Citation
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics

Material Information

Title:
Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Running title:
Annual report
Running title:
Report cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Creator:
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Division
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Florida State College for Women
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
Publisher:
The Division
Creation Date:
1917
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Annual
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 23 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural extension work -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Home economics, Rural -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1917-1938
Numbering Peculiarities:
Report of general activities for ... with financial statement for the fiscal year ending June 30.
Issuing Body:
Issued by: Division of Agricultural Extension and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917-1922; Agricultural Extension Division, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1923-1928; Agricultural Extension Service, Florida State College for Women, and U.S. Dept. of Agriculture 1929- 1938.
Statement of Responsibility:
University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier:
46385656 ( OCLC )
2001229381 ( LCCN )

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text







Cooperative Extension Work i Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1917.








Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics

University of Florida Division of Agricultural
a
Extension and United States Department
of Agriculture Cooperating
P. H. ROLFS, Director



REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917
WITH
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE,
FISCAL YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1917


MARCH, 1918








CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF -TRANSMITTALTo GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA BOARD OF CONTROL' 4
EXTENSION STAFF 4
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO CHAIRMAN BOARD 'OF CONTROL 7
REPORT OF DIRECTOR .7
Organization 8
Plan of the Work 12
Financial Statement 15
Publications * 15
Cooperative Enterprises' 16
Educational and Demonstrational Hog Cholera Work 18
Expansion of Work for Next Year 21
Value of Cooperative Demonstration Work to Farmers 22
REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT 24
Agents' Meetings 26
Activities Especially Stressed 27
Activities of Extension Workers (statistical) 28
Hog Cholera Inoculation 36
Work with Negro Farmers 36
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH 39
Cattle. and Hogs 39
Citrus Demonstrations '40
Truck Demonstrations 41
Appropriations to Support County Work 41
REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST 42
Corn 43
Cotton 43
Velvet Beans 43
Peanuts 43
Livestock 44
REPORT OF Boys' AGRICULTURAL: CLUB AGENT 47
Summary of Corn Club Work 49
Pig Clubs 50
Peanut Clubs 51
Boys' Meetings 52
Boys Attending Short Course at University 54
REPORT OF SWEET POTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST 57
REPORT OF' STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT 60
The County Home Demonstration Agent 60
General Plan of the Work 62
Fairs, Contests and Short Courses 63
State Meetings 64
War Changed Conditions 66
Meat and Fish Canning 71
Summary of Girls' Club Work 73
Statistical Reports 74
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH_ ----- 75
County Short Courses 77,
Club Members at Fairs 78,
Statistical Report 79,
REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST. . 80'
Special County Work 82!
Statistical Report 831
REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT 84
Plan of Poultry Club Work 85i
Cooperative Egg Circles 86'
Progress of Work 87
Statistical Report 88
FARMERS' INSTITUTES 89
County Agents' Institutes 89
Women's and Girls' Institutes- 90
Food Production Campaign Meetings 91
INDEX 92























Hon. Sidney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida,
Tallahassee, .Fla.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1917, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1917.
Respectfully,
JoE L. EARMAN, Chairman of the Board of Control.








Florida Cooperative Extension


BOARD OF 'CONTROL
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville,. Fla. T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WAETMANN, Citra, Fla. J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fin. J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
BRYAN MACKc, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.

OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief.
H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent.
0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work.

COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS STAFF A. A. MURPHEE, President of the University. P. H. ROLFS, Director.
C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, Assistant Director. AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent, Home Demonstration Work. GERTRUDE 1. YORK , Acting State Agent, Home Demonstration Work. H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida. E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida. G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Agricultural Club Agent. E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Agricultural Club Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent. SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent for East and South Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
HARRIET B. LAYTON, District Agent for North and West Florida, Home
Demonstration Work.
MAY MORSE, Dairy Specialist. A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Bureau of Animal Industry,
U. S. D. A.
A. S. HOUCHIN, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. L. N. PETERSON, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. H. F. WALKER, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. J. A. GENUNG, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. D. H. WATTSON, Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations, Bureau of
Animal Industry, U. S. D. A.
R. L. CLUTE, Insect Control in Stored Grain, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. 0. K. COURTNEY, Insects of Truck Crops, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry. B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer, Citrus. J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS" Lecturer, Plant Pathology. S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers.
0. W. WEAVER, Editor.
BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor.

COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Alachua W. E. Brown Gainesville
Baker J. S. Johns Macdlenny
Bay D. -G. McQuagge Panama City
Bradford C. D. Gunn Starke
Brevard C. D. Kime* Titusville
Broward J. S. Rainey* Ft. Lauderdale
Calhoun J. E. Yon* Blountstown
Citrus Lecanto






Annual Report, 1917 5

Clay W. T. Nettles* Green Cove Springs
Columbia S. S. Smitht Jennings
Dade F. -J. McKinley Miami
DeSoto W. A. Sessoms Arcadia
Duval . W. L. Watson Jacksonville
Escambia . C. A. Fulford Pensacola
Flagler . W. H. Deant Bunnell
Franklin . .Vacancy* Apalachicola
Gadsden .M. N. Smith River Junction
Hamilton .S. S. Smith Jennings
Hernando Jas. Mountain* Brooksville
Hillsboro R. T. Kelley* Plant City
Holmes' J. J. Sechrest Bonifay
Jackson J. 0. Traxler Marianna
Jefferson T. C. Bradford Monticello
LaFayette D. C. Geigert Mayo
Lake Win. Gomme Tavares
Lee J. M. Boring* Ft. Myers
Leon R. I. Matthews Tallahassee
Levy R. L. Denson* Bronson
Liberty J. J. Hathaway Bristol
Madison C. E. Matthews Madison
Manatee 0. W. Caswell* Bradentown
Marion R. W. Blacklock Ocala
Nassau James Shaw* . -Hilliard
Okaloosa R. J. Hartt Laurel Hill
Okeechobee L. E. Davist Okeechobee
Orange E. F. DeBusk* Orlando
Osceola B. E. Evans Kissimmee
Palm Beach R. N. Wilson* West Palm Beach
Pasco R. T. Weaver Dade City
Pinellas R. L. McMullent Largo
Polk A. A. Lewis* Kathleen
Putnam L. Cantrell* Palatka
Santa Rosa R. T. Oglesby Milton
Seminole C. M. Berry* Sanford
Sumter M. S. Hillt Coleman
Suwannee D. A. Armstrong . Live Oak
St. Johns J. E. Cheatham St. Augustine
St. Lucie Alfred Warren* Ft. Pierce
Taylor L. R. Moore Perry
Volusia R. E. Lenfest* DeLand
Wakulla W. T. Green Arran
Walton Q. C. Webb* DeFuniak Springs
Washington Geo. E. Mead Chipley

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION 'AGENTS
COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS
Baker Miss Harriet Hawthorn . Macclenny
Bay Mrs. Etta Matthews .Panama City
Bradford Miss Margaret Burleigh ----. Starke "
Brevard Mrs. W. W. Gay Melbourne
Clay Mrs. W. T. Nettles*-. Green Cove Springs
Calhoun Mrs. Grace F. Warren . -Blountstown
Citrus Miss Connie DeVane . :.Inverness
Dade Miss Genevieve Crawford. Miami
Mrs. C. W. Bush, Asst.* . Goulds DeSoto Mrs. Ann J. Campbell* . Arcadia
Duval Mrs. Effie Wellington* -----. Jacksonville
Miss Mary Gray, Asst.* . Jacksonville

*Emergency, cooperative. fEmergency, total.






