Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1922
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text







Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida,
And United States Department of
Agriculture Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1922 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 309 1922












Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Agricultural Extension Division. University of Florida,
And United States Department of
Agriculture Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1922
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE,
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30,1922












CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA . 3
BOARD OF CONTROL, STAFF, SPECIALISTS, SPECIAL LECTURERS . 4
COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS, LIST OF . 5
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL . 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR . . 7
INTRODUCTION . I . 11 . 7
ORGANIZATION . 8
FINANCIAL STATEMENT . . 9
CHANGES IN STAFF . 10
PUBLICATIONS . . 10
OUTLINE OF PROJECTS . 11
EXTENSION SCHOOLS . 13
CONFERENCES FOR EXTENSION WORKERS . 13
F AIRS . 14
COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXTENSION WORK . 15
EXTENSION WORK FOR NEGROE9 . 15
COUNTY SUPPORT FOR EXTENSION WORK . 16
EXPANSION OF THE WORK FOR 1923 . 17
REPORT OF VicE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER . 19
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA ------------------------ 28
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, WEST FLORIDA . 32
REPORT OF D19TRICT AGENT, EAST AND NORTHEAST FLORIDA . 35
REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT . . 39
REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST . 44
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT PATHOLOGIST . . 46
REPORT OF POULTRY SPECIALIST . . 48
REPORT OF DAIRY SPECIALIST . 51
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT . 54
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT . 64
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST
F LORIDA . 69
REPORT oiF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST
F LORIDA . 72
REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN POULTRY 75 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN DAIRYING 80 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN NUTRITION 84 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN FOOD CONSERVATION ----------------------------------- . 87
REPORT OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK, OR OF LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT . 89


6 o























Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1922, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1922.
Respectfully,
P. K. YONGE,
Chairman of the Board of Control.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola. E. L. W'ARTMANN, Citra. J. B. SUTTON, Tampa. JOHN C. COOPRr, JR., Jacksonville. W. L. WEAVER, Perry.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. A. C. TRUE, Director. C. B. SMITH, Chief.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. WILMON NEWELL, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader. RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor. RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. RETTA MCQUAERIE, Assistant Auditor.

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK E. W. JENKINS, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. S. W. HIATT, District Agent. R. W. BLACKLocK, Boys' Club Agent.

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Home Demonstration Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. MAY MORSE, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. GLADYS SMITH, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. ESTELLE BOZEMAN, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent (resigned
May 31).
AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Home Demonstration Agent. LONNY 1. LANDRUM, District Home Demonstration Agent (resigned Sept.
11).
ELLEN LENOIR, District Home Demonstration Agent (appointed Sept. 16).

SPECIALISTS IN AGRICULTURAL WORK J. M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist. N. W. SANBORN, Poultry Husbandman. HAMLIN L. BROWN, Dairy Specialist. ED L. AYERS, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (appointed May 1).

SPECIAL LECTURERS
J. R. WATSON, Entomology.
0. F. BURGER, Citrus Diseases. RI. W. RUPREGHT, Soils and Fertilizers. C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture. E. L. LORD, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery. A. L SHEALY, Veterinary Science. G. F. WEBER, Vegetable Diseases. J. E. TURLINGTON, Farm Management.








Annual Report, 1922


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS*
HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS
Alachua-.R. L. King------------ Gainesville--------.Miss Lynn McNutt
Bay--------.1. R. Whittington --- anama City.
Brevard-.H. R. Tribble ------Cocoa.
Citrus-------.1_. E. VanNess-.Inverness---------.Miss Beulah Pipkin
Clay_.-.-.XV. T. Nettles-.Green Cove Springs . Columbia-.C. F. Green-. lake City------------.Miss Marie Cox
Dade-------3. . S. Rainey-.Miami .
DeSoto --------G. W. Scally-.Arcadia--_---------- Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Duval ----------W. L. Watson.-------Jacksonville -----------Miss Pearl Laffitte
Escambia-.S. Lee Smith -_---Pensacola-------.Miss Dorothy Mitchell
Flagler ---- .L. T. Nieland -.Bunnell . Gadsden-.D. L. Campbell-.Quincy----------.Miss Ruby McDavid
Glades-------------------------------------- Moore Haven-------.Miss Lenore Tyler
Hamilton-. 3. Sechrest--------Jasper--------.Miss Virginia Branham
Hernando---J. T. Daniel----------- Brooksville-------- .Mrs. J. W. Palmer
Hillsborough.R. T. Kelley--.Plant City--.------Miss Blanche Glenn
Tampa--------.Miss Mary RI. Symonds Jackson------._----------------------- Marianna--------.Miss Martha McCall
Jefferson-. . H. Rothe---------Monticello.o;
Lake------.E. F. DeBusk-.Tavares ------------------Miss Ora Oo
Lee--------------LIH. E. Stevens -----Ft. Myers-.Miss Lucy Belle Settle
Leon --------------------------------------- Tallahassee --------------Mrs. A. H. Peay
Levy-------.N. J. Allbritton-.Williston.
Liberty-.A. W. Turner--------Bristol .
Madison.----B. E. Lawton--------Madison----------.Mrs. B. E. Lawton
Manatee-.W. R. Briggs--------Bradentown ------Miss Margaret Cobb
Marion-.K. C. Moore----------- Ocala-------------------------------------- --Okaloosa-.H. J. Hart--------.Laurel Hill . .
Crestview---------.Miss Bertha Henry Orange-.C. D. Kime-------.Orlando ------------- Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola-.Leo H. Wilson.-.Kissimmee--------.Miss Albina Smith
Palm Beach-3. . A. Dew------------- West Palm BeachMrs. Edith Y. Morgan
Pasco-------.F. G. Merrin ------Dade City----.----Mrs. Harriet Ticknor
Pinellas----------------------.Clearwater-.Miss Isabelle Thursby
Polk--------.Win. Gomme-.Bartow------------.Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam.D. A. Armstrong---Palatka--------.Miss Floresa Sipprell
St. Johns-3. . 0. Tinnler ------St. Augustine-.Miss Anna E. Heist
St. Lucie-.Alfred Warren-.Ft. Pierce.----Santa Rosa ---John G. Hudson ----Milton-------.Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen
Seminole-.B. F. Whitner, Jr--Sanford . Sumter ------------------------------------- Bushnell------------.Miss Mae Morris
Suwannee-.C. E. Matthews----Live Oak------ --.Miss Alice Dorsett
Taylor-. .R. J. Dorsett-.Perry.---------.Miss Annabel Peaden
Volusia-.Roy R. Johnson-.DeLand-------------.Miss Orpha Cole
Wakulla-.G. C. Hodge-.Crawfordville . Walton-.J. W. Mathison-.DeFuniak Springs.Mrs. Grace F. Warren
*This list is correct to December 31, 1922.










Report of General Activities for 1922 with

Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30,1922


Hon. P. K. Yonge,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1922. 1 respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the governor of the State of Florida.
Respect ully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
Agricultural extension work this year was characterized by carefully defined projects and plans of work, by intensive efforts directed toward definite accomplishments and, in many counties, by fewer but better-done undertakings.
County and home demonstration agents accomplish much more when permitted to work with groups of people ratl er than with individuals only. Where counties and communities are banded together for a common good, thru organizations, the efficiency of the county and home demonstration agents is increased.
Agricultural extension service is most effective when the community in which it-works makes a survey of its needs and then supports a program of work led by the county or home demonstration agent or both.
Extension agents endeavor to meet the needs of their counties. In some instances it is still necessary to do much individual work as all communities are not organized for such work. In these cases it has been a part of the agents' duties to interest the leading people in that community as to their needs and to secure






Florida Cooperative Extension


their assistance in arousing the combined interests of the community.
More is asked of county extension workers now than they possibly can carry out. It becomes necessary for all such workers to outline or programize their work and to expend their time, and the funds appropriated for this use, so that the greatest good to the greatest number of people will result.
The agricultural extension service has endeavored to get ail intimate knowledge of the needs of Florida's agricultural and home life situation, to locate the men and women rural leaders, and to organize and direct county and community forces for the advancement and betterment of the country life of Florida.
The administration of the agricultural extension program was carried out according to plans as in former years. Each project leader and subject matter specialist undertook his or her work according to plans submitted a year ago. These undertakings were accomplished in a satisfactory manner on the whole, particularly as applied to county workers.
The, cooperation between county and home demonstration workers was exceptionally good. In practically every instance where work undertaken required the assistance of both agents, these workers came to realize the advantage of working together as much as possible. This had a wholesome effect on the general status of county work and inspired greater confidence on the part of those who gave it their support.

ORGANIZATION
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics is one of the three branches of the College of Agriculture, Uniiversity of Florida. Supervising staffs are located as follows: Of county agents, at the University of Florida, Gainesville; of home demonstration agents, at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee; and of negro agents, at the Florida A. & M. College for- Negroes, Tallahassee.
County and home demonstration agents usually have headquarters at their county seats. Their office equipment is provided by the county, and as these agents' problems are closely connected and related, they usually work together and from the same office, using the same bulletin files and stenographic assistance, when such help is provided. . The specialists work with the district and county agents, not being restricted to special territories. They attempt to work






Annual Report, 192.2


wherever most needed. In counties where there are no agents, these specialists work with individual farmers and growers. However the best results are secured when they can work with county workers. The extension specialists coordinate their work with Various departments of the Florida Experiment Station and thus keep the county workers in close touch with what the Experiment Station is doing.
When specialists of.the United States Department of Agriculture visit Florida for particular work they, too, work with the district and county agents, being directed to localities most in need of their services or best suited to their purposes. Thru the cooperation of the College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture, various bureaus, departments and state agencies are so organized that duplication of effort may be reduced to the minimum.
County agents are under the direction of the state leader and the district agents. Boys' club work is under the direction of the boys' club agent and the district agents Boys' clubs in various counties are organized by the county agents with such assistance as they can secure from their counties. Specialists are responsible for the subject matter in their particular lines, as it applies to agricultural work.
Home demonstration work is under the direction of the state home demonstration agent, her assistants and the district home demonstration agents. This work also has assistant specialists in home dairying, poultry, and food conservation. These specialists work principally with home demonstration agents, giving them assistance in their particular projects. The home demonstration agents work mainly thru organized clubs of women and girls.
Negro extension work is under the immediate direction of a local district agent. He has assistants, known as local county agents and local home demonstration agents, who work in several counties. The assistant club agents (colored) are employed for only a portion of the year. Their program is planned particularly to encourage thrift and has improved materially the conditions of the colored farmers of the state.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT
The receipts and expenditures of this division of the College of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, were as follows:







10 Florida Cooperative Extension

RECEIPTS
College of Agriculture FundsSmith-Lever, Federal . $ 52,912.22 Smith-Lever, State ------------------------------------------------- _ 42,912.22
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal . 17,880.09 Supplementary Smith-Lever, State . 17,880.09
U. S. D. A. appropriation ------------------------------------ ----------- 19,000.00
State appropriations --------------------_------- . 8,275.00
County appropriations . 71,000.00

Total . : . $229,859.62

EXPENDITURES
Adm inistration -------------------------------------------------------------------- $ 15,276.82
Printing and publications ------------------------------------------------ 5,792.79
County agents' work -------------------------------------------------------- 95,828.49
Home demonstration work ------- --------- . 87,033.02
Boys' club work ------------------------------------------------------------------ 4,401.33
Anim al industry ---_---------------- * . 3,347.79
Negro farm and home makers' work ------------------------------ 12,603.54
Poultry husbandry ----------------------------- . 1 2,579.68
Extension schools . 633.37 Plant pathology and entomology . 1,685.96 B alance . ------------------------------------------------------ 676.83

Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------- $229,859.62


CHANGES IN STAFF

Relatively few changes in the staff occurred during 1922. Ed L. Ayers was appointed extension entomologist and pathologist, effective May 1. Lonny I. Landrum resigned as district home demonstration agent on September 11. She was succeeded by Ellen LeNoir on September 16. Gladys Smith was appointed nutrition specialist on February 6. Estelle Bozeman resigned as assistant state home demonstration agent and conservation specialist on May 31. Her position has not been filled.
Among county and home demonstration workers, various changes took place between July 1 and October 1. These were principally due to resignations and to transfers between counties. The Changes were relatively few, and in each case the new agents appointed had qualifications equal, if not better, to those who resigned.

PUBLICATIONS

The following bulletins were issued from the Gainesville office of the Division during the year:






Annual Report, 1922


Bulletin 30, "Spray Schedule for Citrus". 4,000 copies
31, "Lessons for Pig Club
Members"------------------10,000
32, "Important Diseases of Truck Crops in Florida" (Reprint of Bul. 139 Fla. Exp. Sta.) --------------------- 10,000
33, "Satsuma Oranges in North
and West Florida"- -------- 5,169 is 34, "Sweet Potatoes in Florida".20,285 it 35, "Grape Culture in Florida". 6,154
The 1921 Annual Report.---------2,030"

The following bulletins in home demonstration work were also issued from the Gainesville office:
Bulletin 34, "Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades".----------25,000 copies
41, "Hand Book for First Year
Sewing".---_----10,000
A weekly agricultural news and feature service was maintained thruout the year, supplying the newspapers and farm journals of the state with timely news and informational farm articles. This service-known as the Agricultural News Service-is sent also to county and home demonstration agents, agricultural teachers and others interested in the agricultural and home development of the state. Approximately six hundred copies of this service is mailed out each week.

OUTLINE OF PROJECTS
The expenditure of extension funds for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, was for nine projects as follows:
Project I-A-Administration.-This provides for the expenses of the offices of the director and vice-director, salaries of clerical, help and for such miscellaneous expenses and emergencies as may arise.
Project I-B-Publications.-The expense for publications and the distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly press matter and annual reports is provided for and is covered by this project.
Project TI-County Agents.-The salaries and traveling expenses of district agents, salaries of county agents, expenses of






Florida Cooperative Extension


12


county agents' meetings, and supplies and incidentals incurred in connection with county agent work are cared for by this project. Considerable portions of the funds for this project are appropriated by counties to supplement the salaries paid county agents by the Division. That portion of the agents' salaries paid directly by counties is not accounted for by the state offices. All other expenditures in this project are paid from funds ot the University of Florida.
Project III-Boys' Clubs.-This project has to do with the direction and management of boys' clubs. As boys' clubs are organized by county agents, Projects II and III are closely allied. Funds for this project are applied to the salary and expenses of the club aren't. clerical help, supplies, record books and other incidentals of club work.
Project IV-Home Demonstration.-Home demonstration work, including gardening, food conservation, nutrition, textiles, clothing, poultry keeping, home dairying, beekeeping and home improvement, come within this group. The largest expenditure of funds in this project is for the salaries of home demonstration agents. Since counties are required to contribute to the salaries of these agents, only that part of an agent's salary paid from state and federal funds is accounted for by the University of Florida.
Project V-LDairy Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The animal industrialist, who belongs jointly to the staffs of the Experiment Station and this Division, carries on work under this project. The project contemplates the improvement of beef cattle, provides assistance in the management of dairy cattle and hogs, and makes surveys of the conditions of forage and pasture crops. The Florida Experiment Station cooperates in this work.
Project VI-Farm and Home Makers' Clubs.-This is agricultural extension work among negroes and from its funds the salaries of the local district agent and assistant local county agents are paid. Also the expenses of the local district agent's office, stenographic help and travel expenses of the negro agents, men and women, when in attendance at state meetings, are paid from these funds.
Project VII-Entomology and Plant Pathology.-This project provides for special work in disease and insect control with farm crops, fruits, vegetables, nuts and ornamentals. The losses - of perishables caused by diseases and insects have been heavy. The







Annual Report, 1922


work of this project began on May 1, 1922, and the demands on the specialist's time are many.
Project VII--Poultry Work.-In this project funds are provided for a half-time poultry specialist, salary and expenses. This work contemplates improvement of farm poultry, finding market for poultry products, assisting county and home demonstration agents in securing better stock, culling demonstrations, feeding problems and poultry problems in general.
Project TX-Extension Schools.-This is for the conducting of farmers' meetings and schools in agriculture and home demonstration. It also provides for similar schools at the University of Florida and the State College for Women, and for such other meetings as the best interests of the work demand.

EXTENSION SCHOOLS
There has always been a need for extension schools in counties. The need for this is greater than the work accomplished would indicate. During the year the general farmers of Florida were discouraged and disappointed in. that they. were unable to meet most of; their obligations, and they underwent the same depression that farmers. in other cotton-growing states did.
Extension schools functioned largely to bring the farmers together to learn the principles of cooperative marketing and to receive whatever relief was possible to be had under the circumstances. As a result'-of the schools held, many hogs and much' farm- produce and considerable quantities of farm supplies were sold and purchased cooperatively.,
Many extension schools were conducted in the citrus-growing counties, being conducted principally by county and district agents and specialists. These were in reality field meetings. With the increased plantings of -citrus, there is an urgent need' for the better control of diseases and insect pests. These schools made it possible to demonstrate in a practical way the identity of such pests and to. show by demonstration how they may be controlled. Most of the schools conducted were for one day only.

CONFERENCES FOR EXTENSION WORKERS
Thruout the year monthly conferences were held, and the leaders attended that their problems might be mutually understood. These conferences were attended by members of the






Florida Cooperative Extension


teaching staff of the College of Agriculture, and by the staffs of the Experiment Station and of the State Plant Board. They were particularly helpful in unifying the endeavors of these four agricultural organizations, all doing work in the state.
Early in the year four group meetings were held in different parts of the state when county workers presented their plans for the year. Suggestions, criticisms and recommendations were made by others in attendance. About two days were required for each of these meetings. A definite program was prepared for each and on the whole these group meetings were especially beneficial in establishing uniform plans of work.
The annual meeting of all state and county workers was held in Gainesville in September. The home demonstration workers met separately in Tallahassee for a few days before coming to Gainesville to join the agricultural workers who, too, had met separately for a few days.
In Mar ' ch the negro agents were called together for conference and for the submitting of plans by county workers. These agents had their attention called to the importance of sanitation in the home and community, by the Florida, State Board of Health. And work of this nature was incorporated into the general plans of. negro extension work for the year.

FAIRS

County fairs and exhibits occupied much of the county and home demonstration agents' time this year, in a few instances perhaps more than results justified. The fairs offer county extension workers a means of arousing general interest in agriculture and home economics, for it is highly important that the work of these agents be brought to the attention of the people. In conducting fairs, however, the educational ' side is emphasized as-much as possible, agents having been. instructed to make this feature stand out prominently. So, on a whole, fair and exhibit work done by extension agents was helpful.
The fair is a means of bringing together community organizations. Without a definite plan and without definite work for individuals to do, community organizations accomplish comparatively little, outside of cooperative selling and buying. Thru the cooperation of extension agents with managers of state and county fairs.- the quality and arrangements of fairs have shown definite and gradual improvement. Fair workers placed em-






Annual Report, 1922


phases on quality, arrangement and educational value of exhibits and required exhibitors to show only such displays as come strictly under the head of agriculture and home improvement.
Fair associations cooperated liberally for the showing of boys' and girls' club work, allotting desirable space and providing liberal prizes for club members who exhibited corn, hogs, poultry, canned products and domestic art.
The Agricultural Extension Division was %represented in the University of Florida exhibit at the State Fair in Jacksonville in November. Four booths of 1600 square feet of floor space and 1460 square feet of wall space were allotted to county and home demonstration work.
Commerical vegetable packages, standard United States grades, forage crops, sweet potato varieties, grades of Florida cane syrup, pecan varieties, peanut and corn varieties, fruit exhibits showing insect and disease injury, charts and photographs of various kinds, poultry houses and appliances, feeds and standard breeds of poultry, an extensive exhibit calling attention to the value and importance of milk, etc., were shown. There was a nutrition booth, demonstrating the importance of nutrition and sanitation. In. this was shown a miniature train ("Healthland Flyer") with stations designated as "Cleanly Town . . Fruit Farms," "Cereal City," and "Milky Way."

COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXTENSION WORK
It is highly important that the work and recommendations of all extensions workers conform to a uniform plan as far as local conditions will permit. With this in view, 12 committees were appointed from the staff to formulate plans and recommendations pertaining to citrus, truck, poultry, dairying, publicity, purchasing, marketing, club work, fairs and exhibits, records, organization and resolutions.
The recommendations of these committees were presented at the annual conference and after final adoption copies were furnished to each member of the, staff.

EXTENSION WORK FOR NEGROES
There is little change in the negro extension work from former years, except for the placing of more attention on marketing and organization. The work- accomplished during the






Florida Cooperative Extension


year justified an increased working period for county workers. That is, these workers were appointed for eight months this year as against six in 1921, which arrangement furloughed them from May 31 to October 1. - This seemed particularly desirable in order that the demonstration work undertaken might be summarized and a just account made of it. This arrangement also resulted in the bringing together of exhibits of negro work at state and district fairs. The negro agents were largely responsible for the production and preparation of these exhibits.
On the whole the negro work progressed in a fairly satisfactory manner. It is very difficult to find workers with the training they should have for such an undertaking. However, most of the agents had worked two or more years already, and consequently were better prepared for the work this year than any year previously.


COUNTY SUPPORT FOR EXTENSION WORK

The appropriations for extension work by counties were slightly larger than in 1921. In a few instances the increases were substantial, in others small, and in others the appropriations of 1921 were not increased. The number of county agents was increased from 34 to 37. Five new counties came into the work, while two discontinued their cooperation in July. For home demonstration work 33 counties made appropriations. This was an increase of 5 over 1921. Two counties discontinued home demonstration work, whereas seven additional ones made appropriations for it. In some instances it was not possible to secure enough money from counties to carry the work thru. the entire year. In such cases it was necessary to reduce the number of months for employment of agents in order to get efficient service.
In all, 45 of the 61 counties cooperated. A state law permits boards of county commissioners to levy a half mill tax for this purpose. In 24 of the 45 counties - practically the entire half mill is levied. It would seem, therefore, that extension workers have given general satisfaction.
There is a growing demand for specially trained workers. In many counties the boards are appropriating nearly the maximum that can be raised by the one-mill tax. However, it is a fact that many workers are still underpaid, considering that the counties are large and the expenses heavy.







Annual Report, 1922


EXPANSION OF THE WORK FOR 1923

The plans for 1923 contemplate some changes from those of the past, changes necessary to make because of the changing conditions of the agriculture of the state.
During the last five years county agents were able to do but little for the improvement of the cotton industry, due to the general boll weevil infestation in the cotton area which made this an unsatisfactory and unprofitable crop to grow. Now, with the prospects for the reviving of this industry thru the application of the Florida method of boll weevil control, worked out by the State Plant Board of Florida and the Experiment Station, it is naturally advisable that county agents should devote a considerable portion of their time to the culture of cotton, particularly in demonstrating the correct application of this method.
Organizations for the cooperative selling and buying of farm products and supplies have been perfected and since those have










FIG. 1-"Dirt farmers" setting out a permanent pasture on the grounds
of the University of Florida while attending the annual club short
course in 1922

functioned to the betterment of the agricultural and home life of the communities and counties concerned, the further development of such organizations will constitute a major task of county and home demonstration agents next year.
There is a decided interest in the growing of satsuma oranges in the western counties of Florida. Most farmers of those counties are inexperienced in citrus culture. The agents there will give special study to satsuma culture and, with the assistance of the district agent, will give definite help to those who plant satsumas.
Interest is also being aroused by county agents in the production of other fruit which will receive special attention from them and other extension workers.






Florida Cooperative Extension


In the citrus counties of South Florida special attention will be given to the control of melanose. Each agent in those counties will make this one of his most important duties. In cooperation with the Florida Experiment Station, the extension plant pathologist and entomologist and county agents will proceed to carry out very definite control measures after having been assured that melanose can be controlled by the proper application of sprays.
More attention will be given to ornamental plantings and landscape gardening.
There is an increasing demand for properly trained county workers and this has been kept in mind in appointing new agents. It is expected, therefore, that extension work will keep well in advance of the agricultural development of the state. As these better trained agents will work in close cooperation with other branches of the College of Agriculture, there is every reason to believe that definite problems of the agricultural and horticultural interests of Florida will be solved in 1923.






AnnuaZ Report, 1922


REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND
COUNTY AGENT LEADER

On December 1, 1922, there were 37 county agents at work compared with 33 on the same date in 1921. The provisions for this increase were made by boards of county commissioners when they made their budgets in September. The changes in the county staff took place between July 1 and October 1.
During the year the work of the county agents proceeded with comparatively little interruption. In three cases where there seemed to be some opposition to continuing the work in the counties it was not difficult to find a favorable sentiment on the part of the farmers and business men to overcome the opposition and to continue the work.
County agents were called upon to do many unexpected and unusual things. Farmers felt that they needed relief of some nature so that they could dispose of their products at a fair price, and this suggests what constitutes a major project wity many agents. For some farm products there were poor sales and where farmers depended to a large extent on the sale of their range cattle they were disappointed because the market for range cattle was poor. This condition brought about a tendency on the part of farmers to organize for cooperative purchase and sale of their supplies and products and there was an incessant demand made on county agents to assist in this work.
Of the 37 county agents now employed, 16 have degrees from agricultural colleges. Three others have had equivalent training. The personnel and training of the staff as a whole is above that of former years. Many who have not attended college have been in this service for two or more years and by persistent efforts, good executive ability and good judgment, have proved themselves leaders in their respective counties. As a result they are receiving increased recognition and cooperation from persons of responsibility and influence.
In order to induce such men to take up county agent work or to retain their position, it has been necessary to make some increases in salaries and expense allowances. To do county agent work it costs more than formerly; a man cannot do the work and live as cheaply as he could a few years ago. Therefore, it has been necessary to increase salaries. In most cases the county boards of commissioners have granted increases. ' The best of cooperation was apparent in the counties, also







Fl(wida Cooperative Extension


from the offices of the State Department of Agriculture, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State Board of Health, the State Marketing Bureau and the State Plant Board of Florida. The work of the state marketing commissioner was particularly helpful to both county and home demonstration agents. He and the county agents cooperated heartily and, as a consequence, farmers of the state were able to market large quantities of products that would have been difficult to dispose of profitably under other conditions.

GENERAL SUMMARY OF COUNTY AGENT WORK
As the statistical report of county agents is herewith attached and the district agents, club agents and specialists are reporting also, it is sufficient to summarize here only briefly the work in counties.
During the year the agricultural conditions for the entire State of Florida were much more satisfactory than in many other states. In the southern portion of the state, particularly in the citrus area, most of the agricultural interests made definite progress. Truckers and growers found good sale for their products.
However, in the northern and western counties the farmers were not so fortunate. The livestock interests lagged. Hogs sold for only a fair price. There was some tendency to engage in trucking in this territory, but most efforts were unsatisfactory. Labor conditions were more difficult than in previous years. It is apparent, therefore, that each county agent had


FIG. 2-The pile of corn to the left represents a special project with County Agent W. L. Watson, Duval. The grower of this corn, V. C. Johnson,
was most particular in following Mr. Watson's suggestions






Annual Report, 1922


definite local problems to meet. W ' ith the assistance of cooperating agencies each endeavored to meet his problems.
In a few counties, the dairy interests were improved. Three creameries were established, making four now in operation in the state. These creameries, being new, underwent some changes during the year, being in most cases on a better operating basis than six months ago. The extension dairyman and a number of county agents gave the dairy and creamery business special study and endeavored in every possible way to assist the new enterprises to get on a paying basis. It has been difficult for dairymen to procure a sufficient number of good dairy cattle. To meet this some agents for the first time endeavored to establish dairy calf clubs. In other cases they assisted dairymen in the purchase of good cows. They also assisted in finding sale for dairy products during the months when the supply was greater than the demand. There are many sections of the state where it seems advisable for farmers to undertake dairying on a much larger scale. With that idea in view, the extension dairyman and certain county agents are directing their efforts toward making the industry profitable and permanent.
Citrus Work.-In several South Florida counties where citrus is the most profitable industry the county agents are expected to give it the greatest portion of their time. Men whounderstand the production of high-class citrus fruit are in constant demand. Training and experience in the methods of controlling insects and diseases are required of such agents. Due to the fact that many land owners and farmers in South Florida have found that general farming is_ less profitable than citrus or truck, many have discontinued the growing of staple crops, except to supply local needs.
The county agents of Brevard, St. Lucie, Manatee, Lake, Pasco, Polk, Osceola and Orange Counties, more than any other, devoted special attention to citrus culture. The most important problem was the control of disease and insect pests, which in many instances was complicated and expensive, requiring men of special training.
The cost of producing citrus fruit has materially increased in the last few years. Markets have become more critical and now demand good quality fruit, free of defects and blemishes. For several years the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture have made special study of the control of these pests. County agents are enabled to apply








22 Florida Cooperative Extension

the information learned from this study in groves by actual demonstrations. Over eighteen hundred groves, having an approximate acreage of 31,464, was under the supervision of extension agents last year, these agents demonstrating the best known practices in grove management.
Large'areas set to citrus groves by people altogether inexperienced in grove management received individual attention from county agents and were accordingly much improved.

ACTIVITIES

The following statistics will show in a general way what county agents accomplished during the year, altho everything accomplished is not shown. County agents are asked to perform many duties that are apparently of minor importance and the report of which would seem inadvisable. However, these duties consume much time.

FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF COUNTY AGENTS
Visits made by county agents ----------------------------------------------- . 32,720
- to farm ers ---------_-------- . . 26,586
-to business men ------------------------------------- --_---------------------- 3,595
- to club m em bers -------------------------------------------------------------- 2,539
Miles traveled by county agents ------------------------------------------------------------------ 140,898
- by railroad ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29,370
- by team . 22,521 - by autom obile ------------------------------------------------------------------- 76,239
- otherw ise -------------------------------------------------------------- . 122768
Calls on agents relative to work . 35,944 Farm ers' m eetings held . . 2,260 Total attendances . 73,316
Field m eetings held -----_---------------- _ . . . . 300
Total attendances . . 7,085 Average number of days spent in office . 76
-in correspondence ------ --------------------------------------------- 30 percent
-in conference . . 47.4 percent -in miscellaneous ------------------------------ ---------------------- 22.6 percent
Average number days spent in field . 214
-in supervising regular demonstrations ------------ 22.6 percent
-in other farm visits . 42.8 percent
-in meetings . . 11.8 percent -in assisting with short course work . 4.5 percent -in organization and marketing ---_------_------ ----- 18.3 percent
Official letters written . -------------- 23,646
Newspaper articles prepared for press . ---------_-------------- 2,132
Circular letters sent out --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16,369
Farm bulletins or circulars distributed ------------------------------------------------------- 27,031
V isits to schools ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 394
Schools assisted in outlining an agricultural course --- . 43 Extension schools or short courses assisted in . is A ttendances . . 2 704 Days spent this school work . 55 Farmers attending short courses at colleges result agents' efforts . 214
Club boys entering college . _ . 10 Demonstrators and club members exhibiting at fairs . 1,275








Annual Report, 1922. 23

Prizes won _. . . ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 481
Farmers practicing early plowing, result of agents' work . 2,205
Farmers began keeping bees at agents' suggestions . 68
Hives . 599
Honey extractors purchased . 21

Corn Demonstrations
Demonstrators ------- --------------------------------------------- __ ------------- . 189
Acreage grown under demonstration methods . ------------------------ 1,558
Average yield (bushels) . . 25.2
Estimated average yield for state (bushels) ------------------------------------------ 14
Farmers who tested seed corn for germination -------------------------------------- 68
Bushels seed tested for germination --------------------------------- ; --------------------------- 82
Farmers who planted selected seed ---------------------------------------------------------------- 598
Acreage planted with selected seed ------------------------------------------------------------ 10,951
Farmers influenced to select seed-. -------------------------------------------------------------- 141
Estimated amount seed selected (bushels) . 544
Farmers who turned under cover crops . 22
Acres harvested for silage -------------------------------------- 7 ------- * ----------------------------- 53
Yield to the acre for silage (tons) --------------------------------------------------------- _ 12.5
Acres "hogged down" .--. . . 436
Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods . . 441

*-Cotton Demonstrations
Demonstrators -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 160
Acreage grown under improved methods . . 2,035
Farmers who tested seed cotton for germination . 99
BU'shels tested . 305
Demonstrators who planted selected seed . 13
Acreage planted with pure or selected seed . 311
Farmers induced to field select seed . ** ---- 100
Acres treated for diseases or insect pests . 3,961
Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods . 134

Tobacco Demonstrations
Demonstrators . 72
Acreage in demonstrations . . 423
Average acre yield (pounds) ------- . . 1,414
Estimated average acre yield for each county (pounds) . 1,200
Increased yield over ordinary methods (pounds) . . 214
Farmers induced to plant pure or selected seed . . 16
Acreage planted with selected seed ---------------------------------------- . 500
Farmers who treated tobacco seed for disease . 16
Acres planted with treated seed . . 500

Tomato Demonstrations
Demonstrators -------------- _------------------ __ -------------------------------------------------- 72
Acreage in demonstrations . _ 255
Average acre yield (bushels) . 68
Farmers induced to plant selected seed ------------------------------------------------------ 12
Acreage planted with selected seed . . 110
Acres treated for diseases and insect pests . 1,140
Increased acre value resulting from treating seed ---_------- ---------------_-- $8.50
Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods . 84

Small Grain Demonstrations
(Rye, Oats)
Demonstrators ------------_-------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 145
Acreage grown under demonstration methods -------------------------------- --------- 3,829
Farmers who tested seed for germination ------------------ ------------_----- . 103
Bushels seed tested . . - . . I . 610







24 Florida Cooperative Extension

Acreage planted with selected seed.-. . 1,970
Demonstration acres cut for hay . . 652
Average acre yield of cured hay (tons) . 1.9
Acres grazed off . . ------- 4,967
Estimated acre value . $10
Acres turned under for soil improvement . 470
Farms that introduced small grains . . 208

Grass Demonstrations
Demonstrators . . . 125
Acreage in demonstrations . t . 1,069.5
Acres cut for hay . . 927
Acres grazed off . -------------------------------------------------------- 1,349
Estimated acre valuQ of grazing ------------------------------------------------------------------ $11.40
Demonstration acres turned under for soil improvement . . 847
Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods . 528

Legume Demonstrations
(Cowpeas, Soybeans, Velvet Beans)
Demonstrators . 7! . 690
Acreage grown under improved methods --------------------- . 10,437
Acre yield on demonstrations (tons cured hay) . 1.5
Farmers who tested seed for germination -------------------------------------------------- 99
Bushels seed tested . -------------- 865
Acreage planted with selected seed . ---- 2,430
Acreage threshed for seed . 250
Acreage cut for hay . 952
Acres grazed off . M 440
Estimated acre value of grazing _---------------- _---------------------- -_--------------- $10
A cres turned under for soil improvement . . 5,391
Acres inoculated . . 165
Acres planted to this crop due to agents' influence ------------- . 6,770
Farms that introduced summer legumes . 2,052

Peanut Demonstrations
Demonstrators . . 168
Farmers who tested seed for germination . . 100
Bushels seed tested . 700
Acreage planted with selected seed . 2,650
Acreage threshed for seed . I . . -- . 1,150
Acreage cut for hay . . 1,250
Increased acre yield of demonstrations over ordinary methods
(tons hay) . .25
Average acre yield on demonstrations (tons cured hay) ------------------------ 1.5
Acres grazed off . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 400
Estimated acre value of grazing ---------------------------------------------------------------- $10

Irish-Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators ----------------------------_- _ -------- . ------------- 56
Acreage in demonstrations ------- ---------------- ------------------------------------- _ --------- 12,657
Average acre yield on demonstrations (bushels) . 88
Acres planted with treated seed ------------------------------------------------------------------ 867
Acres treated for diseases and insect pests . 11,225
Farmers who'used certified seed . 55
Acreage planted with certified seed ------------------------------------------------------------ 370

Sweet-Potato Demonstrations
Demonstrators . . . 203
Acreage of potato demonstrations . . 609
Average acre yield (bushels) . . . . 66.5
Acres planted with treated seed . 346







Annual Report, 1922 25

Acres treated for disease and insect pests . 80 Storage houses built . -- . 1
Capacity (bushels) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 5,000
Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods . 383
Orchard Demonstrations
Demonstration orchards . __ . . 141,151
peach . 177 citrus . . _ ------ 139,647 others . 1,327
Trees in these orchards . 205,747 Number Acres Trees
Orchards inspected by agents . 2,183 30,753 1,741,650 Orchards pruned -------------------------------------------------------------- 535 2,602 -145,955
Orchards sprayed . 1,114 12,817 754,586
Orchards planted . : . Ill 1,522 73,715 Peach orchards specially treated . 41 316 16,086

Totals . . . 3,994 48,010 2,731,992 Orchards under supervision of agents . citrus, 3,290-trees, 26,858,621
-others, 2,309-trees, 3,579,301
Orchards agents assisted in caring for . . . 1,392
Dairy-Cattle Demonstrations
Registered bulls secured thru agents' influence . 29 Registered cows or heifers securedthru agents' influence ------------------_ 42
Dairy cattle which farmers were assisted in selling thru group sales 1,132
Cows tested to determine milk production . 289 Farmers induced to feed balanced rations . 212
Stock fed in demonstrations -------------------------------- --------------------------------------- 926
Dairy demonstrations supervised . 18 Cows in these demonstrations . 39 New cream stations established ------------------------------------------------------------------ 5
New cream routes established . . 3 Dairy breeders' associations established thru agents' influence . 2
Dairy bull associations established . ---------------------------------------------------- 3
Members in these associations ------------------------------------------------- ------------------ 127
Bulls in these associations . . ------------ 8
Cows kept by members . --------- 245 Bull associations now in operation ------------------_------- . . 4
Beef-Cattle Demonstrations
Registered bulls secured thru agents' influence ----------------------- . 4
Purebred beef cattle agents assisted in selling . . 9
High-grade cows secured thru agents' influence -------------------------------------- 100
Breeding herds started due to agents' influence . 11
Feeding cattle bought thru. agents' influence ---------------------------------------- 200
Beef-feeding demonstrations supervised . 2 Cattle in feeding demonstrations . : --------------------------------------- . 65
Beef cattle fed according to methods advocated . _ -------- 12500
Hog Demonstrations
Registered boars secured thru agents' influence . . 143
Registered sows secured thru agents' influence ---------------------------------------- 284
Purebred hogs agents assisted in selling . . 1,195 Herds of purebred hogs started ------- --------------------------------------------------- 98
Hog-feeding demonstrations supervised ------------------ . 169
Hogs in these demonstrations ----------_---- ------------- - --------------------------------------- 1,451
Farmers who used self-feeders . . 22
Farmers growing grazing crops for hogs ---------------------------- . 800
Hogs fed under agents' supervision -------------------------------------------- . 2,666








Florida Cooperative Extension


Poultry Demonstrations
Demonstrations . 469
Poultry cared for according to demonstration methods . 59,974
Poultry farms that improved methods ----------------------------------------------- * . 932
Birds on these farms . _ --------------------------------------------------------- 53,600
Communities that adopted standard breeds . 60
Flocks culled . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 256
Birds in flocks culled . ------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------- 18,462
Birds eliminated thru culling . . 4,356
Farmers induced to raise standard-bred poultry ------------------------------------ 243
Demonstrators who practised early hatching -------------------------------------------- 114
New poultry houses built ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 68
Poultry houses remodeled . . 83

Fertilizer and Manure Demonstrations
Farmers who consulted agents regarding fertilizers . 5,739
Fertilizer demonstrations conducted . 713
Acreage in these demonstrations ---------------- . . 15,936
Fertilizers used on demonstrations (tons) . 7,342
Communities influenced to buy fertilizers cooperatively--. ------------------ 163
Fertilizer bought cooperatively (tons) . 7,879
Value fertilizer so bought . $231,532.48
Amount saved by so buying . $ 52,344.31
Farmers who home-mixed fertilizers . 471
Tons home-mixed -------------------------------------- . 814
Saved to farmers (each ton) . $6.79
Farmers who utilized farm manures . 978
Farmers who provided manure sheds . 145
Farmers who composted farm manures ------ L ---------------------------- -_------------ 495
Manure spreaders secured . . 19
Farmers mixing phosphate with farm manure . 449

Lime Demonstrations
Demonstrators . 249
Acres in lime demonstrations . 1,185
Quantity of limestone used (tons) . 2,665
Farms where soil was tested for acidity . . 172

