Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1918
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Cooperative demonstration work in agriculture and home economics
Succeeded by:
Report Florida agricultural extension service

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text







Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
Of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director


REPO


RT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1918


Nj;?X L 1918






FFA 9lqwi








Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1918
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 309 1918


MARCHj 1919









CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER QF TRAxSMISSAL TO QOVERNOR OF'.L. 3 BOARD OF CONTROL 4
EXTENSION STAFF 4
LETTER OF, TRANSMISSAL TO CHAIRMiAN BOARD O1F CONTROL-_'. . 7 REPORT OF DIRECTOR 7
Emergency Work 8
Organization 11
Financial statement 15
Publications 15
Cooperative Enterprises 17
REPORT OF HOG CHOLERA WORK 21
REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST .24
REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN 27
REPORT OF STATE AGENT 29
Crops 29
Food Production Campaign 32
Agents' Meetings 32
Activities of Extension Worker~s (statistical) 34
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND EAST 42
Corn 42
Velvet 'Beans .43
Peanuts 44
Hogs 44
Cattle 45
REPORT OF' DISTRICT AGENT, WEST 46
Corn and Cotton 47
Peanuts 48
Beef Cattle 48
Dairy Cattle 49
Hogs 49
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, SOUTH" 51
Cattle and Hogs 51
Citrus Demonstrations 52
Truck Demonstrations 52
County Appropriation to Support Work 53
REPORT OF Boys' CLUB AGENT 54
Enrollment of Boys in 1918 56
Corn Clubs 57
Peanut Clubs 58
Pig Clubs.- 59
County Contests, Short Course 62
REPORT OF ASSISTANT Boys' CLUB AGENT, NORTH AND WEST 66
REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH-----------.69
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT 73
Urban Work 73
Girls' Work 74
Women's Work 75
Short Courses 78
Statistical Reports 83
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH .85
Enrollment of Women and Girls 87
Extension Schools for Housekeepers 88
Canning 90
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST .92
Girls' Work 92
Women's Work 93
Demonstrations 94
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK 95
REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK 103
INDEX .106





















Hon. Sidney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1918, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1918.
Respectfully,, JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman of the Board of Control.







Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD &F CONTROL JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND , Milton, Fla.
BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.
OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work.
1. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.
STAFF
A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University.
P. H. ROLFS, Director.
A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director.
COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK
C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent.
H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida.
*E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida.
G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent.
*E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.* R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.
L. R. HIGHFLLL, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. a
HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AGNES ELLEN HARRiIS, State Agent.
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent, East and South Florida.
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Agent, North and West Florida.'
LONNY LANDRUM, Assistant District Agent.
AGNES 1. WEBSTER, Assistant District Agent.
LOLA SNIDER, Assistant District Agent.
SARA DONELLA GRIFFIN, Assistant District Agent.
GERTRUDE I. YORK, Assistant State Agent.
MAY MORSE, Assistant State Agent.
MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant State Agent.
SPECIALISTS
A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Hog Cholera Educational
and Demonstrational Work, a
A. S. HOUCHIN,* Veterinary Inspector. a L. F. PETERSON,* Veterinary Inspector, a H. F. WALKER,* Veterinary Inspector, a J. A. GENUNG,* Veterinary Inspector, a
D. H. WATTSON,* Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations, a
Wm. H. BLACK, Agent in Animal Husbandry. a
N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry, Husbandman. a
J. 0. TRAxLER, FarmHelp Specialist. h W. A. DOPSON,* Farm Help Specialist. b
R. L. CLUTE,* Insect Control in Stored Grain. c
0. K. COURTNEY,* Insects of Truck Crops. c
E. E. ATKINSON, Storage of Sweet Potatoes. d
D. G. RAWLS, Peanut Harvesting. e

a. Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. lb. Cooperating with the Office of Farm Management, U. S. D. A. a. Cooperating with the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. d. Cooperating with the Bureau of Markets, U. S. D. A. e. Cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A.
* Resigned on or before July 1, 1918.








Annual Report, 1918 5

LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS
JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry.
B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus.
J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology.
H. E. STEVENS, Lecturer, Plant Pathology.
S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.
LENA R. HUNTER, Assistant Auditor.
0. W. WEAVER, Editor (resigned August 15, 1918).
S. L. VINSON, Editor.
COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua W. E. Brown Gainesville
Baker J. S. Johns Macclenny
Bay I. C. Webb Panama City
Bradford C. D. Gunn Starke
Brevard C. D. Kime* Titusville
Broward J. S. Rainey* Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun J. E. Yon Blountstown
Citrus Jno. T. King Lecanto
Clay W. T. Nettles* Green Cove Springs
Dade F. J. McKinley Miami
DeSoto W. A. Sessoms Arcadia
Duval W. L. Watson Jacksonville
Escambia C. A. Fulford Pensacola
Flagler W. H. Deant Bunnell
Gadsden M. N. Smith River Junction
Hamilton S. S. Smith Jennings
Hernando Jas. Mountain* Brooksville
Hillsboro R. T. Kelley* Plant City
Holmes J. J. Sechrest Bonifay
Jackson L. J. Thompson Marianna
Jefferson T. C. Bradford Monticello
Lafayette J. L. Pooret Mayo
Lake Win. Gomme Tavares
Lee J. M. Boring* Ft. Myers
Leon R. I. Matthews Tallahassee
Levy R. L. Denson* Bronson
Liberty H. G. McDonald Bristol
Madison C. E. Matthews Madison
Manatee 0. W. Gaswell* Bradentown
Marion R. W. Blacklock Ocala
Nassau . ----------- James Shaw* Hilliard
Okaloosa R. J. Hartt Laurel Hill
Okeechobee L. E. Davist Okeechobee
Orange E. F. DeBusk* Orlando
Osceola M. M. Javens Kissimmee
Palm Beach R. A. Conkling* West Palm Beach
Pasco R. T. Weaver Dade City
Pinellas J. H. Jeffriest Largo
Polk A. A. Lewis* Kathleen
Putnam L. Cantrell* --------------- . Palatka
Santa Rosa --R. T. Oglesby Milton
Seminole C. M. Berry Sanford
Sumter . M. S. Hillt Coleman
Suwannee D. A. Armstrong Live Oak
St. Johns J. E. Cheatham St. Augustine
*Emergency, cooperative. fEmergency, total.









6 Florida Cooperative Extension

St. Lucie .Alfred Warren* Ft. Pierce
Taylor L. R. Moore Perry
Volusia R. E. Lenfest* DeLand
Wakulla W. T. Green Arran
Walton J. W. Mathison* DeFuniak Springs
Washington . Geo. E. Mead Chipley
COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Baker Miss Harriet H. Hawthorn. Macclenny
Bay Mrs. Laura R. Look* . Panama City
Bradford Miss Margaret Burleigh . Stare
Brevard Miss Cornelia Smith*-. Titusville
Broward Mrs. J. S. Raineyt . Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun Mrs. Grace Warren .----------- Blountstown
Citrus Mrs. Martha Williamson* . Inverness
Clay Mrs. W. T. Nettles . Green Cove Springs
Dade Mrs. Lileon Norman Brady*.Miami
Dade, Asst. Mrs. Nellie A. Bush. Goulds
DeSoto Mrs. Ann J. Campbell ------------ Arcadia
DeSoto, Asst. Miss Catherine Bankst ------------ Arcadia
Duval Mrs. Effie Wellington . Jacksonville
Escambia Miss Myrtle Floyd . Pensacola
Gadsden Miss Ruby McDavid ----------- Hinson
Hernando Mrs. Ette Matthews* . Brooksville
Hillsboro Miss Janie Stroud* . Plant City
Holmes Miss Jennie Chappelle* . DeFuniak Springs
Jackson Mrs. Ivie Turnbull . Marianna
Jefferson Mrs. Jennie Carter Duncum.Monticello
Lafayette Miss Flora Clowert . Mayo
Lake Miss Clarine Hoyt . Tavares
Lee Mrs. Enid A. Parker. . Ft. Myers
Leon Mrs. Lura Dyer Noland ------- Tallahassee
Madison Miss Edna Smith Madison
Manatee Miss Eloise McGriff .-------- Bradentown
Marion Mrs. Caroline Moorhead . Ocala
Okaloosa Miss Margaret Cobb . Crestview
Orange Mrs. Nellie Taylor* ----.------- Orlando
Osceola Miss Albina Smith* . Kissimmee
Palm Beach *Miss Elizabeth Hopkins* . West Palm Beach
Pasco Miss Nina Henderson* . Dade City
Pinellas Miss Hazel Carter*. Largo
Polk Miss Lois Godbey* . Bartow
Putnam Miss Josephine' Sipprell . Palatka
Santa Rosa Miss Winnie Warren . Milton
Seminole Mrs. C. M. Berryt . Sanford
Suwannee Miss Alice Dorsett*. Branford
St. Johns Miss Anna Heist* . St. Augustine
St. Lucie Miss Grace Holt* . Ft. Pierce
Taylor Miss Hazel Roberts* . Perry
Volusia Mrs. Willa Steed DeLand
Walton Miss Grace Kent* . DeFuniak Springs
Washington Mrs. Susie Sapp Crofton ----. Chipley
CITY WORKERS
tMiami Miss Lucy Caroline Cushman
tJacksonville Miss Bessie Nevins
tTampa Miss Flora Herold
tTampa Miss Edith Cole Young
tKey West Miss Dorothy Neibert
*Emergency, cooperative. tEmergency; total.










Report of General Activities for 1918

with
Financial Statement for. the. Fiscal Year.
.,,Ending June 30, 1918


Hon., Joe L., Earman,
Chairm~an, Board of Control.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of.Flo'rida. this report embodi es the financial statement for the fiscal year ending. June. 30,, 1918, and the report of the activities of the Extension Division for the calendar year 1918. I respectfully request that you transmit the same, Iin accordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P. H. RoLFS,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida receives an nually $10,000. An additional sum of $17,298.52 became available July 1, 1917, on condition that an equal amount be appropriated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was approved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 '(Chap. '6839), accepting these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the several'states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A quotation'from if will show the general purposes of this Act:'
"That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work
7






Florida Cooperative Extension


shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed upon by the Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges receiving the benefits of this act."
In addition to the amount derived directly from the SmithLever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appropriated the sum of $23,000.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county cooperative demonstration work Among farmers and the home demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. . In the home demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted $400 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appropriated by the county for augmenting this work. In counties where home demonstration work has made favorable progress, $500 is made available under the condition that the county provides an equal amount. Provision for carrying on the county demonstration work is made in the general revenue bill (Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more than one-half of one mill for the encouragement and protection of agriculture." The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833) an act authorizing county boards of education to make appropriations for home demonstration work.

EMERGENCY WORK
After the outbreak of the war Congress appropriated $4,348,400 to stimulate agricultural production and facilitate the distribution of agricultural products in the United States. Of this amount, $43,000 was allotted to Florida. This work was carried on cooperatively with the Extension Division In Florida, but the expenditure of the money and the accounting were handled at Washington.
Under this Act a large number of Emergency county agents and Emergency home -demonstration agents were appointed. These agents aided very greatly in stimulating crop production and food and forage conservation in the State. they worked coordinately with the various agents appointed under authority of the Smith-Lever Act and who were paid from State and SmithLever funds. A number of counties in the State did not feel financially able to cooperate in this line of work, and Emergency agents were placed in these.
A distinctly new line of work was introduced here, conducted







Annual Report, 1918


by Urban home demonstration agents. These women worked with families in the larger cities, assisting in the conservation of food, especially canning and drying. They also gave instruction in poultry raising and such home gardening as could be profitably carried on under urban conditions. This stimulated greater interest in the production and proper preparation of various vegetable products. Some attention was also given to canning and preparation of sea foods as a matter of stimulating conservation in this direction.
Thru. the Emergency appropriation it was possible to place in the field a number of negro workers, both men and women, to work among the negro race. These agents were employed for a short time for definite pieces of work. The results of the work show that this is a very profitable line of endeavor for stimulating agricultural production and conservation of food products.
In cooperation with the Extension Division, specialists from various Bureaus of the U. S. Dept. of Agr. are assigned to Florida. The Bureaus cooperating in Emergency work during the past year have been the Bureau of Animal Industry, the Office of Farm Management, the Bureau of Entomology, and the States Relations Service.
WAR WORK
As a result of the declaration of war by the United States the Extension Division was called upon to do a large amount of additional work. Florida, in common with all other states, organized for this unusual contingency. His Excellency, Governor Sidney J. Catts, called a meeting of all agricultural and allied organizations to meet in Tallahassee on April 30, 1917. Representatives of these bodies met and formed the organization known as the Food Preparedness Commission. The following were designated by the Governor as initial members of this Commission:
MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION
P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville, Director Ext. Div. Univ. of Fla.
H. H. Hume, Glen St. Mary, Pres. Fla. State Horticultural Society.
W. A. McRae, Tallahassee, Commissioner of Agriculture.
Sen. J. L. Shepard, Greensboro, President Farmers' Union of Fla.
J. H. Ross, Winter Haven, President Florida Citrus Exchange.
L. B. Skinner, Dunedin, Pres. Growers' and Shippers' League.
W. P. Franklin, Ft. Myers, Secretary Florida First Commission.
W. F. Miller, Valrico, President South Fla. Chamber of Commerce.
Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Pres. State Bankers' Assn.
S. J. Triplett, St. Cloud, Actg. Pres. Press Assn.
Mrs. W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville, Pres. Fed. of Women's Clubs.
Miss A. E. Harris, Tallahassee, Pres. Fla. State Teachers' Assn.







Florida Cooperative Extension


W. N. Sh~ats, Tallahassee, State Supt. Public, Instruction.
W. F. Blackman, Winter Park, Pres. Fla. Live Stock Assn.
Jules M. Burguieres, West Palm Beach.
J. C. Chase, Jacksonville.
J, H. Mackey, Jacksonville, Pres. Fla. Fed. of Labor.
B. L. Hamner, Norfolk, Va., Development Agt., S. A. L. R. R.
E. B. O'Kelly, Jacksonville, Fla.', Ind. Agt., A. C. L. R. R.
J. E. Ingraham, St. Augustine, Fla., V. P;, F.: E. C. R. R.
S. G. Westbrook, Pensacola, Fla., Ind. Agt., L. & N. R. R.
The Director of Extension was chosen chairman of the organization, and Miss A. E. Harris, state agent for, home demonstration work, was appointed as secretary. The following members, with the Chairman and Secretary, ex.-officio, constituted the executive committee:
Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Chairman.
Mrs. W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville.
L. B. Skinner, Dunedin.
The object of the Commission was to stimulate the production and conservation of food and forage crops.
In July the Governor appointed this Commission as a State Council of Defense. The, organization took an important part in directing the work of the State, and this entailed enormous additional work on all of the forces, including the county agents and home demonstration agents.
Four Liberty Loan Drives have "also been held. Everyone connected with the Extension Division took an active part in this campaign. In some cases the county agent and home demonstration agent'were the principal county leaders in carrying forward the large amount of work necessary to raise the bond issues in the respective counties. The Director and other State workers participated in the speaking campaigns and in securing subscriptions and buying bonds. The War Savings Stamp Drive also took up a considerable amount of time from the Extension Division.
Among the most important war work done by the county agents was the assistance given during the various army drafts. Without this assistance a great deal more difficulty would have been encountered in making the plan of the draft and draft measures effective in the State. In some of the counties the agents gave a great part of their time to the furtherance of the draft. Special credit must be given to the large number of county agents who took a most active part in assisting the farmer with the draft questionnaires. A great deal of confusion existed in the minds of rural people as to the meaning and extent of the law and its operation, especially during October in 1918.







Annual Rejwrt,'1918


Fortunat~1y the armistice was declared, making it unnecessary to draft more men into the service.
The services rendered by the Extension Division have had a far reaching and most important effect on the patriotic situation in the.State. The county and home demonstration agents were i 'n direct and constant contact with the great mass of the rural population, and the value of their influence cannot be over-estimated. This whole patriotic work was of such nature that it required the largest amount of good judgment and an unusual amount of initiative on the part, not only of the Extension staff, but of each individual agent. There was -no precedent to follow and the result of certain lines of action was not always clear.
The readjustment necessary to meet the conditions of the war has necessarily been most difficult. The readjustment necessary to peace conditions is. likewise requiring the best of jud gment and greatest of patience. It is not over-stating the case to say that without the Cooperative Demonstration work fully organized in Florida the trying ordeal could not have been passed without serious disturbance.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever Act requires the'appointment of a director, who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed upon. Inasmuch as the budget system is used to govern the working plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect, and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work.
The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in eight projects, the most important being that of the county cooperative and home demonstration agents. This provides for county agents being located in as many of the counties as can be induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The object in view is to improve the farm and rural conditions in Florida. The county home demonstration work is carried on by cooperative arrangements with the Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee. 'The object of the home demonstration work is to improve the home life of the rural population. The instruction includes all lines of work that may be met with on an ordinary farm.
The duties of the State Agent are to coordinate and harmonize






Florida Cooperative Exten:sion


activities in such a way as to secure cooperation among the different projects and also with the rural people of the ' State. He is charged with supervision of the county cooperative demonstration agents. The State has been divided into three districts for the county agent work and two for the home demonstration work. The district agents spend their time instructing and assisting the county and home demonstration agents in their work. . I
The boys' club agent and assistants have headquarters at the University. Their work covers the State. The clubs are organized by the county agents and, with the cooperation of school boards and county superintendents, they receive general approval and support. This work is intended to harmonize with other phases of demonstration work, and especially to instruct cl u-b members in the best agricultural methods and practices suited to Florida conditions.
The county agents usually have their headquarters at the county seat, with an office in the courthouse. The most important work of the agent is that of conducting' demonstrations with farm crops, usually on a small area, to show the best farming practices. A great deal of his time is given to the ' control of hog diseases, to garden work, public meetings and, during the war, to additional' duties such as, farm surveys, labor distribution, and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater agricultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the agricultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his office for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises. He has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in his county.
The attention of the state agent for home demonstration work is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the-instruetion of girls, teaching them the underlying principles of home life. Special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning, poultry raising, and domestic art. The work is under her direct supervision. The state agent and her assistants come in contact with the problems of country life, and spend much time with the county.home demonstration agents, helping them where possible with assistance and encouragement to greater effort.
Two district agents are employed to supervise the work in the counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their






Annual Report, 1918 1


full time to the direction of the home demonstration work in counties.
The agent assigned to poultry clubs works in cooperation with the county home demonstration agents. A limited number of counties best suited were selected this year for poultry work. The purpose is to increase interest in farm poultry by making the work more profitable and to encourage the production of better poultry. As conditions are made suitable the poultry work will be extended into every county.
The office of the county home demonstration agent is usually at the courthouse aitho the agent spends most of her time in the farm homes and with rural clubs giving instruction in gardening, home economics, home sanitation, and the proper use of foods.
All couiaty and home demonstration agents are selected for their special fitness to handle the work in the county to, which they are assigned. As far as possible graduates of agricultural colleges or of home economics courses are secured. All county workers have had special training for extension teaching and receive uniform instruction so there may be harmony of purpose thruout the State.
All employees of the Extension Division are required to make weekly reports to the University of Florida and the Department
-of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

PLAN OF WORK
The Extension work of the University of Florida is conducted under projects as provided for by the Smith-Lever Act. A statement of the sources and expenditures of the funds will be found herewith.
Project I-A provides for -the salaries of clerical help and incidental expenses that apply directly to the administration of the work as a whole. This includes general clerical and executive expenditures not specifically connected with any particular project.,
Project I-B provides for the, expenditures for publications. A requirement of the Smith-Lever law is that'not more than 5%,f shall be used for printing and distribution of publications.
Project II provides for demonstration work with adult farmers, and for all the work conducted by the county agents thru,out the State. This provides for the employment Iof county agents on 'condition that the county being benefited appropriate additional funds to aid in the support of the Work.


1 13






Florida Cooperative Extension


As the countyagents' activities. vary in different counties'. those supervising the work take this into consideration when directing his duties. This project deals with practically all activities on-the farm.
Project. III provides for boys' agricultural clubs, and is confined to corn, pig and peanut clubs. The. club work is intended to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12. and 18. The support of schools, business interests, agricultural agencies of railroads and other organizations directly interested in the welfare of farmers is secured., As the clubs are formed under the direction of the county agents, the work in Projects II and III are closely allied.
Project IV provides for home demonstration work, principally .in rural districts. It has, two, main divisions, one giving particular attention to girls' clubs, training them in domestic science and art and the principles of home-making as applied to rural life. The other is devoted to women's work. Women's clubs are organized to study the needs of the home, its surroundings, sanitation, and. theproper use and conservation of foods, also home conveniences. This division also includes women's poultry clubs and, the proper utilization of food products produced on farms.
Project VI. provides, primarily for instruction to negro boys and girls living on farms, and ha ' s been enlarged to include demonstration work with negro farmers. The work is confined to counties having the largest rural negro population. One assistant agent for.each of twelve counties was employed for six months. These report to the manager club agent, whose headquarters are. at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee. . This institution is headquarters for negro extension work.
Project VII provides for educational and demonstrational work in hog cholera control, and is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and coordinated with the hog cholera work of the Live Stock Sanitary Board.
A State leader and four assistants ' who served part of the year as specialists were assigned to Florida to work with the county agents and farmers to assist in the control of hog cholera. The aim is to instruct farmers in the proper use of hog cholera serum and virus; to prevent the spread of hog diseases, and hold contagious diseases in control after an outbreak. These agents have their offices at the University of Florida, but travel







Annual; Report,, .1918


thruout the State with county and district agents, visiting farms and delivering lectures.

SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever Act are strictly trust funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws and regulations governing'the appropriation. The method of accounting and the plans for the work must be submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture before the year's work is begun. A Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work underway. All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund have been expended and accounted for in the same way as the Smith-Lever fund.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT

Following is the financial statement for the'fiscal year ending June 30, 1918:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever Federal $27,298.52
Smith-Lever State 17,298.52
U. S. D. A. Appropriation' 23,000.00
State Appropriation 9,895.00
County Appropriations 61,143.58
$138,635.62
EXPENDITURES
Administration Project $ 9,771.29
Printing and Publications Project 1,712.49
County Agents' Project 65,080.33
Home Demonstration P roject 55,443.86
Boys' Club Work Project 3,253.66Negro Farm and Home Makers' Project 3,199.95
Hog Cholera Educational 100
Poultry Work 74.04
$138,635.62

PUBLICATIONS
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
12. Peanuts for Oil Production 20,450
13. Hog Cholera and Diseases Resembling Hog, Cholera . 20,000
Circular
No. 'Title Edition
2. Castor Beans 10,000
3. Corn Planting 3,000
4. Cotton Anthracnose 8,000
5. Rice Culture 15,000
Posters Title Edition
4. Grow Forage Crops 2,000
5. Have You a Cow 2,000
Annual Report Cooperative Extensioa Work 5,000.
425 copies each 52 weeks, Agricultural News Service.






. Florida Cooperative Extension


CHANGES IN STAFF
On September 16, IP17, S. W. Hiatt was appointed district agent for West Florida.
On October 1, 1917, Miss Gertrude I. York was appointed research worker and bulletin editor for the Home Demonstration Project and was later assigned tothe duties of acting state agent during the absence of the state agent.
Miss May Morse was appointed assistant state home demonstration agent, assigned to home dairy work.
E. M. Manning was appointed assistant boys' club agent and resigned August 31, 1918, to enter the United States Army.
On October 1, 1917, W. A. Dopson was appointed farm help specialist, assigned by the Office of Farm Management, and resigned August 15, 1918. He was succeeded on September 1, 1918, by J. 0. Trailer.
On August 1, 1917, D. H. Wattson, agent in beef cattle investigations, was assigned work in this State by the Bureau of Animal Industry and resigned June 15, 1918, to enter the United States Army. He was succeeded on July 1, 1918, by Wm. H. Black.
On May 1, 1918, Dr. Nathan W. Sanborn, extension poultry husbandman, was assigned by the Bureau of Animal Industry.
On August 15, 1918, 0. W. Weaver, editor, resigned, and was succeeded by Miss S. L. Vinson, September 1, 1918.
On July 1, 1918, L. R. Highfill was appointed assistant in pig clubs, to work in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry. On September 1, 1918, R. W. Blacklock was appointed assistant club agent. ,
R. L. Clute was assigned January 1, 1918, by the Bureau of JEntomology to work on insect control of stored grains. He resigned his work on August 1, 1918.
On January 1, 1918, 0. K. Courtney was assigned by this Bureau to work on insects in truck crops.
Two assistant district agents in home demonstration work were appointed to north and west Florida: Miss Lonny Landrum, July 1, 1918, and Miss Lola Snider, September. 1, 1918. Two assistant district agents in home demonstration work were appointed in south and east Florida: Miss Agnes 1. Webster, November 1, 1918, and Miss S. D. Griffin, September 1, 1918.
During October and November, 1918, E. E. Atkinson was assigned by the Bureau of Markets to work on storage of sweet potatoes, and D. G. Rawls was assigned by the Bureau of Plant Industry as specialist -in peanut harvesting. -






Annual Report, 1918


FIG. L-Herefords on a West Florida farm
Four assistants in hog cholera educational and demonstrational work were appointed during the year, namely, A. L. Houchin, L. F. Peterson, H. F. Walker and J. A. Genung, all of whom resigned on or before July 1, 1918.

COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
The Extension Division has cooperated with the Department of Agriculture during the past year thru the Bureau of Animal Industry, Bureau of Entomology, Office of Farm Management, Bureau of Markets, Bureau of Plant Industry, and the States Relations Service. This cooperation provides for one or more experts who undertake definite problems affecting the farming interests of Florida. These specialists work in cooperation with county agents.
The cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry in educational hog cholera work has been on the same plan as last year. This has proven valuable to the livestock interests of the State, and has been especially beneficial this past year, owing to the increased number of purebred hogs in every county. The specialists accompany the county agents to farms where diseases exist, and if hog cholera is present, demonstrations are given in hog cholera inoculation with serum and virus, or, if there has been a loss of several hogs, post-mortems are held for the benefit of the owner.
Hog cholera is better understood by farmers, and is not so







Florida Cooperative Extension


prevalent, and while this work has taken up a large share of the county agents' time, it has been an important factor in stimulating the hog interests.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry specialists in beef cattle were assigned to the State. Special attention has been given the distribution of improved breeding stock from Texas, and during the past two years over 3000 head of these have been bought. The agents have also caused the distribution of many well bred animals that formerly were butchered, because of difficulty in finding a ready buyer. The specialists are also giving close attention to feeding problems, particularly the use of velvet beans in combination with other feeds, and supervising and keeping of records.
A poultry. specialist working cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry has given his whole time to the welfare of poultry in Florida. His work has been principally with county and home demonstration agents for the purpose of arousing interest in more profitable poultry production.
Thru cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, specialists have been assigned to study the distribution and methods of control of sweet potato weevils. As this insect is a destructive one when once established, it was important to hold it in check while confined to a few localities. Control measures have been put into effect by the Florida State Plant Board.
The destruction caused each year by weevils in stored grains warranted special attention, particularly during the war period. In cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology a specialist was assigned to Florida, who gave his attention to the storage of corn in cribs and to the best methods of fumigating to destroy weevils in all stored grains.
In cooperation with the Office of Farm Management a Farm Labor Specialist has been giving assistance in the supply of labor to farmers, fruit growers and truckers. Thruout the period of the war the scarcity of labor made the production of necessary food crops uncertain; the farm labor specialist worked in close cooperation with the state representative of the U. S. Department of Labor, and kept in touch with labor movements to and from various industries.
By a cooperative arrangement with the Live Stock Sanitary Board and the Bureau of Animal Industry, county agents report outbreaks of diseases direct to the Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, or their'representatives in the field. Where out-






Annual Report, 1918


breaks of hog cholera occur the county agent is ready to assist in measures that are necessary to suppress the disease. By this means the spread of diseases can be checked before reaching larger proportions.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Markets, a specialist was assigned for two months during the sweet potato harvesting season to interest farmers in the erection and management of sweet potato storage houses. This is a continuation of the work undertaken during 1917 to prevent the loss of sweet potatoes by decay which occurs in banks and in usual storage methods. This loss often amounts to 50% of the crop stored.
As with other cooperative projects, the farmers were reached largely thru the county agents, who know which farmers have sufficient acreage to justify the expenditure necessary for the erection of a sweet potato house. The specialist assigned to this was E: E. Atkinson, and frank statements made by farmers to him indicate that they expect a loss of 25% to 50%, with the ordinary storage methods. This agent visited all the most important sweet potato growing sections in Florida, particularly in west Florida where the largest crop is produced, and furnished those interested with plans and specifications. He also gave them information regarding the operation of the sweet potato house and explained the possibility of making the sweet potato crop more profitable if it could be held until spring, when the bulk of the crop has been marketed.
On account of the high price of material, scarcity and high price of labor, also difficulty in erecting buildings during the harvesting, season, no houses were erected. There was sufficient interest manifested in these storage houses to conclude that when building and labor conditions return to normal, the use of these houses is likely to become general.
Where it was found unwise to recommend the storage house because of insufficient potatoes to store, a ventilated bank was recommended. While the sweet potato house cannot be substituted by the ventilated bank, a much larger percent is saved than by the usual plans of banking.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry D. G. Rawls was appointed as specialist in peanut harvesting. Spanish peanuts have been substituted for cotton as a cash crop in many counties, with an increased acreage in all farming sections. County agents were visited, and thru them many farmers were reached. The instructions were given by means of demonstra-






20 Florida Cooperative Extension

tions, that is, going to the field and building the form on which to stack the vines, finishing one or more stacks and capping them with hay.
Three hundred fifty farmers in twenty-nine counties were visited and 156 demonstrations were given in the proper methods of stacking. As Mr. Rawls was an experienced peanut grower, he was able to give many valuable suggestions to the farmers as to cultural methods.
A peanut exhibit was placed in the University of Florida tent at the Alachua county fair to demonstrate methods of harvesting and stacking.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
In order to coordinate all branches of the extension work all members of the staff meet in the director's office the third Monday of each month to discuss plans for furthering the progress of the work. The number of state workers has been materially increased and the work in all branches has been expanded, which necessitates a thoro understanding of relationships that must exist under such organization.
War emergency projects have modified many plans in practically all branches, as food production and conservation were the first considerations during the period of the war. Nevertheless, it was not the policy to overlook the constructive educational work that the Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so successfully to this point in its period of growth.


FIG. 2.-Long staple cotton, Dade county







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF HOG CHOLERA WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the Federal Representative in the educational and demonstrational hog cholera work in the State for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
A. H. LoGAN,
Veterinary Inspector in Charge.

The educational and demonstrational work in hog cholera control was conducted on the same general plans of last year. Farmers' institutes, county agents' meetings, special hog cholera meetings and livestock meetings were attended and addresses made on the care and control of diseases of livestock, particularly hog.cholera. Visits were made to infected and free farms for purposes of observation and advice, and personal interviews were had with farmers on cholera problems.

HOG CHOLERA LOSSES REDUCED
I am pleased to report this much dreaded disease is at.the lowest ebb it has been since the great epidemic of 1912-13-14. This decrease has been slow but steady and due to the use of antihog cholera serum. Much credit is due the county agents, who were the pioneers in this line of duty, for their efficient work in inoculating against cholera.
.Federal statistics show that cholera losses in the nation were reduced from 118.9 per 1,000 head in 1914 to. 42.1 per 1,000 head in 1918, the lowest in 35 years. This reflects Florida conditions quite correctly.
All hog cholera serum imported into the State is manufactured in establishments under Federal inspection. All serum made within the State is under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Hog cholera virus used simultaneously with the serum is subject to similar control.
During the past year the cholera work, in the State has been divided into the Educational and Regulatory forces, the former with headquarters at and cooperating with the Extension Division of the University of Florida. The I ' atter, with head quarters at Tallahassee, cooperates with the State Live Stock







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sanitary Board in application of cholera preventative treatment and sanitation of infected premises.
The Regulatory forces have divided the State into districts with a veterinary inspector in each, whose duty is to treat all hogs in that district for those who ask for his services.
The following report will show in detail the activity for the year just closed.
STATISTICAL . REPORT
Number of visits to counties in which work was conducted 229
Number of addresses made 126
(a) Number illustrated by stereopticon views 50
(b) Total attendance 11,471
Number of demonstrations of preventive treatment. . 148
(a) Where serum alone was used 32
(b) Where simultaneous inoculation was used 116
(c) Number of hogs treated 3,664
(d) Total attendance at demonstrations 744,
Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog
cholera or observing conditions and giving advice 769
Number of farmers and hog raisers personally interviewed . 2,133 Number of persons individually instructed and plac d in a position
to properly administer the serum preventive treatment 92
(a) County agents 28
(b) Practicing veterinarians 7
(c) Hog owners 57
My work the past year has taken me to practically every county in the State and everywhere I find an awakened interest in the swine industry, also a more general knowledge of hog cholera and its prevention.

OBSERVATIONS REGARDING LOSSES
As I have viewed the swine industry of the State the past four years, I find two factors which stand. out prominently as a source of great annoyance and loss to the farmers. These losses thru sickness and death are caused by carelessness on the part of the farmers, first, in not providing shelter to protect the pigs against the cold rains and storms. Fifty percent or more of the range pigs die every year before reaching two weeks of age. The wildcat and buzzard get a portion, but the greatest loss is due to exposure to cold rains and storms. What is true of the range pigs is observed also in the other pigs, but to a lesser degree, depending upon the care and protection provided them.
The second condition producing disease and loss is due to turning hogs, thin in flesh or with worm infections, into peanut fields. For a period varying from a few daysto a few weeks,






Annual Report, 1918


the pigs do well and show remarkable gains, then a change often occurs, many of the pigs getting sick at the same time and being similarly affected. The trouble is then often mistaken for cholera.
A practice often followed when turning hogs into peanut fields, particularly open range hogs, is to inoculate them as a protection against cholera. I have been called to investigate reported outbreaks of cholera, and investigations revealed no cholera present but conditions due to toxic trouble following peanut feeding as above described.


FIG. 3.-Peanut booth at Alachua county fair






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the agent in animal husbandry, specializing in beef cattle work, for the six months ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
Wm. H. BLACK,
Agent in Animal Husbandry.

In entering this field I realized that my first step toward the improvement of the beef cattle industry would be to familiarize myself with the existing conditions thruout the State. I gave especial attention to the pastures and forages grown and the class of cattle found in the different sections of the State.
After traveling in several counties and being impressed by the thousands of acres of land not under cultivation nor pastured by livestock, it seemed apparent to me that more livestock was needed. After making a survey of the range cattle thruout the State, I came to the conclusion that a better grade of cattle was much more important than increased numbers.
Better cattle, particularly bulls, were needed to be used with the native cattle in order to grade them up.
About 1,500 head of Texas cattle were shipped into the State


FIG. 4.-Angus calves from cows purchased in Texas in 1917






Annual Report, 1918


luring the fall of 1917. The greater part of these cattle were )ulls of the beef breeds, Hereford, Angus and Shorthorn. These cattle were widely distributed thru central, northern and western Florida.
I spent considerable time inspecting these cattle to determine whether or not I should advise the bringing in of more of them from the Southwest. Texas is the only state in the South that really has a surplus.
I have been able to get definite information on 1168 head of cattle purchased from Texas in 1917. This data shows that there were 167 Aberdeen Angus, consisting of 11 males and 156 females. Of the females, 76 were bred before purchasing, and 62 of them had raised calves.
Of Herefords, there were 981 head, consisting of 42 bulls and 830 cows and heifers, and the remainder were calves. Of these females 389 were bred before purchasing, and 360 had dropped calves since coming to the State.
Of Shorthorns, there were 20 head purchased, consisting of one male and 19 females. Of these, 18 were bred before purchasing, and-17 dropped calves after arriving in Florida. The 1168 head consisted of 54 bulls, 1005 cows and heifers and 109 calves. From the 1005 cows, 483 were with calf when purchased, and 449 raised their calves, showing a calf crop of 92%.
Up to November 1918 the reports show the loss of one. bull, 20 cows and heifers and no deaths among calves that arrived safely.
In some instances, several calves- were lost in shipping, and in a few cases some older animals died enroute. The above losses are what actually happened in Florida and represent a loss of
1.8 % .
The reports did not include those cattle that were put on the larger ranges of southern Florida, as it was impossible to get any definite information there. The losses would no doubt be somewhat greater where the Texas cattle were turned out on the range and. left there indefinitely.
In general the Texas cattle have done well in Florida, especially where they have had some attention. When they have been turned out on the range to hustle for themselves for the entire year, they have not been -so satisfactory. Feed is the important factor, and where this is provided the cattle will thrive.
The severe drought in Texas during 1918 again caused heavy losses of range cattle. As a result of my efforts it is estimated






Florida Cooperative Extension


that 1600 of these cattle were brought into Florida. These were not so widely distributed as in the preceding year, as only those farmers who were raising hay, forage and feed were encouraged to buy.
The cattle that were brought in from Texas during 1918 consisted of the following registered stock: 40 Hereford, 2 Angus, and 6 Shorthorn bulls; 14 Hereford cows; 55 Hereford and I Shorthorn heifers; and 10 Hereford calves. The grade stock consisted of 40 Hereford cows; 682 Hereford, 39 Angus, and 32 Shorthorn heifers; 250 Hereford, 125 Angus, and 100 Shorthorn steers.
Aside from the distribution of Texas cattle, some other well bred cattle were placed over the State, principally for breeding purposes. These consisted of 432 registered Hereford bulls; 88 cows; 71 heifers; and 14 calves. There were 101 grade Hereford cows; 3 bulls; 320 heifers; 427 calves; and 220 steers. Aberdeen Angus: 16 registered and 23 grade bulls; 19 registered and 162 grade.cows.; 43 registered and 55 grade heifers; 2 registered and 16 grade calves; and 300 grade steers. Shorthorns: 21 registered and 18 grade bulls; 14 registered and 1.00 grade cows; 2 registered and 260 grade heifers; 16 grade calves; and 150 grade steers.
The work carried out thru this office may be summed up as follows:
128 Registered cattle brought in.
1269 Grade cattle brought in.
312 Registered cattle placed within the State.
2161 Grades placed within the State.
806 Letters written.
30000 Circulars mailed out.
7449 Milestraveled by rail.
3674 Miles traveled by auto.
8 Lectures given.
101 Farms visited.
75 Days spent in the office.
83 Days spent in the field.







Annual Report, 1918


. REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work of the extension poultry husbandman for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
N. W. SANBORN,
Extension Poultry Husbandman.

POULTRY CONDITIONS IN THE STATE
The work of the extension poultry husbandman as reported extends from April 20 to December 31. During this time 9532 miles were traveled by rail and boat, and 1943 by auto and team; 36 lectures were given, with a total attendance of 2753; 485 letters were written and 3500 circular letters issued; 219 farms were visited.
It has been the work of the year to increase poultry production along the various lines. Florida needs more hens on her farms, but with better bred stock and good care and feeds the egg output of the State could be increased 407o with the present number of hens.
Last spring production was normal on the farm and in the backyard. As a rule, it was below normal on the commercial poultry farm, few of them being able to pay the high cost of feed necessary to run the farm under war conditions. Feed was scarce and costly, labor hard to find and keep, and some farms sold out every chicken and went out of -business. Since early summer there have been some changes in conditions. Prices for live poultry have'ranged higher than ever before known in Florida, and eggs have maintained a high average price. While grain feeds are still high in cost there is a satisfactory margin between cost and selling price of eggs and poultry. The backyard flock, as well as the farm flock, is a good business venture in Florida today. The commercial poultry farm in Florida should be a success;'that more are not a success is due to the same reason that all folks do not make a living when they become grocers, doctors or teachers.
The successful farms in Florida that are keeping layers by the hundreds, and in a few cases by the thousands, have reached these numbers by a slow and steady growth. No state can raise better poultry than Florida. No state can supply the






Florida Cooperative Extension


poultry pasture of green succulent feeds more abundantly than Florida.
POULTRY SCHOOLS
The work of the year has been largely done thru the cooperation of the county and home demonstration agents. These men and women have been real assets in the poultry work. Two poultry schools have been held, one at Fort Lauderdale and the other at Dade City, and except for influenza a third would have been held at Orlando. The newspaper press of the State has been wonderfully good in its use of the poultry material sent out thru the Agricultural News Service of the University.
There are farms in Florida that have no chickens. There are farms that have a dozen hens where there should be fifty. The best market in Florida is the home table, and the farm that does not produce a full supply of eggs and fryers is not complete.
It is the work of the extension poultry husbandman to stimulate larger production on the farm, that the family be better fed, that the community get more eggs and poultry, and that Florida at least produce her own poultry products.


FIG. 5.-Poultry exhibited by club members







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF STATE AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
C. K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.

This report indicates that the activities and the interest in the work have been maintained even to a larger degree than
-usual. The support given this work in the past has been largely increased. Merchants, bankers, and people of the State generally are giving it their most hearty support. This is particularly ,evidenced by the assistance given by the county commissioners and others in increasing appropriations for the purpose of getting the best type of men.
County agents were called upon to help out With war activities, such as campaigns for Liberty Loan, Red Cross, War Savings Stamps, and Food Surveys. They were asked to assist in procuring increased crop production, with the result that considerable increase has been obtained in most of the staple crops, in spite of the scarcity and high price of labor.
The vegetable garden campaign was responsible for an increase in home vegetable production.
In the course of -the year's activities the state agent attended 128 meetings, traveled 17,582 miles by rail, and 2,751 by auto or other conveyance, and also visited 21 schools and made talks to the pupils.
On December 31, there were 42 counties with full-time men, seven counties with four-day men, and five counties having assistant agents. In the negro work, eleven counties had assistant agents in the Farm Makers' clubs, and worked for five and a half months.
The following resume of some of -the most important work is ,submitted.
CROPS
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was below that of the previous year, the damage by boll weevil causing a material reduction 'in the total yield. The dry weather of spring and early autumn :also reduced the yield. A number of farmers in middle and south






Florida Cooperative Extension


Florida grew some cotton experimentally with varying results. About 15,000 acres were grown in new territory. The most of this was long staple. In the long staple counties more short than long staple cotton will be planted next year.
CORN
Dry weather during the growing season reduced the corn yield fifty percent in some counties of northern and western Florida. Nevertheless there was an increase of 2,080,000 bushels of corn produced in the State over the previous year.
PEANUTS
The peanut crop has become a very important one, and is destined to become more so to supply the oil mills and for livestock feeding. We believe there was an increase of at least two hundred percent of the Spanish variety over any previous year.
Mr. D. G. Rawls was employed for two months as peanut specialist, to instruct in the best methods of harvesting and stacking Spanish peanuts.
SWEET POTATOES
The acreage planted to sweet potatoes was reduced, resulting in a smaller crop. The quality and price was above the average, and the farmers generally have been well pleased with the results obtained.
Considerable interest was manifested in the erection of sweet potato storage houses. The agents were instructed to impress on the minds of the farmers the necessity of adequate sweet potato storage so that the crop could be taken care of without the usual heavy loss that occurs between harvesting time and spring. On account of the high cost of all building material no storage houses were built, but more farmers stored their crops in properly constructed ventilated banks.
SMALL GRAIN
Due to the prevalence of dry weather the acreage planted to oats and rye was reduced. While in many fields the stand was irregular, on account of poor seed, some good yields of grain were produced. Most of the crop was cut for hay or pastured.
SUGAR CANE
The sugar cane yield was somewhat of a disappointment for several reasons. Infestation of root-knot interfered considerably with the yield in the most important cane section, and in other







Annual Report, 1918


sections the prolonged dry weather cut the crop short. However, most of the cane grown in the State is made into syrup and as the price was higher than usual, the crop was quite profitable.
VELVET BEANS
This crop has become a very important one in all sections of the State, and the acreage planted is on the increase. The dairy farmers in particular are planting more velvet beans for fall and winter feeding.
DASHEENS
On the flatwoods lands, dasheens is becoming an important crop for hog feeding. On soils that are suitable to its production, a number of farmers report larger yields than from any other root crops.
TRUCK CROPS
The work done by county agents in truck crops has been largely confined to the control of insect and disease pests. Several carloads of nitrate of soda sold by the government to truckers was distributed by county agents. This took much time, as the agents secured the orders, arranged for the payments, and distributed the nitrate from the cars.