6 Florida Cooperative Extenston

Escambia Miss Lonnie Landrum . Pensacola
Gadsden Miss Ruby McDavid . Hinson
Hernando Miss Kate Townsend .------_----- Brooksville
Hillsboro Miss Isabelle Story . Tampa
Miss Irma Higgins, Asst . Plant City Jacksofi Mrs. Ivie Turnbull . Marianna
Jefferson Miss Jennie Carter . Monticello
Lake. Miss Clarine Hoyt* . Tavares
Lee Mrs. Enid A. Parker . Ft. Myers
Leon Miss Laura Dyer* . Tallahassee
Madison Miss Edna Smith . Madison
Manatee Miss Eloise McGriff . Bradentown
Marion Mrs. Caroline Moorhead . Ocala
Okaloosa Miss Margaret Cobb . Crestview
Okeechobee Miss Marie Benedictt . Okeechobee
Orange Mrs. Nellie Taylor: . Orlando
Osceola Miss Albina Smith . Kissimmee
Palm Beach Miss Elizabeth Hopkins . West Palm Beach
Pinellas Miss Hazel Carter* . Largo
Polk Mrs. Dora Barnes . Bartow
Putnam Miss Josephine Sipprell .-Palatka
St. Johns Miss Lois Godbey . St. Augustine
St. Lucie Miss Bessie Partee.Ft. Pierce
Santa Rosa Miss Winnie Warren . Milton
Seminole Mrs. C. M. Berryt. .Sanford
Taylor Miss E. H. Robertsl ._Perry
Volusia Mrs. Willa Steed DeLand
Washington Mrs. Susie Sapp Croftont . Chipley
Nassau
Suwannee
Columbia Miss Marianna Rublet . Lake City
Hamilton
A lachua .
LaFayette Miss Stella Harmst .Gainesville
Levy .
Sumter---Pasco Miss Myrtle Floyd* . Dade City
Walton .
Holmes . Miss Jennie Chappellet . DeFuniak Springs
Franklin
Wakulla . Miss Alice Dorsettt . Sopchoppy
Liberty .
*Emergency, cooperative. ?Emergency, total.

CITY AGENTS*
Arms, Mrs. Jessie Rich .Jacksonville
Armstrong, Miss Rena K. Tampa
Carter, Miss Helen Pensacola
Cushman, Miss Lucy Miami
Felkel, Mrs. H. A. Tallahassee
Nevins, Miss Bessie
Pratt, Miss Dorothy Orlando
Weaver, Mrs. 0. W. Gainesville and Ocal a
*All City Agents are paid entirely from Emergency Funds.










Report of General Activities for .1917

with
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year

Ending June 30, 1917


Hon. Joe L. Earman,
Chairman, Board of Control.
SmR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida. This report embodies the financial* statement for the fiscal year endingJune 30, 1917,,and the report of the activities of the Extension. Division for, the calendar year 191i7. I respectfully request that you transmit the same,.in accordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida.
Respectfully,
P.H. RoLFs,
Director.

INTRODUCTION
The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida
- concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical dem onstrations in agriculture, and home economics to persons not resident on the campus. The Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act is, the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additional sum of $17,298.5,2 became available, July 1, 1917, on condition that an. equal amount be appropriated by the State.
The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was approved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting these funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the several states and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A quotation from it will show the general purposes of this Act:"'That cooperative agricultural extension work shall consist of the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident in said colleges in the several communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and. otherwise; and this work





Florida Cooperative Extension


shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed. upon by the Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges receiving the benefits of this act."
In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appropriated the sum of $23,000.
The principal work carried on with these funds is the county cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home demonstration work in farm homes. The'sum of $600 is allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates, an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. ,In the home demonstration work, each new county cooperati ng is allotted $400 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appropriated by the county for augmenting this work. In counties where honfte demonstration work has made favorable progress, $500 is made available under the 'condition that the county provides an equal amount. Provision for carrying on the county demonstration work is made in the general revenue, bill '(Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more than' one-half of one mill. for the encouragement and protection of agriculture." The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833) an act authorizing county boards of education to make appropriations for home demonstration work.
WAR EMERGENCY ACT
To provide for the national security and defence by stimulating agriculture and facilitating the distribution of agricultural products as a war measure, Congress authorized the expenditure of' $4,348,400, approved by the President, Aug ust 10, 1917, for increasing food production, eliminating waste and promoting conservation of food by education and demonstration thru county, district and urban agents and'others in the United States.
Florida received a proportional part of these funds, which will be expended before June 30,41918, in extending the general extension work for greater food production into every county in Florida.
Reports of the various departments or projects of the extension work are attached hereto and will show the work in detail.
ORGANIZATION
The Smith-Lever -Act requires the appointment of a director for each state, who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed upon. Inasmuch as the budget system is used to govern the working






