........ ..... . ........................ .. ................. . .... .. .............. ............. 240 Farmers adopting control measures. . ........ .. ........ . ....... . ........................... . ..... 691 Acres involved ... ...... .. ....... .. .... ..... ...... ... ........ .. . ... .... . . . ..... .... ....... . ....... ....... . . . . .. .. . 12,272 Pounds of poisoned bait used ...... .. ..... .. ...... . . ................. : .. ...... ..... ..... . ............. .45,632 Farm Management Farm account books distributed .. ........ . ....... . ........ .. ..... .. . . .......... ......... ....... .... .. 134 Farmers who kept records. . . ..... .. ... ..... . ..... ............. ............... .......... .... . .. ..... ... ... 86 Farmers assisted in keeping accounts............... . ........................... .... ...... .. ... 37 Farmers who changed methods as result of keeping accounts . ... . .. . . ..... 69 Farmers who adopted cropping, livestock or complete farming systems according to recommendations.............. ........ ....... .. ...... . . . ........ . .. . .. 120 Farmers advised relative to leases.. ... ..... .... ...... .. .. . .............. ..... ... ... ........ . . .... 42 Farmers assisted in keeping cost of production records.... . ....... .. ......... . .... 34 Farmers who made better use of labor. . .. .. .................. ... ...... . . ... . . .... .. .. .. . . .... 163 Farmers who secured tractors, sprayers, milking machines or other machinery to economize labor...... .. ..... .. . .. .... ... ....... .. ....... . ......... .... .. .... ..... 512 Supplies Purchased and Produce Sold Supplies Purchased Products Value Saving Value Seed . . .. . .... .. ........ . ........ . ........ . . . ... . $ 1 , 624 $ 339 Seed and Calcium ... .... ...... . ...... 1,500 150 Seed and Dustguns .................. 13,777 2,677 Feed, Fertilizer, etc. ................ 6,100 1,113 Fertilizers . ................................. 56,865 16,906 $ 7,500 25,000 Crates, Fillers and Feed . . ... ... . . 256 20 Crates and Fertilizer .............. 440 45 2,098 800 Truck and Crates . ... .. . . ..... ... ...... 780 180 1,250 Tomatoes, Crates, etc ......... . .... . Bluestone . .... .............. . .. . ............. 2,000 200 58,000 Spray ..................................... .... 1,200 100 Truck . . . ..... ..... .... .... ................. .. .. . 4,000 Strawberry Cups ...................... 300 Fruits (Tree and Small)... . ...... 9,500 4,500 Wool . . ....... . ........ . ....................... . 600 75,000 Poultry, Feed, etc . ............. . ...... 100 20 Livestock ................................... . 16,900 Poultry ............... . ....................... . 3,000 TOTALS ................................ $94,642 $26,250 $194,148 Sold Profit $ 2,647 5,000 393 . 210 61 25,000 1,500 7,500 1,760 360 $44,431

PAGE 29

28 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN DISTRICT . The Supervisory Program of Work for 1923 for the counties of Alachua, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Levy, Manatee, Marion, Osceola, Orange, Pasco and Polk included work in citrus, truck, livestock, poultry, corn, sweet potatoes, pastures, organi zation and club work. Citrus work included plans for holding citrus meetings, organ ization of boys' citrus clubs and demonstrations and the control of diseases and insects. The work planned for truck crops in cluded disease control and preparation for market. The usual work wi . th hogs and cattle was included in the program. This consisted of control of diseases, introducing better blood and growing more feed and pastures. Organization and marketing were given all the assistance possible. , County Agents' Equipment.-Each county agent's office ex cept one, is supplied with a typewriter. All offices have letter files and bulletin racks. Four counties furnish stenographic ' help which keeps the offices open while the agents are in the field, distribute bulletins, answer telephone calls and record all requests made of the county agents. All of the agents keep on file copies of their weekly reports and monthly time cer tificates. With the exception of two or three counties a card index system is used for recording daily visits to farmers and growers. These cards also are used to show assistance given to individuals and organizations in making purchases and sales. Three agents have sampling tubes which they use in taking samples of fertilizer to be analyzed for their demonstrators. Two agents are supplied with soil acidity testors. Soil lmprovement.-The most effective soil improvement work was done in citrus groves. In Lake and Orange demon strations were carried out with grove irrigation -which proved successful and created much interest. Large acreage was plant ed thruout the citrus area to cover crops. This is especially true with young groves. It sometimes takes several years to demonstrate the real value of cover crops to a grove. It is an admitted fact among experienced growers that such cover crops as velvet beans, beggarweed and cowpeas are essential in mak ing a successful grove on high ridge land. Some work was done in growing cover crops in connection with regular field crops.

PAGE 30

Annual Report, 1923 29 Cotton.-The work with cotton consisted largely of demon strating how to control the boll weevil. This work was carried out in Marion, Levy and Alachua. fu each county the work was given publicity thru the newspapers, by circular letters and by holding field meetings. The Florida method was used. In some cases, even tho the cotton had been planted at the specified time, when time came to treat the farmers thought the cotton too large and were unwiUing to remove the squares from the plants as the method required. They thought that the expense of taking off of the plants the large number of squares which had already formed would be more than profits would justify. However, a number of demonstrators followed the method as closely as possble. Due to the heavy rains which occurred while the cotton was being poisoned it was impossible to get a thoro test. Livestock.-Gounty agents cooperated with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, in testing cattle for tuberculosis and in treating hogs to . control cholera. This work was carried out in practically every county in the district. In Hernando, Marion and Alachua, the county agents assisted farmers in improving the grade of dairy cattle. This was done by purchasing better-bred cows and grading up the native cows by the use of well-bred sires. The county agent of Alachua, assisted by the district agent, gave a demonstration in cutting and curing pork on the farm. The sugar-cured method, described in Farmers' Bulletin 1186, was practiced, the amount of each ingredient used in the cure being increased by 50 percent. From former experience if seems that the amount of each material suggested in this bulletin is not sufficient in the warm climate of Florida. By increasing the amount no difficulty in curing the meat, where cold storage was used for cooling, was experienced. Corn.-Little work was done with corn. However, in most of the counties some attention was given to the selection of seed. This was e~pecially true of Marion, Levy and Alachua. Sweet Potatoes.--,-The county agent of Marion carried out six demonstrations with sweet potatoes. These demonstrations have been conducted for two years. The purpose has been to show how the yield could be increased by the selection of seed. The work is not yet complete and actual . results are not obtain able. However, the Marion County Fair Association offered

PAGE 31

30 Florida Cooperative Extension a prize for the best bunch of sweet potatoes exhibited at that fair. Each of these demonstrators exhibited a bunch of potatoes which had been taken from the demonstration plot. The best bunch contained 20 well-formed potatoes. Citrus.-A series of citrus meetings were arranged by county agents in each of the citrus counties, which includes every county in the district except Alachua and Levy. The purpose of these meetings was to assist the growers in producing better fruit. Diseases, insects and their control were studied. Better methods of cultivation and fertilization were also discussed. Practical demonstrations in the control of melanose were car ried out in Lake, Marion, 'Manatee, Orange and Hernando. The bordeaux-oil solution recommended by the plant pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station was used according to directions for this purpose. Some good results were obtained but, from the amount of scale on the fruit where this material was used, the necessity of following the melanose treatment with appli cations of oil to control scale was demonstrated clearly. Some work was done to control dieback, which consists largely of soil treatment, the use of bluestone and cultural methods. The three insects which received the most attention of county agents in their citrus work were rust mite, whitefly and scale. In a few cases demonstrations were carried out along this line. However, in most cases the work consisted of cooperation with the grower by assisting him in mixing his sprays and applying them properly. Truck Crops.-The main work with truck crops was the con . trol of insects and diseases. Special efforts were made to help Williston farmers to control downy mildew and angular leaf spot of cucumbers. A 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture was the spray used for this purpose. The intention was to show the cucumber growers by a few demonstrations that it was both practical and profitable to control these diseases. Six farmers who had equip ment were enlisted as demonstrators and worked with. In some cases the spraying was not done early enough. However, when used properly, even after the disease appeared in the fields, results were satisfactory. One man increased his acre yield from 15 to 170 hampers. Another farmer made seven hampers to the acre on the unsprayed portion of his field and 220 ham pers to the acre on the sprayed portion. In each case the spray ed plants were green and produced fruit from 15 to 20 days

PAGE 32

Annual Report, 1923 31 longer than where unsprayed. This work was conducted with the spring crop. About 100 acres were planted in cucumbers for a fall crop. As a result of the work which had been done in the spring 98 percent of the total acreage in the fall was sprayed with even better results than were obtained in the spring. Another evi dence of the effect of this work is that the Williston growers purchased more than 25 power sprayers to use in spraying their crops in the future. Some work along this same line was carried out in Marion and Alachua. The county agent of Manatee did some effective work in in ducing farmers to disinfect seed and seedbeds. This work was also carried on by other agents. . The agent of Osceola was suc cessful in starting farmers in the vicinities of Kissimmee and St. Cloud to growing strawberries. It was largely due to his efforts, working thru the two local organizations of growers at these points, that the strawberry industry was established in those areas . Dairying.-Three counties in the district-Alachua, Marion and Hernando-have dairies or creameries which handle the milk produced in those respective localities. The creamery at Gainesville was established during the year. Here it is planned to use sour cream and make butter only . Poultry.-In some counties, especially those that had not home demonstrations agents, the county agents were active in promoting poultry work. This is especially true of Marion. The county agent here held demonstration meetings showing how to cull and care for the flock. In Alachua the Alachua County Creamery Company purchased and installed a 10,000egg incubator. The purpose of this is that the farmer may get chickens hatched at a reasonable cost. (See poultry specialist's report.) Pastures.-The county agents of Marion, Hernando, Levy and Alachua, by cooperating with the forage crops specialist of the Experiment Station, provided the farmers with such grasses as were thought best for a permanent pasture. The plants sent out were Bahia and Carpet grasses and lespedeza. Small amounts of the grass or seed were sent out to a few farmers to be used for demonstrations. The county agent of Marion re ported about twenty farmers growing Napier grass.

PAGE 33

32 Florida Cooperative Extension FIG. 6.-Club boys planting a permanent pasture at the University. Organization.-Some organization work has been done in sev eral different counties. Iri Alachua the Lacrosse Potato Grow ers' Association was organized. The members of this associa tion purchased seed and fertilizer and marketed their potatoes cooperatively. The association is composed of 15 members who are growing 150 acres of potatoes. They will sell thru one sales agent and have entered into a five-year contract. Iri this same county the Alachua County Marketing Association was formed along similar lines. Marion, Lee, Manatee, Osceola and Hills borough have cooperative associations among their farmers. Club Work.-The three principal lines of club work conducted in the district consisted of corn, pig and citrus clubs. Hills borough, Alachua and Hernando held boys' club contests. Citrus club work was carried out in Osceola, Orange and Lake . While the citrus club work was undertaken this year for the first time and the plans are not completely worked out, it gives promise of being one of the most popular clubs for the boys in this district. I.