Miscellaneous Citrus Report, County Agent Work
Citrus properties visited ------------------------------------------------------------- . 5,200
Citrus properties upon which extension work was conducted ------------ 1,808
Acreage these properties ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31,464
Citrus properties where extension programs were carried out ------------ 1,166
Land owners visited before setting citrus ------------ . . 286
Growers who consulted agents before planting ---------------------------------------- 1,109
Money saved growers by fertilizer recommendations of agents . $2,143.50 Demonstrations to control scab . ---------------------------- : ---------------------------- ill
Demonstrations to control melanose . 77
Demonstrations to control withertip ----- ---------------------------------- . . 24
Demonstrations to control foot rot ------------------------------------- . 42
Demonstrations to control dieback or wrenching ------------------------------------ 266
Demonstrations to control scale . . 407
Demonstrations to control whitefly . --------------- 368
Demonstrations to control rust mite . __ . 260
Demonstrations to control other insect pests ------------------------------ ------------- 20

Farm and Farmstead Improvements
(Things Done With Agents' Assistance and Advice)
Buildings erected ------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------- 338
Farm buildings improved . ------------------------------------------------------------ 342








Annual Report, 1922 27

N ew building plans furnished ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 33
Farm buildings painted or w hitew ashed ---------------------------------------------------- 610
H om e w ater system s installed ------------------ -------------------------------------------------- 141
H om e lighting system s installed ---------------------------------------------------------------- 152
H om e grounds im proved -------------------------- : ------------------------------------ . 986
Sanitary conditions im proved . . . 1,314
H om es screened against m osquitoes . - . . ----------- 255
Sanitary privies erected . 1 47
Sew age disposal system s installed ------------------------------------------------------------- 100
N ew pastures established . 141
A cres new pastures established . 2,443
D rainage system s planned . 33
A cres drained . . 11,374
Farm ers w ho rem oved stum ps . -------- : . 189
A cres stum ped . 2,451
Farm ers who terraced land . 130
A cres terraced . . 4,894
H om e gardens planted or im proved . ------------ . 520
Farmers who planted cover crops . . -.- 1,108
N ew im plem ents and tools bought . 3,340

Livestock Diseases and Pests
Cattle tested for disease . . 5,934
H ogs treated . ------------------------- 34,095
H orses treated . I ------------------------ 7 . . 160

Silos
Silos constructed ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Silos in counties employing county agents . ----------------------- 240







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT,
SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA

Territory.-During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, this district included the counties of Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Lake, Manatee, Lee and DeSoto.
County Appropriations.-On July I the appropriation in Citrus County was cut off and the work discontinued. The county commissioners of Levy County made an appropriation for the work and an agent was placed in that county on November 1. The total appropriation for the work made by the counties from this district was $32,530.
Farm Organization.-There are several types of organization in the district thru which the farmers work and cooperate; namely, the Farm Bureau, the Farmers Union and the Citrus Exchange. These organizations aid in creating a spirit of social cooperation and activity but the main work accomplished thru them was in marketing. A large portion of truck and other crops was sold thru one or more of these organizations. A large amount of the farmers' supplies were purchased cooperatively. The success obtained thru these organizations in marketing crops and purchasing supplies helped greatly in spreading the spirit of cooperation among farmers and growers.
Club Work.-There was more club work done in Alachua County than in any other county of this district. Of the 137


FIG. 3.-Club boys learning to make bluestone paste which, when applied
to the recut stems of watermelons, prevents stem-end rot







Annual Report, 1922


boys enrolled in club work in this county, practically all completed their year's work. In August the county agent held a club camp to which the boys who had made the best records were taken. Twenty-five boys from this county were given scholarships to the boys' short course at the University of Florida in June. In other counties the usual interest was maintained in club work.
Special Activities.-A series of field meetings were held in each citrus county in the district. Specialists in the control of citrus diseases and insects, and cultivation. attended these meetings with the county and district agents. These men were equipped with binoculars, microscopes and hand lenses and other equipment with which to instruct the growers. The meetings were ,held in the groves where it was possible to direct attention to the immediate needs of the trees. Growers have expressed their appreciation of this method of work. As a result of it, the growers in several counties grouped themselves together into community citrus organizations. They have met once a month to discuss their problems, and have been assisted by the county agents and specialists.
The work begun last year in dairying has been emphasized in several of the counties, with satisfactory results. (For inf ormation on this work, see the extension dairyman's report.)
Crops.-Besides assisting in growing and marketing staple crops and performing the organized work with the citrus growers mentioned above, county agents gave valuable assistance in fertilizing, spraying, cultivating and marketing citrus and truck crops. Agents in many instances put on demonstrations for the control of different diseases and insects and in fertilizing and cultivating groves. These were used from time to time as object lessons for the surrounding growers. Much help was given truckers by showing them the method and value of sterilizing seed and seedbeds. Also valuable assistance was given by showing them methods of grading and packing their truck for the market.
In two counties efforts were made to interest the farmers in growing the Big Stem Jersey sweet potato for early market. Some of these potatoes - were set early and others late. The early potatoes made a good yield, usually running from 45 to 60 barrels to the acre, and the prices received were very satisfactory. The later setting was put out just at the beginning of a long dry spell and the yield was very much reduced.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The agent of Alachua County had a number of demonstrations in the use of land plaster on * peanuts. The variety of nuts grown was the Virginia Bunch. No definite figures are available at this time but the yield was greatly increased by the use of land plaster.
L livestock County agents gave farmers assistance in buying and selling livestock and in the control of diseases. Special emphasis was placed on the growing of feed for pastures and giving better care to farm animals. A number of good dairy cattle were purchased and shipped into the district for the farmers.
Poultry.-Assisted by the poultry specialist, the agents interested the farmers in giving more time and attention to poultry work. Help was given in selecting proper locations for poultry plants, in culling flocks, correct feeding and in making their yards sanitary.
Marketing.-Reports of the county agents show that about 15 percent of their time was devoted to organization and marketing. Each county has one or more organizations which render valuable assistance in marketing their crops and livestock,* also in the purchase of supplies. One of the greatest savings was in the purchase of fertilizer cooperatively. The county agent of Pasco reports the purchase cooperatively of 500 tons of fertilizer thru farmers' organizations, and a saving thereby to the growers of $4,000. In Alachua County the county agent assisted the farmers in purchasing a good portion of their fertilizer cooperatively. Other counties did some work along this line and in each case the farmers were saved considerable money.
Farm lmplements.-Tl ere was a large number of improved farm implements; such as sprayers, tractors, cultivators, mowers and hay presses; purchased during the year, due to the influence of the county agents.
Meetings,-The meetings held in the district consisted chiefly of field meetings (mentioned under Special Activities) and farm bureau meetings. Citrus field meetings were held in Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Polk, Hillsborough, Pasco, Lake, Osceola and Orange Counties. All were well attended by the surrounding growers. County agents and specialists from the Experiment Station assisted in holding these meetings,






Annual Report, 1922 1 31

Fairs and Exhibits.-The county agents of Alachua, Marion, Levy, Osceola, Manatee and Lee Counties contributed largely to the success of their county fairs. To the South Florida Fair, held at Tampa, and the Mid-Winter Fair, held at Orlando,'a number of counties sent exhibits of their agricultural and horticultural products. These exhibits were largely secured by county agents.
Statistical Report.-During the year the district agent in charge of this territory traveled 7,465 miles by rail, 6,141 miles by automobile, making a total of 13,606 miles; made 98 official visits to county agents; attended 40 farmers' meetings, which were attended by 5,530 farm people; and visited 292 farmers.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT, WEST FLORIDA
Territory and Appropriations.-The district embraced in this report is that part of Florida west of the Suwannee River. At the end of the year there are county agents in Taylor, Madison, Jefferson, Wakulla, Liberty, Bay, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Escambia Counties. During the year Gadsden County dropped out of the work and Wakulla and Jefferson Counties came into it. These changes took place in October. The counties mentioned spent $12,247 for county agent work during 1922.
Farm Organizations-Probably the most outstanding cooperative work done by farm organizations was that done in Escambia, Walton and Madison Counties. This work consisted principally of the cooperative buying of fertilizers, seed and fruit trees, and the selling of hogs, potatoes and perishable farm products. Taylor, Okaloosa and Santa Rosa Counties also did good work of this nature.
Aside from this buying and selling, farm organizations did much good work in grading and standardizing farm products, in putting on exhibits at various community, county and state fairs, and in getting groups of people to concentrate their efforts along definite undertakings.
Club Work.-In club work Santa Rosa County stood first. The agents of this county are to be commended. As a whole, the quality of club work in the entire district this year was satisfactory.
The outstanding feature of club work was the inauguration of cooperative hog sales. The buyers agreed to pay a minimum price on the initial carlots fed out by club boys with the understanding that where not possible to get a full carload fed by boys the farmers be allowed to bring in enough on the same basis to finish out the car. This was the basis of the plan, and all hogs were graded and sold to the highest bidder. The plan was successful, and in four counties of the district hog sales were held regularly. More counties have planned to do similar work next year.
The best ten club breeding pigs at the State Fair were shown again this year by Madison County, which also furnished the champion pig club boy of the state (Kenneth McMullen).
Fruit.-During the year approximately one thousand acres of satsuma oranges were set out in this district, mostly in coun-






Annual Report, 1922


ties west of the Apalachicola river. As this is new with most of the farmers, the agents devoted much of their time assisting in this planting. Every effort was made to start these plantings under favorable conditions.
Pecans, blueberries and sand pears were planted over large areas during the year, and much assistance was given the farmers by the agents in these enterprises.


Farm Clops.-Corn acreage was decreased in this district this year. That of ,sweet potatoes was increased slightly, -due to plantings made for early shipments to northern markets. The Irish potato acreage was practically doubled over that of 1921. The cotton acreage was largely increased, over half the acreage of the state being in this district. A large increase was made in truck crop plantings also, but prices received for truck were discouraging. With staple crops getting back to normal, the indications are that the acreage to these will continue to increase, while that to, truck will decrease.


FIG. 4-Donald G. McMullen, Madison County, and his grand champion club pig. With this pig Donald won the grand championship and the Williamson & Dennis scholarship to the International Livestock Show in Chicago, and, with this and three other pigs, $512 in cash


Dairy Cattle.-Dairy interest continued to increase this year. County agents assisted farmers in bringing in 11 registered bulls, 23 registered cows and heifers and 69 high-grade cows. The creamery at Tallahassee continued to furnish a market for sour cream from adjoining counties. The agent in Bay was successful in helping dairymen in remodeling their barns and building milk rooms.
Hogs.-Prices for hogs were better than a year ago and farmers were able to make small profits in most cases. This created a better feeling among hog raisers. County agents placed






Florida Cooperative Extension


92 purebred boars and 148 purebred gilts and sows among farmers, which, being done yearly, means constant improvement in the swine industry. Sales conducted last summer boosted fall prices, since every car sold in summer meant just one car less for the fall markets, which are usually glutted.
Poultry Farm poultry improved in quality during the year, county and home demonstration agents being largely responsible therefor. Many poultry associations were organized and did much in placing a better grade of poultry on the farms of West Florida.
Marketing County agents of this district assisted farmers and cooperative organizations in handling 287 carloads of farm produce and livestock, including watermelons, cantaloupes, potatoes, corn, cattle and hogs. These sales amounted to $144,219 and the farmers saved $6,974 thru. them. Over thirty-five hundred tons of fertilizers and 48,137 fruit trees were purchased cooperatively by farmers. The total amount of these purchases was $149,566, and the saving on them $30,981.
Meetings.-Group meetings. of county agents were held in the spring, when each agent submitted an outline or plan of the work to be done by' him during the year. These plans were studied and discussed by other agents, staff officers and specialists.
County agents of this district held 42 field meetings this year, the attendances of which were 3,552. They also took part in 472 meetings of farmers, the attendances of these being 35,484. They made a total of 12,524 farm visits and received 5,123 calls at their offices relative to farm work.
Fairs and Exhibits.-County fairs showed a marked improvement over last year, both in quality and quantity of exhibits. Seven county fairs were held in the district. The club contest in Santa Rosa County was really a fair in itself. Three counties exhibited at the State Fair in November.
Statistical Report During the year the district agent trav eled 17,256 miles by automobile and train. Visits were made to 102 demonstrations. County agents were visited 89 times. Sixty-three farmers' meetings were attended. He judged livestock and other exhibits at eight county fairs and helped to judge the exhibits at the South Florida Fair. He assisted in holding club contests in five counties. Assistance was given in holding six fertilizer schools and four citrus schools in West Florida.







Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EAST ANI)i NORTHEAST FLORIDA
Territory.-In this territory the following counties are carrying county agent work: Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia, Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler, Volusia, Seminole, Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade.
Appropriations.-Seminole and Columbia Counties came into the work in October. These 14 counties appropriated $30,940 for this work. During the year a change was made in the personnel of agents in Clay and Volusia Counties.
Farm Organizations.-The greatest activity in f farmers' organization work is centered in Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, Palm Beach and Volusia Counties. An organization of potato growers in St. Johns County was completed. A number of local community organizations of various character were also created and are now functioning. The primary object of most farm organizations has been the cooperative purchase of farm supplies and the sale of farm products.
Club Work.-The extreme drought of early summer and the excessive rainfall which followed, were responsible in many counties for the poor showing
made in club work this
year. The sweet potato club
enrollments were large in
several counties where the
agents planned to market
t h e crops cooperatively
early in the season. Because of the drought, however, few members were
able to plant their plots as
early as expected.
The fat barrow club FIG. 5-The 1922 grand champion pig work in Suwannee and club Duroc. Shown by Lucille Ellis
Hamilton Counties was of Alachua County
very successful. Besides stimulating interest in preparing hogs for sale and selling them in summer, this work practically started the cooperative hog sales in these counties which created so much attention.
Extensive plans were put under way for increasing the scope and interest in club work in this district. Club camps were held in Duval and Suwannee Counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Special Activities.-Under this head should be mentioned the establishment of cooperative hog sales in Suwannee and Hamilton Counties; a corn weevil campaign in Hamilton County which resulted in the saving of thousands of bushels of corn; a corn growing contest in Duval County where one farmer produced 105 1-8 bushels under the direction of the county agent; the improvement of dairies in St. Johns County; the organization of two community bull associations in Flagler County; the organization of the potato growers in the Hastings section; an educational campaign for the production- of better citrus fruit in St. Lucie County; the organization of the truck growers in the Everglades area of Palm Beach County; and the construction of a $30,000 city market building in Miami to take the place of the curb market. In carrying out these things the county agents were instrumental and helpful.
CropsThe acreage in corn in the northern counties suffered a slight reduction; the cotton acreage increased with a fair yield. Boll-weevil control measures were stressed and farmers carrying out demonstrations with the agents were more than pleased with results. The peanut acreage was reduced and only a small amount harvested with the result that prices are advancing rapidly with an increased demand for seed for next year's plantings. Plans for a considerable acreage of sweet potatoes for early market were interfered with by the spring drought and only a few sections were able to market in June and July. These, however, brought very satisfactory prices.
There was a heavy planting of Irish potatoes and a good yield over most'of the potato area. Low prices and heavy expenses, however, caused general dissatisfaction and brought little profit to the grower. Much the same thing can be said of the watermelon and cucumber crops. There was a heavy crop of tomatoes on the lower East Coastand prices ranged somewhat lower than usual. There has been considerable increases in the pineapple acreages in St. Lucie and Palm Beach Counties. The citrus crop showed up well, altho an extended spring drought caused the shedding of much fruit. -High water in the Everglades did considerable damage to avocado groves. Increased interest was shown in the production of improved varieties of mangoes.
Dairying.-Interest in dairy work increased. Many dairy cattle were purchased from outside the state. Dade, Palm Beach,







Annual Report, 1922


Suwannee and Duval county agents reported the purchase of 31 registered and 803 high-grade dairy cattle.
There were marked improvements in the methods of handling milk and general dairy sanitation on a number of dairy farms. Demands for milk produced under sanitary conditions are and have been increasing, and the better class of dairymen had little trouble in disposing of their milk during the summer, which is usually a slack season in Florida.
The establishment of several icecream factories helped to'solve the problem of surplus milk during the summer months.
The carrying of a few good cows on the general farm and the selling of sour cream were advocated and started in a small way in Suwannee and Columbia Counties with satisfactory results.
Continued efforts were made to interest farmers in permanent pastures.
Hogs.-Altho the depressed condition of the hog market had a tendency to discourage this industry, thru the efforts of the county agents more hogs were marketed during the spring and summer months than ever before. This opened up to the farmer a source of revenue from this industry at a season when demand and prices were higher than at the usual period of marketing, providing an income when most needed on the general farm.
Poultry County agents rendered all the assistance possible in poultry work. Better breeding, feeding, housing, culling and marketing are problems which received considerable time and attention from county and home demonstration agents. I Marketing.-In the general farming sections of the district considerable progress was made in the cooperative marketing of farm products and the purchasing of certain farm supplies. County agents' reports of the results of this cooperative work show that farmers were saved $44,721 during the year. In the citrus and trucking regions markets are pretty well established. There are, however, a few sections where efforts will be made next year to better existing market conditions.
Farm Implements.-Many improved farm implements were purchased this year. In addition to the ordinary farm tools county agents report ' ed the purchase in this district of 24 tractors, 90 motor trucks and 64 spraying machines.
Meetings.-A number of farmers' meetings were held in the various counties under the supervision of the county agents, assisted in some instances by specialists. In addition to meetings







38 Florida Cooperative Extension

held by the farm bureau and other farmers' organizations, citrus and poultry meetings were held and points of general interest along these lines discussed with good-results.
Fairs and Exhibits.-Seven county fairs, one state fair and several community fairs were held in this district during the year. Ten counties exhibited at either the State Fair or at the South Florida Fair. Every effort possible was put forth to make these fairs and exhibits educational and of benefit to the farmer and grower. In scoring the displays great stress was laid on quality, uniformity and marketability, following as near as possible the United States standard of grade and pack.
Statistics.-During the year in the execution of his duties, the district agent traveled by rail 11,158 miles and by automobile 3,053 miles, a total of 14,211 miles; made 104 visits to counties in his district; made 132 visits to county agents ; attended 72 meetings, the total attendances of which were 5,944; and judged the agricultural exhibits of ten fairs.







Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT

Corn Club.-As over half of the cultivated acres in Florida is planted to corn, the corn club is the most important in this work. The high cost of fertilizer and the low price of corn induced members to reduce'the amount of fertilizer used this year. Therefore, there was a decrease in the average acre yield. This decrease would have been much greater but for the gradual improvement in the quality of seed used by the boys.
Sweet Potato Club.-This club proved to be one of the most profitable, financially. Yields were good and the crop was produced at a cost which assured the members a fair profit in practically every case.
Peanut Club,-The importance of this club is not -well established, because it was difficult to secure reports from members since the nuts were not picked from the vines in time to report at the county contests. However, it is known that considerable profits were made by the boys.
The Pig Club has not recovered from the big slump in prices of two years ago. There was a decided trend away from hog raising after prices dropped, and this was shown very clearly in the pig club enrollment this year. Farmers and boys and girls are again becoming interested in the pig club. Those members who stayed thru the hard times made a little profit, but many became discouraged and quit with a loss. . Fat Barrow Club.-This club promises to be the most popular
of the livestock clubs. The boys and girls are coming to realize that the average farmer must produce pork and not breeding stock. The cost of producing the pork hog is much less and the profit is much more certain than with the breeding animal.
The fat barrow clubs'were in Hamilton, Suwannee, Taylor, Madison and Okaloosa Counties, and demonstrated the profit the farmer can make by feeding out pigs for the May market. In these counties 11 carloads were marketed cooperatively in May. These were the first cooperative sales in several counties. The farmers were so well pleased that ab ' out twenty-five cars were sold cooperatively in September and October.
This demonstration by the club boys will help materially to distribute the marketing of Florida hogs thruout the year. Formmerly nearly all hogs went to market in the fall and winter months when prices are always lowest.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Club Camp has become a part of the year's work in many counties. This recreational feature has proved so popular that once tried in a county it has never been abandoned. The boys and girls look forward to the camp as one of the big things of the year.
While the club camp is primarily recreational in its object, enough practical instruction is given to send each member back to his or her home with new ideas for the betterment of the farm and home.
Boys' Short Course.-The annual short course is the most important event of the club year. A scholarship to this course is the grand prize in each county supporting club work.
Heretofore, the short course has been held in December, immediately following the State Fair. Bringing the boys to the University of Florida in December takes them from school and away from home at an inopportune time. Crowded conditions at the University make it impossible to properly house the boys during the college year. For these reasons the time for the short course was changed from December to the week following the close of the school year. The dormitories and dining hall are available then and the agricultural faculty has time to help instruct the boys.
One hundred of the county club champions were present this year. There were eight groups and each was instructed in eight subjects. In place of class-room instruction, the boys were taken to the college and station farms for instruction and practice work. , In the grass work, instruction was given in planting permanent pasture; the boys set out a strip of grass on one of the permanent pastures of the college farm. This plan was carried out in all subjects and each boy received practice in doing eight things of practical value on a farm.
Courses were given in farm machinery, budding and grafting, establishing permanent pastures, preparing livestock for show, preparing and applying the bluestone paste treatment for stemend rot of watermelons, mixing feeds, culling chickens and practical veterinary work. Inspirational talks, educational motion picture films and plenty of sports were added to give the boys a good time.
State Club Exhibits,-Two state exhibits of club work were made, one in the South Florida Fair at Tampa and one in the State Fair at Jacksonville. The exhibit at Tampa was for the







Annual Report, 1922


crop clubs only, while at the State Fair 63 club pigs were -shown in addition to the farm crops exhibits.
In the pig club exhibit, Madison County again won first prize and Alachua second. In open competition against the breeders, a pig club boy won a champion pen and champion barrow in the Poland-Chinas.
Educational Prizes -It has seemed advisable to make club prizes of educational value as far as possible. Money as a prize has not given as satisfactory results as the same amount spent either as a scholarship or for an educational trip. The smaller prizes are usually in the form of scholarships to the boys' short course at the University of Florida. One hundred of these scholarships were given in 1922. The larger prizes are scholarships to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. It is interesting to note that every club member attending the College of Agriculture on a club scholarship has passed his college work creditably. Thru these scholarships the club work each year is able to give four boys a chance to secure college training in agriculture.
Thru the boys'club work, two club boys and two county agents are given a trip each year to Chicago to visit the International Livestock Show. This trip gives these men and boys a chance to see the best beef cattle, hogs and horses in America. Trips are taken to big packing plants, mail order houses, museums and other interesting places in Chicago.
Patrons of Club Work.-The moral and financial support given club work by the public is increasing yearly. Newspapers,,and banks and public officials are giving better support. The amount of money contributed for prizes this year was larger than in 1921. The following stand out among the friends of club work who showed their appreciation by gifts of money for scholarships and educational trips:
Williamson & Dennis, one of the pioneer livestock commission firms of the state, contributes annually $250 to be used as a I scholarship to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. This scholarship is awarded to the pig club membershowing the grand champion breeding pig in the pig club exhibit at the Florida State Fair. In addition to the scholarship this firm gave a price guarantee which enabled the demonstration thru club work, of the profit to be made from feeding pigs for the May market.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Mr. Dennis also sold the club barrows exhibited at the State Fair, securing the boys an exceptionally high price for their stock.
The Florida Bankers' Association continued their practice of giving three $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture. These scholarships are awarded, one to South Florida, one to West Florida and one to Central Florida, to the club boy in the respective districts standing highest in a competitive examination.
The Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a scholarship to the boys' short course for each of the counties thru which the Florida East Coast Railroad passes.
Armour & Company of Chicago offered two trips to the International Livestock Show at Chicago, valued at $140 each. One trip was given to the state champion in the corn club and one to the pig club member showing the grand champion club barrow at the State Fair.
The Florida State Fair Association offers large premiums in the club department and is anxious to help promote a big state club exhibit. The Fair Association has set aside one-half of a large swine barn for the boys' pig club.
The South Florida Fair is assisting in building up a good club exhibit for South Florida and has increased its club premiums. For the 1923 fair this association is offering Tnore money for boys' club work.
The banks, business men, boards of county commissioners and county fair associations thruout the state gave freely for the support of club work and for premiums at the county contests.
State Champions,--Don Miley of Hillsborough County repeated his 1920 achievement by winning championship honors in the corn club. He grew 101 bushels of corn on his acre at a cost of 17 cents a bushel and won the Armour & Company trip to the International Livestock Show.
Virgil Parker of dwadsden County holds state ho I ors in the sweet potato club by producing 81.75 bushels of sweet potatoes on an eighth (1-8) of an acre, which is at the rate of 654 bushels to the acre. He produced his potatoes at a cost of 14 cents a bushel.
Paul Bernath of Santa Rosa County won the championship in the peanut club. He grew 95 bushels of Valencia peanuts on his club acre at a cost of 25 1-2 cents a bushel.







Annual Report, 1922


Daniel G. McMullen of Madison County has the distinction of being the first club boy in Florida to win two state championships in one year. This boy showed the grand champion club pig in the breeding class at the Florida State Fair, and won the Williamson & Dennis scholarship to the College of Agriculture.
He also showed the grand champion club barrow, and won the Armour & Company trip to Chicago. In addition, he won champion pen and champion barrow in open competition with















FIG. 6.-Dairy enthusiasts. Club boys attending the annual club short
course at the University of Florida having explained to them the
mechanism of a milking machine

his pen of Poland-China club barrows. And his club pig was second prize senior boar pig among the Poland-Chinas. Taking the money value of all his prizes this boy won $512 on his four club pigs at the Florida State Fair. He had won a scholarship to the boys' short course and over $30 in cash at his county fair.
Santa Rosa County was the banner county in corn club and sweet potato club work. Madison County stood first in the pig club and Alachua first in the peanut club. St. Johns County had the best Irish potato club in the state, and it also had the best organized boys' club work in Florida.
Marvin Brooker of Alachua County, Alvin Walden of Walton County and Paul Robertson of St. Lucie County won the three scholarships to the College of Agriculture offered by the Florida Bankers' Association.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF JOHN M. SCOTT, EXTENSION ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST

The work of the animal industrialist for the year ending may be divided as follows,:
(1) The distribution of grasses and forage crops.
(2) Advising farmers and dairymen thru county agents and by correspondence.
(3) Attending farmers' meetings and making personal visits to farmers on their farms.
The distribution of grasses included Bahia, Napier, Golden Beard, Giant Bermuda, Kudzu, Centipede, Para, Carpet, Vasey and Kikuyu.
To sum up, grasses, seed, or live plants have been sent to 70 farmers in 27 counties of the state. Those who know of the necessity of getting more and better pasture grasses established can realize the importance of this wide distribution of these new and promising grasses.
One of the greatest needs of the livestock and dairy industries of Florida is better pastures. These better pastures can be had only by persistent trials of the best grasses that can be found.
One other new feature that has suggested itself and that is being tried out in this phase of extension work is the establishment of a "grass garden" along the side of one of the main highways leading to Gainesville. The idea of this grass garden is to plant out ten or twelve of the most promising grasses near the highway to encourage the interest of the farmers and stockmen in improving their pastures. In this way it is hoped to convince many people that better pasture grasses can be developed on the various types of Florida soil.
A public-spirited citizen was assisted in selecting a location for a grass garden. His idea was to plant out a number of grasses near the public highway, where the public would have an opportunity to see them growing. He was assisted in selecting a location as well as furnished material for planting the plots.
The animal industrialist had a place on the program of the short course for club boys of the school f or farmers, known as Farmers' Week, and of the annual meeting of county agents, all of which took place on the campus of the University of Florida.






Annual Report, 1922 45

A special livestock course or program was arranged by him for Farmers' Week.
A great deal of time was taken up answering correspondence ,in regard to the feeding and management of all kinds of livestock especially dairy cattle and hogs.
Much time was given to farmers' meetings and spent in consultations with the county agents and farmers of Alachua, Marion and Suwannee Counties.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF, ED L. AYERS, ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT PATHOLOGIST

On May 1, 1922, shortly after-starting to work, there was a serious outbreak of citrus canker at Davie, Broward County, and this specialist was assigned to that section to assist in the citrus canker work. Upon being relieved from this work, on July 20, a number of meetings and short courses were attended, most of them being either in Gainesville or Tallahassee. It was, therefore, along toward fall before actual field work was begun.
The outstanding problems in extension entomology and plant .pathology were the control of insects and diseases of potatoes, watermelons, cucumbers and citrus fruits. Aside from this, in a more limited way, some insect and disease control work was done on vegetables and deciduous fruits.
A survey was made last spring of the potato fields of St. Johns and Putnam Counties, and it was found in some instances that yields were below what they should have been. The principal disease responsible for a decrease in yield seemed to have been late blight. It was apparent that the average spraying measures used were not adequate, and that spraying had not always been done effectively. . The low yield was, in some instances, also laid to a poor type of seed, which was reported to have been received last season. The seed were reported to have been of long spindling type rather than the typical Rose No. 4 which seems best adapted to the section under consideration. Another element of uncertainty in the last crop was the measuring of results from dusting as compared with spraying. A few growers had taken up dusting with copper-lime dust as a substitute for bordeaux spray for late blight. No definite check could be made of this work and attributed good results probably were due in some instances to seasonal conditions and lack of development of the disease. It is planned that this work shall be started early next season and thus, by the inspection of seed, seed treatment and definite spraying demonstrations, to assist the growers to economically and effectively control the disease and insect pests of their crops.
The principal disease of watermelon and cucumbers in this state is anthracnose. A number of meetings for anthracnose control were held and considerable interest was aroused and help given. This work should be continued and enlarged next year. While most interest and effort were centered in diseases, the






Annual Report, 1922


melon aphis, the melon worm and the pickle worm were found to be very serious pests, and they should be included in the schedule of work for next season. The melon and cucumber growers are being organized in some sections of the state and meetings will be held in conjunction with county agents next year in an effort to insure greater returns from spraying.
Citrus Problems.-The citrus fruit growers of the state are vitally concerned in the control of insect pests and diseases. County agents have worked with individuals and groups~and will endeavor to have more organizations in the future, in order to meet the increased demands on their time and services. Definite effort was made by many of them to teach the growers to identify insects and diseases. This office cooperated with the agents in holding a number of field meetings, the same ranging from one hour to one day in duration. Magnifying glasses were carried along and the growers were actually taught how to identify and to combat citrus diseases and insects.
In many groves unusual development of melanose is noticeable. An effort is being made to carry the effective work on this disease of the plant pathologist of the Experiment Station to the growers themselves. There were instances where proper spraying produced fruit almost free of melanose markings, thus increasing the profit of such groves to several thousand dollars over the check plots of unsprayed fruit in the same grove.
Either of the projects mentioned above could easily absorb the entire time of one or more men, and the subtropical climate of Florida, together with the large range of crops, insures a greater field for insect and plant disease study than any other state. Field meetings proved unusually successful and their number should be increased next year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF N. W. SANBORN, POULTRY SPECIALIST
This, the fifth report of the extension poultry specialist, is for the months of July-December, 1922, and for two short trips made in June, 1922.
Division of Time.--Most of the time was given to work in the held with county agents. One week was devoted to the annual gathering of the boys' club conference, two weeks to the annual poultry short course, over a week to the annual conference of county agents in September, several days to Farmers' Week in August, and eleven days to the State Fair in Jacksonville. The pressure of increasing numbers of letters from poultrymen and women required that morp time be spent in the office. More visitors came to the office for personal conference than in former years. All of this necessarily had to be done at the expense of time that should have been spent in the field.
Two new leaflets, "Manson's Eye Worm" and "Profitable Egg Production," as well as a blue print of "A Florida Laying House," were written.
Less attention was given to the culling of flocks than in previous years, and more time was given to urging that better breeding stock be used. Culling in former years increased the breeding qualities of the poultry in the state. Because of that culling of former years, less mongrel and cross-bred stock is found in Florida poultry yards today. Culling, therefore, has reached a very fine point, the weighing of the good and bad of purebred individuals.
Poultry Policies of Extension Workers.-The poultry specialist endeavored to further the recommendations of the county and home demonstration agents, which were made at their annual conference in September, 1922. The recommendations that were stressed particularly are as follows:
"Demonstrate the value of purebred poultry by the introduction of purebred birds or purebred settings of eggs.
"Cull flocks by (a) selection of eggs for setting, (b) discarding weaker birds, and (c) discarding non-layers.
"Emphasize the importance of dry-mash feeding by the hopper method.
"Use feeding formulas recommended by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida.
"Encourage fall hatching to produce winter fryers.







Annual Report, 1922


FIG. 7-Studying the fine points of the hen


"Where practical, market products cooperatively.
"Grade eggs to comply with the demands of the best markets.
"Produce infertile eggs except when needed for hatching.
"Make better use of daily and weekly newspapers, county and state fairs, and urge larger attendance at all poultry meetings in the county.
"Encourage the adoption of the standard Florida poultry house as recommended by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, with such modifications as necessary to meet local conditions."

Progress Evident.-There has been a general improvement in the quality of poultry in the state for the last five years. Utility and fancy poultry breeders are getting together in their aims, purposes and efforts. The last three years saw farm flocks brought nearer to standard quality, while men met at shows appeared more interested in larger egg production. Farmers are more insistent on the use of better males and many used nothing except standard-bred stock in their matings. There was an in-






50 Florida Cooperative Extension

crease in average egg production, on farm and in backyard, as well as in rearing chickens for early maturity.
The number of poultry in Florida could be doubled easily, and the number of eggs produced could. be increased by 300 percent, and still the state would be unable to meet the demands of its own markets for live poultry and fresh eggs. The growth of the state calls for more and better poultry and for more and better eggs. The work of the last year was directed toward meeting those calls.
Statistical Summary below will give an idea of the extent of
the work done:
Miles traveled by rail and boat-_ . . 7,091 Miles traveled by automobile . * ------------- * . 1,391
M eetings attended . . ;!- . 119 Attendance at meetings --- . . . . 5,834
'Poultry shows judged --------- . 4 Backyard flocks visited --------------- * ------------------------------------ * . * . 65
Farm flocks visited . 43 Ciallink dem onstrations . 22 Cohferenebg in office . i . 62 Letters w ritten . 1,060 Bulletins m ailed . . . 1,384 "Office hours" in county agents' offices . . 6 Conferences during these "office hours . . 216






Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF HAMLIN L. BROWN, DAIRY SPECIALIST
The work of the dairy specialist began November 1, 1921. The work and the agent being new to the state, it was necessary for him to make a survey of conditions, to become acquainted with county agents, and to familiarize himself with the foremost dairy problems of the state.
Methods of Work,--In this work the county agents were the leaders in their respective counties, and the work was carried on thru the agents in' counties employing agents. It is intended, after the work is well under way, to form dairy organizations in all counties and to combine the work in counties that have similar problems.
Improvement of Dairy Animals on the Farm.-With cattle tick infestation in all but four counties and a large number of dairy animals on the open range, the improvement of the dairy industry was undertaken principally by practicing the slogan, "Eliminate scrub sires and replace with purebreds that have outstanding production records."
The county agent of Gadsden County got actual reports of 120 scrub bulls that were eliminated from the free range in that county. In two weeks 50 scrub bulls were eliminated in Madison County. In Dade a campaign was organized to replace every scrub bull with a registered bull. This should be accomplished within a year. Other counties started similar work. Many purebred . sires were purchased by individual dairymen. It is proposed to organize cooperative bull associations in'the near future.
Suwannee County introduced a number of grade heifer calves, which is a more direct method of dairy improvement. St. Johns and Columbia Counties took definite steps to organize calf clubs as a part of their farm bureau program, cooperating with extension workers.
I Improved Methods of Feeding,-Commercial dairies, in fact all dairies, have problems in feeding. A program to make better use of staple southern grown feeds, as cottonseed meal, peanut meal, cornmeal, cane and cane silage with the legume hays, has been the greatest need. St. Johns County dairymen secured this year good results by eliminating beet pulp and wheat shorts and substituting southern feeds mentioned above. Dairymen of Palm Beach and Suwannee Counties got striking results by using






Florida Cooperative Extemion


mineral mixtures in their feeds. Eff orts were made to work out programs for supplying green pasture the year around in five' counties.
Marketing Dairy Products.-The development of farm dairying in Florida was a major project of extension work this year. By reason of climatic conditions here, it is not practical to produce butter on the farm in competition with the production of creamery butter. From six to eight months of the year-in summer-there is a surplus of sweet milk, particularly on the small dairy farm. The logical market for the Florida farmer is a creamery or butter factory conveniently located, whereby he can market his cream three times a week, and keep his skimmilk on the farm to feed to calves, pigs and chickens. Work of this nature was started in several counties during the year and many farmers reported very satisfactory results.
Present conditions indicate that within the next two years Florida will have eight to ten creameries in operation, a sufficient number to take care of farm dairy development for some years in the future.
The Hernando Cooperative Dairy Company built a new plant this year. This new plant is equipped to manufacture butter, ice cream and other by-products, which means that the surplus milk supply of the farmers in summer can be utilized to their advantage. This new arrangement enlarges the field of operation of the creamery.
1: There are milk plants at Brooksville, Tallahassee, Ocala and West Palm Beach. These were organized as stock companies with the exception of Brooksville, which originally was a cooperatively -. owned plant. It was recently converted into - a stock corporation. The milk plants were built to furnish farmers with a market for their milk, same to be marketed as pasteurized
-milk, icecream and chocolate milk, principally. The Tallahassee and Brooksville plants installed butter-making equipment, planning to develop farm dairying. , The West Palm Beach plant is in a position to add this department when conditions warrant. The handling of sweet milk under Florida's varying market conditions is hazardous, even with experienced managers supplied with the necessary capital.
Dade and Palm Beach Counties established a standard of grades for milk and are marketing their milk on quality standards. This proved successful in eliminating the unfair competi-






Annual Report, 1922


tion of the low grade milk with the best milk, which is the case when all milk is sold as "just milk" and at the same price. In addition this plan was an incentive to the farmers to produce better milk.
St. Johns County dairymen, in cooperation with their county agent, formed an organization and greatly improved their milk houses and dairy barns. This, of course, raised the standard of the milk produced. It also resulted in increased consumption.
Improved Business Methods.-Cattle tick infestation and the difficulty of replacing the culls or boarder cows with high-producing animals greatly interfered this year with the organization of cow testing associations. Next year it should be possible to start the organization of such associations. Several purebred herds in the state did advanced registry work this year. However, the development of such work will be limited, necessarily, until the cattle tick has been eradicated.
Statistical Report. -The extension dairy agent did cooperative work in 20 counties; made 102 official visits to county agents; attended 97 farmers' meetings, the attendance of which reached 3,838; and traveled 19,273 miles during 1922.






Florida Cooperative Extemion


REPORT OF SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT

Staff.-The staff of home demonstration work consists of the state agent, assistant state agent, two district agents, four subject matter specialists, 28 home demonstration agents and the clerical force. At present there are 50 persons under appointment in this branch of extension work in Florida,
Maintenance and Training Personnel.-In providing for the support of the work in the counties the state, assistant state and district agents help to secure appropriations from boards of county commissioners and school commissioners. In July, August and September these boards make up their annual budgets. Appropriations have been made by 33 counties for the work in 1923.
An agent appointed to a county must be mutually acceptable to the cooperating county and this office. This office assumes responsibility for the general supervision of the work in each county. Assistance is given in developing county organizations and working programs, in furnishing subject matter and in helping train leaders.
Specialists in poultry, home dairying, conservation and nutrition are responsible for'the development of these projects in the state. The assistant state and district agents frequently f unction as subject matter specialists.
Individual Work.-Each individual club member 'enrolled in home demonstration work undertakes to complete at least one home problem a year, working under the direction of her agent. No enrollment is made until work is established.
The junior enrollment this year consisted of 5,457 juniors, made up of 5,150 girls and 307 boys. These juniors undertook 10,817 projects and completed 7,563, or 62 percent of those started.
The adult enrollment was made up of 4,631 women and 162 men, totaling 4,793. They undertook 5,821 projects.
The following figures from Work in 28 counties. are given to show the direct personal contacts between home demonstration agents and the people whom they serve: Juniors Adults Total
Members visited . . 6,759 6,120 12,839 Office consultations . . . 8,105 Contacts with individuals ------ ------- -------- -------- 20,954







Annual Report, 1922 55

The fact that the number of visits to juniors and adults is so nearly identical suggests that junior and adult club members are frequently found in the same home.
Organized ClubsAdult demonstrators enroll for a monthly study at club meetings and for the promotion of community programs of work. Subject matter used in the programs is furnished from the state office. A statistical report on organized clubs follows:
Clubs for girls . 404 Clubs for boys . . - 25
Total . 429
Clubs for w om en . 151 Clubs for men -------_---_-------------- . 8
T otal . . . 159
Junior clubs (of girls and boys) gave 49 entertainments for the purpose of raising funds to promote their local programs, the proceeds of which amounted to $1,400.25. Women's clubs raised $2,390 to carry out their programs of work.
Significant of the group work are the following figures:
Total clubs in 28 counties -------------------------------------------------------- 688
Total club m eetings . 2,733 Total attendances . :* --------------------------------------------------------- 43,439
Demonstration lectures given . 6,650
Local Leaders.-Organized clubs have served to develop a spirit of leadership among club members. Presidents and others who serve as local leaders are given special training in leadership. One hundred seventeen leadership schools were held during the year; and 119 leaders were trained for junior work and 70 for adult work.