ASSISTANT AGENTS
The appointment of assistants to the county agents has made it possible to take -care of the extra work that the county agents were called upon to do during the period of the war. The assistants were assigned counties where their services could be of the greatest value for increased food production, and were paid entirely from Government funds appropriated for ' that purpose. They were selected with a view of giving them such training as would qualify them for county agents should vacancies occur where they would fit in.

MEETINGS
The state agent and assistants have been called upon to attend and deliver lectures at a great many meetings.
At the Farmers' Ten-day Short Course held at the University addresses were made at different times. . Lectures were given to the colored agents at their short course
held at the A. & M. College for Negroes.
The Home Demonstration short course held at Tallahassee was attended, and we assisted in the program.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Citrus Seminar and Live Stock Round-Up was held in Gainesville September 24-27, and the extension workers took an active part. This was one of the most successful meetings of its kind that has ever been held on the campus. A tractor demonstration was a main feature of the meeting, when six tractors were put into operation.
FAIRS
During 1918 two State Fairs were held in Jacksonville, the first in February, the other in December. The county agent staff gave their unstinted support to these. County exhibits were made at both fairs.
I attended county fairs in Lake, Manatee, Orange, Lee and Jackson counties during the year. The general farm and live stock exhibits in some instances were not up to their usual mark. In Orange and Lee the fruit, vegetable, and poultry exhibits were better than usual.

FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN
An increased food production campaign was conducted between April 1 and 6 under the combined auspices of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Extension Division of the University of Florida. Mr. Clarendon Davis, Huntsville, Ala., was selected by Dr. Bradford Knapp to help in this. Meetings were conducted in Orlando, Tampa, Leesburg, Ocala, Gainesville, Live Oak, and Marianna, and were well attended by farmers and business men.
Several meetings have been held in every county at different times during the year to stimulate food production. The county agents have been promoting this work to a large degree with gratifying results.
Two important meetings of Directors and State Agents of the Southern States were held during the year, at Memphis, Tenn., May 16 to 17, and at Nashville, Tenn., October 7 to 8. The purpose of these meetings was to formulate and perfect plans and policies governing Extension work in the fifteen southern states.

AGENTS' MEETINGS
The annual meeting of the county agents was held in Gainesville, September 30 to October 5. Plans for the year's work were discussed by county agents and members of the staff. Lectures by the Agricultural teachers and others, were given daily. In-






Annual Report, 1918


fluenza cut the meeting short one day. For the benefit of the county agents demonstrations in tractors were given by tractor companies.
Six group meetings were held in March. In the western part of the State, at Marianna, Chipley and Bonifay; in the southern part, at Vero, West Palm Beach and Miami. These meetings. were beneficial, as they enabled the men to get direct information from the most successful farmers in the respective counties visited.
In the western and northern part of the State the agents visited the best livestock and staple crop farms. Volusia and Marion were the most southern counties represented by agents at the northern meetings. In the southern part the agents visited the most important truck farms and citrus groves. The truck farm along the Palm Beach Canal on LakeOkeechobee were of special interest.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the farmers and truckers has been stressed during the year by all county agents. Success along this line has not been all that was desired.
In some of the counties, however, gratifying results have been secured, and there is greater tendency toward organization in most counties. The peanut growers formed an organization for the advancement of the industry.

LIVESTOCK
The livestock side of the agents' activities has been stressed jo a large degree. This has been more particularly along the line of growing feeds necessary for the maintenance of livestock and the cutting of hay at the right time and curing it in the proper .way.
Some counties have been able to show an increase in dairying. This was especially true of Leon where during the summer, 1000 gallons of milk were shipped from Tallahassee daily. Orange county has made considerable progress in dairying by the purchase of dairy cattle and providing pasturage and feeds.
The dipping vat propaganda has been conducted with the usual vim. On November 5, 1918, nineteen counties voted for compulsory dipping. County agents have been prominent in







Florida Cooperative Extension


creating and promoting a strong favorable. sentiment along this line.
The hog population of the State has increased materially during the year. Mr. Highfill reports an increase of 58.547o in
purebred hogs in 27 counties during 1918. County agents have
done a large amount of work in hog cholera inoculation, lending
all the assistance possible to the representatives of the Live
Stock Sanitary Board. Both forces have been working together
harmoniously with good results.
The number of silos has been materially increased, particularly
where dairying has been stimulated. Many others have been
deferred by the scarcity of labor and the high cost of material.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES
Number of visits made by county agents 38971
Number of miles traveled -240286
Calls on agents relative to work 27903
Number of farmers' meetings held 781
Number of meetings addressed 1187
Total attendance 70603
Number of field meetings held by agents 450
Total attendance at these meetings 7854
Percentage of time spent in office work 22
Percentage of time spent in field work 78
Number of official letters written 23582
Number of articles prepared for publication 1390
Number of circular letters issued 13783
Number of bulletins of U. S. D. A. distributed 40374
Number of bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed . 14920 Number of visits to schools 878
Number of schools assisted in outlining agricultural course . . 107 Number of short courses assisted in 12
Total attendance 889
ORGANIZATIONS
Number of farmers'clubs agents have assisted in organizing . 109 Total membership of these clubs 3363
MISCELLANEOUS
Number of farmers attending short courses at college as result of
agents' efforts 72
Number of boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges
as result of club work 1 117
Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as result of girls'
club work 27
Number of times visited by specialists from College or the Department 846 Number of demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits 265
Number of prizes won 189
Number of demonstrations in truck or small fruit 69
Number of farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance 392
Number of farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents'
work 1887







Annual Report, 1918 35

FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS
Number of buildings erected 105
Number of farm buildings improved 130
Number of new building plans furnished 38
Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed 61
Number of home water systems installed or improved 46
Number of water systems in State before demonstration work was
started 28
Number in the State now 124
Number of home lighting systems installed 44
Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work
was started 46
Number of home grounds improved 219
Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved 339
Number of homes screened against flies and mosquitoes 282
Number of sanitary privies erected 64
Number of telephone systems installed 125
Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation 689
Total acreage 9385
Number of new pastures -established 340
Number of old pastures renovated 142
Acreage comprised 658
Number of drainage systems established 219
Number of farmers induced to drain their lands 123
Total acreage drained:
By tile 577
By ditch 4988
Number of farmers who removed stumps 1199
Total acreage stumped 12625
Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land 10
Total acreage terraced 578
Number of home gardens planted 7159
Number of farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use . 2885 Number of farmers turning under cover crops 2430
Total acreage 12269
Number of new implements and tools bought 1717

DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATIONS
CORN
Number of demonstrators 584
Number of demonstrators reporting 258Total acreage grown under improved methods 3542
Average yield per acre, in bushels 21
Number of cooperators 740
Total acreage grown by cooperators 10629
Number planting selected seed .347
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres 295
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres . 243 Number of acres harvested for silage 2755
.Number of acres "hogged down" 2765
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests 961
Number of farmers using better methods in growing corn this year . 1724 Number of farmers so influenced since county agent work was started. 7021
COTTON
Number of demonstrators 215
Number of- demonstrators reporting 71
Total acreage grown under improved methods 1324
Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds 615
Number of cooperators 91
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1301







36 Florida Cooper ative Extension

Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed 115
Number of farmers field selecting seed 7for next year's crop 129
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres 97
'Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres -------- 19 Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests 562
Number of farmers using better cultural methods 349
OATS
Number of demonstrators 52
Number of demonstrators reporting 25
Total acreage grown under improved methods 651
Number of cooperators . 163
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1620
Number of acres thrashed for grain 248
.Number of acres cut for hay 565
Number of acres grazed off . 2814
Estimated value per acre $10.00
Number of acres turned under for soil improvement 945
Number of bushels of seed treated for smut and rust 137
Number of farmers planting oats for the first time 348
RYE
Number of demonstrators 35
Number of demonstrators reporting 20
Total acreage grown under improved methods 371
Number of cooperators 71
,Total acreage grown by cooperators 460
Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain 190
,Number of demonstration acres cut for hay 15
Number of acres grazed off 1341
Estimated value, per acre $7.00
Number of acres turned under 774
Number of farmers planting rye for the first time 165
Note: Rye is grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pasture crop.
VELVET BEANS
Number of demonstrators 68
Number of demonstrators reporting 51
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods 1233,
Number of cooperators 172
Total acreage grown by cooperators 881
Total acreage hulled for seed 168
Total acreage cut for hay 12
Number of acres grazed off 1584
Estimated value per acre of grazing $30.00
Estimated acreage planted in the State tbru the county agents' influence 524
Percentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 1001o; third year,
1001o; fourth year, 10%; fifth year, 15%.
PEANUTS
Number of demonstrators 150
Number of demonstrators reporting . 104
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods 2729
Average yield seed per acre, bushels 35
Average yield hay per acre, tons 1
Number of cooperators 262
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1751
lotal acreage picked for seed 3054
,Total acreage cut for hay 2623
Number of acrez grazed off 529
,;E , estimated value per acre of grazing $25.00








Annual Report, 1918 37

Total number of acres inoculated 407
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru. the county agents' in, fluency 10756
Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county
agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15clo; third year,
25%; fourth year, 400/c.
COWPEAS
Number of demonstrators 66
Number of demonstrators reporting 34
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms 1377
Number of cooperators 92
Total acreage grown by cooperators .752
Total acreage thrashed for seed 41
Total acreage cut for hay 1893
Number of acres grazed off 206
Acreage turned under for soil improvement 171Total number of acres inoculated 139
Estimated acreage planted thru. the county agents' influence . . 1159 Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 1501o;
fourth year, 150/c; fifth year, 22%.
SWEET POTATOES
Number of demonstrators 26
Number of demonstrators reporting 8
Total acreage grown by demonstrators 49
Acreage treated for diseases and pests 53
Estimated increased acreage 410
IRISH POTATOES
Number of demonstrators 57
Number of demonstrators reporting 47
Total acreage grown by demonstrators 541.
Acreage treated for diseases and pests 1211
Estimated increased acreage 1000
FRUITS
Number of demonstration groves 164
Total number of trees in these demonstrations 131665
Groves inspected 1259; number of trees 400185
Groves pruned 302; number of trees 135424
Groves sprayed 436; number of trees 120749
Groves planted 29; number of trees 13649

Totals 2026 670007
Number of other groves where agents gave assistance 860

DAIRY CATTLE
Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agent I s' in-fluence:
Bulls 52
Cows or heifers 552
Number of'cows tested for production 655
Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations 307
Number of cattle fed 561
Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised 3
Number of cows in these demonstrations 8
Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started . 1326 Number of purebred dairy cows now 2550








38 Florida Cooperative Extension

BEEF CATTLE
Number of pure blood beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence:
Bulls 165
Cows or heifers 879
Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes 342
Number of beef breeding herds started 32
Number of feeding cattle introduced 225
Number of beef feeding demonstrations 8
Number of cattle fed 251
Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated
by county agents 3338
Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed 4
Number of members 1.33

HOGS
Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to county agents'
influence:
Boars 652
Sows or gilts 1446
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred 4049
Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents . 320 Number of hogs 1710
Number of hog pastures started 668
Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs . 1399 Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by
county agents 15154

POULTRY
Number of poultry demonstrations supervised 14
Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by
agents 7283
Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved ------ .243 Number of birds on these farms 12625
Number of eggs produced 6440
Average price, dozen .35

LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS
Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers
to have treated for diseases or pests:
Cattle 153420
Hogs 129695
Horses 737.
FERTILIZER
Number of farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers . 3801 Number of fertilizer demonstrations 185
Tons of fertilizer used 450Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively 78
Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers 605
MANURE
Number of farmers induced to-take better care of manure . 1036 Number that provided sheds 162
Number composting farm manure 963
Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators . . 104 Number of farmers mixing raw phosphates with farm manure . 1719 Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons 117141







Annual Report, 1918


SILOS
Number of silos built in the State this year 244
Number built as result of county agents' advice 131
Number in State when county agents' work was started 64
Number of silos in the State now. 548
Tile, 7; cement, 40; stave, 94; stone, 15; other material, 392.
LIME
Number of farmers using lime due to county agents' influence. . . 306 Quantity of lime used, in tons 1023
Number of acres limed 2686

NEGRO WORK
The negro work has been conducted on the same plan as formerly, but was enlarged to meet the demand for increased food production and conservation. The most important work was carried out by the Farm Makers and Home Makers' clubs, where negro boys and girls are taught crop and live stock production, canning and gardening.
Much time was given negro farmers to assist them in a greater production 'of farm crops, hogs, and poultry. Assistant club agents were assigned to counties and were paid entirely from the State or Government funds. Practically all the assistants equipped themselves with necessary conveyances for traveling in the county. These clubs are under the direct supervision of A. A. Turner, manager, Farm and Home Makers' cl ' ubs, who reports to the boys' club agent for Farm Makers' clubs, and the state home demonstration agent for the work in Home Makers' clubs. The club work has made creditable progress, and some excellent displays were exhibited at various fairs.
A summary of the report of the Farm Makers' club and of the Home Makers' club, submitted by A. A. Turner, manager club agent, is as follows:

FARM MAKERS' CLUBS
During the year twelve assistants w6ire assigned to twelve counties,.for an average period of five.months; also seventeen women assistants worked in seventeen counties for a period of six months on the average. The work of these agents was primarily with boys and girls, yet in the production and conservation of food, feed and forage, much work was done for the men and the women as well.






Florida Cooperative Extension


There were 849 boys enrolled, of which 384 reported; also 1273 girls, of which 598 reported. Many reports were not available at the close of the season, due to the epidemic of influenza. Also, there were no agents in the field at the close of the crop season.
The Farm Makers' clubs produced 17,280 bushels of corn, peanuts and potatoes at an average cost of 44 cents per bushel. he. highest yield of corn produced was 831/2 bushels; peanuts, 28 bushels; sweet potatoes, 92 bushels per acre.

HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The report of the Home Makers' clubs shows that these clubs filled 107,100 containers with fruits and vegetables, valued at $12,852. This was put up at a cost of $6,961.50, leaving a margin of $5,890.50. The largest item of expense was for containers. The club members and their parents purchased over $5000 worth of containers for putting up surplus fruits and vegetables.
In counties.where only one agent was assigned an attempt was made to do some of the work usually done by both, so the negro, boys and girls received some training in every county in which there was an agent assigned.
The negro club work received recognition from county fairs, boards of trade, and banks by contributions of $245. This was awarded in prizes and in scholarships to the annual short course held at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tallahassee. The State Agent for home demonstration work contributed 8000 labels, and a coop of purebred chickens was donated by the A. and M. College.
Those competing -for prizes were required to submit essays entitled "How I Made My Crop".
The annual short course for colored boys and girls was held, with an attendance of eleven boys and fifteen girls. Some of these paid their own 9,xpenses, and the others received scholarships.
The year's work has been modified to some extent by the war activities, nevertheless the results produced show substantial progress. As the work becomes better organized it can be enlarged in various ways. The following statistical reports show the accomplishriients of these clubs:








Annual Report, 1918


TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OF FARM MAKERS' CLUBS
IN 14 COUNTIES
N um ber enrolled ------------------------------- 849
Number reporting 384
Clubs organized . 105
Plots supervised . . 784
Bushels corn raised . 5760
Bushels peanuts raised 2688
Bushels potatoes raised 8832
Pigs kept 105
Months worked (average) 5
Letters written 1993
Members visited 1818
Demonstrators visited 895
Schools and clubs visited 542
Meetings held 404
Total attendance 15044
Total miles traveled 21847

WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
IN 18 COUNTIES
Number enrolled 1273
Number reporting 598
Clubs organized 145
Plots supervised 1182
Containers filled 107100
Months worked (average) 6
Letters written 3778
Members visited 2281
Plots visited 1653
Schools or clubs visited 982
Meetings held . 744
Total attendance 19615
Individual canners bought ------- 442
Total m iles traveled by agents --------------------------------- -------------------- 16359


FIG. 6-Demonstration with tractor plow at county agents' meeting


#IV4







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND EAST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for North and East Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
E. W. JENKINS,
District Agent.

During the year I traveled by rail 10,194 miles and by automobile 2,972, making a total of 13,166 miles; 107 official visits have been made to the county agents, and 58 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings there was a total attendance of 2,517. Accompanied by the county agent, 138 farmers were visited. From-these farms I was able to see the average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to the county agents.
The general interest in the work is shown by the county appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, which is $15,100 as compared with $12,300 for the year ending June 30, 19 18.
ORGANIZATION
Organization has been a special feature of the county work for the last two years. Practically every county in ihe district, has one or more. Several plans are used to form these organizations, but the most effective one has been for the county agent to meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner appoint a man in his respective district. These five men constitute a county agricultural committee. Each man, with the help of the county agent, appoints in his respective district four other men who compose a district agricultural committee. Each district committee assists the county agent in planning and carrying out the work.
I Owing to the fact that a great portion of their time is required to further crop production, food conservation, and food surveys, the organization work has been of more than usual benefit to the county agents.
CORN
The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some sections of the district the'lack of rain reduced the yield to







Annual Report, 1918


some extent. In these sections the demonstration fields suffered very little, thus showing the value of proper methods of soil preparation, fertilization, and cultivation.
A good many of the counties are not only making sufficient corn for home use, but are shipping it by the carload to outside markets. Reports from 181 demonstrators in 13 counties show an average yield of 38.35 bushels per acre on their demonstrations.
Elevators and storage houses have been erected in Gainesville, Jacksonville, and Ocala, to assist in preparing the corn for market. In other places much corn has been loaded on cars and shipped to other points. The county agents have done much work in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their corn to kill the weevils.
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was decreased in the counties of the northern portion of the district. The counties in the southern part of the district increased their acreage of cotton, and some of these counties more than doubled that of 1917.
Every county in the district was heavily infested with boll weevils. An effort was made to induce farmers to adopt the proper method of cultivation under boll weevil conditions. Owing to the late summer rains'and also to the fact that Sea Island cotton was planted, it being a late-maturing variety, the loss was exceedingly heavy.

VELVET BEANS
Realizing the necessity of soil improvement and also the importance of growing an abundance of feed for the increased number of livestock on almost every farm in the district, an effort was made by the county agents to induce thefarmers to plant a large acreage of -velvet beans. The results were very gratifying. Velvet beans were planted in almost every corn field.
In a number of places feed mills have been installed for the purpose of making feedof velvet beans, corn, and other products. Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an excellent feed for horses and'cattle. This feed finds a ready market * Large quantities of beans are fed whole in the pods, either dry or soaked. This bean is coming to be a staple article, both as a feed for livestock and'as a soil improver.







Florida Cooperative Extension


PEANUTS
The counties which have reduced their cotton acreage on account of the boll weevil have in most cases replaced this acreage with peanuts. The peanuts are grown both for hogs and for commercial purposes. Peanuts for hogs have been grown thruout the district for a long time. They have proven a profitable crop when fed to hogs with other suitable feed.
When grown for commercial purposes the Spanish variety which yields a large percentage of. oil is usually planted. The acreage of this variety was very large and the yield fairly goodThe indications are that cotton farming will be largely replaced by peanuts.
Only one peanut oil mill was built in the -district and the indications are that other mills will be needed to take care of the crops produced.
HOGS
The county agents foster the production of more and better hogs and the need of such work is evident. As a result of the efforts of the county agents along this line the farmers have not only produced pork to supply their homes, but hundreds of cars of hogs have been shipped to the packing houses.
The work has developed so rapidly that the local packing houses have been forced to increase their capacity. Other increases will be necessary or the farmers I will have to ship to outside markets.
Many farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some sections. where an individual farmer does not have enough hogs to make a carload the county agents assist in working up a cooperative shipment. Where a community is organized it is an easy matter to arrange for cooperative shipping.
A great many purebred hogs have been brought into the district thr'u the influence of the county agent:
Realizing the importance of having good pastures for hogs, the agents have made a special effort along this line of work, and 394 farmers have been influenced to put in pastures of oats, rye, and rape for winter and early spring grazing.
Much effort has been spent in keeping cholera and other diseases out of herds of hogs. The agents of the district have given the simultaneous treatment to more than 17,000 head of hogs. They have advised worm treatment for more than 5,000, and treatment for 16,000 head with other diseases.






Annual Report, 1918


FIG. 7.-Banked sweet potatoes

CATTLE
The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of pure bred or grade cattle have been shipped into the district for breeding purposes. All agents have stressed the importance of better pastures and more feed for cattle.
While the cost of cement and labor kept many silos from being built, the number was increased over 20 percent.
As a means of improving the cattle, the demonstration agents are working with other forces in the educational campaign, leading to the eradication of the cattle tick. This work has ,consisted in pointing out and explaining the loss caused by the tick, also in giving aid in the construction of dipping vats. Most of the dipping vats constructed under agents' supervision this year are community vats. By means of these vats some of the most effective tick eradication educational work is accomplished. The cattle owners in a community, or within a radius of a few miles, join in constructing a central vat, each one contributing either money or labor. Such citizens thus feel that the vat belongs to them; they use it freely and take pride in telling others of the merits of dipping cattle.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit a report of the emergency district agent for West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
S. W. HIATT,
Emergency District Agent.

The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the Western District, comprising eighteen counties west of the Suwannee River, has been divided into two classes; the regular or full time agent work where the counties cooperate financially, and the Emergency work where the agent is employed only four days a week.
Three counties, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and LaFayette, were in the emergency group. The work of the emergency agents in these counties proved so efficient that at the end of the fiscal year, each board of county commissioners voted a substantial appropriation to employ a county agent.
Assistant agentswere supplied in Holmes and Jackson from March until July, and again in October. Madison county was supplied with an assistant in November.
In October, Bay county dropped out of the work, and the counties of Wakulla and Walton were transferred from the regular to the emergency basis on account of the failure of the county commissioners to make appropriations in support of the work.
The county agents have been required to modify their regular plan of work in order to make the Food Surveys, handle the distribution of nitrate of soda to farmers, and aid in Liberty Loan, War Savings Stamps, and Red Cross campaigns.
Nine county agents reporting show 1526 visits to demonstrators, 945 to cooperators, 3203 to other farmers, 1175 consultations with business men, 2552 visits to club members. The number of miles travelled in connection with their work is 76,838; 5850 consultations in office, 225 farmers' meetings held, with a total attendance of 19,036. These agents report 104 field meetings, with a total attendance of 3436; 7811 letters written; 303 articles written for publication; and the distribution of 15,783 circulars and bulletins.
Evidence of the appreciation and value of the county agent







Annual Report, 1918


work has been shown by the increased appropriation from the thirteen counties now cooperating. These counties have appropriated $14,780 as against $10,790 from the fourteen counties last year.
Since January 1, 1918, 1 have made 150 official visits to county agents, attended 95 meetings, with a total attendance of 9203. I have travelled 18,397 miles by rail, 4729 by auto, making a total of 23,126 miles. Owing to the increased demand for the services of the county agent, plans to more thoroly systematize the work have been put in operation, with splendid results. Especial attention has been given to the increased production of feed and.livestock.
Demonstrations in general farm crops have not been given the usual attention on account of war work.

ORGANIZATIONS
In nearly every county there now exists some form of organization cooperating with and assisting the agent in carrying on at least a portion of his work. Some organizations are composed of a central county agricultural committee made up of representatives from each precinct or school district in the county. Others are more local and consist of community farmers' organizations.
The farmers have been able to save much money by cooperating in buying and selling fertilizers, farm products and livestock. The farmers of Gadsden county saved $31,120 by cGoperating in the buying and selling of fertilizers and syrup.
Holmes county farmers saved $12,000 thru the cooperative buying and selling of fertilizer, seed, farm'products, and livestock. Cooperative shipments of over 20 cars of hogs were made from a few centers.

CORN AND COTTON
The corn crop was cut very short by a severe drought, extending from May until July.
The dry weather of early summer retarded the depredations of the boll weevil, and a fairly good yield of short staple cotton was produced. Demonstrations in Santa Rosa and Washington counties show an increase of 800 pounds of seed cotton per acre over ordinary methods of culture under boll weevil conditions.







Florida cooperative Extension


PEANUTS
This is one of the most important crops grown in this district, both as a cash crop and for the economical production of livestock. Before the planting season a systematic campaign was put on to increase the acreage. At the same time the county agent was encouraging the planting of peanuts he was endeavoring to secure a sufficient acreage in each community to warrant the purchase of a picker. The result of this campaign was an increase of approximately 60,000 acres of peanuts, having a
-market value of $285,000, also the establishment of two oil mills.
The production of peanuts as a market crop was a new venture to farmers in a large portion of the territory, and naturally some disappointments resulted, but as a whole the crop has been profitable. Especially is this true where instructions regarding the planting, cultivation and harvesting of the crop were closely followed.
FEED AND FORAGE
Looking to the development of the livestock industry in this district, special interest was taken in the increased production of feed and forage, velvet beans and cowpeas taking the lead in legume I crops. The planting of sorghum for syrup and forage was materially increased. A campaign for increased cover crops of oats and rye to be used as winter pasture met with good results.
IRISH POTATOES
In Jackson, Washington, Holmes, Walton and Escambia counties, valuable assistance was rendered growers in caring for and marketing of this crop. In most of these counties the commercial growing of Irish potatoes was a new venture, and while the low market nearly brought disaster to the grower, it was demonstrated that under normal conditions the crop in this section would prove profitable.

BEEF CATTLE
Increased interest is being taken in the production of beef cattle. Large numbers of range cattle are being fed out in velvet bean pastures, and several car loads of good grade and full blood cattle have been brought in from Texas, and placed







Annual Report, 1918


on farms, There has been an increasing demand for high grade and full blood bulls thruout the entire district.

DAIRY CATTLE
Interest in dairy cattle is increasing rapidly in some counties. Leon county takes the lead in this direction;. 96 farmers are now supplying a milk depot with milk. Approximately 200 underground silos were put in this year, making a total of 350 for the county.
The dairy cattle are being rapidly improved by the use of good bulls. The county agent has been active in assisting the dairymen, and largely due to his influence the price of milk has been raised from 25 to 321/2 cents per gallon, f. o. b. the station. Madison and Jefferson counties are also making good progress in dairying.
HOGS
By far the most rapid development in livestock has been made in the production of hogs, both in numbers and quality, and also in sanitation and care of the herd. The county agents are directly responsible for the'placing of over 1000 head of registered hogs on farms in the district. They have assisted in the establishment of over 800 hog pastures and are constantly being called upon by farmers for advice regarding the planting of rotation crops for grazing purposes.
A number of breeding herds of the leading breeds have been established and it is now possible for farmers to purchase animals of excellent quality at nearby points.

HOG CHOLERA
A great service has been rendered the hog raisers by the agents thru their efforts to control hog cholera by the proper use of serum and virus. Immunization of herds is now the rule and not the exception. In some counties the agents have been greatly relieved of this work by men working under the direction of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. But in other counties this work still takes up a large portion of the agents' time, over 30,000 head having been treated by them. It is estimated that less than one fourth the usual number of hogs have died of cholera this year. Some counties have made appropriations for the purchase of serum to be supplied in limited quantities to
4






Florida Cooperative Extension


"farmers, free of charge. , Taylor county appropriated $3000 anc LaFayette county $1000 for this purpose; others lesser amounts,

DIPPING VATS
Tick eradication having been almost entirely taken over by the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the agents have been relieved of this work in many counties. However, assistance has been rendered whenever needed, and in some instances the county agent has supervised the construction of vats and dipping of cattle.

IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY
Owing to the shortage of labor on farms, a splendid opportunity was offered to encourage the use of improved farm machinery and labor saving devices. Proof of the fact that the county agent did not neglect this opportunity is a record from seven counties of the purchase of over 60 farm tractors and a large amount of improved machinery, and also the stumping of 5775 acres of land.
FAIRS
Several community and county fairs were called off on account of the epidemic of influenza. Assistance was rendered by the county and district agent at the Escambia county fair; at the West Florida fair, held in Marianna, and the state fair in Jacksonville. Small farm exhibits were made at several club contests. Prospects are for a largo number of community and county fairs next year.
County exhibits from LaFayette, Madison, Leon, Gadsden, and Escambia were shown at the state fair in Jacksonville.







Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
H. S. McLENDON,
District Agent.

INCREASE IN STAPLE CROPS
The work in the district of South Florida has had unusual cooperation and support during the past year.
There was a continuous campaign for the production of more staple crops and livestock. The effect of this campaign has resulted in a greater supply of meat, corn, potatoes, feeds, and forage, on many farms where these products were formerly purchased.
An effort was made to reach every farmer in each county, either by farmers' meetings in the community,. or personal visits to the farms by the county agent.

CATTLE AND HOGS
In Manatee and Orange counties, a campaign was started for more dairy cows on the farm. In Orange county the agent worked up the interest with the view of procuring a milk depot, so that the milk could be shipped in bulk during the summer months when local demand was light. Several cars of fine dairy cattle were shipped into this county during the year, and a few silos erected. Others plan to build silos when the cost of labor and material.get back to normal. Broward and Palm Beach counties are showing more interest in the dairy work. Silos are being erected and registered cattle of the Jersey, Guernsey, and Holstein-Friesian breeds are being introduced. I The interest in improved beef cattle was shown in several southern counties by the introduction of pure bred and grade beef cattle. Several large tracts of land have been fenced for pastures, also an increased acreage of land planted to forage crops for winter feeding.
There was also an increased hog production in most every county. Several car loads have. been shipped tomarket., The, agents are still active in the control of hog cholera, altho much







Florida Cooperative Extension


of the vaccination work has been taken over by the Live Stock Sanitary Board.
CORN AND FORAGE
There was an increased acreage of corn in all counties, but it was particularly noticeable in Lee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade, Manatee, and Orange counties. These counties had grown comparatively little corn or forage in the past. More cow peas, velvet beans, and beggarweed were planted for soil improvement, a good part of which was grown in the winter truck growing lands.'

PEANUTS
While there was no large commercial acreage. of peanuts planted in south Florida, there was an increased acreage in each county. Most of the crop was harvested by hogs. Some large fields were planted on the Everglade lands with good results.

SUGAR CANE AND SORGHUM
There was an increased acreage of sugar cane in this district., A good portion of this has been saved for seed, and the rest made into syrup.
Sorghum for syrup making was 'planted in several counties. This cane was ready to be made up in the late summer long before the sugar cane was mature.

CITRUS DEMONSTRATIONS
The spraying of citrus groves has received considerable attention from a few county agents in the most important citrus sections. During the season of 1918 severe infestations of scale and whitefly were particularly noticeable. Thru the assistance of workers of the Experiment Station the county agents have been able to direct the spraying of several groves, with good results.
Many groves coming under the supervision of county agents were affected severely with withertip. This required additional pruning and spraying.

TRUCK DEMONSTRATIONS
The county agents have rendered valuable service in the control of truck diseases and insects. The cooperation of w orkers of







Annual Report, 1918 53

the Experiment Station was helpful'in handling these'troubles, and the demonstration work in the trucking areas has largely been confined to this kind of work.
In areas where large quantities of fertilizers are used the farmers submitted many. samples of fertilizer to the county agents to be transmitted to the State Chemist for analysis. Many of these samples proved to be below the guaranteed analysis in one or more elements, and much information has been gained by the growers as to the fertilizer they were using. As the state law provides for a 'rebate to the farmer where the analysis is lower than the guarantee, the farmers were able to collect for the shortage.

ORGANIZATION
The county agents have met with some success in organization work. The general plan was to have five or more organizations in a county, with the county commissioner from each district as leader. This commissioner either acts as chairman or appoints a farmer in his district to act, thus providing for a leader in each of the commissioners"districts, to whom the county agents could submit plans and could discuss the needs of any community and of the county. Had it not been for these organizations,, the amount of war work and the production of food stuffs made would have been impossible. They cooperated with other organizations working for a similar purpose.

COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS TO SUPPORT WORK
The increased cost of living and expenses required to carry on the work made it necessary to secure increased. appropriation from the counties. In practically all counties the increase was provided for by the commissioners when the year's budget was made up.
. The appropriations for 1917-1918 for fifteen counties in which We had the work was $17,450, making the average something more than $1,100 Iier county. For 1918-1919, the appropriations for seventeen counties was $25,000, making the average something more than $1,450 per county. , Okeechobee and Pinellas counties were added to the cooperating list during the year, thus giving the work to every county in the district with the exception of Monroe. There is very little agriculture in this county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT

P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.


The objects of the boys' agricultural clubs were defined by club agents from southern states at their meeting in Knoxville, Tenn., December 9-14, 1918, as follows:

"To improve farm practices by instructing boys in correct agricultural methods."
"To furnish an extensively organized means of effecting permanent improvement in agriculture and rural life."
"To put into practice the facts of scientific agriculture obtained from books, bulletins, etc."
"To assist in the development of the spirit of cooperation in the family and in the community."
"To dignify and magnify the vocation of the farmer by demonstrating that labor intelligently applied to farming brings satisfactory returns."
"To enlarge the vision of the boy and to give him definite purposes at an important period of his life."
"To furnish the rural schools and teachers object lessons which may be used to help them in teaching agriculture."
"To make rural life more attractive by providing organization which tends to diminish isolation and develop leadership."


FIG. 8.-Walton county club boy preparing -to plant






Annual Report, 1918


We give these definitions as they express so well the objects for which the boys' club agents in Florida are working.
While the country was going thru the trials of the past year, we turned aside from our previously adopted plans of club work to do everything possible for immediate production of the crops. in greatest demand.












FIG. 9.-Club boy's acre, yielding 78 bushels of corn

Many of the older club boys enlisted in the army or navy or engaged in ship construction work. This made it necessary for the younger boys to take their places on the farms.
Even with these interruptions, more real club work has been accomplished than during the previous year, altho the actual reports fail to show this. The lack of complete reports is largely due to the fact that the county agents had so many urgent duties it was impossible to assist the boys as much as usual in making out and collecting the reports. Another condition that made it very difficult to secure complete reports was the epidemic of influenza which made it necessary to postpone all meetings for a few weeks, and some were omitted entirely. The county contests were planned and dates fixed for them to be held thruout the State. Then the boys themselves, having worked so much harder as farm hands, found it inconvenient to keep all notes necessary on their demonstration plots. Thus our efforts were directed more to answer the needs of the country than to collect innumerable data for this report.
The organization consisted of 3,276 members, divided as follows: corn club 1,333; peanut club 333; pig club 1,496; and miscellaneous (cotton, potato, calf, etc.) 114. The following table WW, how how-these clubs are represented in counties.







Florida Cooperative Extension

ENROLLMENT OF CLUB BOYS IN 1918


County
C
Alachua . 46 Baker 43
Bay 4
Bradford . 18 Brevard . 6
Broward . Calhoun . 19 Citrus 4
Clay 59
Columbia . Dade 2
DeSoto . 18 Duval 25
Escambia . 24 Flagler . 12


Gadsden
Hamilto Hernand Hillsbor Holmes Jackson
Jeffersoj LaFayet Lake Lee
Leon Levy Liberty Madison Manatee Marion Monroe Nassau Okaloos Okeecho Orange
Osceola Palm B Pasco
Pinellas Polk Putnam Santa I Seminol Sumter Suwann St. John St. Luci Taylor Volusia Wakull Walton Washing
Tot


0) 0
P4 -E-4


l5




1
1

2 10


62 19 16 50

13
6
30
33
46 41 50
4


4
1
1

7
3
3
1


1


. 6 1 . 7
n . 21 1 10 . 32
to . 34 1 15 45 95
o. 66 1 6 1 74
. . 93 61 45 . 199,
. 82 21 109 1 213
n . 6 .6 tte .22 . 22
20 3 15 . 38
4 1 30 4 39
6 48 . . 54
45 3 8 56
. 27 3 13 1 44
. 53 32 97 --------------182
. 44 46 56 .146
. 54 37 93 7 191

. 41 9 3 53
a . 18 14 13 . 45
bee . . . 29 1 24 2 56
. 6 . 20 2 28
each . 42 24 11 77
1 63 1 65

50 4 27 5 86
. 40 39 1 80
osa . 33 10 26 7 76
e . 1 2 3
. 64 1 78 8 151
ee . 15 13 63 . 91
s .28 65 . 93
ie . 1 . 37 . 38 . .16 7 20 43


20 35 gton 52


18
1
1


al .1 1333 333 1496 [ 114 1 3276






Annual Report, 1918


CORN CLUBS
In some respects 1918 was not a favorable season for a big corn crop. The total production for the State was 14,080,000 bushels, and the yield per acre 16 bushels. The average market price of corn November 1 was $1.43, making this the most valuable crop produced in 1918 in spite of the low yield per acre.
In checking over the reports collected from 316 boys, it was found that they grew 11,899.5 bushels of corn, or an average of 37.7 bushels per acre, at an average cost of 50 cents a bushel.
With a yield of 37.7 bushels per acre costing 50 cents a bushel, the 316 acres were produced at an average cost of $18.85 each. The value of the corn at $1.43 a bushel was $49.01, leaving a profit of $30.16 per acre.
The boys from Holmes county sent in 45 reports on their corn demonstrations, making their county stand at the head of the list as far as reports were concerned. Nineteen boys of the Nassau club grew an average of 62.1 bushels each. The Hillsboro and Hernando county boys also maintained good clubs.
An unusual occurrence has arisen in our corn club work. The history of the corn club work in the southern states has been that the boys who produced a phenomenal yield would feel too certain of the same results the next year and fall down. At least for some reason those making record yields generally fail to "come back" a second time, and this condition has not been entirely different in Florida. During the past four years, nine yields have gone over the 100 bushel mark, and with one exception no one has been able to do it more than once. In this


FIG. 10-10-ear exhibit from 115 bu. yield, 1918









58 Florida Cooperative Extension


exception it is the third consecutive year that one club member
has grown more than 100 bushels per acre.,

.This demonstration was conducted on the muck land of the

Oklawaha river bottom in the eastern part of Marion county
by Lawton Martin. His yield in 1918 was 115 bushels, grown at
a cost of 12 cents per bushel when based on the charges for
labor that were used by all club members.

The following table of 316 reports collected from the boys
are arranged in order of the number of reports from each county.
When two counties have the same number. of reports, the one
having the higher average yield per acre is placed first.


SUMMARY OF 316 CORN CLUB REPORTS




o '0 0,. 0
County 0. .




Holmes 45 1176.5 26.1 .68 60.3 .34
Hillsboro. 35 1078.5 38.1 .46 76.2 .17.
Hei'nando . . . 24 883.2 26.8 .32 56.0 .43
Polk 20 820.3 41.1 .45 79.5 .22
Nassau 19 1180.3 62.1 .56 90.0 .39
'Santa Rosa.19 585.8 30.8 .64 50.8 .60
Baker 17 638.4 37.6 .54 78.0 .22
Madi son 15 721.1 48.0 .32 68.3 .23
Alachua 14 553.4 39.5 .46 75.1 .40
Orange 11 331.1 30.1 .63 39.7 .77
Hamilton. 9 436.6 48.5 .47 80.0 .21
Marion 9 433.6 48.3 .32 115.0 .12
Washington. 9 235.5 32.8 .55 50.0 .38
Walton 9 286.3 31.8 .62 60.8 .27
Duval 8 276.2 34.5 .61 54.8 .39
Lake 7 357.3 51.0 .43 64.5 .35
Putnam 7 306.1 43.7 .37 84.0 .21
Okaloosa. 7 222.5 31.7 .75 53.0 .18
Desoto 6 178.0 29.7 .70 38.5 .21
Jefferson. 6 162.8 27.1 .42 57.0 .30
St. Johns . 5 227.3 45.5 .36 64.0 .43
Sumter 4 232.7 56.3 .28 74.3 .25
Manate. 3 109.7 36.7 .63 .43.0 .25
Levy 2 106.0 53.0 .21 88.0 .26
Escambia . 2 77.5 38.8 .41 43.0 .33
Calhoun 1 76.8 76.8 .31 76.8 .31
Flagler 1 70.0 73.0 .37 70.0 .37
Osceola 1 61.0 61.0 .29 61.0 .29
Wakulla. 1 15.0 15.0 .25 15.0 .25
Total. 316 I 11899.5 37.7 1---.50 60.3 1 .31


PEANUT CLUBS

The peanut clubs have made good progress and many boys
find this to be the most profitable crop they can raise. There
were 333 who Conducted demonstrations in growing peanuts.
Each demonstration was one acre in-size and they were well
distributed over the State.







Annual Report, 1918 59

Some of the boys harvested their crops and sold them as seed
or to the oil mills. Others used the peanuts and hay as feed.
John Bernath of Santa Rosa county grew.111 bushels of peanuts on one acre. This is perhaps one of the best yields made by any club member. His report was signed by two witnesses andis given as follows:
"The acre on which I grew my peanuts is dark soil about 7 inches deep with yellow, sandy subsoil. It has been in cultivation three years and last year produced a crop of corn and'velvet beans. I broke. it 6 inches deep with a one-horse plow on February 24. It was then harrowed Yell and left in-,good condition. May 11 1 laid off rows 31/ feet wide and dropped peanutsby hand 18 inches apart in the drill. They were covered with a cultivator and -in a few days came up a medium stand. Before planting I applied 500 pounds of lime and 200 pounds of acid phosphate. Then when the peanuts were a few inches high another application of 200 pounds acid phosphate was given.
,"I cultivated 4 times with a scrape and harrow. The yield was Ill bushels,.while the average yield in this community with usual methods of cultivation is about 30 bushels per acre. I used the Virginia running. variety.
I "The county agent came to see me three times this year and this is xny second year as a club member. I have learned that a thoro preparation is necessary 'for a good crop.
"I sold 100 bushels of peanuts, which leaves me 11 bushels. I have bought War Savings Stamps with all the profits realized from my peanut crop.
EXPENSES
4%ent of land $ 5.00
Preparation of seed bed and planting 2.10
Seed 2.60
Fertilizer . 7.70
Cultivation 1.40
G athering . . 3.70
T otal cost . . . $22.50 Net cost per bushel .20

RECEIPTS
"Number of bushels
Number of pounds of hay 3,000
Value of nuts $293.04
Value of hay at market price . 48.00
Net profit 318.54".

PIG CLUBS

The pig clubs have grown to be the largest branch of the
agricultural clubs. There are now 1,496 active members and
about 1,000 of these were enrolled during 1918. Those who
entered before this year now have mature sows and have raised
several litters, selling them to club boys and farmers for breeding stock. Many of these boys have made large profits on-their
investments within fifteen months after beginning.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The banks thruout the State have been liberal in loaning money to boys on very easy terms. This has made it possible for many to enter the pig club who could not otherwise have done so.





