Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1920
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text






Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Aeft of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
/ ell
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1920 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 309 1920








Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1904)

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1920 WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 309 1920


February, 1921


















CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL To GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA. . 3
BOARD AND STAFFS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL ----- . 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR . 7 REPORT OF STATE AGENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH FLORIDA . 33
REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA ---------------- 38
REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA . . 43 REPORT Boys' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT -------------------------------------------------------- 47
REPORT ASSISTANT Boys' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT . 53, REPORT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT . 6aREPORT ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT ------------------------------------------ 71
REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST
F LORIDA . ----------------- 79
.REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST
FLORIDA . I --------- I . ---- 81
REPORT POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK . 86
REPORT DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 92
REPORT EXTENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . 95
REPORT EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST . 97
REPORT EXTENSION BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST . . 100
REPORT EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN ------ ----------------------------------------------- 103
REPORT SPECIALIST IN WATERMELON DISEASE CONTROL ---------------------------------- 105
REPORT LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO WORK . 110




















Hon. Cary A. Hardee,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Agricultural Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the Unversity of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1920, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1920.
Respectfully, J. B. HODGES, Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF CONTROL
J. B. HODGES, Chairman, Lake City, Florida. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Florida. J. B. SUTTON, Tampa, Florida. H. B. MINIUM, Jacksonville, Florida. W. W. FLOURNOY, DeFuniak Springs, Florida.
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee, Florida.
OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
J. A. EVANS, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agricultural and Field Agent.
0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.
STAFF
A. A. MURPIIRE, President of the University. P. H. RoLFS, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director.
COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK C. K. MCQUAERIE. State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, District Agent. E. W. JENKINS, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent. E. F. DEBUSK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent. AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent. LONNY 1. LANDRUM, District Agent. MAY MORSE, Assistant District Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant District Agent.
SPECIALISTS
A. H. LOGAN,* Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational
and Demonstration Work (resigned June 30). JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist. Wm. H. BLACK,*' Extension Animal Husbandman (resigned June 30). N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman. C. M. TUCKER, Extension Plant Pathologist (resigned June 1). J. B. THsOMPSON,* Forage Crop Specialist.

LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Lecturer, Plant Pathology (resigned Sept. 4).
0. F. BURGER, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. R. W. RUPRECHT, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Lecturer, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Lecturer, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Lecturer, Farm Machinery. A. L. SHEALY, Lecturer, Veterinary Science. RALPH STOUTAMiRE, Agricultural Editor. RUBY NEWHTALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor.

*Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.








Annual Report, 1920


COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS

HOME DEMONSTRATION
COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT
Alachua-.C. D. Gunn-.Gainesville--.Miss Irene Randall Miss Marian Swain
Bay-.G. E. Mead-.Panama City . Bradford-.S. 0. Traxier-.Starke---------.Miss Myra Herlong
Brevard-.K. E. Bragdon-.Cocoa. Broward ------------------- .Ft. Lauderdale-.Mrs. A. H. Peay
Calhoun------- ---- ---- _.Blountstown--.Mrs. Grace F. Warren
Citrus.---R. J. Dorsett-.Inverness------.Mrs. Mary E. Brooks
Columbia.--H. A. McDonald. Lake City -.Miss Marie Cox Dade -------S. S. Rainey-.Miami---------.Miss Genevieve Crawford
Goulds--------.Mrs. Nellie A. Bush
DeSoto-.J. M. Tillman-.Arcadia---_-------- Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill
Wauchula--.Miss Beulah Pipkin Duval -----W L. Watson-.Jacksonville--.Miss Ellen LeNoir
Escambia .J. Lee Smith ----Pensacola--.Miss Margaret Cobb Gadsden-----------------.Hinson--------.Miss Ruby McDavid
Hernando-.James Mountain .Brooksville ------- Miss Ora Herndon Hillsboro--R. T. Kelley.Plant City--.Miss Virginia Branham Holmes-. S. Sechrest-.Bonifay. Jackson-----------------. .Marianna--.Miss Myrtle Floyd
Jefferson------.---- : ------- Monticello--.Miss Posey Taylor
Lake--------M. M. Javens------Tavares ----------------------------------------4----------1
Lee-------.H. E. Stevens-.Ft. Myers -----Miss Margaret Burleigh
Leon-.H. I. Matthews-.Tallahassee ------ Mrs. Mary S. Russell
Liberty - A. W. Turner-.Bristol . Madison-.C. E. Matthews --- Madison----------- Miss Edna Smith
Manatee-.W. R. Briggs-.Bradentown--.Mrs. Ivie Turnbull Marion -.W. A. Sessoms-.Ocala.----------------.---------------------.
Okaloosa-.R. J6 Hart-.Laurel Hill .
Crestview--.Miss Harriette N. Hawthorne Orange----C. D. Kime-.Orlando ---------- .Mrs. Nellie W. Taylor
Osceola-.Leo H. Wilson-.Kissimmee.--.Miss Albina Smith Palm Beach R. A. Conkling--.West Palm Beach.Miss Elizabeth Hopkins Pasco-------F. G. Merrin-.Dade City--.Mrs. Harriette Ticknor
Pinellas-----------------. .Largo---------.Miss Hazel Carter
Polk-.Win. Gomme-.Bartow _----------- Miss Lois Godbey
Putnam-.H. R. Tribble.---Palatka--------.Miss Floresa Sipprell
St. Lucie . Alfred Warren--.Ft. Pierce ---_-Miss Lula Chriesman St. Johns . J. G. Clemons--.St. Augustine--.Miss Anna E. Heist
Santa Rosaj. C. Sechrest.----Milton.-----.-----Mrs. Winnie W. McEwen
Seminole--C. M. Berry-------Sanford --------------------------.
Suwannee . D. A. Armstrong-. Live Oak -----Branford-------.Miss Alice Dorsett Taylor------L. R. Moore-------Perry---------.Miss Pearl LaFitte
Volusia-.W. E. Dunaway . DeLand . .w. W alton -.J. W. Mathison--DeFuniak Sp'gs .








































FIG. 1.-Agricultural Extension Staff, 1920









Report of General Activities for 1920 with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1920



Hon. J. B. Hodges,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division of the Agricultural College, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, and the report of the activities of the Agricultural Extension Division for the calendar year 1920. 1 respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The agriculture of Florida has undergone about the same changes that have taken place everywhere else in the United States. All agricultural crops have been produced at a high cost for labor, fertilizer, supplies, etc., and, due to the deniand for labor in manufacturing centers, many agricultural workers have left the farms, causing a shortage of farm labor. The high market price of farm products, together with an apparent-demand for them during the planting season, stimulated farmers to cultivate as large an acreage in staple crops as their labor and other conditions would permit.
County and home demonstration agents worked continuously during the spring months on increased production and conservation of food, feed and forage. Toward the close of the present calendar year the farmers of North Florida have been confronted with decreasing prices for practically all farm products. This caused unsettled conditions and disappointments, to those who had planted extensively and produced large crops. They have been required to hold these indefinitely or sell for less than






Florida Cooperative Extension


cost of production. This, together with an:unfavorable season, particularly, for staple crops, has made it impossible for many farmers to meet their obligations.,
South Florida has not met the same adverse conditions. The returns from the citrus crop of 1919 and 1920 were the largest in the history of the state, on acc6unt of heavy production and high prices. The values of many. citrus properties have increased upward of 50 percent in two years, causing many sales at good prices, and inducing many others to enlarge their citrus properties by planting new groves.
On the whole, the truckers of Florida have had a satisfactory year, in . many instances their crops.bringing more money than formerly. These products reached the market before the decline in prices, and even'tho they were produced at a high cost of labor and fertilizer, the profit to' the growers was above the average.
I County and home demonstration agents have to deal with these varying problems, and in the administration of.the extension work of Florida, a'rather flexible plan must be adopted so the individual agent can pursue the most logical plan of work dependent on the county's agricultural conditions.
There has been no material change in the general policy of the extension work in the state. It is the duty of every extension worker to render the greatest amount of assistance to such developments as lead to a greater and better agriculture for Florida.
The services of county and home demonstration agents have been solicited for various enterprises intended for the uplift of agricultural communities,' and in this they have responded even at personal sacrifices. There has been a good feeling of cooperation between county and home demonstration agents and their. supervisors, so that the year-haslbeen a satisfactory one from every standpoint, in spite of the unsettled condition of agriculture generally.
ORGANIZATION
The cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics is directed from the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, with headquarters on the University campus. The home demonstration offices are at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, and those of the farm and homem . kers' clubs at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee.






Annual Report, 1920


The budget -system governs the working plans. The budget is approved by the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect.
The work was conducted under nine projects during the past year, the principal ones being that of county cooperative and home demonstration agents. The work in each county centered. around these two offices, and all other project leaders carried out their work in the counties, using the offices of the local agents as the centers.
The purpose in view is to improve rural conditions in Florida by working with farms and farm homes. The instruction given corresponds with the instruction given from the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and the Home Economics Department of the State College for Women. The project leaders are kbpt in close touch with the various activities of these colleges, so that the work will be conducted with a common purpose. in view.
County agents arrange for public meetings, and speakers are provided by the state institutions. Thru cooperation between the College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture, the various bureaus, departments, and state agencies are harmonized so that each county secures benefit from bureaus working on problems that affect the state of Florida.
County agents are under the direction of the state agent and the district agents.
The boys' club work is under the direction of the state club agent ana his assistant. Clubs are organized by county agents, with the assistance of school boards, county superintendents, fair associations and other organizations for agricultural promotion.
Home demonstration agents have headquarters at the State College for Women, the work being supervised by state and district agents with the assistance of specialists working on home dairying and poultry.
These agents organize clubs of women and girls to study home economics problems, and all home demonstration work in the counties is directed thru them.
Farm and home makers' clubs for negroes have headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee. This work is under the general direction of a local district agent in farm makers' clubs. Assistant club agents are employed for a portion of the year to give assistance to the rural colored population, encourage thrift and improve rural conditions in general.,






Florida Cooperative Extension


The specialists devote all their attention to a particular line, of work. They, too, reach farmers thru county agents, and assist in all problems related to their special work.
Extension workers consult workers in the Experiment Station, and when the Experiment Station workers visit the counties they are privileged to visit the office of the county and home demonstration agent and secure all assistance that can be given them.
County and home demonstration agents have centrally located headquarters in their counties, usually in the county seat. The office equipment and all laboratory equipment needed is also provided for from county funds. As the county and the home demonstration agents' problems are very closely connected, they usually have the same. office and assist each other in the management of meetings and in conducting any work that applies fo both farm and home.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORK AMONG NEGROES
The negro agricultural extension work provided for in farm and home makers' clubs among negroes is a part of the program of the College of Agriculture.
Headquarters for this work are at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes. The local district agent has his office there. The program proposes to improve agriculture among farmers by means of better methods of crop production, by improving livestock, poultry, drainage and fertilization and by economizing labor.
A large part of negro extension work has to do with making the farmhouse more sanitary, encouraging the covering of wells, cleaning up in general and using whitewash liberally. Most of this work is done by assistant local agents. These work six to eight months each year under s I supervision of the local district agent. However, in the regular[ work of county agents negro farmers are not neglected. County and home demonstration agents have given every possible assistance to negro workers.
The negro agricultural extension organization is known as farm and home makers' clubs. The purpose of the work among women is to encourage thrift, to teach girls and women the proper use of foods and their values, to give instruction in the selection of household furniture and clothing, to instruct in canning, preserving and household duties. The weekly reports






Annual Report,* 1920


-of local district agents are approved by county and home demonstration agents before being submit ' ted to the state offices.
At some of the county and state fairs, farm and home makers' clubs have been represented. Usually the fair authorities have set apart sufficient separate space. Business interests have regarded this work as valuable, and have contributed liberally in money and merchandise as premiums.
A field agent in charge of seven southern states visits the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Talm lahassee, and, with the president of that institution and the local district agent, reviews the working plans from time to time.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
Regular conferences of the staff of the Agricultural Extension Division, Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture are.held on the third Monday of each month. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss the programs of all. A further purpose is to promote the greatest cooperation, and to make the various problems well understood by all.
A definite program is provided, with a leader for each meeting. The conference is continued by round-table discussion of problems most pertinent. When subjects of broad general interest in agriculture are to be considered, outsiders are invited to lead the discussion. A limited number of county and home demonstration agents are invited to these conferences. The papers presented are collected and made use of in extension work. An informal conference, at which verbal reports are made by various state leaders is held after the close of the general conference. In order to correlate the work of various departments, it is necessary to have a harmonious plan, thereby avoiding loss of time or duplication of effort. The work of county and home demonstration agents and specialists is so closely assoc ' iated that it is necessary to have all plans well understood.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
All bills submitted, after approval by the department head, are vouchered in quadruple; audited and approved by the director; and transmitted to the Board of Control. One copy is returned for record. One copy is filed with the state treasurer, who issues a warrant, covering the amount of the voucher in question, which is sent to this office to be distributed. All funds are kept by the state treasurer at Tallahassee.
In the matter of salaries, while we work on a budget basis, no






12 Florida Cooperative Extension

item is audited until the memorandum of employment has been approved and returned from Washington. By this method, we are able to keep close check on all expenditures and are also able to check any off-set in salary appropriations that may be made by other organizations.
Our off-setting fund is appropriated biennially by the Florida Legislature. In fact, all revenue for extension work, outside of county, city and other agencies, is by direct appropriation of the legislature. We are, therefore, dependent to a great extent 'upon the beneficence of the legislature for continuing this work,
No new equipment has been added to this office, but some changes have been made in the method of booking that would serve to make our records more efficient.
For your information I am giving below a resume of the expenditures from all sources forlperiod ending June 30, 1920:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever, Federal -_-----_------_-------- . ------- $ 38,110.10
Sm ith-Lever, State . --------------------------------- 28,110.10
Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ------------------ 16,217.37
Supplementary Smith-Lever, State -------------------_- 16,217.37
U. S. D. A. Appropriation -------------------------------------- 20,200.00
U. S. D. A. Bureaus ---------_-_----------------------------------------- 5,120.00
State Appropriations --------------------- ----------------------------------- 9,590.00
County Appropriations ----------------- ---------------------- ---------- 51,040.00

$184,604.94
PROJECT EXPET DITURES
A dm inistration -------------------------------- -------------------------- $ 10,368.74
Printing and Publications --------------------- ------------------------ 3,690.00
County Agents' W ork --------------------------------------------------- I --- 75,746.63
Home Demonstration --------_------- --------------------------------- 67,869.53
Boys' Club W ork --------------------------------------------------------------- 6,786.71
A nim al Industry ------------------ I ------- I -------------------------- 5,603.33
Negro Farm and Home Makers' Work ------------ : ----------- - 8,440.00
Hog Cholera Educational Work ------------------------------------ 3,600.00
Poultry Husbandry -------------------------------------------------------- 2,500.00

$184,604.94
PUBLICATIONS
The following publications have been issued during the fiscal year -






Annual Report, 1920


Bulletins -Title Pages Edition
21 Florida Pastures'and Feed for 100 Hens__ 6 11,000 22 The Silo in Florida --------------------I------24 15,450
23Addresses Fourth Annual Livestock
Roundup -------------_--------------.48 30,150
24 Addresses Tenth Annual Citrus Seminar_ 48 30,150
25 Boys' Agricultural Club Guide -------------- 44 9,171
26 Feeding Beef Cattle in Florida------------- 20 12,150
27 Peach Growing in Florida -------------------- 16 20,640
Circulars
9 Raising Calves----------------------------------- 8 15,237
10 One Hundred Bushels Corn an Acre-------- 8 15,430
11 Important Irish Potato Diseases and How
to Control Them --------------I-----------4 10,100
Poster
Better Beef Cattle----------------------------- 1 2,000
Annual Report --------------------------------- --------128 2,603
Agricultural News Service, 52 weeks, 425 copies 1 22,100

CHANGES IN STAFF
G. L. Herrington resigned as boys' club agent on February 15S, 1920, having been elected to a similar position in Tennessee.
R. W. Blacklock, formerly assistant boys' club agent, was promoted to the position of boys' club agent, February 15.
E. F. DeBusk, a former county agent, was appointed assistant club agent on April 1, succeeding R. W. Blacklock.
Miss S. L. Vinson, agricultural editor, resigned May 10 and was succeeded July 1 by Ralph Stoutamire, an agricultural graduate of the University of Florida.
Miss L. R. Hunter resigned July 1 as assistant auditor, and was succeeded by Miss Retta McQuarrie, appointed July 1.
W. H. Black, extension animal husbandman, working cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, resigned June 1. SA. H. Logan,' field agent in educational and demonstrational Work in hog cholera, cooperating with the Bureau of Animal industry, resigned July 1.
- Miss Lucy Cushman, district agent home demonstration work in West Florida, resigned September, 1. She was succeeded by Miss Lonny I. Landrum, appointed September. 1. c J. B.: -Thompson, part time forage crop specialist for the. prev-ious year, was reappointed for the months of April and. May,.






14 Florida Cooperative Extension

and again reappointed September 1 to continue thruout the fiscal year.
PLAN OF WORK
The projects by which the funds are expended and the work conducted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, are as follows:
PROJECT I-A-ADM~INISTRATION
This provides for the offices of the director and vice-director, salaries of clerical help and other executive expenditures that cannot be properly charged to any other particular project.
PROJECT I-11--PUBLICATIONS
This provides for the expense of publication and distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly agricultural nedws service and annual reports. Only 5 percent of Smith-Lever funds can be used in this project.
PROJECT 11-COUNTY AGENTS
This provides for the maintenance of county agents' supplies and incidentals of those directly in charge of county agent work. Wherever a county agent is employed, the county must provide additional funds to apply on the salary, traveling expenses or the equipment of his office.
PROJECT III-BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUBS
(Principally Corn, Pig, Calf, Bee and Peanut Clubs)
This work is intended to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12 and 18. The clubs are organized by the county agents, with the assistance of the boys' club agents, so that Projects II and III are closely allied. In order to make these clubs effective, the support of school officials, business interests and other organizations directly interested in the, common good of the community is solicited.
PROJECT IV-HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
This work is conducte 'd principally in rural districts under two divisions, one giving -particular attention to girls' clubs and the other to women's clubs. The general purpose is to give instruction in domestic science and art, the principle of home making as applied to rural life, and to carry this work just as far into communities as conditions will permit. The cooperation of women's clubs and all agencies looking for the betterment of the rural home is sought.
PROJECT V-BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION WORK
This project -works toward the' improvement of the beef cattle industry of the state, to arrange for the distribution of breeding






Annual Report, 1920


cattle to those in a position to handle them; to encourage the importation of suitable animals from outside the state, and to lend every encouragement to securing a better beef industry. Until July 1, 1920, this project was conducted according to the joint agreement between the Extension Division and the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. Since July 1 this work has been conducted entirely by the Agricultural' Extension Division with some modifications. This has been extended to extension work in forage crops and pastures. The forage crop specialist works in counties with county agents, spending two or more days in each county making a study of native and introduced forage plants, visiting stock farms and dairies for the purpose of securing a better and more economic system of feeding and management of pastures.
PROJECT VI-FARM AND ROME MAKERS' CLUBS
The work of this project is intended to -improve conditions of negro farmers in the state. They are encouraged to produce larger yields from their crops, and instructed in the care and management of livestock, truck and fruit crops. The boys and girls are organized into corn, pig, bee and peanut clubs.
The girls and women are organized into canning and home makers' clubs and are taught the principles of economy and thrift, production and conservation. Assistant agents are provided in counties, and are supervised by a district leader.
PROJECT VII-EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK
This is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, and coordinating 'with the hog cholera control work of the Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. The agent in charge spends his entire time in the counties assisting county agents in handling diseases of hogs, and lending the necessary encouragement in this direction for the betterment of the hog industry.
The proper use of hog cholera serum and virus is taught, and demonstrated with an idea of preventing the spread of hog diseases or holding contagious diseases in control following an outbreak of cholera. In the past year, the agent has devoted his energies to perfecting local organizations, looking to more sanitary conditions of all livestock, particularly hogs.
PROJECT VIII-POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project provides for general educational work to improve the poultry of the state, The representative is primarily inter-






'16 Florida Cooperative Extension

ested in the improvement of the farm flock and, with that end in view, works with county and home demonstration. -agents. During the fiscal year ending June 30, this work was in cooperation with the Poultry Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry,
PROJECT IX-EXTENSION SCHOOLS
This project provides for co extension schools in
various sections of Florida, particularly in the best agricultural . communities. It also provides for conducting livestock, . citrus,
trucking, poultry and home demonstration schools at the headquarters of -extension workers. The best talent is secured, both in and out of the state, to handle the programs arranged.
In conducting these, the cooperation of agricultural workers, of railroads, state departments and various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture, working in the state of Florida, are invited to cooperate.

EXTENSION SCHOOLS
The extension schools, under Project IX, is an enlargement of the plan of holding farmers' meetings in rural communities, with a definite outlined program, prepared and agreed upon by various extension supervisors. These schools are continued for one or more days. A general state extension school is held annually tor bring together the principal workers in agricultural extension, and the leaders in agriculture and home economics.- . .1 October 5-8 two schools were conducted at the College of Agriculture. The. Citrus Seminar, October 5-6, was carried out on a program dealing with various phases of citrus culture, marketing, etc. The speakers were selected from extension workers, Experiment Station staff, representatives of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, the State Plant Board, the State Marketing Bureau and practical citrus gro ers. This program was unde . r the direction of A. P. Spencer, vice-director- of.extension.
October 7-8 an extension school,. known as the Livestock Roundup, was held. Those on the program represented the College of Agriculture, the Experiment Station, the Extension Division, representatives of livestock and farm papers, representatives of railroads, the State Livestock Sanitary Board and other institutions interested in the livestock welfare of Florida. This program )was.under the direction of J. M. Scott, leader of the, livestock project.,






Annual Report, 1920


EXTENSION SCHOOLS IN COUNTIES
Between November 30 and December 4 four extension schools 'were conducted in West Florida. The instructional work dealt primarilywith pork production, soft pork, the peanut situation,. marketing, poultry, home economics and farm crops. The morning programs were made up entirely of poultry lectures and demonstrations. The counties covered by these schools were Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington and Liberty.
In addition to the agricultural program there were educational and entertainment programs consisting of slides and films, picnic suppers and music.
Between December 28 and 31 an extension school was conducted in Dade County. This was devoted to dairying, poultry and plant diseases. The lecturers were representatives of the Extension Division, College of Agriculture and the Florida Experiment Station.
COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL MEETING
The annual meeting of county agents was held at the College of Agriculture September 6-11. This meeting is intended to bring all workers together for a full discussion of extension work as carried on in the counties. The program is presented by the staffs of the Extension Division, Agricultural Experiment Station, the College of Agriculture and workers from the various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture. The purpose is correlation of efforts to avoid duplication.
During two days of this meeting, September 10-11, the home demonstration agents were in session with the county agents. Round-table discussions to formulate plans and polices were carried out.
At this meeting the Florida State Federation of Farm Bureaus Was temporarily organized, a constitution was adopted, and officers elected for the ensuing year.
HOME DEMONSTRATION MEETING
The ninth annual home demonstration agents' meeting was held September 6-8 at the Florida State College f or Women, Tallahassee, and from September 8-11 in joint session with the, county agents at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville.
The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports, instruction, and the development of plans for the work of the coming year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the consideration of phases of the work that could be best accomplished thru the -working together of the agents of both branches.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SHORT COURSE FOR GIRLS' CLUB MEMBERS
The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls.
-Scholarships to the state prize winners' short course are provided by boards of county commissioners, school boards, banks and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in attendance, 39 were enrolled in canning work, 23 in poultry, 14 in sewing, 3 in grape growing, 5 in dairying, I in beekeeping and 3 in pig clubs.
Girls' camps for instruction and recreation were held in DeSoto and Polk Counties. A joint camp for girls and boys was held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties.

CLUB BOYS' SHORT COURSE
The fourth annual short course for club members of the state was held on the University campus the second i eek in December. Ninety-mne boys from 28 counties, attended. The program provided for practical lectures to the boys by the instructors of the College of Agriculture and the Extension Division. They received instruction in handling livestock, -growing forage crops, judging hogs, dairy and beef cattle.
The expenses in sending these boys to the University were provided for by the county commissioners and school boards, railroads, boards of trade and individuals. The short course was under the direction of the boys' club agent and his assistants. Alachua County sent 25 boys, which was the largest number from any one county. Hillsboro came second with 11.
GROUP MEETINGS
Between March 23 and April 5 the county agents were assembled in groups of from four to six, to report and confer with the supervising force, director, state and district agents and field agent from the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
This plan was adopted so that county agents, having similar problems, can confer with each other, and with supervising agents so that there will be uniformity of work and harmony of purpose; also for the sake of economy.in travel.
The meetings for the agents of North and West Florida were held in Santa Rosa, Holmes, Madison, and Columbia Counties; for those of East and South Florida in "Marion, Pasco, Polk, Volusia and St. Lucie Counties.






Annual Report, 1920


ANNUAL NEGRO AGENTS' MEETING
As the office for the local district agent in negro work is at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee, the annual meeting of the men and women county workers was held at that institution in January, 1920.
These workers were assembled for instruction so that there would be a definite program of work for each county. As this included both men and women, the extension staff from the University of Florida College of Agriculture and the State College for Women assisted with the program.
The instructors from several departments of the institution also assisted in caring for the agents and with the program.


FiG. 2.-Japanese cane






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
C.'K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.


In presenting the state agent's report for the year just ending, it is a pleasure to know that, notwithstanding the shortage and high cost of farm labor and the reorganization of the work in all counties from after-war conditions, the work has progressed favorably. A glance backward over the year's results shows considerable progress in all the different activities of the county agents.
The beginning of the year found the country facing the problem of labor shortage. Farm labor was especially unreliable and high in price. This made it difficult for farmers to make any positive plans for their year's work and necessitated the curtailment of acreage planted to staple crops.

COUNTY ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS
An important activity of the agent's work has been the orkanization of community councils and county bureaus. In some counties much more progress has been made than in others.
Hillsboro County organized the first county bureau of agriculture and home economics at Valrico April 22, 1920.
At the county agents' annual meeting the State Farm Bureau was organized, September 9, when both county and home demonstration agents were present. The officers were elected temporarily until the annual meeting, which takes place on the first Saturday in January, and are: L. M. Rhodes, president; J. D. Butler, vice-president; Miss Ruby Newhall, secretary-treasurer. Five counties were included in this organization, Alachua, Broward, Hillsboro,, Pasco and Duval. It was reported by the agents of Columbia, Escambia, Marion, Madison, Polk, Volusia, Suwannee and Walton that their counties were in the process of organization.
The organization of farm bureaus has been slower than was expected, but there have been many obstacles in the way.







Annual Report, 1920


MEETINGS HELD
A larger number of field meetings than usual have been held this year, conducted by county agents, with the assistance of state workers.
Annual spring group meetings were held. Formerly these meetings were held at a few points at which eight to ten agents were present. This year fewer agents were assembled at one point. At these meetings programs of work were mapped out for such activities as should be stressed by agents in their counties. .
The'annual conference and school of county agentswas held at Gainesville, September 6-11.
The first three days of the meeting were taken up with the men's work, where subjects dealing exclusively with county agents' work were discussed. One afternoon was spent visiting nearby livestock farms. On this trip the agents were enabled to visit some good farms and see the agricultural developments of Alachua County.
Those appearing on the program of this agents' meeting from outside the state were: H. E. Safely, W. B. Mercier and L W. Hill of the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture; W. C. Lassetter, editor of the Southeastern Edition of the Progressive Farmer; L. M. Rhodes, state market commissioner; and Paul Sanders, boys' club editor of the Southern Ruralist.
An important part of all state conferences is the getting together of the agents at night and between the regular programs when important points that have been overlooked are brought out between individuals.
The last three days of this meeting was a joint one between the county and home demonstration agents, the latter having come down from Tallahassee, where. they met for the first three days. The combined session proved exceptionally valuable to all, and this plan should be continued.
AGENTS' ACTIVITIES,
Every year finds the scope of the agents' activities 'widening and more important, and especially where the work has been conducted for several years. As the counties see the importance of agent's work, they are willing to give it substantial support. In many counties the agents have been devoting much of their time to the farm operations of new settlers. This is especially valuable to settlers unfamiliar with Florida conditions and these







Florida Cooperative Extension


new people naturally go to the county agent on arrival for information and assistance.
CORN WEEVIL
The annual damage to corn in Florida is I estimated at from 10 to 25 percent of the crop. Where this crop is a major one, the agents have been active in influencing farmers to adopt better methods of harvesting, and providing tight cribs in which to store and fumigate it. Due to the high cost of labor and lumber many farmers have delayed these improvements. This work is so important that county agents will be urged to continue it in the future.
FAIRS
More than the usual number of fairs have been held this year, especially community fairs. We find this one of the bestmeans of getting community people together. Suwannee, Columbia, Escambia and Alachua Counties have conducted these most successfully. Business interests have been induced to take active parts in the welfare of agriculture thru these community fairs.
Some community fairs were held in commissioners' districts, usually in churches or schoolhouses, under the management of local committees, the county and home demonstration agents acting as advisors or leaders. These community fairs have been feeders to county and state fairs.
LIVESTOCK
The large number of purebred sires, both hogs and cattle, purchased by farmers, as reported by county agents, and the very definite activities of livestock and dairy associations, which livestock extension workers and county agents have been active in developing, is the forerunner of a much greater livestock industry for Florida. County agents are often called upon to select purebred sires for farmers.
Considerable progress has been made in conducting hog sales on certain days in several counties in North and West Florida. Many of these have been the means of securing better prices for farmers. Especially is this true since October 1, when hog prices slumped.
CROPS
The corn acreage has been cut about ten percent, owing to scarcity and high cost of farm labor. The sweet potato acreage has been slightly increased, with the result that this crop should show an increased yield. Rice and sugar cane acreage were







Annual Report, 1920 23

greatly increased, in some sections 15 to 20 percent. These crops also show an increased yield over previous years. The Irish potato crop was profitable on the whole. Altho the yield was short, farmers received good prices. County agents are urging that this crop be planted in the fall for home use.

SMALL GRAIN CROPS
County agents report a larger acreage than usual of oats and rye, most of which was used for hog pasture. The yield was also above the average, especially of oats. Farmers and livestock men are giving more attention to providing pasture.

COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS
We are glad to report considerable increase in the total amount of appropriations to supplement county agents' salaries, which total is $84,915. This response on the part of county commissioners is gratifying and shows appreciation of the work done by county and home demonstration agents. This appreciation is more marked in counties where the same agent has been engaged for a number of years, as it takes time for an agent to find himself and for the county commissioners to realize the value of such work.

FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Visits m ade by county agents ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 30,416
M iles traveled -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 234,063
Call on agents relative to work --------------- __ . 30,331
Farm ers' m eetings held . . 642 Addresses m ade at m eetings . ---------------------------------- _--------------------- 911
Total attendances ------------------------------------------------ -- -------- . 37,861
Field m eetings held by agents . -------- . 279 Total attendances at these meetings _--------_-------- . - ----------- - . 3,581
Percentage of time spent in office work ---------------------------------------------------- 26
Percentage of time spent in field work ------------------------------------------------------ 74
Official letters w ritten . . 10,276 Articles prepared for publication ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1,840
Circular letters issued ------------------------------------------------- * ---------------------------------- 2,510
U . S. D. A . bulletins distributed . 18,998 Bulletins or circulars from state sources distributed . 14,784 Visits to schools . __ --------------------------------------------------------------------------- * --------- 726
Schools assisted in outlining agricultural courses ----------------------------------- 23
Short courses assisted in . ---------------------------------------------- 9
Total attendance -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 741
MISCELLANEOUS
Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts 71 Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result
of club w ork -------------------------------------------------- I . 54
Times visited by specialists from college or departments . 589 Demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits . 555
Prizes won . -__--_-_ --------------_------------_ . 355
Demonstrations in truck or small fruit . 223








24 Florida Cooperative Extension

Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instances ------------------ . ---- 211
Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work . 862
FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS
Buildings erected ----------------------------------------------- 7 ----------------- ---------- - -------------- 99
Farm buildings improved -------------------------------------------------------------- - --------------- 57
New building plans furnished . - -------------------- ----------------------------------------- 30
Farm buildings painted or whitewashed -------------------- ------------------------------- ill
Home water systems installed or improved ----- -- --------- - ----- ----- - ------------ 65
Home lighting systems installed ----------------- . . 184
Home grounds improved ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 180
Farm and home sanitary conditions improved ---- . 97
Homes screened against flies and mosquitoes . -------------------------------- 143
Sanitary privies erected -------------------- ---------- ------------------------------------------------ 28
Telephone systems installed --------------- -- -------------------------------- ---------------------- 3
Farmers induced to adopt a, systematic rotation, . --------------------------- 1 1 157
Total acreage ------------------------------ -------- ---------------------------------------------------------- 5,832
New pastures established ------------------------ --------------------------------------------------- 115
Old pastures renovated -------------------------------------------- --------------------------- . 26
Acreage comprised . ------------------------------------------------------------ 3,018
Drainage systems established ---------------------- -------------------------------------------- ----- 86
Farmers induced to drain their lands --- . . ------------ 150
Total acreage drained:
By tile ----------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------ 665
By ditch ----------------------------------------- . 2,102
Farmers who removed stumps . ---------------------------------- --- 232
Total acreage stumped . . . - ------------ --- 2,321
Farmers induced to terrace sloping land --------------- -------- . 33
Total acreage terraced . ------------------- . 5,475
Home gardens planted ----------------------------------------------------- I ---------- ------------------ 904
Farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use -------------------- - --- 343
Farmers turning under cover crops ---------------------------- ------------------------------- 941
New implements and tools bought ------------- ----------- . 2,163
CORN DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ------------------------------------------------------- . -- -------------- 238
Demonstrators reporting ----------------------------------- -------- . ------ . - 125
Total acreage grown under improved methods . 3,647
Average yield an acre, in bushels . ** --------------- * 33
Number planting selected seed . 145
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres . . 72
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres 62
Acres harvested for silage ------------------------ . * ------ 1-11 --- - ---- 11 ----- - 415
Farmers using better methods in growing corn this year . - 986
Farmers so influenced since county agent work was started . . 5,706
COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators .- . -- . 25
Demonstrators reporting ------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 12
Total acreage grown under improved methods . . 150
Average yield seed cotton an acre, pounds . ------- . . 560
Demonstrators who planted selected seed --------- ---------------------------------------- 12
Farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop . . 18
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres -------------------------------- 3
'Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres 2
Acres treated for diseases or insect pests ------------------------ . 125
Farmers using better cultural methods. --------------------------------------------------- 45
SMALL GRAIN DEMONSTRATIONS
(Oats, Rye, Rice)
Demonstrators --------------------------------------- --------------------------------- - --------------------- 51
Demonstrators reporting ----------------------------------------------------- . 40








Annual Report, 1920 25

Total acreage grown under improved methods . . 375
Acres thrashed for grain . 212
Acres cut for hay . 2
Acres turned under for soil improvement . 35
Bushels of seed treated for smut and rust . _ _-------------------- '49
Farmers planting oats for the first time. . -------------------------------- 35
Farmers influenced to use better methods . __ . . 162
SUMMER LEGUME DEMONSTRATIONS
(Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Peanuts)
Demonstrators ------------ : ---------------------- * -------------------------------------------------------------- 736
Demonstrators reporting ------------------------ ------------ --------- . -------------- 140
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods . 3,217
Average yield grain --------------------------------------- . . 20
Average yield hay . _ . 1.5
Total acreage hulled for seed . __ . . . 845
Total acreage cut for hay --------------_-- . 629
Number of acres grazed off ----------- _ --- ------- . . . --- 3,243
Acres turned under for soil improvement -------------------------------- --------------- 5,795
Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods . . . . , 903
Estimated acreage planted in the state thru county agents' influence 4,992
SWEET POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ----------------------------------------------------- . . 196
Demonstrators reporting --------------------------- . . . 66
Total acreage grown by demonstrators-. -------_------ . __ . 411
Acreage treated for diseases and pests--. . ------------- 106
Estimated increased acreage . ___ . __ _------------- ------------- 1,243
IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstrators ----- ----------------------------------- ------- . . 97
Demonstrators reporting . . . . 30
Total acreage grown by demonstrators-. . . 765
Acreage treated for diseases and pests . . 671
Estimated increased acreage . --------- . 387
FRUIT DEMONSTRATIONS
Demonstration groves . ------- . 8,399
Total number of trees in these demonstrations . . 399,850
Groves inspected -------------------------------------- -------- 1,661; number of trees .1,716,835
Groves pruned -------------- . _:- 637; number of trees 467,930
Groves sprayed . 507; number of trees 582,083

Totals ----- . . . 2,805 2,766,848
DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence-.
Bulls ------ ___ . ---------- . -------------- -----_---------------------- I -------------- 29
Cows and heifers ----- -------------------- . ----------------------------------------------- 422
Cows tested for production . . -- . 171
Farmers induced to feed balanced rations ------------------------------------------------ 171
Cattle fed --------------------------- -----_--------_---------- ------- ------------------------------------------ 1,213
Demonstrations in dairy work supervised. ----------------------------------------------- 12
Cows in these demonstrations ---------------------------------------------------------------------- A7
Number purebred dairy bulls now in state ------------------------------------------------ 1,287
Purebred dairy cows now . . . 4,083
BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
Bulls .-. ----------------_--------- -- * -------------- --------------------------------------------------------- 25
Cows or heifers . --- ------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
Grade cows introduced for reeding purposes ------------------------------------------







26, Florida Cooperative Extension

Beef breeding herds started.-. . . - . 17 Feeding cattle introduced . ___ . 130 Beef feeding demonstrations . _ -------------------------- ------_---------------------- 2
C attle fed ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 210
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to.methods advocated by county agents . - . 1,029
HOG DEMONSTRATIONS
Purebred hogs brought into the state this year due to county agents'
influence:
B oars -------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157
Sow s or gilts --------------- . . . . 678
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred . . . _ 662 Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents . ----------- 59
N um ber of hogs . --------------------------------------------------- . 548
Farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs--M.A ------------------------- 444
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to e ods advocated
by county agents --------------_--_ -- . ----------------- - . . 9,724
POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS
Poultry demonstrations supervised ------------------------------ _ . 219
Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents ------------ 11,150
Farms on which poultry management has been improved -------------------- 563
Number of birds on these farms ---------------------------------------------------------------- 13,270
LIVESTOCK DISEASE AND PEST DEMONSTRATIONS
Number farm animals treated at instigation of extension workers:
C attle ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . 74,725
H ogs . ----------------------------------------- . 104,623
H orses ---------------_------- . - -------------------------_ 253
FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers --------- -------------- 4,139
Fertilizer dem onstrations . -------------------------------------- ---------------------- 167
Tons of fertilizer used ---------------------------------------------- . 10,260
Communities buying fertilizers cooperatively . . 31 Farmers home-mixing fertilizers . . 268 Farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers . 1,601 MANURE DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers induced to take better care of manure --------------- . 632
Number -that provided sheds --------_-_--------- ----------------------------------- . 95
Number composting farm manure ----------------------------------------- . ------------ 608
M anure spreaders in state . 95 Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure -------_-------------------- 243
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons . 51,990
SILO DEMONSTRATIONS
Silos built in state this year --------- . 30 Number built as result of county agents' advice . 6
Number of silos in state now . - . 640
LIME DEMONSTRATIONS
Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence --------- ------------------- 32
Quantity of lim e used, tons . 114 N um ber of acres lim ed. . 412
EXTRACTS FROM COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL REPORTS BREVARD
(K. E. Bragdon)
The . first undertaking was the establishment of a free exchange system whereby farmers and growers could advertise







Annual Report, 1920


articles wanted and for sale within the county. Bulletin boards have been established in about 30 civic centers thruout the county. The following sales have been made:

Article Number Total Sales Price
Hives of bees . ------------_------_-------- 17 . -------------_----- $ 85-00
Sw ine . 4 . 70.00 M are and colt -------------------------------------- 1 - . 165.00
Plants . 50,000 . 112.50 M ow ing m achine . 1 . 35.00 Cattle . 47 -------------------------------- 2,325.00
Truck -------------------------------------------------- 1 . 600.00
M ules -------------- ------------------------------------- 2 -------------------------------- 400.00
A utom obiles ----------------------------------------- 3 . . 425.00
Total, $4,247.50

The second undertaking was the control of the cottony cushion scale in citrus groves. This scale was causing thousands of dollars worth of damage and the growersmere unable to put a stop to its ravages. By introducing the vedalia into 14 groves we were able to control the pest. In some groves the scale seems to have been completely eradicated.
The third undertaking was the improvement of beekeeping conditions, brought about by becoming an active member in the county beekeepers' association, forming a 'boys' and girls' bee club and taking an active part in the organization of a state beekeepers' association. Many old style hives have.been eliminated and the bees transferred to modern hives.

CITRUS
(R. J. Dorsett)
On coming to Citrus County my first step was to get the farmers closer together, which has been done thru the Melon Growers' Association, which was organized with 90 percent of the growers. First we got the railroad to store cars along the S. A. L. railroad, and when shipment started we were not bothered to any extent with a shortage of cars. We next secured the Packers' Guide and thereby got in touch with buyers of produce, obtained their rating and invited them to come to our fields. All our melons were sold at the railroad sidings at satisfactory prices. Cooperative buying of seed, oats, rye, syrup, cane, and fertilizer has proved a great saving and all farmers are much pleased with results.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 3-State club champion in the breeding class. Raised and exhibited by Leo Leslie, Columbia County

COLUMBIA
(H. A. McDonald)
One hundred twenty-five boys and girls have been enrolled in various clubs, and 50 more have applied for membership next year.

DADE
(J. S. Rainey)
On January 10, 1920, 1 turned over 17 purebred heifers, 9 Jerseys and 8 Holsteins, to the boys and girls of Dade County. This was the first dairy club organized in the state.
These heifers were bought by two banks of Miami and turned






Annual Report, 1920


over to the members on a note endorsed by their parents, notes to run one year at 6 percent.
This has been the means of placing purebred cattle all over the county and creating the desire among parents to sell all grades and keep only purebreds. Some good records have been made and one boy has increased his herd to four and another to two heifers.
DE SOTO
(J. M. Tillman)
Six hundred eighty acres of citrus, or 40,200 trees, have been either sprayed, pruned'or cultivated and fertilized according to my advice. Such good results have been obtained on these groves that plans are being made to continue the care.
HILLSBORO
(R. T. Kelley)
Organization work has been a prominent feature of the work in this county this year. This work was started in the spring and has been continued all thru the year. The first part of the work was organizing a county bureau. Farmers and business men were called together in a meeting at Seffner. The plan of work was discussed and met with favor. Another meeting was called one month later at Valrico, and the county bureau was organized. The next step was to organize the communities as members of the county bureau.
HERNANDO
(James Mountain)
At the beginning of this-year we had just started a cooperative dairy and I have not failed to urge this work all thru the season. With a growing interest in every way, it has been the means of bringing in several purebred animals. I Naturally, with the introduction of better dairy cattle I saw
the great advantage of suggesting to the farmer that he plant more cover crops. A number of farmers now are fall plowing their lands and sowing it to rye, oats and rape. Farmers are composting waste material on the farms with cow manure and thereby increasing the fertility of their farms.
HOLMES
(J. J. Sechrest)
Oats and rye equal parts for cover crops and winter pastures have given better results than any single crop, or combination.






