Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1919
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text







Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agriculturly >/.
Extension and United States Departmentof Agriculture Cooperating 24
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1919
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1919








Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director




REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1919
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1919


MARCH, 1920





I p ' . TF'



4 LT=6 #~siTL0OAMNO OR9 CONRO . I .G.

2< ChatonT . . . . . . 4
F ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ f.a OOXMF F~4DO OTO~.0
.
O r eato tj . . . 17

F~oop ra N' . . .,. . . . 22.,. 1
eneral Activities . - . . - . . . 28' DVemonstrations . . . . 29~
d- Ezn's Fnoa CoAt wt- KENTs? ANNUAL4~ Rs. 7 3.1
AEPiOAT OF Dw mTiAoms7, CUNTSAL AND SOTL. -m. .1 40
EPiiQT F_ Dtsmwri AGENTj NORTH AND WE3ST .r .j 45
EUPOT,0FWBRIT Aguwr1 SOTH .,' .4
sAREPORT OF Boys .tU XUt. . .53.
. .t. . .54.
Su a Cane C lub_ . . . .U.,. .6
.,"D iry Calf Club _ . ., F . . . . 54
9'FBeef Ga1f Cdbs 4. ~ . 5
.- Bqys Atte~ding".Short Course at University . . . 8 .0, REZPORT OF, ASSISTANT Sorps' CLUB AGENT. . . . 63
E ,nro~wn fDt in '1919 .*. 84 County Contests . .-.-. .865 Sunvnary' of Corn 'Club Reports,. . . . 65
REPORT OF STATE HKom DSMoflTkATIoNA N V.F., .6
Agents and. Sqnipflent . . I . .6
Results of Club"work. - . . F--------- ---. . . .-. 71
ir ~adGtss . . 77.
-a' and -P .rt. . .,. . -. . .--- 787
RtEPRoT or LIg~ISTi'O i"~~~ ' F. :AuaT, N4oRuuHpw WEET . 80
Aimis of Work. -- --.h.,. . . . SQ
W. -. . . . . F_8
S 8tate Meetings an ar . . . . .~ 8'?:
REPORT" 'Or DISTRICT H~ia DEUmON~STRnrION AGENT, EST1 AND SOUTH-.-.83L Recreationv Caps . . . . 89 FTeaching, 1004 d.:Values aind CQicw ------- .I . . .90
F Strqzjthexii'Pg C16b Qrgnitati!on_._ .9
H~' igh Reqord I the.Distrxct r.-. . . . 93
U'tdR OF r6M D' 1qYtres tt W0-k._rr . . . . .~ 4.F.9
ures of 'Wbrk_ . . . . . . . . . .9 . .-.
'Rsut .ST~rOu~ R . -.-------09
-REP~OT o+n 'F PO L R "O , . 100
Fv g n~ to .9 . . -. 4. . .
Cooperation from Poufltr~r Beders -- "' .01'. .ll
FF Cooperati'ie Egg. Circles . . . .104
,RPORT OF Ifls';waC AGENT)FoR NEGRO WOK. . . .
REPORT ovjlxThsN POULR HUSBANDMAN. .
F RT t or 'B w ~ CATTLE SPE ILST---- . 1 '
RE ORTw FORAGE CROP, SPECIALIST~----.- .19
Wonlt lI the' Field. - . . r '--.---119 F
Office' W ork._4 .'-t . . . -- -- -. .- . 2
REPORT OFTH ETNSION,'PAT PATHOLOGtIt . 120
flrwL-orrtAxflPATHQLO ISTS ' WATSSEWEN Wos ._--- 121
E. . . . . 124,
ms CONT. . . . .





71
















FIG. L-This photograph was made in front of the Administration Building, University of Florida, Gainesville. It shows the Board of Control, President of the University, Dean and Faculty of the College of Agriculture, State, District and County Agents, Cooperative Extension Work, Plant Commissioner and members of his staff, and the Experiment Station staff. Dr. Conradi, President, Florida State College for Women; Dr. A. C. True, Director States Relations Service, Washington, D. C.; Dr. F. M. Bomberger, Assistant Director of Extension Work, Maryland State College of Agriculture; and State Health Off icer Greene are also shown in the -photograph.





















Hon. Sidney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1919, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1919.
Respectfully, J. B. HODGES, Chairman of the Board of Control.







4 Florida Cooperative Extension

BOARD OF CONTROL J. B. HODGES, Chairman, Lake City Fla. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla. J. B. SUTTON, Tampa, Fla. H. B. MINIUM, Jacksonville, Fla. W. W. FLOURNOY, DeFuniak Springs, Fla.
BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief. H. E. SAvELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.

STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. P. H. ROLFS, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director.

COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, District Agent for South Florida. E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida (resigned Sept. 15). H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent for West Florida. G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent. AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent, East and South Florida. LucY C. CUSHMAN, District Agent, North and West Florida. MAY MORSE, Assistant District Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant District Agent.

SPECIALISTS
A. H. LOGAN,a Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational
and Demonstrational Work.
JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal Industralist. WM. H. BLACK,a Extension Animal Husbandman. N. W. SANBORN,a Extension Poultry Husbandman. J. 0. TRAXLER,*b Farm Help Specialist. FRAZIER ROGERS, Silo Specialist. W. N. ANKENEY,*C Extension Plant Pathologist. M. L. BENN,*c Extension Plant Pathologist. C. M. TUCKER,*C Extension Plant Pathologist. J. B. THOMPSON, Forage Crop Specialist. J. E. TURLINGTON, Agronomy Specialist.

a. Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. b. Cooperating with the Office of Farm Management, U. S. D. A. c. Cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.
*Resigned June 30, 1919.








Annual Report, 1919 5

LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. C. D. SHERHAKoFF, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. GRACE -C. GREENE, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, AUDITOR.
LENA R. HUNTER, Assistant Auditor. SARAH L. VINSON, Editor.
COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NAME ADDRESS
Alachua- ---- .C. D. Gunn-------.Gainesville
Bay------------------.G. E. Meade--------------.Panama City
Columbia--------------.H. A. McDonald-.----------.Lake City
Bradford--------------.J. 0. Traxier-------------.Starke
Brevard-----------------.--- K. E. Bragdon -------------.Cocoa
Citrus----------------. 3. Dorsett------------.Inverness
Dade-----------------. 5. Rainey---------------.Miami
De Soto---------------.3. M. Tiliman-------------.Arcadia
Duval----------------.W. L. Watson ----------------- .Jacksonville
Escambia-------------.3. L. Smith------------- .Pensacola
Hernando-------------.Jas. Mountain ------------------- Brooksville
Hillsboro----------- ---------H. T. Kelley--------------.Plant City
Holmes---------------3. 3. Sechrest-------------.Bonifay
Lee------------------3. . . M. Boring ---------------------- Ft. Myers
Leon -----------------------------R. I. Matthews-----_------------- Tallahassee
Liberty . ---------------- .A. W. Turner--.----------- Bristol
Madison ---------------- .C. E. Matthews-----------.Madison
Manatee WHBig------------------------W .Big .Bradentown
Marion W esm------------------------W A.S so s.Ocala
Okaloosa---.--------- --_H. 3. Hart.--------_----------- Laurel Hill
Orange ------------------------ C. D. Kime-.--------.Orlando
Osceola._----------------- R. T. Weaver-------------.Kissimmee
Palm Beach -------------H. . A. Conkling.------------.West Palm Beach
Pasco ----------------------F. G. Merrin--------------.Dade City
Polk-----.--- _ ----------Win. Gomme.---------------- Bartow
Putnam ----------------- ------------ --------------_--- ----__------Palatka
St. Johns ---------------------- K. W. Lord-.----------.St. Augustine
St. Lucie-----------_----- ----A. Warren-.--.---------.Ft. Pierce
Santa Rosa ----------------R. T. Oglesby ------------------ Milton
Seminole ---------------------- C. M. Berry----------------------- Sanford
Suwannee.---------------_-D. A. Armstrong --------------_Live Oak
Taylor .L. R. Moore--------------.Perry
Volusia .W. E. Dunaway-----. .:------De Land
Walton _---------_.-------3J. W. Mathison ---------------DeFuniak Springs
COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY NAME: ADDRESS
Citrus --------_-___----Mrs. B. E. Buchanan. . Inverness
Alachua ------_- _---------- Miss Irene Randall ------------Gainesville
Alachua (Assistant)-------Mrs. Susie Sapp Croftcn-.Gainesville Bradford.-*-.-.-.Mrs. Flora Clower Scott-.Starke
Broward--------------.Mrs. Adrienne Peay--------.Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun----------------------- Mrs. Grace F. Warren------.Blountstowa
Dade-----------------.Miss Lal Cunningham------.Miami
Dade (Assistant)--------.Mrs. Nellie A. Bush.--------.Goulds
De Soto------.--------- Miss Connie DeVane-------.Arcadia
Duval----------------.Miss Clarine Hoyt ---------.Jacksonville
1641 Deliwood Ave.








6 Florida Cooperative Extension

Escambia-------------.Miss Margaret Cobb-------.Pensacola
Gadsden--------------.Miss Ruby MeDavid--------.Hinson
Hernando-------------.Mrs. Estelle Colvertson-.Brooksville
Hillsboro--------------.Miss Edith Cole Young-.Tampa (City Hall)
Hillsboro (Assistant)-.Mrs. Maude McRae--------.Plant City
Jefferson---.-------------- Miss Posey Taylor---------.Lloyd
Lee------------------. .Miss Margaret Burleigh-.Ft. Myers
Leon --------------------------_Mrs. Mary S. Russell-------.Tallahassee
Madison--------------.Miss Edna Smith----------.Madison
Manatee--------------.Mrs. Ivie Turnbull---------.Bradentown
Okaloosa--------------.Miss Harriette Hawthorne-.Crestview
Orange---------------.Mrs. Nellie Taylor---------.Orlando,
Osceola---------------.Miss Albina Smith---------.Kissimmee
Palm Beach------------.Miss Elizabeth Hopkins-.West Palm Beach
Pasco ---------------------Mrs. H. A. Tichnore--------.Dade City
Pinellas---------------.Miss Hazel Carter---------.Largo
Polk-----------------.Miss Lois Godbey----------.__Bartow
Putnam---------------.Miss Floresa Sipprell-------. .Palatka
St. Johns_-------------------Miss Anna E. Heist -----------St. Augustine
St. Lucie--------------.Miss -Lula Chriesman-------.Ft. Pierce
Santa Rosa------------.Miss Winnie Warren-------.Milton
Suwannee-------------.Miss Alice florsett---------.Branford
Taylor----------------.Mrs. Brant Mills----------.Perry










Report of General Activities for 1919 with.,
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
Ending June 30, 1919



Hon. J. B. Hodges,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, and the report of the activities of the Extension Division for the calendar year 1919. I respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. ROLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
Just before the beginning of the present calendar year, we reached the end of the great world war which, for two years, held our undivided interest. Every effort was put forth by the Extension workers to increase and conserve food products of all kinds. While this has always been an important part of county and home demonstration work, the effort was stimulated to a greater degree by the pressing conditions apparent to everyone. It could not be expected that Florida could contribute to any large extent in supplying food products to those outside the state, but the effort was made to have each farm and each community selfsustaining, as far as it was practical to do so.
Remarkable progress in agriculture was made during this period. The state of Florida made advances in livestock production, particularly hogs, that excelled in percentage practically every other state in the country. Food products of all kinds were materially increased, in spite of the fact that Florida sent her full quota of laborers to the war, and to war activities.
Around the county and home demonstration Agents' offices






Florida Cooperative Extension


were centered a number of volunteer workers who lent their best efforts in this direction. The Agents, realizing the need for assistance, called for help from leading citizens of every community, and, after placing the program for greater food production before them, helped them to organize into units of workers for the one purpose of increasing and conserving the agricultural production of this state. The part that the county and home demonstration agents played, and the response of the farmers, especially the farm women, in the call for food products, has taught some lessons in production, conservation and thrift that will be effective long after many thrilling features of the war have been almost forgotten.
During this period, when there was the greatest amount of unrest thruout the nation, the farm labor more difficult to secure and more expensive than ever before, and with all phases of agricultural and commercial disturbance, the state of Florida has made more progress in agricultural development than during any ten years of its previous history.

ORGANIZATION
The Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics is directed from the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, with headquarters on the University campus. The home demonstration work has offices at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, and the farm and home-makers' clubs at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee.
The budget system is used to govern the working plans, which budget is approved by the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture, before going into effect.
The work was conducted under ten projects during the past year ' the principal ones being that of the county co-operative and home demonstration agents. The work in each county centered around these two offices, and all other project leaders carried out their work in the counties, using the offices of the local agents as the centers.
The purpose in view is to improve the rural conditions in Flor-, ida, by working with farms and farm homes. The instruction given corresponds with the instruction given from the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and the home economics department of the State College for Women. The project leaders are kept in close touch with the various activities of these colleges,






Annual Report, 1919


so that the work will be conducted with a common purpose in view.
The county agents arrange for public meetings, and speakers are provided by the state institutions. Thru co-operation between the State College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture, the various Bureaus, Departments, and the State agencies are harmonized so that each county can secure benefit from such bureaus as are working on problems that affect the state of Florida.
The county agents are under the direction of the state agent and district agent.
The boys' club work is under the direction of the state club agent and his assistant. The clubs are organized by the County Agents, with the assistance of the School Boards, County Superintendents, Fair Associations and other organized efforts that are intended to promote agriculture.
The home demonstration agents have headquarters at the State College for Women, the work being supervised by the State and district agents with the assistance of the specialists working on home dairying and poultry.
The county home demonstration agents organize clubs of women and girls to study home economics problems, and all home demonstration work in the counties is directed thru these agents.
The farm and home makers' clubs for negroes have headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for negroes, Tallahassee. This work is under the general direction of a local district agent in farm makers' clubs. Assistant club agents are employed for a portion of the year to give assistance to the rural colored population, encourage thrift and improve rural conditions in general.
The specialists devote all their attention to a particular line of work. They, too, reach the farmers thru the county agents, and assist in all problems related to their special work.
The Extension workers consult the workers in the Experiment Station, and when the Experiment Station workers visit the counties they are privileged to visit the office of the county and home demonstration agent and secure all assistance that can be given them.
The county and home demonstration agents have headquarters in a central place in the county, usually in the county seat. The office equipment and all laboratory equipment needed is also provided for from the county funds. As the county and the home demonstration agents' problems are very closely con-






Florida Cooperative Extension


netted, they usually have the same office and assist each other in the arrangement of meetings and conducting any work that applies to both the farm and home.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
The entire staff of the Agricultural Extension work meets regularly on the third Monday of each month for a conference regarding the problems affecting the program of the work as a whole. The wide scope of the Extension work requires that everyone should be sufficiently informed on all the other problems so that there will be the closest co-operation.
These conferences develop discussions of matters as they occur in the counties. When special problems present themselves, affecting individual counties, county agents are invited to present the matter as it occurs from the county agents' standpoint.
The dairy, poultry and home garden work affect the women and men's work alike. Club contests for boys and girls frequently have a joint program where outsiders are invited to take part in the program. In order to correlate in the arrangement of these, it is necessary to have a harmonious plan worked out, go that there will be no loss of time or effort. In fact, the work of the county and the home demonstration agents and specialists is so closely associated that the better the plans for aH these operations are understood the greater will be the co-operation thru the entire system.
In shifting the work from the war program necessarily many modifications have taken place which required adjustment.
Representatives from the Plant Board and the General Ex-tension work and other departments of the University are invited to these conferences to discuss any particular problem they may wish to bring before the county and home demonstration agents.
EXTENSION FUNDS
During the last year of the war there was appropriated to the United States Department of Agriculture $4,500,000 to be used to stimulate production and conserve food products. Of this amount, the state of Florida received approximately $70,000.
The money was expended for the employment of emergency county and home demonstration agents in counties where there was no regular agent; for salaries of assistant county and home demonstration agents, city and urban agents; for salaries of specialists in the control of livestock diseases, plant diseases and








Annual Report, 1919


insect pests, construction of sweet potato 'storage houses, harvesting and storing sweet potatoes and peanuts, preservation of perishable food stuffs, combating insects of stored grains,
animal production, and a f ' arm labor specialist, and for the employment of the additional clerical and office force necessary to handle this increased amount of work.
At the close of the fiscal year, this emergency appropriation
was discontinued, leaving a large organization that had been built up during the war but with funds only sufficient to continue as
under pre-war conditions. This reduced the number of counties with county and home demonstration agents from 52 to 37, with
a corresponding reduction in the number of specialists and supervising agents.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Following is the financial statement for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1919:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever Federal ---------------------------------------------------- $32,704.31
Sm ith-Lever State . 22,704.31 U. S. D. A. Appropriation . . 23,000.00 State Appropriation -----_----- . . . 13,215.37
County Appropriation . 67,106.85 $158,730.84
EXPENDITURES
Administration Project . $13,466.72
Printing and Publications Project . 2,779.43 County Agents' Project . 76,165.44 Home Demonstration Project . . 53,811.07 Boys' Club Work Project . ---------------------- 6,805.02
A nim al Industry . 1,452.08 Negro Farm and Home Makers' Project . 3,101.33
Hog Cholera Educational ---------------------------- --------------------- - 480.00
Plant Pathology . 411.88 Silo Construction . 257.87 $158,730.84
PUBLICATIONS
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
13. H og Cholera . . 20,380 14. Sugar Cane -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20,436
15. Cotton . . ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------ 15,400
16. Boys' Agricultural Clubs _-_----------- ; . ------------ 20,600
17. Hog Pastures and Feeds ------------------------------------------------------ ---- 7,500
18. A Spray Schedule for Citrus . . . 12,229 19. Farm and Home Makers' Clubs . . 5,000 20. Self-Feeder for Pork Production -------------------------------------------------------- 20,590
Circulars Title Edition
6. Farm Labor ----------- ------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10,000
7. Club Work in Taylor County ----- . 6,000 Poster Title Edition
5. H ave You a Cow -------------- -------_--------- . . 2,000
191 ' 9 Campaign for Food, Feed and Forage --------------------------------- _--------- 5,000
A nnual Report . ---------- 4,000
Agricultural News Service, 52 weeks, 425 copies each week.






Florida Cooperative Extension


I CHANGES IN STAFF
On January 1, 1919, William Gomme was appointed district agent for South Florida in co-operative demonstration work. He resigned June 30, 1919, and was appointed county agent in Polk county.
R. W. Blacklock, emergency assistant club agent, resigned July 31, 1919, and was appointed county agent in DeSoto county. On September 15, 1919, he was reappointed assistant club agent. L. R. Highfill, assistant club agent, resigned September 15, 1919.
At the close of the college year, Frazier Rogers and J. E. Turlington of the College of Agriculture were appointed as silo and agronomy specialists. On June 30, 1919, both positions were discontinued for lack of funds to continue them thru the year.
John M. Scott, animal industrialist of the Experiment Station, was appointed animal industrialist of the Extension Division.
A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, was assigned to the duties of district agent in eight South Florida counties, in addition to the regular duties at headquarters.
W. N. Ankeney was appointed extension plant pathologist, beginning his duties March 1, 1919. The work was discontinued June 30, 1919.
M. L. Benn and C. M. Tucker were appointed extension plant pathologists to work principally on watermelon -diseases. Their work began April 4, 1919, and continued to June 30.
J. 0. Trailer, farm help specialist, resigned June 30, 1919. As Mr. Trailer was employed on war emergency work, the position was discontinued June 30.
Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, state home demonstration agent, resigned June 1, 1919, to engage in Smith-Hughes work in Texas. The position was filled by the appointment of Miss Sarah W. Partridge, district agent, South Florida.
On July 1, 1919, Miss Harriet W. Layton, district agent for North and West Florida, was appointed assistant state home. demonstration agent.
Miss Lonnie Landrum, assistant district agent, was appointed district agent for West Florida, but resigned' September 1 to pursue graduate studies in Columbia University, and was succeeded by Miss Lucy C. Cushman, emergency city worker from Miami.
Miss Sara D. Griffin was appointed assistant district agent,






Annual Report, 1919


home demonstration work, for middle Florida, October 1, 1918. She resigned June 30, 1919.

PLAN OF WORK
The projects by which the funds are expended and the work conducted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, are as follows: PROJECT I-A-ADMINISTRATION
This provides for the offices of the Director, Vice-Director, salaries of clerical help and other executive expenditures that cannot be properly charged to any particular project.
PROJECT I-B-PUBLICATIONS
This provides for the expense of publication and distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly agricultural news service and annual reports. Only 5% of the Smith-Lever funds can be used in this project.
PROJECT 11-COUNTY AGENTS
This provides for the maintenance of county agents' supplies and incidentals of those directly in charge of the county agent work. Wherever a county agent is employed, the county must provide additional funds to apply on the salary, traveling expenses or the equipment of his office.
PROJECT III-BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUBS
(Principally Corn, Pig, Calf and Peanut Clubs)
This work is intended to give instruction to boys between the I ages of 12 and 18. The clubs are organized by the county agents,
with the assistance of the boys' club agents, so that Projects II and III are closely allied. In order to make these clubs effective, the support of school officials, business interests and other organizations directly interested in -the common good of the community are solicited.
PROJECT IV-HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
This work is conducted principally in the rural districts under two divisions, one giving particular attention to girls clubs and the other to women's clubs. The general purpose is to give instruction in domestic science and art, the principle of home making as applied to rural life, and to carry this work just as far in the. communities as conditions will permit. The co-operation of women's clubs and all agencies looking for the betterment of the rural home are sought.






Florida Cooperative Extension


PROJECT V-BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION WORK
This project works toward the improvement of the beef cattle industry of the state, to arrange for the distribution of breeding cattle to those in a position to handle them; to encourage the importation of suitable animals from outside the state, and io lend every encouragement to securing a better beef industry. This project is conducted according to the joint agreement between the Extension division and the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture.
PROJECT VI-FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The work of this project is intended to improve the rural conditions among the farms and homes of the negro farmers in the state. They are encouraged to produce larger yields from their crops; are instructed in the care and management of livestock, truck and fruit crops. The boys and girls are organized into corn, pig, and peanut clubs.
The girls and women are organized into canning and home makers' clubs and are taught the principles of economy and thrift, production and conservation. Assistant agents are provided in counties, and are supervised by a district leader. PROJECT VII-EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK This is conducted co-operatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and co-ordinating with the hog cholera control work of the Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. The agent in charge spends his entire time in the counties assisting county agents in handling the diseases of hogs, and lending the necessary encouragement in this direction for the betterment of the hog industry.
The proper use of hog cholera serum and virus is taught, and demonstrated with an idea of preventing the spread of hog, diseases or holding contagious diseases in control following an outbreak of cholera. In the past year, the agent has devoted his energies to performing local organizations, looking to more sanitary conditions of all livestock, particularly hogs.
PROJECT VIII-POULTRY HUSBANDRY
This project provides for general educational work to improve the poultry of the state. - The representative is primarily interested in the improvement of the farm flock and works with that end in view, with county and home demonstration agents. Dur-






Annual Report, 1919'


ing the fiscal year ending June 30, this work was in co-operation with the Poultry Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
PROJECT IX-PLANT PATHOLOGY
By a co-operative agreement with the Bureau of Animal Industry, a plant pathologist was secured, principally to assist county agents in giving help to farmers and truckers wherever diseases of plants occurred.
PROJECT X-SILO CONSTRUCTION
The silo specialist assists in making estimates, and plans for the erection of suitable silos, preventing as far as possible a * ny mistakes that might be made, and advises the crops best suited for silage.
Other specialists not assigned to a project and paid for by the U. S. Department of Agriculture were engaged with such problems as farm labor, watermelon disease and insect control, harvesting and storing peanuts and construction of sweet potato storage houses. For the most part, this work was provided for from special funds appropriated to stimulate production and conservation as a war measure.
COMPLETION OF WAR PROGRAM
For the first six months of the calendar year just closed, all Extension workers were absorbed very largely with winding up the program prepared for the war period. The appropriations by Congress were applicable until June 30, which provided for Emergency county and home demonstration agents, assistant club agents and city and urban workers. In several counties only emergency agents were at work, and most of these for only four days a week. I
Specialists were also winding up the war program, and assisting county agents in their regular and emergency work. On account of the irregularity and emergency nature of the work, it is difficult to compile a report that would give a fair conception of what was accomplished. It should be stated that these agents gave every help possible in securing the acreage to be planted to staple crops that had been estimated by the Federal Government to be necessary for the maintenance of thd nation and to supply other states that would need large amounts of food stuffs from this part ofthe country to carry them over until they could produce these supplies at home.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The unsettled conditions of labor and the increasing prices made the labor situation even more difficult than during the actual period of war. The Farm Labor specialist continued his work with the same vigor and energy.and assisted in adjusting labor conditions particularly in the intensive trucking sections, in the packing houses, and for clearing new lands or where there was a need of labor for an indefinite period. During that period, many soldiers were returning to civil life and thru the Labor Specialist many were placed in positions of various kinds, particularly in the truck growing and citrus areas.
It seemed especially necessary to have the emergency city workers continue during this period because the regulations that were laid down by the United States Food Administration were gradually suspended. The city and urban home demonstration agents carried out practically the same kind of work as during the war period, that is, to conserve food stuffs, particularly those of which there was an apparent shortage.
The stimulus in livestock production was just beginning to show a decided tendency to increase, particularly with hogs. During the war period, the farmers had improved their hogs as never before in the history of the country. Many had overstocked with high priced animals and were not accustomed to selling these at breeders' prices, nor were they familiar with pedigrees and blood lines, and the Animal Husbandry Specialists employed on emergency funds were able to reach many of these livestock people and help them thru the critical period. This was also true of poultry and dairy cattle. Where funds were sufficient, many of the Emergency workers were retained on the regular staff after June 30.
In order that there would be a definite increase in certain crops, and to avoid over production in others, an estimate was made of increases that Florida should make, and the Three-F Drive, between January 20 and February 4, 1919, was made with this end in view. This was held at the request of the United States Department of Agriculture, acting on the recommendation of the United States Food Administration. The following recommen,dations were made to the farmers of Florida:
That the corn acreage of 1,070,000 be increased 15%.
-The peanut acreage of 510,000 be increased 257o. , The sugar cane acreage of 16,300 be increased 257o.
The sweet potato acreage of 38,000 be increased 257o.
The forage crop acreage of 258,000 be increased 157o.






Annual. Report,.191p


Meat hogs, consisting of 1,333,000 should be increased 16%.
Dairy cattle, consisting of 145,000 should be increased 25%.
Beef cattle, consisting of 865,000, should be increased 1517o.
Poultry, consisting of 1,750,000 should be increased 33 113,17o.
Also, that there should -be an increase in home gardens, particularly on farms. The number of farms in Florida is, approximately, 70,000.
THE THREE-F DRIVE
The state of Florida was divided into districts of four or five counties, and some member of the Extension forces assigned to each as leader. The county and home demonstration agents arranged for the meeting places, and the Extension Division provided the principal speakers. For each meeting local speakers were secured wherever possible.
Between January 25 and February 4, 162 meetings were conducted in Florida, the total attendance being upw ards of 10,000 people. Two and three meetings were held every day during that period, and the total number of addresses made was 553. In carrying out the program, the co-operation of all state and local organizations was secured, so that it was possible to have at least two speakers at every meeting. This drive consumed the time of.every Extension worker during that period.

STATE MEETINGS
CITRUS SEMINAR, LIVESTOCK ROUNDUP
The Tenth Annual Citrus Seminar and the Fourth Annual Livestock Roundup were held on the University campus October 14-17, inclusive. It was desirable to combine the program for these meetings, as many farmers and growers are interested in both, also because. it made it possible to provide speakers of national reputation for this occasion. While the programs were planned to benefit those directly interested in citrus and livestock, subjects related to these and of equal importance were presented. When general subjects were discussed, the programs were, COM7 bined, but otherwise they were held in separate halls, and the visitors given the privilege of selecting the program they preferred.
For the benefit of citrus growers, the program dealt with the f following subjects: Fertilizer experiments with citrus trees, fertilizer experiments with potatoes; irrigation; spraying nursery and citrus trees; marketing citrus fruits; co-operation between






Florida Cooperative Extension


citrus growers and county agents; utilization of tractors on the farm and grove; decay of citrus fruits and vegetables in transit; the value of parasites for the control of insects and diseases in the citrus grove, and f rost protection in the grove.
Other subjects of interest to growers which were discussed were: Sugar Cane and Diseases; Bee Culture in the Grove; the Work of the Federal Horticultural Board and the State Plant Board.
The subjects taken up in connection with the Livestock Roundup were: Beef Production; Livestock Markets; The Texas Cattle Tick and Its Control; Forage Crops; Breeds of Beef Cattle; Utilization of Silage; The Relation of Bovine Tuberculosis to the Human Family; Breeds of Hogs; Care and Management of Hogs; Velvet Beans for Brood Sows; Hog Sanitation; Care and Management of Dairy Cattle; Feeding for Milk Production; A Discussion of Breeds of Dairy Cattle; Principles of Livestock Breeding; and Poultry Production, Management of the Farm Flock.
Some time was given each day for field instruction, judging hogs and judging dairy and beef cattle.
By arrangement with the manufacturers of farm tractors, a number of the tractor companies placed their machines on display on the University campus, and in the afternoons gave demonstrations of their machines at work. A similar arrangement was made to provide spraying machinery, giving growers an opportunity to see them in operation.
A milking machine was also shown, and was operated for the benefit of the visitors. In all, thirty firms placed machinery on display and in operation, each sending its representative.
Members of the Staff of the Experiment Station, the Florida Agricultural College, the Extension Division of the Agricultural College, and the Plant Board appeared on the program. Also representatives from the Bureau of Plant. Industry, Bureau of Public Roads, States Relation Service, the Horticultural Board, and the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture were on the program, as well as the State Commissioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee, and the State Commissioner of Markets, Jacksonville.
Other speakers from outside of the state were representatives of the Duroe-Jersey Breeders' Association; Berkshire Breeders' Association; Poland-China Breeders' Association; Jersey, Guernsey, and Holstein Breeders' Associations; Hereford, AberdeenAngus and Short- , Horn Breeders' Associations.







Annual Report, 1919


Dr. E. V. McCollum, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, delivered an able address; subject, "What Constitutes An Ideal Diet."
Other features of the meetings were an Auction Sale of purebred Holstein, Jersey and Guernsey calves, also of a private herd of Aberdeen-Angus cattle.

COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL MEETING
The annual meeting of county agents was held at the University of Florida, October 10 to 17. From the 10th to the 14th the agents were in executive session, discussing principally matters that had direct bearing on the work of each county, in conference with the Director, State, District and Club agents. During the remaining days the agents attended the Citrus Seminar and Live Stock Roundup.
Each year the policies of the work are discussed at this meeting and plans arranged for the coming year.
The program consisted of lectures and laboratory exercises under the direction of the staff of the College of Agriculture, the Florida Experiment Station and the supervising agents in Extension work.
Speakers from outside of the University were Dr. Bradford Knapp, Chief, and H. E. Safely, Meld Agent, Washington, D. C.; F. M. Bomberger, assistant director of extension service, Maryland Agricultural College, who delivered three lectures on County Organization; L. M. Rhodes, state commissioner of markets; Dr. Ralph N. Greene, state health officer; and H. B. Minimum, state board of control.


FIG. 2-Offices of St. Lucie County and Home Demonstration Agents






Florida Cooperative Extension


HOME DEMONSTRATION MEETINGS
The eighth annual conference of the state home demonstration agents was held at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, September 1 to 15. This meeting was planned to give instructions and make plans for home demonstration problems as they apply to the different counties.
Those appearing on the programs were members of the extension staff, faculty members of the State College for Women, State Health Officer, and specialists on agricultural and home economics problems.
Provision was made on the campus of the State College for Women for accommodations during the period of the meeting.
A Girls' Short Course was held from April 1 to 12, at the State College for Women. Those attending came up from the various counties. Their expenses were paid from some local sources. When arriving on the campus, they were taken over by Y. W. C. A. college girls. The girls were taken into the class rooms and laboratories and instructed in the principles of nutrition, home sanitation, gardening, poultry, dairying, etc.
A meeting of the agents from the counties in which the muscadine grape club work is being developed was held in August. Mr. Chas. P. Dearing, special ist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., was present and gave instructions in the making of the products from t he muscadine grapes. They spent one week at Tallahassee,' working in the laboratory under Mr. DearIng's instruction.
CLUB BOYS' SHORT COURSE
The fourth annual short course for the club members of the s tate was held on the University campus the first week in December. One hundred and one boys from twenty-six counties attended. The program provided for practical lectures to the boys by the instructors in the College of Agriculture, and the Extensilon staff. They. received instruction in handling livestock, ftowing of forage crops, judging hogs, dairy and beef cattle.
The expenses in sending these boys to the University were V provided for by County Commissioners and school boards, railroads, boards &'f trade and individual. s. The short course was Onder the directions of the boys' club agent and his assistants. Suwannee county sent 19 boys, which was the largest number fromn anyone cbunty.' Hillsboro came Isecond Iwith 14.






I Annual: RepQrt, 1919.


GROUP MEETINGS
Between March 24 and April 2, county agents were assembled in groups, accompanied by the state, district and'e'lub agents, and
-specialists.
The purpose of these meetings is to meet in conference for the welfare of the work as a whole, and to come in contact with successful farmers and livestock men.
These meetings were held in the counties of Escambia, Leon, St. Johns, Putnam, Bradford and Polk.
Thru courtesy of the citizens, Boards of Trade and other organizations, conveyances were provided to conduct the agents to the various farms in the county.
The plans for conducting the meetings in each county were handled by the county agent.

ANNUAL NEGRO AGENTS' MEETING
As the office for the local district agent in negro work is at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee, the Annual Meeting of the men and women county workers was held at that'Institution in January, 1919.
These workers were assembled for instruction so that there would be a definite program of work for each county. As this included. both men and women, the Extension staff from the University of Florida College of Agriculture and the State College for Women assisted with the program.
The instructors from several departments of -the Institution also assisted in caring for the agents and with the program. '






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respectfully,
C. K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.

The beginning of the year found the work under the strained conditions brought on by the war, when it was necessary to make every effort to increase the production of crops of all kinds, especially food, feed and forage. The opening of this year found us with all preparations made for a drive for increased production of these crops covering the entire State at one time. This drive we called the 3-F Drive, which meant increased production of food, feed and forage crops. It was pulled off January 20 to February 4, inclusive.
Drives of other kinds have also been held during the year, such as special meetings for the control and destruction of the corn weevil and other insect pests., One of the most significant drives in livestock work was conducted in several of the counties, with the aim of getting the swine industry on a more profitable plane by preparing hogs for an early market so as to avoid marketing in the fall, when the usual slump in prices takes place.
The usual number of Ag6nts' meetings have been held during the year. Group meetings were held in Escambia, Leon, St. Johns, Putnam, Bradford and Polk Counties, from March 24 to April 2, at which time a small number of the county agents, district agents, state agent and others discussed the difficult problems that confront the agents and farmers.
The Annual Conference and School of the Agents was held at Gainesville from October 10 to 17. The meet ing this year was somewhat different from any previously held, in that the executive meetings for the Agents were held the first three days of this period, and then merged into the Livestock Roundup and Citrus Seminar. Among the prominent speakers were Dr. Bradford Knapp, Chief Cooperative Demonstration Work in the South, Washington, D. C.; F. M. Bomberger, Assistant Director, Maryland Extension Service; H. E. Safely, Agricultural and Field Agent, Washington, D. C.; Jesse M. Jones, Agricultural and Industrial Agent, S. A. L. Railway.






Annual Report, 1919


At the beginning of the year there was a larger number of agents in the field than usual, owing to the availability of the emergency fund, specially appropriated by Congress for increased crop production. Nine of the counties had agents working on the emergency fund for four days a week. Twelve counties had assistant agents appointed under the emergency fund. These were mostly young men with agricultural training, and the majority proved to be exceptionally well adapted to this work. A number of them have been appointed regular agents since serving as assistant agents. This emergency fund lapsing with June 30, caused a reduction in the number of counties in the work, and required some time to get the proper readjustments made.
Bankers, merchants and county commissioners have responded very satisfactorily to requests made upon them for assistance in conducting the work in the different counties. This is evidenced largely by the increased appropriations made; and also in a number of cases where the county commissioners were not disposed to make appropriations, the bankers and others met them by deputation and requested appropriation to be made.
SILOS
During the latter part of May and the month of June, six weeks in all, Prof. Frazier Rogers was in the field in the interest of silo construction. His work was principally of an educational nature, and surveying of the field in general. His visits extended as far west as Washington county and as far south as Lake. Prof. Rogers' reports show very great interest in this work among dairymen and cattle feeders in general. He supervised construction of a new concrete silo at Mt. Verde Industrial School, and several others in that district have expressed the desire to have him come back next year in time to take up the silo construction for the 1920 crop.
COOPERATION WITH SCHOOLS
Every year it is becoming more evident that the rural schools are our strongest allies. The increased interest in agriculture among school authorities is more apparent each year. Teachersare showing a willingness to cooperate, particularly in club and home demonstration work. During the year I visited 25 schools and talked to the pupils on agricultural subjects that applied most directly to the particular location and the size of the school. In the Hillsboro county rural schools I found a very great inter-






Flori& Coo6perative ExI~nsion


est in' agricultural work, which-can-be best explained by the good wbrk done 'in that county by the county and home demonstration, agents .
Other counties are showing equal interest. The school house as a community center has now become one of the most important factors in Extension work.

CROPS
A larger acreage of staple crops than usual was planted during 1919. However, the yields have not been as satisfactory as expected. This is principally caused by unfavorable weather conditions. The-winter of 1918-19 was unusually wet, rainy weather prevailing- well into the early spring, followed by a prolonged dry period during the growing season.
"The corn crop was short about one million bushels, and the sweet potato crop was reduced about ten bushels per acre. The yield of peanuts was seven bushels per acre less than for 1918.
'The hay crops show an increased yield over 1918, and those produced after cultivated crops were exceptionally good and the quality excellent.
IThe sugar cane crop, we believe, is the best on record. An increased acreage was planted, and the extremes in weather conditions did not seriously affect it. The high price obtained for sugar cane products have stimulated the farmers to increase this crop, and I believe next year will see a still further increase in acreage.
The shortage of sugar has stimulated a desire among a few farmers to make their own sugar. We have assisted in this matter by personal suggestions, and giving thru circulars, the best ,methods of making sugar at the time of syrup making.
The -small grain crops have been disappointing as to yield of grain. Only a small part. of them were threshed, but these gave a fair yield of plump grain. Each year a large acreage of these crops is used for hay purposes, most of the farmers finding this to be the best way of utilizing them.
The upland rice crop is yearly assuming increased importance among the farmers of the State. This year in the western section there was an increased acreage, with very satisfactory results. Rice blast has been reported from a few fields, but it has not proven serious. The general method of planting rice is by drilling. This year a few have tried broadcasting like other small grains, and reported very satisfactory results. A part of the rice






Annual Report, 191.9 ,-,


crop has been cut for hay in the dough stage, and with satisfactory results.
There seems to be a tendency among the farmers. in certain see.tions to eliminate the cotton crop entirely, with the idea that by not growing cotton for a year or two they may eliminate the boll .weevil. We do not believe that this can be done very satisfactorily, as the boll weevil migrates every fall, covering a very wid e area.
The average planted to peanuts was in some sections above, and in other sections below the average. The resul ts obtained have not been as satisfactory as desired. The peanut crop in the cotton sections has taken the place of cotton to a very large degree,'and the farmers report more satisfactory results from peanut than from cotton, all things being considered, even at the present high price of cotton.
The peanut oil mills have been unable to secure nuts at a price to justify crushing, for the reason that there is a great demand for peanuts for confectionery purposes. Prices have ruled high, and the prospects are for an increased acreage in all peanut sections. County agents are urging selection and better methods of handling seed, with the hope of increasing the yield and quality of the crop.
FARM MACHINERY
The scarcity and high cost of farm labor has compelled many farmers to purchase more farm machinery, with the result that there is a very large increase in the new farm implements in every farming section.
The farm tractor is gradually replacing the horse and mule power, especially on the larger farms. Several public tractor demonstrations have been made in different parts of the State, demonstrating these machines on various types of soil and for various farm operations. The demonstrations are usually well attended, with the result that quite a number of new tractors have been bought, principally for breaking purposes. There is an urgen t demand for a tractor suitable for cultivating purposes.
REMOVAL OF STUMPS
It is very gratifying to note the interest taken by farmers in clearing their fields of stumps. A large acreage has been cleared with stump pullers. Reports from those using dynamite indicate that blasting by dynamite is one of the most efficient and least expensive methods of getting rid of the stump.






Florida Cooperative Extension


ORGANIZATION
The work of the organization of communities and districts has been persistently conducted by county agents during the past year. Peculiar conditions in our State, however,,render organization work among farmers somewhat difficult. However, the value of effective organization was thoroughly impressed during the war period in carrying out the war program. The new organizations that have been coming into existence during the last few months are going to be of a more permanent nature than those during the war.
These organizations are intended to do similar work as that of the Farm Bureaus found in several other states having a more dense rural population.
Considerable progress has been made toward rural organization in a few counties. A card index of the organizations of these counties is kept in the office of the State Agent.
NEGRO WORK
The negro demonstration work is making steady and gradual progress. It is under the supervision of A. A. Turner. The work outlined for the county assistant has been carried out in a satisfactory manner, and we look forward to still more progress along this line. There was a total of 12 negro men and 18 negro women agents doing emergency work in the counties. The most serious problem in this work is the proper supervision. During this year weekly reports are approved by the county and home demonstiation agents before sending them to this office and the Washington office. This added supervision has been helpful in most cases and will be continued during the coming year. There is a wide field for negro work in the State, and our efforts are mainly directed to get as efficient service as possible.
FAIRS
It was my privilege to attend a number of the county fairs; also the state fair held at Jacksonville. It is gratifying to note a steady yearly improvement in the fairs, both in the numbr and quality of products. Notwithstanding an unfavorable corn season, the quality of corn exhibited at these fairs was above the average. It w ' as quite evident that the county exhibits at the state fair were better than ever before. Eighteen counties were represented, with the county agent in charge of the exhibit.






Annual Report, 1919


FIG. 3.-St. Lucie County exhibit, in charge of County Agent Warren, at the State Fair
LIVESTOCK
The progress made in livestock work has been very gratifying in every way. The agents have assisted farmers in selecting high bred sires and dams, dairy cattle and hogs. A large number of dairy cattle have also been brought into the State, and the dairying interest has been stimulated to a remarkable degree in quite a number of counties. A few young calves have been shipped into Florida with satisfactory results.
The livestock work by the county agent has received every assistance from the Experiment Station. Greater interest than ever is being taken in permanent pastures and feed crops.
J. B. Thompson, forage crop specialist, made several visits to farms with county agents, also gave valuable help to them during the agents' meeting.
CLUB WORK
The club work among the boys and girls has been stressed as one of the most important features of the agents' activities, and we are glad to report considerable progress along this line. G. L. Herrington, who is in charge of this work, gives a detailed report of the work in his annual report.