Vv













FIG. 11-Bradford county agent and banker delivering gilts to pig club boys

Many bankers have expressed their appreciation of the prompt and business-like methods the boys have adopted in paying these accounts when due. As long as the club members keep up this good record, it will be possible to increase the size of the club and to continue purchasing stock of the best breeding.
The Bradford county boys have done excellent work and have kept splendid records. The business men and other citizens of the county speak well of the county agent, C. D. Gunn, who was able to furnish definite information at any time of the year as to the progress of the pig club and the development of the animals. Sixteen boys in this county raised purebred pigs. The average weight of the pigs at the beginning of the contest was 38 pounds and 167 pounds at the close, making an average net gain of 129 pounds. These pigs were fed an average of 151 days, gaining .86 pounds a day at a cost of 4.8 cents a pound.
The following table gives some interesting figures on the work done by five of the most successful pig club members in Bradford county.





4-


P.
4- 0 w ho


45 295 250 1 144 '." ' * _" 40 1719 139 144 1.00 .023 26 167 141 120 85 .032
43 186 143 1 144 1*00 .043 41 191 150, 144 1.04 .0 55


1H
0


W
P .5 4- Cd W U
0
U $ .051 .05

.07 .073


6.60 $ .32 1.32 $ .064


Thurston Raines . Minnie Thomas . 7"
-Cora Hicks
Albert Glass, Dorris Young .


I


Annual Report, 1918

FIVE BRADFORD COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS


Carrie Lee Green . Ben Roebuck Reuben Shaw Richard Harris . Clarence Rhoden - .
Total
Average ------------------


195 1018 1 823 39 203.6 1 164.6


696 5.63 $ .173 139.2 1.13 .035


Madison county has about the strongest pig club in the State. The boys'have kept excellent records of the work. They became interested from observing the records kept on some of the best animals.
Much credit is due C. E. Matthews, the county agent, for this excellent record. At the contest held in Madison last November, there were 50 pigs on exhibit. At the beginning of the feeding period the pigs weighed an average of 25.7 pounds each. They were fed 184 -days, and on the day of the contest weighed an ,average of 200.3 pounds, making a total'gain of 170.7 pounds each, or an average of .95 pounds a day. The records showed that it costs only 6 cents a pound for the feed to produce these gains.
Following isa summary of the reports of five most successful pig club members in Madison county.

FIVE MADISON COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS


1.33 1.29
1.41 1.32 1.31


Total 132


1355 1 1223


917


. A verage . 1 26.4


271 1 244.6 1 - 183.4







Florida Cooperative Extension


COUNTY CONTESTS
A series of county contests were held thruout the State at the close, of the year's work. Every boy competing prepared exhibits of the crops he grew, and submitted his record. Each pig club boy exhibited his pig, and a record of the cost of the pig, feed, weights and gains. All products were judged and the records graded by committees.

SHORT COURSE
The third annual short course in agriculture for boys was held at the University December 9 to 14. There were 83 of the most successful club members in attendance, and more spirit and team work displayed than ever before. No part of the club work is more helpful to the boys than the short course. The instructors in the College of Agriculture took a great interest in giving the boys a good and interesting course in agriculture. It was valuable experience for the boys to get together and talk over what each one has accomplished. They return home with instruction and determination that will enable them to do better club work next year.
Several hikes were taken during the week, visiting the peanut mill near Gainesville, the livestock and dairy barns, and going over the Experiment Station grounds, and other places of interest.
THE ANNUAL. BANQUET
At the close of the short course a banquet was held for the club boys. The boy scouts of Gainesville and instructors who assisted with the short course were also invited.
Every club member at the banquet was presented with a certificate of honor and merit for the club work he had accomplished.
WINNERS OF STATE PRIZES
The state prizes were awarded at the banquet. In 1918 Lawton Martin of Marion county won the first prize in the corn clubs, which was a purebred Shorthorn bull, donated by the American Shorthorn Breeders' Association. Harold Link of Orange county won second prize, a $200 scholarship to the College of Agriculture, which was donated by the Florida Bankers' Association. Richard McGrath of Putnam county won third prize, which was a purebred Shortborn bull donated by Mr. 0. E. Cobb of Boyds, Ala. Jesse Driggers of Hillsboro county won the fourth prize,







Annual Report, 1918, 63

which was $50 donated by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs.
WORK OF ASSISTANT CLUB AGENTS
E. M. Manning, assistant emergency boys' club agent, answered the call of the Country September 1 and R. W. Blacklock, former Marion county agent, was appointed his successor.
An agreement was made with the Bureau of Animal Industry to pay the salary of an assistant boys' club agent to work especially in the production of swine, the Extension Division of the University to pay other expenses. L. R. llighfill, principal of the Largo agricultural high school, was appointed to this position the first of July.
Messrs. Blacklock and Highfill were familiar with the methods of conducting boys' clubs and the art of handling boys at the time the appointments were made. Their time is devoted principally to field work, and in order to avoid much travel at the expense of the actual work accomplished, Mr. Blacklock works principally in north and west Florida while Mr. Highfill devotes his time principally to central and south Florida.

BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY ALACHUA COUNTY
Name Address Age
Clarence Maddox Micanopy 16
Marshall Maddox Micanopy 14
fames Fraser Newberry 15
Ubert Shaw Gainesville 16
,mil Solmi Alachua 13
Ulbert Saarinen Alachua 11
Nalter Saarinen Alachua 14
?eter Leivonen Alachua 15
BAKER COUNTY
Ulphin Crews Lake Butler 17
Waldo Rowe Macclenny 16
Henry Stone Sapp 13
BRADFORD COUNTY
Reuben Shaw Brooker 14
Bennie Roebuck Theressa 12
Albert Griffis Starke 13
George Conley Starke 16
Harry Canova Starke 17
BROWARD COUNTY
Edward P. Harry Pompano 15
CALHOUN COUNTY
Julius Davis Blountstown 12







64 Florida Cooperative Extension

CLAY COUNTY
Name Addres8 Age
Gunnar Gustafson Green Cove Springs 15
Willie Guy Hall West, Tocoi 12
DESOTO COUNTY
Leonard Smith Moore Haven 15
Arthur Davis Bowling Green 13
DUVAL COUNTY
Willis Pickett Jacksonville 16
Gervin Pringle Baldwin 13
ESCAMBIA COUNTY
J. E. Haynes, Jr. Pensacola 13
FLAGLER COUNTY
Homer Hansen Espanola 13
HAMILTON COUNTY
David Smith Jennings 13
Roy DeVane Jennings 18

HILLSBORO COUNTY
Powers Taylor Plant City 11
C. H. Taylor Plant City 14
Morris Young Plant City 12
Luther Webb Plant City 14
Glenn Miley Plant City 15
Thos. Ellerbe Wimauma 14
Jesse Driggers Wimauma 18
Poly Barron Plant City 15
Jesse Barker Lakeland 14

HOLMES COUNTY
Walter Smith Esto 15
Doyal Murphy Ponce DeLeon 15
JEFFERSON COUNTY
Willard Owens .Monticello 15
LAKE COUNTY
Buren Crenshaw Lisbon 13
Harold Gwaltney Lisbon 12
Leroy Bethea Montverde 13
LEE COUNTY
Dan English Alva 17
LEVY COUNTY
Harry McElveen _Ellzey 12
MADISON COUNTY
Theo. Glass Lee 11
Orvin McCullough Lee 18
Thurston Raines Madison 18
Kinsey Gayle Greenville 16
MANATEE COUNTY
,Shelton Downing Parrish 16
-Rollo Downing Parrish 15








Annual Report, 1918 65

MARION COUNTY
Name Address Age
Albert Zetrouer . Micanopy 17
Mabrey Neil . Ocala 13
Vernon Neil . Ocala 15
Lloyd Leverett Fairfield . 14
Win. M. Swilley . Lowell 17
Myron Rou . Lowell 16
Lawton Martin Electra 14
Elvert DeVore Reddick 12
Frederick Cullison Ocala 12
George Blowers Ocala 12
Allen Fouraker Baldwin 15
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
John P. Camp Okeechobee 14
ORANGE COUNTY
Harold Link Orlando 18
Causey Dann . Ocoee 13
OSCEOLA COUNTY
Curtis Yates -----------_ Kissimmee 18
PALM BEACH COUNTY
'Karl Erickson . Canal Point 15
Alton Morris Pahokee 16
Alfred Huskey, Jr . Pahokee 17 POLK COUNTY
Enoch Thomas . Auburndale 13
W . Olive Clark . Bartow 14
PUTNAM COUNTY
Leo Knighton . . East Palatka 13 Richard McGrath . Florahome 16
ST. JOHNS COUNTY
.obert Webb Moultrie 12
ST. LUCIE COUNTY
Thomas Dixon ------. Fellsmere 14
SEMINOLE COUNTY
Albert Hickson .Sanford 14
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
John Bernath -----. Mulat 14
Newman Clark . Milton 14
SUMTER COUNTY
Claud- W illiams . St. Catherine 14 William Hutto . Bushnell 17
SUWANNEE COUNTY
Ralph Baker O'Brien 12
Henry Dorsett Branford 13







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT.
FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SiR: I herewith submit the report of the assistant boys' club agent for North and West Flo6rida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
R. W. BLACKLOCK,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.

On September 1, 1918, 1 'was appointed assistant boys' club agent, and assigned to the North and West Florida territory, comprising twenty-four counties. In carrying on my work during the last four months of 1918, I traveled 3,862 miles by 'rail .or boat, 1,410 miles.,by auto and team.
The club work was well established in my district and 1,435 .members were enrolled in the clubs. Of these, 635 were in the corn club, 675 in the pig club and 125 in the peanut club. Many of the boys were enrolled in the three clubs and the larger percent of those in the pig club were in one of the crop clubs. Jackson county had the largest enrollment, with a total of 213 for all clubs. Holmes was second, with a total of 199 members.
The severe drought of July had injured the corn crop to a large degree and some of the acres which had promised most, yielded the least. Usually the prolific varieties yielded most on the richer soils, and the one or two-eared varieties did best on the poorer sandy types.
In the pig club work, much care had been given to the quality of breeding stock used, as nothing but registered animals were to be found in the boys' work. In some counties but one breed was used, which will do much toward producing uniform types for marketing in after years. Duroc Jerseys were more popular than all other breeds, while there were many fine Poland Chinas, Hampshires and Berkshires, with a few Tamworths. At that time the pigs were averaging around eight months of age and about 175 pounds in weight. The pigs receiving good care and attention were making gains of over one pound a day and it was noticeable that the pigs which had been given the run of a good pasture had produced the best gains and at the least expense.
In addition to the regular club work, several of the county-






Annual Report, 1918


agents organized a "Win the War Club", and many excellent reports were made by the boys and girls showing what they had done in helping to increase the amount of food raised. In


FiG. 12.-Club boy operating tractor plow


Okaloosa county, 202 boys and girls agreed to give one pig extra care to help increase the meat output of their county.

CONTESTS
The contests were usually held at the county seat and aroused much enthusiasm among the boys and girls and their parents. The attendance at these contests ran from 34 to 165, averaging 100 to each meeting.
CORN CLUBS
The epidemic of influenza caused many boys to fail to gather their crops in time to attend the contest, with the result that the number of boys reporting was low. The greatest number exhibiting in any county was in Holmes, where 45 boys displayed their ten ears of corn. In Baker county, 17 boys produced an average yield of 37.6 bushels at an average cost of 54 cents per bushel. In Hamilton county, nine boys produced an average yield of 48.5 bushels at an average cost of 47 cents per bushel. The highest yield was produced by Allen Fouraker of Baldwin, Nassau county, who raised 90 bushels on his acre at a cost of 39 cents per bushel.







Florida -Cooperative Extension


PIG CLUBS
Due to the unusual conditions, the pig club exhibits were small, but the animals exhibited were of excellent quality and showed what boys can do in swine management. In Madison county, 50 exceptionally fine hogs were shown, averaging around eight months of age and 200 pounds in weight. The largest percent were Durocs with some Poland Chinas and Berkshires. Four pigs averaging eight months and eighteen days in age, weighed 1,120 pounds, or an average of 280 pounds each.
Thurston Raines of Madison, fed a Duroc boar 188 days and produced a gain of 251 pounds or an average daily gain of 1.3 pounds. In Santa Rosa county a girl, Libbie Oglesby of Milton, fed a Duroc sow 150 days and secured an average daily gain of 1.3 pounds. Her sow Was fed no grain but was raised on the waste from the house, together with a good pasture.
PEANUT CLUBS
Influenza so delayed harvesting the peanut crop that very few .of the boys had picked the peanuts when the contests were held. The highest yield reported was made by John Bernath of Mulat, Santa Rosa county, who'produced 111 bushels on his acre.

EXHIBITS AT. FAIR
At the close of the contests the first of December, the corn club and pig club boys made exhibits at the state fair in Jacksonville. Eighty-five corn club boys from this district made exhibits and $163 was won in prizes. This money was used as scholarships to the boys' agricultural short course at the University.






Annual Report, 1918 , 69

REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT
FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I herewith submit report of assistant boys' club agent for Central and South Florida, for the year ending December 31, 1918.
L. R. HIGHFILL,
Assistant Boys' Club Agent.

This report covers activities for six months from July to Dec. 31, 1918. During this time I traveled in the discharge of my duties, by rail, 5,750 miles; by automobile, 2,888 miles. I held 14 meetings and spoke to 2,655 people. Of the six months, I spent 96 days in the field. The remainder of the time was spent iithe office or attending farmers' meetings on the campus. I have visited at their.homes, 390 corn and pig club boys. Thru my efforts, 200 purebred pigs have been located and recommended to county agents for their pig club boys. I have assisted 22 farriers in purchasing purebred hogs for breeding purposes. I have conferred with bankers and assisted county agents in securing money to finance 200 pig club boys.
Since it was late in the year to begin the organization of clubs much of my time was devoted to assisting clubs already organized. However, six new pig clubs were organized in counties where the work had not been taken up.
PIG CLUBS
It is much easier to carry on the pig club work- -lan that oI the corn club. In many communities of south Florida corn growing is rather difficult, because of the nature of the soil. These communities, however, are able to grow a. considerable quantity of grazing and root crops upon which to feed hogs. The average pig club boy takes advantage of the garbage from the home kitchen and other surplus feeds about the farm, and in this way he is able to grow his pig With a minimum expenditure for concentrates. The price of pigs bought this year ranged from $12.50 to $25 per head. The price of purebred swine has increased so rapidly within the past two or three years that it has been difficult in some cases to get the' boy whose father ha4 never grown purebred hogs, to invest -$25.in .ia good pig: However, this condition is being rapidly-bver&1me;aild:ihh iAny







Florida Cooperative Extension


instances the boy's 'father is disposing- of his scrub stock and preparing to :grow only' purebred 'hogs,' using the boy's pigs for the foundation herd. This result is eminently more to be desired than to have the boy sell all of the pigs raised from his pig club sow.
The average age of pig club boys is 14 years. The pig club membership is not limited to boys. Some of the best "pig club boys" in the State are "girls". An example is Carrie Lee Green, of Bradford county, who with her Duroc Jersey pig won first in all. her county contests, and took second prize at the state fair. -We like to encourage girls to enter the pig clubs.,
One of the most obvious difficulties to be overcome in the pig club work is that of getting more complete record books. Out of a total enrollment of over 1400 members in the pig clubs, only 151 complete. record books were turned in to the office of the state boys' club agent. More attention must be given to this very vital phase of the pig club work.
CORN CLUBS
Nine county corn club contests were held last fall in south Florida. The average attendance at each contest was 100. Particular mention should be made of the contest in Hernando county. Here.400 citizens of the county gathered for the day. One of Ithe finest displays of corn, peanuts, pigs, canned, goods and record books. that it has ever been my pleasure to witness was assembled at Brooksville, the county seat. Following the awarding of prizes, the visitors assembled in the court house and formed an appreciative audience for speakers from the Extension, Division of the University and the State College for Women.
IThe average yield of corn for club members in the State this year was 37.7 bushels per acre, grown at an average cost of 50 cents per bushel. This represents fairly well the work done in south Florida.
The peculiar varied soil that is so characteristic -of Florida is nowhere more pronounced than in that section of Florida from Bradford, Clay and St. Johns counties south. This condition forces special attention to corn, club -work., It means that the methods used in growing an acre of. corn must be suited to the particular, acre the boy is using. Frequently, boys, on adjoining farms will be- found ,using ,entirely different types of soil. IIt would be misleading, to recommend a plan of operation or a







Annual Report,, 1918


variety of corn for the entire; section. The success of -the corn club boy Will always lie in the -good judgment he uses in his operations.' More personal work on the -part of county agents and supervisors will be necessary to get the best results,
GRAZING CROPS
Club members are constantly urged to grow grazing crops. They are necessary to the pig club boy in 'order that he may produce pork at a profit in Florida. Many pig club boys are growing peanuts, chufas, oats, rape,. and other good grazing crops, and these boys arethe ones that are making good in a financial way. Grazing crops are a necessary part of the corn club boy's operation in the proper rotation of crops. Also in providing suitable cover crops and humus for replenishing the fertility of the soil, and building up his acre of land.
OTHER CROPS
Several corn club boys are making money from other crops, particularly peanuts, which they are growing on their.acre in connection with corn. They realize money by either selling these crops, as in the case of peanuts, or picking the peas where cowpeas are planted, and turning the vines back to the soil. Or. better still, the most progressive are buying pigs, feeding . the drops, and marketing them in the form of purebred hogsFAIRS
Two weeks were spent at the state fair, assisting with the. boys' club exhibits, principally in charge of the pig club class. Twenty pigs from Madison, Leon, Bradford, DeSoto, Santa Rosa, St. Johns and Duval counties . were exhibited. They comprised an exhibition of quality that was very commendable, and brought forth much flattering comment. I established an. improvised booth in the swine building, where 1, was able, to meet and discuss swine growing in Florida, with large numbers of interested people. It was. almost impossible to keep on hand a supply of literature on hog growing, so great was the call 1or, it.
The Florida state fair placed $816- in premium money. in 'the pig. club class.
No county, fairs have been held in my territory, with.the exception -of Marion and Alachua counties. Others will be held later in the winter. At- these fairs, suitable premiums.were offered for. all kinds of, club. work,. . In some cases the. -county agents were able to get special premiums to be awardedat t be






Florida Cooperative Extension


various county contests. A notable instance was that of - St. Johnscounty, where the business men of St. Augustine put up, enough money to supply valuable prizes for every club boy and, girl who-entered the county contest. Besides valuable jewelry and wearing apparel, two scholarships were awarded, one to the short course at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville, and one to the short course at the College for Women, Tallahassee.

SOUTHERN CONFERENCE
The week of October 14 to 19 was spent in Atlanta in a conference of swine extension men of the Southern States, called by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington. As the Southeastern fair was open at this time, available time outside of the conference was spent -at the fair.
Many important questions were brought up for discussion at the conference, and valuable suggestions for the conduction of the work were submitted. In the matter -of pig club work, it was the general opinion that more emphasis should be placed upon carrying a limited number of boys thru the year's work, all of them making good, rather than enroll a. large number, and, have many failures.
It was suggested that the swine extension men.and the pig club agents in the various states be privileged to work out plans and detailed instruction for the club members of their respective states. It was assumed that the man on the job would understand the conditions peculiar to his state.

PUREBRED SWINE
Frequently the question has been asked "How are the Florida farmers improving the quality of their hogs?"
Questionnaires were sent to county agents to get some relatively reliable gures on hog production. Twenty-seven agents reported. From these reports it appears that the average increase of purebred swine in those counties for 1918 over the number on hand 1917, is 58.547o. Twenty-three of the same reports gave the increase of scrub and grade hogs, covering the same period of time and the same area, at 167o. Hernando county, however, is excepted in this latter percentage. She reported a decrease of 507o in scruband grade hogs. It was found that the most substantial increase in purebred swine was reported from those counties that are doing the most consistent work in the pig club.






Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTP. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, and with it statistics of the work done by women and club girls for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Home Demonstration Agent.

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, the home demonstration staff was composed of a state agent, who spent six months out of the State; an assistant state agent; two district agents who were in charge of the field work; and two assistants, one of whom gave special attention to dairy work, and one to poultry. Each of these workers made a complete report of the scope of the work under her supervision. I especially commend these reports to your consideration as, in them, the progress of the home demonstration work in Florida is very clearly shown.
The work of food production withrural girls and women was continued as in past years, but greater emphasis was laid on conservation and preservation of food. The emergency appropriation enabled us to offer assistance more generally in all the counties, towns and; cities, and this was enthusiastically received.
Every effort was made by the home demonstration force to render the greatest possible service to the State and Nation during the period of the war.

URBAN WORK
When Congress made the emergency appropriation for the increased production of food crops, it was planned to offer to the women of towns and cities instruction on preparation, preservation and conservation of foods. Heretofore this instruction was planned chiefly for the women in rural homes.
A state supervisor of urban work was given charge of the work for Jacksonville. Urban workers were appointed for six months for Tampa, Miami, Key West and Pensacola. One parttime worker was employed for Tallahassee and Orlando, and one for Gainesville and Ocala.
Well equipped home demonstration centers were established







Florida Cooperative Extension


in six towns. These ki~eiswere the centers of- various home demonstration activities. In all of them regular meetings were held, and bulletins on all subjects pertaining to the home were kept on file for distribution.
Clubs among women were organized to undertake a definite study of foods. This included the Red Cross, dietetics classes. Food preparation, preservation by brining, drying, canning and preserving were taught -the regular organized clubs in the cities. Boys'-and girls' gardening clubs were organized in six towns. Chefs in aviation stations, ships, hotels and boarding houses were instructed in methods of preparing foods to meet food conservation plans.
Library exhibits were successfully: carried out. Assistance was given at fairs. The county home demonstration agents were assisted in holding short courses.- Grocers and other merchants selling foods -were urged to have window displays teaching food conservation and preparation. Home economics pages in newspapers* were edited, and recipes compiled for distribution in grocery stores. 'Assistance in adjusting the household budget to meet the constantly' advancing 'prices was given to those desiring such help. Experimental work was done and recipes developed for use in following food laws and suggestions.

EMERGENCY WORKERS
To meet the demand for food conservation in 13 counties not provided for, four group emergency agents were appointed to assist in directing conservation work. These agents cooperated with other organizations in the counties, dividing their time according to the needs and interest shown. By this arrangement Florida was able for the first time to have home demonstration work conducted in every county.
In order to speed Up conservation work, 18 temporary emergency agents were employed during the canning season for special canning work.
GIRLS' WORK
The district agents' reports include a description of the work done by the club. girls.
The following are the ten highest records made by the club girls of .the State:







Annual Report; 1918


NAME COUNTY YIELD PROFIT
POUNDS
Julia Holland Madison 7417 . $106.33
Anna Sykes Dade 6300 . 192.42
Nellie Johnson Gadsden 4857 . 142.34
Agnes Williams Citrus 3745 .---. 119.47
Selma Letzing Manatee 3629 . 75.88
Eloise Averit Gadsden 3253 . 58.91
Ellen Reeves Leon 3222 . * . 99.42
Ruth Blanton Madison 3167 . 81.26
Orilla Viers Hillsboro 3100 . 67.72
Ray Strickland Marion 2880 . 56.35
Some club members failed to make a profit because of weather conditions, but the majority of such members took it in as good spirit as did Mafire Johnson, who reported her "experience" as profit.
WOMEN'S WORK
The work for women has been divided as follows:
First; home demonstration clubs where sytematic food preparation, preservation and conservation are studied at regular monthly club meetings.
Second; general teaching of women by county agents at public gatherings of their clubs. Thru the distribution of bulletins and* other literature many thousand housekeepers of the State have been reached.
'Third; the poultry work with women is fully reported by Miss Floyd. The liberal response from the farm women is an index of its value. The results of this work may be summed up as follows: Increased production of poultry products; better poultry on farms; cooperative egg circles formed; $10,000 worth of eggs 'sold.
CANNING,
The statistics show that 1,377,185 cans and glass jars were filled by the women and girls this year. Tin cans were obtained under great difficulties., As a result, the number of glass jars filled increased from 52,000 during 1917 to,787,153 during 1918. The number of housekeepers who dried fruits and vegetables was greatly increased.
As the country girls and women had more of -the farm work to do than usual, and because! the cost of containers was high, many could can only for their home use. The town women and girls also became interested in food preservation, and they put up fruits and vegetables for home use. Therefore, instead of two thousand Women filling almost two million containers,. as they






Florida Cooperative Extension


did in 1917, about ten thousand women filled less than two million containers in 1918. This indicates very little canning for market, but a great deal for home use.
DRYING VEGETABLES
The success in drying certain vegetables, and the scarcity of containers for canning makes it necessary to undertake a campaign for drying vegetables.
The home demonstration staff have undertaken experimental work, and have visited successful drying and dehydrating plants in other states to study methods followed. Plans are now being made with a purpose of extending.the work of drying vegetables for home use, and to assist in the establishment of community dryers and dehydrating plants.
CANNING UNDER STEAM PRESSURE
Thecanning of vegetables, fish and meats under steam pressure is one of the important phases of the home demonstration work.
People who live or spend their summers each year where there is sea-food in abundance are able to preserve this for home use, by the use of the steam pressure outfits.
In sections where fresh meat is not always available, by-the use of the steam pressure outfits it is easily possible to can a quarter or even a whole beef, fresh pork or poultry, and keep it in good condition for several months.

WORK IN PREPARING GRAPE JUICE
The work in ,north and west Florida,, in teaching the preparation. of grape juice and vinegar described in Miss Layton's report, indicates that there are great possibilities for this work.

INFLUENZA
At the September meeting of the home demonstration agents, definite plans were made for contests and housekeepers' schools. On October 7, the first telegrams were received in the state office calling off a contest on account of influenza. From then until November 15 the epidemic was so serious in almost every county in the State that meetings of any kind were unwise, and in most places prohibited. This interfered with the completion of the year's records. Instead of the usual contests, in many counties the exhibits were brought in by the club members, to be judged and made known at a later date.
The home demonstration agents, accustomed to take a leading






. Annual Report, 1918


-part in all war work, considered it their duty to take a leading part in ministering to the sick. The work done varied with the needs. The urban agents met the need in the cities by establishing and managing soup kitchens, where custards and soups were supplied to all who applied. In Miami the aviation camp was in distress and the urban agent worked during the entire epidemic in an emergencylospital. With the assistance of.the soldiers she prepared the food for 160 men.
HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS IN WAR WORK
During the entire period of war, Florida's home demonstration agents were active in war work. They acted as chauffeurs for war workers; carried speakers out into the country; urged the people to attend the meetings; carried Red Cross material to country women's units;. organized Red Cross chapters in the rural sections, and in every patriotic campaign have taken an active part. The women and girls working under their leadership have made Red Cross garments for Belgian and French babies; clothing for the Florida Children's Home; bought Liberty Bonds; sent boxes of jellies, jams and preserves to Florida convalescents at the base hospitals, and adopted French war orphans.
EMERGENCY COTTAGE CHEESE CAMPAIGN
The Department of Agriculture put on a nation-wide cam-paign of instruction in making cottage cheese from the surplus .skimmed milk.
One of our workers was given two weeks' instruction in the ,making of cottage cheese before taking up the work. She visited 15 counties, 48 towns, and gave 43 demonstrations with a total attendance of 887 people. As a result of her work 153 women were taught to make and use cottage cheese, and 1510 pounds of this product were made.
WORK WITH NEGRO WOMEN
Home demonstration agents have been teaching negro women the proper methods of canning, and these women have in turn taught their neighbors. Two, county home demonstration agents equipped canning sheds in their yards and allowed the negroes to come and use their canners, under the agent's supervision. After the emergency appropriation became available, 15 negro home demonstration agents were employed to teach canning and food conservation to negro women and girls.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The following is a summary report of the work which wa accomplished in the 15 counties under. the supervision of thesc women: Adult workers, 356; club members, 1273; total enrollment, 1629; tin cans filled, 55,500; glass jars filled, 38,100; total containers filled, 94,600; number clubs organized,, 140; number canners bought, 417.
Excellent work was done in various other lines such as soap making, renovation of clothing and improving sanitary conditions of the home.
The home demonstration' agents act in an advisory capacity and give careful -study and assistance to the negro women's work. The Agricultural and Mechanical College for negroes, Tallahassee, is headquarters for all negro home demonstration activities.
COUNTY SHORT, COURSES FOR GIRLS
Thirty-three short courses were held, with an attendance of 690.
The county short course is usually held in the county site. A r.-presentative from each club in'the county is sent to the short course, and she carries back to the club members in her neighborhood new inspiration and information. The number of clubs in the most prosperous counties vary from 19 to 25. In some counties short, courses were open to all girls, as in Washington county, where the attendance was 100.
The teachers for short courses are the supervising agents of extension work, who carry out a well planned course. The girls in attendance are usually entertained by the leading women of the town, resulting in a delightful cooperation between ourcountry girls and the town women.

COUNTY SHORT COURSES FOR WOMEN
Housekeepers' schools or short courses for women were given in 29 towns and cities in south Florida, with an average attendance of 110 women.

SUMMER SCHOOL
The Legislature of 1917 made an appropriation of $500 per year for conducting a home economics summer school, planned primarily for the home demonstration, agents.' Because of the training offered in the'summer schools, it is possible to employ trained women for 'county work;' which otherwise would be impossible.






Annual Report, 1918


GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The short course for girls was held during June, 1918. Fortytwo girls from 26 counties attended. The course consisted of a series of lessons in poultry raising; the use and care of milk in the home; home sanitation; home nursing; preservation, preparation and serving of foods; and in home management. The lessons were arranged to give a broader vision and useful information on practical phases of home making.

j"s

OL


th"



-40







FIG. 13.-Luncheon served to Hillsboro county school board by canning club girls during the short course
Many of the students of these short courses have taken a leading part in teaching food preservation and conservation around their homes. A number of them are now in attendance at the Florida State College for Women.
SHORT COURSE FOR WOMEN
A short course for housekeepers was held at the time of the annual home economics summer school, so that those in attendance could get the benefit of lectures by specialists from the Department of Agriculture.
During the period between the summer and fall sessions a second short course was offered to the women of the State, and was supported by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. The Extension Staff of the College and specialists of the Department of Agriculture, provided the teaching staff. , I



















00



o 02


FIG. 14.-War college attendance, State College for Women






Annual Report, 1918


WAR COLLEGE
In the fall of 1918 the Florida State College for Women invited the women of the State to hold a war college during the annual meeting of the home demonstration agents. Thru the cooperation of the food administration the conservation chairman of every county attended. The presidents and several members of thirteen women's organizations in the State attended, making a total attendance of 250.
The first week was given to lectures and demonstrations; the second week to daily conferences. In this way the agents and conservation chairmen gained a clearer understanding of the work they needed to do.
The war college brought the leaders of the Florida women's organizations in closer touch with the work of the home demonstration agents, placing them in a position to estimate its value to the State and to give helpful suggestions and increased cooperation.
STATE FAIR
Many of the county booths contained excellent home demonstration exhibits. In the state home demonstration booth the amount that could be -entered by any one county was limited to three dozen glass and two dozen tin containers. Thirteen counties sent complete exhibits. Eight club girls, five women's clubs and several women displayed special exhibits made up of pickles, jellies, dried products, preserves and marmalades, and seventeen pounds of butter. The awards were as follows: For county exhibits of girls" work, the first prize was won by Jefferson county, second by Washington, and third by Madison county. In the exhibits from women's clubs the Florahome Club, Putnam county, took first prize; Bradentown club, Manatee county, seeond; and the Manatee club, Manatee county, third.

INDIVIDUAL WOMEN'S EXHIBITS
First, jellies, preserves, etc . . Mrs. VanDer Grift, St. Johns county. First, pickles Mrs. Sipprell, Putnam county.
Second, pickles Mrs. Hartsfield, Lee county.
First, jelly .-Mrs. J. M. Barfield, Dade countyFirst, citrus .Mrs. Nellie Bush, Dade county.
First, butter Mrs. Oster, Putnam county.
Second, butter Mrs. Hawkins, Duval county.






Florida Cooperative Extension


INDIVIDUAL GIRLS' EXHIBITS
First, grape Katie Bradfish, St. Johns county.
Second, grape Eugenia Ponce, Duval county.
First, citrus Luna Stewart, DeSoto county.
First, jelly Doloris Allums, Jefferson county.
Second, jelly Eugenia Ponce, Duval county.
First, fig Doloris Allums, Jefferson county.
First, dried products Goldie Helms, Washington county.
First, pickles Goldie Helms, Washington county.



















FIG. 15.-Home demonstration exhibit at state fair
Members of the home demonstration staff gave daily demonstrations on the following subjects:. Food preparation, food study, cheese and butter making, canning in tin, canning in glass, and the use of the steam pressure.

POULTRY EXHIBITS
Poultry work is described by Miss Floyd as follows:
"The state fair association created a department in the poultry division for the girls' and boys' poultry clubs, under direction of the poultry specialist of the state home demonstration work. No entry fees were charged.
"Exhibitors were required to furnish their record books, essays, and an exhibit consisting of one cockerel and two pullets. The competition was between counties for a county prize. Each county competing was required to furnish at least five exhibits of trios. Competition between members of the same county was for ribbons only. Each bird of merit was awarded a ribbon.







Annual Report, 1918 83

"Baker, Duval, St. Johns, Hernando, DeSoto, and Hillsboro
counties sent 34 exhibits, a total of 106 birds. Baker county
girls and boys won the first county prize, $25; Hernando county
the second, $15. These cash prizes were given with the understanding that they would be invested under the supervision of
the poultry specialist and county home demonstration agents.
"In addition to the county prizes the fair association offered
two bronze medals to the girl and the boy making the highest
individual record, the record book, essay and exhibit each counting in the score. Marie Bradfish of St. Johns county won the
girls' medal. She set 170 eggs, raised 152 chickens, which had a value (with their eggs) of $264.24. The cost of raising these. chickens was $56.95, making. a profit of $207.29,
"Lloyd Townsend of Baker county won the boys' medal. ITe raised 83 chickens, valued at $116.15, produced at a cost of $47.64, making a profit of $68.51."


STATISTICAL REPORT
Counties in, the District 54
Counties cooperating financially 41
Well furnished offices 37
Home demonstration kitchens 50
Agents owning or being furnished cars 42
Agents owning horse and buggy 1
Counties making appropriation for home demonstration materials. 22 Amount spent for home demonstration materials $3117.42
Agents regularly employed 40
Agents employed for short period 29
Average term of employment 9.4
Average monthly salary (including travel) $126.09
Average cost travel per month $ 37.23
Agents, Emergency 7
Average number months employed 6.5
Average monthly salary (including travel) $150.00
Agents, Urban 7
Average number months employed 6
Assistants during canning season 15

FIELD WORK
Miles traveled by agents 201,050
Visits made to club members 10,068
Visits made to homes 11,238
Schools visited 5,248
Visits to home demonstrators 4,050
Demonstrations -given 4,358
Attendance 60,731
Meetings held or participated in 4,494
Attendance 103,255
Short courses for girls 28
Attendance 711








84 Florida, Cooperative Extension

Contests held 26
Girls attending 1,066
Total attendance 6,1.03
Extension schools for housekeepers 37
Enrolled attendance 1,755

ACHIEVEMENTS
Number girls enrolled in canning clubs 3,212
Number in miscellaneous clubs 780
Girls and boys enrolled in poultry clubs 784
Women enrolled in poultry work 181
Women.enrolled in egg circles 292
Women enrolled in other clubs 3,568
Women other than club members reached by work 25,000
Clubs organized among girls 351
Clubs organized among women 273
,Containers filled:
Glass 787,153
Tin 610,033
Total 1,397,186
Dried products, pounds 3,723
Canners purchased 659
Steam pressure outfits purchased 212
War gardens 520

SUMMARY REPORT OF STATE WORKERS
Number of miles traveled 67,731
Days engaged in office work 269
Days engaged in field work 582
Days attending state meetings 143
Days attending out-of-state meetings 21
Demonstrations given 204
Meetings attended 389
Estimated attendance 27,558
Contests attended 48
Short courses attended 51
Estimated attendance 2,685
Fairs attended 28
Schools visited 61
Homes visited 236
Conferences with:
County agents 399
Farm superintendents 52
School superintendents 3G
County commissioners in session 2C
,Supervisory visits to counties 124
Miscellaneous meetings attended 50







Annual Report, 1918


RtEPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION'
AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submiit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

Satisfactory progress has been made and interest increased during the year. This is evidenced by the increase in the number of counties supporting this work, increased county appropriations for the work, and an increase in the number of women and girls who attend the meetings and demonstrations and carry: out in their home the instructions given them by the agents.

ORGANIZATION
In organizing the district, appropriations were secured from 21 of the 27 counties. Five of these niade additional appropriations for the support of work among negroes. Nine of the 16 counties that were in the district during the previous year made substantial increases in their appropriations. Funds were provided in 22 counties for demonstration materials and equipment. This is essential to the success of the work, for it is impossible for an agent to do her best work without material and, equipment. These appropriations have ranged from $50 td $200.
Agents 'were appointed in the district as'follows: To 19 counties making sufficiently large appropriations, full time work-ers were assigned. Two counties maintained two agents each. Three counties were combined in a group and assigned to an emergency agent. Two counties were given emergency, part time workers. One county was cared for, by an assistant emergency agent of an adjoining county; two counties united in the support of one agent, and to Monroe, the remaining county in the district, was assigned an urban agent. Urban work is the great need in this county.
OFFICES AND DEMONSTRATION KITCHENS
Twenty-three of the counties provided suitable offices for the agent. These offices were usually in the court house, always in
















































FIG. 16.-Home demonstration kitchen, used by Hillsboro county club members


/


14




q


I2







Annual Report, 1918


some place easy of access to the public. In St. Lucie county a oneroom building was set aside for home demonstration work. This is well equipped as office and kitchen. Twenty folding chairs make it possible to convert the room into a club or class room.
In Volusia county the commissioners provided a building for the work. The room at the entrance of the building serves as an office for the farm and'home demonstration agents. It is sufficiently large to care for classes. of 20 or 30persohs. Back of this is the well-equipped rest room. In the rear of the building is the kitchen. Here country women often can produce which they have failed to dispose of. During the "Swat the Rooster" campaign, 78 roosters were canned in this kitchen on the steam pressure canner, under the supervision of the home demonstration agent.
Forty home demonstration kitchens have been equipped. Funds for this purpose have been provided by county Commissioners, school boards, city councils, local organizations, and in some instances by the girls and women of the canning and home demonstration clubs themselves. These kitchens are equipped as demonstration rooms and canning centers. Most of the kitchens are furnished with both steam pressure and hot water canners. In canning season groups of women bring their vegetables and fruits to these kitchens and put them up under expert supervision.
In a number of counties it has not been necessary to equip kitchens except in remote rural sections, as the agents had the privilege of using the domestic science departments in the schools for group ' work with women and girls. Twenty-one domestic science departments in public'schools are being used in this way.
In every city and town in which an urban worker was maintained a demonstration kitchen was provided for the work. In Tampa the kitchen is delightfully located in the city hall. Thig room also serves.as office for the urban and county agents, and is the center of home demonstration activities in the county. In addition to this kitchen, the gas company gave the use of a splendidly equipped canning kitchen with individual equipment for 20 workers, to be used during the canning season.

ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS
in the organized work the enrollment among women has shown the greatest increase in membership in clubs holding regular







Florida Cooperative Extension


monthly meetings. The members have poultry clubs, pantry clubs, and egg circles.
I The number of organized clubs in a county varies from four to twelve among women; and from four to eighteen among girls.
-These clubs are doing good work in their study of the extension course for housekeepers.
"How olive wisely and well" has been the keynote of the study course. A demonstration was given with each lesson taught. Much time has been given to war cookery. The monthly meetings of the home demonstration clubs offer an excellent opportunity for this. Every regulation of the food administration modifying the usual preparation of food was brought to the attention of the housekeepers. The average number in the group brought together for study was only 16, but the total attendance was large, being 30,434.
Club meetings, especially in rural sections, have not only given the women an opportunity for study and improvement, but in many cases have furnished the social hour for the group. As one woman expressed it: "This is our moving picture of the month, the only time we get together. You don't know what it means to us".
EXTENSION SCHOOLS FOR HOUSEKEEPERS
Extension schools for housekeepers for the teaching of food conservation were held at 29 places. These lasted from three to six days. The lectures and demonstrations in this course were based on the following subjects: Victory breads, Victory sweets, ,good dishes from corn products, cooking and canning under steam pressure, meat substitutes, and vegetable cookery. These schools were well attended by the housekeepers of the towns in which they were held. State workers-and local home economics teachers assisted the agents in conducting the schools. Several of these schools resulted in the formation of strong home demonstration clubs. This feature of the work will be further developed next year.
VICTORY AND POTATO WEEK
"Wheatless Week" was observed as "Victory Week" in Flor-ida. Sketches of window decorations were furnished the agents and Victory window displays were put up in stores; parades and public demonstrations were held to push government food propaganda. Special classes were conducted for instructing housekeepers in the use of wheat substitutes, and of attractive







Annual Report, 1918


ways of preparing and serving them., Potato week was observed thruout the district.
HEALTH WORK
Not only has the proper selection, preparation and use of food been emphasized, but home sanitation, cleanliness and personal hygiene. Special emphasis has been laid upon the need for pure milk in the diet of the child.

GENERAL PATRIOTIC WORK
A Polk county girl was the first canning club member in the district to purchase -a Liberty Bond with proceeds from her garden. Many club members have purchased thrift stamps; agents have encouraged War Saving and Thrift Stamps as club prizes. The district has adopted a Fr ench war baby to be supported and clothed by club members during the coming year. Much interest is manifested in this work. The club girls will make the garments for the baby. The girls in three counties have adopted a French baby for each of their respective counties.