Florida Cooperative Extension


We had our best results when we applied cottonseed Ineal and phosphate equal parts at the rate of 200 pounds an acre. Those planted with a drill were better than when sown broadcast. We have an extra amount of peavine hay this year, which was the result of a strong campaign to have all oat stubble planted to peas for hay or green manure.
LEON
(R. I. Matthews)
We have organized a livestock breeders association with 53 members, thru whom 62 pastures have been started or improved and a approximately $2,000 saved to farmers of the county.
Started Napier grass in Leon County. This grass furnishes about 10 tons of green forage to the acre.
MADISON
(C. E. Matthews)
I have assisted in organizing a county hog breeders' association, thereby stimulating interest in better breeding stock. The members have bought all their feed cooperatively thru the association, and thus saved on an average of 92 cents a sack.
I took up the work of organizing a county fair, with the result that the first county fair was held at Madison, Florida, November 3-6. The fair was highly successful.
The county commissioners made an appropriation to send a county exhibit to the state fair at Jacksonville. The agent was put in charge of the exhibit which was awarded second prize in agriculture. Madison County Pig Club was awarded second prize in a class of ten pigs exhibited.
MANATEE
(W. R. Briggs)
At the request of a number of farmers, a meeting was called by the county agent for the consideration of a uniform wage scale. Eighty representative farmers were present at this meeting, and adopted a uniform wage scale. Additional signatures have been obtained since. Results so far have been quite satisfactory.
'MARION
(W. A. Sessoms)
Arriving in the county just as a start was being made to get the Farmers' Union organization established, I at once began to encourage and assist in this movement. Fourteen communi-






Annual Report, 1920 ,


ties were organized, which later centralized into A county organization. There has just been established by the county organization a central purchasing and marketing agency, with a cooperative farmers' store. The beneficial results of the union are more evident now that the marketing agency is established and functioning.
My next work was to feature the pig club and to form the first fat pig club ever established in the state. It seemed that there could not be room for all members of the regular pig club to become breeders of breeding stock, and that it would be well to teach the boys something about feeding out pork hogs. I asked the financial support of one of the banks and was offered the use of any a-mount of money up to $2,500 for buying barrows to place with the boys and girls. The feeding period was to be 100 days, and only 6 percent interest was to be charged for the use of the money. While only 19 barrows were placed with 12 members, the results were excellent, both as to facts obtained as to feeding and as to the quality of the exhibit made by the boys at the county fair. The drop in the price.of pork hogs, tho, caused a loss on the feeding operation. However, this fact will not serve as an obstacle against the work, and indications are good for a larger fat pig club next year.
The members of the regular pig club and of the fat pig club exhibited 56 animals at the county fair, which was twice the number ever before exhibited by the young folk, and the showing caused much favorable comment for the county agent work.
ORANGE
(C. D. Kime)
Thirty-eight diseased citrus properties have been selected for special record and treatment. The office record on these properties will be kept up for at least two years. That certain lines of treatment be carried out in these properties, is desirable.
The fertilizer test work is looking toward a more rigid en enforcement of our present fertilizer guarantee law. This work will be carried on in cooperation with other counties. We find that shortages in analysis, as guaranteed by the tag accompanying the goods, are frequent and often of a serious nature. Of one company, out of ten consecutive samples eight showed a material shortage. This company is the worst offender. When it is considered that only a very small percent of the total goods






Florida Cooperative Extension


sold in the state are analyzed, the enormous loss to the purchaser can easily be estimated. This is an important piece of work for community councils.
POLK
(Win. Gomme)
This county being almost entirely a citrus county, most of the agent's time has been given to the following phases of citrus culture: (a) cultivating, (bj fertilizing, (c) spraying. It was
-found that many growers attended their groves in a haphazard way, having no definite plan. Most of them sprayed because "John did," regardless of season, condition of trees, etc. The same thing applies to cultivating and fertilizing. The agent has been instrumental in many cases in demonstrating the use of proper materials at the right time, so bringing better, cleaner and more profitable fruits.
ST. LUCIE
(Alfred Warren)
This is the third time that St. Lucie County has placed a county exhib * t at the state fair in Jacksonville under the im.mediate charge of the county agent. Our exhibit this year was a great success, winning first prize in the horticultural counties and sweepstakes trophy cup over all the exhibiting counties of the state. The prizes won at the stat- fair this year amounted
-to $790.
Beekeeping is growing more popular every year, as it is an industry that appeals to the small farmer who'finds it a profitable side line. I
SANTA ROSA
(J. C. Sechrest)
First, I found a market for and shipped one car of sweet potatoes with a profit of $129 more than the farmer could have gotten in Milton.
Second, I assisted farmers in harvesting their peanuts in such good condition that they were offered $20 a ton more than the regular market price.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the district agent of seven South Florida counties for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
A. P. SPENCER,
Vice-Director and District Agent.


The counties in the district covered by this report are Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade on the East Coast, Manatee, DeSoto and Lee on the West Coast. Supervision in this territory has occupied about a third of my time during the year, the remainder of my time being given to the duties of vice-director.
The actual work of the county agent in each county is tabulated under county agents' reports, and gives a fairly accurate key to the progress of each in his respective county. --,-' )
The entire area covered by this report differs from other sections of Florida, in that general crops and livestock are secondary as it relates to the farmer's income. A.large part of the territory is open range, much of it unfit for present-~day agriculture, and much of it uninhabited. Yet in spite of this, these counties are among the most progressiVe and prosperous of the state.
SOURCES OF FARMERS' INCOMES
The income of the farms is chiefly from horticultural products. Of these the most important are citrus fruits and winter truck crops. In most of these sections these crops are seasonable, produced at a high cost, sometimes with abnormal profits and again with decided losses. Practically all of the area covered shows some interest in corn and other farm crops, a decided interest in dairy cattle and at the present time only a limited amount of interest in hog raising. Of the livestock interests, -from the farmers' standpoint, the production of dairy products is by far the most important; on the other hand, range cattle interests are extensive and important.
VARIETY OF THE COUNTY AGENT'S WORK
Due to the rapid development and increased values of property in much of this territory, the agent's activities are varied. In-






Florida Cooperative Extension


individuals are developing properties, clearing land, planting and improving properties. Large tracts are being opened up for newcomers, many of these people with limited means and farm experiences. These lands vary from the high, dry, waste land to the muck and flat lands that require drainage. Some of these people are settling far from railroad transportation, which makes social conditions and transportation difficult. In many instances drainage attempts have not been successful.
The county agents, without exception, have endeavored to assist the new people in making a start, making frequent visits to their places to plan cash crops, prepare for citrus planting, assist in preparing pastures for their work stock and the small number of hogs and cattle they may own. And after the crops are grown, county agents have made it their business to render every assistance in aiding these people to dispose of it profitably.
The work, therefore, is varied and hard to systematize. Nevertheless, it is meeting with favorable response on the part of farmers and county officials.

THE WORK BY COUNTIES
The work in these counties differs in many respects. In Brevard County K. E. Bragdon assumed the duties of county agent December 1, 1919. His work has been principally with citrus and bees. The citrus work has been primarily in the control of insects and diseases. The spraying of citrus fruit to improve the quality has been the main citrus work in Brevard County.
A comparatively small amount of truck, crops is being pl anted, and these principally for home and local use. Some feed crops and a small acreage of corn is grown. There is some hog cholera control work, but of minor importance.
Brevard County receives an income from her bee industry. The county agent has accomplished much in the way of organizations for the more profitable production of honey. He has spent much time in organizing bee clubs among boys*and has conducted beekeepers' meetings.
.In St. Lucie County the county agent continues to give much attention to new groves, as a large acreage is planted on flat land, much of which has not been sufficiently drained. The acreage of new groves in St. Lucie County is the largest on the East Coast, and these groves are planted under a variety of conditions. The county agent has made himself a specialist in the






Annual Report, 1920


management of young groves, and has been very useful to the county as such. .
Sugar cane has also been an important part of his work. An increased acreage has been planted particularly in the Vero section, with the intention of eventually having a sugar mill. Not all these lands are suitable for growing crops. Much of it r requires heavy applications of fertilizer. A large part of it"Is in the hands of people who have had little or no experience and who have little money on which to operate.
In pineapple work the county agent has assisted the plant pathologist of the Experiment Station in conducting experiments to determine the cause of failures. While this interests a comparatively small number of citizens, it is of much importance to St.,Lucie County.
I As a large acreage of range land is available in this county,

the agent is giving some attention to grasses and forage crops, securing seed from outside sources and rendering whatever assistance he can to improve these native pastures.
In Palm Beach County, the agent has given much of. his time to truckers in the Everglades. Many of these people are located several miles from a railroad, and are trucking on a comparatively small acreage. He has been useful in assisting these farmers in'determining what crops should be planted, how they should be cultivated and finally in aiding them in marketing. On this muck land there is much interest in general farming, and a few people are undertaking livestock raising. The territory is a large one and not easy to reach from the county agent's headquarters.
During the summer of 1919, the county agent successfully conducted a rat eradication campaign. However, it has been necessary to continue the campaign during 1920. The results were good where the farmers cooperated. ,
Much interest is manifested in dairying, and the county agent assisted in a campaign to test every dairy cow for tuberculosis. There is a general interest in poultry production.
In Dade County a good part of the agent's time is given to office work, particularly during winter. Many northern people visit Miami-at this season, and some are interested in the glade lands and other farming interests of South Florida. Aside from this the county agent's time has been given to the citrus industry, and more especially to the, poultry and dairy interests. The agent has been instrumental in securing several head of pure-






Florida Cooperative Extension


bred and grade Holstein and Jersey cattle, placing these among club boys. The county, too, is tick free and the agent realizes the importance of exercising judgment in recommending the purchase of animals, whereby there is any danger of introducing the Texas fever tick.


FIG. 4.-Six year old citrus tree under observation county agent, Polk County

In Manatee County, the agent's time is principally devoted to truck and citrus crops; the control of diseases; the fertilization of these crops; and the diversification and growing of additional crops during summer months, when most of the land is idle.
Manatee County has a large area of undeveloped pasture lands. Some of this is being fenced and pastured. This, too, has occupied the attention of the county agent in advising better methods of handling such a proposition.
The agent has endeavored to increase the number of dairy cows in the county, with the view of eventually having a dairy cow for each family.






Annual Report, 1920


In Lee County John Boring, the former county agent, resigned July 1. Up to that time the agent's attention was given principally to truckers, as livestock and general farming was of comparatively little importance. On September 1, H. E. Stevens, formerly plant pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station, became county agent. As about 80 percent of the horticultural products of this county come from the groves, it seemed desirable to place a man here who -was a specialist in citrus. Since Mr. Stevens' appointment, he has made this work his major project, not neglecting, however, the interests of the truckers and livestock men.
In DeSoto County the citrus industry is by far the most important from the standpoint of income. Thetrucking interests, particularly in the Wauchula section, are gradually becoming more extensive. The county agent has divided his time pretty generally among these matters, and for the purpose of improving the fruit and assisting growers in the control of diseases that occur with truc k crops.
This county has more general farming than any other county in the district. Some livestock farms are being developed. This requires the agent's attention at various periods.

COUNTY AND STATE FAIRS
Thruout the district a county fair has been -held in each county except Brevard. Some of these counties have contributed toward making the state fair a success by sending exhibits, and in each case under the care of the county agent. This work is to be commended, insofar as it does not consume too much of the agent's time. It offers a good opportunity to get the work before the people at least once a year, thereby creating interest in the things he proposes to do.
ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS
Farm bureau organization work is making Aow progress in these counties. Palm Beach County has made a persistent effort to organize each community. Most of the communities have now an imperfect organization. The purpose, in most cases, is to improve marketing facilities and transportation.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR CENTRAL AND
-SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for Central and South Central Florida for the year ending December 31,1920.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS
District Agent.


During the year I traveled by rail 10,188 miles, and by automobile 2,942, a total of 13,130 miles. I have made 120 official. visits to county agents, and have attended 60 farmers' meetings. 'At these meetings there was a total attendance of 8,105. Accompanied by the county agents, I visited 160 farmers.
The general interest in the work is shown by the county appropriations for the'fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, which. is $26,055 as compared with $20,000 for the year ending June 30, 1920.
CORN
Besides the boys' corn club work, three counties, Marion, Pasco and Volusia, had clubs of farmers in corn growing contests. Some good results were obtained. In these contests the value of seed selection, crop rotation, and proper preparation and cultivation was clearly demonstrated. Valuable prizes were given in each club by banks in the counties. In most cases the yield was double that where ordinary methods were followed.
The work begun last year to protect corn from weevils was continued. In one county a week was spent with the county agent in this work. During the day we made visits to farms, looked over cribs and suggested how the old and open cribs could be made tight enough to fumigate. Night meetings at school houses and other places were held. Lectures were illustrated, showing development of the work against corn - weevil. Judging by the number of tight cribs built and the amount of carbon-bim sulphide used, much more corn is being saved from the ravages of weevils than ever before.
SUGAR CANE
The same interest which was shown last year in the production of sugar cane stillexists. The acreage has been large and






Annual Report, 1920


the yield good. County agents have been instrumental in getting farmers to make a more uniform grade of syrup'and to use standard containers. Citrus County has adopted a uniform container and brand for the entire county. In Putnam County a sugar mill is to be constructed. This will furnish a market for cane where farmers do not wish to make it into syrup.
VELVET BEANS
Farmers have been encouraged by county agents to increase the velvet bean acreage. Farmers have come to recognize the velvet bean as one of the best soil building and feed producing plants. Usually the beans are first pastured to cattle, and later the vines and manure from the cattle are turned under. Most farmers plant velvet beans wAh corn.
SWEET POTATOES
A large acreage was planted to sweet potatoes. Yields from early plantings were best. Most of the crop will be used on the farm. Some were marketed early, and others have been stored and will be marketed in the spring. County agents have been instrumental in marketing potatoes.
PEANUTS
There was an increase in the peanut acreage this year, and the yield was good. The low price and poor demand caused few to be gathered and marketed. In most cases the crops were pastured to hogs.
HAY
More and better hay has been harvested than usual. The varieties consist chiefly of peavine, beggarweed, peanuts, crabgrass and natal grass.
CITRUS
In the citrus counties much of the agents' time has been taken up with citrus work. Instructions have, been given in spraying, fertilizing, and cultivating groves. Instructions have also been given in budding, and pruning. Much information. has been given at field meetings.
LIVESTOCK
In each county the agent has been active in helping to improve the quality and to increase the number of livestock. Besides promoting pig clubs among the boys, many purebred hogs have been placed with farmers. These will be used for breeding purposes and will add materially to the large number of purebred hogs already in the district.






Florida Cooperative Extension


One good example of the work being done along this line ' was shown recently when one breeder sold from his herd 50 hogs under one year of age for $12,500. These hogs all went to one farm in an adjoining county as breeding stock.
Much work has been done to promote the dairy industry. Pasco and Hernando Counties each have a cooperative dairy association. The agent of Hernando has been instrumental in placing four cars of Jersey cows among farmers. .
The beef cattle industry has also received the attention of county agents, and thru. their efforts'a number of males have been placed.
FARM BUREAU ORGANIZATION
In Marchwe took up farm bureau work, and on April 22 the first county organization *was perfected. This was Hillsboro County, and several communities have been organized and have become a part of the county organization. Two other counties, Alachua and Pasco, have been'organized. The community organizations of these counties are doing good work.
Three other counties, Orange, Polk and Volusia, have done considerable organization work, and in the near future will form county organizations.
MARKETING
Agents have assisted farmers in grading,. packing and marketing their crops. In citrus counties many of the growers market their fruit thru the Citrus Exchange. Agents in these counties have been instrumental in getting many farmers to purchase fertilizers 'And other supplies cooperatively. When bought this way from $5 to $10 a ton have been saved.
One example of assistance given farmers in marketing their crops is in a case of Citrus County. The agent found about a dozen farmers'in one community, each of whom had small quantities of sweet potatoes to sell. After showing the farmers how to grade and pack them uniformly, he got in touch with the State Marketing Bureau. A buyer was sent to the farmers and they were paid $1.35 a bushel for them, f. o. b., at that time a satisfactory price.
In Seminole County the agent has been instrumental in assisting his farmers to purchase several carloads of terra cotta piping cooperatively. In this order alone they saved more than $4,000. In this same county the agent assists the farmers in buying fertilizers and other supplies saving money always. Much assistance has been given the melon I growers in marketing their crop






Annual Report, 1920


thru the Citrus Exchange, State Marketing Bureau and local organizations.
FAIRS AND EXHIBITS
Alachua, Citrus, Hernando and Marion Counties held agricultural fairs in which county agents assisted. In Alachua County community fairs were held just before the county fair, and these communities brought their exhibit to the county fair, which added materially to the agricultural exhibit.


FIG. 5-The 1920 grand champion club fat barrow. Weight at seven
months, 367 pounds. Raised by Dannie Monroe, Jefferson County

A community fair was also held at Hollister, in Putnam County. In each case these community fairs were well attended, and the citizens of the different communities displayed great interest in their work. They help to create community spirit.
Putnam and Osceola Counties sent exhibits to the state fair at Jacksonville. These exhibits were in charge of the county and home demonstration agents.
POULTRY WORK
More attention than usual has been given to poultry work. In Pasco County a poultry show and institute was held by the






Florida Cooperative Extension


county agent. All of the leading breeds of poultry were on display. The judging was done by a poultry specialist. This show took up two full days. Specialists from the Extension Division and Woman's College, a's well as local poultrymen, handled the institute.
FARM IMPLEMENTS
One of the most effective pieces of work accomplished by county agents was that of assisting farmers in buying laborsaving implements for the farm.
Agents from five counties report the purchase of the following thru their assistance: 3 hay presses, 29 gas engines, 38 cultivators, 31 tractors, 51 motor trucks, 65 corn planters, 31 mowers, 11 grain drills, 50 disk harrows, 1 hay loader, 13 hay rakes, 11 ensilage cutters, 12 cream separators, 60 spraying machines, and 6 manure spreaders.


FIG. 6. Offices of St. Lucie County and Home Demonstration Agents






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolts, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
H. G. CLAYTON,
District Agent.


During the year I have traveled by rail 16,841 miles and by automobile 3,307 miles, making a total of 19,788 miles. One hundred twenty-four official visits have been made to county agents and 58 farmers' meetings, having an attendance of 6,562, were attended. Sixty-eight demonstration farms were visited with the county agents and numerous visits made to other farms.
County appropriations for the year total $22,650 for 13 counties, as compared with $18,500 for 14 counties last year, thus showing the general interest in the work.
An agent was placed in Columbia County in January. The Bradford County agent resigned in August. This county has failed to continue the appropriation for a new agent.
The work of the agents this year has been of a general nature. This has been a year when farm operations are returning to prewar conditions. Careful planning on the farmers' part has been necessary on account of high-priced labor, fertilizer, feeds, etc.
LIVESTOCK
Much constructive livestock work has been done during the past year by the extension forces in North and West Florida. Interest has been added to the work by tours conducted- by, the agents in several -counties, a number of farmers being taken oil visits to good stock farms. These farmers see the results ob'tained from better breeding stock and they observe the best 'methods of handling and caring for this class of livestock, as
*wveW as the feeding practices that are giving results in localities nearby. In one county the bankers defrayed the expenses of the party.
Five county agents report that, due to their efforts and inAtluence, 57 purebred boars and 187 purebred sows and gilts have been brought into their counties., Purebred cows and bulls have been brought into almost every county in this district. One agent






Florida Cooperative Extension


repor s bringing into his county four purebred bulls and 28 purebred c,)ws and heifers. Another reports 3 purebred bulls and 30 cowii.
Results of this kind of work are readily observed in the better kind of stock kept on the farms, the improved types going to market, better exhibits at our county fairs and the general interest shown.
Between January I and December 1, 1920, the county agents have treated 22,140 head of hogs against hog cholera.
ORGANIZATION
Livestock breeders' associations have been organized this year in Leon, 'Madison, Walton and Escambia Counties. In two counties the agents have rendered valuable services in the organization of farmers' union locals. In four counties the work of organizing the county in accordance with the Florida Farm Bureau plan is almost completed.
FAIRS AND CONTESTS
The county fairs and club contests in this district showed marked improvement over last year, especially in quality, quantity and educational value of exhibits. Efforts of the county and home demonstration agents are largely responsible for the excellence of these displays. Three counties held fairs this year,


FIG. 7.-Corn and velvet bean demonstration acre, Bay County

where none had been held previously for years. One day community fairs were held in four counties, and at six of the county fairs in this district community exhibits were shown.
Club contests in four counties, where no county fairs were






Annual Report, 1.920


held, were really small fairs themselves and attracted much interest.
At the state fair eight counties from this district had exhibits as compared with four in 1919. These counties were Bay, Columbia, Duval, Escambia, Leon, Madison, Suwannee and Taylor. In the agricultural division in which these counties competed Escambia won first, Madison second, Duval third, Columbia fourth and Bay fifth places.
MEETINGS
One or more community meetings have been held in each county in this district.- In several ' counties one and two series of such meetings were held. Community problems and subjects applicable to them, together with some entertainment feature composed the program. In Liberty County the annual field meetings were very successful.
. Early in December a series of 2-day farmers' schools was held in four counties, Santa Rosa, Washington, Walton and Liberty. Organization, cooperation, home problems, marketing and livestock, were among the subjects discussed by the different speakers. The second day was known as poultry day, and at this time a practical course of instruction in farm poultry production was presented.
' These-meetings were all well attended, and many expressions from local people were heard as to their success.

CLUB WORK
Good progress has been made in club work, both as to amount and class of work done. Two club camps were held. last summer.

CORN, COTTON, VELVET BEANS AND SUGARCANE
The corn crop was satisfactory over this territory this year, the greater part of the production of the state being made. here. Hard. work on. the part of the farmers during the unfavorable weather in the spring and favorable weather during thelatter ,part of the season made'this crop possible. Over 50 percent of the acreage was interplanted with velvet beans for soil improvement and stock feed. A good crop of beans wag made.
The cotton acreage was increased approximately 10 percent over last year. This, however, was not done at the expense of livestock and diversification. A combination of boll weevil injury and unfavorable weather brought about a condition which .-resulted in almost no production in certain localities, while the






46 Florida Cooperative Extension

absence of these factors enabled good production in other lo-'' calities. The greater portion of the state's 19,000-bale cotton crop was produced in North and West Florida, of which most is still being held for better prices. . A good cane crop was produced, a large acreage being planted. Very little syrup has been sold, most of it being held for a better market. Less seed cane is bedded than a year ago.
PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS
The agents have been active in getting more pastures and grazing crops established, and have aided in increasing the carrying capacity of pastures. One county agent has had orders for 30,000 pounds of different kinds of grass- seed for the farms of his county. Four county agents report that thru their efforts 50 farmers have started growing grazing crops for hogs. This type of work is a fundamental need in the future progress of our livestock industry. We . must make better provision to care for the improved livestock now being brought in, and county agents are doing thei share to this end.
IMPROVED MACHINERY
Five county agents report new machinery has been purchased in their counties the past year, totaling 7 hay presses, 18 gasoline engines, 30 2-horse cultivators, 16 tractors, 35 motor trucks, 53 corn planters, 6 mowing machines, 1 grain drill, 41 disk harrows, 40 cultivators, 3 hay rakes, 2 cream separators, 12 spraying machines and several hundred small tools. Scarcity of labor and high prices have made improved machinery both necessary and profitable.
MISCELLANEOUS
Two sweet potato storage houses have been completed - this year, the government plans being used.
In Suwannee County the erection of a meat curing house is well under way, the results of which will be of interest and benefit to other counties.
Complete reports at hand from eight county agents show a total of 43,619 miles traveled by auto and rail, 97 farmers' meetings and 36 field meetings held, and 5,236 official visits made to farmers, demonstrators, club boys, etc.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club agent, for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
R. W. BIACKLOCK,
Boys' Club Agent.


Boys' club work has again demonstrated its value as a means of building up the agricultural interests of Florida. The work accomplished by the boys in the various clubs has been a valuable lesson to farmers as well as to boys. Thn the clubs the value of better seed and better blood has been taught to many farmers who could not have been reached otherwise. The increased yields due to better seed, better preparation and better cultivation in the corn, peanut and potato clubs, stand as convincing demonstrations of better methods of farming, w-ile the results shown by the boys in the animal clubs have demonstrated that blood plus proper feeding of livestock will make a profit for the farmer.
The number of counties where the club work has been carried on this year is 29 against 45 for last year. Still, the amount of work accomplished, as shown by reports, received, is nearly as large. -There has been at -substantial increase in the work accomplished in the animal clubs, and the addition of the bee and fat barrow clubs has opened two- new lines of activities to the boys.
NEW CLUBS ORGANIZED
BEE CLUBS
Local conditions in South Florida are such that the regular crop and animal clubs do not fit into the farming system of that section. To give the boys there a chance to share the benefits of club work, the bee club has been started. Brevard County was selected as the county in which to try out this new work. County Agent K. E. Bragdon secured 13. boys and girls who agreed to do the work under his direction.
The boys and girls developed wonderful ability in handling and caring for the bees. Some members, -more favorably - located, secured profitable yields, but none lost-money. The. results






Florida Cooperative Extension


in Brevard County were such that bee clubs will be started in several counties next year.
PIG FATTENING CLUBS
Another new club which gives great promise is the fat barrow, or pig fattening club. The slackened demand for breeding stock which came in the early summer was a discouragement to pig club members of last year who had raised purebred pigs and could not dispose of them. To encourage the boys to feed out their pigs for market the pig fattening club was pushed in Jefferson and Marion Counties.
In Jefferson County, Dannie Monroe fed out a purebred Duroc barrow with exceptionally good results. The records of this boy's pig are: Initial weight, 65 pounds; final weight, 367 pounds; gain, 302 pounds; daily gain, 2.05 pounds; days fed, 145; pounds cost of gain, 4 cents; age at end of contest, 7 months 11 days.
CLUB CAMPS
The club camps which were started last year have been continued. Camps were held in* Citrus, Columbia and Santa Rosa Counties.
In Citrus County, at Shell Island, 19 boys attended the camp. In Columbia County 53 boys spent three days at Ichtucknee Springs, and in Santa Rosa County 30 boys and girls attended the camp at Floridatown.


FIG. 8-Recreation at Columbia County club camp, 1920

At these camps regular courses are given and the boys are taught how to make labor saving devices for the farm. Rope splicing and knot tying were taught at all camps this year. Rec-






Annual Report, 1920


reaction was not neglected, and games, swimming and th ' e like were enjoyed. The boys were kept under strict discipline, and their health and morals were watched. These camps serve the need of the country boy to secure some of the pleasures which heretofore have been possible only to the town and city boy.
INTERNATIONAL CLUB JUDGING CONTEST
Perhaps the outstanding feature of the club year was the trip made by a team of Florida club boys to the international club livestock judging contest, held in connection with the southeastern fair at Atlanta, Ga., October 19-22. This contest is the most important event of its kind in the South, and is open to every state having club work. This was the first year, and 14 states sent teams.
The Florida team was selected f rom ten boys who took a week's training in stock judging at the University in September. Four boys were chosen at this time. Thanks to the friends of club work in Florida for the financial assistance necessary to make this trip, these boys were taken thru Georgia, visiting


FIG. 9-The 1920 Florida club team at the International club judging contest, Atlanta, 1920






Florida Cooperative Extension


livestock herds. The team was composed of C. H. Taylor, Jr., Hillsboro County; Henry Dorsett, Suwannee County; Roy Seals, Madison County. Luther Webb of Hillsboro County was alternate.
The 14 teams judged four breeds of hogs, three of beef cattle, three of dairy cattle and two of sheep. When the awards were made, the Florida team stood in sixth place. The standing of the teams shows how well our Florida boys did, altho they had to go into the contest without training in judging sheep. The following table gives the standing of the 10 highest teams:
(1) Texas . 3110 (6) Florida . 2868 (2) Miss . . 2965 (7) Arkansas . 2772 (3) Kansas . 2953 (8) S. Carolina . 2769 (4) Virginia . 2879 (9) Georgia . 2747 (5) Iowa . 2869 (10) Louisiana . 2739
The Florida team led in judging Hampshire hogs and Holstein cattle. Henry Dorsett led all the competing boys in judging dairy cattle, and C. H. Taylor tied for first place in judging Hampshire hogs.
The value of this training in judging livestock can hardly be estimated, and it -is -hoped that Florida can continue to send a t~am to this contest.
STATE FAIR CLUB EXHIBIT
After the county contests were held, the best exhibits in crop and animal clubs were gathered at the state fair in Jacksonville. The fair association was liberal with prizes, and the club members responded with large and excellent exhibits. One hundred s venty 10-ear exhibits of corn, 115 1-gallon exhibits of peanuts, 35 peck exhibits of sweet potatoes and 1 5-member bee club, exhibit, were shown as exhibits. In the livestock department. 5) registered sows, gilts and boars, 10 fat barrows and 6 calves
-4 ere exhibited. The uniformity of the exhibits was good, and the quality of the corn exhibit was exceptional, as there was practically no weevil-damaged ears on display. In the peanuts, the White Spanish variety predominated and the quality was good, showing that good seed has been planted and the crop properly limed and fertilized. The exhibit of 20 jars of exti acted honey shown in the bee club exhibit attracted much f vorable comment.
The greatest improvement was found in the -livestock exhibit. For-the first time, animals: raised by club-boys-,wre-shown vi in open:classes against animals shown by breeders. . Over $f00 was-






Annual Report, 1920


won by the boys in these open competitions. Among the winnings were first and second prize under one year Duroc barrow, champion Poland-China and Berkshire barrows, second and third prize'senior sow pig in the Durocs and fourth prize senior, sow pig in the Poland-Chinas. These winnings show that the standard of the work being done in the pig club is high, as some of the best herds in the Southeast were competing in the open classes.
COUNTY PIG CLUB EXHIBITS
For the first time county pig club exhibits were shown. These exhibits consisted of 10 breeding pigs from a county. Columbia County won first and Madison second. Much credit is due the county agents of these counties for their fine work along this line.
.SUPPORT OF THE WORK
The support given club work by people of the state is increasing. In addition to the large amount of money loaned each year to purchase pigs, over $7,000 was given in prizes at the county contests and at the state contest.
While much of this fund was given as cash, there was an increased amount given to pay for scholarships and educational trips. The State Bankers' Association gave three scholarships valued at $100 each to be used toward paying three boys' )expenses thru the Agricultural College. Williamson & Dennis gave a $250 Agricultural College scholarship as first prize in both the calf and the pig clubs. Armour & Co. gave a $150 tri P to the international livestock show and exposition held at Chi I cago to the state champions in the corn and fat barrow club. In addition to these two trips, Armour & Co. gave $500 to pay the expenses of 30 boys to the boys' annual short course at the University. The land and industrial division of the Florida East Coast Railway Company gave a scholarship to one boy in each county served by its road. The local banks and business men in almost every county gave money to send from one to twentyfive boys to the short course. These additional prizes will aid materially in the dissemination of agricultural information thruout the state.
STATE CHAMPIONS
In the corn club, Don Miley, of Hillsboro County, won the championship with a yield of 101.7 bushels produced at a cost of 30 cents a bushel. As a reward for his success he was awarded a trip to the boys' short course at Gainesville and also a trip to the international livestock show at Chicago.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The state champion in the pig feeding club was Leo Leslie of Columbia County, who bred and raised the Poland China pig which was judged the best: club pig shown at the state fair. Leo was awarded the Williamson & Dennis scholarship to the Agricultural College.
Dannie Monroe of Jefferson County showed the grand champion fat barrow in the state fair club show and was awarded a trip to the international livestock show.
Stewart Lockhart of Alachua County won the Williamson & Dennis scholarship in the calf club. His heifer also won in her class in the open ring.
The banker scholarships to the Agricultural College was won by Henry Dorsett of Suwannee County, Samuel Skipper of Alachua County, and C. H. Taylor, Jr., of Hillsboro County. These scholarships are awarded one in each banking district of the state to the boy from that district having the highest average in a series of examinations given by the state club agent.
SHORT COURSE
The Fifth Annual Short Course was held at the University of Florida December 7-12. Boys from 28 counties attended.


F1G. 10-Seven boys attending the 1920 short course who raised over 75 bushels of corn to the acre







Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
E. F. DEBusK,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.


THE CORN CLUB
While there was a bumper crop of c orn made in the United States this year, a poor season made an off year for Florida. The average acre yield for the state this year is 13.5 bushels; the average last year was 15 bushels. Despite the poor season the corn club boys made an average yield of 34.5 bushels an acre this year. The average last year was 35.7 bushels. .
It is interesting to note that 50 percent of the corn club boys used no fertilizer. The boys have been taught the value of turning under legumes and other cover crops. The proper saving and use of barnyard manure has been stressed also. I
Hillsboro County made the highest acre yi ' eld, 18 boys reporting an average of 52.6 bushels an acre, produced at an average cost of 29 cents a bushel, the lowest average cost reported. Holmes had the largest number of boys reporting and made the largest total yield of corn. Hernando County reported the lowest cost for a bushel, one boy producing 58.5 bushels at a cost of 17 cents a bushel. In Hillsboro County 50 percent of the club boys made 50 or more bushels an acre; three boys made 80 or more bushels.
101.7 BUSHELS ON ONE ACRE
Don Miley of Hillsboro County made the highest corn club yield, producing 101.7 bushels on one acre. The following is his own story of how he did it:
"The plot of land to which I planted my corn contained one acre. The land was thick'with beggarweed before I broke it. I broke the land December 20 about 7 inches deep, and then disked it well. About 15 days later I ran the disk over it again. It was then in good condition for planting. I opened the furrows and applied three 1-horse loads barnyard manure; later I applied 350 pounds commercial fertilizer. I planted the corn-yellow





SUMMARY OF 197 CORN CLUB REPORTS


VI






37.5 36.5 31.8 52.6 30.8 29.5 33.0 38.6 32.2
20.0 26.3 26.0 36.6 29.0 39.8
45.0 26.0 36.0 35.5 19.3

34.5


1,499.0 911.0 513.0
929.4 370.0 325.0 363.0
411.0 332.0 157.0 158.9 156.0 183.3
145.3 159.3 135.1 52.0 36.0 35.5 19.3

6,891.0


87.0 58.5 77 2 101:7 51.5
45.0 49.4 65.0
42.3 35.5 60.5 32.0
40.3 35.5
42.8 50.1
40.0 36.0 35.5 19.3

50.3


0 -1Z 0
Z
0 75 -4,0
$4
4. cd
Cd ce
to P4
>
z u z O H

.43 31 9,450 12 24 17 6.2 4.7
.17 1 300 1 2 19 5.7 4.5
.26 15 4,250 2 12 12 6.4 4.6
.30 8 2,400 4 6 13 6.2 4.6
.51 12 4,020 3 12 3 6.2 4.0
.24 4 1,380 1 3 2 7.0 4.0
.51 8 3,040 ------------ ------------ 4 7.2 5.0
.41 -------------- -------------.51 4 1,800 4 1 6.0 3.0
.67 ------ 3 ---- ---- -975 --- ------ I ---- -- --3 ---- ------ 7---- 6.0 4.5
.33 1 900 . . 5 7.0 5.0
.32 2 800 ------------ ------------ 4 5.0 6.3
.65 3 600 3 3 4 6.0 4.5
.33 2 300 1 2 3 6.0 4.0
.40 3 900 2 2 1 6.0 5.0
.47 1 200 . ------------ ------------ 6.0 5.0
.45 . . ------------ ------------ ---------- -------------.42 1 300 . --------- 1 6.0 3.0
.62 ------------ ----- : . ---------- -- ------------ 1 6.0 4.0
.68 ------------ ------ - ---- ------------ ------------ ----------- 6.0 2.0

.374 99 1 31,615 1 33 73 97 6.1 4.3


bb
County
W
z

Holmes . 40 Hernando ------------ 25
Liberty -------- ------- 18
Hillsboro . -.- 18 Okaloosa - --------- 12
Suwannee . . 11
Santa Rosa -------- 11
Escambia --------- :-1 10
Bradford . 10
Alachua -. ---------- 8
Marion . 6
Polk -------------------- 6
Madison . 5
Columbia ---- . - 5
Duval . -- 4
Taylor . 3 Pasco -------------------- 2
Jackson ----- . 1
Palm Beach -------- 1
Orange . I
Totals or
averLges ---------- 197


41 V n 0
Q) t)





.53 .36 .56 .29 .66 .55 .61
.49 .49 .74 .61 .70 .57
.47 .55
.40 .98
.42 .62 .68

.493







Annual Report, 1920


corn-March 19. It was planted about a foot apart in drills, the rows being four feet eight inches apart. It came up a good stand. When it was about two weeks old I harrowed it well. About April 12 I began to plow it with a sweep. I hoed it twice. It was cultivated six times. I gathered the corn August 10. It made a good yield, the stalks ranging from one to two good ears each. I gathered the corn and put it into the barn. In measuring and weighing my corn I found I had made 101.7 bushels on my acre. I have selected my seed corn for next year. The county agent visited me three times during the season."

ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1920


County
0


Alachua . 25 Bay . 3 Bradford . 76 Brevard . Calhoun . 1 Citrus .--------- 18
Clay ----------------------- 4
Columbia . - 14 Dade . DeSoto . 24 Duval . 12 Escambia . 27
Hernando . 39
Hillsboro . 22 Holmes . 175 Jackson -----------12
Jefferson . 1 Leon . Liberty . 47 Madison . 13
Manatee . 11
Marion . 23 Okaloosa . 27 Orange . 1 Palm Beach . 19 Pasco . 3 Polk--------9
Polka . 13 Putnam ---------- 13
Santa Rosa . 42 Suwannee . 16 St. Johns . St. Lucie .- 4 Taylor . 7 Washington . 19
Totals .------ I 707


59
1
7

1
20
1
68

53
8
107 26

1
10
1
20 24 18
63 12
1
11
6
6
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--- 6--- .

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7-- - - - - - - - - - - - -


124
4 175
14
3
50
8
93
12 8o
20 144 69


1 627 1 160 I 102 1 47 1 43 1,686







Florida Cooperative Extension


THE BOYS' SHORT COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Out of the 29 counties doing boys' club work, 28 sent representatives to the boys' short course, December 7-10. General courses were given in animal husbandry, poultry husbandry, agronomy, dairying, veterinary science, forage crops, farm mechanics, entomology, beekeeping and plant pathology, the boys being divided into classes. Practical work was given in beekeeping and livestock judging.
The boys were quartered in old army barracks and received their meals in the University dining hall.


FIG. 11.-Holmes County boys corn club, 1920
BOYS ATTENDING THE FOURTH ANNUAL SHORT COURSE
.December 7-10. 1920


Name





Beville, J. W., Jr . Bitch, Nelson . Brown, Harvey B . Crosby, Theodore. Downing, Lonnie. Downing, Crawford . Fletcher, G. D._-_Fraser, Ashey.---Fraser, Ernan . Henry, Robert . Henry, Ralph . Hodge, Park . Hodge, Rivers.---Hodge, Ruff. Holt, Willie. Leivonen, Pete . Martin, Ralph.---. Parker, Carl. Parker, Ellis . Pearson, Seibert.


County Address




Alachua County
Gainesville.----Trenton.-----orange Heights.----Newberry.------Trenton._---Trenton.-----Bell.--------Hawthorn.---Hawthorn .----.-_----Hawthorn.----Hawthorn.----Newb;_rry.------Newberry.------Newberry.----Newberry.------Alachua.-----Newberry.------Gainesville.-----Gainesville.-----Alachua .---.-----------


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1
1

1
1
1


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4
8
9
4
5
6
7
6
8
8
6
6
4
9
7

8
7
7
6


0



1







1
1

1
1
1
1

2







Annual Report, 1920


Name



Roberts, Lee L . Saarinen, Albert. Salni, Enil. Thomas, Francis .Williams, Emery.

Fields, L. T. Gwaltney, James W. . Mead, George E. Jr .

Miller, Albert .

Martin, Stewart A .

Jones, Lee.-. King, Percy.- --Priest, Geo. R .


County Address


Trenton. Alachua. --Alachua.------Earlton.------Alachua.------Bay County
Panama City .-St. Andrews . St. Andrews.----Bradford County Dukes.

Brevard County
Audubon .

Citrus County
Brooksville.-.
Inverness.------Brooksville .


Columbia C~iunty
Baetz, Carl.-----. Lake City.-----Dade County
Core, Kelly N.------Homestead . Kuhn, Herman -. Miami.------.----IDeSoto County
Alderman, David.------Arcadia.------Driggers, I. J., Jr.Zolfo . . Horrell, James G.Arcadia.--. Johnson, Gordon .Arcadia .


Bishop, Geo. M . McVeigh, Drew .-----Pickett, Clarence. Pickett, Earl. Pringle, Eustace. Pringle, Gervin.-----Watson, Arnold.-----Barrineau, Harvey. Morris, Windell.

Alderman, Leon. Alderman, Geo. Booth, Chas .--Futch, Clyde.----


Duval County
Baldwin. .13
Baldwin.------14
Grand Crossing. 15 Grand Crossing.14 Baldwin.-13 Baldwin.------15
So. Jacksonville . 14

Escambia County
Quintelle . 15 Pensacola.-----. 15

Hillsboro County
Wimauma . 14 Lakeland. 16 Plant City . .1 14 Plant City.------- 15


0






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1



1




12 12
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Florida Cooperative Extension


Name


Futch, James . Hall, Ollen . Miley, Don . Miley, Lloyd . Nesmith, Louis. Raulerson, L. C . Wheeler, Alton-.

Brown, Homer . Moffett, Roy .
Murphey, Harvey. Sutton, Leon.

C arter, B uford . . Monroe, Donnie, Jr .

Pledg er, Wilbur.

Hansen, Halron .

Bradwell, Junior .

Fox, Edgar . Glass, Theo . Rains, Early --------Seals, Roy.

Downing, Shelton.

Buffington, Theo . Neil, Vernon .

Edenfield, Emett ----Senterfitt, Cecil ---West, William M .

Erickson, Carl . --Hall, Lewis .

Roberts, A. C .


County Address


Plant City -----------Plant City . Plant City . Plant City -----------Plant City.-----Plant City---------.
Lakeland--.---------Holmes County
Westville ------------Bonifay------------.
Ponce de Leon. Ponce de Leon .

Jefferson County
Lloyd . Lloyd .

Jackson County
Marianna----------.

Leon County
Tallahassee ----------Liberty County
Hosford.------Madison County Pinetta . . Lee.--------Madison . Madison-----------.

Manatee County
Parrish.-------Marion County
Morriston.----.
Ocala.---------------Okaloosa County Laurel Hill --------Laurel Hill --------Orange County Orlando--------------Palm Beach County Canal Point.----.
West Palm Beach.

Pasco County Dade City ----------


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CLUB BOYS HAVE BANK ACCOUNTS
The club boys are taught to save their earnings in club work and are urged to open savings accounts with their local banks. About 50 percent of the boys attending the short course this year have bank accounts.
In Polk County three savings accounts of $10, $5 and $5 were given by the county commissioners as prizes to club boys.
WHERE DO THE PROFITS GO?
In answer to the question, "What did you do with the profits this year"? 70 of the 99 boys attending the short course replied as follows:
37 percent, or 26: "Fed it to father's stock."
20 percent, or 14: "Didn't get it."
13 percent, or 9: "Fed it to my stock."
10 percent, or 7: "Put it in the bank."
5: "Spent it for different things."


0
41 ce 0 0 0


Annual Report, 1920


0 0 0 0
.
0





---------.


Address County



ft7;
chland .
Polk County
Brewster ---------------------Bartow -------------------------Ft. M eade -------------------Ft. M eade ------------------
Lakeland ---------------------- I
Santa Rosa County Holt .
Holt . -----Jay -------------------------------Milton .
St. Johns County St. Augustine --- ---------Taylor County
Perry .
Perry .
Perry .
Perry .
Perry .
Washington County Vernon .


Name



Sullivan, W. R .

Anderson, Paul . Carter, Kendrick .
Clark, Ernest . Clark, W. Olive . Pipkin, Francis .

Johnson, Eugene . Johnson, Alton B . . Johnson, Arrie L. . Manning, J. T . .

Wolfe, Claud H .

Bird, Henry F .
Bowdoin, John .
Sibert, Jack .
Woods, Bithe . . Woods, Byron .