PAGE 34

Annual Report, 1923 33 REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT, . NORTHERN AND WESTERN DISTRICT Supervisory Program for 1923.-The district agent made out a general plan of work for the district and county agents selected from this such items as they expected to push in their counties during the year and incorporated them into their plans of work. This plan included such items as: corn culture, sweet potato culture, boll weevil control, hogs, dairying, cooperative selling and buying, satsumas and other fruits, club work, poultry work, watermelons and other truck crops, insect and disease control, organization, fairs and exhibits, soil improvement, records and reports. Seasonal conditions were unfavorable for growing crops, it being the wettest season for many years. County Agents' Equipment.-Of eleven county agents in this territory, one has clerical and office help, seven have type writers, seven have offices at their court houses, two have spec ial offices and two have offices in their homes. Demonstration equipment is confined to a few terracing levels, pruning shears, spray pumps and hog cholera vaccination outfits. Program Supervision.-County programs of work were super vised by the district agent, who rendered help wherever possible. Assistance in development of county programs was given county agents by assisting them in studying needs of their counties and suggesting and outlining ways and means of developing them. This year, several counties tried fall trucking on a small scale, hoping to find a new money crop which would add to the farm income. Boll Weevil Control.-Inasmuch as these northern and western counties are the cotton-growing counties of Florida, most of the boll weevil control work by the Florida method was carried out in this district. With a definite plan for carrying out this method in the counties growing cotton, a series of meetings was arranged well in advance of the planting season to give the farmers first-hand information as to methods of application and results to expect. George D. Smith, of the State Plant Board, gave valuable assistance in presenting the method to the farm ers . Owing to the publicity that had been giventhe method; it was _ possible to put on demonstrations in all the cotton coun

PAGE 35

34 Florida Cooperative Extension ties, the Plant Board and Washington office supplying workers during May and June in counties that did not have agents. Weather conditions were unfavorable for growing cotton and varying results were secured from the treatment. However, on an average, the Florida method showed up well. Satsuma Culture.-As this is a new industry, assistance by representatives of the College of Agriculture and Experiment Station and county agents was valuable to many inexperienced growers. Growers' meetings were arranged and it was thru these that much help was given. These field meetings proved particularly helpful in getting the growers together to discuss problems as they occurred in the new plantings. Other assistance to agents in this district was in judging county fairs, holding club contests, holding club and farm meet ings on fertilizer, boll weevil control, satsumas, fruit growing, trucking, etc. In all, 51 farm and club meetings were attended by this agent, at which there was a total attendance o-f 3,140. Publicity.-The newspapers are the best mean~ in the counties of informing the people. They have cooperated with county and home demonstration agents by furnishing space in their columns for giving notice of meetings and for articles on farm and home topics. Other Accomplishments of the year may be summarized as follows: Corn _Culture.-Due to the unfavorable growing season and the increased acreage to cotton, it was a bad corn year. In this territory, 341 acres were included in demonstrations. About 167 farmers used improved seed and 85 began growing selected seed for sale. In all, 35 adults and 181 boys were enrolled to conduct demonstrations, which showed a small increase in pro duction. Sweet Potatoes.-The acreage in sweet potatoes was materially reduced this year, the late wet spring and low prices being main causes. One new storage house was constructed in the district. A hundred sixty-eight (168) farmers used improved seed, and 46 farmers and club boys completed demonstrations. Hogs.-Due to high cotton prices and low hog prices, not as much was accomplished as was anticipated, especially in summer marketing of hogs. In Madison County cooperative selling seemed to be on a stable basis; nine carloads were shipped in a satisfactory manner.

PAGE 36

Annual R eport, 19 2 3 35 Demonstrations were carried on with 115 farmers and club boys in the district, in which 305 hogs were involved. County agents helped farmers bring in 50 purebred boars and 64 pure bred sows. About 15,570 hogs were inoculated against cholera on 994 farms. Coop er ati ve Sal e s and Purchas es .-Thi s movement is s howing a steady increase; $24,699.46 was saved to the farmers this year, the agents being largely respons i b l e . In addition to this, various cooperative associations saved their members much . Immediate financial savings are not the only returns; espec ially in fertilizers, higher-grade goods are being used. In one county only one farmer insisted on a 10-2-2 fertilizer formula, while only a few years ago this was the only one used. In some localities cooperative buying is being encouraged by business men. Satsumas and Oth er F rui ts .Approximately 100,000 satsuma trees were set out in the western counties during January and February. Figuring 70 trees to the acre, this would amount to 1,428 acres. Up to this time, there were about 1 , 700 acres, most of which were set in 1922. About 200 ,0 00 trees were so ld this year for planting early in 1924. This will give an idea of the growth of this indu stry during the las t two years . The season of 1923 was favorable for growing young trees and practically all of the plantings made good growth. The few bearing groves produced heavy crops of good-quality fruit. The satsuma industry is new to these growers and they are eager for information and advice . Grove inspections, fertilizer FIG. 7.-Escambia is one of the foremost counties in boys' club work. Here are shown a few of the boys gathered at the club camp .

PAGE 37

36 Florida Cooperative Extension information, planting advice, advice on . cover crops, cultural methods, spraying information and aid in securing trees are principal aids given the growers. It was largely individual work; county agents did it in a fine manner. Good progress was made with sand pear and blueberry plant ings. It is the district agent's opinion that for small plantings of from one to two acres to the farm, the blueberry offers at tractive possibilities. Some large plantings were made and their future will be closely watched. Ninety-eight fruit meetings with an attendance of 7,474 peo ple were held in the district. The purpose of these was to inter est farmers in growing fruit and to instruct them in varieties and cultural methods. Officials of the State Plant Board and industrial agents of the railroads rendered assistance at many of these meetings. Watermelons and Other Trucle Crops.-Excessive rains and anthracnose made the watermelon crop almost a total failure. Other truck crops did fairly well. Fall truck crops of beans, cabbage, beets, pepper and cucumbers and tomatoes were tried. This was a new venture for this part of Florida. Beans and cucumbers did well. Frost killed most of the peppers and to matoes and some beans. Beets are being shipped as the year ends and cabbage will be ready in January. The shipping was handled largely by truck growers' associations organized by ef forts of county agents. The members of these associations agree to plant .only small acreages. Varieties and times of plantings, etc., are agreed upon and products are shipped cooperatively. From results already secured, it is known that there will be more of this next year. Fairs and Exhibits . ....:....This was a successful year for fairs. In this territory, there were held seven county fairs and the Inter State Fair and Satsuma Festival. Four counties showed at the State Fair in Jacksonville and four others showed at Pensacola in the Inter-State Fair. There were three new county fairs this year in this territory. Soil lmprovement.-In almost every county some work was done in the growing of legumes as soil-iimprovement crops. Terracing demonstrations were conducted successfully in two counties. Miscellaneous.-Little fertilizer sampling was done. Home mixing is on the increase in about half the territory. Coopera

PAGE 38

Annual Report, 1923 37 tive buying has lessened the margin that formerly existed be tween mixed and unmixed goods. Budding and grafting were taught club members and farmers thruout the satsuma areas. Most of this work was done with satsuinas. Nursery stock was scarce and there are a number of farmers in every county growing their own nurserytrees.

PAGE 39

38 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EASTERN AND NORTHEASTERN DISTRICT Supervisory Program for 1923.-The program for this district in brief included corn, potato, cotton and peanut culture, hog raising, cooperative sales and purchase of farm supplies, improv ing citrus and other fruits and vegetables, soil improvement, organizations, fairs and exhibits, poultry, dairying,' club work and the control of insects and . diseases. From this general program for the district, each county se lected such projects as were peculiarly adapted to its soil and climatic conditions and good work was done in all, altho adverse weather conditions were responsible for poor results with such crops as corn, cotton and peanuts. County Agents' Equipment.-One county agent was supplied with an office assistant who served as secretary of the county farm bureau, and who worked under his direction. Two counties furnished their agents with stenographic help. Six counties furnished their agents with filing cases, typewriters, etc. One county furnished a complete office and equipment, including library and laboratory appliances. Three counties supplied their agents with little or nothing in the way of assistance or equip ment. All agents are supplied with card-index filing systems. Vacancies and new positions were filled as far as possible by men selected for special fitness for such position by reason of technical and practical training and personality, etc. The county agents in this district were supplied with direct assistance from specialists of the College of Agriculture and State Plant Board. Boll Weevil Assistance.-A series of meetings were conducted in the cotton-growing counties to acquaint farmers with the Florida method of boll weevil control. Later field meetings were held and demonstrations were given under the supervision of district and county agents. Special assistance was given by the State Plant Board, under whose direction the Florida method was demonstrated. Citrus Wcrk.-Field and other meetings were held for the purpose of arousing interest and giving information principally on controlling insect and disease pests of citrus. Field meetings were adv.ertised and held in some centrally located grov(:) best suited to the kind of meeting planned. Specimens were collected and explained to the growers. A microscope was used and proved

PAGE 40

Annual Report, 1923 39 valuable in identifying specimens that could not be readily seen with the naked eye. Attention was also given to fertilization and cultural methods. Specialists of the Experiment Station were particularly helpful in ca!rying out these programs. Dairy Work.-The assistance of Experiment Station special ists was valuable in carrying out the work in dairying. They supervised grass plantings and assisted in formulating rations for dairy herds. Some excellent progress was made in dairy work, one county making decided improvement in the sanitary conditions of its dairies. Considerable improvement was made in the whole-milk dairy situation in at least four counties. Better dairy equipment was secured, better sanitation observed and better markets secured. Milk demands during the tourist season cannot be supplied locally and large quantities are shipped in. Farm dairying, particularly among small farmers, with the sale of sour cream as a basis of revenue, received attention in several counties. A number of farmers were induced to ship cream and were well pleased with results. Several permanent pastures were established. Small Fruits.-The growing of small fruits was stressed and faculty and staff members of the College of Agriculture gave valuable assistance. Much interest was aroused in grape culture and some valuable aid was rendered to those starting vineyards. Project Activities, as undertaken and carried out, are listed below: 1. Corn Culture.-Demonstrations in this project were inter fered with by continuous rains which resulted in total losses in many instances. Reports show an increase in number of farmers selecting seed, and in the use of carbon bisulphide to destroy the corn weevil. 2. Potatoes-Sweet and Irish.-Some progress was made in seed selection and grading of sweet potatoes. Much was accom plished in the Irish potato areas thru a campaign for the use of only high-grade seed. There was an increase of about 40 percent in the plantings of leguminous crops on Irish potato land this year and considerable improvement was niade in drainage sys tems. 3. Cotton.-Five counties growing cotton made a consistent effort to increase production by the use of better seed, the use of high-grade fertilizer and the application of the Florida method of boll weevil control. However, owing to adverse weather con

PAGE 41

40 Florida Cooperative E x tension ditions, results as a whole were unsatisfactory. Only on a few well-favored fields were profitable yields reported. 4. Peanuts.-Three counties growing peanuts report an in crease in acreage, mostly planted for hog feed . Heavy continu ous rains during the blooming period cut the yield materially. 5. Hog s.-Three counties raise many hogs and in these much work was done to prevent hog cholera thru the use of the serum and virus treatment. A slight increase in hog pasture crops was shown and more hogs than usual were marketed during spring and late summer months . Low prices for the last two years have slowed up hog production. FIG. 8.-Club boy s learnin g the "w hy of a corn planter" at short course. 6. Coop era ti ve Sales and P urc ha se of Fa rm Supplies.-Five counties have active organizations thru which a certain amount of farm supplies; such as, fertilizer, calcium arsenate, dust guns, barrels, crates, seed, etc.; are purchased and thru which the mar keting of potatoes, watermelons, hogs, poultry, etc., are handled extensively. Three counties alone showed a net saving to farmers of $60,215.19. In so me counties this work was handled thru the farm bureau and in others thru commodity organiza tions, being done effective l y in both cases. 7. Citrus F ruits. -Seven counties in this territory grow cit rus fruits on a commercial scale . Demonstrations in controlling diseases and insects, fertilizing and better cultural methods were conducted in these counties with more or le ss definite results. A series of citrus field meetings were conducted in all counties.