Annual Report, 1917


plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect, and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work.
The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in six divisions or projects, the most important projects teing that of the county cooperative and home demonstration agents. This provides for county agents being located in as many of the counties as can be induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The work of these agents is fully illustrated in the accompanying reports of the state and district agents. The object of this work is to make farms more productive and make farm life more attractive; in other words, it is intended to improve farm con editions, in Florida. The county home demonstration work is carried on by cooperative arrangements with the Florida State College for Women, located at Tallahassee. The object of the home demonstration work is to improve the home life of the rural population of the state, principally thru instruction given the women and girls on the farms. The instruction includes all lines of work that may be met with on an ordinary farm.The state agent has supervision over all the different projects in connection with the cooperative demonstration work. His duties are to coordinate and harmonize the different activities in such a way as to secure full and free cooperation among the different projects and also with the rural people of the state. He is also charged with definite and detailed supervision over the county cooperative demonstration agents and thru the district agents keeps himself constantly in touch with the activities conducted in each county. He is entrusted also with making arrangements for farmers' institutes and other agricultural gatherings. The state has been divided into three districts for carrying on the county cooperative demonstration work and two districts for carrying on the home demonstration work. The district.agents for the county cooperative demonstration work and for the home. demonstration work spend nearly all of their time instructing and assisting the various county agents and home demonstration agents. The stateagents for the boys' club work and for the negro home makers' clubs, spend the greater portion of their time in the field in the. interests of their respective work.
The boys' agricultural club agent has headquarters at the University. His work covers the state. The clubs are organized by the county agents and, with the cooperation of school boards and county superintendents, they receive general approval and support-






Floi-ida Cooperative Extensiov


FiG. l.-Cowpeas grown on new land
This work is intended to harmonize with other phases of demonstration work according to a well regulated plan and especially to demonstrate correct practice and to instruct club members in the best agricultural methods and practices suited to Florida conditions.
The county agents usually have their headquarters at the county seat, with an office in the courthouse. The agent's most important work is that of conducting demonstrations with farm crops, usually on a small area, to show the best farming practices. A great deal of his time is given to the control of hog diseases, to garden work, public meetings and, since the United States entered into the world war, to additional duties such as, farm surveys, labor distribution, and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater agricultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the agricultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his office for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises. He has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in his county.
In connection with the general extension work, specialists from various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture are assigned to Florida. The most important part of their work has been the control of hog cholera. The special agent in charge of hog cholera works cooperatively with the state, district, and