Roche, Buel .






Florida Cooperative Extension

2 "Have money at home."
1 "Gave it to pap." 1: "Bought poultry with it." 1: "Purchased livestock." 1: "Pap got it." 1: "Put it into more bees." 1: "Spent it going to school." 1: "Finished paying for my pig."


FIG. 12-State club champion calf, exhibited by Stewart Lockart, Alachua County

MARION COUNTY PIG CLUB
Marion County led in pig club work, exhibiting 56 purebred pigs at the county contest and fair. The following is a summary of 34 pig club reports of that county:
Average age of pigs at beginning of contest ---------- 4 months.
Average initial weight -------------------------------------------- 101 pounds.
Average final weight ------------------------------------------------ 281 pounds.
A verage gain ---------------------------------------------------------- 180 pounds.
Average num ber of days fed ------------------------------------------------ 163.
A verage daily gain ------------------------------------------------ 1.2 pounds.
Average cost pound of gain -------------------------------------- 11.3 cents.
H ighest daily gain ------------------- ---------------------------- 1.6 pounds.
Lowest cost pound of gain ------------ --------------------------- 6.0 cents.






Annual Report, 1920


A PIG CLUB BOY'S RECORD
John Compton, Ocala, Florida, enrolled in the boys' pig club of Marion County April 9, 1920, starting with a purebred big type Poland China sow pig, eight weeks old and weighing 22 pounds. He has fed it as follows:
April 9 to May 9- June 9 to Sept. 25M ilk -------------------------- 7 parts M ilk ------------------------ 14 parts
Kitchen waste ---------- 6 Kitchen waste ---- 12 "
Woods pasture, free range Shorts ------------- ------ I
Woods pasture, free range
May 9 to June 9- Sept. 25 to Nov. 21-
M ilk -------------------------- 7 parts M ilk ------------------------ 14 parts
Kitchen waste ---------- 6 " Kitchen waste . 12
Cornm eal ------------------ 1 " Corn ------------------------ 13
Woods pasture, free range Woods pasture, free range
Total gain during the 195 days was 310 pounds, an average daily gain of 1.59 pounds. The pound cost of gain was 6 cents, with feed valued as follows:
Cornmeal --------- -- ------------------------------------- 5 cents a pound
Shorts ------- . ---------------------------------------- 4 cents a pound
Corn ---------------------------------------- -- ------------- 3 cents a pound
M ilk ---------------------------------------------------------- 3 cents a gallon
Kitchen waste ------------------------------------------ 1 cent a gallon
Woods pasture --------- ---------- - ------------------ 10 cents a month.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the yearending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
State Home Demonstration Agent.


COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS
Home demonstration work was carried on in 30 counties from January 1 to June 30. These counties appropriated $33,552 for salaries and travel expenses of the agents, or $1,215.35 more than was appropriated during the previous year by 40 counties. The appropriations effective July 1, 1920, show an increase of $9,807.24 over the previous year. This was a splendid indorsement by the people of the state.
The work has been maintained satisfactorily on the whole; many counties increased their appropriations, others appropriated the same amounts as last year, and some new counties were added with substantial appropriations. Eight additional counties made appropriations but not sufficient to employ a competent agent.
LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
A research laboratory has been equipped in the offices at Tallahassee. In this laboratory is conducted researches in cookery and nutritive value of foods. It provides a place where home problems can be given scientific study, and it provides field forces reliable information which they can take directly to housewives. This research work in home economics corresponds to nutrition laboratory work on animal nutrition as conducted by agricultural experiment stations. A number of problems in Florida fruits and sweet potatoes have received attention.
The worker in charge of research organized a nutrition journal club that holds bimonthly meetings. Members of the extension service and faculty members of home economics, chemistry, biology and the college dietitian attend. Reports and discussions of the investigations carried on in this and other laboratories are made. This has been most helpful to field agents, for, due to heavy field duties, little time is found by them for such






Annual Report, 1920


work. A resume of the reports made at these meetings is sent to home demonstration agents.
AGENTSOne of the difficulties in developing home demonstration work is the scarcity of properly trained workers. Every effort is made to secure the most efficient specialists possible. Florida has never had a better equipped force of county workers than at present.
AGENTS' MEETINGS
The agents' annual meeting was held September 1-8 at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, and from September 8-11, in joint session with the men, at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports of work done, instruction, and the development of plans for the coming year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the consideration of work that could be best accomplished thru the closest correlation between county and home demonstration agents.
ENROLLMENT
The enrollment in girls' clubs for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, showed a gratifying increase in membership over the previous year when ten more counties were in the work. The enrollment among the women shows a retention of a large proportion of women previously enrolled. The comparative enrollment of members carrying on systematic work is as follows:


Club Membership,
1918-19, 40 counties
Total
Girls ---------------------------------- 4 688
Canning ---------------- 2,020
Poultry --- ; ------------ 1,387
Cooking ----------------- 628
Miscellaneous . 653
Womenenrolled in all
clubs ---------- I . --- . 8,839


Club Membership,
1919-20, 30 counties
Total
Girls ----------------------- --- _4,069
Canning ---------------- 1,152
Poultry ----------- ---- 1,128
Home improvement ---_------------ 1,319
Sewing ------------------ 1,319
Cooking ---------------- 568
Home pantry -------- 1,248 Miscellaneous . 469 Women enrolled in all 'clubs . --------------- 3P627






Florida Cooperative Extension


There have been fewer girls enrolled in garden work than in the previous year, due largely to a bigger enrollment of girls who took up poultry and home improvement.
At the agents' annual meeting, each agent was asked to set a membership goal for her county and to enroll girls as "applicants for membership" until they could be properly enrolled and classified as "members." The enrollment in counties for 1920-21 is larger than it has ever been.
The following are some of the high profits made by members of the canning club:
County Name Profit
Escam bia ---------------------------------------- Josephine W hite . 126.90
H illsboro . . A lene Y oung . 125.00 DeSoto. ---- -------------------------------------- Gertrude Ivey -------------------------------------- 122.14
Santa Rosa . . M innie Pitts ---------------------------------------- 100.09
M adison ---------- ---------------------------------- Lucille Loper . . 94.00
Putnam -------------------------------------------- N eenee Revels ------------------------------------- 91.30
Polk . . . Louise Clark . . 82.64 Duval . Irm a Richardson -------------------------------- - 70.70
CUBAN CLUBS
In Hillsboro County three Cuban clubs, two for girls and one for women, have been conducted. These clubs study food and its preparation. This work is timely and is meeting with favorable results.
POULTRY CLUBS
Poultry is one of the most profitable lines of work taken up by club members.
Rose McGrath of Putnam County set 288 Single Comb White Leghorn eggs in incubators, hatched 230 and lost only one. She says, "I would have raised every one of them but when, they were about two weeks old an old hawk caught one, but I raised the other 229 without any trouble with diseases or insects, which were prevented with plenty of permanganate of potash and dusting powder." The total cost was $68.73; total value of products, $321.10; profit, $252.37.
Doris Lanier of Suwannee County had charge of a farm flock of Black Minorcas. She kept 140 layers; sold 932 dozen eggs for $390.50; used 30 dozen at home; sold 9 settings of eggs; set 181 eggs; raised 115 chickens. The total c ost of the flock was $586.50; total value of all products, $933.70; profit, $347.20.
Frances Blackburn of Hillsboro County kept a flock of 33 birds. She sold 312 dozen eggs for $189.27. She set 69 eggs and raised 37 chickens. The total value of all products was $429.66; cost of flock, $173.35; profit, $256.31.






Annual Report, 1920


Zelma Burnett of Santa Rosa County kept a - flock of Rhode island Red chickens and 14 turkeys. She sold 189 dozen eggs for $112.80; set 145 eggs, raised 112 chickens; set 73 turkey eggs, raised 39 turkeys. The total value of all products was $678.80; total cost, $194.10; profit, $484.70. Fortunately Zelma's turkeys have a fine range, therefore, the feed cost was :small.
POULTRY WORK WITH WOMEN
With adults the egg circle work in Hernando County and at Florahome and the back yard poultry work of St. Augustine are outstanding. The Orange County agent made the following report from one club member: "Mrs. Long started in with six turkey hens and one tom, and raised 108 young turkeys. She sold 30 for Thanksgiving at 55 -cents a pound, which brought $163.85. She has on hand 87 turkeys, all engaged for Christmas. She has sold over $1,000 worth of eggs, chickens and turkeys. The eggs more than paid the feed bill."
CANNING
The total number of tin and glass containers filled were 497,000; by girls, 45,060; by women, 452,000.
Meat canning has received special attention. This furnishes a cheap and convenient article of diet to farm families. Steam pressure canners were used. In Putnam County there were 20 beeves and 60 hogs canned at the homes of club members. A small amount of fish has been canned.
BEE CLUB WORK
Osceola County was the first county in the state to start bee club work for girls and boys. Miss Albina Smith, agent, started the work early in 1918. During the first season weather conditions were unfavorable and the amount of honey stored was small. In most cases the bees were fed. The club members, however never lost interest. During the past year the yield has been better. With some of the funds derived from their work club members purchased paint cooperatively, painted their hives, bought new queens, and made general improvements. Other counties reporting enrollment in bee club work are, Gadsden, Osceola, Orange, Palm Beach, Suwannee and Taylor.
SEWING
The interest in sewing during the past year has exceeded that of any previous year. Among the women it has been stimulated






Florida Cooperative Extension


by the high cost of clothing and the necessity of renovating and remodeling the old. , Many calls for help with this work have come to agents. Interest on the part of girls was due largely to the attractive program offered them in this work, HOME IMPROVEMENT
Following the interest stimulated last year in the improvement of the bedroom, a program was offered, based on this and on the care and repair of the girls' own clothes. One thousand fifty-four girls took the furnishings of their bedroom and the care and repair of their own clothing as definite tasks for the year. Beautiful exhibits of this work, made at each county contest, showed excellent results.
To further center the interest of these girls in the home, the girls also filled 50 containers for the home pantry. This has led to improving the entire home, interior and exterior.
Other definite lines of home improvement have been the remodeling of kitchens, installation of water systems, electric lights, screens, the planting of ornamentals and the remodeling of the entire house.
The following report from the agent of Gadsden County is typical: "Lessie McKeown has added a new bedroom -to her home, and with money made in club work she furnished this room. Two women have painted the interior walls of their home, making decided improvements. One man has remodeled his 2-room dwelling and made a nice 6-room bungalow, with bathroom and sleeping porch. Plans were furnished by the home demonstration agent for remodeling this home."
STATISTICAL REPORT OF HOME IMPROVEMENT
Ornamental plantings made . I . 191 H ouses painted ---------------------------------------------- . _ 77
H ouses screened ---------------------------------------------------- ----- 75
W ater systems installed . 23 Lighting systems installed. . 31 Houses remodeled -_-----_--------- -------------- --------------- 75
Sleeping porches added ---------------------------------------- ----- 31
Kitchens remodeled ---_----------------- ------------- 42
FARM BUREAU ORGANIZATION
The entire extension staff has worked actively on community and county farm bureau organization. Home demonstration clubs among women and girls have in many instances formed the nucleus around which the community club has been built. In







Annual Report, 1920


some cases they have arranged the first community meeting. The programs for the first meetings consisted of moving pictures, lectures and demonstrations in the afternoon; a play hour for the children; a picnic supper; after supper lectures, singing, moving pictures and slides. It is noticeable that in counties where these meetings were held, a great number of community fairs were held later.
SHORT COURSES AND CAMPS
Thirteen short courses were held with an attendance of 442. Eleven county short courses for girls, each of three days duration, were attended by 545 girls. The cooperation of the housekeepers of the towns in entertaining these girls in their homes during their stay in town makes these short courses possible.

















AW
FIG. 13-Eight girls who made the highest records in canning work

The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls. Scholarships to this school are provided by boards of county commissioners, school boards, banks and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in attendance 39 were enrolled in canning; 23 in poultry; 14 in sewing, undertaking as their year's problem the furnishing and care of their bedrooms; 3 in grape groups; 5 in dairy work;
1 in beekeeping, and 3 in pig clubs.
In response to the question as to what club work had meant






Florida Cooperative Extension


to them, the following replies were received from some of the girls attending this short course, held in Tallahassee in May, 1920:
"Club work has taught me to can and do many other things with less work and expense. The club has given me responsibilities, and it makes me feel that if I had to make my own living I could do it."
"Club work has meant a whole lot to me. It has made a new person of me. The money I made in 1919, 1 spent for clothing and home comforts."
"I have been a member of the canning club three years. I have enjoyed it. I have learned to can and save things that would be wasted otherwise. The first year I did not win a prize. The second year I won a short course to the Women's College. The third year I won another short course and a ten dollar gold piece for the best canning exhibit. If I should have to earn my own living, I could do it."
"I have had some fine times in the club and learned many things. -With the money made in 1919 1 bought furniture for the house and paid formy own clothing."
That club work is sufficiently broad in its scope to hold the interest of a girl thru succeeding years is shown by the fact that 41 girls in the state received certificates in 1919 for satisfactorily completing four years' work.
Girls'.camps for instruction and recreation were held in -DeSoto and Polk Counties. Joint camps for girls and boys were held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties.
PUBLICATIONS
The following bulletins have been published to date:
No. 20: Hand Book for First Year Sewing.
No. 21: Hand Book for Second Year Sewing.
No. 22: (Including September and October programs given
in first and second year work.)
No. 23: (Including November programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 24: (Including December programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 25: (Including January programs given in first and
second year work.)
No. 26: (Including February programs given in first and
second year work.)







Annual Report, 1920 69

No. 31: Food and Methods of Preparation.
No. 32: Sweet Potatoes on the Table.
No. 33: Florida Food Calendar.
No. 34: Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades.

NEGRO WORK
Negro home demonstration agents are appointed as assistants to the home demonstration agents. Under this plan the negro assistant agent carries her weekly report to the home demonstration agent for approval before submitting it to this office. If the negro assistant needs help with field problems, this conference affords the opportunity. Nine counties in which the work is conducted support it financially.
In Leon County a party became interested in this work and donated $200 toward it. A dilapidated house on the plantation of the donor was remodeled. The roof was reshingled, the building whitewashed, the premises cleaned up and a small garden planted. All the work was done by club members during the 3-day short course held in this community. The work has created much interest on the part of other negroes in the community.
STATISTICAL REPORTS
County home demonstration agents ---------------------------------------------------------- 32
Average term of employment (months) . - ---------------- _ ---------- ---------- 10
Average salary (agents owning car) . ---------------------_-- -------------- $ 153.10
Average salary (county owning car).-. . . ------_------------------- 151.66
A gents furnished cars . ------ . 7 A gents ow ning cars -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
Agents owning horse and buggy . . I Average county appropriation ----- -------------------------------------------------------------- $1,118.40
Negro assistant county home demonstration agents -------------_------------- 9
Number of counties cooperating financially ------------------------------------------ 30
Offices provided . . - . . - . 29 Home demonstration kitchens maintained . ---------------- 10
Cooperative canning centers ----------- ------------------------------- ---------- ---_---_----- 22
Counties making appropriations for demonstration materials ------------ 17
Amount expended by counties for equipment and material ---------------- $1,599.51
COUNTY WORKERS' ACTIVITIES
Total m iles traveled ---- _ . _ . . . 134,761
By autom obile . . 117,373 B y rail -------------------------- ------------------------------------- ----------------------- 12,798
By team . . ------- _ ----------------------------------- 4,590
N um ber girls enrolled . _ . --------- . --- 4,068
In canning . . . -----_----------------- _ ------------ 1,152
In poultry ----- . -------_ ------------ _ --- ------------------------- . 1,128
In hom e im provem ent ------------------------------------------------------------ 1,319
In sew ing _. . . 1,319 In cooking ---------------------------- ----------- ------------------------------------- - 568
In hom e pantry . ------------------------------------------------------------- 1,248
M iscellaneous . _ --- --------------- __ . ----- ___ . 469
N um ber w om eli enrolled ---------------------------- _ . ----- 3,527
Number girl clubs maintained . . --------- . 246







70 Florida Cooperative Extension

N um ber w om en's clubs m aintained . . 101
N um ber m eetings held . . 2,652
N um ber dem onstrations given . 2,181
Total attendance meetings and demonstrations . 61,249
V isits to club m em bers' hom es . . . . 6,419
V isits to schools . . --- 2,272
N um ber hot school lunches established . . 14
Number agents maintaining club column in local paper. . 21
N um ber containers filled by girls -------------- ------ ------- __ -----------------_ __ ----- 45,000
Number containers filled by women ---_---_----------------- _------------- __ --------- 452,000
N um ber containers filled by negroes . _ ---- . . 135,000
Total num ber containers filled . -------------------------------------------------------- 632,000
Value ------------------------------------------------------ _ -------_--------------- . _ $189,600
N um ber ornam ental plantings m ade . 191
N um ber houses painted . . 77
H ouses screened ---------- . _ ------------ - ----------- 75
W ater system s installed . . . . _ _ 23
Lighting system s installed . . . . 31
H ouses rem odeled . . ------------------ -------------------------------- . ' 75
Sleeping porches added . -------------------------------------------------- -------- ------_-------- 31
K itchens rem odeled ---------------------------------------- ---------- . __ . _ 42
BRIEF SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORTS OF STATE WORKERS
N um ber m iles traveled -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 92,367%
N um ber days engaged in office w ork . . 590
N um ber days engaged in field w ork. ---------------- _ ------------------_ -------- . 815
M eetings attended . -- . . --------- 368
A ttendance at m eetings . . __ --------_---------------- . 27,682
Contests attended . __ . . 43
A ttendance at contests . . _ . . 2,021
Short courses and cam ps attended ------------------------------------------------------------ 30
A ttendance at short courses and cam ps . . . 1,083
Fairs attended . . 34
Schools visited . . _ _ ----------------- 76
Supervisory visits to counties-. . m . . I . 484
Conferences with
School supts. and school boards . ------- . 15
County com m issioners . W- . 72
A gents m eetings conducted . _,_ . . 2
Days in session . . __ _ . 15
A ttendance . . . 45
Group m eetings for agents --------------- --------------------------------------------------------- 1
D ays in session -------------------------- ----------- * ------------------------------------------------------ - 5
A ttendance . . --------------- - ------ . 15
Short courses for girls and women:
N um ber county short courses for girls . : . 11
A ttendance . ------------- 545
State short course . ----------------------------------- 1
A ttendance . . 55
County short courses for w om en.-. . . 13
A ttendance . . . _ . 442
Com m unity m eetings held ------------_ ------------- . 157
Com m unity councils organized -------------------------------- --------------------------------- 36
County bureaus partly organized . 8






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant state home demonstration agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.

MUSCADINE GRAPE CLUB WORK
With the assistance of Charles Dearing, States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, definite club work was started in August, 1919, by the home demonstration agents. This work had resulted in a number of plantings of the Thomas grape, and there are now about 70 members enrolled.
PLAN FOR FOUR YEARS' WORK N IN MUSCADINE GRAPE WORK
The purpose of these clubs is to establish thruout the various sections of Florida, principally for home use, a vineyard for





FIG. 14.-Clyde McCullough and home demonstration agent, Madison County, setting out a peach tree

every home, and with this give fill'
instruction by demonstration as to the best methods in grape production. In order that the club members may learn the first principles of grape culture, know something of varieties, keep an FIG. 15-Canned products put up accurate cost of production and by Edith Futch, Alachua County






Florida Cooperative Extension


labor involved in producing these, an outline for the four years' work is laid before the clubs.
The outline for the first year calls for the planting of five grape vines, keeping a record of varieties, making an exhibit at county and state contests, and finally winding up with a record of the year's work. For the following three years the program proposes to enlarge this by increasing the plantings as conditions permit. To study varieties and to use the products in different ways are parts of the advanced work. Thus the work proposes not only a greater variety -of fruit for the home, but four years ofstudy on grapes.
These muscadine grape club plans were again put before the agents at the September meeting with the result that grape clubs were started in 17 counties. Sixty-nine girls and twenty-five women were enrolled. About 25 percent of this number were enrolled last year.
An educational exhibit displayed at the, state fair, consisting of nursery cuttings, plants, small models of planting and methods of cultivation, samples of the club work products, equipment for juice making and a pyramid made of muscadine grape products. These were shown under a white pergola entwined with wild grape vines.
Most of the grape club plantings thruout the state have been visited by the assistant state agent and suggestions for care and pruning have been given.
In September, 1920, one day was spent in the government experimental vineyard at Willaird, N. C., studying varieties of muscadine grapes, their planting and training as shown at this season. The pruning was studied especially.
Muscadine grapes are native to Florida and should be widely grown over the state as a fruit for the home table. The ultimate object in grape club work is to develop vineyards and create a market for the delicious juice and other products. At present, however, due to the high price of Thomas grapes on the local market, it seems inadvisable to urge making the juice for commercial purposes. Since these products can all be made reasonably and add variety to the diet for the home table, we are urging that this be done.
PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS' AND WOMEN'S WORK
Last year mimeographed programs for girls' and women's work were sent out monthly. These regular programs with






Annual Report, 1920


definitely planned demonstrations has been one * of the best means of holdingclub membership and standardizing the work. The agents have expressed their appreciation of this help.
Much of my time has been given to preparing these monthly programs. Each month's program has been sent out a month in advance so that the agent could arrange for club members to take parts on them. In preparing these programs four general outlines have been followed:
1. POULTRY PROGRAM
September, Selection of show birds; October, Classification; November, Selection of flock; December, Turkeys, ducks and geese incubation; January, Brooding; February, Feeding baby chicks; March, Lice and mites; April, Diseases; May, The wonderful egg; June, Feeds and feeding, continued or culled.
2. SEWING PROGRAM
October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf ; December, Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March, Patching; April, Nightgown; May, Nightgown; June, Contest.
3. NUTRITION PROGRAM
October, Body as a machine, or what we eat; November, What to eat; December, What becomes of the food we eat; January, How much to eat; February, What school children should eat; March, What and how much should I eat; April, Planning our daily meals; May, Review and test; June, Canning demonstration, or history of canning; July, Canning contest; August, Grape meeting.
]FAIRS
In the winter and early spring my work in the field was assisting at fairs in South Florida. The South Florida fair, held in Tampa during February, and the state fair, held.in Jacksonville in November, were similar.
Our 1920 state fair was arranged to exhibit preserved fruits and vegetables. A section was devoted to girls' work and a section to women's work; a third section showed the girls' sewing; a fourth included a display of muscadine products; the whole was completed by the milk booth. Preserved fruits and vegetables occupied a space of 40 feet, eight rows high, consisting of two rows of quarts, two rows 12-ounces, two rows pints, one row jelly glasses and one row bottles.
The sewing exhibit was for first year work only. This was developed about the girl's own bedroom. It showed:






74 Florida Cooperative Extension

First, a complete county exhibit: 3 pieces of bedroom furnishings, I nightgown, I darned stocking, and 1 patch.
Second, a bedroom exhibit: I pair curtains, 1 bed cover and pillow cover, and 2 other pieces of bedroom furnishings.
Third, individual entries of first year work.
The sewing exhibit was so good both as to workmanship and design that it encoura ' ges a second year's work to be centered about the club girl herself.

SHORT COURSES
I assisted at 13 housekeepers' schools in five counties in the southern district.
I The annual short course for prize winning club girls was held' at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, May 17-18.
I attended two county short courses for girls in the state this year and one camp. The latter was held for club girls only, at Eagle Lake in Polk County.
From November 29 to December 3, 1 assisted with a series of community meetings in West Florida. The district agent and myself met with the women. We confined our talks to home kitchens and a satisfactory diet.
OFFICE WORK
Much office time has been used in collecting and filing past records of canning club and home demonstration clubs.
I was furloughed during the month of. July to teach home demonstration methods in the Florida State College for Women.

STATISTICAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING JVNE 30, 1920 Number m eetings attended . __ . . 44 E stim ated attendance . : ----------------------------------------- * ---------------- 2,156
Number talks or demonstrations given ----------------------------------------------------- 53
N um ber contests attended . 7 N um ber short courses held . 2 A ttendance . 45 Number county councils attended . I Number housekeepers' schools held . 2 N um ber schools visited ----------------------------------------------------------------- . 10
N umber school lunches visited . 3 N um ber clubs visited . --------------------------------- . 4
N um ber hom es visited . . 25 N um ber fairs attended . 6 N um ber judging at fairs --- . : --------------_------------ ------------------------------------- 3
Number agents visited or in conference with . 83 Number of other conferences . . . ill Number of conferences with county superintendents . . 20 Number of conferences with county commissioners ------ . 11 Number of conferences with boards . 12 D ays in off ice . - . 119 D ays in field . . . 96






Annual Report, 1920 75

Days in state meetings . ------------------------------------------------------------- . 37
Days in out of state meetings . ----------------------------------------- 8
Days at fairs . . . 20
Days leave . __ . 6
Number miles traveled by railroad -------------_---------- --------------------------------- 14,971
Number miles traveled by automobile . . 1,227
Number miles traveled by boat . . 93
Total number miles traveled in state . _ . 16,291
Number miles traveled out of state . 768

if MAM



. 1 ff


FIG. 16.-Peanuts between eight-foot corn rows






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work for South and East Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
AGNES LVEBSTER,
District Home Demonstration Agent.


Organized work in the district of South and East Florida was carried on in 16 counties. In these 19 agents were employed. During the canning season two assistant county home demonstration agents were employed for eight weeks.
In organizing the work for the fiscal year, beginning July 1, 1920, 15 out of the 16 counties made a substantial increase in appropriations. One county's increases sufficient to put on two agents. Five counties provide one car each; one county provides two cars, one for each agent. Four counties furnish stenographic help and four have made a special appropriation for equipment. Altho St. Lucie County lost its agent this year, the dairy work there was so well established that the club members won first prize in the dairy department of home demonstration work at the state fair.
THE GOAL IN 1920
The following were decided upon as definite factors leading to the goal for work in 1920: Carrying out a program that would meet the needs of a greater number of people; strengthening club organization; developing a fuller social life in rural communities; furthering organization, both county and community; improving. homes, exterior and interior; presenting to the people the need for greater efficiency in the business of home making and teaching the need for an adequate diet of fresh vegetables, dairy and poultry products.
In planning the work to meet the needs of a greater number of people, our enrollment among women and girls has increased substantially. This year in 16 counties the enrollment is practically the same as it was last year in 19 counties.






Annual Report, 1920


MONTHLY PROGRAMS,
A general plan to interest women was carried out thru the monthly programs outlined as follows:
October, School lunch; November, Renovation of clothing; December, Budget or plan for spending the income; January, Household accounts; February, The home exterior; March, The home interior; April, The kitchen; May, Care of the Home; June, Table setting; and July, Pleasure of home vacation.
Because of definite results accomplished in the several lines of work, women who previously refused to do demonstration work hav& sent in requests to become members, giving with the requests the substantial backing of checks for the further equipping of school lunch rooms, canning and demonstration kitchens.
In communities where the organized clubs met two or four times a month they were aided by lessons and material sent to local leaders to supplement the regular program.
SOCIAL WELFARE WORK
Realizing the need for a greater social life in rural sections, home demonstration club women in many communities are carrying out programs of socials, community suppers and fairs, entertainments for old and young, special weeks of prayer meetings and musicals that not only tend to keep the boys and girls at home, but bring town people and talent into the community. In Hillsboro County a number of communities have established a system of borrowing talent and ideas from one another. With proceeds made from time to time, books, magazines, and good music have been placed within reach of every one.
In other communities a broader social life has resulted from the efforts to equip and establish hot school lunch rooms and community canning kitchens. As a result of this 27 lunch rooms and canning kitchens were in operation in the district last year.
COMMUNITY COUNCILS
In an effort to reach and meet the needs of various communities in Hillsboro County, the county advisory council of home demonstration work was perfected. This was composed of two representatives from each of 15 communities. Quarterly meetings of this council have been held since its organization. Committees appointed on'agriculture, citizenship, fairs and exhibits, home improvements, public health and social life have been most active.







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SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WORK
Representatives take home definite plans from each meeting. Among the excellent results obtained from these efforts is a school hot lunch established at Brandon. So great was the success of this undertaking that the school has built a lunch room on the school grounds and employs a manager at $100 a month. The products of the boys' school garden will be used in the lunch room. Because of the poor water supply the club women have installed running water. A well has been drilled and engine and water tank installed with proceeds from a series of socials and entertainments. Six water taps distribute the water thruout the building. Rest rooms have been provided. An entertainment is put on every two weeks. Exhibits were sent to the state fairs.
FARM BUREAU WORK
Broward County organized a county farm bureau just two days after the first organization of the state was perfected. This organization is active and the interest is growing. The home demonstration agent and executive body of the farm bureau planned a campaign that has received substantial support. A thorobred Jersey calf was offered the boys for the best essay on "The Production of Milk," and a pen of purebred Rhode Island Reds to the girls for the best essay on "The Food Value of Milk." Liberal prizes were given the winners in the poultry club contest.
December 4 witnessed the culmination of these plans when every community was represented at Ft. Lauderdale. In the forenoon over 700 school children took part in a parade appealing for more and better cattle and chickens and the wider use of dairy and poultry products in the home. Club women took charge at the noon hour. The afternoon program consisted of short talks to the children and recitations by the children, given between reels of moving pictures on poultry and dairy cattle. Presentation of prizes followed. The home dairy specialist arranged an exhibit for this meeting. Before the day closed suggestions were made to make the event an annual one.
HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK
The project of home improvement appealed strongly to the women and girls. Each girl brought to the club meeting a dia.gram of her bedroom showing the location of furniture, windows and doors'. The agent and girl planned the furnishings. If a closet was lacking, one was improvised by means of a frame







Annual Report, 1920 79

built out from the wall and covered with curtains to match the furnishings; if furniture was scant, several boxes were utilized; and for little expense the room was made much more attractive.



4



jwoill ; 111



FIG. 17.-Oseeola County bee club picnic

In ten counties more than 363 girls made bedroom sets of furnishings and a number of rooms were fitted up with box furniture.
Home demonstration agents carried out a program for lessening the amount of work as well as improving the appearance and attractiveness of the home that resulted in the following:
K itchens rem odeled . _ 31 Sleeping porches built . 7 H om es rem odeled -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 32
Lighting system s installed . 9 W ater system s installed . . 11 H ouses screened . - 82 H ouses w hitew ashed . 3 H ouses painted ------------ . -------------- 22
F ly traps m ade. . . -------------------------- . . 6
Iceless refrigerators installed . 85 Steam pressure cookers purchased . --------------_-- 84
Fireless cookers purchased . 69 Exterior im provem ents . 147 Interior im provem ents ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 183

CLUB CAMP
As a climax to the year's work, in DeSoto, Polk and Citrus Counties, camps for club members were held. A regular program was laid out for each day and every girl took part. The camp in DeSoto County was held on Lake Isis. A large, convenient and comfortable house sheltered the girls. The work was done by shifts and the girls readily responded. Each shift received in turn practical lessons in preparing the menu, cooking, serving and washing dishes. Regular hours were devoted to







80 Florida Cooperative Extension

lessons in the various phases of club work. A Red Cross nurse gave lessons in first aid, making a bed and bathing a patient.
The secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association at Arcadia was in charge of the recreation and story hour. Fourteen girls learned to swim. The commissioners appropriated funds for the camp and lent further support by personal visits to the camp.
The camp in Polk County was held on Eagle Lake, while Citrus County boys and girls went to Bay Port on the Gulf. As in DeSoto County, a regular program of lessons, play and work
lent color to the camp life.

STATISTICAL REPORT
M iles traveled . ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------ 16,7962/
Days engaged in office work ----- . . ;- . . 65
Days engaged in field and travel ----- . . 176
Days spent in study (6 weeks summer session Columbia University) 42
Dem onstrations given -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
.State m eetings attended ---------------------------------------------------------- ------------------- 13
Other m eetings attended -------------------------------------------------------- - . 61
-Estim ated attendance ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6,140
D em onstrations visited ------------------------------------------------------- . . _ 25
Contests attended . . 5 Estim ated attendance ----- . ---_---------------- -------- 200
Cam ps attended ----- ------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------- 4
F airs attended . . 5 Short courses . . 4 Schools visited . . 29 H om es visited . . 73 Supervisory visits to counties . 94 ConferencesSchool superintendents ----------------------- ----------------------- -------_--------_--- 18
Commissioners, and school boards in session . . 9
Com m issioners individually . . . 29 Farm bureau organizationCounty . . --------------- . 3
Com m unity . 12 Women's county council meetings . 4







Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR)NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district a I gent of home demonstration work in North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
LONNY I. LANDRUM,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1920, there were 14 counties with demonstration agents. During canning season four assistant agents were employed.
AIMS OF WORK
1. To develop community spirit for community and county organizations. Five counties held series of community meetings. Suwannee County held nine. Some of these communities have organized community councils, selecting as an immediate object of work community and county fairs. Other counties have com unity clubs doing effective work.
The following is from the report of the Madison County home demonstration agent: "Beautification of the Home" was the subject for the meetings. Plans were discussed for community fairs. Club and war songs were sung. The people entered into the spirit of the meeting and enjoyed being together. At San Pedro a bountiful supper was served. The picture, "The Home Demonstration Agent," gave a pleasing review of demonstration work. In two places in which this picture was shown, it did much to convert many people who were not strongly in favor of the work. The people are urgent in their request for more such meetings.
2. To increase food production by means of the home vegetable garden and the planting of perennial fruit trees. The home demonstration agent of Madison County reports 1,856 fruit trees planted. In Santa Rosa County 14 club members have planted 560 grapevines and 554 fruit trees. A club member in Taylor County harvested $75 worth of onions from her first crop and later planted the land to other vegetables.
3. To increase club membership thru better organized clubs. From the 14 counties 1,059 girls are enrolled in 112 organized clubs. Many women attend the girls' club meetings regularly.






Florida Cooperative Extension


4. Programs as outlined in the assistant state agent's report were sent to agents each month.
5. To increase interest in home improvement, programs on interior and exterior improvement were supplied. A few clippings from the agents' weekly reports follow:
"Clyde Peavey will take her room as her home problem for this year. Her father is going to remodel their old home, and Clyde will have a room of her own. She has promised to let me help plan this room. Mr. Peavey is looking over the house plans I have secured. He will begin work January 1. Two houses in this community have already put in lighting systems this year."
"Three acetylene gas light engines have been installed in homes of demonstrators and club members. One home has installed a water system for the home operated by a gasoline engine, in connection with a saw and feed crusher."
6. To assist in marketing. The farm women and girls need definite help in marketing.
"I have put a good deal of time in 'peddling' this spring, hoping to create a real permanent interchange between the town


FIG. 18-Canning club girls in uniform






Annual Report, 1920


and country woman. I have received a number of orders for canned goods from town women," is the report of one agent.
Another agent reports: "Sugar and jars. at wholesale prices were obtained thru the agent. Home demonstration recipes and methods were used, and an attractive and delicious product was made. We succeeded in marketing over 2,000 jars of figs and blackberry jam at satisfactory prices. A man who had refused the price offered him for his pecans, which were left on his hands, allowed me to sell them for him. I sold them thru the State Marketing Bureau at a profit of about $175, instead of their being a total loss to him."
7. To organize the girls into sewing clubs. The plan for the sewing club is to center the sewing work on a definite home improvement problem in making furnishings for the bedroom and the care and repair of clothing. The study of color combinations, the care of the bedroom and the making of box furniture, add much interest to this program. The following is taken from a home demonstration agent's weekly report:
"Each club adopts a special way of decorating its bedroom sets. The Lee club selected stenciling. Lessie Johnson said since the short course she had cleaned up her room so nicely that she surprised her mother and wanted the club to see it. We visited it and made plans for a closet and other conveniences. Since the short course Pearl Mickler made coat hangers of magazines tied in the middle and tied them to a pole placed across her closet. We noticed the box furniture, a remodeled dresser, shirtwaist box and curtains to match."
MONTHLY PROGRAM
The monthly programs for the first year teach girls the fundamental principles of sewing, as applied to the care and repair of their clothing and the artistic furnishing of their bedrooms.
Monthly programs are outlined below:
October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf; December, Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March, Patching; April, Nightgown; May, Nightgown; June, each girl demonstrates something she has learned during the year.
The monthly program for second year sewing clubs instructs the club girl the fundamental principles of garment making and emphasizes the selection of clothes from a practical, artistic and economic standpoint.
Monthly programs are outlined below:







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September, The well-dressed club girl; October, Gap; November, Apron; December, Apron; January, Buttonhole contest; February, Dress; March, Dress; April, Dress; May, Remodel garment; June, Renovate hat.
HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK
Eight hundred girls have been enrolIled in the district home improvement work. Three county and one inter-county canning contests were held. Grading was based on skill, neatness, efficiency, and the canned product.
Much interest was shown in Duval County in girls' bread making contests. The agent gave instructions in bread making to the club girls, and later held contests, offering prizes. The county bread contest was held at the state fair.
SHORT COURSES
Short courses were held in several counties. In some counties several communities arranged for a 1-day program. These schools were well attended.
In other counties one short course, lasting two or more days, was held. This brought girls from all sections of-the counties. 'Various clubs sent delegates.
'In Escambia County 43 girls attended. The attendance was ,good at most, of the short courses. Various programs were carried out. Reports were made by girls who had won scholarships at the state short course at the State College for Women.
-'In the contests in canning and other club work carried out at these contests, the girls were judged for speed, neatness and the quality of their products. Entertainment was provided in various ways. Lunches were served by club members each day. The boys and girls sang their club songs with enthusiasm.
Members of the state force gave assistance at each short course.
FAIRS
Splendid home demonstration exhibits were made at a number of cmunity fairs, five county fairs, and at the state fair. Twelve county contests have been held in the district. .'Exhibits of cannedd goods, sewing and poultry were made, six of "which were at county fairs, three at community fairs and one at the'state 'fair. Two were held separately.
-At the state fair the district of North and West Florida contributed its quota to the best and most representative exhibit ever made in the state. -Every home demonstration agent in this







Annual Report, 1920 85

district sent something from her county to at least one departrnent. Each county booth had exhibits of two or more phases of home demonstration work.

STATISTICS OF WORK OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
Miles traveled . -----_----- --------- -------------_ -------------_---- ----- 12,308
Days engaged in office -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81
Days engaged in field ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 158
Days attending state meetings . ----------------------------------------------- 18
Talks and demonstrations given ---------------------------------------------------------------- 74
Meetings attended - . . _ . 82
Estimated attendance -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5,570
Contests attended ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Short courses attended . . 5
F airs atten ded ---------------------------------- . 5
S chools visited . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12
H om es visited . 19
Clubs visited _--_-------_---------- ------------------------------------ ----_------------ ------------- 25
Conferences with superintendents . ------------------- . 31
Conferences with county commissioners -------------------------------------------------- 7
Visits to school boards . ------------------------------------------- 6
Supervisory visits to agents ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 81


FIG. 19-Canning meat. Packing the cooked meat and gravy in cans







Florida Cooperative Ex~tension


REPORT OF THE POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
P. H. Rolts, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of poultry club work for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
MINNIE M. FLOYD,
Home Demonstration Poultry Specialist.



The purpose of organized poultry clubs and egg circles is to increase the quantity and improve the quality of poultry products in the state. To attain this end the following economic and educational methods are employed:
1. Holding meetings.
a. Electing officers to preside in meetings.
b. Conducting educational programs.
2. Giving a better knowledge of the need, value and importance of the
poultry industry.
3.Teaching better methods in handling the home flock.
a. Increase of purebred stock.
b. Hatching and rearing.
c. Culling.
d. Feeding.
e: Housing.
f. Sanitation in houses and yards.
g. Prevention and destruction of pests.
h.' Production of infertile eggs for market.
i. ,Preservation of eggs for home use.,
j, Use and value of poultry and eggs in the diet.
4.Cooperative marketing of surplus products.
a. Eggs.
b. PoultryTeaching the importance of a uniform product;'of finishing poultry for market; study of markets; seasonal demands; methods of
transportation; etc.
5. KCeeping records.
a. To establish the habit of business methods.
b. To know whether you have a winning or losing business.
6. Exhibition of -pro ducts.
a. Live poultry.
b. Eggs.
(This serves a 2-fold purpose: an incentive for better work by
members, and an inducement to others to take up the work.)
ORGANIZATION
In conducting the poultry work, close cooperation has been maintained with the entire home demonstration staff ; with the 32 home demonstration agents; the extension poultry husbandman at the College of Agriculture; and with a number of county agents.
The plan has been to work with all home demonstration






Annual Report, 1920


agents. The home demonstration poultry specialist, in conference with other members of the entire staff, plans this work for the state, plans the specialist's itinerary and notifies agents in advance of her coming.
Since the poultry work has grown to be so large, it is no longer possible for the specialist to organize the county work, consequently the actual work has been done by home demonstration agents working under her supervision and instruction.
PLAN OF WORK
All county clubs are known as home demonstration clubs. Each, club or member may elect whatever home problem they wish to undertake. The poultry work is offered to all. The reported enrollment for 1919-20 was 1,890 against 1,782 the previous year when there were 12 more county workers. Community and county egg circles have been organized for the marketing of eggs and poultry.
OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
Some county poultry associations have been organized. Some of these aided our work materially by supplying members with purebred eggs for hatching, on the cooperative basis.
County fairs created a department for girls' and boys' poultry exhibits, offering liberal prizes.
Banks, boards of trade and other business firms have been liberal in donating money as prizes for scholarships covering expenses at the girls' short course at the State College for Women, and at the boys' short course at the University of Florida.
The state fair at Jacksonville and the South Florida fair at Tampa each gave exhibit space and liberal prizes to girls' and boys' poultry clubwork.
PUBLICITY METHODS USED
Reports of work accomplished, were published in poultry jour-nals, daily papers of the state, the Southern Ruralist, the Progress ' ive Farmer, the Farmer and Stockman, and University of Florida Agricultural News Service. Items in county papers by home demonstration agents have also appeared.
Posters, signs, poultry supply and equipment exhibits and live poultry exhibits were put on at the state and South Florida and county fairs. An educational exhibit was put on at the Summer Normal of the. Florida State College for Women.