PAGE 42

Annual Report, 1923 41 8. Vegetables.-Eleven counties specialize in the commercial growing and shipping of truck crops, particularly tomatoes, Irish and sweet potatoes, watermelons, cucumbers, celery, lettuce, pep pers, eggplants and green beans. Assistance is being rendered the grower thru county and district agents and specialists, par ticularly in controlling insects and fungous diseases, and in mar keting. Uniformly good results were obtained, altho there are many problems yet to be solved. The Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States Department of Agriculture, cooperated in improving grades and packing. 9. Soil lmprovement.-In the general-farming area, efforts were made to increase the planting of legumes and cover crops. In the trucking area there was a noticeable increase in acreage of legumes planted following the winter and spring vegetable crops. Some increase was also noted in cover crops in citrus groves. More work is needed along this line. 10. Organizations.-Three counties have farm bureau organi zations thru which fertilizers, seed, calcium arsenate, etc., are purchased cooperatively and farm products are sold. Five com modity organizations in four counties satisfactorily handle a large amount of Irish potatoes, celery, lettuce and other veg.;. etables. Two new associations were organized recently on the lower east coast. They are the Avocado Association, Dade Qounty, and Pineapple Growers' Association, West Palm Beach. The following is an example of the benefits derived from or ganization: The Hastings Potato Growers' Association, the inception and organization of which came thru the county agent's efforts, saved its members $44,527.19 last season in the purchase of supplies and in the selling of produce. The success of the organization was so marked that its membership and acreage is expected to increase 100 percent next year. 11. Fairs and Exhibits.-During the year there were held in this district three community fairs, four county fairs and one state fair (Jacksonville). Four counties exhibited at the State Fair, six at the South Florida Fair, Tampa, and one at the Tri County Fair, Orlando. A county fair association was organized in Volusia and buildings are being put up for a fair in January. This district agent judged the agricultural and horticultural exhibit at nine county fairs and the State Fair, and agricultural products and county booths at the South Florida Fair. He is chairman of the exhibit committees of both State and South Flor

PAGE 43

42 Florida Cooperative Extension ida Fairs and was called in conference by officials of eight fairs during the year. He has endeavored to bring out the educational feature of fairs, making them of increased value to the agricultural inter ests of the state. 12. Poultry.-Increased interest is being manifested thruout the district in poultry production. This work was encouraged by extension workers in all counties thru personal efforts, tours and the organization of poultry associations. Improvements were made in breeds, culling and marketing. However, much more work is needed along these lines.

PAGE 44

Annual Report, 19 23 43 REPORT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT Supervisory Program.-The s upervisory work with boys' clubs was divided between the boys' club agent and the three district agents. The former had general supervision over all club work and looked after state contests and annual short courses. Development of Or ganize d Clubs.-The rural districts being thinly settled, the county agents formerly had decided organized club work impractical. The need of teaching organization to the boys is so great that the 1923 program attempted organized clubs in at lea st three counties, to determine if it really is impractical. Clay, Alachua and Escambia Count ie s were selected in which to attempt this work. Of these the work in Escambia was the most successful. J. Lee Smith, county agent, was interested in organization and gave it the necessary thought and time. The results were all that had been expected. The work will be carried still further next year. The development of a county club program is best illustrated in Escambia; Mr. Smith laid out a definite program. It consisted of organized clubs for certain communities, a county club camp, community club contests and a county contest in connection with the Inter-State Fair. Local leader s were made the key of the local club programs. Every detail of this program was carried out. Community club contests were held, but were successful only where the local leaders were active. FIG . 9.-Cl ub boys l earning how to prune a citrus tree.

PAGE 45

44 Florida Cooperative E x tension A Typical Community Program as Form ed and Carried out in Escambia County.-Byrnville is a small community in the northern part of Escambia County. There are not over 20 farms in this particular community. Mr. Smith visited the school and explained the plans for a club organization. The boys who were interested were divided into two teams for a contest in securing more members for the organization. This contest lasted until the next meeting when the club was organized and officers elected . The club, with the advice of the county agent, elected 0. 0. Tisdale as local leader and began work. Each member was en . rolled in at least one club project and was expected to report at each meeting on the work done since the last meeting. The record books were brought to meetings for inspection and in this way were kept up-to-date. The club as an organization decided to work for perfect at tendance at the club camp and county contest and for 100-percent reports. Under the leadership of Mr. Tisdale, all these aims were accomplished. Office Organization.-Count y agents report names and prni ects of club members to the boys' club agent. These names are kept on file in both the Gainesville office and the county agents' offices. Many county agents are improving in their methods of keeping club records. Program Development and Analysis.-Efforts were made to assist county agents in la ying out suitable plans for their respec tive counties and assistance was given whenever asked. The extension dairyman helped organize and promote a calf club in St. Johns County. In the cotton club, assistance in boll weevil control was given by the assistant entomologist of the State Plant Board. All the boys were taught to use the Florida method. Fm. 10.-"Learning by doing." Club boys applying the Florida method of boll weevil control.

PAGE 46

Annual Report, 1923 45 Project Activities and Results.'-'-Work was carried on under the following projects: Corn, cotton, Irish potatoes, sweet po tatoes, peanuts, pig breeding, pig feeding, bee, calf and citrus. In the corn club a boy selected an acre of land and produced as many bushels of corn as possible. Results varied with the seasons in different localities. The best and largest corn clubs are in the western counties. Cotton work was begun this year under the expectation that the new Florida method of boll weevil control would enable the boys to produce a fair yield. The method of weevil control was handicapped by excessive rainfall at the crucial time. A few demonstrations proved exceptionally good. Irish potato club members were restricted to St. Johns County in the so-called Hastings area. The results were good. It does not seem advisable to attempt this club in other localities under Florida conditions. Sweet potato club work is usually the most profitable to the member. Yields are uniformly high with costs comparatively low. The pig clubs, both feeding and breeding, were reduced in number, due largely to the general tendency of the farmer to quit livestock because of low prices. Many fine animals were raised last year. Calf clubs were not encouraged because of tick conditions. A small dairy calf club was started in St. Johns County with results still to be determined. Plan of Organization for Citrus Clubs.-Citrus clubs were attempted for the first time in four counties. The increasing number of growers depending upon oranges and grapefruit for their living makes it imperative that some training in citrus cul ture be given their sons. The method of carrying on this work is still undetermined. Several plans were tried and all appeared to off er good ideas. . This promises to become the largest and best club. It will take another year at least to decide how best to conduct it. Club Prizes.-The question of prizes is still unsettled. The agents could not agree whether to give several small prizes or a few large ones. It seems advisable to off er small prizes in the counties and leave the larger ones for the state. The best prizes in the counties are scholarships to the annual short course. In the state, prizes are either scholarships to the College of Agri culture or educational trips.

PAGE 47

46 Florida Cooperative Extension Publicity.-The state press was always anxious for stories of club work. County papers published lists of prizes and prize winners. The Agricultural News Service carried club items which. were copied by papers thruout the state. The value of publicity to club work is great. Community news papers seem the best agency for this purpose, and county agents were urged more and more to take advantage of this method of reaching the reading public. Club Enrollment.-The accompanying chart gives facts and figures concerning the boys' clubs of the year: CLUB I Enrolled I Reported lAcres I Yield I Value I Cost Ifon::::::::::::::::\ Co Co Pe Po s. anuts .............. 1 tatoes Potatoes ........ 252 121 30 20 71 ! 152 27 18 14 22 I 152 I 5,100 $5,700.00 $2,433.00 27 j6,291 lbs. 629.10 471.70 18 i 544 bu. 680.00 182.54 1 331 bu. 495.00 297.00 2 726 bu. 544.00 145.00 There were 150 boys enrolled for citrus club work. This is a new club. Plans have not been worked out whereby results can be tabulated. It promises to be a long-time club, one hard to get definite money results from. Miscellaneous enrollments re ported by county agents number 92. Several agents also enrolled boys in truck and garden clubs. Boys' Short Course.-Attendance at the short course is limited to the prize-winning boys in the counties and is the highest reward given in a county contest. One hundred of the best farm boys in Florida spent the week of May 28 at the University, carrying away with them a better knowledge of the value of the College of Agriculture and the Experiment Station. "To learn by doing" is a motto in club work, and this underlay the plan of the short course of 1923. The boys who attended received practical training by doing actual work on the College and Station farms, hearing lectures on each subject before starting the work. They went into the dairy barn and mixed feed for the College herd; they went into the horticultural grounds and put buds into seedlings, they planted a part of the College campus to grass, they studied farm machinery by actually working on them. Leadership and cooperation are prime essentials in agricul ture. To develop these qualities, the boys were divided into squads, each electing its leader. The squads worked as units at work and recreation. Care was taken to see that boys from

PAGE 48

Annual R eport, 19 23 47 different parts of the state were together so as to foster a spirit of state-wide consciousness rather than of sectionalism. The short course has proved a strong incentive to boys to go to college. The boys see the University, talk with the profes sors, realize something of the value of college training, and many go home determined to return as regular students. The number of club boys in the University is increasing yearly. Recreation is a part of the course and precautions are taken to keep all play under the supervision of competent leaders. The evenings are used for moving pictures, stunts and games. Club Camps.-The club camp is one of the best means of popu larizing club work. The unit is usually the county, altho two or three counties held joint camp. When attendance at the camp is placed on the merit basis, it serves as a reward for work accomplished. The enjoyment of three or four days spent at a camp is a worth-while break in the monotony of country life. FIG. 11.C lub boys receiving instruction in diving at one of the camps.

PAGE 49

48 Florida Cooperative Extension The camps were carefully supervised that a healthful, social atmosphere might be maintained. In 1923 an instructor (Leland Hiatt) was employed to teach swimming and life-saving. This feature was a valuable addition and every boy who wished to learn was taught swimming and diving. Prizes were awarded to those showing the greatest improvement. Various games were taught and a spirit of good sportsmanship maintained. Enough instruction along agricultural and home-making lines was given to make the boys' time profitably spent. Seven county camps were held with a total attendance of over 200; Alachua, Taylor, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Escambia, Bay and Clay Counties held camps. Scholarships.-The State Bankers' Association annually gives three $100 scholarships to students attending the College of Agriculture to be awarded club boys in western, central and southern Florida. The bankers have been giving these scholar ships for several years and the winners have made enviable records. They are urged to remain in school until they graduate. Of the boys who have entered college on a bankers' scholarship, not one has failed to pass all the work taken. The first scholar ship boy to receive his degree will be Milledge Baker of Suwan nee County, one of the first to win a scholarship. Baker will graduate in June, 1924, an honor man of his class, having been elected to Phi Kappa Phi; the highest scholastic honor a student _ can winhere. The bankers are giving the state three college-bred men every year. The winners for 1923 were, for western Florida, Jesse Spurlin of Okaloosa County; for central Florida, Pete Leivonen of Alachua County; and for southern Florida, Ernest Sanders of Volusia County. Exhibits.-To bring the value of club work before the people and to improve agricultural displays, farm products of club boys were shown at the State Fair and at the South Florida Fair. The pig club exhibit at the State Fair attracted attention and prizes were won in the open ring on the club pigs. A Poland China barrow fed out by Charles Reams, a Madison County club boy, was declared grand champion of the 1923 show. This was the first grand championship won by a club member. The boys met in competition in county contests for county championships in the various clubs. Contest day is a big event in many counties.

PAGE 50

Annual Report, 1923 49 Team Demonstrations.-The boys' club agent attended the National Dairy Show at Syracuse to study the team demonstra tion idea as developed in northern states. While these demon strations were restricted to dairy lines, the method of holding the demonstrations was illustrated and valuable information gathered. Fm. 12.-Showing club boys how to resuscitate the drowned, one of the many practical things taught at the club camps and short courses. An attempt will be made to add this form of work to Florida club projects. The citrus club appears to offer a splendid oppor tunity for team demonstration. Story of Charles Reams of Madison County.-Charles Reams of Madison County has been a member of the boys' pig club for three years. Last year he fed out and showed at the State Fair a pen of Duroc-Jersey barrows. He produced pork at a profit and also won first prize in class on his pigs. This year he decided to do better and asked his county agent, B. E . Lawton , to buy him three barrows of the type to make prize winners. Mr. Lawton bought three purebred Poland-China barrows from the College of Agriculture farm for Charles and told him how to feed and care for them. Charles entered his barrows in the club show of the State Fair. They were so good they were entered in the open ring . When the judge had finished, he had awarded first prize to Charles' pen of three and champion over all breeds . to his best pig . Of course, he won in the club show and was awarded the Armour & Company trip to the International Livestock Show. One of the big breeders bought the three barrows at the State Fair and showed them at the International. They stood third in a big class . This shows that Florida pigs can win, and tha.t Florida club boys can win.