GOOD RECORD BY CLUB GIRLS
The highest yield of, tomatoes in the State on a tenth-acre plot was made by Anna Sykes, -a Dade county canning club girl. She harvested 6300 pounds of tomatoes from, her garden. She shipped her tomatoes, receiving $285.93. After deducting the cost of -cultivation,. $33.51, and $66 paid for crates, express and commissions, her net profit was $192.42. This was the largest net profit realized by any club girl.
Oneof the best business records made by a club girl was made by Selma Letzing of Manatee county. The proceeds from the products of her tenth-acre and from 500 cans of tomatoes put up from the home garden were $305.83. Her expenses were $44.72, leaving a net profit of $261.11.
Agnes Williams of Citrus county made the following record on a tenth-acre plot: She harvested 3745 pounds of tomatoes, 119 pounds of onions and then planted the plot in potatoes. She had an excellent yield from these. She canned and sold 1337 cans of tomatoes. Her receipts from fresh vegetables and canned goods were $185.24, expenses $65.77, profit $119.47. Agnes was first-prize winner in her county. She is now a student in the Florida State College for Women, working her way thru. She diefrays part of her expenses with the money made in club work.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CANNING
The total number of containers may 'not exceed that of last year, but the work has been more generally'done. More than ten times as many glass containers were filled in the district of south and east Florida as were filled in the entire State last year, 522,201 jars being filled. The average glass container was the quart jar. There were 359,852 tin containers filled, making a total of 882,053 containers filled in'the district.
To encourage canning, "pantry clubs" were originated. Each member of such a club was pledged to put into the home pantry not less than 50 containers which she had filled with fruits or vegetables. In one county in which work had never been-maintained, an emergency worker was employed for ten weeks. She enrolled in the pantry club 270 womenand three girls. As a result of the work, 31,000 quart containers were filled. This county has appropriated $1000 for next year's work, and will employ an agent for ten months.
The cooperative -plan for canning has been successfully followed in several counties. Under this plan clubs are formed among housewives and canning centers equipped. Here the farmer brings his surplus vegetables and they are canned on a fifty-fifty basis. The farmer supplies the vegetables and pays for one half of the cans, solder, fuel, etc. The club furnishes the labor and pays for the other half of the supplies. A club member is appointed business manager for the club, and a strict account is kept of the number of hours that each has worked ' This plan has been in operation in the district for the two years and has proven entirely satisfactory to farmers and housewives. In Manatee county four such clubs put up 25,000 cans of vegetables. Three of these clubs had the use of domestic science kitchens. The fourth was without equipment or means of securing it, but with a splendid determination to do its part two large galvanized zinc tubs were used for a canner. Two capping steels and two tipping coppers completed this meagre equipment. When the price of beans no longer made it profitable to ship they were canned. This club put up 10,000 cans of vegetables. It sold $25 worth of the club's share of these cans, and had this amount for the purchase of equipment. A club of Miami housewives screened and equipped a garage belonging to one of its members. These women filled 3,000 cans with surplus vegetables obtained from truckers.
A Manatee county girl made the highest individual record in







Annual Report, 1918


canning, putting up 3500 cans of vegetables. . She finds a ready sale for all. of. her work.
In Orlando, at the opening of the canning season, captains of canningunits were trained to assist the agent during the season, and busy women converted.the kitchen into a canning center that did very successful work. This kitchen operated in close connection with the newly established curb market, and surplus ,vegetables were brought here by the farmers for cooperative canning.
In one county when the shipping of tomatoes had been abandoned because of low prices, the agent arranged for one club of girls to stay in the home of a farmer who had 40 acres in tomatoes and can the s ' surplus crop. The girls were under the care of the farmer's wife; they received their board and $1.00 a day for their work. The farm hands picked the tomatoes and brought them to the house, and the girls canned from morning until night.
The canning of meat has been extensively carried on; pork, beef, fish and poultry being conserved in this manner. There were 146 steam pressure canners bought in the district during the year. This feature of the work has proven very satisfactory.

PURPOSES OF WORK FOR 1918-1919
Increasing club membership.
Strengthening club organization.
Teaching food values and cookery.
increasing food production.
Teaching conservation in clothing.
Working for better homes.
Developing the social hour.
Conservation of child life.
Fostering the spirit of Americanism.







Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION
AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the.district agent for home demonstration work in North and West Florida, for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

ORGANIZATION
At the beginning of this fiscal year, the district of north and west Florida comprised 27 counties. Of these 18 counties made local appropriations for the continuance of the work. Out of the 18 counties only one made an appropriation as large as $1000.
The nine counties of this district without a home demonstration agent were placed into three groups, and an emergency agent secured to take charge of each group. Early in the sum mer an emergency canning agent was sent into each of the nine group counties and into five of the large towns in the district.
GIRLS' WORK.
The regular work among girls began in every county completing the year's work with the fall contest. This was followed by the organization of clubs holding, where possible, monthly meetings. Lessons in food and agriculture, were studied at these meetings, and ended with some social activity.
The highest yield yet made in Florida from a club girl's tenthacre was made by Julia Holland of Madison county. She made on her tenth-acre, 4879 pounds of tomatoes, and 25318 pounds of other vegetables, making a total of 7417 pounds.
Eula Trantham of Duval county reports a profit of $195 from her tenth-acre. This girl took over the farm poultry flock, and reports over $200 from this source. Living near Jacksonville she has a good market. Her graded eggs are now selling for $1 a dozen.
In St. Johns county Marie Bradfish took first county prizes for canning and poultry club work, and third for pig club work. She also took the bronze medal at the state fair for best state record made by a girl in poultry work.
A real beginning has been made this year in the Perennial Garden for club girls. Thru the cooperation of three nurseries







Annual Report, 1918


,and one or two -individuals, good nursery stock, such as fruit trees, nut trees, and grape vines have been given as prizes at the fall contest.
In twelve counties a three-day short course was held. Besides the girls, many mothers and townspeople attended these lectures and demonstrations. The principal lessons taught were canning, both in hot water and steam pressure, drying, wheatless recipes, the use of potatoes, the use of milk and cheese, cottage cheese, butter making, and personal hygiene.
WOMEN'S WORK
More than ever before the women have asked for advice and help. Women's home demonstration clubs, poultry clubs and egg circles have been formed. Where organized work seemed impossible, war gardens and poultry clubs were encouraged. These required. no meetings and no special records. As a result of the home demonstration work 10,000 women thruout the district were definitely reached in some active way.
A new phase of work for women has been the home demonstration and canning kitchens. The women of the towns have been eager to give their time and labor in order to an the fresh vegetables from the country. The plan of these kitchens has been in general similar to the following:
"Thirty women worked in groups of six, five days a week, and canned on halves for the farmers. Each person paid for his cans; the farmer furnished the vegetables. The women did the work. The money for the fuel, etc., was furnished by individual members of the school board and commissioners."
CAMPAIGNS
At times during the year regular work was suspended and campaigns put on. The first of these was Victory Week. The potato campaign was the next in order. But the canning campaign with the slogans "Fill the home pantry" and "Three hundred sixty-five cans in every home" crying on all sides, was perhaps the greatest movement of all.
CANNING WITH STEAM PRESSURE
The use of the steam pressure canner has increased splen,didly during the past year. Its greatest value has been the can.,ning - of meats, fish and poultry. The following is an agent's report of one day's work in canning beef: 35 cans of boiled beef, 34 cans of roast beef, 15 cans of steak, 12 cans of soup stock, I can of tongue, 2 cans of brains, I can of stuffed heart, 6






Florida Cooperative Extension


cans of tripe, 2 cans of liver; making a total of 108 cans of beef for home' use.
WAR WORK
All our work this year might well be classed under the head of War Work, but especial time and thought have been given to the following drives: The Food Survey, the Liberty Loan, and the War Savings Stamps.
At Christmas a donation of jellies, jams and preserves was sent by the club girls of this district to the Florida convalescents at the Base Hospital at Camp Wheeler.
SPECIAL MEETINGS
A series of group meetings for special instruction to agents were held at Pensacola, Tallahassee, and Palatka. At this time Mr. Charles Dearing, of the Plant Bureau, gave most excellent instruction in the culture and use of the muscadine grape. This is one of the most beneficial movements yet made for north and west Florida. We have an abundance of muscadine grapes. This report from St. Johns county tells the possibilities of this work:
"The most interesting special work has been with muscadine grapes. St. Johns county has always made and sold large quantities of home-made wines. This was not made in factories but in the homes. There were many homes, both in the town and country, that had large arbors, and had out the sign 'Home-made Wine for Sale Here'. When the prohibition law was passed the people were forced to get rid of their wine at a sacrifice, the market for it being purely local. I got permission from the sheriff for them to turn it into vinegar and over 1000 gallons of wine of a doubtful quality was turned into vinegar of an excellent quality.
"I talked the manufacture of unfermented juice all thru the year, and in August, with the assistance of Mr. Dearing and Miss Heist, had quite a quantity made, using the equipment of the wine cellars. I hope that this is the basis of a good industry."
DEMONSTRATIONS
Wheat substitutes and wheatless breads, cakes, puddings, etc., the use of peanuts, cornmeal and potatoes, the conservation of meat, sugar and fat, and the steam pressure canner formed the subjects for the demonstrations most generally given. The whole year's work, with Miss Harris away, has been very strenuous. My work has been principally that of supervising and organizing 27 counties. Of necessity, fewer meetings have been attended and fewer schools and homes visited.
The following are the chief aims in view for the work of the coming year: To increase production by means of home gardens; to continue conservation of food; to give the women of each county the opportunity of attending a housekeepers' school; to provide planned monthly lessons for club girls; to plant perennials; and to push grape work.






Annual Report, 1918


REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club work for the year ending December 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
MINNIE FLOYD,
Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent.

POULTRY WORK EXTENDED
Because of war conditions t his year there has been a decided breaking away from the original plans of extending the poultry club work. Instead of adding a few counties gradually, as had been planned, opportunity was given all county home demonstration agents of one or more years' experience to begin poultry club work. No first year, nor emergency group county agent was required to begin poultry club work, exceptions to the plan, however, being made in Okeechobee, Baker, Leon and DeSoto counties, where conditions were especially favorable for poultry club work. In Wakulla county, altho it was han dled by an emergency agent, the opportunity to begin the work could not be neglected. Four successful egg circles have demonstrated the wisdom of the undertaking in that county.

PLAN OF THE WORK
The work, this year has been conducted the same as last year, under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys also were enrolled; and women's poultry clubs. All the counties beginning last year have continued thru 1918. In Hillsboro, Dade and Polk counties the assistant agents devoted a part of their time to looking after the poultry club work. One agent did the poultry club work for Duval and St. Johns counties. There has been some organized poultry club work in about half the counties of the State, but the same plan of work has not been carried out in all of them. Some counties began with only one club; some did only girls' work; others women's work, while most of them had clubs for both women and girls.

GIRLS' CLUBS
Girls who have done successful canning club work for one year or more have been given the opportunity to join both the canning and poultry clubs. Girls who had not been members of any club






Florida Cooperative Extension


formerly have been given the choice of membership in either club, but girls have not been permitted to join both clubs for the first time in the same year. The plan adopted by some agents of joint meetings for the girls' and boys' canning, corn and pig clubs is to be recommended wherever it is possible.

V "


















FIG. 17.-Dade county poultry club
Realizing that the girls need the same instructions in cooking, sewing, etc., whether they are members of poultry or canning clubs, the home demonstration agents in Escambia, Santa Rosa and St. Johns counties have girls from both clubs working together in short courses, as well as in regular monthly meetings.
COOPERATION FROM POULTRYMEN
Special mention is made of the poultry club work in Baker county, as the results obtained proved to be the best in the State and would be a good example for other counties to follow. Mr. Venting, a poultryman near Glen St. Mary, made an offer thru the county home demonstration agent to furnish 100 settings of purebred eggs (white Leghorn or white Wyandotte) to the poultry club girls and boys of Baker county, and take two pullets raised from each sitting as pay. Many girls and boys eagerly took advantage of this offer, with the result that at the county short course, held April 20, over 500 growing chicks were reported, with more eggs incubating.







Annual Report, 1918


In Duval county members of the Jacksonville Poultry Association gave 19 settings of eggs to Duval county club members as prizes on exhibits made at the Jacksonville poultry show held in December, 1917.
COUNTY CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES
Of the seven original counties doing poultry club work, viz: Escambia, Duval, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Hillsboro, DeSoto and Polk, all except DeSoto and Polk held contests and made creditable exhibits at the county fall contests.
The poultry club girl making the best record in each of Escambia, Santa Rosa and St. Johns counties was awarded a scholarship to the girls' short course. In St. Johns county the poultry club boy making the best record also received a scholarship, to attend the boys' short course at the University of Florida.
The state poultry club agent attended 16 county contests and short courses during the year, and gave lectures on poultry work at each one.
















FIG. 18.-Poultry club girl, Santa Rosa county
GIRLS AND BOYS' EXHIBITS AT THE JACKSONVILLE POULTRY SHOW
The Jacksonville Poultry Association extended an invitation to all the girls and boys' poultry clubs of the State to exhibit their birds at the Jacksonville poultry show held December 4-8, 1917. The clubs in Duval, Escambia and Hillsboro counties took advantage of the opportunity, and exhibited 21 coops. Small







Florida Cooperative Extension


cash prizes and settings of purebred eggs were given for best exhibits. The exhibit attracted so much attention that a department for the girls and boys' poultry club has been created in the poultry department of the state fair.
POULTRY WORK AT THE SHORT COURSES
The State College for Women gave lectures and demonstrations on poultry in the Methods Class in Home Economics. Students received practical work in operating an incubator, grading, scoring, candling market eggs, and testing the fertility* of eggs in the incubator. At the annual meeting of the county home demonstration agents the mornings were given almost entirely to poultry instruction. Lectures on poultry management were given daily at the girls' short course. The poultry club agent lectured on poultry work at the meeting of county -agents, boys' short course, and the farmers' short course.
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL WORK
A series of monthly programs were outlined on poultry subjects, and these were sent out for use in girls' and women's meetings. The outline was as follows:
September, marketing of eggs (organization of cooperative egg circles).
October, grading and scoring of'commercial eggs.
November, breeds of poultry.
December, feeds and feeding of poultry.
January, natural and artificial incubation.
. February, diseases of poultry.
March, eggs in the diet.
April, preserving eggs.
May, rooster day.
WOMEN'S WORK
Poultry club work with women has been more strongly emphasized than in the past. More stress was placed on economical than on increased production.
Where women lived too far apart . to attend club meetings, they were enrolled as individual members of the county club. Community poultry clubs have been organized where there was not an appreciative need of help with marketing of products. Where there was a realization of the need, cooperative egg circles have been organized, the results obtained being the most satisfactory of any phase of the work.







Annual Report, 1918


EXHIBITS
Since the organization of poultry club work was begun with whatever stock a member might have, few attempts were made to have women's club exhibits. However, Escambia, Orange and Osceola counties had a few women's exhibits at the fall contests. The Osceola county agent was successful in getting most of the members of the women's clubs to buy purebred eggs for hatching, and also to arrange for early hatching. I The poultry club work in Dade county was started by having
quite a few members buy purebred stock. The club members furnished more than half the exhibits of the poultry show at the Miami fair.

PRODUCTION OF POULTRY FEEDS
Special emphasis has been laid on the production of feed at home and it is a noticeable fact that more poultry work is done in the counties where feed is raised. Where most of the feed must be purchased the price was so high that many people sacrificed their poultry last year.

RECORDS
The agents have emphasized the value of well kept records. Some satisfactory reports of production and marketing have been obtained, but very few accurate ones on feeding. On farms where feed is produced it is usually taken as needed without measuring or estimating its value or cost each day. If the feed is bought other farm animals are usually -fed from the same supply. These conditions make it very difficult to procure accurate records on cost of production.

ROOSTER DAY
Realizing that the feed consumed by male birds increases the feed bill, also that one third of the loss from bad eggs is caused by the partial hatching of fertile eggs, a campaign was conducted for getting rid of the male birds after the hatching season was over. Accordingly newspaper articles, programs for club meetings, etc., were sent out asking that June 1 be observed as "Rooster.Day" by selling, killing, or confining all male birds during the summer months.
In Baker county the agent secured the promise of merchants to pay five cents per dozen more for guaranteed infertile eggs than for fertile ones during -the summer months. With this




Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension and United S~ates Department of Agriculture Cooperating P. H. ROLFS, Director REPORT _ OF GENERAL ACTMTIES FOR 1918 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FiSCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1918

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Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics University of Florida Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating P.H. ROLFS, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1918 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE ao, 1918 MARCH; 1919

PAGE 3

CONTENTS ' ' ' . ' . _ ~ LE'!'TER QF '.l,'&Al-l$MlSSA.L TO ,QOVE,R~O~ J}Fi:Ji'L-OR:I . Df.;;.; .. ,..,. : 1 •. , 7 ,; ::? 3 BOARD OF CONTROL ....................................... . ..................... . ....... . ..... ... ......... ,.......... 4 EXTENSION STAFF.. . ................................................................................................. , 4 LETTER OF .. TR,ANSMISS:AL T-0 CHAIRMAN BpARD OF CONTROL .i,. ; ...... , •... , .. ~ 1 , / 7 REPORT OF DIRECTOR ................ : ...... : . .' ... : .: ... .. ... : . .. .. '. ' . '. . .. . :: ... . : .. ' ........ '.:. '. .. ... : .. ... ::.;c:: . 7 ~~Ft}:i~~r:::•;;i::::::::: :: ::::;:::~::::::::::;:::::::;:::::::: . :::::::::.::::::::::'.::::::::.::::::::::::::::: i! RE~!t~~i;i[t~i~tth~ii::.: :.:::: .::::::::.::::?::~::::::: :L?:::i::::::: ::::::::::::::::::: ::::: : ir REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST ....................... '. ... .. ..... ..... . ..... . ................ . .. 24 REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANpM;AN ... , .... , ... . .......... : .. ..... ..... . ........... 27 REPORT OF STATE AGENT ................................................................................... , .. 29 Crops . ............... ... ..... .... ......................................... ................................. . ............ 29 Food Production Campaign... . ............... . ........ . ..... .... ........................................ 32 Agents' Meetings ............................... : ......................................... . ...................... 32 Activities of Extension Workers (statistical) ...... : ..................... .. .................. 34 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND EAST ..... .. .... .. . . ............. .. .................. 42 Corn ........ . ..... . .................................................. 42 '. Velvet ': Beans ..... : .. ; .. : ..... : ... , .. ......... ,. . . . ..... : ... .. , .: .. '.: .. :: .. ,, ... . ... . .. ::., .... ... , ... ; . . :., ... \,.,, 43 Peanuts . .............................. . ....... . .......................................................................... 44 Hogs ............................. ........ ... . .. . .... ~. , . . .......... ...... .... . .... . . .... . .. ..... . .. .... . ..... .. . ........ 44 Cattle ......................................................... .......................................................... 45 REJi: ~:t~:t~~~::1.?.~~.~~. : ~.~~r..i.~..:._-z.~..~:. :_:: ~~.:,: '. :!:::~~:::::~::::::::~::.:::: : : : ::::::::::: !~ Peanuts .................. ...... . . . . ....... . .. .. .. ............................................................... . ... 48 Beef Cattle .......... ..• ... . .. , .... ,. , ., . . .... .. ,, .. .. .. ., ' . ................................ 48 Dairy Cattle .. . ........................................... . ................ .. . :. : .............. . ................... 49 Hogs ..... . ..... . ..................... , ..... , . .. , ... 49 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT,' SOUTH. : .. : ................ :.: ........ . ................................... 51 Cattle and Hogs .. ...... .. ............. . ....... . ....... .. .... . . .... . ... ....... .... .. .. .. .. .............. .. .... .. .. 51 Citrus Demonstrations ............ ..... .. ....... . ... ............... . ....... : .... .......................... .. .. 52 Truck Demonstrations ..... .. .............. .. .... . ......................... . ...................... . ........ .. . 52 County Appropriation to Support Work ..... . ....... .... .... .. ............................. . ... 53 REPORT OF BOYS' CLUB AGENT .... . ....... . ....... . ....... . .............................................•... 54 Enrollment of Boys in 1918 ............. .. ...... . .............................................. ~........... 56 Corn Clubs .. . ....... .. ....... . ....................... . ..... . ....... .. .... . ....... ... . .. ............................... 57 Peanut Clubs ...... . ..................... ... ... ................................................................... 58 Pig Clubs ..... .... ........ . ................. . .......................................................................... 59 County Contests, Short Course............................... . .......................................... 62 REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT, NORTH AND WEST .•. ......... .......... 66 REPORT OF ASSISTANT Boys' CLUB AGENT, CENTRAL AND SOUTH ....•.......••..•• 69 . REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT.... ... ..... ... ............ . .................. 73 Urban Work ...................................................................................................... 73 Girls' Work ......... . ........ ....... ...... .. .. . . ....... ... ... ..............................................•......• 74 Women's Work .. . ...................... .. ............ ............................................................ 75 Short Courses ..... .. ..... .... .... . .... . .. ....... .. .................................................. . ............. 78 Statistical Reports .... .. ...... ... ............................ . ............... . ...................... .. .......... 83 REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH ....•• 85 Enrollment of Women and Girls ............. , ........................... : ............. .' .............. 87 Extension Schools for Housekeepers ......... , ........................ .. ....... .. ................. 88 Canning ............................. .... ........... . .................. ........... . ........ . .......................... 90 REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST •.•... 92 Girls' Work . ....... . ................. .. .... . .................................................................. .... 92 Women's Work ........... . ....... . ................................... . ................ ... ........................ 93 Demonstrations ............ . ... ...... ........ .... ..................... . ....................... . ............ . ..... 94 REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK .•.•................... ... ...... ... ..................... . ........•...•.•.• 95 REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK ................... . ...... .. . . ........... . ....... .. ..... . . . .... ... . .. . ...... 103 . INDEX ................... .... . .......... 106

PAGE 4

Hon. Sidney J. Catts, Governor of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1918, including a fiscal report for the ye ' ar ending June 30, 1918. Respectfully, JOEL. EARMAN, Chairman of the Board of Control.

PAGE 5

Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF CONTROL JoE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla. T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla. J.B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla. J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla. BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief. H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent. 0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge of Demonstration Club Work. I. W, HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work. STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. P. H. ROLFS, Director. A. P. SPENCER, Vice-Director. COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK C. K , MCQUARRIE, State Agent. H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida. E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida. G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent. E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Club Agent.* R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. L. R. HIGHFILL, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. a HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent. SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent, East and South Florida. HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Agent, North and West Florida.• LONNY LANDRUM, Assistant District Agent. AGNES I. WEBSTER, .Assistant District Agent. ' LOLA SNIDER, Assistant District Agent. , SARA DONELLA GRIFFIN, Assistant District Agent. GERTRUDE I. YORK, Assistant State Agent. MAY MORSE, Assistant State Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant State Agent. SPECIALISTS A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector fn Charge, Hog Cholera Educational and Demonstrational Work. a A. S . HOUCHIN,* Veterinary Inspector. a L. F. PETERSON,* Veterinary Inspector. a H. F. WALKER,* Veterinary Inspector. a J. A. GENUNG,* Veterinary Inspector. a D. H. WATTSON,* Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations. a WM. H. BLACK, Agent in Animal Husbandry. a _ N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry , Husbandman. a J. 0. TRAXLER, Farm , Help Specialist. b W. A. DOPSON,* Farm Help Specialist. b R. L. CLUTE,* Insect Control in Stored Grain. c 0. K. COURTNEY,* Insects of Truck Crops. c E. E. ATKINSON, Storage of Sweet Potatoes. d D . G. RAWLS, Peanut Harvesting. e ', a. Cooperating with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. b. Cooperating with the Office of Farm Management, U. S. D. A . c. Cooperating with the Bureau of Entomology, U . S. D. A. d. Cooperating with the Bureau of Markets, U. S. D. A. e. Cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. D. A. Resigned on or before July 1, 1918 .

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Annual Report, 1918 LECTURERS AND OTHER OFFICIALS JOHN M. SCOTT , Lecturer, Animal Industry. B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus. J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS , Lecturer, Plant Pathology. S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. LENA R . HUNTER, Assistant Auditor. 0. W. WEAVER, Editor (resigned August 15, 1918). S. L. VINSON , Editor. COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Alachua ... . . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . . . ........ . . W. E . Brown . .. .. .. . . ..... . . ...... . .. .. . .. Gainesville Baker . .. . ..... . ......... . . .. .. . .......... J. S. John s . ..... . . ....... . . .. . .. .. . . . .. .. .. . Macclenny Bay . . . ... ... . ..... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . ....... .1. C. W ebb ...... ... .. . . .... . . . . . . .. .. .. ..... Panama City Bradford . . .. . . ... . .. .. .... .. .......... C. D. Gunn ......... . . . . .. .. . ... . . . . .. . ... . Starke Brevard .......... ... .. . .. . ............. C. D. Kime* ..... . . . .. . .. . . . . .... ......... '.l'itusville Broward ...... .. .. . . . .. .. .............. J. S. Rainey* ........ .... . . . . ... . . ......... Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun ......... . . . .. . .. ............... J. E. Yon .. ........... . . .. . . . . . .... .. ........ Blountstown Citrus .......... . ... . .. ....... . . . . .. . .. . .. Jno. T . King .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . ... . .. . . , .. Lecanto 5 Clay .. . ...... ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . W. T. Nettles * . . .. . .. . . ... .... .. . .. ..... Green Cove Springs Dade . .. ..... . .. .... .. . . . .. .. . .. ... . . ... . . . F. J. McKinley .. ... . . .. .... . . .... . . .. . . . Miami DeSoto .. . ...... . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . W. A. Sessoms . .. . ... . . . . . . . . ... .. . .... . Arcadia Duval .......... ..... .. .. .. . .. . . ... . . ..... W. L . Watson .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. .. ....... Jacksonville Escambia .... .. .... .. ... . . . .......... C. A. Fulford ..... .... . . . .. ..... . . ....... Pensacola Flagler ............ . .. . . .. : .. .. . ......... W. H. Deant ...... .. . .. .. : . .. . ... . ........ Bunnell Gadsden ..... . . ...... .. . . . . . . . ........ . . M. N . Smith ...... ..... . .. . . . . ...... ... , .. River Junction Hamilton . ...... . ..... . .. . . ..... . . . . . S . S. Smitht .. . .. .. . . ... .. . ..... . ... . . . .. . Jennings Hernando .. ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. .. .. . . . Jas. Mountain * ..... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... .. . Brooksville Hillsboro . ... . : ... .. ... . . . . . . . . ...... . . R. T. Kelley* . . . . . .... .... . .... .. . . .. . . . .. . Plant City Holmes ..... . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. , . . .. . . . . •. J. J. Sechrest . . . ...... . .. . . .. . . . . ..... ..... Bonifay Jackson ....... .. . .. . . . ..... .. .. . . ...... L. J . Thompson . .. .. ... . . . . . . . .... . . ..... Mari a nna Jefferson ....... . : . .. . . ..... ........... T. C. Bradford .. .... . .. .. ... .. . .. ....... Monti .c ello Lafayette .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . ... . . ....... J. L. Pooret ....... . .. .... ..... . . .. . . ....... l\fayo Lake . . .... . .. .. . . . . .... .. . .. . ..... . . ...... Wm. Gomme .... .. . . . .. . . . .. .. .... .. . ..... Tavares Lee ..... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . ... . .. . ... ..... J. M. Boring * .. . .. . .... '. .. . . . ..... . . ..... Ft . M y ers Leon . . .... . . . . . . .. . .. . . ..... ... . . .. . ...... R. I. M atthews . .. . . . .. .. . ... . . ... . . . . . . . Tallahassee Levy . . . .. .. . . ....... . ... .. . . ...... ... ... .. R. L . Denson* . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . .. .... ... . . Bronson Liberty .... ......... . ............ ...... H. G. McDonald ..... . . .. .... . ... . . ..... Bri s tol Madison ..... . ..... . .. . . ..... . .......... C. E. Matthews .. . ... .. ... . . .. . . . ........ Madison Manatee ..... . . . . . . . : . . .. .. . ............ 0. W. Oaswell* . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . : . ...... Bradentown Marion ........ . . ... .. . . .. ... .. . ... ...... R. W . B!acklock. . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . ...... Ocala Nassau . .. . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... ... Jame s Shaw* .. .... .. . . .... . ... ...... . ... Hilliard Okaloosa . . . ..... . . . . .. . . . . . .... . . ..... R. J. Hartt ... . .. .... . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . ... . Laurel Hill Okeechobee ... . .. . . . . . : .. . .... . . .. . . . L. E. Davist .. . : , ..... .. . . . .. ... .. . . ...... Okee c hobee Oran g e ....... .. . .. . . ... ... . . . . . . .. . ... . . E. F. DeBusk * .. .. . . ... . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . Orlando Osceola ....... .. . .. ... . . . . . . . .. . ....... M. M. Javens ... ... . ... . .. , . . . . ... . ...... Ki ss immee Palm Beach . .. .. . . .... . .. .... ........ R. A . Conkling* . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. ......... West P a lm Beach Pasco .......... ... . ... . . . .. ... ... ........ R. T. Weaver ... . . . . ..... . . . .. .. . . .. ..... Dade City Pinellas .. . . ...... . .. . ........ . .. .. . . . J. H. Jeffriest . . ... ... . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . .... Lar g o Polk .. .. . , . . . ... ... .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. .... .. A.A. Lewis * . .. .. ..... . . .... .... . . .. .. . . . . Kathleen Putnam . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .... .. L. Cantrell * . . . ... . . . . . . .. . , . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . Palatka Santa Rosa ... . ... . ... . . . .. . ... . . . . .. R. T. O g lesby .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .... .. . . Milton Seminole ... .. .. . .. .... .. . . .. .... ...... C . M. Berry .. '. .... . . ... . ... .... . .. . .. ... . .. Sanford Sumter ......... .. .. .. . . . . ............. M. S . Hillt ........ ... . . .. .. .. . ... ......... Coleman Suwannee .. ... . .. . .. .. ...... ......... D. A. Armstrong .. ... . . ...... . . ....... Live O a k St. Johns ....... . .. . .. .. . . .. ..... . ..... J.E. Cheatham ...... . . .. ..... . . .... ...... St. Augustine •Em e r ge ncy , c o op e rative. tEmergenc y, total.

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6 Florida Cooperative Extension St. Lucie ..... . .......... :.: .. .. .. '. .. ' .. Aifred : W~rren~. '. ....... .' ... ' . :. ........ Ft.' Pierce Taylor .................................. L. R. Moore,.; .......................... : .. Perry Volusia ................................ R. E. Lenfest* .. ...... .................... DeLand Wakulla ....................... ....... W. T. Green ..... .. . ...... ...... , ... ..... . Arran . Walton ...... .. .. : ......... : ..... .. ....... J. W. Mathison* . .. . : .......... .. ....... DeFuniak Springs Washington ...................... Geo. E. Mead .. ; ........... , ...... ... .... Chipley . COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS . COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Baker ........ . ....................... : ... Miss Harriet H. Hawthorn .... Macclenny Bay ............ , .. . .................... . .... Mrs. Laura R. Look* .............. Panama City Bradford .... ,. .................... , ... Miss M;argaret Burleigh ........ StarJi:e . Brevard ... . ....... : .................... Miss Cornelia Smith* ... : .......... Titusville Broward ............................. .l\frs. J. S. Raineyt ........ ....... ... Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun .... .. .................... : ..... Mrs. Grace Warren ..... ...... , ...... Blciuntstown Citrus .... , ..... . .. , ..................... Mrs. Marth . a Williamson* ...... Inverness Clay ............................. ......... 1\frs. W. T. Nettles .................. Green Cove Springs Dade ....................... .. ........... Mrs. Lileon Norman Brady* . ,Miami Dade, Asst ....... .. ........ ... ... .... Mrs. Nellie A. Bush ............... Goulds DeSoto ..... . .... ,., ..................... Mrs. Ann J. Campbell... .... ... .. Arcadia DeSoto, Asst ....................... Miss Catherine Bankst ............ Arcadia Duval ........... . . ........... c ............ Mrs. Effie Wellington .............. J acksonville Escambia ..... ...... .......... ... ...... Miss Myrtle Floyd . ............. ... ... Pensacola Gadsden .. . ............................. Miss Ruby McDavid, ............... Hinson Hernando ............................ Mrs. Ette Matthews* .............. Brooksville Hillsboro .............................. Miss Janie Stroud* .................. Plant City Holmes ................................ Miss Jennie Chappelle* .......... DeFuniak Springs Jackson .... . .......... . ........ .... , .. . Mrs. Ivie Turnbull ........ , . ........ ... Marianna Jefferson ........... ................... Mrs. Jennie Carter Duncum .. Monticello Lafayette . .. ........ , .... . ..... ...... Miss Flora. Clowert ............ .. .... Mayo Lake ....................................... Miss Clarine Hoyt.. ............ . ..... Tavares Lee ........................................ Mrs. Enid A. Parker .... . ............ Ft. Myers Leon ....... . .. ........... , ................ Mrs. Lura Dyer Noland .......... Tallahassee Madison ................................ Miss Edna Smith ...................... Madison Manatee .. . ................. , ......... Miss Eloise McGriff ................ Bradentown Marion .................................. Mrs. Caroline Moorhead ........ Ocala Okaloosa .............................. Miss Margaret Cobb ................ Crestview Orange ...... ............ ...... .. ...... Mrs. Nellie Taylor* ................ Orlando Osceola ................................ Miss Albina Smith* ............... ,Kissimmee Palm Beach ....................... :Miss Elizabeth Hopkins* ...... West Palm Beach Pasco .......... ..... ..................... Miss Nina Henderson*. , ........ Dade City Pinellas ................... , ............ Miss Hazel Carter* ................ Largo Polk ...................................... Miss Lois Godbey* .................. Bartow Putnam .... .. .. ... .... : ................ Miss Josephine Sipprell... ... .... Palatka Santa Rosa ... .............. . ........ Miss Winnie Warren .............. Milton Seminole .... , .......... : .... .. . ....... Mrs. C. M. Berryt .................... Sanford Suwannee ............................ Miss Alice Dorsett* ......... ... .... Branford St . Johns ............. .......... .. .... . Miss Anna Heist* .................... St. Augustine St. Lucie .......... .. ........ .. ........ Miss Grace Holt* .......... .... ...... Ft. Pierce Taylor ........ , .. .. ............ .. ....... Miss Hazel Roberts* ......... .. ..... Perry Volusia ........ .. . . ...................... Mrs. Willa Steed ............... .... ... DeLand Walton ...... .. ................. . ...... Miss Grace Kent* . . ... ... .......... .. DeFuniak Springs Washington .... , ............ . ...... Mrs. Susie Sapp Crofton ........ Chipley CITY WORKERS tMiami.. ...... ....... ........................... .. ................... ... ...... Miss Lucy Caroline Cushman tJacksonville ............................................... . .. , .... . ... ... Miss Bessie Nevins tTampa ............. ............... : ............... .. .... .... ...... . .. . . ..... Miss Flora Herold tTampa ....... . . .. .... ......... .. .................... ......... ...... ........ .. Miss Edith Cole Young tKey West... .................. .. ............... ....... .. :, ........ . .... ... Miss Dorothy Neibert •Emergency, cooperative. tEmergency; total.

PAGE 8

Report of General Activities for 1918 with , , Financial Statement for.the.Fiscal Year Ending June 30; 1918 Hon. Joe L: Earman, Chairman, Board of Control. SIR: . ' 1 have the honor to sub~it herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural CoUege in the Univer sity of Flo~ida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal year ending . June 30, 1918, and the repor~ of the activities of the Extensio:p, . Division for the calendar year 1918. I respectfully request that you transmit the same; in accordap.ce with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida . . ; _. ' Respectfully, INTRODUCTION P.H. ROLFS, Director. ': , The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not resident on the campus.' The Smith-Lever Agri cultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additional sum of $17,298.52 became available July 1, 1917, on condition that an equal amount be appropriated by the State. The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was ap proved by the Governor, May 25, 1915'(Chap. 6839), accepting these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the several states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A quo tation from it will show the general purposes of this Act: "That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist . of tlie giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several . commu:r;iities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise; and this work 7

PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension . shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed upon by the Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges receiving the benefits of this act." In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appro priated the sum of $23,000. The principal work carried on with these funds is the county cooperative demonstration work a,mong farmers and the home demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. In the home demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted $400 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appro priated by the county for augmenting this work. In counties where home demonstration work has made favorable progress, $500 is made available under the condition that the county pro vides an equal amount. Provision for carrying on the county demonstration work is made in the general revenue bill (Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more than one-half of one mill for the encouragement and protection of 'agriculture." The Legislature of 1915 passed ( Chap. 6833) an act authorizing county boards of education to make appropriations for home demonstration work. EMERGENCY WORK After the outbreak of the war Congress appropriated $4,348,400 to stimulate agricultural production and facilitate the distribution of agricultural products in the United States. Of this amount, $43,000 was allotted to Florida. This work was . carried on cooperatively with the Extension Division i-n Florida, but the expenditure of the money and the accounting were handled at Washington. Under this Act a large number of Emergency county agents and Emergency home demonstration agents were appointed. These agents aided very greatly in stimulating crop production and food and forage conservation in the State. They worked co ordinately with the various agents appointed under authority of the Smith-Lever Act and who were paid from State and Smith Lever funds. A number of counties in the State did not feel financially able to cooperate in this line of work, and Emergency agents were placed in these. A distinctly new line of work was introduced here, conducted

PAGE 10

Annual Report, 1918 by Urban home demonstration agents. These women worked with families in the larger cities, assisting in the conservation of food, especially canning and drying. They also gave instruc tion in poultry raising and such home gardening as could be profitably carried on under urban conditions. This stimulated greater interest in the production and proper preparation of various vegetable products . Some attention was also given to canning and preparation of sea foods as a matter of stimulating conservation in this direction. Thru the Emergency appropriation it was possible to place in the field a number of negro workers, both men and women, to work among the negro race. These agents were employed for a short time for definite pieces of work. The results of the work show that this is a very profitable line of endeavor for stimulating agricultural production and conservation of food products. In cooperation with the Extension Division, specialists from various Bureaus of the U. S. Dept. of Agr. are assigned to Flor ida. The Bureaus cooperating in Emergency work during the past year have been the Breau of Animal Industry, the Office of Farm Management, the Bureau of Entomology, and the States Relations Service. WAR WORK As a result of the declaration of war by the United States the Extension Division was called upon to do a large amount of additional work. Florida, in common with all other states, organized for this unusual contingency. His Excellency, Gov.: ernor Sidney J. Catts, called a meeting of all agricultural and allied organizations to meet in Tallahassee on April 30, 1917. Representatives of these bodies met and formed the organization known as the Food Preparedness Commission. The following were designated by the Governor as initial members of this Commission : MEMBERS OF THE COMMISSION P. H. Rolfs, Gainesville, Director Ext. Div. Univ. of Fla. H. H. Hume, Glen St. Mary, Pres. Fla. State Horticultural Society. W. A. McRae, Tallahassee, Commissioner of Agriculture. Sen. J. L. Shepard, Greensboro, President Farmers' Union of Fla. J. H. Ross, Winter Haven, President Florida Citrus Exchange. L. B. Skinner, Dunedin, Pres. Growers' and Shippers' League. W. P. Franklin, Ft. Myers, Secretary Florida First Commission. W. F. Miller, Valrico, President South Fla. Chamber of Commerce. Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Pres. State Bankers' Assn. S. J. Triplett, St. Cloud, Actg. Pres. Press Assn. Mrs. W. S. Jennings, Jacksonville, Pres. Fed. of Women's Clubs. Miss A. E. Harris, Tallahassee, Pres. Fla. State Teachers' Assn.

PAGE 11

' io Florida Cooperativ-e Extension w: N. Sheats, Talla : h . assee, State Supt. Public, lnstructiom . W. F. Blackman, Winter Park, Pres. Fla.. ;Live . Stock Assn . . Jules M. Burguieres, West Palm Beach. J.C . Chase, Jacksonville. , ' ' , : . ' J, H. Mackey; Jacksonville, Pres. ' Fla. Fed , of';Labor. , , B. L. , Hamner, Norfolk, Va., Development Agt., S. A. L. R. R. E. B. O'Kelly; Jacksonville, Fla:, Ind. ,A:gt;; A. C. IJ. R. R. J. E. Ingraham,. St . . Augustine,, Fla., . V. P., F. E. C. R. R. , . , S. G. _Westbrook, Pensacola, Fla., !pd. Agt., L. & N. R. R. The Director . ~f Extension was ch~s~n , chai~man of\lle _ organi'." zation, and Miss A. E. Harris, state agent for ; home demdnstra tion work; was appointed as secretary. ; . The following members, with the Chairman and Secretary, ex.-officio, constituted the executive committee: ' Dr. Lincoln Hulley, DeLand, Chairman . . . Mrs . . W. S. Jennings, . Jacksonville. . L. B. Ski~ner, Dunedin. . . . ' The object of .the Commi~sion, wa.& to. _ stimulate the _ pr<>duction and conserv~tion of food . and forage crops. . In July the Governor appointed this ; c ommission . as a State Council of Defense. . The organization took an im.p 1 orfarit part in directing . the work . of the State; and . this , entailed enormo~s ad ditional work on all of the forces, including the ' county agents and home demonstration agents. Four Liberty Loan Drives ' have also been held. Everyone . connected with the Extension Division took an active part in this campaign. In some cases the county agent and home demonstra tion agent were the principal county leaders in carrying forward the large amount of work necessary to raise the bond issues in the respective counties. The Director and other State workers participated in the speaking campaigns. and in s~curing sub scriptions and buying bonds. The War Savings Stamp Drive also took up a considerable amount . of time from the Extension Division. Among the most important war work done by the county agents was the assistance given during the various army drafts. Without this assistance a great deal more difficulty would have been encountered in making the plan of the draft and draft measures effective in the State. In some of the counties the agents gave a great part of their time ; to the furtherance of the draft. Special credit must be given , to the large number of county agents who took a most . ' active part in assisting the farmer with the draft questionnaires. r A great deal of confusion existed in the minds of rural people as to the meaning and extent of the la.w and its operation, especially during October in 1918.

PAGE 12

' ' ' Annilal Report, 1918 li Fortunately the armistice was declared, making it unnecessary to ' draft more men into the service. The services rendered by the Extension Division have had a far reaching and most important effect on the patriotic situa tion in the State. The county and home demonstratjon agents we ' re in direct and constant contact with the great mass of the ru~al population, and the value of their influence cannot be over-estimated. This whole patriotic work was of such nature that it required the largest amount of good judgment and an unusual amount of initiative on the part, not only of the Ex tension staff, but of each individual agent. There was no prece dent to follow and the result of certain lines of action was not always clear. The readjustment necessary to meet the conditions of the war has necessarily been most difficult. The readjustment necessary to peace conditions is likewise requiring the best of judgment and greatest of patience. It is not over-stating the case to say that without ' the Cooperative Demonstration work fully organized in Florida the trying ordeal could not have been passed without serious disturbance: ORGANIZATION The Smith-Lever Act requires the ' appointment of a director, who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed upon. Inasmuch as the budget system is used to govern the working plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect, and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work. The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in eight projects, the most important being that of the county co operative and home demonstration agents. This provides for county agents being located in as many of the counties as can be induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The object in view is to improve the farm and rural conditions in Florida. The county home demonstration work is carried on by cooperative arrangements with the Florida State College for Women, Talla~ hassee. The object of the home demonstration work is to im prove the home life of the rural population. The instruction includes all lines of work that may be met with on an ordinary farm. The duties of the State Agent are to coordinate and harmonize

PAGE 13

12 Florida Cooperative Extension activities in such a way as to . secure cooperation . among the dif ferent projects and also with the rural people of the . State. He is charged with supervision of the county cooperative demon stration agents. The State has been divided into three districts for the county agent work and two for the home demonstration work. The district agents spend their time instructing and assisting the county and home demonstration agents in their work. The boys' club agent and assistants have headquarters at the University. Their work covers the State. The clubs are or ganized by the county agents and, with the cooperation of school boards and county superintendents, they receive general approval and support. This work is intended to harmonize with other phases of demonstration work, and especially to instruct club members in the best agricultural methods and practices suited to Florida conditions. The county agents usually have their headquarters at the county seat, . with an office in the courthouse. The most im,portant work of the agent is that of conducting demonstrations , with farm crops, usually on a small area, to show the best farm ing practices. A great deal of his time is given to the control of hog diseases, to garden work, public meetings and, during the war, to additional duties such as, farm surveys, labor distdbu. tion, and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater agricultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the agricultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his office for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises. He has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agri culture, when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in his county. The attention of the state agent for . home demonstration work is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the instruc tion of girls, teaching them the underlying principles of home life. Special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning, poultry raising, and domestic art. The work is under her direct supervision. The state agent and her assistants come in contact with the problems of country life, and spend much time with the county home demonst:ration agents, helping thein where possible with assistance and encouragement to greater effort. Two district agents are employed to supervise the work in the counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their

PAGE 14

Annual Report, 1918 ' 13 full time to the direction of the home demonstration work in counties. : l The agent assigned to poultry clubs work~ in cooperation with the county home demonstration agents. A limited number of counties best suited were selected this year for poultry work. The purpose is to increase interest in farm poultry by making the work more profitable and to encourage the production of better poultry. As conditions are made suitable the poultry work will be extended into every county. The office of the county home demonstration agent is usually at the courthouse altho the agent spends most of her tirne in the farm homes and with rural clubs giving instruction in gardening, home economics, home sanitation, and the proper use of foods. All col]Jlty and home demonstration agents are selected for their special fitness to handle the work in the county to which they are assigned. As far as possible graduates of agricultural colleges or of home economics courses are secured. All county workers have had special training for extension teaching and receive uniform instruction so there may be harmony of purpose thruout the State. All employees of the Extension Division are required to make weekly reports to the University of Florida and the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. PLAN OF WORK The Extension work of the University of Florida is conducted under projects as provided for by the Smith-Lever Act. A statement of the sources and expenditures of the funds will be found herewith. Project I-A provides for _the salaries of clerical help and inci dental expenses that apply directly to the administration of the work as a whole. This includes general clerical and executive expenditures not specifically connected with any_ particular pro ject. Project I-B provides for the expenditures for publications. A requirement of the Smith-Lever law is that' not more than 5% shall be used for printing and distribution of publications. Project II provides for demonstration work with adult farm ers, and for all the work conducted by the county agents thru out the State. This provides for the employment of county agents on_ condition that the county being benefited appropriate additional funds to aid in the support of the work.