,28 Florida Cooperative Extension

-'THE OUTLOOK FOR THE COMING YEAR,

We are glad to note an increasing. interest in the 'work ye4r after year by those most directly -interested.- The farmers of the State seem to have an increa I s I ing realization of the benefits, they
derive from the county agents' presence in the counties, and are working in a cooperative capacity to a -larger degree than ever before. The counties that make only a small supplementary appropriation for the work cannot possibly get the type- of agent they should have, with the results expected., Therefore, the counties where the larger appropriations are made are able to get men with the qualifications that make the work very efficient.
Detailed tabulation of field activities follows.
The State Agent in the course of these activities traveled 1641 miles by rail, and 2060 by automobile and other conveyances.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Visits m ade by county agents ------- . - . -------------------------- . 36758
M iles traveled . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------_ 268425
Call on agents relative to work. . ------- ------------ --------_--- 32611
Farm ers' m eetings held. . . . 3026 M eetings addressed ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2014
Total attendance . _ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30737
Field m eetings held by agents . -------- 179 Total attendance at these meetings ----- __ -------------------------------- ---------- . 5168
Percentage of time spent in office work . - , 40 Percentage of time spent in field work ------------------------------------------- . 60
Official letters w ritten ------------ . -------------------- 26065
Articles prepared for publication. . 1615 Circular letters issued ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1788
U . S. D. A. bulletins distributed -------------------------------------------------------------------- - 32209
Bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed.--. ------ - . --------- 8158
V isits to schools . . _ . 706 Schools assisted in outlining agricultural course ---------------- --------_------------ 31
Short courses assisted in . . 8 T otal attendance ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ * --------- 54
Farmers' clubs agents have assisted in organizing -------------------------------------- 82
MISCELLANEOUS
Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts. 85
Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result of
club w ork ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 99
Times visited by specialists from College or the Department . 542 Demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits ------------ 529
Prizes w on -------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------- ---------------------- 281
Demonstrations in truck or small fruit . 333 Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance -------- ___ . 276 Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work . 3806
FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS
B uildings erected . 122 Farm buildings im proved . . 215 New building plans furnished . ----------------------------- ---------- . 38
Farm buildings painted or whitewashed . . . 99 Home water systems installed or improved . . 58 Water systems in State before demonstration work started.- ------------------- 347







. AnAual Report, 1919 29

Number in the State now . . 427
H ome lighting systems installed ---------------- -------- . 42?
Lighting systems in the State before demonstration work started . 168
H om e grounds improved . . - .- . 79
Farm and hom e sanitary conditions improved ------ - . -------- - 150
H omes screened against flies and mosquitoes . . -- . 151
Sanitary privies erected . --.- . . . . . 11. 65
Telephone system s installed. ----------------------------- ------------------- . . 314
Farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation ----------- --- - ---------------------- 149
Total acreage . - . . - . - 5585
New pastures established . ------------- -- . . . 206
Old pastures renovated ------------ ----------- -- --------- . . 39
Acreage comprised . --------------------- --- . --------- 611
Drainage systems established . . . 22
Farm ers induced to drain their lands -------------- ------------------------------- ------------- 705
Total acreage drained:
By tile -------- . . . 160
By ditch . . . . . 5051
Farmers who removed stumps . . -------------------- 385
total acreage stumped . . . --- - ---------- 3815
Farmers induced to terrace sloping land. . . - . 45
Total acreage terraced . ----------------- - . . - 3260
H ome gardens planted . ---------------- 731
Farm ers saving surplus farm products for winter use . 1564
Farm ers turning under cover crops ------------------------ - . _ 559
N ew implements and tools bought -------- . - . 10083

DEMONSTRATIONS
CORN
Dem onstrators . ----------------------------------------- --------------------------------- ----- 405
Demonstrators reporting ---------- ----------- -- . . 244
Total acreage grown under improved m ethods . -- . 2806
Average yield per acre, in bushels . . --------------- 18.6
Number planting selected seed ----- . ------------------------------------------ ----- - 200
Number who. fall plowed their dem onstration acres . 219
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres ---- 93
Acres harvested for silage. . . . . --------- 228
Acres treated ' for diseases or insect pests . - -------------- 105
Farmers using better methods in growing corii this year . -- . 2207
Farmers so influenced since county agent work was started . 4720
COTTON
Dem onstrators -------------------------------------------- -1 . - 39
Dem onstrators reporting . . -------------------------------------------- 14
Total acreage grown.under improved methods . 158
Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds ----------------- - . 7 . 2650
Demonstrators who planted selected seed . ----------------------------------------------- 32
Farm ers field selecting seed for next year's crop . . ----------------- 32
Number who fall plowed their dem onstration acres . . 10
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres . 6
Acres treated for diseases or insect pests ---------------------------------------------------- 132
Farm ers using better cultural methods . . . 183
SMALL GRAINS
(Oats, Rye, Rice)
Demonstrators . 93
------------ * ---------------------------- ----------------------------Dem onstrators reporting . . ----------------- 54
Total acreage grown under improved methods . I . 566
.Acres thrashed for grain ------------------------------------------ I - . W . . 233
A cres cut for hay ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---- ------------ 176
Acres grazed off . . . 149







30 Florida Cooperative Extension

Acres turned under for soil'improvement . 58
Bushels of seed treated for smut and rust . 100
Farm ers planting oats for the first time . . . 142
Farm ers influenced to use better methods . 297
BUMMER LEGUMES
(Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Boy Beans, Peanuts)
Demonstrators . . 277
Demonstrators reporting ----------------------_-- ----------------- . 158
Total acreage grown under demonstration m ethods . 4516
Average yield grain . 13
Average yield hay . . 1.4Total acreage hulled for seed --------- . 556
Total acreage cut for hay ----- . 795
Number of acres grazed off ----- . ----------------------------------- . 2494
Acres turned under for soil improvement, . 671
Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods . . 3414
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence . ___ . 223174
SWEET POTATOES
Demonstrators . : . 175
Dem onstrators reporting . . . 38
Total acreage grown by demonstrators . . 1656
Acreage treated for diseases and pests . 132
Estimated increased acreage . -------------------------------------- . . 2151
IRISH POTATOES
Demonstrators . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . 60
Dem onstrators reporting . 37
Total acreage grown by demonstrators . 448
Acreage treated for diseases and pests . 790
Estimated increased acreage . . 627
FRUITS
Demonstration groves . 367
Total number of trees in these dem onstrations . 2113629
Groves inspected . . 96; number of trees 411365
Groves pruned . 52; number of trees 208655
Groves sprayed . . 45; number of trees 144350
Totals . . 193 764370
DAIRY CATTLE
Purebred dairy cattle introduced tbru county agents' influence:
Bulls . ----------------------------------------------------------- 52
Cows and heifers . --- _ . . __ . 471
Cows tested for production . . - . . . 242
Farmers induced to feed balanced rations . . . 491
Cattle fed . . . . _ . . 1431
Demonstrations in dairy work supervised ---------------------------------------------------- 26
Cows in these demonstrations . 6
Purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started . . 1394
Purebred dairy cows now . . 3311
BEEF CATTLE
Pure blood beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
Bulls . . 202
Cows or heifers . . 632
Grade cows introduced for breeding purposes . 169
Beef breeding herds started. . . . 14
Feeding cattle introduced ------------------- . . . 538







.Annual Report, 1919 31

Beef feeding demonstrations . . . 2 C attle fed . 153 Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated by county agents . 625
HOGS
Purebred hogs brought into the I State this year due to county agents'
influence:
B oars --------------------------------------------------------------------- - -------------------------- ------ . 304
Sow s or gilts ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1566
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ----------------------------------------- . 1158
Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents ------------------------------------ 203
N um ber of hogs . . - . . . 1187 Number of hog pastures started -------------------------------------------------------------------- 589
Farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs . . 13142 Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated
by county agents ---------------------------------------------------------------- . ------- 16462
POULTRY
Poultry demonstrations supervised ---------------------------------------------------------------- 109
Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents . . 58875 Farms on which poultry management has been improved . 212
Number of birds on these farms --------- ____ . ----------- . 5400
Number of eggs produced ------------------------------------------------------------------- .--(doz.) 2120
A verage price, dozen . --------------- $ .40
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS
Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers
to have treated for diseases or pests:
Cattle ------------------_ ---------- _ . : . --- 20514
H ogs --------_----------- . . --------------------------------------------- 220024
H orses . 335
FERTILIZER
Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers . 5039
Fertilizer demonstrations . . 369 Tons of fertilizer used . . 3836 Communities buying fertilizers cooperatively . 61 Farmers home-mixing fertilizers . . 267 Farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers . ------------------------------------- 750
MANURE
Farmers induced to take better care of manure . _------------- 1174
Number that provided sheds . . . 220 Number composting farm manure . 373
Manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators . . 128
Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure . 525
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons . . . 49230
SILOS
Silos built in the State this year --------------- --------------------------------------- --_---_----- 49
Number built as result of county agents' advice . 27
Number in State when county agents' work was started . . 248
Number of silos in the State now . . 610
LIME
Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence . . 82
Quantity of lime used, in tons . . 119 Number of acres limed -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 577






Florida Cooperative Extension


EXTRACTS FROM COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL REPORTS

A campaign was started in the spring to have feeds planted for hogs and have them ready for market in August and September before the fall and winter rush -reached the market and. the prices slumped. Ten or twelve cars of hogs were almost ready for market when the high cost of living investigation upset the market and the hogs were forced on before being finished. As it was, however, the prices received were better than under the old plan, for some hogs were gotten to market before the prices reached the lowest level.
Three community fairs were held and four community exhibits were put on at the county fair. In one community where the county agent was told that nothing could be accomplished the most successful fair of all was held and the people were very much pleased to be shown just what they could accomplish among, themselves.
In appreciation of the success and of the cooperation of the County Agent with the fair association and in handling the Alachua County exhibit at the State Fair, Jacksonville, the association presented the County Agent with a gold watch.
COLIN D. GUNN,
Alachua County Agent.

The Brevard County Bookkeepers' Association is a most important piece of extension work. It was formed with the idea of educating, assisting in marketing, increasing production and cooperative purchasing.
"The County Marketing and News Letter" was continued thru this year with increasinggood results. - It was impossible to keep a complete record of the number of exchanges made by this means. From scattered reports it was learned that as high as 90 per cent of items listed were often cleared up before time for the next bulletin. The bulletin was effective in reminding the farmers of time to plant, buy' or sell produce, etc.
County exhibit at the State Fair was in charge of the county agent. A 12-page booklet was published for use at Jacksonville for advertising purposes. Thisis the first tim e in several years that the county as a.whole.has voluntarily supported any county enterprise.
CHARLES D. KiME,
Brevard County Agent.







Annual Report, 1919.


There has always been a general scarcity of milk in the homes, so I have undertaken to organize a calf club with the boys and girls. Thru the Farmers' Association of the county we have been able to organize a dairy association, and this association has placed two cars of fine dairy cattle with farmers.
A very little spraying of citrus trees had been done in Hernando county. This year I have emphasized more than ever before the advantage of spraying the groves. Some demonstrations were carried on and they began to see it would pay. More of the best growers are no . w spraying their groves intelligently.
A marketing day is planned for the farmers of this county. Hogs are being shipped cooperatively by the farmers with satisfactory results. Auction days are being held at the county seat to sell cattle, hogs and poultry.
JAS. MOUNTAIN,
Hernando County Agent.

We held a most successful camp for the Cilub members at Floridatown in June. The camp took the place of the annual short course. Two members were selected from each of the boys' clubs and the'girls' clubs of the county. A schedule of work and play was arranged. The meals were'served cafeteria style, and the boys and girls washed up the dishes, made their own bunks, etc.
One night we entertained a large number of friends and leading citizens of the county. Judging from the favorable comments on the camp and its purpose, I feel the efforts were highly appreciated.
In the various clubs I enrolled 120 members. With the help of the home demonstration agent, 12 girls and boys' clubs were organized and have met regularly. Of the 120 boys enrolled, 36 reported at the annual contest, and six boys to the State Short Course held at the University. One of the scholarships was given by the county commissioners and one by two local merchants of Milton, and four from prize money won at the State Fair at Jacksonville.
R. T. OGLESBY,
Santa Rosa County Agent.

I have attempted to increase the acreage of sugar cane. The increase is estimated at 75 per cent. This is not all due to my efforts, as it is a popular movement, and is being encouraged by every agency in the State.






Florida Cooperative Extension


I have made special effort to control citrus diseases and have made good progress, especially in arousing interest in the control of withertip.
The most important work I have accomplished is the attempt to control the rat pest around the east border of Lake Okeechobee'. The rats had become numerous and were destroying the farmers' crops. I organized the communities from St. Lucie Canal on the North to Bascom's Point on the South, a distance of 10 miles, with leaders for each community. As the expense was greater than the farmers: could bear, I undertook to raise sufficient money to finance the plan, and succeeded in raising $1400 in West Palm Beach and surrounding localities. I used arsenic as the poison and various kinds of bait. We changed bait each week, all of which were effective.
Our campaign was entirely successful on the North two and a half miles, as the farmers there had better leadership and put out the poison systematically. Rats were killed in multiplied thousands.
The southern end of the section was only a partial success because of a lack of cooperation-yet.even there a great work has been done. Thousands of rats were slain. This effort may lead to better cooperation among the farmers in that region.
R. A. CONKING,
Palm Beach County Agent.

Our farmers receive their principal income from the sale of fruits and vegetables, and to a limited extent from poultry and livestock, so I have worked to make these more profitable.
Eight months ago I assisted in organizing three community Boards of Trade in different. communities in the county. Then assisted in getting the community boards and the city boards to organize in one central Board of Trade. I have succeeded in getting the bankers, merchants, lawyers and ' farmers all working together in one body for the best interest of all.
I have assisted in organizing an agricultural and livestock association, composed of bankers, merchants, lawyers and farmers. This organization is for the purpose of getting better dairy cows and better beef cattle and for the improvement of agriculture.
J. M. BORING,
Lee County Agent.






Annual Report, 1919


In addition to my general work I am giving special attention to systematic spraying, fertilizing, cultivating and developing of citrus groves. The acreage of citrus in the county is so extensive that one cannot cover all the ground required or asked for. The agent has been successful in getting the growers to treat groves more systematically-thus getting better and cleaner fruit to the packing houses, which, of course, brings better prices. Field meetings with growers have been held or "stump" lectures given with the subject close at hand for compa ' rison. Have been here too short a time to get completely organized.
Wm. GommE,
Polk County Agent.

Starting late in the year as agent in Osceola County, I am encouraging:
First: The saving of farm wastes in form of barnyard litter, manure and decayed grasses, and making it into a. compost fertilizer for use in growing crops.
I Second: Pruning of all citrus, shade ornamentals, fruit trees,
to stimulate better growths, remove a great number of breeding places for pests and to improve the looks of all orchards and home places.
Third: Spraying of fruit trees, truck, vegetables and grasses; prevention of loss of livestock by cholera; and starting the farmers into creating small dairy herds, with the hope of gradually forming cooperative dairying among all those having milch COWS.
DR. R. THOR. WEAVER,
Osceola County Agent.

The three most important pieces of work which I have been interested in for the past year are not yet completed.
(1) Establishing a co-operative buying and selling plan on a larger scale, (about $1,500,000 this year).
(2) Establishing a system of checking the purchases of fertilizers thru the analysis of the State Chemist, ($15,000.00 has been saved to my farmers this year).
(3) Increasing interest in producing food and feed for home consumption instead of shipping most of it in as has been the custom. (Slight progress this year).
C. M. BERRY,
Seminole County Agent.







Florida Cooperative Extension


I During the past year I have given every possible help to stimulate the production of sugar cane, corn, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and feed crops.
However, my most important problems have been those dealing with citrus trees, particularly the control of disease and insect pests, management of young groves, a revival of the pineapple industry and cultivation of truck crops.
-Dairies are springing up in the best settled communities, principally at Fort Pierce, Vero and Fellsmere. These dairies dispose of their products locally, altho some milk is being shipped to Miami and Palm Beach. With the increased number of dairies must come the increased supply of feed stuffs, silos and pastures.
The number of hogs has not increased very materially, yet the fact that the pure breeds are replacing the razor backs is the best evidence I can submit as to the progress.
Last year the number of poultry in the county was 30,433 and according to the best records that I can obtain,'150,000 dozen eggs were produced, which is an increase of 25yo over previous .years, I have given due attention to the club work, principally Xorn, peanuts, pig and calf and milk clubs, all of which have done ,a fair amount of work, and the results are gratifying.
The county is fairly well organized. Those organizations doing the most effective work are:
The Fort Pierce Commercial Club, Indian River Growers' Association, Association for the Improvement of - Pineapple Culture, Fort Pierce Farmers' Club, White City Improvement Club, Citrus Fruit Protective Organization, Vero Fruit Growers' Association, and the Fellsmere Fruit Growers' Association.
My work has been materially strengthened by the help of the Experiment Station workers, by Mr. H. S. McLendon, manager of the Agricultural Development Service, Florida East Coast Rail.road, and by the liberal support given me by the business interests and officers of the county of St. Lucie.
ALFRED WARREN,
St. Lucie County Agent.

:.Rice is on6 of our best paying crops, and is becoming more and more in favor with the farmers every year. It is easily grown and always finds a ready cash market. We have also found it to be one of ' our, cheapest and best poultry feeds for the winter production' of egg&






Annual Report, 1919


The campaign for a variety of small fruit on every farm has been very successful. Peaches, figs, pears and grapes seem to be better adapted to this locality than other fruits. These are the ones we will stress another year.
J. J. SECHREST,
Holmes County Agent.

A general plan of work for producing better and cleaner fruit in the county was put into effect.
Approximately 40,000 trees were given one or more sprayings under the direction of the county agent.
Six hundred and fifty acres of grove were sprayed at a saving of $1.00 per acre, by changing spray material and using a formula gotten out by the V. S. Department of Agriculture. The mixing of this spray was superintended by the county agent. Twosprayings with oil emulsion are given usually each year so the saving per year will aggregate $1,300 on this acreage. I Three hundred colonies of Delphastus lady beetles were collected and sent out over the State from the county.
H. G. CLAYTON
Manatee County Agent.,

A successful three-days' camp for club members was held at, Wimauma. County and home demonstration agents planned the camp. Music and games were a parf of the program. A school near by lent the use of a piano. Had the use of a camp house near a lake. County commissioners have appropriated money to assist in a camp of this kind next year.
An attempt was made to show the agricultural products of this county at the State fair. The work was considered successful and I have been called into the fair proposition again.
R. T. KELLY,
Hillsboro County Agent.

The agent has assisted. in planning and demonstrating in the clearing of 120 acres of pine lands by use of stump pullers and blasting. Carried thru. a campaign of treating corn for weevils, which has saved several hundred bushels for farmers in the county. The cultivating and fertilizing of small citrus under, supervision of agent show increased growth, but results fromi these- plots cannot be determined at this date.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Tractor demonstrations in citrus groves were well attended and successfully carried out, resulting in two of the largest growlers of citrus placing orders for tractors and power machinery for the coming year.
Field meetings were well attended andhave proven to be the best and, most successful means of interesting the grower in better fruit, better culture and larger production.
M. MARCELLUS HAVENS,
Lake County Agent.

Thru the pig club and the support of the banks and progressive farmers of the county I have succeeded in getting at least one pure bred hog on 90 per cent of the farms of Madison county.
My next work was to show the farmers that it was economical to sell their products co-operatively. This was accomplished by inducing a few farmers to ship a car of sweet potatoes co-operatively. I went to see the farmers, guaranteed their money, and in this way got the first car loaded. After returns were received on the first car, all the farmers were anxious to co-operate and eight cars of sweet potatoes and five cars of hogs were sold this fall.
Realizing that the winter months was the improper time to sell pork hogs, I began a campaign to feed hogs out for early fall market and late spring.
There were no self feeders in the county so I began to build self feeders and induced a few farmers to feed out three cars of hogs for August.market. There was an average of $397.60 per car profit on the three cars shipped early over hogs shipped 15 days later. These cars were sold between August 15 and Sep" member 6. There will be at least 30 cars fed out for early fall market next year.
C. E. MATTHEWS,
Madison County Agent.

I planned a dairy educational exhibit, during the week of May 4, and put on the first dairy show in the state.
Designating four special days, "Holstein," "Dutch Belt," "Guernsey" and "Jersey," we gave samples of milk and dairy products on their respective days, winding up the week by a mass meeting, with talks on dairying by leading men and women.
Results have been very gratifying, twenty-one car load& of






Annual Report, 1919


dairy stock have been shipped in, and the demand has outgrown the supply. A wonderful boost has been given the industry.
With proper care and attention, poultry does well and is a paying proposition. I decided on a "Poultry Institute." Dr. N. W. Sanborn, State Poultry Specialist, assisted me in holding a three day institute, at which we had five lectures, tw6 of which were illustrated. Every chicken entered was judged by a scorecard, following the plans of the Storrs College Laying Contest.
We formed the Dade County Poultry Association, and indications point to some good constructive work being done.
J. S. RAINEY,
Dade County Agent.


FIG. 4.-Alachua County exhibit, in charge of County and Home Demonstration Agents, at the.State Fair






Florida Cooperative Ex~tension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR CENTRAL AND
SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for Central and South Central Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS,
District Agent.


During the year I traveled by rail 10,878 miles, and by automobile 4,250, 1making~a' total of 15,128 miles; 130 official visits have been made to the county agents, and 47 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings there was a total attendance- of 4,395. Accompanied by the county agent, 252, farmers were visited. From these farms I was able to see the average conditions.and to give the greatest assistance to the county~ agents;
The_ general interest in the work is shown by the county appropriations for the fiscal year ending June, 30, 1920, which is $23,450, as compared with'$19;200 for the year ending June 30, 1919.
ORGANIZATION
The work of organization has been continued as begun last year, but since June the idea of -organization has developed very rapidly among the farmers. One county has seven Locals, with a Central County Organization. The indications are that this county will have a Local Organization in every community by next summer. Other counties are working along similar lines.
HOGS
This district, as well as the entire State, is developing very rapidly into a hog raising section. Hogs are raised in this district for both pork and breeding. We have some of the best breeders, both of the Durocs and Poland-Chinas, that can be found thruout the country. One breeder exhibited a sow at the International Livestock Show recently held at Chicago, and won Grand Championship.
Besides producing pork to supply farms of this section, several hundred car loads were shipped to the packing houses. Many






Annual Report, 1919


farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some instances where an individual does not have enough hogs to make a carload, the county agents assist in working up a co-operative shipment. When a community is organized, this co-operative shipping is arranged for thru the organization.
Some good Work has been done by the county agents in the way of inducing the farmers to market their hogs thru the entire year instead of putting them all on the market during a few months of the rush season. It has been fully demonstrated that this method will pay even tho feed is not so plentiful at some seasons as it is at others.

' The Alachua County Agent had one farmer who bought his feed and fed out a herd of hogs, the results being given in the following statement:
Ninety grade pigs averaging 971/,2 pounds each were put in the feed lot in May and sold in July after 58 days' feeding.
These pigs were out of half and three quarter Duroc and Berkshire sows and sired by Duroc boars. They were farrowed in September, October and November, 1918, and followed the sows thru peanut fields until spring, when they were put on oats pasture.
The ration fed was 1/5 peanut meal, 2/5 ground corn, and 2/5 black strap molasses. The pigs were kept in a shady lot and fed three times daily and allowed the run of a crab grass plot at -night. The cost of the materials fed was as follows: Peanut meal $70 per ton, ground corn $4.50 per 100 pounds, molasses $40 per ton; total cost of feed consumed, $1100. At the beginning of the feeding period the pigs consumed 200 pounds of feed daily and this was gradually increased until they were consuming 750 pounds at the close of the period.
The financial statement rendered by this farmer on this lot of hogs is as follows
Value of hogs at beginning of feeding period- . . $1228.50 Total value of feed consumed in 58 days . _ . - . ___ . 1100.00 Original value of hogs and feed consumed ---_---------_---- - . --- $2328.50
Gross. returns from sale of hogs at close of feeding period . $2905.50 Less original value and feed cost --------- ------ - . . 2328.50
P rofit -------------- . ----------------------------------------------------- $ 577.00
These hogs were sold on the farm for 181/2 cents per pound, and the buyer soldthem. on the yards in Jacksonville for 201/4, cents per pound, so that the profit shown is not s o large as it






Florida Cooperative Extension


could have been had the feeder handled the sale of the hogs at the yards.
These hogs were put on hard test and 25 were reported to have killed hard.
Another farmer planted a crop of early corn, Spanish peanuts, and cowpeas. This crop was ready for his hogs by July 1, and on the third day of July the hogs were turned on this feed. August 15 they were marketed for 151/2 cents per pound. Thirty days later these same% hogs would have sold for 3 or 4 cents per pound less.
Realizing the importance of good pastures for hogs, the agents have continued their efforts along this line of work, and many farmers have been influenced to put in pastures of oats, rye and rape for winter and early spring grazing.
Much effort has been spent in keeping out cholera and other diseases. When it is realized that where not more than three years ago some counties shipping in pork to supply the farms will ship out more than three hundred carloads each of hogs this year, we feel that the agents' time and efforts have been well spent.
The agents of this district have given the simultaneous treatment to more than 34,000 head of hogs. They have advised worm treatment for more than 6,000 head, and advised treatment for 20,000 head with other diseases.

CATTLE
A special effort has been made to place more dairy cattle in the district. The results are that a large number of farms are now supplied with either grade or pure bred dairy cows to supply milk for the home.
The beef cattle industry has also received the attention of the county agents, and thru their efforts a number have been brought into the district.

IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY
Possibly due to the scarcity of farm labor and to the efforts put forth by the county agents to induce farmers to adopt improved methods of preparation and cultivation, a great deal more improved machinery has been used on the farms than ever before.
In one county, thru the influence of the county agent, 42 twohorse breaking plows, 62 two-horse cultivators, eight disc har-






Annual Report, 1919


rows, four acme harrows, and six mowing machines were purchased.
CANE
More sugar cane has been grown in the district than ever before. The acreage planted was large and the yield good. Almost every farm will make and put up plenty of syrup for home use and some for the market. In a great many cases this syrup is put up in bottles or cans, which makes it easier to market.
Since the shortage of sugar has been so keenly felt in this section, a number of farmers have made. a portion of their crop into sugar, and the quality is good.
The people of my district seem to have only recently realized the possibilities of this section for cane growing. A larger amount of seed than ever before is being saved. All indications are that the amount of cane grown will be very much larger next year than this.
VELVET 33EANS
Realizing the importance of growing a large crop of velvet beans, both as a soil improvement crop and as a feed crop, an effort was made to get every farmer to plant velvet beans with his corn. Some trouble was had in securing seed, but a great increase was secured in the amount planted. Due to the increase in the number of livestock, and the scarcity of labor, very few of the beans have been gathered, but as a general proposition, the stock have been turned on them while in the field.
SWEET POTATOES
Much interest has been shown in the growth of sweet potatoes. The prices being unusually good in the early season caused a good many of them to be dug and placed on the market early. Others which are not used on the farm will be stored and marketed in the spring. Some work has been done, thru the advice of the county agents, in selecting sweet potatoes for seed.
PEANUTS
There was an increase of about 5 per cent in the number of acres planted in peanuts, but due to the very low price and small demand on the market in the fall of 1918, most farmers planned their peanut crop with a view of feeding them to their hogs. The high price and great demand for the nuts this fall has caused more to be gathered for market than was expected.






Florida Cooperative Exteiision


The seed planted was poor, which caused bad stands and reduced the yield. The county agents have insisted on the selection of good seed for another crop.
CITRUS
In all of the citrus counties the agents have carried on a number of demonstrations in spraying and fertilizing, and a better general management of the groves, which has shown the growers the value of spraying and fertilizing when properly done. In every county the agent encourages the growers to keep in touch with the Experiment Station and follow its recommendations in controlling disease and insect troubles.

TRUCK
The.agents in the trucking sections have given the truckers valuable assistance by aiding them in the control of disease and insect pests; also by assisting them in the purchase and use of their fertilizer.
CORN
The acreage planted in corn this year was about 2 per cent larger than last, but due to unfavorable weather conditions, the yield as a whole was less.
An effort was made to show the farmers the importance of protecting their corn from weevils. In one county we spent two weeks with the county agent on this work. During the day we would visit the farms, look over the cribs on the farm and suggest to the farmer how he could convert the old and open ones into airtight ones in which he could fumigate his corn. The county agent would also demonstrate to the farmer the method of husking his corn as he gathered it. At night we held meetings at the school houses and other places, and gave illustrAted lectures showing development and work of the corn weevil; also how they might be destroyed. In other counties similar methods* were used, and judging by the number of tight cribs built and the amount of carbon bi-sulphide used, a great deal more corn will be saved from the ravages of the weevil than has been done before.






Annual Report, 1919


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit report of the district agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919, Respectfully,
S. W. HIATT,
District Agent.


The farmers' co-operative demonstration work in this district covered the territory west of the Suwannee river comprising eighteen counties, to which after July 1 were added the counties of Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, Baker, Duval and Clay, making 24 in all. With the closing of hostilities in Europe, the county agents were relieved of considerable extra work they had been doing and more general lines of demonstration work were attempted. The work of the county agents and the results obtained over this territory during the time covered in this report have been very satisfactory.
LIVESTOCK
In the past very little attention has been given to feeding out and finishing the hogs for either the late spring or early fall market when prices are usually high. At the beginning of the year a ,campaign was put on in nearly every county.to encourage the feeding and marketing of hogs in the spring and preparing for the early marketing of hogs in the fall. This campaign met with ,excellent success. Many new pastures have been established and remarkable improvement made in care and feeding. A large number of self-feeders have been introduced thru the efforts of the county agent and a great many farmers have been satisfactorily feeding and fattening their hogs by feeding corn and peanut
-meal thru these feeders.
Up to September 15 approximately 22,500 head of hogs had 'been treated against cholera by county agents, the simultaneous treatment being used almost exclusively.
A largely increased interest has been shown in dairy cattle this .season, especially in Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Calhoun counties.
Improvement in beef cattle is being carried on by the purchase






Florida Cooperative Extension


.of better bulls, and the i - industry will develop rapidly as soon as the cattle ticks are eradicated, which work is being conducted extensively in a majority of the counties.
COLD STORAGE
Reports from Leon county show 43,000 pounds of pork cured by the cold storage process in 1919 against 15,000 for 1918. Many farm cold storage plants are in operation thruout the territory.
HONEY BEES
In several counties the county agent has been instrumental in making progress in the bee industry. This has proven especially profitable in the gulf coast counties.
PEANUTS
A large acreage of peanuts was planted for both pasture and market, but owing to the general poor stand obtained and weather conditions the crop is not up to the usual standard.
SWEET POTATOES
The acreage of sweet potatoes was greatly. increased this year, with the result that canning factories were established at Marianna and DeFuniak Springs.
CU-OPERATION
Co-operative selling of hogs and sweet potatoes in carrots has met with splendid results. The co-operative selling of 40,000 pounds of wool at DeFuniak Springs under the direction of J. J. Sechrest, county agent of Holmes county, brought the farmers seven cents more per pound than the best offer made on a single crop. Co-operative buying of seeds and fertilizers has been carried on more extensively this season than ever before.
MEETINGS
A number of very successful farmers' meetings have been held and several farmers' tours of inspection to other sections were conducted. The agents in Santa Rosa county held a very successful club meeting camp during the first week in June.
Group meetings of the county agents in this district were held. at Pensacola and Tallahassee in February.







Annual Report, .1919


REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith please find a report of the co-operative demonstration work in the South Florida district assigned to me for supervision.
Respectfully,
A. P. SPENCER,
Vice-Director and District Agent.


The report herewith submitted covers, in a general way, the active duties of the co-operative demonstration agents of Pinellas, DeSoto, Manatee and Lee counties on the West Coast, and Breyard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade counties on the East Coast. As these counties are out of the general farming district, the agents have necessarily confined their attention to activities best suited to this section.
During the period of the war, the county agents urged a greater production of corn, peanuts, feed crops and such pasturage as was needed to maintain the work stock, dairy cattle and poultry, and often urged farmers to rearrange their cropping season so as to


FIG. 5.-Magazine and bulletin rack in office of St. Lucie County Agent, A. Warren.







Florida Cooperative Extension


conserve the national food supply, and without special regard as to profits. At the close of the war, this situation was changed; farmers were no longer inclined to produce uncertain crops, but again turn their attention to citrus and other fruits and truck crops.
The production of staple crops has had its effect in that farmers and truckers found they could diversify their cropping system to a much greater extent than they had formerly believed; they could utilize some of their lands during the summer months for growing feed crops and pastures, and thereby keep a limited number of poultry and hogs. The production of these has not, however, contributed to any extent to the receipts from sales from the average farms, but is furnishing home supplies and feeds in more places than before the war period. This situation applies to practically all of the South Florida counties.

PERSONNEL OF THE COUNTY AGENTS
The variety of agricultural interests and the general progressive attitude toward agriculture has made it necessary to employ county agents with strong personality and wide experience, particularly in horticulture. The work has taken a firm hold on all agricultural interests, and it has been the policy in each case for .the county agents to co-operate fully with all. community interests that are intended to bring about better conditions, particularly 'for those who live outside of the cities. The increased cost'6f living, toge ' ther with the kind"of work required of the county agent, has made it necessary for these counties to appropriate a fund. somewhat larger than the average for the whole state.

CHARACTER OF THE WORK
In Pinellas the county agent work had been in progress for one year only. As the income from agricultural products is derived principally from citrus fruit, and very little trucking and farming are in operation, the agent's opportunities for stimulating an increase in home supplies were naturally limited.
There are, however, farmers located in all parts of the county who are interested in the production of garden crops, sufficient feed crops for their livestock and poultry, propagation of fruits other than citrus, the care and management of a small flock of poultry, a few hogs and, one or more dairy cows. Others living nearer the center of population Were benefitted by the county






Annual Report, 1919


agent's help in the planting of ornamentals, and general improvement of property.
The club work, with corn, pigs and peanuts occupied a good portion of the agent's time. On account of the limited area used for farm crops, the work accomplished was comparatively small.
The majo r problems were concerned with citrus groves, principally care of young orchards, spraying, pruning and fertilization, also vegetable crops, dairying, hogs and poultry.
The farmers of Manatee and Lee counties derive their income from citrus fruit and truck crops. Here the agents were confronted with the many problems of the trucker and fruit grower. Efforts were made in each county to perfect organizations that would promote better methods of spraying for insects, and diseases of citrus and truck. The agents made this a special study, and called the Extension Pathologist to their assistance when confronted with problems with which they were not altogether familiar.
In Manatee county, the amount of corn following truck crops was larger than usual. Some corn club members made good yields. Some splen did hogs were produced. 'This, however,- Was urged only where there was an acreage suitable for producing. the necessary feeds.
Dairying received special attention; the agent interested' the banks in making loans to the farmers to buy one or more milch cows. The effects of this campaign, while not entering into the sales from the county, resulted in a few farmers securing good dairy cows.
In DeSoto, Lee and Manatee counties many tracts of land of, various sizes are being developed, much of it by people unaccustomed to farming and the agents had many calls related to clearing, breaking, ditching and growing suitable crops.
On the East Coast the agents' duties during the past year have materially increased. Several large tracts of land are being developed for grove properties, and many small tracts cleared and developed for the'production of home supplies, truck gardens and smaller groves.
In Brevard county the principal production is citrus fruits but, like Pinellas, a number of small owners are making a living from
-the products of, their garden, poultry and in various ways. Many o f th-ese have, planted small groves on various types of soil, and under a v .ariety of conditions. Many of these groves are not mak-






. Florida Cooperative Extension


ing the growth.expected because of improper soil conditions and too much moisture. The matters of drainage and cover crops, and spraying and fertilization of these groves are an important part of the county agent's work.
In St. Lucie county there has been a large development in grove property, mostly by land companies who are selling off tracts of various sizes for groves, cane and truck crops. Many of the newcomers have limited means, and must make some returns from their land each year.
Quite a large number of these farmers planted cotton during the past two seasons and, being unaccustomed to cotton production, many planted it on unsuitable lands, experimenting with varieties of cotton, handling, insect troubles and securing pickers. The crop generally was not profitable, so that the production the present year is practically nothing.
At the request of the Government, castor beans were planted on quite a large area on lands of all description; many of the beans were never harvested, and on the whole the crop was disappointing. This new crop, however, was looked upon with much interest, while it was growing, and the county agents were called, on many occasions, to make such recommendations as theycould regarding it.
The revival of the pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural problems of St. Lucie county. About $1500 was subscribed by property owners to conduct experiments, directed by the Pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station. The county agent is deeply interested in the matter, and'is taking general supervision of the progress of the experiments.
The St. Lucie county agent has been of the greatest service to the citrus owners thru help secured in the care and management of groves under five years of age.
The county agent in Palm Beach county has worked largely with truckers and farmers in the Lake district. During the past three years, the Everglade country in Palm Beach county has received a large increase of truckers and farmers. The holdings of most of these truckers are les's than ten acres, and their crops are confined to the perishable winter crops of South Florida. The land being unusually rich, produces heavy crops of all vegetation.
The problems of this section are not different from those of other pioneer sections. . Good transportation is not yet available; the lands have risen in price at a rapid rate; comparatively






Annual Report, 1919


few of the truckers have been able to build good homes; the water supply for drinking purposes must be provided. The agent has endeavored to lend every possible assistance in the successful productioh of such marketable crops as are profitable.
There is a deep interest in sugar cane production, and a few are interested in livestock.
One of the'main problems of, the section has been to overcome the destruction of crops by rats. The county agent was successful in securing about $1,500 to purchase poison and bait for distribution around the edges of the truck fields. The rats were numerous in places, and have caused severe -damage to practic'ally all the crops grown. By. organization of the farmers the bait was distributed at regular intervals and, where consistently handled,. materially reduced the number of rats.
Other problems of the county were those of the truckers and fruit growers, dairymen and poultrymen, together with thecontrol of the diseases and insects of citrus and other fruit crops-.
In Dade county the work of the county agent has attracted much attention, particularly toward the development of dairies. The county is now tick free, which makes it possible to bring in valuable dairy cattle from outside of the state. The high price of dairy products has stimulated this production, and the future for an important dairy industry seems almost assured.
Many high-priced animals have been purchased by the leading stockmen. The county agent has been especially active in stimulating a demand for high class animals, and has succeeded in placing several head in the hands of individuals and also done whatever is possible to procure the necessary home grown feeds.
Feed and forage and the usual problems of citrus growers and truckers have been an important part of the county agent's work.
Thruout the entire district, each agent has worked consistently for the improvement of rural conditions generally, and has given full support to state and Government agencies that affect the farmers' welfare. They maintained an office for farmers to visit and where agricultural literature is conveniently arranged.
Some changes in the personnel of the agents have taken place. In DeSoto county, W. A. Sessoms resigned, and was succeeded by R.'W. Blacklock who, after two months' work, was appointed assistant club agent and was succeeded by J. M. Tillman.
In Manatee county, H. G. Clayton was selected to fill the. place






Florida Cooperative Extension


of district agent for West Florida, and was succeeded by W. R. Briggs.
Late in the year C. D. Kine was transferred from Brevard to Orange county, and was succeeded by K. E. Bragdon, formerly an employee of the State Plant Board.
In Pinellas county J. H. Jeffries resigned, due to the failure of the Board of County Commissioners to continue support for the maintenance of the work. County agents Boring, Lee county; Warren, St. Lucie county; Conkling, Palm Beach county and Rainey of Dade county have undertaken their problems in a progressive and constructive way, each year making them,selves more valuable to the farmers of their counties.


FIG. 6.-Basketry lesson, home demonstration work, at the Hillsboro camp






Annual Report, 1919


REPORT OF THE BOYSAGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' club agent forthe year ending December 31, 1919.
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.


While it is the purpose of this report to portray the successful achievements of the boys' club work, this year has not been en-tirely void of difficulties. Some of the counties where strong club organizations have been maintained during previous years; such as Nassau and Clay, have been entirely Out of the work this year because no county agents were employed.
Polk, Marion, Baker, Washington, Gadsden, Sumter, Hamilton, Flagler, and Okeechobee have had agents for only a part of the season, which made it impossible to gather reports that would give full credit for the amount of work that has been done.
In those counties where assistant emergency agents were employed, the assistants' duties were largely with the club boys. When their services were discontinued June 30 the club work could not be given enough attention to get the best results.
And these interruptions have not been confined entirely to the county agents, for there have been some changes in the state force. Due to lack of funds, Mr. Blacklock was transferred from assistant boys' club agent to county agent the first of August. He was reappointed to the former position two months later when the other assistant boys' club agent, Mr. Highfill, resigned.

SEVEN BRANCHES OF CLUB WORK
All features of club work adopted during previous years have been kept up this year, and some new problems that give promise of success have been undertaken. Corn, peanut and pig clubs were the main branches of the work until this year. To these have been added dairy calf, beef calf, sugar cane and sweet potato clubs.
We hesitate to take up new problems before the organization of workers is sufficient to handle them, yet it is the desire to make the club work applicable to the various farming conditions found in different parts of the state. Conditions in South Florida






Florida Cooperative Extension


are so different from those in West Florida that the same club projects cannot be successfully used in both localities.
The total number of boys enrolled is about the same as that for last year, but their achievements in the various club activities are much greater.
IMPROVEMENT IN EXHIBITS
One noticeable improvement is that of the exhibits of corn brought to the county contests in the fall. The corn showed that it was well selected, of the most adapted varieties, and had been kept almost free from weevil.
Some splendid exhibits of peanuts were also shown and indicate that there is a growing interest in this branch of work. A large number of boys fatten pigs on their crops of peanuts and it is not possible to show the results in the way of yield and profit.
Every county agent has adopted the plan of selecting for the boys the best pigs to be had for reasonable prices. Thus the boys see that they are receiving good individuals and are impressed with the fact that they must keep them in the best of condition and raise others as good or even better. Many a pig that was placed on a farm two or three. years ago was an entering wedge for a complete herd of pure bred hogs at this time.
SWEET POTATO CLUBS
The sweet potato clubs were organized in a few localities where potatoes give promise as a commercial crop. The Santa Rosa and Manatee county club boys seem to be most interested in this crop and are making considerable progress. The first steps in standardizing varieties have been made and this promises to be helpful where potatoes are shipped in car lots to markets.
SUGAR CANE CLUBS
Much interest in the production of sugar cane is shown in some of the southern counties, and many people are much concerned over the production of cane for the manufacture of sugar. It has been suggested by influential business men in these localities that cane clubs be incorporated as a regular branch of the boys' club work.
DAIRY CALF CLUBS
'The production of more milk and butter on the small farm has received great impetus the past 12 months. Perhaps this was a result of the search for a solution of the high cost of living.






Annual Report, 1919


It was believed by members of the Florida Dairy Association that dairy calf clubs among the boys could further this development. It was advised that boys in any county raise dairy calves where possible, but definite woi:k has been established in Dade and Palm Beach counties, where a car load of Jersey heifers and a carload of Holstein heifers were brought in and placed among the boys. All were pure bred and due to calve within a few months after delivery.
BEEF CALF CLUBS
There has also been an increased interest in the raising of beef cattle. Twenty-five pure bred beef calves were placed among boys in different localities by one bank. Since that time several other banks and some of the breeders have taken up this work and have made it possible for boys to purchase pure bred animals. We are not attempting the baby beef clubs just yet. At present we are endeavoring to distribute more breeding stock among as many farmers as will properly care for them.
Perhaps Alachua county is taking the lead in the beef calf club work. At the Alachua county fair the exhibit of calves















FIG. 7.-AIachua County boys' calf show

put on by the club boys attracted as much attention as any part of the livestock show.
CLUB CAMPS
An encampment for the Hillsboro county boys and girls was held on Lake Wimauma in the early spring. The purpose was to bring all club members into closer relationship and to give






Florida Cooperative Extension


them special instruction while together. A course of lectures was given during each forenoon and the afternoons were spent in some kind of field observation work or in amusement games.















FIG. 8-Setting up exercises at short course camp for club members

One splendid piece of work accomplished with the boys was that of making a self-feeder for swine. The lumber, nails, and hinges were provided by the county commissioners. A plan outlined in a bulletin was adopted and each boy present was required to work out the dimensions of each part of the feeder. Then they went ahead and constructed each part as they had calculated the dimensions. In this way each boy learned how to construct a feeder for himself since he took part in making this one.
Several county agents aftted the plan of getting the club boys to build self-feeders and it resulted in a much more liberal use of this great labor saving device.
The Santa Rosa county club held an encampment at Floridatown in mid-summer. This one was equally as successful as the one in Hillsboro and was very helpful in creating more interest in club work. The expenses of each of these * camps were borne by the commissioners in those counties, and the commissioners were so well pleased that in both counties they have already made appropriations to finance camps again next year.

COLUMBIA COUNTY PIG CLUB
Another achievement that we feel proud of was the organization of the pig club work in Columbia county. For several






Annual Report, 1919


years no agent has been employed in this county and consequently no club work has been done.
A prominent member of the Florida State Swine Growers Association living in this county was anxious to see some work put on among the boys of his county, so he took it upon himself to finance those who were chosen as members of the pig club.
The assistant county agent in Suwannee was permitted to devote a part of his time to the work in Columbia. After a few weeks' work he had selected 46 boys for the pig club and had enlisted nine prominent farmers to buy pure bred boars and allow the club boys free use of them.
It had been agreed to purchase pure bred Poland-China gilts about eight months old for the boys in this county. The county agent in charge of this work went to Stockton, Illinois and bought these animals on the recommendation of the Secretary of the American Poland China Record Association. It was a big day in Lake City when they arrived and were delivered to


-7.





FIG. 9-Oliver Fowler, of Hernando County, feeding his Duroc sow

the boys and girls who had been selected as members of the club. It was another big day when the county contest was held in the fall and the boys brought back to Lake City 17 mature






Florida Cooperative Extension


sows that would compete well in any Southern show ring. Many others would have been exhibited had it not been too near the farrowing dates.
Some of the boys in this county have been among the most successful in the State. This piece of work resulted in the county commissioners making appropriation to employ a county agent to take charge of the work permanently in Columbia county.

STATE CLUB CONTEST
The State contest and exhibit held at the State Fair in Jacksonville was far beyond. any that has been held previously. The exhibit consisted of 1650 ears of corn, 20 exhibits of sweet potatoes, 30 exhibits of peanuts, 25 pure bred pigs and 6 pure bred calves.
Following is the standing of the various counties in the corn, peanut and sweet potato club contests:
CORN
25-10-ear exhibits: Holmes county, first; Hernando, second; Santa Rosa, third.
20-10-ear exhibits: Baker county, first; Washington, second.
15-10-ear exhibits: Suwannee county, first; Madison, second.
10-10-ear. exhibits: Putnam county, first.
5-10-ear exhibits: Marion county, first; Alachua, second.
SWEET POTATOES
20-1-peck exhibits : Santa Rosa county, first.
PEANUTS
20-1-gallon exhibits: Madison county, first.
5-1-gallon exhibits: Palm Beach County, first.
Liberal prizes are offered in all phases of the State contest. The donors of the following special prizes deserve full recognition:
Grand Championship prize in the pig and calf club contests $250 each, for scholarships to the College of Agriculture, donated by Williamson & Dennis of Jacksonville. Reserve championship prizes in the pig and calf clubs, $150 each, to be used in paying expenses to the International Livestock Show at Chicago, donated by Armour & Co. At the meeting of the Florida Bankers' Association in March their plan of giving one $200 scholarship to the College of Agriculture Was changed to three scholarships of $100 each. This makes five scholarships to the College of Agriculture offered to club boys annually.






Annual Report, 1919


All club boys were invited to attend the State Fair and club contest on Thanksgiving Day. More than 100 boys were present from various counties. A livestock judging contest was held with teams competing from the College of Agriculture, the State club organization, and Duval county club. These teams judged horses, beef cattle, dairy cattle and swine. The final standing of the competing teams were College of Agriculture, first; State club, second, and Duval county, third. A member of the State club team tied with a member of the College team for honors as the best individual judge.

THE SHORT COURSE

The fourth annual short course in agriculture was held at the College of Agriculture the first week in December. It was attended by 101 club boys coming from 26 counties. No trouble was experienced in any way whatever and all who attended seemed to derive much benefit from the course. Suwannee


FIG. 10.-A self-feeder built by club boys

county led in the number attending the short course with 19 present, under the personal supervision of their county agent. Hillsboro followed second with 14 present.







60 Florida Cooperative Extension'

PUBLICATIONS
Two bulletins and one circular have been written by the club' staff, as follows: Extension Bulletin No. 1.6, "Boys' Agricultural Clubs"; Extension Bulletin No. 20, "Self Feeders for Swine"; and Circular No. 10, "One Hundred Bushels of Corn Per Acre".
For the purpose of keeping the public informed as to the progress of the club boys, one column of the Agricultural News Service has been devoted to club activities in almost every issue. Special articles have also been prepared for many agricultural papers.
SOUTHERN CLUB AGENTS' MEETING

At the close of this year's work the boys' club agent attended a meeting of the club agents from all Southern States held in Gulfport, -Mississippi the latter part of December. Splendid progress is being made in all Southern States and all indications prove that the work in Florida is keeping pace with that in any other state.

BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY ALAcHUA COUNTY
Name. Address Age
N elson N . Bennett . Alachua . . 14 Everett Skipper . H ague ---------------------------------------------------- 13
Sam uel E. Skipper . H ague . 16 Jas. E. Fraser . . H awthorne . 16 Ruff H odge . N ewberry . -----------_--------- 18
John Smith, Jr . Newberry -------_-------- ---_-_------------------- 16
BAKER COUNTY
Lacy M obley . ----------- . M cClenny ------ ------------ ----------- -------- 18
BRADFORD COUNTY
E urie Brown -------------------------------------------- Lake Butler . 16
Sdber Stokes _. . . Lake Butler ------------ . 17
Clarence Rhoden . Raiford . . 14 BREVARD COUNTY
Ruben Gran ------ ---_--------------- _---------------- M icco --------------- . -_ ----------------- 17
R oy H illiard ------------------------------------------- Pineda -------------------------------------------------- 14
BROWARD COUNTY
Clifford H am m er ------------------------------------ Davie . --------- ------------------- 14
DADE COUNTY
Joseph A . Johnson . . . Goulds . ------- ------------- * ---------- * ---- 14
DESOTO COUNTY
David A lderm an _. ------------------------------------ Arcadia --- ------ __ ----------------------------------- 14
Jeffrey D. Yates ----------------- ------ --------- Arcadia . ------------------------_-- --------- - ---- 17







Annual Report, 1919 61

DUVAL COUNTY
-H arold Broya Buie . . Bayard . -, -------------------------------- 13
H erm an M ader . Bayard __. . 15
W illis Pickett . Grand Crossing . 17
L em W ingate . Grand Crossing . 13
A rnold W atson . So. Jacksonville . . 13
D ouglas W atson -------------------------------------- So. Jacksonville ---_---------_ -------------- 12
ESCAMBIA COUNTY
L ewis Floyd . Cantonm ent . . 15
'J. E . H aynes, Jr ----------------------------------------- Pensacola . . 14
H arvey Barrineau . Quintette . 14
HAMILTON 'COUNTY
-R alph Gail Tuten. . Jasper . _ .A2
D avid Sm ith . . Jennings . 14
,Paul Sm ith . Jennings . . 16
HERNANDO COUNTY
.B ernard M ountain . D ade City . . . . 12
,E lm ore W ernicke . Brooksville . 14
HILLSBORO COUNTY
'Jesse A lderm an . Lakeland . 18
Jesse W . Barker . . Plant City . 14
.D eFay Blitch --------------------------------------------- Plant City . 14
Charlie Booth . Plant City . 13
A lton English . Plant City . 14
'Jam es Futch . __ . Plant City . . 16
D on M iley . Plant City ---_ -_-_ ---------- _ . 14
Glenn M iley . Plant City . 16
L ouis N esm ith . _ ----------------------------------- Plant City . 16
Pow ers Taylor . Plant City . 12
L uther W ebb -------------------------------------------- Plant City . 15
C. H . Taylor, Jr ----------------------------------------- Plant City ---------------------------------------------- 15
M oriss Y oung -------------------------------------------- Plant City ------------------ . 13
Thos. H . Ellerbe . W im aum a . 15
HOLMES COUNTY
D eal R oyalls ---------------------------------------------- D arlington ---------------------------------------- . 18
-Paul Statt __. . . Bonifay . . ----------------- 12
LIBERTY COUNTY
R obert Turner . Bristol ----------_ ------------_ _ . 16
MADISON COUNTY
Ivey M cCollough -------------------------------------- Lee - . 17
E arly Rains ------------------------------------------ --- M adison . --------- . 16
Roy Claude Seals . I ---- , . M adison . 16
B urton W alker ------------- ---------- . M adison . ------------------------------------------- 11
MANATEE COUNTY
L onnie Collins . Oneco ------------------------------------------------------ 14
Rollo E . D owning . Parrish . . 16
Shelton V . D owning ---------------------------------- Parrish . . 17
M illard Guess -------------------------------------------- Bee Ridge . 15
MARION COUNTY
'A rthur R . D ouglas ---------------------------------- Ocala . . 16
:-V ernon N eil . Ocala . . 16







62 Florida Cooperative Extension

OKALOOSA COUNTY
E rnest Griffith . . Galliver . -------- . 17
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
Guy H olm an . ---_ ------- . --- Okeechobee City . . 17
POLK COUNTY
Ernest Clark ------- ---------- --_---_------------- Bartow _ ----------------------------------------------- 11
W . Olive Clark. . . Bartow ----------------------_ ---_- . 15
George W . M ann . Bartow ----------------------------------------- -------- 13
W illie A nderson -------------------------------------- Chicora . 1 8
Carl C. Stephens -------------------------------------- Chicora -------------------------------------------------- 17
Francis Pipkin . Lakeland . . ----------------------- __.15
John Pinaire . . Lake H am ilton ------------------------------------ 13
PUTNAM COUNTY
Ernest Carnes . -------------------------------------- Florahom e ------_------------- _ . 14
Carl C. Carnes ------------------------------------------ Florahom e ------------------ . _17
G. W . Cottingharn -------------------------------- --- Florahom e _ ------------------- ------ _ ------------ 14
Richard M cGrath ------------------------------------ Florahom e ------------ . 17
Percy B. Revels . Florahom e . . 18
Geo. Orville Tyre . Florahom e . 18
Ernest M otes . H ollister . 12
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
Joe Brow n . . St. A ugustine . 14
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
V ictor R obertson ------------ -----_----------_---_ Vero . . ------------- 17
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
Robert Cam p --_---------------- . M ilton . - ----- . . __ - . 15
Roy H olland . . M ilton . . ---------- 15
A lton Johnson . H olt . 15
Eugene Johnson . . H olt ------------------------------------------------- . 13
SUWANNEE COUNTY
H enry D orsett . . Branford . ----------------------------------------------- 15
W illie W ade E denfield. . _ _---------- Branford . ---------------------_------ 14
Lam ar M artin . . _Branford -------------------------------- _ -------------- 16
Cephas Peterson -------------------------------------- Branford . . 17
Jack R ow ell . Branford . 15
K enneth Faulkner . D ow ling Park . 10
J. C. Gam m on- . D ow ling Park ------ ---------------------------_ - 11
G . S. Payne, Jr . D ow ling Park . . ----------- 11
M inas Payne . ---------------_ ------------- D ow ling Park -------------------------------- . 15
D ewitt Colem an . --------------------- . Live Oak . 16
A lbert Jones . . ------ ---- Live Oak . . . 16
D an T. Law ----- __ . . . Live Oak . . . 17
A lton M cCullers -------------------------------------- Live Oak ---------_---- . . . 15
Clinton Leggett . --------------------------- . M cA lpin -------------------------- _ ------------------- 14
Ralph Baker . --------------------------------------------- O 'Brien . ----------------------------------------------- 13
Russell Scarborough ---------------------_ ------ O 'Brien . ------------ 14
Roy Jenkins ---------------------------------------------- Pine M ount ------------------------- . 14
Vernon Davenport ---------------------------------- W ellborn .-. -------------------------------------------- 16
Cyril G. Rogers ---------------------------------------- W ellborn _ . -------------------------------------------- 17 ,
TAYLOR COUNTY
H enry Bird . ----------------------------- __ . Perry . 14
John B ow doin ---- ------_ ---------- :_ . .Perry . . IS
Brow ard Cullpepper . --------------------- Perry . -----------------__ -- --_------------------- 12







Annual Report, 1919


REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respectfully,
R. W. BLACKLOCK,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.

The total enrollment was 3,099 members, divided as follows: Corn club, 1,098; peanut club, 173; pig club, 1,706; and miscellaneous clubs (cotton, sweet potatoes, cane, calf, etc.), 122.
The enrolling of boys in the different clubs was hindered to a great extent by the shortage of farm labor. The older boys were needed as regular farm hands and the smaller ones were forced to do more regular farm work than even under war conditions. These conditions caused many of the older boys to withdraw from the


FIG. 11- 'Where there's a will there's a weigh"
club work. The crop clubs were affected more than the animal clubs, as the increase for the pig club was 210, while for the corn club there was a decrease of 235.







Florida Cooperative Extension

The following table gives the enrollment by counties:

ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1919


County

Alachua .f 38 Baker . 33 Bay . 4 Bradford . 27 Brevard . 8
Broward .
Calhoun . 5 Citrus . 8 Clay . 44
Columbia . 4
Dade . 2 DeSoto . 26 Duval . 16 Escambia . 28
Flagler . 16 Gadsden . 6
Hamilton . 23 Hernando . 26
Hillsboro . 50 Holmes . 95 Jackson . 17 Jefferson . 6
LaFayette . 9
Lake . 15 Lee . 5 Leon . 12 Levy . 2 Liberty . 28
Madison . 45 Manatee . 28 Marion . 25 Nassau . . 7
Okaloosa . 34 Okeechobee . Orange . 24 Osceola . 6 Palm Beach . 35 Pasco . 8 Pinellas . 1 Polk . 31 Putnam . : ------- 22 Santa Rosa .- 50 Seminole . 2 Sumter . 24 Suwannee . 37 St. Johns . 10 St. Lucie . 4 Taylor . 12 Wakulla . 5
Walton . 38
Washington . 94


Total . 1 1 8


1706 I 173 122


W~I


L


55 8
25 2
6 1
93 4
12 .
. .
14 1
14 1
26 1
113 1
30 2
62 .
36 1
87 9
6 .
1
39 1
20 1
10 1
125 10
48 7
10
24 3
7 2
18 1
48
2 1
22 2
120 18
36 2
71 15
6
11 7
. .
26 1
21
15 23
60
22 3
25 .
35
35 .
38 4
2 1
28 2
56 26
20 .
13 2
27 2
4 4
50 1
68 2


8



7

3 9 1
16 8 3











1






12 6 5

49 8
. .















1
*17


Y �







Annual Report, 1919


The total corn production of the State was 12,470,000 bushels, with an average of 15 bush6ls per acre. The club boys produced 9,863 bushels on the 276 acres reported, an average of 35.7 bushels per acre.
This corn was produced at an average cost of 48 cents per bushel. Valueing the corn at $1.25 per bushel, it would leave a profit of $27.35 per acre, or a total of $7,548 profit to the 276 boys reporting.
COUNTY CONTESTS
One decided increase in 1919 over 1918 was the quality of the ten-ear exhibits shown at the county contests. The exhibits showed that the boys had given time and careful study in the selection of their ten ears. This decided superiority in the exhibits over previous years demonstrates that our club boys are putting into practice the better methods taught them by the county agents.
Holmes county led in number of boys reporting at the county contests, and Putnam county led with the highest average yield, 10 boys reporting an average yield of 55.3 bushels.
The following table of reports was collected from corn club boys, and is arranged in order of number of reports from each county. When two counties have the same number of reports, the one having the highest average yield per acre is placed first.
SUMMARY OF 276 CORN CLUB REPORTS



County



Holmes 1.- 44 - 1546.0 35.1 .58 I 75.0 .45
Hillsboro. 32 1170.0 36.5 .39 87.5 .14
Hlernando . . 26 953.0 36.2 .39 66.5 .18
Santa Rosa 23 633.0 27.5 .75 I 45.5 .42
Washington ---_------ 21 707.0 33.5 .56 65.0 .38
Baker. 18 521.0 29.0 .61 42.0 .49
Okaloosa . 15 495.0 33.0 .69 51.0 .70
Putnam . . 10 553.0 55.3 .26 90.0 .16
iberty. 9 564.0 40.4 .39 61.5 .30
Suwannee. 9 285.0 33.6 . 49 55.0 .17
Duval.8 186.5 25.3 1.03 45.0 .78
Madison. 7 350.0 50.0 .36 .71.5 .18
Marion .I 7 276.0 40.8 .35 64.0 .42
DeSoto . _. 7 253.5 36.2 .45 52.5 .46
-Eseambia. 7 177.0 25.2 .78 35.2 .60
Orange.6 265.0 44.1 .31 86.6 I .20
Taylor. 259.0 43.1 .41 49.0 .30
Jackson .I 4 143.0 36.0 .52 46.0 .22
Polk.--*I----- 4 99.0 24.75 .46 27.0 .38
Alachua.3 118.5 39.5 .54 47.4 .33
Manatee 3.3 178.0 26.0 .55 30.0 .36
Hamilton'.2 132.5 66.2 .48 79.5 .61
St. Johns.2 128.9 64.0 .20 75.0 .18
Palm Beach.2 90.5 45.2 .56 52.5 .40
Calhoun .-.1 1 79.5 79.5 1 .14 79.5 .14


Total . 276 19863.0 1 U5. 7 .484 1 59.5 I 3


1 .33








PEANUT CLUBS
The club work with peanuts is progressing. The boys in this 'club made very satisfactory profits, as the price paid for the nuts was as high as $2 and more per bushel. The average yield was 38 bushels per acre, produced at an average cost of 29 cents per bushel. The hay paid for the cost of picking, leaving an average profit of $65 per acre.
PIG CLUBS
The pig club continues to be the most popular, due to the fact that many boys doing regular farm hands' work in the fields have time to look after a pig, while they are unable to plant and properly care for an acre of crop. The total enrollment of pig club members was 1,706.
I Santa Rosa, Madison, Columbia and DeSoto counties had exceptionally fine exhibits at their contests, and the following gives some interesting facts regarding some of the pigs exhibited: MADISON COUNTY
0



Cd
9 I 9: I U
Total, 18 records. 766 3705 2939 3042 17.5 Average . 42.51 205 169 .9966 6.4 cents
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
Total, 13 records- 648.8 2708. 2068. 1980 12.26 Average . _1 49 20831 15051 160 .94 11.7 cents DE SOTO COUNTY
Total, 12 records. 577 2127 1938 9:55
Average -----------_--- .21 129.21 161.51 8 11.4 cents
COLUMBIA COUNTY
Total,. 13 records-I 1487 1 3837 2350 2540 1 12.65 Average . 1 114.31 295.1 180.7 196 1 .97 13.3 cents
This shows that good gains are not confined to any particular section of the State. The pigs in DeSoto county, in the southern part of the State, made nearly as large daily gains as did those in Santa Rosa county, in the extreme western end, and at a slightly smaller cost per pound of gain.
The daily gains and cost of gain for the 56 records in the above four counties are given in the following table, which shows that


Florida Cooperative Extension







Annual Report, 1919


the club boys are producing good, well grown and developed bieeding stock at very reasonable cost:

4
Cd


Total, 56 records 1 3478 12377 8899 9500 52.06 Ave-rage ---------------- 1. 62.1 2 21 158.9 169 .93 103 cents
CALF CLUBS
The calf clubs are being carried on with both beef and dairy calves. The dairy work is at present being pushed most in Dade county, where 16 boys and girls are raising dairy heifers. The beef calves are scattered over the central section of the State, with the best and largest club in Alachua county.
In Alachua county the boys and girls showed their calves at the Alachua county fair. That these calves were of most excellent quality and finish is shown by the fact that an Angus bull calf shown by a club boy won not only first in his class and grand champion Angus bull but also Sweepstakes over bulls of all breeds shown.


FIG. 12.-Putnam County Agent, L. Cantrell, lecturing to his club
boys on the selection of seed corn






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the year ending December 31, 1919, with a statistical report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
State Home Demonstration Agent.


In reviewing the home demonstration work accomplished during the year, it is found that tho the work was done under disturbed conditions, it is an established institution in Florida life. These disturbances were due, first, to an epidemic of influenza. Then there came a shift from wartime to post-war plans; a change in the plan of organization; and a loss of the State Agent, to whom we had looked so long for direction.

ORGANIZATION
During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1919, the home demonstration staff was composed of a state agent, an assistant state agent, two special assistants, one in charge of poultry work, one in charge of home dairy work; two district agents, with two assistafits each in their respective districts; one secretary and three stenographers; county home demonstration agents; urban agents; special assistants in canning; and eighteen negro county assistants to the home demonstration agents.
Beginning July 1, the work of a number of the field workers and the assistant district agents was discontinued, thereby reducing the organization to the state agent, assistant state agent, two district agents and two specialists.
in organizing the home demonstration work for negroes, the response from the counties was most gratifying. This work had been maintained almost entirely on emergency funds. When these funds were withdrawn it became necessary to supplement state and federal aid with substantial county appropriations. Because of the excellent work done by these agents during the previous year, every county to which ' an agent has been appointed appropriated, funds for the work.






Annual Report, 1919


AGENTS AND EQUIPMENT
In selecting agents for this work personality, adaptability, initiative, character and training have been carefully considered. The advance in the cost of living, of car and operating expenses, and the demand in other fields have made the securing of competent women difficult; but the best available workers were selected. The report of the work accomplished is the best estimate of the value of the force.
With but one exception, agents have well equipped offices. Of the 44 agents employed from January 1 to June 30, 1919, 37 own cars or are furnished cars by the county. Of the 32 agents employed beginning work September 1, 1919, 31 agents own and operate their own cars or are furnished cars by the county. One agent owns a horse and buggy. One agent with liberal travel


FIG. 13-Home demonstration cottage at Miami, Dade County. In addition to a well equipped office and rest room, there is a well equipped room for demonstration purposes, and equipment for community canning.

allowance depends upon the use of hired cars and the numerous jitney lines in the county.
There are 63 demonstration kitchens where general club meet-






Florida Cooperative Extension


ings are held and where demonstrations may be given; and 45 co-operative canning kitchens.


FIG. 14-Canning meat. Packing the cooked meat and gravy in cans

AIMS OF WORK
opening work in 1919 was a re-adjustment of plans that had been greatly disarranged by the epidemic of influenza during the months of November and December. Plans were made to push home garden work, poultry work, dairying and food conservation; to try and carry to a greater number of women facts about food and what the body needs; to give definite assistance with the remodeling of clothing; to develop among club members a greater interest in beautifying homes and in community needs and activities, and to assist them in working out plans for meeting these needs.
1n addition to the regular activities carried on under home demonstration supervision, every agent on the force was active in assisting in the Victory Loan Drive, and 31 report club members doing Red Cross work.
CLUB MEMBERSHIP
The number of girls cultivating the tenth-acre plots in 1919 is smaller than the number of girls doing similar work in 1918,






Annual Report, 1919


but the total number of girls enrolled in home demonstration work is larger than in any previous year. Some have chosen to take up canning club work, while others have selected poultry work, bee work, home improvement, grape culture, pig or calf club work. The total number of girls enrolled is 4688. The total number of women enrolled is 8839.

ORGANIZED CLUBS
There are 326 strong clubs among girls, and 165 among women. These clubs not only off er a good opportunity for the discussion of problems and the giving of instruction and demonstrations, but they frequently furnish the only social hour enjoyed by club members. Club organization is resulting in the develop-


FIG. 15-Carming club girl's plot of staked tomatoes


ment of local leadership. In Hillsboro county a very successful county council of home demonstration workers has developed.

RESULTS
Poultry Work: As a result of the effort to increase farm poultry production, 1500 farm flocks have been improved thru club work, either by the entire substitution of pure bred birds or by the introduction of a pure bred male f rom a good strain to head the flock; culling has been taught; breeding pens are being established on many yards. One agent writes: "Where club






Florida Cooperative Extension


members have as many as three club pullets, they are establishing a breeding pen." This interest on the part of club members, not only in securing good stock but in securing good results from this stock, together with the splendid co-operation of the leading poultrymen of the State, have been the outstanding features











-OW






FIG. 16-State short course at Tallahassee for home demonstration girls

of poultry work resulting from the efforts of the home demonstration agents in the State.
Home Dairy Work: To secure the increased production of home daiiy products, agents thruout the State supplemented the efforts of the assistant in charge of home dairy work in every possible way. The need of dairy products in the diet and the great lack in the supply in Florida, has been stressed in every county in which home demonstration work is carried on. An effort was made to have as many agents as possible hear Dr. E. V. McCollum's lecture on "What Constitutes an Ideal Diet," delivered at Gainesville and Tallahassee, in order that they might carry the message back to their respective counties. Much interest has been aroused over the State, the result of which is told in the report of the assistant in charge of home dairy work submitted with this report.
Garden Work: Two thousand and twenty girls planted tenthacre plots. To further stimulate garden work, boys and girls






Annual Report, 1919


were enrolled in the home garden work irrespective of the size of the garden cultivated. The value of the fresh vegetables in the diet was stressed at club meetings and women urged to maintain a garden thruout the year. It has been difficult to get definite reports from this work as there were no report blanks furnished members for this purpose. Two counties enrolled more than 500 each. A conservative estimate would be an average of 100 members per county.
TEN BEST RECORDS
Due to unfavorable seasons yields from tenth-acre plots are not high, but profits have been unusually good.
The following are the ten highest records made in the State: Yield Profit
Manatee. Mattie Elmore . 4885 lbs.$124.76 Dade -------------------------------Anna Sykes -----------.4700 lbs --------185.66
Madison------------------------- Katherine Williams-8. 688 lbs-------.66.52
Gadsden -_------ -----_------ Lessie McKeown ------2574; lbs --------79.29
Duval-----------------.Eula Trantham . 12ls--------b ------ 128.20
Stoutniire (1206 stalks cane)
Leon -----_------ -------_----Elsie tua ie . 2095 lbs_-------- 68.40
Hernando -------------- _-----Rhea Harpin -- --------.1920 lbs-------. 66.01
St. Johns------------------------ Marie Bradfisch ----------- 1862 lbs -----209.00
Taylor-----------------.Ruby Taylor----------.1500 lbs-.------147.85
Hillsboro--------------. .-Arlene Young---------.1840 lbs-.291.01
.NUTRITION
To meet the need of the women of the State for better knowledge of food values and the fundamental processes of cookery and to aid them in choosing, in spite of the high cost of living, those foods that the body needs, much thought was given to the working out of carefully planned monthly programs based on the subject of nutrition. Home demonstration courses for housekeepers based on the same subject and given 'in ten lessons accompanied by demonstrations, were offered. This program of*
work was in charge of the assistant state agent. 'The instruction Was given by the assistant district agents. Fifty-five short courses were held, twenty-two of them for girls, thirty-three for women. A total of 2693 women and girls took the work offered thru the demonstration courses; while a much greater number were reached thru the monthly program.
CONSERVATION
The county agents gave 3952 demonstrations in food preparaztion and canning. The total attendance at these demonstrations was 37,929. The number of containers filled with fruits, vege-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tables, fish and meats for home use was 1,301,050. Of this number 949,818 were put up by girls and women enrolled in home demonstration work; 154,000 by negroes; the remainder by women and girls influenced by the work. Dried products reported amounted to 3952 pounds.
Interest in meat canning is general. This work is being done in every county. It is found to be a safe, economical method that produces a satisfactory product. The following clipping from an agent's report is typical:
"Spent the day with Mrs. Assisted in canning a
beef. She had never canned meats before or sealed a tin can. She was delighted when the day's work was done, to find that she had a good supply of soup stock, liver, heart, steak, roast and loaf ready to be served on short notice."
Other reports indicate that, homes are being equipped with modern appliances, which makes it convenient to do such work.
A good piece of conservation work was the putting up of cull tomatoes for commercial purposes by-a grower in Dade county. The agent in 1918 taught him to can the culls and with a rather meagre equipment, he filled 40,00 containers. These were disposed of at a profit. In the season of 1919 with better equipment he filled 140,000 cans with tomatoes.
Another line of conservation work was done in the remodeling of clothing, which has received special attention this year and has aroused much interest. Popular exhibits of re-modeled garments have been put on at club meetings and at fairs. The girls have been interested in darning, patching and the making of button holes.
BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME
The growing interest in the beautification of the home is found alike among women and girls. The plan under which the girls are working is the selection by the girl of one room in the home, preferably her own, to study, furnish and keep. Girls enrolling for this home improvement will also give special attention to the planting of ornamental trees and plants about the home, and when canning season comes, to the filling of the home pantry with home canned products. This home problem is attracting a great number of girls. The inspiration for this work was the result'of work done by three little girls in Brevard county. The following is the story:






Annual Report, 1919


These three little girls were motherless. Their father only consented for them to join the club after they had learned to know the home demonstration agent as she prepared the nourishment and cared for the family when they were ill with influenza. The children were taught to care for the house, to cook and serve and sew, and were led to see the possibilities of having an attractive home in the midst of most meagre furnishings. Flowers and vines were planted about the little house. When given money to buy materials for new dresses the oldest girl, thirteen years of age, asked that she might purchase material for curtains. Box furniture was made to supplement the bare furnishings of the home. When the last curtain was hung, the youngest girl exclaimed with delight, "Oh! This looks like a regular home." Their keen interest in this work suggested the home improvement problem that is proving so popular with our girls as they choose their work for 1920.

















FIG. 17-This club member knows how to handle bees

RECREATION
Special games and songs for use in club meetings were taught at the agents' annual meeting. Each club program sent out from the off ice includes songs, also directions for games and play that may fill a part of the hour. This feature of the work has been very popular.
Camp fires have been held in some of the small neighborhoods.






Florida Cooperative Extension


A big fire is built under the pines, frequently near the one room school house, people of the neighborhood gather about it, and the time is spent in games, songs, the putting on of stunts and possibly a talk on matters pertaining to better farming or home making. Local talent is used, or talent from a nearby community is borrowed. In one county a quartet of returned soldiers has several times driven a distance of ten orfifteen miles to contribute to the evening program. Occasionally members of an orchestra will assist in a similar manner.
One of the most attractive bits of work done by the agent was


FIG. 18.-Lesson in "first aid' -Hillsboro camp


the telling, thruout the county, of the story of "Why Violets Have Golden Hearts" and later the dramatization of this story which was put on at the county seat, and repeated three times by request.
Several clubs have combined business with pleasure in the giving of box suppers, and in one instance a minstrel, thereby furnishing fun for an evening and funds for the treasury. These funds have been expended in equipping the club kitchen or on school improvement.
Three successful county camps for boys and girls were held






Annual Report, 1919


in the state last year. These camps were held in Hillsboro, Santa Rosa and Brevard counties.
HEALTH WORK
Every line of activity developed thru home demonstration work tends to the betterment of health conditions. The state health officer stated in a public meeting that where home demonstration work was well established, pellagra had decreased. Weighing and measuring contests among school children have


FIG. 19.-A house-keepers' short course

been inaugurated and followed by campaigns for the increased use of milk. The public health nurses sent out by the AntiTuberculosis Society have given valuable aid in instructing club members on health topics.
FAIRS AND CONTESTS
At every county fair excellent home demonstration exhibits have been made featuring the varied activities of the work. The state fair has been reported in detail by the district agent of North and West Florida.
The awards at the state fair of county prizes for home demonstration work were as follows:


EXHIBITS OF GIRLS' WORK
First prize . --------------------------------- Putnam County ---Second prize _----------------- -------------- Madison County ---Third prize . -------------------------------- St. Johns County ------


---------_ ------------- $50.00
----------------- ------- 30.00
----------------- . - 20.00







78 Florida Cooperative Extension

EXHIBITS OF WOMEN'S WORK
First prize . ----------------------------- Hillsboro County ------------------------------------- $40.00
Second prize ----------------------------------- Manatee County ------------------------------------ 30.00
Third prize ----------------------------------- Putnam County --------------------------------------- 20.00
The awards made in home dairy and poultry work have been reported by the two assistants in charge of this work respectively. I
WORK WITH NEGRO WOMEN
The plan of having the negro worker in the county appointed as an assistant to the county home demonstration agent has proved a wise one. Thru this method closer supervision may be given the work which results in greater opportunity for rendering assistance. In outlining the work for the assistant agents last year very definite problems were selected as a basis for the year's work and effort was centered on these. The results obtained are found in the report of A. A. Turner, agent in charge of Negro work.
STATISTICAL REPORT
Counties in the State ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
Counties cooperating financially . . -------------------- . 40
Home demonstration offices maintained -------------------------------------------------------------- 39
Home demonstration kitchens . 63 Cooperative canning centers -------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------- 45
Agents owning or being furnished cars -----_---------------------_ . 38
Agents owning horse and buggy . 1
Counties making appropriation for &_ e-d-em- --- s-t'r-at i' --- n ---- m --- a- t'e r i -a-I" . 22
Amount expended for equipment'in counties ---------------------------------------- $1,713.65
COUNTY WORKERS
County home demonstration agents . -------- __ . 46 Average number months employed . 91/ Average monthly salary (including travel) . $145.32
URBAN AGENTS
Average number months employed. . 91-3 Average m onthly salary . j . . __ . L-$127.14
FIELD WORK
M iles traveled by agents ------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 166922
Number visits made to club members ----------------------------------- . 7149
Number visits m ade to schools . ------------------------------ . 2381
Number visits to home demonstrators ------------------------------- . 11963
N um ber visits to plots --- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3895
Number demonstrations given . . ------------------------------------------------------- 2900
Attendance at dem onstrations ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 37929
M eetings held or participated in --------- . 3842 Attendance at m eetings . . . 72840 State short courses held for girls ---------------------------------------------------------------- I
'Attendance at state short course . 60 County short courses held for girls . 22 Attendance at short courses ------------ . _ 822
County camps for girls and boys . 3 Home demonstration schools held for housekeepers . 33 Attendance at schools for housekeepers-. . . 1873







Annual Report, 1919 79

N um ber contests held ----------------------------- * --------------------------------------------- - --------- 28
N um ber days w orked by agents ------------------------------------------------------- ---------- 9146
N um ber office days ------------------------ ----- --- . ----------------------- . - ----- ---- 2411
Number schools assisted in starting hot lunch ---------------------------- . - 17
N um ber teachers cooperating actively ----------------- --------- : ---------------------------- 373
ACHIEVEMENTS
N um ber m eetings held -------- -------------------------------------- ------------------------------------ 7794
A ttendance at m eetings ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 110599
D em onstrations given ------------------------------- ----------------------------- ------------ . 3952
A ttendance at dem onstrations . ------------------------------------------------- ---------- 37929
Other m eetings held ------------- - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3842
A ttendance at other m eetings ------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- 32670
Number girls enrolled in home demonstration work --------- . . 4688
Canning . ------------------------------------------------------------------- . 2020
Poultry (boys and girls) -------------------------- --------- ------------------------ - ------ 1387
Cooking . ------------------------------ -- ------------------------------------------------- ---- 628
Bee ------ ----------- -------- -------- -------- -------------------------------- --------------- . - 26
Pantry ------------------------------ -------------- -------------------------------------------------------- 364
Grape . -------- - . ------------- . : -------------------------------------------- 74
Pig ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 71
M ilk . - . --------- . --------------------- - 1 ----------------------------------- --------- 114
ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN
Number of women enrolled by home demonstration agents --------- ---------- 8839
Women enrolled in home demonstration club work . ------------- 7422
Women making special food demonstrations at home ---------- . 1417
Number steam pressure cookers in the counties . 340
N um ber other types of canners . . - . 1435
N um ber girls' clubs organized ------------------------------------------------------------------ -- 326
N um ber w om en's clubs organized --------- ------------ ---------------------------------- . 165
N um ber containers filled . --- --- -.1301050
N um ber pounds dried products ---------------- . . 3952
REPORT OF STATE WORKERS
N um ber of m iles traveled . -------------- . . . . 114494
N um ber days engaged in office w ork ------- ---------- ---------------------------- . 1011
D ays engaged in field w ork --------------------------------------------------------------- ---------- 1260
D ays attending State m eetings ------------------------- ------------------------------------------ - 145
D ays attending out of state m eetings ------------------- -------------------------------- - ---- 38
D em onstrations given ------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------- 379
M eetings attended . . 783
E stim ated attendance ----- --------------------------------------------------------------------- 36474
Contests attended . ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41
Short courses attended ------------------------- -------------- ---------------------- -------------- 49
E stim ated attendance ------------------------------ ---------------------- ------------------------------ 424
Fairs attended . . . --------------------------------------------------- ------------- 27
,Schools visited ----- -------------------- ----------------------------------------- ------------------- . . 65
H om es visited . - ---------------------------- ---------------------------------- - . 214
Conferences with:
School superintendents ------- ---------------------- ------------------------------ --- ------ 48
County com m issioners ------------------------ ------------------------------------------------- 51
Supervisory visits to counties . -.- . -------- 566
V isits to School Board -------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work in North and West Florida, for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respect ully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
District Home Demonstration Agent.


During the present fiscal year, 14 county home demonstration agents were employed in as many counties. Five of these 14 counties appropriated $1000 or more each. Seven other counties made appropriations, but the amount, plus the state and federal funds allowed to each county, were insufficient to secure the services of a well qualified agent.
During the fiscal year 1918-19 there was in North and West Florida one district agent; one assistant district agent in charge of ten counties in North Florida; and one assistant emergency
-district agent in charge of short course work. During the ,canning season five additional workers were employed, one as district supervisory canning agent, three as county canning ,assistants and one as city canning agent.
AIMS
The report of last year ended with definite aims for the year to come. Each of these aims will be reported upon before proceeding with the general report of the work of the district agent.
First aim: To increase production by means of home gardens.
Very definite results are difficult to tabulate. The following ,excerpts from agents' reports typify the results as generally reported:
"Most of our homes are planning increased garden area."
41 1 find that most country people never plant lettuce, so I am ,giving each club girl a package of seed and asking her to plant it and learn to eat it."
"We have girl ' s enrolled in a 'two row club'. Each member
-will grow two rows of something to eat and can."
"I think I can safely say that more food was grown during the year than any previous year in the history of the county."






Annual Report, 1919


I "I find that nine-tenths of the back yards of the city have gardens. Many are very small. Thruout the county there are gardens in practically every home."
Second aim: To continue the conservation of food.
After the signing of the armistice and the lessening of the need of food supplies to be shipped abroad, our time was devoted to m. ore urgent work. Previous to the signing of the armistice, much canning was done, the largest ever reported.
Third: to give to the women of each county the opportunity of attending a housekeepers' school.
Out of the 21 counties in the district, 16 held these schools besides three held in counties not having home demonstration agents. This was one of the best pieces of work put over last. year.
Fourth Aim: , To provide monthly lessons for club girls these programs were sent out from the Florida State College for Women one month in advance of the time to be used.
Agriculture Home Play
Nov. Formation of Soil . School Lunch . Peanut Party Dec. Plant Food . Sugarless Sweets -_------_--- Christmas Party
Jan. Fertilizers ------------ _ . Clothing --- -------__--------------- Textile Party
Feb. Seed Bed --------------- _ ------- Poultry . ------------ W ashington Party
Mar. Transplanting. . Use of Fruits _------------------- St. Patrick's Party
April Cultivation -----------------_--- Use of Vegetables -------------- Easter Party
May Disease of Tomatoes . Milk and its use ---------------- May Day Party
June Enemies of Tomatoes. Canning demonstration ----- Picnic games July ----------------------------------------- Canning party . Canning games
A ug . . . Grapes ----------------------------------- Gam es
Songs suggested or written accompanied each program.
As a direct result of the January program, sewing work was stimulated and its growth since has been strong and rapid. .
The fifth aim was to plant perennials and to push grape work.
The subject of growing more fruit was emphasized in the 3-F drive. A report of the grape work will be given under girls' work.
GIRLS' WORK
Girls' work in the district has been much stronger this year. This is in part due to the monthly meetings and in part due to the cooperation between boys' and girls' clubs. This cooperation is especially strong in a few counties and is spreading thruout the district. Santa Rosa and Escambia counties hold successful monthly agricultural community meetings, bringing together the men, women, girls and boys.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SHORT COURSES
County short courses for girls have been held in 15 counties. These were well attended and effectively planned and carried out.
From April I to 12 the eighth annual short course for club girls was held, attended by 60 girls from 31 counties. These girls were "taken over" by the Y. W. C. A. college girls, each club girl having a college "Y" girl as a big sister. For more efficient work the girls were divided into three sections. Section one was composed of high school girls, and girls who had previously attended a state short course; section two, girls in lower grades; section three, girls in higher grades. Work for each section was planned accordingly. During the course moving pictures and slides were made of the girls in their various activities. The girls carry home from the state short course much that is valuable both in thought and practice. One little girl said, "You know I never worked a buttonhole 'til the state short course and since then I have been helping Mammawith buttonholes in my baby brother's clothes." In July, three months after the short course, one of the girls had grown so perceptibly and looked so well, on being questioned as to the. cause she replied, "Why I have been drinking a quart of milk a day ever since I was at Tallahassee and my little brother and sister do so too."
CAMPS
A boys' and girls' camp Was held in June in Santa Rosa county. This initial step suggested by the district agent after the Washington, D. C. meeting in January 1919, proved so successful that this form of a get-together-yearly-meeting will probably be State wide. The following description of this camp was taken from the agent's report:
"Tuesday June 10, the club girls and boys of Santa Rosa county gathered at Floridatown on the bay for a week's encampment.
"A three-room cottage with a separate building for a kitchen was generously loaned by a citizen of Milton for the girls' camp. About a quarter of a mile away the boys pitched their camps. The camps were supervised by the county and home demonstration agents, and state workers. H. E. Safely, field agent, Washington, D. C., was a visitor during most of the camp. The following program was carried out:
6:30 A. M. Bugle Call
6:35 A. M. Setting up exercises






Annual Report, 1919


6:45 A. M. Morning dip for boys; Girls dress and clean house
7:30 A. M. Breakfast 8:15 A. M. Boys clean house; special talk to girls 8:30 A. M. Forenoon classes-boys and girls separate-in four sections
Girls: 1. Sewing: darning; buttonholes; talk on dress.
2. First aid to injured
3. Fancy pack: labeling; fair exhibit; steam pressure 4. Basketry: Wire grass or pine needles; needles,
raffia
11:30 A. M. General Assembly (chapel) 12:30 P. M. Dinner 12:45 P. M. to 2:00 P. M. Rest 2:00 P. M. Quiet or sitting games (long time 11/2 hours) 4:30 P. M. Military drill 5:00 P. M. Athletic tests and active games 6:00 P. M. Girls swim; special talk to boys 7:00 P. M. Supper 8:00 P. M. Camp fire 9:30 P. M. Taps


FIG. 20.-Santa Rosa club girls' and boys' camp-in line for dinner






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"Each camper brought his bed and kit. At meal-time the line, formed, each with his plate, cup, knife, fork and spoon, and marched single file around the serving table, and had his plate filled. Meals were served in the kitchen at the girls' camp. The girls arranged in three groups, assisting the camp cook in the preparation and serving of the meals. 'Educational slides were shown every night after supper, but best of all, perhaps was the camp fire, where stories, games and songs were enjoyed until bed time.
"The expense of the camp was provided for by the county commissioners. The camp was planned largely by the home demonstration agent. During the camp, however, the girls only were under her supervision."
The commissioners were so pleased with the result that an appropriation was made for its repetition another year.
FALL CONTESTS
Sixteen contests have been held. The exhibits on the whole have been the best in quality ever shown. A good number of four year girls have completed their work and will receive certificates.
THE STORY OF EULA TRANTHAM
This year completes the sixth year of membership of Eula Trantham. in the Duval canning club. In 1915 she won the state championship and previous to 1919 was twice a county champion'. Again this fall Eula held this honor, entitlingher to the permanent ownership of the county silver.pitcher presented by one of the leading jewelers of Jacksonville. Twice has Eula attended the state short course, and since she is now employed in the office of Mr. C. Groover, instead of another scholarship at Tallahassee, she will receive a scholarship in a business school. Last year she made about $200 in both her canning and poultry club work. This year she joined the milk club, buying some of her cows with money made from the poultry and canning work. She helped her county to win first honors for the Groover club prize.
The story of her work this year will be told in her own words: "But now comes the sad part of my story. On the first day of July we had a cloudburst I . Notwithstanding my plot was on the high part of the field, it was covered with water about one foot deep. I was at first disheartened, but 1 thought of the saying, 'Try and try again and at last you will succeed,' so I began ditching until all the water had run off. When the sun






Annual Report, 1919


shone out hot I lost nearly one whole row but as soon as it was dry enough I worked the others and they began to put out new sprouts. I pruned the old sprouts off and gave the new ones a chance. I saved the ashes from the stove and mixed with chicken fertilizer and spread thickly around each plant and worked it in well. They certainly did better than I had expected.
"Between each row of tomatoes I planted a row of cane. Father gave me the seed last fall for helping him save his seed. I had nine rows, and it averaged 134 stalks to the row. I sold it to a fruit peddler for 8 cents a stalk in the patch. On this I cleared $96.48.
"This year I did not do as much canning as I usually do. I had such a demand for the fresh tomatoes and they brought such good prices.
"On my plot this year I made a total yield of 1,132 pounds of tomatoes, 514 pounds of which were used at home, and the remainder sold fresh for $34.55. 1 also sold my cane 1,206 stalks for $96.48, making a total of $131.03 sold. The total cost of my crop was $14.97."
MUSCADINE GRAPE WORK
- This work received its start from the work done in the Statein the spring of 1918 by Charles Dearing, Horticulturist, U. S. Department of Agriculture. One nursery company offered a prize of five Thomas grape vines to the ten counties in North Florida doing the most grape work by the fall of 1918. By the spring of 1919, 75 girls had enrolled for muscadine grape work. The state office sent out instructions for work with grapes. In August, 1919, Mr. Dearing held a second meeting in Tallahassee, with 15 county home demonstration agents present. Instructions in the propagation of the muscadine grape and the making of grape products were given. Incidentally, a part Of the initial order to the States Relations Service for grape paste for dining car service, was filled.
To further advance this work an educational exhibit was put on.at the State Fair. This exhibit consisted of nursery cuttings, plants, small models of planting and methods of cultivation; samples of the club work products; equipment for juice making; and a pyramid made of muscadine grape products, "set up" under a white pergola entwined with wild grape vines.
WOMEN'S WORK
The best piece of women's work accomplished this year was the housekeepers' schools, resulting in more home demonstration







Florida Cooperative Extension


clubs being organized, and four new rest rooms and twelve canning kitchens established. Five of these canning kitchens were established in Jackson county a report of which as made by the agent, follows:
"The county commissioners made an appropriation of $300 to be used to equip five kitchens in each commissioner's district. Thru June a special worker was employed. We had regular days at each kitchen, with 25 to 60 women working. In fact, they use the kitchens every day. Each kitchen has a pressure cooker, oil stove, oven, hot water canner and other necessary utensils. Other communities are asking for kitchens and women are planning to begin working for one. At several kitchens women go as far as 15 miles to can and use the pressure cooker, and some days two or three communities are represented. This is a splendid way to develop community spirit."
The canning kitchen in McClenny has been organized two years and notwithstanding the county is not supporting a county agent this year, this group of women continue their work. The "Kanning Kitchen" is located in the old court house. The school board is financing this work thru the summer; and a big steam pressure canner with a double purpose burner has been installed by the commissioners. 28,548 containers were sold for the kitchen. Many of the women have bought sealing irons and either have canning machines or use their pots and pans. "A can a daythe whole year thru" is their slogan.
One emergency city worker was employed in Jacksonville. The city council enabled her to equip a demonstration kitchen, where weekly demonstrations were held. The attendance was always good, varying from 36 to 89. The agent met regularly with eleven women's organizations. Later in the year three canning centers were established.
During May and June onecanning club girl was employed by the City of Pensacola to take charge of a city canning center, under the supervision of the county home demonstration agent.
CO-OPERATION BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
The establishing of school lunches has been an important phase of county work. Home demonstration agents have been instrumental in getting the -school children weighed and measured, and in increasing the drinking of milk by school children.
The home demonstration agent has been most valuable by teaching the club children, and incidentally the whole school, to






Annual Report, 1919


play games, sing songs and perform athletic feats. One agent was able to get some simple equipment in the schools which interested the principal in making two basket ball courts, one for the boys and one for the girls, one ocean wave, two poles for climbing, several swings, and two ridy-horses.
Home economics teachers have been employed in two counties this year as a direct result of the work of the home demonstration agent.
STATE MEETINGS AND FAIRS
The girls' short course and the grape meeting have already been reported.
During the first two weeks in September the eighth annual conference for home demonstration agents was held. The agents were in laboratory periods daily, working out problems in foods and food preservation. Outside assistance came from the U. S. Treasury Department, the States Relations Service, the State Board of Health, the Anti-Tuberculosis Association, and the State College of Agriculture. This conference was a very helpful one.
At the State Fair our exhibit was arrayed in the following five divisions: Canned products, muscadine grape work, sewing work, milk work, and poultry work. Never before ' have such beautiful and uniform products been exhibited at the State Fair. We were exceedingly proud of the work of our girls and women, especially when it excited most favorable comment from out of state visitors who had been to the other southern fairs.
A new phase of work exhibited was that of sewing. Here were shown the individual entries, and also a room representing a club girl's own bed room. The curtains and the bed covering were all made of unbleached muslin, stenciled in a daisy pattern and hemstitched by a club girl twelve years old. In the clothes closet were a blue uniform dress, apron, gown and laundry bag, made by club girls. To relieve the cold look of the cream walls and draperies, two delf blue candles were placed upon the box, dresser, a blue bordered pillow on the window seat and a blue and white rag rug put in the middle of the floor space.
In the milk booth were splendid charts and illustrative material on dairy work, emphasizing the food value of milk and the percentage of butter fat. Also an excellent exhibit of butter and cheese displayed in a glass front ce box.
A good display of home made poultry conveniences and a shipment of egg circle eggs was made in the general home demonstration exhibit.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith a report of the district agent of home demonstration work for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

ORGANIZATION
The district of South and East Florida during the fiscal year which closed June 30, 1919, was comprised of 27 counties, 20 of which cooperated financially. Later in the year one of these counties was transferred to the district of North and West Florida, leaving 19 counties cooperating financially. In these, 27 agents were employed, two of which were urban agents. The work was supervised by a district agent, with two assistants. At canning season, three canning assistants were employed for a term of four weeks each. Five negro women were employed as assistant county agents for work among negroes.
In organizing the work for the fiscal year beginning July 1, f919, urban work was discontinued. This led to a withdrawal of the work from Monroe county. In two counties in which local aid came from two county boards, appropriations were made by only one board. These appropriations were inadequate and the work was discontinued. In one county in which the work was poorly developed and the agent was forced to drop out because of a long illness, the county became discouraged and
*the work was given up. Brevard made an appropriation "for the present incumbent only." She was unable to return and that county was lost. This :left 14 of the 19 counties of the district. Broward and Alachua wereadded, bringing the total up to 16 in this district. Ten of the counties remaining in the work made increased appropriations to meet the increased cost of living and travel. Fifteen of the counties of the district made special appropriations for demonstration materials and equipment. Six of the counties provide cars. This eliminates one of the most difficult problems from the work, and can be worked out advantageously to county and agent. Two Of the counties, Hillsborough and Dade, employ two agents each. Eighteen