PAGE 51

50 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF JOHN M. SCOTT, ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST The w ' ork of the year closing was similar to that of previous years. This may be outlined as follows: (1) Attending farmers' meetings and making personal visits to farmers on the farm. (2) Advising farmers and dairymen, thru county agents, re garding the feeding and care of livestock and the growing of grasses and forage crops. (3) Distributing seed and propagating vegetative material of a number of pasture grasses that promise to become of value as permanent pasture grasses. Meetings and Lectures.-During the year meetings in a num ber of counties were attended and lectures were given as follows: Alachua: at Waldo a meeting in interest of the Alachua County Creamery on "Necessity of Home-Grown Feed for Eco nomical Milk Production." Columbia: at Lake City on "Feeds for Dairy Cow s." The group meeting of county agents was attended at this time and grasses and forage crops were discussed with them. Duval: at Jacksonville at a meeting of the livestock men of the state; assisting in the organization of a state livestock asso ciation. Hillsborough: at Tampa, discussing feeds and forage crops for the dairy cow with a number of farmers and dairymen. Jefferson: at Monticello; attended county fair and gave a talk on "The Outlook for Dairying and Poultry in Jefferson County." Leon: visited a number of farmers and dairymen with the county agent, looking over grass demonstrations. Marion: _ attending county fair and judged the livestock on exhibit. Palm Beach: attended a meeting of the State Dairy Associa tion and spoke on "The Importance of the Purebred Sire." Vis ited a number of dairymen in the county, advising them regard ing the handling of their herd, etc. Seminole: attended group meeting of county agents. St. Lucie: visited two dairymen who were just starting in the dairy work. Advised them as to crops to grow and where they could buy additional dairy stock. Suwannee: in company with the county agent, visited eight farmers in the county who were trying out some of the new and promising grasses. In nearly every case the grass was found

PAGE 52

Annual Report, 1923 51 growing well and the farmers were pleased with them ; Bahia grass was most promising. Volusia: attending meeting of the cattle raisers' association and spoke on "What the Experiment Station can do for the cattle raisers of Florida." Advice to Farmers.-During the last six months more farmers made inquiries regarding the feeding of dairy cows than at any time during the last two years. The animal industrialist had an active part at the annual meet ing of the county agents. The answering of correspondence required much time. This correspondence d13alt almost entirely with forage crops, the feed ing of livestock and the handling of milk, etc. Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week.-The animal industrialist was in charge of the livestock program for Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week. The Animal Husbandry Department of the Experiment Sta tion offered as a prize to the county having the largest registered attendance, a registered Jersey bull calf. Columbia County won, having an attendance of 113. Distribution of Grasses.-Arrangements were made with the Bureau of Plant Industry, thru C . V. Piper, to distribute a lim ited amount of grass seed. In nearly all cases the seed were distributed thru county agents. Material was sent to 35 counties in the state, 9 different states and 3 foreign countries. Jn some counties as many as ten farmers received this material. In other cases, one and two farmers in a county received it.

PAGE 53

52 Florida Cooperative E x tension REPORT OF HAMLIN L. BROWN, DAIRY SPECIALIST Main Dairy Problems Undertaken.-The two main dairy prob lems were to develop farm dairying and to work out practical methods of consuming the summer surplus of milk in tourist centers . . The former of these problems is common to all states of the South, while the latter is essentially a Florida problem. Farm Dairying-where the milk is skimmed on the farm, the skimmilk fed to calves, poultry and pigs and the cream sold to a creamery-is proving successful in many communities of the South and has entered Florida in certain counties. FIG. 13.-Learning s om e of the fine points in judging the dairy cow. Visits to Dairies.-Crisp and Turner Counties, Georgia, having made a success at farm dairying and being convenient to the northern counties of the state, five motorcades were conducted from Leon, Suwannee, Columbia and Alachua Counties to study dairying conditions there. In all, 128 people, representing lead ing farmers and business men, went on these motorcades to study conditions first hand. It is the policy of the dairy specialist to get local leaders inter ested in dairy possibilities by such visits to communities where farm dairying is being done, and finally to get these local leaders to deliver the message to the bulk of the people rather than to give so much personal advice and publicity directly. In many cases local people were assisted in preparing articles for the

PAGE 54

Annual Report, 1923 53 newspapers, which articles appeared under or over their own names. Dairy Development in Florida.-In Alachua County there . has just been completed a creamery and c , old storage plant with a large number of Alachua County business men and farmers sup porting it. In this same county plans are now completed for organized bull-club-association work and cow-club work with the organized boys' clubs. These come within the 1924 dairy program. Columbia and Suwannee Counties have shipped sour cream to Georgia and Florida creameries. The farmers here have fol lowed the advice of their county agents, secured better cows and wili continue to ship cream until they are able to , support a creamery of their own. Washington and Jackson Cou . nties are without county agents but showed interest in farm dairying. A packing plant and a wholesale poultry market is at Chipley in Washington County, and these have interested local farmers in establishing a cream ery in connection therewith to develop their dairying program, "the cow, the hen and hog," along with their general agricultural development. Prices and Supplies.-The supply arid demand for liquid milk as produced in Florida will not control the price of milk here. Much whole milk and two solid carloads of AO-percent cream are shipped into Florida every day during the winter or tourist sea son, plus approximately $14,000,000 worth of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and cheese, and this imported supply is what is going to govern the prices Florida farmers will get for their milk and milk products. This problem becomes greater each year as the state increases in population, justifying the establishment of more central milk distributing plants like those at Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Miami, West Palm Beach and Pensacola. These plants buy a portion of Florida milk locally and supplement their needs with unsweetened condensed milk and milk powders, also with sweet unsalted butter. Icecream plants are using dairy products produced outside of Florida almost entirely. Central distributing plants, with equip ment for homogenizing these concentrated, imported, elemental dairy products into liquid milk were established but recently, ' not exceeding five or six years in any of the cities or towns in the state and within the last two Y.ears in most of them.

PAGE 55

54 Florida Cooperative Extension A successful cooperative creamery was completed at Brooks ville (Hernando County) in January, 1923. It paid local farmers a net wholesale price of over $4 a hundred pounds during the last 12 months by utilizing the summer surplus of milk in making icecream, chocolate milk, butter and buttermilk. This plant exceeded expectations the first year. The farmers were well pleased. . Cooperative work along production lines has proved successful with Brooksville farmers. They purchased seed oats coopera tively to plant 300 acres, and are buying concentrated dairy feeds cooperatively in carload lots, paying cash. They purchased seven carloads of cows cooperatively. A committee of three trained dairymen personally selected the cows. They were auctioned off as a method of placing values, Six purebred bulls were pur chased. One of the banks of Brooksville financed the purchase of the cows and are financing other dairy loans. The president highly commends the dairy undertaking. This is expected to prove a demonstration plant. Dairy farm ers of neighboring towns will be interested and instructed by seeing this plant. This Hernando community has plenty of . good hammock land, suited for growing corn, cane, Napier grass, Para . grass and cowpeas for silage, and for growing soiling crops and hay. Its lands are ideal for permanent pastures of Dallis, Carpet, Bermuda and Bahia grasses and lespedeza. Dairy Club Work.-The most successful club work was carried on in cooperation with a Smith-Hughes school at Lemon City, in Dade County. The teacher in charge, John L. Butts, is an agri cultural graduate of Mississippi A. & . M. He took direct charge of the work and successfully completed it. His records show cost of feed, care and other items of expense, as well as income and net profits. There were seven grade cows in the club. They were purchased at rather high prices. One of the local banks and private individuals assisted in financing the project. A Jersey calf club, with 37 purebred Jersey calves, was organ ized in St. Johns County under the supervision of County Agent J. 0. Traxler as a part of a program to develop dairying on a large scale in that county. The dairy work was started under the plans of the St. Johns County Agricultural Advisory Committee. One of the members of this committee possessed considerable dairying experience and had the money and ability as an individual to operate a dairy

PAGE 56

Annual Report, 1923 55 successfully. He insisted that a county program be tried out on the same scale that had been proposed for his particular farm. The committee supported him. The first carload of calves was brought into the county months ago and it seems that about 75 percent of them will make good. Improving Dairying Conditions.-Dairy associations of St. Johns and Volusia Counties put on campaigns with their local dairymen to improve the quality of milk and to increase con sumption, hoping thereby to do away with the summer surplus. Thru these local dairymen's associations, barns and dairy equipment were improved. St. Johns dairymen spent something like $10,000 for such improvements. Educational Work at Fairs.-The dairy specialist judged con tests at the State Fair in Jacksonville where 145 club boys were interested and at the South Florida Fair in Tampa where these boys numbered 60. This was in cooperation with the College of Agriculture and Smith-Hughes vocational agricultural schools, teaching students how to select dairy cattle. An attempt was made to create interest in educational fair exhibits, cooperating in this attempt with Fred L. Craft, county agent of Alachua County. An educational exhibit was arranged to show the farm dairy program as connected with a general farm program. This gave effective results in advertising the dairy program.

PAGE 57

56 Florida Cooperative _ Extension REPORT OF ED L. AYERS, ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT P ATHOLOGIST 1 Due to the mild winter and the early beginning of the summer rainy season, the insect and plant disease problems of the year were numerous. A number of definite projects for the control of insects and plant diseases were begun and completed with the assistance of district and county agents. Vegetable Schools.-During the year three successful schools were held, at Bradentown (Manatee County), at Samsula (Volu sia County) and at Davie (Broward County). The attendances of these schools averaged over one hundred, and much enthusi asm was displayed. The schools consisted of lectures and the exhibiting of some serious insects and diseases with directions for their control. . Citrus Schools.-Thirty citrus schools were held, with a total attendance of more than fifteen hundred actual citrus growers. Most of these schools were held in April and May, or early enough in the season for the grove owners or managers to fol low instructions during the ensuing year in the control of insects and diseases, particularly melanose (Phomopsis citri) and rust mite (Phyllocoptes oleivorus). These meetings ranged from a few hours to all day, and . in most instances two or three lecturers were present. High powered microscopes and binoculars were carried along and the growers were taught to recognize different diseases and insects and were shown some of the smaller ones, like rust mite, under high power, so they could get clearly in mind the appearance of the insect. These meetings met with much enthusiasm wherever held, and in a number of instances the work was commended by resolutions and the desire expressed for other and more compre hensive meetings in the future. Spraying Methods.-Experience of the previous year showed a need for better spraying methods, particularly for truck crops. The failure of recommended remedies had often been due to the use of poor spraying machinery and improper methods of appli cation. Efforts were made this year to improve spraying methods as follows: (1) To increase the power of spraying machines in ' use, thereby increasing the pressure. It is impossible to do efficient spraying with less than 100 pounds pressure to the 1 This report is for the period beginning December 1, 1922, and ending August 30, 1923.