Community Projects.-Adult clubs undertake at least one program of work for community betterment. Frequently an entire community is drawn into the work begun by a club. The following is representative of the community work done this year:
School lunches. inaugurated . 27 Rural libraries started . 17 Club room s equipped . . 33 Club houses built ------------------------------------------------------------------------ I
Canning kitchens equipped . . --- 19 N utrition groups . . . 40
Community milk campaigns . 20 Curb markets established or continued -----_-------------__ . _ 5
Cam ps built ---_--------------------- ------------------- ----------------------------- . 1
School grounds beautified . - --------- ---- 9







Florida Cooperative Extension


In Palm Beach County there are 12 community councils. Among the things done or being done by these communities are: Starting an agitation that resulted in the building of one state highway; established telephone lines connecting communities in the Everglades area; two canning kitchens (built and equipped),, three canning kitchens (equipped) ; and influenced one community in growing flowers for a flower fete.
Among the community projects of Hillsborough County should be mentioned the following: Club house built, equipped to serve hot lunch to school children; scales bought for two schools to further nutrition work; milk furnished in two communities for school children; a school established hot lunch and paid for trained home economics graduate to direct it. The club at Welcome was responsible for hard-surfacing a public road. It paid for and built telephone lines into the community. A thousand purebred chicks were purchased by the club.
In Polk County, four milk campaigns were conducted. Five clubs improved their school yards and five established libraries and reading rooms in their neighborhoods.
In Pasco County, four school buildings were remodeled and three home demonstration rooms established. Fifteen communities appointed fair committees. At St. Joe the school grounds were fenced, new windows put in, interior of the school house improved and a school organ purchased. Blanton club paid for and installed a school pump and sanitary toilets and cleaned the school at the beginning of the term.
Hernando County clubs raised money to continue the public school two months, planted and equipped the school yards, established a women's exchange and raised funds for a club house.
The following, quoted from an agent's report, is an example of community development. This originated with a small club.
"Welcome Awakes"
"My club members at Welcome have probably done a most outstanding piece of work when the location of the community is taken into consideration. This is a community far removed from hard-surfaced highways. It has two trains a week during the orange shipping seas on. The people were practically shut off from the outside world.
49mrs. Rivers, a woman of remarkable ability for. leadership, heard of home demonstration work for girls and thought it would be helpful for women also. Three years ago, thru -her efforts a







Annual Report, 1922,


club was organized. The women did not stop with an organization for themselves but assisted the men in. forming one and, thru the cooperation of both, they have done some big things for the community. They came from fifth to first place this year in their fair exhibits. They went before the county commissioners as an organization and got a hard surfaced road. One of the men had charge of building the road and another furnished the lumber for the bridges. Each of these men took over his part of the work, knowing that he would have to wait a year for the money for his work. When the road was being cut, all the men at Welcome worked and the women served dinner for them. In the same manner they built their telephone line which connects them with the rest of the world. These things have been done this year. Before this, if a physician was needed, they had to drive miles over bad roads to reach a telephone. Their telephone is a community convenience. They put it in a store and gave a picnic to pay the toll that would be due on it for the first six months.
"Their community council now has been organized into a growers' association. It intends to increase ithe strawberry acre-age, build a packing house and grade, pack and ship its own products instead of bringing them into Plant City.
"The women of the club this spring decided to go infor purebred poultry, so they disposed of their old stock and bought over a thousand purebred chicks. They equipped a comfortable club house where all their meetings are held. I meet with them once a month, and once during the month they meet with their local leader. At these meetings they do community canning. Each member brings in her own vegetables."
County OrganizationA fine type of county organization among urban and rural women- has been developed in 21 counties; most of these organizations are composed of the locals of different organizations federated for county work.
Two counties have similar organizations among juniors. There are four county poultry associations organized for improving farm flocks and marketing poultry products.
Contact with other state organizations is made thru the state office. A plan for cooperative work has been made with the State Board of Health. Where such work is being done in communities, the home demonstration agent is responsible for the nutrition program.









Making the Programln planning a year's work for a county the first step is taken at the agents' annual meeting, when each county's needs a;e studied jointly by the county workers, specialists and supervising agents. A tentative plan for the following year's work is worked out at that time.
The home demonstration agent takes the tentative program to the county clubs and leaders for their approval and adoption: It is then returned to the state office for acceptance and filed as the "goal" for the year's work. Plans for 1922 were completed and on file by January, 1922. Work in each county is checked for the state office by the supervising staff against this goal.
Supervisory Program.-The plan of work of each state staff member is based upon the adopted county programs of work with certain additions and modifications. Proposed programs and calendars of work are prepared during the first quarter of the year. Calendars usually are worked out in detail from four to six months in advance.
The following table shows the number of visits made by home demonstration staff officers and specialists to organized counties in 1922:
North and West Florida


County
0 U 2 1t U a)
4 0 P P, 0 P, 0 0 P,
CQ M PL V2 94 M Z U2 U *; W
Columbia ---------------- 1 2 8 3 3 1 1 19
Duval ---------------------- 3 1 7 3 3 1 4 22
Escambia ---------------- . 3 7 2 . I . 13
Gadsden . 2 1 6 1 ---- 2 12
Hamilton ---------------- 1 1 3 1 6
Leon ------------------------ 2 3 8 2 ---- 2 . 17
Madison ------------------ ---- . 7 3 1 2 . 13
Okaloosa ---- ----------- ---- 2 7 2 . 3 . 14
Putnam . I . . 5 1 ---- --- 1 7 Santa Rosa ------------ 1 1 7 4 . ---- 12
St. Johns . . 2 ---- 4 ---- 1 1 8
Suwannee -------------- 1 3 8 4 ---- 1 17
Taylor . . 1 6 2 ---- 1 . 10 W alton -------------------- 1 4 7 2 ---- 2 16
Total ------------------------- 1 13 22 90 30 1 8 15 1 8 186


Florida Cooperative Extension








South and East Florida


$-4
County 6 >1
3 4 43 ; - ,, . l " ,, 1 .2 cs cd Z
4- 41 0 0.
it4 W W
Alachua --- . 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 17
Citrus . 2 7 2 1 2 2 16
DeSoto . . . 7 ---- ---- 1 1 9
Hernando ---------_---- 4 5 . 4 ---- 13
Hillsborough ---------- 6 3 11 4 2 2 1 29
(2 agts.)
Lee . '2 1 4 . . 1 1 9 M anatee . I . 3 . ---- 1 5
Orange . 2 6 4 2 4 1 3 22
Osceola . 1 2 2 4 1 1 . 11 Palm Beach ------------ I . 3 1 ---- -.- 2 7
Pasco . 1 6 1 . . .--. - 8 Pinellas . 2 2 4 ---- 1 . 1 10 Polk . 1 3 1 9 1 4 . 3 21 Volusia -----------------_- 1 3 3 . . ---- 7
Total . 24 18 1 70 25 16 13 18 184 State Total . 37 40 1 160 55 24 28 26 370
Visits to counties without agents were as follows: State agent, 7; assistant state agent, 1; district agents, 37; poultry specialist, 5; nutr i ti P on specialist, 2; conservation specialist, 1; total, 56.
Records and Offices.-A loose leaf note book of letter size is used by agents. In this are recorded individual enrollments, community and county organizations, an analysis of the county program, methods of developing the same, the agent's yearly calendar of work, the agent's monthly itinerary, blanks for recording visits from state staff members, results obtained in the work, letters of instruction from the state office, and other field material and useful data. County workers have offices and equipment in county court houses, usually. These offices are equipped for filing records, bulletins and other supplies. In five counties clerical help is furnished by the counties. Other agents are without clerical assistance.
The demand on the agents' time for field work is such that little time can be given to record keeping. The efficiency of county workers would be increased, were it possible to have more office assistance.
Limited funds are provided in 24 counties for demonstration material and equipment. Two motion picture outfits are owned by the state for work in counties. In addition to educational films available, one or two good one-reel entertainment flins are needed.


Annual Report, 1922








60 Florida Cooperative Extension

Publicity.-The press of the state is liberal in its support of home demonstration work. Several home demonstration agents maintain news columns in their local newspapers. Contests, exhibits and fairs are especially valuable as a means of securing publicity for the work. Contests in junior work with exhibits of


E DEMONSTRATION WORK
"OOK OF W6MEN AND GIRLS


FIG. 8-0ne of the home demonstration booths in the University of Florida building at the State Fair in Jacksonville


the same always interest the public. Exhibits of home demonstration work were shown at two state fairs-in Jacksonville and Tampa-and at 17 county fairs. Among the exhibitors were 1,262 girls and 1,046 women.


Club Camps are not only inspirational, but thru their in the junior division of the work the stamp of public of the work has been secured. They attract wide Statistics of camp activities follow:

Counties holding cam ps --------------------------------------- --------C am ps held ------------------------------------------ . .
Girls' county cam ps held -------------------------------------- .
Girls' inter-county cam ps held . ------------Joint county cam ps held .
Joint inter-county camps held -------------------------------------------------A ttendance of juniors -----------_-_-------- ------- .
A ttendance of girls . _.


influence approval interest.


20 14
5
2 4 3
734 586


Special Activities.-Activities under the following projects are carried on:






Annual Report, 1922 61

Gardening.-This embraces work in home gardens, home orchards, club plots, grape work and flower gardens. This work is under the general supervision of the assistant state agent and .the two district agents.
Food Conservation.-This embraces conservation of foods for home use and development of a home industry for women and girls thru the manufacture and sale of such products. The state conservation specialist is leader. The following results were reported under this project, as food conserved:


Juniors --------_------------------ 1,393 39713 1 48,621 29,564
Adults . 957 51:005 1 174,625 39,564 Totals . 2,350 90,718 223,246 69,128

Clothing.-First-year girls electing sewing as their project were offered a program in patching, darning, the making of a nightgown and not less than three pieces for their own bedrooms. These bedroom pieces are curtains, scarfs and runners. Secondyear girls were offered program in which the interest centered in their own wardrobes, providing for the making of not less than five garments each. Women were given assistance in their clothing problems. The following is reported under this project:
Adults enrolled in sewing ---------------------------------------------------------- 1 788
Juniors enrolled in sewing . ------------------------------------------- 2,774
Dresses m ade by juniors ---------------------- ------------------------------------ 942
Gowns m ade by juniors ------------------------------------------------------------ 1,789
Hats made by juniors ---------------------------------- ------------------------- __ 415
Articles for bedroom made by juniors ------------ _--------------_---- 5,215
Miscellaneous articles made by juniors -------------------------------- 761
Total articles by juniors ------------------------------------------------------------ 9,122
The adults were given miscellaneous lessons in the clothing problems of their families.
Nutrition.-This project includes work in elementary nutrition, nutrition clinics for underweight children, bread clubs, food preparation and service. The nutrition specialist is leader.
Poultry.-A general farm poultry program with special reference to improving breeds is included in this project. Other phases of it call for increasing production and profitably marketing the output, and the organization of poultry clubs, egg circles and community and county poultry associations. The home demonstration poultry specialist is in charge. The greatest in-


Enrolled Containers I I f ruit


Containers I Meats and vegetables I fish, lbs.







62 Florida Cooperative Extension

terest has been in standard-bred flocks, marketing and organization. Every county has signed up for this work in 1923.
Home Dairying.-This project is developed from the home standpoint rather than from that of the commercial dairy. Florida greatly needs the home dairy cow, better home-made dairy products, and an adequate supply of milk for home consumption. The home dairy agent is in charge of this project.
Beekeeping.-This is a well-defined program in but two counties. The agents in these respective counties have entire supervision of the work.
Home Improvements.-Home building and remodeling, artistic and convenient furnishing, and landscape gardening come within this project. The following figures are indicative of the work done along these lines:
Juniors Adults Total
Water systems installed . . 2 36 38
Lighting systems installed . -------- 53 53
Kitchens remodeled -_------------ - -------- 19 179 198
Kitchens rearranged ---------- . 5 15 20
Furniture done over -----------_-------_- 140 171 311
Bedroom furnishings made and
rooms improved . . 1,664 180 1,844
Other rooms improved . . 78 88 166
Houses screened . 98 100 198 Living rooms remodeled . 3. 12 15
Washing machines installed ---------- . 31 31
Ironing boards made . . 3 3
Houses repaired . 72 108 180 Houses remodeled --- . . 20 20 Houses painted --------------------- : ------- --- -------- 57 57
Plantings of ornamental trees . 40 526 566
Ornamental trees planted . 4,268

Below is given the total enrollment by project activities for the state:
Juniors Adults
Sew ing . : . I ----------------------------- 2,774 ---------Room and other improvements . 2,240 788 Canning . . I . 1,393 957 Poultry . . . . 1,217 1,417 Cookery . . . 1,580 700 Bread -------------------------------------- . . 297 179
Garden ------------------------------------ . 1,167 1,185
G rape . 55 ---------Orchard --- . 49 93 B ee . 16 85 D airy . . 33 270 Special products . . 157

Totals . . 10,821 5,831
Total projects completed . -------------_-- ----------__--------- 6,797
Percentage of projects completed . 69.8






Annual Report, 1922


Total membership among juniors was 5,457. Membership by activities was 10,817. Projects of work for each person averaged 1.7. Total number of projects completed was 7,573, or 69.8 percent. Adults enrolled were 4,795. By activities there were 5,821 adult enrollments, and of the projects started 78 percent were completed.
Publications.-The state staff must assemble and prepare for publication all material other than agricultural bulletins furnished by the state for field work. The following are the publications for the calendar year ending:
Bulletin 34, "Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades."'
Bulletin 41, "Handbook for First Year Sewing."
Bulletin 43, "Bread Work for Junior Home Demonstration Clubs."
"Poultry Calendar."
"Poultry Record Book."
"Calendar for Egg-Laying Contest."
Nutrition enrollment cards an& weight tags.
OutlookHome demonstration work i's well organized thruout the state. Tentative plans of work under every project which it is contemplated will be developed in Florida during 1923 are now being considered in the counties. Reports on these will be made at the group meetings to be held in January, 1923. If the organization now in the field remain undisturbed, creditable achievements may be expected.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, ASSISTANT STATE
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT,

Plan of WorkThe plan of work of the assistant state home demonstration agent for 1922 may be outlined as follows:
1. To conduct leadership schools in holding women's club programs and to encourage and instruct leaders in junior work.
2. To visit women and girls' home demonstration clubs.
3. To assist with the nutrition work in the state.
4. To hold the state canning contest.
5. To hold a state short course.
6. To raise camp standards and toassist in holding junior camps.
7. To demonstrate the pruning of grape vines to club members.
8. To develop junior county organizations.
9. To establish standard clubs.
10. To prepare a manual on junior work for agents.
11. To further girls' canning project work.
12. To preparethree sets of monthly programs for women's clubs.
13. To write a bulletin on bread work.
Leadership Work.-In order to carry out home demonstration work, the program of which is broadening, the need for local leaders is evident. Steps have been taken to secure local leaders. In Columbia, Okaloosa, Walton and Orange Counties, leadership schools were attended where instruction in the right use of program material was given. In Columbia County instruction was given to leaders of junior work. Reports have come from these counties of community programs of work being carried on, of monthly programs being used in clubs; and of increased interest in leadership.
Meetings.-Girls' clubs in three counties-Orange, Columbia and Hamilton-and women's clubs in two counties-Orange and Osceola-were visited. Community meetings in Suwannee and Osceola Counties and a county federation in Suwannee were attended.
Farmers' Week was held for the first time in Florida in August at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Nutrition and food preparation were given by the assistant state agent and by the district agent of South and East Florida, each giving three lec-






Annual Report, 1922


tures and three demonstrations. In the evening recreational work was given. The attendance was small but the group was most earnest. About thirty women attended the home economics course. These women went home determined to send others next year.
Nutrition Work Several undertakings in nutrition work were participated in, a few of which are mentioned below:
DeFuniak Springs Nutrition Class.-The United States Public Health Service in cooperation with the Florida State Board of Health placed a field nurse in West Florida to weigh, measure and physically examine. school children. In cooperation the home demonstration department undertook the follow-up work in nutrition. A nutrition class was formed at DeFuniak Springs. Mothers and teachers were given instruction and lectures on nutrition. Material was sent from time to time to the teachers and agents for carrying on the work.
Milk Campaign, Tampa.-Talks on value of milk as food were given to 2,120 school children in Tampa.
Nutrition School for Women, Kissimmee.-The assistant state agent gave two lectures here, one on the use of milk and eggs and the other on meal planning.
State Canning Contest The ' winner of the state canning contest wasFannie Rieder of Santa Rosa County. Her record is as follows:
Value of fresh vegetables sold . ----------------------------------------- _$189.61
Value of fresh vegetables used . ---------------------------------------- 6.54
Value of products canned . -------------------------------------------------- 17.50
Total ---------------------------- __ . ----------------------------------------- $213.65
Total expenses . 23.81 P rofit ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- $189.84,
Vera Alderman, Hardee County, made a profit of $283.34 in canning club work, which was the most made by any club girl in the state this year in canning.
Girls' State Short Course From May 24 to April 6 the tenth annual short course for club girls was held at Tallahassee. Eighty girls from 22 counties attended. Because of the crowded condition at the College, 20 girls had to be taken care of outside of the dormitories. Alachua County sent 16 girls with a chaperone. Lee sent 6 girls with a chaperone. Duval sent 13 girls.






Florida Cooperative Extension


An unusually good exhibit of the work of the short course was displayed the last afternoon. This consisted of bungalow aprons, collar and cuff set , handkerchiefs, organdy flowers, pictures framed in passepartout binding and lacquered or enameled, candle sticks, shoe-trees, bowls and other odd pieces. Another new feature was a "style show" given by the senior section in clothing.
The table on the opposite page names the counties holding club camps, the attendance of both girls and boys at these camps, the cost for each child 'attending, the instruction given the club members at the camps, the forms of recreation provided, and how the camps were financed (costs above those for food, etc., which the individual club members paid, usually).
The usual good times were had and the "Y" girls of the College again acted as "big sisters" to the club girls. The greatest desire of a club girl is to win a short course scholarship. Most of these girls return to their counties as leaders in their communities.
Junior Club Camps--From June 6 to August 25, fourteen club camps were held thruout the state. Three were inter-county joint camps, one of which represented three counties. Seven of the fourteen camps have been joint camps for boys and girls. These camps were attended by 5 '84 girls and 148 boys, a total of 732. In every way the camps were the best ever held in the state. The honor system proved a success where introduced this year.
Muscadine Grape Work.-This is the end of the fourth year in muscadine grape work. The pruning of grape vines was done in two counties this year, in Santa Rosa and Escambia. The vines of nine club members were pruned after the six-arm renewal system.
Development of Junior Organization.-A state organization of junior home demonstration work was worked out and adopted during the year. In the plan of organization the standard club was established. Each agent agreed to further standard clubs as a help in club work and in the securing of reports.
Three counties have a- junior county organization: Palm Beach, a junior county council; Hillsborough, an- east and west county junior organization; and Volusia, a county junior organization. In Gadsden County two girls' clubs are represented in the county







COUNTY ATTENDANCE COST TO INSTRUCTION FINANCIAL
Girls Boys THE CHILD GIVEN RECREATION ASSISTANCE


Taylor . .
M adison .

Duval . St. Johns .


Suw annee.
Colum bia .
Hamilton .
O range . Osceola .


27 $1 plus food.


25 Food supplies.



22 $1 plus food;
$2.50 plus food; $1.50 plus food.
$4 including hat
materials.


Volusia . 39 1 12 Supplies.
Citrus . 33


" Santa R osa .


H illsborough . Escam bia .


Pasco . H ernando . .

O kaloosa . :.


$1 plus food.


$1

$1 plus little food.


j$2.


12 $1 plus o


Collar and cuffs, hdkfs. ; nutrition; essay covers.


-- . I . ,~. . - - .I.~. - - - -


Manatee .


Alachua . .

Polk .


$1 plus food.


50 35 $1 plus eggs, fruit.
meat.


-dkfs., flowers, swimming.


Reed baskets, poultry, health. Table service and manners, basketry work, nutrition.


Movies, campfire, motor boat
ride, games and songs,
bathing.
Recreational leader; games, swimming, boat rides bathing.


Recreational leader ; one stunt by group; bathing.
Songs and games.


85


47


42


22


Collar and cuffs, hdkfs., nu- Free movies and operator,
trition. nightly, playette, local talent; games, bathing.
Collar and cuffs, hdkfs., Recreational director; movbread, poultry, butterflies, ies nightly ; playette "When record books; examination the Light Went Out;"
of feet, lungs and teeth, bathing.
Collars and cuffs, hdkfs., nu- Games by groups, singing, trition, essays and record stunts, nightly; movie one books, night; bathing.
Gingham hats, record books, Games, 3 times a day, by table manners and serv- groups; 1 night supervised
ing; talks on Japan, India, contests and camp fire; nutrition, bathing.
Poultry, sewing. "Y" supervision.
Nutrition and health; per- Games 3 times a day; local sonal talks; lingerie clasps, talent night stunts; readenameling. ings.
Collar and cuffs, hdkfs., Movies, songs, games; camp health, manners, essays, fire, 2 nights; bathing. record books.
Baskets, health, formed jun- "Y. W." director; celebrated
ior co. organization. July 4th singing; bathing.
Collars and cuffs, hdkfs.; nu- Hikes to light house; forts; trition. recreational leader camps,
fires, bathing.

Contests in darning, patch- Games 3 times a day by
ing, buttonholes; nutrition, groups, stunts, bathing. essays.


I


- I I


Transportation by local people.

Elks and local funds bought
forksspoons, glasses; St.
Johns Co., transportation.




A little local money for a few girls.



Co. Com. $100 of which $83
was used. Transportation.




Co. Com. $2 for each child; also transportation.
Rotary and Kiwanis aided. Woman's Club furnished transportation from Pensacola and back.
Transportation furnished.





Co. Com. $70.


Prize and club money.

Woman's Club contributions.






Florida Cooperative Extension


federation of clubs. In Orange County girls' clubs are also represented in the county federation of clubs.
The outstanding pieces of junior work were poultry, sewing and bread making. A bread bulletin was published.
Further Gardening and Canning,--In order to stimulate the girls' gardening and canning work, Florida entered the National Canning Demonstration Contest held at the Southeastern Fair in Atlanta. Seven states entered girls in the contest, which consisted of two canning demonstrations, a judging contest, and the canning budget score.
The state team was selected competitively from several county teams. The winners of the state contest, and thereby the representatives from Florida in the national contest, were Bertha Haynes and Edna Jones of Escambia County. The following are the judges' comments on the demonstrations by Florida's girls:
"From the standpoint of neatness, arrangement of materials and utensils and manipulation, the Florida girls' demonstration in canning of beans was the best given. Division of work between teammates was good. Presented in an attractive-manner. Evidence of lack of subject matter as background.
"Ist. Demonstration: Excellent arrangement; well organized; good teamwork; very neat in person; team well balanced; a little awkward handling products at times.
"2nd. Demonstration: Teamwork good; subject matter very well in hand; water spilled on block and not wiped off; but altogether probably the neatest and best organized."






Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF AGNES 1. WEBSTER, DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA

In the district of South and East Florida appropriations for home demonstration work were made in 19 counties. One county gave up the work last June but five new counties made appropriations for the coming year. One county supports two agents. Four counties made a substantial increase in their appropriations. Ten counties furnish 11 cars for the use of their home demonstration agents. With one exception, furnished offices are provided by the counties in their courthouses. Three agents are provided with well-equipped kitchens and three have stenographic help.
Enrollment,-According to activities, South and East Florida had an enrollment of 5,794 girls. According to individuals 2,217 were enrolled in 220 clubs. Women's clubs totaled Ill with an individual enrollment of 2,841, but according to activities the enrollment was 4,848. County wide organizations including women were perfected in 13 counties, eight of these being for women only.
Of the projects outlined for girls' work, the greatest interest centered in sewing which included the problem of improving the girl's own room. Most of these girls did some canning of surplus fruits and vegetables from the home garden.
The projects with enrollments follow:
Girls Women
Textile and room improvement . . 1 597 738 Pantry . -------------------------------------------------------------- 922 826
Cookery ------------------------------------------------------------------ 827 500
B read . 198 131 Poultry ------- . 362 787 Gardens . 699 801 G rape . 23 .
Orchard . 44 24 B ee . 14 41 Nutrition groups individuals . . 23 1,000
Totals . 4,709 4,848
When a county as a whole adopted a program and centered its efforts in that direction, outstanding results were accomplished. This plan was easily followed when women had organized a county wide council that brought them together quarterly to discuss community and county problems.
Eight such councils are functioning at present, four of which were organized last year. Two more are ready for organiza-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tion. The general purpose of these organizations is the same, but the program of each is developed to meet the respective needs of the county. Some councils include every woman's organization in the county, others just the home demonstration clubs. However, all are county wide and function for the same general purpose. At its -last meeting, the county council of Orange County admitted the junior clubs of the county. In the majority of these councils the board of directors meet once a month while the council at large comes together quarterly for a program and social get-together. So far the results have been gratifying as well as interesting.
In Lee County the council at large planned and established a curb market at Ft. Myers. This market opened January 14, 1922. The sales for the first day amounted to $80. In four months the sales totaled over $3,000. One man's receipts for two and a half months totaled $513.41, which is reported in detail below:
On January 14 ---------------------- . $ 25.25
21 -------_ -------------_-- ------------------------------------------------ 19.95
28 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36.54
February 4 ----------------------------------- -------- -------------------_-_------ 32.95
11 . . .43.28 18 ------------------------------------------------------------- . 35.23
25 . ---------------------------------------- 48.40
M arch 4 . 52.33
11 --------------------- . 53.33
18 --------------------- ----------------- . 60.35
25 . --------------------------------------------------------- 53.40
A pril I ------------------- ---------------------------------------- . 52.40
T otal. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- . $513.41
Thru the united action of the members of ' one community council, a hot lunch service was installed in one room of a consolidated school. This service grew until a small well-equipped house had to be erected. - A pump and engine for pumping the water into the lunch room were added later. A home economics graduate to direct the lunch room and teach two classes, one in sewing and one in cooking, was engaged.
A third council interested itself in the equipment of the high schools. It secured better trained teachers and better equipment. A fourth council financed one girl in school for a year.
Many other immunity problems, such as, improvement of school yards and houses, establishment of parks, building of club houses, shelling of oand road*, building of telephone lines, earning.money to equip community canning kitchens and club houses,







Annual Report, 1922


were attempted and carried thru. Three county wide organizations for juniors were completed.
Leadership Schools.-In an effort to secure leaders who understand the work outlined for girls and women, a series of leadership schools were held thruout the year. Instruction was given in checking and keeping record books; conducting club meetings and use of programs; giving directions for the canning of fruits, vegetables and meats; making dress forms, baskets and Christmas gifts; preparing and shipping fair exhibits; and many other things. The agent is responsible for subject matter in all instances and regardless of the number of leaders the agent meets with the club once a month.
Eighty-two leadership schools developed 105 leaders, 73 for girls and 32 for women. The report from the leaders of nine clubs having a total membership of 54 girls follows:
Amount of time spent . . 48 days, 10 hrs.
M iles traveled by leaders . 588 Girls' club meetings attended ------------ * . *"**'*'*** . * . 45
Calls on leaders by girls-. ------------------------------------------------ --- 65
Articles made by girls in sewing . 508 Darns made by girls in sewing --------------------------------- ------------ --- 209
Patches made by girls in sewing ---------------------------------------------- 159
Baskets made by girls in sewing . 22
During the vacation of the agent in the summer, these leaders met with the girls at least once and in some instances twice a month.
, Contests, Camps and Exhibits.-The interest in club camps is increasing. The women of Polk County secured a permanent camp site for women and girls of the county with the purpose of holding annual camps for girls and women. Funds for a building were donated by boards of trade and chambers of commerce over the county. Orange County held a camp for women. Ten counties held camps for girls who had completed a year of club work. Twelve counties held club contests, and home demonstration work was exhibited at twelve county fairs and at two fairs statewide in scope.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF ELLEN LeNOIR,* DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
Territory and Appropriations.-Fourteen counties in North and West Florida had home demonstration agents this year. All but one of these counties appropriated money for the work for the coming year. Altho the counties in this district have felt the financial stringency, only two counties decreased the total amount appropriated for the work for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1922, while seven provided funds for next year's work and one added funds for stenographic help.
Organizations.'-During the year four counties formed county councils or federations of women's clubs. One other county already had such an organization and six others had county bureaus. The county organizations of women proved splendid helpers to the home demonstration agents.
Club Work.-Two hundred seven organized girls' clubs with a membership of 2,327 held regular monthly meetings thruout the year, carrying out definite programs of work. Six hundred seventy-eight girls not in organized clubs carried on home demonstration work also. As many girls carried more than one phase of club work, the enrollment by activities reached 3,123, exclusive of the enrollments in nutrition. Sewing and poultry made the strongest appeal this year. Canning and home beautification, however, more than held their own.
I ight hundred sixty-seven girls exhibited at contests and fairs. Fifty-eight women's clubs with 990 members held regular meetings and carried on definite programs of work. Six hundred thirty-eight women not in organized clubs enrolled in the work. By activities the women's enrollment was 2,622.
Nutrition and child welfare work created decidedly the greatest interest among women, and in close connection with this much work was done in improving conditions in and around schools. There also was an increased interest among women in poultry work. Home improvements, canning, and the making of dress forms were not neglected.
Leadership Schools.-Six schools were held for training local
*Note: From January I to August 31 of the period covered by this report Lonny 1. Landrum was in charge of this district, and she wrote all of this report up to and including the paragraph on "Marketing." On that latter date the present district agent assumed charge of the work in this district, and she wrote the remainder of this report, ELLEN LENOIR, District Agent, North and West Florida.






Annual Report, 1922


FIG. 9.-Club rally day in Columbia County brought together over two
hundred boys and girls, not all, however, who worked under the direction of their home demonstration agent, Miss Marie Cox
women for community leadership. These resulted in a clearer understanding of the real aims of home demonstration work and a more definite knowledge of how to be of assistance in furthering it.
Camp Short Courses.-Three inter-county club camps representing seven counties and three single county club camps were held. The district agent assisted at all of these. Nutrition and health work played an important part in the programs. Girls were also taught to make dainty handkerchiefs and collar-andcuff sets; instructions were given in record book keeping and in the writing of the story of the year's work. Recreation was well planned and supervised. The honor system inaugurated at camps this year aroused much interest among the girls and reduced camp discipline to a minimum. In two counties where it was not practical to hold camps, a series of club picnics was held.
Educational Motion Pictures were shown in eight counties.
Home Improvement.-Continued interest in home improvement brought larger and better results in this important activity. Many women undertook to make their homes more attractive and to improve and to arrange their household equipment so that the work of the home would be made easier and more efficient.
Health and Nutrition.-At the regular monthly club meetings each member reported on how many of the following health rules had been faithfully observed for the month:
"L Drink milk every day.
"2. Eat fruit or vegetables every day.
"3. Brush the teeth every day.
"4. Sleep with windows open every night."
For the keeping of each rule tbruout a club year, 1 percent was






Florida Cooperative Extension


added to the individual score of the year's work. This was done to help in the effort to bring "every club, girl up to standard, physically."
Nutrition classes for under-nourished children were conducted in nine counties. Many of the women's clubs made health work a special study.
Marketing Two successful curb markets were established in this district this year. Poultry and poultry products are still sold to advantage thru the egg circles. Several women and girls created a demand for their special products and thru the help of the conservation specialist got good prices for them. County home demonstration agents also assisted women and girls in marketing their canned and preserved products, butter, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables.
The Work Since September 1,-In September the present district agent, in conference with the county home demonstration agents, planned special clothing work and conducted d short course in millinery. Since September 16 seventeen supervisory vists to counties were made, and thirteen county club contests, eight county fairs and two community fairs were attended, at all but one of which the district agent served as judge. The exhibits at the fairs and contests included sewing, canning, poultry, dairying, bread-making and grape club work. Similar displays including bee club work were shown in the home demonstration booth at the State Fair, Jacksonville.
At two of the county fairs, the negro home demonstration agents showed excellent products in conservation 'and several handicrafts. Their exhibits gave evidence of careful work over a long period of time.
Outlook.-The work over the district is in good condition. The, number of persons exhibiting at fairs and the distribution of home demonstration agents' activities over their counties show that the work is reaching the rural people. The growth of county councils and federations with home demonstration programs shows steadily growing appreciation of the value of this work and a desire on the part of women who are leaders in their communities to promote it. With programs planned and both agents and clubs working toward a definite goal, the outlook for 1923 encourages the belief that excellent results will be attained, providing the organization in the field remains undisturbed.






Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF MINNIE M. FLOYD, ASSISTANT STATE HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN POULTRY '
With the idea of extending and completing the projects and organizations which were already under way at the beginning of the year as a part of home demonstration work in the state, the following poultry projects were outlined and offered in standard form during the year:
1. Standardization of flocks.
2. Egg circles.
3 Community poultry associations.
4. County poultry associations.
5. Girls' and boys' poultry clubs.
6. Training poultry project leaders.
7. Culling demonstrations.
8. Farm-flock egg-laying contests and demonstration farms.
9. Extension poultry schools and shows.
10. Caponizing demonstrations.
11. Better feeding methods.
12. Standardization of poultry houses.
13. Automobile tours to poultry farms.
14. Miscellaneous projects.
The standard poultry projects were presented and discussed at the annual meeting of home demonstration agents, September, 1922. Each agent returning to the field-of work of the previous year was requested to sign up the subdivisions of the projects which her county was undertaking to carry out.
Project No. I was signed up for by every agent; No. 7 was a close second; and No. 5 came third. The agent in Volusia County signed for all 14 projects.
Agents going into new territory were not allowed to sign until they became familiar with the conditions and needs of their respective counties, and had had an opportunity for conferences with the people of their counties.
Enrollment-Home demonstration agents' reports show a membership of more than two thousand men and women and 1,097 boys and girls, carrying on some phase of standard poultry work, under their supervision. This gives a total enrollment of more than three thousand for the year.
Excerpts on Standardization from Agents' Reports.-The following excerpts from home demonstration agents' reports indicate something of the interest and work in standardization:







76 Florida Cooperative Extension

Suwannee County: "Thru the farm bureau in Suwannee County, 22,000 White Leghorn baby chicks were ordered. As a resuit 125 farms each have 100 or more carefully selected Leghorn hens."~
East Hillsborough: "The Welcome women's club disposed of their old stock and bought 1,000 purebred baby chicks."
Palm Beach: "An early hatch campaign put on thru the egg circle resulted in 1,423 standard-bred chicks added to the flocks in this county."
Egg Circles.-Cooperative marketing of poultry products was carried on-in Columbus, Escambia, Hernando, Hillsborough, Madison, Palm Beach, Putnam and Volusia Counties.
The Boynton egg circle, Palm Beach County, was organized December, 1921, with six members. It increased in the spring to ten members. Within eleven months 1,4821/ dozen eggs were sold for $644.86 by this circle. From July 1 to November 1, 128 pounds of poultry were sold for $49.48.
The agent of Putnam County reports that the Florahome egg circle is still doing good work. To quote from that report, "They have held the same market for five years, having no difficulty in financing and shipping, and the buyer says that during all this time the eggs have been 100 percent good. This is due to proper grading, the regular gathering of eggs from the nests, and the careful packing and prompt shipping of eggs."~
Community Poultry Associations.-There were demands for the organization of community poultry associations for educational and cooperative marketing purposes. Such associations were organized in Hillsborough, Lake and Volusia, and requests for community poultry associations were made in Gadsden, Leon, Palm Beach, and others. One such organization was organized at Plant City by the home demonstration agent. This organization took as its objective a poultry school and show. The school and show were held July 10-13. The 300 birds on exhibit during the four days show were viewed by 1,500 people.
County Poultry Associations.-County poultry associations were organized this year in four counties; viz, Hillsborough, Osceola, Polk and Volusia. The outstanding work of the Hillsborough association was establishing a cooperative egg marketing center in Tampa.
The two chief projects developed in Volusia were organization and marketing. Associations were organized in DeLand, Day-






Annual Report, 1922


tona and New Smyrna, which federated in a county association. Still later other communities were organized. Two cooperative markets were f ormed that sold 16,900 dozen eggs f or $7,272.47 from April 1 to November 1. In addition the agent helped sell more than $500 worth of poultry in individual sales.
Girls and Boys Poultry Clubs.-Of the 30 counties doing home demonstration work, 25 report poultry club work with an enrollment of 1,097.
The agent of Okaloosa says, "I chose pou ' Itry as my most important project. One hundred thirty-two children reported that they raised 2,400 chickens. Fifteen children exhibited chickens at the county contest and five sent theirs to the State Fair."
The agent of Palm Beach County says, "Fourteen Poultry club members in the county are keeping records of standard flocks. Twelve exhibited at the county fair, winning $40 in prizes. Six exhibited at two state fairs. One boy won a scholarship to Gainesville for his splendid poultry club record. This boy used the money he made on his poultry to buy a Guernsey calf.
State Contest.-The state federation of women's clubs offers an annual prize of $50 for educational purposes to the girl or


FIG. 10-Sweepstakes trio, poultry club exhibit, State Fair, Jacksonville.
Owned and shown by Alvin Collins, Duval County. Two hundred birds
were exhibited by junior club members at this fair in 1922






Florida Cooperative Extension;


boy making the best all-around record in the poultry clubs of the state. Some very excellent records were made this year. Competition was keen. The prize was awarded to Dorothy Hubner, Florahome, Putnam County, whose record is as follows:
"I started in February, 1921, by buying 300 White Leghorn baby chicks. My receipts and expenditures for the year were as shown below:
Receipts Expenditures
Market poultry sold (122 friers).-------$ 56.80 Eggs sold . .26.07 150 pullets on hand.-----. 350.00 7 males on hand.-------------21.00
Baby chicks bought . $ 58.00 Feed bought . 47.45 Coops built . 6.00
Totals.$4453.87 $111.45
Profit.------------- $342.42
Poultry Exhibits.-At the county home demonstration agents' annual meeting in September, 1922, it was decide d that club poultry be shown by districts, North Florida exhibiting at the State Fair in Jacksonville and South Florida at the South Florida Fair in Tampa-that it is detrimental to the birds to carry them on two fair trips.
ITen North Florida counties sent exhibits in first year work and three in second year work to the State F -air in November. Twelve county poultry club exhibits were shown at the South Florida Fair in February. The standard of the birds was higher than of any club show yet held.
At the State Fair the Columbia County exhibit won first honors, sweepstakes and individual entries in first year work, Suwannee County won the same in second year work.
Training Poultry Project Leaders.--Much of the farm poultry specialist's time was spent in training home demonstration Agents as county project leaders in poultry work, together with the training of a few local leaders in several counties. Since the demands for poultry work are becoming greater each year, more local, leaders must be trained.
,Culling Demnonstrations.-No piece of work yet offered to the poultry -igAsers has been more appreciated than ."Culling the Flock." It was impossible to meet all requests for help along this line.
In Volusia County 19 culling demonstrations were given by' the agent in which she eliminated 414 slackers. Following the dem-






Annual Report, 1922


onstrations 40 members reported that they had culled their own flocks.
Farm-Flock Egg-Laying Contest.-In order to stimulate greater interest in better breeding, feeding, housing, egg-production, etc., a farm-flock egg-laying contest was organized. Five flocks from each of 20 counties were entered, viz, Columbia, Escambia, Jackson, Leon, Madison,'Putnam, Santa Rosa, Suwannee, Taylor, Walton, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pasco, Polk and Volusia. The contest opened November 1, 1922, and will continue 12 months.