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The cooperative egg circles put on an exhibit of home-made equipment; viz., self-feeding hopper, brooder, etc., at state fairs.
Home demonstration agents were supplied with farmers' bulletins, leaflets and posters from our state office. Monthly poultry programs were furnished. girls' and women's clubs.
OUTSTANDING PIECES OF WORK
Seven home demonstration agents report that poultry was the outstanding piece of demonstration work in their county during the last year.
HATCHING EGGS SECURED ON A COOPERATIVE BASIS
Several county clubs secured eggs on a cooperative basis. The home demonstration agent of Citrus County succeeded in interesting three progressive business men to finance the purchase of eggs for club members who will give a pullet in the fall for the eggs.
The Ferris Poultry Plant, West Palm Beach, offered two settings of utility stock White Leghorns to each home demonstration agent to be placed with clubgirls, or boys, who in turn Will give a setting of eggs from their chickens raised to another girl, or boy.
. BACK YARD POULTRY WORK
13ack-yard poultry work, started at St. Augustine last year, has been continued. A poultry show was held there and so much interest was manifested that the agent was prevailed on to hold Another show in February. On a recent visit of inspection to these back-yard flocks, 0. B. Martin, States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, is quoted as saying that, in so far as he knew, this was the most outstanding piece of ho m*'e demonstration back-yard. poultry work in the South. . Because of the growth of poultry work the time devoted to
egg circles has been limited. Some counties have expanded their egg circle work thisyear. For example, the Hernando County circle enrolled 65 members, 20 being new ones. During the year July 1;,1919, to June 30, 1920, this, circle sold 10,851 dozen eggs for $5,267.54 and 7,491 pounds of chickens and turkeys for $2,440.39, making a total of $7,707.93. Requests for the organization of -circles have come from Santa Rosa, Escambia, Pasco, Citrus, Jefferson, Pinellas, Suwannee, Putnam and Washington Counties.
CULLING
The home demonstration agent of Broward County who did much, work in culling flocks reports: "I have found that a






Annual Report, 1920


knowledge of scientific culling is not only valuable for the profit of poultry keepers, but also to pick out the good birds in a flock, giving your reasons for this selection. This also creates confidence in the agent, which leads to the acceptance of other suggestions for poultry raising.
"I have in mind a party to whom I was sent because she could not get her hens to lay. I found she kept. meat birds. I found another flock with very crooked pelvic bones, and of poor capacity. After examining some of these poor specimens the owner picked up three good layers. I told her immediately that these were the egg type. She replied, 'Yes, these are my good hens.' She was so impressed that she sold off a whole flock of non-laying hens.
"In another case a man sent for me to examine and cull his flock of 300. We had to eliminate more than half of them."
CAPONS
The following excerpt is copied from the report of the home demonstration agent of Broward County: " il put the proposition of buying a set of caponizing instruments up to the county commissioners. In their usual cooperative spirit they instructed me to order the instruments. With these I caponized' over 3 ,00 chickens'. As a -result we have a beautiful *flock of Rhode Island Reds,' weighing as much as 12 pounds each; several flocks of Leghorns; smaller numbers of Barred Plymouth Rocks; and one flock of White Plymouth* Rocks. We. are expecting from 75 cents to $1 a pound for these dressedd"
POULTRY CLUB WORK AT TH E STATE AND SOUTH FLORIDA FAIRS
The South iFlorida fair at Tampa created, a department for the boys' and girls' poultry clubs in which they offered liberal prizes. The first club exhibit was held 'February 16-21, 1920. There were 102 birds entered in the show from Bradford, Citrus, DeSoto, Hiernando, Putnam and Suwannee Counties.
Suwannee County members won the first county prize of $20; DeSoto County the second, $15; Citrus County the, third, $10; Bradford County the fourth, $5. In addition to the county prizes, $15 was given in individual prizes.
Hernando County egg circle won the first prize, $15. This money Iplus the prize won at the state fair. in 1919, was invested in the copies of the "American Standard of Perfection" and in






Florida Cooperative Extension


subscriptions to good poultry journals for the members of the egg circles.
The girls' and boys' poultry club exhibit at the state fair at Jacksonville, November 18-27, 1920, was the biggest and best yet held in the state. There were 321 birds entered, representing 14 counties as follows: Alachua, Broward, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Hernando, Madison, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, Suwannee, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, and Taylor.
The fair association offered most liberal county prizes, won as follows: Suwannee County first, $40; Duval County second, $35; Hernando County third, $25; Gadsden County fourth, $20; Polk County fifth, $15; Alachua County sixth, $10; Citrus County seventh, $5.
County exhibits of second, year work were entered for the first time this year. Hernando County won first prize, $10. Duval and Suwannee Counties exhibits of second year work were incomplete and no prizes were awarded.
Individual prizes were given, on each : of 15 varieties of chickens entered.
All the money given as premiums is to be invested in stock, eggs, or shipping coops, etc., to further poultry club work.
POULTRY JUDGING CONTEST
For the first time the state fair this year offered prizes for a poultry judging contest for the members of the girls' and boys' poultry clubs of Florida.
Four teams of three members each, from Duval, St. Johns, Putnam and SiAwannee Counties, entered the contest. The contest was held under the supervision of the extension poultry specialists from the University of Florida and the State College for Women.
The judging was of Barred Plymouth Rocks, and Single Comb White Leghorns. Putnam County team won prizes in both classes, $5 in each case. Claude Wolf of St. Johns County won both individual prizes for the best judging. One prize was a trio of Rhode Island Reds from Francis Poultry Yards, Interlachen; and one was a White Leghorn cock from Ferris Poultry Farm, West Palm Beach.
RABBIT CLUBS
Thru the cooperation of the manager of the South Florida fair, the president of the National Breeders' and Fanciers' Association of America, the president of the Southern Commercial Rab-







Annual Report, 1920 91

bit Breeders' Associalion, and various breeders of this association, the first boys' and girls' rabbit club in the United States, receiving such cooperation, was organized.
Members of the above mentioned organizations donated 30 pairs of purebred and registered rabbits, which were distributed to girls and boys selected by the home demonstration department in various, counties in Florida. These rabbits are to be shown together with litter at the South Florida fair. A girl or boy receiving a pair of these stock rabbits is to give back to the home demonstration department one pair of rabbits from the first litter for distribution to other club members.
The following breeds were donated: New Zealand Reds, Dutch, Belgian Hares, Flemish Giants, and American Blues.

STATISTICAL REPORT
M iles traveled . . 12,648 M iles traveled by rail . 9,673 M iles traveled by auto . 2,694 Miles traveled by other conveyances . 281 Days engaged in officework . 89 Days engaged in field work . . . 157 Days attending state meetings . . 24 Days attending out of state meetings . . . 0 Demonstrations given . ----_------------- . 16
M eetings attended . . - --- '73 Estim ated attendance . . 4,560 Contests attended . . 8 Short courses attended . 7 Cam ps attended . . 3 Attendance at short courses and camps . 495 Fairs attended . . 7 Schools visited . . is H om es visited . 171 Supervisory visits to ' agents . 78
Girls and boys enrolled . . . 1,128 W om en enrolled . I . 762 Total enrollm ent . 1,890






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME
DEMONSTRATION WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the home demonstration dairy agent for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
MAY MORSE,
Home Demonstration Dairy Specialist.

DAIRY CLUB WORK
Sixteen dairy clubs have been organized with a total enrollment of 200. The work was carried on over a period of ten months. The rules which governed the work were practically the same as those of last year. F. C. Groover again offered $450 for prizes.
Results of work in 16 clubs were represented at the final contest with some decrease in membership. From every recor Id ,it was indicated that there was a marked improvement over the work of the preceding year.
The record cards were much neater and more accurately kept. The unprofitable cows had been eliminated. There. were ,more home-grown feeds used. Several purebred regi Istered dairy. males were purchased and a much greater number iof club cows Were bred to -purebred registered males than during the preceding year. There were larger returns from. products. mnarketed, due to improvement in quality and increase in ~quantity.
At the close of this contest nearly a third of the members! have. of their own accord requested that the club .work be continued, and that they be retained as dairy club members.
The dairy clubs have had much help and encouragement from the state dairy association. In numbers of counties where clubs were organized, prizes were offered by banks and individuals to stimulate interest.
In Hernando County interest has progressed to the point that this county has a commercial dairy association which sold $8,000 worth of milk during the year.
All home demonstration agents had instruction in making and caring for home dairy products.
Of the 300 or more student teachers enrolled, at least 100 asked for bulletins and helps to assist them with their work in the public schools.






Annual Report, 1920


PUBLICITY
Interest was promoted by the articles frequently published in daily papers and agricultural periodicals of the state.
Window displays were used featuring better dairy stock and the f ood value of milk.
During the summer school at the State College for Women
W& 1 ___- M














FIG. 20.-Dairy exhibit to demonstrate value of dairy products, displayed at state fair, 1920

there was a large assortment of posters, pamphlets and bulletins relative to dairy products and dairy work, kept on display.
DEMONSTRATION DIETS SHOWING VALUE OF MILK
In this exhibit there were cages of white rats on experimental diets, which showed the effect of adequate and inadequate food, the value of milk being especially featured.
This year at the state fair the home demonstration dairy exhibit featured especially the food value of milk. Attractive posters and pictures were used. There was a display of the actual total solids in a gallon of milk; and a cage of white rats, all of one litter, divided into three groups with daily diets re.spectively as follows:
1. (No milk.)
Grits ---------_- ------------ 60 grams Syrup ---------_-_-----_- 5 grams
Rice -------_--------------- _10 grams Salt pork . 10 grams
Potato (sweet) . 10 grams Cabbage . 5 grams
2. (Milk ad libitum up to 20 cc. each rat.) Grits . 60 grams Syrup . -------_---_------- 5 grams
Rice . --- _ -------- 10 grams Cabbage --_----_--------- 5 grams
Potato (sweet) . 10 grams
3. A control rat on mixed diet of milk, fruits and vegetables.







94 Florida Cooperative Extension

The appearance, the development, and temperament of these rats was a most convincing argument for milk in the diet of children.
STATISTICS OF HOME DAIRY AGENT'S WORK
Railroad travel ----- . -- . 12,376 m iles
A utom obile travel . - . --------------------------- --- . --- 2,251 m iles
Boat travel ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40 m iles
Total traveled ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14,667 m iles
M eetings attended ---------- . ------------------ ------------------------------------------------------- 38
Persons present at these m eetings ----------------------------------------------- . 3,016
Speeches m ade . 31
D ays traveled . 32 %
Days in the field . ----------------------------------------- . 1141/2
D ays in the off ice ------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- 98
D ays engaged in special w ork . - ---- . 20
D ays on leave (annual furlough and leave) -------- . . 22
Days at state m eetings . . 27
Contest and short courses attended --------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Fairs attended . - ----------------------- - 4
H om es visited . ------------------------------------------------------- 105
Schools visited . . 7
Conferences . - . 56
Clubs organized . . 16
Club enrollm ent . ---------------------------------------- . 200
V isits to agents, . 60
Demonstrations given:
Butter . 3
Cheese ------------------------ . . . 3
Demonstrations to club girls at short course ------------------------------------
To agents in training at summer session . 36 hours
To agents at annual m eeting . . I






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF EXTENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SiR: Herewith is submitted the report of the extension leader in animal husbandry for the year ending December 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
J. M. SCOTT,
Extension Leader in Animal Husbandry.


On January 26, 1 attended a conference of southern beef cattlemen in extension work, which continued into a 3-day session. The principal topics for discussion at these meetings were grasses and forage crops and the handling of beef cattle in the South.
During the latter part of February ten days were spent with county agents of Dade, Palm Beach and St. Lucie Counties, and one day was spent with the home demonstration agent of Broward County. In each of these counties our time was spent entirely with the dairymen of the various, communities, giving them advice in the feeding and handling of dairy herds.
On March 8 1 visited a number of cattle and swine growers in Alachua County.
On March 15 and 16 1 attended a 2-day meeting of the Cattle Raisers Association in Tampa.
On March 22 and 23 1 visited a number of cattle and swine growers in Alachua and Marion Counties in company with W. H. Black.
On May 11 1 went to Leon County and spent a day with the county agent, visiting dairymen and cattlemen in that section. From there I went to Franklin County to investigate grass and range conditions on St. George Island. This is an island in the Gulf a short distance out from Apalachicola. Much to my surprise I found the island well stocked with good grade Hereford cattle. These cattle had been brought in from Texas about two years before. Altho the pasture was scant the cattle were looking well. From there I went to Suwannee County for a day with the county agent, and visited some of the local hog and dairy farmers.
On May 20 1 went to Duval County and met with the State Swine Growers Association, where I read a paper, Different






Florida Cooperative Extension


Methods Used by Successful and Unsuccessful Swine Growers in Florida.
On September 20 1 attended the State Dairy Association Meeting and read a paper, Equipment Necessaryfor the Production of Good Milk.
While at Orlando I visited a number of dairymen in the section and conferred with them regarding their feeding, general care and breeding methods used.
During the past summer I supplied drawing and plans for dairy barn and milk room for W. R. Dedman of McIntosh, Florida, and W. E. A. Wyman of St. Petersburg, Florida.
I have supplied a number of county agents with good rations for the dairy herd, for brood sows and for fattening hogs for market.
On November 24 1 attended a conference'of dairymen and milk dealers in Jacksonville, Florida. The object of this conference was to. devise ways and means of disposing of surplus milk during summer. The surplus of milk during summer is due to the strong demand for milk during the winter tou ' rist season, Then, too, many dairymen breed their cows so they will freshen in spring when there is less demand for milk products. The following suggestions wore given: (1) That An ' advertising campaign, setting forth the value of, milk in the I 'diet, be put on by the dairymen and milk dealers. '(2) That dairymen be urged to breed their cows so they will freshen in the fall rather than in the. spring.
The Fifth Annual Livestock Roundup was held at theUniversity of Florida, October 7-8. The chief subjects for- discussion were Pork Production, Grasses, Growth of the Purebred Industry in Florida, Cooperative Marketing of, Livestock and Its .Influence on the Development of the Industry, and Making Florida a Factor in the World's Livestock MarketTheweekof November 29 ' to December 4, was spent in West Florida with the district agent, where we held farm extension ,'schools in Santa Rosa,_ Walton, Washington and. Liberty Counties.






Annual Report, 1920


REPORT OF THE EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report' of the extension forage c - rops specialist for the months of April and May, 1920, and for a portion of the time from July to December, 1920.
Respectfully,
J . B. THOMPSON,
Extension Forage Crops Specialist.

NEEDS OF THE FLORIDA RANGES
One of the most pressing needs of the livestock industry in Florida is an adequate and constant supply of good forage the entire year. Under the present conditions there is a superabundance of forage during summer and a serious shortage during winter. Breeders and owners of purebred and high grade beef animals, or those connected with dairy interests, may be able to solve their forage problems satisfactorily thru the construction and utilization of silos, by the production of more and better hay, and by means of growing such winter crops as oats, rye, rape, and root crops. There are approximately 700 silos in the state, about 200 of which are located in Leon County, the chief dairy center of Florida.
Large quantities of hay are shipped into the state yearly. To hasten. and encourage the adoption of better methods will require -considerable educational effort on the part of the *extension force.
PROBLEMS OF THE CATTLEMEN
The range interests, represent - Ing total holdings of approximately 1,000,000 cattle or more than 90 percent of all the cattle in Florida, find different problems confronting them. Their cattle', are entirely, dependent upon the native grasses of the range. In the management of this class of stock, supplementary feeding is not practiced. Usually the feeding of such animals, is not practicable. ' For this. reason the problem that interests range cattlemen is strictly one of improving native pasturage on their gr I zing areas., The principal grasses on the range are various species of the "wire grass" and "broom sedge" groups, or other grasses which, like them,, yield good pasturage, during their.early growth but- which soon become coarse and fibrous.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The system of range management followed in Florida includes periodic burning of grass lands to remove such growth as become dry and unpalatable. This system tends to perpetuate the hardy wire grasses by holding in check the more desirable andless resisting varieties, such as carpet grass and giant carpet grass. The wire grasses, on the other hand, are driven out by close grazing and heavy trampling, while the carpet grasses thrive under this treatment. A reversal of these systems would greatly improve certain sections of range lands. The practice of heavy stocking of lands and their careful protection from fire would convert large areas of wire grass into better grasses, thereby increasing the quantity and improving the quality of the feed supply.
Improvement along the general lines indicated above are some of the most urgent needs of the livestock industry in Florida; and this has been consistently emphasized in our work this year. One of the methods of reaching farmers in a direct way was thru personal farm visits in company with the county agent. Work of this nature wasconducted in 19 different counties and 64 farms were visited.
SPECIAL COUNTY SURVEYS
While our most important forage problems are, in a general way, common to all sections of the state, local conditions frequently obtain that necessitate special solutions. For this reason and in order to be of more specific help to farmers, while working in cooperation with the county agent, a series of special forage crop 'Surveys -were made, each one dealing with a separate county as an independent unit. The general plan followed in this work is briefly as follows:
By prearranged appointment the forage crop specialist visits " county agent, and the two jointly spend three or four days in " study of local forage conditions. Every phase of the forage quest ' ion is considered, typical areas of the county are visited, and a study is made of the character and condition of the range. Notes are taken on the different native grasses entering into the flora of the grazing lands and, wherever possible, herbarium specimens taken for future reference. In this way the county agent becomes more familiar with the grasses in his district.
Later, and as time permits, a report to the county agent is prepared, covering the findings of the survey and including recommendations for bettering conditions wherever improvement






Annual Report, 1920


seems possible. These surveys have been made in five counties, Bay, Dade, DeSoto, Holmes, and St. Lucie. The number of grasses collected were, in Bay 29, Dade 40, DeSoto 36, Holmes 0, St. Lucie 73.
MISCELLANEOUS WORK
During the year seven different agricultural fairs were attended. At five of these the forage crop specialist assisted in the judging of exhibits. At two he appeared on the program, making talks on forage topics. Eleven speeches were made on different forage crop subjects before gatherings of farmers within the period covered by this report. In the same time many letters were written and many native grasses were received and identified.


FIG. 21.-Para grass in Polk County




Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics (Acta of May 8 and June SO, 1914) University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department ..., ,-, -, , . . . of Agriculture Cooperating . ;? _ iS _ !.<. u, _ ; ,k;~>--~ P.H. ROLFS, Director f~{ .. ,. "'.. i' : ~ t, ... f .. ;j't ! . .:i.~r ,,i ' ' ' -~ . :() ' ' ,' ,' \., oa f1 ;.1 I~ , -: 1 ~ ~ .,, . ' REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR " j~jcr ; WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1920

PAGE 2

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics (Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1904) University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating P. H. ROLFS, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1920 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE .. FISCAL YEAR ENDING . JUNE 30, 1920 February, 1921

PAGE 3

CONTENTS PAGE LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA.... .... ........ . ......... ..... ........... 3 BOARD AND STAFFS.... .... ....... .. . . . . ... ... . ................................. . . ....... .... ..... ..... . .. .. .... . . ... 4 LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD OF CONTROL .. ......... . .............. 7 REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7 REPORT OF STATE AGENT ...................... : .............................................................. . . . 20 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH FLORIDA ...... . ........ . .......... . ......... . . . ......... ... . 33 REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA . .. . ..... . .... .. 38 REPORT DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA ...................................... 43: REPORT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT . . ...... ..... ...... ...... .... ... ........ ... .. . ..... . .... 47 REPORT ASSISTANT Boys' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT ....... .. ... . ....... ... ......... .. .. 53 . REPORT STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT..... .. .... ... ......... .. . .. ..... . ........... . . . . . 62: REPORT ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT .. .. . ... ..... . . ...... .. ........ ........... 71 REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA 76. REPORT DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA 81 REPORT POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK ..... . .. . ........... 86 REPORT DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK 92 REPORT EXTENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY . . . ......... .. ................ . ... .. .. 95 REPORT EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST.............................................. . .. . 97 REPORT EXTENSION BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST .. . . .. ..... .. , . . ......... . .......................... 100 REPORT EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN .... . . . . .. ....... . ........ .... ......... .. ......... .... 103 REPORT SPECIALIST IN WATERMELON DISEASE CONTROL ... .. . ... ......... . ........... . . . . 105 REPORT LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO WORK ... ........ .... . . .......... . .. . ..... . . .. .. 110

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Hon. Cary A. Hardee, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Florida. SIR: I have the honor to tran . smit herewith the report of the Director of the Agricultural Extension Division of the Agricul tural College in the Unversity of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1920, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1920. Respectfully, J. B. HODGES, Chairman of the Board of Control.

PAGE 5

4 Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF CONTROL J, B. HODGES, Chairman, Lake City, Florida. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Florida. J. B. SUTTON, Tampa, Florida. H. B. MINIUM, Jacksonville, Florida. W. W. FLOURNOY, DeFuniak Springs, Florida. J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee, Florida. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. J. A. EVANS, Chief. H. E. SAVELY, Agricultural and Field Agent. 0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work. STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. P.H. ROLFS, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director. COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK C. K. McQUARRIE, State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, District Agent. E. w. JENKINS, District Agent. H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. R. W : BLACKLOCK, Boys' Club Agent. E. F. DEBUSK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent . HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH w. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, . Assistant State Agent. AGNES L WEBSTER, District Agent. LONNY I. LANDRUM, District Agent. MAY MORSE, Assistant District Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant District Agent. SPECIALISTS A. H. LOGAN,* Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational and Demonstration Work (resigned June 30). JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industrialist. . WM. H. BLACK,* Extension Animal Husbandman (resigned June 30). N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman. C. M. TUCKER, Extension Plant Pathologist (resigned June 1). J. B. THOMPSON,* Forage Crop Specialist. LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Lecturer, Plant Pathology (resigned Sept. 4). 0. F. BURGER, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. R. W. RUPRECHT, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. C. H. WILLOUGHBY, Lecturer, Animal and Dairy Husbandry. W. L. FLOYD, Lecturer, Horticulture. FRAZIER ROGERS, Lecturer, Farm Machinery. A. L. SHEALY, Lecturer, Veterinary Science . RALPH STOUTAMIRE, Agricultural Editor. RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. . RETTA MCQUARRIE, Assistant Auditor. *Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U, S. D. A .

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Annual Report, 1920 5 COUNTY AND HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS HOME DEMONSTRATION COUNTY COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS AGENT Alachua ...... C. D. Gunn ........ .. . . . Gainesville .... . ........ Miss Irene Randall Miss Marian Swain Bay ... . .. .. . .. ... G. E. M-ead . . . ....... . .. Panama City ..... . ..... . ... . ....... . ... . .. . . ... .. . .... . .......... . .. ...... : . Bradford ..... J. 0. Traxler .......... Starke . . .. ...... . . . ..... . . Miss Myra Herlong Brevard ...... K . E. Bragdon ..... . . Cocoa .. .. ........... . ............ .. ............ . . . ........... . . . ...... , ..... .. .. . Broward .. . . ... . ... .... . .. .. ... . . . . . ........ . . Ft. Lauderdale . ..... Mrs. A. H. Peay Calhoun . ....... . . . . ..... . . . .. ... .... .. . ... .. . Blountstown . ... ...... Mrs . Grace F. Warren Citrus . . . . . ..... R . J; Dor s ett .... ... . . . Inverness ..... . .. .. ... . . Mrs. Mary E. Brooks Columbia ... ."H . A. McDonald .. .. Lake City ...... . . .. .... Miss Marie Cox nade .. . .. ...... . J. S. Rainey ........ .. . Miami... . .......... . . . ... Miss Genevieve Crawford Goulds . ......... . . ... .. . .. Mrs . Nelli e A. Bu s h DeSoto . ....... .J. M. Tillman ........ Arcadi a ....... . . .... ..... Mrs. Nettie B. Crabill Wauchula ......... . .... Miss Beulah . Pipkin Duval... . .. . . . :W. L. Watson . .. . .. . . Jack s onville . . . .. .. . .. Miss Ellen LeNoir . ' Escambia . .. . J. Lee Smith ....... .. . Pensa c ola .. ... . .... .. . . Mi s s Margaret Cobb Gadsden ........ . . . ........... .. .......... .. .. Hinson . . . . . ...... ... . . .... Miss Ruby McDavid Hernando ... . James Mountain . . . Brooksville ..... .... ... Mi s s Ora Herndon Hillsboro .... . R . T. Kelley ... .. .... . Plant City .. . .. .. ... .. . . Miss Virginia Branham Holmes . .. . .... J. J . Sechrest ...... . .. Bonifay . ............ . ......... . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. . ..... . .. .. ... . ..... .. . . ... . .. '. . Jackson . .......... . .......... ... . . .......... . . Marianna ........ . . . .. .'Miss Myrtle Floyd Jefferson . .... .. . .. . ... ... .. ... .... : .... .. .. . . Monti c ello ... .. . .. . . . . .. Miss Posey Taylor Lake .. . .... .... .. M . M. Javens .... .... . Tavares .......... ....... ....... .... ......... .. . .... . . . . . .... .. . .. . . ... . .. . . . . , . Lee ........ . ....... H. E. Stevens . . ..... Ft. Myers . ....... .. .... Miss Margaret Burleigh ! Leon . .. . ........• R. I. Matthews ...... Tallahassee ..... .. ... Mrs. Mary S. Russell : Liberty . .. . .. , .A. W. Turner .. . ..... . Bristol. . . . . . ... .. . . .. .. . .. .... . .... . . .. .. . .. , .. .. ... ... . ........ . . ... . ... . . ... 1 . Madison . ...... C. E . Matthews ... . Madison ..... . . ........ . . Miss Edna Smith , Manatee ...... v-/. R. Briggs ... . .... . Brad e ntown .. . . ...... Mrs . Ivie Turnbull 1 Marion . ........ W . . A. Sessoms ..•... Ocala ... . . . ....... ... . .............. . .......... ... . . ........ . ...... '. ....... .• .. '.. Okaloosa ..... R. J . Hart ......... . . . . . Laurel Hill... . . . . . .. . . Crestview ... .. . .. ... .. . Miss Harri e tte N. Hawthorn e Orange ......... C. D. Kime .. ....... . . . . Orland o .......... ... . . . ,,Mr s . Nellie W. Taylor Osceola ........ Leo H. Wilson . . ..... Kissimmee ..... . . . .. . .. Miss Albina Smith Palm BeachR. A. Conkling . .. . .. West Palm Beach.Mi s s Elizabeth Hopkins Pasco . .... .. .... F. G. Merrin . . .. . . . . .. Dade City ... . . . . . . .. ... Mrs . Harriette Ticknor Pinellas ......•. . .... . ......... . ............... Largo . . ... ........ . ....... Miss Hazel Carter Polk .. . . . ........ Wm. Gomme . .... ..... Bartow . . ......... ... ... . . Mi s s Lois Godbey Putnam .. . . ..• . H . . R. Tribble . .... .. .. Palatka . ... . .. . .. . .. . . . . . Mi s s Flore s a Sipprell St. Lucie.cc. Alfred Warren ..... . Ft. Pi e r c e .... . ... .. . .. . Mis s Lula Chriesman St. Johns .... J. G. Clemons ........ St. Augustine .... . ... Mis s Anna E. Heist Santa RosaJ. C. Sechrest . . . . ... . Milton .. ... . .... .. . . . . . . . . Mr s . Winnie W. McEwen 1 Seminole .. . .. C . M. B e rry ..... .. .. .. S a nford . .... ...... .... ..... . .. .. ... .. . ...... ... .. . . .... ......... . . .... . .. . . .. . Suwannee ... D. A. Armstrong . . Live O a k. ..... . Branford ....... . .. . ..... Miss Alice Dorsett Taylor .. ....... L. R. Moor e . .... ... . . . Perry . .. ... . , . . . ... . , . . .... Miss Pearl LaFitte Volusia . .. . . . . ,W. E. Dunaway . . .. DeLand . .. ... . ... .. ... . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .... . .... ... .. . . . , .. ........• ..... . . .. . . . Walton , ....... J. W. Mathison ..... DeFuniak Sp ' gs . .......... ... ........ : . ... . .......... .... ......... . . .. . i,

PAGE 7

FIG, 1.-Agricultural Extension Staff, 1920

PAGE 8

Report of General Activities for 1920 with Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1920 Hon. J. B. Hodges, Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Agricultural Extension Division @f the Agricultural College, University of Florida. This report embodies the financial state ment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, arid the report of the activities of the Agricultural Extension Division for the calendar year 1920. I respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the governor of the State of Florida. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION P.H. ROLFS, Director. The agriculture of Florida has undergone about the same changes that have taken place everywhere else in the United States. All agricultural crops have been produced at a high cost for labqr, fertilizer, suppHes, etc., and, due to the demand for labor in manufacturing centers, many agricultural workers have left the farms, causing a shortage of farm labor. The high market price of farm products, together with an apparent mand for them during the planting season, stimulated farmers to cultivate as large an acreage in staple crops as their labor and other conditions would permit. County and home demonstration agents worked continuously during the spring months on increased production and conserva tion of food; feed and forage. Toward the close of the present calendar year the farmers of North Florida have been con fronted with decreasing prices for practically all farm products. This caused unsettled conditions and disappointments to those who had planted extensively and produced large crops. They have been required to hold these indefinitely or sell for less than

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension cost of production~ This, together with, an u:rifav6ral>le season, particularly . for staple crops, has _ made it impossible for many farmers to meet their obligations; South Florida has not met the same adverse conditions. The returns from the citrus crop of 1919 and 1920 were the largest in the history of the state, on account of heavy production and high prices. The values of many . citrus properties have in creased upward of 50 percent in two years, causing many sales at good prices, and inducing many others to enlarge their citrus properties by planting new groves. On the whole, the truckers of Florida have had a satisfactory year, in many instances their crops bringing more money than formerly. These products reached the market before the decline in prices, and even tho they were produced at a high cost of labor and fertilizer, the profit to' the growers was above the average. , County and home demonstration agents have to deal with these varying problems, and in the administration of . the ex tension work of Florida, a rather flexible plan must be adopted so the individual agent can pursue the most logical plan of work dependent on the county's agricultural conditions. There has been no material change in the general policy of the extension work in the state. It is the duty of every extension worker to render the greatest ainbunt of assistance to such de velopments as lead to a greater and better . agriculture for Flori~ . The services of county and home demonstration agents have been solicited for various enterprises intended for the uplift of agricultural communities, and in this they have responded even at personal sacrifices. There has been a good feeling of coopera tion between county and home demonstration agents a~d their supervisors, so that the year has i been a satisfactory one from every standpoint, in spite of the unsettled condition of agri culture generally. ORGANIZATION The cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics is directed f rdm the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, with headquarters on the University campus. The home demonstration offices are at the State Col lege for Women, Tallahassee, and those of the farm and home makers' clubs at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tal lahassee.

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Annual Report, 1920 9 , The budget _ system governs the ,working plans. The budget is approved by the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect. The work was conducted under nine projects during the past year, the principal ones being that of county cooperative and home demonstration agents. The work in each county centered around these two offices, and all other project leaders carried out their work in the counties, using the offices of the local agents as the centers. The purpose in view is to improve rural conditions in Florida by working with farms and farm homes. The instruction given corresponds with the instruction given from the College of Agri culture, University of Florida, and the Home Economics Depart ment of the State College for Women. The . project leaders are kept in close touch with the various activities of these colleges, so that the work will be conducted with a common purpose in view. County agents arrange for public meetings, and speakers are provided by the state institutions. Thru cooperation between the College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture, the vari _ ous bureaus, departments, and state agencies are harmonized so that each county secures benefit from bureaus working on problems that affect the state of Florida. County agents are under the direction of the state agent and the district agents. The boys' club work is under the direction of the state club agent ana his assistant. Clubs are organized by county agents,' with the assistance of school boards, county superintendents, fair associations and other organizations for agricultural pro motion. , Home demonstration agents have headquarters at the State Oollege for Women, the work being supervised by state and district agents with the assistance of specialists working on home dairying and poultry. These agents organize clubs of women and girls to study home economics problems, and all home demonstration work in the counties is directed thru them. Farm and home makers' clubs for negroes have headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee. This work is under the general direction of a local district agent in farm makers' clubs. Assistant club agents are employed for a portion of the year to give assistance to the rural colored pop. ulation, encourage thrift and improve rural conditions in general :

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10 Florida Coopera ' tive Extension The specialists devote all their attention to a particular line of work. They, too, reach farmers thru county agents, and assist in all problems related to their special work. Extension workers consult workers in the Experiment Sta tion, and when the Experiment Station workers visit the counties they are privileged to visit the office of the county and home demonstration agent and secure all assistance that can be givem them. County and home demonstration agents have centrally located headquarters in their counties, usually in the county seat. The office equipment and all laboratory equipment needed is also provided for from county funds. As the county and the home demonstration agents' problems are very closely connected, they usually have the same . office and assist each other in the man agement of meetings and in conducting any work that applies fo both farm and home. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORK AMONG NEGROES The negro agricultural extension work provided for in farm and home makers' clubs among negroes is a part of the program of the College of Agriculture. . Headquarters for this work are at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes. The local district agent has his office there. The program proposes to improve agri culture among farmers by means of better methods of crop production, by improving livestock, poultry, drainage and fer tilization and by economizing labor. A large part of negro extension work has to do with making the farmhouse more sanitary, encouraging the covering of wells, cleaning up in general and using whitewash liberally. Most of this work is done by assistant locai agents. These work six to eight months each year under ~upervision of the local district agent. However, in the regula~ work of county agents negro farmers are not neglected. County and hame demonstration agents have given every possible assistance to negro workers. The negro agricultural extension organization is known as farm and home makers' clubs. The purpose of the work among women is to encourage thrift, to teach girls and women the proper use of foods and their values, to give instruction in the selection of household furniture and clothing, to instruct in canning, preserving and househ9ld duties. The weekly reports

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Annual Report; 1920 11 of local district agents are approved by county and home dem onstration agents before being submi~ted to the state offices. At some of the county and state fairs, farm and home makers' clubs have been represented. Usually the fair authorities have set apart sufficient separate space. Business interests have re garded this work as valuable, and have contributed liberally in money and merchandise as premiums. A field agent in charge of seven southern states visits the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tal-' lahassee, and, with the president of that institution and the local district agent, reviews the working plans from time to time. MONTHLY CONFERENCES Regular conferences of the staff of the Agricultural Extemiion Division, Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture are . held on the third Monday of each month. The purpose of these meetings is to discuss the programs of all. A further purpose is to promote the greatest cooperation, and to make the various problems well understood by all. A definite program is provided, with a leader for each meet ing. The conference is continued by round-table discussion of problems most pertinent. When subjects of broad general interest in agriculture are to be considered, outsiders are invited to lead the discussion. A limited number of county and home demonstration . agents are invited to these conferences. The papers presented are collected and made use of in extension work. An informal conference, at which verbal reports are made by various state leaders is held after the close of the gen eral conference. In order to correlate the work of various departments, it is necessary to have a harmonious plan, thereby avoiding loss of time or duplication of effort. The work of county and home demonstration agents and specialists is so closely associated that it is necessary to have all plans well understood. FINANCIAL STATEMENT All bill~ submitted, after approval by the department head, are vouchered in quadruple; audJ.ted and approved by the di rector; and transmitted to the . Board of Control. One copy is returned for record. One copy is filed with the state treasurer, who issues a warrant, covering the amount of the voucher in question, which is sent to this office to be distributed. All funds . are kept by the state treasurer at Tallahassee. In the matter of salaries, while we work on a budget basis, no

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12 I I I I Flo r ida Coop er ative Extension item is audited until the :memorandum of employment has been approved and returned from Washington . By . this method, we are able to keep close check on all expenditures and are also able to check any off-set in salary appropriations that may be made by other organizations. . Our off-setting fund is appropriated biennially by the Flo . rida Legislature. In fact, all revenue for extension work, outside of county, city and other agencies, is i by direct appropriation of the legislature. We are, therefore, dependent to a great extent upon the beneficence of the legislature for continuing this work. No new equipment has been added to this office, but some changes have been made in the method of booking that would serve to make our records more efficient. For your information I . am giving below a resume of the expenditures from all sources for ! period ending June 30, 1920: I RECEIP : Ts Agricultural College Fund' Smith-Lever, Federal ..... . .. . .. .... . ... . . .. . . .. .. . .. . ... .... . . . . $ Smith-Lever, State ... . ........ . ..... .. . . ... . .. . .... .. ...... .. ...... . Supplementary Smith-Lever, Federal ......... . ....... . Supplementary Smith-Lever, State ............. .... . .. . . U. S. D. A. Appropriation .. . ..... . . . . . . . ......... .. .. . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .. . U. S . D. A. Bureaus ... . ... .. . .. . ... . ... .. ! ...... ... , . . .......... .. . .. .. .. . . State Appropriations . : .... . . . . ...... . : .. i ... .... . ......... , .. .. ... . ...... County Appropriations . . .............. .. . : ... . .......... , .. .. . ... .... . . 38,110.10 28,110.10 16,217.37 16,217.37 20,200 . 00 5,120.00 9,590.00 51,040.00 $18(604.94 P ROJECT EXPENDITURES Administration " : .. . . .. . '. .. .. . .... . . , ... . . . . .. . $ Printing and Publications . ................. ... . . ......... ... . . . . ..... . . County Agents' Work. .. . .............. . ... . . .... . ... ........ ... . . . .. .. . . . . Home Demonstration .. .. . ........ . . . .. J Boys' Club Work. .. . . ... . . . . . ..... . .... .. ...... . .. . . ..... ....... . ... ... . . . . '. .. Animal Industry . ... .. . . . . .. : . .. . . .. ... . .... : .... .... ... . .. . ... .. ...... .. . .. . . Negro Fann and Home Makers' Work. . ........ .. : . . ..... .... . Hog Cholera Educational Work. . . . .... ................ ... . ..... .. . Poultry Husbandry . ........ ... ........ . ....... . . ... ............ . . . .. . .... . 10,368.74 3,690.00 75,746.63 67,869.53 6,786.71 5 , 603.33 8,440.00 3,600.00 2,500 . 00 $184,604.94 PUBLICATIONS The following publications have been issued during the nscal year:

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Annual R e port, 1920 . Bulletins Title Pages 21 Florida Pastures and Feed for 100 Hens.. 6 22 The Silo in Florida...... . ........... . . . .. .. ...... . . . . .. ...... 24 . 23 , Addresses Fourth Annual Livestock , Roundup .. '. .. ... . . ..... . , . . . .. . ... .. . , . . . .... . . . .... .. .. . . ~ . . 48 24 Ad.dresses Tenth Annual Citru s Seminar.. 48 25 ;Boys' Agricultural Club . Guide . ~ .. . ... . . , . . . . ... .. 44 26 Feeding Beef Cattle in Florida ....... . ; . . : ... . . , 20 27 Peach Growing in Florida ... .. . . ..... . ...... . . .. ...... 16 . Circulars 9 Raising Calves ............. . .. . ....... . ........ .... . . ..... .. 8 10 One Hundred Bushels Corn an Acre . . . . . ..... 8 11 Important Irish Potato Diseases and How to Control Them . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . .. ... , . .... . .. .. .... . . . 4 Poster Better Beef Cattle~ ... :............... . ............. . ....... 1 Annual Report ..... . . . ... . . .. ......... . .. . . . ... . . , ... . .... . .... .. .... . .. 128 Agricultural News Service, 52 weeks, 425 copies 1 CHANGES IN STAFF 13 Edition 11,000 15,450 ... 30,150 30,150 9,171 12,150 20,640 15,237 15,430 10,100 2,000 2,603 22,100 G. L. Herrington resigned as boys' club agent on February '15, 1920, having been elected to a similar position in Tennessee. R. W. Blacklock, formerly assistant boys' club agent, was promoted to the position of boys' club agent, February 15. _ , E. F. DeBusk, a former county agent, was appointed assistant club agent on April 1, succeeding R. W. Blacklock. : Miss S. L. Vinson , agricultural editor, resigned May 10 and was succeeded July 1 by Ralph Stoutamire, an agricultural graduate of the University of Florida. , Miss L. R. Hunter resigned July 1 as assistant auditor, and was succeeded by Miss Retta McQuarrie, appointed July 1. W. H . Black, extension animal husbandman, working cooper atively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States De partment of Agriculture, resigned June 1. A. H. Logan; field agent in educational and demonstrational work in hog cholera, cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, resigned July 1. \ . : Miss Lucy Cushman, district agent home demonstration work in West Florida, resigned September 1. She was succeeded by Miss Lonny I. Landrum, appointed September: 1. c .J. B. : Thompson, part time forage crop specialist for the. pre yious year, was reappointed for the months of April and May,

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension and again reappointed September 1 to continue thruout the fiscal year. PLAN OF WORK The projects by which the funds are expended and the work conducted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, are as follows: PROJECT I-A-ADMINISTRATION This provides for the offices of ' the director and vice-director, salaries of clerical help and other executive expenditures that canriot be properly charged to any other particular project. PROJECT 1-B-PUBLICATIONS . This provides for the expense of publication and distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly agricultural news service and an nual reports. Only 5 percent of Smith-Lever funds can be used in this project. PROJECT II-COUNTY AGENTS This provides for the maintenance of county agents' supplies and incidentals of those directly in charge of county agent work. Wherever a county agent is employed, the county must provide additional funds to apply on the salary, traveling expenses or the equipment of his office. PROJECT III-BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUBS (Principally Corn, Pig, Calf, Bee and Peanut Clubs) This work is intended to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12 and 18. The clubs are 6rganized by the county agents, with the assistance of the boys' club agents, so that Projects II and III are closely allied. In order to make these clubs effective, the support of school officials, business interests and other or ganizations directly interested in the common good of the com munity is solicited. PROJECT IV-HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK This work is conducte . d principally in rural districts under two divisions, one giving particular attention to girls' clubs and the other to women's clubs. The general purpose is to give in struction in domestic science and art, the principle of home mak ing as applied to rural life, and to carry this work just as far into communities as conditions will permit. The cooperation of women's clubs and all agencies looking for the betterment of the rural home is sought. PROJECT V-BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION WORK This project works toward the ; improvement of the beef cattle industry of the state, to arrange for the distribution of breeding

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Annual Report, 1920 15 cattle to those in a position to handle them; to encourage the importation of suitable animals from outside the state, and to lend every encouragement to securing a better beef industry. Until July 1, 1920, this project was conducted according to the joint agreement between the Extension Division and the Bu reau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agri culture. Since July 1 this work has been conducted entirely by the Agricultural Extension Division with some modifications. This has been extended to extension work in forage crops and pastures. The forage crop specialist works in counties with county agents, spending two or more days in each county making a study of native and introduced forage plants, visiting stock farms and dairies for the purpose of securing a better and more economic system of feeding and management of pastures. PROJECT VI-FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS The work of this project is intended to improve conditions of negro farmers in the state. They are encouraged to produce larger yields from their crops, and instructed in the care and management of livestock, truck and fruit crops. The boys and girls are organized into corn, pig, bee and peanut clubs. The girls and women are organized into canning and home makers' clubs and are taught the principles of economy and thrift, production and conservation. Assistant agents are pro vided in counties, and are supervised by a district leader. PROJECT VII-EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK This is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, and co ordinating with the hog cholera control work of the Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. The agent in charge spends his entire time in the counties assisting county agents in handling diseases of hogs, and lending the necessary encouragement in this direction for the betterment of the hog industry. The proper use of hog cholera serum and virus is taught, and demonstrated with an idea of preventing the spread of hog diseases or holding contagious diseases in control following an outbreak of cholera. In the past year, the agent bas devoted his energies to perfecting local organizations, looking to more sani tary conditions of all livestock, particularly hogs. PROJECT VIII-POULTRY HUSBANDRY This project provides for general educatio~al work to improve the poultry of the state. The representative is primarily inter

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j . Florida Cooperdti'l!e Extension es : ted in the improvement of the farm flock and, with that end in view, works with county and home demonstration agents. During the fiscal year ending June 30, this work was in coopera tion with the Poultry Division of . the Bureau of Anim~l Industry. PROJECT IX-EXTENSION SCHOOLS . This project provides for conducting extension schools in various sections of Florida, particularly in the best agricultural communities. It also provides for conducting livestock, . citrus, trucking, poultry and home demonstration schools at the head quarters of extension workers. The best talent is secured, both in and out ofthe state, to handle the programs _ arran~ed. In conducting these, the cooperation of agricultural workers, of railroads, state departments and various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture, working in the state of Florida, are invited to cooperate. EXTENSION SCHOOLS The extension schools, under Project IX, is an enlargement of the plan of holding farmers' meetings in rural communities, with a definite outlined program, prepared and agreed upon by various extension supervisors. These schools are continued for one or more days. A general state extension school is held an~ nually to bring together the principal workers in agricultural Xtension . and the leaders in agrfoulture and home econ . ornics. ! October 5-8 two schools were conducted at the College of Agri eulture. The Citrus Seminar, October 5-6, was carried out on a program dealing with various phases of citrus culture, mar keting, etc; The speakers were selected from extension workers, Experiment Station staff, representatives of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, the State Plant Board, the State Marketing :Bureau and practical citrus growers. This program was under the direction of A. P. Spencer, vice-director of extension. ; Octob~r 7-8 an extension school, known as the Livestock Roundup, was held. Those on the program represented the Gollege of Agriculture, the . Experiment Station, the Extension Division, representatives of livestock and farm papers, repre:. .sentatives of railroads, the State Livestock Sanitary Board and other institutions interested in the livestock welfare of Florida. l' , his . , program lwas _ under the d~rection of J. M. Scott, leader of th~ _ livestock project. ,

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Annual Report, 1920 17 EXTENSION SCHOOLS IN COUNTIES Between November 30 and December 4 four extension schools were conducted in West Florida. The instructional work dealt primarily with pork production, soft pork, the peanut situation,_ marketing, poultry, home economics and farm crops. The morn ing programs were made up entirely of poultry lectures and demonstrations. The counties covered by these schools were Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington and Liberty. In addition to the agricultural program there were educational and entertainment programs consisting of slides and films, picnic suppers and music. Between December 28 and 31 an extension school was con ducted in Dade County. This was devoted to dairying, poultry and plant diseases. The lecturers were representatives of the Extension Division, College of Agriculture and the Florida Ex periment Station. COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL MEETING The annual meeting of county agents was held at the College of Agriculture September 6-11. This meeting is intended to bring all workers together for a full discussion of extension work as carried on in the counties. The program is presented by the staffs of the Extension Division, Agricultural Experiment Sta tion, the College of Agriculture and workers from the various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture. The purpose is correlation of efforts to avoid duplication. During two days of this meeting, September 10-11, the home demonstration agents were in session with the county agents. Round-table discussions to formulate plans and polices were carried out. At this meeting the Florida State Federation of Farm Bureaus was temporarily organized, a constitution was adopted, and officers elected for the ensuing year. HOME DEMONSTRATION MEETING The ninth annual home demonstration agents' meeting was held September 6-8 at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, and from September 8-11 in joint session with the. county agents at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville. The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports, _ instruc tion, and the development of plans for the work of the coming year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the consideration of phases of the work that could be best accom plished thru the :working together of the agents of both branches.