PAGE 58

Annual Report, 1923 57 nozzle. Effort was made to induce growers to procure machines delivering from 125 to 200 pounds pressure. (2) Assisting growers to know the proper spraying material ' to use. They often use materials which do not give satisfactory results. (3) To assist growers in studying and procuring proper equipment, ex tensions, nozzles for their spraying machinery,' etc. For example, in cucumber spraying some growers were found trying to spray with an extension ten feet long and the nozzle set straight on the end of the extension. Nozzles for this particular type of spray. ing should be set at an angle of 90 degrees on the end of a three foot extension, thereby making it easy to reach all portions of the plant. Watermelons.-The most important troubles of the water melon were a phis ( Aphis gossypii) and anthracnose (Colleto trichum lag e narium). The aphids came on early during the season but were readily checked by spraying with: Nicotine sulphate (40 percent solution)...... . ...... . .......... pint Laundry soap "' 5 pounds i.,v ater .. . ....... . ...... . .. . .... .. . . .... . .............. . . .. .............. . .............. . 50 gallons Dusting with various forms of nicotine dust also gave good results. , Anthracnose increased rapidly after the beginning of the rainy season, and regardless of the fact that more growers were prepared for spraying than . ever before, due to previous campaigns of extension plant pathologists from the United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agricultural Exten sion Division, the melons broke down early because of continued rains. Cantaloupes.-The principal cantaloupe diseases were anthrac. nose (Colletotrichum lagenarium) and downy mildew (Pseudo peronospora cubensis). Of the two downy mildew was the more serious. Good results were obtained from early spraying but the crop was a failure because of heavy rains. Cucumbers.-The work on cucumber disease . was centere . d in the vicinity of Williston, in Levy County, and as a result the growers purchased more than twelve power spraying machines. Their chief diseases were angular leaf spot (Bacterium lachry mans) and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis). Of the two, the latter was more abundant but was more easily con trolled. There were six definite demonstrations in the control"of c , ucumber diseases and the demonstrations showed a production of 175 crates to the acre on sprayed plots, while the unsprayed plots yielded only from fifteen to twenty crates. The spraying material used was 4,:_4_50 bordeaux mixture.

PAGE 59

58 Flo r ida Cooperative Extension Dusting experiments were observed in Sumter and other coun ties where copper lime was frequently and freely used, but the results did not compare satisfactorily with those of spraying. Celery.-In cooperation with the entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station, two and a half acres of celery seedbeds were treated to control nematode (Heterodera radicicola) with sodium cyanide and with calcium cyanide. The beds treated with sodium cyanide showed splendid results, while the calcium cyanide ex periments needed to be repeated, due to some improper handling of the seedbeds. The celery leaf tyer (Phlyctaenia f errugalis) did thousands of dollars worth of damage in the Sanford area and destroyed most of the lat~ crop of celery. The adults (moths) lay their eggs on the outer portion of the celery leaves. These eggs hatch into worms or caterpillars, which begin feeding first on these outer leaves and then go downward into the heart of the celery stalk. Soon after the eggs have hatched, spraying with arsenate of lead, using high pressure, is an effective control measure. But it is next to impossible to do effective work after the worms have reached the inside of the bunches. Most of the growers waited until too late before asking for assistance. They immediately began to spray with low-pressure machines (in most cases) and obtained poor results. A number of growers also tried trapping the moths by putting out bright lights over shallow pans of kerosene. They caught many, more than half of which were females, but the number of eggs which these females contained was not determined. There is doubt, therefore, as t6 the eff ec tiveness of this method of control. A number of old moths with battered and broken wings are readily attracted to the light," while the younger, egg-laying moths are not . . The garden flea-hopper (Halt i cus citri) is always a serious pest of celery. It can be controlled reasonably well in the seedbed with kerosene emuls . ion but cannot be controlled with the nicotine sprays so commonly . used. This pest proved troublesome in the fields this year and efforts were made to control it by the use of calcium-cyanide dust. This dust killed about 75 percent of the flea-hoppers present, when applied with a power dusting machine, but there were traces of the cyanide on the celery a week after the dusting and it is, therefore, not a safe method. Tomatoes.-There was a large amount of nail-head rust in most of the tomato-producing areas. Some headway was made in the control of this disease with bordeaux mixture, but heavy

PAGE 60

Annual Report, 1923 59 rains interfered and the results obtained were not entirely satis factory. There were also many worms present. Among these the tomato fruit worm (Heliothis obsoleta) and the horn worms (Phlegethontius sp.) were serious, but they were controlled by dusting with calcium arsenate. Lumber Yard Disease.-Early in the year there was a call for assistance from a Pinellas County lumber yard in which the lum ber was being destroyed by a fungus. This fungus was identified by the associate plant pathologist of the Experiment Station as Poria incrassata. The following recommendations were made: (1) Destroy all lumber showing fungous infection. (2) Treat the soil immediately beneath and around the yard with formalde hyde. (3) Replace wood piling with concrete. (4) Raise the floor two feet from the ground. (5) Remodel the building con taining the lumber so as to afford the greatest possible amount of sunlight and air. Asparagus Plumosus Nanus.-A survey of this industry for the year showed 327 acres planted to it. There were numerous requests for assistance and several days were spent in making a survey of the different producing areas and giving instructions for treating various insects and diseases. Various specimens of grasshoppers, cutworms and caterpillars were found in abun dance, but they were readily controlled by the use of the Kansas bait, made as follows: Bran ................... ... ............................... . ......... .. ........... ........... 20 pounds Paris green or sodium arsenite ............................................ 1 pound Water ............................ . ......... . ................................ . ...... . ....... 2 gallons Lemons, oranges or cantaloupes ................ .. ..................... . .. 3 or 4 Syrup ....... . ..................... . ..................... . .......... . .. . .................. ... . 2 quarts The paris green and bran should be thoroly mixed (dry). The lemons (rind, pulp and juice) should be thoroly grated or chopped and added to the water. Moisten the bran with the water until the whole is damp, not sloppy, so that when sown broadcast over the land it will fall in small flakes. Last of all add the syrup and thoroly knead it into the bran. A disease was also found, the cause of which has not been determined, but spraying wit} 'bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal copper carbonate proved effective. This disease is called by the growers either rust or anthracnose. Red spider is another serious pest which is controlled by spraying with lime sulphur at the rate of 1 gallon to 60 gallons of water, or by dusting with sulphur. In dusting it is important not to use an excess of

PAGE 61

60 Florida Cooperative Extension sulphur; some growers have used from 200 to 400 pounds to the acre at each application. To what extent the soil will stand this element no one knows, for sulphur greatly increases soil acidity.

PAGE 62

Annual Report, 1923 61 REPORT OF JOHN R. SPRINGER, EXTENSION ENTOMOLO GIST AND PLANT PATHOLOGIST The work of this specialist was started October 1. Bean Jassid Control.-Three cou nties-Alachua, Marion and Putnam-specializing in the growing of fall beans were vis:. ited, and thru the county agents, many growers were helped in controlling the beanjassid (Empoasca mali), probably the most serious pest of fall-grown beans. The control recommended consisted of applications of 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture which acted as a repellant and carrier, with the addition of 2 / 5 of a pint of 40 percent nicotine-suiphate solution to each 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture. The spray was applied in most instances with a power sprayer, covering three . or four rows at a time. Cucumber Diseases.-Spraying fall cucumbers to control downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was of importance in three counties-Alachua, Levy and Osceola Counties, special izing in this crop. Considerable time was spent in these counties assisting the county agents with their demonstrations. Bordeaux mixture (4-4-50) was applied every ten days and oftener if weather conditions made more frequent applications necessary. Thoro wetting of the plants, particularly the under surface of the leaves, was emphasized. Land Crab Control.-The first ten days of November were spent in Dade County, cooperating with the United States Bio logical Survey, conducting demonstrations to control land crabs on the low coastal tomato lands. This work was the surveying of conditions relative to land-crab infestations and demonstrat ing a practical method .of control. The method was demonstrated at five convenient points. The method consists of squirting approximately ten drops of carbon bisulphide into each crab burrow and covering the entrance of the burrow with earth. The newspapers gave excellent cooperation and carried be tween twenty and thirty articles bearing on the campaign. A check as to the results of this method of control and the extent to which the plans were adopted will be made in the spring. Seedbed Disinfection. -The necessity of producing thrifty, healthy plants in seedbeds for field transplanting and the elimi nation of much wastage due to damping-off fungi are apparent, and three demonstrations in different localities were started with this end in view. Fifteen days before the seed were planted

PAGE 63

62 Florida Coope _ rative Extension the beds were disinfected with formaldehyde. One part of for maldehyde was added to 50 parts of water and half a gallon of this solution was applied to each square foot of seedbed surface. The treated surface was immediately covered with can vas or sacks to confine the gas. This covering was left on for 48 hours. Diseased spots in seedbeds were also treated with corrosive-sublimate solution, 1 part to 1000 parts of water. This latter treatment was given to prevent further spread of the damping-off fungi, which had developed in seedbeds not disin fected. Some interest also was created relative to seed disinfection. A general survey of areas in which Asparagus plumosos nanus is grown was made for the purpose of outlining a program leading to an economical and successful control of insects and diseases on this crop.

PAGE 64

Annual Report, 1923 REPORT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK By FLAVIA GLEASON State Home Demonstration Agent 63 Status of _Home Demonstration Work.-Beginning work in Florida on July 15, the state agent found well-organized and well-established home demonstration work. All vacancies on the state staff were filled and the workers began work on the fol lowing dates: district agent for southern and eastern Florida, August 13; district agent for northern and western Florida, August 15; assistant state agent, August 25; food and marketing agent, October 1; dairy and nutrition agent, December 1. Due to the work of the former home demonstration staff, county home demonstration agents, and assistance from the county agent staff, county officials, women's clubs and the pres ent home demonstration workers, all counties supporting the work at the time the present staff took up its duties, continued their appropriations, with the exception of Washington, which had only a short-time appropriation, and Jackson County, which had failed to appropriate at a previous meeting. The agent of the latter county worked thru August, being furloughed in July. An appropriation was made by the county commissioners of Mad ison County but, since the school board did not appropriate funds, it was not sufficient to support a worker. In September, Marion County, which had not had a home dem onstration agent for several years, made an appropriation pro viding for one. Pinellas and Collier Counties made appropriations for agents to begin work January 1. Thru the cooperation of the county commissioners of Duval and the Duval Anti-Tubercu ~osis Association an assistant home demonstration agent was placed in that county to begin work October 1. The year closes with 28 counties providing for home demon stration work with 30 home demonstration agents (two agents in both Duval and Hillsborough). The state staff is composed of six officials and specialists and of three clerical assistants. Alto gether, there are 47 persons engaged in this phase of extension work. Responsibilities of State Staff.-The state office is responsible for the securing of county appropriations, appointing satisfac tory agents and the general supervision of the work _ thruouf the state. Assistance is given along such lines as developing com munity, county and state organizations, working out programs,

PAGE 65

FIG. 14.-Prize winners gathered at the Florida State Coll ege for Women for the 1923 s hort course.

PAGE 66

Annual Report, 19 23 65 in furnishing subject-matter assistance, training leaders and helping with fairs. Agents in food conservation and marketing, poultry and dairy ing and nutrition are responsible for the subject matter given to agents. During the year they assisted in developing these pro jects in the state. "The s up ervisory force often gave subject matter assistance. District conferences or group meetings will be held early in Januar y to make definite plans for the year's work. State meetings for subject -matt er assistance and to begin formulation of plans of work for next year were held -in Sep tember. Equipment of Agents.-Agents are s uppli ed with loose-leaf note books in which are recorded individual enro llm ents and records, community and county organizations, agents' yearly programs of work, results Jbtained, letters of instruction and other useful material. Weekly, month l y and annua l reports are kept on file in county and state offices . Most home demonstration agents have offices and equipment in county court houses. One agent has an office in the city hall. Two have offices with their chambers of commerce and one is located in the women's club house. These offices are equipped for filing records, bulletins and other supplies. Five counties furnish clerical help. Demonstration kitchens are equipped for the use of the agents in five count ie s. Agents in four counties have access to kitchens in women's federation club houses. Cars are furnished to agents in five counties . Limited funds are provided for demonstration material in 24 counties. Well-equipped demonstration kitchens and clerical help greatly increase the efficiency of agents' work. FIG . 15 .-C lub girls learning how to can fruit and vegetables.