Auto Tours to Poultry Farms.-During the annual short course for club girls at Tallahassee in April, 1922, all the girls in attendance were taken on a tour to a successful poultry plant in Leon County. In Volusia County 11 tours in which 254 poultry raisers participated were conducted as a part of their association work. Eighty-seven new poultry houses have been built as a result of these tours and several hundred dollars' worth of breeding stock purchased.
Poultry Records and Calendars.-Realizing that the average farm flock egg production was far below what it should be, 2,000 poultry calendars were prepared and sent to home demonstration agents for distribution among adult poultry raisers. The calendars were accompanied by the following pledge which the receiver might sign:
"I will undertake to establish a purebred flock of poultry on my yard.
"I will keep an accurate record of egg production on the poultry calendar furnished by the home demonstration department."
The poultry calendars proved so satisfactory that a calendar for the year of 1923 has been prepared also. A new poultry club record book for the state has been prepared and also a report card for the records in the farm-flock egg-laying contest.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF MAY MORSE, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN DAIRYING

The following projects in home dairy work.were undertaken under the direction of the home demonstration dairy specialist:
1. To encourage the ownership of more good home dairy cows.
2. To demonstrate methods necessary to profitable home dairy management.
3. To secure a greater use of dairy products in the diet.
4. To promote the eradication of the cattle fever tick.
Home Dairy Cow'Ownership designed to increase the number of family cows owned, to insure better food for the family, to supplemenf-the family income thru surplus products sold, and to increase the fertility of the soil.
Three hundred eighty-seven club members kept records of production, cost, and the value of dairy products to the family. These records developed interest in better cows and methods of management. This year 38 cows were purchased for home use and 24 club members reported improved breeding.
Home Dairy Management.-Dairy products clubs were organized in Citrus, Alachua, Columbia and Madison Counties. Nineteen communities were represented. Demonstrations were given in butter and cottage cheese making and instruction given in detail for the care of dairy products in the home. Monthly meetings were held in each community under the supervision of the home demonstration agent who assisted the women in scoring their products. Regular lesson programs were furnished.
The iceless refrigerator was recommended for use where other cooling facilities were not available for dairy products. Bulletin$ giving instructions for making iceless refrigerators were distributed.
In spite of the lack of adequate equipment many club members made marked improvement in their products. Their aim was to produce better milk, butter and cheese for home use and to standardize these products for the market. In Citrus County ,12 women enrolled and 60 attended the demonstration. Twelve also did this work in Columbia County, where 78 attended demonstrations. Twenty enrolled in Alachua County and all endeavored to follow instructions. One Columbia County, club of six members adopted the use of the standard package for all butter sold by its members.






Annual Report, 1922


Following the demonstration and meeting with the Madison County women, the home demonstration agent reported, "I have found numbers of women making cottage cheese since that meeting, and much better butter. Several cows have been bought for home use. I have held
a scoring contest in every _7 04,
woman's club in the county. The results have been
that 54 club members enrolled, all of whom are reporting. Thirty persons
that did not enroll adopted
the better practices, and
283 attended demonstrations.
Greater Use of Dairy
Products in the home diet
-was secured principally
thru. conducting milk campaigns. Requests for milk
campaigns were received
from Tampa, Plant City, Fic. 11-Gladys Ward and her pureSanford, Miami, Pensacola, bred Guernsey heifer, her reward for Pierce, Lakeland, Ocala excellency in dairy club work
and Brooksville.
These requests were made with the hope of relieving a surplus, either seasonal or from local over-production, and as a nutritional measure in localities where a very limited quantity of milk was used. Campaigns were conducted in Miami, Tampa, Plant City and Seminole County. Local conditions made it impractical to put on campaigns in the other places.
The Tampa campaign was requested by the local health department and dairymen and was financed by the dairymen. In this campaign 53 window displays were made, four free motion pictures shows were given, literature was distributed to all school children, posters were placed thruout the city and talks were made in all schools. Model meals were served to groups of children daily. On account of a large Latin population some leaflets were published in Spanish. The mayor issued a proclamation designating the days of the campaign as "Milk Week." As a result 10,365 white and 1,200 colored children were reached and benefited. The demand for milk in school lunches doubled.






Florida 'Cooperative Extension


The parent-teachers' association formed a committee to prepAre menus for lunches thruout the coming year and asked the home demonstration agent to assist in this work. Scales were placed in Ybor City school and plans made to place scales in every school next year. Dairymen reported from 15 to 20 percent increases in sales, which practically absorbed the existing surplus. The dairymen organized an association under the direction of the county agent.
The Plant City campaign was requested by the home demontration agent 'and the child welfare department of the woman's qlub and was financed by subscriptions from the woman's club, the Junior Red Cro ss, the dairymen and the Kiwanis club, etc 'Vork was in charge of the home demonstration agent and a representative of the child welfare department of the woman's club. ; Work done included picture shows, talks in schools, window displays, a health survey made by the federal health unit And
*house to house distribution of literature.
*As a result 1,400 pupils w ere reached; scales were bought for permanent use in schools; medical and dental clinics were established and nutrition classes were organized to meet once a week. Milk sales in school lunches increased from 3 to 113 gallons daily. Dairymen reported a 10-percent increase in sales in homes and stores. A poster contest was held in which 75 posters were entered.
Seminole County campaign included Sanford, Monroe, Altamonte, Longwood, Oviedo and Chuluota schools. Request for the campaign was made by the child welfare department of the federated woman's club. There was no home demonstration agent in the county so the work was done by, the home dairy specialist and the district home demonstration agent in cooperation with the federated woman's club which was responsible for finances. A program similar to that of the Plant City campaign was carried out. Twelve hundred children were reached and helped.
The Miami campaign was requested by the local health department and the county agent. A seasonal surplus was the chief problem there. Funds were supplied by the dairymen. Displays 'representing the value of good dairy cows and the food value of milk were exhibited. Milk cookery demonstrations Were given each day. Scales were available for weighing and measuring the children, and 1,000 children responded to the







Annual Report, 1922 83

opportunity to see if they were normal. Many parents came with their children for conference.
Results.-Thruout the schools 5,421 white and 1,000 colored children were reached. The parent-teachers' association, arranged for milk to be served in all schools. One school served milk to 600 children the day after the talk in that school; none had been served previously.
Following is an excerpt from a letter received from Dr. A. W. Ziebold. Miami food and dairy inspector: "May, June, July and August last year we had a surplus amounting to not less than five hundred gallons daily. Since that time dairy herds have been increased from 2,243 to 3,084 cows. These additional cows produce about a thousand gallons of milk daily. The surplus on our market does not exceed 250 gallons." Dr. Ziebold was asked if he considered the campaign a success. His answer was, "If we compare the surplus of last year of 500 gallons produced by 2,243 cows to 250 gallons this year from 3,084 cows, I am going to answer your query with an unqualified affirmative."
The cooperation of civic, religious and welfare organizations, schools, clubs, individuals, agents and specialists in all the abovementioned campaigns was most satisfactory. In all 20,165 white and 2,700 colored children were reached. Milk lunches were established in Plant City, Miami and Tampa schools. Health surveys were made which affected 4,600 school children. Nutrition classes were established in Plant City where scales were furnished. The use of milk in Tampa increased 20 percent; in Miami, 20 percent; and in Plant City, 10 percent.
Tick Eradication was advocated thru milk campaigns, club meetings and conferences by stressing the need for better dairy cows and the necessity of dairy products in the diet and calling attention to the fact that ticks contribute to the high price and insufficient supply of milk in the state.
Educational exhibits which especially interested children were put on at the two state fairs. Home demonstration dairy products were entered for prizes at both fairs. Assistance was given two demonstration agents in the planning and arranging of exhibits at their local fairs.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF GLADYS SMITH, ASSISTANT STATE HOME
DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN NUTRITION
The nutrition work as undertaken was in part in answer to the calls for child welfare work. No one agency in the field seemed equipped to carry on an adequate health program for children. Since home demonstration agents are more or less trained in nutrition, demands for such service were made upon them.
By close cooperation between home demonstration forces, women's organizations, and the State Board of Health, a beginning in the solution of this great problem was made. The nutrition project as carried out by home demonstration agents in Florida was the practical result of work attempted in the spring of this year. The present project is the working plan of this office for 1922-23, but is not the goal expected to be reached finally by home demonstration workers.
Nutrition Clubs.-In each nutrition club where this work was undertaken, it was urged that the whole community be allowed to benefit from the knowledge gained and that the club sponsor a nutrition group for the underweight children in its school. Good results from this broadening of interest were shown by the clubs of East Ft. Myers (Lee County), Sorrento (Lake County) and Tacoma (Alachua County). Splendidly equipped local leaders in each of these clubs were secured and good work resulted.
Nutrition Groups.--Forty-four demonstration nutrition groups in 12 counties were started under the direct supervision of the nutrition specialist. Other nutrition groups were conducted by home demonstration agents whose training and experience fitted them for this work.
Nutrition groups for underweight children proved so successful that it is regretted that the over-crowded programs of home demonstration agents prevented their undertaking work in every community. It is hoped that as scales are secured in schools the weight of each child will be sent to its respective home as a part of the monthly school report. With the attention of parents thus called to the indicated physical condition of their children, adequate medical inspection, accompanied by corrective work, must follow.
A series of 20 simple lessons to be distributed weekly to the







Annual Report, 1922


children were prepared. Each child was given weekly a copy of "Health or Food Facts" to take home.
The correcting of physical defects pointed out. at the time of the physical examination was one of the most beneficial results of forming nutrition groups. Hundreds of hook-worm treatments were given. Other defects corrected were diseased tonsils, poor vision, nasal obstruction and bad teeth. This corrective work was followed up by local nurses or interested parents.
Lake and Gadsden Counties did the best work with underweight children. West Hillsborough had a large number of underweight children, four groups of which were in the Italian and Cuban settlements. Nutrition work as carried on there proved valuable in helping the children to readjust their food habits to American conditions.
The splendid response of the women when local leaders were needed made possible the regular weekly meetings of the nutrition groups. The cordial cooperation of local physicians with the specialist in this work was of inestimable value.
Cooperation in the Home.-Nutrition lectures to the mothers of underweight children always formed a part of the work in the counties. It is only by cooperation with the home that a child can be helpedto attain his best development. Often after group meetings with the mothers individual conferences were held. In this way individual help was given.
Follow-up Work.-Sometimes enthusiasm and early gain in weight are followed by careless food habits and the loss of all the gain the child may have made. The follow-up work, thru subsequent weighing for underweight children was one way in which permanent good was often secured. As at present these subsequent weighing were done by local leaders under the supervision of agents. As scales were provided in schools, teachers sent weight records in with monthly school reports.
Health Weeks and Clinics are good measures where an emergency is to be met. - A large number of people may help perform the work in a short length of time. This was done in Arcadia during the baby clinic. Three hundred infants received thoro examinatimis by physicians and their mothers were given specific advice from the nutrition specialist. Similar cooperation was given the United States public health unit in Escambia County in June. Special nutrition work was done for communities during milk campaigns. In Miami, 1,000 children were






Florida Cooperative Extension


weighed and measured and "advised" during one week of the milk campaign.
Nutrition work with children of pre-school age is most important as health and food habits are then being formed. Nutrition classes for small children were started in Lake City. With the fine development of local leaders found everywhere, other classes of this kind will be possible now.
In every club camp held last summer, health was one of the points emphasized and honors were given for observing health rules. In every instance particular attention was given to the serving and the eating of the right kinds of food. At Hampton Springs camp a little nutrition play was presented by the children one evening.
At the State Fair a nutrition booth was fitted up in the University of Florida building. This showed the "Healthland Flyer" and the stations in "Healthland" such as "Cleanly Town," "Fruit Farms," "Cereal City," and "Milky Way" along the route to "Long Sleep Mount" which every child should visit daily.
The state nutrition specialist visited 19 counties of the state in this work this year; organized 44 nutrition groups; and enrolled 880 nutrition club members in the special demonstration groups.







Annual Report, 1922


REPORT OF ESTELLE BOZEMAN, ASSISTANT STATE
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN FOOD CONSERVATION

The program of work in food conservation was developed, both as general and as home industry projects. Under the general project the first aim was to adequately supply the home table with Florida foods at a minimum cost.
Under the home industry project the aim was to make this line of work a source of income to the women and girls interested. The methods used for conservation of fruits and vegetables were canning, brining, drying, pickling and crystallizing. The food value of conserved fruits and vegetables was taught and families urged to conserve fruits and vegetables on the basis of one quart of each f or every day for every family of five. A proportional reduction of this estimate was based on the amount of fresh fruits and vegetables available.
The agents of experience were sufficiently skilled, in most cases, to handle the general program. When agents come from other states it is necessary to give them help in the handling of sub-tropical fruits and vegetables.
Canning Meat and Fish.-Teaching the family to can meats was made a special project this year. Excellent work was done in this line. When one or more carcasses were canned in a day, several families came together to receive instruction while helping with the work.
Work in the canning of fish was started. In f our counties special work was done. Indications are that the time is ripe for intensive work along this line.
Home Industry Products.-Under the home industry project women and girls were enrolled who wish to commercialize their work. They were given special training to enable them to bring their products to a high degree of perfection. To encourage the development of this project, they were asked to send to the South Florida Fair two samples of each of the products which they wished to market. There were 42 entries, showing 14 varieties of products. Theproducts shown were judged by buyers for hotels and delicatessen stores. Thirty-three of those shown were given an A-No.-1 score. As a result of the exhibit, products were shipped from the South Florida Fair into 15 states. Many duplicate orders were received. A letter followed each







Florida Cooperative Extension


shipment, asking for a comment. The following reply from Fargo, N. Dak., is typical:
"The guava jelly rektched us in fine shape and we think it unsurpassed in texture and quality. We shall want more when this is gone."
Fourteen members were enrolled in the home industry project. One hundred fifty-seven women and girls marketed homemade products of this type this year. Most of the products were disposed of in local markets. When markets were located, it meant that producer and consumer were brought into direct contact. One of the leading hotels of the state bought and is buying largely of these goods. Other hotels agreed to use these products as soon as they could be supplied in larger quantities.
The business of one woman grew from the family kitchen into a small building in her back yard, fitted up with modern equipment. She was recently offered the management of a factory. Another woman temporarily converted her basement into a special products kitchen. Several working women are making products during their spare time. The sale of these supplements their own earnings.
Enrolled in this work this year were 1,393 girls and 957 women, or a total of 2,350. Of fruitY 88,718 containers were put up; of vegetables, 223,246; of meats and fish, 39,564.







Annual Report, 1922


NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
Negro extension work is in charge of a negro district agent,
A. A. Turner, who has headquarters at the Agricultural and
Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee.
Division of WorL-Agricultural extension work among negroes includes the three following branches:
(1) Farm makers' clubs, for men and boys.
(2) Home makers' clubs, for women and girls.
(3) Farm and home makers' schools, for farmers, housewives and club members.
Farm Makers' Clubs,-The year's program of the farm makers' clubs included work in the following:. (1) Corn clubs,
(2) potato clubs, (3) peanut clubs, (4) pig clubs, (5) marketing clubs, and (6) savings clubs.
The figures below show how the time of the local county agents was spent upon various activities during the year:
Months worked (average) . 7% D ays in field . -----------_ . 1,093
Days in office . . --------------------- . 1 256
Calls on agents --------------------------------- ------_---------------- --------------- 1,562
Letters w ritten . 2,352 Farm and home visits made . . . 4,883 M eetings held . 394 Attendance these meetings . 6,010 Farm bulletins distributed ------------- -------- . ----_-_---- ---------- 3,482
M iles traveled by rail . . 5,195 Miles traveled by automobile . - 6,176 M iles traveled otherwise . . . 425
During the period of this report, 38 clubs were organized among negro men in which there were 326 enrolled. There were 98 boys' clubs organized in which there were 824 boys enrolled. Each of eight negro men worked as local county agents for an average of seven and three-fourths months. The following figures show the results accomplished by these agents:

I MEN BOYS I TOTAL
Total enrollment . . 326 824 1,150 Total clubs organized . . 8 8 98 136 Hog pastures established ---------------------------------------- 37 34 71
Purebred pigs placed . . 79 135 214 Hogs vaccinated . 1,100 107 1,207 Patrons using purebred boars . 93 32 125 Pounds of pork raised by club members . 85,000 16,000 ioiooo Value of pork raised . $4,876.50 $820.25 $5,696.75 Number of farm dairies started . 5 2 7
Value of dairy products sold thru clubs . $2,721.50 $202.25 $2,923.75 Value of fruit sold thru clubs . $1,280.00 $45.00 $12325.00 Value of vegetables sold thru clubs . $1,788.00 $165.00 $1,953.00 Value of melons shipped . :::::.::::::::::j$5,330.00
Cars of melons shipped . . . , 47
Deposited in savings clubs . 1$1,815.251 $803.75 $2,619.00









The table below shows the work accomplished, by activities, in
farm makers' corn, potato, peanut, pig and savings clubs:




1. Corn Clubs: MEN I BOYS I TOTAL
Members enrolled . ----- 90 315 405 Number reporting . : 75 253 328 Average acre yield (bushels) . 23.5 32.5 avg. 28.5 Bushels harvested . 1,762.5 8,157.8 9,920.3 Average bushel cost (cents) . 38 55 46
Total value of crops at 75c a bushel . $1,325.63 $6,118.35 $7,444.98
2. Potato Clubs:
Members enrolled . 100 310 410 Number reporting . so 285 365 Average fourth-acre yield (bushels) --- . 22 23 22.5
Bushels harvested . 1,740 6,726 8,466 Average bushel cost (cents) . 23 31 27
Total value of crops at 50c a bushel . $1,044.00 $1,563.85 $2,607.85
3. Peanut Clubs:
Members enrolled . 80 ill 191 Number reporting . 68 110 178 Average acre yield (bushels) . 38 45 42.5
Bushels harvested -------------------------------------------- 2,584 4,960 7,544
Average bushel cost (cents) . 35 40 37
Total value of crops at 60c a bushel . $1,550.40 $2,970.00 $4,520.40
4. Pig Clubs:
M embers enrolled -----------------------_ . 56 88 144
Number reporting - ------------------- . 45 78 123
Purebred pigs placed . . 79 135 - 214 Hog pastures made ------------------------------------------ 37 34 71
Hogs vaccinated ----------------------- . 1pI00 107 12207
Pounds of pork produced . 85,000 16,000 101,000 Value of pork produced . $4,876.50 $820.25 $5,696.75
5. Savings Clubs:
Members enrolled . 156 375 531 Number reporting ----------_--------- _ --_-_-------- _ 95 221 316
Total amount saved ------------------------------------------ $1,815.25 $803.75 $2,619.00
6. Marketing Clubs:
Members enrolled ---------------------------------------------- 79 180 259
Number reporting -------------------- . 68 155 223
Cars of melons shipped by clubs . 47 . 47 Average receipts to the car . $114.00 . $114.00 Total value of melons shipped-. . $5,330.00 . $5,330.00 Total value of other farm produce shipped-- $5,789.501$42122.55 $9,912.05

Home Makers' Clubs.-The program for the home makers'
clubs included canning,- poultry raising, dairying, home improvement work, sewing, marketing and saving of money.
Fifty-four clubs were organized among negro women and 89 among negro girls. There were enrolled in these clubs 1,012


Florida Cooperative Extension







Annual Report, 1922 91










vav,








FIG. 12-A group of negro women and girls, members of the home makers' club of Duval County, in front of a room equipped by them as a
place where they may receive training in cooking and sewing. Negro agents work under the general supervision of white county and home
demonstration agents

women and 1,535 girls. Local leaders were in charge of each club.
Home makers' club work was supervised by nine women (local home demonstration agents) who worked an average of eight months during the year. The agents visited individual club members an average of once a month.
The figures below show how the time of the local home demonstration agents was spent upon various activities during the
year:
M onths worked (average) ----- ---------------------------------------- 8 V3
D ays in field -------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1,600
D ays in off ice . . . 352 Calls on agents . . - . ------- 1,821
Letters w ritten ------------------------------------------------------------ ----_ -------- 2,360
Club m em ber visits . . 2,043 A dult visits -------------------------------------------------------------- ----------- . 2,594
Farm and hom e visits -------- ------------------------ ---_---------------------- 6,307
M iscellaneous visits . --------------------------------------- . 497
M eetings held ----- ----------- ------------------------------------------------------------ 810
Attendance these m eetings --_-------------_--------- . 8,671
Visited by local district agent . . 94 Bulletins distributed ------------------------_-- --------------------------------- . 5,442
Articles written for the press ---------------------------------------------------- 82
M iles traveled by rail ---------------------------------------------------------------- 6,663
Miles traveled by automobile . --_-_--------------------- 6,141
M iles traveled otherwise --- ------------------------------------------------------ 4,058








92 Florida Cooperative Extension

The table below shows the work accomplished in all.home makers' clubs:


WOMEN GIRLS TOTAL

Clubs organized . . 54 89 143 Enrollm ent ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1,012 1,523 2,535
Containers of preserved food filled . 23,240 17,790 41,030 Fireless cookers made . 230 133 363 Articles made from pine straw, shucks, wire
grass, etc . . 6,405 6,040 12,445 Bars of soap made . 5,827 3,336 9,163 Pounds of butter made ---------_--- . . 7,556 1,476 9,032
Value of milk and cream sold ------ . $286.60 $90.00 $376.60 Purebred chickens raised ---------------------------------------- 2,062 1,831 3,893
Value of poultry raised ----------------------------------- _ ------- $2,902.40 $1,906.14 $4,808.54
Dozens of eggs preserved for home use ---------------- 1,827 723 2,560
Dozens of eggs marketed thru. clubs ---------------------- 1,260 1,416 2,676
Houses whitewashed ------------------------------------- ---------- 306 295 601
Houses painted . 133 27 160 Homes.remodeled . 205 44 249 Homes purchased --------- : . ------------------------ 78 8 86
Homes screened -------------------------------------------------------- M 36 201
Homes observed health week -------------------------------- 1,342 395 1,737
Fruit trees set out . . 1,589 367 1,956
-Grape vines set out . _ . 493 175 668 Sanitary toilets installed on the farm --------- : -------- 27 ------ 27
Bath tubs installed in farm homes. ----------------------- 6 2 8
Telephones installed in rural homes . ---------------- 8 . 8
Water systems installed in rural homes . 3 . 3 Floor mops made from old stockings ---------------------- 849 617 1,468
Canning centers equipped -------------------------------------- 23 11 34
Cash deposited by savings clubs . $1,734.72 $3,370.61 $5,105.33 Amount of produce sold cooperatively ----------- = $1,895. 0 $1,350.25 $3,245.95

Fairs State and county fairs encouraged the work of home makers' clubs. Considerable money in prizes was won by colored women and girls who made exhibits at the South Florida Fair and the various county fairs.

Farm and Home Makers' Schools.-A series of extension schools in agriculture and home economics were held. These served an important purpose in that valuable information on farming, improved living and better business was received by those who attended. Thru these schools, to which the public was invited, the people of the state received a better understanding of this phase of extension work, as demonstrations and lectures by trained and properly informed persons were important features.






Annual Report, 1922 93

The following figures summarize this school work for the year:
Schools held ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17
Total attendances . . 4,485 Dem onstrations given . 23 Trios of purebred chickens awarded prizes . 9 Purebred pigs awarded as prizes . . 10 Cash awarded as prizes . . $2,155 Days occupied . -------------------_-_ . . ---------- a . 22
Speakers engaged ---------------------------------------- . 15
Counties in which schools were held . 11

Cooperating Agencies.-The cooperation of public schools and colleges and the State Board of Health meant much to the success of this phase of extension work. Pastors of churches gave great assistance in securing attendance at the extension schools. The South Florida Fair erected a building for housing exhibits of negroes. Premiums given by this fair association made it profitable for patrons to send exhibits. Several county fairs set apart special prizes and space for negro exhibitors. Banks, business men and individuals, as contributors of money, etc., for prizes and premiums, did much to encourage the work.
The negro farmers' union of Florida, a cooperative marketing organization, functioned in 16 counties this year. It is made up of the leading negro farmers and serves as a medium thru which farmers may get relief from inadequate markets. Officers and members of this organization often volunteered to assume the leadership of local clubs.
The Local District Agent has headquarters in Tallahassee, is provided with office equipment and is required to keep in touch with the work of local county and local home demonstration agents. As far as possible agents are visited at least once a month. After reports are received from each county worker, they are tabulated, summarized and submitted at regular intervals to the state leader's office in Gainesville. The following
is-a brief summary of the local district agent's activities:
Letters w ritten . 3,735 Circular letters sent out ------------------------------------------------- : ------- 4,757
State bulletins sent out ------------------------------------------------------------ 890
Government bulletins sent out ------------------------------------------------ 3,580
Days in field -------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- 276
Days in office ------------------------------ * -------------------------------------- * -------- 36
M eetings held ----------- I ----------------------------------------------- . 134
Estim ated attendances -------------------------------------------------------------- 7,066
Visits to agents . 224 Dem onstrations visited . --------------------------------------------- 91
M iles traveled by rail . 21,306 Miles traveled by automobile . 2,948 Total m iles traveled . ------------------------------------ 24,254










INDEX


Administration, 11 Agents, cooperation of, 8
negro, 15
negro, training of, 16
Agricultural conditions of Florida,
20
Agricultural Extension Divisionj organization of, 8 ,
Agricultural News Service, 11 Anthracnose of watermelons, 46 Appropriations, county, 28, 32, 35,
72
for home demonstration work, 54 Associations, poultry, 76 Ayers, Ed L., appointment of, 10
report of, 46
Beef-cattle demonstrations, 25 Beekeeping, 62
Blacklock, R. W., report of, 39 Boys' club project, 12
club work, 28, 32, 35
Short course, 40
Bozeman, Estelle, report of, 87
resignation of, 10
Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 51 Bulletins published, 11
Campaigns, milk, 81 Camp, club, 40, 60, 66, 67, 71, 73 Canning, 68
contest, national, 68
contest, state, 65 meat and fish, 87 Cattle, dairy, 33 Citrus, miscellaneous report of, 26
problems, 47 work, 21
Clayton, H. G., report of, 22 Clinics, nutrition work, 85 Clothing, 61 Club, boys', project, 12
camps, 40, 60, 66, 67, 71
champions, 42
enrollment, girls', 69
exhibits, 40
short courses, 73
work, 28, 32, 35, 72
work for girls, organization of, 55


Clubs, farm makers', 89
home demonstration, organization
of, 66
home makers', 90
organized home demonstration, 55
poultry, 77
Conferences of extension workers,
13
Contest, farm-flock egg-laying, 79
in poultry, state, 77 Contests, 71 Cooperation, of agents, 8
of agri. institutions in state, 9, 19 Cooperative marketing, 13, 36
work, 32
Corn club, 39
demonstrations, 23
Cotton, boll weevil control, 17
demonstrations, 23
County agents, expenses of, 19
how paid, 11
number of, 19 project of, 11
qualifications of, 19 requirements of, 21
summary of. work of, 20
varied duties of, 19
work done by, 22
County, appropriations by, 28
support for extension work of, 16 Creameries, 52 Crops, farm, 29, 33, 36 Culling demonstrations, 78 Curb market at Ft. Myers, 70

Dairy cattle, 33
demonstrations, 25
improved methods of feeding, 51
improvement of, 51
Dairy cow ownership, 80 Dairying, 21, 36
as project, 12
home, 62
management, 80 products, greater use of, 81 Demonstrations, beef-cattle, 25
corn, 23
Culling, 78







Annual Report, 1922


dairy-cattle, 25
fertilizer and manure, 26
grains, 23
grass, 24
hog, 25
Irish-potato, 24
legume, 24
lime, 26
orchard, 25 peanut, 24 poultry, 26
sweet-potato, 24
tobacco, 23 tomato, 23
Diseases and pests of livestock, 27

Egg circles, 76 Entomology, as project, 12 Exhibits, 71
poultry, 78
Extension, schools, 13
work, county support of, 16
work with negroes, 15

Fairs, 14, 31, 34, 38, 86, 92
Uni. of Fla. represented at, 15
Farm and home makers' clubs, as
project, 12
Farm-flock egg-laying contest, 79 Farm improvements, 26 Farm makers' clubs, 89 Farm organization, 28 Fat barrow club, 39 Fertilizer and manure demonstrations, 26
Financial statement, 9 Fish canning, 87 Floyd, Minnie M., report of, 75 Food conservation, 61, 87 Forage crops, as project, 12 Fruit, 32
production of, 17

Gardening, 61, 68 Girls' club enrollment, 69
club, nation l canning contest, 68
clubs, organization of, 55
club work, enrollment of, 75
short course, 65
Grain demonstrations, 23


Grape work, 66 Grass demonstrations, 24 Group meetings, 14

Health, 73
weeks and clinics, 85 Hiatt, S. W., report of, 35 Hogs, 33, 37
demonstrations, 25
Home demonstration agents, how
paid, 12
clubs, organization of, 66
staff, 54
work, as project, 12
work, enrollment in, 75
work, how carried out, 54
work, supervision of, 58 Home improvements, 62, 73 Home makers' clubs, 90 Home products conserved, 87

Irish-potato demonstrations, 24

Jenkins, E. W., report of, 28

Landrum, Lonny I., report of, 72
resignation of, 10
Layton, Harriette B., report of, 64 Legume demonstrations, 24 LeNoir, Ellen, appointment of, 10
report of, 72
Leadership schools, 71, 72
work, 64
Lime demonstrations, 26 Livestock, 30
diseases and pests of, 27 Local leaders, 55

Marketing, 30, 32, 34, 37, 74
cooperative, 13, 17 dairy products, 52 home products, 87 Meat conserving, 87 Meetings, field, 30, 47
girls' club, 64
group, 14, 34, 37
Melanose, control of, 18 Milk campaigns, 81 Morse, May, report of, 80







Florida Cooperative Extension


work, organization of, 75 Prizes in club work, 41 Progress of extension work, 17 Projects, extension, 11 Publications, 10, 11, 63 Publicity, 60

Sanborn, N. W., report of, 48 Satsuma oranges, 17 Schools, extension, 13
farm and home makers', 92
leadership, 71, 72
Scott, John M., report of, 44 Short course, boys', 40
girls', 65
Silos, 27
Smith, Gladys, appointment of, 10
report of, 84
Spencer, A. P., report of, 19 Staff changes, 10 State Fair, 15 Supervision, extension workers, 9
home demonstration workers, 58 Sweet-potato clubs, 39
demonstrations, 24

Tick eradication, 83 Tobacco demonstrations, 23 Tomato demonstrations, 23 Turner, A. A., report of, 89

University of Florida at State Fair,
15

Webster, Agnes I., report of, 69 "Welcome awakes," 56


Negro agents, 15
extension work, 15, 89
work, how provided for, 12 Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7 Nutrition, 61, 65, 73, 84
clubs and groups, 84

Orchard demonstrations, 25 Organization, Agri. Ext. work, 8
counties, for home demonstration
work, 57
farm, 28, 35
home demonstration work, 72
Outlook for home demonstration
work, 63

Partridge, Sarah W., report of, 54 Patrons of club work, 41 Peanut clubs, 39
demonstrations, 24 Pig clubs, 39 Plant pathology, as project, 12 Policies of extension work, agents
recommend, 15
poultry, of extension workers, 48 Poultry, 30, 34, 37, 61
as project, 13
associations, 76
clubs, 77
contest, farm-flock egg-laying, 79
culling demonstrations, 78
demonstrations, 26
exhibits, 78
leaders, training of, 78
policies of extension workers, 48
progress, 49




Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics (Acts of May 8 -d June 30, 1914) Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida, And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating WILMON NEWELL, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1922 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE :FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1922 ' ' .... .. , , I , .. \' : , C ,; ,:,

PAGE 2

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914) Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida, , ; 111 And United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating . , . . WILMON NEWELL, Director . REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1922 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE , FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1922

PAGE 3

CONTENTS PAGE LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA 3 BOARD OF CONTROL, STAFF, SPECIALISTS, SPECIAL LECTURERS ...... . ............... 4 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS, LIST OF 5 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL •....................... 7 REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7 INTRODUCTION ........................ : . . .... 7 ORGANIZATION 8 FINANCIAL STATEMENT 9 CHANGES IN STAFF 10 PUBLICATIONS ............. ............................................ 10 OUTLINE OF PROJECTS 11 EXTENSION SCHOOLS 13 CONFERENCES FOR EXTENSION WORKERS ...... : ......... . ................. _ .............. 13 FAIRS . .. . ... ................................................ 14 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXTENSION WORK ........ . .. ..... .... .... 15 EXTENSION WORK FOR NEGROES ........ . .... .. ....... . ...... . . ........ ...... ....... .. .. .. .. . .. 15 COUNTY . SUPPORT FOR EXTENSION WORK .......................... : .. .. ... . . .... ........ .. 16 EXPANSION OF THE WORK FOR 1923 17 REPORT OF VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER 19 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA 28 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, WEST FLORIDA ... ..... ........................ .... . .. . . .......... 32 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND NORTHEAST FLORIDA ...... .... ............ 35 REPORT . OF Boys' CLUB AGENT 39 REPORT OF ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST 44 REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT p ATHOLOGIST 46 REPORT OF POULTRY SPECIALIST 48 REPORT OF DAIRY SPECIALIST ..... ...... ... ...... ..... . ............. . . : ................ ...... ......... .. . 51 REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT •....... . ................ .. ......•........ 54 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT ............ .' ...... . .. 64 REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA 69 REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA 72 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN POULTRY 75 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN DAIRYING 80 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN NUTRITION 84 REPORT OF ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN FOOD CONSERVATION .. .............. .. ............. ....... .......... ..... ..... ....... .. . .... ............ ...... ........... . 87 REPORT OF NEGRO EXTENSION WORK, OR OF LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT . .... ..... 89 6 30 ,1 f () 6 , e. ~, \ t \ i. 'L ,,

PAGE 4

Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida .. SIR: I hav~ the honor to transmit herewith the report of the director of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, for the calendar year 1922, in cluding a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1922 . ~espectf ully, P. K. YONGE, Chairman of the Board of Control.

PAGE 5

4 Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF CONTROL P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra. J.B. SUTTON, Tampa. JOHN C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville. W. L. WEAVER, Perry. J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. A. C. TRUE, Director. C. B. SMITH, Chief. STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. WILMON NEWELL, Director. A, 'P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and County Agent Leader. RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Editor. RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor. COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK E. W. JENKI~s, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. s. w. HiATT, District Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent. COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Home Demonstration Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. MAY MORSE, A,ssistant State Home Demonstration Agent. MINNIE M. FLOYD, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. GLADYS 'SMiTH, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. ESTELLE BOZEMAN, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent (resigned May 31). AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Home Demonstration Agent. LONNY I. LANDRUM, District Home Demonstration Agent (resigned Sept. 11). ELLEN LENOIR, District Home Demonstration Agent (appointed Sept. 16). SPECIALISTS IN AGRICULTURAL WORK J. M. ScoTT, Animal Industrialist. N. W. SANBORN, Poultry Husbandman. HAMLIN L. BROWN' Dairy -Specialist. ED L. AYERS, Entomologist and Plant Pathologist (appointed May 1). SPECIAL LECTURERS J. R. WATSON, Entomology. 0. F. BURGER, Citrus Diseases. R. W 1 RUPRECHT, Soils and Fertilizers. C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Horticulture. E. L. LORD, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Farm Machinery. A. L. SHEALY, Veterinary Science. G. F. WEBER, Vegetable Diseases. J.E. TURLINGTON, Farm Management.

PAGE 6

Annual Report, 1922 5 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS* HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENTS ADDRESS AGENTS Alachua ............ R. L. King ..... . .......... .. Gainesville ... . ......... . ...... Miss Lynn McNutt Bay .. ...... . . ... . . ..... R. R. Whittington ... . Panama City . . ... .. . . . .. . . ..... ... ....... .. ..... .. ..... . .... . Brevard .. . ..... . ... H. R. Tribble . . .. . . ....... . Cocoa . . ............... . .. . ......... .. ........ . . .. ......... . ....... . Citrus ...... .. . .. . . ... R. E. VanNess ........ . .Inverness ... ... ...... .... . . .... Miss Beulah Pipkin Clay . . . . ....... . ...... . W. T. Nettle s .. .. .. . .. . .. . Green Cove Springs ... .. . ... . . .. . . . . ... ... . ... . . .. ...... . Columbia .. . . .. .... C. F. Gr e en ... ... ... . ..... Lake City .. ... ......... ... ....... . . .. Miss Marie Cox Dade . . ........ . ....... J. S. Rainey . . ............. Miami ......... .. ...... . .. . .......... . ..... . .. ... ..... , . .. . . .. . ..... . DeSoto . . .. .. . .. . ... . G. W. Scally .. .... . . ..... . Arcadia ..... .. .. . .... .. .. . . Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill Duval.. ....... . ...... W. L. Watson ... ......... Jacksonville . . ........ . ....... Mi s s Pearl Laffitte Escambia ... . ..... .J. Lee Smith ... ......... . Pensacola ....... . ..... .. . Miss Dorothy Mitchell Flagl e r .. .. .. . ...... L. T. Nieland . . .. . . .. .. . . . Bunnell .. ...... . .. : ..... . . .. ........ . ....... : . .. . ......... . ... . .. :. Gadsden ... . . . ...... D. L. Campb e ll ......... . Quincy ..... : .... . ....... .. .... Miss Ruby McDavid Glades ........ . .......... .... ....... . . . ....... . ... . ..... . . . Moore Haven ....... . . .... ... Miss Lenore Tyler Hamilton . .... .... . J. J. Sechrest ..... . . . ... . . Jasper . . ........ . ... . ..... Miss Virginia Branham Hernando ... . ..... J. T. Daniel.. . . . . .. . ...... . Brooksvi!Ie . .. ........... . ..... Mrs. J. W. Palmer Hillsborough .... R. T. Kelley .... . ........ . . Plant City .......... . . . . . ... Mi s s Blanche Glenn Tampa .... .... ... . . ..... Miss Mary R. Symonds Jackson ..... . ........... . . . ....... .. ... . ...... .. ....... . . . Marianna ............... . .. . . Mi s s Martha McCall Jefferson . ....... . . H. H. Rothe .. . ..... . ..... . Montic e llo .. .................. . ............. . . . .. . ..... . ....... . Lake .. .. ........ . .. ... E. F. DeBusk .. ... .. .. . Tavare s . .. . .. . . ... ....... . . ... . . .. .. . Miss Ora Odom Lee .... . ............... H. E. Stevens ............ Ft. Myers ..... . ........ Miss Lucy B e lle Settle Leon . . . . . ...... .. ........... .. .... . ............ . . . ......... . Tallahassee . . .. .. . ..... . . .. ...... .. Mrs. A. H. Peay Levy . . ... . ............ N. J. Allbritton .. .. ... . Willi s ton . .. .. . . . . . : . . .. . . . . ...... . ......... . ......... . .. .. .... . . Liberty .............. A. W. Turner .... . ....... . Bristol ....... . . , ........ ... ........ .. ...... . . . .......... .. ....... . Madison ... . . . : . .... B. E. Lawton ... ....... ... .Madison ..... . . . ...... .. . .... ... Mrs. B. E . Lawton Manatee . ... .. ... . .. W. R. Briggs .. .... .... ... . Bradentown .... . .. . ... . . . Mi s s Margaret Cobb Marion ....... . ...... K. C. Moore . . ... . .......... Ocala . . ...... .. .......... . . Okaloosa .... . ...... R. J. Hart ...... .. . , .... . . . . Laurel Hill ........ . ... . ....... .. . . .. .. . .. . .. ......... .. . . .... . Crestview .. .. ..... . ... .... ..... Miss Bertha Henry Orange .............. C. D. Kime ..... . . . ........ . prlando .................... Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ...... .. ..... Leo H. Wilson . . .... ..... . Kissimmee ... .......... . .. . ... Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach . . ... J. A. Dew ... . . . . . . .. .... . ... West Palm Beach . . l\Irs. Edith Y. Morgan Pasco ........... . ..... F. G. Merrin .. ... ......... Dade City .... . ........ .. . Mrs. Harriet Ticknor Pinell a s ... . ............ .... ................... . ...... . .. . . Clearwater ... . . . .. . .... . Miss Isabelle Thursby Polk . . . ... .. ..... .. .... Wm. Gomme . . ... ........ . Bartow ......... ......... . ..... . .. . Miss Lois Godbey Putn a m ...... .. ..... D. A. Armstrong .... .. .Palatka ...... . . .. .......... Miss Floresa Sipprell St. Johns .. . . . ..... J. 0. Traxler .. . .. . ..... . . . St. Augustine ..... . . . .... Miss Anna E. Heist St. Lucie .......... Alfred Warren . .... .. . .. Ft , Pi e rce . . ... . ....... . . . ..... . . .. . .. . . .. . . ... . . .... .. . . ....... . Santa Rosa .. .... John G. Hudson ........ Milton .. .............. Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen Seminole .. . . ... ... . B. F. Whitner, Jr ... . . Sanford . .. ........... . ........ . .. . ... . ... . ....... .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . Sumter .. . . ... .. ... . .. . . . . ... . . ... ... . . . . ...... . . . ...... . . . Bu s hnell . ..... . .. . . . ..... . . . ..... . . . Miss Mae Morris Suwannee . .. ...... C. E. Matthews ....... . .Live Oak. .... . .......... . ....... Miss Alice Dorsett Taylor . ....... , .. . ... R. J. Dorsett . . . ...... . . . . . Perry . . . . ...... . . .... ........ Miss Annabel Peaden Volu s ia ....... . .. . .. . Roy R. Johnson . ..... .. DeLand .... .. .. .. ... . ....... .. . . . .... Miss Orpha Cole Wakulla .... .. ...... G . C. Hodge ... .. ......... . Crawfordville ........................................ . ...... . Walton ........ . .... . J. W. Mathison . .. .. . . . . DeFuniak Springs .. Mrs. Grace F. Warren *This list is correct to December 31, 1922.