PAGE 15

14 Florida Cooperativ~ Extension As the county agents' _activities vary in different coun~ies,_ those supervising the work take this into consideration when directing his duties. This project deals with practically all activities on the farm. Project III provides for boys' agricultural clubs, . and is con fined to corn, pig and peanut clubs. Theclub work is intended to give instruction to boys between the ages of 12 and 18. The support of schools, business interests, agricultural agencies of railroads and other organizations directly interested in the wel fare of farmers is secured.. As the clubs are formed under the direction of the county agents, the work in Projects II and III are closely allied. Project IV provides for home demonstration work, principally -in rural districts. It has-two main divisions, one giving par ticular attention to girls' clubs, training them in domestic science and art and the principles of home-making as applied to rural life. The other is devoted to women's work. Women's clubs are organized to stud:v the needs of the home, its surroundings, sani tation, and the proper use and conservation of foods, also home conveniences. This division also includes women's poultry clubs and_ the proper utilization of food products produced on farms. Project VI provides primarily for instruction to negro boys and girls living on farms, and ha_s been enlarged to include demonstration work with negro farmers. The work is confined to counties having the largest rural negro population. One assistant agent f9r each of twelve GO unties was employed for six months. These report to the manager Glub agent, whose head quarters are. at the Agricultural_ and Mechan.ical College for Negroes at Tallahassee. This institution is headquarters for negro extension work. Project VII provides for educational and demoilstrational work in hog cholera control, and is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S.Department of Agriculture, and coordinated with the hog cholera work of the Live Stock Sanitary Board. A State leader and four assistants who served part of the year as specialists were assigned to Florida. to work with the county agents and farmers to assist in the control of hog cholera. The aim is to instruct farmers in the proper use of hog cholera serum and virus; to prevent the spread of hog diseases, and hold contagious diseases in control after an outbreak. These agents have their offices at the University of Florida, but travel

PAGE 16

. . Annual , Report, . 191~ 15 thruout the State with county and district agents, visiting farms and delivering , lectures . . SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES . The funds arising from the Smith-Leyer Act are strictly trust funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws and regulations governing the appropriation. The method of ac counting and the plans for the work must be submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture before the year's work is begun. A Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work under way. All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund have been expended and accounted for in the same way as the Smith-Lever ftiiid. FINANCIAL STATEMENT Following is the financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918: RECEIPTS Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever Federal ............................... , .. .. . .............. $27,298.52 Smith-Lever State ........................................................ 17,298.52 U. S. D. A. Appropriation: ..... : ...................... : ...... .. ............ 23,000.00 State Appropriation .......... ...... ......... , ................... .... . ,:,....... 9,895 . 00 County . Appropriations .......... , . .. ... .. .. .. '.. .. . ... 61,143.58 . EXPENDITURES Administration Project ............... , .......... , . . ........ ................ . . $ . 9,771.29 Printing and Publications Project ..................... : .. . ........... 1,712.49 County Agents' Project ., ....... : ....... : ............... , ... '. ..... .. ....... 65,080.33 Home Demonstration Project.. .. :....................................... 55,443.86 Boys' Club Work Project............... . .................................... 3,253.66 Negro Farm and Home Makers' Project..... .. ............... 3,199.95 Hog Cholera Educational . .... . ...... .. ... ,., ... ., . .. . ...... , .. . . , ..... . ..... 100.00 Poultry Work.,. ......................................... :....... .. . . . .. . . ... . ..... .. . 74.04 PUBLICATIONS . Bulletin $138,635.62 $138,635.62 No. Title . . Edition 12. Peanuts for Oil Production ..... . ....... . . .... . . ............................. . .. .... ..... 20,450 13. Hog Cholera and Diseases Resembling Hog Cholera . ................. 20,000 Circular No. , Title Edition 2. Castor Beans ......... . .... . ................... . : . ... ... .. ......................... . ............... 10,000 :: g~rro/t;;l~!c~~;;::: ::: :: :: :::::::::: ::::.. : . ::: ::... . :.-. . ::: : ::::: :: : :::: :::: : :::: ~:ggg 5. Rice Culture ............ . ... ...... .. .. ........... ... . .... . ... ... .. . .. .... .. .. . ... ..... .............. 15,000 Posters Title Edition t: i~~': Ji~a!ec~! 0 ~~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::::::::: ~;ggg Annual Report Cooperative Extension Work ......... , ........... . .. . ............. 5,000. 425 copies each 52 weeks, Agricultural News Service.

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16 Florida Cooperative Extension CHANGES IN STAFF On September 16, 1~17, S. W. Hiatt was appointed district agent for West Florida. On October 1, 1917, Miss Gertrude I. York was appointed research worker and bulletin editor for the Home Demonstration Project and was later assigned to the duties of acting state agent during the absence of the state agent . . Mtss May Morse was appointed assistant state home demon . stration agent, assigned to home dairy work. E. M. Manning was appointed assistant boys' club agent and resigned August 31, 1918, to enter the United S . tates Army. On October 1, 1917, W. A. Dopson was appointed farm help specialist, assigned by the Office of Farm Management, and re signed August 15, 1918. He was succeeded on September 1, 1918, by J. 0. Traxler. On August 1, 1917, D. H. Wattson, agent in beef cattle investi gations, was assigned work in this State by the Bureau of Animal Industry and resigned June 15, 1918, to enter the United States Army. He was succeeded on July 1, 1918, by Wm. H. Black. On May 1, 1918, Dr. Nathan W. Sanborn, extension poultry husbandman, was assigned by the Bureau of Animal Industry. On August 15, 1918, 0. W. Weaver, editor, resigned, and was succeeded by Miss S. L. Vinson, September 1, 1918. On July 1, 1918, L. R. Highfill was appointed assistant in pig clubs, to work in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal In dustry. On September 1, 1918, R. W. Blacklock was appointed assistant club agent. R. L. Clute was assigned January 1, 1918, by the Bureau of Entomology to work on insect control of stored grains. He re signed his work on August 1, 1918. On January 1, 1918, 0. K. Courtney was assigned by this ;Bureau to work on insects in truck crops. ; Two assistant district agents in home demonstration work were appointed to north and west Florida: Miss Lonny Landrum, July 1, 1918, and Miss Lola Snider, September 1, 1918. Two assistant district agents in home demonstration work were ap pointed in south and east Florida: Miss Agnes I. Webster, November 1, 1918, and Miss S. D. Griffin, September 1, 1918. During October and November, 1918, E . . E. Atkinson was f1,SSigned by the Bureau of Markets to work on storage of sweet potatoes, and D. G. Rawls was assigned by the Bureau of Plant Industry as specialist in peanut harvesting.

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Annual Report, 1918 17 FIG. !.-Herefords on a West Florida farm Four assistants in hog cholera educational and demonstrational work were appointed during the year, namely, A. L. Houchin, L. F. Peterson, H. F. Walker and J. A. Genung, all of whom re signed on or before July 1, 1918. COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES The Extension Division has cooperated with the Department of Agriculture during the past year thru the Bureau of Animal Industry, Bureau of Entomology, Office of Farm Management, Bureau of Markets, Bureau of Plant Industry, and the States Relations Service. This cooperation provides for one or more experts who undertake definite problems affecting the farming interests of Florida. These specialists work in cooperatio n with county agents. The cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry in edu cational hog cholera work has been on the same plan as l ast year. Thi s has proven va luabl e to the livestock interest s of the State, and ha s been especia ll y beneficial this past year, owing to the increased number of purebred hogs in every county. The specialists accompany the county agents to farms wher e diseases exist, and if hog cholera is present, demonstrations are given in hog cholera inoculation with serum and virus, or, if there has been a loss of severa l hog s, post mortems are held for the benefit of the owner. Hog cholera is better understood by farmers, and is not so 2

PAGE 19

18 Florida Cooperative Extension prevalent, and while this work has taken up a large share of the county agents' time, it has been an important factor _ in stimulating the hog interests. In cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry specialists in beef cattle were assigned to the State. Special attention has been given the distribution of improved breeding stock from Texas, and during the past two years over 3000 head of these have been bought. The agents have also caused the distribution of many well bred animals that formerly were butchered, be cause of difficulty in finding a ready buyer. The specialists are also giving close attention to feeding problems, particularly the use of velvet beans in combination with other feeds, and supervising and keeping of records. A poultry specialist working cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry has given his whole time to the welfare of poultry in Florida. His work has been principally with county and home demonstration agents for the purpose of arou~ing interest in more profitable poultry production. Thru cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, specialists have been assigned to study the distribution and methods of control of sweet potato weevils. As this insect is a destructive one when once established, it was important to hold it in check while confined to a few localities. Control measures have been put into efl:'ect by the Florida State Plant Board. The destruction caused each year by weevils in stored grains warranted special attention, particularly during the war period. In cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology a specialist was assigned to Florida, who gave his attention to the storage of corn in cribs and to the best methods of fumigating to destroy weevils in all stored grains. In cooperation with the Office of Farm Management a Farm Labor Specialist has been giving assistance in the supply of labor to farmers, fruit growers and truckers. Thruout the period of the war the scarcity of labor made the production of necessary food crops uncertain; the farm labor specialist worked in close cooperation with the state representative of the U. S. Department of Labor, and kept in touch with labor movements to and from various industries. By a cooperative arrangement with the Live Stock Sanitary Board and the Bureau of Animal Industry, county agents report outbreaks of diseases direct to the Live Stock Sanitary Board, Tallahassee, or their representatives in the field. Where out

PAGE 20

Annual Report, 1918 19 breaks of hog cholera occur the county agent is ready to assist in measures that are necessary to suppress the disease. By this means the spread of diseases can be checked before reaching larger proportions. In cooperation with the Bureau of Markets, a specialist was assigned for two months during the sweet potato harvesting season to interest farmers in the erection and management of sweet potato storage houses. This is a continuation of the work undertaken during 1917 to prevent the loss of sweet potatoes by decay which occurs in banks and in usual storage methods. This loss often amounts to 50% of the crop stored. As with other cooperative projects, the farmers were reached largely thru the county agents, who know which farmers have sufficient acreage to justify the expenditure necessary for the erection of a sweet potato house. The specialist assigned to this was E: E. Atkinson, and frank statements made by farmers to him indicate that they expect a loss of 25% to 50% with the ordinary storage methods. This agent visited all the most im portant sweet potato growing sections in Florida, particularly in west Florida where the largest crop is produced, and furnished those interested with plans and specifications. He also gave them information regarding the operation of the sweet potato house and explained the possibility of making the sweet potato crop more profitable if it could be held until spring, when the bulk of the crop has been marketed. On account of the high price of material, scarcity and high price of labor, also difficulty in erecting buildings during the harvesting . season, no houses were erected. There was sufficient interest manifested in these storage houses to conclude that when building and labor conditions return to normal, the use of these houses is likely to become general. Where it was found unwise to recommend the storage house because of insufficient potatoes to store, a ventilated bank was recommended. While the sweet potato house cannot be substi tuted by the ventilated bank, a much larger percent is saved than by the usual plans of banking. In cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry D. G. Rawls was appointed as specialist in peanut harvesting. Spanish peanuts have been substituted for cotton as a cash crop in many counties, with an increased acreage in all farming sections. County agents were visited, and thru them many farmers were reached. The instructions were given by means of demonstra

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20 Florida Cooperative Extension tions, that is, going to the field and building the form on which to stack the vines, finishing one or more stacks and capping them with hay. Three hundred fifty farmers in twenty-nine counties were visited and 156 demonstrations were given in the proper methods of stacking. As Mr . Rawls was an experienced peanut grower, he was able to give many valuable suggestions to the farmers as to cultural methods. A peanut exhibit was placed in the University of Florida tent at the Alachua county fair to demonstrate methods of harvesting and stacking. MO THLY CO FERENCES In order to coordinate all branches of the extension work all members of the staff meet in the director's office the third Monday of each month to discuss plans for furthering the pro gress of the work. The number of state workers has been ma terially increased and the work in all branches has been ex panded, which necessitates a thoro understanding of relationships that must exist under such organization. War emergency projects have modified many plans in practi cally all branches, as food production and conservation were the first considerations during the period of the war . Nevertheless, it was not the policy to overlook the constructive educational work that the Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so successfully to this point in its period of growth. FIG. 2.-Long staple cotton, Dade county

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Annual Report, 1918 REPORT . OF HOG CHOLERA WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. 21 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the Federal Repre sentative in the educational and demonstrational hog cholera work in the State for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, A.H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge. The educational and demonstrational work in hog cholera control was conducted on the same general plans of last year. Farmers' institutes, county agents' meetings, special hog cholera meetings and livestock meetings were attended and addresses made on the care and control of diseases of livestock, particularly hog . cholera. Visits were made to infected and free farms for purposes of observation and advice, and personal interviews were had with farmers on cholera problems. HOG CHOLERA LOSSES REDUCED I am pleased to report this much dreaded disease is at. the lowest ebb it has been since the great epidemic of 1912-13:-14. This decrease has been slow but steady and due to the use of anti hog cholera serum. Much credit is due the county agents, who were the pioneers in this line of duty, for their efficient work in inoculating against cholera. Federal statistics show that cholera losses in the nation were reduced from 118.9 per 1,000 head in 1914 to . 42.1 per 1,000 head in 1918, the lowest in 35 years. This reflects Florida conditions quite correctly. All hog cholera serum imported into the State is manufactured in establishments under Federal inspection. All serum made within the State is under the supervision of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. Hog cholera virus used simultaneously with the serum is subject to similar control. During the past year the cholera work in the State has been divided into the Educational and Regulatory forces, the former with headquarters at and cooperating with the Extension Di vision of the University of Florida . .. The latter, with head .. quarters at Tallahassee, cooperates with the State Live Stoch:

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22 Florida Cooperative Extension Sanitary Board in application of cholera preventative treatment and sanitation of infected premises. The Regulatory forces have divided the State into districts with a veterinary inspector in each, whose duty is to treat all hogs in that district for those who ask for his services. The following report will show in detail the activity for the year just closed. STATISTICAL. REPORT Number of visits to counties in which work was conducted...................... 229 Number of addresses made............................................................................ 126 (a) Number illustrated by stereopticon views.................................... 50 (b) Total attendance .................................................................................. 11,471 Number of demonstrations of preventive treatment........................... ..... 148 (a) Where serum alone was used............................................................ 32 (b) Where simultaneous inoculation was used.................................... 116 (c) Number of hogs treated .................................................................... 3,664 (d) Total attendance at demonstrations.............................................. 744. Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog cholera or observing conditions and giving advice................................ 769 Number of farmers and hog raisers personally inten;iewed.................. 2,133 Number of persons individually instructed and placed in a position to properly administer the serum preventive treatment........................ 92 (a) County agents .................................................................................... 28 (b) Practicing veterinarians 7 (c) Hog owners .......................................... _................................................ 57 My work the past year has taken me to practically every county in the State and everywhere I find an awakened interest in the swine industry, also a more general knowledge of hog cholera and its prevention. I OBSERVATIONS REGARDING LOSSES As I have viewed the swine industry of the State the past four years, I find two factors which stand out prominently as a source of great annoyance and loss to the farmers. These losses thru sickness and death are caused by carelessness on the part of the farmers, first, in not providing shelter to protect the pig~ against the cold rains and storms. Fifty percent or more of the range pigs die every year before reaching two weeks of age. The wildcat and buzzard get a portion, but the greatest loss is due to exposure to cold rains and storms. What is true of the range pigs is observed also in the other pigs, but to a lesser degree, depending upon the care ~nd protection provided them. The second condition producing disease and loss is due to turning hogs, thin in flesh or with worm infections, into peanut fields. For a period varying from a few days .to a few weeks,

PAGE 24

Annual R e port, 191 8 23 the pigs do well and show remarkable gains, then a change often occurs, many of the pigs getting sick at the same time and being similarly affected. The trouble is then often mistaken for cholera. A practice often followed when turning hogs into peanut fields, particularly open range hogs, is to inoculate them as a protection against cholera. I have been called to investigate reported out breaks of cholera, and investigations revealed no cholera present but conditions due to toxic trouble following peanut feeding as above described. Fm. 3 . -Peanut booth at Alachua county fair

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24 Florida Cooperati ve E x t e nsion REPORT OF BEEF CATTLE SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, D irec tor. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the agent in animal husbandry, specializing in beef cattle work, for the six months ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully , WM. H . . BLACK , Ag en t in Animal H usbandry. In entering this field I realized that my first step toward the improvement of the beef cattle industry would be to familiarize myself with the existing conditions thruout the State. I gave especial attention to the pastures and forages grown and the class of cattle found in the different sections of the State. After traveling in several counties and being impressed by the thousands of acres of land not under cultivation nor pastured by livestock, it seemed apparent to me that more livestock was needed. After making a survey of the range cattle thruout the State, I came to the conclusion that a better grade . of cattle was much more important than increased numbers. Better cattle, particularly bulls, were needed to be used with the native cattle in order to grade them up. About 1,500 head of Texas cattle were shipped into the State Fm . 4.-Angus calves from cows purchased in Texas in 1917

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Annual Report, 1918 25 luring the fall of 1917. The greater part of these cattle were )ulls of the beef breeds, Hereford, Angus and Shorthorn. These cattle were widely distributed thru central, northern and western Florida. I spent considerable time inspecting these cattle to determine whether or not I should advise the bringing in of more of them from the Southwest. Texas is the only state in the South that really has a surplus. I have been able to get definite information on 1168 head of cattle purchased from Texas in 1917. This data shows that there were 167 Aberdeen Angus, consisting of 11 males and 156 females. Of the females, 76 were bred before purchasing, and 62 of them had raised calves. Of Herefords, there were 981 head, consisting of 42 bulls and 830 cows and heifers, and the remainder were calves. Of these females 389 were bred before purchasing, and 360 had dropped calves since coming to the State. Of Shorthorns, there were 20 head purchased, consisting of one male and 19 females. Of these, 18 were bred before pur chasing, and 17 dropped calves after arriving in Florida. The 1168 head consisted of 54 bulls, 1005 cows and heifers and 109 calves. From the 1005 cows, 483 were with calf when purchased, and 449 raised their calves, showing a calf crop of 92%. Up to November 1918 the reports show the loss of one bull, 20 cows and heifers and no deaths among calves that arrived safely. In some instances, several calves were lost in shipping, and in a few cases some older animals died enroute. The above losses are what actually happened in Florida and represent a loss of 1.8%. . The reports did not include those cattle that were put on the larger ranges of southern Florida, as it was impossible to get any definite information there. The losses would no doubt be somewhat greater where the Texas cattle were turned out on the range and left there indefinitely. In general the Texas cattle have done well in Florida, es pecially where they have had some attention. When they have been turned out on the range to hustle for themselves for the entire year, they have not been so satisfactory. Feed is the im portant factor, and where this is provided the cattle will thrive. The severe drought in Texas during 1918 again caused heavy losses of range cattle. As a result of my efforts it is estimated

PAGE 27

26 Florida Cooperatiye Extension I I that 1600 of these cattle were brought into Florida. These were not so widely distributed as in ' the preceding year, as only those farmers who were raising hay, forage and feed were en couraged to buy. The cattle that were brought in from Texas during 1918 con sisted of the following registered , stock: 40 Hereford, 2 Angus, and 6 Shorthorn bulls; 14 Hereford cows; 55 Hereford and 1 Shorthorn heifers ; and 10 Hereford calves. The grade stock consisted of 40 Hereford cows; 682 Hereford, 39 Angus, and 32 Shorthorn heifers; 250 Hereford, 125 Angus, and 100 Shorthorn steers. Aside from the distribution of Texas cattle, some other well bred cattle were placed over the State, principally for breeding purposes. These consisted of 432 registered Hereford bulls ; 88 cows; 71 heifers; and 14 calves. There were 101 grade Here ford cows; 3 bulls; 320 heifers; 427 calves; and 220 steers. Aberdeen Angus: 16 registered and 23 grade bulls; 19 registered and 162 grade cows; 43 registered and 55 grade heifers; 2 registered and 16 grade calves; and 300 grade steers. Short horns: 21 registered and 18 grade bulls; 14 registered and 100 grade cows; 2 registered and 260 grade heifers; 16 grade calves; and 150 grade steers. The work carried out thru this office may be summed up as follows: 128 Registered cattle brought in. 1269 Grade cattle brought in. 312 Registered cattle placed within the State. 2161 . Grades placed within the State. 806 Letters written. 30000 Circulars mailed out. 7 449 Miles traveled by rail. 3674 Miles traveled by auto. 8 Lectures given. 101 Farms visited. 75 Days spent in the office. 83 Days spent in the field.

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Annual Report, 1918 27 REPORT OF EXTENSION POULTRY HUSBANDMAN P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the work cif the exten sion poultry husbandman for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, N. W. SANBORN, Extension Poultry Husbandman. POULTRY CONDITIONS IN THE STATE The work of the extension poultry husbandman as reported extends from April 20 to December 31. During this time 9532 miles were' traveled by rail and boat, and 1943 by auto and team; 36 lectures were given, with a total attendance of 2753; 485 letters were written and 3500 circular letters issued ; 219 farms were visited. It has been the work of the year to increase poultry production along the various lines. Florida needs more hens on her farms, but with better bred stock and good care and feeds the egg output of the State could be increased 40% with the present number of hens. Last spring production was normal on the farm and in the backyard. As a rule, it was below normal on the commercial poultry farm, few of them being able to pay the high cost of feed necessary to . run the farm under war conditions. Feed was scarce and costly, labor hard to find and keep, and some farms sold out every chicken and went out of business. Since early summer there have been some changes in conditions. Prices for live poultry have ranged higher than ever before known in Florida, and eggs have maintained a high average price. While grain feeds are still high fa cost there is a satisfactory margin between cost and selling price of eggs and poultry. The back yard flock, as well as the farm flock, is a good business venture in .• Florida today. The commercial poultry farm in Florida should be a success ; that more are not a success is due to the same reason that all folks do not make a living when they be come grocers, doctors . or teachers. The successful farms in Florida that are keeping layers by the hundreds, and in a few cases by the thousands, have reached these numbers by a slow and steady growth. No state can raise better poultry than Florida. No state can supply the

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28 Florida Cooperative E x t ens ion poultry pasture of green succulent feeds more abundantly than Florida. POULTRY SCHOOLS The work of the year has been largely done thru the coopera tion of the county and home demonstration agents. These men and women ha ve been real assets in the poultry work. Two poultry school s have been held, one at Fort Lauderdale and the other at Dade City, and except for influenza a third wou ld have been held at Orlando. The newspaper press of the State has been wonderfully good in its use of the poultry material sent out thru the Agricultural News Service of the University. There are farms in Florida that have no chickens . There are farms that have a dozen hens where there should be fifty. The best market in Florida is the home table, and the farm that does not produce a full supply of eggs and fryers is not complete. It is the work of the extension poultry hu sba ndman to stimu late larger production on the farm, that the family be better fed, that the community get more eggs and poultry, and that Florida at least produce her own poultry products. FIG. 5.-Poultry exhibited by club members

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Annual Report, 1918 REPORT OF STATE AGENT P.H. Rolfs, Director. 29 SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. This report indicates that the activities and the interest in the work have been maintained even to a larger degree than usual. The support given this work in the past has been largely increased. Merchants, bankers, and people of the State generally are giving it their most hearty support. This is particularly evidenced by the assistance given by the county commissioners and others in increasing appropriations for the purpose of get ting the best type of men. County agents were called upon to help out with war activities, such as campaigns for Liberty Loan, Red Cross, War Savings Stamps, and Food Surveys. They were asked to assist in pro euring increased crop production, with the result that consider .able increase has been obtained in most of the staple crops, in spite of the scarcity and high price of labor. The vegetable garden campaign was responsible for an in crease in home vegetable production. In the course orthe year's activities the state agent attended 128 meetings, traveled 17,582 miles by rail, and 2,751 by auto -or other conveyance, and also visited 21 schools and made talks to the pupils. On December 31, there were 42 counties with full-time men, seven counties with four-day men, and five counties having .assistant agents. In the negro work, eleven counties had assist .ant agents in the Farm Makers' clubs, and worked for five and a half months. The following resume of some of-the most important work is .submitted. CROPS COTTON The acreage planted to cotton was below that of the previous :year, the damage by boll weevil causing a material reduction _ 'in the total yield. The dry weather of spring and early autumn :.also reduced the yield. A number of farmers in middle and south

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80 Plorida Cooperative Extension Florida grew some cotton experimentally with varying results. About 15,000 acres were grown in riew territory. The most of this was long staple. In the long staple counties more short than long staple cotton will be planted next year. CORN Dry weather during the growing . season reduced the corn yield fifty percent in some counties of northern and western Florida. Nevertheless there was an increase of 2,080,000 bushels of corn produced in the State over the previous year. PEANUTS The peanut crop has become a very important one, and is destined to become more so to supply the oil mills and for live stock feeding. We believe there was an increase of at least two hundred percent of the Spanish variety over any previous year. Mr. D. G. Rawls was employed for two months as peanut specialist, to instruct in the best methods of harvesting and . stacking Spanish peanuts. SWEET POTATOES The acreage planted to sweet potatoes was reduced, resulting in a smaller crop. The quality and price was above the average, and the farmers generally have been well pleased with the results obtained. Considerable interest was manifested in the erection of sweet potato storage houses. The agents were instructed to impress on the minds of the farmers the necessity of adequate sweet potato storage so that the crop could be taken care of without the usual heavy loss that occurs between harvesting time and spring. On account of the high cost of all building material no storage houses were built, but more farmers stored their crops in properly constructed ventilated banks. SMALL GRAIN Due to the prevalence of _ dry weather the acreage planted to oats and rye was reduced. While in many fields the stand was irregular, on account of poor seed, some good yields of grain were produced. Most of the crop was cut for hay or pastured. SUGAR CANE The sugar cane yield was somewhat of a disappointment for several reasons. Infestation of root-knot interfered considerably with the yield in the most important cane section, and in other

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Annual Report, 1918 31 sections the prolonged dry weather cut the crop short. However, most of the cane grown in the State is made into syrup and as the price was higher than usual, the crop was quite profitable. VELVET BEANS This crop has become a very important one in all sections of the State, and the acreage planted is on the increase. The dairy farmers in particular are planting more velvet beans for fall and winter feeding. DASHEENS On the flatwoods lands, dasheens is becoming an important crop for hog feeding. On soils that are suitable to its produc tion, a number of farmers report larger yields than from any . other root crops. TRUCK CROPS The work done by county agents in truck crops has been largely confined to the control of insect and disease pests. Several car loads of nitrate of soda sold by the government to truckers was distributed by county agents. This took much time, as the agents secured the orders, arranged for the payments, and dis tributed the nitrate from the cars. ASSISTANT AGENTS The appointment of assistants to the county agents has made it possible to take care of the extra work that the county agents were called upon to do during the period of the war. The assistants were assigned counties where their services could be of the greatest value for increased food production, and were paid entirely from Government funds appropriated for . that pur pose. They were selected with a view of giving them such train ing as would qualify them for county agents should vacancies occur where they would fit in. MEETINGS The state agent and assistants have been called upon to attend and deliver lectures at a great many meetings. At the Farmers' Ten-day Short Course held at the University addresses were made at different times. Lectures were given to the colored agents at their short course held at the A. & M. College for Negroes. The Home Demonstration short course held at Tallahassee was attended, and we assisted in the program.

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension The Citrus Seminar and Live Stock Round-Up was held in Gainesville September 24-27, and the extension workers took an active part. This was one of the most successful meetings of its kind that has ever been held on the campus. A tractor dem onstration was a main feature of the meeting, when six tractors were put into operation. FAIRS During 1918 two State Fairs were held in Jacksonville, the first in February, the other in December. The county agent staff gave their unstinted support to these. County exhibits were made at both fairs. I attended county fairs in Lake, Manatee, Orange, Lee and Jackson counties during the year. The general farm and live stock exhibits in some instances were not up to their usual mark. In Orange and Lee the fruit, vegetable, and poultry exhibits were better than usual. FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN An increased food production campaign was conducted be tween April 1 and 6 under the combined auspices of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Extension Division of the University of Florida. Mr. Clarendon Davis, Huntsville, Ala., was selected by Dr. Bradford Knapp to help in this. Meetings were conducted in Orlando, Tampa, Leesburg, Ocala, Gainesville, Live Oak, and Marianna, and were well attended by farmers and busip.ess men. Several meetings have been held in every county at different times dudng the year to stimulate food production. The county agents have been promoting this work to a large degree with gratifying results. Two important meetings of Directors and State Agents of the Southern States were held during the year, at Memphis, Tenn., May 16 to 17, and at Nashville, Tenn., October 7 to 8. The pur pose of these meetings was to formulate and perfect plans and policies governing Extension work in the fifteen southern states. AGENTS' MEETINGS The annual meeting of the county agents was held in Gaines ville, September 30 to October 5. Plans for the year's work were discussed by county agents and members of the staff. Lectures by the Agricultural teachers and others, were given daily. In

PAGE 34

Annual Report, 1918 33 fluenza cut the meeting short one day. For the benefit of .the county agents demonstrations in tractors were given by tractor companies. Six group meetings were held in March. In the western part of the State, at Marianna, Chipley and Bonifay; in the southern part, at Vero, West Palm Beach and Miami. These meetings. were beneficial, as they enabled . the men to get direct information from the most successful farmers in the respective counties visited. In the western and northern part of the State the agents visited the best livestock and staple crop farms. Volusia and Marion were the most southern counties represented . by agents at the northern meetings. In the southern part the agents visited the most important truck farms and citrus groves. The truck _ farms along the Paltn Beach Canal on Lake Okeechobee were of special interest. ORGANIZATION The organization of the farmers and truckers has been stressed during the year by all county agents. Success along this line has not been all that was desired. In some of the counties, however, gratifying results have been secured, and there is a greater tendency toward organiza tion in most counties. The peanut growers formed an organiza tion for the advancement of the industry. LIVESTOCK The livestock side of the agents' activities has been stressed : to a large degree. This has been more particularly along the line of growing feeds necessary for the maintenance of livestock and the cutting of hay at the right time and curing it in the proper _way. Some ~ounties have been able to show an increase in dairying. , This was especially true of Leon where during the summer, 1000 gallons of milk were shipped from Tallahassee daily. Orange county has made considerable progress in dairying by the pur chase of dairy cattle and providing pasturage and feeds. The dipping vat propaganda has been conducted with the usual vim. On November 5, 1918, nineteen counties voted for compulsory dipping. County agents have been prominent in 3

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34 Florida Cooperative Extension creating and promoting a strong favorable sentiment along this line. The hog population of the State has increased materially dur ing the year. Mr. Highfill reports an increase of 58.54% in purebred hogs in 27 counties during 1918. County agents have done a large amount of work in hog cholera inoculation, lending all the assistance possible to the representatives of the Live Stock Sanitary Board. Both forces have been working together harmoniously with good results. The number of silos has been materially increased, particularly where dairying has been stimulated. Many others have been deferred by the scarcity of labor and the high cost of material. GENERAL ACTIVITIES Number of visits made by county agents .................................. . .......... ... .. 38971 Number of miles traveled ........ .. ............ . ....................................... ..... ........ ... :.240286 Calls on agents relative to work ......... . . . ........ . .............. .. ... .. ....................... . .. 27903 Number of farmers' meetings held..... .. ......................... . ........................... . . .. 781 Number of meetings addressed........ ..... ........... .. ............. . .............. .. ........... . .. 1187 Total attendance.. . ............... . .................. ....... ..... . . . ......................................... . .. 70603 Number of field meetings held by agents..................... .. ............. . ........... . ..... 450 Total attendance at these meetings............................................. . . . ................ 7854 Percentage of time spent in office work. ......... ... .................. ,..................... . .. 22 Percentage of time spent in field work.......... ..... ........... ... ...... . ........ . ........ ... .. 78 Number of official letters written ............................................... . ............ .. .. 23582 Number of articles prepared for publication ... ......... ... : ............... :............ 1390 Number of circular letters issued . ........ . ......... , .. .. .. . ........ .. ........ ... .. . . .. ............ 13783 Number of bulletins of U. ~D. A. distributed .......... . ... . ..... . .. . ... .. . . ...... . .. 40374 Number of bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed ....... . .. 14920 Number of visits to schools.............................. . . . ........................................... 878 Number of schools assisted in outlining agricultural course. ... . . .............. 107 Number of short courses assisted in............................................. . .............. 12 Total attendance ......... .... ................ :.................... .... ............. . ............ .. ............ . . 889 ORGANIZATIONS Number of farmers' clubs agents have assisted in organizing .................... 109 Total . membership of these clubs .......... : ........................ .. ........................... . ..... 3363 MISCELLANEOUS Number of farmers attending short courses at college as result of agents' efforts .. .. .. . . . ... .... .... . ... ..................... . ... . .... . ...... ................. ...... ... . . ....... 72 Number of boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as result of club work ........... : ....................... .. ............ .... ................ ....... . ..... 117 Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as result of girls' club ,vork . .. .......... ... .... . ............ . .......... ... ............................................... . ..... . ..... 27 Number of times visited by specialists from College or the Department 846 Number of demonstrators, cooperators and club members making exhibits ... . . ... .. .... ............ . ...... ... .... ..... .... .. ...... ... ... .... .. .... ..... . ....... ... ............ .. . .. ... 265 Number of prizes won ........... . . . : ....................................... . .. . . . ...... .. .. . .... ... .. . ......... 189 Number of demonstrations in truck or small fruit.................................... . ..... 69 Number of farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance ................ .... .. 392 Number of farmers practicing fall plowing as result of county agents' work ...................... ... ...................... .. .. ... ........... . ..... ................................... . .... 1887

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Annual Report, 1918 35 FARM AND FARMSTEAD IMPROVEMENTS Number of buildings erected .. . ........ ~.. . .......... . ......... . ............ .. ....... ... .............. 105 Number of farm buildings improved .. ... ................... ... ......... . ......... .. .............. 130 Number of new building plans furnished.... .. .......... . ............................... .. .... 38 Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed......... . ..................... . .... 61 Number of home water systems installed or improved... .. ......... . ....... . ....... 46 Number" of water systems in State before demonstration work was started .......................................................................................................... 28 Number in the State now... . .... ... . . ........................... ... ....... .... .................... .. .... 124 Number of home lighting syste ms installed ..... ...... .. ......... ... ......... . .......... .. ... 44 Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work was started ..... .. ........ . .. . . . ... .. . . .. . ...... . .. . .. . .. . ... . .. . ..... .. .. ... ... .. .. . ....... . ............ .. . . Number of home grounds improved .......................... .. .... . . .. .......... . ........ . . . . . . . Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved .. ................... . ... . Number of homes screened against flies and mosquitoes ........... .. .........• .. ... Number of sanitary privies erected .. ..... ....... .. .......... . ........ . . ... ................ . . ..... . Number of telephone systems installed ......................................................... . Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation ..................... . Total acreage ........ . ..................... ..... ................ .. ................................. ... ........ . ... . Number of new pastures established .. . ......... .. .......... .. ............................... .... . Number of old pastures renovated .. ........ ....... . ... ..... . .... ... .. .. ..... . ... . ........ . . ... .. . Acreage comprised ........... . ........... . ......... .. ......... .. ....... . ................................... .. .. . Number of drainage systems established .... .. .......... . .......... . ........... . ............. . Number of farmers induced to drain their lands . .... .. . ... ..... .... . . .. ........ ........... . Total acreage drained: . 46 219 339. 282 64 125 689 9385 340 142 658 219 123 By tile. . . .. ...................................................... . ........ . .. .. ......... . ........ .... ........ ... .. 577 By ditch... . . . ....... ..... . . .... . ..... .. .. . . .. . . ....... .. . . . ....... .... ......... .............. .... . .... ........... 4988 Number of farmers who removed stumps ..... ... ........ .... ....... ... ......... ... ............ 1199 Total acreage stumped ............................. . ......... . ..................... .. .......... ... ........ ... . 12625 Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land....... .... ......... . .. .. . .. .... . .. . 10 Total acreage terraced ......................... . ........................ :................................... 578 Number of home gardens planted ........ . ........................................... . ......... ..... . 7169 Number of farmers saving surplus farm products for winter use ... ....... 2885 Number of farmers turning under cover crops ..... . .............................. ... ... 2430 Total acreage ............. .. ................. . ........ . ............. .. ........................................... .. .. 12269 Number of new implements and tools bought . ................... . ....... .... . ... ... .... . . ... 1717 DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATIONS CORN Number of demonstrators .......... ...... .............. ..... ....... . . ... ..... . .. ... ~. ....... . . . .... . . .. .... 684 Number of demonstrators reporting . .. .. . . .... ..... .. ... . ....... .. . .. ... . . ...... . .......... .. .... 258 . Total acreage grown under improved methods ........ ... ........ .. ...... : ............. . .... 3642 Average yield per acre, in bushels..... . ...... .. .......... . .. . ...... . .... ... ........ . ....... .... .. 21 Number of cooperators... ........ ... ... ....... .. .......... ... . .. .... . . .... .... . .... ....... ........... . . ..... 740 Total acreage grown by cooperators ............... . , ......... . ........... . ......................... 10629 Number planting selected seed ............. . ...... ... . . ......... .. ....... .... ......... . . . . .. ....... . .. . 347 Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres.......... .. .... ... ... . .... . . .. ... 295 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres.... 243 Number of acres harvested for silage . .... .. ................................................... 2755 . Number of acres "hogged down" ......... . ..... .. ............... .. . .. ... . .. .. . ... ..... .. .. . .... . ...... 2765 Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests.... .. ......... . .......... . ... 961 Number of farmers using better methods in growing corn this year .... 1724 Number of farmers so influenced since county agent work was started .. 7021 COTTON Number of demonstrators ............................................................................. . .. .. . . 215 Number of demonstrators reporting......................... . ......... .. ........................... 71 Total acreage grown under improved methods .................... . ........... .. ....... . . .... 1324 Average yield . seed cotton per acre, pounds........... ..... .... ... ............ . ................ 615 Number of cooperators ............... .. ......... ... ............... : ...................... :.................... 91 Total acreage grown by cooperators . . .. . .........................•.................. . ................ 1301

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36 Florida Cooperative Extension Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed .................................. 115 Number of farmers field selecting seed "for next year's crop ........................ 129 Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres...................................... 97 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres........ 19 Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests .......................... : ......... 562 Number of farmers using better cultural methods .......... a 349 OATS Number of demonstrators .......... :..................................................................... 52 Number of demonstrators reporting ...................................... ." ..................... 25 Total acreage grown under improved methods............................................ 651 Number of cooperators.................................................................................... 163 Total acreage grown by cooperators............................................................ 1620 Number of acres thrashed for grain........................................................... 248 Number of acres cut for hay.......................................................................... 565 Number of acres grazed off............................................................................ 2814 Estimated value per acre ............................ , ................................................... $ 10.00 Number of acres turned under for soil improvement................................ 945 Number of bushels of seed treated for smut and rust............................ 137 Number of farmers planting oats for the first time ............................. : ...... 343 RYE Number of demonstrators................................................................................ 35 Number of demonstrators reporting ................................................. :.............. 20 Total acreage grown under improved methods............................................ 371 Number of cooperators ................................................... : .................... ,............. 71 Total acreage grown by cooperators ......................................................... : .... 460 Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain.................................. 190 Number of demonstration acres cut for hay.............................................. 15 Number of acres grazed off .............................................................................. 1341 Estimated value, per acre ........................................................................ , ....... $ 7.00 Number of acres turned under ............................................................ : ............. 774 Number of farmers planting rye for the first time...................................... 165 Note: Rye is_ grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pasture crop. VELVET BEANS Number of demonstrators ..... , ................................................... ' ...................... 68 Number of demonstrators reporting............................................................ 51 Total acreage grown under demonstration methods.................................. 1233, Number of cooperators.................................................................................... 172 Total acreage grown by cooperators .......................................... ,................. 881 Total acreage hulled for seed........................................................................ 168 Total acreage cut for hay .................................. ,............................................. 12 Number of acres grazed off .............................. ,........................................... 1584 Estimated value per acre of grazing ............................................................ $ 30.00 Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence ................................. ...................................................................... 524 , Percentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 10%; third year, 10%; fourth year, 10%; fifth year, 15%. PEANUTS Number of demonstrators ............ ,................................................................... 150 Number of demonstrators reporting.............................................................. 104 Total acreage grown under demonstration methods.................................. 2729 Average yield seed per acre, Jmshels.......................................................... 35 Average yield hay per acre, tons................................................................ 1 Number of cooperators.................................................................................... 262 Total acreage grown by cooperators............................................................ 1751 :&~t:i :~~::i: ~~tkf~/1i:;~~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ;Number of acres grazed off ........................................................................ ., 529 "E'stimated value per acre of grazing ....... , .......................... , .......... : .............. $ 25.00