PAGE 67

PROGRAM SUMMARY Voluntary Days No. reMeeting at demonCounties CommuLeaders Method suits strations and in specialrelation to Title of project r e portnities ist demondemonprojects ing particiNo . I Days ashelped strations strapating a ss ists istance tions AttendI Number ing rendered ance Poultry . .. . . . .... . . ... . . .. . . . ..... . .. . . . .. .. . 25 1,176 71 105 31 626 458 618 . 11,407 Horticulture .. . ..... .. ...... .. . .. .... . .... 23 60 22 50 2 210 1,190 175 1,088 Dairying 6 9 2 40 3 17 118 97 _ 695 Food conservation ----------20 146 68 110 61 403 1,689 333 4,524 Home improvement ...... . . . ....... 11 108 36 146 1 292 886 173 3,616 Foods and nutrition ....... .. .... ... 26 185 81 330 41 479 1,248 796 26,865 Sewing -----------------------------------20 288 291 1,063 24 1,186 4,221 1,752 21,455 Millinery and clothing ........... . . . 18 137 96 75 26 229 5,221 1,306 4,965 Basketry ............................... . ... . 8 29 17 25 6 37 60 26 350 Miscellaneous ............ . . . .... ... . .. . 5 58 22 35 -----35 304 62 250 TOTAL I . 162 I 2,196 I -----. 706 I 1,979 I 195 I 3,514 I 15,395 I 5,338 I 75,215

PAGE 68

Annual Report, 1923 67 Summary of Work.-The report which follows has been com piled and written according to information contained in annual reports from home demonstration agents and supervisory staffs for both the first and second parts of the year. It has been the purpose of the present state staff to carry forward during the last six months of 1923 the great program of work already start ed. Only the most definite results obtained and supported by records are dealt with in this report. General activities covering reports of 30 home demonstration agents for terms of service averaging 10 months follow: Farm visits made in conducting extension work. ..................... 7,297 Different farms visited ................................................................ 2,935 Home visits made in conducting extension work .................. 10,776 Different homes visited ................................................................ 4,926 Office calls relating to extension work. ................................... 13,893 Days agents spent in office .......................................................... 1,846 Days :;igents spent in field .............................................. ___ 5,445 Letters written Circular letters prepared and sent out ...................................... 1,043 Copies of sueh circular letters .................................................... 13, 793 Extension articles written by agents and published in community newspapers ........................................................ 1,441 PROJECT ACTIVITIES Foods and Nutrition.-Food and nutrition work a-s carried on . by home demonstration agents included the following: 1. Food selection and body requirements. Special emphasis was given to reasons for using fruits, vegetables, unrefined cereals, poultry and dairy products in the diet. Reports show that 1,744 women served better-selected food at home as a result of this work, and that 1,490 girls have demonstrations under way in this phase of the work. 2. Food preparation and utilization developed thru demon strations . and the study of principles of cookery. "Interest in bread making is growing. Santa Rosa, Columbia, Duval, Madison and Walton Counties stressed this work. A tri county contest in which bread teams from Madison, Duval and Columbia competed was held April 26 at Lake City. General cookery was taught in all counties but usually as a minor pro. ject."' Twenty-seven school lunches were established during the year. 1 Unless otherwise indicated, passages of this report set off by quotation marks are from the report of Miss Sarah W. Partridge, who resigned as state home demonstration agent June 30, 1923.

PAGE 69

68 Florida Cooperative Extension 3. Child feeding and care thru which study is given to bring children to normal weight and healt~ received emphasis from the workers. ''Nutrition programs were established and clinics were held in many of the counties in cooperation with the State ~oard of Health, . with women's clubs and school authorities, resulting in such corrective work as treatment for hookworm, dental work and the adopting of a nutrition program for study." Reports show 616 mothers iri 18 counties as having changed practices in child feeding and care. 4. Food preservation was stressed so as to preserve food for home use, : thus practicing thrift, to .. reduce cost of transporting food from a distance, to insure a varied diet aH thru the year, and to put surplus _ products into marketable shape. Twenty~eight counties reported that 1,804 women and 873 girls during 1923 canned 58,543 quarts of fruit, 70,013 quarts of vege tables, 10,519 quarts of meats and fish, 62,845 glasses of jelly, 27,962 quarts of preserves, 16,176 quarts of pickles, 8,294 quarts of fruit juices, and 3,763 quarts of vinegar. "During June special fish work was done at a group m~eting of the agents at Cedar Keys under the direction of specialists from the Washington office. Eighteen fine products were made from nine varieties of fish. Among the fish used were some for which there is no market." Clothing. -Twenty-six counties reported 1,469 women and 3,364 girls as carrying clothing work consisting of selection; con struction, remodeling and renovating millinery and other articles. Millinery proved to be one of the most popular phases of the clothing program. Six hundred twelve women were reported as making 2,119 hats and 520 girls as making 953 hats during the year at an average value of $3.50 each hat. The miBinery work was developed the first part of the year thru schools conducted by the district . agent of the northern . and western district, by county agents, and for three months by an experienced milliner, appointed as assistant clothing spe-: cialist. The agents were given a special course at the annual meeting in September by an expert milliner employed for tpis : _ purpose. , Other articles numbering 1,183 were made or remodeled by women; and 6,059 other articles were made, remodeled or reno vated by club girls participating in the clothing project.

PAGE 70

Frg. 1(3.-Hom e demonstration agents brushing up on the fine points of making hats at the 1923 conference . O')

PAGE 71

70 Florida Cooperative E x tension Household Management and Horne Furnishings.-As a result of the higher standards of living which developed with home demonstration work was the work with household management and home furnishings. Three hundred seventy-two women and 1,218 girls were enrolled and as a result, according to budget accounts and reports kept during the year, 750 household fur nishings were made or refinished, 1,668 kitchens were rearranged and 1,504 rooms were improved thru furnishings and decora tions. Twenty-six counties reported that 175 homes were in fluenced to change practices in keeping budgets and accounts, FIG. 17.-Some of the women and girls taught to make hats by Home Demonstration Agent Bertha Henry in Okaloo s a C ounty. 215 to improve equipment, 81 to plan work more carefully and 809 to improve furnishings. Twenty-three dwellings were con structed and 219 remodeled according to plans furnished by home demonstration agents. The following labor-saving devices were installed: Hand washing machines . .. .. ... ................. . .. . ..... . .. . .. .. ... . ............. .. ..... 20 Power washing machine s.. . .. . ... . .. .... ... .. ....... . .. .. .................... . .... . . .. .. 13 Fireless cookers ... . .. . .. . .. . ... . .. . .. . ..... . ... . . . ... . .. . . . ... . . . . . .. ... .. ... .... . . .. ... .. ..... 100 ~i::rs;::J::; ~i~; ;;~ ~~ : : : :: : :: : ::::: :: :: ::: ::: : :: : : : : : : :: :::::: : :::::::::: :: : ::: : :: : : Kitchen cabinet s .. .. . ..... .. ..... . .. . .. . .. . ... . . . ... . . .. ...... . .............. . . . ... . .. . .. .. . .. 58 i{1!~]~1~::~it~: ~i~~~ ::::: : :: ::: : : :: : :: : :: :: :::::::: : :: : ::: : :: : ::::: : :: : :: : ::::::::: : Jg Horne Health and Sanitation.-Fifteen counties reported that 86 homes were given instruction in home nursing and first aid; that 1,010 homes were influenced to adopt better sanitary prac

PAGE 72

Annual Report, 1923 71 tices; that 75 sanitary closets were installed; that 236 houses were screened, and that 2 sewerage-disposal systems were in stalled. Horticulture.-The figures below indicate the results of work done along horticultural lines: Club members who planted fruit trees... . .................................... 565 Club members who planted bush or small fruits...................... 587 Club members who planted grapes. .. ........................................... 102 Club members who planted part-year gardens....................... . .. 434 Club members who planted all-year gardens............................ 635 Club members who planted flowers and shrubs ........................ 1,563 Club members who planted by a plan .......... . ............ . ........ . .. . .. . . 165 Club members who marketed garden and canned products .. . 756 Club members who saved seed and stock.......................... . . . ... . . 430 Club members who sprayed or otherwise tried to control disease or insect pests............ . . . . . . . ...................................... . .. 448 Interest is growing rapidly in the beautifying of home and school grounds, planting of flowers, evergreens and small shrubs being made according to plans. Home Dairying.-The object of home dairy work is to increase the quantity, improve the quality and stimulate greater use of dairy products in Florida. The figures below indicate the extent of results attained in this project: Club members carrying on demonstrations in milk production . . .. . .. . ..... .. .......... . ........... . ....... . .... . . . .. . . . ... . .... .. ... . .. . ...... ... .. ... . . 223 Club members making butter. . ... . . . . . .. . ..... .. ............. . ......... . .. .. .. . .. . .. 146 Club members making cheese . . ... . .. .. .. . . . .............................. . . .... . . . . . 114 Club members standardizing dairy products for market... . .. 41 Cows purchased for home use........ . ............................................. 75 Club members increasing the use of milk and other dairy products in the diet during the year ................................. . 2,400 Schools establishing milk lunches... ... .......................................... 22 "A dairy club in every county and a dairy cow on every farm" is the slogan adopted for 1924 home dairy work. Dairy club project lessons adopted to be conducted under the supervision of the home dairy and nutrition agent are as follows: January-Value of Keeping Dairy Records. February-Hints on Feeding Dairy Cows. March-Proper Handling of Milk and Milk Utensils. April-Nutritive Value of Milk and Milk Products. May-Raising Dairy Calves. June-Value of Purebred Bulls. July-Breeds of Dairy Cows. August-Making Choice Farm Butter. September-Simple Farm Remedies for the Dairyman. October-Selecting Dairy Cows. November-Making Cottage and Cream Cheese. December-Don'ts for the Dairyman.