PAGE 7

Report of General Activities for 1922 with Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1922 Hon. P. K. Yonge,_ Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division, College of Agriculture, Uni versity of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, and a summary of the activities of the Division for the calendar year 1922. I respect fully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the governor of the State of Florida. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION WILMON NEWELL, Director. Agricultural extension work this year was characterized by carefully defined projects and plans of work, by intensive efforts directed toward definite accomplishments and, in many counties, by fewer but better-done undertakings. County and home demonstration agents accomplish much more when permitted to work with groups of people rather than with individuals only. Where counties and communities are banded together for a common good, thru organizations, the efficiency of the county and home demonstration agents is increased. Agricultural extension service is most effective when the com munity in which it . works makes a survey of its needs and then supports a program of work led by the county or home demon stration agent or both. Extension agents endeavor to meet the needs of their counties. In some instances it is still necessary to do much individual work as all communities are not organized for such work. In these cases it has been a part of the agents' duties to interest ' the leading people in that community as to their needs and to secure

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension their assistance in arousing the combined interests of the com munity. More is asked of county extension workers . now than they possibly can carry out. It becomes necessary for all such workers to outline or programize their work and to expend their time, and the funds appropriated for this use, so that the greatest good to the greatest number of people will result. The agricultural extension service has endeavored to get an intimate knowledge of the needs of Florida's agricultural and home life situation, to locate the men and women rural leaders, and to organize and direct county and community forces for the advancement and betterment of the country life of Florida. The administration of the agricultural extension program was carried out according to plans as in former years. Each project leader and subject matter specialist undertook his or her work according to plans submitted a year ago. These undertakings were accomplished in a satisfactory manner on the whole, par ticularly as applied to county workers. The . cooperation between county and home demonstration workers was exceptionally good. In practically every instance where work undertaken required the assistance of both agents, these workers came to realize the advantage of working to gether as much as possible. This had a wholesome effect on the general status of county work and inspired greater con fidence on the part of those who gave it their support. ORGANIZATION Cooperative extension ' work in agriculture and home economics is one of the three branches of the College of Agriculture, Uni versity of Florida. Supervising staffs are located as follows: Of county agents, at the University of Florida, Gainesville; of home demonstration agents, at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee; and of negro agents, at the Florida A. & M. College for . Negroes, Tallahassee. County and home demonstration agents usually have head quarters at their county seats. Their office equipment is pro vided by the county, and as these agents' problems are closely connected and related, they usually work together and from the same office, using the same bulletin files and stenographic assist ance, when such help is provided. The specialists work with the district and county agents, not being restricted to special territories. They attempt to work

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Annual Repo'rt, 192ft 9 wherever most needed. In counties where there are no agents, these specialists work with individual farmers and growers. However the best results are secured when they can work with county workers. The extension specialists coordinate their work with various departments of the Florida Experiment Station and thus keep the county workers in close touch with what the Ex periment Station is doing. When specialists of. the United States Department of Agricul ture visit Florida for particular work they, too, work with the district and county agents, being directed to localities most in need of their services or best suited to their purposes. Thru the cooperation of the College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture, various bureaus, departments and state agencies are so organized that duplication of effort may be reduced to the minimum. Oeunty agents are under the direction of the state leader and the district agents. Boys' club work is under the direction of the boys' club agent and the distdct agents. Boys' clubs in various counties are organized by the county agents with such assistance as they can secure from their counties. Specialists are responsible for the subject matter in their particular lines, as it applies to agricultural work. Home demonstration work is under the direction of the state home demonstration agent, her assistants and the district home demonstration agents. This work also has assistant specialists in home dairying, poultry, and food conservation. These special ists work principally with home demonstration agents, giving them assistance in their particular projects. The home demon stration agents work mainly thru organized clubs of women and girls. Negro extension work is under the immediate direction of a local district agent. He has assistants, known as local county agents and local home demonstration agents, who work in sev eral counties. The assistant club agents (colored) are employed for only a portion of the year. Their program is planned partic ularly to encourage thrift and has improved materially the con ditions of the colored farmers of the state. FINANCIAL STATEMENT The receipts and expenditures of this division of the College of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, were as follows:

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10 Florida Cooperative Extension RECEIPTS College of Agriculture Funds~ Smith-Lever, Federal. .....................................•.......... $ 52,912.22 Smith-Lever, State .................................................... 42,912.22 Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal .................. 17,880.09 . Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ........................ 17,880.09 U. S. D. A. appropriation ................................................ 19,000.00 State appropriations ...........................•............................ 8,275.00 County appropriations ................................. ,.................... 71,000.00 Total.. ................................................... : ................ $229,859.62 EXPENDITURES Administration .................................................................... $ 15,276.82 Printing and publications ................................................ 5,792.79 County agents' work ........................................................ 95,828.49 Home demonstration work .............................................. 87,033.02 Boys' club work .................................................................. 4,401.33 Animal industry ..................... : ................................ .......... 3,347.79 Negro farm and home makers' work.............................. 12,603.54 Poultry husbandry .............................. .............................. 2,579.68 Extension schools .............................................................. 633.37 Plant pathology and entomology-.................................... 1,685.96 Balance ................................................................................ 676.83 TotaL ............................................................... '. .... $229,859.62 CHANGES IN STAFF Relatively few changes in the staff occurred during 1922. Ed L. Ayers was appointed extension entomologist and pathologist, effective May 1. Lonny I. Landrum resigned as district home demonstration agent on September 11. She was succeeded by Ellen LeNoir on September 16. Gladys Smith was appointed nutrition specialist on February 6. Estelle Bozeman resigned as assistant state home demonstration agent and conservation spe cialist on May 31. Her position has not been filled. Among county and home demonstration workers, various changes took place between July 1 and October 1. These were principally due to resignations and to trans ers between counties. The changes were relatively few, and in each case the new agents appointed had qualifications equal, if not better, fo those who resigned. PUBLICATIONS The following bulletins were issued from the Gainesville office of the Division during the year:

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Annual Report, 1922 Bulletin 30, "Spray Schedule for Citrus" .. 4,000 copies " 31, "Lessons for Pig Club Members" .. , ....................... 10,000 " 32, "Important Diseases of Truck Crops in Florida" (Reprint of Bul. 139 Fla. Exp. Sta.) ........................... : ........ 10,000 " 33, "Satsuma Oranges in North and West Florida" ............ 5,169 " 34, "Sweet Potatoes in Florida" .. 20,285 " 35, "Grape Culture in Florida" .... 6,154 The 1921 Annual Report.............................. 2,030 " " " " . " " 11 The following bulletins in home demonstration work were also issued from the Gainesville office: Bulletin 34, "Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades" ............................ 25,000 copies " 41, "Hand Book for First Year Sewing" .............................. 10,000 " A weekly agricultural news and feature service was main tained thruout the year, supplying the newspapers and farm journals of the state with timely news and informational farm articles. This service-known as the Agricultural News Serv ice-is sent also to county and home demonstration agents, agricultural teachers and others interested in the agricultural and home development of the state. Approximately six hundred copies of this service is mailed out each week. OUTLINE OF PROJECTS The expenditure of extension funds for the fiscal year end ing June 30, 1922, was for nine projects as follows: Project 1-A-Adrninistration.-This provides for the expenses of the offices of the director and vice-director, salaries of clerical. help and for such miscellaneous expenses and emergencies as may arise. Project 1-B-Publications.-The expense for pulJlications and the distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly press matter and annual reports is provided for and is covered by this project. Project II-County Agents.-The salaries and traveling ex penses of district agents, salaries of county agents, expenses of

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension county agents' meetings, and supplies and incidentals incurred in connection with county agent work are cared for by this pro ject. Considerable 1)0rtions of the funds for this project are appropriated by counties to supplement the salaries paid county agents by the Division. That portion of the agents' salaries paid directly by counties is not accounted for by the state offices. All other expenditures in this project are paid from funds of the University of Florida. Project III-Boys' Clubs.-This project has to do with the direction and management of boys' clubs. As boys' clubs are organized hy county agents, Ptoj ects II and III are closely allied. Funds for this project are applied to the salary and expenses of the club a2:ent. clerical help, supplies, record books and other incidentals of club work. Project IV-Home Demonstration.-Home demonstration work, including gardening, food conservation, nutrition, textiles, clothing, poultry keeping, home dairying, beekeeping and home improvement, come within this group. The largest expenditure of funds in this project is for the salaries of home demonstration agents. Since counties are required to contribute to the salaries of these agents, only that part of an agent's salary paid from state and federal funds is accounted for by the University of Florida. Project V-Dairy Husbandry and Forage Crops.-The ani mal industrialist, who belongs jointly to the staffs of the Experi ment Station and this Division, carries on work under this project. The project contemplates the improvement of beef cattle, provides assistance in the management of dairy cattle and hogs, and makes surveys of the conditions of forage and pasture crops. The Florida Experiment Station cooperates in this work. Project VI-Farm and Home Makers' Clubs.-This is agricul tural extension work among negroes and from its funds the salaries of the local district agent and assistant local county agents are paid. Also the expenses of the local district agent's office, stenographic help and travel expenses of the negro agents, men and women, when in attendance at state meetings, are paid from these funds. Project VII-Entomology and Plant Pathology.-This project provides for special work in disease and insect control with farm crops, fruits, vegetables, nuts and ornamentals. The losses . of perishables caused by diseases and insects have been heavy. The

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Annual R e po r t , 19 2 2 13 work of this project began on May 1, 1922, and the demands on the specialist's time . are many. Project VIII-Poultry Work.-lri this project funds are pro vided for a half-time poultry specialist, salary and expenses. This work contemplates improvement of farm poultry, finding market for poultry products, assisting county and home demon stration agents in securing better stock, culling demonstrations, feeding problems and poultry problems in general. Project IX-Extension Schools.-This is for the conducting of farmers' meetings and schools in agriculture and home demon stration. It also provides for similar schools at the University of Florida and the State College for Women, and for such other meetings as the best interests of the work demand. ' . ' EXTENSION SCHOOLS There has always been a need for extension schools in counties. The , need for this is greater than the work accomplished would indicate. During . the year the general farmers of Florida were discouraged and disappointed in . that they were unable to meet most of ; their obligations, and they underwent the same de pression that . farmers in other cotton-growing states did . Extension schools functioned largely to bring the farmers together to learn the principles of cooperative marketing and to receive whatever relief was possible to be had under the circumstances. As a .result of the schools held, many hogs and muchfarm produce and considerable quantities .of farm supplies were sold and purchased cooperatively . . Many extension schools were conducted in the citrus-growing counties, being conducted principally by county . and district agents and specialists. These were in reality field meetings : With the increased plantings of citrus, there is an urgent need for the better control of diseases and insect pests. These schools made it possible to demonstrate in a practical way the identity of such pests and to show by demonstration how they may be controlled. Most of the schools conducted were for one day only. CONFERENCES FOR EXTENSION WORKERS Thruout the year monthly conferences were held, and the leaders attended that their problems might be mutually under stood. These conferences were attended by members of the I

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension teaching staff of the College of Agriculture, and by the staffs of the Experiment Station and of the State Plant Board. They were particularly helpful in unifying the endeavors of these four agricultural organizations, all doing work in the state. Early in the year four group meetings were held in different parts of the state when county workers presented their plans for the year. Suggestions, criticisms and recommenda tions were made by others in attendance. About two days were required for each of these meetings. A definite program was prepared for each and on the whole these group meetings were especially beneficial in establishing uniform plans of work. The annual meeting of all state and county workers was held in Gainesville in September. The home demonstration workers met separately in Tallahassee for a few days before coming to Gainesville to join the agricultural workers who, too, had met separately for a few days. In March the negro agents were called together for conference and for the submitting of plans by county workers. These agents had their attention called to the importance of sani tation in the home and oommunity, by the Florida State Board of Health. And work of this nature was incorporated into the general plans of. negro extension work for the year. FAIRS County fairs and exhibits occupied much of the county and home demonstration agents' time this year, in a few instances perhaps more than results justified. The fairs offer county ex tension workers a means of arousing general interest in agricul ture and home economics, for it is highly important that the work of these agents be brought to the attention of the people. In conducting fairs, however, the educational_ side is emphasized as,much as possible, agents having been. instructed to make this feature stand out prominently. So, on a whole, fair and exhibit work done by extension agents was helpful. The fair is a means of bringing together community organ izations. Without a definite plan and without definite work for individuals to do, community organizations accomplish com paratively little, outside of cooperative selling and buying. Thru the cooperation of extension agents with managers of state and county fairs; the quality and arrangements of fairs have shown definite and gradual improvement. Fair workers placed em

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Annual Report, 1922 15 . phasis on quality, arrangement and educational value of exhibits and required exhibitors to show only such displays as come strictly under the head of agriculture and home improvement. Fair associations cooperated liberally for the showing of boys' and girls' club work, allotting desirable space and providing liberal prizes for club members who exhibited corn, hogs, poul try, canned products and domestic art. The Agricultural Extension Division was represented in the University of Florida exhibit at the State Fair in Jacksonville in November. Four booths of 1600 square feet of floor space and 1460 square feet of wall space were allotted to county and home demonstration work. Commerical vegetable packages, standard United States grades, forage crops, sweet potato varieties, grades of Florida cane syrup, pecan varieties, peanut and corn varieties, . fruit exhibits showing insect and disease injury, charts and photo graphs of various kinds, poultry houses and appliances, feeds and standard breeds of poultry, an extensive exhibit calling attention to the value and importance of milk, etc., were shown. There was a nutrition booth, demonstrating the importance of nutrition and sanitation. In this was shown a miniature . train ("Healthland Flyer") with stations designated as "Cleanly Town," "Fruit Farms," "Cereal City," and "Milky Way." COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXTENSION WORK It is highly important that the work and recommendations of all extensions workers conform to a uniform plan as far as local conditions will permit. With this in view, 12 committees were appointed from the staff to formulate plans and recom mendations pertaining to citrus, truck, poultry, dairying, pub licity, purchasing, marketing, club work, fairs and exhibits, records, organization and resolutions. The recommendations of these committees were presented at the annual conference and after final adoption copies were furnished to each member of the staff. EXTENSION WORK FOR NEGROES There is little change in the negro extension work from former years, except for the placing of more attention on mar keting and organization. The work accomplished during the

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Florida Cooperative Extension year justified an increased working period for county workers. That is, these workers were appointed for eight months this year as against six in 1921, which arrangement furloughed them from May 31 to October 1. . This seemed particularly desirable in order that the demonstration work undertaken might be sum marized and a just account made of it. This arrangement also resulted in the bringing together of exhibits of negro work at state and district fairs. The negro agents were largely re sponsibie for the production and preparation of these exhibits. On the whole the negro work progressed in a fairly satis factory manner. It is very difficult to find workers with the training they should have for such an undertaking. However, most of the agents had worked two or more years already, and consequently were better prepared for the work this year than any year previously. COUNTY SUPPORT FOR EXTENSION WORK The appropriations for extension work by. counties were slightly larger than in 1921. In a few instances the increases were substantial, in others small, and in others the appropriations of . 1921 were not increased. The number of county agents was increased from 34 to 37. Five new counties came into the work, while two discontinued their cooperation in July. For home demonstration work 33 counties made appropriations. This was an increase of 5 over 1921. Two counties discontinued home demonstration work, whereas seven additional ones made appro priations for it. In some instances it was not possible to secure enough money from counties to carry the work thru the entire year. In such cases it was necessary to reduce the number of months for employment of agents in order to get efficient service. In all, 45 of the 61 counties cooperated. A state law permits boards of county commissioners to levy a half mill tax for this purpose. In. 24 of the 45 counties. practically the entire half mill is levied. It would seem, therefore, that extension work;ers have given general satisfaction. There is a growing demand for specially trained workers. In many counties the boards are appropriating nearly the max imum that can be raised by the one-mill tax. However, it is a fact that many workers are still underpaid, considering that the counties are large and the expenses heavy.

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Annual Report, 1922 EXPANSION OF THE WORK FOR 1923 17 The plans for 1923 contemplate some changes from those of the past, changes necessary to make because of the changing conditions of the agriculture of the state. During the last five years county agents were able to do but little for the improvement of the cotton industry, due to the gen eral boll weevil infestation in the cotton area which made this an unsatisfactory and unprofitable crop to grow. Now, with the prospects for the reviving of this industry thru the application of the Florida method of boll weevil control, worked out by the State Plant Board of Florida and the Experiment Station, it is naturally advisable that county agents should devote a consider able portion of their time to the culture of cotton, particularly in demonstrating the correct application of this method. Organizations for the cooperative selling and buying of farm products and supplies have been perfected and since those have FIG. 1.-"Dirt farmers" setting out a permanent pasture on the grounds of the University of Florida while attending the annual club short course in 1922 functioned to the betterment of the agricultural and home life of the communities and counties concerned, the further develop ment of such organizations will constitute a major task of county and home demonstration agents next year. There is a decided interest in the growing of satsuma oranges in the western counties of Florida. Most farmers of those coun ties are inexperienced in citrus culture . The agents there will give special study to satsuma culture and, with the assistance of the district agent, will give definite help to those who plant satsumas. Interest is also being aroused by county agents in the pro duction of other fruit which will receive special attention from them and other extension workers.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension In the citrus counties of South Florida special attention will be given to the control of melanose. Each agent in those coun ties will make this one of his most important duties. In co operation with the Florida Experiment Station, the extension plant pathologist and entomologist and county agents will pro ceed to carry out very definite control measures after having been assured that melanose can be controlled by the proper ap plication of sprays. More attention will be given to ornamental plantings and land scape gardening. There is an increasing demand for properly trained county workers and this has been kept in mind in appointing new agents. It is expected, therefore, that extension work will keep well in advance of the agricultural development of the state. As these better trained agents will work in close cooperation with other branches of the College of Agriculture, there is every reason to believe that definite problems of the agricultural and horticultural interests of Florida will be solved in 1923. I I

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Annual Report, 1922 REPORT OF A. P. SPENCER, VICE-DIRECTOR AND COUNTY AGENT LEADER 19 On December 1, 1922, there were 37 county agents at work compared with 33 on the same date in 1921. The provisions for this increase were made by boards of county commissioners when they made their budgets in September. The changes in the county staff took place between July 1 and October 1. During the year the work of the county agents proceeded with comparatively little interruption. In three cases where there seemed to be some opposition to continuing the work in the counties it was not difficult to find a favorable sentiment on the part of the farmers and business men to overcome the opposition and to continue the work. County agents were called upon to do many unexpected and unusual things. Farmers felt that they needed relief of some nature so that they could dispose of their products at a fair price, and this suggests what constitutes a major project witn many agents. For some farm products there were poor sales and where farmers depended to a large extent on the sale of their range cattle they were disappointed because the market for range cattle was poor. This condition brought about a ten dency on the part of farmers to organize for cooperative pur chase and sale of their supplies and products and there was an incessant demand made on county agents to assist in this work. Of the 37 county agents now employed, 16 have degrees from agricultural colleges. Three others have had equivalent training. The personnel and training of the staff as a whole is above that of former years. Many who have not attended college have been in this service for two or more years and by persistent efforts, good executive ability and good judgment, have proved themselves leaders in their respective counties. As a result they are receiving increased recognition and cooperation from persons of responsibility and influence. In order to induce such men to take up county agent work or to retain their position, it has been necessary to make some increases in salaries and expense allowances. To do county agent work it costs more than formerly; a man cannot do the work and live as cheaply as he could a few years ago. Therefore, it has been necessary to increase salaries. In most cases the county boards of commissioners have granted increases. The best of cooperation was apparent in the counties, also

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension from the offices of the State Department of Agriculture, the State Live Stock Sanitary Board, the State Board of Health, the State Marketing Bureau and the State Plant Board of Flor ida. The work of the state marketing commissioner was par ticularly helpful to both county and home demonstration agents. He and the county agents cooperated heartily and, as a conse quence, farmers of the state were able to market large quantities of products that would have been difficult to dispose of profit ably under other conditions. GENERAL SUMMARY OF COUNTY AGENT WORK As the statistical report of county agents is h erew ith attached and the district agents, club agents and specialists are reporting also, it is sufficient to summarize here only briefly the work in counties. During the year the agricultural conditions for the entire State of Florida were much more satisfactory than in many other states. In the southern portion of the state, particularly in the citrus area, most of the agricultural interests made definite progress. Truckers and growers found good sale for their products. However, in the northern and western counties the farmers were not so fortunate. The livestock interests lagged. Hogs so ld for only a fair price. There was some tendency to engage in trucking in this territory, but most efforts were unsatisfac tory. Labor conditions were more difficult than in previous years. It is apparent, therefore, that each county agent had FIG. 2.-The pile of corn to the left represent s a special project with Coun ty Agent W. L . Watson, Duval. The grower of this corn, V. C. Johnson, was most particular in following Mr. Watson's suggestions

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Annual Report, 1922 21 definite local problems to meet. W_ith the assistance of cooper ating agencies each endeavored to meet his problems. In a few counties, the dairy interests were improved. Three creameries were established, making four now in operation in the state. These creameries, being new, underwent some changes during the year, being in most cases on a better operating basis than six months ago. The extension dairyman and a num ber of county agents gave the dairy and creamery business spe cial study and endeavored in every possible way to assist the new enterprises to get on a paying basis. It has been difficult for dairymen to procure a sufficient number of good dairy cattle. To meet this some agents for the first time endeavored to establish dairy calf clubs. In other cases they assisted dairymen in the purchase of good cows. They also assisted in finding sale for dairy products during the months when the supply was greater than the demand. There are many sections of the state where it seems advisable for farmers to undertake dairying on a much larger scale. With that idea in view, the extension dairyman and certain county agents are directing their efforts toward making the industry profitable and permanent. Citrus Work.-In several South Florida counties where citrus is the most profitable industry the county agents are expected to give it the greatest portion of their time. Men who under stand the production of high-class citrus fruit are in constant demand. Training and experience in the methods of controlling insects and diseases are required of such agents. Due to the fact that many land owners and farmers in South Florida have found that general farming is _ less profitable than citrus or truck, many have discontinued the growing of staple crops, except to supply local needs. The county agents of Brevard, St. Lucie, Manatee, Lake, Pasco, Polk, Osceola and Orange Counties, more than any other, devoted special attention to citrus culture. The most important problem was the control of disease and insect pests, which in many in stances was complicated and expensive, requiring men of special training. The cost of producing citrus fruit has materially increased in the last few ye ars. Markets have become more critical and now demand good quality fruit, free of defects and blemishes. For several years the Florida Experiment Station and the United States Department of Agriculture have made special study of the control of these pests. County agents are enabled to apply

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension the information learned from this study in groves by actual demonstrations. Over eighteen hundred groves, having an ap proximate acreage of 31,464, was under the supervision of ext,m sion agents last year, these agents demonstrating the best known practices in , grove management. Large areas set to citrus groves by people altogether inexperi enced in grove management received individual attention from county agents and were accordingly much improved. ACTIVITIES The following statistics will show in a general way what county agents accomplished during the year, altho everything accom plished is not shown. County agent s are asked to perform many duties that are apparently of minor importance and the report of which would seem inadvisable. However, these duties con sume much time. FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF COUNTY AGENTS Vi s its made by county agents .. ... . .. .. . ........ .. .. . . ...... . ...... .. . .. . . .. .. ..... . . .... . ... . . ..... 32,720 I~ ;~f : t ~~~~::: : :::::: : : ::::: :: : :: :: : :: : ::::: :: : ::::: : :::: :: : : : : ::::::: : ::: : 2 H!i Miles travel e d by county agents .. ............... . .. .. ................... .. ........ . .... ....... ... 140,898 ~i ~iE:~hii : ~: :::: : : ::: : :: :::::: :: : ::: : : : : :: : : : :: ::::::: : ::: ::: :: :: : : : : ::::::: : :JHii -otherwise . . .. . . . .... . ...... . .. . . . .. . .. ...... . . . .. . . . .. . ... , .... . .... .. . . . .......... . . 12, 768 Calls on agents relative' to work. .. ............ .. . ... .. .. ............ .. .................. . ........ 35,944 Farmers' meetings held . .. .......... . . ... .............. . . . .. . . . .......... . . .. .. .......... . . ........... 2,260 Total attendances ..... . . . ... .. .. . . . . . ..... . ......... . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .... .... ...... . . .... ... ... ... . . . .. . . .. .. 7 3 ,316 Field meetings held .. . . . . . .... . ... . .... .. . .. . . .... . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 300 Total attendances .. . .. . . .. . ..... .. .. . ...... ........ ........ . . .. ..... . .. . ..... .. . . .. . . ........ . . . . . . . . ........ 7,085 Average number of days spent in office..... . . .. . . ............ . .. . ................. ... ....... 76 -in correspondence ... ... . .... ................ .... ........ ... . ..... .. .. 30 percent -in c onf e renc e .... . ...... .. . . . ... .... . ..... . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. ... . ... . . . . . 47.4 perc e nt -in miscellaneous .. . . . ... . .. ...... . .. . . . . .. . . . , . . .. ... . ... ... .. . . . .. . 22.6 percent Average number days spent in field........... . ... . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . . . .......... . . . . . .. .. . ..... 214 -in supervising regular demonstrations . . .... . . .... 22.6 pe r cent -in other farm visits ... .. ....... . ....... . . ........... . ... .... .. .42.8 percent -in meetings .. . . .. . . .... . .... .. . . .... . ..... .... ... . . . .. . .... . .. . . .. ... .. 11.8 perc e nt -in assisting with short course work. . .. . . . .. ... . . . . .. 4.5 percent i n organization and marketing .. . ... .. . ..... . . .... .. . .. . 18.3 p e rcent Official letters written .... . .......... .. ................................... .. ... . ............ . . . . . ....... 23,646 Newspaper articles pr e pared for pr e ss.. . . ... . .... .. .. ...... ...... . ... . . ........ . .. . ... ... . ... 2,132 Circular letter s s ent out . . . ...... ... . . ......... .. . .. ......... , . . : .. .... ... . . . . .. . . .. .... . . .. .... .. ... . .. 16,369 Farm bulletins or cir c ulars distr i buted . . . . .. .. ... .......... . . . . .. . . . .... ....... . .. .. . . . .. . .. . 27,031 Visits to schools ...... . . .. . . . . . . .. ....... . .. . . . .... .. .......... . .......... ,..... .. .. . .. . .... . .......... . ...... 394 Schools assi s ted in outlining an agricultur a l course . . ............... ,..... . . . .... 43 Extension schools or short course s assisted in............. . .. . ............... .. ........ 18 Attendances .. . .. ... . .. . .... .. . . . ... .. . ..... .. . . .. . .. . ... ..... . .... . .. . . . ........... . . . . ..... . .... . . .. . .. ... . .... . 2,704 Days spent this school work . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . ....... .... . . . . . . ...... . .... . ... . . ....... . .... . ....... . . 55 Farmers attending short courses at colleg e s result agents' efforts . ..... 214 Club boys entering college............ . . ................ .. ................. . . . ............... . ........ 10 Demonstrators and club members exhibiting at fairs ... ................ . .... . ... 1,275

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Annual Repo r t, 1922. Prizes won . ...... .......................................... . . . ....................................... . . ....... . Farmers practicing early plowing, result of agents' work ................... . Farmers began keeping bees at agents' suggestions ....................... : .. .. ... . Hives .. .... .................. . ...................... . ...... .... ...... . ...... . .................................... .. ... . Honey extractors purchased .......... . ... . .. .... ...... . ........................................ . .. . Corn Demonstrations Demonstrators ................................... . .. .. . . . ... ............................................... .. . Acreage grown under demonstration methods ........................................ . . Average yield (bushels) ..................... .... . ..... ................................................ . Estimated average yield for state (bushels) .... . ......................... .... . .. .. .. . Farmers who tested seed corn for germination . ........................ ..... ....... . Bushels seed tested for germination .. ... . ........ ....... .. .. .... ... . ... . ........ . ... .. .... .. .. . Farmers who planted selected seed ................ , .................. '. .......... . .. . ....... : ... . Acreage planted with selected seed .. .... .. . . ....... . ... . ...... .... ....... . ... . .. . ..... ... ... . . Farmers influenced to select seed ......... . .... .. ................ : .............................. . Estimated amount seed selected (bushels) . . ...... .. .............................. ... . ... . Farmers who turned under cover crops .. . . ....... . . . ............... : ................... : . .. . Acres harvested for silage ........................................................................... . Yield to the acre for silage (tons) ..... : . .... .......... : .................................... .• Acres "hogged down" ......................... .. ... . .. . .......................................... . ...... . Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods ........................... . Cotton Demonstrations Demonstrators ................................................................................................. . Acreage grown under improved methods ........................................ .. ..... , .. Farmers who tested seed cotton for germination ................. . . , . .............. . Bushels tested ............ ....... .. .... ......... . . .. .... ..... .. . .. . ............................................ . Demonstrators who planted selected seed ..... ........ ... ................ ....... ........ .. . Acreage planted with pure or selected seed ............................. : ...............• Farmers induced to field select seed .. . .. .. .................................................... . Acres treated for diseases or insect pests . ...... s : Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods ........................... . Tobacco Demonstrations Demonstrators ............................................. . . . . .. .............................................. . Acreage in demonstrations ..................... .. ... ... ........................................ , ..... . Average acre yield (pounds) .......... ....... ...... . .................................. , ......... . . Estimated average acre yield for each county (pounds) ................ . ...... . Increased yield over ordinary methods (pounds) ................................... . Farmers induced to plant pure or selected seed ......... , ............................ :. Acreage planted with selected seed ........ . .. . ................................................. , Farmers who treated tobacco seed for disease . .. .. ..... . ........................ .. . . .. . Acres planted with treated seed . ......... ... . ... .................. . ... .. . ..... ......... ... . .... . . Tomato Demonstrations Demonstrators ................................ ..... .. ..... ................................................... . Acreage in demonstrations ......... . .. .. ... .. . . ... ....... .......................................... . Average acre yield (bushels) ...... .. ........ .. .............................................. ... : .. Farmers induced to plant selected seed . ...... .. . . ........................................ . . . Acreage planted with selected seed ....... . . .. ................ , ............................ ... , Acres treated for diseases and insect pests ............................................. . Increased acre value resulting from treating seed ..... , ....................... .... . Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods ....................... .. . Small Grain Demonstrations (Rye, Oats) Demonstrator s .............. .. ....... _. .. ... : . ... .... .. . . . ... ...... ............................................. . Acreage grown under demonstration methods .... .. ...... .... . ..... .......... , ........ . Farmers who tested seed for germination .. . ............................................ . Bushels seed tested .......................... ............ .. .. . . ........................................ ... . 23 481 2,205 68 599 21 189 1,558 25.2 14 68 82 598 10,951 141 544 22 53 12.5 436 441 160 2,035 99 . 305 13 311 100 3,961 134 72 423 1,414 1,200 214 16 500 16 500 72 255 68 12 110 1,140 $8.50 84 145 3,829 103 610

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension Acreage planted with selected seed ..... .. ... . .... .. ............................................ . Demonstration acres cut for hay ................. ... ...................... .. ................... . Average acre yield of cured hay (tons) .... .. .. .... ...... , ...... .. ...... ...... . . ... ....... . Acres grazed off ........................... . ........ . . ... .................. . .. . ... .......... ..... .... ........ . Estimated acre value ....... .. ................. . ........... .. ..................... . .......... . ......... . Acres turned under for soil improvement ........................... . ..................... . Farms that introduced small grains . . . . ... ............. : ..... . ..... . . ......... .. . .. . ...... .. . . . Grass Demonstrations 1,970 652 1.9 4,967 $10 470 208 Demonstrators ....... .... ......... . .......... ........ .... ........ . ......... ... . ... .... ..... .... ........ .... ,... 125 Acreage in demonstrations .................. .. ................. : ............. . .......... . .......... . 1,069.5 Acres cut for hay.............. . .......... . ........... . .... ...... .......... . .. . ...... . .. . ..... .. . .... . .. ..... 927 Acres grazed off ..... . ................................. . .......... .. .... ,.................................... . 1;349 Estimated acre valuE) of grazing . ..... , .... . ............................... .. ..................... $11.40 Demonstration acres turned under for soil improvement.......... . ......... .. 847 Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods................ .. ......... . 528 Legume Demonstrations (Cowpeas, Soybeans, Velvet Beans) Demonstrators .. ...... .... ....... .. ........ . .... . .. .. ...................... . .......... ..................... . Acreage grown under improved methods ............................ .. ................... . Acre yield on demonstrations (tons cured hay) ................ . ............. . ........ . Farmers who tested seed for germination .. ..... ................................ . ......... . Bushels seed tested ...................................................... . . .. .................. . . . ........ . Acreage planted with selected seed ............................................................. . Acreage threshed for seed ....... .. ................... ...... ....... . ............................... . Acreage cut for hay .................. .. . . .......... . ...... : ... : . ..... ..• . : ...... . .. . ..... ..... . ........... . Acres grazed off ............... . ................................................................ . .......... . Estimated acre value of grazing ....... . .. ..... .............. ..... ................ ... ........... .Acres turned under for soil improvement ...... . .......... . .................... . . .... . ... . . Acres inoculated ...................................... .. ..................... . ..................... .. ........ , Acres planted to this crop due to agents' influence .. . ....... .... . .. , ............... . Farms that introduced summer legumes ..... . . . ....... .... ......... .... ...... . .......... . Peanut Demonstrations Demonstrators ................ ..... ...... . .. .... .............. .. .. . .......................................... . Farmers who tested seed for germination ................ . .............................. . Bushels seed tested ... ... .... ...... ..... . . .. ......... . ..... .. . .. ..................... . . .. ... ......... ..... . Acreage planted with selected seed ........................................................... . Acreage threshed for seed ................... . ........ ; ............................................ . Acreage cut for hay ..... . .............. .. . .. .. . .. ..... . .. ........... .... . .. ...... .. . . .... . ... . .......... . Increased acre yield of demonstrations over ordinary methods (tons . hay) ......................................................................................... ... . . Average acre yield on demonstrations (tons cured hay) .. .......... .. ......... . Acres grazed off ................................................... : .................. . .................... . Estimated acre value of grazing ............................................................... . Irish-Potato Demonstrations Demonstrators ... ... . ... .. ........ .. . .. ................ .. ...... .... ..................... . ........ .. . ... ........ . Acreage in demonstrations .... ....... . ... . ... : . ..... . .... ..... ... . .... . ................. .. ......... . Average acre yield on demonstrations (bushels) ..................................... . Acres planted with treated seed . .. ....... . .......... . . . ................. ...... ....... ...... ..... . Acres treated for diseases and insect pests ................................. . .. .... ..... . Farmers who used certified seed ............................... . ............................... . Acreage planted with certified seed .. .. ........... .. ........ ...... ..... ...... ....... .. ........ . Sweet-Potato Demonstrations Demonstrators ............. . .... . .......... ... ........ .. ........................ . ....... ... ................ , .. Acreage of potato demonstrations ........................................ . ....... .. .... ... .... . Average acre yield (bushels) ................ .... .......... .. ..... , ................................. . Acres planted with treated seed . ................................................................ . 690 10,437 1.5 99 865 2,430 250 952 10,440 $10 5,391 165 6,770 2,052 168 100 700 2,650 1,150 1,250 .25 1.5 400 $10 56 12,657 88 867 11,225 55 370 203 609 66.5 346

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Annual Rep01t, 1922 Acres treated for disease and insect pests .................................... , .......... . Storage houses built ........................................................................... : .......... . Capacity (bushels) ..................................................................................... . Farms that introduced improved or cultural methods ........................... . Orchard Demonstrations 25 80 1 5,000 383 Demonstration orchards ............................................................................... 141,151 peach .................................................. 177 citrus ................................................... 139,647 others ................................................ 1,327 Trees in these orchards ................................................................................ 205,747 Number Acres Trees Orchards inspected by agents ........................................ 2,183 30,753 1,741,650 Orchards pruned .............................................................. 535 2,602 145,955 Orchards sprayed ............................................................ 1,114 12,817 754,586 Orchards planted ............................................................... 111 1,522 73,715 Peach orchards specially treated.................................. 41 316 16,086 Totals ......................................................................... 3,984 48,010 2,731,992 Orchards under supervision of agents ........ -citrus, 3,290-trees, 26,858,621 -others, 2,309-trees, 3,579,301 Orchards agents assisted in caring for ..................... :............................. 1,392 Dairy-Cattle Demonstrations Registered bulls secured thru agents' influence ....................................... . Registered cows or heifers secured thru agents' influence ................... . Dairy cattle which farmers were assisted in selling thru group sales Cows tested to determine milk production ............................................... . Farmers induced to feed balanced rations ............................................. . Stock fed in demonstrations ....................................................................... . Dairy demonstrations supervised ............................................................... .. Cows in these demonstrations ................................................................... . New cream stations established .... : ............................................................ . New cream routes established ................................................................... . Dairy breeders' associations .established thru agents' influence ....... . Dairy bull associations established ........................................................... . Members in these associations ...................................................................... . Bulls in these associations ........................................................................... . Cows kept by members ................................................................................. . Bull associations now in operation .............................................................. . Beef-Cattle Demonstrations Registered bulls secured thru agents' influence ................................... . Purebred beef cattle agents assisted in selling ....................................... . High-grade cows secured thru agents' influence .................................... : . Breeding herds started due to agents' influence .. : ................................ . Feeding cattle bought thru agents' influence ....................................... . Beef-feeding demonstrations supervised ................................................. . Cattle in feeding demonstrations ......... , ..................................................... . Beef cattle fed according to methods advocated ................................... . Hog Demonstrations Registered boars secured thru agents' influence .......................... : ........ . Registered sows secured thru agents' influence ....................................... . Purebred hogs agents assisted in selling ................................................. . Herds of purebred hogs started ............................................................... . Hog-feeding demonstrations supervised ............................................... . Hogs in these demonstrations ................................ _ ....................................... . Farmers who used self-feeders ....................................... , ....................... . Farmers growing grazing crops for hogs .................. : ............................ . Hogs fed under agents' supervision .............. , ........................................ . 29 42 1,132 289 212 926 18 39 5 3 2 3 127 8 245 4 4 9 100 11 200 2 65 1,500 143 284 1,195 98 169 1,451 22 800 2,666