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18 Florida Cooperative Extension SHORT COURSE FOR GIRLS' CLUB MEMBERS The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls. Scholarships to the state prize winners' short course are pro vided by boards of county commissioners, school boards, banks and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in attendance, 39 were enrolled in canning work, 23 in poultry, 14 in sewing, 3 in grape growing, 5 in dairying, 1 in beekeeping and 3 in pig clubs. Girls' camps for instruction and recreation were held in DeSoto and Polk Counties. A joint camp for girls and boys was held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties. CLUB BOYS' SHORT COURSE The fourth annual short course for club members of the state was held on the University campus the second ; week in December. Ninety-nine boys from 28 counties attended. The program pro vided for practical lectures to the boys by the instructors of the College of Agriculture and the Extension Division. They re ceived instruction in handling livestock, growing forage crops, judging hogs, dairy and beef cattle. The expenses in sending these boys to the University were provided for by the county commissioners and school boards, railroads, boards of trade and individuals. The sho . rt course was under the direction of the boys' club agent and his assist ants. Alachua County sent 25 boys, which was the largest num ber from any one county. Hillsboro came second with 11. GROUP MEETINGS Between March 23 and April 5 the county agents were as sembled in groups of from four to six, to report and confer with the supervising force, director, state and district agents and field agent from the States Relations Service, United States De partment of Agriculture. This plan was adopted so that county agents, having similar problems, can confer with each other, and with supervising agents so that there will be uniformity of work and harmony of purpose; also for the sake of economy .in travel. The meetings for the agents of North and West Florida were held in Santa Rosa, Holmes, Madison, and Columbia Counties; . for those of East and South Florida in i Marion, Pasco, Polk, Volusia and St. Lucie Counties.

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Annual Report, 1920 19 ANNUAL NEGRO AGENTS' MEETING As the office for the local district agent in negro work is at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tal lahassee, the annual meeting of the men and women county workers was held at that institution in January, 1920. These workers were assembled for instruction so that there would be a definite program of work for each county. As this included both men and women, the extension staff from the Uni versity of Florida College of Agriculture and the State College for Women assisted with the program . The instructors from several departments of the institution also assisted in caring for the agents and with the program. FIG. 2.-Japanese cane

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF STATE AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. In presenting the state agent's report for the year just ending, it is a pleasure to know that, notwithstanding the shortage and high cost of farm labor and the reorganization of the work in all counties from after-war conditions, the work has progressed favorably. A glance backward over the year's results shows considerable progress in all the different activities of the county agents. The beginning of the year found the country facing the prob lem of labor shortage. Farm labor was especially unreliable and high in price. This made it difficult for farmers to make any positive plans for their year•~ work and necessitated the curtail ment of acreage planted to staple crops. COUNTY ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS An important activity of the agent's work has been the or ganization of community councils and county bureaus. In some counties much more progress has been made than in others. i f Hillsboro County organized the first county bureau of agriculture and home economics at Valrico April 22, 1920. ' ; , :~ At the county agents' annual meeting the State Farm Bureau was organized, September 9, when both county and home dem onstration agents were present. The officers were elected tem porarily until the annual meeting, which takes place on the first Saturday in January, and are: L. M. Rhodes, president; J. D. Butler, vice-president; Miss Ruby Newhall, secretary-treasurer. Five counties were included in this organization, Alachua, Brow ard, Hillsboro-, Pasco and Duval. It was reported by the agents of Columbia, Escambia, Marion, Madison, Polk, Volusia, Su wannee and Walton that their counties were in the process of organization. The organization of farm bureaus has been slower than was expected, but there have been many obstacles in the way.

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Annual Report, 1920 21 MEETINGS HELD A larger number of field meetings than usual have been held this year, conducted by county agents, with the assistance of state workers. Annual spring group meetings were held. Formerly these meetings were held at a few points at which eight to ten agents were present. This year fewer agents were assembled at one point. At these meetings programs of work were mapped out for such activities as should be stressed by agents in their counties. The annual conference and school of county agents was held at Gainesville, September 6-11. The first three days of the meeting were taken up with the men's work, where subjects dealing exrlusively with county agents' work were discussed. One afternoon .was spent visiting nearby livestock farms. On this trip the agents were enabled to visit some good farms and see the agricultural developments of Alachua County. Those appearing on the program of this agents' meeting from outside the state were: H. E. Savely, W. B. Mercier and I: W. Hill of the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture; W. C. Lassetter, editor of the Southeastern Edition of the Progressive Farmer; L. M. Rhodes, state mar ket commissioner; and Paul Sanders, boys' club editor of the Southern Ruralist. An important part of all state conferences is the getting to gether of the agents at night and between the regular programs when important points that have been overlooked are brought out between individuals. The last three days of this meeting was a joint one between the county and home demonstration agents, the latter having come down from Tallahassee, where . they met for the first three days. The combined session proved exceptionally valuable to all, and this plan should be continued. AGENTS' ACTIVITIES I Every year finds the scope of the agents' activities 1 widening and more important, and especially where the work has been conducted for several years. As the counties see the importance of agent's work, they are willing to give it substantial support. In many counties the agents have been devoting much of their time to the farm operations of new settlers. This is especially valuable to settlers unfamiliar with Florida conditions and these

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension new people naturally go to the county agent on arrival for in formation and assistance. CORN WEEVIL The annual damage to corn in Florida is estimated at from 10 to 25 percent of the crop. Where this crop is a major one, the agents have been active in influencing farmers to adopt better methods of harvesting, and providing tight cribs in which to store and fumigate it. Due to the high cost of labor and lumber many farmers have delayed these improvements. This work is so important that county agents will be urged to con tinue it in the future. FAIRS More than the usual number of fairs have been held this year, especially community fairs. We find this one of the best means of getting community people together. Suwannee, Columbia, Escambia and Alachua Counties have conducted these most suc cessfully. Business interests have been induced to take active parts in the welfare of agriculture thru these community fairs. Some community fairs were held in commissioners' districts, usually in churches or schoolhouses, under the management of local committees, the county and home demonstration agents acting as advisors or leaders. These community fairs have been feeders to county and state fairs. LIVESTOCK The large number of purebred sires, both hogs and cattle, purchased by farmers, as reported by county agents, and the very definite activities of livestock and dairy associations, which livestock extension workers and county agents have been active in developing, is the forerunner of a much greater livestock in dustry for Florida. County agents are often called upon to select purebred sires for farmers. Considerable progress has been made in conducting hog sales on certain days in several counties in North and West Florida. Many of these have been the means of securing better prices for farmers. Especially is this true since October 1, when hog prices slumped. CROPS The corn acreage has been cut about ten percent, owing to scarcity and high cost of farm labor. The sweet potato acreage has been slightly increased, with the result that this crop should show an increased yield. Rice and sugar cane acreage were

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Annual Report, 1920 23 greatly increased, in some sections 15 to 20 percent. These crops also show an increased yield over previous years. The Irish potato crop was profitable on the whole. Altho the yield was short, farmers received good prices. County agents are urging that this crop be planted in the fall for home use. SMALL GRAIN CROPS County agents report a larger acreage than usual of oats and rye, most of which was used for hog pasture. The yield was also above the average, especially of oats. Farmers and live stock men are giving more attention to providing pasture. COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS We are glad to report considerable increase in the total amount of appropriations to supplement county agents' salaries, which total is $84,915. This response on the part of county commis sioners is gratifying and shows appreciation of the work done by county and home demonstration agents. This appreciation is more marked in counties where the same agent has been en gaged for a number of years, as it . takes time for an agent to find himself and for the county commissioners to realize the . value of such work. FIGURES SHOWING GENERAL ACTIVITIES Visits made by county agents .. . . . . ................ .. .... . . ...... .. .. .......... .... .. . ............. 30,416 Miles traveled ...... .. .............. .. ....... .. ................ . .... . .. . . ........ ............... ....... ......... 234,063 Call on agents relative to work. ..................................................... . ... . ......... 30,331 Farmers' meetings held ............... . ......................... ... .................... ,... .. . . .. . ....... 642 Addresses made at meetings..... .. ........................ . ..... . .................................. 911 Total attendances .................... ........ ... .. .......... . .. ........ ....................... . .. ... .. .... ... 37,861 Field meetings held by agents .. .. . .......... . ... .... . ........ . .... . , .. . ........ .. .. . . .. . .. .. .... .. , 279 Total attendances at these meetings............ . .. ...... . . .. . ................ . . ....... ....... 3,581 Percentage of time spent in office work ....... . .... ... .. . ................ : ... .... .. . ....... 26 Percentage of time spent in field work............. .... . . ..................... . ............. 74 Official letters written ................. .. ................................................................. 10,276 Articles prepared for publication....................... .. ............................ . .......... 1,840 Circular letters issued ............ .. ... . ............................. . ... . ................ . .... . .... : ..... 2,510 U. S. D. A. bulletins distributed .................. .... ... : . . .•................. . .... .. .. . ......... 18,998 Bulletins or circulars from state sources distributed ............. .. . .. . .. ....... . . 14,784 Visits to schools................................ . ...................... . ........ . ............ .. .... . .. . ....... 726 Schools assisted in outlining agricultural courses. . .................. ............ .. .. 23 Short courses assisted in........... .. ..................................................... . ..... .. ...... 9 Total attendance ................................................................................ . . . ......... 741 MISCELLANEOUS Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts 71 Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result of club work . ........................ . .. . .................... .. . . . ..................... .. ..... . ....... 54 Times visited by specialists from college or departments...... . ... .. .......... 589 Demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits . ....... 555 Prizes won .......... ... .................... .... . ... ...................... ... ..... . .............. . . ... . .... . . ...... 355 Demonstrations in truck or small fruit........ ... ........ .. .. . ...... ... .. ............ ....... 223

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24 Florida Cooperative Extension Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instances........ . ......... . . ...... ....... . 211 Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work...... 862 FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS Buildings erected ........ .. ................................................................................. . Farm buildings improv e d ...... . ....... . : ... .... . ........ '. . . .. . ........... .... .... . , ... .... . .. .... ... . New building plans furnished . . ....................................... .. .......... .... ........ . ... . Farm buildings painted or whitewashed ................................................... . Home water systems installed or improved ... . . : .... ...... ... . . ...................... . . . Home lighting systems installed ....................................... . ............ .. ........... . Home grounds improved ........ .. ................................................................. : .. Farm and home sanitary conditions improved ...... ........ ... .......... . ............. . Homes screened against flies and mosquitoe s ...... .. ....... .... .......... ... ... ....... . . Sanitary privies erected .......... .. ........................ . . ....... ........ . .. ... ..... ... ............ . Telephone systems installed .... .... ....................................... ..... ..................... . Farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation . ......... ... .......... .... ........... . Total acreage .. . ... .. ... ......... .... ..... . .. ............ . ........... .. ..... . ...... .... ........ .... ........ . .. . New pastures established ...... ....... ... .. ... . .. ..... .................... . ......................... . Old pastures renovated .......................... .. .. .. ....... . . .. ............ . ............. . ........... . Acreage comprised ........................................................................... . ........... . Drainage systems established .................. .. ......... ... ...... ... ..... . . . ......... .. . .. ..... . . . . Farmers induced to drain their lands ......................................................... . Total acreage drained: . By tile .................................. . ....... ...... ...... ... . ........ ........... ... ........ ....... ....... . By ditch .... . ... . ....... .. ............. . ........... . . .. .. ....... ... ....... .. .......... ...... ..... ....... ... Farmers who removed stumps ..................................................................... . Total acreage . stumped . ........ : . .. ............... ..... ........ .. . .... ....... .... ........ ... ........... . Farmers induced to terrace sloping land ............ . ........... .. ......................... . Total acreage terraced ................ . ........ ... . ..... .......... ...... ......... . ........... . ........ .. . . Home gardens planted .................................................................... . ............. . Farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use : ........................ . Farmers turning under cover crops .......................................... : .. ..... .. . ...... . New implements and tools bought ......... . .......... .... ........ . .. . ............... .. ........ . CORN DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrators ...... .... .. ..... . ...... ..... ....... ....... . .......................... . . . ........................ . Demonstrators reporting .................................................... .. ....................... . Total acreage grown under improved methods . ........... . ............ . ............. . A v'erage yield an acre, in bushels .. .......... .... ...... ........... .. .... ....... . ....... ......... . Number planting selected seed .. .......... : .. . .. ......... . .. ....... . ... . .. .. : ....... ..... ...... .. . Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres .................. ...... ....... . Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres Acres harvested for silage .................................... . ......................... . ............ . Farmers using better methods in growing corn this year ..... . ............. . Farmers so influenced since county agent work was started .. .. ........... . COTTON DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrators ................................................ : ...... .. ... .. .......... . ... : ... : ............. '. .. . Demonstrators reporting Total acreage grown under improved methods ......................................... . Average yield seed cotton an acre, pounds . .... ......... . ........ ... .. . . . .. ... ...... ..... . Demonstrators who planted selected Farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop ........... Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres ............................... . Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres Acres treated for diseases or insect pests ........................ ... ......... .. ........... . Farmers using better cultural methods ....... ... . ............. ......... ... .......... ...... . SMALL GRAIN DEMONSTRATIONS (Oats, Rye, Rice) 99 57 30 111 65 184 180 97 143 28 3 157 5,832 115 26 3,018 86 150 665 2,102 232 2,321 33 5,475 904 343 941 2,163 238 125 3,647 33 145 72 62 415 986 5,706 25 12 150 560 12 18 3 2 125 45 Demonstrators 51 Demonstrators reporting ..................................................... ... ........... . .. . .... .. . 40

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Annual Report, 1920 25 Total acreage grown under improved methods........................................ 375 Acres thrashed for grain.......... .. ................................... . .............. ........... ....... 212 Acres cut for hay.................. ...... ......... . ... .... ............. .. . .. ............... .. .............. 2 Acres turned under for soil improvement.. .. . . ........ ............ .. .... . ..... ............ 35 Bushels of seed treated for smut . and rust .. .......... . . . .. ............... ... .. . . .... . . ... Farmers planting oats for the first tim e... . ..... . .. .. ....... . ...... ..... ............. ...... 35 Farmers influenced to use better methods.. .... .......... . ................ ... .............. 162 SUMMER LEGUME DEMONSTRATIONS (Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Peanuts) Demonstrators ................................................ .. ............ .... ....................... .. ...... . Demonstrators reporting ....... .. ............... .. .. ..... ........... .. . .. ............................ . Total acreage grown under demonstration methods ............................... . Average yield grain . ... ...... .. .... . .. ............. .. , ... . . ........... ........... ...... ..... . .. ............ . Average yield hay ........ .... .. ... .. . ..... . .. .. ......... ... .. ............... .... ............ .... ............ . Total acreage hulled for seed .................. ........ ............................... ... ........... . Total acreage cut for hay ...... ... ................. .... ........... . .. . .................. . ............. . Number of acres grazed off ...................................... . .................................. . Acres turned under for soil improvement ............... . . ... ........ ......... '. .... ... . . . Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods .. . ......... . .............. . Estimated acreage planted in the state thru county agents' influence SWEET POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstrators ....... . . .. .. .. ........ .... ....... ... ....... ............................ . . .... ... . .. ... ...... .... . Demonstrators reporting ..... , . .... ............ ............... . ...... ...... .. .. ... .... .... ........ .. . . Total acreage grown by demonstrators ...... ............ .. ... .... ............ ........ ...... . Acreage treated for diseases and pests .. ................ .. . ..... . .' .......... ... ............ . Estimated increased acreage ..... . ......... . .. .. .. .. .................................. ... . ......... . IRISH POTATO DEMONSTRATIONS 736 140 3,217 20 1.5 845 629 3,243 5,795 903 4,992 , 196 66 411 106 1,243 Demonstrators ..... ... . ... .................. ,.............. ...... ................ . ............ .. ................ 97 Demonstrators reporting ....... .. ............. ............ ......... : . .. ... .......... ...... ,.......... 30 Total acreage grown by demonstrators . . , ... ....... ,...................... ......... ......... 765 Acreage treated for diseases and pests .............. . ............ . ..... .... .. .. ........ . ... . 671 Estimated increased acreage .... ...... ,.. ... .... . ........ . ........................... ... .... ...... 387 FRUIT DEMONSTRATIONS Demonstration groves ................................ . . .. .......... .. . .... .. . ........... ... .. . ........... 8,399 Total number of trees in these demonstrations ... . ..................... . ........... . .. 399,850 Groves inspected ..... .......... ........... .. ..... .... ........ . 1,661; number of trees . 1,716,835 Groves pruned ......... ....... ........... .... ........... . .... : .. 637; number of trees 467,930 Groves sprayed ........... . ............. _....................... 507; number of trees 582,083 Total _ s ..... ................ ....... .. .. ........ ....... . . ....... 2,805 2,766,848 DAIRY CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence:. Bulls . . .......... .... . ......... ..... ... .... . .............. . .................... . ............ .... : .. ........... . Cows and heifers ....... ...... ..... . . ........ ............. ..... .......... . ... ..... . ... ....... ........ . Cows tested for production ... .. ......... ...... ............ ..... ... .. .. . .. . ..................... ...... . Farmers induced to feed balanced rations ............ .. ... . ................ ... .......... . Cattle fed ................ .. ................... . ................. . ................................. ...... .......... . Demonstrations in dairy work supervised . ............ .... ........... ......... .......... . Cows in these demonstrations .. ........... .............. ...... . . . . .. . ...... ....... .... ............ . Number purebred dairy bulls now in state .............. .. .................. . ............ . Purebred dairy cows now ........................ .. .................. .. .............. ... . . . ... ........ . BEEF CATTLE DEMONSTRATIONS Purebred beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence: Bulls . . ..... ....... . . ... .. ..... ......... ...... ....... ...... ... ............... .. ................ . . . . ........... . Cows or heifers .......... ... . ... .. ............. ............ ....... ... . ........ ....... ........... ...... . Grade cows introduced for breeding purposes ......... . . .. .............. .. ............ . 29 422 171 171 1,213 12 .47 1,287 4,083 25 66 97

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26 Florida Coop er ative Extension Beef breeding herds started ... . . . ........ . .. . .. . . ..... . . . .. . ....... . .. . ..... ..... .. ..... . ... . . . . .... . :::f~~ed~;le d!:i~~frc:t~~~~:: :: : :::::::::::::::: ::::: : :::::::::::::::::::: : :: :::::: :: : : ::::::::: :: : Cattle fed ............................ . .......... ........ ............ .. ........................ . .. . . .. .. .. ....... . Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated by county agents .. ... ...... . .. ... .. . . .. . ....................... ........ ..... . .... . .. ..... . HOG DEMONSTRATIONS Purebred hogs brought into the state this year due to county agents' influence: . Boars ......................................... .... ......................................... .. . .. ..... .. ... .. .. . Sows or gilts ................................. . ................................................... . . .. . . .. . Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ................... . . , ........ . . . . ..... : . . Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents ...... . .... ............ . .. . . ... . . . Number of hogs ................... . .. .... .. . .. . .. .... . ..... . .. ..... .. .... . ....... . . .. .............. . . .. . ... . .. . Farm e rs induced to grow grazing crops for hogs ..... : . .. ... . . ..... . .. .. . . ... ... . .. . Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by county agents ................... ..... .. . . .. ..... ...... ...... . ...................... .... . ........ . POULTRY DEMONSTRATIONS Poultry demonstrations supervised . ... .. . ....... ........................... ........... ... . . . . .. . Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents . .... . . .... . Farms on which poultry management has been improved ....... .. . .. . . ..... . Number of birds on these farms ..... .. ... ..................................... ... . .. . .... . . ... . LIVESTOCK DISEASE AND PEST DEMONSTRATIONS Number farm animals treated at instigation of extension workers: 17 130 2 210 1,029 157 678 662 59 548 444 9,724 219 11,150 563 13,270 Cattle ..................... .. ..... ........ . ......... .. .. ....... ........ .......... ........... . ... . ..... . .. ..... 74,725 Hogs . ......... ... ................... .. ... ... .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . ... . .... ........ ............... . .. . ....... .. 104,623 Horses ........................ . ... ... ... . ... . .... . ..... . .. . . . . .. ........ . ... . . ...... . .... . ... . ........ . .. . .... 253 FERTILIZER DEMONSTRATIONS Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers .. . .. .............. . .. .. ..... . Fertilizer demonstrations ..... . ...... .. . ................ ... . .... .. ........ ... .. ........... .. . . ........ . Tons of fertilizer used ... ... ..... .. . .... . ...... . ... . . ............................. .. . .. ........ .. . . ...... . Communities buying fertilizers cooperatively ........................... . . . .. . ...... . . . Farmers home-mixing fertilizers . .. ... .. . . .. . .... .......................... . .......... . .......... . Farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers ................. . ... . ..... ..... . .. .. . MANURE DEMONSTRATIONS Farmers induced to take better care of manure ............... . . .................. .. . Number that provided sheds .............. ... ... .. ...... .... ............... . .... .. ... .. . ... .... . . . . . Number composting farm manure ..... .................. . ............ . ...... ................. .. ,. Manure spreaders in state ... ........... . ....... . .. . ....................................... . . ... ... . . . Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure ... . ..... .. ... .... . ... .. ..... . Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons ....... . ........... . .... ... : . ..... .. . . SILO DEMONSTRATIONS Silos built i~ state this year .. ...... ..... ... .. .... .. .. .... ..... . ............... . ..... . .... ..... . . .. . Number built as result of county agents' advice .......................... . .. . .. . .. . Number of silos in state now .......... . ............ . ..................................... . . ... .. ... . LIME DEMONSTRATIONS Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence ................ .. . .. . .. . ... .. . . Quantity of lime used, tons .... . . .. .. . .. ..................................................... . ...... . Number of acres limed ................... . . . .. . ........ . ............................ .... ........ ... . ...... . 4,139 167 10,260 31 268 1,601 632 95 608 95 243 51,990 30 6 640 32 114 412 EXTRACTS FROM COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL REPORTS BREVARD (K. E. Bragdon) . The first undertaking was the establishment of a free ex change system whereby farmers and growers could advertise

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Annual Report, 1920 27 articles wanted and for sale withiri the county. Bulletin boards have been established in about 30 civic centers thruout the county. The following sales have been made: Article Number Total Sales Price Hives of bees. . . .. ............ .. ................... 17 ....... ..... ............. . ...... $ 85.00 Swine ....... ... . ............. .... ... ...... .. .. .... ... .... 4 ...... ..... . . . .. .. . . ............ 70.00 Mare and colt. ...... ........... . ... . .. .. ....... .. .. 1 ......... .. ..................... 165.00 Plants ............. . . . .................................. 50,000............................ .. .. 112.50 Mowing machine ................................ 1 ................................ 35.00 Cattle ............................... .. ................. 47 ...... .... ................. . .... 2,325.00 Truck .......... .. .. .. ...... . ......... . . ... ..... . . . ..... 1 ..... . .. ... ......... .... .. . ..... 600.00 Mules ............. ........ .......... . ..... . ......... . .... 2 .......... . .... . .... .. .. ..... ... 400.00 Automobiles .... ... .............. ... . . ..... :...... .. 3 ...... . ......... ,...... . .... . ... 425.00 Total, $4,247.50 The second undertaking was the control of the cottony cushion scale in citrus groves. This scale was causing thousands of dollars worth of damage and the growers , were unable to put a stop to its ravages. By introducing the vedalia into 14 groves we were _ able to control the pest. In some groves the scale seems to have been completely eradicated. The third undertaking was the improvement of beekeeping conditions, brought about by becoming an active member in the county beekeepers' association, forming a boys' and girls' bee club and taking an active part in the organization of a state bee keepers' association. Many old style hives have been eliminated and the bees transferred to modern hives. CITRUS . (R. J. Dorsett) On coming to Citrus County my first step was to get the farmers closer together, which has been done thru the Melon Growers' Association, which was organized with 90 percent of the growers. First we got the railroad to store cars along the S. A. L. railroad, and when shipment started we were not both ered to any extent with a shortage of cars. We next secured the Packers' Guide and thereby got in touch with buyers of pro duce, obtained their rating and invited them to come to our fields. All our melons were sold at the railroad sidings at satis factory prices. Cooperative buying of seed, oats, rye, syrup, cane, and fertilizer has proved a great saving and all farmers are much pleased with results.

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28 Florida Cooperative E x tension FIG. 3.-State club c h ampion in the breeding c l ass . R a ised and exhibited by Leo Leslie, Co lumbi a County COLUMBIA (H. A. McDonald) One hundred twenty-five boys and girls have be e n enrolled in various clubs, and 50 more ha ve applied for membership next year. D A DE (J . S. Raine y) On January 10 , 1920, I turned over 17 purebred heifers, 9 Jer seys and 8 Holsteins, to the boys and girls of Dade County. This was the first dairy club organized in the state. These heifers were bought by two banks of Miami and turned

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Annual Report, 1920 29 over to the members on a note endorsed by their parents, notes to run one year at 6 percent. This has been the means of placing purebred cattle all over the county and creating the desire among parents to sell all grades and keep only purebreds. Some good records have been made and one boy has increased his herd to four and another to two heifers. DE SOTO (J. M. Tillman) Six hundred eighty acres of citrus, or 40,200 trees, have been either sprayed, pruned or cultivated and fertilized according to my advice. Such good results have been obtained on these groves that plans are being made to continue the care. HILLSBORO (R. T. Kelley) Organization work has been a prominent feature of the work in this county this year. This work was started in the spring and has been continued all thru the year. The first part of the work was organizing a county bureau. Farmers and business men were called together in a meeting at Seffner. The plan of work was discussed and met with favor. Another meeting was called one month later at Valrico, and the county bureau was organized. The next step was to organize the communities as . members of the county bureau. HERNANDO (James Mountain) At the beginning of this year we had just started a cooper . ative dairy and I have not failed to urge this work all thru the season. With a growing interest in every way, it has been the means of bringing in several purebred animals. Naturally, with the introduction of better dairy cattle I saw the great advantage of suggesting to the farmer that he plant more cover crops. A number of farmers now are fall plowing their lands and sowing it to rye, oats and rape. Farmers are composting waste material on the farms with cow manure and thereby increasing the fertility of their farms. HOLMES (J. J. Sechrest) Oats and rye equal parts for cover crops and winter pastures have given better results than any single crop, or combination.

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30 Florida Coop e rative Extension We had our best results when we applied cottonseed meal and phosphate equal parts at the rate of 200 pounds an acre. Those planted with a drill were better than when sown broadcast. We have an extra amount of peavine hay this year, which was the result of a strong campaign to have all oat stubble planted to peas for hay or green manure. LEON (R. I. Matthews) We have organized a livestock breeders association with 53 members, thru whom 62 pastures have been started or improved and approximately $2 , 000 saved to farmers of the county. Started Napier grass in Leon County. This grass furnishes about 10 tons of green forage to the acre. MADISON (C. E. Matthews) I have assisted in organizing a county hog breeders' associa tion, thereby stimulating interest in better breeding stock. The members have bought all their feed cooperatively thru the as sociation, and thus saved on an average of 92 cents a sack. I took up the work of organizing a comity fair, with the result that the first county fair was held at Madison, Florida, Novem ber 3-6. The fair was highly successful. The county commissioners made an appropriation to send a county exhibit to the state fair at Jacksonville. The agent was put in charge of the exhibit which was awarded second prize in agriculture. Madison County Pig Club was a:warded second prize in a class of ten pigs exhibited. MANATEE (W.R. Briggs) At the request of a number of farmers, a meeting was called by the county agent for the consideration of a uniform wage scale. Eighty representative farmers were present at this meet ing, and adopted a uniform wage scale. Additional signatures have been obtained since. Results so far have been quite satis factory. ' MARION (W. A. Sessoms) Arriving in the county just as a start was being made to get the Farmers ' Union organization established, I at once began to encourage and assist in this movement. Fourteen communi

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Annual Report; 1920 31 ties were organized, which later centralized into a county or ganization. There has just been established by :the county organization a central purchasing and marketing agency, with a cooperative farmers' store. The beneficial results of the union are more evident now that the marketing agency is established and functioning. My next work was to feature the pig club and to form the first fat pig club ever established in the state. It seemed that there could not be room for all members of the regular pig club to become breeders of breeding stock, and that it would be well to teach the boys something about feeding out pork hogs. I asked the financial support of one of the banks and was offered the use of any amount of money up to $2,500 for buying barrows to place with the boys and girls. The _ feeding period was to be 100 days, and only 6 percent interest was to be charged for the use of the money. While only 19 barrows were placed with 12 members, the results were excellent, both as to facts obtained as to feeding and as to the quality . of the exhibit made by the boys at the county fair. The drop in the price ,of pork hogs, tho, caused a loss on the feeding operation. However, this fact will not serve as an obstacie against the work, and indications are good for a larger fat pig club next year. The members of the regular pig club and of the fat pig club exhibited 56 animals at the county fair, which was twice the number ever before exhibited by the young folk, and the show ing caused much favorable comment for the county agent work. ORANGE . (C. D. Kime) Thirty-eight diseased citrus properties have been selected for special record and treatment. The office record on these prop erties will be kept up for at least two years. That certain lines of treatment be carried out in these properties, is desirable. The fertilizer test work is looking toward a more rigid en forcement of our present fertilizer guarantee law. This work will be carried on in cooperation with other counties. We find that shortages in analysis, as guaranteed by the tag accompany ing the goods, are frequent and often of a serious nature. Of one company, out of ten consecutive samples eight showed a material shortage. This company is the worst offender. When it is considered that only a very small percent of the total goods

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension sold in the state are analyzed, the enormous loss to the purchaser can easily be ~stimated. This is an important piece of work for eommunity councils. POLK (Wm. Gomme) This county being almost entirely a citrus county, most of the .agent's time has been given to the following phases of citrus culture: (a) cultivating, (b) fertilizing, (c) spraying. It was found that many growers attended their groves in a haphazard way, having no definite plan. Most of them sprayed because "John did," regardless of seas
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Annual Report, 1920 33. REPORT Of THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith a report of the district agent of seven South Florida counties for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director and District Agent. The counties in the district covered by this report are Bre vard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade on the East Coast, Man atee, DeSoto and Lee on the West Coast. Supervision in this territory has occupied about a third of my time during the year, the remainder of my time being given to the duties of vice-di rector. The actual work of the county agent in each county is tabu lated under county agents' reports, and gives a fairly accurate key to the progress of each in his respective county : : 1 The entire area covered by this report differs from: other sections of Florida, in that general crops and livestock are sec ondary as it relates to the farmer's income. A r farge . part of the territory is open range, much of it unfit for present;day . agriculture, and much of it uninhabited. Yet in spite of this, these counties are among the most progressive and prosperous of the state. . . SOURCES OF FARMERS' INCOMES The income of the farms is chiefly from horticultural products. Of these the most important are citrus fruits and winter truck crops. In most of these sections these crops are seasonable, pro duced at a high cost, sometimes with abnormal profits and again with decided losses. Practically all of the area covered shows some interest in corn and other farm crops, a decided interest in dairy cattle and at the present time only a limited amount of interest in hog raising. Of the livestock interests , . fromthe farmers' standpoint, the production of dairy products is by far the most important; on the other hand, range cattle interests are extensive and important. VARIETY OF THE COUNTY AGENT'S WORK . Due to the rapid development and increased values of property in much of this territory, the agent's activities are varied. In

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension dividuals are developing properties, clearing land, planting and improving properties. Large tracts are being opened up for newcomers, many of these people with limited means and farm experiences. These lands vary from the high, dry, waste land to the muck and flatlands that require drainage. Some of these people are settling far from railroad transportation, which makes social conditions and transportation difficult. In many instances drainage attempts have not been successful. The county agents, without exception, have endeavored to assist the new people in making a start, making frequent visits to their places to plan cash crops, prepare for citrus planting, assist in preparing pastures for their work stock and the small number of hogs and cattle they may own. And after the crops are grown, county agents have made it their business to render every assistance in aiding these people to dispose of it profitably. The work, therefore, is varied and hard to systematize. Nevertheless, it is meeting with favorable response on the part of farmers and county officials. THE WORK BY COUNTIES -The work in these counties differs in many respects. In Bre vard County K. E. Bragdon assumed the duties of county agent December 1, 1919. His work has been principally with citrus and bees. The citrus work has been primarily in the control of insects and diseases. The spraying of citrus fruit to improve the quality has been the main citrus work in Brevard County. A comparatively small amount of truck.crops is being planted, and these principally for home and local use. Some feed crops and a small acreage of corn is grown. There is some hog cholera control work, but of minor importance. Brevard County receives an income from her bee industry. The county agent has accomplished much in the way of organi zations for the more profitable production of honey. He has , spent much time in organizing bee clubs among boys and has conducted beekeepers' meetings . . In St. Lucie County the county agent continues to give much attention to new groves, as a large acreage is planted on flat land, much of which has not been sufficiently drained. The acreage of hew groves in St. Lucie County is the largest on the East Coast, and these groves are planted under a variety of con ditions. The county agent has made himself a specialist in the

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Annual Report, 1920 35 management of young groves, and has been very useful to the county as such. Sugar cane has also been an important part of his work. An increased acreage has been planted particularly in the Vero section, with the intention of eventually having a sugar mill. Not all these lands are suitable for growing crops. Much of it requires heavy applications of fertilizer. A large part of iCis in the hands of people who have had little or no experience and who have little money on 1 which to operate. In pineapple work the county agent has assisted the plant pathologist of the Experiment Station in conducting exper.iments to determine the cause of failures. While this interests a com paratively small number of citizens, it is of much importance to SLLucie County. As a large acreage of range land is available in this coun,ty, the agent is giving some attention to grasses and forage crops, securing seed from outside sources and rendering whatever as'." sistance he can to improve these native pastures. In Palm Beach County, the agent has give11: much of-his time to truckers in the Everglades. Many of these people are located several miles from a railroad, and are trucking on a compara tively small acreage. He has been useful in assisting these farmers in 'determining what crops should be planted, how they . should be cultivated and finally in aiding them in marketing. On this muck land there is much interest in general farming, and a few people are undertaking livestock raising. The terri tory is a large one and not easy to reach from the county agent's headquarters. During the summer of 1919, the county agent successfully conducted a rat eradication campaign. However, it has been necessary to continue the campaign during 1920. The results were good where the farmers cooperated. Much interest is manifested in dairying, and the county agent assisted in a campaign to test every dairy cow for tuberculosis. There is a general interest in poultry production. In Dade County a good part of the agent's time is given to office work, particularly during winter. Many northern people visit Miarni at this season, and some are interested in the glade lands and other farming interests of South Florida. Aside from this the county agent's time has been given to the citrus industry, and more especially to thepoultry and dairy interests. The agent has been instrumental in securing several head of pure

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36 Florida Coop er ati v e E x t e nsion bred and grade Holstein and Jersey cattle, placing these among club boys. The county, too, is tick free and the agent realizes the importance of exercising judgment in recommending the purchase of animals, whereby there is any danger of introducing the Texas fever tick. FIG . 4.S ix yea r old cit ru s t r ee u nder obse r vatio n co un ty age n t , P o lk C ounty In Manatee County, the agent's time is principally devoted to trnck and citrus crops; the control of diseases; the fertilization of these crops; and the diversification and growing of additional crops during summer months, when most of the land is idle. Manatee County ha s a large area of undeveloped pasture lands. Some of this is being fenced and pastured. This, too, has occupied the attention of the county agent in advising better methods of handling such a proposition. The agent has endeavored to increase the number of dairy cows in the county, with the view of eventually having a dairy c'Ow foreach family.

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Annual Report, 1920 In Lee County John Boring, the former county agent, . resigned July 1. Up to that time the agent's attention was given prin cipally to truckers, as livestock and general farming was of com paratively little importance. On September 1, H. E. Stevens, formerly plant pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station, became county agent. As about 80 percent of the horticultural products of this county come from the groves, it seemed desir able to place a man here who was a specialist in citrus. Since Mr. Stevens' appointment, he has made this work his major project, not neglecting, however, the interests of the truckers and livestock men. In DeSoto County the citrus industry is by far the most im portant from the standpoint of income. The . trucking interests, particularly in the Wauchula section, are gradually becoming more extensive. The county agent has divided his time pretty generally among these matters, and for the purpose of improv ing the fruit and assisting growers in the control of diseases that occur with truck crops. This county has more general farming than ar{y other county in: the district. Some livestock farms are being developed. This requires the agent's attention at various periods. COUNTY AND STATE FAIRS Thruout the district a county fair has been held in each county except Brevard. Some of these counties have contributed toward making the state fair a success by sending exhibits, and in each case under the care of the county agent. This work is to be commended, insofar as it does not consume too much of the agent's time. It offers a good opportunity to get the work before the people at least once a year, thereby creating interest in the things he proposes to do. ORGANIZATION OF FARM BUREAUS Farm bureau organization work is making Blow progress in these counties. Palm Beach County has made a persistent effort to organize each community. Most of the communities have now an imperfect organization. The purpose, in most cases, is to improve marketing facilities and transportation.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT A:GENT FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director,. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for Central and South Central Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, E. W. JENKINS, District Agent. During the year I traveled by rail 10;188 miles, and by auto mobile 2,942, a total of 13,130 miles. I have made 120 official visits to county agents, and have attended 60 farmers' meetings . . At these meetings there was a total attendance of 8,105. Accom panied by the county agents, I visited 160 farmers. The general interest in the work is shown by the county ap propriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, which is $26,055 as compared with $20,000 for the year ending June 30, 1920. CORN Besides the boys' corn club work, three counties, Marion, Pasco and Volusia, had clubs of farmers in corn growing con tests. Some good results were obtained. In these contests the value of seed selection, crop rotation, and proper preparation and cultivation was clearly demonstrated. Valuable prizes were given in each club by banks in the counties. In most cases the yield was double that where ordinary methods were followed. The work begun last year to protect corn from weevils was continued. In one county a week was spent with the county agent in this work. During the day we made visits to farms, looked over cribs and suggested how the old and open cribs could be made tight enough to fumigate. Night meetings at school houses and other places were held. Lectures were illustrated, showing development of the work against corn weevil. Judging by the number of tight cribs built and the amount of carbon bi. sulphide used, much more corn is being saved from the ravages of weevils than ever before. SUGAR CANE The same interest which was shown last year in the produc tion of sugar cane still exists. The acreage has been large and

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Annual Report, 1920 .39 the yield good. County agents have been instrumental in get. ting farmers to makt a more uniform grade of syrup and to use standard containers. Citrus County has adopted a uniform container and brand for the entire county. In Putnam County a sugar mill is to be constructed. This will furnish a market for cane where farmers do not wish to make it into syrup. VELVET BEANS Farmers have been encouraged by county agents to increase the velvet bean acreage. Farmers have come to recognize the velvet bean as one of the best soil building and feed producing plants, Usually the beans are first pastured to cattle, and later the vines and manure from the cattle are turned under. Most farmers plant velvet beans with corn. SWEET POTATOES A large acreage was planted to sweet potatoes. Yields from early plantings were best. Most of the crop will be used on the farm. Some were marketed early, and others have been stored and will be marketed in the spring. County agents have been instrumental in marketing potatoes. PEANUTS There was an increase in the peanut acreage this year, and the yield was good. The low price and poor demand caused few to be gathered and marketed. In most cases the crops were pas tured to hogs. HAY More and better hay has been harvested than usual. The va rieties consist chiefly of peavine, beggarweed, peanuts, crab grass and natal grass. CITRUS In the citrus counties much of the agents' time has been taken up with citrus work. Instructions have been given in spraying, fertilizing and cultivating groves. Instructions have also been given in budding, and pruning. Much information has been given at field meetings. LIVESTOCK In each county the agent has been active in helping to im prove the quality and to increase the number of livestock. Be sides promoting pig clubs among the boys, many purebred hogs have been placed with farmers. These will be used for breeding purposes and will add materially to the large number of pure bred hogs already in the district.

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension One good example of the work being done along this line. was shown recently when one breeder sold from his herd 50 hogs under one year of age for $12,500. These hogs all went to . one farm in an adjoining county as breeding stock. Much work has been done to promote the dairy industry. Pasco and Hernando Counties each have a cooperative dairy as sociation. The agent of Hernando has been instrumental in placing four cars of Jersey . cows among farmers. The beef cattle industry has also received the attention of county agents, and. thru their efforts a number of males have been placed. FARM BURE.AU ORGANIZATION In March we took up farm bureau work, and on April 22 the first county organization was perfected. This was Hillsboro County, and several communities have been organized and have become a part of the county organization. Two other counties, Alachua and Pasco, have been organized. The community or ganizations of these counties are doing good work. Three other counties, Orange, Polk and Volusia, have done considerable organization work, and in the near future will form county organizations. MARKETING Agents have assisted farmers in grading,. packing and mar keting their crops. In citrus counties many of the growers . market their fruit thru the Citrus Exchange. Agents in these counties have been instrumental in getting many farmers to _ purchase fertilizers and other supplies cooperatively. When bought this way from $5 to $10 a ton have been saved. One example of assistance given farmers in marketing their crops is in a case of Citrus County. The agent found about a dozen farmers in one community, each of whom had small quan tities of sweet potatoes to sell. After showing the farmers how to grade and pack them uniformly, he got in touch with the State Marketing Bureau. A buyer was sent to the farlllers and they were paid $1.35 a bushel for them, f. o. b., at that time a satisfactory price. In Seminole County the agent has been instrumental in assist ing his farmers to purchase several carloads of terra cotta piping cooperatively. In this order alone they saved more than $4,000. In this same county the agent assists the farmers in buying fer tilizers and other supplies; saving money always. Much assist ance has been given the melon growers in marketing their crop

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Annual Report, 1920 41 thru the Citrus Exchange, State Marketi ng Bureau and local organizations. FAIRS AND EXHIBITS Alachua, Citrus, H ernando and Marion Count ie s h e ld agri cultural fairs in w hi ch co un ty age n ts assisted. In Alachua County community fairs were h e ld just before the co unt y fair, and these communities brought the i r exhibit to t h e county fair, which added materially to the agricultural exhibit . Fm. 5 . Th e 1 92 0 g rand champion c lub fat barrow. Weight at seven months, 36 7 pounds. Raised by D an nie Monroe, Jefferson County A c ommunit y fair was also held at Hollister, in Putnam County. In each case these community fairs were well attended , and the citizens of the different communities displayed great in terest in their work. They help to create community spirit. Putnam and Osceola Counties sent exhibits to the state fair at Jacksonville. These exhibits were in charge of the county and home demonstration agents. POULTRY WORK More attention than usual has been given to poultry work. In P~sco County a poultry show and institute was held by the

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42 Flo ri da Cooperative E x t en sio n county agent. All of the leading breeds of poultry were on display. The judging was done by a poultry specialist. This show took up two full days. Specialists from the Extension Division and Woman ' s College, as well as local poultrymen, han dled the institute. FARM IMPLEMENTS One of the most effective pieces of work accomplished by county agents was that of assisting farmers in buying labor saving implements for the farm. Agents from five counties report the purchase of the follow ing thru their assistance : 3 hay presses, 29 gas engines, 38 cultivators, 31 tractors, 51 motor trucks, 65 corn planters, 31 mowers, 11 grain drills , 50 disk harrows, 1 hay loader, 13 hay rakes, 11 ensilage cutters, 12 cream separators , 60 spraying ma chines, and 6 manure spreaders. FIG. 6.-0ffices of St ; l;ucie County a nd Home D e mon st r ation Age nts

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Annual Report, 1920 REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. 43 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent. During the year I have traveled by r~il 16,841 miles and by automobile 3,307 miles, making a total of 19,788 miles. One hundred twenty-four official visits have been made to county agents and 58 farmers' meetings, having a:ri attendance of 6,562, were attended. Sixty-eight demonstration farms were visited with the county agents and numerous visits made to other farms. County appropriations for the year total $22,650 for 13 coun ties, as compared with ' $18,500 for 14 counties last year, thus showing the general interest in the work. An agent was placed in Columbia County in January. The Bradford County agent resigned in August. This county has failed to continue the appropriation for a new agent. The work of the agents this year has been of a general nature. This has been a year when farm operations are returning to pre: Wlir conditions. Careful planning on the farmers' part has bee11 necessary on account of high-priced labor, fertilizer, feeds, etc . .LIVESTOCK Much constructive livestock work has been done during th~ past year by the extension forces in North and West Florida:. . ' ' : . ' j Interest has been added to the work by tours conducted by th~ agents in several counties, a number of farmers being taken o~ visits to good stock farms. These farmers see the results ob '. fained from better breeding stock and they . observe the best 'methods of handling and caring for this class of livestock, as w~ii k as the feeding practices that are giving results in localities nearby. In one county the bankers defrayed the expenses of the party. Five county agents report that, due to their efforts and in ~uence, 57 purebred boars and 187 purebred sows and gilts have been brought into their coU:nties .. Purebred cows and bulls have been brought into almost every county in this district. One agent ': . . . .