Annual Report, 1917


county agents and is at the cail of the farmers working with county agents, as far as conditions permit. This applies to all agencies working cooperatively with the extension forces.'
The attention of the state agent for home demonstration work is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the instruction of girls, teaching them the underlying principles of home life; special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning, poultry raising, and-domestic art. The work is under her, direct supervision. The state agent and her assistants come:in contact with the problems of country life, and spend much time with the county home demonstration agents, helping them where possible with assistance and encouragement to greater effort.:
Two district agents are employed to supervise the work in the counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their full time to the direction of the home demonstration work in ,counties.
The poultry club agent works in counties with the county home demonstration agent. A limited number of counties best suited were selected this year for poultry work. The purpose is to increase interest in farm poultry by making the work more profitable and to encourage the production of better Poultry by girls and women. As conditions are made'suitable the poultry Work will be extended into every county.,
The office of the county home demonstration agent is usually at the courthouse altho the agent spends most of her time in the farm homes and with rural clubs to give instruction in gardening, home economics, home sanitation, and the proper use of foods.
All county and home demonstration agents are selected for their special fitness to handle the work in the county to which they are assigned. As far as possible graduates of agricultural colleges or of home economics courses are secured. All county workers have had special training for extension teaching and receive uniform instruction so there may be harmony of purpose thruout the state.
All employees of the Extension Division are required to make weekly reports to the University of Florida and the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
WORK WITH NEGRO FARMERS
The negro work is being continued under the same plans that obtained in previous years, with boys and girls in the organization of home makers' clubs; but the work has been enlarged in scope to include the negro farmers. Since the declaration of war in-






Florida Cooperatire Extension


FIG. 2.-Citrus grove sprayed under county agent's supervision
creased production has been the most important phase of the work undertaken. Practically all assistant workers equip themselves. with canning outfits and try to prevent, as far as possible, the usual waste in gardens and especially the usual waste in sweetpotato banks. Since the negro farmer's principal meat supply is pork negro farmers are being instructed how to prevent hog cholera. The disregard by negro farmers of measures to prevent cholera has been serious in that sources of infection to hogs owned by other farmers have been maintained. The assistant agents are under the supervision of the agents in charge of home makers" clubs. They report to the boys' agricultural club agent.

PLAN OF THE WORK
The whole work of the Extension Division is carried forward in separate lines, known as projects. These special lines of work are provided for by the Smith-Lever Act creating the fund, and the annual statement as to the sources of the funds and the direction in which they were expended will be found herewith.
Project I is designed to carry out the provision of this act. It provides for the carrying on of the administrative part of the work.
Under Project I-A are grouped salaries for clerical help and expenses not directly chargeable to special projects. A total of $5,518.13 was used for this purpose.
Under Project I-B are the expenditures for publications. . The law provides that not more than five percent of the Smith-Lever-







Annual Report, 1917


-furd shall be used for printing and distribution of publications. The amount used for this purpose was $1,648.34.
Project 11 is the demonstration work with adult farmers. This
-project carries on demonstrations in all the principal crops pro-duced in the state, special attention having been. given to the improvement of staple crops. Close study is given to the adaptability of special crops wherever they seem promising. This project includes nearly the entire range of activities on the farm, from the production of crops and livestock to improvement of the home. The expenditure under this project from all sources was $58,257.38.
Project III includes the organization of boys' agricultural clubs, and is confined to corn and pig clubs. his year's work in corn clubs as herewith reported is especially noteworthy in that a number of boys have produced more than 75 bushels, and 4 boys produced more than 100 bushels of corn to the acre. The average cost a bushel for the entire crop raised by the corn-club boys was 46 cents.
The work in the pig clubs has been equally successful. Final records show that 652 purebred pigs were distributed among club members. From 225 reports received it was found that the pigs ,gained approximately one pound a day at a cost of six cents. The average cost of each pig and its feed for five months was approximately $20 while the value was approximately $50, showing an approximate profit of $30 each, or $6,750 for the 225 pigs reported.
These clubs work in cooperation with the schools and have received the generous and unstinted assistance of the county super-