Annual Report, 1919


county agents are employed, and one negro assistant county agent.
AIMS OF WORK -IN 1919
In planning the work for 1919 the following were determined upon as its definite aims: Increasing club membership; strengthening club organization; teaching food values and cookery; increasing food production; teaching conservation in clothing; working for better homes; developing the social hour; conservation of child life; and fostering the spirit of Americanism.
INCREASING CLUB MEMBERSHIP
In the effort to increase club membership the scope of club work was broadened with the hope that it would meet the needs of a greater number of people.
Among the new phases of work undertaken, was work with bees. Osceola county was the pioneer county in this work as a club problem, and is the only county to date that has an organized piece of work of this type. In this county the interest is great and the work has been most successful. Thirty members worked throughout the year.
Because of an unfavorable season the yield in honey has been small. However, the interest of club members in this work, and what they have learned about the life and work of bees, their skill in handling them, and the common interest that has been developed among'club members, has proven well worth the effort. The agent urged Italian bees for club work.
It was found that any work done under other aims mentioned, increased interest and tended to increase membership.
RECREATION CAMPS
Camps were held in Hillsborough and Brevard counties. Regular programs of work were followed during a part of each day, but the play spirit so pervaded it all and the pleasure of those in attendance was so great, that these camps have always been spoken of as "recreation camps."
The camp in Hillsborough was the first camp in the State to be held for girls and boys. The suggestion for such a camp was taken from the report made by the state agent of West Virginia at the annual meeting held in Washington in December, 1918. It seemed a large undertaking, but believing that What could be done elsewhere could be done in Florida, plans were made for the camp. Club members attending the camp brought a certain







Florida Cooperative Extension


supply of staple foods, and paid 25 cents each. The board of county commissioners made an appropriation of $60 to supplement what club members provided. This proved ample.
The camp was held at Lake Wimauma. The use of a dining room and kitchen, built by the, lake-side for the use of camping parties, and the sleeping quarters of a nearby camp meeting ground added greatlyto the comfort of the campers.
Instruction given during the morning consisted of lessons in basketry, first aid, personal hygiene, and other kindred subjects.
Swimming hour for the girls, followed by swimming hour for the boys, preceded supper. Supper was followed by the camp fire, the crowning event of the day. At this hour the camp assembled around the blazing logs and the hour was filled with songs, stunts, games and a "good-night" talk.
The camp for Brevard clubs was held at Coronado Beach. The agent of Brevard county carried the two club members from local poultry and canning clubs respectively, who were making best records, to her summer home on the beach. There wore 22 in attendance. It was much in the nature of a house-party, with the members of the household assigned the different duties of the home.
The more attractive monthly club programs which included a recreational hour, increased interest in the work.
I TEACHING FOOD VALUES AND COOKERY
Fifteen home demonstration courses for housekeepers were held. These resulted in the teaching of food values and the f undamental principles of cookery, and in the organization of strong home demonstration clubs.
The following report is made by the assistant district agent, who tho assisting with other lines of work, devoted much time to such work among women:
"During the year, I have held ten home demonstration courses for housekeepers, of five days' duration each, in nine counties of South and East Florida, using the course of lessons outlined in Leaflet 3. In presenting these lessons, I discussed as fully as time and circumstances would permit, the nutritive value of the different classes of food; the principles of cookery and the principles of digestion; and the planning of well-balanced menus. Suitable demonstrations accompanied each lesson.
"The county home demonstration agent of the county in which the work was given, assisted, especially in the assembling of







Annual Report, 1919


materials, keeping attendance, and sometimes in giving demonstrations.'
"Among those who attended the various courses, were high school girls and-their teachers, young housewives, mothers and grand-mothers, trained nurses, and prominent club women. The aggregate attendance was 1926, with 550 women in attendance.
"Some gratifying results are as follows:
"L Organization of home demonstration clubs where none .could be organized before.
"2. Dignifying the profession of the housewife in the eyes of the community"3. Arousing of interest in the fact that the body needs something more than merely the satisfying of appetite.
"4. Stimulation of efforts to study the food needs of the family, and to make efforts to provide for these needs.
"5. Increased interest in the nutrition of school children.
"At the close of the course held in Kissimmee, a home demonstration club was organized, a permanent community kitchen secured and furnished. Here, the club holds its meetings and gives demonstrations; the county home demonstration agent has her office; the county women, when they go to town, rest and make tea and coffee to go with their lunch. Reports of the results accomplished in Kissimmee have stimulated interest elsewhere
"The course given in Ft. Myers under the auspices of the home demonstration club, resulted in increased membership, renewed interest in club activities, and a better understanding by the public of home demonstration work.
"At Brooksville, the ladies organized a home demonstration club which is especially interested in solving the school lunch problem when their new high school building is erected. These women have also formed a community canning center in the home demonstration kitchen.
"At Leesburg, the women organized a home demonstration club with the wife of a prominent physician as president, and the wife of the chairman of the county school board, as secretary.
"Of especial interest in, connection with the course given in Arcadia, is the fact that many prominent women became interested in home demonstration work. Steps were taken to organize a, club for the study of food values.
"In addition to the foregoing meetings, I held nine special meetings of one or two.&ys each, at which I gave lessons on






Florida Cooperative Extension


What the Body Needs, based on Bulletin No. 808; explained how to meet these needs; and gave appropriate demonstrations with each lesson. In nearly every case, the women asked for a full course next year. In one community a group of women who had been doing special war work are considering converting their organization into a home demonstration club."
STRENGTHENING CLUB ORGANIZATION
Effort has been made to develop stronger club organization among women and girls. The better prepared program has been a factor in the work. With material well organized it has been possible to assist club members in preparation for participating more largely in club meetings. This, with the ability that comes from accomplishment, is developing a greater number of local leaders among the club membership.
The most outstanding piece of organization work done in the, district in 1919 was the development of the Hillsboro home demonstration advisory council. The purpose of the council is ta provide a meeting in which* representatives from all clubs in the county may come together to discuss the problems of the club or communities as they are presented, by their respective delegates. Plans for solving community and club problems are discussed in conference with the other delegates and the agent; these plans are taken back to the local club and, if approved, an effort is made to enlist the entire community in its solution; or if it is a matter pertaining only to club work it is acted upon solely by the club.
The plan of organization provides for two delegates from each club, the president and an elected delegate who represent the club officially; but all members of a club are invited to attend the council meeting. Meetings are held quarterly.
Chairmen of the following standing committees were appointed: home improvement; public health; community social life and activities; education; fairs and exhibits; agriculture; citizenship. Corresponding chairmen were appointed in local clubs, and these local chairmen with the county chairmen form the county committees.
Not only have the council meetings been full of inspiration and enthusiasm, but the definite work done in communities as a result has been multiplied many-fold. . Among some of the results of this work have been: The establishment of two hot school lunches in the county; the establishment of a rest room for women; the furnishing of three club






Annual Report, 1919


'kitchens; the screening of a school house; the starting of alund for a community building; the purchase of a good victrola for a school; the establishing in one community of a Saturday night community social; a great number of community days observed and entertainments put on; splendid cooperation in fair work and contests; the examination of all school children attending a consolidated school, with good follow-up work; active work and much interest in home improvement; a large increase in the number of home gardens growing the year around, and fine development in local leadership. The agents and club members are enthusiastic over results.
CONSERVATION OF CLOTHING
One of the most interesting monthly programs given by a number of the clubs included an exhibit of re-modeled garments. .The club A Ft. Myers made one of the best of these exhibits, 47 remodeled garments being shown. The discussion and exchange of methods at these meetings were always most interesting. Instructions were given in the testing of materials and 'th e dying of dress goods.
FAIRS
Fairs were held in several counties in the district. . The' fairs held at Miami, Orlando and Tampa were the largest of these. Attractive home demonstration booths were shown. The home demonstration exhibit at the Tampa fair is made on the same plan as the exhibit at the State Fair.
HIGH RECORDS IN THE DISTRICT
Yields from tenth acre plots are not as high this year as last, but profits are generally higher.
Among the highest records made by club girls on the tenth acre is that of Alene Young of Plant City. The story of her work she tells as follows:
"I did a good deal of club work outside my work on my plot this year. I canned 500 cans for other people and over 500 for 'home use and to sell.
"I canned tomatoes, beans and corn in tin cans, and all fruits, jellies and marmalades in glass. There were 28 containers of f ruit.
"The first work I did on my tenth acre was to plant it in :strawberries, which paid me well. I sold my first berries Jan-uary 10, and from this time until May 19, 1 sold 880 fine pounds of berries which brought me $166.89.






Florida Cooperative Extension


"My next crop was tomatoes. I planted my seed in a bed on January 15. The hard rains almost ruined them, tho I saved enough to plant my tenth acre.
'On March 12 1 transplanted mytomato plants. Again the hard rains damaged them, but after all, they did right good.
"I sold my first.tomatoes May 19, and the last on June 5, which brought me $7.85.
"The price of tomatoes was so little, I canned the balance of my crop to sell, which paid me much better than selling fresh tomatoes.
"I had 200 No. 2 cans of tomatoes to sell and kept 130 at home. That was the last of my spring and summer crop.
"I pulled up the old tomato vines and cleaned out the berry plants tomake plants in the fall. I sold 25,565 fine plants off my tenth acre. I got $4 a thousand, which in all brought me $82.26 net. That ismy last crop for this year, tho I have'my berries cleaned out and ready for early bearing again and the prospects look good. This ends my year's work, which I think is fine.
Total receipts were . ---------------- . a . - . $297.30
T otal cost . ------------------------------------------------------------- . 23.56
N et profit . . . $273.74
"I did all my own work this year. I will try to do as good next year." Alene is a third year girl.
Anna Sykes, a Dade County girl, is another high record club member. She started to set out plants December 31. First picking was March 13. All tomatoes were shipped. The total yield of 4,700 pounds was sold at a profit of $134.26. This is another third year girl.
CURB MARKET
Of the curb markets established during the previous year, the one at Miami has passed the experimental. stage. It has been satisfactory to truckers and housewives. The market has been taken over by the city. Plans are made for housing it.






Annual Report, 1919


REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the home dairy specialist for the year ending December 31, 1919.
Respectfully,
MAE MORSE,
In Charge of Home Demonstration Dairy Work.

The close of 1919 marks the end of the second year of special work for the development of the home dairy industry. More definite work has been possible this year owing to the interest arous d among the farm women by the educational work done the preceding year; also the home demonstration agents have a better understanding of the work. Higher prices and increased demand for dairy products have also stimulated interest.
FEATURES OF WORK
One of the most interesting demonstrations in the development of the work was carried out by Miss Eloise McGriff, in Manatee county. To convince the people of the need of more and better milch cows, Miss McGriff adopted a plan which is explained in the following extracts from one of her reports: "At a meeting of the teachers of Manatee county I presented the plan of having every child in the county weighed and measured. I put into the hands of each teacher cards with spaces for the name, age, height, weight, and 'I should weigh -lbs.' In addition to this, I requested each teacher to report those who received at least a pint of milk a day (was afraid to put the standard too high at first)
"I also gave the teacher a class-room record to be placed on, the wall as a permanent record and to encourage those who fell below the standard required for their age and height, that they might improve.
"I visited the schools, gave talks on health and stressed the need of milk for children.
"In summing up the results of the work, I found practically every child who was up to standard, was drinking milk. Of those who fell below the standard practically none were drinking milk. Of those who fell much below the standard, not one was drinking milk.
"Some of the children became interested and began.drinking milk, some of them gaining as much as five pounds the'first






Florida Cooperative Extension


month. Parents became interested and soon the demand for dairy cows far exceeded the supply. One carload was brought into the county, besides numerous single animals, and still there is a steady demand for dairy cows.
"While I was doing this, the county agent was carrying on a campaign, 'A Dairy Cow on Every Farm.'"


FIG. 21-0ne of the 50 cows carried into Manatee County as a result of the weighing, measuring and general milk drinking campaign among children of school age.

A cow for every rural home has been the slogan of all agents. Greater effort has been made this year to acquaint as many people as possible with the food value of milk and to overcome the prejudice against its use which exists in many families.
Demonstrations have been given of the various ways milk can be used in cookery. Instructions have been given in the care of milk under home conditions, including the making of butter and cottage cheese. At the state short courses for home demonstration agents and for club girls, a series of lessons were given on the care, food value and utilization of dairy products. Each






Annual Report, 1919


agent and club girl made butter and cottage cheese under the direction of the dairy agent.
. A number of butter judging contests were held to interest women and girls in making better butter and to teach them what constitutes good marketable products.
The outstanding feature of this year's work was the organization of dairy clubs. The object was to increase the production of milk, increasing the amount available for home use, and to help eliminate as rapidly as possible the necessity for purchasing dairy products outside of our state. Club members kept records of milk production, cost of feeds, amount sold, and the money received for them.
This club work was made possible by F. C. Groover of Jacksonville, who offered $450 in cash prizes to the five clubs making the highest scores according to prescribed rules; those showing the highest increase in yield of milk, the lowest cost of production, the greatest increase in dairy stock and stock improvement.
All clubs that competed in this contest were required to make an exhibit at the 1919 state fair, where a space of 20 feet was given for the display of material setting forth the food value of milk, the value of pure bred dairy stock, of home grown feeds, and of better business methods fordairy work. A very creditable exhibit of dairy products was made by the club members.
RESULTS OF WORK
Eleven clubs were organized with a total membership of 125. These clubs complied with all the requirements of the rules of the contest.
Duval county won first prize, $200; Hernando second, $100; Putnam third, '$75; St. Johns fourth, $50; and St. Lucie fifth, $25. This contest clearly demonstrated to the club members the value of record keeping.
Shortly after the contest was started numbers of cows that were entered were sold; apparently they were found to be unprofitable animals to keep. The Babcock test was used by one club. In the majority of instances it was found that the home cow was profitable, and altho the contest closed October ,31, many of the club members are continuing their record keeping.
Thru. the reports of our home demonstration agents we learn that 172 cows were brought to supply home needs, and that many more would have been placed in homes if good cows had been obtainable. As an evidence of progress in the work we also
7






98 Florida Cooperative Extension

find club members making iceless refrigerators, buying barrel churns, dairy thermometers, cream separators, standard butter molds, butter paddles, butter workers, and small topped milk pails, in much greater numbers than previously.
At the state fair this.fall the butter exhibit was much larger than formerly, the quality was exceptionally good and every pound exhibited except one was printed in the standard mold, wrapped and packed according to market standards,
HINDRANCES TO WORK
Much more could have been accomplished in dairy development if good cows could have been secured.
Fourteen agents report the inability of people in their territory to secure good cows. The chief reason for 'this was the prevalence of the cattle fever tick, resulting in a scarcity of good high producing cows, and the consequent impracticability of bringing in cows from a tick free area. In some sections where tick eradication has lapsed, people who had purchased good cows are experiencing great difficulty in -keeping them free from heavy tick infestation.
Many people as yet have not given sufficient attention to the production of feeds and forage but have taken the easier method of buying commercial feeds, which lessens profits on their dairy operations.
PLAN FOR ENSUING YEAR
Beginning January 1, dairy clubs will be organized in the counties finding the work practical.
The plan of work will be essentially the same as in the contest just closed. The same amount of -prize money will be given by Mr. Groover, but the apportionment will be slightly different. It is also planned thru the cooperation of the state dairy association, to give prizes to the members of different clubs who do the best work.
In connection with the dairy club work Babcock tests of milk for club members will be made wherever possible. Butter judging contests will be held to stimulate an interest in the production of a standard farm butter.
Our aim for 1920:
To teach as many as possible the food value of milk.
More good cows for Florida homes.
Fewer cattle fever ticks.
More home grown feeds.
Improved home sanitation.




Full Text

PAGE 1

-Cooperative Extension Work in _ Agriculture and Home Economics . . . . . . ~ ' "'!. Un1vers1ty of Flonda D1vis1on of Agncuttu,:~ i , r..-: 1 :. " 1/~>" . Extension and United States Department.: ._ ?, ;\ of Agriculture Cooperatiftg /,: , : ,, , . . 1 ,_:: \_ j '. ' : ! ~ / ! ~'! f 2 4 . ' -.. ; / ;: f . P. H. ROLFS, Director \, . , .. ' :, . ./ REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1919 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING _ .11.JNf: 30, . 1919 ... . ;

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Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating P. H. ROLFS, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1919 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR.ENDING JUNE 30, 1919 MARCH, 1920

PAGE 4

FIG. 1.-This photograph was made in front of the Administration Building, University of Florida, Gainesville. It shows the Board of Control, President of the University, Dean and Faculty of the College of Agriculture, State, District and County Agents , Cooperative Extension Work , Plant Commissioner and members of his staff, and the Experiment Sta tion staff . Dr. Conradi, President, Florida State College for Women; Dr. A . C. True, Director States Relations Service, Washington, D. C.; Dr. F. M. Bomberger, Assistant Director of Extension Work, Maryland State College of Agriculture; a nd State Health Officer Greene are also shown in the photograph.

PAGE 5

Hon.Sidney J. Catts, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calen,dar year ending December 31, 1~19, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1919. Respectfully, J.B. HODGES, Chairman of the Board of Control.

PAGE 6

Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF CONTROL J.B. HODGES, Chairman, Lake City Fla. E. L. W ARTMANN, Citra, Fla. J.B. SUTTON, Tampa, Fla. H. B. MINIUM, Jacksonville, Fla. W.W. FLOURNOY, DeFuniak Springs, Fla. BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief. H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent. 0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work. STAF F A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. P. H. ROLFS, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director. COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, District Agent for South Florida. E.W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida (resigned Sept. 15). H. G. CLAYTON, District Agent for West Florida. G. L . HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent. R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Agent. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, Assistant State Agent. AGNES I. WEBSTER, District Agent, East and South Florida. LUCY C. CUSHMAN, District Agent, North and West Florida. MAY MORSE, Assistant District Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant District Agent. SPECIALISTS A. H. LOGAN,a Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational and Demonstrational Work. JOHN M. SCOTT, Animal lndustralist. WM. H. BLAcK,a Extension Animal Husbandman. N. W. SANBORN,a Extension Poultry Husbandman. J. O. TRAXLER,b Farm Help Specialist. FRAZIER ROGERS, Silo Specialist. W. ?f. ANKENEY,*C Extension Plant Pathologist. M. L. BENN,*c Extension Plant Pathologist. C. M. TUCKER, •c Extension Plant Pathologist. J. B. THOMPSON, Forage Crop Specialist. J. E. TURLINGTON, Agronomy Specialist. a . cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. s. D. A . . b. Cooperating with the Office of F'arm Management, U. s . D. A. c . Cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D . A . •Resigned June 30, 1919.

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Annual Report, 1919 LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus. J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Lecturer, Plant Pathology. GRACE -c. GREENE, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, AUDITOR. LENA R. HUNTER, Assistant Auditor. SARAH L. VINSON, Editor. COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Alachua ....... ........................ C. D. Gunn ............... .................. Gainesville Bay ......................................... G. E. Meade ................................ Panama City Columbia ............................... H . A. McDonald. . ................... Lake City Bradford ........ .. ...................... J. O. Traxler ............................... Starke Brevard ........ ..... .......... . .......... K . E. Bragdon ...... ... .......... . ........ Cocoa Citrus ........................... . ......... R. J. Dorsett ............................... Inverness Dade ........... . ....... ... .... .. . . .......... J. S. Rainey ................................ Miami De Soto ............ .. .................... J. M. Tillman ...... ... ............ . ........ Arcadia Duval... ............ ... ........ .. ......... W. L. Watson ....... .. .......... . ......... Jacksonville Escambia ............................... J. L. Smith . . .. ...... ... . . ......... . ......... Pensacola Hernando .............................. Jas. Mountain ..... . ............ ... .. ..... Brooksville Hillsboro ............................... R. T. Kelley ....................... .. ....... Plant City Holmes ........................ . ......... J. J. Sechrest ...................... . ....... Bonifay Lee .......................................... J. M. Boring .. . ..... ..... ... .. . . .. .. ........ Ft. Myers Leon ........................... ... ......... R. I. Matthews: ... '. ...................... Tallahassee Liberty ............ .. ......... ..... ....... A. W. Turner ................... . .......... Bristol Madison .................... , ... ......... C. E. Matthews .......................... Madison Manatee .............. .. .... ..... .... .. W. R. Briggs ....... ..... ........... ... ... . Bradentown Marion .......... ... ........ ........ ...... W. A. Sessoms .... . ...................... Ocala Okaloosa ........ .... ......... . .......... R. J. Hart ............ . ....................... Laurel Hill :. . . ~. ~: w:~~;::. .:.. .: .:: :::.:. .:.. .:: ~1!!r~inee Palm Beach ........................... R. A. Conkling ........................... West Palm Beach Pasco ...................................... F. G. Merrin ........ : ...................... Dade City Polk. .... . .......... .. ....... ........... .... Wm. Gomme . ..... . . ..... ....... .. ........ Bartow Putnam ....................................................................... . ............... Palatka St. Johns ...................... .. ........ K. W. Lord ............ . ..................... St. Augustine St. Lucie ....... . ............. . .......... A. Warren ......................... ...... ... Ft. Pierce Santa Rosa ............................ R. T. Oglesby ....................... : ..... Milton Seminole ....... . .. ..... ... ..... ......... C. M. Berry .......... : ..... ...... .... ....... Sanford Suwannee ...... .... ........... , ........ D. A. Armstrong .............. . ......... Live Oak Taylor ........................ ... ......... L. R. Moore ................................. Perry Volusia ...... . .. . . ...... ...... ....... .. . .. W. E. Dunaway .... . .. . ... ... . . ... : .... . . De Land Walton ......... .. ............ .... ....... J. W. Mathison., ... . ............. .... .... DeFuniak Springs COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY NAME ADDRESS Citrus .............. .. ......... .. .......... Mrs. B. E. Buchanan ................. Inverness Alachua ................................. Miss Irene Randall .................... Gainesville Alachua (Assistant) . ........ . . Mrs. Susie Sapp Croftcn .... ...... Gainesville Bradford .. : .... .. ......... . ............. Mrs. Flora Clower Scott.. ........ Starke Broward ....................... . ....•... Mrs. Adrienne Peay .................. Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun ................................. Mrs. Grace F. Warren .. ........ .... Blountstown Dade ... . .. .......... . . ... ..... . . .. ........ . Miss Lal Cunningham .............. Miami Dade (Assistant) ...... .... ....... Mrs. Nellie A. Bush .................. Goulds De Soto ........ ..... .......... .... ....... Miss Connie DeVane ....... . ......... Arcadia Duval... .... ... .. ...... ........ .. ......... Miss Clarine Hoyt ..................... Jacksonville 5 1641 Dellwood Ave.

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6 Florida Cooperative Extension Escambia ............................... Miss Margaret Cobb ................. Pensacola Gadsden ................................. Miss Ruby McDavid .................. Hinson Hernando ............................... Mrs. Estelle Colvertson ............ Brooksville Hillsboro ................................ Miss Edith Cole Young ............. Tampa ( City Hall) Hillsboro (Assistant) ......... Mrs. Maude McRae ................... Plant City Jefferson ................................ Miss Posey Taylor ..................... Lloyd Lee .......................................... Miss Margaret Burleigh ........... Ft. Myers Leon ........................................ Mrs. Mary S. Russell.. .............. Tallahassee Madison ................................. Miss Edna Smith ....................... Madison Manatee ................................. Mrs. Ivie Turnbull. .................... Bradentown Okaloosa ................................ Miss Harriette Hawthorne ...... Crestview Orange .................................. Mrs.Nellie Taylor .................... Orlando Osceola .................................. Miss Albina Smith .................... Kissimmee Palm Beach ........................... Miss Elizabeth Hopkins ........... West Palm Beach Pasco .................................... ,.Mrs. H. A. Tichnore .................. Dade City Pinellas .................................. Miss Hazel Carter .................... Largo Polk ........................................ Miss Lois Godbey ...................... Bartow Putnam .................................. Miss Floresa Sipprell... ............ Palatka St. Johns ................................ Miss Anna E. Heist ................... St. Augustine St. Lucie ................................ Miss {.ula Chriesman ................ Ft. Pierce Santa Rosa ............................ Miss Winnie Warren ................. Milton Suwannee ....... : ...................... Miss Alice Dorsett .................... Branford Taylor .................................... Mrs. Brant Mills ........................ Perry

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Report of General Activities for 1919 with . Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1919 Hon. J.B. Hodges, Chairman, Board of Control. Sm: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the Univer sity of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal . year ending June 30, 1919, and the report of the activities of the Extension Division for the calendar year 1919. I respectfully request that you transmit the same, in accordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION p; H. ROLFS, Director. Just before the beginning of the present calendar year, we reached the end of the great world war which, for two years, held our undivided interest. Every effort was put forth by the Extension workers to increase and conserve food products of all kinds. While this has always been an important part of county and home demonstration work, the effort was stimulated to a greater degree by the pressing conditions apparent to everyone. It could not be expected that Florida could contribute to anylarge extent in supplying food products to those outside the state, but the effort was made to have each farm and each community self sustaining, as far as it was practical to do so. Remarkable progress in agriculture was made during this , period. The state of Florida made advances in livestock pro duction, particularly hogs, that excelled in percentage practically every other state in the country. Food products of all kinds were materially increased, in spite of the fact that Florida sent her full quota of laborers to the war, and to war activities. Around the county and home demonstration Agents' offices

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8 Florida Cooperative Extension were centered a number of volunteer workers who lent their best efforts in this direction. The Agents, realizing the need for assistance, called for help from leading citizens of every com munity, and, after placing the program for greater food produc tion before them, helped them to organize into units of workers for the one purpose of increasing and conserving . the agricultural production of this state. The part that the county and home demonstration agents played, and the response of the farmers, especially the farm women, in the call for food products, has taught some lessons in production, conservation and thrift that will be effective long after many thrilling features of the war have been almost forgotten. During this period, when there was the greatest amount of unrest thruout the nation, the farm labor more difficult to se cure and more expensive than ever before, and . with all phases of agricultural and commercial disturbance, the state of Florida has made more progress in agricultural development than during any ten years of its previous history. ORGANIZATION The Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics is directed from the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida, with headquarters on the University campus. The home demonstration work has offices at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, and the farm and home-makers' clubs at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee. The budget system is used to govern the working plans, which budget is approved by the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture, before going into effect. The work was conducted under ten projects during the past year, the principal ones being that of the county co-operative and home demonstration agents. The work in each county cen tered around these two offices, and all other project leaders carried out their work in the counties, using the offices of the local agents as the centers. The purpose in view is to improve the rural conditions in Flor. ida, by working with farms and farm homes. The instruction given corresponds with the . instruction given from the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, and the home economics department of the State College for Women. The project leaders ar~ kept in close touch with the various activities of these colleges,

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Annual Report, 1919 9 so that the work will be conducted with a common purpose in view. The county agents arrange for public meetings, and speakers are provided by the state institutions. Thru co-operation between the State College of Agriculture and the United States Depart ment of Agriculture, the various Bureaus, Departments, and the State agencies are harmonized so that each county can secure benefit from such bureaus as are working on problems that affect the state of Florida. The county agents are under the direction of the state agent and district agent. The boys' club work is under the direction of the state club agent and his assistant. The clubs are organized by the County Agents, with the assistance of the School Boards, County Super intendents, Fair Associations and other organized efforts that are intended to promote agriculture. The home demonstration agents have headquarters at the State College for Women, the work being supervised by the State and district agents with the assistance of the specialists working on home dairying and poultry. The county home demonstration agents organize clubs of women and girls to study home economics problems, and all home demonstration work in the counties is directed thru these agents. The farm and home makers' clubs for negroes have headquar ters at the Florida A. & M. College for negroes, Tallahassee. This work is under the general direction of a local district agent in farm makers' clubs. Assistant club agents are employed for a portion of the year to give assistance to the rural colored pop ulation, encourage thrift and improve rural conditions in general. The specialists devote all their attention to a particular line of work. They, too, reach the farmers thru the county agents, and assist in all problems related to their special work. The Extension workers consult the workers in the Experime-nt Station, and when the Experiment Station workers visit the counties they are privileged to visit the office of the county and home demonstration agent and secure all assistance that can be given them. The county and home demonstration agents have head quarters in a central place in the county, usually in the county seat. The office equipment and all laboratory equipment needed is also provided for from the county funds. As the county and the home demonstration agents' problems are very closely con

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10 Florida Cooperati v e Extension nected, they usually have the same office and assist each other in the arrangement of meetings and conducting any work that applies to both the farm and home. MONTHLY CONFERENCES The entire staff of the Agricultural Extension work meets regularly on the third Monday of each month for a conference regarding the problems affecting the program of the work as a whole. The wide scope of the Extension work requires that everyone should be sufficiently informed on all the other prob lems so that there will be the closest co-operation. These conferences develop discussions of matters as they occur in the counties. When special problems present themselves, af fecting individual counties, county agents are invited to present the matter as it occurs from the county agents' standpoint. The dairy, poultry and home garden work affect the women and men's work alike. Club contests for boys and girls frequently have a joint program where outsiders are invited to take part in the program. In order to correlate in the arrangement of these, it is necessary to have a harmonious plan worked out, so that there will be no loss of time or effort. In fact, the work of the county and the home demonstration agents and specialists is so closely associated that the better the plans for aH these operations are understood the greater will be the co-operation thru the entire system. In shifting the work from the war program necessarily many modifications have taken place which required adjustment. Representatives from the Plant Board and the General Extension work and other departments of the University are invited to these conferences to discuss any particular problem they may wish to bring before the county and home demonstration agents. EXTENSION FUNDS During the last year of the war there was appropriated to the United States Department of Agriculture $4,500,000 to be used to stimulate production and conserve food products. Of this amount, the state of Florida received approximately $70,000. The money was expended for the employment of emergency county and home demonstration agents in counties where there was no regular agent; for salaries of assistant county and home demonstration agents, city and urban agents; for salaries of specialists in the control of livestock diseases, plant diseases and

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Annual Report, 1919 11 insect pests, construction of sweet potato storage houses, har vesting and storing sweet potatoes and peanuts, preservation of perishable food stuffs, combating insects of stored grains, animal production, . and a f~rm labor specialist, and for the em'." ployment of the additional clerical and office force necessary to handle this increased amount of work. At the close of the fiscal year, this e~ergency appropriation was discontinued, leaving a large organization that had been built up during the war but with funds only sufficient to continue as under pre-war conditions. This reduced the number of counties with county and home demonstration agents from 52 to 37, with a corresponding reduction in the number of specialists and super vising agents. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Following is the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919: RECEIPTS Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever FederaL. ................................................. $32,704.31 Smith-Lever State .......... .... ............. . .......... . . ....... .. .. . .... 22,704.31 U. S. D. A. Appropriation ................................................ 23,000.00 State Appropriation ............... . ......... ... . ... .... ... ... . .......... .. ..... 13,215.37 County Appropriation .... : . ....... .. . ... ....... .. . . : .. . . . ... .. .... .. .. ...... . 67,106.85 EXPENDITURES . Administration Project ............................................ : ......... $13,466.72 Printing and Publications Project... . ...... .... ...................... 2,779.43 County Agents' Project ................... .. ... . .. . .. ... . .. .................. 76,165.44 Home Demonstration Project ................. ...... ..................... 53,811.07 Boys' Club Work Project.......................... ..... ..................... 6,805.02 Animal Industry............................. . ..... . . . . .... ....................... 1,452.08 Negro Farm and Home Makers' Project ... ...... . .............. 3,101.33 Hog Cholera Educational........... . .......... ............ .................. 480.00 Plant Pathology....................... . ...... . . ........ ..... ........... ............ 411.88 Silo Construction................ ... ...... . . . ...... ......... . ..... . .. . . ... .. ....... 257.87 PUBLICATIONS Bulletin $158,730.84 $158,730.84 No. Title Edition \t i~f :1~ . ~l~~;:::::::::::::::::: : ::::::::::::: :::::: : ::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::Jg:!l! 16. Boys' Agricultural Clubs ..... ... . .. .. ..... , ... ..... ............................ .. .. . .... . .. . 20,600 17. Hog Pastures and Feeds .................................................................... 7,500 18. A Spray Schedule for Citrus ................ , ..................................... . . . ..... 12,229 19. Farm and Home Makers' Clubs . . . ....................................................... 5,000 20. Self-Feeder for Pork Production ... .. .. ........................................ . .. . . .... 20,590 Circulars Title Edition 6. Farm Labor ............................ .. .. . . .. .. ..... : . ............................... ................ 10,000 7. Club Work in Taylor County . .... . . ... .. . .. .... .. .. . . . .. ... . ........................ ...... 6,000 Poster Title Edition 5 . . Have You a Cow ............. .. . .. . ........... . .. . ..... , .. .. .... ..... . . ........ . .... .. .. ........ ... . 2,000 1919 Campaign for Food, Feed and Forage .... . .. .. .. ........... . ... . .... .... . .. ... .... . 5,000 . Annual Report..... . ...... . .... .. ...... ........... .. . .. ....... . . ................................ . . .... .... .... 4,000 Agricultural News Service, 52 week s , 425 copies each week. .

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12 Florida Cooperative Extension CHANGES IN STAFF On January 1, 1919, William Gomme was appointed district. agent for South Florida in co-operative demonstration work. He resigned June 30, 1919, and was appointed county agent in Polk county. R. W. Blacklock, emergency assistant club agent, resigned July 31, 1919, and was appointed county agent in DeSoto county. On September 15, 1919, he was reappointed assistant club agent. L. R. Highfill, assistant club agent, resigned September 15, 1919. At the close of the college year, Frazier Rogers and J. E. Tur lington of the College of Agriculture were appointed as silo and agronomy specialists. On June 30, 1919, both positions were dis continued for lack of funds to continue them thru the year. John M. Scott, animal industrialist of the Experiment Station, was appointed animal industrialist of the Extension Division. A. P. Spencer, Vice-Director, was assigned to the duties of dis trict agent in eight South Florida counties, in addition to the reg ular duties at headquarters. W. N. Ankeney was appointed extension plant pathologist, be ginning his duties March 1, 1919. The work was discontinued June 30, 1919. M. L. Benn and C. M. Tucker were appointed extension plant pathologists to work principally on watermelon diseases. Their work began April 4, 1919, and continued to June 30. J. 0. Traxler, farm help specialist, resigned June 30, 1919. As Mr. Traxler was employed on war emergency work, the position was discontinued June 30. Miss Agnes Ellen Harris, state home demonstration agent, resigned June 1, 1919, to engage in Smith-Hughes work in Texas. The position was filled by the appointment of Miss Sarah W. Part ridge, district agent, South Florida. On July 1, 1919, Miss Harriet W. Layton, district agent for North and West Florida, was appointed assistant state home . demonstration agent. Miss Lonnie Landrum, assistant district agent, was appointed district agent for West Florida, but resigned September 1 to pursue graduate studies in Columbia University, and was suc ceeded by Miss Lucy C. Cushman, emergency city worker from Miami. Miss Sara D. Griffin was appointed assistant district agent,

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Annual Report, 1919 13 home demonstration work, for middle Florida, October 1, 1918. She resigned June 30, 1919. PLAN OF WORK . The projects by which the funds are expended and the work conducted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, are as follows: PROJECT 1-A-:ADMINISTRATION This provides for the offices of the Director, Vice-Director, sal aries of clerical help and other executive expenditures that can not be properly charged to any particular project. PROJECT 1-B-PUBLICATIONS This provides for the expense of publication and distribution of bulletins, circulars, weekly agricultural news service and annual reports. Only 5 % of the Smith-Lever funds can be used in this project. PROJECT II-COUNTY AGENTS This provides for the maintenance of county agents' supplies and incidentals of those directly in charge of the county agent work. Wherever a county agent is employed, the county must provide additional funds to apply on the salary, traveling ex penses or the equipment of his office. PROJECT III-BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUBS (Principally Corn, Pig, Calf and Peanut Clubs) This work is intended to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12 and 18. The clubs are organized by the county agents, with the assistance of the boys' club agents, so that Projects II and III are closely allied. In order to make these clubs effective, the support of school officials, business interests and other or ganizations directly interested in . the common good of the com munity are solicited. PROJECT IV-HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK This work is conducted principally in the rural districts under . two divisions, one giving particular attention to girls clubs and the other to women's clubs. The general purpose is to give in struction in domestic science and art, the principle of home mak ing as applied to rural life, and to carry this work just as far in the communities as conditions will permit. The co~operation of women's clubs and all agencies looking for the betterment of the rural home are sought.

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension PROJECT V-BEEF CATTLE EXTENSION WORK This project works toward the improvement of the beef cattle industry of the state, to arrange for the distribution of breeding cattle to those in a position to handle them; to encourage t:he im portation of suitable animals from outside the state, and to lend every encouragement to securing a better beef industry. This project is conducted according to the joint agreement between the Extension division and the Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. PROJECT VI-FARM AND HOME MAKERS' CLUBS The work of this project is intended to improve the rural con ditions among the farms and homes of the negro farmers in the state. They are encouraged to produce larger yields from their crops ; are instructed in the care and management of live.stock, truck and fruit crops. The boys and girls are organized into corn, pig, and peanut clubs. The girls and women are organized into canning and home makers' clubs and are taught the principles of economy and thrift, production and conservation. Assistant agents are provided in counties, and are supervised by a district leader. PROJECT VII~EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK This is conducted co-operatively with the Bureau of Animal In dustry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and co-ordinating with the hog cholera control work of the Livestock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee. The agent in charge spends his entire time in the counties assisting county agents in handling the diseases of hogs, and lending the necessary encouragement in this direction for the betterment of the hog industry. The proper use of hog cholera serum and virus is taught, and demonstrated with. an idea of preventing the spread of hog diseases or holding contagious diseases in control following an outbreak of cholera. In the past year, the agent has devoted his energies to performing local organizations, looking to more san itary conditions of all livestock, particularly hogs. PROJECT VIII-:-POULTRY HUSBANDRY This project provides for general educational work to improve the poultry of the state. The representative is primarily inter ested in the improvement of the farm flock and works with that end in view, with county and home demonstration agents. Dur

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Annual Report, 1919 15 ing the fiscal year ending June 30, this work was in co-operation with the Poultry Division of the Bureau of Animal Industry. PROJECT IX-PLANT PATHOLOGY By a co-operative agreement with the Bureau of Animal In dustry, a plant pathologist was secured, principally to assist county agents in giving help to farmers and truckers wherever diseases of plants occurred. PROJECT X-SILO CONSTRUCTION The silo specialist assists in making estimates, and plans for the erection of suitable silos, preventing as far as possible any mistakes that might be made, and advises the crops best suited for silage. Other specialists not assigned to a project and paid for by the U. S. Department of Agriculture were engaged with such prob lems as farm labor, watermelon disease and insect control, har vesting and storing peanuts and construction of sweet potato storage houses. For the most part, this work was provided for from special funds appropriated to stimulate production and conservation as a war measure . . COMPLETION OF WAR PROGRAM For the first six months of the calendar year just closed, all Extension workers were absorbed very largely with winding up the program prepared for the war period. The appropriations by Congress were applicable until June 30, which provided for Emer gency county and home demonstration agents, assistant club agents and city and urban workers. In several counties only emergency agents were at work, and most of these for only four days a week. ' Specialists were also winding up the war program, and assist ing county agents in their regular and emergency work. On ac count of the irregularity and emergency nature of the work, it is difficult to compile a report that would give a fair conception of what was accomplished. It should be stated that these agents gave every help possible in securing the acreage to be planted to staple crops that had been estimated by the Federal Government to be necessary for the maintenance of the nation and to supply other states that would need large amounts of food stuffs from this part of 'the country to carry them over until they could pro duce these supplies at home.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension The unsettled conditions of labor and the increasing prices made the labor situation even more difficult than during the actual period of war. The Farm Labor specialist continued his work with the same vigor and energy.and assisted in adjusting labor conditions particularly in the intensive trucking sections, in the packing houses, and for clearing new lands or where there was a need of labor for an indefinite period. During that period, many soldiers were returning to civil life and thru the Labor Specialist many were placed in positions of various kinds, partic ularly in the truck growing and citrus areas. It seemed . especially necessary to have the emergency city workers continue during this period because the regulations that were laid down by the United States Food Administration were gradually suspended. The city and urban home demonstration agents carried out practically the same kind of work as during the war period, that is, to conserve food stuffs, particularly those of which there was an apparent shortage. The stimulus in livestock production was just beginning to show a decided tendency to increase, particularly with hogs. Dur ing the war period, the farmers had improved their hogs as never before in the history of the country. Many had overstocked with high priced animals and were not accustomed to selling these at breeders' prices, nor were they familiar with pedigrees and blood lines, and the Animal Husbandry Specialists employed on em~r gency funds were able to reach many of these livestock people and help them thru the critical period. This was also true of poultry and dairy cattle. Where funds were sufficient, many of the Emergency workers were retained on the regular staff after June 30. In order that there would be a definite increase in certain crops, and to avoid over production in others, an estimate was made of increases that Florida should make, and the Three-F Drive, be tween January 20 and February 4, 1919, was made with this end in view. This was held at the request of the United States De partment of Agriculture, acting on the recommendation of the United States Food Administration. The following recommen .dations were made to the farmers of Florida : That the corn acreage of 1,070,000 be increased 15%. The peanut acreage of 510,000 be increased 25%. The sugar cane acreage of 16,300 be increased 25%. The sweet potato acreage of 38,000 be increased 25%. The forage crop acreage of 258,000 be increased 15 % .

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Meat hogs, consisting of 1,333,000 should be increased 15 %~ Dairy cattle, consisting of 145,000 should be increased 25%. Beef cattle, consisting of 865,000, should be increased 15 % . Poultry, consisting of 1,750,000 should be increased 33 1 / 3%, Also, that there should be an increase in home gardens, particularly on farms. The number of farms in Florida is, approx imately, 70,000. THE THREE-F DRIVE The state of Florida was divided into districts of four or five counties, and some member of the Extension forces assigned to each as leader. The county and home demonstration agents ar ranged for the meeting places, and the Extension Division pro vided the principal speakers. For each meeting local speakers were secured wherever possible. Between January 25 and February 4, 162 meetings were con ducted in Florida, the total attendance being upwards of 10,000 people. Two and three meetings were held every day during that . period, and the total number of addresses made was 553. In carrying out the program, the co-operation of all state and local organizations was secured, so that it was possible to have at least two speakers at every meeting. This drive consumed the time of every :i!::xtension worker during that period. STATE MEETINGS CITRUS SEMINAR, LIVESTOCK ROUNDUP The Tenth Annual Citrus Seminar and the Fourth Annual Live stock Roundup were held on the University campus October 14-17, ip:clusive. It . was desirable to combine the program for these meetings, as many farmers and growers are interested in both, also because it made it possible to provide speakers of national reputation for this occasion. Whee the programs were planned to benefit those directly interested in citrus and livestock, sub jects related to these and of equal importance were presented: When general subjects were discussed, the programs were com bined, but otherwise they were held in separate halls, and the visitors given . the privilege of selecting the program they pre ferred. .... For the benefit of citrus growers, the program deult with the following subjects: Fertilizer experiments with dtrus trees, fer tilizer e:xperim:ents with potatoes; irrigation; sp r aying iiursery and citrus trees; i;narketing citrus fruits; co-operatio.n between 2

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18 .. Florida Cooperative Extension citrus growers and county agents; utilization of tractors on the farm and grove ; decay of citrus fruits and vegetables in transit ; the value of parasites for the control of insects and diseases in the citrus grove, and :( rost protection in the grove. Other subjects of interest to growers which were discussed were: Sugar Cane and Diseases; Bee Culture in the Grove; the Work of the Federal Horticultural Board and the State Plant Board. The subjects taken up in connection with the Livestock Roundup were: Beef Production; Livestock Markets; The Texas Cattle Tick and Its Control; Forage Crops; Breeds of Beef Cattle; Utilization of Silage; The Relation of Bovine Tuberculosis to the Human Family; Breeds of Hogs; Care and Management of Hogs; Velvet Beans for Brood Sows ; Hog Sanitation ; Care and Man agement of Dairy Cattle; Feeding for Milk Production; A Dis cussion of Breeds of Dairy Cattle; Principles of Livestock Breed ing; and Poultry Production , Management of the Farm Flock. Some time was given each day for field instruction, judging hog . s and judging dairy and beef cattle. By arrangement with the manufacturers of farm tractors, a number of the tractor companies placed their machines on dis play on the University campus, and in the afternoons gave dem onstrations of their machines at work. A similar arrangement was made to provide spraying machinery, giving growers an op portunity to see them iri operation. A milking machine was also shown, and was operated for the benefit of the visitors. In all, thfrty firms placed machinery on display and in operation, each sending its representative. Members of the Staff of the Experiment Station, the Florida Agricultural College, the Extension Division of the Agricultural College, and the Plant Board appeared on the program; Also representatives from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Public Roads, States Relation Service, the Horticultural Board, and the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agri culture were on the program, as well as the State Commissioner of Agriculture, Tallahassee, and the State Commissioner of Mar kets, Jacksonville. Other speakers from outside of the state were representatives of the Duroc-Jersey Breeders' Association; Berkshire Breeders' Association; Poland-China Breeders' Association; Jersey, Guern sey, and Holstein Breeders' Associations; Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Short-Horn Breeders' Associations.