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44 Florida Coop er ati ve E x tension repor t s bringing into his county four purebred bulls and 28 pure bred u>ws and heifers. Another reports 3 purebred bulls and 30 COWr\. Resu lt s of. this kind of work are readily observed in the better kind of stock kept on the farms, the improved types going to market, better exhibits at our county fairs and the general in terest shown. Betwe \ ~ n Januar y 1 and December 1, 1920, the county agents have treated 22,140 head of hogs against hog cholera. ORGANIZATION Livestoc:k breeders ' associations have been organized this year in Leon , :Madison , Walton and Escambia Count ies. In two count ie s the agent s have rendered valuable services in the or ganization of farmers ' union locals. In four counties the work of organizing the co unt y in accordance with the Florida Farm Bureau plan is almost comp leted. FAIRS AND CONTESTS The county fairs and club contests in this district s howed marked improvement over last year, especially in quality, quan tity and educational value of exhibits. Efforts of the county and home demonstration agents are largely responsible for the excellence of these di s pla ys . Three counties held fairs this year, FIG. 7.-Corn and velvet bean demonstration acre, Bay County where none had been held previously for years. One day com munity fairs were held in four counties, and at six of the county fairs in this district community exhibits were shown. Club contests in four counties, where no county fairs were

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Annu.al Report, 1920 45 held, were really small fairs themselves and attracted much in terest. At the state fair eight counties from this district had exhibits as compared with four in 1919. These counties were Bay, Co lumbia, Duval, Escambia, Leon, Madison, Suwannee and Taylor. In the agricultural division in which these counties competed Escambia won first, Madison second, Duval third, Columbia fourth and Bay fifth places. MEETINGS One or more community meetings have been held in each county in this district._ In several_ counties one and two series of . suchmeetings were held. Community problems and subjects applicable to them, together with some entertainment feature composed the program. In Liberty County the annual field meetings were very successful. . Early in December a series of 2-day farmers' schools was held in four counties, : Santa Rosa, Washington, Walton and Liberty. Organization, cooperation, home problems, marketing and live~ stock, were among the subjects discussed by the different speakers. The second day was known as poultry day, and at this time a practical course of instruction in farm poultry pro tjuction was presented. These meetings were all well attended, and many expressions from local people were heard as to their success. CLUB WORK Good progress has been made in club work, both as to amount and class of work done. Two club camps were held last summer. CORN, COTTON, VELVET BEANS AND SUGAR CANE The corn crop was satisfactory over this territory this year, the greater part of the production of the state being made h~re. Hard : work on : the part of the farmers during the unfavorable weather in the spring and favorable weather during the latter part of the season made this crop possible; Over 50 percent of the acreage was interplanted with_ velvet beans for soil improve ment and stock feed. A good crop of beans was made . . The cotton acreage was increased approximately _ 10 percent over last year. This, however, was not done at the expense of livestock and diversification. A combination of boll weevil in jury and unfavorable weather brought about a condition which resulted in almost no production in certain localities, while the

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension absence of these factors enabled good production in other' fo~ calities. The greater portion of the state's 19,000-bale cotton crop was produced in North and West Florida, of which most is still being held for better prices. . A good cane crop was produced, a large acreage being planted. Very little syrup has been sold, most of it being held for a better market. . Less seed cane is bedded than a year ago. PASTURES AND GRAZING CROPS The a_gents have been active in getting more pastures and grazing crops established, and have aided in increasing the carrying capacity of pastures. One county agent has had orders for 30,000 pounds of different kinds of grass seed for the farms of his county. Four county agents report that thru their efforts 50 farmers have started growing grazing crops for hogs. This type of work is a fundamental need in the future progress of our livestock industry. We must make better provision to care for the improved livestock now being brought in, and county agents are doing thei; share to this end. IMPROVED MACHINERY Five county agents report new machinery has been purchased in their counties the past year, totaling 7 hay presses, 18 gasoline engines, 30 2-horse cultivators, 16 tractors, 35 motor trucks, 53 corn planters, 6 mowing machines, 1 grain drill, 41 disk har rows, 40 cultivators, 3 hay rakes, 2 cream separators, 12 spray ing machines and several hundred small tools. Scarcity of labor and high prices have made improved machinery both necessary and profitable. MISCELLANEOUS Two sw~et potato storage houses have been completed this year, the government plans being used. In Suwannee County the erection of a meat curing house is well under way, the results of which will be of interest 'and benefit to other counties. Complete reports at hand from eight county agents show a total of 43,619 miles traveled by auto and rail, 97 farmers' meet ings and 36 field meetings held, and 5,236 official visits made to farmers, demonstrators, club boys, etc.

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Annual Report, 1920 47 REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P.H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club agent_ for the year ending December 31, 1920._ Respectfully, R. W. BLACKLOCK~ Boys' Club Agent. Boys' club 'Work has again demonstrated its value as a means of building up the agricultural interests of Florida. The work accomplished by the boys in the various clubs has been a valu able lesson to farmers as well as to boys. Thru the clubs the value of better seed and better blood has been taught to many farmers who could not have been reached otherwise. The in creased yields due to better seed, better preparation and better cultivation in the corn, peanut and potato clubs, stand as con vincing demonstrations of better methods of farming, wiiile the results shown by the boys in the animal clubs have demonstrated that blood plus proper feeding of livestock will make a profit for the farmer. The number of counties where the club work has been carried on this year is 29 against 45 for last year. Still, the amount of work accomplished, as shown by reports received, is nearly as large~ There has been a substantial increase in the :work ac cd,mplished in the animal clubs, and the addition of the bee and fat barrow clubs has opened two new lines of activities to the boys. ' ' NEW CLUBS ORGANIZED BEE CLUBS :Local conditions in South Florida are such that the regular crop and animal clubs do not fit into the farming system of that section. To give the boys there a chance to share the . benefits of club work, the bee club has been started. Brevard County was selected as the county in which to try out this new work. County Agent K. E. Bragdon secured 13 boys and girls who agreed to do the work under his direction. The boys and girls developed wonderful ability in handling and caring for the bees. Some members, more favorably lo-' cated, secured profitable yields, but none losttnoney. Theresults

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48 Florida Cooperati v e E x tension in Brevard County were such that bee clubs will be started in several counties next year. PIG FATTENING CLUBS Another new club which gives great promise is the fat bar row, or pig fattening club. The slackened demand for breeding stock which came in the early summer was a discouragement to pig club members of last year who had raised purebred pigs and could not dispose of them. To encourage the boys to feed out their pigs for market the pig fattening club was pushed in Jef ferson and Marion Counties. In Jefferson County, Dannie Monroe fed out a purebred Duroc barrow with exceptionally good results. The records of this boy's pig are: Initial we ight , 65 pounds; final weight, 367 pounds; gain, 302 pounds; daily gain, 2.05 pounds; days fed, 145; pounds cost of gain, 4 cents; age at end of contest, 7 months 11 days. CLUB CAMPS The club camps which were started last year have been con tinued. Camps were held in Citr u s, Columbia and Santa Rosa ' Counties. In Citrus County, at Shell Island, 19 boys attended the camp. In Co lumbia County 53 boys spent three days at Ichtucknee Springs, and in Santa Rosa County 30 boys and girls attended the camp at Floridatown. FIG. 8.-Recreation at Columbia County club camp, 1920 At these camps regular courses are given and the boys are taught how to make labor saving devices for the farm. Rope splicing and knot tying were.taught at all camps this year. , Rec

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Annual R eport, 19 20 49 reation was not neglected, and games, swimming and the like were enjoyed. The boys were kept under strict discipline, and their health and morals were watched. These camps serve the need of the country boy to secure some of the pleasures which heretofore have been possible only to the town and city boy. INTERNATIONAL CLUB JUDGING CONTEST Perhaps the outstanding feature of the club year was the trip made by a team of Florida club boys to the international club livestock judging contest, held in connect ion with the south eastern fair at Atlanta, Ga . , October 19-22 . This contest i s the most important event of its kind in the South, and is open to every state having club work. This was the first year, and 14 states sent teams. The Florida team was selected from ten boys who took a week's training in stock judging at the University in September. Four boys were chosen at this time. Thanks to the friends of club work in Florida for the financial assistance necessary to make this trip, these boys were taken thru Georgia, v i s iting FIG. 9.-The 1920 Florida club team at the International club judging co n test, Atlanta, 1920

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension livestock herds. The team was composed of C. H. Taylor, Jr., Hillsboro County; Henry Dorsett, Suwannee County; Roy Seals, Madison County. Luther Webb of Hillsboro County was al ternate. The 14 teams judged four breeds of hogs, three of beef cattle, three of dairy cattle and two of sheep. When the awards were made, the Florida team stood in sixth place. The standing of . the teams shows how well our Florida boys did, al tho they had to go into the contest without training in judging sheep. The following table gives the standing of the 10 highest teams: (1) Texas ------------------3110 (6) Florida -2868 (2) Miss. 2965 (7) Arkansas 2772 (3) Kansas . . .. . .. .. ... . . . . . .. 2953 (8) S. Carolina 2769 ( 4) Virginia .... . .. . . ... .. .... 2879 ( 9) Georgia --27 4 7 (5) Iowa -2869 (10) Louisiana 2739 The Florida team led in judging Hampshire hogs and Holstein cattle. Henry Dorsett led all the competing boys in judging dairy cattle, and C . H. Taylor tied for first place in judging Hampshire hogs. The value of this training in judging livestock can hardly be estimated,and it--is hoped that Florida can continue to send a t~am to this contest. ! STATE FAIR CLUB EXHIBIT i After the county contests were held, the best exhibits in crop . aq. animal clubs were gathered at the state fairjn , Jacksonville. '!1he fair association was liberal with prizes, and the club memb~rs responded with large and excellent exhibits. One hundred s~venty 10-ear exhibits of corn , 115 1-gallon e x hibits of peanuts, 36 peck exhibits of sweet potatoes and 1 5-member bee club . d:hibit, were shown as exhibits. In the livestock department . 5V registered so . ws, gilts and boars, 10 fat barrows and 6 . calves ~ere exhibited. The uniformity of the exhibits was good, and . t e quality of the corn exhibit was exceptional, as there wa : s p actically . no weevil-damaged ears on display. In the peanuti, t e White Spanish variety predominated and the quality wa s g od, showing that good seed has been planted and the crop . p operly limed and fertilized. The exhibit of 20 jars of ex t~acted honey shown in the bee club exhibit attracted much f~v9rable comment. . \ l The greatest improvement was found in the : livestock exhibit. For the first time~ aninrals : :raiseaby c1ul>"-boys \'ere-sliowii in open classes against animals shown by oreeders. over '. $10ow a:s '.

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Annual Report, 1920 51 won by the boys in these open competitions. Among the win nings were first and second prize under one year Duroc barrow, champion Poland-China and Berkshire barrows, second and third prize senior sow pig in the Durocs and fourth prize senior . sow pig in the Poland-Chinas. These winnings show that the standard of the work being done in the pig club is high, as some of the best herds in the Southeast were competing in the open classes. COUNTY PIG CLUB EXHIBITS For the first time county pig club exhibits were shown. These exhibits consisted of 10 breeding pigs from a county. Columbia County won first and Madison second. Much credit is due the 1 county agents of these counties for their fine work along this line. SUPPORT OF THE WORK The support given club work by people of the state is increas ing. In addition to the large amount of money loaned each year to purchase pigs, over $7,000 was given in prizes at the county contests and at the state contest. While much of this fun~ was given as cash, there was an increased amount given to pay for scholarships and educational trips. The State Bankers' Association gave three scholarships valued at $100 each to be used toward paying three boys' ex~ penses thru the Agricultural College. Williamson & Denni1, gave a $250 Agricultural College scholarship as first prize in both the calf and the pig clubs. Armour & Co. gave a $150 trip to the international livestock show and exposition held at Chi cago to the state champions in the corn and fat barrow club. Iti addition to these two trips, Armour & Co. gave $500 to pay the expenses of 30 boys to the boys' annual short course at the Uni versity. The land and industrial division of the Florida East Coast Railway Company gave a scholarship to one boy in each county served by its road. The local banks and business men in almost every county gave money to send from one to twenty five boys to the short course. These additional prizes will aid materially in the dissemination of agricultural information thru out the state. STATE CHAMPIONS In the corn club, Don Miley, of Hillsboro County, won the championship with a yield of 101.7 bushels produced at a cost of 30 cents a bushel. As a reward for his success he was awarded a trip to the boys' short course at Gainesville and also a trip to the international livestock show at Chicago.

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52 Florida Cooperative E x tension The state champion in the pig feeding club was Leo Leslie of Columbia County, who bred and raised the Poland China pig which was judged the besf club pig shown at the state fair. Leo was awarded the Williamson & Dennis scholarsh ip to the Agri cultural College. Dannie Monroe of Jefferson County showed the grand cham pion fat barrow in the state fair club show and was awarded a trip to the international livestock show . Stewart Lockhart of Alachua County won the Williamson & Dennis scholarship in the ca l f club. His heifer also won in her class in the open ring. The banker scholarships to the Agricultural College was won by Henry Dor sett of Suwannee County, Samuel Skipper of Alachua County, and C. H. Taylor, Jr., of Hillsboro County. These scholarships are awarded one in each banking district of the state to the boy from that district having the highest average in a series of examinations given by the state club agent. SHORT COURSE The Fifth Annual Short Course was held at the University of Florida December 7-12. Boys from 28 counties attended. FIG. 10.-Seven boys attending the 1920 short course who raised over 75 bushels of corn to the acre

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Annual Report, 1920 REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. 53 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant boys' agri cultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, E. F. DEBUSK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. THE CORN CLUB While there was a bumper crop of corn made in the United States this year, a poor season made an off year for Florida. The average acre yield for the state this year is 13.5 bushels; the average last year was 15 bushels. Despite the poor season the corn club boys made an average yield of 34.5 bushels an acre this year. The average last year was 35.7 bushels. It is interesting to note that 50 percent of the corn club boys used no fertilizer. '1'he boys have been taught the value of turn ing under legumes and other cover crops. The proper saving and use of barnyard manure has been stressed also. Hillsboro County made the highest acre yield, 18 boys report ing an average of 52.6 bushels an acre, produced at an average cost of 29 cents a bushel, the lowest average cost reported. Holmes had the largest number of boys reporting and made t:11e largest total yield of corn. Hernando County reported the lowest cost for a bushel, one boy producing 58.5 bushels at a cost of 17 cents a bushel. In Hillsboro County 50 percent of the club boys made 50 or more bushels an acre; three boys made 80 or more bushels. 101.7 BUSHELS ON ONE ACRE Don Miley of Hillsboro County made the highest corn club yield, producing 101.7 bushels on one acre . . The following is his own story of how he did it: "The plot of land to which I planted my corn contained one acre. The land was thick with beggarweed before I broke it. I broke the land December 20 about 7 inches deep, and then disked it well. About 15 days later I ran the disk over it again. It was then in good condition for planting. I opened the furrows and applied three 1-horse loads barnyard manure; later I applied 350 pounds commercial fertilizer. I planted the corn-yellow

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County Holmes ............... . Hernando ........... . Liberty Hillsboro Okaloosa Suwannee Santa Rosa ....... . Escambia ........... . Bradford Alachua Marion ............... . Polk ................... . Madison Columbia Duval ................. . Taylor ... .. ..... .. ... . Pasco Jackson Palm Beach ....... . Orange ... ..... .. .... . . 40 25 18 18 12 11 11 IO 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 197 -"' <\l"O .... 1,499.0 911.0 513.0 929.4 370.0 325.0 363.0 411.0 332.0 157.0 158.9 156.0 183.3 145.3 159 .3 135.1 52.0 36.0 35.5 19.3 16.891.0 I 37.5 36.5 31.8 52.6 30.8 29.5 33.0 38.6 32.2 20.0 26.3 26.0 36.6 29.0 39.8 45.0 26.0 36.0 35.5 19.3 34.5 I SUMl\lARY OF 197 CORN CLUB REPORTS ..., "' 0 Q) <.> bl),_ ::, <.a 87.0 58.5 77.2 101.7 51.5 45.0 49.4 65.0 42.3 35.5 60.5 32.0 40.3 35.5 31 1 15 8 12 4 8 4 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 9,450 300 4,250 2,400 4,020 1,380 3,040 1,800 975 900 800 600 300 900 200 12 . 1 2 4 3 1 ,3 1 3 1 2 24 2 12 6 12 3 4 3 3 2 2 17 19 12 13 3 2 4 6.2 5.7 6.4 6.2 6.2 7.0 7.2 1 I 6.o 7 6.0 5 7.0 4 5.0 4 6.0 3 6.0 1 6.0 ............ 6.0 .53 .36 .56 .29 .66 .55 .61 .49 .49 .74 .61 .70 .57 .47 .55 .40 .98 .42 .62 .68 ~ 42.8 50.1 40.0 36.0 35.5 19.3 .43 .17 .26 .30 . 51 .24 .5 1 .4 1 .51 . 67 .33 .32 .65 .33 .40 .47 . 45 .42 .62 ; 68 ::_:::::: : :: . ........... / 1 6.o 1 6.0 ...... .... 6.0 .493 I 50.3 I .374 99 31,615 33 73 97 6.1 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.6 4 . 0 4.0 5.0 3.0 4.5 5.0 6.3 4.5 4.0 5.0 5.0 3.0 4.0 2 . 0 4.3

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Annual Report, 1920 55 corn-March 19. It was planted about a foot apart in drills, the rows being four feet eight inches apart. It came up a good stand. When it was about two weeks old I harrowed it well., About April 12 I began to plow it with a sweep. I hoed it twice .. It was cultivated six times. I gathered the corn August 10. It made a good yield, the stalks ranging from one to two good ears each. I gathered the corn and put it into the barn. In measur-; ing and weighing my corn I found I had made 101.7 bushels on my acre. I have selected my seed corn for next year. The county agent visited me three times during the season." County ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1920 E 0 u .... ::s s:: '11 (1) p., .... 0 (1) .... (1) '11 .... ~"o Cf.l p. u "' ....!.::, (1) 0 CJ (1) o:I .~ s:: .... Alachua .................. 25 59 36 .............. .............. 4 124 Bay ........................ 3 1 .............. .............. .............. .............. 4 Bradford ................ 76 7 25 65 .............. 2 175 Brevard .................. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 14 14 Calhoun .................. 1 1 1 .............. .............. .............. 3 Citrus .................... 18 20 12 .............. .............. 50 Clay ........................ 4 1 1 2 . .............. .............. 8 Columbia ................ 14 68 8 .............. .............. 3 93 Dade........................................................................ .... 12 12 DeSoto .................... 24 53 .............. .............. .............. 3 80 Duval ...................... 12 8 .............. .............. .............. .............. 20 Escambia .............. 27 107 5 .............. 5 144 Hernando .............. 39 26 .............. .............. .............. 4 69 Hillsboro ................ 22 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 22 Holmes .................. ! 175 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 175 Jackson .................. 12 1 .............. .............. .............. 6 19 Jefferson ................ 1 10 .............. .............. .............. .............. 11 Leon ........................ .............. 1 .............. .............. .............. .............. 1 Liberty .................. 47 20 .............. .............. .............. .............. 67 Madison ................ 13 24 12 .............. .............. 7 57 Manatee ................ 11 18 2 4 35 Marion .................... 23 63 15 .............. . 16 117 Okaloosa ................ 27 12 14 .............. .............. .............. 53 Orange .................. 1 1 .............. .............. .............. .............. 2 Palm Beach .......... 19 11 7 6 43 Pasco ...................... 3 6 .............. .............. .............. .............. 9 Polk ........................ 9 6 .............. .............. .............. .............. 15 Putnam ........... ,...... 13 6 .............. .............. 1 20 Santa Rosa ............ 42 20 8 .............. .............. 5 75 Suwannee .............. 16 19 . 20 .............. .............. .............. 55 St. Johns ................ .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. 1 1 St. Lucie ................ 4 3 1 20 7 35 Taylor .................... 7 51 6 1 .............. .............. 65 Washington .......... 19 4 1 .............. .............. .............. 24 Totals .................... ! 707 62.7 160 I 102 I 417 I 43 11,686

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56 Flo r ida Cooperati ve E x tens i on THE BOYS' SHORT COURSE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Out of the 29 counties doing boys' club work, 28 sent repre sentatives to the boys' short course , Decembe ' r 7-10. General courses were given in animal husbandry, poultry husbandry, agronomy, dairying, veterinary science, forage crops, farm me chanics, entomology, beekeeping and plant pathology, the boys being divided into classes. Practical work was given in bee keeping and livestock judging. The boys were quartered in old army barracks ~nd received their meals in the University dining hall. FIG . 11.-Holm e s County ' boys corn club , 1920 BOYS ATTENDING THE FOURTH ANNUAL SHORT COURSE . Decemb e r 7-10. 1920 "O , VJ Alachua County Beville, J. w . , Jr . .. . . ...... Gaine s ville -----11 4 1 Blitch, Nelson --Trenton --14 8 1 Brown, Harvey B ... . ....... Orange Heights -17 9 1 Crosby, Theodore --Newberry -------11 4 1 Downing, Lonnie Trenton 11 5 1 Downing, Crawford .... Trenton 13 6 1 Flet c her, G . D . .. ......... ..... Bell ----------------14 7 1 Fraser, Ashey -Hawthorn 13 6 3 Fraser, Ernan ---Hawthorn ----17 8 3 Henry, Robert Hawthorn 14 8 1 Henry, Ralph -------------Hawthorn ---------12 6 1 Hodge, Park ------Newberry -----------------14 6 1 Hodg e , Rivers . . ..... .. . .... Newberry ----11 4 1 Hodge, Ruff . ....... . . . . . ..... : . . Newb e rry -----18 9 2 Holt, Willie Newberry --16 7 2 Leivonen, P e te Alachua ----------17 2 Martin, Ralph ---Newberry ----------------17 8 1 Parker, Carl ----Gainesville -----17 7 1 Parker, Ellis Gaines v ille 16 7 1 Pearson, Seibert --------Alachua. ---------11 6 1 in 0 :>, ;...~ 0 ~ ...; p::i I'< <:) 't< s:: 0 ;;;~ < I'< ,.Q iu p:'.lz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 6 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1

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Annual Report, 1920 Name County Address Roberts, Lee L ............... Trenton Saarinen, Albert .......... Alachua Saini, Enil ...................... Alachua Thomas, Francis . . .. ...... Earlton Williams, Emery .. ........ Alachua (1) 0.0 < 12 13 15 12 16 Bay County Fields, L . T ... .......... , ....... Panama City .... ....... ..... 13 Gwaltney, James W . .... .. St. Andrews 17 Mead, George E. Jr ....... St. Andrews ......... .. ..... 13 Bradford County Miller, Albert ................ Dukes ................. . .... .... .. 16 Brevard County I Martin, Stewart A ......... Audubon ........................ 16 Citrus County Jones, Lee ..... ........... .... .. Brooksville .. ...... . ...... ... 15 King, Percy ....... . ........ .. Inverness ........... ... ........ 15 Priest, Geo ; R ...... . . .. .... : .. Brooksville .................. 15 Columbia County Baetz, Carl .. .... . ........... .. Lake City .... ... . ........... . Dade County Core, Kelly N ................. 1 Homestead .......... ... ...... . Kuhn, H e rman .............. !Miami .......... ........ ... ... .. . . I 14 16 DeSoto County Alderman, David .......... Arcadia ............... ... ...... 15 Driggers, I. J., Jr ......... Zolfo ..................... ...... ... 15 Horrell, James G ........... Arcadia ... . .......... . ... ...... 11 Johnson, Gordon . ........ . Arcadia .......... . . .. . ...... ... 15 Duval County Bishop, Geo . M ..... ... .... ... Baldwin .......... .. . ..... . ..... 13 McVeigh, Drew ............ Baldwin ..... . .. ................ 14 Pickett, Clarence .......... Grand Crossing .......... 15 Pickett, Earl ... ...... . .. ...... Grand Crossing ...... .... 14 Pringle, Eustace .. .. ...... Baldwin .......... ......... .... . 13 Pringle, Gervin . . .......... Baldwin ....... .. .. ... ....... .. . 15 Watson, Arnold ............ So. Jacksonville .. ....... . ! 14 Escambia County Barrineau, Harvey ........ Quintelle ....... ............... 15 Morris, Windell ............ Pensacola ....... ..... .. .. .. .... 15 Hillsboro County Alderman, Leon ..... . ...... Wimauma .... .... . . . ......... 14 Alderman, Geo ....... ...... Lakeland ... ........... .. ...... 16 Booth, Chas ... .... ........... . Plant City .. . .... . ...... . ..... ! 14 Futch, Clyde . . .. . ..... ...... Plant City .................... / 15 .s r-t (1) 0 "'o ~.i:: ;.. t.) C!l U2 6 7 7 7 9 7 9 8 12 7 7 7 5 10 6 9 8 6 9 6 6 6 6 7 8 8. 9 8 8 7 6 7 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 57 1 1 1 0 1 1 . . ....... . 1 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension Name County Address Futch, James Plant City ---Hall, Ollen Plant City --------Miley, Don .. .................. Plant City ---------Miley, Lloyd Plant City Nesmith, Louis Plant City Raulerson, L. C ............. Plant City Wheeler, Alton Lakeland Holmes County Brown, Homer . . ............ Westville Moffett, Roy Bonifay --------Murphey, Harvey ------• Ponce de Leon __________ .. __ Sutton, Leon --,--------------• Ponce de Leon. ___ ____ ___ ... Jefferson County Carter, Buford Lloyd -Monroe, Donnie, Jr_ Lloyd -------Jackson County Pledger, Wilbur ----------Marianna ------------------Leon County Hansen, Halron ---______ Tallahassee ----------Liberty County Bradwell, Junior __________ Hosford Madison County a) l:l.o <11 17 8 15 8 15 8 14 7 17 9 15 9 15 9 18 12 12 6 14 5 14 8 12 4 13 6 18 8 10 6 17 7 Fox, Edgar ------------------Pinetta ---------------------16 Glass, Theo -----------------Lee ---------------------------13 7 7 7 8 Rains, Early Madison ------------17 Seals, Roy Madison ---------16 Manatee County Downing, Shelton ----Parrish -----18 Marion County Buffington, Theo __________ Morriston ----------------12 Neil, Vernon ---------------Ocala ,____ ____________ ____ ______ _ 17 Okaloosa County Edenfield, Emett __________ Laurel Hill ------------16 Senterfitt, Cecil . _________ :_ Laurel Hill ________ ___ _ __ ____ 17 Orange County West, William M, __________ Orlando -----------16 Palm Beach County Erickson, Carl -----------Canal Point --18 Hall, Lewis -----------------West Palm Beach________ 15 Pasco County Roberts, A. C-----------Dade City 17 9 5 10 7 7 6 9 8 11 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 4 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 4 0 3 0 6 1 3 1 7 3 2 2 3 3 2 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1

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Name Annual Report, 1920 Address County Sullivan, W. R ............... Richland .... . .... ... .. . ......... 17 Polk County Anderson, Paul ...... .. ... Brewster .... . . ...... . . . .. . . . . . 14 Carter, Kendrick .... . .. . . Bartow .. . .. . .. . . .... .... .. . . . .. . 12 Clark, Ernest .......... . .... Ft. Meade ... ... . ... . . ........ 13 Clark, W. Olive . . ........ . . Ft. Meade . . ... .. .. .. .... . ... . 16 Pipkin, Francis . ... ....... Lakeland ...... .. . .. . . .. .. .. . : . 16 Santa Rosa County Johnson, Eugene .......... Holt ..................... . .... . . . ... 14 Johnson, Alton B ......... Holt .......... .... .... .. ... .. ...... . 16 Johnson, Arrie L ........... Jay ..................... . .. . . . .... . 17 Manning, J. T. , ............. Milton ............. ..... ...... . ... 17 St. Johns County Wolfe, Claud H ............. St. Augustine . .... ......... 15 Taylor County Bird, Henry F ... . .. . ........ Perry .............. . . ... ......... 15 Bowdoin, John . .. . . ..... . ... Perry . .. . . ... .. . . .. . .... . . .. . .. .. 18 Sibert, Jack ..... . .. . ... . ... . . Perry . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . ...... .... . .. 11 Woods, Bithe ................ Perry ..... . ..... . .. ...... .. . .... . 14 Woods, Byron ................ Perry .... . .... . ....... . ... . .. . ... 12 Washington County Roche, Buel .................. Vernon ............. . ............ 16 "O ~ .i:: ~o >< w. 9 1 1 9 1 1 7 1 1 5 1 2 8 3 6 9 2 4 7 2 1 7 2 4 8 1 2 9 1 2 9 1 2 9 2 2 7 3 4 6 1 3 4 1 1 2 1 1 9 1 2 CLUB BOYS HA VE BANK ACCOUNTS 59 0 ~:: :: .. . (.) "tl--,: . .!< ,.!,: s:::C'l ol 0 CQ z 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 o 0 1 1 1 1 The club boys are taught to save their earnings in club work and are urged to open savings accounts with their local banks. About 50 percent of the boys attending the short course this year have bank accounts. In Polk County three savings accounts of $10, $5 and $5 were given by the county commissioners as prizes to club boys. WHERE DO THE PROFITS GO? In answer to the question, "What did you do with the profits this year"? 70 of the 99 boys attending the short course replied as follows: 37 percent, or 26: "Fed it to father's stock." 20 percent, or 14: 13 percent, or 9 : 10 percent, or 7: 5: "Didn't get it." "Fed it to my stock." "Put it in the bank." "Spent it for different things."

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension 2: "Have money at home." 1: "Gave it to pap." 1: "Bought poultry w ith it." 1 : "Purchased livestock." 1 : "Pap got it." 1: "Put it into more bees." 1: "Spent it going to school." 1: "Finished paying for my pig." FIG. 12.-State club champion calf, ex hibited by Stewart Lockart, Alachua County MARION COUNTY PIG CLUB Marion County led in pig club work, exhibiting 56 purebred pigs at the county contest and fair. The following is a summary of 34 pig club reports of that county: Average age of pigs at beginning of contest ......... .4 months. Average initial weight ..... . ............. .. ............. . ......... 101 pounds. Average final weight ................................................ 281 pounds. Average gain -pounds. Average number of days fed ................................................ 163. Average daily gain .. .............. .. ....... . ... .. ... .. .......... .. 1.2 pounds . Average cost pound of gain .... . ...... .. ......................... 11.3 cents. Highest daily gain 1.6 pounds. Lowest cost pound of gain ........................................ 6.0 cents.

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Annual Report, 1920 61 A PIG CLUB BOY'S RECORD John Compton, Ocala, Florida, enrolled in the boys' pig club of Marion County April 9, 1920, starting with a purebred big type Poland China sow pig, eight weeks old and weighing 22 pounds. He has fed it as follows: April 9 to May 9Milk .......................... 7 parts Kitchen waste .......... 6 " Woods pasture, free range May 9 to June 9Milk .......................... 7 parts Kitchen waste .......... 6 " Cornmeal .................. 1 " June 9 to Sept. 25Milk ....... ................. 14 parts Kitchen waste : ....... 12 " Shorts ..... ,.............. 1 " Woods pasture, free range Sept. 25 to Nov. 21Milk ...................... .. 14 parts Kitchen waste ........ 12 " Corn ........................ 13 " Woods pasture, free range Woods pasture, free range Total gain during the 195 days was 310 pounds, an average daily gain of 1.59 pounds. The pound cost of gain was 6 cents, with feed valued as follows: Cornmeal .............................. . . .. ... . . . ...... . ... 5 cents a pound Shorts ... . . ,.................................. . . . ............. 4 cents a pound Corn ................................... . ... . . ... ....... . ...... 3 cents a pound Milk .. .. ........................... . ...... ..... . . ... . . ..... ... 3 cents a gallon Kitchen waste 1 cent a gallon Woods pasture ................... .. , .................. 10 cents a month.

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith a report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Home Demonstration Agent. COUNTY APPROPRIA'rIONS Home demonstration work was carried on in 30 counties from January 1 to June 30. These counties appropriated $33,552 for salaries and travel expenses of the agents, or $1,215.35 more than was appropriated during the previous year by 40 counties. The appropriations effective July 1, 1920, show an increase of $9,807.24 over the previous year. This was a splendid indorse ment by the people of the state. The work has been maintained satisfactorily on the whole; many counties increased their appropriations, others appropri ated the same amounts as last year, and some new counties were added with substantial appropriations. Eight additional coun ties made appropriations but not sufficient to employ a com petent agent. LABORATORY EQUIPMENT A research laboratory has been equipped in the offices at Tal lahassee. In this laboratory is conducted researches in cookery and nutritive value of foods. It provides a place where home problems can be given scientific study, and it provides field forces reliable information which they can take directly to housewives. This research work in home economics corresponds to nutrition laboratory work on animal nutrition as conducted by agricul tural experiment stations. A number of problems in Florida fruits and sweet potatoes have received attention. The worker in charge of research organized a nutrition jour nal club that holds bimonthly meetings. Members of the exten sion service and faculty members of home economics, chemistry, biology and the college dietitian attend. Reports and discus sions of the investigations carried on in this and other labora tories are made. This has been most helpful to field agents, for, due to hea~y field duties, little time is found by them for such

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AnnuaiReport, 1920 63 work. A resume of the reports made at these meetings is sent to home demonstration agents. AGENTS One of the difficulties in developing home demonstration work is the scarcity of properly trained workers. Every effort is made to secure the most efficient specialists possible. Florida has never had a better equipped force of county workers than at present. AGENTS' MEETINGS The agents' annual meeting was held September 1-8 at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, and from Sep tember 8-11, in joint session with the men, at the University of Florida, Gainesville. The days spent in Tallahassee were given to reports of work done, instruction, and the development of plans for the coming year. The program in Gainesville was largely devoted to the consideration of work that could be best accomplished thru the closest correlation between county and home demonstration agents. ENROLLMENT The enrollment in girls' clubs for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, showed a gratifying increase in membership over the previous year when ten more counties were in the work. The enrollment among the women shows a retention of a large pro..: portion of women previously enrolled. The comparative en rollment of members carrying on systematic work is as follows:: Club Membership, 1918-19, 40 counties Total Girls .............. . ............... .4,688 Canning ..... ..... ...... 2,020 Poultry ... : ...... . ..... 1,387 Cooking ......... .. ..... 628 Miscellaneous ...... 653 Women enrolled in all clubs .......... . .. ................ 8,839 Club Membership, 1919-20, 30 counties Total Girls .......................... . ....... 4,068 Canning ................ 1,152 Poultry ................ 1,128 Home improvement .................. 1;319 Sewing .................. 1,319 Cooking ................ 568 Home pantry ........ 1,248 Miscellaneous .. . ... 469 Women enrolled in all clubs ............... . ......... .... 3,627

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension There have been fewer girls enrolled in garden work than in the previous year, due largely to a bigger enrollment of girls who took up poultry and home improvement. ' At the agents' annual meeting, each agent was asked to set a membership goal for her county and to enroll girls as "appli cants for membership" until they could be properly enrolled and classified as "members." The enrollment in counties for 1920-21 is larger than it has ever been. The following are some of the high profits made by me.mbers of the canning club: County Name Profit Escambia ........................................ Josephine White .... : .... .... .. .. ...... ... . . .... $126.90 Hillsboro . .. ........ . . . .. . ... ... . .. ... . ... . ..... .. . Alene Young .................... . ................... 125.00 DeSoto ..... .... ....... .. ........ . . . . . ...... .... ..... Gertrude Ivey ..... .... .................. ..... ...... 122.14 Santa Rosa ....... .. ..................... .... .... Minnie Pitts . . ...... .. ...... ....... ................. 100.09 w:i~:~:: ::::: ::::: ::::::: :::::: :::: ::::::: :::: :::: 1:e;~s ::::: :: ::'.: : ::: :: : : ::::::::::::::::: ~gg Polk . . ...... . ......................................... Louise Clark ......... .... .. :........................ 82.64 I>uval. . .. .. . .. : .. : .. ... ... ........ .. ....... , .... .. . . . Irma Richardson . ... . .. . .. .. ..... ... ... .... . ..... 70.70 CUBAN CLUBS In Hillsboro County three Cuban clubs, two for girls and one for women, have been conducted. These clubs study food and its preparation. This work is timely and is meeting with fa vorable results. POULTRY CLUBS Poultry is one of the most profitable lines of work taken up by club members; Rose McGrath of Putnam County set 288 Single Comb White Leghorn eggs in incubators, hatched 230 and lost only one. She says, "I would have raised every one of them but when . they were about two weeks old an old hawk caught one, but I raised the other 229 without any trouble with diseases or insects, which were prevented with plenty of permanganate of potash and dust ing powder." The total cost was $68.73; total value of prod ucts, $321.10; profit, $252.37. Doris Lanier of Suwannee County had charge of a farm flock of Black Minorcas. She kept 140 layers; sold 932 dozen eggs for $390.50; used 30 dozen at home; sold 9 settings of eggs; set 181 eggs; raised 115 chickens. The total cost of the flock was $586.50; total value of all products, $933.70; profit, $347.20. Frances Blackburn of Hillsboro County kept a flock of 33 birds. She sold 312 dozen eggs for $189.27. She set 69 eggs and raised 37 chickens. The total value of all products was $429.66; cost of flock, $173.35; profit, $256.31.

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Annual Repo1t, 1920 65 Zelma Burnett of Santa Rosa County kept a_ flock of Rhode Island Red chickens and 14 turkeys. She sold 189 dozen eggs for $112.80; set 145 eggs, raised 112 chickens; set 73 turkey eggs, raised 39 turkeys. The total value of an products was $678.80; total cost, $194.10; profit, $484.70. Fortunately Zelma's turkeys have a fine range, therefore, the feed cost was small. POULTRY WORK WITH WOMEN With adults the egg circle work in Hernando County and at Florahome and the back yard poultry work of St. Augustine a,re outstanding. The Orange County agent made the following report from one club member: "Mrs. Long started in with six turkey hens and one tom, and raised 108 young turkeys. She sold 30 for Thanksgiving at 55 cents a pound, which brought $163.85. She has on hand 87 turkeys, all engaged for Christmas. She has sold over $1,000 worth of eggs, chickens and trkeys. The eggs more than paid the feed bill." CANNING The total number of tin and glass containers filled were. 497,000; by girls, 45,000; by women, 452,000. Meat canning has received special attention. This furnishes a cheap and convenient article of diet to farm families. Steam pressure canners were used. In Putnam County there were 20 beeves and 60 hogs canned at the homes of club members. A small amount of fish has been canned. BEE CLUB WORK Osceola County was the first county in the state to start bee club work for girls and boys. Miss Albina Smith, agent, started the work early in 1918. During the first season weather con ditions were unfavorable and the amount of honey stored was small. In most cases the bees were fed. The club members, however, never lost interest. During the past year the yield has been better. With some of the funds derived from their work club members purchased paint cooperatively, painted their hives, bought new queens, and made general improvements. Other counties reporting enrollment in bee club work are, Gads den, Osceola, Orange, Palm Beach, Suwannee and Taylor. SEWING The interest in sewing during the past year has exceeded that of any previous year. Among the women it has been stimulated

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension by the high cost of clothing and the necessity of renovating and remodeling the old. Many calls for help with this work have come to agents. Interest on the part of girls was due largely to the attractive program offered them in this work. HOME IMPROVEMENT Following the interest stimulated last year in the improve ment of the bedroom, a program was offered, based on this and on the care and repair of the girls' own clothes. One thousand fifty-four girls took the furnishings of their bedroom and the care and repair of their own clothing as definite tasks for the year. Beautiful exhibits of this work, made at each county contest, showed excellent results. To . further center the interest of these girls in the home, the girls also filled 50 containers for the home pantry. This has led to improving the entire home, interior and exterior. Other definite lines of home improvement have been the re modeling of kitchens, installation of water systems, electric lights, screens, the planting of ornamentals and the remodeling of the entire house. The fo11owing report from the agent of Gadsden County is typical : "Lessie McKeown has added a new bedroom . to her home, and with money made in club work she furnished this room. Two women have painted the interior walls of their home, making decided improvements. One man has remodeled his 2-room dwelling and made a nice 6~room bungalow, with bathroom and sleeping porch. Plans were furnished by the home demonstration agent for remodeling this home." STATISTICAL REPORT OF HOME IMPROVEMENT Ornamental plantings made .................................. : ... 191 Houses painted ..... . .................................................... .. 77 Houses screened ............ . ............................................. 75 Water systems installed.............................................. 23 Lighting systems installed..................................... . .... 31 Houses remodeled .......................................................• 75 Sleeping porches added .............................................. 31 Kitchens remodeled .................................................... 42 FARM BUREAU ORGANIZATION The entire extension staff has worked actively on community and county farm bureau organization. Home demonstration clubs among women and girls have in many instances formed the nucleus around which the community club has been built. In

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Annual Report, 1920 67 some cases they have arranged the first community meeting. The programs for the first meetings consisted of moving pic tures, lectures and demonstrations in the afternoon; a play hour for the children; a picnic supper; after supper lectures, singing, moving pictures and slides. It is noticeable that in counties where these meetings were held, a great number of community fairs were held later. SHORT COURSES AND CAMPS Thirteen short courses were held with an attendance of 442. Eleven county short courses for girls, each of three days dura tion, were attended by 545 girls . The cooperation of the house keepers of the towns in entertaining these girls in their homes during their stay in town makes these short courses possible. FIG. 13.-Eight girls who made the highest records in canning work The ninth annual state prize winners' short course, held at Tallahassee, was attended by 55 girls. Scholarships to this school are provided by boards of county commissioners, school boards, banks and federated women's clubs. Of the girls in attendance 39 were enrolled in canning; 23 in poultry; 14 in sewing, undertaking as their year's problem the furnishing and care of their bedrooms; 3 in grape groups; 5 in dairy work; 1 in beekeeping, and 3 in pig clubs. In response to the question as to what club work had meant

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68 Florida Cooperative Extension to them, the following replies were received from some of the girls attending this short course, held in Tallahassee in May, 1920: "Club work has taught me to can and do many other things with less work and expense. The club has given me responsi bilities, and it makes me feel that if I had to make my own living I could do it." "Club work has meant a whole lot to me. It has made a new person of me. The money I made in 1919, I spent for clothing and home comforts." "I have been a member of the canning club three years. I have enjoyed it. I have learned to can and save things that would be wasted otherwise. The first year I did not win a prize. The second year I won a short course to the Women's College. The third year I won another short course and a ten dollar gold piece for the best canning exhibit. If I should have to earn my own living, I could do it." "I have had some fine times in the club and learned many things. ~With the money made in 1919 I bought furniture for the house and paid formy own clothing." That club work is sufficiently broad in its scope to hold the interest of a girl thru succeeding years is shown by the fact that 41 girls in the state received certificates in 1919 for satis factorily completing four years' work. Girls'. camps for instruction and recreation were held in De Soto and Polk Counties. Joint camps for girls and boys were held in Citrus and Santa Rosa Counties. PUBLICATIONS The following bulletins have been published to date: No. 20: Hand Book for First Year Sewing. No. 21: Hand Book for Second Year Sewing, No. 22 : (Including September and October programs given in first and second year work.) No. 23: (Including November programs given in first and second year work.) No. 24: (Including December programs given in first and second year work.) No. 25: (Including January programs given in first and second year work.) No. 26: (Including February programs given in first and second year work.)