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Annual Report, 1918 37 Total number of acres inoculated ................... ,.. .... . ... . . . ................................. 407 Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' in. fluence 10756 Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county . agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 25 % ; fourth year, 40%. COWPEAS Number of demonstrators . ... _ . ................ . .......... .. ..... .. ...................... . ............ .. .... . . 66 Number of demonstrators reporting............................... .. ................ ... ..... .. ... . . 34 Total acreage grown on demonstration farms .. ................. . ..... . ... .... .... .. ... .... 1377 Number of cooperators ....... . .......................................... . .......... .. ..................... ,.. 92 Total acreage grown by cooperators . .. .... ... ................ . ...... . .............. .... ..... . ... . ... 752 Total acreage thrashed for seed.. .......... ... .......... .. .... . . . ...................................... 41 Total acreage cut for hay .. ... ... .. .... . ............. . ...................... . ........... . .................... 1893 Number of acres grazed off .............................. . ........... . ....................... . ... ... ....... 206 Acreage turned under for soil improvement . .......... ... ...................... ... ... ... .... : 171 Total number of acres inoculated . . ............................. . .... . . ........ ... .. ..... . ..... . ....... 139 Estimated acreage planted thru the county agents' influence .......... . ..... .. 1159 Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 15%; fourth year, 15 % ; fifth year, 22%. SWEET POTATOES Number of demonstrators ............... . ........... . ............ . .......... . ..... . ............................ 26 Number of demonstrators reporting. :. .......... .... .. .... ........ ... ... . ...... . ................. . ... 8 Total acreage grown by demonstrators .. .. .... . . .. ... ..................... .... .. . ............. ... ... 49 Acreage treated for diseases and pests......... .. ..... . .... . .................. . ..................... 53 Estimated increased acreage ............... . .... .... .. .. ..... .......... ....... ... .... .. .... ........ .... ..... 410 IRISH POTATOES Number of demonstrators.... .. ........ .. ..... . .... .. ................................................ . ..... .. 57 Number of demonstrators reporting. ......... ................................ . .. . ................... 47 Total acreage grown by demonstrators ............... .... ................ . .............. : ......... 541 Acreage treated for diseases and pests .. ........ . .... . ..... . .... .. ...... . ..... .. ................ . . 1211 Estimated increased acreage ... . ............................. . ....................... ... .... . ............. 1000 FRUITS Number of demonstration groves . ............. . ......... , .. ....... :.. .... .... .. ........ ... ........ 164 Total number of trees in these demonstrations ............ : .. ............ ........ .. ..... 131665 Groves inspected ...... . ........... . ..... . ...... . ........ . ........... 1259; number of trees 400185 Groves pruned ... , .................................................... 302; number of trees 135424 Groves sprayed .......................... . ............. . ... . ..... . ... 436; number of trees 120749 Groves planted .. . ................................................... 29; number of trees 13649 Totals ..... . .... . ..... .. .. ............ . ... ....... .. . : . ..... . ........ 2026 . Number of other groves where agents gave assistance .. .... .. .... . ..... . ...... . DAIRY CATTLE 670007 860 Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' in .fluence: Bulls ........... . ..... .. .......... . ............................... . . . .. . ..... . ... ...... .. ... .. ................. .. .. 52 Cows or heifers .......................................... . .......... , .. ................. . .......... ... ... . . 552 Number of cows tested for production ..................... ... ... . ..... . ...... . .... ... ... . ...... . . 655 Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations ..... .... ..... . . .... .. ..... .. ..... 307 Number of cattle fed .... ... .... . ................. .. .................. , .......... .. ... : ......................... 561 Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised. . ........ . . ........... ... . ... .... 3 Number of cows in these demonstrations.... . ................ . ............ . ................... 8 Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started .... 1326 Number of purebred dairy cows now ........ ..... . ..... ....... ........... ............ . .. ............ 2550

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension BEEFCATTLE Number of pure blood beef cattle bought thru county agents' influence: Bulls .............................................................................................................. 165 Cows or heifers ............................................................................................ 879 Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes ........................ 342 Number of beef breeding herds started............................................................ 32 Number of feeding cattle introduced ................................................................ 225 Number of beef feeding demonstrations........................................................ 8 Number of cattle fed ................... : ................................................ , ......... : ............. 251 Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated by county agents .............................................................. ............................. 3338 Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed .................... ,............. 4 Number of members .............................................................................................. 133 HOGS Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to county agents' influence: Boars ................................................................................................ ........... 652 Sows or gilts................................................................................................ 1446 Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ............... .................. , .... ,....... 4049 Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents.................. 320 Number of hogs ................................................................................................... 1710 Number of hog pastures started ................. :.................................................... 668 Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs ......... , ........ 1399 Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by county agents .............................................................................................. 15154 POULTRY Number of poultry demonstrations supervised............................................ 14 Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents .......................................................................................................... 7283 Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved ....... 243 Number of birds on these farms ...................................................................... 12625 Number of eggs produced ................. : ................................................................ 6440 Average price, dozen .......................................................................................... $ .35 LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers to have treated for diseases or pests: Cattle ................................................................................................................ 153420 Hogs ........................... , ........................................................................................ 129695 Horses .............................. :................................................................................. 737 FERTILIZER Number of farmers advised regarding proper use of fertilizers ................ 3801 Number of fertilizer demonstrations ................................................................ 185 Tons of fertilizer used ......................................... :................................................ 450 Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively............................ 78 Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers .................................................. 192 . Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers .................... : .... .' 605 MANURE Number of farmers induced totake better care of manure.................... 1036 Number that provided. sheds .................................................................. ~....... 162 Number composting farm manure ..................................... :.......................... 963 Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators .............. :..... 104 Number of farmers mixirig raw phosphates with farm manure............ 1719 Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons .... , ................................... 117141

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Annual Report, 1918 39 SILOS Number of silos built in the State this year ... ........... . .... . .. . . .. ... . . ..... ... ... .. . ......... 244 Number built as result of county agents' advice .... . .... ... .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. ....... .. . . 131 Number in State when county agents' work was started .... . . ... . .. . . ..... . . .. .. . . . . . 64 Number of silos in the State now ....... ... ... .. .. . ... ... . .. ... ... .. . .... .. .. . ... .. . . .. ... . .. ... ....... 548 Tile, 7; cement, 40; stave, 94; stone, 15; other material, 392. LIME Number of farmers using lime due to county agents' influence . . . . . ... ... . .. 306 Quantity of lime used, in tons ... . ... . .. ... . .... . . .... . .... .. .. .. . .. .... . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . .. .. .. ....... . 1023 Number of acres limed .. .. . ... ... . .... . .. .. .... . .. .. . . ...... . . .. .... . . .. . ... .... . .... .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . ... . ... .. . 2686 NEGRO WORK . The negro work has been conducted on the same plan as formerly, but was enlarged to meet the demand for increased food production and conservation. The most important work was carried out by the Farm Makers and Home Makers' clubs, where negro boys and girls are taught crop and live stock pro duction, canning and gardening. Much time was given negro farmers to assist them in a greater production of farm crops, hogs, and poultry. Assistant club agents were assigned to counties and were paid entirely from the State oi Government funds. Practically all the assistants equipped themselves with necessary conveyances for traveling in the county. These clubs are under the direct supervision of A. A. Turner, manager, Farm and Home Makers' c\ubs, who reports to the boys' clul? agent for Farm Makers' clubs, and the state home demonstration agent for the work in Home Makers' clubs. The club work has made creditable progress, and . some excellent aisplays were exhibited at various fairs. ,, A summary of the report of the Farm Makers' club and of the Home Makers' club, submitted . by A. A. Turner, manager club agent, is as follows: FARM MAKERS' CLUBS During the year twelve assistants were assigned to twelve counties . for an average period of five . months; also seventeen women assistants worked in seventeen counties for a period of six months on the average. The work of these agents was pri marily with boys and girls, yet in the production and conserva tion of food, feed and forage, much work was done for the men and the women as well.

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40' Florida Cooperative Extension I There were 849 boys enrolled, of which 384 reported; also 1273 girls, of which 598 reported. Many reports were not available at the close of the season, due to the epidemic of influenza. Also, there were no agents in the field at the close of the crop season. The Farm Makers' clubs produced 17,280 bushels of corn; peanuts and potatoes at an average cost of 44 cents per bushel. The highest yield of corn produced was 83 bushels; peanuts, 28 bushels; sweet potatoes, 92 bushels per acre. HOME MAKERS' C~UBS The report of the Home Makers' clubs shows that these clubs filled 107,100 containers with fruits and vegetables, valued at $12,852. This was put up at a cost of $6,961.50, leaving a margin of $5,890.50. The largest item of expense was for containers . The club members and their parents purchased over $5000 worth of containers for putting up surplus fruits and vegetables. In counties where only one agent was assigned an attempt was made to do some of the work usually done by both, so the negro boys and girls received some training in every county in which there was an agent assigned. The negro club work received recognition from county fairs, boards of trade, and banks by contributions of $245. This was awarded in prizes and in scholarships to the annual short course held at the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tallahassee. The State Agent for home demonstration work contributed 8000 labels, and a coop of purebred chickens was donated by the A. and M. College. Those competing for prizes were required to submit essays entitled "How I Made My Crop". The annual short course for colored boys and girls was held, with an attendance of eleven boys and fifteen girls. Some of these paid their own 1,Xpenses, and the others received scholar ships. The year's work has been modified to some extent by the war activities, nevertheless the results produced show substantial progress. As the work becomes better organized it can be en larged in various ways. The following statistical reports show the accomplishments of these clubs:

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Annual R e port, 191 8 41 TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OF FA RM MAKERS' CLUBS I 14 COUNTIES Number enrolled. ................... ........ ........... ..... .......... ....... .............. . ...... 849 Number reporting . .. . .... ................. . . ... . .......................... . .... .. ..... . ..... . . ... 384 Cl ub s organized . ... .... . .. .. . .................. . . ............................ . ..... . ......... ... , 105 Plots s up ervised . ...... ..... . . .. .... ..... . .. . .................................. ... .. . ... . . ........ 784 Bu s h e l s corn raised ........... ... .. ..... . .. ... .............. ... ................ .. ... . ............ 5760 Bushels peanuts raised ................................................................. ... .. 2688 . . ~~~.~~~ :::::: : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::::::::: :::: ::::::: : : : ::: : Bf~~ Months worked (average) ......... . ..................... . ..... . .. .. . .. . .... .... . . . . ...... 5 L etters written ..... .......... .... .. ........ ..... .. . ....... . .. ........ ............ . . . .... ....... . .. 1993 Members v isit ed ... . ................... .. ......................................................... 1 8 18 Demonstrators visited ... .............. .... .. . .......... . ....... .. ... ,...... ... ....... ........ 895 Schools and clubs visited ................ .... ..... .. . ..... .. . . . .. ...... ...... ...... ..... . .. 542 Meetings held ............... . ... ... . . .. .... ...... ........ . ........ . ............... ... ... ..... ........ 404 Tot a l attendance ............................................... . .. . ............ . ... . .. ... .... . .... 15044 Total miles traveled . . ... ....................................... . .. .... ..... .. ... .............. . 21847 WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE HOME MAKERS' CLUBS IN 18 COUNTIES Number enrolled ............................................... . ................. . .............. 1273 Number reporting ......... . ... .. ............................................. . ... . .... . ........ 598 Clubs organized ........... .. ................ ..... .... ... ........ ... ... . ..... . . . .... .............. 145 Plots supervised .................................... ... . . ...... .. ....... . ..... ...... ...... ...... 1182 Containers filled ... . ... ..... ........ ... ....................... ... ............... .. .............. 107100 Months worked (average) ...... ..... .... ..... ............... . .... ...... .... .... ........ 6 Letter s written ..... ....... . . ... ............. .. ............... ... ............... .. ............... 3778 Members visited ... . ... .. .. ...................... . .. ... ..... .... ....... ... ... . . ...... .. ......... 2281 Plots visited.. .. ....... .. .......... .... . ........ . . . ... . ... ... ..... ..... .... . .. . ..... . ..... ... .. .. ... 1653 Schools or clubs visited .... . .... .. . .. ..... ............... .... . . ............ ..... ....... .... 982 Meetings held .. . .. ..... ... .... .... . . .. .. ... . .. ... .... . . .. .......................... .. .. . ......... .. 744 Total attendance ........................... . .. ......... . ...... .. ... . ...... . . .. .. ... .. . .. .. . .. . .. 19615 Individual canners bought ....................... . ..... .. .......... . .... .. . . ........ . .. ... 442 Total miles traveled by agents .......... ..... ..... . .. . ......... . .. .. ........... . .... 163 59 FIG. 6.-Demonstration with tractor plow at county agents' meeting

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42 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND EAST FL0RIOA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for North and East Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, E.W. JENKINS, District Agent. During the year I traveled by rail 10,194 miles and by auto mobile 2,972, making a total of 13,166 miles; 107 official visits have been made to the county agents, and 58 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings there was a total at tendance of 2,517. Accompanied by the county agent, 138 farmers were visited. From these farms I was able to see the average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to the county agents. The general interest in the work is shown by the county ap propriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, which is $15,100 as compared with $12,300 for the year ending June 30, 1918. ORGANIZATION Organization has been a special feature of the county work for the last two years. Practically every county in the district has one or more. Several plans are used to form these organiza tions, but the most effective one has been for the county agent to meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner ap point a man in his respective district. These five men constitute a county agricultural committee. Each inan, with the help of the county agent, appoints in his respective district four other men who compose a district agricultural committee. Each dis trict committee assists the county agent in planning and carry ing out the work. Owing to the fact that a great portion of their time is required to further crop production, food conservation, and food surveys, the organization work has been of more than usual benefit to the county agents. CORN The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some sections of the district the lack of rain reduced the yield . to

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Annual Report, 1918 43 some extent. In these sections the demonstration fields suffered very little, thus showing the value of proper methods of soil preparation, fertilization, and cultivation. A good many of the counties are not only making sufficient corn for home use, but are shipping it by the carload to outside markets. . Reports from 181 demonstrators in 13 counties show an average yield of 38.35 bushels per acre on their demonstra tions. Elevators and storage houses have been erected in Gainesville, Jacksonville, and Ocala, to assist in preparing the corn for market. In other places much corn has been loaded on cars and shipped to other points. The county agents have done much work in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their corn to kill the weevils. COTTON The acreage planted to cotton was decreased in the counties of the northern portion of the district. The counties in the southern part of the district increased their acreage of cotton, and some of these counties more than doubled that of 1917. Every county in the district was heavily infested with boll weevils. An effort was made to induce farmers to adopt the proper metho of cultivation under boll weevil conditions. Owing to the late summer rains and also to the fact that Sea Island cotton was planted, it being a late-maturing variety, the loss was exceedingly heavy. VELVET BEANS Realizing the necessity of soil improvement and also the im port i mce of growing an abundance of feed for the increased number of livestock on almost every farm •. in the district, an effort was made by the county agents to induce the , farmers to plant a large acreage of velvet beans ; The results were very gratifying. Velvet beans were planted in almost every corn field. In a number of places feed mills have been installed for the purpose of making feed of velvet beans, corn, and other products. Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an . excellent feed for horses and cattle. This feed finds a ready market . Large quantities of beans are fed whole in the pods, either dry or soaked. This bean is coming to be a staple article, both as a feed for livestock and as a soil improver.

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44 Florida Cooperative Ext e nsion PEANUTS The counties which have reduced their cotton acreage on ac count of the boll weevil have in most cases replaced this acreage with peanuts. The peanuts are grown both for hogs and for commercial purposes. Peanuts for hogs have been grown thru out the district for a long time. They have proven a profitable crop when fed to hogs with other suitable feed. When grown for commercial purposes the Spanish variety which yields a large percentage of. oil is usually planted. The acreage of this variety was very large and the yield fairly good. The indications are that cotton farming will be largely replaced by peanuts. Only one peanut oil mill was built in the district and the indi cations are that other mills will be needed to take care of the crops produced. HOGS The county agents foster the production of more and better hogs and the need of such work is evident. As a result of th~ efforts of the county agents along this line the farmers have noi;. only produced pork to supply their homes, but hundreds of cars of hogs have been shipped to the packing houses. The work , has developed so rapidly . that the local packing houses have been forced to increase thei . r , capacity. Other in creases will be necessary or the farmers will haveto ship to outside markets. Many farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some sections: where an individual farmer does not have enough hogs to make a carload the , coqnty agents assist in working up a cooperative shipment . Where a community is organized it is an easy matter to arrange for cooperative shipping. A great many purebred hogs have been brought into the district thru the influence of the county agent: Realizing the importance of having good pastures for hogs~ the agents have made a special effort along this line of work~ and 394 farmers have been influenced to put in pastures of oats~ rye, and rape for winter and early spring grazing. Much effort has been spent in keeping cholera and other diseases out of herds of hogs. The agents of the district have given the simultaneous treatment to more than 17,000 head of hogs. They have advised worm treatment for more than 5,000,, and treatment for 16,000 head with other diseases.

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Annual R e port, 191 8 45 FIG. 7.-Banked sweet potatoes CATTLE The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of pure bred or grade cattle have been shipped into the district for breeding purpo ses. All agents hav e st r essed the importance of better pastures and more feed for cattle. While the cost of cement and labor kept many s ilo s from being built, the number was increased over 20 percent. As a means of improving the cattle, the demonstration agents .are working with other forces in the educational campaign, leading to the eradication of the cattle tick. This work has -c onsisted in pointing out and explaining the loss caused by the t ick, also in giving aid in the construction of dipping vats. Most -0f the dipping vats constructed under agents' supervision this year are community vats. By means of these vats some of the most effective tick eradication educational work is accomplished. 'The cattle owners in a community, or within a radiu s of a few miles, join in constructing a central vat, each one contributing -eit her money or labor. Such citizens thus fee l that the vat belongs to them ; they use it freely and take pride in telling other s of the merits of dipping catt l e.

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46 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT FOR WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I herewith submit a report of the emergency district agent for West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, S. W. HIATT, Emergency District Agent. The farmers' cooperative demonstration work in the Western District, comprising eighteen counties west of the Suwannee River, has been divided into two classes; the regular or full time agent work where the counties cooperate financially, and the Emergency work where the agent is employed only four days a week. Three counties, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and LaFayette, were in the emergency group. The work of the emergency agents in these counties proved so efficient that at the end of the fiscal year, each board of county commisisoners voted a substantial appropriation to employ a county agent. Assistant agents were supplied in Holmes and Jackson from March until July, and again in October. Madison county was supplied with an assistant in November. In October, Bay county dropped out of the work, and the counties of Wakulla and Walton were transferred from the regular to _ the emergency basis on account of the failure of the county commissioners to make appropriations in support of the work. The county agents have been required to modify their regular plan of work in order to make the Food Surveys, handle the distribution of nitrate of soda to farmers, and aid in Liberty Loan, War Savings Stamps, and Red Cross campaigns. Nine county agents reporting show 1526 visits to demonstra tors, 945 to cooperators, 3203 to other farmers, 1175 consulta tions with business men, 2552 visits to club members. The num ber of miles travelled in connection with their work is 76,838; 5850 consultations in office, 225 farmers' meetings held, with a total attendance of 19,036. These agents report 104 field meet ings, with a total attendance of 3436; 7811 letters written; 303 articles written for publication; and the distribution of 15,78~ circulars and bulletins. Evidence of the appreciation and value of the county agent

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Annual Report, 1918 47 work has been shown by the increased appropriation from the thirteen counties now cooperating~ These counties have appro priated $14,780 as against $10,790 from the fourteen counties last year. Since January 1, 1918, I have made 150 official visits to county agents, attended 95 meetings, with a total attendance of 9203. I have travelled 18,397 miles by rail, 4729 by auto, making a total of 23,126 miles. Owing to the increased demand for the services of the county agent, plans to more thoroly systematize the work have been put in operation, with splendid results. Especial attention has been given to the increased production of feed and livestock. Demonstrations in general farm crops have not been given the usual attention on account of war work. ORGANIZATIONS In nearly every county there now exists some form of organiza tion cooperating with and assisting the agent in carrying on at least a portion of his work. Some organizations are composed of a central county agricultural committee made up of repre sentatives from each precinct or school district in the county. Others are more local and consist of community farmers' organi zations. The farmers have been able to save much money by cooperat ing in buying and selling fertilizers, farm products and live stock. The farmers of Gadsden county saved $31,120 by cG operating in the buying and selling of fertilizers and syrup. Holmes county farmers saved $12,000 thru the cooperative buying and selling of fertilizer, seed, farm products, and live stock. Cooperative shipments of over 20 cars of hogs were made from a few centers. CORN AND COTTON The corn crop was cut very short by a severe drought, extend ing from May until July. The dry weather of early summer retarded the depredations of the boll weevil, and a fairly good yield of short staple cotton was produced. Demonstrations in Santa ~osa and Washington counties show an increase of 800 pounds of seed cotton per acre over ordinary methods of culture under boll weevil conditions.

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48 Florida Cooperativ~ Extension PEANUTS This is one of the most important crops grown in this district, both as a cash crop and for the economical production of live stock. Before the planting season a systematic campaign was put on to increase the acreage, At the same time the county agent was encouraging the planting of peanuts he was endeavor ing to secure a sufficient acreage in each community to warrant the purchase of a picker. The result of this campaign was an increase of approximately 60,000 acres of peanuts, having a market value of $285,000, also the establishment of two oil mills. The production of peanuts as a market crop was a new venture to farmers in a large portion of the territory, and naturally some disappointments resulted, but as a whole the crop has been profitable. Especially is this true where instructions regarding the planting, cultivation and harvesting of the crop were closely followed. FEED AND FORAGE Looking to the development of the livestock industry in this district, special interest was taken in the increased production of feed and forage, velvet beans and cowpeas taking the lead in legume crops. The planting of sorghum for syrup and f9rage was materially increased. A campaign for increased cover crops of oats and rye to be used as winter pasture met with good results. IRISH POTATOES In Jackson, Washington, Holmes, Walton and Escambia coun ties, valuable assistance was rendered growers in caring for and marketing of this crop. In most of these counties the com mercial growing of Irish potatoes was a new venture, and while the low market nearly brought disaster to the grower, it was demonstrated that under normal conditions the crop in this section would prove profitable. BEEF CATTLE Increased interest is being taken in the production of beef cattle. Large numbers of range cattle are being fed out in velvet bean pastures, and several car loads of good grade and full blood cattle have been brought in from Texas, and placed

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Annual Report, 1918 49 on farms. . There has been an increasing demand for high grade and full blood bulls thruout the entire district. DAIRY CATTLE Interest in dairy cattle is increasing rapidly in some counties. Leon county takes the lead in this direction; . 96 farmers are now supplying a milk depot with milk. Approximately 200 un derground silos were put in this year, making a total of 350 for the county. The dairy cattle are being rapidly improved by the use of good bulls. The county agent has been active in assisting the dairymen, and largely due to his influence the price of milk has been raised from 25 to 32 cents per gallon, f. o. b. the station. Madison and Jefferson counties are also . making good progress in dairying. HOGS By far the most rapid development in livestock has been made in the production of hogs, both in numbers and quality, and also in sanitation and care of the herd. The county agents are directly responsible for the placing of over 1000 head of regis tered hogs on farms in the district. They have assisted in the establishment of over 800 hog pastures and are constantly being called upon by farmers for advice regarding the planting of ro tation crops for grazing purposes. A number of breeding herds of the leading breeds have been established and it is now possible for farmers to purchase animals of excellent quality at nearby points. HOG CHOLERA A great service has been rendered the hog raisers by the agents thru their efforts to control hog cholera by the proper use of serum and virus. Immunization of herds is now the rule and not the exception. In some counties the agents have been greatly relieved of this work by men working under the direction of the State Live Stock Sanitary Board. But in other counties this work still takes up a large portion of the agents' time , over 30,000 head having been treated by them. It is estimated that less than one fourth the usual number of hogs have died of cholera this year. Some counties have made appropriations for the purchase of serum to be supplied in limited quantities to 4

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50 Florida Cooperative Extension farmers, free of charge. _ Taylor county appropriated $3000 anc. LaFayette county $1000 for this purpose; others lesser amounts, DIPPING . VATS Tick eradication having been almost entirely taken over by the Live Stock Sanitary Board, the agents have been relieved of this work in many counties. However, assistance has been ren dered whenever needed, and in some instances the county agent has supervised the construction of vats and dipping of cattle. IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY Owing to the shortage of labor on farms, a splendid oppor tunity was offered to encourage the use of improved farm ma chinery and labor saving devices. Proof of the fact that the county agent did not neglect this opportunity is a record from seven counties of the purchase of over 60 farm tractors and a large amount of improved machinery, and also the stumping of 5775 acres of land. FAIRS Several community and county fairs were called off on account of the epidemic of influenza. Assistance was rendered by the county and district agent at the Escambia county fair; at the _ __ _ __ _}yest Florida fair, held in Marianna, and the state fair in Ja.cksonville. Small farm exhibits were made at several club contests. Prospects are for a large number of community and county fairs next year. County exhibits from LaFayette, Madison, Leon, Gadsden, and . Escambia were shown at the state fair in Jacksonville.

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Annual Report, 1918 51 REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent. INCREASE IN STAPLE CROPS The work in the district 9f South Florida has had unusual cooperation and support during the past year. There was a continuous campaign for the production of more staple crops and livestock. The effect of this campaign has resulted in a greater supply of meat, corn, potatoes, feeds, and forage, on many farms where these products were formerly pur~ chased. An effort was made to reach every farmer in each county, either by farmers' meetings in the community, or personal visits to the farms by the county agent. CATTLE AND HOGS In Manatee and Orange counties, a campaign was started for more dairy cows on the farm. In Orange county the agent worked up the interest with the view of procuring a milk depot, so that the milk could be shipped in bulk during the summer months when local demand was light. Several cars of fine dairy cattle were shipped into this county during the year, and a few silos erected. Others plan to build silos when the cost of labor and material . get back to normal. Broward and Palm Beach counties are showing more interest in the dairy work. Silos are being erected and registered cattle of the Jersey, Guernsey, and Holstein-Friesian breeds are being introduced. The interest in improved beef. cattle was shown in several southern counties by the introduction of pure bred and grade beef cattlfi. Several large tracts of land have been fenced for pastures, also an increased acreage of land planted to forage crops for winter feeding. There was also an increased hog production in most every county. Several car loads have been shipped to market . . The agents are still activ~ in the co~trol of hog cholera, altho much

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52 Florida Cooperative Extension of the vaccination work has been .taken over by the Live Stock Sanitary Board'. ' . . .. CORN AND FORAGE There was an increased acreage of corn in all counties, but it was particularly noticeable iii Lee, Okeechobee, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade, Manatee, and Orange counties. These counties had grown comparatively little corn or forage in the past. More cow peas, velvet beans, and beggarweed were planted for soil improvement, a good part of which was grown in the winter truck growing lands. PEANUTS While there was no large commercial acreage. of peanuts planted in south Florida, there was an increased acreage in each county. Most of the crop was harvested by hogs. Some large fields were planted on the Everglade lands with good-results. SUGAR CANE AND SORGHUM There was an increased acreage of sugar cane in this district. A good portion of this has been saved for seed, and the rest made into syrup. Sorghum for syrup making was planted in several counties. This cane was ready to be made up in the late summer long before the sugar cane was mature. CITRUS DEMONSTRATIONS The spraying of citrus groves has received considerable at tention from a few county agents in the most important citrus sections. During the season of 1918 severe infestations of scale and whitefly were particularly noticeable. Thru the assistance of workers of the Experiment Station the county agents have been able to direct the spraying of several groves, with good results. Many groves coming under the supervision of county agents were affected severely with withertip. This required additional pruning and spraying. TRUCK DEMONSTRATIONS "The county agents have rendered valuable service iri the coR troi'of t:ruck diseases and 'insects. The cooperation of workers of

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Annual Report, 1918 53 the Experim~nt Station . was helpful ' in handling these '.' troubles, and the demonstration work in the trucking areas has largely been confined to this kind of work. In areas where large quantities of fertilizers are used the farmers submitted many. samples of fertilizer to the county agents to be transmitted to the State Chemist for analysis. Many of these samples proved to be below the guaranteed analy sis in one or more elements, and much information has been gained by the growers as to the fertilizer they were using. As the state law provides for a rebate to the farmer where the analysis is lower than the guarantee, the farmers were able to collect for the shortage. ORGANIZATION The county agents have met with some success in organization work. The general plan was to have five or more organizations in a county, with the county commissioner from each district as leader . This commissioner either acts as chairman or appoints a farmer in his district to act, thus providing for a leader in each of the commissioners' districts, to whom the county agents could submit plans and could discuss the needs of any com munity and of the county. Had it not been for these organiza tions, the amount of war work and the production of food stuffs made would have been impossible. They cooperated with other organizations working for a similar purpose. COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS TO SUPPORT WORK The increased cost of living and expenses required to carry on the work made it necessary to secure increased appropriation from the counties. In practically all counties the increase was provided for by the commissioners when the year's budget was made up. _ The appropriations for 1917-1918 for fifteen counties in which we had the work was $17,450, making the average something more than $1,100 per county. For 1918-1919, the appropriations for seventeen counties was $25,000, making the average some thing more than $1,450 per county. Okeechobee and Pinellas counties were added to the cooperat ing list during the year, thus giving the work to every county in the district with the exception of Monroe . There is very littie agriculture in this county.

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54 Florida Cooperative E xtension REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL C LUB AGENT P.H. Rol fs, D irector . Sm: I subm it her ew ith the report of t h e boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending D ece mber 3 1 , 1918. Respectfully, G . L . HERRIN G TO N, B ays' Clitb Ag ent. The objects of the boys' agricultura l clubs were defined by club agents from southern states at their meeting in Knoxville, Tenn., D ~cember 9-14, 1918, as follows: "To improve farm practices by instructing boys in correct agricultural method s." "To furnish an extensively organized means of effecting permanent improvement in agriculture and rural life." . "To put into practice the facts of scientific agriculture obtained from books, bulletins, etc." ' "To assist in the development of the spirit of cooperation in the family and in the comm unit y." "To dignify and magnify the vocation of the farmer by demonstrating that labor intelligently app lied to farming brings satisfactory returns." "To enlarge the vision of the boy and to give him definite p ur poses at an important period of his lif e ." "To frni sh the rural sc hool s and teachers object le ssons which may be used to help them in teaching agricu l ture." "To make rural life more attractive by providing organization which tends to diminish isolation and deve lop leadership." FIG. 8.-Wa lton co unt y club boy preparing ' to phint

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Annual Report, 1918 55 We give these definitions as they express so well the objects for which the boys' club agents in Florida are working. While the country was going thru the trials of the past year, we turned aside from our previously adopted plans of club work to do everything possible _ for immediate production of the crops in greatest demand. FIG. 9.-Club boy's acre, yielding 78 bushels of corn Many of the older club boys enlisted in the army or navy or engaged in ship construction work. This made it necessary for the younger boys to take their places on the farms. Even with these interruptions, more real club work has been accomplished than during the previous year, altho the actual reports fail to s how this. The lack of complete reports is largely due to the fact that the county agents had so many urgent duties it was impossible to assist the boys as much as usual in making out and collecting the reports. Another condition that made . it very difficult to secure complete reports was the epidemic of influenza which made it necessary to postpone all meetings for a few weeks, and some were omitted entirely. The county con tests were planned and dates fixed for them to be held thruout the State. Then the boys themselves, having worked so much harder as farm hands, found it inconvenient to keep all notes necessary on their demonstration plots. Thus our efforts were directed more to answer the needs of the country than to collect innumerable data for this report. The organization consisted of 3,276 members, divided as fol lows: corn club 1,333; peanut club 333; pig club 1,496; and mis cellaneous (cotton, potato, calf, etc.) 114. The following table w.illfil!ow how .. Jnese _ clubs are represented in counties.

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56 Florida Cooperative Extension ENROLLMENT OF CLU _ B BOYS IN 1918 Alachua ......... . ........ 46 15 62 4 127 Baker .. . ................... 43 . . .................. 19 .................... 62 Bay ....... . ....... . ....... . 4 ...... .... . .. . .. .. 16 1 21 Bradford ........ . . .. .. . . 18 .. .. ..... . .. .. ...... 60 1 69 Brevard ........... . ...... 6 ............ . ....... .................. .. ........... . ........ 6 Broward............. . ............. . ........ . ..... . ....... . . . . . ....... . ........... . ... 7 7 Calhoun . . .... .. . . .. . . . ... 19 .. ... ... . . .. .. . .. . . . 13 . .. .. ..... ... . . .. . .. 32 . Citrus . .. ............ . .. . ... 4 1 6 3 14 Clay ...............•. .. ..... 69 1 _ 30 3 93 Columbia .... . ...... . .... .... .. . . ....... . .... ..... . .. . . . . .. ... . .. ...... ........... . . 1 1 Dade ; 2 2 . 33 . ... . ..... .. . ....... 37 DeSoto . 18 46 .................... 64 Duval . . .................... 25 ............ . ....... 41 ......... . .. . ....... 66 Escambia .. . ... . ......... 24 10 50 1 85 Flagler .. . ..... . ........ . .. 12 4 .... . ...... . ... . . . .. 16 Franklin ................ .............. . ................................................................ . Gadsden ............ . ..... 6 ........... . ........ 1 ........... . .... . ... 7 Hamilton .. . . . .. . .... . .. 21 1 10 ...... . .... .. ....... 32 Hernando 84 1 15 45 95 Hillsboro ......... . ...... 66 1 6 1 7 4 Holmes ;.............. . ... . 93 61 . 45 . .. . .. . . ..... ...... . 199 ' Jackson . ... ....... . .... . . 82 21 109 1 213 Jefferson ................ 6 .............. . ..... .... . .............. . ......... . . .. ....... 6 LaFayette .............. ...... . . . ........... . ................... 22 . ........... . ....... 22 Lake 20 3 15 . . .. . ....... . . . .. . . . 38 Lee 4 1 30 4 39 Leon ... . ............. .. ..... 6 .......... . .. .. ..... 48 .............. . ..... 54 Levy . . . ........... . . . .. . .... 45 3 8 . ........ . ...... . ... 56 Liberty . . ..... . .. . . .. , ..... 27 3 13 1 44 Madison . . ... .. .... .. ..... 53 32 97 .......... . .. . ...... 182 Manatee .................. 44 46 56 ........... . ........ 146 Marion .. ............... . . . 54 37 93 7 191 Monroe . .. .......... . ............... . .... . ........ . ..... . . . .. . ..... . . . ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. ........ . ...... . .. . . . . . .... .. . . ...... . . . Nassau . . . ................. 41 ............ . .. . .... 9 3 53 Okaloosa ......... .. . . ... 18 14 13 ........ .. .......... 45 Okeechobee . ... . .. .. ..... .. . . .. . ... . .. . .. . ... . .. . . . ... . ...... . . . .. . .... . . . . .. .. .. ............ .. .. . .... . .. . ... . . .. .. .. .. . Orange ......... . . , .. . .... . 29 1 24 2 56 Osceola .......... . ....... 6 ............ . ....... 20 2 28 Palm Beach ... . ...... 42 24 11 ......... . . ... ..... . 77 Pasco ..... . .. . . . ... . . . ..... 1 .. . .. . ... . . . ... . . . .. 63 1 65 Pinellas ........... . . .. ...... . .... . ...... . ... . ......... . .. . ....... . .............................. .. ....... . . . .. ... ......... . . Polk . . . . ............. . ...... 50 4 27 6 86 Putnam ..... ... .. .. . . .... 40 ........ . . . .. . ...... 39 1 80 Santa Rosa . . .. ... ..... 33 10 26 7 76 Seminole ................ 1 ... ......... . ....... 2 . .......... . .. .. .... 3 Sumter .. . ....... . . . ....... 64 1 78 8 151 Suwannee .. . .... . . . ... . 15 13 63 . ... . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . 91 St. Johns .... . .. . .. . ..... 28 . ....... . ... . ... . ... 65 ............... ... .. 93 St. Lucie ................ . 1 ........... .. ....... 37 ............ . ....... 38 Taylor .................... . 16 7 20 ....... . . ... . . ...... 43 Volusia .. .. . ... . . .. ... . ... .. .... .. . .. . . ........... . . .. ... . ... . . . .... . . ... .. . .. . .. . . . Wakulla ' 20 I 18 1 2 41 Walton .................... 35 1 17 1 54 Washington . . .. . : . . .... 52 1 43 2 98 Total .. . ..... . . . ... 1 1333 I 333 1496 114 3276

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Annual Report, 1918 57 CORN CLUBS In some respects 1918 was not a favorable season for a big corn crop. The total production for the State was 14,080,000 bushels, and the yield per acre 16 bushels. The average market price of corn November 1 was $1.43, making this the most val uable crop produced in 1918 in spite of the low yield per acre. In checking over the reports collected from 316 boys, it was found that they grew 11,899.5 bushels of corn, or an average of 37.7 bushels per acre, at an average cost of 50 cents a bushel. With a yield of 37.7 bushels per acre costing _ 50 cents a bushel, the 316 acres were produced at an average cost of $18.85 each. The value of the corn at $1.43 a bushel was $49.01, leaving a profit of $30.16 per acre. The boys from Holmes county sent in 45 reports on their c6rn demonstrations, making their county stand at the head of the list as far as reports were concerned. Nineteen boys of the Nassau club grew an average of 62.1 bushels each. The Hillsboro and Hernando county boys also maintained good clubs. An unusual occurrence has arisen in our corn club work. The history of the corn club work in the southern states has been that the boys who produced a phenomenal yield would feel too certain of the same results the next year and fall down. At least for some reason those making record yields generally fail to "come back" a second time, and this condition has not been entirely different in Florida. During the past four years, nine yields have gone over the 100 bushel mark, and with one ex ception no one has been able to do it more than once. In this FIG. 10 .10-ear exhibit from 115 bu. yield, 1918

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension exception it is the third consecutive year that one club member has grown more than 100 bushels per acre . . This demonstration was conducted on the muck land of the Oklawaha river bottom in the eastern part of Marion county by Lawton Martin. His yield in 1918 was 115 bushels, grown at a cost of 12 cents per bushel when based on the charges for labor that were used by all club members . The following table of 316 reports collected from the boys are ~rranged in order of the number of reports from each county. When two counties have the same number _ of reports , the one having the higher average yield per acre is placed first. SUMMARY OF 3 16 CORN CLUB REPORTS County Ho l m es 4 5 1176 .5 26.l .68 Hill sbo ro ....... ..... . . .. .. . ... .. . . 35 1078 . 5 38 . 1 .46 Hernan ao 24 8 8 3 . 2 :!-6 . 8 .3 2 Polk 20 820.3 41.1 .45 Na s sau 19 1180 . 3 6 2. 1 .56 Santa Rosa ... . . .... ... .... ...... 19 685.8 30 . 8 .64 Baker 17 638 . 4 37 . 6 .64 Madis _ on 15 721.1 48 . 0 .32 Alachua 14 55 3. 4 39.5 .46 Orange 11 331.1 30 . 1 .6 3 Hamilton . . ..... . . ... . .... . .. ... 9 436 . 6 4 8.5 . 47 Marion 9 4 3 3.6 48 . 3 .22 Washington •...... .. ........... 0 29 5. 6 32.8 .55 Walton 9 286.3 31 . 8 . 62 Duval 8 276.2 34 . 5 .61 Lake 7 3 5 7 . 3 51.0 .43 Putnam . . ... . .......•.. . ..... . . 7 306 . l 43. 7 . 37 Okaloosa 7 222.5 31.7 .7 5 DeSoto 6 178.0 29.7 .70 Jefferson ..... . . . ... .. . . :..... . . ... 6 16 2. 8 27 . 1 . 42 St. Johns . ... . ........... .... . ... 5 227 . 3 4 5 . 5 .36 Sumter 4 232 . 7 66.3 .28 Ma1tatee ... .... . ..... .. . ...... . . . 3 10 9. 7 $ 6. 7 .63 Levy 2 106 . 0 53.0 .21 E s cambia ........ .... .. ... . . ..... 2 77 . 5 38 . 8 .41 Calhoun ............... ....... . . .... 1 76 . 8 76 . 8 .31 Flagler ..... . .. ... .. . . . . .... . .. .... 1 70 . 0 70 . 0 . 37 Os ce ola . .. . .. . ... . . . ... ....... .. 1 61 . 0 61.0 . 29 Wakull a . .... . .. . .... . .. . ..... . .. 1 1 5. 0 1 5. 0 . 2 5 -=c--:~---;--c-c-c--+~~~'-------~=~ ___ T _ ot _ a_l _ . . _ .. . _ . _. ~ '-3~ 1 _ 6 _ ~ 1_1 _ 1 _ 89 _9_ . 5 _ 1 . _ __ _ :1 _ 7 .7 .5 0 PEANUT CL UBS 60.3 76 . 2 56 . 0 79.5 90.0 50.3 73 . 0 68 .3 75.1 39.7 80 . 0 115.0 50.0 60.8 64 . 8 64. 5 8 4.0 53 . 0 38. 6 57 . 0 64 . 0 74.3 40 . 0 8 8. 0 40.0 76.8 70 . 0 61.0 1 6 .0 60. 3 .34 .17 .43 .22 .39 .60 .22 .23 .40 .77 .21 .12 .38 . 27 .39 .3 5 .21 .1 8 .21 ;30 . .43 .25 .2 5 . 2 6 .33 .31 . 37 .29 . 25 ; . 3 1 -r The peanut club s have made good progress and many boys find this to be the rriost profitable crop they can raise. Th.er~ were 333 _ who . conducted demonstrations in growing peanuts. Each demonstration was one acre in ~ize and they were weil distributed over the State.

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Annual Report, 1 . 918 59 Some of the boys harvested their crops and sold them as seed . or to the oil mills. Others used the peanuts and hay as feed. John Bernath of Santa Rosa county grew . 111 bushels of peanuts on one acre. This is perhaps one of the best yields made by any club member. His report was signed by two witnesses and .is gi~en as follows : . "The acre on which I grew my peanuts is dark soil about 7 inches deep with yellow, sandy subsoil. It has been in cultivation three years and last year produced a crop of corn and velvet beans. I broke . it 6 inches deep with a one-horse plow on February 24. It was then harrowed . well and left in '. good condition. May 11 I laid off rows 3 feet wide and dropped pea nuts by hand 18 inches apart in the drill . They were covered with a culti vator and in a few days came up a medium stand. Before plantin g I applied 500 pounds of lime and 200 pounds of acid phosphate. Then when the peanuts were a few inches high another application of 200 pounds acid phosphate was given. "I cultivated ' 4 times with a scrape and harrow. The yield was 111 bushels, . while the average yield in this community with usual methods of cultivation is about 30 bushels . per acre. I used the Virginia running variety. . "The county agent came to s e e me three times this year and . thi s is my second year as a club member. I have learned that a thoro prepar a tion is necessary 'for a good crop. "I s old 100 bushels of peanuts, which leaves me 11 bushels. I have bought War . Savings Stamps with all the profits realized from my , peartut crop. . )) ; : :• EXPE~S~~ . t ::< .: ;:: ''Rent of land . ......... .. . ...... . .. .. .. . .. ...... . .. . .... .. ...... . .............. .. .... ... . .. . . . .. .... ... . . .. . ... ... . $ 5.00 Preparation of seed bed and pl a nting. . . ... .. . .. . ............ . . ..... . .. ... . .... . . . . . .... . .. .. . . 2.10 Seed .. . . .. .. . .. . ... . ..... .. . .. . .......... .. . ..... ... .... . . . . . . .. .. . ... .. . ............ ............ .. .. .. . .. . ... . . .. . . .... 2 . 60 Fertilizer . .......... ... .. . ............ . ... . . ..... . . . . . . . . . , ... . . . . . . .. ......... . . .............. . . ..... .. . . : .... .. . 7.70 Cultivation . ... . . .. . . ... .. .. . . ............ .. . ... . ... .. .... .. .. . ... . ......... . ... .............. . .. ......... . .. . . . .. . 1.40 Gathering . . . . ...... .... . .. . ................ .... ... . .. ... . .. . . . . . ... . ... . . ........................ . ... .... . ..... . . . . . 3.70 Total cost . . ... .. ..... ... .... , ........ .. . ....... . . .. .. . .. . ..... .. . . .. . ...... .. . ........... '. .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . . .. : $22.50 Net cost per bushel ..... . . . , . . . .. ...... .. . . . . ... : .... . ,. '. . . .. .. . . . . . .. . ..... . .. . .. . .... .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . .20 RECEIPTS "Number of bu s h e l s . .... .. . .. .. . . . . ......... . . .. .. .. ... . . . . . .. .. ....... . .. . ... .... . .. . . . ... . .. ... .. . ... 111 Number of pounds of hay . .. , .. ....... .. . ........ . .. . . .... . ...... . . . . .. .... ... .... ... . . . ... .. .. . . 3 ,000 Valu e of nut s ... . . . ..... . . .... ..... . .. . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . .... . .. . . ....... . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . ..... .. . . ..... . ..... $ 29 3 .04 Value of hay at market price .... . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . .. ... . .. .. ...... ... ........... : . , . ..... . 48.00 Ne t profit . ........ . ...... .. .. . . ...... . ..... ..... . .. . ... .. .. . . .. . ..... . . . .. ...... .. .... . ... ...... . ... .. .... ... . 318.54" PIG CLUBS The pig clubs have grown to be the largest branch of the agricultural clubs. There are now 1,496 active members and about 1 , 000 o f these were enrolled during 1918. Those who entered before this year now have mature sows and have raised several litters, selling . them to club boys and farmers for breed ing stock. Many of these boys have made large profits on . their investments within fifteen months after beginning.