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26 Florida Cooperative Exterision Poultry Demonstrations Demonstrations ....... . .... . ........ ..... . .......... ....... .. .......... . ....... . ... .. .. ... ........ .. . . . . .. . . Poultry cared for according to demonstration methods ....................... . Poultry farms that improved methods .................................... . .. ......... . .. . Birds on these farms ................. ......... .. . .... . .................................. . .. . ...... : . ... . Communities that adopted standard breeds ............................ . .............. . Flocks culled ......................................... .. ............................................... . . . ...... . Birds in flocks culled .................. ........ ........................................... . ......... . ..... . Birds eliminated thru culling ............... .. ... .. .. . ............................... .. ......... . ... . Farmers induced to raise standard-bred poultry ............... ... ......... . . . .... . . Demonstrators who practised early hatching ............................... : .... ... .. . . . New poultry houses built ......... ....... .......... .. .. . ....................... . ......... .... ....... . Poultry houses remodeled ........... . ..... . ......... . .................. .... .... . . ............. ... ... . Fertilizer and Manure Demonstrations 469 59,974 932 53,600 60 256 18,462 4,356 243 114 68 83 Farmers who consulted agents regarding fertilizers ....... , ... .. .... . ... .... . . . 5,739 Fertilizer demonstrations conducted .. ... ... ................................................ 713 Acreage in these demonstrations. ....... ......................................... ..... .. . ... ... . 15,936 Fertilizers used on demonstrations (tons) ................ ................. , . ... . .. .... ... 7,342 Communities influenced to buy fertilizers cooperatively........................ 163 Fertilizer bought cooperatively (tons)........................................ . .. . .... . ... 7,879 Value fertilizer so bought .......... . ......... . ......................................... . . $231,532.48 Amount saved by so buying ...... , . ................................................. ...... . $ 52,344.31 Farmers who home-mixed fertilizers......................................... .. .... ...... ... 471 Tons home-mixed ...................... .... .. . . . ...... : ................................. . ..... .. .. . ........ .. 814 Saved to farmers (each ton)..... .. ..... .. .......................................................... $6.79 Farmers who utilized farm manures ............................................ ... . ... . .. ... 978 Farmers who provided manure sheds . ... . . . .. . . .................... ..... ....... . ............ 145 Farmers who composted farm manures ...... ,.................................... .. .. .... . 495 Manure spreaders secured................................................................ .. .. .. ... .. .. 19 Farmers mixing phosphate with farm manure ........... : . .. ....... .. ... . ... ....... .. 449 Lime Demonstrations Demonstrators .................... . ..... . . .. .. .... ................................................ ... ... . .... . Acres in lime demonstrations ....... ..... ............................... , ........... , ...... .... ..... . Quantity of limestone used (tons) ................................................... .. . ....... . Farms where soil was tested for acidity ................................................... . Miscellaneous Citrus Report, County Agent Work 249 1,185 2,665 172 Citrus properties visited ........................................... ,.................................... 5,200 Citrus properties upon which extension work was conducted. . . ...... ... 1,808 Acreage these properties . ......... . ........ .. .... .. .... ........................................... .... 31,464 Citrus properties where extension programs were carried out ............ 1,166 Land owners visited before setting citrus. . ............................................... 286 Growers who consulted agents before planting................ .. ..... . .... .. . . ... .. ... 1,109 Money saved growers by fertilizer recommendations of agents .... $2,143.50 Demonstrations to control scab ... .... . ... ..... ....... ................ :.................. .. .. . .... . 111 Demonstrations to control melanose ... ................................. ...... . .. ,........... 77 Demonstrations to control withertip . . ................. :....................... ...... .. .. .. . 24 Demonstrations to control foot rot. . .............................................. .. .......... 42 Demonstrations to control dieback or frenching........................... ... ...... 266 Demonstrations to control scale .... .. . .. .... . .. .......................................... .. ........ 407 Demonstrations to control whitefly.......................................... ....... .. .. ....... 368 Demonstrations to control rust mite ................................. ....... . :.............. ... 260 Demonstrations to control other insect pests......................... .......... .. . . .. . .. 20 Farm and Farmstead Improvements (Things Done With Agents' Assistance and Advice) Buildings erected ............ . ........ ........ ...... . .. . .. . .. . ............ . . .. ...... . ..... . ...... ............ 338 Farm buildings improved . 342

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Annual Report, 1922 New building plans furnished . .. .... .. . .. .. ....... .. .. . ... .......... . .............. . ...... .... ... . . Farm buildings painted or whitewashed .. ......................................... .. ...... . Home water systems installed .... . .......... ..... ........................................... . ... . Home lighting systems installed ............................................................... . Home grounds improved .......................... : ..... : .......................................... . Sanitary conditions improved ................ . .............................................. . ... . Homes screened against mosquitoes .. . .. . ............................. ...................... . Sanitary privies erected : ......................... .. .. .... .......................................... . . . . Sewage disposal systems installed ....................................... , ................... . New pastures established .......................... .. . .. . . .......................................... . Acres new pastures established ...... : ....... . . . .............................................. . Drainage systems planned ............................... . ......................................... . Acres drained ................................... ... . . ... . .................. . .......... .. ................... . Farmers who removed stumps .................. . .... . ... : .................. . .......... .. ........ . Acres stumped ............................... .. ..... . ............ . ................. .. . ... ....... .. ......... . Farmers who terraced land .... . .................................................................. . Acres terraced ........................................ . ...................................................... . Home gardens planted or improved .... . .................................................. . Farmers who planted cover crops ..................................................... . ..... . New implements and tools bought ........................................................... . Livestock Diseases and Pests 27 33 610 141 152 986 l,314 255 47 100 141 2,443 33 11,374 189 2,451 130 4,894 520 1,108 3,340 Cattle tested for disease ............................................................................ 5,934 Hogs treated .................................................................................... ............. 34,095 Horses treated ................................................................................................ lElO Silos Silos constructed ... ................................ .. . .. .............. ... ........................... . ...... .. 11 Silos in counties employing county agents ........... . ........................... . .. . ... 240

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28 Florida Coop e rati v e E x t e nsion REPORT OF E. W. JENKINS, DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH AND CENTRAL FLORIDA Territory.-Du ring the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, this d i strict included the countie s of Alachua, Marion, Citrus, Her nando, Pasco , Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Lake, Man atee, Lee and DeSoto. County Appropriations.-On July 1 the appropriation in Citrus County was cut off and the work discontinued. The co unt y com missioners of Levy County made an appropriation for the work and an agent was placed in that county on November 1. The total appropriation for the work made by the counties from this district was $32,530. Farm Or ga nization.There are several types of organization in the district thru which the farmers work and cooperate; namely, the Farm Bureau, the Farmers Union and the Citrus Exchange. These organizat ion s a id in creating a sp irit of social cooperation and activity but the main work accomplished thru them was in marketing. A large portion of tr u ck and other crops was sold thru on e or more of these organizations. A large amount of the farm e r s ' supplie s w e re pur c hased coop e rativel y. Th e s ucces s obtained thru the s e organizations in marketing c rops and purchasing supplies he l ped greatly in spreading the spirit of cooperation among farmers and growers . Club Work.-There was more club work done in Alachua County than in any other count y of this district. Of the 137 FI G . 3 . -Cl ub boys learning to make bl u esto n e paste w h ich, w h e n applied to t h e recut stems of wate r me l ons, p r eve n ts stem e n d r ot

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Annual Report, 1922 29 boys enrolled in club work in this county, practically all com pleted their year's work. In August the county agent held a club camp to which the boys who had made the best records were taken. Twenty-five boys from this county were given scholarships to the boys' short course at the University of Flor ida in June. In other counties the usual interest was maintained in club work. SpecialActivities.-A series of field meetings were held in each citrus county in the district. Specialists in the control of citrus diseases and insects and cultivation . attended these meetings with the county and district agents. These men were equipped with binoculars, microscopes and hand lenses and other equip ment with which to instruct the growers. The meetings were held in the groves where it was possible to direct attention to the immediate needs of the trees. Growers have expressed their appreciation of this method of work. As a result of it, the grow ers in several counties grouped themselves together into com munity citrus organizations. They have met once a month to discuss their problems, and have been assisted by the county . agents and specialists. The work begun last year in dairying has been emphasized in several of the counties, with satisfactory results. (For informa tion on this work, see the extension dairyman's report.) Crops.-Besides assisting in growing and marketing staple crops and performing the organized work with the citrus growers mentioned above, county agents gave valuable as sistance in fertilizing, spraying, cultivating and marketing citrus and truck crops. Agents in many instances put on demon strations for the control of different diseases and insects and in fertilizing and cultivating groves. These were used from time to time as object lessons for the surrounding growers. Much help was given truckers by showing them the method and value of sterilizing seed and seedbeds. Also valuable assistance was given by showing them methods of grading and packing their truck for the market. In two counties efforts were made to interest the farmers in growing the Big Stem Jersey sweet potato for early market. Some of these potatoes . were set early and others late. The early potatoes made a good yield, usually running from 45 to 60 barrels to the acre, and the prices received were very satisfac tory. The later setting was put out just at the beginning of a long dry spell and the yield was very much reduced.

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30 Florida Cooperative Extension The agent of Alachua County had a number of demonstrations in the use of land plaster on peanuts. The variety of nuts grown was the Virginia Bunch. No definite figures are available at this time but the yield was greatly increased by the use of land plaster. Livestock.-County agents gave farmers assistance in buying and selling livestock and in the control of diseases. Special emphasis was placed on the growing of feed for pastures and giving better care to farm animals. A number of good dairy cattle were purchased and shipped into the district for the farmers. Poultry .-Assisted by the poultry specialist, the agents in terested the farmers in giving more time and attention to poultry work. Help was given in selecting proper locations for poultry plants, in culling flocks, correct feeding and in making their yards sanitary. Marketing.-Reports of the county agents show that about 15 percent of their time was devoted to organization and mar keting. Each county has one or more organizations which ren der valuable assistance in marketing their crops and livestock," also in the purchase of supplies. One of the greatest savings was . in the purchase of fertilizer cooperatively. The county agent of Pasco reports the purchase cooperatively of 500 tons of fertilizer thru farmers' organizations, and a saving thereby to the growers of $4,000. In Alachua County the county agent assisted the farmers in purchasing a good portion of their fer tilizer cooperatively. Other counties did some work along this line and in each case the farmers were saved considerable money. Farm lmplements.-Th.ere was a large number of improved farm implements; such as sprayers, tractors, cultivators, mow ers and hay presses; purchased during the year, due to the in-: fluence of the county agents. Meetings.-The meetings held in the district consisted chiefly of field meetings (mentioned under Special Activities) and farm bureau meetings. Citrus field meetings were held in Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, . Polk, Hillsborough, Pasco, Lake, Osceola and Orange Counties. All were well attended by the surrounding growers. County agents and specialists from the Experiment Station assisted in holding these meetings,

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Annual Report, 1922 31 Fairs and Exhibits.-The county agents of Alachua, Marion, Levy, Osceola, Manatee and Lee Counties contributed largely to the success of their county fairs. To the South Florida Fair, held at Tampa, and the Mid-Winter Fair, held at Orlando, a number of counties sent exhibits of their agricutural and horti cultural products. These exhibits were largely secured by county agents. Statistical Report.-During the year the district agent in charge of this territory traveled 7,465 miles by rail, 6,141 miles by automobile, making a total of 13,606 miles; made 98 official visits to county agents; attended 40 farmers' meetings, which were attended by 5,530 farm people; and visited 292 farmers.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF H. G. CLAYTON, DISTRICT AGENT, WEST FLORIDA Territory and Appropriations.-The district embraced in this report is that part of Florida west of the Suwannee River. At the end of the year there are county agents in Taylor, Madison, Jefferson, Wakulla, Liberty, Bay, Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa and Escambia Counties. During the year Gadsden County dropped out of the work and Wakulla and Jefferson Counties came into it. These changes took place in October. The counties mentioned spent $12,2_ for county agent work during 1922. Farm Organizations.-Probably the most outstanding coop erative work done by farm organizations was that done in Es cambia, Walton and Madison Counties. This work consisted principally of the cooperative buying of fertilizers, seed and fruit trees, and the selling of hogs, potatoes and perishable farm products. Taylor, Okaloosa and Santa Rosa Counties also did good work of this nature. Aside from this buying and selling, farm organizations did much good work in grading and standardizing farm products, in putting on exhibits at various community, county and state fairs, and in getting groups of people to concentrate their efforts along definite undertakings. Club Work.-In club w9rk Santa Rosa County stood first. The agents of this county are to be commended. As a whole, the quality of club work in the entire district this year was satisf~ctory. The outstanding feature of club work was the inauguration of cooperative hog sales. The buyers agreed to pay a minimum price on the initial carlots fed out by club boys with the under standing that where not possible to get a full carload fed by boys the farmers be allowed to bring in enough on the same basis to finish out the car. This was the basis of the plan, and all hogs were graded and soldto the highest bidder. The plan was successful, and in four counties of the district hog sales were held regularly. More counties have planned to do similar work next year. The best ten club breeding pigs at the State Fair were shown again this year by Madison County, which also furnis)led the champion pig club boy of the state (Kenneth McMullen) . . Fruit.~During the year approximately one thousand acres of satsuma oranges were set out in this district, mostly in coun

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Annual Report, 1922 33 ties west of the Apalachicola river. As this is new with most of the farmers, the agents devoted much of their time assisting in this planting. Every effort was made to start these plantings under favorable conditions. Pecans, blueberries and sand pears were planted over large areas during the year, and much assistance was given the farm ers by the agents in these enterprises . Farm Crops.-Corn acre age was decreased in . this district this year. That of , sweet potatoes was increas ed slightly, due to plant ings made for early ship ments to northern markets . The Iri sh potato acreage was practically doubled over that of 1921. The cotton acreage was largely in creased, over half the acre age of the state being in this district. A large in crease was made in truck crop p l antings also, but prices received for truck were discouraging. With staple crops getting back _ to normal, the indications are that the acreage to these will continue to in crease, while that to truck will decrease. FIG . 4.-Donald G. McMullen, Madison County, and his grand champion club pig. With this pig Donald wo n the grand championship and the Wil ~ liamson & Dennis scholarship to the International Livestock Show in Chi cago, and, with this and three other pigs, $512 in cash Dairy Cattle .Dairy interest continued to increase this year. County agents assisted farmers in bringing in 11 registered bulls, 23 registered cows and heifers and 69 high-grade cows. The creamery at Tallahassee continued to furnish a market for sour cream from adjoining counties. The agent in Bay was successful in helping dairymen in remodeling their barns and building milk rooms . . Ho gs .Prices for hogs were better than a year ago and farmers were able to make small profits in most cases. This created a better feeling among hog raisers. County agents placed

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension 92 purebred boars and 148 purebred gilts and sows among farmers, which, being done yearly, means constant improvement in the swine industry. Sales conducted last summer boosted fall prices, since every car sold in summer meant just one car less for the fall markets, which are usually glutted. Poultry.-Farm poultry improved in quality during the year, county and home demonstration agents being largely responsible therefor. Many poultry associations were organized and did much in placing a better grade of poultry on the farms of West Florida. Marketing.-County agents of this district assisted farmers and cooperative organizations in handling 287 carloads of farm produce and livestock, including watermelons, cantaloupes, potatoes, corn, cattle and hogs. These sales amounted to $144,219 and the farmers saved $6,974 thru them. Over thirty-five hundred tons of fertilizers and 48,137 fruit trees were purchased cooperatively by farmers. The total amount of these purchases was $149,566, and the saving on them $30,981. Meetings.-Group meetings of county agents were held in the spring, when each agent submitted an outline or plan of the work to be done by him during the year. These plans were studied and discussed by other agents, staff officers and spe cialists. County agents of this district held 42 field meetings this year, the attendances of which were 3,552. They also took part in 472 meetings of farmers, the attendances of these being 35,484. They made a total of 12,524 farm visits and received 5,123 calls at their offices relative to farm work. Fairs and Exhibits.-County fairs showed a marked improve ment over last year, both in quality and quantity of exhibits. Seven county fairs were held in the district. The club contest in Santa Rosa County was really a fair in itself. Three counties exhibited at the State Fair in November. Statistical Report.-During the year the district agent trav eled 17,256 miles by automobile and train. Visits were made to 102 demonstrations. County agents were visited 89 times. Sixty-three farmers' meetings were attended. He judged live stock and other exhibits at eight county fairs and helped to judge the exhibits at the South Florida Fair. He assisted in holding club contests in five counties. Assistance was given in holding six fertilizer schools and four citrus schools in West Florida.

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Annual Report, 1922 35 1 REPORT OF S. W. HIATT, DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND 1 . NORTHEAST FLORIDA Territory.-ln this territory the following counties are carry ing oounty agent work: Suwannee, Hamilton, Columbia, Duval, Clay, St. Johns, Putnam, Flagler, Volusia, Seminole, Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade. Appropriations.-Seminole and Columbia Counties came into the work in October. These 14 counties appropriated $30,940 for this work. . During the year a change was made in the personnel of agents in Clay and Volusia Counties. Farm Organizations.-Th e greatest activity in farmers' or ganization work is centered in Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, Palm Beach and Volusia Counties. An organization of potato growers in St. Johns County was completed. A number of local community organizations of various character were also created and are now functioning. The primary object of most farm or ganizations has been the cooperative purchase of farm supplies and the sale of farm products. Club Work.-The extreme drought of early summer and the excessive rainfall which followed, were responsible in many coun ties for the poor showing made in club work this year. The sweet potato club enrollments were large in several counties w'here fue agents planned to market t h e crops cooperatively early in the season. Be cause of the drought, how ever, few members were able to plant their plots as early as expected. The fat barrow club work in Suwannee and Hamilton Counties w a s FIG. 5.-The 1922 grand champion pig club Duroc. Shown by Lucille Ellis of Alachua County very successful. Besides stimulating interest in preparing hogs for sale and selling tlhelm in summer, this work practically started the cooperative hog sales in these counties which created so much attention. Extensive plans were put under way for increasing the scope and interest in club work in this district . Club camps were held in Duval and Suwannee Counties.

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Special Activities.-Under this head should be mentioned the establishment of cooperative hog sales in Suwannee and Hamilton Counties; a corn weevil campaign in Hamilton County which re sulted in the saving of thousands of bushels of corn; a corn grow ing contest in Duval County where one farmer produced 1051-8 bushels under the direction of the county agent; the improve ment of dairies in St. Johns County; the organization of two community bull associations in Flagler County; the organization of the potato growers in the Hastings section; an educational campaign for the productionof better citrus fruit in St. Lucie County; the organization of the truck growers in the Everglades area of Palm Beach County; and the construction of a $30,000 city market building in Miami to take the place of the curb market. In carrying out these things the county agents were instrumental and helpful. Crops.-The acreage in corn in the northern counties suffered a slight reduction; the cotton acreage increased with a fair yield. Boll-weevil control measures were stressed and farmers carrying out demonstrations with the agents were more than pleased . with results. The peanut acreage was reduced and only a small amount harvested with the result that prices are advancing rap idly with an increased demand for seed for next year's plantings. Plans for a considerable acreage of sweet potatoes for early mar ket were interfered with by the spring drought and only a few sections were able to market in June and July. These, however, brought very satisfactory prices. There was a heavy planting of Irish potatoes and a good yield over most of the potato area. Low prices and heavy expenses, however, caused general dissatisfaction and brought little profit to the grower. Much the same thing can be said of the water melon arid ' cucumber croips. There was a heavy crop of toma toes on the lower East Coast and prices ranged somewhat lower than usual. There has been considerable increases in the pine. apple acreages in St. Lucie and Palm Beach Counties. The cit rus crop showed up well, altho an extended spring drought caused the shedding of much fruit. Higp. water in the Everglades did considerable damage to avocado groves. Increased interest was shown in the production of improved varieties of mangoes. Dairying.-Interest in dairy work increased. Many dairy cat tle were purchased from outside the state. Dade, Palm Beach,

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Annual Report, 1922 37 Suwannee and Duval county agents reported the purchase of 31 registered and 803 high-grade dairy cattle. There were marked improvements in the methods of handling milk and general dairy sanitation on a number of dairy farms. Demands for milk produced under sanitary conditions are and have been increasing , and the better class of dairymen had little trouble in disposing of their milk during the summer, which is usually a slack season in Florida. The esta:bli s hment of several icecream factories helped to solve the problem of surplus milk during the summer months. The carrying of a few good cows on the general farm and the selling of sour cream were advocated and started in a small way in Suwannee and Columbia Counties with satisfactory results. Continued efforts were made to interest farmers in permanent pastures. Hogs.-Altho the depressed condition of the hog market had a tendency to discourage this industry, thru the eff otts of the county agents more hogs were marketed during the spring and summer months than ever before. This opened up to the farmer a source of revenue from this industry at a season when demand and prices were higher than at the usual period of marketing, providing an income when most needed on the general farm. Poultry.-County agents rendered all the assistance possible in poultry work. Better breeding, feeding, housing, c ulling and marketing are problems which received considerable time and at tention from county and home demonstration agents. Marketing.-In the general farming sections of the district considerable progress was made in the cooperative marketing of farm products and the purchasing of certain farm supplies. County agents' reports of the results of this cooperative work show that farmers were saved $44,721 durihg the year. In the citrus and trucking regions markets are pretty well established. There are, however, a few sections where efforts will be made next year to better existing market conditions. Farm lmplements.-Many improved farm implements were purchased this year. In addition to the ordinary farm tools county agents reportfd the purchase in this district of 24 tract ors, 90 motor trucks and 64 spraying machines. Meetings.-A number of farmers' meetings were held in the various counties under the supervision of the county agents, as sisted in some instances by specialists. In addition to meetings

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension . . held by the farm bureau and other farmers' organizations, citrus _ and poultry meetings were held and points of general interest along these lines discussed with good results. Fairs and Exhibits.-Seven county fairs, one state fair and several community fairs were held in this district during the year. Ten counties exhibited at either the State Fair or at the South Florida Fair. Every effort possible was put forth to make these fairs and exhibits educational and of benefit to the farmer and grower. In scoring the displays great stress was laid on quality, uniformity and mark~tability, following as near as pos sible the United States standard of grade and pack. Statistics.-During the year in the execution of his duties, the district agent traveled by rail U,158 miles and by automo bile 3,053 miles, a total of 14,211 miles; made 104 visits to coun ties in his district; made 132 visits to county agents; attended 72 meetings, the total attendances of which were 5,94i; and judged the agricultural exhibits of ten fairs.

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Annual Report, 1922 39 REPO;JlT OF R. W. BLACKLOCK, BOYS' CLUB AGENT Corn Club.-As over half of the cultivated acres in Florida is planted to corn, the corn club is the most important in this work. The htgh cost of fertilizer and the low price of corn induced mem bers to reduce the amount of fertilizer used this year. Therefore, there was a decrease in the average acre yield. This decrease would have been much greater but for the gradual improvement in the quality of seed used by the boys. Sweet Potato Club._;_This club proved to be one of the most profitable, financially. Yields were good and the crop was pro duced at a cost which assured the members a fair profit in practi cally every case. Peanut Club.-The importance of this club is not well estab lished, because it was difficult to secure reports from members since the nuts were not picked from the vines in time to report at the county contests. However, it is known that considerable profits were made by the boys. The Pig Club has not recovered from the big slump in prices of two years ago. There was a decided trend away from hog raising after prices dropped, and this was shown very clearly in the pig club enrollment this year. Farmers and boys and girls are again becoming interested in the pig club. Those members who stayed thru the hard times made a little profit, but many became discouraged and quit with a loss. Fat Barrow Club.-This club promises to be the most popular of the livestock clubs. The boys and girls are coming to realize that the average farmer must produce pork and not breeding stock. The cost of producing the pork hog is much less and the profit is much more certain than with the breeding animal. The fat barrow clubs were in Hamilton, Suwannee; Taylor, Madison and Okaloosa Counties, and demonstrated the profit the farmer can make by feeding out pigs for the May market. In these counties 11 carloads were marketed cooperatively in May. These were the first cooperative sales in several counties. The farmers were so well pleased that ab~iut twenty-five cars were sold cooperatively in September and October. This demonstration by the club boys will help materially to distribute the marketing of Florida hogs thruout the year. Form merly nearly all hogs went to market in the fall and winter months when prices are always lowest.

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40 Florida Coop e rative Extension The Club Camp has become a part of the year's work in many counties. This recreational feature has proved so popular that once tried in a county it has never been abandoned. The boys and girls look forward to the camp as one of the big things of the year. While the club camp is primarily recreational in its object, enough practical instruction is given to send each member back to his or her home with new ideas for the betterment of the farm and home. Boys' Short Course.-The annual short course is the most im portant event of the club year. A scholarship to this course is the grand prize in each county supporting club work. Heretofore, the short course has been held in December, im mediately following the State Fair. Bringing the boys to the University of Florida in December takes them from school and away from home at an inopportune time. Crowded conditions at the University make it impossible to properly house the boys during the college year. For these reasons the time for the short course was changed from December to the week following the close of the school year. The dormitories and dining hall are available then and the agricultural faculty has time to help instruct the boys. One hundred of the county club champions were present this year. There were eight groups and each was instructed in eight subjects. In place of class-room instruction, the boys were taken to the college and station farms for instruction and practice work. In the grass work, instruction was given in planting permanent pasture; the boys set out a strip of grass on one of the permanent pastures of the college farm. This plan was car ried out in all subjects and each boy received practice in doing eight things of practical value on a farm. Courses were given in farm machinery, budding and grafting, establishing permanent pastures, preparing livestock for show, preparing and applying the bluestone paste treatment for stem end rot of watermelons, mixing feeds, culling chickens and prac tical veterinary work. Inspirational talks, educational motion picture films and plenty of sports were added to give the boys a good time. State Club Exhibits.-Two state exhibits of club work were made, one in the South Florida Fair at Tampa and one in the State Fair at Jacksonville. The exhibit at Tampa was for the

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Annual Report, 1922 41 crop clubs only, while at the State Fair 63 club pigs were shown in addition to the farm crops exhibits. In the pig club exhibit, Madison County again won first prize and Alachua second. In open competition against the breeders, a pig club boy won a champion pen and champion barrow in the Poland-Chinas. Educational Prizes.-It has seemed advisable to make club prizes of educational value as far as possible. Money as a prize has not given as satisfactory results as the same amount spent either as a scholarship or for an educational trip. The smaller prizes are usually in the form of scholarships to the boys' short course at the University of Florida. One hundred of these schol arships were given in 1922. The larger prizes are scholarships to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. It is inter esting to note that every club member attending the College of Agriculture on a club scholarship has passed his college work creditably. Thru these scholarships the club work each year is able to give four boys a chance to secure college training in agriculture. Thru the boys' club work, two club boys and two county agents are given a trip each year to Chicago to visit the International Livestock Show. This trip gives these men and boys a chance to see the best beef cattle, hogs and horses in America. Trips are taken to big packing plants, mail order houses, museums and other interesting places in Chicago. Patrons of Club Work.-The moral and financial support given club work by the public is increasing yearly. Newspapers _ and banks and public officials are giving better support. The amount of money contributed for prizes this year was larger than in 1921. The following stand out among the friends of club work who showed their appreciation by gifts of money for scholarships and educational trips: Williamson & Dennis, one of the pioneer livestock commission firms of the state, oontributes annually $250 to be used as a scholarship to the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. '!'his scholarship is awarded to the pig club member showing th~ grand champion breeding pig in the pig club exhibit at the Flor ida State Fair. In addition to the scholarship this firm gave a price guarantee which enabled the demonstration thru club work. of the profit to be made from feeding pigs for the May market.

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension Mr. Dennis also sold the club barrows exhibited at the State Fair, securing ' the boys an exceptionally high price for their stock. The Florida Bankers' Association continued their practice of giving three $100 scholarships to the College of Agriculture. These scholarships are awarded, one to South Florida, one to West Florida and one to Central Florida, to the club boy in the respective districts standing . highest in a competitive examina tion. The Model Land Company of St. Augustine gave a scholarship to the boys' short course for each of the counties thru which the Florida East Coast Railroad passes. Armour & Company of Chicago offered two trips to the Inter national Livestock Show at Chicago, valued at $140 each. One trip was given to the state champion in the corn club and one to . the pig club member showing the grand champion club bar row at the State Fair. The Florida State Fair Association offers large premiums in the club department and is anxious to help promote a big state club exhibit. The Fair Association has set aside one-half of a large swine barn for the boys' pig club. The South Florida Fair is assisting in building up a good club exhibit for South Florida and has increased its club prem iums. For the 1923 fair this association is offering iore money for boys' club work. The banks, business men, boards of county commissioners and county fair associations thruout the state gave freely for the support of club work and for premiums at the county con tests. State Champions.-Don Miley of Hillsborough County repeated his 1920 achievement by whining championship honors in the corn club. He grew 101 bushels of corn on his acre at a cost of 17 cents a bushel and won the Armour & Company trip to the International Livestock Show. Virgil Parker of Gadsden County holds state honors in the sweet potato club by producing 81.75 bushels of sweet potatoes on an eighth (1-8) of an acre, which is at the rate of 654 bushels to the acre. He produced his potatoes at a cost of 14 cents a . bushel. Paul Bernath of Santa Rosa County won the championship in . the peanut club. He grew 95 bushels of Valencia peanuts on his club acre at a cost of 25 1-2 cents a bushel.

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Annual Report, 1922 43 Daniel G. McMullen of Madison County has the distinction of being the first club boy in Florida to win two state championships in one year. This boy showed the grand champion club pig in the breeding class at the Florida State Fair, and won the Wil liamson & Dennis scholarship to the College of Agriculture. He also showed the grand champion club barrow, and won the Armour & Company trip to Chicago. In addition, he won champion pen and champion barrow in open competition with FIG. 6.-Dairy enthusiasts. Club boys attending the annual c lub short course at the University of Florida having explained to them the mechanism of a milking machine his pen of Poland-China club barrows. And his club pig was second prize senior boar pig among the Poland-Chinas. Taking the money value of all his prizes this boy won $512 on his four club pigs at the Florida State Fair. He had won a scholarship to the boys' short course and over $30 in cash at his county fair. Santa Rosa County was the banner county in corn club and sweet potato club work. Madison County stood first in the pig club and Alachua first in the peanut club. St. Johns County had the best Irish potato club in the state, and it also had the best organized boys' club work in Florida. Marvin Brooker of Alachua County, Alvin Walden of Walton County and Paul Robertson of St. Lucie County won the three scholarships to the College of Agriculture offered by the Flor ida Bankers' Association.

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44 Flo r ida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF JOHN M. SCOTT, EXTENSION ANIMAL INDUSTRIALIST The work of the animal industrialist for the year ending may be divided as follows . : (1) The distribution of grasses and forage crops. (2) Advising farmers and dairymen thru county agents and by correspondence. (3) Attending farmers' meetings and making personal visits to farmers on their farms. The distribution of grasses included Bahia, Napier, Golden Beard, Giant Bermuda, Kudzu, Centipede, Para, Carpet, Vasey and Kikuyu. To sum up, grasses, seed, or live plants have been sent to 70 farmers in 27 counties of the state. Those who know of the necessity of getting more and better pasture grasses established can realize the importance of this wide distribution of these new and promising grasses. One of the greatest needs of the livestock and dairy industries of Florida is better pastures. These better pastures can be had only by persistent trials of t he 'best grasses that can be found. One other new feature that has suggested itself and that is being tried out in this phase of extension work is the establish ment of a "grass garden" along the side of one of the main high ways leading to Gainesville. The idea of this grass garden is to plant out ten or twelve of the most promising grasses near the highway to encourage the interest of the farmers and stockrilen in improving their pastures. In this way it is hoped to con vince many people that better pasture grasses can be developed on the various types of Florida soil. A public-spirited citizen was assisted in selecting a location for a grass garden. His idea was to plant out a number of grasses near the public highway, where the public would have an opportunity to see them growing. He was assisted in select ing a location as well as furnished material for planting the plots. The animal industrialist had a place on the program of the short course for club boys of the school for farmers, known as Farmers' Week, and of the annual meeting of county agents, all of which took place on the campus of the University of Florida.

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Annual Report, 1922 45 A special livestock course or program was arranged by him for Farmers' Week. A great deal of time was taken up answering correspondence in regard to the feeding and management of all kinds of livestock especially dairy cattle and hogs. Much time was given to farmers' meetings and spent in con sultations with the county agents and farmers of Alachua, Ma rion and Suwannee Counties.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF. ED L. AYERS, ENTOMOLOGIST-PLANT PATHOLOGIST . On May 1, 1922, shortly after . starting to work, there was a serious outbreak of citrus canker at Davie, Broward County, and this specialist was assigned to that section to assist in the citrus canker work. Upon being relieved from this work, on July 20, a number of meetings and short courses were attended, most of them being either in Gainesville or Tallahassee. It was, there fore, along toward fall before actual field work was begun. The outstanding problems in extension entomology and plant pathology were the control of insects and diseases of potatoes, watermelons, cucumbers and citrus fruits. Aside from this, in a more limited way, some insect and disease control work was done on vegetables and deciduous fruits. A survey was made last spring of the potato fields of St. Johns and Putnam Counties, and it was found in some instances that yields were below what they should have been. The principal disease responsible for a decrease in yield seemed to have been late blight. It was apparent that the average spraying meas ures used were not adequate, and that spraying had not always been done effectively. The low yield was, in some instances, also laid to a poor type of seed, which was reported to have been_ received last season. The seed were reported to have been of long spindling type rather than the typical Rose No. 4 which seems best adapted to the section under consideration. Another element of uncertainty in the last crop was the measuring of re sults from dusting as compared with spraying. A few growers had taken up dusting with copper-lime dust as a substitute for bordeaux spray for late blight. No definite check could be made of this work and attributed good results probably were due in some instances to seasonal conditions and lack of development of the disease. It is planned that this work shall be started early next season and thus, by the inspection of seed, seed treatment and definite spraying demonstrations, to assist the growers to economically and effectively control the disease and insect pests of their crops. The principal disease of watermelon and cucumbers in this state is anthracnose. A number of meetings for anthracnose control were held and considerable interest was aroused and help given. This work should be continued and enlarged next year. While most interest and effort were centered in diseases, the

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Annual Report, 1922 47 melon aphis, the melon worm and the pickle worm were found to be very serious pests, and they should be included in the sched ule of work for next season. The melon and cucumber growers are being organized in some sections of the state and meetings will be held in conjunction with county agents next year in an effort to insure greater returns from spraying. Citrus Problems.-The citrus fruit growers of the state are vitally concerned in the control of insect pests and diseases. County agents have worked with individuals and groups . and will endeavor to have more organizations in the future, in order to meet the increased demands on their time and services. Definite effort was made by many of them to teach the growers to iden tify insects and diseases. This office cooperated with the agents in holding a number of field meetings, the same ranging from one hour to one day in duration. Magnifying glasses were car ried along and the growers were actually taught how to identify and to combat citrus diseases and insects. In many groves unusual development of melanose is notice able. An effort is being made to carry the effective work on this disease of the plant pathologist of the Experiment Station to the growers themselves. There were instances where proper spraying produced fruit almost free of melanose markings, thus increasing the profit of such groves to several thousand dollars over the check plots of unsprayed fruit in the same grove. Either of the projects mentioned above could easily absorb the entire time of one or more men, and the subtropical cJimate of Florida, together with the large range of crops, insures a greater field for insect and plant disease study than any other state. Field meetings proved unusually successful and their number should be increased next year.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF N. W. SANBORN, POULTRY SPECIALIST This, the fifth report of the extension poultry specialist, is for the months of July-December, 1922, and for two short trips made in June, 1922. Division of Time.-Most of the time was given to work in the field with county agents. One week was devoted to the annual gathering of the boys' club conference, two weeks to the annual poultry short course, over a week to the annual conference of county agents in Septemher, several days to Farmers' Week in August, and eleven days to the State Fair in Jacksonville. The pressure of increasing numbers of letters from poultrymen and women required that more time be spent in the office. More vis itors came to the office for personal conference than in former years. All of this necessarily had to be done at the expense of time that should have been spent in the field. Two new leaflets, "Manson's Eye Worm" and "Profitable Egg Production," as well as a blue print of "A Florida Laying House," were written. Less attention was given to the culling of flocks than in previ ous years, and more time was given to urging that better breed ing stock be used. Culling in former years increased the breed ing qualities of the poultry in the state. Because of that culling of former years, less mongrel and cross-bred stock is found in Florida poultry yards today. Culling, therefore, has reached a very fine point, the weighing of the good and. bad of purebred individuals. Poultry Policies of Extension Workers.-The poultry specialist endeavored to further the recommendations of the county and home demonstration agents, which were made at their annual conference in September, 1922. The recommendations that were stressed particularly are as follows : "Demonstrate the value of purebred poultry by the introduc tion of purebred birds or purebred settings of eggs. "Cull flocks by (a) selection of eggs for setting, (b) discarding weaker birds, and (c) discarding non-layers. "Emphasize the importance of dry-mash feeding by the hopper method. "Use feeding formulas recommended by the College of Agri culture, University of Florida. "Encourage fall hatching to produce winter fryers.

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Annual R e port, 19 22 49 FIG. 7.-Studying the fine points of the hen "Where practical, market products cooperatively. "Grade eggs to comply with the demands of the best markets. "Produce infertile eggs except when needed for hatching. "Make better use of daily and weekly newspapers, county and state fairs, and urge larger attendance at all poultry meetings in the county. "Encourage the adoption of the standard Florida poultry house as recommended by the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, with such modifications as necessary to meet local con ditions." Progress Evident.-There has been a general improvement in the quality of poultry in the state for the last five years. Utility and fancy poultry breeders are getting together in their aims, purposes and efforts. The last three years saw farm flocks brought nearer to standard quality, while men met at shows ap peared more interested in larger egg production. Farmers are more insistent on the use of better males and many used nothing excei;t standard-bred stock in their matings. There was an in_

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension crease in average egg production, on farm and in backyard, ~s well as in rearing chickens for early maturity. The number of poultry in Florida could be doubled easily, and the number of eggs produced could be increased by 300 percent, and still the state would be unable to meet the demands of its own markets for live poultry and fresh eggs. The growth of the state calls for more and better potiltry and for more and better eggs. The work of the last year was directed toward meeting those calls. Statistical Summary below will give an idea of the extent of the work done: . ~. Miles traveled by rail and boaL ..... , ....... , ..... :.: ...................... 7,091 Miles traveled by automobile ..... , ....................... , ...................... 1,391 Meetings attended 119 Attendance at meetings .......................... ,L ..... 5,834 Poultry shows judged ......... , ........... , ................ ,......................... 4 Backyard flocks visited ............................................................ 65 Farm flocks visited ............................. :...................................... 43 Culling dem~nstrations ~., .............................................. ,............ 22 Conferences in office ................... , ............................ :................. 62 Letters written ............................................................................ 1,060 Bulletins mailed .......................................................................... 1,384 "Office hours" in county agents' offices.................................. 6 Conferel'!ces during these "office hours" ................................ 216

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Annual Report, 1922 51 REPORT OF HAMLIN L. BROWN, DAIRY SPECIALIST The work of the dairy specialist began November 1, 1921. The work and the agent being new to the state, it was necessary for him to make a survey of conditions, to become acquainted with county agents, and to familiarize himself with the foremost dairy problems of the state. Methods of Work.-In this work the county agents were the leaders in their respective counties, and the work was carried on thru the agents iri counties employing agents. It is intended, after the work is well under way, to form dairy organizations in all counties and to combine the work in counties that have similar problems. Improvement of Dairy Animals on the Farm.-With cattle tick infestation in all but four counties and a large number of dairy animals on the open range, the improvement of the dairy indus try was undertaken principally by practicing the slogan, "Elimi nate scrub sires and replace with purebreds that have outstand ing production records." The county agent of Gadsden County got actual reports of 120 scrub bulls that were eliminated from the free range in that county. In two weeks 50 scrub bulls were eliminated in Madison County. In Dade a campaign was organized to replace every scrub bull with a registered bull. This should be accomplished within a year. Other counties started similar work. Many purebred . sires were purchased by individual dairymen. U is proposed to organize cooperative bull associations in the near future. Suwannee County introduced a number of grade heifer calves, which is a more direct method of dairy improvement. St. Johns and Columbia Counties took definite steps to organize calf clubs as a part of their farm bureau program, cooperating with ex tension workers. Improved Methods of Feeding.-Commercial dairies, in fact all dairies, have problems in feeding. A program to make bet ter use of staple southern-grown feeds, as cottonseed meal, pea nut meal, cornmeal, cane and cane silage with the legume hays, has been the greatest need. St. Johns County dairymen secured this year good results by eliminating beet pulp and wheat shorts and substituting southern feeds mentioned above. Dairymen of Palm Beach and Suwannee Counties got striking results by using

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension mineral mixtures in their feeds. Efforts were made to work out programs for supplying green pasture the year around in five counties . Marketing Dairy Products.-The development of farm dairy ing in Florida was a major project of extension work this year. By reason of climatic conditions here, it is not practical to pro duce butter on the farm in competition with the production of creamery butter. From six to eight months of the year-in summer-there is a surplus of sweet milk, particularly on the small dairy farm. The logical market for the Florida farmer is a creamery or butter factory conveniently located, whereby he ' can market his cream three times a week, and keep his skimmilk on the farm to feed to calves, pigs and chickens. Work of this nature was started in several counties during the year and many farmers reported very satisfactory results. Present conditions indicate that within the next two years Florida will have eight to ten creameries in operation, a suf . ficient number to take care of farm dairy development for some years in the f ufore . The Hernando Cooperative Dairy Company built a new plant. this year. This new plant is equipped to manufacture butter, ice cream and other by-products, which means that the surplus milk supply of the farmers in summer can be utilized to their advantage. This new arrangement enlarges the field of opera tion of the creamery. , '. There are milk plants at Brooksville, Tallahassee, Ocala and West Palm Beach. These were organized as stock companies with the exception of Brooksville, which originally was a cooper atively . owned plant. It was recently converted into a stock corporation. The milk plants were built to furnish farmers with a market for their milk, same to be marketed as pasteurized milk, icecream and chocolate milk, principally. The Tallahassee and Brooksville plants installed butter-making equipment, planning to develop farm dairying. . The West Palm Beach plant . isin a position to add this department when conditions warrant. The handling of sweet milk under Florida's varying market con ditions is hazardous, even with experienced managers supplied with the necessary capital. Dade and Palm Beach Counties established a standard of grades for milk and are marketing their milk on quality stan dards. This proved successful in eliminating the unfair competi

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Annual Report, 1922 53 tion of the low grade milk with the best milk, which is the case when all milk is sold as "just milk" and at the same price. In addition this plan was an incentive to the farmers to produce bet ter milk. St. Johns County dairymen, in cooperation with their county agent, formed an organization and greatly improved their milk houses and dairy barns. This, of course, raised the standard of the milk produced. It also resulted in increased consumption. Improved Business Methods.-Cattle tick infestation and the difficulty of replacing the culls or boarder cows with high~produc. ing animals greatly interfered this year with the organization of cow testing associations. Next year it should be possible to start the organization of such associations. Several purebred herds in the state did advanced registry work this year. How ever, the development of such work will be limited, necessarily, until the cattle tick has been eradicated. Statistical Report.-The extension dairy agent did cooperativ~ work in 20 counties; made 102 official visits to county agents; attended 97 farmers' meetings, the attendance of which reached 3,838; and traveled 19,273 miles during 1922.