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Annual Report, 1920 No. 31: Food and Methods of Preparation. No. 32: Sweet Potatoes on the Table. No. 33: Florida Food Calendar. No. 34: Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades. NEGRO WORK 69 Negro home demonstration agents are appointed as assistants to the home demonstration agents. Under this plan the negro assistant agent carries her weekly report to the home demon stration agent for approval before submitting it to this office. If the negro assistant needs help with field problems, this con ference affords the opportunity. Nine counties in which the work is conducted support it financially. In Leon County a party became interested in this work and donated $200 toward it. A dilapidated house on the plantation of the donor was remodeled. The roof was reshingled, the building whitewashed, the premises cleaned up and a small gar den planted. All the work was done by club members during the 3-day short course held in this community. The work has created much interest on the part of other negroes in the com munity. STATISTICAL REPORTS County home demonstration agents.......................................................... 32 Average term of employment (months) .......................... 10 Average salary (agents owning car) ........................................................ $ 153.10 Average salary ( county owning car)...................................................... 151.66 Agents furnished cars 7 Agents owning cars ................ 24 Agents owning horse and buggy.............................................................. 1 Average county appropriation .................................................................... $1,118.40 Negro assistant county home demonstration agents............................ 9 Number of counties cooperating financially.......................................... 30 Offices provided ........................................................ ,................................... 29 Home demonstration kitchens maintained.............................................. 10 Cooperative canning centers ...................................................................... 22 Counties making appropriations for demonstration materials............ 17 Amount expended by counties for equipment and materiaL .............. $1,599.51 COUNTY WORKERS' ACTIVITIES Total miles traveled .................................................................................... 134,761 By automobile .......................................................................... 117,373 By rail ........................................................................................ 12,798 By team .................................................................................... 4,590 Number girls enrolled ............................ . .......................... ,.......................... 4,068 In canning ................................................................................ 1,152 In poultry ..... ,............................................................................ 1,128 In home improvement ............................................................ 1,319 In sewing .................................................................................. 1,319 In cooking ................................................................................ 568 In home pantry........................................................................ 1,248 Miscellaneous ............................................................................ 469 Number wometi enrolled.............................................................................. 3,527 Number girl clubs maintained.................................................................... 246

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70 Florida Cooperative Extension Number women's clubs maintained .... .. ............. ..... . .. . .. ........... .. .. ....... ... . .. 101 Number meetings held....... .. .. ...... . ............ .. .. . ... . .. .. ... .... . .... .................. . ........ 2,652 Number demonstrations given..... ........... ......... .. .... .. ............ . .... ..... ... . .. ...... . 2,181 Total attendance meetings and demonstrations.......... .... .. .... ......... ....... 61,249 Visits to club members' homes.... ....... ... ..... .. .. ..... .... .................. .... . ....... .. . . 6,419 Visits to schools .................. ... ... ....... ... . ... ... .................................. ... ..... :.... .. 2,272 Number hot school lunches established.................................................... 14 Number agents maintaining club column in local paper............... . . . .. .. 21 Number containers filled by girls..................................................... ....... .. 45,000 Number containers filled by women ... . ..... ................................... : . . ......... .. 452,000 Number containers filled by negroes . ......................................... . ..... ......... 135,000 Total number containers filled . ....... . .. .. .. . .................... : ......................... .... .. 632,000 Value .............................................. . ....... . ................................................ . . .... . $189,600 Number ornamental plantings made . . .. ..... .... .......... ...... ......... . .. ... . ... . . . .. .. . 191 Number houses painted ....... .... .................... ... . ..................................... ...... 77 Houses screened . .. . .......... ....... . .... . .. .... .... ... . ........ .. .................... ... ...... .. .... .. . . 75 Water systems installed ....... .. . ...... ... . . ... .. .. .... . .. ... .... . . ............. .... . : ... : .... .. .. . .. 23 Lighting systems installed ..... .. . . ............. .... ......... ........................ . ........ . ... 31 Houses remodeled .. ... ........... .. ................ .. ....... . .............. ,............................. 75 Sleeping porches added ................ ........... ....... ........... .............. :.................. 31 Kitchens remodeled ................... ..... . ....... ... , .. . ............ ,........................ .. . ..... .. 42 BRIEF SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL REPORTS OF STATE WORKERS Number miles traveled ............ .. . .. ..... . ................................................. ... ..... 92,367% Number days engaged in office work. .. ............. ,....................................... 590 Number days engaged in field work................................................ .. ........ 815 Meetings attended ............................ ..... ...... : .......................... ,...... ...... . ........ 368 Attendance at meetings...... .. .. .............. .... .. .... . ..................... ......... ..... . . .... .. 27,682 Contests attended ................ .. ......... ....... . .. . ....... .. .. ........... .. ... ....................... 43 Attendance at contests...... . ............. ..... ..... . . ... . . ........ .. .... ...... .. . ........ ......... .. . 2,021 Short courses and camps attended. . .. ... ............................. . .... . ...... .. ..... . . ... 30 Attendance at short courses and camps. .. ........................ ... ... ................. 1,083 Fairs attended ......... ................... ............ . .. . .. .. .... . . ........................ . . . . .. . . ........ 34 Schools visited ......................................... .. ..................... , ....... ... , . . ..... . .... .... .. 76 Sup e rvisory visits to counties . ............................ ,...................................... 484 Conferences with School supts. and school boards ..... . ...................................... .... . ...... . County commissioners ........... .... ...................................... , ...... . ...... . .. . . ~f;~t~n .. ... ::::::::::: :: ::: : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::: Attendance .............................. ................. . ..... ................................. .......... .. . . i~~~pinms~es~::i~~ .. ~~~.,~!~.~~~:::::: ::::::::: : ::::: :: .::. _. . ._-._-__-_-_-_-_Attendance ........................................ .. ............................................ . ..... ....... . Short courses for girls and women: Number county short courses for girls .............. : ........... . .... . ..... ... . . . . Attendance ............................. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. ....... ........ . ...... .. .... . ......... ... . State short course ................... ... .... . .. . ............................................ ..... . . . Attendance ............... ..... ...... ... .... .. ..... . . .. ... ... ............. ....... ............... ...... . County short courses for women ..... ........................... . .................. .. . Attendance ............................ .. .... . ....... ... .......................................... : . .. . . . Community meetings held ........... . . .. ....... ... ....................................... . ..... . . . . Community councils organized .. ... .. ....... ............................................. ..... . . County bureaus partly organized . .................................................... . ....... . 15 72 2 15 45 1 5 15 11 545 1 55 13 442 157 36 8

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Annual Report, 19 2 0 71 REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGE T P. H. Rolf s , D ire cto r . SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant state home demonstration agent for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant Stat e Hom e D e monstrat i on Agent. MUSCADI E GRAPE CLUB WORK With the assistance of Charles Dearing, States Relations Ser vice, United States Department of Agriculture, definite club FIG. 14.-Clyde McCullough and home demonstration agent, Mad ison County, s e tting out a peach tre e work was started in August, 1919, by the home demonstra tion agents. This work had re s ulted in a number of plantings of the Thomas grape, and there are now about 70 members en rolled. PLA FOR FOUR YEARS' WORK IN MUSCADINE GRAPE WORK The purpose of these clubs is to establish thruout the various sections of Florida, principally for home use, a vineyard for every home, and with this give instruction by demonstration as to the best methods in grape pro duction. In order that the club members may learn the first principles of grape culture, know something of varieties, keep an accurate cost of production and Fm. 15.-Canned products put up by Edith Futch , Alachua County

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72 Florida Cooperati v e E x tension labor involved in producing these, an outline for the four years' work is laid before the clubs. The outline for the first year calls for the . planting of five grape vines, keeping a record of varieties, making an exhibit at county and state contests, and finally winding up with a record of the year's work. For the following three years the program proposes to enlarge this by increasing the plantings as con ditions permit. To study varieties and to use the products in different ways are parts of the advanced work. Thus the work proposes not only a greater variety of fruit for the home ~ but four years of study on grapes. These muscadine grape club plans were again put before the agents at the September meeting with the result that grape clubs were started in 17 counties. Sixty-nine girls . and twenty-five women were enrolled. About 25 percent of this number were enrolled last year. An educational exhibit displayed at the state fair, consisting of nursery cuttings, plants, small models of planting and methods of cultivation, samples of the club work products , equip ment for juice making and a pyramid made of muscadine grape products. These were shown under a white pergola entwined with wild grape vines. Most of the grape club plantings thruout the state have been visited by the assistant state agent and suggestions for care and pruning have been given. In September, 1920, one day was spent in the government experimental vineyard at Willard, N. C., studying varieties of niuscadine grapes, their planting and training as shown at this season. The pruning was studied especially. Muscadine grapes are native to Florida and should be widely grown over the state as a fruit for the home table. The ultimate object in grape club work is to develop vineyards and create a market for the delicious juice and other products. At present, however, due to the high price of Thomas grapes on the local market, it seems inadvisable to urge making the juice for com mercial purposes. Since these products can all be made reason ably and add variety to the diet for the home table, we are urging that this be done. PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS' AND WOMEN ' S WORK Last year mimeographed programs for girls' and women's work were sent out monthly. These regular programs with

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Annual Report, 1920 73 definitely planned demonstrations has been one of the best means of holding club membership and standardizing the work. The agents have expressed their appreciation of this help. Much of my time has been given to prep~ring these monthly programs. Each month's program has been sent out a month in advance so that the agent could arrange for club members to take parts on them. In preparing these programs four general outlines have been followed: 1, POULTRY PROGRAM September, Selection of show birds; October, Classification ; November, Selection of flock; December, Turkeys, ducks and geese incubation; January, Brooding; February, Feeding baby chicks; March, Lice and mites; April, Diseases; May, The won . derful egg; June, Feeds and feeding, continued or culled. 2. SEWING PROGRAM October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf; December, Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March, Patching; April, Nightgown; May, ' Nightgown; June, Contest. 3, NUTRITION PROGRAM October, Body as a machine, or what we eat; November, What to eat; December, What becomes of the food we eat; January, How much to eat; February, What school children should eat; March, What and how much should I eat; April, Planning our daily meals; May, Review and test; June, Canning demonstra tion, or history of canning; July, Canning contest; August, Grape meeting. FAIRS In the winter and early spring my work in the field was as sisting at fairs in South Florida. The South Florida fair, held in Tampa during February, and the state fair, heldin Jackson ville in November, were similar. Our 1920 state fair was arranged to exhibit preserved fruits and vegetables. A section was devoted to girls' work and a section to women's work; a third section showed the girls' sewing; a fourth included a display of muscadine products; the whole was completed by the milk booth. Preserved fruits and vegetables occupied a space of 40 feet, eight rows high, con sisting of two rows of quarts, two rows 12-ounces, two rows pints, one row jelly glasses and one row bottles. The sewing exhibit was for first year work only. This was developed about the girl's own bedroom. It showed:

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension First, a complete county exhibit: 3 pieces of bedroom fur nishings, 1 nightgown, 1 darned stocking, and 1 patch. Second, a bedroom exhibit: 1 pair curtains, 1 bed cover and pillow cover, and 2 other pieces of bedroom furnishings. Third, individual entries of first year work. The sewing exhibit was so good both as to workmanship and design that it encourages a second year's work to be centered about the club girl herself. SHORT COURSES I assisted at 13 housekeepers' schools in five counties in the southern district. The annual short course for prize winning club girls was held at the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, May 17-18. I attended two county short courses for girls in the state this year and one camp. The latter was held for club• girls only, at Eagle Lake in Polk County. From November 29 to December 3, I assisted with a series of community meetings in West Florida. The district agent and myself met with the women. We confined our talks to home kitchens and a satisfactory diet. OFFICE WORK Much office time has been used in collecting and filing past records of canning club and home demonstration clubs. I was furloughed during the month of. July to teach home demonstration methods in the Florida State College for Women. STATISTICAL REPORT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1920 Number meetings attended ........................................................................ 44 Estimated attendance ................................................................................ 2,156 Number talks or demonstrations given ......................................... :.......... 53 Number contests attended .......................................................................... 7 Number short courses held........................................................................ 2 Attendance .................................................................................................... 45 Number county councils attended.............................................................. 1 Number housekeepers' schools held.......................................................... 2 Number schools visited .............................................................................. 10 Number school lunches visited.................................................................. 3 Number clubs visited.................................................................................... 4 Number homes visited ................................................................................ 25 Number fairs attended ............................................. ,.................................... 6 Number judging at fairs ... , ..... :.................................................................. 3 Number agents visited or in conference with........................................ 83 Number of other conferences..................................................................... 111 Number of conferences with county superintendents............................ 20 Number of conferences with county commissioners.............................. 11 Number of conferences with boards ......................................... ,................ 12 Days in office ................................................................................................ 119 Days in field .................................................................................................. 96

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Annual Report, 1920 Days in state meetings .. ..... .. ..................... . ............. .. . ... . . .... .. .. . ..... . .. . ........ . Days in out of state meetings .............. . .. . ................... . ......... . ................... . Days at fairs ................... . ... . ... . ....................... . .... . . . .................................... . Days leave ...... .. .. . .. . ............ .. . . ...... . ............... . . . .. . : . . . ... ............ ...... . . . ... . ........... . Number mile s trav e led by r a ilroad ....... ... ..... . ..... .... .... . ........ .. ................... . Number mile s trav e led by automobile . .. . . .. ....... ... ..... .. . . .... ...... ..... . ........... . Number miles traveled by boat ............ .. .. .. ................................ . ............ . Total number miles traveled in state ... .. .... . .... ...... . ... . .. .. ..... . .... . .. .... . . . .. .. . Number miles traveled out of state ...... ..... .. . ...... ... ......... ...... .......... . .... .. . . . FIG. 16.-Peanuts between eight-foot corn rows 75 37 8 20 6 14,971 1,227 93 16,291 768

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76 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR SOUTH AND EAST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work for South and East Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, AGNES I.. WEBSTER, District Home Demonstmtion Agent. Organized work in the district of South and East Florida was carried on in 16 counties. In these 19 agents wer~ employed. During the canning season two assistant county home demon stration agents were employed for eight weeks. In organizing the work for the fiscal year, beginning July 1, 1920, 15 out of the 16 counties made a substantial increase in appropriatons. One county's increase was sufficient to put on two agents. Five counties provide one car each; one county pro vides two cars, one for each agent. Four counties furnish steno graphic help and four have made a special appropriation for equipment. Altho St. Lucie County lost its agent this year, the dairy work there was so well established that the club members won first prize in the dairy department of home demonstration work at the state fair. THE GOAL IN 1920 The following were decided upon as definite factors leading to the goal for work in 1920: Carrying out a program that . would meet the needs of a greater number of people; strength ening club organization; developing a fuller social life in rural communities; furthering organization, both county and com munity; improving .homes, exterior and interior; presenting to the people the need for greater efficiency in the business of home making and teaching the need for an adequate diet of fresh vege tables, dairy and poultry products. In planning the work to meet the needs of a greater number of people, our enrollment among women and girls has increased substantially. This year in 16 counties the enrollment is prac tically the same as it was last year in 19 counties.

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Annual Report, 1920 77 MONTHLY PROGRAMS 1 A general plan to interest women was carried out thru the monthly programs outlined as follows: October, School lunch; November, Renovation of clothing; December, Budget or plan for spending the income; January, Household accounts; February, The home exterior; March, The home interior; April, The kitchen; May, Care of the Home; June, Table setting; and July, Pleasure of home vacation. Because of definite results accomplished in the several lines of work, women who previously refused to do demonstration work have sent in requests to become members, giving with the requests the substantial backing of checks for the further equip ping of school lunch rooms, canning and demonstration kitchens. In communities where the organized clubs met two or four times a month they were aided by lessons and material sent to local leaders to supplement the regular program. SOCIAL WELFARE WORK Realizing the need for a greater social life in rural sections, home demonstration club women in many communities are carrying out programs of socials, community suppers and fairs, entertainments for old and young, special weeks of prayer meetings and musicals that not only tend to keep the boys and girls at home, but bring town people and talent into the com munity. In Hillsboro County a number of communities have established a system of borrowing talent and ideas from one another. With proceeds made from time to time, books, maga zines, and good music have been :placed within reach of every one. In other communities a broader social life has resulted from the efforts to equip and establish hot school lunch rooms and community canning kitchens. As a result of this 27 lunch rooms and canning kitchens were in operation in the district last year. COMMUNITY COUNCILS In an effort to reach and meet the needs of various communi ties in Hillsboro County, the county advisory council of home demonstration work was perfected. This was composed of two representatives from each of 15 communities. Quarterly meet ings of this council have been held since its organization. Com mittees appointed on agriculture, citizenship, fairs and exhibits, home improvements, public health and social life have been most active.

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78 Plorida Cooperative Extension SCHOOL . IMPROVEMENT WORK Representatives take home definite plans from each meeting. Among the excellent results obtained from these efforts is a school hot lunch established at Brandon. So great was the suc cess of this undertaking that the school has built a lunch room on the school grounds and employs a manager at $100 a month. The products of the boys' school garden will be used in the lunch room. Because of the poor water supply the club women have installed running water. A well has been drilled and engine and water tank installed with proceeds from a series of socials and entertainments. Six water taps distribute the water thruout the building. Rest rooms have been provided. An entertain ment is put on every two weeks. Exhibits were sent to the state fairs. FARM BUREAU WORK Broward County organized a county farm bureau just two days after the first organization of the state was perfected. This organization is active and the interest is growing. The home demonstration agent and executive body of the farm bureau planned a campaign that has received substantial support. A thorobred Jersey calf was offered the boys for the best essay on "The Production of Milk," and a pen of purebred Rhode Island Reds to the girls for the best essay on "The Food Value of Milk." Liberal prizes were given the winners in the poultry club contest. December 4 witnessed the culmination of these plans when every community . was represented at Ft. Lauderdale. In the forenoon over 700 school children took part in a parade ap pealing for more and better cattle and chickens and the wider use of dairy and poultry products in the home. Club women took charge at the noon hour. The afternoon program consisted of short talks to the children and recitations by the children, given between reels of moving pictures on poultry and dairy cattle. Presentation of prizes followed. The home dairy special ist arranged an exhibit for this meeting. Before the day closed suggestions were made to make the event an annual one. HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK The project of home improvement appealed strongly to the women and girls. Each girl brought to t:e club meeting a dia gram of her bedroom showing the location of furniture, win dows and doors. The agent and girl planned the furnishings. If a closet was lacking, one was improvised by means of a frame

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Annual R e port, 1920 79 built out from the wall and covered with curtains to match the furnishings; if furniture was scant, several boxes were utilized; and for little expense the room was made much more attractive. FIG. 17.-0sceola County bee club picnic In ten counties more than 363 girls made bedroom sets of fur nishings and a number of rooms were fitted up with box fur niture. Home demonstration agents carried out a program for lessen ing the amount of work as well as improving the appearance and attractiveness of the home that resulted in the followin~: Kitchens remodeled .. . .. . . .... . ......... . .. . ........ . . . .. ..... .... .. . .. . .. . ......... . . ...... . . .. . 31 Sleeping porches built ... .... .... . .. .. . ........... . .. ..... ........ . . ...... .. . . ... . .. ...... . . .... 7 Homes remodeled . .. ... .. .. . .. ... . ........ .. .. . .. . ... .. . . ..... . .. . . .. . . ................ .. . . . . .... 32 Lighting systems installed. .. . .. . ..... . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .... ....... ... ... ... . . .. . .. .... ... . . .. . 9 Water systems installed .. ... ....... .. ... ....... . . .. . . ... .. .. . .... . ..... . ..... . .. ..... ..... . .. 11 Houses screened . . .. .. .. . . ..... . .. . . .... . ............ . .. ... ....... . . . . .. . ............. . .... . .. . ..... 82 Houses whitewashed ... .. . ........ .. .. .. .. .. .... ........ . ..... .. ........ .. .. ............. . ...... 3 Houses painted ..... .......... .... ..... ......... .. .... ............ .... . . .... .. ......... . .......... . 22 Fly trap s made ........ ..... .. .. .......... ...... ... . . .. ....... . . . ............... ... . . ..... . .......... 6 Iceless refrigerator s installed .. . ..... . ............... . ..... . ..... . .. . ....... . ... .. .. . .. . . 85 Steam pressure cookers purchased .. .. ........ ... ............... . ....... .. ..... . ... .. . 84 Fireless cookers purchased .......... ..... ..... . .. .. .. .... ....... .. ...... . . .. . ............ . 59 Exterior improvements ............ .. .. .... ..... . ..... .. ...... ... ... .. ...... .... .... . .... .... 147 Interior improvements . . ... . ..... . ............ ........ . ... ... . . .... . .. .. . . . ... . . ... .. ....... .. 183 CLUB CAMP As a climax to the year's work, in DeSoto, Polk and Citrus Counties, camps for club members were held. A regular pro gram was laid out for each day and every girl took part. The camp in DeSoto County was held on Lake Isis. A large, con venient and comfortable house sheltered the girls. The work was done by shifts and the girls readily responded. Each shift received in turn practical lessons in preparing the menu, cooking, serving and washing dishes. Regular hours were devoted to

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension lessons in the various phases of club work. A Red Cross nurse gave lessons in first aid, making a bed and bathing a patient. The secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association at Arcadia was in charge of the recreation and story hour. Fourteen girls learned to swim. The commissioners appropri ated funds for the camp and lent further support by personal visits to the camp. The camp in Polk County was held on Eagle Lake, while Citrus County boys and girls went to Bay Port on the Gulf. As in DeSoto County, a regular program of lessons, play and work lent color to the camp life. STATISTICAL REPORT Miles traveled .............................................................................................. 16,796 % Days engaged in office work ................................................ ,..................... 65 Days engaged in field and travel.............................................................. 176 Days spent in study (6 weeks summer session Columbia University) 42 Demonstrations given ................................................................................ 6 State meetings attended.............................................................................. 13 Other meetings attended ......................................................................... ,.. 61 Estimated attendance .................................................................................. 6,140 Demonstrations visited ................................................................................ 25 Contests attended ........................................................................................ 5 Estimated attendance .................................................................................. 200 Camps attended ............................................................................................ 4 Fairs attended .............................................................................................. 5 Short courses ................................................................................................ 4 Schools visited .............................................................................................. 29 Homes visited ................................................................................................ 73 Supervisory visits to counties.................................................................... 94 ConferencesSchool superintendents ........................................................................ 18 gomm~ss!oners, .an1 ~chool boards in session.................................. 9 omm1ss10ners md1v1dually ................................................................ 29 Farm bureau organizationCounty .................................................................................................... 3 Community ............................................................................................ 12 Women's county council meetings.............................................................. 4

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AnnualReport, 1 . 920 . REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR 1 NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. 81 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work in North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, LONNY I. LANDRUM, District Home Demonstration Agent. During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1920, there were 14 counties with demonstration agents. During canning season four assistant agents were employed. AIMS OF WORK 1. To develop community spirit for community and countY, organizations. Five counties held series of community meetings. Suwannee County held nine. Some of these communities have organized community councils, selecting as an immediate object of work community and county fairs. Other counties have com munity clubs doing effective work. ' The following is from the report of the Madison County home demonstration agent: "Beautification of the Home" was the . subject for the meetings. Plans were discussed for community fairs. Club and war songs were sung. The people entered into the spirit of the meeting and enjoyed being together. At San Pedro a bountiful supper was served. The picture, "The Home Demonstration Agent," gave a pleasing review of demonstration work. In two places in which this picture was shown, it did much to convert many people who were not strongly in favor of the work. The people are urgent in their request for more such meetings. 2. To increase food production by means of the home vege table garden and the planting of perennial fruit trees. The home demonstration agent of Madison County reports 1,856 fruit trees planted. Jn Santa Rosa County 14 club members have planted 560 grapevines and 554 frqit trees. A club member in Taylor County harvested $75 worth of onions from her first crop and later planted the land to other vegetables. 3. To increase club membership. thru better organized clubs. From the 14 counties 1,059 girls are enrolled in 112 organizea clubs. Many women attend the girls' clu.b meetings regularly.

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82 Flo ri da Coop er ati ve E x t ension 4. Programs as outlined in the assistant state agent's report were sent to agents each month. 5. To increase interest in home improvement, programs on interior and exterior improvement were supplied. A few clip pings from the agents' weekly reports follow: "Clyde Peavey will take her room as her home problem for this year. Her father is going to remodel their old home, and Clyde will have a room of her own. She has promised to let me help plan this room. Mr. Peavey is looking over the house plans I have secured. He will begin work January 1. Two houses in this community have already put in lighting systems this year." "Three acetylene gas light engines have been installed in homes of demonstrators and club members. One home has in stalled a water system for the home operated by a gasoline engine, in connection with a saw and feed crusher." 6. To assist in marketing. The farm women and girls need definite help in marketing. "I have put a good deal of time in 'peddling' this spring, hoping to create a real permanent interchange between the town FIG. 18.-Canning club girls in uniform

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Annual Report, 1920 83 and country woman. I have received a number of orders for canned goods from town women," is the report of one agent. Another agent reports: "Sugar and jars at wholesale prices were obtained thru the agent. Home demonstration recipes and methods were used, and an attractive and delicious product was made. We succeeded in marketing over 2,000 jars of figs and blackberry jam at satisfactory prices. A man who had refused the price offered him for his pecans, which were left on his hands, allowed me to sell them for him. I sold them thru the State Marketing Bureau at a profit of about $175, instead of their being a total loss to him." 7. To organize the girls into sewing clubs. The plan for the sewing club is to center the sewing work on a definite home im provement problem in making furnishings for the bedroom arid the care and repair of clothing. The study of color combina tions, the care of the bedroom and the making of box furniture, add much interest to this program. The following is taken from a home demonstration agent's weekly report: "Each club adopts a special way of decorating its bedroom sets. The Lee club selected stenciling. Lessie Johnson said since the short course she had cleaned up her room so nicely that she surprisd her mother and wanted the club to see it. We visited it and made plans for a closet and other conveniences. Since the short course Pearl Mickler made coat hangers of maga zines tied in the middle and tied them to a pole placed across her closet. We noticed the box furniture, a remodeled dresser, shirt waist box and curtains to match." MONTHLY PROGRAM The monthly programs for the first year teach girls the fun damental principles of sewing, as applied to the care and repair of their clothing and the artistic furnishing of their bedrooms. Monthly programs are outlined below: October, The bedroom; November, Dresser scarf; December, Sachet bags; January, Darning; February, Curtains; March, Patching; April, Nightgown; May, Nightgown; June, each girl demonstrates something she has learned during the year. The monthly program for second year sewing clubs instructs the club girl the fundamental principles of garment making and emphasizes the selection of clothes from a practical, artistic and economic standpoint. Monthly programs are outlined below:

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension September, The well-dressed club girl; October, Cap; Novem ber, Apron; December, Apron; January, Buttonhole contest; February, Dress; March, Dress; April, Dress; May, Remodel garment; June, Renovate hat. HOME IMPROVEMENT WORK Eight hundred girls have been enrolled in the district home improvement work. Three county and one inter-county canning contests were held. Grading was based on skill, neatness, ef ficiency, and the canned product. Much interest was shown in Duval County in girls' bread making contests. The agent gave instructions in bread making to the club girls, and later held contests, offering prizes. The county bread contest was held at the state fair. SHORT COURSES Short courses were held in several counties. . In some counties . several communities arranged for a 1-day program. _ These schools were well attended. In other counties one short course, lasting two or more days, . was held. This brought girls from all sections of the cou:J).ties. Various clubs sent delegates. , . In Escambia County 43 girls attended. The attendance was , good at most of the short courses. Various programs were . carried out. Reports were made by girls who had , won scholar , ships at the state short course at the State College for Women. , , In the contests in canning and other club work carried out at these contests, the girls were judged for speed, neatness and the quality of their products. Entertainment was provided in va rious ways. Lunches were served by club members each day. The boys and girls sang their club songs with enthusiasm; Members of the state force gave assistance at each short course. FAIRS _ -: Splendid home demonstration exhibits were made at a num , ber ~f community fairs, five county fairs, and at the state fair. Twelve county contests have been held in the district. . hibits of : ca:tined goods, sewing and poultry were made, six . of : :which " 'Were at county fairs, three at community fairs and one at the state "fai _ r. Two ' were held separately. 'At the state fair' the district of North and West Florida con tributed its quota to the best and most representative exhibit ever made in the state. : Every ; home demonstration agent in this

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Annual R e port, 19 2 0 85 district sent something from her county to at least _ one depart ment . Each county booth had exhibits of two or more phases of home demonstration work. STATISTICS OF WORK OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA Mil e s trav e l e d .......... . .... ...... ..... . .. . ..... ...................... . .. . ..... . ..................... . ... ... . Days engaged in offi c e ... .. .... . . ................ .. ......... . ...... . .. ... . ...... . ............. . ...... . Day s engag e d in field .. ... ............. . ........................................................... . . . . Days attending s tate meeting s . . ......... .... ................ ..... ... ............... . ....... . .. . Talks a nd d e mon s trations given ........................... . ................................... . Meetings att e nd e d . . ...... ... ...... .. ................ .. ..... . ......... . ........ ..... ....... . ............. . Estimat e d att e ndan ce .................................................. . . .. .... . . ...... . ............ . C ont es t s at te nd e d .............. .. . . .................................. . ................. . ................ . Short c our ses att e nd e d ........... .. .......................... ...... . .. ..... . ..... . ............... . ... . Fairs attend e d ...................................................................................... .. . . ... . S c hools vi s it e d . . ..................... .... ...... . ...... . .... .. ........ . ....... . . .. . . . . ........ . ............. . Homes visited ............. . .... . ..... . .. ....... .. ................ .. ......... . ....... . ....... .. ... . .... . .. .. . . Club s visited .............. . .. . ..... . .... . . .. ................... . .......... ...... ...... ... ......... , .......... . Conferences with superintend e nts ....................................... . ...... . .. . . . .. ..... . Conferences with county commis s ion e rs ................... . .. . .................. . ....... . Visits to s chool boards .... ... . . .... . .... .. ... ........... . ... .. ...... . ... . ... .. . ............... . .. .... . Supervisory vi s its to agents ............................................. . ....................... . 12,308 81 15 8 1 8 74 8 2 5,570 11 5 5 12 19 25 31 7 6 8 1 FIG. 19 . -Canning meat . Packing the cooked meat and gravy in cans

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension RE'PORT OF THE POULTRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of poultry club work for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, MINNIE M. FLOYD, Home Demonstration Poultry Specialist. The purpose of organized poultry clubs and egg circles is to increase the quantity and improve the quality of poultry prod ucts in the state. To attain this end the following economic and educational methods are employed: 1. Holding meetings. a. Electing officers to preside in meetings. b. Conducting educational programs. 2. Giving a better knowledge of the need, value and importance of the . .poultry industry. 3. Teaching better methods in handling the home flock. a. Increase of purebred stock. b. Hatching and rearing. c. Culling. d. Feeding. e. Housing. f. Sanitation in houses and yards. g. Prevention and destruction of pests. h. Production of infertile eggs for market. i. , Preservation of eggs for home use .. j. Use and value of poultry and eggs in the diet. 4. Gooperative marketing of surplus products. a. Eggs. b. PoultryTeaching the importance of a uniform product; of finishing poul try for.market; study of markets; seasonal demands; methods of transportation; etc. 5. ;Keeping records. a. To establish the habit of business methods. . b. To know whether you have a winning or losing business. 6. Exhibition of products. a. Live poultry. b. Eggs . . (This serves a 2-fold purpose: an incentive for better work by members, and an inducement to others to take up the work.) . ORGANIZATION In conducting the poultry work, close cooperation has been maintained with the entire home demonstration staff; with the 32 home demonstration agents; the extension poultry husband man at the College of Agriculture; and with a number of county agents. The plan has been to work with all home demonstration

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Annual Report, 1920 87 agents. The home demonstration poultry specialist . in confer ence with other members of the entire staff, plans this work for the state, plans the specialist's itinerary and notifies agents in advance of her coming. Since the poultry work has grown to be so large, it is no longer possible for the specialist to organize the county work, consequently the actual work has been done by home demonstra tion agents working under her supervision and instruction. PLAN OF WORK All county clubs are known as home demonstration clubs. Each club or member may elect whatever home problem they wish to undertake. The poultry work is offered to all. The reported enrollment for 1919-20 was 1,890 against 1,782 the previous year when there were 12 more county workers. Com munity and county egg circles have been organized for the mar keting of eggs and poultry. OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Some county poultry associations have been organized. Some of these aided our work materially by supplying members with purebred eggs for hatching, on the cooperative basis. County fairs created a department for girls' and boys' poultry exhibits, offering liberal prizes. Banks, boards of trade and other business firms have been liberal in donating money as prizes for scholarships covering expenses at the girls' short course at the State College for Women, and at the boys' short course at the University of Florida. The state fair at Jacksonville and the South Florida fair at Tampa each gave exhibit space and liberal prizes to girls' and boys' poultry club . work. PUBLICITY METHODS USED Reports of work accomplished, were published in poultry jour nals, daily papers of the state, the Southern Ruralist, the Pro gress.ive Farmer, the Farmer and Stockman, and University of Florida Agricultural News Service. Items in county papers by home demonstration agents have also appeared. Posters, signs, poultry supply and equipment exhibits, and live poultry exhibits were put on at the state and South Florida and county fairs. An educational exhibit was put on at the Summer Normal of the Florida State College for Women.

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88 Florida Cooperative Extension The cooperative egg circles put on an exhibit of home-made equipment; viz., self-feeding hopper, brooder, etc., at state fairs. Home demonstration agents were supplied with farmers' bul letins, leaflets and posters from our state office. Monthly poul try programs were furnished. girls' and women's clubs. OUTSTANDING PIECES OF WORK Seven home demonstration agents report that poultry was the outstanding piece of demonstration work in their county during the last year. HATCHING EGGS SECURED ON A COOPERATIVE BASIS. Several county clubs secured eggs on a cooperative basis. The home demonstration agent of Citrus County succeeded in inter esting thre.e progressive business men to finance the purchase of eggs for club members who will give a pullet in the fall for the eggs. The Ferris Poultry Plant, West Palm Beach, offered .. two settings of utility stock White Leghorns to each home demon stration agent to be placed with club girls, or boys, who in turn will give a setting of eggs from their chickens raised to another girl or boy. BACK YARD POULTRY WORK Back-yard poultry work, started at St. Augustine last year, has been continued. A poultry show was held there and so much intereI:it was manifested that the agent was prevailed on to hold another show in February. On a recent visit of inspection to these back-yard flocks, 0. B. Martin, States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, is quoted as saying that, in so far as he knew, this was the most outstanding piece of 'home demonstration back-yard. poultry work in the South. Because of the growth of poultry work the time devoted to egg circles has been limited. Some counties have expanded their egg circle work this year. For example, the Hernando County circle enrolled 65 members, 20 being new ones. During the year July l; 1919, to June 30, 1920, this. circle sold 10,851 dozen eggs for $5,267.54 and 7,491 pounds of chickens and turkeys for $2,440.39, making atotal of $7,707.93. Requests for the organi zation of circles have come from Santa Rosa, Escambia, Pasco, Citrus, Jefferson, Pinellas, Suwannee, Putnam and Washington Counties. CULLING The home demonstration agent of Broward County who did much work in culling flocks reports: "I have found that a

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AnnualReport, 1920 89 knowledge of scientific culling is not only valuable for the profit of poultry keepers, but also to pick out the good birds in a flock, giving your reasons for this selection. This also creates confidence in the agent, which leads to the acceptance of other suggestions for poultry raising. "I have in mind a party to whom I was sent because she could not get her hens to lay. I found she kept meat birds. I found another flock with very crooked pelvic bones, and of poor ca pacity. After examining some of these poor specimens the owner picked up three good layers. I told her immediately that these were the egg type. She replied, 'Yes, these are my good hens.' She was so impressed that she sold off a whole flock of non-laying hens. "In another case a man sent for me to examine and cull his flock of 300. We had to eliminate more than half of them." CAPONS The following excerpt is copied from the report of the home demonstration agent of Broward County: "I put the proposition of buying a set of caponizing instru ments up to the county commissioners. In their usual cooper ative spirit they instructed me to order the instruments. With these I caponizea' over 300 chickens. As a result we have a beautiful flock of Rhode Island Reds, weighing as much as 12 pounds each; several flocks of Leghorns; smaller numbers of Barre.d Plymouth Rocks; and one flock of White Plymouth Rocks: We are expecting from 75 cents to $1 a pound for these dressed." fO.ULTRY. CLUB , WORK AT TH.E STATE AND SOUTH FLORIDA FAIRS The South . Florida fair at Tampa created. a department for the boys' and girls' .poultry clubs in which they offered liberal prizes. The first club exhibit was held February 16-21, 1920. There were 102 birds entered in the show from Bradford, Citrus; DeSoto, Hernando, Putnam and Suwannee Counties. Suwannee County members won the first county prize of $20; DeSoto County the second, $15; Citrus County the. third, $10; Bradford County the fourth, $5. In addition to the county prizes, $15 was given in individual prizes. Hernando County egg circle won the first prize, $15. This money plus the prize won at the state fair in 1919, was invested in the copies of the "American Standard of Perfection" and in

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension " subscriptions to good poultry journals for the members of the egg circles. The girls' and boys' poultry club exhibit at the state fair at Jacksonville, November 18-27, 1920, was the biggest and best yet held in the state. There were 321 birds entered, represent ing 14 counties as follows: Alachua, . Broward, Citrus, Duval, Gadsden, Hernando, Madison, Palm Beach, Polk, Putnam, Su wannee, Santa Rosa, St. Johns, and Taylor. The fair association offered most liberal county prizes, won as follows : Suwannee County first, $40; Duval County second, $35 ; Hernando County third, $25 ; Gadsden County fourth, $20 ; Polk County fifth, $15; Alachua County sixth, $10; Citrus County seventh, $5. County e;x:hibits of second year work were entered for the first time this year. Hernando County won first prize, $10. Duval and Suwannee Counties exhibits of second year work were incomplete and no prizes were awarded. Individual prizes were given, on each of 15 varieties of chickens entered. All the money given as premiums is to be invested in stock, eggs, or shipping coops, etc., to further poultry club work. POULTRY JUDGING CONTEST For the first time the state fair this year offered prizes for a poultry judging contest for the members of the girls' and boys' poultry clubs of Florida. Four teams of three members each, from Duval, St. Johns, Putnam and Sqwannee Counties, entered the contest. The con test was held . under the supervision of the extension poultry specialists from the University of Florida and the State College for Women~ The judging was of Barred Plymouth Rocks, and Single Comb White Leghorns. Putnam County team won prizes in both classes, $5 in each case. Claude Wolf of St. Johns County won both individual prizes for the best judging. One prize was a trio of Rhode Island Reds from Francis Poultry Yards, Inter lachen; and one was a White Leghorn cock from Ferris Poultry Farm, West Palm Beach. RABBIT CLUBS Thru the cooperation of the manager of the South Florida fair, the president of the National Breeders' and Fanciers' Associa tion of America, the president of the Southern Commercial Rab

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Annual Report, 1920 91 bit Breeders' Association, and various breeders of this associa tion, the first boys' and girls' rabbit club in the United States, receiving such cooperation, was organized. Members of the above mentioned organizations donated 30 pairs of purebred and registered rabbits, which were distributed to girls and boys selected by the home demonstration department in various counties in Florida. These rabbits are to be shown together with litter at the South Florida fair. A girl or boy receiving a pair of these stock rabbits is to give back to the home demonstration department one pair of rabbits from the first litter for distribution to other club members. The following breeds were donated: New Zealand Reds, Dutch, Belgian Hares, Flemish Giants, and American Blues. STATISTICAL REPORT Miles traveled ........ . . . .......... . ........... . ....... ...... ...... .. ........ .. .......... . .......... . .. . ... . Miles traveled by rail.. ...... . ........ ... ......... .... ....... .. ..................... . ................. . Miles traveled by auto ...... ..... .. . .... .. . . ......... ...... . .. . . ...... ...... ...... .... .. .......... .. .. . , :Miles traveled by other conveyances . .. ......... ... .. .. ... . . . .. .. .... . . ... .. .. ... ... .. . .... . Days engaged in office .work ..... . ......... . . . .......... . .......... .. ......... .. ................. . Days engaged in field work . ... . ...... . ....... .. ........ ....... ... ... ....... . ...... . ... .. .. . .... . . . Days attending state meetings .............................................. . .......... ..... ... . Days attending out of state meetings .. .. .................... . ......... ... .......... .. .... . Demonstrations given ..... .... _ . . ..... . .......... ... . . ..... ........ ..... . ....... .. . . .... . .. . .. .. ..... . Meetings attended .............. . .......... .... ... ... ........ .. .. . ..................... . .......... ... ... . . Estimated attendance .............................. . ...................... . ........................... . Contests attended ... .. ..... .. .. . .......... . ....... .. . . .. .. ..... ....... .. . .. . ..... .. . .... ..... ... . .... ... . Short courses attended .... ... . ... ...................................... . ... . ....... . .. . ...... .. ...... . Camps attended ................. .. ......... .. ......... . ........... .. ......... . ................ , ... .... .... . Attendance at short courses and camps ........ . ........ . .. . .. . .. . ... . .. . ........... . ... . Fairs attended ....... . .......... . ............... . ...... . ........... . .................... .. ....... .. . . ...... . Schools visited ................... . ...................... . ................... , . .. .................. ......... . Homes visited ......... . ............................................. . .... .... .......... .. .. ... ..... . . ... .. . ~i~:~~c11?;o;~s~~r;ne:i:.~.~~.~:::::::::::::::::: :: ::::::::: : ::::::::::: :: :::::::: : ::::::::::: :: ::::: Women enrolled . . .. . . . ... .................... . . . ....... . .................... ... . . ..... ... ........... .. .... . Total enrollment . . .... . . : ........ ... ....... . ................... . . . .... . .. . .. ... ........ .. ...... ..... .. .. . . 12,648 9,673 2,694 281 89 157 24 0 16 73 4,560 8 7 3 495 7 18 171 78 1,128 762 1,890

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DAIRY SPECIALIST IN HOME DEMONSTRA:TION WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the home demonstration dairy agent for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, ( MAY MORSE, Home Demonstration Dairy Specialist. DAIRY CLUB WORK Sixteen dairy clubs have been organized with a total enroll ment of 200. The work was carried on over a period of ten months. The rules which governed the work were practically the same as those of last year. F. C. Groover again offered $450 for prizes. Results of work in 16 clubs were represented at the final : c~m test with some decrease in membership. From every record it was indicated that there was a marked improvement over : the work of the preceding year. , The record cards were much neater and more accurately kept. ':J;'he unprofitable cows had been eliminated. There were more home-grown feeds used. Several purebred regfatered d~iry'. males were purchased and a much greater nurriber . : ofclub cows were bred to purebred registered males than during the pie,..: ceding year. There were larger returns from : products .mar: keted, due to improvement in quality and increase . in quantity. : At the close of this contest nearly a third. of the members have ; of their own accord requested that the club ,work be continuea . and that they be retained as dairy club members. ' The dairy clubs have had much help and encouragement from the state dairy association. In numbers of counties where clubs were organized, prizes were offered by banks and individuals to stimulate interest. In Hernando County interest has progressed to the point that this county has a commercial dairy association which sold $8,000 worth of milk during the year. All home demonstration agents had instruction in making and caring for home dairy products. Of the 300 or more student teachers enrolled, at least 100 asked for bulletins and helps to assist them with their work in , the public schools.