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60 Florida Coop e rati v e Extension The banks thruout the State have been liberal in loaning money to boys on very easy terms. This has made it possible for many to enter the pig club who could not otherwise have done so. FIG. 11.-Bradford county agent and banker delivering gilts to pig club boys Many bankers have expressed their appreciation of the prompt and business-like methods the boys have adopted in paying these accounts when due. As long as the club members keep up this good record, it will be possible to increase the size of the club and to continue purchasing stock of the best breeding. The Bradford county boys have done excellent work and have kept splendid records. The business men and other citizens of the county speak well of the county agent, C. D. Gunn, who was able to furnish definite information at any time of the year as to the progress of the pig club and the development of the animals. Sixteen boys in this county raised purebred pigs. The average weight of the pigs at the beginning of the contest was 38 pounds and 167 pounds at the close, making an average net gain of 129 pounds. These pigs were fed an average of 151 days, gaining .86 pounds a day at a cost of 4.8 cents a pound. The following table gives some interesting figures on the work done by five of the most successful pig club members in Brad ford county.

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Annual Report, 1918 61 FIVE BRADFORD _ COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS _., .... 'H ,.c: 0 .... bl) ,.c: :u ..c:i ; bl! = j:!: 'al ii: '"C ; i... ii: ~ = Ql . . bl! Ql :s 'H P<.S -; "' = P> .... c:! .... = ; ; :g bl! , ti! .... t!l A A u Carrie Lee Green . ... . ...... : .... 45 295 250 144 1.74 $ .02 Ben Roebuck. ........... . ........... 40 179 139 144 1.00 .023 Reuben Shaw ........ .. ............ 26 167 141 120 .85 .032 Richard Harris ... .. ............. 43 186 143 144 1.00 .043 Clarence Rhoden -~ 41 191 150 . 144 1.04 .055 . Total ......... . , ............. 1 195 I 1018 I 823 I 696 I 5.63 I $ .173 Average .................. ! 39 I 203.6 I 164.6 I 139.2 I 1.13 I .035 Madison county has about the strongest pig club in the State. The boys have kept excellent records of the work. They became interested from observing the records kept on some of the best animals . . Much credit is due C. _ E. Matthews, the county agent, for this excellent record. At the contest held in Madison last November, there were 50 pigs on exhibit. At the beginning of the feeding period the pigs weighed an average of 25.7 pounds each. They were fed 184 days, and on the day of the contest weighed an average of 200.3 pounds, making a total gain of 170.7 pounds each, or an average of .95 pounds a day. The records showed that it costs only 6 cents a pound for the feed to produce these gains . . Following is . a summary of the reports of five most successful pig club members in Madison county. FI,VE MADISON COUNTY PIG CLUB REPORTS I I .... l I 'H . ,.c: 0 ,.c: . bl) bO ,.c: 'al ;9 'al bl) = j:!: 'al j:!: I '"C ; i... . . . .. . I j:!: I .s I Ql I bl) Ql .... .. P<.S -~ .E "' . c:! . = P> ; :g bl) a c:! c:! . .... .. t!l A A u Thurston Raines .. . .......... . .. 30 281 251 188 1.33 $ .051 Minnie Thomas .... .. ........... : 17 236 219 170 1.29 .05 -Cora Hicks ........... . ........... '.,. 23 286 263 187 1.41 .076 Albert Glass .. : ., ......... , .... , .. 28 276 248 187 1.32 .07 Dorris Young 34 276 242 185 1.31 .073 Total ... . . .. . ..... .... : .. 1 132 I 1355 1 . 1223 I 917 I 6.60 $ .32 Average .................. 1 26.4 I 271 I 244.6 I 183.4 I 1.32 I $ .064

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension COUNTY CONTESTS A series of county contests were held thruout the State at the close. of the year's work. Every boy competing prepared exhibits of the crops he grew, and submitted his record. Each pig club boy exhibited his pig, l;l.nd a record of the cost of the pig, feed, weights and gains. All products were judged and the records graded by committees. SHORT COURSE The third annual short course in agriculture for boys was held at the University December 9 to 14. There were 83 of the most successful club members in attendance, and more spirit and team work displayed than ever before. No part of the club work is more helpful to the boys than the short course. The instructors in the College of Agriculture took a great interest in giving the boys a good and interesting course in agriculture. It was valu able experience for the boys to get together and talk over what each one has accomplished. They return home with instruction and determination that will enable them to do better club work next y~ar. Several hikes were taken during the week, visiting the peanut mill near Gainesville, the livestock and dairy barns, and going over the Experiment Station grounds, and other places of in terest. THE ANNUAL BANQUET At the close of the short course a banquet was held for tl.J.e club boys. The boy scouts of Gainesville and instructors who assisted with the short course were also invited. Every club member at the banquet was presented with a cer tificate of honor and merit for the club work he had accom plished. WINNERS OF STATE PRIZES The state prizes were awarded at the banquet. In 1918 Lawton Martin of Marion county won the first prize in the corn clubs, which was a purebred Shorthorn bull, donated by the American Shorthorn Breeders' Association. Harold Link of Orange county won second prize, a $200 scholarship to the College of Agricul ture, which was donated by the Florida Bankers' Association. Richard McGrath of Putnam county won third prize, which was a purebred Shorthor.n bull donated by Mr. 0. E. Cobb of Boyds, Ala. Jesse Driggers of Hillsboro county won the fourth prize,

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Annual Report, 1918. 63 which was $50 donated by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. WORK OF ASSISTANT CLUB AGENTS E. M. Manning, assistant emergency boys' club agent, answered the call of the Country September 1 and R. W. Blacklock, former Marion county agent, was appointed his successor. An agreement was made with the Bureau of Animal Industry to pay the salary of an assistant boys' club agent to work es pecially in the production of swine, the Extension Division of the University to pay other expenses. L. R. Highfill, principal of the Largo agricultural high school, was appointed to this position the first of July. Messrs. Blacklock and Highfill were familiar with the methods of conducting boys' clubs and the art of handling boys at the time the appointments were made. Their time is devoted prin cipally to field work, and in order to avoid much travel at . the expense of the actual work accomplished, Mr. Blacklock works principally in north and west Florida while Mr. Highfill devotes his time principally to central and south Florida. BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY ALACHUA COUNTY Name Address Age Clarence Maddox .......................................... Micanopy ........................................ 16 \farshall Maddox .......................................... Micanopy .......................................... 14 fames Fraser ................................................ Newberry ........................................ 15 \.lbert Shaw .................................................. Gainesville ............................... . ...... 16 ~mil Solmi ...................................................... Alachua ............................................ 13 \.lbert Saarinen ............................................ Alachua ............................................ 11 Nalter Saarinen ............................................ Alachua ............................................ 14 . 1 eter Leivonen .............................................. Alachua .......... , ................................. 15 BAKER COUNTY Ulphin Crews .......................... : .................... .Lake Butler ....................................... 17 ::~:i :::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::Ja~;l~~~~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::~~ BRADFORD COUNTY Reuben Shaw ......................... ....................... Brooker ............................................ 14 Bennie Roebuck ............................................ Theressa .......................................... 12 Albert Griffis ................................................ Starke .............................................. 13 George Conley .............................................. Starke .............................................. 16 Harry Canova .............................................. Starke .............................................. 17 BROW ARD COUNTY Edward P. Harry .......................................... Pompano .......................................... 15 CALHOUN COUNTY Julius Davis .................................................. Blountstown

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64 Florida Cooperative Extension CLAY COUNTY Name Address A . ge Gunnar Gustafson ..... .. .. .... .......... . . .. .. ..... ..... . Green Cove Springs .... . ...... ..... ...... 15 Willie Guy Hall ....... ...... . . , .. . . . .... ........ . ,. ............. }Vest . Tocoi . ...•. .. ......... . ........ ..... ....... 12 DESOTO COUNTY Leonard Smith Haven Arthur Davis .. .............. ..... ......... ...... ............. Bowling Green ............ .......... ..... .. ... 13 DUVAL COUNTY Willis Pickett ................ . . .. ............................ Jacksonville ...... ... ......... .. ... , ........ , .. . 16 Gervin Pringle ........ .. ... ...... ........... .. ............... Baldwin ... . . ... .. . .... : ..... : ...................... 13 ESCAMBIA COUNTY J. E. Haynes, J~ . . ...... ... . .... . . ............... . ... . ..... Pensacola . . ....... , ....... ....... ..... . .... . .. .. . 13 FLAGLER COUNTY Homer Hansen ............... . .............................. Espanola ............ , ..... .. . . . .. ............. . . . . 13 HAMILTON Cou NTY David Smith ........................................ , .. ....... Jennings .. . .. . .. ............ ....... ........... ... . 13 Roy DeVane .. . .............. . ................................ Jennings ........... ...... ........ ......... ...... 18 HILLSBORO . COUNTY Powers Taylor .. .... , .. : ..... .. .................... .... ....... Plant City .... .. .............. ..... ........ , ...... 11 io!;isTYo~!~:::::::::::::: ::::::::: :::::;:: :::: ::::~::::::Jl:~i gi~ :::::::::::::::::::: :: :::::::::::::::: :: i~ Luther Webb ...... ...... , ... ............. . .. ... . . .. . ....... . Pla . nt City ..... . ........ , ... .... ................... 14 Glenn Miley : ............................. : ....... . . ............ Plant City .. : ..... .......... : .. . ......... ......... 15 Thos. Ellerbe .. . ....... ... . ... .. ........ .... .......... .... ... Wimauma . ........ ..... . .. ..... . ................. 14 .Jesse Driggers ............. .. . ... ..... , .........•...... , ..... V{imauma •.. . ................ .. .................. 18 Poly Barron ..................................... . ............ Plant City ....................................... . 15 .Jesse Barker . ........ .. ............... ......... ......... ...... Lakeland . . . .. .. ......... .... . . .. ............. .. ... 14 HOLMES COUNTY Walter Smith ............... . . .. ......... .. : . ... . : ........... Esto .............................. .. ............... . .. 15 Doyal Murphy ............... .. ........................... , ... Ponce DeLeon ................. : .............. 15 JEFFERSON COUNTY Willard Owens ........ . .. . .. .. . .......... . .... . ..... . . .... .. Monticello ................... .. ........... , ....... 15 LAKE COUNTY 'Buren Crenshaw . ... .. ....... . ... ... ...... . . .. .. ...... ... . Lisbon ......................... .. ...... .... ... ...... 13 Harold Gwaltney .......................................... Lisbon . ...... .... . . ... ........ ..... ................. 12 Leroy Bethea ............... . . . ........... ... .......... : .. : .. Montverde .................. . ..................... 13 LEE COUNTY . Dan English .................... . ......... ...... .......... . .. . Alva . ... ... .. . .... ................ . . ............... . .. 17 LEVY COUNTY . . Harry McElveen ....... ........... ......... , . .............. Ellzey ..... : ... ................. . ,, ................. 12 MADISON COUNTY Theo. Glass . . ....... ..... .. ....... ....... .. ....... ... . , ..... . Lee ... . .... .. .. .... . . .. . ......... .... . . . . ....... .... .. . 11 Orvin McCullough ..... .. ............. ...... .. , ........... Lee ............. . ... . ............. .. . . ....... , ......... 18 Thurston Raines ......... . ................. ... ............ Madison .... . . .. .................................. . . 18 Kinsey Gayle .................................... .. : . .. ...... Greenville ....................................... . 16 , MANATEE . COUNTY , Shelton Downing ......... . . .. . . ........................... Parrish ........................ . ................... 16 ~ollo Downing ............. ..... ........... : .. , ............. Parrish ..... . . .. ............... ... ................. 15

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!1-nnual Report, 1918 65 MARION COUNTY Name . Address A .ve ~~b:!Y z;/:t:U.~~ .. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : : : :::::::::~1~f; 0 .~~ ... ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ji Ve:rnon Neil .................................. . .............. Ocala . .. .. : .... ... ... ..... .. . .. : .............. . ...... 15 Lloyd Leverett .. : ............................................. Fairfield .......................................... 14 Wm. M. Swilley ........................................... Lowell . ....... ........... ... ... ..... ................ 17 .Myron Rou ......... .. : .... ............. .. .. ... .. ... ....... Lowell . . ..... .......... ...... ....................... 16 Lawton Martin .. .. .. .. ...... .. .............. .......... ...... Electra . ...... ......... .. . ........ . ..... ........ ..... 14 Elvert DeVore .... .. ..... ..... .. ... ..... ............ . .. , .... Reddick ....... ...... ... . ....... . ................... 12 Frederick Cullison .......... .... . . '. . ................. . ... . Ocala .... ........... .... ................... .... .. .... 12 George Blowers ............................................ Ocala . ... ............................... . .. ....... ... 12 Allen Fouraker . .. , . .......... ............... ... .............. Baldwin ....... . ......... .......... ... . ............. 15 OKEECHOBEE COUNTY John P. Camp ................................................ Okeechobee ................. . . .... .. .. ........... 14 ORANGE COUNTY . Harold Link . ............. . ... .......... ...................... Orlando ......................................... ... 18 Causey Dann .... ............ ....... ........................ Ocoee ................................................ 13 OSCEOLA COUNTY Curtis Yates . .. . . .. .... . .... ................ .... .. ........ ... Kissimmee ...................... . ..... .......... 18 PALM BEACH COUNTY Karl Erickson ............................................... Canal Point ...................................... 15 Alton Morris ........ . .. ...... ............. .................. .. Pahokee ..................... . ..... ................. 16 Alfred Huskey, Jr ....................................... Pahokee ............................................ 17 POLK COUNTY . Enoch Thomas ... . ......... ........... ... . ...... . .. .... . . .. Auburndale . . ....... . . ..... . .. ......... ....... ... 13 W. Olive Clark ................. .. ... . ................. . ... .. Bartow ..................... , .................... .. 14 PUTNAM COUNTY Leo Knighton ..... . ........ . ........... . . ... ...... , ....... East Palatka ...... .......... .................. 13 Richard McGrath ...... ................... . . ...... . ....... Florahome ................ ........ .............. 16 ST. JOHNS COUNTY . obert Webb Moultrie ..... . ........ . .......... . . . ........ ...... .. 12 ST. LUCIE COUNTY Thomas Dixon . . . . ........ . ............... ....... ....... Fellsmere .............. .... . ......... ............ 14 SEMINOLE COUNTY . Albert Hickson .................................... , ...... .. . Sanford ....... , .......... . .. ....... ....... .. ..... . . 14 SANTA ROSA COUNTY . John Bernath . ... .. ...................... .. . ..... .......... Mulat . . ....... .. . ........ ...... .. ........ ............ 14 Newman Clark . . . .... ................... ... ...... . ......... Milton .. ...... : .............. .. . ........ ............ 14 SUMTER COUNTY Claud Williams ...... : . . . ... . ...... .. . .. . .. . ...... . .. . . . .. St. Catherine ........... . . . .... .. . ... . , ........ 14 william Hutto .... . ................ . ..... . . . ....... .. .. . ... ,Bushnell .......................................... 17 Suw AN NEE COUNTY ii:~~ iat~~tt ' ::: ::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::: :::::j~~~~~d:::::::::::::::::: :::::::: ::::::::::::::::g 5

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, 66 Florida Cooperative Extension . . . . . i REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB AGENT. FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H . Rolfs, Director. Sm: I herewith submit the report of the assistant boys' club agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918. ' . Respectfully, . . R. W. BLACKLOCK, Assistant Boys' Club Agent. On September 1, 1918, I was appointed assistant boys' club agent, and assigned to .. the North and West Florida territory, comprising twenty-four counties. In carrying on my workdur ing the last four months of fins, I traveled 3,862 miles by rail . or boat, 1,410 milesJ>y auto and team. . . The club work was well established in my district and 1,435 . members were enroll~d in the clubs. Of these, 635 were in the corn club, 675 . in the pig club and 125 in the peanut 'club : Many of the boys were enrolled in the three clubs and the larger per cent of those in the pig club were in one of the crop clubs. Jackson county had the largest enrollment, with a total of 213 for all clubs. Holmes was second, with a total of 199 members. The severe drought of July had injured the corn crop to a large degree and some of the acres which had promised most, yielded the least. Usually the prolific varieties yielded most on the richer soils, and the one or two-eared varieties did best on the poorer sandy types. ' In the pig club work, much care had been given to the quality of breeding stock used, as nothing but registered animals were to be found in the boys' work. In some counties but one breed was used, which will do much toward producing uniform types for marketing in after years. 1 Duroc Jerseys were more popular than all other breeds, . while there were many fine Poland Chinas, Hampshires and Berkshires, with a few Tamworths. At that time the pigs were averaging around eight months of age and about 175 pounds . in weight. The ' pigs receiving good care and attention were making gains of over orie pound a day and it was noticeable that the pigs which . had been given the run of a good pasture had produced the best gains and at the least expense. In addition to the regular club work, several of the county .

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Annual Report, 1918 67 agents organized a "Win the War Club", and many excellent reports were made by the boys and girls showing what they had done in helping to increase the amount of food raised. In FIG . 12 . -Club boy op e r at ing tra c tor plow Okaloosa county, 202 boys and girls agreed to give one pig extra care to help increase the meat output of their c ount y . CONTESTS The contests were usually held at the county seat and aroused much enthusiasm among the boys and girls and their parents. The attendance at these contests ran from 34 to 165, averaging 100 to each meeting. CORN CLUBS The epidemic of influenza cau s ed many boys to fail to gather their crops in time to attend the conte s t, with the re s ult th a t the number of boy s r e porting wa s lo w . The gre a test number e x hib iting in any county was in Holmes, where 45 boys displayed their ten ears of corn . In Baker c o unty, 17 qoys produced an average yield of 37 . 6 bushels at an a v erage cost of 54 cents per bu s hel. In Hamilton county , nine boys produced an average yield of 48.5 bushels at an average cost of 47 c ents p e r bu s hel. The highest yield wa s produced b y Allen Fouraker of Baldwin, Nas sau county, who raised 90 bushels on his acre at a cost of 39 cents per bushel.

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. . 68 Flor'ida : coopero;tife Extension PIG CLUBS Due to the unusual conditions, the pig Jlub exhibits were small, but the animals exhibited were of excellent quality and showed what boys can do in swine management. In Madison county, 50 exceptionally fine hogs were shown, averaging around eight months of age and 200 pounds in weight. The largest percent were Durocs with some Poland Chinas and Berkshires. Four 'pigs averaging eight months and eighteen days in age, weighed 1,120 pounds, or an average of 280 pounds each. Thurston Raines of Madison, fed a Duroc boar 188 days and produced a gain of 251 pounds or an average daily gain of 1.3 pounds. In Santa Rosa county a girl, Libbie Oglesby of Milton, fed a Duroc sow 150 days and secured an average daily gain of 1.3 pounds. Her sow was fed no grain but was raised on the waste from the house, together with a good pasture. 1 PEANUT CLUBS Influenza so delayed harvesting the peanut crop that very few . of the boys had picked the peanuts when _ the contests were held. The highest yield reported was made by John Bernath of Mulat, Santa Rosa county, who . produced 111 bushels on his acre. EXHIBITS AT . FAIR At the close ofthe contests the first of December, the corn club and pig club boys made exhibits at the state fair in Jacksonville. Eighty-five corn club boys from this district made exhibits and . $163 was won in prizes. This money was used as scholarships to . the boys' agricultural short course at the University.

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69, REPORT OF ASSISTANT BOYS' CLUB . AGENT . FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I herewith submit report of assistant boys; ' club agent : for Central and South Florida, for the year ending D~cember 31, 1918. . . '' L. " R. HIGHFILL, _ A ' ssistanf Boys' Club Agent. This report covers activities for six months from July t6' Dec. 31, 1918. During this time I traveled in the tlischarge of my duties, by rail, 5,750 miles; by automobile, 2~888 miles. I held 14 ineetings '.. and spoke to 2,655 people: . Of the six months, I spent 96 days irt the field. The remainder of the time was spent hr the offic~ or attending farmers' meetings on the campus. I have visited at their.homes; 390 corn and pig club boys. _Thrti' my efforts, 200 purebred pigs . have been located and recom mended to county agents for their pig club boys. I have assisted 22 farmers in purchasing purebred hogs for breeding purposes. I have conferred with bankers and assisted county ' agents iii securing money to finance 200 pig club boys; : Since it was late in the year to begin the organfaatiori of clubs much of my time was devoted to assisting clubs already orga:iiized." However, six new pig clubs were orianized in: coun ties where the work had not been tak~n up. PIG CLUBS . _ _ . It is much easier to carry on the pig club work 1,11an that 01 the corn club. In many communities of south Florida corn growing is rather difficult, because of the nature of . the soil. These communities, however, are able to grow a. considerable quantity of grazing and root crops upori which to feed hogs . . The average pig club boy takes advantage of the garbage. from . the home kitchen and othe:r surplus ' feeds about the farm, _ and : in this way he is able to grow his pig with a minimum expenditure for concentrates. The price of pigs ' bought this Year . ranged from $12.50 to $25 per head. The price of'purebred swine has increased so rapidly within the past two or . three years . that it has ' been difficult in some cases ' to get : the : boy . whoi:;e father. ha& never grown purebred hogs; to .invesf , $25 :r in :.i a :: gO'o d ,i pig~ However, this. cohdition : is: being : ra:pidly :: overcfo-Mej. ',. artd,-;ih Im-any

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fo Florida Cooperatfoe Extension instances the boy's father is disposing of his scrub stock and preparing to :grow only purebred _hogs; using the boy's pigs for the foundation herd. This result is eminently more to be desired than to have the boy sell all of the pigs raised from his pig club sow. The average age of pig club boys is :14 years. The pig club membership is not limited to boys. Some of the best "pig club boys" in the State are "girls". An example is Carrie Lee Green, of Bradford county, who with her Duroc Jersey pig won first in all her county contests, and took second prize at the state fair. We like to encourage girls to enter the pig clubs. One of the most obvious difficulties to be overcome in the pig club work is that of getting more complete record books. Out of a total enrollment of over 1400 members in the pig clubs, only 151 complete. record books were turned in to the office of the state boys' club agent. More attention must be given to this very vital phase of the pig club work. CORN CLUBS Nine county corn club contests were held last fall in south Florida. The average attendance at each contest was 100. Par ticular mention should be made of the contest in Hernando county. Here .400 citizens of the county gathered for the day. One of the . finest displays of corn, peanuts, pigs, canned, goods and record books that it has ever been my pleasure to witness was assembled at Brooksville, the county seat. Following the awarding of prizes, the visitors assembled in the court house and formed an appreciative audience for speakers from the Extension D,ivision of the University and the State College for Women. The average yield of corn .for club members in the State this year was, 37.7 bushels per acre, grown at an average cost of 50 cents per. bushel. This represents fairly well the work done in south Florida .. The peculiar varied soil that is so characteristic of Florida is nowhere more pronounced than in that section of Florida from Bradford, Clay and St. Johns counties south. This condition forces special attention to corn club work.. It means that the methodsused in growing an acre of corn must be suited to the particular, acre .the boy is using. Frequently boys on adjoining farms will. be found. using . entirely different types . .of . soil. It would be misleading; to . recommend a plan of operation or. a

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. :. Annual Report, 1918 71 variety of corn for the entire' section. The success of .the corn club boy win always lie in the good judgment he _ uses in his operations. More personal work on: the part of county agents and superv~sors will be necessary to . get the best results.GRAZING CROPS Club members are . constantly urged to grow grazing crops. They are necessary to the pig club boy in order that he may produce pork at a profit in Florida. Many pig club boys are growing peanuts, chufas, oats, rape, . and other good grazing crops, and these boys are . the ones that are making good in a financial way. Grazing crops are a necessary part of the corn club boy's operation in the proper rotation of crops. Also in . providing suitable cover crops and humus for replenishing the fertility of the soil, and building up his acre of land . . OTHER CROPS Several corn club boys are making money from other crops, particularly peanuts, which they are growing on their acre in .connection with corn. They realize money by either selling these crops, as in the case of peanuts, or picking the peas where cow peas are planted, and turning the vines back to the soil. Or , better still; the most progressive are buying pigs, feeding the ~rops, and marketing them in the form of purebred hogs. . FAIRS . Two weeks were spent at the state fair, assisting , with th'e . boys' club exhibits, principally in charge of the pig club class. Twenty pigs from Madison; Leon; Bradford, DeSoto, Santa Rosa, St Johns and Duval counties , were exhibited. They comprised an exhibition of quality that was very commendable, and brought forth much flattering comment. I established an . improvised booth in the swine building, where I . was able to meet and dis. cuss swine growing in Florida . ~ith large numbers of intere;te4 people. It was almost impossible to keep on hand a supply of literature on hog growing, so great was . the call fol". it. . The ,Florida state fair placed $816 in premium money in . the pig club class. . . . .. . . . No county . fairs }lave been held in my territory, . with . the exception of Marion and Alachua counties. Others will be held later in .the winter .. . At these ;fairs . suitable premiums .Were offered . for. all kindsof. clup work.. In some cases tlIEtcount~ agents were able to get special premiums t<> b~ awarded :at the . ~ . . .. . . . . . . ,. , . , , .

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72 , ' Florida Cooperative Extension various county contests. A notable instance was that of St . . Johns county, where the business men of St. Augustine put up . enough money to supply valuable prizes for every club boy and . girl who entered the county contest. Besides valuable jewelry and wearing apparel, two scholarships were awarded, one to the short course at the College of Agriculture, Gainesville, and one to the short course at the College for Women, Tallahassee. SOUTHERN CONFERENCE The week of October 14 to 19 was spent in Atlanta in a conference of swine extension men of the Southern State s , called by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington. As the South eastern fair was open at this time, available time outside of the conference was spent at the fair. Many important questions were brought up for discussion at the conference, and valuable suggestions for the conduction of the work were submitted. In the matter of pig club . work, it was the general opinion that more emphasis should be placed upon carrying a limited number of boys thru the year's work, all of them making good, rather than enroll a large number and have many failures. It was suggested that the swine extension men and . the pig . club agents in the various states be privileged to work out plans and detailed instruction for the club members of their respective states. It was assumed that the man on the job would under stand the conditions peculiar to his state. PUREBRED SWINE Frequently the question has been asked "How are the Florida farmers improving the quality of their hogs?" Questionnaires were sent to county agents to get some rela tively reliable figures on hog production. Twenty-seven agents reported. From these reports it appears that the average in. crease of purebred swine in those counties for 1918 over the number on hand 1917, is 58 . 54%, Twenty-three of the same reports gave the increase of scrub and grade hogs, covering the same period of time and the same area, at 16 % . Hernando county, however, is excepted in this latter percentage ~ She re ported a decrease of 50 % in scrub and grade hogs. It was found that the most substantial increase in purebred swine was . reported from those counties that are doing the niost consistent work in the pig club ;

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Annual Report, 1918 73 REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT : P.H. Rolfs, Director . . SIR: I submit herewith the r~port of the state agent for home demonstration work for the fiscal year eriding ' June 30, 1918, and ' with it statistics of the work done by women and club girls for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Home Demonstration Agent. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1918, the home dem.:. onstration staff was composed of a state agent; who sperit six months out of the State; an assistant state agent; two district agents who were in charge of the field work;and two assistants, one of whom gave special attention to dairy work, and one to poultry. Each of these workers made a complete report of the scope of the work under her supervision. I especially commend these reports to your . consideration as, in them, the progress . o:( the home demonstration work in Florida is very clearly shown. The work of food production with rm;al girls and women was continued as in past years, b _ ut greater emphasis was laid on conservation and preservation of food. _ The emergency appr<:> priation enabled us to off er assistance more generally in all the counties, towns and cities, : and this was enthusiastically re ceived. Every effort was . made by the home dmonstration fo~ce to render the greatest possible service to the State arid Nation during the period of the war. URBAN WORK When Congress made the emergency appropriation for the increased production of food crops, it was planned to offer to the women of towns and cities instruction on preparation, preserva tion and conservation of foods. Heretofore this instruction was planned chiefly for the women in rural homes. A state supervisor of urban work was given charge of the work for Jacksonville. Urban workers were appointed for six months for Tampa, Miami, Key West and Pensacola. One part time worker was employed for Tallahassee arid Orlando, and cine for Gainesville and Ocafa . . . Well equipped home demonstration centers were established

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension in six towns. Th~se :kitchens were the centers of various home demonstration activities. In all of them regular meetings w~re held, , and bulletins on all subjects pertaining to the home were kept on file for . distribution. Clubs among women . were orga,nized . to , undertake a definite study of foods. This included the Red Cross dietetics classes. 11,ood preparation, preservation by brining, drying, canning and preserving were taught-the regular organized clubs in the cities. Boys' and girls' gardening clubs were organized in six towns. Chefs in aviation stations, ships, hotels and boarding houses were instructed in methods of preparing foods to meet food conservation plans . , . . . . Library exhibits were successfully carried out. Assistance was given at fairs. The county home demonstration agents were assisted in holding short courses. Grocers and other merchants selling foods were urged . to have window displays teaching food conservation and preparation. Home economics pages in news papers were edited, and recipes compiled for distribution in grocery stores. Assistance in adjusting the household budget to meet the constantly advancing prices was given to those de siring such help. Experimental work was dorie and recipes de veloped for use in following food laws and suggestions. EMERGENCY WORKERS To rpeet the demand for food conservation in 13 counties not provide _ d for, four group em~rgency agents were appointed to assist in directing conservation work 'l'hese agents cooperated with other organizations in the counties, dividing their time ac cording to the needs and interest shown. By this ar!angement Florida was able for the . first time to have home demonstration . ' . . . . . . . . . work conducted in every county. . . In order . to speed up conservation work, 1$ telllporary emer gency agents were employed . during the canning sea _ son for special cann'ing -work : . .{ _. , .. . ' The district agents' reports _ inclu . de , a description of the work g.one by the club. girls . . The following are the ten highest records . made by the club girls of the State: . . ' .

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Annual Report; 1918 ; 75 NAME COUNTY YIELD PROFIT . . , , . . , POUNDS . Julia Holland ..... .... . .. .... . .. . .. . . .. .. Madison ...... ...... ... ... . . ... . , .. . . .. . 7417 .... . . .. . . .... . . $106.33 Anna Sykes ........... . ........... . ...... _Dade : .. . :. .... .. ' ... : .. : .. : . .. . .. ... ..... , , 6300 .. ..... ... . . . . .. 192;42 Nellie Johnson ...... ... .... .. .. . . . ...... Gadsden . .. ........ .... .. .. .... ... . . ... .4857 ... .... ... .. . .. . 142.34 Agnes Williams .. . .. . ... . .... . ... ;. ;, _Citrus .... : .. '. . ........... , .. . . : . . ....... . 3745 .. ...... ........ 119.47 Selma Letzing ..... ... ................ -Manatee ....... ..... .. ..... ............. 3629 .. ........ ... ... 75.88 Elois ' e Averit .. .. . ... .. . . ... . , . ... . ...... Gadsden . .... , .. .. .... ........ : .. ..... . . 3253 ..... ...... . . .. 58.91 Ellen Reeves . . .......... .. .............. ; Leon ..... . ... ......... .. ........ .. .. ..... ,3 222 ...... .. .. .. .. . . 99.42 Ruth Bianton ......... . ......... . . .. ..... Madison ..... . ... . ..... ........ ... . '. . : . : 3167. ... ..... ..... .. 81.26 Orilla Viers . . ... . .. . . .... ..... . .. .... ...... Hillsboro . ........ .. ...... : .... ..... . ; .3100 . ....... .... .. . . 67.72 Ray Strickland .. . ... .. . . .... .. .. . ....... Marion . . . ........ . .. . , .. .... . . , .. ... . .. ,2880 .. . . . . . . , . .. . . .. 56 . 35 Some club members failed to make a profit because of weather conditions, but the majority of such members took it in as good spirit as did Mafire Johnson, who reported her "experience" as profit. WOMEN'S WORK The work for women has been divided as follows: First; home demonstration clubs where sytematic food prepa ration, preservation and conservation are studied at regular monthly club meetings. Second; general teaching of women by county agents at public gatherings of their clubs, Thru the distribution of bulletins and other literature many thousand housekeepers of the State have been reached. '. ' Third; the poultry work with women is fully reported . by Miss Floyd. The liberal response from the farm women .is an index of its value . . The results of this wo . rk may be summed up as follows: :i:ncreas ' ed . productioi'i ' of . poultry products; better poultry on farm~; cooperative egg circles formed; $10,000 worth of ' eggs soJd; ' , I , . , . CANNING The statistics show that 1,377,185 cans and glass jars were filled by the women and girls this year. Tin cans were obtained under great difficulties. , As a result, the number of glass jars . filled increased : from 52,000 during 1917to 787,153 during . 1918. The number of housekeepers who dried fruits and vegetables was greatly increased . .. As the country girls and women had more of the farm . work to do than usual, and because , the cost of . containers was high, niany could can only for their home use. , The town women and girls also became interested iri food . preservation, and they put up fruits and vegetables for . home use. , Therefore,' instead of'two thousa:nd women ]illing almost two million : containers, . as they

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76 , Florida Cooperatiye Exterfsion did in 1917, about ten thousand women filled less than two . mil lion containers in 1918. This indicates very little canni11g fo:r; market, but a great deal for home use. DRYING VEGETABLES The success in drying certain vegetables, and the scarcity of containers for canning makes it necessary to undertake a cam paign for drying vegetables. The home demonstration staff have undertaken experimental work, and have visjted successful drying and dehydrating plants in other states to study methods f9llowect flans are no~ befog made with a purpose of extending . the work of drying vegetables fo . r home use, and to assist Ill the establishment of community: dryers and dehydrating plants. . CANNING UNDER STEAM•PRESSURE . The canning of vegetables, fish and meats under steam pressure is one of the important phases of tpe home demonstration , work. People who live or spend their summers each year where ther~ is sea-:-food in abundance are able to _ preserve this for home use, by the use of the steam pressure : outfits. " . In: sections where fresh meat is not always available, . by . th~ use of the steam pressure outfits it is easily possible to _ can a quarter . or even a . whole beef, fresh pork or poultry, and keep it in good _ condition for several months. WORK IN PREPARING GRAPE JUICE The work in . north and west Florida, in teaching the prepara tion , of grape juice and vinegar described in Miss Layton's . re port, i~dicates that there are great possibilities for this work. INFLUENZA At the September meeting of the home demonstration agents, definite plans were made for contests and housekeepers' schools. On October 7, the first telegrams were received in the state office calling off a contest oii account of influenza. From then . until November 15 the epidemic was so serious in almost every county iii the State that meetings of any kind were unwise, and in most places prohibited. This interfered with the completion of the year's records. Instead of the usual contests, in many counties the exhibits were brought in by the club members, to be judged and made known ata later date. . . _ _ .. . The home . demonstration agents, accustomed to take a leading

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. Annual Report, 1918 77 part in all war work,.considered it their duty to take a leading part iri ministering to the sick. The work done varied with the needs. The urban agents met the need in the cities by establish ing and managing soup kitchens, where custards and soups were supplied to all who applied. In Miami the aviation camp was in distress and the urban agent worked during the entire epidemic in an emergency hospital. With the assistance of the soldiers she prepared the food for 160 men. HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS IN WAR WORK During the entire period of war, Florida's home demonstra tion agents were active in war work. They acted as chauffeurs for war workers ; carried speakers out into the country; urged the people to attend the meetings; carried Red Cross material to country women's units; organized Red C _ ross chapters in the rural sections, and in every patriotic campaign have taken an active part. The women and girls working under their leader ship have made Red Cross garments for Belgian and French babies; clothing for the Florida Children's Home; bought Lib erty Bonds; sent boxes of jellies, jams and preserves to Florida . convalescents at the base hospitals, and adopted French war orphans. EMERGENCY COTTAGE CHEESE CAMPAIGN The Department of Agriculture put on . a nation.:.wide campaign of instruction in . making cottage cheese from the surplus skimmed milk. One of our workers was given two weeks' instruction in the making of cottage cheese before taking up the work. She vis ited 15 counties, 48 towns, and gave 43 demonstrations with a total attendance of 887 people. As a result of her work 153 women were taught to make and use cottage cheese, and 1510 pounds of . this product were made. WORK WITH NEGRO WOMEN Home demonstration agents have been teaching negro women the proper methods of canning, and these women have in turn taught their neighbors. Two . county home demonstration agents equipped canning sheds in their yards and allowed the . negroes to come and use their canners, under the agent's supervision. After . the emergency appropriation became available, 15 negro home demonstration agents were employed to teach canning and food conservation to negro women and girls.

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78 Florida Cooperative Ext . ension The following is a summary report of the work which wa accomplished in the 15 counties under . the supervision of thes women: Adult workers, 356; club members, 1273; total enroll ment, 1629; tin cans filled, 55,500; glass jars filled, 38,100; total containers filled, 94,600; number clubs organized, 140; number canners bought, 417. , Excellent work was done in various other lines such as soap . making, renovation of clothing and improving sanitary conditions of the home. The horn~ demonstration agents act in an advisory capacity and give careful study and assistance to the negro women's work. The Agricultural and Mechanical College . for negroes, Tallahassee, is headquarters for all negro home demonstration activities. . ' . ' . , . COUNTY SHORT COURSES FOR GIRLS . Thirty"'."thre> short courses were held, with an attendance of 690. . . . . , The co~nly short course is usually held in the county site. A r ;! presentatfre from each club in the county is sent to the short course, and she carries back to the club members in her neigh borhood new inspiration arid information. The number of clubs in the most prosperous counties vary from 19 to 25. In some counties short courses were open to all girls, as in Washington _ county, where the attendance was lQ0. The teachers for short courses are the supervising agents of extension work, who carry out a well planned course. The girls in attendance are usually entertained by the leading women of the town; resulting in a delightful cooperation between our country girls and the town women. COUNTY SHORT COURSES FOR WOMEN Housekeepers' schools or short courses for women were given in 29 towns and cities.in south Florida, with an average attend ance of 110 women. SUMMER SCHOOL The Legislature of 1917 made an appropriation of $500 per year for conducting a home economics summer school, planned primarily for the home demonstration agents; Because of the training offered in the ' summer schools, it is possible to employ trained women for county work; which otherwise would be impossible.

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Annual Report, 1918 79 GIRLS' SHORT COURSE The short course for girls was held during June, 1918. Forty two girls from 26 counties attended. The course consisted of a series of lessons in poultr y raising; the use and care of milk in the home; home san ita tion; home nursing; preservation, prepa ration and serving of foods; a nd in _ home management. The lesson s were arranged to give a broader vision and useful infor mation on practical phases of hom e m ak ing. FIG. 13 .Luncheon served to Hill sbo r o county sc hool board b y canning club girls during t h e s hort course Many of the students of the se short courses have taken a leading part in teaching food preservation and conservation around their homes. A number of them are now in attendance at the Florida State College for Women. SHORT COURSE FOR WOMEN A short course for housekeepers was held at the time of the annual home economics summer school, so that those in attend ance could get the benefit of lectures by specialists from the Depar t ment of Agriculture. During the period be twee n the summer and fall sessions a sec ond short course was offered to the women of the State, and was supported by the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. The Extension Staff of the College and specialists of the Department of Ag:ri~ulture, provided the teaching staff. , . f •, I

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FIG. 14.-War college attendance, State College for Women 00 0

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Annual Report, 1918 .81 WAR COLLEGE In the fall of 1918 the Florida State College for Women in vited the women of the State to hold a war college during the annual meeting of the home demonstration agents. Thru the cooperation of the food administration the conservation chair man of every county attended. The presidents and several mem bers of thirteen women's organizations in the State attended, making a total attendance of 250. ' The first week was given to lectures and demonstrations; the second week to daily conferences. In this way the agents and conservation chairmen gained a clearer understanding of the work they needed to do. The war college brought the leaders of the Florida women's organizations in closer touch with the work of the home demon stration agents, placing them in a position to estimate its value to the State and to give helpful suggestions and increased co ' operation. STATE FAIR Many of the county booths contained excellent home demon stration exhibits. In the state home demonstration booth the amount that could be entered by any one county was limited to three dozen glass and two dozen tin containers. Thirteen counties sent complete exhibits. Eight club girls, five women's clubs and several women displayed special exhibits made up of pickles, jellies, dried products, preserves and marmalades, and seventeen pounds of butter. The awards were as follows: For county exhibits of girls' work, the first prize was won by Jefferson county, second by Washington, and third by Madison county. In the exhibits from women's clubs the Florahoine Club, Putnam county, took first prize; Bradentown club, Manatee county, sec ond; and the Manatee club, Manatee county, third. INDIVIDUAL WOMEN'S EXHIBITS First, jellies, preserves, etc .. : ................ Mrs. VanDer Grift, St. Johns county. First, pickles . ..... .. . .. ... . . ... .. . ........ . .. . . .... . ...... Mrs. Sipprell, Putnam county. Second, pickles .. ...... .... ...... .. ..... . ... .. .... . ...... Mrs. Hartsfield, Lee county. First, jelly .... , .. .. ........................ . .. . ....... . .. . . . Mrs. J . M. Barfield, Dade county. First, citrus ..... . ....... ..... .. .. ... .. ..... ... ........ . : ... Mrs. Nellie Bush, Dade county. First , butter .............. . ....... ... ..................... Mrs. Oster, Putnam county. Second, butter ............................................ Mrs. Hawkins, Duval county. 6

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82 Florida Cooperative Extension INDIVIDUAL GIRLS' EXHIBITS First, grape .. . . ... ........... ...... . ..... .......... . .. . .... .. . ... Katie Bradfi s h, St. Johns county. Second, g r a pe ................... . ........ .. . . . ... .. . ..... ........ Eugenia Ponce, Duval county. First, citrus ... . . . . . . . . . ........ . ......... . ..... .. . . ..... . .......... Luna Stewart, DeSoto county. First, jelly .... . .. .. ... . . . ... . . .. . .. . .................... .. . . ........ Doloris Allums, Jefferson county. Second, jelly . . .. .. . ..... . ........ . ......... . ........ . ... .. ..... .. . Eugenia Ponce, Duval county. First, fig .. . ... .. . . ........... . . . ... . ..................... . ... . ...... . . Doloris Allums, Jefferson county. First , dried products .. . .. . .. . .. . .... . ... ...... .. . . . . ........ Goldie Helms, Washington county. First, pickles . . .. . . . . .. ......... . .................... .. . . ........ Goldie H e lms, Washin g ton county . FIG . 15.-Home demons tration exhibit at state fair Members of the home demonstration staff gave daily demon strations on the following subjects: Food preparation, food study, cheese and butter making, canning in tin, canning in glass, and the use of the steam pressure. POULTRY EXHIBITS Poultry work is described by Miss Floyd as follows: "The state fair association created a . department in the poultry division for the girls' and boys' poultry clubs, under direction of the poultry specialist of the state home demonstration work. No entry fees were charged. "Exhibitors were required to furnish their record books, es says, and an exhibit consisting of one cockerel and two pullets. The competition was between counties for a county prize. Each county competing was required to furnish at least five exhibits of trios. Competition between members of the same county was for ribbons only. Each bird of merit was awarded a ribbon.