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Annual Report, 1919 19 Dr. E. V. McCollum, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, delivered an able address; subject, "What Constitutes An Ideal Diet." Other features of the meetings were an Auction Sale of pure bred Holstein, Jer sey and Guernsey calves, also of a private herd of Aberdeen-Angus cattle. COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL MEETING The annual meeting of county agents was held at the Univer sity of Florida, October 10 to 17. From the 10th to the 14th the agents were in executive session, discussing principally matters that had direct bearing on the work of each county, in conference with the Dir ector, State, Di strict a nd Club agents. During the remaining days the agents attended the Citrus Seminar and Live Stock Roundup . Each year the policies of the work are discussed at this m8et ing and plans arranged for the coming year. The program consisted of lectures and laboratory exercises under the direction of the staff of the College of Agriculture, the Florida Experiment Station and the supervising agents in Ex tension work. Speakers from outside of the University were Dr. Bradford Knapp, Chief, and H. E. Savely, Field Agent, Washington, D. C.; F. M. Bomberger, assistant director of extension service, Mary land Agricultural College, who delivered three lectures on County Organization; L . M. Rhodes, state commissioner of markets; Dr. Ralph N. Greene, state health officer; and H. B. Minium, state board of control. FIG. 2.-0ffices of St. Lucie County and Home Demonstration Agents

PAGE 22

20' Florida Cooperative Extensio n HOME DEMONSTRATION MEETINGS The eighth annual conference of the state home demonstration agents was held at the State College for Women, Tallahassee, September 1 to 15. This meeting was planned to give instructions and make plans for home demonstration problems as they apply to the different counties. Those appearing on the programs were members of the exten sion staff, faculty members of the State College for Women, State Health Officer, and specialists on agricultural and home economics problems. Provision was made on the campus of the State College for Women for accommodations during the period of the meeting. A Girls' Short Course was held from April 1 to 12, at the State College for Women. Those attending came up from the various counties .. Their expenses were paid from some local sources. When arriving on the campus, they were taken over by Y. W. C. A . college girls. The girls were taken into the class rooms and laboratories and instructed in the principles of nutrition, home sanitation, gardening, poultry, dairying, etc. A meeting of the agents from the counties in which the mus cadine grape club work i s being developed was held in Augu s t. Mr. Chas. P. Dearing, specialist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., was present and gave instructions in the mak ing of the products from the muscadine grapes . They spent one week at Tallahassee; working in the laboratory under Mr. Dear ing's instruction. ' r . CLUB BOYS' SHORT COURSE . The fourth annual short course for the club members of the state was held on the University campus the first week in Decem ber. One hundred and one boys from twenty-six counties at tended. The program provided for practical lectures to the boys by the instructors in the College of Agriculture, and the Ex tens1.0n staff. They received instruction in handling livestock, gl'o\ving J lf forage crops, judging hogs, .dairy and beef cattle. : ~ 'T . he expen ses in sending these boys to the University were p lq V ided )of ,: hy County Commissioners and ;chool boards, rail r-011 : ds ;J:') o #:ds '.: , ~l J; t ade and individuals. The short course was 1,frid~r w: J '.) J i i r~ti6tt of the boys' club agent and his assistants. Suwan;nee county s~nt 19 boys, which was the largest number f1!om any . one c'bilrtty ; ' Hillsboro came . second with 14.

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Annual Repo_rt, 1919. 21 GROUP MEETINGS Between March 24 and April 2, county agents were assembled in groups, accompanied by the state, district and.club agents,-arid specialists. The purpose of these meetings is to meet in conference for the welfare of the work as a whole, and to come in contact with suc cessful farmers and livestock men. These meetings were held in the counties of Escambia, Leon, St. Johns, Putnam, Bradford and Polk. Thru courtesy of the citizens, Boards of Trade and other or ganizations, conveyances were provided to conduct the agents to the various farms in the county. The plans for conducting the meetings in each county were handled by the county agent. ANNUAL NEGRO AGENTS' MEETING As the office for the local district agent in negro work is at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Talla hassee, the Annual Meeting of the men and women county work ers was held at that Institution in January, 1919. These workers were assembled for instruction so that there would be a definite program of work for each county. As this in cluded both men and women, the Extension staff from the Univer sity of Florida College of Agriculture and the State College for Women assisted with the program. The instructors from several departments of the Institution also assisted in caring for the agents and with the program.

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF STATE AGENT P.H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. The beginning of the year found the work under the strained conditions brought on by the war, when it was necessary to make every effort to increase the production of crops of all kinds, espe ciallr food, feed and forage. The opening of this year found us with all preparations made for a drive for increased production of these crops covering the entire State at one time. This drive we called the 3-F Drive, which meant increased production of food, feed and forage crops. It was pulled off January 20 to February 4, inclusive. Drives of other kinds have also been held during the year, such as special meetings for the control and destruction of the corn weevil and other insect pests. One of the most significant drives in livestock work was conducted in several of the counties, with the aim of getting the swine industry on a more profitable plane by preparing hogs for an early market so as to avoid marketing in the fall, when the usual slump in prices takes place. The usual number of Agents' meetings have been held during the . year . Group meetings were held in Escambia, Leon, St. Johns, Putnam, Bradford and Polk Counties, from March 24 to April 2, at which time a small number of the county agents, dis trict agents, state agent and others discussed the difficult prob lems that confront the agents and farmers. The Annu.al Conference and School of the Agents was held at Gainesville from October 10 to 17. The mee~ing this year was somewhat different from any previously held, in that the execu tive meetings for the Agents were held the first three days of this period, and then merged into the Livestock Roundup and Citrus Seminar. Among the prominent speakers were Dr. Bradford Knapp, Chief Cooperative Demonstration Work in the South, Washington, D. C.; F. M. Bomberger, Assistant Director, Mary land Extension Service; H. E. Savely, Agricultural and Field Agent, Washington, D. C.; Jesse M. Jones, Agricultural and In dustrial Agent, S. A. L. Railway.

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Annual Report, 1919 23 At the beginning of the year there was a larger number of agents in the field than usual, owing to the availability of the emergency fund, specially appropriated by Congress for increased crop production. Nine of the counties had agents working on the emergency fund for four days a week. Twelve counties had assist ant agents appointed under the emergency fund. These were mostly young men with agricultural training, and the majority proved to be exceptionally well adapted to this work. A number of them have been appointed regular agents since serving as as sistant agents. This emergency fund lapsing with June 30, caused a reduction in the number of counties in the work, and re quired some time to get the proper readjustments made . . Bankers, merchants and county commissioners have responded very satisfactorily to requests made upon them for assistance in conducting the work in the different counties. This is evidenced largely by the increased appropriations made; and also in a num ber of cases where the county commissioners were not disposed to make appropriations, the bankers and others met them by deputa tion and requested appropriation to be made. SILOS During the latter part of May and the month of June, six weeks in all, Prof. Frazier Rogers was in the field in the interest of silo construction. His work was principally of an educational nature, and surveying of the field in general. His visits extended as far west as Washington county and as far south as Lake. Prof. Rogers' reports show very great interest in this work among dairymen and cattle feeders in general. He supervised construc tion of a new concrete silo at Mt. Verde Industrial School, and sev eral others in that district have expressed the desire to have him come back next year in time to take up the silo construction for the 1920 crop. COOPERATION WITH SCHOOLS Every year it is becoming more evident that the rural schools are our strongest allies. The increased interest in agriculture among school authorities is more apparent each year. Teachers.-are showing a willingness to cooperate, particularly in club and home demonstration work. During the year I visited 25 schools and talked to . the pupils on agricultural subjects that applied most directly to the particular location and the size of the school. In the Hillsboro county rural schools I found a very great inter

PAGE 26

Florida Co'operatiiie Extension . est :fri . agricultural work, which can :be best explained by the good , work done ' in that county by the county and home demonstra . tionagents; :: Other counties are showing equal interest. The school house iis a com:mtihity center has now become one of the most important factors in Extension work. CROPS , Alarger acreage of staple crops than usual was planted during 1919. However, the yields have not been as satisfactory as ex pected. This is principally caused by unfavorable weather condi tions. The winter of 1918-19 was unusually wet, rainy weather ' prevailing well into the early spring, followed by a prolonged dry , period during the growing season. -The corn crop was short about one million bush~ls, and the sweet potato crop was reduced about ten bushels per acre. The yield of peanuts was seven bushels per acre less than for 1918. The hay crops show an increased yield over 1918, and those pro duced after cultivated crops were exceptionally good and the quality excellent. _ The sugar cane crop, we believe, is the best on record. An in . creased acreage was planted, and the extremes in weather condi ; tions did not seriously affect it. The high price obtained for sugar cane products have stimulated the farmers to increase this crop, and I believe next year will see a still further increase in acreage . . The shortage of sugar has stimulated a desire among a few . farmers to make their own sugar. We have assisted in this . mat ter by personal suggestions, and giving thru circulars, the best , methods of making sugar at the time of syrup making. . . The small grain crops have been disappointing as to yield of grain. Only a small part of them were threshed, but these gave a fair yield of plump grain. Each year a large acreage of these crops is used for hay purposes, most of the farmers finding this to be the best way of utilizing them. The upland rice crop is yearly assuming increased importance among the farmers of the State. This year in the western section ' there was an increased acreage, with very satisfactory results. Rice blast has been reported from a few fields, but it has not ' proven serious. The general method of planting rice is by drill . Ing. This year a few have tried broadcasting like other small grains, and reported very satisfactory results. A part of the rice

PAGE 27

Annual Repor_t, 191:9 , 25 crop has been cut for hay in the dough stage, and with satisfac~ory results. . There seems to be a tendency among the farmers in certain sec _ tions to eliminate the cotton crop entirely, with the idea that by not growing cotton for a year or two they may eliminate the boll . weevil. We do not believe that this can be done very satisfac _ torily, as the boll weevil migrates every fall, covering a very wide area. The accrage planted to peanuts was in some sections above, and in other sections below the average. The results obtained have not been as satisfactory as desired. The peanut crop in the cotton sections has taken the place of cotton to a very large degree; and the farmers report more satisfactory results from peanut than from cotton , all things being considered, even at the present high price of cotton. The peanut oil mills have been unable to secure nuts at a price to justify crushing, for the reason that there is a great demand for peanuts for confectionery purposes. Prices have ruled high, and the prospects are for an increased acreage in all peanut sec tions. County agents are urging selection and better methods of handling seed, with the hope of increasing the yield and quality of the crop. FARM :MACHINERY The scarcity and high cost of farm labor has compelled many farmers to purchase more farm machinery, with the result that there is a very large increase in the new farm implements in every farming section. The farm tractor is gradually replacing the horse and mule , power, especially on the larger farms. Several public tractor demonstrations have been made in different parts of the State, demonstrating these machines on various types of soil and for various farm operations. The demonstrations are usually well attended, with the 1esult that quite a number of new tractors have been bought, principally for breaking purposes. There is an urgent demand for a tractor suitable for cultivating purposes. REMOVAL OF STUMPS It is very gratifying to note the interest taken by farmers in clearing their fields of stumps. A large acreage has been cleared with stump pullers. Reports from those using dynamite indicate that blasting by dynamite is one of the most effident and least expensive methods of getting rid of the stump.

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26 Florida Cooperative Extension ORGANIZATION The work of the organization of communities and districts has been persistently conducted by county agents during the past year. Peculiar conditions in our State, however, render organ ization work among farmers somewhat difficult. However, the value of effective organization was thoroughly impressed during the war period in carrying out the war program. The new organ izations that have been coming into existence during the last few months are going to be of a more permanent nature than those during the war. These organizations are intended to do similar work as that of the Farm Bureaus found in several other states having a more dense rural population .. Considerable progress has been made toward rural organiza tion in a few counties. A card index of the organizations of these counties is kept in the office of the State Agent. NEGRO WORK The negro demonstration work is making steady and gradual progress. It is under the supervision of A. A. Turner. The work outlined for the county assistant has been carried out in a satis factory manner, and we look forward to still more progress along this line. There was a total of 12 negro men and 18 .negro women agents doing emergency work in the counties. T}le most serious problem in this work is the proper supervision. During this year weekly reports are approved by the county and home demonstra tion agents before sending them to this off ice and the Washington off ice. This added supervision has been helpful in most cases and will be continued during the coming year. There is a wide field for negro work in the State, and our efforts are mainly directed to get as efficient service as possible. FAIRS It was my privilege to attend a number of the county fairs; also the state fair held at Jacksonville. It is gratifying to note a steady yearly improvement in the fairs, both in the numbr and quality of products. Notwithstanding an unfavorable corn season, the quality of corn exhibited at these fairs was above the average. It w.as quite evident that the county exhibits at the state fair were better than ever before. Eighteen counties were represented, with the county agent in charge of the exhibit.

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Annual Report, 1919 . 27 FIG. 3.-St. Lucie County exhibit, in charge of County Agent Warren, at the State Fair LIVESTOCK The progress made in livestock work has been very gratifying in every way. The agents have assisted farmers in selecting high bred sires and dams, dairy cattle and hogs. A large number of dairy cattle have also been brought into the State, and the dairy ing interest has been stimulated to a remarkable degree in quite a number of counties. A few young calves have been shipped into Florida with satisfactory results. The livestock work by the county agent has received every assistance from the Experiment Station. Greater interest than ever is being taken in permanent pastures and feed crops. J. B. Thompson, forage crop specialist, made several visits to farms with county agents, also gave valuable help to them during the agents' meeting. CLUB WORK The club work among the boys and girls has been stressed as one of the most important features of the agents' activities, and we are glad to report considerable progress along this line. G. L. Herrington, who is in charge of this work, gives a detailed report of the work in his annual report.

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Florida Cooperative . Extension . ' , . THE OUTLOOK FOR THE COMING YEAR .. We are . glad to note an increasing interest in the workye1,1,r after year by those most directly:intefested; The farmers of the State seem to have an increasing realization of the benefits . they derive from the county agents' presence in the c01i'nties, and are working in a cooperative capacity to a larger degree than ev~r before. The counties that make only a small supplementary ap propriation for the work cannot . possibly get the typeof agent they should have, with the results expected . . Therefore, the coun ties where the larger appropriations are made are able to get men with the qualifications that make the work very efficient. Detailed tabulation of field activities follows. The State Agent in the course of these activities traveled 1641 miles by rail, and 2060 by automobile and other conveyances. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Visits made by county agents .... .. .... . .. ..... . ........ .. .... . .... ... .. . .. . ... ... ....... ........ . ..... 36758 Miles traveled .......................................................... . ......... ..... ............. .. ........ . .. . 268425 Call on agents relative to work .................................................................... 326;'!1 f ::Jl~EiI!i{!Jl~t:~•~: ::::::::::::: .: : .::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ::::::::::: : ::::::::::::::: J;H Field meetings held by agents ........................... ~ . .... .......... ... ......... ........ ...... ... 179 Total attendance at these meetings....... .. .......... . . ..... ................. ..... . .. . ..... . ...... 5168 Percentage of time spent in office work. .' . .... ..... . .. ... . ........ ... ............. . . ... .. .... .. 40 Percentage of time spent in field work............................. .... ........... .... .......... 60 Official letters written . ... ........ ,.. .. ............ . ............ .. ........ .. .. .. ............ . . ... ......... 26065 Articles prepared for publication ....................................... . ........... -........... .. 1615 Circular letters issued. ..... ..... .................. .. ....... ....... .... .. ........................ .. ....... .... 1788 U. S. D. A. bulletins distributed ........................... .... : ...................................... 32209 Bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed ................................ 8158 Visits to schools..... . ....... ... ....... .. . ..... ...... .............. ... ........... . ........ . .. .... ......... .... .... 706 Schools assisted in outlining agricultural course ...... ..... .. ............... : ........... 31 Short courses assisted in........... .. ......................... .. ........................... .. ............. 8 Total attendance .................... . ... . .. ..... ................. .. .... ,...................................... 54 Farmers' clubs agents have assisted in organizing.......... . ........ .. . .... ............ 82 MISCELLANEOUS Farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts.. 85 Boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result of club work ................................................................................... .. ... ... ..... .... 99 Times visited by specialists from College or the Department. ..... ............ 542 Demonstrators, cooperators and club members zp.aking exhibits. .. ... . ... . . 529 Prizes won ........ .. ...... ... ..... ........... ...... .... ...... ........ ........ ...... ........ ......... . ........... ... 281 Demonstrations in truck or small fruit . .. ...................................... ,... ............. 333 Farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance........ ..... ......................... 276 Farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work.......... 3806 FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS Buildings erected ...... ,........................................... . ............ ... . . ......................... . 122 Farm buildings improved ...... ... ,....... .... ..... ...... ................ .. . . .. .. . . . ..... ..... .. ... .. .. 215 New building plans furnished... ............... . ................... .... ...... .......... ..... ........... 38 Farm buildings painted or whitewashed.......... ....... ...... ........ ....................... 99 Home water systems installed or improved...... ....... ....... .. ........... .. . ..... ...... .. . 58 Water systems in State before demonstration work started........ . ........... .. 347

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Annual Report, 1919 Number in the State now ................. , ....................... : .................... .................... Home lighting systems installed ..... , ............................................................. . Lighting systems in the State before demonstration work started ....... . Home grounds improved ........................................................................... : ..... . Farm and home sanitary conditions improved ............................................. . Homes screened against flies and mosquitoes ........................................... . Sanitary privies erected ................................................................................... . Telephone systems installed ........................................................................... . Farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation ....................................... . Total -acreage ................................................................................................. . New pastures established ............................................................................... . Old pastures renovated ................................................................................... . Acreage comprised ............................................................... . .. . ...................... . Drainage systems established ......................................................................... . Farmers induced to drain their lands ........................................................... . Total acreage drained: By tile ......................................................................................................... . By ditch ........................................ : ............................................................ . Farmers who removed stumps ....................................................................... . Total acreage stumped ................................................................................... . Farmers induced to terrace sloping land ............. : ......................................... . Total acreage terraced ................................................................................... . Home gardens planted ..................................................................................... . Farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use ............................. . Farmers turning under cover crops ............................................................... . New implements and tools bought ............................................................... . DEMONSTRATIONS CORN 29 42 7 4\!;< 168 79 150 151 65 314 149 5585 206 39 611 22 705 160 5051 385 3815 45 3260 731 1564 559 10083 Demonstrators.................................................................................................... 405 Demonstrators reporting .................................... ,........................................... 244 Total acreage grown under improved methods ................................ : ........... 2806 Average yield per acre, in bushels.................................................................. 18.6 Number planting selected seed.................................................................... 200 Number who.fall plowed their demonstration acres.................................... 219 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres.... 93 Acres .harvested for silage.............................................................................. 228 Acres treated ,for diseases or insect pests ................................................... .' 105 Farmers using better methods in growing corn this year........................ 2207 Farmers so influenced since county agent work was started.................... 4720 COTTON Demonstrators ....................................... , ..................... : ...................................... 39 Demonstrators reporting 14 Total acreage grown under improved methods............................................ 158 Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds .............................. ,................. 2650 Demonstrators who planted selected seed.................................................... 3.2 Farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop...................................... 32 Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres.................................... 10 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres...... 6 :Acres treated for diseases or insect pests.................................................... 132 Farmers using better cultural methods........................................................ 183 SMALL GRAINS (Oats, :Rye, Rice) Demonstrators ...... ...... : .......... : .. : ... , ........ .' ........................................................... . Demonstrators reporting ............................................................................... . T.otal acreage grown under improved methods ........ : .................................. . Acres thrashed for grain .................. .' .......................... : ................................... . f ~;:: c;;f;ed : 93 54 566 233 176 149

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30 Florida Cooperati v e Extension Acres turned under for soil improvement ..... . ..... ......... . ... .. . .. . .. .. ........ . ... .. .. . .. . 58 Bushels of seed treated for smut and rust, .. . .... ..... . ...... . . . . . . . ... . ... . . . . ........... .. . 100 Farmers planting oats for the first time .. . ...... . . .. . . . .. . ....... :.... . . .. . 142 Farmers influenced to use better methods . . .... .. ... ... . ...... .. ...... .. .. . .... . . ,...... . .. . 297 SUMMER LEGUMES (Cowpeas, Velvet Beans, Soy Beans, Peanuts) Demonstrators .............................. . .... .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. ................................. . ... . .. . ... . . . . 277 Demonstrators reporting . . ....... . . .. . .. . . . ... .... .. . . .. ... ......................... .. . . . . ... . .. . . . . . ... 158 Total acr e age grown under demonstr a tion methods................. . ... . .... . . ... .... . 4516 Aver a ge yield grain . .............. . . . .. . . .. . .. ... ....... ..... . . ... ..................... . . . ... . . . ........ .... ... 13 Average yield hay .. .... . ..... . .. ... . . . . . .. ... ... . .. . .. . . . .. . ... ... ... .. . . . .. . .. .. . .. ... . .. . , .. . ... . . . ... .. . .. .. 1.4 Total acrea g e hulled for seed . . ..... . .. . .......... .. .. ....... . ..... .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . ... . ... .. . .. . . .. . . . . 556 Total acreage cut for hay . .. . . . ... .. . .. . ............ ..... . . . ..... . . ... .. ... ........ . . ... .. . .. ........ . . .. 795 Number of acr es grazed off... .. ... . . ...... . .... . . .. .. .. . ... . .. . . . ... .. . ....... .... ... . . .. . . ......... . . 2494 Acres tur-ned under for soil improvement . . .. . .. ... . ..... ... .... . ...... .. .. . .. . .... .. . .... ... 671 Farmers influenced to adopt better cropping methods... . .. . ......... . .... . ... .. . . ... 3414 Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county a g ents' influence . . .... .................. . . . ........ ...... .. ........ ... ... . .. ........ . ........... .. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .... .. . .. . 22317 4 SWEET POTATOES Demonstrators ................................... .. . .. .. .. ........... . ..... ................................ . .... . 175 Demonstrators reporting ..... . .... . . . .. . . .. . . . . ..... . ....................................... . .. . .... .... 38 Total acreage grown by demonstrators.. . . . ............................. . ....... . .... . ..... ... .. 1656 Acreage treated for diseases and pest s .. .... .. . ............................... .. ............ 132 Estimated increased acreage.... . ... . .. ... . .. . .. ... . .... . .... . .. . .................. .. ............ ... .... 2151 IRISH POTATOES Demonstrators . ... .................. . . .. ...... .... . . ... . . ... .. . ...... . ... .. . . .... .. .... . ........ . .. . . .. . . . . .. ... .. 60 Demonstrators reporting ... ... . . . . . .. .. . ..... . . : .. . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. ...... ... . .... . .. ... . .. . ... . .. .... .37 Total acreage grown by demonstrators. . . .. .. .. .. .. .... . .. . ....... ....... . .. . ..... . . ... .. . . . . ... 448 Acreage treated for diseases and pests . . . . .. ........ ... ... .. . . .. .. ... . . .... . .. . .. .. ..... . . . . .. 790 Estimated increased acreage. . . .. . .. ..... . . .. .. . . . . .. . . ..... . ..... .. . . .. . . .. ... .. . . . . . . .... . . .. ... . ... .. 627 FRUITS Demonstration groves ............... ... . ... .. ... . . ........... . ........................ . ..... .. .. '.. ... . .... . 367 Total number of trees in these demonstrations ................................. . . .... ... 2113629 Groves inspected .............................. .. .. . ......... .. .. . .. .. . 96; number of trees 411365 Groves pruned ......................... . .. . . . ... .... .. . . . . .... . ......... 52; number of trees 208655 Groves sprayed ................... , ............... .. . . .. . .. . ... . .. .. . . . 45; number of trees 144350 .Totals . . ... . . .. ..... . .......... . . . .. . .. . .... . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .... . . 193 DAIRY CATTLE Purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence: Bulls .. . . . ... . .. . ... . .. . ............ .. ... .. . .. . . . .... . .... . .. ....... .. . . . . .. .... . .. . .. ....... .. ..... . ..... . .. . . . Cows and heifers .. . . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . ..... .. .......... . .. . . . ..... . . . .. . .. . . . .... . . .... . ... .. . ....... . Cows tested for production . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .... ....... . . .. . . . .. . ..... . . ......... . . . . . . . .... ... . . .... .... . . Farmers induced to feed balanced rations .. .. . ..... . . .. . ............ . .. .. ... . . .. . . . ...... .. . . Cattle fed ....... .... ............... . .... . . .. . . ... . .. ... . .... ...... ... . .... ............ . ...... .. . ....... .. . .. ... ... . Demonstrations in dairy work supervised ... . ....................... .... ... ........... . ... .. . Cows in these demonstrations . ..... . .... .. . . . . . . . .. ............................ . ..... ..... .... .. .. . . . Purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started . ... ..... . . .... . .. . . . . Purebred dairy cows now ...... .. .... . ..... ... .. . .... . . . ... .. ........................... ..... .. . .. .. ... . . BEEF CATTLE Pure blood beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence: Bulls .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . .... . .. . . .. . .. . .... . . . .... .. ......... .. ... ..... . . ... ... . . .. .. . . . . .... . ..... .... . .. .. . ... .. .. . Cows or heifers ... . .... .. . . .. . . ... . . .... . . . . ...... .. . .. . . . . ... .. . . .... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . ... . .. . .... . .... . . . . . Grade cows introduced for breeding purposes .. ... ....... . . . . ... . .. . . ... .. . . ......... .. . . Beef breeding herds started .... . .. . .. ,. : . .. . . . . . .... . . . .. .... .. . . . . .. ..... .... .. . .......... . .. .. ... ... . Feeding cattle introduced .. . ...... . . .. . . .. ...... . ... . . .... .. . ... . . ........... .. ..... _ ... . . . . . .. . . ..... .. . . 764370 52 471 242 491 1431 26 6 1394 3311 202 632 169 14 538

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Annual Report, 1919 31 Beef feeding demonstrations............................................................................ 2 Cattle fed ..................................................................................................... ...... 153 Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated by county agents ...................................................... ,....................... 625 HOGS Purebred hogs brought into the. State this year due to county agents' influence: Boars ........................................................................................................... . Sows or gilts ............................................................................................. . Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ............................................... . Hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents ................................... . Number of hogs ... : ........................................................................................... . Number of hog pastures started ................................................................... . Farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs ....................................... . Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by county agents ....................................................................................... . POULTRY Poultry demonstrations supervised ............................................................... . Poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents ................. . Farms on which poultry management has been improved ................... . Number of birds on these farms ..................................................................... . Number of eggs produced ...................................................................... (doz.) Average price, dozen ........................................................................................ $ LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers to have treated for diseases or pests: 304 1566 1158 203 1187 589 13142 16462 109 58875 212 5400 2120 .40 Cattle ........................................... ........................................................................ 20514 Hogs .................................................................................................................. 220024 Horses ... .............................................................................................................. 335 FERTILIZER Farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers.................................. 5039 Fertilizer demonstrations ................................................................................ 369 Tons of fertilizer used........................................................................................ 3836 Communities buying fertilizers cooperatively.............................................. 61 Farmers home-mixing fertilizers.................................................................... 267 Farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers.......................................... 750 MANURE Farmers induced to take better care of manure.......................................... 117 4 Number that provided sheds............................................................................ 220 Number composting farm manure.................................................................. 373 Manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators.......................................... 128 Farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure.................................. 525 Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons .......................................... 49230 SILOS Silos built in the State this year...................................................................... 49 Number built as result of county agents' advice........................................ 27 Number in State when county agents' work was started............................ 248 Number of silos in the State now.................................................................... 610 LIME Farmers using lime due to county agents' influence.................................... 82 Quantity of lime used, in tons........................................................................ 119 Number of acres limed...................................................................................... 577

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Florida Cooperative Extension EXTRACTS FROM COUNTY AGENTS' ANNUAL REPORTS A campaign was started in the spring to have feeds planted for hogs and have them ready for market in August and September before the fall and winter rush reached the market and the prices slumped. Ten or twelve cars of hogs were almost ready for market when the high cost of living investigation upset the market and the hogs were forced on before being finished. As it was, however, the prices received were better than under the old plan, for some hogs were gotten to market before the prices reached the lowest level. Three community fairs were held and four community exhibits were put on at the county fair. In one community where the county agent was told that nothing could be accomplished the most successful fair of all was held and the people were very much pleased to be shown just what they could accomplish among them selves. In appreciation of the success and of the cooperation of the County Agent with the fair association and in handling the Ala chua County exhibit at the State Fair, Jacksonville, the associa tion presented the County Agent with a gold watch. COLIN D. GUNN, Alachua County Agent. The Brevard County Bookkeepers' Association is a most im portant piece of extension work. It was formed with the idea of educating, assisting in marketing, increasing production and co operative purchasing. "The County Marketing and News Letter" was continued thru this year with increasing good results. It was impossible to keep a complete record of the number of exchanges made by this means. From scattered reports it was learned that as high as 90 per cent of items listed were often cleared up before time for the next bulletin. The bulletin was effective in reminding the farmers of time to plant, buy or sell produce, etc. County exhibit at the State Fair was in charge of the county agent. A 12-page booklet was published for 1:1,se at Jacksonville for advertising purposes. This 'is the first time in several years that the county as a.whole has voluntarily supported any county enterprise. H CHARLESD. KIME, Brevard County Agent.

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Annual Report, 1919 . . 33 There has always been a general scarcity of milk in the homes, so I have undertaken to organize a calf club with the boys and girls. Thru the Farmers' Association of the county we have been able to organize a dairy association, and this association has placed two cars of fine dairy cattle with farmers. A very little spraying of citrus trees had been done in Hernando county. This year I have emphasized more than ever before the advantage of spraying the groves. Some demonstrations were carried on and they began to see it would pay. More of the best growers are now spraying their groves intelligently. A marketing day is planned for the farmers of this county. Hogs are being shipped cooperatively by the farmers with satis factory results. Auction days are being held at the county seat to sell cattle, hogs and poultry. JAS. MOUNTAIN, Hernando Coitnty Agent. We held a most successful camp for the club members at Flor idatown in June. The camp took the place of the annual short course. Two members were selected from each of the boys' clubs and the girls' clubs of the county . A schedule of work and play was arranged. The meals were served cafeteria style, and the boys and girls washed up the dishes, made their own bunks, etc. One night we entertained a large number of friends and lead ing citizens of the county. Judging from the favorable comments on the camp and its purpose, I feel the efforts were highly appre ciated. In the various clubs I enrolled 120 members. With the help of the home demonstration agent, 12 girls and boys' clubs were organized and have met regularly. Of the 120 boys enrolled, 36 reported at the annual contest, and six boys to the State Short Course held at the University. One of the scholarships was given by the county commissioners and one by two local merchants of Milton, and four from prize money won at the State Fair at Jack sonville. R. T. OGLESBY, Santa Rosa County Agent. I have attempted to increase the acreage of sugar cane. The increase is estimated at 75 per cent. This is not all due to my eff <>~'ts, as it is a popular movement, and is being encouraged by every agency in the State. 3

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34 Flor.ida Gooperat.ive Ex.tension I have made special effort to control citrus diseases and have made good progress, especially in arousing interest in the control of withertip. The most important work I have accomplished is the attempt to control the rat pest around the east border of Lake Okeechobee. The rats had become numerous and were destroying the farmers' crops. I organized the communities from St. Lucie Canal on the North to Bascom's Point on the South, a distance of 10 miles, with leaders for each community; As the expense was greater than the farmers could bear, I undertook to raise sufficient money to finance the plan, and succeeded in raising $1400 in West Palm Beach and surrounding localities. I used arsenic as the poison and various kinds of bait. We changed bait each week, all of which were effective. Our campaign was entirely successful on the North two and a half miles, as the farmers there had better leadership and put out the poison systematically. Rats were killed in multiplied thou sands. The southern end of the section was only a partial success be cause of a lack of cooperation-yet .even there a great work has been done. Thousands of rats were slain. This effort may lead to better cooperation among the farmers in that region. R. A. CONKLING, Palm Beach County Agent. Our farmers receive their principal income from the sale of fruits and vegetables, and to a limited extent from poultry and livestock, so I have worked to make these more profitable. Eight months ago I assisted in organizing three community Boards of Trade in different communities in the county. Then assisted in getting the community boards and the city boards to organize in one central Board of Trade. I have succeeded in get ting the bankers, merchants, lawyers and farmers all working . together in one body for the best interest oi all. I have assisted in organizing an agricultural and livestock asso ciation, composed of bankers, merchants, lawyers and farmers. This organization is for the purpose of getting better dairy cows and better beef cattle and for the improvement of agriculture. J.M. BORING, Lee County Agent.

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Annual Report, 1919 35 In addition to my general work I am giving special attention to . systematic spraying, fertilizing, cultivating and developing of citrus groves. The acreage of citrus in the . county is so extensive that one cannot cover all the ground required or asked for. The agent has been successful in getting the growers to treat groves more systematically-thus getting better and cleaner fruit to the . packing houses, which, of course, brings better prices. Field meetings with growers have been held or "stump" lectures given with the subject close at hand for comparison. Have been here too short a time to get completely organized. WM. GOMME, Polk County Agent. Starting late in the year as agent in Osceola County, I am en couraging: First: The saving of farm wastes in form of barnyard litter, manure and decayed grasses, and making it into a compost fer tilizer for use in growing crops. Second: Pruning of all citrus, shade ornamentals, fruit trees, to stimulate better growths, remove a great number of breeding places for pests and to improve the looks of all orchards and home places. Third: Spraying of fruit trees, truck, vegetables and grasses; prevention of loss of livestock by cholera; and starting the farm ers into creating small dairy herds, with the hope of gradually forming cooperative dairying among all those having milch cows. DR. R. THOR. WEA VER, Osceola County Agent. The three most important pieces of work which I have been interested in for the past year are not yet completed. (1) Establishing a co-operative buying and selling plan on a larger scale, (about $1,500,000 this year). (2) Establishing a system of checking the purchases of fer tilizers thru the analysis of the State Chemist, ($15,000.00 has been saved to my farmers this year). (3) Increasing interest in producing food and feed for home consumption instead of shipping most of it in as has been the custom. (Slight progress this year) . C. M. BERRY, Seminole Cou n ty Agent.

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36 Flor.ida Cooperative Extension During the past year I have given every possible help to stim ulate the production of sugar cane, corn, sweet potatoes, Irisk potatoes and feed crops. However, my most important problems have been those deal ing with citrus trees, particularly the control of disease and in sect pests, management of young groves, a revival of the pine apple industry and cultivation of truck crops. Dairies are springing up in the best settled communities, prin cipally at Fort Pierce, Vero and Fellsmere. These dairies dispose . of their products locally, altho some milk is being shipped to Miami and Palm Beach. With the increased number of dairies must come the increased supply of feed stuffs, silos and pastures. The number of hogs has not increased very materially, yet the fact that the pure breeds are replacing the razor backs is the best evidence I can submit as to the progress. Last year the number of poultry in the county was 30,433 and according to. the best records that I can obtain, 150,000 dozen eggs were produced, which is an increase of 25% over previous years. I have given due attention to the club work, principally . corn, peanuts, pig and calf and milk clubs, all of which have done a fair amount of work, and the results are gratifying. The county is fairly well organized. Those organizations do ing the most effective work are: The Fort Pierce Commercial Club, Indian River Growers' Asso ciation, Association for the Improvement of Pineapple Culture, Fort Pierce Farmers' Club, White City Improvement Club, Citrus Fruit Protective Organization, Vero Fruit Growers' Association, and the Fellsmere Fruit Growers' Association. My work has been materially strengthened by the help of the Experiment Station workers, by Mr. H. S. McLendon, manager of the Agricultural Development Service, Florida East Coast Rail . road, and by the liberal support given me by the business inter ests and officers of the county of St. Lucie. ALFRED WARREN, St. Lucie County Agent. •: Rice is one of our best paying crops, and is becoming more and more in favor with the farmers every year. It is easily grown and always finds a ready cash market. We have also found it to be one of our cheapest and best poultry feeds for the winter pr6duction ofeggs.

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Annual Report, 1919 37 ' The campaign for a variety of small fruit on every farm has been very successful. Peaches, figs, pears and grapes seem to be better adapted to this locality than other fruits. These are the ones we will stress another year. J. J. SECHREST, Holmes County Agent. A general plan of work for producing better and cleaner fruit in the county was put into effect. Approximately 40,000 trees were given one or more sprayings under the direction of the county agent. Six hundred and fifty acres of grove were sprayed at a saving of $1.00 per acre; by changing spray material and using a formula gotten out by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The mixing of this spray was superintended by the county agent. Two spray ings with oil emulsion are given usually each year so the saving per year will aggregate $1,300 on this acreage. Three hundred colonies of Delphastus lady beetles were col lected and sent out over the State from the county. H. G. CLAYTON, . Manatee Coiinty Agent: A successful three-days' camp for club members was held at , Wimauma. County and home demonstration agents planned the camp. Music and games were a part of the program. A school near by lent the use of a piano. Had the use of a camp house near a lake. County commissioners have appropriated money to assist in a camp of this kind next year. An attempt was made to show the agricultural products of this county at the State fair. The . work was considered success ful and I have been called into the fair proposition again. R. T. KELLY, Hillsboro County Agent. The agent has assisted . in planning and demonstrating in the clearing of 120 acres of pine lands by use of stump pullers and blasting. Carried thru a campaign of treating corn for weevils, which has saved several hundred bushels for farmers in the county. The cultivating and fertilizing of small citrus under, supervision of agent show increased growth, but results from, these plots cannot be determined at this date.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension Tractor demonstrations in citrus groves were well attended and successfully carried out, resulting in two of the largest grow ers of citrus placing orders for tractors and power machinery for the coming year. Field meetings were well attended and have proven to be the best and most successful means of interesting the grower in better fruit, better culture and larger production. M. MARCELLUS JAVENS, Lake County Agent. Thru the pig club and the support of the banks and progressive farmers of the county I have succeeded in getting at least one pure bred hog on 90 per cent of the farms of Madison county. My next work was to show the farmers that it was economical to sell their products co-operatively. This was accomplished by inducing a few farmers to ship a car of sweet potatoes co-oper atively. I went to see the farmers, guaranteed their money, and in this way got the first car loaded. After returns were received on the first car, all the farmers were anxious to co-operate and eight cars of sweet potatoes and five cars of hogs were sold this fall. Realizing that the winter months was the improper time to sell pork hogs, I began a campaign to feed hogs out for early fall market and late spring. There were no self feeders in the county so I began to build self feeders and induced a few farmers to feed out three cars of hogs for August market. There was an average of $397.60 per car profit on the three cars shipped early over hogs shipped 15 days later. These cars were sold between August 15 and Sep~ tember 6. There will be at least 30 cars fed out for early fall market next year. C. E. MATTHEWS, Madison County Agent. I planned a dairy educational exhibit, during the week of May 4, and put on the first dairy show in the state. Designating four special days, "Holstein," "Dutch Belt," "Guernsey" and "Jersey," we gave samples of milk and dairy products on their respective days, winding up the week by a mass meeting, with talks on dairying by leading men and women. Results have been very gratifying, twenty-one car loads, of

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Annual Report, 1919 39 dairy stock have been shipped in, and the demand has outgrown the supply. A wonderful boost has been given the industry. With proper care and attention, poultry does well and is a paying proposition. I decided on a "Poultry Institute." Dr. N. W. Sanborn, State Poultry Specialist, assisted me in holding a three day institute, at which we had five lectures, two of which were illustrated. Every chicken entered was judged by a score card, following the plans of the Storrs College Laying Contest. We formed the Dade County Poultry Association, and indi cations point to some good constructive work being done. J. S. RAINEY, Dade County Agent. FIG . 4.-Alachua County exhibit, in charge of County and Home Demon stration Agents, at the . State Fair

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40 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA P.H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for Central and South Central Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, E. W. JENKINS , District Agent. During the year I traveled by rail 10,878 miles, and by au . to mobile 4,250; making , a . . total of 15,128 miles; 130 official visits have been made to the county agents, and 47 farmers' meetings have . been attended. At these meetings there was a total attend ance , J: >f 41395. Accompanied by the county agent, 252 farmer were , vis:tted. From these farms I was able to see th~ averag; con~itions Jmd to give the g~ea~est assistance to . the coun ij 3:gents. . ' ,. The , general interest in the work is shown by the county ap propriations for the . fiscal year ending June 30', 1920, which is $23,450 1 as compared with. $19;200 for the year ending .June 30; i919, . ' ~ ' ORGANIZATION: . . The work of organization has been continued as begun last year, but since Jurie the idea of organization has developed very rap1dly among the farmers. One county has seven Locals, with a Central County Organization. The indications are that this county will have a Local Organization in every community by next summer. Other counties are working along similar lines. HOGS This district, as well a~ the entire State, is developing very rapidly into a hog raising section; Hogs are raised in this dis trict for both pork and breeding. We have some of the best breeders, both of the Durocs and Poland-Chinas, that can be found thruout the country. One breeder exhibited a sow at the Inter national Livestock Show recently held at Chicago, and won Grand Championship. Besides producing pork to supply farms of this section, several hundred car loads were shipped to the packing houses. Many

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Annual Report, 1919 41 farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some instances where an individual does not have enough hogs to make a carload, the county agents assist in working up a co-operative shipment. When a community is organized, this co-operative shipping is arranged for thru the organization. Some good work has been done by the county agents in the way of inducing the farmers to market their hogs thru the entire year instead of putting them all on the market during a few months of the rush season. It has been fully demonstrated that this method will pay even tho feed is not so plentiful at some seasons as it is at others . . The Alachua County Agent had one farmer who bought his feed and fed out a herd of hogs, the results being given in the following statement: Ninety grade pigs averaging 97 pounds each were put in the feed lot in May and sold in July after 58 days' feeding. These pigs were out of half and three quarter Duroc and Berk shire sows and sired by Duroc boars. They were farrowed in September, October and November, 1918, and followed the sows thru peanut fields until spring, when they were put on oats pas ture. The ration fed was 1 / 5 peanut meal, 2/5 ground corn, and 2/5 black strap molasses. The pigs were kept in a shady lot and fed three times daily and allowed the run of a crab grass plot at night. The cost of the materials fed was as follows: Peanut meal $70 per ton, ground corn $4.50 per 100 pounds, molasses $40 per ton; total cost of feed consumed, $1100. At the beginning of the feeding period the pigs consumed 200 pounds of feed daily and this was gradually increased until they were consuming 750 pounds at the close of the period. The financial statement rendered by this farmer on this lot of hogs is as follows : Value of hogs at beginning of feeding period ...................... : ....... : ......... $1228.50 Total value of feed consumed in 58 days . ......... ...................................... ... . 1100.00 Original value of hogs and feed consumed . ....................................... .. . ..... $2328.50 Gross returns from sale of hogs at close of feeding period ........... ... .. $2905.50 Less original value and feed cost .... . ............................................................ 2328.50 Profit .. ...... .. ...... .. . ........ . .... , ................... ... , ........................................................ $ 577.00 These hogs were sold on the farm for 181/2 cents per pound, and the buyer sold , them on the yards in Jacksonville for 20 cents per pound, so that the profit shown is not so large as it

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension could have been had the feeder handled the sale of the hogs at the yards. These hogs were put on hard test and 25 were reported to have killed hard. Another farmer planted a crop of early corn, Spanish peanuts, and cowpeas. This crop was ready for his hogs by July 1, and on the third day of July the hogs were turned on this feed. August 15 they were marketed for 15 cents per pound. Thirty days later these same hogs would have sold for 3 or 4 cents per pound less . . Realizing the importance of good pastures for hogs, the agents have continued their efforts along this line of work, and many farmers have been influenced to put in pastures of oats, rye and rape for winter and early. spring grazing. Much effort has been spent in keeping out cholera and other diseases. When it is realized that where not more than three years ago some counties shipping in pork to supply the farms will ship out more than three hundred carloads each of hogs this year, we feel that the agents' time and efforts have been well spent. The agents of this district have given the simultaneous treat ment to more than 34,000 head of hogs. They have advised worni treatment for more than 6,000 head, and advised treatment for 20,000 head with other diseases. CATTLE A special effort has been made to place more dairy cattle in the district. The results are that a large number of farms are now supplied with either grade or pure bred dairy cows to supply milk for the home. The beef cattle industry has also received the attention of the county agents, and thru their efforts a number have been brought irito the district. IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY Possibly due to the scarcity of farm labor and to the efforts put forth by the county agents to induce farmers to adopt im proved methods of preparation and cultivation, a great deal more improved machinery has been used on the farms than ever before. In one county, thru the influence of the county agent, 42 two horse breaking plows, 62 two-horse cultivators, eight disc har

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Annual Report, 1919 43 rows, four acme harrows, and six mowing machines were pur chased. CANE More sugar cane has been grown in the district than ever be fore. The acreage planted was large and the yield good. Almost every farm will make and put up plenty of syrup for home use and some for the market. In a great many cases this syrup is put up in bottles or cans, which makes it easier to market. Since the shortage of sugar has been so keenly felt in this section, a number of farmers have mad~ a portion of their crop into sugar, and the quality is good. The people of my district seem to have only recently realized the possibilities of this section for cane growing. A larger amount of seed than ever before is being saved. All indications are that the amount of cane grown will be very much larger next year than this. VELVET BEANS Realizing the importance of growing a large crop of velvet beans, both as a soil improvem~nt crop and as a feed crop, an effort was made to get every farmer to plant velvet beans with his corn. Some trouble was had in securing seed, but a great increase was secured in the amount planted. Due to the increase in the number of livestock, and the scarcity of labor, very few of the beans have been gathered, but as a general proposition, the stock have been turned on them while in the field. SWEET POTATOES Much interest has been shown in the growth of sweet potatoes. The prices being unusually good in the early season caused a good many of them to be dug and placed on the market early. Others which are not used on the farm will be stored and marketed in the spring. Some work has been done, thru the advice of the county agents, in selecting sweet potatoes for seed. PEANUTS There was an increase of about 5 per cent in the number of acres planted in peanuts, but due to the very low price and small demand on the market in the fall of 1918, most farmers planned their peanut crop with a view of feeding them to their hogs. The high price and great demand for the nuts this fall has caused more to be gathered for market than was expected.

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44 Florida Cooperative Extension The seed planted was poor, which caused bad stands and reduced the yield. The county agents have insisted on the selection of good seed for another crop. CITRUS In all of the citrus counties the agents have carried on a num ber of demonstrations in spraying and fertilizing, and a better generai management of the groves, which has shown the growers the value of spraying and fertilizing when properly done. In every county the agent encourages the growers to keep in touch with the Experiment Station and follow its recommendations in controlling disease and insect troubles. TRUCK The agents in the trucking sections have given the truckers valuable assistance by aiding them in the control of disease and insect pests; also by assisting them in the purchase and use of their fertilizer. CORN The acreage planted in corn this year was about 2 per cent larger than last, but due to unfavorable weather conditions, the yield as a whole was less. An effort was made to show the farmers the importance of protecting their corn from weevils. In one county we spent two weeks with the county agent on this work. During the day we would visit the farms, look over the cribs on the farm and sug gest to the farmer how he could convert the old and open ones into airtight ones in which he could fumigate his corn. The county agent would also demonstrate to the farmer the method of husking his corn as he gathered it. At night we held meet ings at the school houses and other places, and gave illustrated lectures showing development and work of the com weevil; also how they might be destroyed. In other counties similar methods were used, and judging by the number of tight cribs built and the amount of carbon bi-sulphide used, a great deal more corn will be saved from the ravages of the weevil than has been done before.