PAGE 73

72 Florida Cooperative E;rten sion Poultry.-Poultry is a c hief source of income to farm women and girl s . R epo rt s from a num be r of club m e mbers show that junior s not only made and saved m oney for edu ca tional pur poses but h e lp e d support their families by m e ans of this phase of extension work. The following report giv e n by Cec il Rowan, a first-y e ar poultry club member in Gadsden County, shows his a cco mpli s hm e nts in 1923: "A hundred nin e ty-nine eggs s et; 174 c hi c ks hatched; 146 c hicken s rai sed to matmity; 72 c hick e n s sold for $4 9.15; 1,720 eggs produc e d; t ota l rn!ue $20:3 .89 ; c o st $6 0. 50; n e t profi t $143.39. Ha Y e on hand 50 ,vellse lect ed l'.hi ck ens. Any boy or girl w h o liv es o n th e farm ca n r aise p o ultry e n o ugh to bu y their books an cl cl ot hing as I do. I al so give my m o ther some spending n1oney." •:.,, . . . . 1i 'i ~ ~:., , . I . r .. t _ ; ,.. " _ ,;t:. ~it}:~ . . ; , FIG. l fi . -Thi s c lub girl and d e mo n s tration flock are boast s of :Ur s . Nelli e " Ta~ l o r, h o m e d emon s t rati o n agent of Orange Co un ty. The number of c lub m e mbe rs who kept poultry record s and r e ported during th e ye ar were: Purchasing standard-bred eggs .. Pur c hasin g s tand ard -br ed fowl s . Sec urin g males t o impro ve fl oek .. . C ulling flock .... .. .. . ........ .. . U 8i ng in c ubator s .. ... 1, 286 .. ... 1,02!) 7 8 5 408 25:l An egg -la~ ing con te st was con ducted in th e state b eg inning NoYember 1, 1922, a ncl co ntinued thru Octob e r, 1923. Th e av e rage egg production fr om the ten hi g he st fl ocks reported was 169.9 eggs for each female. Th e individual fl oc k which was r ported e ach month and ranked high es t in the contest, had an average of 211.84 eggs for each female . Marketing.-Home dem o nstration agents in 15 counties report marketing of dairy and poultr y produ c ts; 10 report e d marketing

PAGE 74

Annual Report, 1923 73 of vegetables; 10 canned fruits and vegetables; 3 crystallized products; 8 showed marketing of miscellaneous products such, as baskets, and other articles made from pine needles, honey suckle, wire grass and palmetto. Four hundred forty-nine women and 95 girls were reported . as . working during the . year to standardize products for markets. . . Home demonstration products were sold thru egg circles, poul try associations, women's exchanges and curb markets. Interest in standardizing and marketing products grew. Community lmprovement.-That community spirit was de veloped thru home demonstration work is proved by the fact that organized clubs studied the rieeds of their communities and worked on community problems. The following, as reported un der this project during the first part of the year by the agent of Lee County and the former state agent, is a good example of the result of such work: "At Ft. Myers a market for women's articles that are pro duced at home and for which money can be obtained has been maintained. Some of the things sold cost only time to produce and bring in pin money when marketed properly. "At East Ft. Myers a lunch room where a well-planned meal can be served to children at cost has been established. The work was begun by the teachers. When they needed help the local home demonstration club gave it. They bought scales and gave a nutrition course. Next year they intend adopting the school as a community project. "The Australian pines set out at Tice will enhance the beauty of the highway and the value of property. On this project $125 was spent. "The Bonita Springs community has been aided. The home , demonstration club made $500 by food sales, entertainments, etc., to build a road to the beach. The men did the work and the women furnished the money." Additional extracts from the report of the Lee County agent follows: "The clubs made money for scholarships. The cook book pro-' ject was begun last year. We have pushed the sale . of the books this year and used the money for scholarships. "In tlns way we may give back to the county college-bred wo men .The Home Bureau made tip money ($300) enough to send four girls and a ch~perone to Tallahassee for the Short Course."

PAGE 75

. 74 Florida Cooperative Extension Organization.-Figures tabulated below indicate the scope of home demonstration club work: Commun Women Juniors ities Clubs doing home demonstration work...... 212 546 127 Membership 6,136 697 Excellent county organizations were and are being developed as a result of a broader outlook engendered. This came as a result of the activities of wide-awake community organizations. County councils of women's clubs, home bureaus and home demonstration councils with home demonstration boards of direc tors helped to develop home demonstration work. For example, in Hillsborough County there were 18 adult home demonstration clubs organized into a county council which assisted in working out club problems and home demonstration plans. Their pro gram for the year's work was worked out as follows: The women discussed in their local meetings the subjects on which they were especially anxious to have help. The subjects re ceiving the greatest number of requests were chosen. The president and one member from each club formed the board of directors. At the regular board meeting each list of subjects was discussed. Those for which there were the greatest number of requests from the clubs were included in the county program. This county council held a rally once every two months, bringing together members of the home demonstration clubs from all over the county. The program for the day consisted of songs, demonstrations by members of the clubs as well as by the agents and a picnic dinner. Reports from each club were read with enthusiasm and a banner awarded to the leading club. Junior County Councils.-Junior honie demonstration councils in Palm Beach and Volusia Counties proved a great source of help in developing home demonstration work with the girls and boys. In four counties the junior clubs were represented in the women's club councils. Contests.-County contests in girls' work were held in almost all counties where there were home demonstration agents. Ex hibits showing the different phases of work .as carried out by club members were on display and judged. These contests were well attended and aroused much interest among adults as well as juniors. Rallies and Camps.-Thirteen junior camps and 20 rallies were held with an attendance of 2,611 girls. Camps were popular and

PAGE 76

Annual Report, 19 2 3 75 proved excellent for recreation and a means of g1vmg special instruction and training to club members in groups that could not be given otherwise. Regular programs were carried out, and the honor system, which always added to the success of the camps, was observed. FIG. 19.-Club girls prepared for a swim at the club camp in Orange County. Short Courses and Scholarships.-"The state Short Course for prize-winning girls was held at the State College for Women in April. Ninety-two prize-winning scholarship girls attended. It is said that this was not only the best attended, but also the best short course for club girls yet held in the state. Scholarships were provided by county boards, organizations of men or of women, by banks, business houses and interested individuals." As encouragement to club girls the Florida Federation of Wo men's Clubs gives annually two $50 scholarships for educational purposes. These are awarded to the girls doing the best work in poultry and gardening, and are helpful in developing the pro ductive side of the work. Montgomery Ward & Company gave $140 to defray the ex penses of the state ' s outstanding club girl to attend the Boys' and Girls' Club Congress held in Chicago, December 2-8. Gene vieve McCallum of Palm Beach County won and made this trip. "As a result of home demonstration work in Polk County, the federation of women's clubs of that county maintains a club scholarship to Montverde Industrial School. "Palm Beach County gives a home economic scholarship to the Florida State College for Women. Orange County has established a full home economics scholar ship to the Florida State College for Women.

PAGE 77

76 Florida Coopeiative Extension "Where home demonstration work was established, interest in the local schools was intensified. Clubs were active in pro viding better equipment for' schools and assisting in providing longer school terms. In communities where there are no high schools, many club girls found a way to attend the county high school as a step toward a college education. In one county alone there are ten country girls in high school as a result of club work." The short course for women during Farmers' Week at the University of Florida was attended by 173 women who took advantage of the courses offered. , Traveling Libraries.-During the early part of the year 475 well-selected books were donated to this branch of extension work to be used as a nucleus for traveling libraries. Fifteen cases for the transportation of these books in the counties were provided. Those who used these libraries show marked appre ciation of them. Fairs.-Home demonstration exhibits were made at 38 com munity, 25 county. and 2 state fairs during 1923. Each county seemed keenly interested in developing the fairs of the state thru good exhibits. Fair associations were liberal in their ap propriations for premiums offered for home demonstration work. Puhlications.-The following publications went to press during the first part of the year: Bulletin 44-Handbook for Second Year Sewing. Bulletin 45-Florida Club Songs. Bulletin 46-Handbook for First Year Sewing. Bulletin 47-Pickles and Relishes. , A nutrition demonstration (20 leaflets) pamphlet also was published. Publicity.-Newspapers of the state are 'liberal in printing timely articles and in using space for the support of home dem onstration work. Many of the home demonstration agents main tained news columns in their local newspapers. Others report that the newspapers always publish articles when supplied by them. Much publicity was given to home demonstration work thru community, county, di'strict and state fairs, Farmers' Week, the girls' Short Course, contests, camps and the Florida Fed eration of Women's Clubs. Outlook.-In counties where there is no home demonstration agent there seems to be a lack of understanding of the work , which, together with a lack of county funds, hinders the exten

PAGE 78

Annual Report, 1923 77 sion of home demonstration work .. However, taking the state as a whole, it is most encouraging to find the interest and support which home demonstration work is receiving from state offi cials, Florida Federation of Women's Clubs, state, county and local organizations and people in general. There are spl~ndid possibilities for future development. Much time, thought and work will be given during the ensuing year to food conservation, standardizing and marketing by products from Florida fruits and vegetables. Living at home and home improvement will be stressed largely thru poultry raising, gardening, dairying, household management, health and sanita tion, nutrition and the use of Florida products.

PAGE 79

78 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF A. A. ~URNER, _ LOCAL (COLORED) DISTRICT AGENT, IN CHARGE OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK . Negro extension work thru farm and home makers' clubs was conducted in 14 counties during 1923. Alachua, Columbia, Su wannee, Jackson, Washington, Gadsden, Madison and Marion Counties employed farm agents and St. Johns, Orange, Jeffer son, Duval, Leon, Sumter, and Madison Counties employed home agents. The terms of agents were for nine or ten months, depending on local conditions. The work accomplished had principally to do with production and farm and home improvement. However, a definite effort was made to assist in cooperative marketing; in this satisfactory results were secured, particularly in marketing truck and garden crops. The control of boll weevils by the Florida method was carried out systematically but, owing to adverse weather conditions, a low yield of cotton was produced. The agents were supplied with calcium arsenate and dust guns and given definite instruction for carrying out the demonstrations. Poultry work was especially emphasized, the local agents, es pecially the women, making this a major project. The following paragraphs give the accomplishments of the several main projects: 1. Field and Garden Clubs.-An attempt was made last year, as in past years, to teach practical methods of farming, garden ing and trucking by demonstrating on small plots how to grow certain crops best adapted to the needs of the people in the com munity where grown. It was found in some counties that truck crops and even some fruits can be raised along with staple crops, thereby bringing the farmer more ready cash. The growing of truck crops in connection with staple crops has reached the northern counties and is being tried out to supplement the cash from staple crops which come off later in the year. The truck crops are planned for early markets. Heavy rainfall not only ruined cotton, but did untold damage to the corn . crop, the average yield for boys being around 29 bushels and for men 16 bushels. The average yield of sweet potatoes was 85 bushels for boys and 70 bushels for men and women. The average yield of peanuts was 44 bushels for boys. 2. Pig Clubs.-There was little interest in pig work from the standpoint of purchasing purebreds. Owing to a low price for

PAGE 80

Annual Report, 1923 79 market hogs, there was a tendency to use purebred boars and grade sows. However, the usual amount of pork was produced and put on the market. Cholera was checked by _ the active inter est of the agents _ by having hogs inoculated at the proper time. 3. Poultry Clubs.-One outstanding result accomplished in the poultry club was the plan by which club members in western Florida (where markets were poor) sold chickens, eggs, and tur keys at good prices in Orlando. Arrangements were . made for handling club produce during the tourist season. For instance, turkeys shipped from Chipley to Orlando sold for 50 cents a pound live weight when they were selling for only 25 cents, f. o. b., Chipley. Chickens and eggs were sold in many cases on the same basis. 4. Dairy Clubs.-Some progress was made in interesting col ored farmers in owning and keeping two or more good dairy cows. Dairy work develops slowly in Florida on account of the Texas cattle tick, yet more farmers are building fences and making pastures in which they can keep up their cow~ and protect them from the open range and the tick. A Leon County farmer perhaps did more in dairying than any other negro in the state. He has built his dairy herd up to 40 cows and receives 30 cents a gallon for his milk shipped to Jack sonville . His receipts averaged $115 a week. Leon, Alachua, Marion, and Jackson made great progress in dairying. 5. Farm and Home Improvement Clubs.-Along with the les sons in better farming and livestock and poultry raising, the agents taught the fundamentals of good health, comfort and convenience on the farm and in the home. The home was taken as the basis of operation and every effort was made to make it a better place in which to live. Teaching industry and thrift among the club members and patrons was an important work. Results along this line were accomplished by improving the home and its premises. This work consisted of planting fruit trees, screening, whitewashing, repairing houses and outbuildings, cleaning wells, building sani. tary toilets and making household supples and conveniences. Fairs and Exhibits.-The greatest opportunity to make the farm and home makers' club movement popular is thru county and state fairs. Exhibits of the work done by club members and patrons were displayed and inspected and examined by white and colored. Nothing did more toward gaining sentiment in fa vor of the work than these exhibits; and nothing did more toward