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, STATE HOME DEM ONSTRATION AGENT Staff.-The staff of home demonstration work consists of the state agent, assistant state agent, two district agents, four sub ject matter specialists, 28 home demonstration agents and the clerical force. At present there are 50 persons under appoint ment in this branch of extension work in Florida. Maintenance and Training Personnel.-In providing for the . support of the work in the counties the state, assistant state and district agents help to secure appropriations from boards of county commissioners and school commissioners. In July, Aug ust and September these boards make up their annual budgets. Appropriations have been made by 33 counties for the work in 1923. An agent appointed to a county must be mutually acceptable to the cooperating county and this office. This office assumes responsibility for the general supervision of the work in each county. Assistance is given in developing county organizations and working programs, in furnishing subject matter and in helping train leaders. Specialists in poultry, home dairying, conservation and nutri tion are responsible for.the development of these projects in the state. The assistant state and district agents frequently f unc tion as subject matter specialists . . Individual Work.--:-Each individual club member enrolled in home demonstration work undertakes to complete at least one home problem a year, working under the direction of her agent. No enrollment is made until work is established. The junior enrollment this year consisted of 5,457 juniors, made up of 5,150 girls and 307 boys. These juniors undertook 10,817 projects and completed 7,563, or 62 percent of those started. The adult enrollment was made up of 4,631 women and 162 men, totaling 4,793. They undertook 5,821 projects. The following figures from work in 28 counties _ are given to show the direct personal contacts between home demonstration agents and the people whom they serve: Juniors Members visited ....... ,.................... 6,759 Office consultations . .. . . .. .... ..... .. . . Contacts with individuals.... . . . ... .. .. . ... ... . Adults 6,120 Total 12,839 8,105 20,954

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Annual Report, 1922 55 The fact that the number of visits to juniors and adults is so nearly identical suggests that junior and adult club members are frequently found in the same home. Organized Clubs.-Adult demonstrators enroll for a monthly study at club meetings and for the promotion of community pro grams of work. Subject matter used in the programs is fur nished from the state office. A statistical report on organized clubs follows: Clubs for girls . .. .. ..... . .. .. ...... .. .... . .... . ........ . ...... . .. . ... . .... . ... . . . ... . ..... 404 Clubs for boys ....... : . . ..... . ...... .. ... :. . ...... . ...... . ....... . ................. . ..... .. . 25 Total..... . ............. . ..... . ............ .. ............. . .................. . . .. .. ... . .. ... . 429 Clubs for women ... ... .... . .... . . .. ........... . . . .... . ............. :..... .. ............. 151 Clubs for men ........ . .... ... ..... ... ............ . ...... . ..... .. ...... . .... . ........ .. ..... 8 Total ............ . 159 Junior clubs (of girls and boys) gave 49 entertainments for the purpose of raising funds to promote their local programs, the proceeds of which amounted to $1,400.25. Women's clubs raised $2,390 to carry out their programs of work. Significant of the group work are the following figures: Total clubs in 28 counties . . ...... . ...... . .... ... ..... .. ..... . ...... . ..... . ....... 688 Total club meetings .... . .. : . ........ . . . ...... . .... .. ............ ... . . ... . . . . . .. .. ...... 2,733 Total attendances ........ . ...... . ............. . . . ................... . ..... . ............. . 43,439 Demonstration lectures given . . ..... . .. .. .. .... ... . ............. .. . . ........... 6,650 Local Leaders.-Organized clubs have served to develop a spirit of leadership among club members. Presidents and oth ers who serve as local leaders are given special training in leader ship. One hundred seventeen leadership schools were held dur ing the year; and 119 leaders were trained for junior work and 70 for adult work. Community Projects.-:-Adult clubs undertake at least one pro gram of work for community betterment. Frequently an entire community is drawn into the work begun by a club. The fol lowing is representative of the community work done this year: School lunches. inaugurated .................... .. ... . ............. .. ..... . ..... . . 27 Rural libraries started . ............ . . . ... .. .... . ......... . ......... . .. .. . . .......... 17 Club rooms equipped .......... . ...... . .... :.. ..... . .............. . .... . . . ..... .. ..... . 33 Club houses built .. ... .... .. .... . ... . .. ... . ,.. . . .. .. . . . . ..... . ... .. . .. ..... . ... ... ....... 1 Cannf~g kitchens equipped ................... . ...... .. ............ : _ 19 Nutrition groups .. . . . .. : ........ . ..... .. . ..... .... . . . .... . .. . .. . .. . .... . ... .. .. . ... . . .. . 40 Community milk campaigns ... . ...... . ........... .. ..... .. ...... . ...... . ...... . . 20 Curb markets established or continued ..... .. ... . . . . . . . .. . ........ . .. . .. 5 Camps built ..... . ....... . ..... .. .... .. .... . . . ... ... .... ... ..... ... ... .. . ............... . . . 1 School grounds beautified 9

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56 Florida Cooperative Exterision In Palm Beach County there are 12 community councils. Among the things done or being done by these communities are: Starting an agitation that resulted in the building of one state highway; established telephone lines connecting communities in the Everglades area; two canning kitchens (built and equipped), three canning kitchens ( equipped) ; and influenced one com munity in growing flowers for a flower fete. Among the community projects of Hillsborough County should be mentioned the following: Club house built, equipped to serve hot lunch to school children; scales bought for two schools to further nutrition work; milk furnished in two communities for school children; a school established hot 'lunch and paid for trained home economics graduate to direct it. The club at Wel come was responsible for hard-surfacing a public road. . It paid for and built telephone lines into the community. A thousand purebred chicks were purchased by the club. In Polk County, four milk campaigns were conducted. Five clubs improved their school yards and five established libraries and reading rooms in their neighborhoods. In Pasco County, four school buildings were remodeled and three home demonstration rooms established. Fifteen commun ities appointed fair committees. At St. Joe the school grounds were fenced, new windows put in, interior of the school house improved and a school organ purchased. Blanton club paid for and installed a school pump and sanitary toilets and cleaned the school at the beginning of the term. Hernando County clubs raised money to continue the public school two months, planted and equipped the school yards, estab lished a women's exchange and raised funds for a club house. The following, quoted from an agent's report, is an example of community development. This originated with a small club. ""\Velcome Awakes" "My club members at Welcome have probably done a most out standing piece of work when the location of the community is taken into consideration. This is a community far removed from hard-surfaced highways. It has two trains a week during the orange shipping season. The people were practically shut off from the outside world. "Mrs. Rivers, a woman of remarkable ability for . leadership, heard of home demonstration work for girls and thought it would be helpful for women also. Three years ago, thru her efforts a

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Annual Report, 192~ 57 club was organized. The women did not stop with an organiza tion for themselves but assisted the men in. forming one and, thru the cooperation of both, they have done some big things for the community. They came from fifth to first place this year in their fair exhibits. They went before the county commissioners as an organization and got a hard surfaced road. One of the men had charge of building the road and another furnished the lumber for the bridges. Each of these men took over his part of the work, knowing that he would have to wait a year for the money for his work. When the road was being cut, all the men at Welcome worked and the women served dinner for them. In the same manner they built their telephone line which connects them with the rest of the world. These things have been done this year. Before this, if a physician was needed, they had to drive miles over bad roads to reach a telephone. Their telephone is a community convenience. They put it in a store and gave a picnic to pay the toll that would be due on it for the first six months. "Their community council now has been organized into a growers' association. It intends to increase :the strawberry acreage, build a packing house and grade, pack and ship its own products instead of bringing them into Plant City. "The women of the club this spring decided to go in . for pure -: bred poultry, so they disposed of their old stock and bought over a thousand purebred chicks. They equipped a comfortable club house where all their meetings are held. I meet with them once a month, and once during the month they meet with their local leader. At these meetings they do community canning. Each member brings in her own vegetables." County Organization.-A fine type of county organization among urban and rural women has been developed in 21 counties; most of these organizations are composed of the locals of dif ferent organizations federated for county work. Two counties have similar organizations among juniors. There are four county poultry associations organized for improving farm flocks and marketing poultry products. Contact with other state organizations is made thru the state office. A plan for cooperative work has been made with the State Board of Health. Where such work is being done in com munities, the home demonstration agent is responsible for the nutrition program.

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58 Florida Coopemtive Extension Making the Program.-In planning a year's work for a county the first step is taken at the agents' annual meeting, when each county's needs are studied jointly by the county workers, specialists and supervising agents. A tentative plan for the fol lowing year's work is worked out at that time. The home demonstration agent takes the tentative program to the county clubs and leaders for their approval and adoption: It is then returned to the state office for acceptance and filed as the "goal" for the year's work. Plans for 1922 were com pleted and on file by January, 1922. Work in each county is checked for the state office by the supervising staff against this goal. Supervisory Program.-The plan of work of each state staff member is based upon the adopted county programs of work with certain additions and modifications. Proposed programs and cal endars of work are prepared during the first quarter of the year. Calendars usually are worked out in detail from four to six months in advance. The following table shows the number of visits made by home demonstration staff officers and specialists to organized counties in 1922: County Columbia --------------1 Duval ________ _ _____ _ ______ _ Escambia _______________ _ Gadsden -----------Hamilton Leon ---Madison Okaloosa Putnam Santa Rosa ___________ _ St. Johns -----------Suwannee _____________ _ Taylor ______ __ ___________ _ Walton -------------------North and West Florida 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 4 8 7 7 6 3 8 7 7 5 7 4 8 6 7 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 4 4 2 2 Total ___ _ _ _ _ _ . -------------1 13 22 90 30 3 3 1 1 8 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 15 1 4 1 19 22 13 , 12 6 17 13 14 7 12 8 17 10 2 16 8 I 1s6

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County Q) ~.,.; .... l>.O tn, I>, .,.; Q) .... .; ~. '3 '" <) gi~ti Q) -~ Q) -~ bl) 0 P.
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60 Florida Cooperative Extension Publicity.-The press of the state is liberal in its support of home demonstration work. Several home demonstration agents maintain news columns in their local newspapers. Contests, ex hibits and fairs are especially valuable as a means of securing publicity for the work. Contests in junior work with exhibits of FIG. 8.-0ne of the home demonstration booths in the University of Flor ida building at the State Fair in Jacksonville the same always interest the public. Exhibits of home demon stration work were shown at two state fairs-in Jacksonville and Tampa-and at 17 county fairs. Among the exhibitors were 1,262 girls and 1,046 women. Club Camps are not only inspirational, but thru their influence in the junior division of the work the stamp of public approval of the work has been secured. They attract wide interest. Statistics of camp activities follow: Counties holding camps ... . .. . .. . ...... . . . .. . ........ .. ..... . .. ...... . . .. . ..... . .. . 20 Camps held . . . . .. .. .. . .. . ..... . ........... .. . .. ..... . .. . ... . .. . . .. . . .. . . .... . . ..... . .... ..... 14 Girls' county camps held .................... . .. . ........ . .. . ... .... . .. .. . ...... . . . 5 Girls' inter-county camps held . . .. . ... . .......... .. .... .. .............. . ..... . 2 Joint county camps held ... . .. .. . .. .. . ... . ........... .. . ... ....... . . .. . .. ..... .. ... . 4 Joint inter-county camps held . . . . .................. . .......... ... .. .... .... . .. . 3 Attendance of juniors ......................... .. .. . ...... . . . ... . ... . .... .... .. ....... 734 Attendance of girls .. . ... .. .. .. . . . . ... . . . .. ... ..... . ...... .. . . . .. .... . . ....... . ... . . .. . 586 Special Activities.-Activities under the following projects are carried on:

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Annual Report, 1922 61 Gardening.-This embraces work in home gardens, home or chards, club plots, grape work and flower gardens. This work is under the general supervision of the assistant state agent and the two district agents. Food Conservation.-This embraces conservation of foods for home use and development of a home industry for women and girls thru the manufacture and sale of such products. The state conservation specialist is leader. The following results were reported under this project, as food conserved: Juniors Adults ...... . ............. . ....... . Totals ....................... .. ...... ! Enrolled 1,393 957 2,350 I Containers I Containers fruit vegetables I 39,713 I 48,621 I 51,005 174,625 I 90,718 I 223,246 I Meats and fish, lbs. 29,564 39 ; 564 69,128 Clothing.-First-year girls electing sewing as their project were offered a program in patching, darning, the making of a nightgown and not less than three pieces for their own bedrooms. These bedroom pieces are curtains, scarfs and runners. Second year girls were offered a program in which the interest centered in their own wardrobes, providing for the making of not less than five garments each. Women were given assistance in their clothing problems. The following is reported under this project: Adults enrolled in sewing ....... .. . ...... ............... ... ............. ... .. . ..... 788 Juniors enrolled in sewing ........ . . . ................................... .... ...... 2,774 Dresses made by juniors ........... .... ............... . . . .. . .............. ........ ... 942 Gowns made by juniors ............ .. . ...... ....... . . ... .......... .. ..... .... . .. .. , 1,789 Hats made by juniors . . . .. ......... . .. . . ...... ..... ...... . ... .. . . .. . . ... ...... .. . •.. 415 Articles for bedroom made by juniors ...... . .... ..... ......... ....... .... 5,215 Miscellaneous articles made by juniors ....................... .. ....... 761 Total articles by juniors .......... ... .. . .... .. ........ ..... . . ........... ...... . . .... 9,122 The adults were given miscellaneous lessons in the clothing problems of their families. Nutrition.-This project includes work in elementary nutri tion, nutrition clinics for underweight children, bread clubs, food preparation and service. The nutrition specialist is leader. Poultry.-A general farm poultry program with special ref erence to improving breeds is included in this project. Other phases of. it call for increasing production and profitably market ing the output, and the organization of poultry clubs, egg circles and community and county poultry associations. The home demonstration poultry specialist is in charge; The greatest in

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension terest has been in standard-bred flocks, marketing and organiza tion. Every county has signed . up for this work i11 1923. Home Dairying.-This project is developed from the home standpoint rather than from that of the commercial dairy. Flor ida greatly needs the home dairy cow, better home-made dairy products, and an adequate supply of milk for home consumption. The home dairy agent is in charge of this project. Beekeeping.-This is a well-defined program in but two coun ties. The agents in these respective counties have entire super vision of the work. Home lmprovements,._Home building and remodeling, artistic and convenient furnishing, and landscape gardening come within this project. The following figures are indicative of the work done along these lines : Juniors Adults Total Water ~ystems installed .......... .. . . .... 2 36 38 Lighting systems installed ............. . 53 53 Kitchens remodeled . .. .. . . ..... ... .. :........ 19 179 198 Kitchens rearranged ......... .. .. ... ........ 5 15 20 Furniture done over ........ .. .. .... . . ...... 140 171 311 Bedroom furnishings made and rooms improved ... .. . .... ..... . .... 1,664 180 1,844 Other rooms improved ........... ... ...... 78 88 166 Houses screened ................................ 98 100 198 Living rooms remodeled .... ....... ....... 3 . 12 15 Washing machines installed ......... . 31 31 Ironing boards made ......... . ............. . 3 3 Houses repaired ............... .... . .. .......... 72 108 180 Houses remodeled .............. ... .. . ......... . 20 20 Houses painted ..................... : ........... . 57 57 Plantings of ornamental trees ........ 40 526 566 Ornamental trees planted . .. . .... ... . 4,268 Below is given the total enrollment by project activities for the state: Sewing ........................ .. ........... ... .......... . .................. . Room and other improvements ....... . ................... . Canning ....................... .. .......... . .. ...... .. ................. . Poultry ..................... ................ ... . ..... ...................... . Cookery ............................. . ..... .. ............................ . Bread ... ................................. .... . .......................... . Garden ............................... . .. .. . ... . . .. ... ..................... . Grape ... ........................ . ..... ..... . .. ............................. . Orchard .............................. . ..... . .. .... ... . .. .. ......... ..... . Bee ............................... .. ........... . . .. . ... ....................... . Dairy .......................... . .. .. ... .. .. . . .. .. .. . .... . .................. . Special products ... . ........... . : _ ... .. .. . . .. .... .................. . . Juniors 2,774 2,240 1,393 1,217 1,580 297 1,167 55 49 16 33 Adults 788 957 1,417 700 179 1,185 93 85 270 157 Totals ................. . ... . . ....... .. .. . .. .... . ...................... 10,821 5,831 Total projects ,completed .......... : ......................................... .. .. 6,797 Percentage of projects completed .. . ... . ..... . ......................... ... . 69.8

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Annual R e po r t, 19 2 2 63 Total membership among juniors was 5,457. Membership by activities was 10,817. Projects of work for each person averaged 1.7. Total number of projects completed was 7,573, or 69.8 percent. Adults enrolled were 4,795. By activities there were 5,821 adult enrollments, and of the projects started 78 percent were completed. Publications.-The state staff must assemble and prepare for publication all material other than agricultural bulletins fur nished by the state for field work . . The following are the pub lications for the calendar year ending: Bulletin 34, "Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades." Bulletin 41, "Handbook for First Year Sewing." Bulletin 43, "Bread Work for Junior Home Demonstration Clubs." "Poultry Calendar." "Poultry Record Book." "Calendar for Egg-Laying Contest." Nutrition enrollment cards and ; Weight tags. c + . Outlook.-Home demonstration work fa well organized thruout the state. Tentative plans of work. under every project which it is contemplated will be developed in Florida during 1'923 are now being considered in the counties. Reports on these will be made at the group meetings to be held in January, 1923. If the organization now in the field remain undisturbed, creditable achievements may be expected.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Plan of Work.-The plan of work of the assistant state home demonstration agent for 1922 may be outlined as follows: 1. To conduct leadership schools in holding women's club programs and to encourage and instruct leaders in junior work. 2. To visit women and girls' home demonstration clubs. .. 3. To assist with the nutrition work in the state. 4. To hold the state canning contest. 5. To hold a state short course. 6. To raise C{lmp standards and to assist in holding junior camps. 7. To demonstrate the pruning of grape vines to club mem bers. 8. To develop junior county organizations. 9. To establish standard clubs. 10. To prepare a manual on junior work for agents. 11. To further girls' canning project work. 12. To prepare three sets of monthly programs for women's clubs. 13. To write a bulletin on bread work Leadership Work.-In order to carry out home demonstration work, the program of which is broadening, the need for local . leaders is evident. Steps have been taken to secure local leaders. In Columbia, Okaloosa, Walton and Orange Counties, leadership schools were attended where instruction in the right use of pro gram material was given. In Columbia County instruction was given to leaders of junior work. Reports have come from these counties of community programs of work being carried on, of monthly programs being used in clubs; and of increased interest in leadership. Meetings.-Girls' clubs in three counties-Orange, Columbia and Hamilton:__and women's clubs in two counties-Orange and Osceola-were visited. Community meetings in Suwannee and Osceola Counties and a county federation in Suwannee were at tended. Farmers' Week was heldfor the first time in Florida in August at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Nutrition and food prf!pnrntion were given by the assistant state agent and by the district agent of South and East Florida, each giving three lee

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Annual Report, 192 2 65 tures and three demonstrations . In the evening recreational work was given. The attendance was small but the group was most earnest. About thirty women attended the home economics course. These women went home determined to send others next year. Nutrition Work.-Several undertakings in nutrition work were participated in, a few of which are mentioned below: DeFuniak Springs Nut r ition Class.-The United States Public Health Service in cooperation with the Florida State Board of Health placed a field nurse in West Florida to weigh, measure and physically examine school children. In cooperation the home demonstration department undertook the follow-up work in nutrition. A nutrition class was formed at DeFuniak Springs. Mothers and teachers were given instruction and lectures on nutrition. Material was sent from time to time to the teachers and agents for carrying on the work. Milk Campaign, Tampa.-Talks on value of milk as food were given to 2,120 school children in Tampa. Nutrition School for Women, Kissimmee.-The assistant state agent ga v e two lectures here, one on the use of milk and eggs and the other on meal planning. State Canning Contest.-The . winner of the state canning con test was Fannie Rieder of Santa Rosa County. Her record is as follows: Valu e of fresh vegetables sold .. .. . . ... .... .. . ... . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . $189.61 Value of fresh vegetables used . . .. . .. ... ....... ........ . : .. . . . . . ... . .... . . 6.54 Value of products canned ......... : . . .. .. .. . . . ....... ... . . .. . . . ........ .. .. ... ... 17.50 Total ... . . . .. . ... ........... . .. . . .... .... .. . ... . . ... . . . .... ... ... . .. . .. . ..... . .... . .. . . .. $2i3.65 Total .. expen s es . . . . .. . .. .. .. . .. . . .. ...... . . . .. ... . ... ..... .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. ..... . . .. .. . 23.81 Profit ....... ...... . . ... ........... . . . . . ......... . ... . . . ........... . ..... .. ..... '. .... .. . . . . ... . . $189.84 . Vera Alderman, Hardee County, made a profit of $283.34 in canning club work, which was the most made by any club girl in the state this year in canning. Girls' State Short Course.-From May 24 to April 6 the tenth annual short course for club girls was held at Tallahassee. Eighty girls from 22 counties attended. Because of the crowded condi tion at the College, 20 girls had to be taken care of outside of the dorniitories. Alachua County sent 16 girls with a chaperone . Lee sent 6 girls with a chaperone. Duval sent 13 girls.

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension An unusually good exhibit of the work of the short course was displayed the last afternoon. This consisted of bungalow aprons, collar and cuff sets, handkerchiefs, organdy flowers, pictures framed in passepartout binding and lacquered or enameled, candle sticks, shoe-trees, bowls and other odd pieces. Another new feature was a "style show" given by the senior section in clothing. The table on the opposite page names the counties holding club camps, the attendance of botlh girls and boys at these camps, the cost for each child 'attending, the instruction given the club mem . hers at the camps, the forms of recreation provided, and how the camps were financed (costs above those for food, etc., which the individual club members paid, usually). The usual good times were had and the "Y" girls of the Col lege again acted as "big sisters" to the club girls. The greatest desire of a club girl is to win a short course scholarship. Most of these girls return to their counties as leaders in their com munities. Junior Club Camps.-From June 6 to August 25, fourteen club camps were held thruout the state. Three were inter-coun ty joint camps, one of which represented three counties. Seven of the fourteen camps have been joint camps for boys and girls. These camps were attended by 584 girls and 148 boys, a total of 732. In every way the camps were the best ever held in the state. The honor system proved a succP.ss where introduced this year. Muscadine Grape Work.-This is the end of the fourth year in muscadine grape work. The pruning of grape vines was done in two counties this year, in Santa Rosa and Escambia. The vines of nine club members were pruned after the six-arm re newal system: Development of Junior Organization.-A state organization of junior home demonstration work was worked out and adopted during the year. In the plan of organization the standard club was established. Each agent agreed to further standard clubs as a help in club work and in the securing of reports. Three counties have a_junior county organization: Palm Beach, a junior county council; Hillsborough, an east and west county junior organization; and Volusia, a county junior organization. In Gadsden County two girls' clubs are represented in the county

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COUNTY ATTENDANCE ' COST TO INSTRUCTION RECREATION FINANCIAL Girls I Boys THE CHILD GIVEN ASSISTANCE Taylor ... ... ... ....... : ................ 33 I 27 1$1 plus food. Collar and cuffs, hdkfs., nuFree movies and operator, Transportation by local peoMadison ....... . ...... : ............... trition. nightly, playette, local talpie. ent; games, bathing. Duval ...................... . ....... .... 80 I 25 rood supplies. Collar and cuffs, hdkfs., Recreational director; movElks and local funds bought St. Johns ............................ bread, poultry, butterflies, ies nightly ; p]ayette "When forks,spoons, glasses; St. re cord books ; examiha-tion the Light Went Out;" Johns Co., transportation. of feet, lungs and teeth. bathing, Suwannee .... 85 I 22 tl plus food ; Collars and cuffs, hdkfo., nuGames by groups, singing, Columbia ... ..... ....... .... .... . .... $2.50 plus food ; trftion, essays and r<>eord stunts, nightly; movie one Hamilton .... .. . .............. . ...... $1.60 plus food. books, night; bathing. Orange . . ....... . ....... ... ....... ... . 47 I 1$4 including hat Gingham hats, record books, Games, 3 times a day, by A little local money for a Osceola . . .. .. ... .. ... . ..... ... __ .... materials. table manners and servgroups ; 1 nigh-t supervised few girls. ing; talks on Japan, India, contests and camp fire; nutrition. bathing. Volusia ...................... ..... .. .. 39 I 12 /Supplies. Poultry, sewing. "Y" supervision. Citrus ... . ...... . ......... .. . . . ... . . .... 33 I I Nutrition and health; perGames 3 times a day; local Co. Com. $100 of which $83 sonal talks ; lingerie clasps, talent night stunts; readwas used. Transportation. enameling. ings . Santa Rosa ........................ 24 I 15 I $1 plus food. Collar and ~uft's, hdkfs . , Movies, songs, games; camp health, manners, essays, fire, 2 nights; bathing. record books. Hillsborough .............. . .. .. 45 I 1$1 Baskets, h•alth , formed jun0 Y. W." director: celebrated Co. Com. $2 for each child; ior co. organization. July 4th singing; bathing. also transportation. Escambia ...... .... ... ... ....... .. ... 24 I rl plus little food. Collars and cuffs, hdkfs. ; nu Hikes to light house; forts; Rotary and Kiwanis aided. tri-tion. recreational leader camps, Woman's Club furnished fires, bathing. tr a nsportation from Pensacola and back. Pasco ... . 42 I r2Contests in darning, patchGames 3 times a day by Transportation furnished, Hernando ............. ing, buttonholes; nutrition, groups, stunts, bathing, essays. Okaloosa ................... . .. .. .. . :. 22 I 12 isl plus food. Collar and cuffs, hdkfs. ; nuMovies, campfire, motor boat trition; essay covers. ride, games and songs, bathing. Manate e .. ........ .... . . ....... ... .... 34 I tl plus food. Hdkfs., flowers, swimming. Recreational leader; games, Co. Com. $70, swimming. boat rides, bathing. 60 I 35 1$1 plus eggs, fruit, Reed bask
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68 Florida Cooperative Extension federation of clubs. In Orange County girls' clubs are also rep resented in the county federation of clubs. The outstanding pieces of junior work were poultry, sewing and bread making. A bread bulletin was published. Further Gardening and Cannlng.-In order to stimulate the girls' gardening and canning work, Florida entered the National Canning Demonstration Contest held at the Southeastern Fair in Atlanta. Seven states entered girls in the contest, which con sisted of two canning demonstrations, a judging contest, and the canning budget score. The state team was selected competitively from several coun ty teams. The winners of the state contest, and thereby the representatives from Florida in the national contest, were Bertha Haynes and Edna Jones of Escambia County. The following are the judges' comments on the demonstrations by Florida's girls: "From the standpoint of neatness, arrangement of materials and utensils and manipulation, the Florida girls' demonstration in canning of beans was the best given. Division of work between teammates was good. Presented in an attractiveman ner. Evidence of lack of subject matter as background. "1st. Demonstration: Excellent arrangement; well organized; good teamwork; very neat in person; team well balanced; a lit tle ' awkward handling products at times. "2nd. Demonstration: Teamwork good; subject matter very well in hand; water spilled on block and not wiped off; but alto gether probably the neatest and best organized."

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Annual Report, 1922 , 69 REPORT OF AGNES I. WEBSTER, DISTRICT HOME DEM ONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA In the district of South and East Florida appropriations for home demonstration work were made in 19 counties. One county gave up the work last June but five new counties made appro priations for the coming year. One county supports two agents. Four counties made a substantial increase in their appropria tions. Ten counties furnish 11 cars for the use of their home demonstration agents. With one exception, furnished offices are provided by the counties in their courthouses. Three agents are provided with well-equipped kitchens and three have steno graphic help. Enrollment.-According to activities, South and East Florida had an enrollment of 5,794 girls. According to individuals 2,217 were enrolled in 220 clubs. Women's clubs totaled 111 with an individual enrollment of 2,841, but according to activities the en rollment was 4,848. County wide organizations including women were perfected in 13 counties, eight of these being for women only . Of the projects outlined for girls' work, the greatest interest centered in sewing which included the problem of improving the girl's own room. Most of these girls did some canning of surplus fruits and vegetables from the home garden. The projects with enrollments follow: Girls T ex til e and room improvement .. .. . .. ... . . . ... : ......... 1,597 Pantry . . . . . . . . .. .......... . ....... . . . . . ... . . .... .. . . .... . ..... . .. .......... 922 Cookery . ... . . .. . .. . ........... .. ... . . . .. . .... . .... . . . . .. . .. ...... . ..... . . 827 Bread .. . .... . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . .. . ...... ....... .... , . . . . .. . .. .. . . . 198 Poultry . .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . ... .... . .. . . ... . ..... . . . . .......... ...... . . . . , 362 G a rdens ... .. .... . .. . ... . ......... . .. . ..... ... .... . . .. .. . ... ... ..... .. .... 699 Grap e .... .. . .. .. .. ..... ...... .. .. .. ... . .. ........ . .... . . . .. ... . . . ...... . ... 23 Orchard...... .... ... . ...... .. . .. .. .... . .... . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . .. 44 Bee . ... ... . . .... . . ..... . . ...... . ... . ... .. . . ... .. ..... . .. . ........ . . .. ... . ... . 14 Nutrition groups individual s . . ..... ... . .. .. . .... . ..... .. .. 23 Totals ........................... . .... .. .. . .. . ... .. .................. .4,709 Women 7 3 8 826 500 131 787 801 24 41 1,000 4,848 When a county as a whole adopted a program and centered its efforts in that direction, outstanding results were accomplished. This plan was easily followed when women had organized a county wide council that brought them together quarterly to discuss community and county problems. Eight such councils are fun c tioning at present, four of which were organized last year . Two more are ready for organiza

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension tion. The general purpose of these organizations is the same, but the program of each is developed to meet the respective needs of the county. Some councils include every woman's organiza tion in the county, others just the home demonstration clubs. However, all are county wide and function for the same general purpose. At its "last meeting, the county council of Orange County admitted the junior clubs of the county. In the majority of these councils the board of directors meet once a month while the council at large comes together quarterly for a program and social get-together. So far the results have been gratifying as well as interesting. In Lee County the council at large planned and established a curb market at Ft. Myers. This market opened January 14, 1922. The sales for the first day amounted to $80. In four months the sales totaled over $3,000. One man's receipts for two and a half months totaled $513.41, which is reported in de tail below: On January 14 ............................................................................ $ 25.25 21............................................................................ 19.95 28............................................................................ 36.54 February 4............................................................................ 32.95 11 ......................... ................................................... 43.28 18............................................................................ 35.23 25 ............................. .............................................. 48.40 March 4................................. .......................................... 52.33 11............................................................................ 53.33 18............................................................................ 60.35 25............................................................................ 53.40 April 1............................................................................ 52.40 Total. ................................................................................. $513.41 Thru the united action of the members of one community council, a hot lunch service was installed in one room of a con solidated school. This service grew until a small well-equipped house had to be erected. A pump and engine for pumping the water into the lunch room were added later. A home economics graduate to direct the lunch room and teach two classes, one in sewing and one in cooking, was engaged. A third council interested itself in the equipment of the high schools. It secured better trained teachers and better equip ment. A fourth council financed one girl in school for a year. Many other community problems, such as, improvement of school yards and houses, establishment of parks, building of club houses, shelling of Band ro~ds, puilding of telephone lines, earn ing_money to equip community canning kitchens and club houses,

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Annual R e port, 19 2 2 71 were attempted and carried thru. Three county wide organiza tions for juniors were completed. Leadership Schools.-In an effort to secure leaders who under stand the work outlined for girls and women, a series of leader ship schools were held thruout the year . Instruction was given in checking and keeping record books ; conducting club meetings and use of programs; giving directions for the canning of fruits, vegetables and meats; making dress forms, baskets and Christ mas gifts; preparing and shipping fair exhibits; and many other things. The agent is responsible for subject matter in all in stances and regardless of the number of leaders the agent meets with the club once a month. Eighty-two leadership schools developed 105 leaders, 73 for girls and 32 for women. The report from the leaders of nine clubs having a total membership of 54 girls follows: Amount of time spent ......... . ................ . ................. . .. .48 days, 10 hrs. Miles traveled by le a der s. . .. ..... . ... . . . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. ... . .. . . .... ..... .. . . . . . ... . .. 588 Girls' club meetings attended. . ......... .. ....... . . . . ........................ . ... 45 Calls on leaders by girls. . .... ... . . .. .... . . . ... .... . . . ... .. .. ..... . . . ... . .. .... . .. .. 65 Articles made by girls in sewing . . .. . .. . ..... ... .. ... . . . .. . .. : .... .. . .. .. .. ... 508 Darns made by girls in sewing........ ... ..... . . . ......... ... ... ...... ... ..... . . 209 Patches made by girls in s ewing . .. ...... . ... .. . . . .. .... . ..... . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . 159 Baskets made b y girl s in sewing..... . . . ..... . .. . ......... . .... . ............ . . 22 During the vacation of the agent in the summer, these leaders met with the girls at least once and in some instances twice a month. Contests, Camps and Exhibits.-The interest in club camps is increasing. The women of Polk County secured a perma.nent camp site for women and girls of the county with the purpose of holding annual camps for girls and women. Funds for a build ing were donated by boards of trade and chambers of commerce over the county. Orange County held a camp for women. Ten counties held camps for girls who had completed a year of club work. Twelve counties held club contests, and home demonstra tion work was exhibited at twelve count y fair s and at two fairs statewide in scope.

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF ELLEN LeNOIR,* DISTRICT HOME DEMON STRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA Territory and Appropriations.-Fourteen counties in North and West Florida had home demonstration agents this year. All but one of these counties appropriated money for the work for the coming year. Altho the counties in this district have felt the financial stringency, only two counties decreased .the total amount appropriated for the work for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1922, while seven provided funds for next year's work and one added funds for stenographic help. Organizations~-During the year four counties formed county councils or federations of women's clubs . . . One other county al ready had such an organization and six others had county bu reaus. The county organizations of women proved splendid helpers to the home demonstration agents. Club Work.-Two hundred seven organized girls' clubs with a membership of 2,327 held regular monthly meetings thruout the year, carrying out definite programs of work. Six hundred sev enty-eight girls not in organized clubs carried on home demon stration work also. As many girls carried more than one phase of club work, the enrollment by activities reached 3,123, exclu sive of the enrollments in nutrition. Sewing and poultry made the strongest appeal this year. Cannb;g and home beautifica tion, however, more than held their own. Eight hundred sixty-seven girls exhibited at contests and fairs. Fifty-eight women's clubs with 990 members held regular meet ings and carried on definite programs of work. Six hundred thirty-eight women not in organized clubs enrolled in the work. By activities the women's enrollment was 2,622. Nutrition and child welfare work created decidedly the great est interest among women, and in close connection with this much work was done in improving conditions in and around schools. There also was an increased interest among women in poultry work. Home improvements, canning, and the making of dress forms were not neglected. Leadership Schools.-Six schools were held for training local *Note: From January 1 to August 31 of the period covered by this report Lonny I. Landrum was in charge of this district, and she wrote all of this report up to and including the paragraph on "Marketing." On that latter date the present district agent assumed charge of the work in this district, and she wrote the remainder of this report. ELLEN LENOIR, District Agent, North and West Florida.

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Annual R eport, 19 22 73 FIG. 9.-Cl ub rally day in Columbia County brought together over two hundred boys and girls, not all, however, who worked under the direc tion of their home demonstration agent, Miss Marie Cox women for community leadership. These resulted in a clearer understanding of the real aims of home demonstration work and a more definite knowledge of how to be of assistance in further ing it. Camp Short Courses.-Three inter-county club camps repre senting seven counties and three single county club camps were held. The district agent assisted at all of these. Nutrition and health work played an important part in the programs. Girls were also taught to make dainty handkerchiefs and co llar-and cuff sets; instructions were given in record book keeping and in the writing of the story of the year's work. Recreation was well planned and supervised. The honor system inaugurated at camps this year aroused much interest among the girls and reduced camp discipline to a minimum. In two counties where it was not practical to hold camps, a series of club picnics was held. Educational Motion Pictures were shown in eight counties. Home lmprovement.-Continued interest in home improve ment brought larger and better results in this important activ ity. Many women undertook to make their homes more at tractive and to improve and to arrange their household equip ment so that the work of the home would be made easier and more efficient. Health and Nutrition.-At the regular monthly club meetings each member reported on how many of the following health rules had been faithfully observed for the month: "l. Drink milk every day. "2. Eat fruit or vegetables every day. "3. Brush the teeth every day. "4. Sleep with windows open every night." For the keeping of each rule thruout a club year, 1 percent was

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension added to the individual score of the year's work. This was done to help in the effort to bring "every club girl up to standard, physically." Nutrition classes for under-nourished children were conducted in nine counties. Many of the women's clubs made health work a special study. Marketing.-Two successful curb markets were established in this district this year. Poultry and poultry products are still sold to advantage thru the egg circles. Several women and girls created a demand for their special products and thru the help of the conservation specialist got good prices for them. County home demonstration agents also assisted women and girls in marketing their canned and preserved products, butter, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables. The Work Since September 1.-In September the present dis trict agent, in conference with the county home demonstration agents, planned special clothing work and conducted a short course in millinery. Since September 16 seventeen supervisory vists to counties were made, and thirteen county club contests, eight county fairs and two community fairs were attended, at all but one of which the district agent served as judge. The exhib its at the fairs and contests included sewing, canning, poultry, dairying, bread-making and grape club work. Similar displays including bee club work were shown in the home demonstration booth at the State Fair, Jacksonville. At two of the county fairs, the negro home demonstration agents showed excellent products in conservation and several handicrafts, .Their exhibits gave evidence of careful work over a long period of time. Outlook.-The work over the district is in good condition. The number of persons exhibiting at fairs and the distribution of home demonstration agents' activities over their counties show that the work is reaching the rural people. The growth of coun ty councils and federations with home demonstration programs shows steadily growing appreciation of the value of this work and a desire on the part of women who are leaders in their communi. ties to promote it. With programs planned and both agents and clubs working toward a definite goal, the outlook for 1923 encour ages the belief that excellent results will be attained, providing the organization in the field remains undisturbed.