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Annual Report, 1919 45 REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Direcfor. SIR: I herewith submit report of the district agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, S. W. HIATT, District Agent. The farmers' co-operative demonstration work in this district covered the territory west of the Suwannee river comprising ighteen counties, to which after July 1 were added the counties of Suwannee, Columbia, Hamilton, Baker, Duval and Clay, mak ing 24 in all. With the closing of hostilities in Europe, the county . agents were relieved of considerable extra work they had been doing and more general lines of demonstration work were at tempted. The work of the county agents and the results obtained over this territory during the time covered in this report have been very satisfactory. LIVESTOCK In the past very little attention has been given to feeding out and finishing the hogs for either the late spring or early fall mar ket when prices are usually high. At the beginning of the year a campaign was put on in nearly every county to encourage the feeding and marketing of hogs in the spring and preparing for the early marketing of hogs in the fall. This campaign met with excellent success. Many new pastures have been established and remarkable . improvement made in care and feeding. A large .number of self-feeders have been introduced thru the efforts of the county agent and a great many farmers have been satisfac torily feeding and fattening their hogs by feeding corn and peanut . meal thru these feeders. Up to September 15 approximately 22,500 head of hogs had been treated against cholera by county agents, the simultaneous treatment being used almost exclusively. A largely increased interest has been shown in dairy cattle this : season, especially in Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Calhoun coun .ties. lmprovement in beef cattle is being carried on by the purchase

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension . of better bulls, and the i:ridustry will develop rapidly as soon as the cattle ticks are eradicated, which work is being conducted extensively in a majority of the counties. COLD STORAGE Reports from Leon county show 43,000 pounds of pork cured by the cold storage process in 1919 against 15,000 for 1918. Many farm cold storage plants are in operation thruout the ter ritory. HONEY BEES In several counties the county agent has been instrumental in making progress in the bee industry. . This has proven especially profitable in the gulf coast counties. PEANUTS A large acreage of peanuts was planted for both pasture and market, but owing to the general poor stand obtained and weather conditions the crop is not up to . the usual standard. SWEET POTATOES The acreage of sweet potatoes was greatly increased this year, with the result that canning factories were established at Mari anna and DeFuniak Springs. CO..OPERATION Co-operative selling of hogs and sweet potatoes in caFlots has met with splendid results. The co-operative selling of 40,000 pounds of wool at DeFuniak Springs under the direction of J . J. Sechrest, county agent of Holmes county, brought the farmers seven cents more per pound than the best offer made on a single crop . Co-operative buying of seeds and fertilizers has been car ried on more extensively this season than ever before. MEETINGS A number of very successful farmers' meetings have been held and several farmers' tours of inspection to other sections were conducted. The agents in Santa Rosa county held a very suc cessful club meeting camp during the first week in June. Group meetings of the county agerits in this district were held . at Pensacola and Tallahassee in February.

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Annual Report, 1919 47 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA P.H. Rolf s , Director. SIR: Herewith please find a report of the co-operative demon stration work in the South Florida district assigned to me for supervision. Respectfully, A. P. SPENCER, V ice -D irec to r an d D i st ri ct Ag e nt. The report herewith submitted covers, in a general way , the active dutie s of the co-operati v e demonstration agents of Pinellas, DeSoto, Manatee and Lee counties on the West Coast, and Bre vard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach and Dade counties on the East Coast. As these counties are out of the general farming district, the agents have necessarily confined their attention to activities best suited to this s ection. During the period of the war , the county agents urged a greater production of corn , peanuts , feed crops and s uch pasturage as was needed to maintain the work stock, dairy cattle and poultry , and often urged farmers to rearrange their cropping season so as to FIG. 5 . -Magazine and bulletin rack in office of St. Lucie County Agent, A. Warr,en.

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48 Florida Cooperative Extension conserve the national food supply, and without special regard as to profits. At the close of the war, this situation was changed; farmers were no longer inclined to produce uncertain crops, but again turn their attention to citrus and other fruits and truck crops. The production of staple crops has had its effect in that farm ers and truckers found they could diversify their cropping system to a much greater extent than they had formerly believed; they could utilize some of their lands during the summer months for growing feed crops and pastures, and thereby keep a limited num ber of poultry and hogs. The production of these has not, how ever, contributed to any extent to the receipts from sales from the average farms, but is furnishing home supplies and feeds in more places than before the war period. This situation applies to practically all of the South Florida counties. PERSONNEL OF THE COUNTY AGENTS The variety of agricultural interests and the general progres sive attitude toward agriculture has made it necessary to employ county agents with strong personality and wide experience, par ticularly in horticulture. The work has taken a firm hold on all agricultural interests, and it has been the policy in each case for . the county agents to co-operate fully with all community interests 1 that are intended to bring abqut b~tter conditions, partiGular}y ' for those who live outside of the cities, Th) increased cost' ' of living, together with the kind ' of work required of the GOui::ity agent, has made it necessary for these counties to appropriate a fund• somewhat larger than the average for the whole state. CHARACTER OF THE WORK In Pinellas the county agent work had been in progress for one y~ar only. As the income from agricultural products is derived principally from citrus fruit, and very little trucking and farming are in operation, the agent's opportunities for stimulating an increase in home supplies were naturally limited. The:i;e are, however, farmers located in all parts of the county who are inte:rested in the production of garden crops, sufficient feed crops fqr their livestock and poultry, propagatio:Q of fruits other than citrus, the care and management of a small flock of P,oultry, a few hogs and one or more dairy cows. Others living nearer the center of population were benefitted by the county

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Annual Report, 1919 agent's help in the plan _ ting of ornamentals, and general improve ment of property. The club work, _ with corn, pigs and peanuts occupied a good portion of the agent's time. On account of the limited area used for farm crops, the work accomplished was comparatively small. The major problems were concerned with citrus groves , prin cipally care of young orchards, spraying, pruning arid f ertiliza tion, also vegetable crops, dairying, hogs and poultry. The farmers of Manatee and Lee counties derive their income from citrus fruit and truck crops. Here the agents were con . fronted with the many problems of the trucker and fruit grower. Efforts were made in each county to perfect organizations that would promote better methods of spraying for insects and diseases of citrus and truck. . The agents made this a special study, and called the Extension Pathologist to. their assistance when confronted with problems with which they were not alto gether familiar. In Manatee county, the amount of corn following truck CJ:'.Qps : was . larger than usual. . Some corn club members made gciod . " yields. Some splendid hogs were produced. . This, however ; was urged only where there was an acreage suitable for producing the necessary feeds. Dairying recE;)ived special attention; the agent interested the banks in making loans to the farmers to buy one or more milch cows. The effects of this campaign, while not entering into the sales from the county, resulted in a few farmers securing good dairy c ows. In DeSoto, Lee and Manatee counties many tracts of land of various sizes are being developed, much of it by people unac customed to farming and the agents had many calls related to clearing, breaking, ditching and growing suitable crops. On the East Coast the agents' duties during the past year have materially increased. Several large tracts of land are being de veloped :for grove properties, and many small tracts cleared and developed for the' production of home supplies, truck gardens and smaller groves. In Brevard county the principal production is citrus fruits but, like Pinellas, a number of small owners are making a living from : the products of their garden, poultry and in various ways. Many of these have planted small groves on various types of soil, anp . under a variety of conditions. Many of these groves are not mak. .. . , .. . . . 4

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension ing the growth expected because of improper soil conditions and too much moisture. The matters of drainage and cover crops, and spraying and fertilization of these groves are an important part of the county agent's work. In St. Lucie county there has been a large development in grove property,. mostly by land companies who are selling off tracts of various sizes for groves, cane and truck crops. Many of the newcomers have limited means, and must make some re turns from their land each year. Quite a large number of these farmers planted cotton during the past two seasons and, being unaccustomed to cotton produc tion, many planted it on unsuitable lands, experimenting with varieties of cotton, handling, insect troubles and securing pickers. The crop generally was not profitable, so that the production the present year is practically nothing. At the request of the Government, castor beans were planted on quite a large area on lands of all description; many of the beans were never harvested, and on the whole the crop was dis appointing. This new crop, however, was looked upon with much interest, while it was growing, and the county agents were called, on many occasions, to make such recommendations as they could regarding it. The revival of the pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural problems of St. Lucie county. About $1500 was sub scribed by property owners to conduct experiments, directed by the Pathologist of the Florida Experiment Station. The county agent is deeply interested in the matter, and is taking general supervision of the progress of the experiments. The St. Lucie county agent has been of the greatest service to the citrus owners thru help secured in the care and management of groves under five years of age. The county agent in Palm Beach county has worked largely with truckers and farmers in the Lake district. During the past three years, the Everglade country in Palm Beach county has received a large increase of truckers and farmers. The holdings of most of these truckers are less than ten acres, and their crops are confined to the perishable winter crops of South Florida .. The land being unusually rich, produces heavy crops of all vegetation. The problems of this section are not different from those of other pioneer sections. . Good transportation is not yet avail able; the lands have risen in price at a rapid rate; comparatively

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Ann u al R e port, 1919 51 few of the truckers have been able to build good homes; the water supply for drinking purposes must be provided. The agent has endeavored to lend every possible assistance in the successful pro. duction of such marketable crops as are profitable . There is a deep interest in sugar cane production, and a few are interested in livestock. One of the main problems of the section has been to overcome the destruction of crops by rats. The county agent was success ful in securing about $1,500 to purchase poison and bait for dis tribution around the edges of the truck fields. The rats were . numerous in places , and have caused severe damage to practkally all .the crops grown. By . organization of the farmers the bait was distributed at regular intervals and, where consistently handled, materially reduced the number of rats .. Other problems of the county were those of the truckers . ~nd fruit growers , dairymen and poultrymen, together with th . ~ , ~6n tro1 of the diseases and insects of citrus and other fruit cr9ps. In Dade county the work of the county agent has attracted much attention, particularly toward the development of daiti.es. The county is now tick free, which makes it possible to brin,g ~n valuable dairy cattle from outside of the state. The high pr~~e of dairy products has stimulated this production, and the fut11re for an important dairy industry seems almost assured . . . . Many high-priced animals have been purchased by the leading stockinen. The county agent has been especially active in stim ulating a demand for high class animals , and has succeeded in placing several hea . d in the hands of indi v iduals and also doe whatever is possible to procure the necessary home grown feeqs. Feed and forage and the usual problems of citrus growers and truckers have been an important part of the county agent's work. Thruout the entire district, each agent has worked consistently for the improvement of rural conditions generally, and has given full support to state and Government agencies that affect the farmers' welfare. They maintained an off ice for farmers to visit and where agricultural literature is conveniently arranged. Some changes in the personnel of the agents have taken place. In DeSoto county, W. A. Sessoms resigned, and was succeeded by R. w . Blacklock who, after two months' work, was appointed assistant club agent and was succeeded by J.M. Tillman. In Manatee county, H. G . Clayton was selected to fill the place

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52 Florida Coop er ati v e E x t e nsion of district agent for West Florida, and was succeeded by W. R. Briggs. . Late in the year C. D. Kime was transferred from Brevard to Orange county, and was succeeded by K. E. Bragdon, formerly an employee of the State Plant Board. In Pinellas county J. H. Jeffries resigned, due to the failure of the Board of County Commissioners to continue support for the maintenance of the work. County agents Boring, Lee county; Warren, St. Lucie county; Conkling, Palm Beach county and Rainey of Dade county have undertaken their prob l ems in a progressive and constructive way, each year making them selves more valuable to the farmers of their counties. . J FIG. 6.-Basketry lesson, home demonstration work, at the Hillsboro camp

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Annual Repo r t, 1919 REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' club agent for the year ending December 31, 1919. G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Ag e nt . While it is the purpose of this report to portray the successful achievements of the boys' club work , this year has not been entirely void of difficulties. Some of the counties where strol).g club organizations have been maintained during previous years; such as Nassau and Clay, have been entirely out of the work this year because no county agents were employed. Polk, Marion, Baker, Washington, Gadsden, Sumter, Hamilton, Flagler, and Okeechobee have had agents for only a part of the season, which made it impossible to gather reports that would give full credit for the amount of work that has been done. In those counties where assistant emergency agents were em~ ployed, the assistants' duties were largely with the club boys. When their services were discontinued June 30 the club work could not be given enough attention to get the best results. And these interruptions have not been confined entirely to the county agents, for there have been some changes in the state force. Due to lack of funds, Mr. Blacklock was transferred froin assistant boys' club agent to county agent the first of August. He was reappointed to the former position two months later when the other assistant boys' club agent, Mr. Highfill, resigned. SEVEN BRANCHES OF CLUB WORK All features of club work adopted during previous years have been kept up this year, and some new problems that give promise of success have been undertaken . Corn, peanut and pig clubs were the mairi branches of the work until this year. To these have been added dairy calf, beef calf, sugar cane and sweet potato clubs. We hesitate to take up new problems before the organization of workers is sufficient to handle them, yet it is the desire to make the club work applicable to the various farming conditions found in different parts of the state. Conditions in South Florida

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54 Florida Cooperative Extension are so different from those in West Florida that the same club projects cannot be successfully used in both localities. The total number of boys enrolled is about the same as that for last year, but their achievements in the various club activities are much greater. IMPROVEMENT IN EXHIBITS One noticeable improvement is that of the exhibits of corn brought to the county contests in the fall. The corn showed that it was well selected, of the most adapted varieties, and had been kept almost free from weevil. Some splendid exhibits of peanuts were also shown and indicate that there is a growing interest in this branch of work. A large number of boys fatten pigs on their crops of peanuts and it is not possible to show the results in the way of yield and profit. Every county agent has adopted the plan of selecting for the boys the best pigs to be had for reasonable prices. Thus the boys see that they are receiving good individuals and are im pressed with the fact that they must keep them in the best of condition and raise others as good or even better. Many a pig that was placed on a farm two or three years ago was an enter ing wedge for a complete herd of pure bred hogs at this time. SWEET POTATO CLUBS The sweet potato clubs were organized in a few localities where potatoes give promise as a commercial crop. The Santa Rosa and Manatee county club boys seem to be most interested in this crop and are making considerable progress. The first steps in stan dardizing varieties have been made and this promises to be help ful where potatoes are shipped fo car lots to markets. SUGAR CANE CLUBS Much interest in the production of sugar cane is shown in some of the southern counties, and many people are much con cerned over the production of cane for the manufacture of sugar. It has been suggested by influential business men in these locali ties that cane clubs be incorporated as a regular branch of the boys' club work. DAIRY CALF CLUBS The production of more milk and butter on the small farm h'iis received great impetus the past 12 months. Perhaps this Jas ' a result of the search for a solution of the high cost of living.

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Annual Report, 1919 55 It was believed by members of the Florida Dairy Association that dairy calf clubs among the boys could further this development. It was advised that boys in any county raise dairy calves where possible, but definite wor:k has been established in Dade and Palm Beach counties, where a car load of Jersey heifers and a car load of Holstein heifers were brought in and placed among the boys. All were pure bred and due to calve within a few months after delivery. BEEF CALF CLUBS There has also been an increased in terest in the raising of beef cattle. Twenty-five pure bred beef calves were placed among boys in different localiti es by one bank. Since that time sev eral other banks and some of the breeders have taken up this work and have made it possible for boys to purchase pure bred animals. We are not attempting the baby beef clubs just yet. At present we are endeavoring to distribute more breeding stock among as many farmers as will properly care for them. Perhaps Alachua county is taking the lead in the beef calf club work. At the Alachua co unt y fair the exhibit of calves FIG. 7.-A1achua County boys' calf show put on by the club boys attracted as much attention as any part of the livestock show. CLUB CAMPS An encampment for the Hillsboro county boys and girls was held on Lake Wimauma in the early spring. The purpose was to bring all club members into closer relationship and to give

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56 Florida Coop e rati ve E x t e nsio n them special instruction while together . A course of lectures was given during each forenoon and the afternoons were spent in some kind of field ob s ervation work or in amusement games. FIG. 8.-Setting up exercises at short course camp for club members One sp l endid piece of work accomplished with the boys was that of making a se lffeeder for swine. The lumber, nails, and hinges were provided by the county commissioners. A plan out lined in a bulletin was adopted and each boy present was re quired to work out the dimensions of each part of the feeder. Then they went ahead and constructed each part as they had calculated the dimensions. In this way each boy learned how to construct a feeder for himself since he took part in making this one. Several county agents adopted the plan of getting the club boys to build s elf-feeders and it resulted in a much more liberal use of this great labor saving device. The Santa Rosa county club held an encampment at F l orida town in mid-summer. This one was equally as successful as the one in Hillsboro and was very helpful in creating more in terest in club work. The expenses of each of these . camps were borne by the commissioners in those counties , and the commis sioners were so well pleased that in both counties they have already made appropriations to finance camps again next year. COLUMBIA COUNTY PIG CLUB Another achievement that we feel proud of was the organi zation of the pig club work in Columbia county. For several

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Annual R e port, 1919 57 years no agent has been employed in this county and conse quently no club work has been done. A prominent member of the Florida State Swine Growers Association living in this county was anxious to see some work put on among the boys of his county, so he took it upon himself to finance those who were chosen as members of the pig club. The assistant county agent in Suwannee was permitted to de vote a part of his time to the work in Columbia. After a few weeks' work he had selected 46 boys for the pig club and had en list ed nine prominent farmers to buy pure bred boars and allow the club boys free use of them. It had been agreed to purchase pure bred Poland-China gilts about eight months old for the boys in thi county . The county agent in charge of this work went to Stockton, Illinois and bought these animals on the recommendation of the Secretary of the American Poland China Record Association. It was a big day in Lake City when they arrived and were delivered to FIG. 9.-0liver Fowler, of Hernando County, feeding his Duroc sow the boys and girls who had been se lected as members of the club . It was another big day when the county contest was held in the fall and the boys brought back to Lake City 17 mature

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension sows that would compete well in any Southern show ring. Many others would have been exhibited had it not been too near the farrowing dates. Some of the boys in this county have been among the most successful in the State. This piece of work resulted in the county commissioners making appropriation to employ a county agent to take charge of the work permanently in Columbia county. STATE CLUB CONTEST The State contest and exhibit held at the State Fair in Jack sonville was far beyond any that has been held previously. The exhibit consisted of 1650 ears of corn, 20 exhibits of sweet potatoes, 30 exhibits of peanuts, 25 pure bred pigs and 6 pure bred calves. Following is the standing of the various counties in the corn, peanut and sweet potato club contests: CORN 25-,----10-ear exhibits: Holmes county, first; Hernando, second; Santa Rosa, third. 20-10-ear exhibits: Baker county, first; Washingtori, second. 15-10-ear exhibits: Suwannee county; first; Madison, second. 10-10-ear exhibits: Putnam county, first. 5-10-ear exhibits: Marion county, first; Alachua, second. SWEET POTATOES 20-1-peck exhibits: Santa Rosa county, first. PEANUTS 20-1-gallon exhibits: Madison county, first. 5-1-gallon exhibits: Palm Beach county, first. Liberal prizes are offered in all phases of the State contest. The donors of the following special prizes deserve full recogni tion: Grand Championship prize in the pig and calf club contests $250 each, for scholarships to the College of Agriculture, donated by Williamson & Dennis of Jacksonville. Reserve championship prizes in the pig and calf clubs, $150 each, to be used in paying expenses to the International Livestock Show at Chicago, donated by Armour & Co. At the meeting of the Florida Bankers' Asso ciation in March their plan of giving one $200 scholarship to the College of Agriculture was changed to three scholarships of $100 . each. This makes five scholarships to the College of Agricul ture offered to club boys annually;

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Annual R eport, 1919 59 All club boys were invited to attend the State Fair and club contest on Thank sg iving Da y . More than 100 boys were present from various counties. A livestock judging contest was . held with teams competing from the College of Agriculture, the State club organization, and Duv al county club. These teams judged horses, beef cattle, dairy cattle and sw in e . The final standing of the competing teams were College of Agriculture, first; State club, second, and Duval county, third. A member of the State club team tied with a member of the College team for honors as the best individual judge. THE SHORT COURSE The fourth annual short course in agriculture was held at the College of Agriculture the first week in December. It was at tended by 101 club boys coming from 26 counti~s. No trouble was exper ienced in any way whatever and all who attended seemed to deriv e much benefit from the course. Suwannee FIG. 10.-A self-feeder built by club boys county led in the number attending the short course with 19 present, under the . personal supervision of their county agent. Hillsboro followed second with 14 present.

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60 Florida Cooperative Extension PUBLICATIONS Two bulletins and one circular have been written by the club staff, as follows: Extension Bulletin No. 16, "Boys' Agricultural Clubs"; Extension Bulletin No. 20, "Self Feeders for Swine"; and Circular No. 10, "One Hundred Bushels of Corn Per Acre". For the purpose of keeping the public informed as to the progress of the club boys, one column of the Agricultural News Service has been devoted to club activities in almost every issue. Special articles have also been prepared for many agricultural papers. SOUTHERN CLUB AGENTS' MEETING At the close of this year's work the boys' club agent attended a meeting of the club agents from all Southern States held in Gulfport, . Mississippi the latter part of December. Splendid progress is being made in all Southern States and all indrca tions prove that the work in Florida is keeping pace with that in any other state. BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY ALACHUA COUNTY . Name. Address Age Nelson N. Bennett .................................. Alachua .... . .... .. ....... .. . . ...... .. . .... .. : : .. .. ... ... . 14 i:f ii~ t:!!!!~~~ ::: ::: :: :::::: :: ::::: ::: ::::::::::::ll:t;t~:~ : ::::: :: :::::::::::: : :::::: : ::::::::::::: : ::ji Ruff Hodge ..... . . .. . ....... : ..... . .... . ..... . .... .... .. . . . Newberry . .. ..... .... ... ............ . ...... . ........... 18 John Smith, Jr ................................. . ....... Newberry ............. .. .......................... . .... 16 BAKER COUNTY Lacy Mobley ... .... .... ... : . ........ . ..... ... . .... ... . .. McClenny ........ .... . .. .... .. ...... .. .. ... . .. ... . ..... 18 BRADFORD COUNTY Eurie Brown ......... ... .. . . .. .. ... ..... .. ............. :Lake Butler .: ..... .. . . ...... . . . . . ..... ....... .. . .... 16 Seber Stokes ............... . .... . . . ...... . . , ... . ........ Lake Butler .. .. .................. . ....... . ........... 17 Clarence Rhoden . .. . .. .. . ......... . . .. . .... . ...... .. Raiford ... .. .. ....... ... .. .... . '. ........ .. . . .. . . . ... ..... 14 BREVARD COUNTY Ruben Gran ... .. .................. .. ........... ... ..... . . Micco ....... . ...... ... ... . ....... ... ..... . .................. 17 Roy Hilliard ....... .. ..... .. .. . .. .. ..................... Pineda . . .. .. .... . . . .... . .... . . . ........... .... ..... ... .. 14 BROWARD COUNTY Clifford Hammer .................................... Davie ..... ..... .. . . .. ..... .. ... .. ... , .... ... ..... . ...... ... 14 DADE COUNTY Joseph A. Johnson .. ..... .. .... .. ..... .. ..... ... ...... Goulds ........... ... ..... . ......................... ... .... 14 . . ) DESOTO COUNTY David Alderman .. ...... .. .. . .. .. .... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . Arcadia ............ : ... . ................................. 14 Jeffrey D. Yates ................. .... . ............. . . Arcadia ... ... ... .. ..... . ...... . ...................... : .. ,17

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Annual Report, 1919 61 DUVAL COUNTY .Harold Broya Buie ............. ..... ......... .... .. Bayard . .. . ......... ... . ................ ... ............ . . 13 Herman Mader ..... .... .......... . . .. .......... ... .. . . Bayard ... .... ... .. ..... ...... ........ .... .......... .. . . . 15 Willis Pickett .......... . ....................... .... .... Grand Crossing ... . .. .. ......................... . . . 17 Lem Wingate ...... .. . ... ......... . ... . ..... .... . .. . .... . Grand Crossing ..... ..... .... ... ... .. .. .. ... , ... . .. 13 Arnold Watson ... .. .. . .... ... . ...... ....... ..... ..... . So. Jacksonville ...... ... ....................... . : .. 13 Douglas Watson ..... .. ............................... So. Jacksonville .. .... .. . .......... . ............. . .. 12 ESCAMBIA COUNTY Lewis Floyd .. .... .. .. ... ..... .. .. . ..... ........... . .... .. Cantonment ............ ... ....... ...... .............. 15 J.E. Haynes, Jr ..... ...... ......... ... ........... .. . .. .. Pensacola .. .. ........... . .. ... ......................... 14 Harvey Barrineau .................................... Quintette . ..... ...... . .. ... ....... ... .. .. ........... ... 14 HAMILTON ' COUNTY i:j~s!i~~;;;:~::: ::: :::::::::::: ::: :::::::::: :: :::J:;;rf :::: :::::::: ::::::: :: :~:::::::::::::::::::::: : :::j! HERNANDO 0oUNTY . Bernard Mountain .................................. Dade City ................ , Elmore W ernicke ...... : ............................. Brooksville . .. . . ..... .... : ............................. 14 HILLSBORO COUNTY :Jesse Alderman . .. ... .. .......... .. .. .. ....... . .. ... ... Lakeland . .. ............... . ....................... .. .... 18 Jesse W. Barker ..................... . ......... .. ..... Plant _ City ..... ........ ....... ..... .. . ... ....... . . ... . 14 .DeFa y Blitch ........ ..... ........... . : ........... . . .. ... Plant City ............................................ 14 Charlie Booth .... .... .............. . ... . ........ . , ..... Plant City .. ... . .................... : . .... . ... .... ..... . 13 Alton English ..... . .. ....... ..... ... .. . .. . ... . ... . .... . Plant City . .... ...... . .. ..... ....... : . . . .... . ....... .. .. 14 , James Futch ............................................ Plant City ............... . .......... .. ............. . . .. 16 Don Miley .. .. .......... ..... ........... . ............ , ...... Plant City .. ....... ........ ...... .... :: ........... : . .. 14 Glenn Miley .......... ... .... ... .. .. ................. . .... Plant City . .... ........... . .......................... . .. 16 . Louis Nesmith .............. ..... .......... .. .......... . Plant City .. . . . . .. .. .. .. ....... ..... ... ............ .. ... 16 Powers Taylor ..... .. .. . ............ . ............ . ...... Plant City ......................... ... ................ 12 Lqther Webb ......... ... .. . ........ . .. .... .... .... ...... Plant City . . . ...... . .. . . ......... .... .. .. ... ...... ... ... 15 C. H. Taylor , Jr .. .. ... ...... . ................ ... ........ Plant City ........ . .. . ...... ....... .. .. ... .. . ...... . . . . . 15 Moriss Young ...... ........... ... . .. .. .......... . ........ Plant City ... ... . ...... ......... .... .... .......... ...... 13 Thos. H. Ellerbe ...................................... W.imauma ..... ....... . .... ... ........ . ................. 15 HOLMES COUNTY .j:~1 ~iiit~ 115 . ::::::::.:::::::::::::::::::::: :::: ::::~~~1}~;t~.~ .. ::::: ::::: ::::::::: :::: :::::: ::::::::: :::: ::i~ LIBERTY {:oUNTY Robert Turner ...... ... . .. ........ .. .. .. ...... . . ..... ... Bristol ... . ... . . . ...................... ..... ........... . ... 16 MADISON COUNTY iif f ~:;;:: : :: :: !!!~~( : ~: ::!! MANATEE -COUNTY Lonnie Collins ........................................ ..Oneco .. ... . ........ . ........... ...... ... . ... ............... 14 !;ri1~i•!~7! 1 ~g: : ::::::::::: :::::: :::::::: :::: :::f:F~Si~ :: :: : ::::::::: :::::: :::.:::::: ::::::: :::::::i : :::U MARION COUNTY ~~f~~:~~~: : ::::::: :::: ::: :: :::::::: :::: ::: : 8~:1: ::::::::: : :::::::: :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::J:

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension OKALOOSA COUNTY Ernest Griffith ...... : ................................... Galliver .................... , ............................. 17 OKEECHOBEE COUNTY Guy Holman .............................................. Okeechobee City .................................. 17 POLK COUNTY Ernest Clark .......................................... Bartow .................................................. 11 W. Olive Clark ................... , ...................... Bartow .................................................. 15 George W. Mann ...................................... Bartow .................................................. 13 Willie Anderson ...................................... Chicora .................................................. 18 Carl C. Stephens ...................................... Chicora .................................................. 17 Francis Pipkin .......................................... Lakeland ................................................ 15 John Pinaire ............................................ Lake Hamilton .................................... 13 PUTNAM COUNTY Ernest Carnes .......................................... Florahome ............................................ 14 Carl C. Carnes .......................................... Florahome ............................................ 17 G. W. Cottingham .................................... Florahome ............................................ 14 Richard McGrath .................................... Florahome ........................................... 17 Percy B. Revels ........................................ Florahome ............................................ i8 Geo. Orville Tyre .................................... Florahome ............................................ 18 Ernest Motes ............................................ Hollister ................................................ 12 ST. JOHNS COUNTY Joe Brown ................................................ St. Augustine ........................................ 14 ST. LUCIE COUNTY Victor Robertson ...................................... Vero ......................................•................. 17 SANTA ROSA COUNTY Robert Camp ............ ............................... Milton .................................................... 15 Roy Holland .............................................. Milton ....................... : ............................ 15 Alton Johnson .......................................... Holt ........................... , ............................ 15 Eugene Johnson ...................................... Holt ........................................................ 13 SUWANNEE COUNTY Henry Dorsett ......................... , ................ Branford ................................................ 15 Willie Wade Edenfield ............................ Branford ................................................ 14 Lamar Martin .......................................... Branford ................................................ 16 r:r:Ro;,~\ir~~~ .. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:~~~;~ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::ti Kenneth Faulkner .................................. Dowling Park ...................................... 10 J. C. Gammon. ........................................... Dowling Park ...................................... 11 G. S. Payne, Jr ......................................... Dowling Park ...................................... 11 Minas Payne ............................................ Dowling Park ...................................... 15 Dewitt Coleman ...................................... Live Oak ................................................ 16 Albert Jones ............................................ Live Oak ................................................ 16 Dan T. Law .............................................. Live Oak ................................................ 17 Alton McCullers ...................................... Live Oak ................................................ 15 Clinton Leggett ........................................ McAipin .................. : ............................. 14 ~:~~~ls~!~i;~;;;;gh::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8::;~:~ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::J! Roy Jenkins .............................................. Pine Mount ............................................ 14 x~u 0 G .DR~;~~t~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~ :n~~;~ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::i; . TAYLOR COUNTY Henry Bird ................................................ Perry ...................................................... 14 John Bowdoin ........................ : ................. Perry ...................................................... 18 Broward Cullpepper .............................. Perry ...................................................... 12

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Annual R e port, 1919 63 REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Dir ec to r . SIR: I submit herewith the report of the assistant boys' agri cultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Bo ys' Club Agent. The total enrollment was 3,099 members, divided as follows: Corn club , 1,098; peanut club, 173; pig club, 1,706; and miscella neous clubs (cotton, sweet potatos, cane, calf, etc.), 122. The enrolling of boys in the different clubs was hindered to a great extent by the shortage of farm labor. The older boys were needed as regular farrr.. hands and the smaller ones were forced to do more regular farm work th a n even under war conditions. These conditions caused many of the older boys to withdraw from the FIG . 11.-"Where there's a will there's a weigh" club work. The crop clubs were affected more than the animal clubs, as the increase for the pig club was 210, while for the corn club there was a decrease of 235.

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension The following table gives the enrollment by counties: ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1919 Col!nty Alachua .................. 38 55 8 8 Baker ...................... 33 25 2 ................... . Bay ...................... , 4 6 1 ................... . Bradford ................ 27 93 4 ................... . Brevard .................. 8 12 ............. , ......................... . Broward ........ ....... .................... .................... .................... 7 Calhoun .................. 5 14 1 ................... . Citrus 8 14 1 3 Clay ........................ 44 26 1 9 Columbia ................ 4 113 1 1 Dade ............... , ...... / 2 30 2 16 DeSoto .................... 26 62 .................... 8 Duval ...................... 16 36 1 .................... . Escambia .............. 28 87 9 3 Flagler .................. 16 6 ............................. , ......... . Gadsden .................. 6 1 ....................................... . Hamilton ................ 23 39 1 ................... . Hernand• .............. 26 20 1 ................... . Hillsboro ............... , 50 10 1 ................... . Holmes .................. 95 125 10 ................... . Jackson .................. 17 48 7 ................... . Jefferson ................ 6 10 ....................................... . LaFayette .............. 9 24 3 ................... . Lake........................ 15 7 2 ................... . Lee .......................... 5 18 1 ... .............. Leon ........................ 12 48 ....................................... . Levy........................ 2 2 1 .................. . Liberty .................. Q8 22 2 1 Madison .................. 45 120 18 .................. . Manatee ..... '. ....... ,.... 28 36 2 ................... . Marion .................... 25 71 15 .................. . Nassau.................... 7 6 ...................................... . Okaloosa ................ 34 11 7 ................... . Okeechobee .............................................................................. : ............ . Orange .................... 24 26 1 ................... . Osceola .................. 6 21 .................... 12 Palm Beach .......... 35 15 23 6 Pasco ...................... 8 60 Pinellas .................. 1 22 Polk ........................ 31 25 Putnam .......... :....... 22 35 Santa Rosa ............ 50 38 Seminole ................ 2 2 Sumter .................. 24 28 Suwannee .............. 37 56 St. Johns ................ 10 20 St. Lucie ................ 4 13 Taylor .................... 12 27 Wakulla ................ ,. 5 4 Walton.................... 38 50 Washington ......... , 94 68 Total ., ............ / 1098 1706 3 4 1 2 26 2 2 4 1 2 173 5 49 8 1 17 122

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Annual Report, 1919 65 The total corn production of the State was 12,470,000 bushels, with an average of 15 bushels per acre. The club boys produced 9,863 bushels on the 276 acres reported, an average of 35.7 bushels per acre. This corn was produced at an average cost of 48 cents per bushel. Valueing the corn at $1.25 per bushel, it would leave a profit of $27.35 per acre, or a total of $7,548 profit to the 276 boys reporting. COUNTY CONTESTS One decided increase in 1919 over 1918 was the quality of the ten-ear exhibits shown at the county contests. The exhibits showed that the boys had given time and careful study in these lection of their ten ears. This decided superiority in the exhibits over previous years demonstrates that our club boys are putting into practice the better methods taught them by the county agents. Holmes county led in number of boys reporting at the county contests, and Putnam county led with the highest average yield, 10 boys reporting an average yie.ld of 55.3 bushels. The following table of reports was collected from corn club boys, and is arranged in order of number of reports from each county. When two counties have the same number of reports, the one having the highest average yield per acre is placed first. County •Holmes ........................... . Hillsboro ......................... . Hernando ...•.................... Santa Rosa ...................... . Washington ................... . Baker Okaloosa ......................... . Putnam ........................... . Liberty ........................... . Suwannee ....................... . Duval ............................... . Madison ........................... . Marion ............................. . DeSoto ............................. . Escambia ....................... . Orange ........................... . Taylor ............................. . Jackson ........................... . Polk ................................. . Alachua .......................... . .Manatee .......................... . Hamilton ......................... . St. Johns . Palm Beach ................... . Calhoun ........................... . 'l'otal ....................... . 5 SUMMARY OF 276 CORN CLUB REPORTS "' .._, .., >, "' .; "' 0 "' o_ P:i bl; .; QQ/ ~:a ~t "..c: ..0 ... f< ~rg so " ,..i:i:i "~ "'o
  • Q/ > Q/ z~ f-<
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    66 Flo r ida Coop e rative Extension PEANUT CLUBS The club work with peanuts is progressing. The boys in this ' .club made very satisfactory profits, as the price paid for the nuts was as high as $2 and more per bushel. The average yield was 38 bushels per acre, prnduced at an average cost of 29 cents per bushel. The hay paid for the cost of picking, leaving an average profit of $65 per acre. PIG CLUBS The pig club continues to be the most popular, due to the fact that many boys doing regular farm hands' work in the fields have time to look after a pig, while they are unable to plant and prop erly care for an acre of crop. The total enrollment of pig club members was 1,706. Santa Rosa, Madison, Columbia and DeSoto counties had excep tionally fine exhibits at their contests, and the following gives some interesting facts regarding some of the pigs exhibited: MADISON COUNTY .., ..c: .., e.o ..c: .iil e.o "iil "O Q) r,:. -~ .a i:: "' ] s:: a ,,, "' ..... c., A SANTA ROSA COUNTY 648 I 2708 I 2068 I 1980 49.8 208.3 150 . 5 160 DE SOTO COUNTY COLUMBIA COUNTY .... 0 ..ci s:: ...:l a i.. 0 Q) P-< ..b ..,;:: a rn~ 0"' A UC., 17.59 I .966 6.4 cents 12.26 .94 9.55 .8 11.7.cents 11.4 cents ------Tot al, 13 records .. , 1487 I 3837 / 2350 I 2540 Avera g e .. ..... .. ... . .. . 114 . 3 295.1 180 . 7 f 196 12.65 I .97 13. 3 cents This s hows that good gains are not confined to any particular section of the State. The pigs in DeSoto county, in the southern part of the State, made nearly as la:rne daily gains as did those in Santa Ro s a county, in the extreme western end, and at a slightly smaller cost per pound of gain. The daily gains and cost of gain for the 56 records in the above four counties are given in the following table, which shows that

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    Annual R eport, 1919 67 the club boys are producing good, well grown and developed breed ing stock at very reasonable cost: .... ..., ..., 0 ..s:: b.O ..s:: .ci a, b.O I-< a, '"O .;; .. Q) C!l Q) P,; rn ..., :;:; @ >, @ rn•~ a ol 0 ol >-t C!l A A UC!l Total, 56 records \ 3478 / 12377 / 8899 / 9500 / 52.06 I Average . ... . ..... . ..... \ 62 . 1 221 1 5 8.9 169 .93 I 10.3 cents CALF CLUBS The calf clubs are being carried on with both beef and dairy calves. The dairy work is at present being pushed most in Dade county, where 16 boys and girls are raising dairy heifers. The beef calves are scattered over the central section of the State, with the best and largest club in Alachua county. In Alachua county the boys and girls showed their calves at the Alachua county fair. That these calves were of most excellent quality and fini s h is shown by the fact that an Angus bull calf shown by a club boy won not only first in his class and grand champion Angus bull but also Sweepstakes over bulls of all breeds shown. ' FIG. 12.-Putnam County Agent, L. Cantrell, lecturing to his club boys on the selection of seed corn

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    68 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT P. H'. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the year ending December 31 , 1919, with a statistical report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919. Respectfully, SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, State Home Demonstration Agent. In reviewing the home demonstration work accomplished dur ing the year, it is found that tho the work was done under dis turbed conditions, it is an established institution in Florida life. These disturbances were due, first, to an epidemic of influenza. Then there came a shift from wartime to post-war plans; a change in the plan of organization; and a loss of the State Agent, to whom we had looked so long for direction. ORGANIZATION During the fiscal year closing June 30, 1919, the home demon stration staff was composed of a state agent, an assistant state agent, two special assistants, one in charge of poultry work, one in charge of home dairy work; two district agents, with two as sistafits each in their respective districts; one secretary and three stenographers; county home demonstration agents; urban agents; special assistants in canning; and eighteen negro county assistants to the home demonstration agents. Beginning July 1, the work of a number of the field workers and the assistant district agents was discontinued, thereby re ducing the organization to the state agent, assistant state agent, two district agents and two specialists. In organizing the home demonstration work for negroes, the response from the counties was most gratifying. This work had been maintained almost entirely on emergency funds. When these funds were withdrawn it became necessary to supplement _ state and federal aid with substantial county appropriations. Because of the excellent work done by these agents during the previous year, every county to which _ an agent has been ap pointed appropriated _ funds for the work.

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    Annual R eport, 1919 69 AGENTS AND EQUIPMENT In selecting agents for this work personality, adaptability, initiative , character and training have been carefully considered. The advance in the cost of living , of car and operating expenses, and the demand in other fields have made the securing of com petent women difficult; but the best available workers were se lected. The report of the work accomplished is the best es timate of the value of the force. With but one exception, agents have we ll equipped offices. Of the 44 agents employed from January 1 to June 30, 1919, 37 own cars or are furnished cars by the county . Of the 32 agents em ploy ed beginning work September 1, 1919, 31 agents own and operate their own cars or are furnished cars by the county. On e agent owns a horse and buggy. One agent with liberal travel FIG. 13.-Home demonstration cottage at Miami, Dade Co unty. In addition to a well equipped office and rest room, there is a well equipped room for demonstration purposes, and equipment for community canning. a llo wance depends upon the use of hired ca:rs and the numerous jitney lines in the county. There are 63 demonstration kitchens where general club meet

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    70 Florida Cooperative E x tension ings are held and where demonstrations may be given; and 45 co-operative canning kitchens. FIG. 14.-Canning meat. Packing the cooked meat and gravy in cans AIMS OF WORK Opening work in 1919 was a re-adjustment of plans that had been greatly disarranged by the epidemic bf influenza during the months of November and December. Plans were made to push home garden work, poultry work, dairying and food con servation; to try and carry to a greater number of women facts about food and what the body needs; to give definite assistance with the remodeling of clothing; to develop among club members a greater interest in beautifying homes and in community needs and activities, and to assist them in working out plans for meet ing these needs. In addition to the regular activities carried on under home demonstration supervision, every agent on the force was active in assisting in the Victory Loan Drive, and 31 report club mem bers doing Red Cross work. CLUB MEMBERSHIP The number of girls cultivating the tenth acre plots in 1919 is smaller than the number of girls doing similar work in 1918,

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    Annual Report, 1919 71 but the total number of girls enrolled in home demonstration work is larger than in any previous year. Some have chosen to take up canning club work, while others have selected poultry work, bee work, home improvement, grape culture, pig or ca l f club work. The total number of girls enrolled is 4688. The total number of women enrolled is 8839. ORGA IZED CLUBS There are 326 strong clubs among girls, and 165 among women. These clubs not only offer a good opportunity for the discus sion of problems and the giving of instruction and demonstra tions, but they frequently furnish the only social hour enjoyed by c lub members. C lub organization is resulting in the developFIG. 15.-Canning club girl's plot of staked tomatoes ment of l oca l leadership. In Hillsboro county a very successful county council of home demonstration workers has developed. RESULTS Poultry Work: As a result of the effort to increase farm poultry production, 1500 farm flocks have been improved thru club work, either by the entire substitut ion of pure bred birds or by the introduction of a pure bred male from a good strain to head the flock; cu lling has been taught; breeding pens are being estab li shed on many yards . One agent writes: "Where club

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    72 Florida Cooperative E x t ens ion members have as many as three club pullets, they are establishing a breeding pen." This interest on the part of club members, not only in securing good stock but in securing good results from this stock, together with the splendid co operation of the lead ing poultrymen of the State, have been the outstanding features FIG . 16.-State short course at Tallaha ssee for home demonstration girls of poultry work resulting from the efforts of the home demon stration agents in the State. Home Dairy W:ork: To secure the increased production of home dairy products, agents thruout the State supp l emented the efforts of the assistant in charge of home dairy work in every possible way. The need of dairy products in the diet and the great la ck in the supp ly in Florida, has been stressed in every county in which home demon s tration work is carried on. An effort was made to have as many agents as possible hear Dr. E. V. McCollum's lecture on "What Constitutes an Ideal Diet , " delivered at Gainesville and Tallahassee, in order that they might carry the message back to their respective counties. Much in terest has been aroused over the State, the result of which i s told in the report of the assistant in charge of home dairy work submitted with this report. Garden Work: Two thousand and twenty girls planted tenth acre plots. To further stimulate garden work, boys and girls

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    Annual Report, 1919 73 were enrolled in the home garden work irrespective of the size of the garden cultivated. The value of the fresh vegetables in the diet was stressed at club meetings and women urged to main tain a garden thruout the year. It has been difficult to get definite reports from this work as there were no report blanks furnished members for this purpose. Two counties enrolled more_ than 500 each. A conservative estimate would be an aver age of 100 members per county. TEN BEST RECORDS Due to unfavorable seasons yields from tenth-acre plots are not high, but profits have been unusually good. The following are the ten highest records made in the State: , Yield Profit Manatee ............. ..... .................. Mattie Elmore ... . . .. .. ... .... 4885 lbs . . . .. ........ $124.76 Dade ............... . ..... . . . .................. Anna Sykes ......... .. .......... .4700 lbs ............. 135.66 Madison .............. ... ................... Katherine Williams ........ 3683 lbs. .. .......... 66.52 Gadsden .. . .. .... . . ... .. .. . .. ... .. ....... ... Lessie McKeown .. . ......... 25741 lbs. .... .. . ..... 79.29 Duval... . . .. . ... ................ ......... . .. . Eula Trantham .......... . . .. . . . . 1132 lbs . . . . . . ..... . . 128.20 ( 1206 stalks cane) Leon .................. ... ..................... Elsie Stoutamire .... .......... 2095 lbs. ..... .... . .. 63.40 Hernando .......... ... . .. . ..... ........... Rhea Harpin ... .. . . . .. ........ 1920 lbs.. .. ......... 66.01 St. Johns ......... ... ..................... ,Marie Bradfisch . .... ........... 1862 lbs . . .......... 209.00 Taylor .............. ......... .............. .. Ruby Taylor ...................... 1500 lbs . .... ........ 147.35 Hillsboro ....... . .. ............... ......... Arlene Young ... . .. . . .. ... . . ... .. 1340 lbs . .. .......... 291.01 NUTRITION To meet the need of the women of the State for better know ledge of food values and the fundamental processes of cookery and to aid them in choosing, in spite of the high cost of living, those foods that the body needs, much thought was given to the working out of carefully planned monthly programs based on the subject of nutrition. Home demonstration courses for house keepers based on the same subject and given in ten lessons ac companied by demonstrations, were offered. This program of work was in charge of the assistant state agent. The instruc~ tion was given by the assistant district agents. Fifty-five short courses were held, twenty-two of them for girls, thirty-three for women. A total of 2693 women and girls took the work offered thru the demonstration courses; while a much greater number were reached thru the monthly program . CONSERVATION The county agents gave 3952 demonstrations in food prepara.:. tion and canning. The total attendance at these demonstrations was 37,929. The number of containers filled with fruits, vege

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    74 Florida Cooperative Extension tables, fish and meats for home use was 1,301,050. Of this num ber 949,818 were put up by girls and women enrolled in home demonstration work; 154,000 by negroes; the remainder by women and girls influenced by the work. Dried products re ported amounted to 3952 pounds. Interest in meat canning is general. This work is being done in every county. It is found to be a safe, economical method that produces a satisfactory product. The following clipping from an agent's report is typical: "Spent the day with Mrs. ----. Assisted in canning a beef. She had never canned meats before or sealed a tin can. She was delighted when the day's work was done, . to find that she had a good supply of soup stock, liver, heart, steak, roast and loaf ready to be served on short notice." Other reports indicate that . homes are being equipped with modern appliances, which makes it convenient t~ do such work. A good piece of conservation work was the putting up of cull tomatoes for commercial purposes by a grower in Dade county. The agent in 1918 taught him to can the culls and with a rather meagre equipment, he filled 40,00 containers. These were dis posed of at a profit. In the season of 1919 with better equip ment he filled 140,000 cans with tomatoes. Another line of conservation work was done in the remodeling of clothing, which has received special attention this year and has aroused much interest. Popular exhibits of re-modeled garments have been put on at club meetings and at fairs. The girls have been interested in darning, patching and the making of button holes. BEAUTIFICATION OF THE HOME The growing interest in the beautification of the home is found alike among women and girls. The plan under which the girls are working is the selection by the girl of one room in the home, preferably her own, to study, furnish and keep. Girls enrolling for this home improvement will also give special attention to the planting of ornamental trees and plants about the home, and when canning season comes, to the filling of the home pantry with home canned products. This home problem is attracting a great number of girls. The inspiration for this work was the result of work done by three little girls in Brevard county. The following is the story: .