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Annual Report, 1918 83 "Baker, Duval, St. Johns, Hernando, DeSoto, artd Hillsboro counties sent 34 exhibits, a total of 106 birds. Baker county girls and boys won the first county prize, $25 ; Hernando county the second, $15. These cash prizes were give:ri. with the under standing that they would be invested under the supervision of the poultry specialist and county home demonstration agents. "In addition to the county prizes the fair association offered two bronze medals to the girl and the boy making the highest individual record, the record book, ess a y and exhibit each count ing in the score. Marie Bradfish of St. Johns county won the girls' medal. She set 170 eggs, raised 152 chickens, which had a value (with their eggs) of $264 . 24. The cost of raising these ; chickens was $56.95, making . a profit of $207.29., "Lloyd Townsend of Baker county won the boys' medal. He raised 83 chickens, valued at $116.15, produced at a cost of $47.64, making a profit of $68.51." STATISTICAL REPORT Counties in . the District...... .. . ...... ...................... . . . ......................... . ... . .......... 54 Counties cooperating financi a lly. . ............. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. ................ .. . .. . . . . .......... 41 Well furnished offices .. .. .. . . ..... .. . . ..... . .. .. .......... . ..... . . . .... . .. . ................ .. ..... . .. . ; . ... 37 Home demonstration kitchen s . ...... . . .. . ..... .. . .. .. ..... . .. .. . .. .. .... . . .. ... ... . .. . . .......... .. 50 Agents owning or being furnished cars..... ......... .. ..... ... .. ... . ..... ....... ..... ... .... 42 Agents owning horse and buggy ...... . ........... .. .. .. . .. ....... .. ..... ..... . . ..... . .. , ........ . 1 Counties makin g appropriation for home demonstration materials.... 22 Amount spent for home demonstration materials ................ . .. .. ............. $3117.42 Agents regularly employed ......................... . ..... . .. . ..................... , . ;. . . .. .. ........ 40 Agents employed for short period............. . . . ....... . ... . . .... .... . ......... . ........ . . . ... 29 Average term of employment . . .... ... . ...... . .. . ... .. ... . .. . .. . .... . .. . .. .. ........ . .. ............ 9.4 Average monthly salary (including travel) .... ..... .. .. . ... ...... .... . .. . . ...... . . . .... ... $126.09 Average cost travel per month .. . . .. ............ . . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . ...... . .. . .. .. . .... .... . ....... $ 37.23 Agents, Emer g ency.......... .. ..... . .. .. ................ . ....... . ....... . ................................. 7 Average number months employed . ............ . ..... . .. . ............................ . .......... 6.5 Average monthly salary (including travel) ..... . .... . ...................... . .............. $150.00 Agents, Urban .. . . .. . .. . ................ ... . . ... .. ,....................... . .. . .................................. 7 Average number months employed .. . . . . ......... . . . .. . . . . . . ..... .... . ... . ... .. .. .. ......... . . . . 6 Assistants during canning season ... . . . . ..... .. . . ... . . . .... . ... ... ... . ...... . .. . . . ... . .. . ... . . . .. 15 FIELD WORK Miles traveled by agents ...... . .. . ..................... ... .. .. .............. .. ..... . . .... ... . .. . ......... 201,050 Visits made to club members . .. . . .... . . ....................... .. .............. . . . ... ............ .... 10,068 X~i/!~1!11~f~t~d . ~~~.~~::: : : : : ::::: : : :: ::: : :: : :::::: :: ::: : :: : :::: ::: :::::::: : ::: : :::::: :: :: : ::: : : :: :: : :: : : : :: 1 1:~!~ Visits to home demonstrators ... .... .. .. ..... . ... .... .. .. .. ...... ..... .. .... .. ... .. .. .. .. .... . . .... 4,050 Demx_~~~~d~~~! :.~:~~:::: :: :::: :: :: :::: : : : : :::::::::::::: :: :: : ::: : : : : ::: ::::::::: ::: ::: : ::::: : : : ::::::::: 6 &;~g~ Meetings held or participated in .. .................. .. .... .. .. . .................. . ...... . ......... 4,494 shoJ!~;r~~~c;o;gi;i~:::::: : : :: ::::::: : :::::::::::_-_-_-_____-_-.. __-.... . : _-_-. . :.:::::::: : :: :::: :: : ::::::::::: 103 2 ~~ Attendance ............ ... ... . . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. ..... . .... .. . .. . .. ......... . . ... ... . ......... . . ... .. . .. . ... 711

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension ContGi;is ~il~~~ii"~g:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::: :::: Total att'endance .......... , ........................................ .................................. . Extension schools for housekeepers .............. , ...... , ............................. , ....... . Enrolled attendance .............................................................................. ,. ACHIEVEMENTS Number girls enrolled in canning clubs ............... , ... , ............................... . Number in miscellaneous clubs ................................................................. . Girls and boys enrolled ill poultry clubs ..... ,, ........ , ... : ............................. . Women enrolled in poultry work ............................................................... . Women .enrolled in egg circles ................................................................... . Women enrolled in other clubs ................................................................... . Women other than club members reached by work. ............................ . Clubs organized among girls ..................................................................... . Clubs organized among women ...... , .......................................................... . Containers filled: 26 1,066 6,103 37 1,755 3,212 780 784 181 292 3,568 25,000 351 273 Glass ........................................................................................................ 787,153 Tin ....................................................................................................... ...• 610,033 Total .................................................................................................... 1,397,186 Dried products, pounds................................................................................ 3,723 Canners purchased .................................... ,................................................... 659 Steam pressure outfits purchased.............................................................. 212 War gardens ................................................... , ............................................. ~... 620 SUMMARY REPORT OF STATE WORKERS Number of miles traveled ................................................................................ 67,731 Days engaged in office work.......................................................................... 269 Days engaged in field work............................... .. ............................................. 582 Days attending state meetings...................................................................... 143 Days attending out-of-state meetings.......................................................... 21 Demonstrations given ...................................................................... : ....... ........ 204 Meetings attended.............................................................................................. 389 Estimated attendance ................................................................................ 27,558 Contests attended.............................................................................................. 48 Short courses attended .................................. : ................................................... 51 Estimated attendance................................................................................ 2,685 Fairs attended.................................................................................................... 28 Schools visited .................................... :............................................................... 61 Homes visited.................................................................................................... 236 Conferences with: County agents............................................................................................ 399 Farm superintendents.............................................................................. 52 School superi:r:te~dents .. ;;:..................................................... 30 Co~mty c~~m1ss1oners .m sess1~n.......................................................... 26 'Supervisory v1s1ts to counties........................................................................ 124 Miscellaneous meetings attended.................................................................... 50

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Annual Report, 1918 REPOR'.fOF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. 85 SIR: I . submit herewith the report of the district agent of home demonstration work for East and South , Florida for the year ending December 31, 1918. , Respectfully, . SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Home Demonstration, Agent. Satisfactory progress has been made and interest increased during the year. This is evidenced by the increase in the num ber of counties supporting this work, increased county appro priations for the work, and an increase in the number of women l and girls who attend the meetings and demonstrations and carry : out in their home the instructions given them by the agents. ORGANIZATION In organizing the district, appropriations were secured from 21 of the 27 counties. Five of these niade additional appro priations for the support of work among negroes. Nine of the 16 , counties that were in the district during the previous year made substantial increases in their appropriations. Funds were provided in 22 counties for demonstration materials and equip ment. This is . essential to the success of the work, for it is impossible for an agent to do her best work without material and . equipment. These appropriations have ranged from $50 td $200. . Agents 1 were appointed in the district as follows: To 19 counties making sufficiently large appropriations, full time work.: ers were assigned. Two counties maintained two agents each. Three counties were combined in a group and assigned to an emergency agent. Two counties were given emergency, part time workers. One county was cared for . by arr assistant emer gency agent of an adjoining county; two counties united in the support of one agent, and to Monroe, the remaining county in the district, was assigned an urban agent. Urban work is the great need in this county. ' OFFICES AND DEMONSTRATION KITCHENS Twenty-three of the counttes provi~ed , suitable offices for the agent. These offices we're usually in the court house, always in

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Fm. 16.-Home demonstration kitchen, used by Hillsboro county club members 00 O')

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Annual Report, 1918 87 some place easy of access to the public. In St . Lucie county a one room building was set aside for home demonstration work. This is well equipped as office and kitchen. Twenty folding chairs make it possible to convert the room into a club or class room. In Volusia county the commissioners provided a building for the work. The room at the entrance of the building serves as an office for the farm and home demonstration agents. It is suf ficiently large to care for classes . of 20 or 30 persons. Back of this is the well-equipped rest room. In the rear of the building is the kitchen. Here country women often can produce which they have failed to dispose of. During the ''Swat the Rooster" campaign, 78 roosters were canned in this kitchen on the steam pressure canner, under the supervision of the home demonstra tion agent. Forty home demonstration kitchens have been equipped. Funds for this purpose have been provided by county commissioners, school boards, city councils, local organizations, and in some in stances by the girls and women of the canning and home dem onstration clubs themselves. These kitchens are equipped as demonstration rooms and canning centers. Most of the kitchens are furnished with both steam pressu re and hot water canners. In canning season groups of women bting their vegetables and fruits to these kitchens and put them up under expert super vision. In a number of counties it has not been necessary to equip . kitchens except in remote rural sections, as the agents had the , privilege of using the domestic science departments in the schools for group work with women and girls. Twenty-one domestic science departments in public schools are being u,sed in this way. In every city and town in which an urban worker was main tained a demonstration kitchen was provided for the work. In Tampa the kitchen is delightfully located in the city hall. This room also serves as office for the urban and county agents, and is the center of home demonstration activities in the county. In addition to this kitchen, the gas company gave the use of a splendidly equipped canning kitchen with individual equipment for 20 workers, to be used during the canning season. ' ENROLLMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS In the organized work the enrollment among women has shown the greatest increase in membership in clubs holding regular

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88 Florida Cooperativ,e Extension monthly meetings. The members have poultry clubs, pantry clubs, and egg circles. The number of organized clubs in a county varies from four to twelve among women; and from four to eighteen among girls. These clubs are doing good work in their study of the extension course for housekeepers. "How to live wisely and well" has been the keynote of the study course. A demonstration was given with each lesson taught. Much time has been given to war cookery. The monthly meetings of the home demonstration clubs offer an excellent op portunity .for this. Every regulation of the food administration modifying the usual preparation of food was brought to the attention of the housekeepers. The average number in the group brought together for study was only 16, but the total attendance was large, being 30,434. Club meetings, especially in rural sections, have not only given the women an opportunity for study and improvement, but in many cases have furnished the social hour for the group. As one woman expressed it: "This is our moving picture of the month, the only time we get together. You don't know what it means to us". EXTENSION SCHOOLS FOR HOUSEKEEPERS Extension schools for housekeepers for the teaching of food conservation were held at 29 places. These lasted from three to six days. The lectures and demonstrations in this course were based on the following subjects: Victory breads, Victory sweets, . good dishes from corn products, cooking and canning under steam pressure, meat substitutes, and vegetable cookery. These schools were well attended by the housekeepers of the towns in which they were held. State workers and local home economics teach ers assisted the agents in conducting the schools. Several of these schools resulted in the formation of strong home demon stration clubs. This feature of the work will be further developed next year. VICTORY AND POTATO WEEK "Wheatless Week" was observed as "Victory Week" in Florida. Sketches of window decorations were furnished the agents and Victory window displays were put up in stores; parades and public demonstrations were held to push government food propaganda. Special classes were conducted for instructing housekeepers in the use of wheat substitutes, and of attractive

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Annual Report, 1918 89 ways of preparing and serving them.' Potato week was observed .. thruout the district. HEALTH WORK Not only has the proper selection, preparation and use of food been emphasized, but home sanitation, cleanliness . and per sonal hygiene. Special emphasis has been laid upon the need for pure milk in the diet of the child. GENERAL PATRIOTIC WOR _ K A Polk county girl was the first canning club member in the district to purchase . a Liberty Bond with proceeds from her garden. Many club members have purchased thrift stamps; agents have encouraged War Saving and Thrift Stamps as club prizes. Th e district has adopted a French war baby to be supported and clothed by club members during the coining year. Much interest is manifested in this work. The club girls will make the garments :for the baby. The girls in three counties have adopted a French baby for each of their respective counties. GOOD RECORD BY CLUB GIRLS The highest yield of, tomatoes in the State on a tenth-acre plot was made by Anna Sykes, a Dade county canning club girl. She harvested 6300 pounds of tomatoes from her garden. She shipped her tomatoes, receiving $285.93. After deducting the cost of cultivation, $33.51, and $60 paid for crates, express and commissions, her net profit was $192.42. This was . the largest net profit realized by any club girl. One . of the best business records made by a club girl was made by Selma Letzing of Manatee county. The proceeds from the products of her tenth-acre and from 500 cans of tomatoes put up from the home garden were $305.83; Her expenses were $44.72, leaving a net profit of $261.11. Agnes Williams of Citrus county made the following record on a tenth-acre plot: She harvested 37 45 pounds of tomatoes, 119 pounds of onions and then planted the plot in potatoes. She had an excellent yield from these. She canned and sold 1337 cans of tomatoes. Her receipts from fresh vegetables and canned goods were $185 . 24, expenses $65.77; profit $119.47. Agnes was first-prize winner in her county. She is now a student in the Florida State College for Women, working her way thru. She defrays part of her expenses with the money made in club work.

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension CANNING The total number of containers may not exceed that of last year, but the work has been more generally done . More than ten times as many glass containers were filled in the district of south and east Florida as were filled in the entire State last year, 522,201 jars being filled. The average glass container was the quart jar. There were 359,852 tin containers filled, making a total of 882,053 containers filled in ' t~e district. To encourage canning, "pantry clubs" were originated. Each member of such a club was pledged to put into the home pantry not less than 50 containers which she had filled with fruits or vegetables. In one county in which work had never been main tained, an emergency worker was employed for ten weeks. She enrolled in the pantry club 270 women and three girls. As a result of the work, 31,000 quart containers were filled. This county has appropriated $1000 for next year's work, and will employ an agent for ten months. The cooperative plan for canning has been successfully fol lowed in several counties. Under this plan clubs are formed among housewives and canning centers equipped. Here the farmer brings his surplus vegetables and they are canned on a fifty-fifty basis. The farmer supplies the vegetables and pays for one half of the cans, solder, fuel, etc. The club _ furnishes the labor and pays for the other half of the supplies. A club member is appointed business manager for the club, and a strict account is kept of the number of hours that each has worked. This plan has been in operation in the district for the two years and has proven entirely satisfactory to farmers and housewives. In Manatee county four such clubs put up 25,000 cans of vege tables. Three of these clubs had the use of domestic science kitchens. The fourth was without equipment or means of se curing it, but with a splendid determination to do its part two large galvanized zinc tubs were used for a canner. Two cap:. ping steels and two tipping coppers completed this meagre equip ment. When the price of beans no longer made it profitable to ship they were canned. This club put up 10,000 caris of vege tables. It sold $25 worth of the club's share of these cans, and had this amount for the purchase of equipment . A club of Miami housewives screened and equipped a garage belonging to one of its members. These women filled 3,000 cans with surplus vege tables obtained from truckers. A Manatee county girl made the highest individual record in

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Annual Report, 1918 91 canning, , putting up 3500 ca~s of vegetables . . She finds a ready sale for all of her work. , In Orlando, at the opening of the canning season, captains of canning , units were trained to assist the agent during the season, and busy . women converted . the kitchen into a canning center that did very successful work. This kitchen operated in close connection with the newly established curb market, and surplus . vegetables wer~ brought here by the farmers for cooperative canning. In one county when the shipping of tomatoes had been aban doned because of low prices, the agent arranged for one club of girls , to stay in the home of a farmer who had 40 acres in to matoes and can the surplus crop. The girls were under the care of the farmer's wife; they received their board and $1.00 a day for their work. . The farm hands picked the tomatoes and brought them to the house, and the girls canned from morning until night. The canning of meat has been extensively carried on; pork, beef, fish and poultry being conserved in this manner . There . were 146 steam pressure canners bought in the district during the year. This feature of the work has proven very satisfactory. PURPOSES OF WORK FOR 1918-1919 Increasing club membership. Strengthening club organization. Teaching food values and cookery. Increasing food production ; Teaching conservation in clothing. Working for better homes. Developing the social hour. Conservation of child life. Fostering the spirit ?f Americanism.

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92 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit he:rewith the report of the. district agent for home demonstration work in North and West Florida, for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Home Demonstration Agent. ORGANIZATION At the beginning of this fiscal year, the district of north and west Florida comprised 27 counties. Of these 18 counties made local appropriations for the continuance of the work. Out of the 18 counties only one made an appropriation as large as $1000. The nine counties of this district without a home demonstra tion agent were placed into three groups, and an emergency agent secured to take charge of each group. Early in the sum .. mer an emergency canning agent was sent into each of the nine group counties and into five of the large towns in the district. GIRLS' WORK The regular work among girls began in every county com pleting the year's work with the fall contest. This was followed by the organization of clubs holding, where possible, monthly meetings. Lessons in food and agriculture were studied at these meetings, and ended with some social activity. The highest yield yet made in Florida from a club girl's tenth acre was made by Julia Holland of Madison county. She made on her tenth-acre, 4879 pounds of tomatoes and 253.8 pounds of other vegetables, making a total of 7 417 pounds. Eula Trantham of Duval county reports a profit of $195 from her tenth-acre. This girl took over the farm poultry flock, and reports over $200 from this source. Living near Jacksonville she has a good market. Her graded eggs are now selling for $1 a dozen. In St. Johns county Marie Bradfish took first county prizes for canning and poultry club work, and third for pig club work. She also took the bronze medal at the state fair for best state record made by a girl in poultry work. A real beginning has been made this year in the Perennial Garden for club girls. Thru the cooperation of three nurseries

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Annual Report, 1918 . 93 and one or two individuals, good nursery stock, such as fruit trees, nut trees, and grape vines have been given as prizes at the fall contest. In twelve counties a three-day short course was held. Besides the girls, many mothers and townspeople attended these lectures and demonstrations. The principal lessons taught were canning, both in hot water and steam pressure, drying, wheatless recipes, the use of potatoes, the use of milk and cheese, cottage cheese, butter making, and personal hygiene. WOMEN'S WORK More than ever before the women have asked for advice and help. Women's home demonstration clubs, poultry clubs and egg circles have been formed. Where organized work seemed im possible, war gardens and poultry clubs were encouraged. These required no meetings and no special records. As a result of the home demonstration work 10,000 women thruout the district were definitely reached in some active way. A new phase of work for women has been the home demonstra tion and canning kitchens. The women of the towns have been eager to give their time and labor in order to can the fresh vegetables from the country. The plan of these kitchens has been in general similar to the following: "Thirty women worked in groups of six, five days a week, and canned on halves for the farmers. Each person paid for his . cans ; the farmer furnished the vegetables. The women did the work. The money for the fuel, etc., was furnished by in dividual members of the school board and commissioners." CAMPAIGNS At times during the year regular work was suspended and campaigns put on. The first of these was Victory Week. The potato campaign was the next in order. But the canning cam paign with the slogans "Fill the home pantry'; and "Three hun dred sixty-five cans in every home" crying on all sides, was per. haps the greatest movement of all. CANNING WITH STEAM PRESSURE The use of the steam pressu~e canner has increased splen -didly during the past year. Its greatest value has been the can _ , ning . of meats, fish and poultry. The following is an agent's report of one day's work in canning a beef: 35 cans of boiled beef, 34 cans of roast _ beef, 15 cans of steak, 12 cans of soup :Stock, 1 can of tongue, 2 cans of brains, 1 can of stuffed heart, 6

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension cans of tripe, 2 cans of liver; making a total of 108 cans of beef for honie' use. WAR WORK All our work this year might well be classed under the head of War Work, but especial time and thought have been given to the following drives: The Food Survey, the Liberty Loan, and the War Savings Stamps. At Christmas a donation of jellies, jams and preserves was sent by the club girls of this district to the Florida convalescents at the Base Hospital at Camp Wheeler. SPECIAL MEETINGS A series of group meetings for special instruction to agents were held at Pensacola, Tallahassee, and Palatka. At this time Mr. Charles Dearing, of the Plant Bureau, gave most excellent instruction in the culture and use of the muscadine grape. This is one of the most beneficial movements yet made for north and west Florida. We have an abundance of muscadine grapes. This report from St. Johns county tells the possibilities of this work: "The most interesting special work has been with muscadine grapes. St. Johns county has always made and sold large quantities of home made wines. This was not made in factories but in the homes. There were many homes, both in the town ar.(! country, that had large arbors, and had out the sign 'Home-made Wine for Sale Here'. When the prohibition law was passed . the people were forced to get rid of their wine at a sacrifice, the market for it being purely local. 1 got permission from the sheriff for them to turn it into vinegar and over 1000 gallons of wine of a doubtful quality was turned into vinegar of an excellent quality. "I talked the manufacture of unfermented juice all thru the year, and in August, with the assistance of Mr. Dearing and Miss Heist, had quite a quantity made, using the equipment of the wine cellars. I hope that this is the basis of a good industry." DEMONSTRATIONS Wheat substitutes and wheatless breads, cakes, puddings, etc., the use of peanuts, cornmeal and potatoes, the conservation of meat, sugar and fat, and the steam pressure canner formed the subjects for the demonstrations most generally given. The whole year's work, with Miss Harris away, has been very strenu ous. My work has been principally that of supervising and organizing 27 counties. Of necessity, fewer meetings have been attended and fewer schools and homes visited. The following are the chief aims in view for the work of the coming year : To increase production by means of home gardens; to continue conservation of food ; to give the women of each county the opportunity of attending a housekeepers' school; to provide planned monthly lessons for club girls; to plant peren nials; and to push grape work.

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Annual Report, 1918 REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB WORK P. H. Rolfs, Director. 95 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club work for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully~ MINNIE FLOYD, Assistant State . Home Demonstration Agent. POULTRY WORK EXTENDED Because of war conditions this year there has been . a decided breaking away from the original plans of extending the poultry club work . .Instead of adding a few counties gradually, as had been planned, opportunity was given all county home demonstra tion agents of one or more years' experience to begin poultry club work. No first year, nor emergency group county agent was required to begin poultry club work, exceptions to the plan, however~ being made in Okeechobee, Baker , Leon and DeSoto counties, where conditions were especially favorable for poultry club work. In Wakulla county , altho it was han , dled by an emergency agent, the opportunity to begin the work could not be neglected. Four successful egg circles have demonstrated the wisdom of the undertaking in that county. PLAN OF THE WORK , The work . this year has been conducted the same as last year, under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys also were enrolled; and women's poultry clubs. All the counties beginning last year have continued thru 1918. In Hillsboro, Dade and Polk counties the assistant agents devoted a part of their time to looking after the poultry club work. One agent did the poultry club work for Duval and St. Johns counties. There has been some organized poultry club work in about half the counties of the State, but the same plan of work has not been carried out in . all of them. Some counties began with only one club; some did only girls' work; others women's work, . while most of them had clubs for both women and girls. GIRLS' CLUBS Girls who have done successful canning club work for one yea:r or more have been given the opportunity to join both the canning and poultry clubs. Girls who had not been members of any club

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96 Florida Cooperative E . xtension formerly have been . givep. th.e choice of membership in either club, but girls have not been permitted to join both clubs for the first time in the same year. The plan adopted by some agents of joint meetings for the girls ' and boys ' canning, corn and pig clubs is to be recommended wherever it is possible. FIG. 17.-Dade county poultry club Realizing that the girls need the same instructions in cooking, sewing, etc., whether they are members of poultry or canning clubs, the home demonstration agents in Escambia, Santa Rosa and St. Johns counties have girls from both clubs working to gether in short courses, as well as in regular monthly meetings. COOPERATION FROM POULTRYMEN Special mention is made of the poultry club work in Baker county, as the results obtained proved to be the best in the State and would be a good example for other counties to follow. Mr. Ventling, a poultryman near Glen St. Mary, made an offer thru the county home demonstration agent to furnish 100 settings of purebred eggs (white Leghorn or white Wyandotte) to the poultry club girls and boys of Baker county, and take two pullets raised from each sitting as pay. Many girls and boys eagerly took advantage of this offer, with the result that at the county short course, held April 20, over 500 growing chicks were re ported, with more eggs incubating.

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Annual Report, 191 8 97 In Duval county members of the Jacksonville Poultry Asso ciation gave 19 settings of eggs to Duval county club members as prizes on exhibits made at the Jacksonville poultry show held in December, 1917. COUNTY CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES Of the seven original counties doing poultry club work, viz: Escambia, Duval, St. Johns, Santa Rosa, Hillsboro, DeSoto and . Polk, all except DeSoto and Polk held contests and made credit able exhibits at the county fall contests. The poultry club girl making the best record ih each of Es cambia, Santa Rosa and St . Johns counties was awarded a scholarship to the girls' short course. In St. Johns county the poultry club boy making the best record also received a scholar ship, to attend the boys ' short course at the University of Florida. The state poultry club agent attended 16 county contests and short courses during the year, and gave lectures on poultry work at each one. FIG. 18.-Poultry club girl, Santa Rosa county GIRLS AND BOYS' EXHIBITS AT THE JACKSONVILLE POULTRY SHOW The Jacksonville Poultry Association extended an invitation to all the girls and boys' poultry clubs of the State to exhibit their birds at the Jacksonville poultry show held December 4-8, 1917. The clubs in Duval, Escambia and Hillsboro counties took advantage of the opportunity, and exhibited 21 coops. Small

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98 Florida Cooperative Extension cash prizes and settings of purebred eggs were given for be s t exhibits. The exhibit attracted so much attention that a de partment for the girls and boys' poultry club has been created in the poultry department of the state fair. POULTRY WORK AT THE SHORT COURSES The State College for Women gave lectures and demonstra tions on poultry in the Methods Class in Home Economics. Students received practical work in operating an incubator, grading, scoring, candling market eggs, and testing the fertility of eggs in the incubator. At the annual meeting of the county home demonstration agents the mornings were given almost en tirely to poultry instruction. Lectures on poultry management were given daily at the girls' short course. The poultry club agent lectured on poultry work at the meeting of county agents, boys' short course, and the farmers' short course. TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL WORK A series of monthly programs were outlined on poultry sub jects , and these were sent out for use in girls' and women's meet ings. The outline was as follows: September, marketing of eggs (organization of cooperative egg circles) . October, grading and scoring of commercial eggs. November, breeds of poultry. December, feeds and feeding of poultry. January, natural and artificial incubation. February, diseases of poultry. March, eggs in the diet. April, preserving eggs. May, rooster day. WOMEN'S WORK Poultry club work with women has been more strongly em phasized than in the past. More stress was placed on economical than on increased production. Where women lived too far apart to attend club meetings, they were enrolled as individual members of the county club. Community poultry clubs have been organized where there was not an appreciative need of help with marketing of pr . oducts. _ Where there was a realization of the need , cooperative egg circles have been organized, the results obtained being the most satis factory of any phase of the work.

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Annual Report, 1918 99 EXHIBITS Since the organization of poultry club work was begun with whatever stock a member might have, few attempts were made to have women's club exhibits. However, Escambia, Orange and Osceola counties had a few women's exhibits at the fall contests. The Osceola county agent was successful in getting most of the members of the women's clubs to buy purebred eggs for hatching, and also to arrange for early hatching. The poultry club work in Dade county was started by having quite a few members buy purebred stock. The club members furnished more than half the exhibits of the poultry show at the Miami fair. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY FEEDS Special emphasis has been laid on the production of feed at home and it is a noticeable fact that more poultry work is done in the counties where feed is raised. Where most of the feed must be purchased the price was so high that many people sacri ficed their poultry last year. RECORDS The agents have emphasized the value of well kept records. Some satisfactory reports of production and marketing have been obtained, but very few accurate ones on feeding. On farms where feed is produced it is usually taken as needed without measuring or estimating its value or cost each day. If the feed is bought other farm animals are usually .fed from the same supply. These conditions make it very difficult to procure accu rate records on cost of production. ROOSTER DAY Realizing that the feed consumed by male birds increases the feed bill, also that one third of the loss from bad eggs is caused by the partial hatching of fertile eggs, a campaign was conducted for getting rid of the male birds after the hatching season was over. Accordingly newspaper articles, programs for club meet ings, etc., were sent out asking that June 1 be observed as "Rooster . Day" by selling, killing, or confining all male birds during the summer months. In Baker county the agent secured the promise of merchants to pay five cents per dozen more for guaranteed infertile eggs than for fertile ones during . the summer months. With this

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100 Florida Cooperati v e Exte11,Sion understanding she secured the promise of nearly 109 dozen in fertile eggs weekly for the market. Every one of the twelve members of an egg circle in Citrus county pledged themselves to remove the male birds from the flock in order that they might sell only "guaranteed infertile FIG. 1 9. -L ive Oa k egg circle, Wakulla county eggs " . Other counties reported the observance of "Rooster Day". PRESERVATION OF EGGS It has been found by experience that eggs preserved by the water glass method keep sufficiently fresh for cooking purposes for eight or nine months, possibly longer. For financial and patriotic reasons both farm and town women have been urged to preserve eggs with water glass. The cost of preserving is small. During the periods of scarcity of eggs the prices are usually double the prices during the season of high production. Reports show that 591 dozen eggs have been preserved by club members this year. Jefferson county made the highest record, reporting 200 dozen; Citrus county next, with 150 dozen.

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Annual Report, 1918 101 COOPERATIVE EGG CIRCLES This work has been done mostly in community organizations, which is the best plan under present conditions. Of the three counties undertaking the work only one, Hernando, has been considered a real success. The benefit of the work is two-fold: to give the producer cash for her product; to give the customer a guaranteed product, and to each a share of the middle-man's profit. For example, in January, 1918, it was found that hotels in Jacksonville were paying 75 cents per dozen for eggs, while women in Wakulla county were receiving only 25 cents per dozen "in trade". Ar rangements were made to sell directly to hotels for 60 cents per dozen, thereby giving the consumer the advantage of 15 cents per dozen and the producer 35 cents per dozen. FIG. 20.-Orange Hill egg circle, Washington county The following answers to the question, "What does this work mean to your community?", from a few managers of egg circles gives some idea of the appreciation of this work: Hernando County: "It means the women having a chance to get some money."

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102 Fl01ida Cooperative E x tension Palm Beach County: "We have our own spending money; we can buy where we please and not h ave to take everything in trade." Wakulla County (Medart Circle): "It just means that we have saved $108.63 in four and one half months , and I think that is good." (Live Oak Circle): "We ha ve a goo d profit on our eggs and it has been cash in the place of trade. We h ave sold our eggs when the local markets would not buy them at any price." Washington County (Orange Hill Circle): "It means $207.09 profit in six months, more eggs, better quality of eggs and a more social neighbor hood." The value of eggs sold in circles this year was ten times the value of those sold the previous year. Aside from the fact that the average price per dozen over that paid by local markets has been 8 cents, there has gone into rural homes $10,560 in cash, where formerly only trade was to be had. Nothing in the year's experience has afforded the poultry agent more pleasure than to see the bright, happy faces of these farm women, upon the receipt of "bank checks" for eggs. Many of them had never had a check before. FIG . 21.-Canning club girls attending a three day short course

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Annual Report, 1918 REPORT OF HOME DAIRY WORK 0 H. Rolfs, Director. ' 103 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the . home dairy special ;t for the year ending December 31, 1918. Respectfully, MAY MORSE, Assistant State Home Demonstration Agent. _ Special work in dairying was started November 1, 1917. The work being entirely new in the State, I first went to a number of contests, short courses and fairs in an effort to secure some in formation which would help me to formulate a plan for work. I got in touch with numbers of people who were interested, and furnished bulletins and other information on dairy problems. The striking feature presenting itself was a lack everywhere of dairy animals, and consequently of dairy products with which to work. As a result of my efforts, I discovered what a crying need there was for more milk in the State. We found family after family that did not use milk at all, and practically no butter. Consequently the logical line of attack was to stress the value of milk as a food, and especially its necessity for children. OBSTACLES There are certain obstacles that have interfered with the dairying industry in Florida. First and foremost, cattle fever ticks, which must be extermi nated. Until tick eradication is completed no great progress can be made, as the number of good dairy cows in the State is limited and very few available which are immune to ticks. Other obstacles are: Ignorance as to the food value of milk; inferior dairy animals; and inability in many rural communities to secure ice for cooling milk. In some of the best dairy sections in the northern portion of the State negroes occupy a latge per centage of the land, and they are not generally progressive dairy men. ADVANTAGES On the other hand, we have nearly ideal conditions for dairying if the farmer goes about it in an intelligent manner, and from a business standpoint. There is an almost unlimited local market for all dairy products

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104 Florida Cooperative Extension of a high grade. The demand in winter, owing to the influx of tourists, is greatly increased. The State falls far short of sup plying this demand. We find good butter can be made in the farm home with the use of the iceless refrigerator. Cottage cheese, neufchatel and cream cheese are practical. RESULfS FROM WORK At one rural home visited there were seven children, none well nourished. We discussed the value of milk with the mother, and a few days later the father came into the office of the county school superintendent and asked about planting beans for a pasture, saying he was going to get a cow. We have since learned that these children are much improved in condition as a result of plenty of milk to drink. Following a meeting in Tampa we learned of one woman buy ing a cow, and of others increasing their daily milk purchase. In several counties best adapted to dairying, the county home demonstration agents have been able to do some good work. In Calhoun county, at the comJ;>ined short course and farmers' meeting, we had a butter judging contest. There were 11 ex hibits; a canning club girl won highest score. At the state fair in Jacksonville l8 exhibits of butter were made. The judges pronounced it uniformly the best lot of country butter they had ever judged. Twenty-nine agents report women doing dairy work; 581 women making butter; and 399 making cottage cheese. One woman, who was feeding her baby on goat's milk was given instructions in making cheese from the milk. One agent is conducting a campaign of weighing and measur ing the school children in her territory, this being the basis for stressing the need of milk. In one school of 21 pupils, with the exception of six, all were below the standard in weight and measurement. These six children were the only ones in the school who had milk in their diet. No clubs have been formed in butter-making, as the homes are too widely separated. We are endeavoring to place a few calves with some of the canning club girls this fall. The agents were given the following outline of work from which to select that which is best adapted to their locality: A cow in every home; stock improvement by community-owned pure bred male; butter making; cottage cheese making; clean milk; tick eradication; and home grown feeds (silos for large herds).

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Annual Report, 1918 105 A county home demonstration agent writes as a result of her efforts for "A cow in every home" that she has secured orders for a carload of Holstein cows, and asks help in the,purchase of this stock. A few people have purchased the burch shaped butter molds. Directions have been given for making three butter workers. Four have expressed intention of getting barrel churns.. The greatest accomplishment of the year, I feel, was the interest aroused in numbers of homes as to the value of milk in the diet of the children.

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INDEX Act, Smith-Lever, 7 war emergency, 8 Activities, general, 34 Agents, assistants, 31 county cooperative, 5 county home _demonstration, 6 group meetings, 33 Agricultural clubs, boys', 54 Appropriations, 7, 8, 85 county, 53 Atkinson, E. E., sweet potato spe cialist, 19 Beef catle, 48 demonstrations, 38 report of specialist, 24 Texas cattle brought in, 24, 25 Black, Wm. H., report of agent in animal husbandry, 24 Blacklock, R. W., report of assistant boys' club agent, 66 Board of Control, 4 Boys, agricultural clubs, annual banquet, 62 assistant club agents, 63 enrollment, 56 report, 54 state agent, 12 Canning, containers for, 90 cooperation in, 90 kitchens, 85, 93 meat and fish, 76 number cans filled, 75 with steam pressure, 76, 93 Campaigns, canning, 93 cottage cheese, 77 cover crop, 48 food production, 32 Liberty Loan, 46 peanut, .48 potato, 89, 93 Red Cross, 46 Victory Week, 88, 93 vegetable, 29 War Savings Stamps, 46 Cattle, 45 bee, 88, 48 dairy, 37, 49 106 Changes in staff, 16 Citrus, demonstrations, 52 seminar, 32 Clubs, corn, 57, 70 pantry, 90 peanut, 58 pig, 59, 69 "win the war", 67 Commission, food preparedness, 9 Conferences, monthly, 20 Contests, boys', county, 62 corn clubs, 67 peanut, 68 pig club, 68 poultry, county, 97 Cooperation, canning, 90, 91 value of, 47 Cooperative, demonstration agents, 5 enterprises, 17, 18, 19, 20 Corn, 30, 42, 47 demonstrations, 35 Corn clubs, boys', 57 summary of reports, 58 Cotton, 29, 43, 47 demonstrations, 35 Council of Defense, 10 County appropriations, 53 County contests, boys', 62 Crops, cotton, 29 corn, 30 dasheens, 31 grazing, 71 peanuts, 30 small grain, 30 sugar cane, 30 sweet potatoes, 30 truck, 31 velvet beans, 31 Dairy cattle, 49 demonstrations, 37 Dairying, 33, 49 Dairy, home demonstration work, 103 exhibits at state fair, 104 Dasheens, 31 Demonstration kitchens, 85, 93 Demonstrations, citrus, 52 cooking, 94 truck, 52

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Annual Report, 1918 107 Demonstrations and cooperations, beef cattle, 38 corn, 35 cotton, 35 cowpeas, 37 dairy cattle, 37 fertilizer, 38 fruits, 37 hogs, 38 Irish potatoes, 37 lime, 39 livestock diseases, 38 manure, 38 oats, 36 peanuts, 36 poultry, 38 rye, 36 silos, 39 sweet potatoes, 37 velvet beans, 36 )ipping vats, 33 Jirector, report of, 7 Draft, army, 10 Egg circles, 101 Elevators, corn, 43 Emergency appropriation, 8 Emergency workers, 74 Exhibits, boys' clubs, 68 girls' clubs, 82 poultry, 82 women's individual, 81 Expenditures, supervision of, 15 Extension, appropriations, 7, 8 changes in staff, 16 plan of work, 13 purpose of, 7 schools for housekeepers, 88 Extension division staff, 4 Fairs, 32, 50, 71, '. 81 Farm Improvements, 35 Farm Makers' clubs, 39 Farmers', clubs organized, 34 Feed Mills, 43 Feed and forage; 48 Fertilizer, demonstrations, 38 Financial statement, 15 Floyd; Minnie, report of poultry club work, 95 Food Preparedness Commission, 9 Food Production campaign, 32 General activities, agents', 34 Girls', clubs, 89, 92 poultry, 95 short course, 78, 79 Grape juice, 76 Grazing crops, 71 Harris, Agnes E., report of state home demonstration agent, 73 Health work, 89 Herrington, G. L., report of boys' club agent, 54 Hiatt, S. W., report of district agent, 46 Highfill, L. R.,. report of assistant boys' club agent, 69 Hogs, 34, 44, 49 demonstrations, 38 Hog cholera, 49 educational and demonstrational work, 21 statistical report, 22 Home demonstration, dairy work, 103 purpose of work, 91, 94 statistical report, 83 women's work, 93 Home demonstration agent, state, 73 district, 85, 92 emergency, 74 urban, 73 Home makers' clubs, 40 Improvements, farm, . 35 Irish potatoes, 48 demonstrations, 37 Jenkins, E. W., report of district agent, 42 Kitchens, demonstration, 85 Layton, Harriette B., : report of district agent, 92 Liberty Loan, 10 Lime, demonstrations, 39 Livestock, 33 round-up, 32 Logan, A. H., report of veterinary inspector, 21

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108 Florida Cooperative Extension McLendon, H. S., report of district agent, 51 McQuarrie, C. K., report of state agent, 29 Machinery, farm, 50 Manure, demonstrations, 38 Meetings, 31 agents' annual, 32 agents' group, 33, 94 directors and state agents, 32 Monthly conference, 20 Morse, May, report of home dairy work, 103 Negro work, 39, 77 Oats, demonstrations, 36 Officers, States Relations Service, 4 Organizations, county, 33, 42, 47, 53 farmers' clubs, 34 home demonstration work, 85, 92 Partridge, Sarah W., report of dis trict agent, 85 Patriotic work, 89, 94 Peanuts, 30, 44, 48, 52 demonstrations, 36 clubs, 58 Pig clubs, 59, 69 reports of, 61 Poultry, demonstrations, 38 educational work, 98 exhibits, 82, 97 feeds, 99 report of extension poultry hus bandman, 27 schools, 28 Poultry clubs, achievements, 84 county contests, 97 plan of work, 95 summary of work, 84 women's work, 98 Projects, extension, 13 Publications, 15 Rawls, D. G., peanut specialist, 19, 30 Reports, asst. boys' clubs agents, 66, 69 beef cattle specialist, 24 boys' club agent, 54 director of extension, 7 district agents, 42, 46, 51, 85, 92 home dairy work, 103 negro work, 39 poultry club work, 95 poultry husbandman, 27 state agent, 29 state home demonstration agent, 73 veterinary inspector, 21 Rye, demonstrations, 36 Sanborn, N. W., report of poultry husbandman, 27 Schools, housekeepers, 88 poultry, 28 Short course, boys', 62 girls', 78, 79, 93 poultry,. 97, 98 women, 79 Silos, 34, 39, 51 Small grain, 30 Smith-Lever Act, 7 Staff, extension division, 4 Staple crops, increase in, 51 State agent, 11 report, 29 State Council of Defense, 10 State home demonstration agent, 73 report, 73 Statement of finances, 15 Statistics, poultry, 83 Sugar cane, 30 Summary of corn club reports, 58 Summer school, 79 Supervision of expenditures, 15 Sweet potatoes, 30 demonstrations, 37 Swine, purebred, 72 Truck, crops, 31 demonstrations, 52 Urban work, 73 Vats, cattle dipping, 33, 45, 50 Velvet beans, 31, 43 demonstrations, 36 Vegetables, drying, 76 War college, 81 War Savings Stamp drive, 10 . War work, 9, 77 Women's work, 75, 79, 93