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Annual Report, 1922 75 REPOR_T OF MINNIE M. FLOYD, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN POULTRY . With the idea of extending and completing the projects and organizations which were already under way at the beginning of the year as a part of home demonstration work in the state, the following poultry projects were outlined and offered in standard form during the year: 1. Standardization of flocks. 2. Egg circles. 3 Community poultry associations. 4. County poultry associations. 5. Girls' and boys' poultry clubs. 6. Training poultry project leaders. 7. Culling demonstrations. 8. Farm-flock egg-laying contests and demonstration farms. 9. Extension poultry schools and shows. 10. Caponizing demonstrations. 11. Better feeding methods. 12. Standardization of poultry houses. 13. Automobile tours to poultry farms. 14. Miscellaneous projects. The standard poultry projects were presented and discussed at the annual meeting of home demonstration agents, September, 1922. Each agent returning to the field-of work of the previous year was requested to sign up the subdivisions of the projects which her county was undertaking to carry out. Project No. 1 was signed up for by every agent; No. 7 was a close second; and No. 5 came third. The agent in Volusia County signed for all 14 projects. Agents going into new territory were not allowed to sign un til they became famiilar with the conditions and needs of their respective counties, and had had an opportunity for conferences with the people of their counties. Enrollment-Home demonstration agents' reports show a membership of more than two thousand men and women and 1,097 boys and girls, carrying on some phase of standard poultry work, under their supervision. This gives a total enrollment of more than three thousand for the year. Excerpts on Standardization from Agents' Jteports.-The fol lowing excerpts from home demonstratio_n agents' reports indi cate something of the interest and work in standardization:

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension Suwannee County: "Thru the farm bureau in Suwannee Coun ty, 22,000 White Leghorn baby chicks were ordered. As a re sult 125 farms each have 100 or more carefully selected Leghorn hens." East Hillsborough: "The Welcome women's club disposed of their old stock and bought 1,000 purebred baby chicks." Palm Beach: "An early hatch campaign put on thru the egg circle resulted in 1,423 standard-bred chicks added to the flocks in this county." / Egg Circles.-Cooperative marketing of poultry products was carried onin Columbus, Escambia, Hernando, Hillsborough, Mad ison, Palm Beach, Putnam and Volusia Counties. The Boynton egg circle, Palm Beach County, was organized December, 1921, with six members. ltincreased in the spring to ten members. Within eleven months 1,482 dozen eggs were sold for $644.86 by this circle. From July 1 to November 1, 128 pounds of poultry were sold for $49.48. The agent of Putnam County reports that the Florahome egg circle is still doing good work. To quote from that report, "They have held the same market for five years, having no difficulty in financing and shipping, and the buyer says that during all this time the eggs have been 100 percent good. This is due to proper grading, the regular gathering of eggs from the nests, and the careful packing and prompt shipping of eggs." Community Poultry Associations.-There were demands . for the organization of community poultry associations for educa tional and cooperative marketing purposes. Such associations were organized in Hillsborough, Lake and Volusia, and requests for community poultry associations were made in Gadsden, Leon, Palm Beach, and others. One such organization was organized at Plant City by the home demonstration agent. This organi zation took as its objective a poultry school and show. The school and show were held July 10-13. The 300 birds on exhibit during the four days show were viewed by 1,500 people. County Poultry Associations.-County poultry associations were organized this year in four counties; viz, Hillsborough, Os ceola, Polk and Volusia. The outstanding work of the Hills borough association was establish _ ing a cooperative egg market ing center in Tampa. The two chief projects developed in Volusia were organization and marketing. Associations were organized in DeLand, Day

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Ann'Ual Report, 19 22 77 tona and New Smyrna, which federated in a county association. Still later other communities were organized. Two cooperative . markets were formed that sold 16 ,9 00 dozen eggs for $7,272.47 from April 1 to November 1. In addition the agent helped sell more than $500 worth of poultry in individual sales. Girls and Boys Poultry Clubs. Of the 30 counties doing home demonstration work, 25 report poultry club work with an enroll ment of 1,097. The agent of Okaloosa says, "I chose pou _ ltry as my most im portant project. One hundred thirty -t wo children reported that they raised 2,400 chickens. Fifteen children exhibited chickens at the county contest and five sent theirs to the State Fair." The agent of Palm Beach County says, "Fourteen Poultry club members in the county are keeping records of standard flocks. Twelve exhibited at the county fair, winning $40 in prizes. Six exhibited at two state fairs. One boy won a scholarship to Gai~esville for his splendid poultry club record. This boy used the money he made on his poultry to buy a Guernsey calf. State Contest.-The state federation of women's clubs offers an annual prize of $50 for educational purposes to the girl or FIG. 10 . -Sweepstakes trio, poultry club exhibit, State Fair, Jacksonville. Owned and shown by Alvin Collins, Duval County. Two hundred birds were exhibited by junior club members at this fair in 1922

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78 Florida Cooperative Extensio ;t boy making the best all-around record in the poultry clubs of the state. Some very excellent records were made this year. Com petition was keen. The prize was awarded to Dorothy Hubner, Florahome, Putnam County, whose record is as follows: "I started in February, 1921, by buying 300 White Leghorn baby chicks. My receipts and expenditures for the year were as shown below: . Receipts Expenditures Market poultry sold (122 friers) . .. . ....... . .. $ 56.80 Eggs sold .. .. . .. . ... . . ... ..... ........ .... . ...... . .. . . . . . ...... 26.07 150 pullets on hand ........ . . . .......... , .............. . . 350.00 7 males on hand ......... ,..... .. ............... . ....... . ... 21.00 Baby chicks bought ....... . ... . . . . . .. .. . . ... .. .... . .. . ... . .... . ..... .... . . .... ... $ 58.00 Feed bought . .. ... . .. .. . .... . .... . . . ......... .. . . ....... . ............ . .. ... .......... , .. 47.45 Coops built .... . .. . . . .......... . . ... ......... . .. . ......... . . . ............ .. ............ 6.00 Totals ..... .... .. . ... .. ... . .. .. ........... . . . .. . .... . ... $453.87 $111.45 Profit..... . . .. ... . . . ..... .... . .. . . . . . .. . ... .. .. . . .. . ..... $342.42 Poultry Exhibits.-At the county home demonstration agents' annual meeting hi September, 1922, it was decided that club poul try be shown by districts, North Florida exhibiting at the State Fair in Jacksonville and South Florida at the South Florida Fair in Tampa-that it is detrimental to the birds to carry them on two fair trips. Ten North Florida counties sent exhibits in first year work and three in second year work to the State F . air in November. Twelve county poultry club exhibits were shown at the South Florida Fair in February. The standard of the birds was higher than of any club show yet held. I . . At the State Fair the Columbia County exhibit wort first honors, sweepstakes and individual entries in first year work, Su wannee County won the . same in second year work. 1 1 Training Poultry Project Leaders.-Much of the farm poultry specialist's time was spent in training home demonstration agents as county project leaders in poultry work, together with the training of a few local leaders in several counties. Since the ~emands for poultry work are becoming greater each year, more focal leaders must be trained. . l . . •. . r Culling Dertionstrations.~No piece of work yet offered to the froultr y ( Bi.isers has been more appreciated than " "Culling the Flock." It" . was impossible to meet all requests for help along this line. In Volusia County 19 culling demonstrations were given by the agent in which she eliminated 414 slackers. Following the dem

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Annual Re_port, 1922 79 onstrations 40 members reported that they had culled their own flocks . Farm-Flock Egg-Laying Contest.-In order to stimulate great er interest in better breeding, feeding, housing, egg-production, etc., a farm-flock egg-laying contest was organized. Five flocks from each of 20 counties were entered, viz, Columbia, Escambia, Jackson, Leon, Madison,"Putnam, Santa Rosa, Suwannee, Taylor, Walton, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach, Pasco, Polk and Volusia. The contest opened No vember 1, 1922, and will continue 12 months. Auto Tours to Poultry Farms.-During the annual short course for club girls at Tallahassee in April, 1922, all the girls in attend ance were taken on a tour to a successful poultry plant in Leon County. In Volusia County 11 tours in which 254 poultry raisers participated were conducted as a part of their association work. Eighty-seven new poultry houses have been built as a result of these tours and several hundred dollars' worth of breeding stock purchased. Poultry Records and Calendars.-Realizing that the average farm flock egg production was far below what it should be, 2,000 poultry calendars were prepared and sent to home demonstra tion agents for distribution among adult poultry raisers. The calendars were accompanied by the following pledge which the receiver might sign: "I will undertake to establish a purebred flock of poultry on my yard. "I will keep an accurate record of egg production on the poul try calendar furnished by the home demonstration department." The poultry calendars proved so satisfactory that a calendar for the year of 1923 has been prepared also. A new poultry club record book for the state has been prepared and also a report card for the records in the farm-flock egg~laying contest.

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF MAY MORSE, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEM• ONSTRATION AGENT IN DAIRYING The following projects in home dairy work were undertaken under the direction of the home demonstration dairy specialist: 1. To encourage the ownership of more good home dairy cows. 2. To demonstrate methods necessary to profitable home dairy management. 3. To secure a greater use of dairy products in the diet. 4. To promote the eradication of the cattle fever tick. Home Dairy Cow 'Ownership designed to increase the number of family cows owned, to insure better food for the family, to supplemenCthe family income thru surplus products sold, and to increase the fertility of the soil. Three huridred eighty-seven club members kept records of production, cost, and the value of dairy products to the family. These records developed interest in better cows and methods of management. This year 38 cows were purchased for home use and 24 club members reported improved breeding. Home Dairy Management.-Dairy products clubs were organ ized in Citrus, Alachua, Coiumbia and Madison Counties. Nine teen communities were represented. Demonstrations were given in butter and cottage cheese making and instruction given in detail for the care of dairy products in the home. Monthly meet ings were held in each community under the supervision of the home demonstration agent who assisted the women in scoring their products. Regular lesson programs were furnished. The iceless refrigerator was recommended for use where other cooling facilities were not available for dairy products. Bulletins giving instructions for making iceless refrigerators were dis tributed. In spite of the lack of adequate equipment many club members made marked improvement in their products. Their aim was to produce better milk, butter and cheese for home use and to standardize these products for the market. In Citrus County 12 women enrolled and 60 attended the demonstration. Twelve also did this work in Columbia County, where 78 attended dem onstrations. Twenty enrolled in Alachua County and all en deavored to follow instructions. One Columbia County. club of six members adopted the use of the standard package for all butter sold by its members.

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Annual Repo rt, 1922 81 Following the demonstration and meeting with the Madison County women, the home demonstration agent reported, "I have found numbers of women making cottage cheese since that meet ing, and much better butter. Several cows have been bought for home use. I have held a scoring oontest in every woman's club in the coun ty. The results have been that 54 club members en rolled, all of whom are re porting. Thirty persons that did not enroll adopted the better practices, and 283 attended demonstra tions. GIeater Use of Dairy Products in the home diet was secured principally t'hru cronducting milk cam paign s. Requests for milk campaigns were received from Tampa, Plant City, Sanford, Miami, Pensacola, Pierce, Lakeland, Ocala and Brooksville. FIG. 11.-Gladys Ward and her pure bred Guernsey heifer, her reward for excellency in dairy club work These requests were made with the hope of relieving a surplus, either seasonal or from local over-production, and as a nutritional measure in localities where a very limited quantity of milk was used. Campaigns were conducted in Miami, Tampa, Plant City and Seminole County. Local conditions made it impractical to put on campaigns in the other places. The Tampa campaign was requested by the local health de partment and dairymen and was financed by the dairymen. In this campaign 53 window displays were made, four free motion pictures shows were given, literature was distributed to all school children, posters were placed thruout the city and talks were made in all schools. Model meals were served to groups of children daily. On account of a large Latin population some leaflets were published in Spanish. The mayor issued a procla mation designating the days of the campaign as "Milk Week." As a result 10,365 white and 1,200 colored children were reached and benefited. The demand for milk in school lun ches doubled.

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82 Florida cooperative Extension The parent-teachers' association formed a committee to prepare menus for lunches thruout the coming year and asked the home demonstration agent to assist in this work. Scales were placed in Ybor City school and plans made to place scales in every school next year. Dairymen reported from 15 to 20 percent increases in sales, which practically absorbed the existing surplus. The dairymen organized an association under the direction of the dounty agent. : The Plant City campaign was requested by the home demon' . . $tration agerit and the child welfare department of the woman's club and was financed by subscriptions from the woman's club, the Junior Red Cross, the dairymen and the Kiwanis club, etc Work was in charge of the home demonstration agent and a rep *esentative of the child welfare department of the woman's club. ; Work done included picture shows, talks in schools, window displays, a health survey made by the federal health unit and -~ house to house distribution of literature. ; As a result 1,400 pupils were reached; scales were bought for permanent use in schools; medical and dental clinics were estab iished and nutrition classes were organized to meet once a week. Milk sales in school lunches increased from 3 to 113 gallons daily. Dairymen reported a 10-percent increase in sales in homes and stores. A poster contest was held in which 75 posters were entered. Seminole County campaign included Sanford, Monroe, Alta monte, Longwood, Oviedo and Chuluota schools. Request for the campaign was made by the child welfare department of the federated woman's club. There was no home demonstration agent in the county so the work was done by_ the home dairy specialist and the district home demonstration agent in coopera tion with tlie federated woman's club which was responsible for finances. A program similar to that of the Plant City campaign was carried out. Twelve hundred children were reached and :helped. The Miami campaign was requested by the local health de partment and the county agent. A seasonal surplus was the chief problem there. Funds were supplied by the dairymen. Displays . representing the value of good dairy cows and the food value of milk were exhibited. Milk cookery demonstrations were given eac.h day. Scales were available for weighing and measuring the children, and 1,000 children responded to the

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Annual Report, 1922 83 opportunity to see if they were normal. Many parents came with their children for conference. Results.-Thruout the schools 5,421 white and 1,000 colored children were reached. The parent-teachers' association: ar ranged for milk to be served in all schools. One school served milk to 600 children the day after the talk in that school; none had been served previously. Following is an excerpt from a letter received from Dr. A; W. Ziebold, Miami food and dairy inspector: "May, June, July and August last year we had a surplus amounting to not less than five hundred gallons daily. Since that time dairy herds have been increased from 2,243 to 3,084 cows. These additional cows produce about a thousand gallons of milk daily. The surplus on our market does not exceed 250 gallons." Dr. Ziebold was asked if he considered the campaign a success. His answer was, "If we compare the surplus of last year of 500 gallons produced by 2,243 cows to 250 gallons this year from 3,084 cows, I am going to answer your query with an unqualified affirmative." The cooperation of civic, religious and welfare organizations, schools, clubs, individuals, agents and specialists in all the above mentioned campaigns was most satisfactory. In all 20,165 white and 2,700 colored children were reached. Milk lunches were established in Plant City, Miami and Tampa schools. Health surveys were made which affected 4,600 school children. Nu trition classes were established in Plant City where scales were furnished. The use of milk in Tampa increased 20 percent ; in Miami, 20 percent; and in Plant City, 10 percent. Tick Eradication was advocated thru milk campaigns, club meetings and conferences by stressing the need for better dairy cows and the necessity of dairy products in the diet and calling attention to the fact that ticks contribute to the high price and insufficient supply of milk in the state. Educational exhibits which especially interested children were put on at the two state fairs. Home demonstration dairy prod ucts were entered for prizes at both fairs. Assistance was given two . demonstration agents in the planning and arranging of exhibits at their local fairs.

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF GLADYS SMITH, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT IN NUTRITION The nutrition work as undertaken was in part in answer to the calls for child welfare work. No one agency in the field seemed equipped to carry on an adequate health program for children. Since home demonstration agents are more or less trained in nutrition, demands for such service were made upon them. By close cooperation between home demonstration forces, women's organizations, and the State Board of Health, a begin ning in the solution of this great problem was made. The nutri tion project as carried out by home demonstration agents in Florida was the practical result of work attempted in the spring of this year. The present project is the working plan of this office for 1922-23, but is not the goal expected to be reached finally by home demonstration workers. Nutrition Clubs.-In each nutrition club where this work was undertaken, it was urged that the whole community be allowed to benefit from the knowledge gained and that the club sponsor a nutrition group for the underweight children in its school. Good results from this broadening of interest were shown by the clubs of East Ft. Myers (Lee County), Sorrento (Lake County) and Tacoma (Alachua County) .. Splendidly equipped local leaders in each of these clubs were secured and good work resulted. Nutrition Groups.-Forty-four demonstration nutrition groups in 12 _ counties were started under the direct supervision of the nutrition specialist. Other nutrition groups were conducted by home demonstration agents whose training and experience fitted them for this work. Nutrition groups for underweight children proved so suc cessful that it is regretted that the over-crowded programs of hd.me demonstration agents prevented their -undertaking work in every cOimmunity. It is hoped that as scales are secured in schools the weight of each child will be sent to its respective home as a part of the monthly school report. With the atten tion of parents fuus called to fue indicated physical condition of their C'hildren, adequate medical inspection, accompanied by cor rective work, must follOJW. A series of 20 simple lessons to be distributed weekly to the

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Annual Report, 1922 85 children were prepared. Each child was given weekly a copy of "Health or Food Facts" to take home. The correcting of physical defects pointed out at the time of the physical examination was one of the most beneficial results of forming nutrition groups. Hundreds of hook-worm treat ments were given. Other defects corrected were diseased ton sils, poor vision, nasal obstruction and bad teeth. This corrective work was followed up by local nurses or interested parents. Lake and Gadsden Counties did the best work with under weight children. West Hillsborough had a large number of underweight children, four groups of which were in the Italian and Cuban settlements. Nutrition work as carrie _ d on there proved valuable in helping the children to readjust their food habits to American conditions. The splendid response of the women when local leaders were needed made possible the regular weekly meetings of the nutri tion groups. The cordial cooperation of local physicians with the specialist in this work was of inestimable value. Cooperation in the Home.-Nutrition lectures to the mothers of underweight children always formed a part of the work in the counties. It is only by cooperation with the home that a child can be helped to attain his best development. Often after group meetings with the mothers individual conferences were held. In this way individual help was given. Follow-up Work.-Sometimes enthusiasm and early gain in weight are . followed by careless food habits and the loss of all the gain the child may have made. The follow-up work thru subsequent weighings for underweight children was one way in which permanent good was often secured. As at present these subsequent weighings were done by local leaders under the su pervision of agents. As scales were provided in schools, teachers sent weight recoras in with monthly school reports. Health Weeks and Clinics are good measures where an emer gency is to be met. A large number of people may help perform the work in a short length of time. This was done . in Arcadia during the baby clinic. Three hundred infants received thoro examinations by physicians and their mothers were given spe cific advice from the nutrition specialist. Similar cooperation was given the United States public health unit in Escambia County in June. Special nutrition work was done for communi ties during milk campaigns. In Miami, 1,000 children were

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86 Florida Coop_erative Extension weighed and measured and "advised" during one week of the milk campaign. Nutrition work with children of pre-school age is most import ant as health and food habits are then being formed. Nutrition classes for small children were started in Lake City. With the fine development of local leaders found everywhere, other classes of this kind will be possible now. In every club camp held last summer, health was one of the points emphasized and honors were given for observing health rules. In every instance particular attention was given to the serving and the eating of the right kinds of food. At Hampton Springs camp a little nutrition play was presented by the children one evening . . At the State Fair a nutrition booth was fitted up in the Uni versity of Florida building. This showed the "Healthland Flyer" and the stations in "Healthland" such as "Cleanly Town," "Fruit Farms," "Cereal City," and "Milky Way" along the route to "Long Sleep Mount" which every child should visit daily. The state nutrition specialist visited 19 counties of the state in this work this year; organized 44 nutrition groups; and en rolled 880 nutrition club members in the special demonstration groups.

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Annuai Report, 1922 87 REPORT OF ESTELLE BOZEMAN, ASSISTANT STATE HOME DEMONSTJlATION AGENT IN FOOD CONSERVATION The program of work in food conservation was developed, both as general and as home industry projects. Under the general project the first aim was to adequately supply the home table with Florida foods at a minimum cost. Under the home industry project the aim was to make this line of work a source of income to the women and girls interested. The methods used for conservation of fruits and vegetables were canning, brining, drying, pickling and crystallizing. The food value of conserved fruits and . vegetables was taught and fami lies urged to conserve fruits and vegetables on the basis of one quart of each for every day for every family of five. A pro portional reduction of this estimate was based on the amount of fresh fruits and vegetables available. The agents of experience were sufficiently skilled, in most cases, to handle the general program. When agents come from other states it is necessary to give them help in the handling of sub-tropical fruits and vegetables. Canning Meat and Fish.-Teaching the family to can meats was made a special project this year. Excellent work was done in this line. When one or more carcasses were canned in a day, several families came together to receive instruction while help ing with the work. Work in the canning of fish was started. In four counties special work was done. Indications are that the time is ripe for intensive work along this line. Home Industry Products.-Under the home industry project women and girls were enrolled who wish to commercialize their work. They were given special training to enable them to bring their products to a high degree of perfection. To encourage the development of this project, they were asked to send to the South Florida Fair two samples of each of the products which they wished to market. There were 42 entries, showing 14 vari eties of products. The products shown were judged by buyers for hotels and delicatessen stores. Thirty-three of those shown were given an A-No.-1 score. As a result of the exhibit, prod ucts were shipP.ed from the South Florida Fair into 15 states. Many duplicate orders were received. A letter followed each

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension shipment, . asking for a comment. The following reply from Fargo, N. Dak., is typical: "The guava jelly re~ched us in fine shape and we think it unsurpassed in texture and quality. We shall want more when this is gone." Fourteen members were enrolled in the home industry project . One hundred fifty-seven women and girls marketed homemade products of this type this year. Most of the products were disposed of in local markets. When markets were located, it meant that producer and consumer were brought into direct contact. One of the leading hotels of the . state bought and is buying largely of these goods. . Other hotels agreed to use these products as soon as they could be supplied in larger quantities. The business of one woman grew from the family kitchen into a small building in her back yard, fitted up with modern equip ment. She was recently offered the management of a factory. Another woman temporarily converted her basement into a special products kitchen. Several working women are making products during their spare time. The sale of these supplements their own earnings. Enrolled in this work this year were 1,393 girls and 957 women, or a total of 2,350. Of fruit; 88,718 containers were put up; of vegetables, 223,246; of meats and fish, 39,564.

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Annual Report, 1922 89 NEGRO EXTENSION WORK Negro extension work is in charge of a negro district agent, A. A. Turner, who has headquarters at the Agricultura! and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee . Division of Work.-Agricultural extension work among negroes includes the three following branches : (1) Farm makers' clubs, for men and boys. (2) Home makers' clubs, for women and girls. (3) Farm and home makers' schools, for farmers, house wives and club members. Farm Makers' Clubs.-The year's program of the farm makers' clubs included work in the following:. (1) Corn clubs, (2) potato clubs, (3) peanut clubs, (4) pig clubs, (5) marketing clubs , and (6) savings clubs. The figures below show how the time of the local county agents was spent upon various activities during the year: Months worked (average) ..... . ......... . ... ... ........ . ... . .......... . . . ........ 7. Days in field ... . . ... . . .......... ..... .... . ... ...... .... ....... . .-... . ... . ......... . .. .. .... . . 1,093 Days in office .. .. .. . . .... . ............ .. . , .. ..... .. ...... . . .... ... .. . . .. . . . .. . ... ....... ... 256 Calls on agents ...... . .. ... . ... ........ .. ....... .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. .. ... . : ............. .. 1,562 Letters written ....... .... ............ . ... . ....... . .. . ....... ..... ... ........... . .......... 2,352 Farm and home visits made .. . .. . . . ... . ... . . . .. .... .. . ...... . .. . ... . .. . . .... ... . . 4,883 Meeting s held .. .. . ... ...... . . . . . : ..... .. . .. .. . .. . .... .... . . ... .. . . . : ... ... . .. ... . . .... .. . . . 384 Attendance these me e tings .. . ............ ... ......... . .... .. ......... . .. . .. . .... 6,010 Farm bulletins distributed . . .... . . ..... .. . .. .. . ........ .... . . ............ . . . ...... 3 , 482 Miles traveled by rail . . . . . . ... . ....... . ... .. .. .. . ... ... .... .. . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. 5,195 -Miles traveled by automobile .. . . . . ... ... .. .. ....... . .. . . . ... . ....... . .. .. ... . . 6,176 Miles traveled otherwise ..... .. . . . . .......... . ....... . ... .. . . ......... . . .. . . ...... 425 During the period of this report, 38 clubs were organized among negro men in which there were 326 enrolled. There were 98 boys' clubs organized in which there were 824 boys enrolled. Each of eight negro men worked as local county agents for an average of seven and three-fourths months. The following fig ures show the results accomplished by these agents: I MEN BOYS TOTAL Total e nrollment 326 824 1,150 Total clubs _ organized ... .. . . . ... . .. .. .. . ... . ... . ..... .. , ... . ....... 38 98 136 Hog pastures established 37 34 71 Purebred pigs placed ............. . ............ . ............ . . . ...... 79 135 214 Hogs vaccinated -----------------------------------------1,100 107 1,207 Patrons using purebred boar s .... . ... ... ........ .. .. . . .. . . ... 93 32 125 Pounds of pork raised by club members ...... . ... . ..... 85,000 16,000 101,000 Value of pork raised . .......... ... .. . ........... . . . ...... . ... . ........ $4,876.50 $820.25 $5,696.75 Number of farm dairies started . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . .. . .. ..... .. . 5 2 7 Value of dairy products sold thru clubs ... . .... .. ...... $2 , 721 . 50 $202.25 $2,923.75 Value of fruit sold thru clubs ...... .. . . ............ . . . . . ..... $1,280.00 $45.00 $1,325.00 Value of vegetables sold thru clubs .... ........... . . . . ..... $1,788.00 $165.00 $1,953.00 Value of melons shipped ... . . .. . ...... . .. . . .. .. .. ..... . .. .... .... . $5,330.00 $5,330.00 Cars of melons shipped .... ... . . .......... . ... . ..... .. .. . .. . ....... 47 . 47 Deposited in saving s clubs . . . ............. . ............. . . . ..... $1,815.25 $803.75 $2,619.00

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension The table below shows the work accomplished, by activities, in farm makers' corn, potato, peanut, pig and savings clubs: MEN BOYS TOTAL 1. Corn Clubs: Members enrolled " 90 315 405 Number reporting .: . . .... ......... .... .......... .. .. ..... ... : 75 253 328 Average acre yield (bushels) . .. .............. . ........ 23.5 32.5 avg. 28.5 Bushels harvested .................... . ....................... 1,762.5 8,157.8 9,920.3 Average bushel cost (cents)................. . .. . ....... 38 55 46 Total value of crops at 75c a bushel... .. .. ....... $1,325.63 $6,118.35 $7,444.98 2. Potato Clubs: Members enrolled .................. . ,.......................... 100 310 410 Number reporting .................................. . ......... 80 285 365 Average fourth-acre yield (bushels) ............ 22 23 22.5 Bushels harvested . . ................... ...... .......... . . .. . .... 1,740 6,726 8,466 Average bushel cost (cents) .. ................ . ....... 23 31 27 Total value of crops at 50c a bushel... ......... $1,044.00 $1,563.85 $2,607.85 3. Peanut Clubs: Members enrolled .. . .............. .... .................. . ...... 80 111 191 Number reporting ............ .. . .. .. ... ..... .. .... ... ... ..... 68 110 178 Average acre yield (bushels) ................. . ...... 38 45 42.5 Bushels harvested ............................................ 2,584 4,960 7,544 Average bushel cost (cents) ..................... .. ... 35 40 37 Total value of crops at 60c a bushel... ........... $1,550.40 $2,970.00 $4,520.40 4. Pig Clubs: . Members enrolled . . .................. .. ................ . ....... 56 Number reporting ............................................ 45 Purebred pigs placed ........................................ 79 Hog pastures made .......................................... 37 Hogs vaccinated . ................... ..... . ... ......... .. .. ... ... 1,100 Pounds of pork produced ........................... . .... 85,000 Value of pork produced .......... . ......................... $4,876.50 5. Savings Clubs: Members enrolled ... .. ............. . . .. ................ . ....... 156 Number reporting ............................................ 95 Total amount saved ........... ............. ...... ... . . ....... $1,815.25 6. Marketing Clubs: 88 144 78 123 135 214 34 71 107 1,207 16,000 101,000 $820.25 $5,696.75 375 531 221 316 $803.75 $2,619.00 Members enrolled . ... ............... : .......................... 79 180 259 Number reporting .................. . .. . ............. . ........ 68 155 223 Cars of melons shipped by clubs . ... :............... 47 47 Average receipts to the car... .. .............. . ........ $114.00 $114.00 Total value of melons shipped ........................ $5,330.00 ....... .. ... $5,330.00 Total value of other farm produce shipped .. $5,789.50 $4,122.55 $9,912.05 Home Makers' Clubs.-The program for the home makers' clubs included canning; poultry raising, dairying, home improve ment work, sewing, marketing and saving of money. Fifty-four clubs were organized among negro women and 89 among negr o girls. There were enrolled in these clubs 1,012

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Annual R e po r t, 19 2 2 91 FIG. 12.-A group of negro women and girls, members of the home mak ers' club of Duval Co unt y, in front of a room equipped by them as a place where they may receive training in cooking and sewing. Negro agents work under the general supervision of white county and home demonstration agents women and 1,535 girls. Local leaders were in charge of each club. Home makers' club work was supervised by nine women (local home demonstration agents) who worked an average of eight months during the year. The agents visited individual club members an average of once a month. The figures below show how the time of the local home demon stration agents was sp e nt upon var ious activities during the year: Month s worked (average) . .......... . ............................................ 8 Da ys in fi e ld ...................................... . ... . .... .. : ........ ... .... . .............. 1 ,6 00 D ays in office ................................................................ . ......... .... 352 Calls on agent s ... ... .......... .... ...... .. . . .. .... .. . .. .... ..................... . .. . .... 1, 8 21 L e tter s written ... .. ............................. . .. . ... . .... .. . . ...... .. .................. 2,360 Club member visits ......... . ................... ... ....... . ............................ 2 ,0 43 Adult visits ................................................................................ 2,594 Farm and hom e v i sits . .. . . . ....... . ............ . .. .. . .... ......... ... . : .......... . . 6,307 Miscellaneous visits ..... .. .... . ..... .. ............ . ... . .... ... .. .. ..... . ... . . . . .... .. 497 Meetings held ................................................. . .... .. .... ... . . . . . ..... ..... 8 10 Attendance the se me eti ngs .................................... ...... . . .......... 8 , 671 Visited by local di strict agent ....... . ........... .. . . . . ......................... 94 Bulletin s di s tributed .... .... .. . . ... ......... . .... .... .... . .......... . ................ . 5,442 Articles written for the press ........ . . . . . ........... . ........... . .. ... .. ... .. ... 82 Miles traveled by rail .................... . .... .. ...... . . . ..... ....... . ........ .. ..... 6,663 Miles traveled by automobile . .. . .................. . . .. ..... . .. . . ... .. .. . . .. . .. 6,141 Miles traveled otherwise . .. ........... . .... ........ . .............. ..... .......... . 4,058

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension The table below shows the work accomplished in all home makers' clubs: Clubs organized ............................. ............. .......... . Enrollnient ................................................................. . Containers of preserved food filled ....................... . Fireless cookers made ........................................... . Articles made from pine straw, shucks, wire I . I WOMEN I 54 1,012 23,240 230 GIRLS ( 89 1,523 17,790 133 TOTAL 143 2,535 41,030 363 grass, etc. ............................................................ 6,405 6,040 12,445 Bars of soap made .................................................... 5,827 3,336 9,163 Pounds of butter made .......................................... 7,556 1,476 9,032 Value of milk and cream sold.................................. $286.60 $90.00 $376.60 Purebred chickens raised ..................... : .................. 2,062 1,831 3,893 Value of poultry raised ......... ................................... $2,902.40 $1,906.14 $4,808.54 Dozens of eggs preserved for home use................ 1,827 723 2,560 Dozens of eggs marketed thru clubs...................... 1,260 1,416 2,676 Houses whitewashed ................................................ 306 295 601 Houses painted .......................................................... 133 27 160 Homes .. remodeled ...................................................... 205 44 249 Homes purchased ......... .-............................................ 78 8 86 Homes screened ........................................................ 165 36 201 Homes observed health week ................................ 1,342 395 1,737 Fruit trees set out .................................................... 1,589 367 1,956 Grape vines set out ...................... ,............................ 493 175 668 Sanitary toilets installed on the farm ......... ,........ 27 27 Bath tubs installed in farm homes........................ 6 2 8 Telephones installed in rural homes...................... 8 8 Water systems installed in rural homes................ 3 3 Floor mops made from old stockings...................... 849 617 1,468 Canning centers equipped ...................................... 23 11 34 Cash deposited by savings clubs .......................... $1,734.72 $3,370.61 $5,105.33 Amount of produce sold cooperatively ................ $1,895.70 $1,350.25 $3,245.95 Fairs.-State and county fairs encouraged the work of home makers' clubs. Considerable money in prizes was won by colored women and girls who made exhibits at the South Florida Fair and the various county fairs. Farm and Home Makers' Schools.-A series of extension schools in agriculture and home economics were held. These served an important purpose in that valuable information on farming, improved living and better business was received by those who attended. Thru these schools, to which the public was invited, the people of the state received a better under standing of this phase of extension work, as demonstrations and lectures by trained and properly informed persons were important features.

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Annual Report, 1922 93 The following figures summarize this school work for the year: Schools held ......... ,........................................................................ 17 Total attendances ........................................................................ 4,485 Demonstrations given ................................................................ 23 Trios of purebred chickens awarded prizes.......................... 9 Purebred pigs awarded as prizes ........................................ .... 10 Cash awarded as prizes .............................................................. $2,155 Days occupied ............................................................ , ...... ,.......... 22 Speakers engaged ......................... .-............................................ 15 Counties in which schools were held ...................................... 11 Cooperating Agencies.:--The cooperation of public schools and colleges and the State Board of Health meant much to the suc cess of this phase of extension work. Pastors of churches gave great assistance in securing attendance at the extension schools. The South Florida Fair erected a building for housing exhibits of negroes. Premiums given by this fair association made it profitable for patrons to send exhibits. Several county fairs set apart special prizes and space for negro exhibitors. Banks, busi ness men and individuals, as contributors of money, etc., for prizes and premiums, did much to encourage the work. The negro farmers' union of Florida, a cooperative marketing organization, functioned in 16 counties this year. It is made up of the leading negro farmers and serves as a medium thru which farmers may get relief from inadequate markets. Officers and members of this organization often volunteered to assume the leadership of local clubs. The Local District Agent has headquarters in Tallahassee, is provided with office equipment and is required to keep in touch with the work of local county and local home demonstration agents. As far as possible agents are visited at least once a month. After reports are received from each county worker, they are tabulated, summarized and submitted at regular inter vals to the state leader's office in Gainesville. The following is a brief summary of the local district agent's activities: Letters written ......................................................................... 3,735 Circular letters sent out ............................................ : ..... : ....... 4,757 State bulletins sent out ............................................................ 890 Government bulletins sent out ................................................ 3,580 Days in field ................................................................................ 276 Days in office .............................................................................. 36 Meetings held .......... :................................................................... 134 Estimated attendances .............................................................. 7,066 Visits to agents .......................................................... :............... 224 Demonstrations visited .............................................................. 91 Miles traveled by rail ................................................................ 21,306 Miles traveled by automobile .................................................... 2,948 Total miles traveled ........................... ......................................... 24,254

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INDEX Administration, 11 Agents, cooperation of, 8 negro, 15 negro, training of, 16 Agricultural conditions of Florida, 20 Agricultural Extension Division; organization of, 8 Agricultural News Service, 11 Anthracnose of watermelons, 46 Appropriations, county, 28, 32, 35, 72 , for home demonstration work, 54 Associations, poultry, 76 Ayers, Ed L., appointment of, 10 report of, 46 Beef-cattle demonstrations, 25 Beekeeping, 62 Blacklock, R. W., report of, 39 Boys' club project, 12 club work, 28, 32, 35 Short course, 40 Bozeman, Estelle, report of, 87 resignation of, 10 Brown, Hamlin L., report of, 51 Bulletins published, 11 Campaigns, milk, 81 Camp, club, 40, 60, 66, 67, 71, 73 Canning, 68 contest, national, 68 contest, state, 65 meat and fish, 87 Cattle, dairy, 33 Citrus, miscellaneous report of, 26 problems, 47 work, 21 Clayton, H. G., report of, 32 Clinics, nutrition work, 85 Clothing, 61 Club, boys', project, 12 camps, 40, 60, 66, 67, 71 champions, 42 enrollment, girls', 69 exhibits, 40 short courses, 73 work, 28, 32, 35, 72 work for girls, organization of, 55 Clubs, farm makers', 89 home demonstration, organization of, 66 home makers', 90 organized home demonstration, 55 poultry, 77 Conferences of extension workers, 13 Contest, farm-flock egg-laying, 79 in poultry, sta _ te, 77 Contests, 71 Cooperation, of agents, 8 of agri. institutions in state, 9, 19 Cooperative marketing, 13, 36 work, 32 Corn club, 39 demonstrations, 23 Cotton, boll weevil control, 17 demonstrations, 23 County agents, expenses of, 19 how paid, 11 number of, 19 project of, 11 qualifications of, 19 requirements of, 21 summary of work of, 20 varied duties of, 19 work done by, 22 County, appropriations by, 28 support for extension work of, 16 Creameries, 52 Crops, farm, 29, 33, 36 Culling demonstrations, 78 Curb market at Ft. Myers, 70 Dairy cattle, 33 demonstrations, 25 improved methods of feeding, 51 improvement of, 51 Dairy cow ownership, 80 Dairying, 21, 36 as project, 12 home, 62 _ management, 80 products, greater us e of, 81 Demonstrations, beef-cattle, 25 corn, 23 culling, 78

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Annual Report, 1922 95 dairy-cattle, 25 fertilizer and manure, 26 grains, 23 grass, 24 hog, 25 Irish-potato, 24 legume, 24 lime, 26 orchard, 25 peanut, 24 poultry, 26 sweet potato, 24 tobacco, 23 tomato, 23 Diseases and pests of livestock, 27 Egg circles, 76 Entomology, as project, 12 Exhibits, 71 poultry, 78 Extension, schools, 13 work, county support of, 16 work with negroes, 15 Fairs, 14 , 31, 34, 38, 86, 92 Uni. of Fla. represented at, 15 Farm and . home makers' clubs, as project, 12 Farm-flock egg-laying contest, 79 Farm improvements, 26 Farm makers' clubs, 89 Farm organization, 28 Fat barrow club, 39 Fertilizer and manure demonstrations, 26 Financial statement, 9 Fish canning, 87 Ployd, Minnie M., report of, 75 Food conservation, 61, 87 Forage crops, as project, 12 Fruit, 32 production of, 17 Gardening, 61, 68 Girls' club enrollment, 69 club, national canning contest, 68 clubs, organization of, 55 club work, enrollment of, 75 short course, 65 Grain demonstrations, 23 Grape work , 66 Grass demonstrations, 24 Group meetings, 14 Health, 73 weeks and clinics, 85 Hiatt, S. W. , report of, 35 Hogs, 33, 37 demonstrations, 25 Home demonstration agents, how paid, 12 clubs, organization of, 66 staff, 54 work, as project, 12 work, enrollment in, 75 work, how carried out, 54 work, supervision of, 58 Home improvements, 62, 73 Home makers' clubs, 90 Home products conserved, 8 . 7 Irish-potato demonstrations, 24 Jenkins, E. W., report of, 28 Landrum, Lonny I., report of, 72 resignation of, 10 Layton, Harriette B . , report of, 64 Legume demonstrations, 24 LeNoir, Ellen, appointment of, 10 report of, 72 Leadership schools, 71, 72 work, 64 Lime demonstrations, 26 Livestock, 30 diseases and pests of, 27 Local leaders, 55 Marketing, 30, 32, 34, 37, 74 cooperative, 13, 17 dairy products, 52 home products, 87 Meat . conserving, 87 Meetings, field, 30, 47 girls' club, 64 group, 14, 34, 37 Melanose, control of, 18 Milk campaigns, 81 Morse, May, report of, 80

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96 Florida Cooperative Extension Negro agents, 15 extension work, 15, 89 work, how provided for, 12 Newell, Wilmon, report of, 7 Nutrition, 61, 65, 73, 84 clubs and groups, 84 Orchard demonstrations, 25 Organization, Agri. Ext. work, 8 counties, for home demonstration work, 57 farm, 28, 35 home demonstration work, 72 Outlook for home demonstration work, 63 Partridge, Sarah W., report of, 54 Patrons of club work, 41 Peanut clubs, 39 demonstrations, 24 Pig clubs, 39 Plant pathology, as project, 12 Policies of extension work, agents recommend, 15 poultry, of extension workers, 48 Poultry, 30, 34, 37, 61 as project, 13 associations, 76 clubs, 77 contest, farm-flock egg-laying, 79 culling demonstrations, 78 demonstrations, 26 exhibits, 78 leaders, training of, 78 policies of extension workers, 48 progress, 49 work, organization of, 75 Prizes in club work, 41 Progress of extension work, 17 Projects, extension, 11 Publications, 10, 11, 63 Publicity, 60 Sanborn, N. W., report of, 48 Satsuma oranges, 17 Schools, extension, 13 farm and home makers', 92 leadership, 71, 72 Scott, John M., report of, 44 Short course, boys', 40 girls', 65 Silos, 27 Smith, Gladys, appointment of, 10 report of, 84 Spencer, A. P., report of, 19 Staff changes, 10 State Fair, 15 Supervision, extension workers, 9 home demonstration workers, 58 Sweet-potato clubs, 39 demonstrations, 24 Tick eradication, 83 . Tobacco demonstrations, 23 Tomato demonstrations, 23 Turner, A. A., report of, 89 University of Florida at State Fair, 15 Webster, Agnes I., report of, 69 "Welcome awakes," 56