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    Annual R e port, 1919 75 These three little girls were motherless. Their father only consented for them to join the club after they had learned to know the home demonstration agent as she prepared the nourish ment and cared for the family when they were ill with influenza. The c hildren were taught to care for the hou se, to coo k and serve and sew, and were led to see the possibilities of having an at tractive home in the mid st of mo st m eag re furnishings . Flowers and v ines were planted about the little house. When given mone y to buy mat e rial s for new dre sses the oldest girl, thirteen years of age, asked that she might purchase material for curtains. Box furniture was made to s upplement the bare furnishings of the home. When the last curtain was hung, the youngest girl exclaimed with delight , "Oh! Thi s look s like a regular home." Their keen intere s t in thi s work s ugg est ed the home impro ve ment problem that i s proving so popular with our girl s as they choose their work for 1920. FIG. 17.-This club member knows ho w to h and l e bees RECRE A TIO N Special game s and so ng s for u se in club meetings were taught at the agents' annual meeting. Each c lub program sent out from th e office include s songs, also directions for games and play that may fill a part of the h o ur . Thi s feature of the work has been very popular. Camp fires have been held in some of the small neighborhoods.

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    76 Flo ri da Cooperative E x t ension A big fire is built under the pines, frequently near the one room school house, people of the neighborhood gather about it, and the time is spent in games, songs, the putting on of stunts and possibly a talk on matters pertaining to better farming or home making . Local talent is u sed, or talent from a nearby community is borrowed. In one county a quartet of returned soldiers has several times driven a distance of ten or . fifteen miles to con tribute to the evening program. Occasionally members of an orchestra will assist in a similar manner. One of the most attractive bits of work done by the agent was FIG. 1 8. -Les s on in " first aid"-Hillsboro ca mp I the telling , thruout the county , of the story of "Why Violets Have Go lden Hearts" and later the dramatization of this story which was put on at the county seat, . and repeated three times by request. Several clubs have combi ned business with pleasure in the giving of box suppers, and in one instance a minstrel, thereby furnishing fun for an evening and funds for the treasury. These funds have been expended in equipping the club kitchen or on schoo l improvement. Three s u c ces s ful county camps for bo ys and girls wer e h e ld

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    Ann u al R e po r t, 1919 77 in the state last year. These camps were held in Hillsboro, Santa Rosa and Brevard counties. HEALTH WORK Every line of activity developed thru home demonstration work tends to the betterment of health conditions. The state health off i cer stated in a public me e ting that where hom e demon stration work wa s well e s tabli s hed, pellagra had decreased. Weighing and measuring contests among school children have FIG . 1 9 .-A hou se -k ee p e rs' s hor t cour se been inaugurated and followed by campaigns for the increased use of milk. The public health nurses sent out by the Anti Tuberculosis Society have given valuable aid in instructing club members on health topics. FAIRS AND CONTESTS At every county fair excellent home demonstration exhibits have been made featuring the varied activities of the work. The state fair has been reported in detail by the district agent of North and West Florida. The awards at the state fair of county prizes for home demon stration work were as follows: EXRTBITS OF GIRLS' WORK First prize ... . ... ............................ ... Putnam Count y ........... . .......................... $ 5 0.00 Second priz e .. .. ... . ........... .. . ... .. . ..... .. Madi so n C ount y . .. ................................... 3 0.00 ' Third pri z e .. .... ...... .... .... .. .. ........ .. . St. John s Count y .. ..................... .. .. .. ....... 20.00

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    78 Florida Cooperative Extension EXHIBITS OF WOMEN'S WORK First prize ... . .. . . . .............. .... .. ... .. . ... Hillsboro County ...... . ...... .. .. .. : ................ $40.00 Second prize ... ........................ . ....... Manatee County ........ . . .. .. , .. . ........ ., ....... . 30.00 Third prize .... .. ..... . ............. . . .... .... Putnam Cciuntr ............. ... . . , . .. .. . . ..... .. ... . . 20.00 The awards made in home dairy and poultry work have been reported by the two assistants in charge of this work respectively. 1 WORK WITH NEGRO WOMEN The plan of having the negro worker in the county appointed as an assistant to the county home demonstration agent has proved a wise one. Thru this method closer supervision may be given the work which results in greater opportunity for render ing assistance. In outlining the work for the assistant agents last year very definite problems were selected as a basis for the year's work and effort was centered on these. The results obtained are found in the report of A. A. Turner, agent in charge of Negro work. STATISTICAL REPORT Counties in the State ...... . . . ...................... . ... . . . ...... . ......... , ....................................... 54 Counties cooperating financially ................ .... .. .. .................. ... . . .................. .. .... . . . 40 Home demonstration offices maintained ........................................................... . .. 39 Home demonstration kitchens ................... ... . . .......................... .... .................. . . . ... 63 Cooperative canning centers .......................... . . . ...................... . .............................. 45 Agents owning or being furnished cars . . .. ...... .. ... ................ . .. .. .. . ..... . ........... . ... .. 38 Agents owning horse and buggy ............. . . .. .. . ... ........... . ......... . .. . . .. . ............. . .. . . .. . . 1 Counties making appropriation for home demonstration materials .............. 22 Amount expended for equipment in counties ..................... .. . .. ... .. ......... $1,713.65 COUNTY WORKERS County home demonstration agents........... . ........................ ... . .. .................. 46 Average number months employed... . ....... ...... ...................... ...... ... . ............. 9 Average monthly salary (including travel) URBAN AGENTS Average number months employed.......... .. ........................... . . ... .. .. ................ 9 1-3 . Average monthly salary .. . .... , ... .. ............... , . .. . .... .. ....... L ......... ..... . ... ........... ,.$127.14 FIELD WORK Miles traveled by agents .. .. ........ , .......... . . .. . .. . . . .. . .... .. . ............ ...... .. . ................ 166922 Number visits made to club members. . .... ........ .......... ............. . .. . ..... ......... .. . 7149 Number visits made to schools . . .. ..... . .. . ...... . .. .. .. . . .... ... . .. .. .... :.......... . . ... ........ 2381 Number . visits to home demonstrators ...... .... . . .. .... ............. . ........................ 11963 Number visit& to plots...... .... .................. . .... . .. . . .. .................. .. . . .. .. . ... ... ........... 3895 Number .demonstrations given ................. ..... ........................ .... .............. , .. ,.. 2900 Attendance at demonstrations ................... . .. ... ................... .. . .... ................... 37929 Meetings held or participated in.............. . .. .. ........................ ... .................... 3842 Attendance at meetings .... ... ... . ...... .. .............. . .. . ......... ... ......... .. .. .. . ... ............ . . 72840 State short courses held for girls........ .. . ..... .. . .. . ... . ... . . . ... .. .... . . .... ............... . . 1 Attendance at state short course .......... . ..... ..... .. . .......... ,... ...... . . ................. . .. 60 County short courses held for girls .... ... . ... .. .. ..................... .... : ................... 22 Attendance at short courses.................................................. . . .. .................... 822 County camps for girls and boys.............. . ............................. . ..................... 3 Home demonstration schools held for housekeepers........ ... ..................... 33 Attendance at schools for housekeepers. _. . ............ _.............. .... ................... 1873

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    Annual Report, 1919 Number contests held ................ ... ....................... ... .................... ... . :. '. .. .. ......... . ~:rr:e .. ... ~~~ . ~~ . ~:::::::::::::::::::: :::::: ::::::::::::::::: : ::::: :: :::: : :::::::::: Number schools assisted in starting hot lunch .. . .................... ......... .... ... . Number teachers cooperating actively ................ .. . . ....... : ...... .. . ....... ... ...... . . ACHIEVEMENTS 79 28 9146 2411 17 373 Number meetings held............ . . ..... ..................... . ......................... ..... . ........ .... 7794 Attendance at meetings ....... .......... ........................... . '. ................... . ..... . .......... 110599 Demonstrations given ....... ...... . .. . .. ...................... ............. ............. ........ :....... . 3952 Attendance at demonstrations .. ...... .. .......... . . .. ......................... . ... .. ............... 37929 Other meetings held.... .. ... ... ... . .. .... ....................... ... ...... . ............. . . ....... .. . ...... . . 3842 Attendance at other meetings ..... ... ... . ................ .. ....... . .................................. 32670 Number girls enrolled in home demonstration work................. ... ............ 4688 Canning ... . ..................................................... ... ....................... . ................ 2020 Poultry (boys and girls) . . . ............. . .. . .... .... ... .. ................. ................ .... 1387 Cooking ... .. .......... ........... ......... ....... ,......................................... ... ............. 628 Bee .... .... . ... . . .................. . ...... . ...................... . . ..... ....... : ....... . . . .. ......... .......... 26 Pantry ... . . . ........ .......... . ..... ........... ... ... ... ... . ......... .. .................. . ..... .. ........... 364 Grape .... ............ ... .. ........... . .. ......... . ... . .......... : ........... ....... ..... . .......... . .. . .. ... . 74 Pig . 71 Milk ..... .. . ......... ................ .. . .......... ........... .......... . . . .... .............. . ... : ...... ....... 114 ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN Number of women enrolled by home demonstration agents . .... . .. .. .......... 8839 Women enrolled in home demonstration club work.......... .. . ... .......... 7 422 Women making special food demonstrations at home ...... . ... : ........... 1417 Number steam pressure cookers in the counties..................... . .............. 340 Number other types of canners....................... . ....................... . ... ... . .... ....... 1435 Number girls' clubs organized....................... ......... ....................... ....... ........ 326 Number women's clubs organized.................... ..... ...................... . . ... ............ 165 Number containers filled .................................... . . . ......................... .............. 1301050 Number pounds
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    80 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work in North and West Florida, for the year ending December 31, 1919. ' Respectfully, HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Hom e Demonstration Agent. During the present fiscal year, 14 county home demonstration agents were employed in , as many counties. Five of these 14 counties appropriated $1000 or more each. Seven other coun ties made appropriations, but the amount, plus the state and federal funds allowed to each county, were insufficient to secure the services of a well qualified agent. During the fiscal year 1918-19 there was in North and West Florida one district agent; one assistant district agent in charge of ten counties in North Florida; and one assistant emergency district agent in charge of short course work. During the , canning season five additional workers were employed, one as district supervisory canning agent, three as county canning , a s sistants and one as city canning agent. AIMS The report of last year ended with definite aims for the year to come. Each of these aims will be reported upon before pro ceeding with the general report of the work of the district .agent. First aim: To increase production by means of home gardens. Very definite results are difficult to tabulate. The following , excerpts from agents' reports typify the results as generally reported: "Most of our homes are planning increased garden area." "I find that most country people never plant lettuce, so I am giving each club girl a package of seed and asking her to plant it and learn to eat it." "We have girl.s enrolled in a 'two row club'. Each member will grow two rows of something to eat and can." "I think I can safely say that more food was grown during the year than any previous year in the history of the county."

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    Annual Report, 1919 81 "I find that nine-tenths of the back yards of the city have gardens. Many are very small. Thruout the county there are gardens in practically every home." Second aim: To continue the conservation of food. After the signing of the armistice and the lessening of the need of food supplies to be shipped abroad, our time was devoted to more urgent work. Previous to the signing of the armistice, much canning was done, the largest ever reported. Third: to give to the women of each county the opportunity of attending a housekeepers' school. Out of the 21 counties in the district, 16 held these schools; besides three held in counties not having home demonstration agents. This was one of the best pieces of work put over last year. Fourth Aim: To provide monthly lessons for club girls, these programs were sent out from the Florida State College for Women one month in advance of the time to be used . . Agriculture Home Play Nov. Formation of SoiL. ..... School Lunch ... .. . . ... . ..... . ...... Peanut Party Dec. Plant Food ........ , ..... . .. ... : Sugarless Sweets . .. . .... ...... . Christmas Party Jan. Fertilizers ...... . . .... ........... Clothing .. .............. .. ... . . . : .. . . ... Textile Party Feb. Seed Bed ........ ........ ......... Poultry ....... .... ............ .. ......... Washington Party Mar. Transplanting . ............... Use of Fruits ...................... St. Patrick's Party April Cultivation ..... . .. , .. . ......... Use of Vegetables .............. Easter Party May Disease of Tomatoes . .. Milk and its use ...... ..... ..... May Day Party June Enemies of Tomatoes.Canning demonstration ..... Picnic games July ............. '. .......... ........ ......... Canning party .............. ... .... Canning games Aug ....... .. ................ ... ... . .......... Grapes ..... ..... ................ .. ....... Games Songs suggested or written accompanied each program. As a direct result of the January program, sewing work was stimulated and its growth since has been strong and rapid. The fifth aim was to plant perennials and to push grape work. The subject of growing more fruit was emphasizd in the 3-F drive. A report of the grape work will be given under girls' work. GIRLS' WORK Girls' work in the district has been much stronger this year. This is in part du'e to the monthly meetings and in part due to the cooperation between boys' and girls' clubs. This coopera:.. tion is especially strong in a few counties and is spreading thru out the district. Santa Rosa and Escambia counties hold suc cessful monthly agricultural community meetings, bringing together the men, women, girls and boys. 6

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    82 Florida Cooperative Extension SHORT COURSES County short courses for girls have been held in 15 counties. These were well attended and effectively planned and carried out. From April 1 to 12 the eighth annual short course for club girls was held, attended by 60 girls from 31 counties. These girls were "taken over" by the Y. W. C. A. college girls, each club girl having a college "Y" girl as a big sister. For more efficient work the girls were divided into three sections. Section one was composed of high school girls, and girls who had previously attended a state short course ; section two, girls in lower grades ; section three, girls in higher grades. Work for each section was planned accordingly. During the course moving pictures and slides were made of the girls in their various activities. The girls carry home from the state short course much that is valu able both in thought and practice. One little girl said, "You know I never worked a buttonhole 'til the state short course and since then I have been helping Mamma, with buttonholes in my baby brother's clothes." In July, three months after the short course, one of the girls had grown so perceptibly and looked so well, on being questioned as to the cause she replied, "Why I have been drinking ,a quart of milk a day ever since I was at . Tallahassee and my little brother and sister do so too." CAMPS A boys' and girls' camp was held in June in Santa Rosa county. This initial step suggested by the district agent after the Washington, D. C. meeting in January 1919, proved so suc cessful that this form of a get-together-yearly-meeting will prob ably be State wide. The following description of this camp was taken from the agent's report: "Tuesday June 10, the club girls and boys of Santa Rosa county gathered at Floridatown on the bay for a week's encamp ment. "A three-room cottage with a separate building for a kitchen was generously loaned by a citizen of Milton for the girls' camp. About a quarter of a mile away the boys pitched their camps. The camps were supervised by the county and home demonstra tion agents, and state workers. H. E. Savely, field agent, Wash ington, D. C., was a visitor during most of the camp. The fol lowing program was carried out: 6 :30 A. M. Bugle Call 6 :35 A. M. Setting up exercises

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    Annual R e po r t, 1919 83 6 :45 A . M. Morning dip for boys; Girls dress and clean house 7:30A.M. 8 :1 5 A. M. 8:30 A. M. Breakfa s t Bo ys cl ea n hou se; s pecial talk to girls Forenoon classes-boys and girls separate-in four sections Girls : 1. Sewing: darning; buttonholes; talk on dress. 2 . Fir st aid to injured 3 . Fancy pack: labeling; fair exhibit; steam pressure 4 . Ba s ketr y : Wire grass or pine need le s; needle s, raffia 11 :30 A . M. Genera l Assembly (chape l) 12 :30 P. M. Dinner 12 : 45 P. M . to 2 :00 P. M. Re s t 2 :00 P. M. Quiet or s itting games (long time 11/2 hour s ) 4 :30 P. M. Military drill 5 :00 P. M. Athletic tests and active games 6 :00 P. M. Gir l s swim; special talk to boys 7 :00 P. M. Supper 8 :00 P. M. Camp fire 9 :30 P. M. Tap s Fm . 20.-Santa Rosa club girls' and boys ' camp-in line for dinner

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    84 Florida Cooperative Extension "Each camper brought his bed and kit. At meal-time the line formed, each with his plate, cup, knife, fork and spoon, and marched single file around the serving fable, and had his plate filled. Meals were served in the kitchen at the girls' camp. The girls arranged in three groups, assisting the camp cook in the preparation and serving of the meals. Educational slides were shown every night after supper, but best of all, perhaps was the camp fire, where stories, games and songs were enjoyed until bed time. "The expense of the camp was provided for by the county comm1ss10ners. The camp was planned largely by the home demonstration agent. During the camp, however, the girls only were under her supervision." The commissioners were so pleased with the result that an appropriation was made for its repetition another year. FALL CONTESTS Sixteen contests have been held. The exhibits on the whole have been the b_est in quality ever shown. A good number of four year girls have completed their work and will receive cer tificates. THE STORY OF EULA TRANTHAM This year completes the sixth year of membership of Eula Trantham in the Duval canning club. In 1915 she wo_p the state championship and previous to 1919 was twice a county cham pio:q. Again this fall Eula held this honor, entitling her to the permanent ownership of the county silver pitcher presented by o;ne of the leading jewelers of .'Tacksonville. Twice has Eula attended the state short course, and since she is now employed in the office of Mr. C. Groover, instead of another scholar;:!hip at Tallahassee, she will receive a scholarship in a business school. Last year she made about $200 in both her canning and poultry club work. This year she joined the milk club, buying some of her cows with money rriade from the poultry and canning work. She helped her county to win first honor$ for the Groover club prize. The story of her work this year will be told in her own words: "But now comes t_he sad part of my story. On the first day of July we had a cloudburst. Notwithstanding my plot was on the high part of the field, it was covered with water about one foot deep. l was at first disheartened, but I thought of the saying, 'Try and try again and at last you will succeed,' so I began ditching until all the water had run off. When the sun

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    Annual Report, 1919 85 shone out hot I lost nearly one whole row but as soon as it was dry enough I worked the others and they began to put out new sprouts. I pruned the old sprouts off and gave the new ones a chance. I saved the ashes from the stove and mixed with chicken fertilizer and spread thickly around each plant and worked it in well. They certainly did better than I had expected. "Between each row of tomatoes I planted a row of cane. Father gave me the seed last fall for helping him save his seed. I had nine rows, and it averaged 134 stalks to the row. I sold it to a fruit peddler for 8 cents a stalk in the patch. On this I cleared $96.48. "This year I did not do as much canning as I usually do. I had such a demand for the fresh tomatoes and they brought such good prices. "On my plot this year I made a total yield of 1,132 pounds of tomatoes, 514 pounds of which were used at home, and the remainder sold fresh for $34.55. I also sold my cane 1,206 stalks for $96.48, making a total of $131.03 sold. The total cost of my crop was $14.97." MUSCADINE GRAPE WORK This work received its start from the work done in the State in the spring of 1918 by Charles Dearing, Horticulturist, U. S. Department of Agriculture. One nursery company offered a prize of five Thomas grape vines to the ten counties in North Florida . doing the most grape work by the fall of 1918. By the spring of 1919, 75 girls had enrolled for muscadine grape work. The state office sent out instructions for work with grapes. In August, 1919, Mr. Dearing held a second meeting in Tallahassee, with 15 county home demonstration agents present. Instruc tions in the propagation of the muscadine grape and the making of grape products were given. Incidentally, a part of the initial order to the States Relations Service for grape paste for dining car service, was filled. To further advance this work an educational exhibit was put on at the State Fair. This exhibit consisted of nursery cuttings, plants, small models of planting and methods of cultivation; samples of the club work products; equipment for juice making; and a pyramid made of muscadine grape products, "set up" under a white pergola entwined with wild grape vines. WOMEN'S WORK The best piece of women's work accomplished this year was the housekeepers' schools, resulting in more home demonstration

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    86 Florida Cooperative Extension clubs being organized, and four new rest rooms and twelve canning kitchens established. Five of these canning kitchens were established in Jackson county a report of which as made by the agent, follows: "The county commissioners made an appropriation of $300 to be used to equip five kitchens in each commissioner's district. Thru June a special worker was employed. We had regular days at each kitchen, with 25 to 60 women working. In fact, they use the kitchens every day. Each kitchen has a pressure cooker, oil stove, oven, hot water canner and other necessary utensils. Other communities are asking for kitchens and women are planning to begin working for one. At several kitchens women go as far as 15 miles to can and use the pressure cooker, and some days two or three communities are represented. This is a splendid way to develop community spirit." The canning kitchen in McClenny has been organized two years and notwithstanding the county is not supporting a county agent this year, this group of women continue their work. . The "Kanning Kitchen" is located in the old court house. The school board is financing this work thru the summer; and a big steam pressure canner with a double purpose burner has been installed by the commissioners. 28,548 containers were sold for the kitchen. Many of the women have bought sealing irons and either have canning machines or use their pots and pans. "A can a day the whole year thru" is their slogan. One emergency city worker was employed in JaGksonville. The city council enabled her to equip a demonstration kitchen, where weekly demonstrations were held. The attendance was always good, varying from 36 to 89. The agent met regularly with eleven women's organizations. Later in the year three canning centers were established. During May and June one canning club girl was employed by the City of Pensacola to take charge of a city canning center, under the supervision of the county home demonstration agent. CO-OPERATION BETWEEN SCHOOL AND HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK The establishing of school lunches has been an important phase of county work. Home demonstration agents have been instrumental in getting the school children weighed and meas ured, and in increasing the drinking of milk by school children. The home demonstration agent has been most valuable by teaching the club children, and incidentally the whole school, to

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    Annual Report, 1919 87 play games, sing songs and perform athletic feats. One agent was able to get some simple equipment in the schools which interested the principal in making two basket ball courts, one for the boys and one for the girls, one ocean wave, two poles for climbing, several swings, and two ridy-horses. Home economics teachers have been employed in two counties this year as a direct result of the work of the home demonstra tion agent. STATE MEETINGS AND FAIRS The girls' short course and the grape meeting have already been reported. During the first two weeks in September the eighth annual conference for home demonstration agents was held. The agents were in laboratory periods daily, working out problems in foods and food preservation. Outside assistance came from the U. S. Treasury Department, the States Relations Service, the State Board of Health, the Anti-Tuberculosis Association, and the State College of Agriculture. This conference was a very help ful one. At the State Fair our exhibit was arrayed in the following five divisions: Canned products, muscadine grape work, sewing work, milk work, and poultry work. Never before . have such beautiful and uniform products been exhibited at the State Fair. We were exceedingly proud of the work of our girls and women, especially when it excited most favorable comment from out of state visitors who had been to the other southern fairs. A new phase of work exhibited was that of sewing. Here were shown the individual entries, and also a room representing a club girl's own bed room. The curtains and the bed covering were all made of unbleached muslin, stenciled in a daisy pattern and hemstitched by a club girl twelve years old. In the clothes closet were a blue uniform dress, apron, gown and laundry bag, made by club girls. To relieve the cold look of the cream walls and draperies, two delf blue candles were placed upon the box . dresser, a blue bordered pillow on the window seat and a blue and white rag rug put in the middle of the floor space. In the milk booth were splendid charts and illustrative mate rial on dairy work, emphasizing the food value of milk and the percentage of butter fat. Also an excellent exhibit of butter and cheese displayed in a glass front ~ce box. A good display of home made poultry conveniences and a ship ment of egg circle eggs was made in the general home demon stration exhibit.

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    88 Florida, Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith a report of the district agent of home demonstration work for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Home Demonstrq,tion Agent. ORGANIZATION The district of South and East Florida during the fiscal year which closed June 30, 1919, was comprised of 27 counties, 20 of which cooperatJd financially. Later in the year one of these counties was transferred to the district of North and West Florida, leaving 19 counties cooperating financially. In these, 27 agents were employed, two of which were urban agents. The work was supervised by a district agent, with two assistants. At canning season, three canning assistants were employed for a term of four weeks each. Five negro women were employed as assistant county agents for work among negroes. In organizing the work for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1919, urban work was discontinued. This led to a withdrawal of the work from Monroe county. In two counties in which local aid came from two county boards, appropriations were made by only one board. These appropriations were inadequate and the work was discontinued. In one county in which the work was poorly developed and the agent was forced to drop out because of a long illness, the county became discouraged and the work was given up. Brevard made an appropriation "for the present incumben . t only." She was unable to return and that county was lost. This 1eft 14 of the 19 counties of the district. Broward and Alachua were added, bringing the total up to 16 in this district. Ten of the counties remaining in the work made increased appropriations to meet the increased cost of living and travel. Fifteen of the counties of the district made special appropriations for demonstration materials and equip ment. Six of the counties provide cars. This eliminates one of the most difficult problems from the work, and can be worked out advantageously to county and agent. Two of the counties, Hillsborough and Dade, employ two agents each. Eighteen

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    Annual Report, 1919 89 county agents are employed, and one negro assistant county agent. AIMS OF WORK -IN 1919 In planning the work for 1919 the following were determined upon as its definite aims: Increasing club membership; strength ening club organization; teaching food values and cookery; increasing food production; teaching conservation in clothing; working for better homes; developing the social hour; conserva tion of child life; and fostering the spirit of Americanism. INCREASING CLUB MEMBERSHIP In the effort to increase club membership the scope of club work was broadened with the hope that it would meet the needs of a greater number of people. Among the new phases of work undertaken, was work with bees. Osceola county was the pioneer county in this work as a club problem, and is the only county to date that has an organ ized piece of work of this type. I.n this county the interest is great and the work has been most successful. Thirty members worked throughout the year. Because of an unfavorable season the yield in honey has been small. However, the interest of club members in this work, and what they have learned about the life and work of bees, their skill in handling them, and the common interest that has been developed among club members, has proven well worth the effort. The agent urged Italian bees for club work. It was found that any work done under other aims mentioned, increased interest and tended to increase membership. RECREATION CAMPS Camps were held in Hillsborough and Brevard counties. Reg ular programs of work were followed during a part of each day, but the play spirit so pervaded it all and the pleasure of those in attendance was so great, that these camps have always been spoken of as "recreation camps." The camp in Hillsborough was the first camp in the State to be held for girls and boys. The suggestion for such a camp was . taken from the report made by the state agent of West Virginia at the annual meeting held in Washington in December, 1918. It seemed a large undertaking, but believing that what could be done elsewhere could be done in Florida, plans were made for the camp. Club members attending the camp brought a certain

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    90 Florida Cooperative E x tension supply of staple foods, and paid 25 cents each. The board of county commissioners made an appropriation of $60 to supple ment what club members provided. This . proved ample. The camp was held at Lake Wimauma. The use of a dining room and kitchen, built by th\ lake-side for the use of camping parties, and the sleeping quarters of a nearby camp meeting ground added greatly , to the comfort of the campers. Instruction given during the morning consisted of lessons in basketry, first aid, personal hygiene, and other kindred subjects. Swimming hour for the girls, followed by swimming hour for the boys, preceded supper. Supper was followed by the camp fire, the crowning event of the day. At this hour the camp assembled around the blazing logs and the hour was filled with songs, stunts, games and a "good-night" talk. The camp for Brevard clubs was held at Coronado Beach. The agent of Brevard county carried the two club members from local poultry and canning clubs respectively, who were making best records, to her summer home on the beach. There were 22 in attendance. It was much in the nature of a house-party, with the members of the household assigned the different duties of the . home. The more attractive monthly club programs which included a recreational hour, increased interest in the work. TEACHING FOOD VALUES AND COOKERY Fifteen home demonstration courses for housekeepers were held. These resulted in the teaching of food values and the fun damental principles of cookery, and in the organization of strong home demonstration clubs. The following report is made by the assistant district agent, who tho assisting with other lines of work, devoted much time to such work among women: "During the year, I have held ten home demonstration courses for housekeepers, of five days' duration each, in nine counties of South and East Florida, using the course of lessons outlined in Leaflet 3. In presenting these lessons, I discussed as fully as time and circumstances would permit, the nutritive value of the different classes of food; the principles of cookery and the prin-. ciples of digestion; and the planning of well-balanced menus. Suitable demonstrations accompanied each lesson. "The county home demonstration agent of the county in which the work was given, assisted, especially in the assembling of

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    Annual Report, 1919 91 materials, keeping attendance, and sometimes in giving demon strations. "Among those who attended the various courses, were high school girls and their teachers, young housewives, mothers and grand-mothers, trained nurses, and prominent club women. The aggregate attendance was 1926, with 550 women in attendance. "Some gratifying results are as follows : "l. Organization of home demonstration clubs where none . could be organized before. "2. Dignifying the profession of the housewife in the eyes of the community. "3. Arousing of interest in the fact that the body needs something more than merely the satisfying of appetite . "4. Stimulation of efforts to study the food needs of the fam ily, and to make efforts to provide for these needs. "5. Increased interest in the nutrition of school children. "At the close of the course held in Kissimmee, a home demon stration club was organized, a permanent community kitchen secured and furnished. Here, the club holds its meetings and gives demonstrations; the county home demonstration agent has her office; the county women, when they go to town, rest and make tea and coffee to go with their lunch. Reports of the results accomplished in Kissimmee have stimulated . interest elsewhere. "The course given in Ft. Myers under the auspices of the home . demonstration club, resulted in increased membership, renewed interest in club activities, and a better understanding by the public of home demonstration work. "At Brooksville, the ladies organized a home demonstration club which is especially interested in solving the school lunch problem when their new high school building is erected. These women have also formed a community canning center in the home demonstration kitchen. "At Leesburg, the women organized a home demonstration club with the wife of a prominent physician as president, and the wife of the chairman of the county school board, as secretary. "Of especial interest ill' connection with the course given in Arcadia, is the fact that many prominent women became inter ested in home demonstration work. Steps were taken to organ ize a club for the study of food values. "In addition to the foregoing meetings, I held nine special meetings of one or two . da ' ys each, at which I gave lessons on

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    92 Florida Coop er ative Extension What the Body Needs, based on Bulletin No. 808 ; explained how to meet these needs; and gave appropriate demonstrations with each lesson. In nearly every case, the women asked for a full course next year. In one community a group of women who had been doing special war work are considering convert ing their organization into a home demonstration club." STRENGTHENING CLUB ORGANIZATION Effort has been made to develop stronger club organization among women and girls. The better prepared program has been a factor in the work. With material well organized it has been possible to assist club members in preparation for par ticipating more largely in club meetings. This, with the ability that comes from accomplishment, is developing a greater num ber of local leaders among the club membership. The most outstanding piece of organization work done in the district in 1919 was the development of the Hillsboro honie dem onstration advisory council. The purpose of the council is to provide a meeting in which representatives from all clubs in the county may come together to discuss the problems of the club or communities as they are presented, by their respective delegates. Plans for solving community and club problems are discussed in conference with the other delegates and the agent; these plans are taken back to the local club and, if approved, an effort is made to enlist the entire community in its solution; or if it is a matter pertaining only to club work it is acted upon solely by the club. The plan of organization provides for two delegates from each club, the president and an elected delegate who represent the club officially; but all members of a club are invited to attend the council meeting. Meetings are held quarterly. Chairmen of the following standing committees were appointed: home improvement; public health; community social life and activities; education; fairs and exhibits; agriculture; citizenship. Corresponding chairmen were appointed in local clubs, and these local chairmen with the county chairmen form the county committees. Not only have the council meetings been full of inspiration and enthusiasm, but the definite work done in communities as a result has been multiplied many-fold. Among some of the results of this work have been: The estab lishment of two hot school lunches in the county; the establish ment of a rest room for women; the furnishing of three club

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    Annual Report, 1919 93 kitchens; the screening of a school house; the starting of a fund for a community building; the purchase of a good victrola for a school; the establishing in one community of a Saturday night eommunity social; a great number of community days observed and entertainments put on; splendid cooperation in fair work and contests; the examination of all school children attending a consolidated school, with good follow-up work; active work and much interest in home improvement; a large increase in the number of home gardens growing the year around, and fine development in local leadership. The agents and club members are enthusiastic over results. CONSERVATION OF CLOTHING One of the most interesting monthly programs given by a number of the clubs included an exhibit of re-modeled garments . . The club at Ft. Myers made one of the best of these exhibits, 47 remodeled garments being shown. The discussion and exchange of methods at these meetings were always most inter esting. Instructions were given in the testing of materials and the dying of dress goods. FAIRS Fairs were held in several counties in the district . . The fairs held at Miami, Orlando and Tampa were the largest : of these. Attractive home demonstration booths were shown. The home demonstration exhibit at the Tampa fair is made on the same plan as the exhibit at the State Fair. HIGH RECORDS IN THE DISTRICT Yields from tenth acre plots are not as high this year as last; but profits are generally higher. Among the highest records made by club girls on the tenth acre is that of Alene Young of Plant City. The story of her work she tells as follows: "I did a good deal of club work outside my work on my plot this year. I canned 500 cans for other people and over 500 for home use and to sell. "I canned tomatoes, beans and corn in tin cans, and all fruits, jellies and marmalades in glass. There were 28 containers of fruit. "The first work I did on my tenth acre was to plant it in : strawberries, which paid me well. I sold my first berries Jan uary 10, and from this time until May 19, I sold 880 fine pounds , of berries which brought me $166.89.

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    94 Florida Cooperative Extension "My next crop was tomatoes. I planted my seed in a bed on January 15. The hard rains almost ruined them, tho I saved enough to plant my tenth acre. "On March 12 I transplanted my tomato plants. Again the hard rains damaged them, but after all, they did right good. "I sold my first .tomatoes May 19, and the last on June 5, which brought me $7.85. "The price of tomatoes was so little, I canned the balance of my crop to sell, which paid me much better than selling fresh tomatoes. "I had 200 No. 2 cans of tomatoes to sell and kept 130 at home. That was the last of my spring and summer crop. "I pulled up the old tomato vines and cleaned out the berry plants to make plants in the fall. I sold 25,565 fine plants off my tenth acre. I got $4 a thousand, which in all brought me $82.26 net. That is . my last crop for this year, tho I have my berries cleaned out and ready for early bearing again and the prospects . look good. This ends my year's work, which I think is fine. Total receipts were .. . .. . . .... .. .. . . .... . .. .. . .. .. . . . ... . ... . . . . . .. . ........ . .... .. $297.30 Total cost ....... . ..... ... . . . ... .. . .. ........ .. .. ..... . . ... .. .. ............. .. .. . ......... .. 23.56 Net profit .............. . ... . . . ........... ......... , . . . '. . .. ............... ... . ..... .. .. .. $273.74 "I did all my own work this year. I will try to do as good next year." Alene is a third year girl. Anna Sykes, a Dade County girl, is another high record club member. She started to set out plants December 31. First picking was March 13. All tomatoes were shipped. The total yield of 4,700 pounds was sold at a profit of $134.26. This is another third year girl. CURB MARKET Of the curb markets established during the previous year, the one at Miami has passed the experimental . stage. It has been satisfactory to truckers and housewives. The market has been taken over by the city. Plans are made for housing it.

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    Annual Report, 1919 95 . REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK P. H. Rolfs, Dfrector. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the home dairy specialist for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, MAE MORSE, In Charge of Home Demonstration Dairy Work. The close of 1919 marks the end of the second year of special work for the development of the home dairy industry. More definite work has been possible this year owing to the interest aroused among the farm women by the educational work done the preceding year; also the home demonstration agents have a better understanding of the work. Higher prices and increased demand for dairy products have also stimulated interest. FEATURES OF WORK One of the most interesting demonstrations in the develop ment of the work was carried out by Miss Eloise McGriff, in Manatee county. To convince the people of the need of more and better milch cows, Miss McGriff adopted a plan which is explained in the following extracts from one of her reports : "At a meeting of the teachers of Manatee county I presented the plan of having every child in the county weighed and measured. I put into the hands of each teacher cards with spaces for the name, age, height, weight, and 'I should weigh --lbs.' In addition to this, I requested each teacher to report those who received at least a pint of milk a day (was afraid to put the standard too high at first). "I also gave the teacher a class-room record to be placed on the wall as a permanent record and to encourage those who fell below the standard required for their age and height, that they might improve. "I visited the schools, gave talks on health and stressed the need of milk for children. "In summing up the results of the work, I found practically every child who was up to standard, was drinking milk. Of those who fell below the standard practically none were drinking milk. Of those who fell much below the standard, not one was , drinking milk. "Some of the children became interested and began drinking inilk, some of them gaining as much as 1 five pounds the' first

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    96 Florida Coop er ati ve E x t e nsion month. Parents became interested and soon the demand for dairy cows far exceeded the supply. One carload was brought into the county, besides numerous single animals, and still there is a steady demand for dair y cows. "While I was doing this , the county agent was carrying on a campaign, 'A Dairy Cow on Every Farm.' " FIG. 21.-0ne of the 50 cows carried into Manat ee County as a result of the weighing , measuring and general milk drinking campaign among ehildren of sc hool age. A cow for every rural home has been the slogan of all agents. Greater effort has been made this year to acquaint as man y people as possible with the food value of milk and to overcome the prejudice against its use which exists in many families. Demonstrations have been given of the various ways milk can be used in cookery. Instructions have been given in the care of milk under home conditions, including the making of butter and cottage cheese. At the state short courses for home demonstra tion agents and for club girls, a series of lessons were given on the care, food value and utilization of dairy products. Each

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    Annual Report, 1919 97 agent and club girl made butter and cottage cheese under the direction of the dairy agent. A number of butter judging contests were held to int(lrest women and girls in making better butter and to teach them what constitutes good marketable products. The outstanding feature of this year's work was the organi zation of dairy clubs. The object was to increase the produc tion of milk, increasing the amount available for home use, and to help eliminate as rapidly as possible the necessity for pur chasing dairy products outside of our state. Club members kept records of milk production, cost of feeds, amount sold, and the money received for them. This club work was made possible by F. C. Groover of Jack sonville, who offered $450 in cash prizes to the five clubs making the highest scores according to prescribed rules; those showing the highest increase in yield of milk, the lowest cost of produc tion, the greatest increase in dairy stock and stock improvement. All clubs that competed in this contest were required to make an exhibit at the 1919 state fair, where a space of 20 feet was given for the display of material setting forth the food value of milk, the value of pure bred dairy stock, of home grown feeds, and of better business methods for dairy work. A very credit able exhibit of dairy products was made by the club members. RESULTS OF WORK Eleven clubs were organized with a total membership of 125. These clubs complied with all the requirements of the rules of the contest. Duval county won first prize, $200; Hernando second, $100; Putnam third, '$75; St. Johns fourth, $50; and St. Lucie fifth, $25. This contest clearly demonstrated to the club members the value of record keeping. Shortly after the contest was started numbers of cows that were entered were sold; apparently they were found to be unprofitable animals to keep. The Babcock test was used by one club. In the majority of instances it was found that the home cow was profitable, and altho the contest closed October . 31, many of the club members are continuing their record keeping. Thru the reports of our home demonstration agents we learn that 172 cows were brought to supply home needs, and that many more would have been placed in homes if good cows had been obtainable. As an evidence of progress in the work we also 7

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    98 _ Florida Cooperative Extension find club members making iceless refrigerators, buying barrel churns, dairy thermometers, cream separators, standard butter molds, butter paddles, butter workers, and small topped milk pails, in much greater numbers than previously. At the state fair this . fall the butter exhibit was much larger than formerly, the quality was exceptionally good and every pound exhibited except one was printed in the standard mold, wrapped and packed according to market standards. HINDRANCES TO WORK Much more could have been accomplished in dairy develop ment if good cows could have been secured. Fourteen agents report the inability of people in their terri tory to secure good cows. The chief reason for this was the prevalence of the cattle fever tick, resulting in a scarcity of good high producing cows, and the consequent impracticability of bringing in cows from a tick free area. In some sections where tick eradication has lapsed, people who had purchased good cows are experiencing great difficulty in keeping them free from heavy tick infestation. Many people as yet have not given sufficient attention to the production of feeds and forage but have taken t'he easier method of buying commercial feeds, which lessens profits on their dairy operations. PLAN FOR ENSUING YEAR Beginning January 1, dairy clubs will be organized in the counties finding the work practical. The plan of work will be essentially the same as in the contest just closed. The same amount of prize money will be given by Mr. Groover, but the apportionment will be slightly different. It is also planned thru the cooperation of the state dairy associ,. ation, to give prizes to the members of different clubs who do the best work. In connection with the dairy club work Babcock tests of milk for club members will be made wherever possible. Butter judging contests will be held to stimulate an interest in the pro duction of a standard farm butter. Our aim for 1920: To teach as many as possible the food value of milk. More good cows for Florida homes. Fewer cattle fever ticks. More home grown feeds. Improved home sanitation.

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    Annual Report, 1919 99 Application of sound business principles to home dairy work. Standardization of home dairy products so they will command market prices in local markets. Sufficient home products to supply home demand. STATISTICS OF HOME DAIRY AGENT'S WORK Meetings attended ............................................................................................ 88 Estimated people reached in meetings .......................................................... 5140 Health lectures .................................................................................................. 15 Dairy talks ........................................................................................................ 43 Counties visited ................................................................................................ 32 Visits to agents.................................................................................................. 80 Demonstrations given: Butter .......................................................................................................... 11 Cheese : ................................................................................... _.................. 26 Food .................................................... ................ ...................................... 4 Nursing . .......................................................... ......................................... 2 Clubs organized ................................................................................................ 11 Club enrollment.................................................................................................. 125 Conferences on work ........................................................ :............................... 70 Homes visited .................................................................................................... 39 Schools visited .................................................................................................. 8 Children helped to examine............................................................................ 400 Fairs (exhibit made)........................................................................................ . 6 Short courses attended (girls)........................................................................ 5 Contests attended (girls) ......................... ,...................................................... 2 Miles traveled .................................................................................................... 14271 E!~: ~ffi:! 1 e!o~k::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::::::::::::::::: Days State, Staff and Special meetings........................................................ 27 Field work .......................................................................................................... 129 Annual leave and furlough.............................................................................. 23

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    100 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE POULTRY WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club work for the year ending June 30, 1919. Respectfully, MINNIE FLOYD, In Charge . of Home Demonstration Poultry Work. ORGANIZATION . The poultry club work has grown and spread thruout the state until it has no longer been possible for the poultry club agent to organize the entire work personally. The actual work has been done by the comity home demonstration agents under our super vision and instruction. The workhas been conducted, as in the past two years, under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which boys were enrolled also; and women's poultry clubs. Since the work has been largely in the hands of the county home demonstration agents we have tried to connect it closely with the other phases of home demonstration work wherever practical. Poultry was one of the subjects for women's home demonstration and girls' club programs. Of the 39 counties of the state having organized home demon stration work all of them except Leon, Lake, Lee and Manatee, report some poultry club work. Altho there was no county home demonstration agent in Wakulla county, three of the egg circles organized last year continued the cooperative marketing of eggs this year. The same plan of work has not been carried out in all coun ties. Some counties did only girls' work, some did only women's work; while some of them did both girls' and women's poultry club work. The following phases of poultry work have been stressed this year: Increased production; better breeds of chickens; hatch ing eggs, secured on a cooperative basis; back-yard poultry work in towns; production of infertile eggs; culling of flocks; preser vation of eggs, waterglass method; cooperative marketing of poultry and eggs; and food value and uses of eggs and poultry in the diet.