PAGE 81

80 Florida Cooperative Extension developing the educational side of the work in aBits phases than these exhibits at state and . county fairs. The following statement was made in the Jacksonville Journal on November 23, by Oscar Mills, President of the Southeastern Fair, Atlanta, Georgia: "The colored department of the Flol,'ida State Fair is a revelation to me. It is something we have been trying to get in Atlanta for a number of years. The building, filled as it is with unusual accomplishments under the direction of Superintendent Turner, reflects much credit upon the colored people. If there were more southern fairs that would interest themselves in this way, there would be a considerable decrease in migration of ngroes to the north." Cooperating Agencies.-Most coop.eration was from the Negro Farmers' Union, a cooperative marketing association operating among negro farmers in several counties. During the year negro farmers of Marion County sold cooperatively $52,000 worth of truck crops. The business manager of this association and a widely known . trucker and shipper of Ocala volunteered to supervise the grad ing and packing schools to be held in . the various counties next season. A success ul colored potato grower of Hastings also did much to interest his people in better living and farming. It was thru this medium that club members and patrons were able to market their truck crops in carlots. This phase of the work made good progress. Meetings.-Two meetings were held to train local agents. Many important subjects were presented by lecturers and thru dem onstrations by subject-matter specialists from the University of Florida and the Florida State College for Women. Nine hun. dred forty-nine field meetings were held, with a total attendance of 20,276. Length of Term.-The local agents worked this year, on an average, nine months, both men and women; and, there being only one agent in a county, each was taught to work among the clubs of both sexes. This plan enables them to be more useful in the community, but handicaps them in reporting all the work done. From _ 1,292 boys' and girls' club reports of things done the following tables have been compiled to show the scope of the work:

PAGE 82

Annual Report, 1923 l._Field and G_arden Clu1Js: Corn harvested .............................. . Sweet potatoes harvested ............. . Irish potatoes harvested ......... :: .. : .. . Peanuts harvested ......................... . Treated cotton harvested ............. . Tobacco harvested ......................... . Tomatoes harvested .......... : ............ . Beans harvested .................. , .......... . Watermelons harvested ................. . Cucumbers harvested ..................... . 2. Pig Clubs: Hogs sold on foot ........................... . Cured pork sold ............................... . 3. Poultry Clubs: Chickens sold ................................. . Eggs sold ......................................... . 4. Dairy Clubs: Cows kept ....................................... . Milk produced ................................. . Cream sold ....................................... . Pounds butter made ....................... . 5. Farm and Home Improvement Clubs: Fruit trees planted ......................... . Grape vines planted ....................... . Houses screened ............................. . Houses whitewashed ..................... . Houses painted ............................... . Homes remodeled ........................... . Homes purchased ........................... . Pieces handicraft made ..... , ........... . Bars soap made ............................... . "\Veils cleaned and covered .. : .......... . Sanitary toilets made ................... . Fireless cookers made .... _ ............ . Containers filled (qts.) ................. . ACRES 224 172 -• 43 130 56 2 49 36 13 ,9 NUMBER 140 25 NUMBER 2,524 NUMBER 19 NUMBER 541 194 87 274 47 19 8 413 i,051 5 10 53 21,140 81 YIELD VALUE 6,496 bus. $6,496 14,445 bus. 10,844 1,510 bbls. 5,185 5,850 bus. 8,775 7,000 lbs. 2,100 2,214 lbs. 1,107 3,521 crts. 8,802 1,080 hprs. 1,350 1 carload 338 358 crts. 753 POUNDS VALUE 19,191 $1,151 1,250 250 POUNDS VALUE 7,527 $1,909 630 doz. 189 --= GALLONS VALUE 930 $187 243 166 91 36 J TOTAL VALUE ........................ $49,638

PAGE 83

82 Florida Cooperative Extension A thousand and seventy-two men and women, who did dem onstration work sent in interesting reports, from which the following tables have been compiled: 1. Fi e ld and Garden Clubs: ACRES YIELD VALUE . -Corn harvested -----------------------688 11,114 bus . $11,114 Sweet potatoes harvested . . ....... .. . . . 332 23,660 bus. 17,745 Irish potatoes harvested . . .. . . : . .... . . .. 96 2,904 bus. 9,364 Peanuts harvested ---------------------250 10,000 bus 15,000 Treated cotton harvested . .... ... ..... . 314 31,400 lbs. 9,420 Tobacco harvested 3 3,660 lbs. 1,830 Tomatoes harvested ..... . ... .. : .. ....... . . . 223 15 , 610 crts. 39,025 Beans harvested ---------------------361 10,830 hprs. 13,637 Melons har v ested ---------678 36 cars 8,816 Cucumber s harve s ted . . . ......... .. . ... . . . . 78 2 337 crts. 4 . 928 2. Pig Clubs: NUMBER POUNDS VALUE --Hog s sold on foot . ... ...... .... . . . .. ......... 686 82,000 $4,920 __ C _ ur ~ .
PAGE 84

INDEX Administration as project, 13 Agricultural News Service, 11 Alachua County Creamery, 31 Appointment of workers, 14 Asparagus plumosus nanus; 59, 62 Ayers, Ed L., report of, 56 Bean J assid control, 61 Blacklock, R. W., report of, 43 Blueberry culture, 36 Boll weevil control, 12, 33, 38, 44 Boys' citrus clubs, 45 c : ub enrollment, 46 club exhibits, 48 club prizes, 45 clubs, organization of, 43 club work, 9 short courses, 46 Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 52 Bulletins issued during year, 11 Camps and rallies for girls, 74 for club boys, 47 Cantaloupe troubles, 57 Cantaloupes,. work with, 57 Carter, Louise, appointment of, 14 Cereal demonstrations, . 24 Celery leaf tyer, 58 troubles, 58 work, 58 Citrus clubs for boys, 45 demonstrations, 26 field meetings, 12 production, 40 schools, 56 work, 30, 38 Clayton, H. G., . report of,. 33 Clothing, work in, 68 Club boys' exhibits, 48 camps, 47 enrollment, 46 prizes for boys, 45 work, 32 work, dairy, 54 work, projects, 45 Clubs, colored persons, 78 organized, development of, 43 College of Agriculture, cooperation of, 14 Community improvement in home demonstration work, 73 work of county agents, 20 Committee recommendations, 15 Conferences of negro workers, 16 of white workers, 15 Cooperation among . negro farm ers, 80 of other institutions, 14 Cooperative organizations, 41 sales a.nd purchases of farmers, 40 Corn culture, 39 work, 29, 34 Cotton culture, 39 demonstrations, 24 work, 29 County agents, activities of, 23 increasing efficiency of, 22 number employed, 7 work in communities, 20 County agent work, 8 extent of, 18 projects of, 8 Creamery, cooperative, establish ment at Brooksville, 54 organization of, 31 Cucumber troubles, . 57, 61 Dairy cattle demonstrations, 25 club work, 54 conditions, improvement of, 55 development in Florida, 53 husbandr:,, 9 problems worked on, 52 products of Florida, supply of and demand for, 53 visits by farmers, _ 52 work, 31, 39 Demonstrations, cereal, 24 citrus, 26 cotton, 24 dairy cattle, 25 hog, 25 Irish potatoes, 25 . . legumes, 24 ' ' orchard, 24 poultry, 26 rodents, etc.,. to control, 2'1

PAGE 85

84 Florida Cooperative Extension soil improvement, 26 sweet potato, 25 truck and garden, 25 Diseases of plants, to control, 30 Disinfecting seedbeds, 61 Educational work at _ fairs, 55 Egg-laying contests, 72 Entomology, 10 Equipment of county agents, 28, 33, 38 of home demonstration agents, 65 Exhibits and fairs, 21, 36, 41 of club boys, 48 Extension agents, _work of, 7, 8 projects, 8 schools, 11, 12 work, division of, 8 work, statistics, 23 workers, 13 Fairs and exhibits, 21, 36, 41 and exhibits, negro extension work in connection with, 79 Fairs, educational work at, 55 home demonstration participation in, 76 Farm dairying, 39, 52 Farmstead improvements, 27 Farmers, meetings of, 34 Farmers' Week, 13, 51 Fertilizer, home-mixing of, 36 sampling, 36 Field meetings, 12 Financial statement, 17 Florida State College for Women, cooperation of, 14 Floyd, Minnie E., resignation of, 14 Forage crops, 9 Fruits, small, work ~ith, 39 Funds received and expended, 17 Garden demonstrations, 25 Girls' contests, 74 rallies and camps, 74 short courses, 75 Gleason, Flavia, appointment of, 14 report of, 63 Grasses, distribution of, 51 Hiatt, Leland, instructor in swim ming, 48 S. W., report of, 38 S. W., work with fairs, 21 Hog demonstrations, 25 raising, 34, . 40 Horn, Madge, appointment of, 14 Horticulture, home demonstration work in, 71 Home demonstration agents, equip ment of, 65 employed, 7 project activities, 67 Home demonstration staff, appoint ment of, 63 Home demonstration work, 9 report of, 63 status and scope of, 63, 66 summary of, 67 Home dairy work, 71 furnishings, 70 health and sanitation, 70 Household management and home furnishings, 70 Improvements, farmstead, 27 Irish potato culture, 39 demonstrations, 25 Jenkins, E. W., report of, 28 Land crabs, control of, 61 Lansden, H. B., appointment of, 14 Layton, Harriette B., resignation of, 14 Leaf tyer of celery, 58 Legume demonstrations, 24 LeNoir, Ellen, resignation of, 14 Libraries, traveling, 76 Livestock work, 29 Lumber yard disease, 59 Marketing in home demonstration work, 72 McDavid, Ruby, appointment of, 14 Meetings of negro farmers, 80 Millinery work, 68 Moore, Virginia P., appointment of, 14 Morse, May, resignation 0, 14

PAGE 86

Annual Report, 1923 85 Negro extension work, 10 scope of, 81, 82 report of, 78 Negro workers, conferences of, 16 Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7 Newspapers, cooperation of, 11 as help to extension work, 34 Orchard demonstrations, 24 Organization of county agent work, 18 Organizations, cooperative, 41 Organization work, 32 among women, 74 Outlook for 1924, 16 Partridge, Sarah W., resignation of, 14 Pasture work, 31 Peanut culture, 40 Plan of work, 15, 33 Plant Pathology, 10 Poultry, 10 demonstrations, 26 home demonstration work in, 72 Poultry work, 31, 42 Projects of county agent work, 18 Publications, 10 Home demonstration, 76 Publicity, 34, 46, 76 Purchases and sales of farmers, 27 Reams, Charles, story of as club boy, 49 Resignations of workers, 14 Rodent control demonstrations, 27 Sales and purchases of farmers, 27, 35, 40 Sanborn, N. W., transfer of, 14 Sand pear culture, 36 Sanitation in the home, 70 Satsuma culture, 34 plantings, 35 Scholarships for club boys, 48 for club girls, 75 Schools, citrus, 56 vegetable, 56 Scott, John M., report of, 50 Seed beds, disinfecting, 61 Settle, Lucy Belle, appointment of, 14 Short courses for boys, 46 I for girls, 75 Smith, Gladys, resignation of; 14 : George, D., assistance of, 33 I J. Lee, club leadership of, 43 Soil improvement work, 26, 28, 36, 41 I Spencer, A. P., report of, 18 Spraying methods, 56 Staff, changes in, 14 State Livestock Sanitary Board, cooperation of, 20 State Marketing Board, cooperai tion of, 20 State Plant Board, cooperation of, i 14, 21 Statistics of work done, 23 Supervision of work, 21, 33, 43 Sweet potato culture, 39 i demonstrations, 25 work, 29, 34 Thursby, Isabelle S., a,ppointment of, 14 :Tisdale, 0. O., local club leader, 44 : Tomato troubles, 58 Tomatoes, work with, 58 ,Truck crops, 36 :Truck crop work, 30 Truck demonstrations, 25 :Turner, A. A., report of, 78 I United States Department of Ag riculture, cooperation of, 14 Vegetable production, 41 schools, 56 Webster, Agnes I., resignation of, 14 :Watermelon culture, 36 troubles, 57 work with, 57