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Annual R e port, 19 2 0 93 PUBLICITY Interest was promoted by the articles frequently published in daily papers and agricultural periodicals of the state. Window displays were used featuring better dairy stock and the food value of milk. During the summer school at the State College for Women FIG. 20.-Dairy e x hibit to demonstr a t e v alue o f dair y product s, displayed a t s ta te fair , 1 9 20 there was a large assortment of posters, pamphlets and bulletins relative to dairy product s and dairy work, kept on display. DEMONSTRATION DIETS SHOWING VALUE OF MILK In this exhibit there were cages of white rats on experimental diets, which showed the effect of adequate and inadequate food, the value of milk being especially featured. This year at the state fair the home demonstration dairy ex hibit featured especially the food value of milk. Attractive posters and pi c tures were u s ed. Ther e w as a di s play of the actual total solid s in a gallon of milk; and a cage of white rat s, .all o f on e litter, di v id e d int o thr ee groups w ith dail y di e t s re .spectively as follows: 1. (No mlilk.) r Grits . . ..... . .. . .. . . . .......... 6 0 gr am s Syr u p .. . ...... .. .......... .. . 5 gram s Ri ce .. .... ............ .. ........ 10 gram s S a l t p o rk .. ........... .... . 10 g r a m s Potato (sweet) ........ 10 gram s C abba ge ........ ....... ..... 5 gram s 2. (Milk ad libitum up t o 20 cc. ea c h rat.) Grit s ........ .... .. . ........... 60 gram s Syrup ........................ 5 gram s Rice .... .... .. .. .... .. ...... .. .. 10 gr a m s C abb age .... ................ 5 g rams P o t a to (s w ee t) .. .. .... 10 g ram s . 3 . A c ontrol rat on mi xe d di e t o f milk , fruit s a nd vege t a bl es .

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension The appearance, the development, and temperament of these rats was a most convincing argument for milk in the diet of children. STATISTICS OF HOME DAIRY AGENT'S WORK Railroad travel ............................................... , ........................................ 12,376 miles Automobile travel .................................................................................. 2,251 miles Boat travel .............................................................................................. 40 miles . Total -traveled ........................................................................................ 14,667 miles Meetings attended ............................................................................................ 38 Persons present at these meetings................................................................ 3,016 Speeches made .................................................................................................. 31 Days traveled .................................................................................................... 32 Days in the field ................................................................................................ 114 Days in the office.............................................................................................. 98 Days engaged in special work........................................................................ 20 Days on leave (annual furlough and leave) ..................... ,.......................... 22 Days at state meetings.................................................................................... 27 Contest and short courses attended.............................................................. 4 Fairs attended .................................... :............................................................. 4 Homes visited .................................................................................................... 105 Schools visited .................................................................................................. 7 Conferences .................................................................................... ,................... 56 Clubs organized ................................................................................................ 16 Club enrollment ................................................................................................ 200 Visits to agents.................................................................................................. 60 Demonstrations given: Butter ........................................................................................................ 3 Cheese ........................................................................................................ 3 Demonstrations to club girls at short course ...................................... } To agents in training at summer session............................................ 36 hours To agents at annual meeting ................................................................ .

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Annual Report, 1920 REPORT OF E~TENSION LEADER IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY P. H. Rolfs, Director. 95 SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the extension leader in animal husbandry for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, J.M. SCOTT, Extension Leader in Animal Husbandry. On January 26, I attended a conference of southern beef cattlemen in extension work, which continued . into a 3-day session. The principal topics for discussion at these meetings were grasses and forage crops and the handling of beef cattle in the South. During the latter part of February ten days were spent with county agents of Dade, Palm Beach and St. Lucie Counties, and one day was spent with the home demonstration agent of Brow ard County. In each of these counties our time was spent en tirely with the dairymen of the various communities, giving them advice in the feeding and handling of dairy herds. On March 8 I visited a number of cattle .and swine growers in Alachua County. On March 15 and 16 I attended a 2-day meeting of the Cattle Raisers Association in Tampa. . On March 22 and 23 I visited a number of cattle and swine growers in Alachua and Marion Counties in company with W. H. Black. On May 11 I went to Leon County and spent a day with the county agent, visiting dairymen and cattlemen in that section. From there I went to Franklin County to investigate grass and range conditions on St. George Island. This is an island in the Gulf a short distance out from Apalachicola. Much to my sur prise I found the island well stocked with good grade Hereford cattle. These cattle had been brought in from Texas about two years before. Altho the pasture was scant the cattle were looking well. From there I went to Suwannee County for a day with the county agent, and visited some of the local hog and dairy farmers. On May 20 I went to Duval County and met with the State Swine Growers Association, where I read a paper, Different

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' 96 Florida Cooperative Extension Methods Used by Successful and Unsuccessful Swine Growers in Florida. On September 20 I attended the State Dairy . Association Meeting and read a paper, Equipment Necessary for th~ Production of Good Milk. . While at Orlando I visited a number of dairymen in the sec tion and conferred . with them regarding their feeding, general care and breeding methods used. During the past summer I supplied drawing and plans for dairy barn and milk room for W.R. Dedman of McIntosh, Flor ida, and W. E. A. Wyman of St. Petersburg, Florida. I have supplied a number of county agents with good rations for the dairy herd, for brood sows and for fattening hogs for market . On November 24 I attended a conference of dairymen and milk dealers in Jacksonville, Florida. The object of this con feren~e was to devise ways and means of disposing of surplus milk during summer. The surplus of milk during summer is due to the strong demand for milk during the winter tourist season; Then, too, many dairymen breed their cows so , they wm freshen in spring when there is less demand for milk prod ucts. The following suggestions were given: (1) That ah : ad vertising campaign, setting forth the value of milk in thldiet, be put on by the dairymen and milk dealers. (2) That dairymim be urged to breed their cows so they will freshen in the fall rather than in the. spring. . __ The Fifth Annual Livestock Roundup was held at the : Uni : versity of Florida, October 7-8; The chief subjects for discus sion were Pork Production, Grasses, Growth of the Purebred Jndustry in Florida, Cooperative Marketing of Livestock and Jts Influence ort the Development of the Industry, and Making Flor ida a Factor in the World's _ Livestock Market. _ The . week of November 29 to December 4, was spent in West Florida with the district agent, where we held farm extension _ schools in Santa Rosa, Walton, Washington and Liberty Counties.

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Annual Report, 1920 . REPORT OF THE EXTENSION FORAGE CROPS SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, Director. 97 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the extension forage c rops specialist for the months of AprHand May, 1920, and for a portion of the time from July to December, 1920. Respectfully, J'. B. TH0MPS0?-!', Extension Forage Crops Specialist. NEEDS OF THE FLORIDA RANGES One of th _ e most pressing needs of the livestock industry in Florida is an adequate and constant supply of good forage the entire year. Under the present conditions there is a super abundance of forage during summer arid a serious shortage during winter. Breeders and owners of purebred a . nd high grade beef animals, or those connected with dairy interests, may be able to solve their forage problems satisfactorily thrti the con struction and utilization of silos, by the production of more and better hay, and by means of growing such winter crops as oats, rye, rape, and root crops. There are approximately 700 silos in the state, about 200 of which are located in Leon County, the chief dairy center of Florida. Large quantities of hay are shipped into the state yearly. To hasten . and encourage the adoption of better methods will require considerable educational effort on the part of the ex tension force. PROBLEMS OF THE CATTLEMEN The range interests, representing total holdings of approxi mately 1,000,000 cattle or more than 90 percent of all the cattle in Florida, find different problems confronting them. Their cattle are entirely dependent upon the native grasses of the range. In the management of this class of stock, supplementary feeding is not practiced. Usually the feeding of such animals . is not practicable. _For this reason the problem that interests range cattlel!len is strictly . one of improving native pasturage on their grazing areas~ The principal grasses on the range are various spcies of the ; "wirE! grass" and ''broom sedge" groups, or other grasses w~ich, like them,. yield good pasturage during their . e.arly growth but which soon become coarse and fibrous.

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension The system of range management" followed in Florida includes periodic burning of grass lands to remove such growth as be come dry and unpalatable. This system tends to perpetuate the hardy wire grasses by holding in check the more desirable and less resisting varieties, such as carpet grass and giant carpet grass. The wire grasses, on the other hand, are driven out by close grazing and heavy trampling, while the carpet grasses thrive under this treatment. A reversal of these systems would greatly improve certain sections of range lands. The practice of heavy stocking of lands and their careful protection from fire would convert large areas of wire grass into better grasses, thereby increasing the quantity and improving the quality of the feed supply. Improvement along the general lines indicated above are some of the most urgent needs of the livestock industry in Florida; and this has been consistently emphasized in our work this year. One of the methods of reaching farmers in a direct way was thru personal farm visits in company with the county agent. Work of this . nature was conducted in 19 different counties and 64 farms were visited. SPECIAL COUNTY SURVEYS While our most important forage problems are, in a general way, common to all sections of the state, local conditions fre quently obtain that necessitate special solutions. For this rea son and in order to be of more specific help to farmers, while working in cooperation with the county agent, a series of special forage crop surveys ,Were made, each one dealing with a separate county as an independent unit. The general plan followed in this work is briefly as follows: By prearranged appointment the forage crop specialist visits a county agent, and the two jointly spend three or four days in a study of local forage conditions. Every phase of the forage quest;on is considered, typical areas of the county are visited, and a study is made of the character and condition of the range. Notes are taken on the different native grasses entering into the flora of the grazing lands and, wherever possible, herbarium specimens taken for future reference. In this way the county agent becomes more familiar with the grasses in his district. Later, and as time permits, a report to the county agent is prepared, covering the findings of the survey and including rec.:. ommendations for bettering conditions wherever improvement

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Annual R e port, 19 2 0 99 seems possible . These surveys have been made in five counties, Bay, Dade, DeSoto, Holmes, and St. Lucie. The number of grasses collected were, in Bay 29, Dade 40, DeSoto 36, Holmes 0, St. Lucie 73. MISCELLANEOUS WORK During the year seven different agricu l tura l fairs were at tended . At five of these the forage crop specialist assisted in the judging of exhibits . At two he appeared on the program, making talks on forage topics . Eleven speeches were made. on different forage crop subjects before gatherings of farmers within the period covered by this report. In the same time many letters were written and many native grasses were re ceived and identified. FIG . 21.-Para grass in Polk County

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100 Florida Cooperative E x tension REPORT OF THE EXTENSION BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the field extension beef cattle specialist from January 1, 1920, to June 30, 1920. Respectfully, WM. H. BLACK, Ag ent in Animal Husba ndry . The work undertaken was primarily to improve the quality of beef cattle on farms. This improvement was contemplated to come about by better care of stock and by providing feeds during short grazing season. It was also to be brought about by grading up thru the use of purebred and high grade male s and by carrying out demonstrations in fattening steers with Florida grown feeds. The farmers interested in this are scat tered thruout Florida, and while some counties have few, if any, purebred cattle, there is sufficient work here to engage the full time and attention of a beef cattle specialist. The specialist worked thru the county agents and stat~ workers and with the Animal Industry Division of the Florida Experiment Station. He assisted in selecting breeding stock, made selections for farmers who intended to exhibit at fairs, gave every encouragement to tick eradication work, and, in that way, cooperated with state and national authorities. Thruout the state there are a number of good animals slaughtered each year because they can. no longer be used in the herd. Many of these animals are now being purchased by other stockmen at beef prices to be used for breeding purpose s . FIG . 22.-S horth orn cattle purchased in Texas for Florida stock farm FEEDING DEMONSTRATIONS Three feeding demonstration s hav e been s ucce ssfu lly carried out. The first was carried out on the farm of L. K. Edwards at

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Annual Report, 1920 101 Irvine, Florida. This consisted of the feeding of 15 head of Angus calves to be shown as a ~arlot at the state fair. The second and third demonstrations were carried out at Zellwood, Florida. One lot of 128 head of cattle were fed on corn silage, cottonseed meal and natal hay; another lot was fed the same ration, with peanut meal substituted in place of cotton seed meal. APPROXIMATE NUMBER PUREBRED BEEF CATTLE IN FLORIDA Angus J Hereford ! Shorthorn I A..,.~la-c~h_u_a.. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. --'--. -~24~0~185 165 County Baker .................................. ...................... 10 ..................... . Bay ...................................... ..................... 5 6 Bradford .............................. 90 ........................................... . Brevard .............................. 60 ........................................... . Calhoun .............................. 20 1 ..................... . Clay ...................................... ...................... 100 150 Columbia ............................ ...................... 25 ..................... . Dade .................................... 10 35 ..................... . DeSoto ................................ 20 12 Duval ................................ ,. 250 2 13 Escambia ............................ ...................... 125 Gadsden .............................. ...................... 10 Hamilton ............................ ...................... 1 ..................... . Hernando ....................................................................... . Hillsboro ............................ 30 10 Holmes ................................ 6 300 Jackson ................................ 20 120 4 10 4 Jefferson .............................. 2 ........................................... . LaFayette ............................................... . Lake .................................... 5 20 10 Lee ........................................ 15 ..................... . Levy ......................................................... . Liberty ................................ 4 Manatee .............................. 10 Marion ................................ 225 Nassau ................................ 2 Okaloosa ................................................. . Okeechobee ........................ 20 Orange ................... , ............ 15 Osceola ................................ 50 Palm Beach ........................ 2 Pasco..................................... 5 Pinellas ................................ 1 Polk ...................................... 35 Putnam................................ 10 Santa Rosa ........................ 5 Seminole .............................. 50 Suwannee ............................ 50 10 10 25 10 5 15 30 6 20 10 10 40 30 20 10 St. Lucie .............................. 15 ..................... . Taylor ....................................................... . Walton ................................ 5 Washington ............................................. . Total .................................... 1,272 15 50 75 1,362 10 8 2 8 40 180 2 2 10 10 5 8 2 20 15 6 10 25 25 15 755 Total 590 10 11 90 60 21 250 25 45 32 265 125 10 1 4 50 310 140 2 30 23 17 18 4 60 430 14 7 45 55 61 22 23 13 95 25 41 80 85 40 15 70 75 3,389

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102 Fl orida Cooperative E xtension SUMMARY OF BEEF CAT TLE WORK Fiscal Year 1920 July , 1919, to June, 1920 Cou nti es worked in ..................... . ........................... . .......... ....... . ....... ............... 5 1 Catt l e feeding .................. . ................... . ....................... ................ . .. . ..... .... ........ 10 Herd management .................. . .......... .................. . ............ . .............................. 40 Feeding demonstrations ......................... . ................ . . .. . ..... .. ............. 3 Count i es introducing Texas catt l e............. ... .................. ............................... 5 Counties h aving breeders of purebred ca ttle ......... ........................ . ............. 45 Breeder s enrolled in better sires campa i g n .... . .... . ...... .. ................................ 70 Farms visited ........... . .... . ............ .. ......................................................... . ........... 177 Confe r e n ces w ith exte n s i on workers .. . .. . .. . ..................................... . ..... ... ..... 90 Ca ttl e placed thru thi s office ............ ... ... . ...... . ........ .... .............................. . ... . . 1,9 84 Purebred c attl e plac e d .......... . ....................... ... .......... ............................... 600 T exas c attl e introduc e d ....................... . .. . .. . ...... . .......... . . ............... ..... .... . . 902 Purebred ca ttle from ot h er s tat es . ..................... . .. ... ....... . ................. 300 Days in field ........................................ ....................... . ... . ......... . ..................... . ... 1 43 Day s in office... .. ...... .......................... .......... ............... . ..... ............ ..... 116 Miles tra ve led by s peciali st ........... .... ... .................................. .......... . ............. 17,452 Circular l etters received ............................... . ........... . .................. ...... .............. 17,789 Letter s written ............. . ........... . .. ................... .... .. ............... ........ 950 Bulletin s written ........ .. .................... . ...................... . ...... .. .................. .... ...... . ... 2 FIG. 23.-Three best fat Angus steers, including grand champion Florida fat steer ( shown at right) at the 1919 Florida state fair

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Annual Report, 1920 103 REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the extension poultry husbandman for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, N. W. SANBORN, E x tension Poultry Husbandman. This report covers the second half of the year, when full time was given to the work, as well as a few short trips during the first half of the year. In this period 6,850 miles were traveled by train and boat, 1,827 miles by auto and team; 65 meetings were held, at which 3,941 people were present; 21 culling dem onstrations were given with 271 persons present; 1,174 letters were written, 3,100 bulletins and circulars were mailed; 217 farms and backyard flocks were visited; 4 small poultry shows were judged . . The work has been educational. While the work with men and women has not been neglected, more attention has been given to boys and girls. County and home demonstration agents have rendered valu able services in extending all extension work. The county and home demonstration agent .is ort the job all the time. It has been pleasant to see how quickly agents rise to the importance of poultry to the farming interests of the state. Home demonstration agents were given special instruction during their fall meeting at the Women's College in Tallahas see, while the combined meeting of both men and women in Gainesville in October gave an opportunity to draw them closer in advancing poultry keeping in Florida. BOYS' AND GIRLS' POULTRY COURSES The boys and girls of the state were helped at their local gath erings, also at the boys' short course at the Agricultural College in Decetnber. The instruction given them was intended to em phasize the good points of thorobred poultry, and how to select and prepare their birds for exhibition. Eleven boys and girls made up the four judging teams at the state fair poultry show in November. This proved an interesting contest. The contest was arranged by Miss Minnie Floyd, home demonstration poul try specialist, with my assistance.

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104 Florida Cooperative Extension While shape and color, comb and eyes, are emphasized to bring out certain ideals, the real purpose has been to produce better birds and more eggs. It has been stressed that this may be done by starting baby chicks on milk and giving them range on peanut and beggarweed pasture, by using dry mashes and scratch feeds, and by balancing the feeds. The point has been emphasized that Florida's interests are varied. In connection with every citrus grove, truck farm, stock farm, or even a big backyard lot, there could and should be a profitable flock of poultry. Outstanding features of the year's work have been the poultry extension courses, given not only to the boys and girls, but also to older people. Usually there has been an exhibition of local poultry at these schools. The programs have always covered the following topics: Poultry feeds and feeding; Value of trap nesting poultry; Demonstration of a trapnest; Internal structure of a hen with relation to egg production; The farm and backyard flock; Egg circles and their monetary value; Hatching and brooding of baby chicks; Utility poultry; Selecting the egg type of hen without trapnesting; More eggs and how to get them; Fitting, showing and judging poultry; Marketing poultry prod ucts; and Demonstration of dressing poultry. High poultry prices are stimulating interest in better poultry. More poultry journals are being read, poultry books are being bought and studied, poultry shows are being attended. All these things give promise of larger poultry production for Florida in the coming years.

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Annual Report, 1920 105 REPORT OF THE SPECIALIST IN WATERMELON DISEASE CONTROL P. H. Rolfs, Director. Sm: I submit herewith the report of the specialist in water melon disease control work for May and June, 1920. Respectfully, C. M. TUCKER, . Specialist in Watermelon Diseases. The season of 1920 has been unfavorable for watermelons. The watermelon crop was cut short by freezes early in the season and by heavy rains just before the melons ripened. These rains caused anthracnose to spread, and leached much fertilizer from the soil, resulting in weak vines and small fruit. SECTIONAL SURVEY In DeSoto County most of the fields were planted on low and level land and showed the need of cultivation. Some fields were planted on land where melons were grown one to five years ago. In each case most of the vines were dead and those that remained were severely infected by Mycosphaerella citrulina and Fusarial wilt. The Alternaria leaf-spot was found abundant, but causing little injury. In the Wauchula-Bowling Green section the vines were stunted about two weeks before shipping time by a heavy infestation of aphids. The dry weather at that time was ideal for their spread, . and in some fields the soil under the vines was caked hard with the honey dew secreted by the insects. The first melons shipped were glazed and sticky with the substance. At that time it ap peared that the crop would be cut short 50 percent or more. However, several heavy rains fell during the next week. The aphids disappeared rapidly, the vines took new vigor and ship ping continued to the last week in June. Anthracnose was not especially serious in DeSoto County. At Avon Park in one field of 100 acres this crop was a total failure due to a poor growth of vines and later to a heavy infestation of aphids. Polk County was also below the average. A large percent of the crop was sprayed with bordeaux and Black leaf 40, but not thoroly enough to check the aphids. At Winter Haven anthrac nose was observed in several fields early in the season. Spray ing was started but control was impossible because of heavy

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106 Florida Coop e rati v e E x tension rainfall s . Unless assisted by dry weather, spraying will hardly control anthracnose, if begun after the fungus has appeared. Near Lakeland the aphids and the anthracnose together injured the crop perhaps 60 percent. Pasco County melon fields suffered less from insect attacks than sections farther south. In the se cond week in May an thracnose was showing in a few fields and early in June heavy rains fe ll nearly every day for more t han a week. No system atic spraying was practiced in Pasco Co unty. In Hernando County farmers, encouraged by last year's suc cess, planted over 700 acres of melons. One hundred acres were sprayed with bordeaux. Anthracnose was controlled fairly well; but the aphids caused considerable damaged, and lack of early cultivation caused the y ield to be a disappointment. Six hun dred acres near Weeks also made a sma ll yield. The cool, damp weather of May retarded the growth of the crop. Nearly every nigh t was cool thruout the melon section. During the day hard winds blew the v ines about and shook off t h e young fruit. FIG. 24.-A power sprayer used in a 400 acre watermelon field, Dunnellon, Florida The entire acreage of Citrus County was sprayed carefu lly. Eight hundred acres there were s prayed three and four times. The growers work on a large scale, and are equipped wit h a power outfit. C itrus County was the only county where all the seed used were soaked in formaldehyde solution before planting. Mycosphaerella wilt was co ntrolled by the treatment . I was unable in May to find an infected plant in any of the fields . In the same section last year the seed was not treated and the fun gus was abundant. On a s mall area replanted to melons this year, nearl y every plant was infected with Mycosphaerel.la wilt. The control of anthracnose was complete until the rainy weather.

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Annual Report, 1920 107 At that time spraying ceased and some of the fields died rapidly. However, most . of the melons were already mature, and the loss was much less than where no spraying was done. The melons were free from anthracnose spots and sunburn, and were of excellent size and quality. _The growers there feel that the money spent on spraying repaid them many times. The best spraying in the state was done at Dunnellon. Four hundred acres were sprayed eight times. The melons were fer tilized with 700 pounds 5-8-5 commercial fertilizer to the acre, and two carloads of wood ashes were scattered over the field. Spraying was continued thruout the shipping season. The vines remained perfectly green until late in the season, producing a heavy crop of number one melons. Lake, Marion and Sumter Counties suffered severely from an thra cnose. Many of the melons from these fields were shipped after the . vines were dead. Many melons, heavily spotted with anthracnose and yellow with sunburn, were shipped from these counties. in Marion County many fields were attacked by anthracnose so ear _ ly that no melons could be shipped. The crop from the three counties did not exceed 60 percent of the normal yield, tho the increased acreage kept shipment up to normal or above. In Alachua County the fields suffered little from disease, but heavy rains reduced the yield to about 65 percent. _The heav y rains came when the melons were small, and leached parts of fertilizer from the soil. Consequently the melons were nearly , all small. A car averaging 28 pounds was an exception. Most. of them averaged 22 pounds. At Trenton some of the fields yielded less than a car to ten acres. The Suwannee County crop was injured about the same as th~ Alachua crop, growth being retarded early in the season by cool nights and winds and later by excessive rains. The melons were small. In Madison and Leon Counties there was considerable acreage; but their shipments were small, the weather conditions there having been even more adverse than in the central part of the state. EFFECTIVE SPRAYING Spraying should begin when the plants start to -run. For spraying use 4-4-50 bordeaux mixture with a power outfit ca.:. pable of developing 150 pounds pressure. Use nozzles . set at an angle of 45 degrees, in order to reach the under surface of the

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108 Florida Cooperative Extension leaves. The first application should be given as the vines begin to run; spray the second two weeks later; third three weeks before shipping; fourth one week before shipping. This is a schedule for a normal or dry season. If rainy weather it may be necessary to spray eight times. Watch the vines closely for aphids. , If they appear add Black leaf 40 to the spray at the rate of pint to 100 gallons solution. Bury the worst infested hills and be very, very careful to reach the under side of the leaves with the spray. STEM-END TREATMENT The stem-end treatment for the prevention of stem-end rot came into general use in Florida in 1919. Early in the season the railroad administration issued a circular requiring the pre payment of freight on all shipments of watermelons from the southeastern states, if not treated to prevent stem-end rot. Find ing that claims were reduced materially, the railroads still main tain the ruling. Prior to 1919 shipments from Florida showed a loss aver aging about 20 percent, due to the Diplodia or stem-end rot. The Diplodia is the cause of about 90 percent of the decayed melons arriving at northern markets. During the season of 1919 on about 70 cars of treated melons shipped to various mar kets from New York to Seattle and from New Orleans to Min. neapolis, the inspectors reported a loss in well treated shipments of about 2 percent. This is about what should be expected, eliminating the Diplodia . completely. During 1920 we have been unable to get reports on cars at destination, but general reports indicate that shipments, where the treatment is applied carefully, are arriving with much less loss than where the growers use the paste carelessly and in order to evade prepayment of freight. The Melon Distributors' Association adopted a resolution last winter to buy only melons treated for stem-end rot. The treatment 1ecommended consists in the reclipping of the stems and the application to the cut end of a paste made of copper sulphate and starch recommended by the Bureau of Plant Industry. The Diplodia which causes stem-end rot, is a decay organism which is found on all decaying vegetation. The spores are wind blown. When a melon is cut from the vine, a drop of sap exudes from the cut stem, making an ideal place for the spores to stick

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Annual Report, 1920 109 and furnishing a perfect environment for germination and growth. In a short time the new mycelium has started to pene trate the stem. This makes the reclipping necessary. When half of the stem is cut off and the disinfectant paste used there is no possibility of infection by the Diplodia, since it never affects the melon before it is cut from the vine. The stem-end treatment is of no avail against this rot. A phoma also causes a few melons to rot at the stem end. However, these rots are of small im portance compared to Diplodia. Reclip the stems to inch as each tier is finished in the car. Apply stem-end paste to the cut stem, being careful not to smear it over the melons themselves. It does not harm the melons but detracts from their appearance. It seems that $25 a car is a very conservative estimate of the increase paid to the farmers, due to the use of stem-end paste. Of course it is difficult to form any accurate estimate, but, in securing the opinion of the buyers, none suggested less than $25. Taking that figure as a basis, we find the use of stem-end paste has brought into the state $25,000 this season. At least 95 percent of the melons were treated, since buyers will not prepay freight unless compelled to do so. Considering the cost of treat ment to be 75 cents a car, the entire cost of treating 5,000 cars would be $3,750. The gain to the grower thus, is $121,250, a return of about 3,200 percent on his investment. As a rule the growers are far sighted enough to realize that getting their melons to market without loss means more money, everi tho they always sell them at the station. Yet, in some few sections, we have met with considerable opposition. A few un scrupulous buyers have spread the word that the paste causes the melons to rot. Their intention is obvious. If the melons are not treated the reputable competitors will not buy, thus the un scrupulous are often able to buy at lower prices. -Most of the month of June was spent visiting loading points and instructing freight agents and loaders in the proper method of treatment.

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110 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the local district agent for negro work for the year ending December 31, 1920. Respectfully, A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent. Farm and home makers' clubs were conducted in 13 counties during the year. Nine women and seven men, known as county assistants, were employed. Ten counties had one agent only; three counties had both men and women agents conducting the work of farm and home makers' clubs. The following problems were undertaken during the year and with favorable results: 1. Better cultural methods.-These were taught in field and garden plots. One-acre. plots for boys were planted to corn, peanuts and potatoes; one-tenth-acre plots for girls were planted in vegetables, principally for home use. 2. Farm and home conveniences.-Special attention was given to the conveniences of farm and home life. 3. Farm and home improvement.-Permanent improvement of the farm and home by community cooperation, where proper ties were improved under the supervision of agents, met much consideration. The most outstanding piece of work was of a farm home in Leon County. The premises were characteristic of a run down home. During the four days devoted to this work, under . auspices of the farm and home makers' short cou rse and prize contest of Leon County, the premises were completely fenced, dwelling covered and whitewashed inside and out, out houses built and the well cleaned. The demonstration was financed by a local citizen at a cost of $200. 4. Farm makers' pig clubs.-There were 126 purebred pigs placed among negro boys and girls between March and October, 23 of which were donated by business men and individuals to be awarded during short courses. The _ champion pig of the state was exhibited at the state fair in Jacksonville by a 12-year old boy, Fred Carter, of Quincy. This pig gained 220 pounds in 210 days. 5 . Home makers' poultry . club.-The home makers' poultry club was organized to stimulate better poultry and to teach the

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Annual Report, 1920 111 care and management of poultry. Agents' reports show that 1,355 purebred chickens were hatched. Some of these birds were exhibited at state and county fairs and made creditable show ings. , 6. Farm and home makers' savings clubs.-Reports of the agents show $841.50 now on deposit in banks. Agents find an excellent chance to advise and assist in safe investments thru these clubs, such as the purchase of purebred pigs and poultry. CLUB ENROLLMENT The enrollment of club members and demonstrators the past year was as follows : Girls 949 with 557 reporting; boys 457 with 297 reporting; total club members 1,434 with 954 reporting. Enrollment of demonstrators: men 217 with 88 reporting; women 457 with 193 reporting; total 67 4 with 281 reporting. The small percentage of reports received in proportion to the enrollment is due to there being no agent on duty during the harvesting of crops at which time the collecting of reports de pended upon voluntary efforts of patrons. FARM MAKERS' CLUBS Farm produce raised and harvested by boys in the farm makers' clubs during the year was as follows: Corn.-There were 148 acres of oorn planted, cultivated and harvested by boys in the farm makers' clubs. This corn aver aged 33 bushels an acre and produced 4,514 bushels valued at $1 a bushel, or a total of $4,514. The average cost of .Pro ducing it was 35 cents a bushel, or $1,979.90. This left a net gain of $2,935.10. The highest yield on one acre was 81 bushels, while the lowest was 9 bushels. Sweet Potatoes.-There were 88 acres of sweet potatoes planted which averaged 90 bushels an acre, or a total of 7,920 bushels. The value of these potatoes was $1 a bushel, or $7,920. The average cost of producing this crop was 25 cents a bushel, or $1,890. This leaves a gain of $5,940. The highest yield on one acre was 240 bushels and the lowest was 48. P.eanuts.-There were 74 acres planted in peanuts .which averaged 29 bushels, producing 2,146 bushels valued at $1.25 a bushel, or $2,682.50. The average cost of producing this crop was 27 cents a bushel, or $579.42. This left a net gain of $2,103.08. The highest yield on one acre was 55 bushels and the lowest was 11.

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112 Florida Cooperative Extension WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN FARM MAKERS' CLUBS IN 1920 Agents worked ......................... .. .................. . .............................. . . . .. ...... ....... .. 7 Average months employed .... ..... . ......... .................. .... . ........... . ....... . .............. 6 Boys enrolled ................... ... .......... . ......... .. . .......... ... . . ... ... . ...... .. ..... .... ............... . 485 Boys reporting ...... . .............. . . . . .... ......... ...... . . ...... ..... .. . . .... : . .. .. ........ . . ........... . . 297 Demonstrators enrolled : .. .............. ........ .... .. . . ... ...................... .. . ....... ........... ... 217 Demonstrators reporting . ... .......................... .. .............................................. 88 Purebred pigs placed........ ........ ................... . ......................... . . ... .................... 126 Hogs vaccinated ............................................ .. ......................... ..... .................. 775 Hog pastures made by club members ... .. .... . ... ,...................... ...... ................ 23 Hog wallows made by club members ........ . .. . .. ............ . .. ... ............. .... . . ..... ,. 9 Cash on deposit in savings clubs . . ........... . . . . . : . . ................... . .... .. ................. $484.75 WORK ACCOMPLISHED IN HOME MAKERS' CLUBS IN 1920 Agents worked .................. . .. . ................................................. . ........................ 9 Average months employed . . ... . ..................... . ..... . ..................... ,...................... 6 Girls enrolled ................... .. ...... . .. . . :.... . ........ . ... .. .. ... ... ............ ............. ........... .. 949 Girls reporting ............... . ... .. ....... : .......... . ............. .. .................. . . .. .......... ,. .... .. . 557 Demonstrators enrolled ... ...... .... .. . .. ............. .. ...... ......... . . ...... . . ...... ............ . ..... 457 Demonstrators reporting ...................... . ................................. .... .................. 193 Containers filled ............. . .... . .......................................................... .. ............. .. 134,708 Bars of soap made from waste fats ........ . . . .... . ,. ........... :.. ...... ... ................. 8,890 Fireless cookers made, .... .. ... ... ........................ . ............................. . . . ....... ,........ 338 Privies screened , ................. .... ................. .. ..... . ..................... .. ....... .. ............... 356 Houses screened .................. ... .. . ............... . .... . . ........ ........... ....... . . .. .. . . .............. 106 Wells covered 138 Eggs preserved for home use, dozens. . . .. ..... .. ........................ . . ........ ... ... ... . . . 910 Houses painted ............. . ..................................... . ............... ........... . ... .............. 56 Homes remodeled .............. ..... ...................... . .. . ................. :...... . ...................... 21 Homes purchased by influence of agents... . ...... . ............... . ......................... 38 Amount cash on deposit in home makers' savings clubs .. , .. . .................... $356. 75 FARM AND HOME MAKERS' SHORT COURSE AND PRIZE CONTEST The annual short course and prize contest for members, farmers and their wives, was held in the counties worked during September and October, covering a period of five weeks. The lecturers toured 11 counties, traveled 1,481 miles and held 20 meetings, reaching 915 club members and demonstrators. Of ficials from the State College for Women and the University of Florida rendered valuable assistance. Besides the 23 purebred pigs and 14 annual subscriptions to farm magazines to members of farm makers' clubs, 16 trios of full bred chickens, five cockerels and 12 canning machines were awarded to members by banks, business men and individuals over the state. The prizes were awarded on the merit of work done, as shown by record books on hand. ASSISTANT AGENTS' SHORT COURSE The short course . for the assistant farm and home makers' agents was held . during the first week in February at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, to give in structions regarding the program of work.

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INDEX Agents, county, 5 Cotton, acreage, 45 county home demonstration, 5 demonstrations, 24 extracts from county agents' anCottony cushion scale, 27 nual reports, 26 County agents' meetings, 17, 21 group meetings, 18 County appropriations, 23, 62 Aims of home demonstration work, 81 Crops, general field, 22, 45 Aphis control in watermelons, 105-109 cane, 22, 35, 38, 45 Appropriations, county, 23, 62 citrus, 25, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39 . corn, 22, 24, 38, 45, 53, 54 Beef cattle, demonstrations, 25, 100, peanuts, 39, 55 101 sweet potatoes, 22, 39, 55 Bees, 27, 34, 47, 65 truck, 36 Black, W . H., report of beef cattle velvet beans, 25, ?9 . specialist, 100 , Cushman, Lucy, resignation, 13 resignation, 13 Blacklock, R. W., promotion, 13 report of boys' club agent, 47 Board . of Control, 4 Boring, J. M., resignation, 37 Boys' agricultural clubs, 14, 47, 53 camps, 148 Citrus County camp, 48 Columbia County camp, 48 county contests, 51 enrollment, 55 new clubs organized, 47 Santa Rosa County camp, 48 short course, 18, 52, 56 summary of reports, 54 Briggs, W. R., extracts from annual report, 30 : Demonstration diets with milk, 93 Dairy cattle, demonstrations, 25 DeBusk, E. F . , appointment , 13 report of assistant boys' club agent, 53 Demonstrations, cattle feeding; 100 beef cattle, 25 corn, 24 cotton, 24 dairy cattle, 25 fertilizer, 26 fruits, 25 small grains, 24 hogs, 26 Irish potatoes, 25 lime, 26 manure, 26 Camps , Citrus, Columbia and Santa poultry, 26 Rosa, 48 Cane, 22, 35, 38, 45, 46 silos, 26 summer legumes, 25 sweet potatoes, 25 Canning, containers filled, 70 Cattle, 25, 36, 40, 43, 44, 92, 95, 97, Director, report of, 7 101 Changes in staff, 13 Citrus, 25, 32, 33, 36, 37, 39 Seminar, 16 Dorsett, Henry, winner banker s ' chol arship, 52 Dorsett, R. J., extracts from annual report, 27 Clayton, H. G., report of agent, 43 district Clubs, 14, 15 bee, 47, 165 calf, 52, 55 corn, 38, 53, 55 farm makers', 15, 111 peanut, 55 pig, 48, 55, 60 _ poultry, 64 sweet potato, 55 Conferences, monthly, 11 Contests, boys', county, 44 international club judging, 49 poultry, 90 state club, 51 Cooperativ e marketing, 27, 40 Corn, acreage, 22, 45 demonstrations, 24 Egg circles, 65, 88 Extension funds, 11 plan of work, 14 staff, 4 Extracts from county agents' reports, 26 Fairs, 22, 37, 41, 44, 49, 73, 84, 89, 93 Farm bureau, 20, 29, 40, 44, 66, 77, 78 Farm machinery, 42, 46 Farm makers' clubs, 10, 15, 69, 111 Fertilizer demonstrations, 26 Financial statement, 11 Floyd, Minnie M,, report of poultry work, 86 Fruits, demonstrations, 25 Funds, extension, 11 113

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114 Florida Cooperative Extension General activities, agents', 21, 33 Girl clubs, 14, 63, 71 camps, 67 enrollment, 63 fall contests, 84 muscadine grape work, 71 short courses, 18, 67, 74 Gomme, Wm., extracts from annual report, 32 Grain, acre._age, 22, 23 yield, 22, 23 Grape work, 71 Hay, 25, 39 Herrington, G. L., resignation, 13 Hogs, 22, 30, 31, 34, 39, 43, 48, 55 Matthews, R. I., extracts from an nual report, 30 McDonald, H. A., extracts from an nual report, 28 Meetings, agents' annual, 17, 21 agents' group, 18, 21 club boys, 18 home demonstration, 17, 21, 63 n e gro agents, 19, 112 Miley, Don, state boy corn champion, 51 Monroe, Dannie, state boy fat barrow champion, 52 Morse, May, report of home dairy work, 92 Mountain, James, extracts from an nual report, 29 demonstrations, 26 feeding tests, 48 sales, 22 . Napier grass, 30 Home dairying, features of work, 92 Negro work, 10, 69, 110 encouragements to work, 92 home demonstration work, 69, 110 results of work, 92, 94 Nutrition, 73 Home demonstration, aims of work, 81 meetings, 17, 63 Officers, States . Relations Service 4 Home improvement, 66, 69, 78, 84 Organizations extension work 8 ' Home makers' clubs, 10, 15, HO, 112 farmers, 29; 30 ' Hunter, L. R., resignation, 13 . . . Partridge, Sarah W., report of state Internat10nal club Judgmg contest, 49 home demonstration agent 62 Irish potato demonstrations, 25 Peanuts, 39 ' acreage, 39 Jenkins, E. w;, report of district clubs, 55 agent, 38 Pig clubs, 48, 55, 60 Pig fattening clubs, 48 Kelley, R. T., extracts from annual Plan of work, 14 report, 29 Poultry, backyard work, 64, 86-91 Kime, C. D., extracts from annual reas a project, 15 port, 31 demonstrations, 26 organization of poultry work, 86 Laboratory equipment, home demonreport of work, 86 stration work, 62 Prizes for boy club members, 50, 51 Landrum, Lonny I., report of district Publ!c'.1tions, 12, 68 agent, 81 Pubhc1ty, 93 appointment, 13 Layton, Harriette B., report of assistRainey, J. S., extracts from annual ant home demonstration agent, 71 report, 28 . Lime, demonstrations, 26 Recreation, 48, 67 Livestock, 22, 33, 39, 43 Records, highest, 49, 51, 53, 61 Livestock breeders association, 30 Reports, assistant boys! club agent, Livestock Roundup, 16 53 Lockhart, Stewart, calf club scholarassistant state home demonstration ship winner, 52 agent, 71 Logan, A. H., resignation, 13 beef cattle specialist, 100 . boys' club agent, 47 McQuarne, C. K., report of state director, 7 agent, 20 district agents, agriculture, 33, 38, McQuarrie, Retta, appointment, 13 43 Machinery, 42, 46 . district agents, home demonstraManure_, demonstrat!ons, 26 tion, 76, 81 Marketmg, cooperative, 27, 30, 40 extension poultry husbandman 103 Matthews, C. E., extracts from anforage crops specialist 97 ' nual report, 30 home dairy work, 92 '

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Annual Report, 1920 115 home demonstration poultry speStatistics, state agent, 23 cialist, 86 . state home demonstration agent, 69 negro work, 110 Stem-end decay, 105-109 plant pathologist in watermelon Stevens, H. E., appointment, 37 work, 105 Stoutamire, Ralph, appointment, 13 state agent, 20 Sugar cane, acreage, 35, 46 state home demonstration agent, 62 Summer legume demonstrations, 25 Rice, acreage, 22 Sweet potatoes, 22, 39, 46 Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7 acreage, 22 Roundup, Livestock, 16 clubs, 55 demonstrations, 25 Sanborn, N. W., report of extension storage houses, 46 poultry husbandman, 103 Scholarships, 52, 63 Taylor, C. H., Jr., winner banker Scott, J. M., report of extension scholarship, 52 leader in animal husbandry, 95 Tillman, J. M., extracts from annual Sechrest, J. C., extracts from annual report, 29 . report, 32 Thompson, J. B., reappointment, 13 Sechrest, J. J., extracts from annual report of forage crops specialist, 97 report, 29 Truck, 36 Seminar, Citrus, 16 Tucker, C. M., report of plant pathSessoms, W. A., extracts from annual ologist in watermelon work, 105 report, 52 Turner, A. A., report of local district Short course, boys', 18, 52, 56 agent for negro work, 110 girls, 18, 67, 74 poultry, 67, 103 Velvet beans, 25, 39 Silo demonstrations, 26 Vinson, Sarah L., resignation, 13 Samuel Skipper, winner banker scholarship, 52 Warren, Alfred, extracts from annual Small grain demonstrations, 24 report, 32 Spencer, A. P., report of district Watermelons, aphis control, 105-109 agent, 33 stem-end decay, 105-109 Staff, changes in, 13 Webster, Agnes I., report of district extension division, 4 agent, 76 State agent, report of, 20 Weevil eradication, corn, 22, 35, 38 Statement of finances, 11 Women's work, 65, 66, 72