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    Annual R ep ort, 1919 101 CO-OPERATION FROM POULTRY BREEDERS Several counties have followed the plan, started in Baker county last year, of sec uring the cooperation of poultry breeders in supplying settings of eggs to girls and boys in poultry clubs, and accepting one or two ten weeks pullets as pay for the eggs. Putnam, Taylor, Orange, Suwannee, and other counties report this kind of work. The following extract from the Suwannee county home dem onstration agent's report shows the good work that has been accomplished by using this plan: "The state poultry club agent came to see me and s uggested getting eggs on the cooperative plan of two pullets to be returned . . . . .-... ; .,;--_ .. Fm. 22.-Club girl preparing to set her hen in the fall to p ay for each setting of 15 eggs. She and I went to see a lady who ha s a fine stra in of White Wyandotte chickens. She seemed glad to cooperate and promised to furnish at least 10 settings of eggs. I then saw other breeders of good poultry who agreed to furnish eggs on this plan. One man agreed to let me have five settings of Thompson's Ringlet Barred Plymouth Rocks; another agreed to let me have an unlimited number of

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    102 Florida Cooperati v e E x tens i o n White Rock eggs; another, Single Comb White Leghorns; another enlarged his poultry business till he had seven breeds of chickens to furnish eggs to club members. Every one seemed anxious to help me. I secured the cooperation of eight poultry breeders. "I saw I must call an end to enrolling, which I did March 15, FIG. 23.-Selectin g eggs for s e tting 1919 with an enrollment of 234 members. These were organized into eleven clubs holding regular monthly meetings, and all growing feed of some kind for their chickens. I spent January, February, March, and until April 15 getting out these eggs, demonstrating setting, feeding, coop building, model drinking places, care of eggs and chickens , holding club meetings, and getting monthly reports. Members were allowed to grow some mongrel chickens to enable them to buy standard bred eggs for hatching next fall and spring. "Most of the pullets were to be returned at ten weeks of age to pay for the eggs. Ten weeks have expired s ince many of the club chickens were hatched and these are being returned. One

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    Annual Report, 1919 103 girl who raised eleven out of her setting is so pleased that her father has bought the two pullets, supposed to be given for the eggs, at the price she would have paid for her eggs, $1.50. A boy who belongs to the club has been offered $6 for a pair of his at ten weeks old. "Only a degree of success has been met with in raising num bers of chickens. We tried the 'early hatch' and as all mem bers were first year workers the cold February weather killed many of the chicks, but those raised are laying now and after all the loss we feel well repaid in the end. The members will have . a few standard-bred chickens to begin with next year, and with money from the sale of mongrel chickens they will purchase eggs at a much reduced cost over others buying, as our breeders are all anxious for this campaign to advance. All parties concerned seem pleased with the work done in the clubs and needless to say cooperation will not be a problem again in Suwannee county." BACK YARD POULTRY WORK At the meeting of the county home demonstration agents in Tallahassee, September 1918, we presented the urgent request of the Government for every family in cities and small towns, that possibly could, to keep a few hens in the back-yard to supply eggs for table use. The following excerpt from the report of the county home demonstration agent of St. Johns county concern ing the work of the St. Augustine Poultry Association, is a good example of a result in this phase of , the work: "Among the many problems which confronted the housewife during the last two years, probably none of the ones which had to do with the buying of foodstuffs gave her more concern than did the high cost of eggs. Here in St. Augustine eggs were always high, and scarce enough as well. We were urged to use eggs to save meat and we wanted to do so but when they reached the price of $1.25 per dozen it seemed that this was entirely beyond the great majority of people. "One day the editor of the St. Augustine Evening Record and I had a conference and decided to start a poultry campaign in the city. The following plan of procedure was decided upon: We would secure by public subscription from the banks, mer chants and others who were interested, the sum of $150. With this we would buy baby chicks, turn them over to responsible people only, for $1.50 for twelve and let the fund carry the deficit. This would enable many people to get a start with

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    104 Florida Cooperative Extension standard-bred stock who could not otherwise take up the work. The project was given unlimited publicity thru the columns of the Evening Record and requests for baby chicks began to pour in on all sides. "Our first order was for 1000 baby chicks which included Wy andottes, White Leghorns; Rhode Island Reds, Barred Plymouth Rocks, a few Orpingtons and Minorcas. (See photo on page 113.) "Our membership grew in numbers until we had 115 members and we ordered 2200 baby chicks for them. We also furnished a number of persons, who could get hens, with standard bred eggs. "It seemed. that every one became interested in chicken rais ing and many went into it more heavily than ever before. As a result of this campaign there will be at least 5000 more chick ens in St. Augustine than there would have been otherwise. ''We still have $40 of our fund on hand and expect to get it intact again in the fall by having each member donate a setting of eggs or a chicken which we will sell. This will enable us to put on another campaign. "We feel well satisfied with results. While some, which is always the case, lost heavily, the majority had sple _ ndid success and there is every reason to believe that the St. Augustine Poul try Association is a permanent organization doing good work." CO-OPERATIVE EGG CIRCLES The epidemic of Spanish influenza prevented the organization of as many new egg circles as we had hoped and planned for this year. Altho this is true, the best circles have done more and ' better work this year than last. We have a total of 16 circles reporting. The reports show that 175 members, working an average of 6 months, sold 23,896 dozen eggs for which they received $10,723.02, and in addition the Brooksville club sold 3882 pounds of poultry for which they received $1,382.05, making a total of $12,105.07. The results of egg circle work may be summarized as follows: 1. A small profit and a "cash" market to the producer. 2. A "guaranteed" product to the consumer. 3. The following taken from the reports of the secretary managers of the various circles : More and better poultry; bet ter equipment ; dean eggs ; furnishes a steady market for eggs and poultry; promotes cooperation along other lines; and brings neighbors together socially.

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    Annual Report, 1919 105 The fo ll owing excerpt is taken from the Hernando co u nty home demonstrat i on agent's report, as an example of the result of good egg circle work: "The Hernando county egg circle has reached a remarkable degree of usefulness to its members-since its organization in December 1917-a usefulness that really extends to the entire FIG. 24.-Lesson on preserving eggs in water glass co u nty. From September 1, 19 1 8, to J ul y 1, 1919 they have shipped 7292 dozen eggs for which they have rece i ved $3,406 . 29, a l so 3882 po u nds of po ul try for which they have received $1,382 . . 05, a total va l ue of $4,788.34. "Before the organization of this circle the farmers were unable to sell eggs except 'in trade' at very low prices. Now the members not only receive better prices and 'cash' for eggs, but never have any difficulty in disposing of their products.

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    106 Florida Cooperative Extension "One benefit that should be especially noticed is that the mem bers are increasing their flocks not only in quantity, but in num bers of better stock, because there is now an incentive. The members , are finding also that one secret of success is produc ing feed on their farms, thereby reducing cost of production. "The efficient management of the business manager has been in a large degree responsible for these fine results." SHORT COURSES During the year I have visited, given lectures, and demonstra tions on poultry work at county short courses for girls in six counties; nine housekeepers' extension schools; short course for girls, agents' meeting and war college at Tallahassee; poultry school at Gainesville; short courses for colored girls, and for colored demonstration agents at their annual meetings in Tal lahassee. FALL CONTESTS County home demonstration agents' reports show that 18 county poultry club contests were held in the state as a part of the regular club contests. Since they were held in North and South Florida on the same dates, I was able to attend only nine contests. There was a marked improvement in the quality of the exhibits this year over previous years. The following are some of the best individual reports: Joseph Johnson of Dade county set 139 eggs and raised 93 chicks, at a total cost of $78.95. The total value of the products was $175.12, leaving a profit of $96.17. Joe Brown of St. Johns county sold 6000 eggs and five fowls for a total of $360.50. The cost of the feed was $285, leaving a net profit of $75.50. A Santa Rosa county girl, Zelma Burnett, set 15 hen eggs and 38 turkey eggs, raising 15 chicks and 21 turkeys. These birds were valued at $123.75, and were raised at a cost of $26.70, leaving a profit of $97.05. Mabel Jones of Duval county set 15 eggs and raised 9 chicks, the total cost being $9.75. These were valued at $40, which left a profit of $27.75. Another good record was made by Ruth Tison of Suwannee county, who set 15 eggs and raised 8 chicks, at a total cost of $2.32. These birds were valued at $32, which left a profit of $29.68. The best record of all was made by Marie Bradfisch of St. Johns county. She set 166 eggs and raised 153 chicks. The

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    Annual Report, 1919 107 total cost of raising the chicks and feeding the flock already on hand, was $591.00. The value of the products from her large flock amounted to $1330.75, leaving a net profit of $739.75. POULTRY SCHOLARSHIPS It is most gratifying to report the increasing interest shown in poultry club work in the state, as evidenced by the increase in the number of scholarships offered. Reports of county home demonstration agents show that 18 scholarships have been given this year to poultry club members, by county commissioners, county school boards, banks, rotary clubs, business houses, and public spirited individuals. POULTRY CLUB AND EGG CIRCLE WORK AT THE STATE FAIR A fine show of the girls' and boys' poultry club work was held at the state fair. There were 127 entries in the show from the following seven counties : Bradford, Duval, Gadsden , Hernando, Hillsboro, St . Johns, and Suwannee. Suwannee county girls and boys won the first county prize of $25; Bradford county the second, $20; Hernando county the third , $15; St. Johns county the fourth, $10; Duval county the fifth, $5. In addition to the county prizes, the fair association offered $15 to be given in individual prizes. Hernando county egg circle won the first prize, $25 , offered by the state fair, to the egg circles , of the state . This money will be invested in a copy of the " American Standard of Perfection" and in subscriptions to good poJ.1ltry journals for the members of the circle. STATISTICAL REPORT Tot a l number miles traveled . . .. . . . . . . . . ... ..... . .... .. .. . . ... .. . . . . .. . ... . ... . ..... . . ... . .. .. . . . .... .. . 1 3 696 Numb e r da y s enga g ed in offic e work... ..... . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .... ..... ... ........... . . ... . . . .. . . ... 96 Number days e n g ag ed in field and travel... .. . .. ... . ... .. . ... .. .... . ..... . . .. ... . . . .. . ... : .. . 162 Number days a t t ending stat e meetings..... ...... . ... .. . .. . ... ........... .. .. . ... . . ... . ...... . 10 Numb e r days eng a ged in special work........... . . . .. . ... . .. ................ .... .... ... ... ..... 12 Schools visited ..... . ... . . ............... . . . .. . . ....... ......... . . .. .. . . ... . . . ... . .......... ..... . .. . ... .. .. . . ... 17 Meetings attend e d ... . . . .. . . ... .. . ..... . . .. .. . . ... . .. . . .. . ... . . .. . ... . .. ... . . . . .. .. . .. .. ... . . ..... . .. ... . . .. .. 94 Estimated attend a nce at s cho o l s a nd meetin gs .... .. . . .... . . .. . .... ... .. . .. . . ..... . . .. . . 72 58 Contests a ttended .. .. ..... ... ... ... .. . .. . . . . ....... ...... . . . .. . . . . . ... . .. ... . .. ... . ..... .. . . . .. . . .. ... . .... . . 7 Short courses att e nded . ...... .... .. . . . . ... .. .. . ... ..... ...... .. ... ... .... .. . .. . ......... ... .. . .. . .. . .. . .... . 20 Fairs attended . . . .... . . . .. .......... ... . .. .. ... . .. ... ...... . .. ... . . . . . . .... .. .. . . ........... .... . . . . . . .. . . . ..... 2 Homes visited .. .... . . . . ... ............... . . . ... .. .... ........... . .... . .. . ... .. . ................ . ... . ....... . ...... 122 Visit s to county home demonstr a tion agents . . . . .. .. ... ... .......... . . ... .. .. . . ..... . . , .... 97 Demonstrations g iven .. . .. . . .. ..... . ... . . . . . .. ... . . ... . . . . .... . . . . . . .. .... . . ...... . . .... ... .... . .. . .... . 45

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    108 Florida Coop e rative Extension NEGRO WORK The agricultural extension work includes farm and home makers' clubs for negroes. The headquarters for this work is at the Florida A. & M. College for Negroes, Tallahassee, Florida. The problems of the negro farmers are similar in many respects to those of the white farmers , so that the work conducted is principally along lines intended to improve the rural conditions. particularly in sections where there is a considerable number of negro farmers. The negro work is under the direction and supervision of A. A. Turner, local district agent. Appointments were made in the same way as all others of the extension work. Plans for the demonstration work for colored farmers and boys are outlined by conference with A. A. Turner and the State Agent and the Boys' Club Agent, while the home demonstration work has the general direction of the state home demonstration agent. The county assistant colored agents report to the county and home demonstration agents weekly, who approve their reports before they are submitted to the central office. This provides county supervision, which so far has worked out harmoniously and for the welfare of the negro work. The accompanying report of A. A. Turner gives a summary of the completion of definite lines of work. In addition to this, these colored agents assisted in programs of after-war work, carried out some organization among farmers, chiefly for buying supplies and selling the produce, secured better seed for the colored farmers and encouraged them to improve their livestock by better breeds and better mahagement . . At some of the county fairs and the state fair, both the farm and home demonstration work were represented and in every instance a creditable showing was made. Banks, business men and organizations in various counties have contributed liberally in money and other premiums. The local interest manifested in this work, especially that contributed by colored people, has done much to stimulate the work.

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    Annual Report, 1919 109 REPORT OF LOCAL DISTRICT AGENT FOR NEGRO WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR : I herewith submit a report of Farm and Home Makers' .clubs from January 1, 1919 to December 31, 1919. Respectfully, A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent. The work was carried on in 18 counties with a force of 30 assistant agents, 18 women and 12 men, who worked an average of six months. For the most part, the accomplishments in the work this year have excelled those of preceding years. The fol lowing problems were undertaken during the year with favor able results : 1. Better understanding of the modern methods of farming and the use of labor-saving devices on the farm and in the home. 2. More attention given to the selection of field and garden seed, and the better breeds of livestock and poultry. 3. Better sanitary living conditions on the farm. 4. The eradication of the tick and extermination of hog chol era by vaccination. These, together with many other problems of vital importance to the farm and home have been undertaken in various commun ities, in cooperation with the assistant agent. ENROLLMENT The enrollment of club members and demonstrators during the past year was as follows : Boys 916, 398 reporting; girls 1495, 623 reporting; total 2411, with 1021 reporting. Men 216, 64 reporting; women 418, 165 reporting; a total enrollment of 634, with 229 reporting .. FARM MAKERS' CLUBS Farm produce raised and harvested by boys in the Farm Makers' clubs during the year was as follows: Corn: There were 199 acres of corn planted by members of Farm Makers' clubs, which averaged 33 bushels per acre, pro •ducing 6567 bushels valued at $1.25 or $8208.75. The average cost of producing this crop was 36 cents per bushel, which made the total cost of production $2364.12, leaving a net gain of

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    llO Florida. Cooperative Extension $5844.63. Highest yield was 79 bushels, while the lowest was 11 bushels on one acre. Peanuts: There were 99 acres of peanuts planted, which averaged 30 bushels per acre, producing 2985 bushels valued at $1.25 per bushel or $3721.25. Cost of production was 25 cents per bushel, or a total cost of $7 46.25 for the entire crop, realiz ing a net gain of 2975. Highest yield was 52 bushels and the lowest was 14 bushels on one acre. Sweet Potatoes: There were 129 acres of sweet potatoes plant ed and harvested,. which averaged 94 bushels per acre, pro ducing 12,126 bushels. The value of the potatoes was $1.25 per bushel or $15,157.66. The average cost per bushel of pro ducing this crop was 23 cents, making the total cost of produc tion $2,788.98 leaving a net gain of $12,368.68. Highest yield was 236 bushels, and the lowest was 56 bushels on one acre. There were 48 registered pigs kept by club members and 67 p _ igs of mixed . breeds with good results. There were 720 hogs vaccinated due to the influence of the agents. ' HOME MAKERS' CL UBS The girls in the Home Makers' clubs filled 156,475 containers the past year from their tenth acre plots and from the fruit raised upon the premises. There were 2151 chickens raised and . 756 dozen eggs preserved in water-glass. Other results accom plished by the Home Makers' clubs were as follows: Number of houses painted.... .. .... ..... .... . .. . ...... .. . ... .. . ....... ...... . . ...... ... . . .......... .... .. 47 Number of houses whitewashed ................................................... . .................. 73 Number houses purchased hy influence of agent....... .. ................................. 29 Number of wells covered ................... ... ........... .. . . .......... ...... ....... ..... ................. 108 Number of ,privies screened ... ........... ...... ..... ...... ......... ..... ...... ... . .... .. .. .. . .......... 128 Number of fireless cookers made . .. . .......... ........ .. .......... . . ...... .... .. ................ . ... 128 Number of houses . screened .......................... ..... . .. .......... . ......................... .. .... 44 Number of bars of soap made ................ .. ....................... . ................................ 6040

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    Annual Report, 1919 REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN P.H. Rolfs, Director. 111 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work of th.e exten sion poultry husbandman for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, NATHAN W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman. This, the second report of the extension poultry husbandman, covers the twelve months ending December 31, 1919. During this time 9599 miles were traveled by rail and boat, 2756 miles by auto and team; 116 lectures were given, with a total attend ance of 6230; 680 letters were written; and 181 farm and .back yard poultry flocks were visited. The work has been largely along educational lines, working as much as possible thru the county and home demonstration agents. These men and women are in close touch With the folks of their various fields. It has been worth the time, effort and expense just to get these good workers impressed with the im portance of more and better poultry. The home demonstration agents were reached as a body at their annual gathering at the Womans' College in September; the county agents at their fall meeting at the University. Several of the county fairs were visited, and where the opportunity was found aid was given along various lines. The boys and girls of the state were reached thru the clubs, as well as at sessions of the public schools. In some parts of the state the largest interest in better poultry has come thru the young people, and is spreading to the folks of more mature years. A splendid chance was given me to help the girls at their short course at Tallahassee in June. In December the boys came to Gainesville, one hundred and four of them, and each morning for four days listened with open minds to a short talk on various matters relating to improving poultry in Florida. Poultry and egg production has not kept up .as well this past year as was hoped. There has been a reaction from the speed ing up of war times. Fewer hens were set this year as com pared with last. Egg production has been kept up, not from our usual number of layers, but thru better care and feeding. Some start has been made to produce better laying stock by breeding up.

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    . 112 Florida Cooperative Extension DADE COUNTY POULTRY EXHIBIT Miami, Florida SCORE CARD Owner ............. . Address -------Breed Sex ..... Pen No ........ No .... Weight Condition, Weight or Size ..... .. ........ ... .... . Comb or Crest and Comb_ ....... .. .............. . Beak ...... rJ:J . .... Head and Eyes ...... Adjuncts . Lobes ........... ( W:ttles .... Ci .... 0 0.. N eek, Shape . ............ ....... ......................... . Color ----. . 0 -4 Back, Shape rfJ 1= u Color Breast, Shape ' Color r:: .:; .... Body and Fluff, Shape ............................ . Color 00 'U ell Wings, Shape Color -Tail, Shape .............................................. . Color .. . . Legs and Toes, Plumage Color .......... -Total Defects ..... ... _ Score ........ ... ... .. ...... . .... ... ....... .. . ........... .. .. . ................ . . . ....................... Licensed Judge . . ... ...... ...... ... ... , . . . ............. .... .......... . . ..... ........ Professor of Poultry Husbandry. The poultry exhibits, both at the county fairs and at the -annual poultry shows, average slightly larger in numbers, with a decided gain in condition of birds shown as well as in the quality of stock entered. One poultry institute and poultry show is worth mentioning. It was the one held in Miami in September. This covered three

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    A nnu al R e po r t, 191 9 113 days, two of institute work, ending with a splendid exhibition of the poultry of Dade county. The attendance at the five ses sions of the institute work increased day by day till the audi ence at the closing night was over 150. At this show every bird was judged by the score card and this card as put out by the county agent, J. S. Rainey, has attracted the interest of other shows. The score card is educational and should be made more use of thruout the state. Taken all together, we should not be dissatisfied with the year's results. They are not all that were planned for, but under the conditions that existed thru 1919 real progress was . made. In teaching lines, we assisted the College force in putting on a ten days' poultry short course for men and women. This was the first course of this kind in Florida. It has been said that it was the best yet held in the South. Several folks who attended this course have done splendid poultry work during the past year, and one of the men who came from Pasco county . to these talks has since grown as fine chicks as I have seen in all my experience with poultry. Not only did he grow good chicks, starting them on milk and giving them peanut pasture, but one of these chicks won the blue ribbon at the last state fair at Jacksonville. These practical schools will do much to help inter ested folks do better and more profitable work in feeding the people of Florida. FIG . . 25.-First arrival of 500 baby chicks for the St. Augustine poultry club members 8

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    114 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF BEEF CA'ITLE SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, Director. Sm: I submit herewith the report of the agent in animal husbandry, specializing in beef cattle work, for the year ending December 31, 1919. Respectfully, W. H. BLACK, Agent in Animal Husbandry. The beef cattle industry, while it is one of the most substan tial phases of agriculture in this state, has many problems which retard its rapid development. These problems may be summarized as follows: First; more feed for winter must be grown. Second, summer pastures must be improved. Third, more pure bred bulls must be shipped in. Fourth, better methods of breeding, feeding and marketing must be adopted. Fifth, ticks must be eradicated. Sixth, financial aid must be offered the farmers. In order to accomplish results it has been necessary to make a study of the problems whichtend to check the advancement of the industry, and attack these problems thru literature, lectures and periodic visits to county agents, district agents and spe cialists. ' ' The live stock farmers must be encouraged first of all to grow feed for winter use. The most logical system seems to be to grow silage crops and put . them in the silo. A silo bulletin was written primarily for this reason. Summer pastures must be improved by close grazing and clearing, and in some cases by cultivation and the sowing of new grasses. The livestock farmer, as a rule, needs advice on breeding, feeding, care and management of the herd, and on marketing. This we have endeavored to furnish in bulletins, special circular letters, and in articles published in the Agricultural News Service. Lack of finances has handicapped the live stock industry in the state in . the past. However, the last legislature passed some legislation that will remove the old obstacles in the way of secur ing loans and offer some relief to the cattleman that desires a loan on cattle.

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    Annual Report, 1919 115 Tick eradication is without doubt one of the most essential lines of work to be emphasized. The conditions are such at this time that very little area will be cleaned up this year. Com pulsory dipping, state wide, in two years seems to be the only conceivable and possible means of eradication. Some feeding demonstrations have been carried out and others have been started. Very few cattle have been finished for market in the dry lot because of a lack of knowledge of feeding and of the low quality of cattle offered for feeding. Cattle with very little improved blood can be made to pay for their feed and at the same time the fertility of the land can be maintained and even increased by feeding the crops on the farm and marketing them as beef. RESULTS OF FEEDING 27 HEAD OF FLORIDA STEERS FOR 84 DAYS, FROM DECEMBER 14, 1918, TO MARCH 8, 1919 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 28 days 28 days 28 days Dec. 14, 1918 Jan. 11, 1919 Feb. 8, 1919 to to to Jan. 11, 1919 Feb. 8, 1919 Mar. 8, 1919 No. of cattle ...................................... ! 27 I 27 I 27 Weight at beginning of period.... 618 694.7 751 Weight at end of period................ 694.7 751 800 Gain per steer for period................ 76.7 56.3 49 Average daily gain per steer........ 2.74 2.01 1.75 Average daily I Corn Silage 30.2 38.2 38.1 ration per steer Hay .............. 5.8 6.7 4.5 in pounds IC. S. Meal .... 1.2 3 3 Corn silage .... , 22823 28858 . 28847 Pounds of feed Hay ................ 4391 5078 3385 for period C. S. Meal.... 912 2299 2292 Corn silage .... , 11.0 19.2 21.2 Pounds of feed Hay ................ 2.1 3.3 2.5 for pounds gain C. S. Meal...... .4 1.5 1.7 ! Corn silage .... I $85.58 $108.22 $108.17 Cost of feed Hay 60.36 69.72 46.33 for period C. S. Meal...... 26.45 66.64 66.46 Cost of 100 / J pounds gain $8.31 $16.14 $16.70 The total value of the increase amounted to $1168.58. This was determined by the increase in weight and the increase_ in selling price. The average weight at the beginning of the dem onstration was 618 pounds, and the final weight at the close was 800 pounds. This showed a gain per steer of 182 pounds, or 4914 pounds for the 27 head. The cattle. were estimated to be worth 10 cents per pound, at home. (They brought 10.65 cents in Jacksonville a few days later) . The increase in. ':VeJght, then,

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    116 Florida Cooperative E x tens ion amounted to $491.14. As the cattle were worth six cents at the beginning and 10 cents at the close, there was a spread or margin of four cents, and as the original weight was 618 pounds, there would be an increase in the selling price regardless of the increase in weight, of four times 618, or $24.72 each. This wou ld make a total of $667.44 for the 27 head. The value of FIG. 26.-Three best fat Angus steers, including grand champio n Florida fat stee r (shown at r ight) at the 191 9 Florida Stat e Fair. increase in weight, $491.14, plus the va lu e of increase in price, $667.44, makes a total of $1158.58, the total va lu e of increase . . The expenses of the feeding operations were as follows: Cottonseed m . eal, 5503 pound s at $58 per ton ...... ...... ... . ........... . .......... . .. . $ 1 59 . 5 5 Corn silage, 80,528 pounds at $7.50 pe r ton . . .. ... . . . ... . ................................ 30 1. 97 Hay, 12, 854 pounds at $27. 5 0 per ton . . . .. ...... . ... .. ... .. ............ .. .. . ..... .. ........ 176.41 Salt, 200 pounds ........ . . . . .. ... ...... . ......................... ... ........ . ........... . . . . ... ... ... ... . ... .. 2 .00 Total . . ... . ... . . . . . ... . . .... ..... .. ... . ............. : . . ................ ... ..... .. . .. . . ... . ....... . . .. .... . .... . ... ... $639 . 93 A s the t9tal increase amounted to $1158.58, this would leave a net profit of $5 18.65 for the 27 head, or a net profit per steer of $19.21. : On an average daily ration of 35 pounds of corn silage, 5.6 pounds of natal hay, and 2.4 pounds cottonseed meal, these ' s teers made an average daily gain of 2.lG pounds, making a net profit per steer of $19.21. . Steer feeding was giyen some encouragement by the Florida ~tate fair: and br~eders associations by the offering of generous premiums for the best fat cattle . ~ The . following table sh9ws the ration and just how the feeds were increased during the la st 84 days of the feeding of the fat

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    Annual Report, 1919 117 Aberdeen-Angus yearlings, that won Grand Championship in carload fat cattle, first three steers and Grand Champion Florida fat steer, at the Florida State Fair and Exposition, 1919. FEEDS GIVEN FLORIDA PRIZE WINNING YEARLINGS Pounds of feed daily per animal First Month 11 Second Month II Third Month Ear corn with husks, ground 6 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 10 110 10 10 Cottonseed meal ....... . .. .. .... 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 Cowpea hay ...... 3 3 3 4 4 4 .5 5 5 4 3 3 Blackstrap I molasses ... . . . . .. . 1 1 1 I 1 1 2 2 2 13 3 Oats ---3 14 I 5 5 Water and salt before cattle at all times. The 15 Angus yearlings were placed in the feed lot on Sep tember 11, 1919, and fed 84 days. They weighed in at 703 pounds per head, and were valued at 10 cents per pound, making the initial valuation $1055. During the 84 days of feeding as per above table, the amount of feed and the valuation were as follows: Corn, 12,390 pounds, at $1.25 per bu ...... ..... .................. . ............. . .............. $193.75 Cottonseed meal, 3,078 pounds, at $75 per ton ...... ... .. .. ................ . .... .. ........ 115.43 Hay, 4,935 pounds, at $35 per ton .. . . . ... . . ..... .......... ...... . . ... ... ....... .. .............. 86.37 Blackstrap molasses, 2,136 pounds, at 21c per gal... .. .. ... .......... .... .. . ...... ... 38 . 35 Oats, 1,785 pounds, at 90c per bu............ . ................ . . .. .. . ............. . .............. 50.10 Total ........................................................................... . .............. ........... ...... . $486.00 The total cost of the feed plus the cost of the steers makes an outlay of $1541.00. These steers were sold in Jacksonville at public auction. One steer weighing 865 pounds, the grand cham pion fat steer of Florida, sold for $51 per hundred, bringing a total of $441.15. The remaining 14, the grand champion carload at the State Fair, sold for 20 cents per pound. They weighed 780 pounds per head and brought a total of $2185. The gross re ceipts for the 15 head amounted to $2626.15. The expenses in shipping, including freight and commission, amounted to $43.80, leaving a net receipt of $2582.35. Deducting the cost of the feed and the initial cost of the steers, we get $1041.80 as net profit. In addition to this profit the 15 steers won $340 in premium, money at the fair. An experiment in cattle feeding, starting on December 13, 1919, i~ well under way at Zellwood, Florida. Two lots of cattle,

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    118 Florida Cooperative Extension 28 head in each lot, are being fed to determine the relative values of peanut and cottonseed meal in fattening rations for steers. One lot is being fed corn silage, cottonseed meal and Natal hay; the other corn silage, peanut meal and Natal _hay. The silage and hay are kept the same with both lots. The amount of protein is also kept constant. The peanut meal runs about 30 per cent protein, while the cottonseed meal is about 36 per cent. For every pound of cottonseed meal fed to one lot it requires 1.2 pounds of peanut meal for the other. Up to this time the animals in the cottonseed meal lot have produced the greatest gains at the lowest cost. During the last year . about 1000 head of beef cattle have been brought into the state. Of this number about one-half have been Aberdeen-Angus. Previous to 1919 the Hereford shipments were far in excess of the Shorthorn and Angus, the Shorthorns ranking second. The shipment of Texas cattle into the state have not been as numerous the past year as the two years preceding. The shipments of these years are as follows: 191'1, 1413 head; 1918, 1588; 1919, 902; making a total of 3903. These cattle have made good when given a fair tr_ial. Many farmers in western Florida who bought these cattle are selling them out, not because of the breed nor the cattle themselves, but because of being unable to get skilled feeders and the lack of feed available for these cattle. These men seemed to have the idea that good cattle would survive under the same conditions as the scrub. These condi tions hurt the industry and the breed of cattle. Only men who are equipped to handle these cattle properly are advised to make shipments from Texas. The good weather and crop conditions in Texas the past year have enabled the Texas ranchman to hold on to his cattle and as a result prices are so high that Florida cattlemen are not looking for cattle from that state. The calf crop from the Texas cows has been very high, in every case over 90 per cent. Texas cattle have been distributed in 30 counties in the state of Florida, extending from one end to the other. Over 5000 cattle . have been placed thru this office during the last two years.

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    Annual Report, 1919 119 REPORT OF FORAGE CROP SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, Director. Sir: I submit herewith a special report on the Extension work done by the . forage crop specialist during the calendar year 1919. Respectfully, J. B. THOMPSON, Forage Crop Specialist. WORK IN THE FIELD The activities of the forage crop specialist while acting in the capacity of an extension worker was confined to a portion of the period from February 1 to June 30, 1919. During this time 23 different counties in the state were visited, necessitating travel by various means of conveyance of approximately 3003 miles. In company with the farm demoJ!stration agents of the various counties, farmers were visited at their homes and plans for the production and use of more and better forage as a means of im proving the quality of livestock and reducing the cost of produc tion , were .urged. The forage problems confronting the , fforida stocknian vary with the section and the different ' soilg "" and various systems oI livestock management. In a general. way, however, there is a dearth of forage during winter and spring months, while on extensive areas the grasses are comparatively scarce and inferior in nutritive value thruout a greater portion of the year. By a personal inspection of some of the typical farms of the different sections, advice of a more or less specific nature was made possible, and the forage requirements and means of meeting them were studied and considered in detail with the county agent s . There have been many calls for seeds or plants of the new or . less well distributed forage plants, this , being largely due to the extension work of the forage crop specialist and advice of the several county agents. During the period covered by this report 205 lots of seeds or plants were distributed for tests and demonstration purposes. These included propagating material of the following forage plants: . Blue Couch grass, Carib grass, Dallis grass, Giant Bermuda grass, Guinea grass, Japanese cane (improved variety), Kikuya

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    120 Florida Cooperative E x tension grass , Kudzu, Napier grass, Para grass, Paspalum Larranagai and Paspalum notatum. The s e distributions were made in sma ll lots and went to 39 different counties. FIG. 27 . -P a ra grass in Polk Co unty OFFICE WORK Another phase of the work, that of answering mail inquiries, has demanded considerable time. During the four months' period from March 1 to June 30 alone, 290 letters were written, prac tically all of which dealt with forage problems or special forage crops. REPORT OF THE EXTENSION PLANT PATHOLOGIST By co-operative arrangement with the Bureau of Plant In dustry, William N. Ankeney was appointed to work in Florida on general pathological problems. Due to the demand for path ologists during the period of the war, it was impossible to sec ure a pathologist except for the season when the spring crops were being marketed. The work of the pathologist was principally confined to truck crop diseases and to the most important trucking areas. The crops inspected were, principally, lettuce and celery in the San

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    Annual Report, 1919 121 ford and Manatee section; Irish potatoes in the Hastings section; tomatoes in the lower East Coast, Manatee, Plant City, Sumter and Marion counties, and such additional truck crops as are grown over the entire state. As the season was well advanced before the agent could learn the territory, the work was confined to control of diseases in the fields, and very little control work in the plant beds was handled. Mr. Ankeney makes special report of the following: The late blight of Irish potatoes, root knot in most of the inten sive trucking sections, Mosaic disease on peanuts, potatoes and peppers were quite widespread throughout South Florida, and the growers were unfamiliar with the best practices in handling them. In Lee county, at Fort Myers, Mosaic had caused an appreciable loss in the pepper fields. Downy mildew of late cucumbers and cantaloupes was espe cially prevalent during May and June. Watermelon anthracnose and stem end rot were given special attention in isolated fields, and during the latter part of June most of the time the specialist was assigned to stem end rot treatment. The publications used were contributed by the Bureau of Plant Industry, the Extension Division of the College of Agri culture and the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Florida. The specialist worked in direct co-operation with the entomologist of the Florida Experiment Station and with county agents in the respective counties visited. For lack of funds the work was discontinued after June 30, 1919. REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGISTS IN WATERMELON WORK . Two specialists were assigned to Florida as per agreement with the Bureau of Plant Industry to co-operate with the agricul tural extension service of Florida in the control of watermelon diseases. These specialists were M. L. Benn and C. M. Tucker. The workers commenced about April 1. First, a survey of the watermelon area was made to determine the acreage and the equipment on hand for spraying. Most of the spray pumps and equipment were not well fitted for the work. Several spray pumps were purchased, and in some instances outfits used for spraying citrus groves were fixed up so that the work could be carried out fairly well.

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    122 Florida Cooperative E xtension The first shipments of watermelons were sent out from the Fort Myers' sect ion during May. From 70 acres only five cars were shipped, due almost entirely to Fusarium. The vines were also infected with aphis and anthracnose was present in a few fields . At Bowling Green, Wauchula and Fort Meade fusarium my cospheralla and anthracnose were present. Some spraying was inefficiently done, so that the results were of little value as far as saving the crop was co ncerned. FIG. 28. -Wat ermelon field sprayed with bordeaux mixture to co n tro l anthracnose. At Lakeland effective spraying was done with excellent re. s ult s on two fields in particular. A. F. Pickard made three appli• cations and from 40 acres s hipp ed 17 cars. A. B. Kibbler mad e fiv e applications and from ten acres s hipped eight cars. In the Kibbler field th e work was done with hand sprayers, but very effectively, so that the field remained free from anthracnose thruout the s hipping season. E. E. Saxton used a barrel sprayer on 40 acres, but started too late, and the results were only fair and were influenced largely by heavy rains which began about May 25. At Seffner a 150-acre field was sprayed three times with good re s ults .

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    Annual Report, 1919 123 At Auburndale 30 acres _ were sprayed three times and the yield was. good. At Orlando 50 acres were sprayed once, but too late for good results. At Dunnellon a field of 200 acres was sprayed eight times and disease held under perfect control. Seventy-one cars from this field were shipped by June 1. Another field of 30 acres at Dun nellon was sprayed twice, but with no results, as the spraying was delayed until after the disease was well established. At Inverness a field of 110 acres was sprayed twice, but too late, so that one-third of the crop was lost to anthracnose. An other field of 250 acres was properly sprayed three times, with a good crop. A third field of 115 acres was sprayed four times, yielding 40 cars of melons in good condition. At Ocala 50 acres were sprayed twice, but too late for good results. At Brooksville 570 acres were sprayed twice; 90 cars were shipped. At Valrico 35 acres were sprayed three times; eight cars of melons were shipped. At Live Oak quite a large acreage was sprayed two or three times, ' but most of it too late for best results. In each case the spray was Bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. The following cost of spraying was submitted by Mr. t ~enn and.Mr. Tucker: . ;•.:; 'J. _,', ';' : ;.,> . . I. . .~ JJ_r. J. G. Baskin, Dunnellon, Florida, sprayed a field of 22 , 5 acres six times with Bordeaux 4-4-50; Cost of spraying, $1800 ' ; depreciation on equipmertt, $100; total, $1900. The yield was 75 car~, or one car for each three acres, while similar fields with fair crops unsprayed in this community yielded ah average of one car from five acres, or a difference of cars from the 225 acres in Baskin's field. On 30 cars at $200 per car, $6000; less cost of spraying, $1900; value of crop saved over cost of spraying, $4100. The fallowing additional figures will show cost in a few fields handled: A . Noble, Inverness, sprayed at an average cost of 81 cents per acre for each spraying. T. L. Hendrix, Lakeland, sprayed at an average cost of 60 cents per acre for each spraying. E. H. Dorman, Live Oak, sprayed at an average cost of $1.10 per acre for each spraying.

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    124 Flo rida Coop er ati ve E x t ension E. K. Anderson , Auburndale, sprayed at an average cost of 85 cents per acre for each spraying. A. F. Pickard sprayed at an average cost of $1.15 per acre for each spraying. Dr. J. B. S. Holmes sprayed at an average cost of $1.54 per acre. STEM END DECAY Watermelon shipments from Bowling Green, Wauchula, Au burnd a le, Penway, Madula, Linden, Dade City, Valrico, Martin, Inverness, Dunnellon, Hou s ton, Live Oak and Beresford were treated to prevent ste m end decay. The treatment consists of applying Bordeaux paste or stem end disinfectant to newly cut FIG. 29.-Applying bordeaux paste after recutting the stems to pre vent stem end rot. A small brush is being used and care taken to apply the paste only to the cut end of the stem. This car was shipped to St. Louis, Mo. stems of the melons after they are placed in the car. This work is done directly or under the supervision of the watermelon specialist. W. N . Ankeney, general extension specialist in plant pathology problems, gave part time during the shipping season to treat ment for stem end decay .

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    Annual Report, 1919 125 When shipments were treated the agents reported to the Washington office the facts regarding it, whether treated in full accordance with instructions or only partially treated. Market inspectors' reports were received from New York, New Orleans, Detroit, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Denver, Seattle, Minne apolis, Providence, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago and Cincinnati. One car delivered at Minneapolis showed a four per cent decay in treated melons and 28 per cent decay in untreated melons. These"were shipped in the same car, but loaded separately, placing the treated melons in one end and the untreated in the other. A summary of all cars treated going to the various markets shows less than one per cent loss from treated melons, whereas untreated cars that were inspected show an average of 35 per cent decay. This 35 per cent decay is not an average for all the cars treated, but an average for those coming to the attention of the inspectors that have been shipped untreated and carelessly loaded. General market reports show varying losses and from various causes of from 8 per cent to 70 per cent decay, and usually from causes that are preventable by proper treatment or handling before the melons leave the shipping point. The Florida agents and solicitors were fully instructed and gave their thoro co-operation in carrying out the work, also lo~ eating the fields to be treated. The county agents were fully in structed and gav , e every assistance possible in the community work. The work began April 1, 1919, and concluded June 30, 1919. APHIS CONTROL IN WATERMELONS Thru co-operation with the Bureau of Entomology, T. H. Jones was assigned to work in Florida in the control of aphis. His work continued from March 15 to May 15. In company with Robert Taylor, A. C. L. Railroad, the water melons were inspected for aphis in all the important sections of South and Middle Florida, and a few fields in North Florida : Aphis was found doing some damage in Lee, DeSoto, Polk, Orange and Hillsboro counties. North of these points the num ber found was negligible and with practically no damage. As the growers were not equipped with spraying machines, and as the damage was not very serious except in a few isolated fields, Mr. Jones was unable to getco-operaticm in the control of aphis, ;go that nothing definite was accomplished.

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    INDEX Agents, county cooperative, 5 county home demonstration, 5, 69 extracts from county agents' re ports, 32 group meeting, 20 Aphis control in watermelons, 125 Beef calf clubs, 55 Beef cattle, demonstrations, 30, 115, 117 Bees, 46 Berry, C. M., extracts from annual report, 35 Black, W. H., report of beef cattle specialist, 114 Blacklock, R. W., report of assistant boys' club agent, 63 Board of Control, 4 Boring, J. M., extracts from annual report, 34 Boys' agricultural clubs, branches of, 53 county contests, 65 enrollment, 64 publications, 60 short course, 20 summary of reports, 65 Calf clubs, 67 Camps, 89, 82 Hillsboro camp, 5~ Santa Rosa camp, 82 Cane, 43 . Canning, containers filled, 73 Cattle, 42 Changes in staff, 12 Citrus, 44 S e minar , 17 Clayton, H. G., extracts from . annual report, 37 Clubs, 27 calf, 54, 55, 67 farm makers', 109 girls', 70, 71 peanut, 66 pig, 56, 66 sugar cane, 54 sweet potatoes, 54 Conferences, monthly, 10 Conkling; R. A., extracts from annual report, 34 Conservation, 73 Contests, boys', county, 65 poultry, 106 state club, 58 Cooperation, from poultry breeders, 101 marketing, 46 with schools, 23 Cooperative, ~emonstration agents, 5 Corn, acreage, 24 demonstrations, 29 Cotton, acreage, 25 demonstrations, 29 County agents' meetings, 19 Crops, general field, 24 cane, 43 citrus, 44 corn, 44 peanuts, 43, 46 sweet pota'toes, 43, 46 truck, 44 velvet beans, 43 Curb market, 94 Dairy calf clubs, 54 Dairy cattle, demonstrations, 30 Demonstrations, cattle feeding, 115, 117 beef cattle, 30 corn, 29 cotton, 29 dairy cattle, 30 fertilizer, 31 fruits, 30 grains, 29 hogs, 31 Irish potatoes, 30 lime, 31 manure, 31 poultry, 31 silos, 31 summer legumes, 30 sweet potatoes, 30 Director, report of, 7 Drive, Three F, 16 Egg Circles, 104 Extension, funds, 10 plan of work, 13 staff, 4 Extracts from county agents' reports, 32 Fairs, 26, 77, 93 Farm machinery, 25, 42 Farm Makers' Clubs, 109 Fertilizer demonstrations, 31 Financial statement, 11 Floyd, Minnie, report of poultry work, 100 Fruits, demonstrations, 30 Funds, extension, 10 General activities, agents', 28 Girls' club work, 81 camps, 82 fall contests, 84 muscadine grape work, 85 short courses, . 82 126

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    Annual Report, 1919 127 Gomme, Wm., extracts from annual Nutrition, 73 report, 35 Grain, acreage, 24 yield, 24 Grape work, 85 Gunn, Colin D., extracts from annual report, 32 Hay crop, acreage, 24 Health work, 77 Herrington, G. L., report of boys' club agent, 53 Hiatt, S. W., report of district agent, 45 Hogs, 40 demonstrations, 31 feeding test, 41 Home dairying, features of work, 95 hindrances, 98 plans for ensuing year, 98 results of work, 97 Home demonstration, meetings, 19 Home improvement, 74 Home makers' clubs, 110 Irish potatoes, demonstrations, 30 Javens, M. Marcellus, extracts from annual report, 38 Jenkins, E. W., report of district agent, 40 Kelly, R. T., extracts from annual report, 37 Kime, Chas . D., extracts from annual report, 32 Layton, Harriette B., report of district agent, 80 Lime, demonstrations, 31 Livestock, 27, 45 Livestock Roundup, 17 McQuarrie, C. K., report of state agent, 22 Machinery, 25, 42 Manure, demonstrations, 31 . Marketing, cooperative, 46, 104 Matthews, C. E., extracts from annual report, 38 Meetings, agents' annual, 19, 22 home demonstration, 20 agents' group, 21 club boys , 20 negro agents, 21 southern boys' club agents, 60 state, 17 Morse, Mae, report of home dairy work, 95 Mountain, J as., extracts from annual report, 33 Negro work, 26, 108 home demonstration work, 78 Officers, States Relations Service, 4 Oglesby, R. T., extracts from annual report, 33 Organizations, extension work, 8 farmers, 26 Partridge, Sarah W., report of dis trict agent, 88 report of state home demonstration agent, 68 Peanuts, 43, 46 acreage, 25 clubs, 66 Pig clubs, 66 Poultry, backyard poultry work, 103 demonstrations, 31 organiz,ation of poultry work, 100 report of work, 100 score card, 112 Prizes, for home demonstration work, 77 Publications, 11 Rainey, J. S., extracts from annual report, 39 Recreation, 75 Records, highest, 93 . Reports, assistant boys' club agent, 63 beef cattle specialist, 114 boys' club agent, 53 director of extension, 7 district agents, 40, 45, 47, 80, 88 extension plant pathologist, 120 extension _poultry husbandman, 111 forage crops specialist, 119 home dairy work, 95 negro work, 109 plant pathologists in watermelon work, 121 state _agent, 22 state home demonstration agent, 68 Rice, acreage, 24 Rolfs, report of Director, 7 Rogers, Frazier, silo work, 23 Roundup, livestock, 17 Sanborn, Nathan W., report of ex tension poultry husbandman, 111 Scholarships, poultry, 107 Sechrest, J. J., extracts from annual report, 37 Seminar, citrus, 17 Short course, boys', 20, 59 girls', 82 poultry, 106 Silos, 23 demonstrations, 31 Small grains, demonstrations, 29 Spencer, report of district agent, 47 Staff, changes in, 12 extension division, 4

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    128 Florida Cooperative Extension State agent, report, 22 Statement of finances, 11 State meetings and fairs, 87 Statistics, home dairy work, 99 report of home demonstration work, 78 poultry work, 107 Stem-end decay, 124 Stumps, removal of, 25 Sugar cane, acreage, 24 clubs, 54 Summer legumes, demonstrations, 30 Sweet potatoes, 43, 46 acreage, 24 clubs, 54 demonstrations, 30 Thompson, J. B., report of forage crop specialist, 119 Three F drive, 16, 17 Truck, 44 Turner, A. A., report of local district agent for negro work, 109 Velvet beans, 43 War program, completion of, 15 Warren, Alfred, extracts from annual report, 36. Watermelons, aphis control, 125 stem-end decay, 124 Weaver, R. Thor, extracts from annual report, 35 Women's work, 85