FIG. 3-Baling Natal hay






Florida Cooperative Extension


intendents and teachers. The amount expended for this work was $2,348.11.
Project IV has been called the home demonstration project. This includes two lines of club work in rural districts, one for women's clubs and the other for girls' clubs. The women's clubs are organized to study the needs of the home, its surroundings and improvement, and sanitary measures for the preservation of the health of the family.
Girls' clubs occupy a large part of the county home demonstration agent's time and are considered the most important work she undertakes. Thru the cooperation of the school and church organizations, canning, preserving, sewing, and poultry clubs are conducted in such a way that every girl between the ages of ten and eighteen years may become an active member.
The excellent reports submitted herewith indicate the splendid work accomplished by the clubs and individual members. The amount expended from all sources for this work was $45,135.09.
Project V deals with hog cholera. The work undertaken is conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. Specialists are assigned to Florida and give their entire time to educational and control work in hog cholera. The aim of the work is to inform farmers how to use hog cholera serum and virus properly and to urge the adoption of sanitary precautions necessary to prevent the spread of contagious diseases of livestock. Thru the county agent this information is taken direct to the farms where the s erum and virus treatment is demonstrated and the importance of sanitation is emphasized.
Project VI is planned to give agricultural instruction to negro boys and girls living on farms, thru the home makers' clubs for negro youth. A special negro agent works in cooperation with the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee and under the supervision of the state agent. The work is confined to counties having the largest rural negro population. One assistant agent for home makers' clubs was employed in each of six counties for four months. during the planting and canning season, chiefly to encourage greater food production and to prevent waste.
SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES
The funds arising from the Smith-Lever Act are strictly tru~t funds that must be employed in accordance with the laws, and regulations governing the appropriation. The method of account-l ing and the plans for the work must be submitted to the -U. S. Department of -Agriculture before the year's work is begun. A







Annual Report, 1917


Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work underway. All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund have been expended and accounted for in the same way as the Smith-Lever fund.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
Following is the financial statement for the year ending June 30, 1917:
RECEIPTS
Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever Federal $21,892.73
Smith-Lever State 11,892.73
U. S. D. A. Appropriation 23,450,00
State Appropriation 5,000.00
Florida State College for Women 10,733.29
County Appropriations 42,932.15 $115,900.90
EXPENDITURES
Administration Project $ 5,518.13
Printing and Publications Project 1,648.34
County Agents' Project 58,257.38
Home Demonstration Project 45,135.09
Boys' Club Work Project 2,348.11
Negro Home Makers' Project 2,993.85 $115,900.90

PUBLICATIONS
Four bulletins, two circulars and three posters have been printed and distributed by the Extension Division in the year in addition to a large quantity of multigraphed circulars issued at intervals to the state press and sent to county agents for general- distribution. The agricultural news service, published weekly, is sent to newspapers in the state as a clipsheet, and to all workers in the Extension Division.
Bulletin
No. Title Edition
8. Boys' Club Work in Florida 8,000
9. Poultry in Florida 15,000
10. Kill Corn Weevils 6,000
11. Home Curing Pork 15,000
Circular
No. Title Edition
1. Increased Hog Production Essential 6,000
2. Castor Beans 3,000
Poster
No. Title Edition
1. Increase Poultry Production 3,000
2. Sweet Potato Storage 1,500
3. Sweet Potato Root Weevils 1,500
Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1916.
SUMMARY OF BULLETINS
8. Boys' Club Work in Florida.-This is a special report of the work of the boys' clubs for the previous year prepared especially for the instruction of club members. It gives a description of the cultural methods employed by members making high crop yields, also some interesting facts concerning the







Florida Cooperative Extension


pig-club work. This being the first report of the pig-club work it is of special interest to hog raisers. . .
9. Poultry in Florida.-This is a revision of Bulletin 3. This publication supplies general information for increasing poultry production on farms to those who make inquiry as to the possibilities of the industry in Florida.
10. Kill Corn Weevils.-This publication is an eight-page folder printed on cardboard so that it may be posted conveniently by county agents for ready reference. It deals with the best methods for applying carbon bisulphide, the importance of the proper temperature in fumigation, treating small grains, and the effect of the treatment on the germination of seeds.
11. Home Curing Pork.-This bulletin was specially needed this year because of the high price of pork and the u�ual loss that occurs when pork is not properly cured. It deals with the methods of and temperature for scalding, brine curing, dry curing and smoking pork, and gives in detail the plans and specifications for small meat storage houses that can be used successfully on Florida farms.
SUMMARY OF CIRCULARS
1. Increased Hog Production Essential.-This is an appeal to farmers for a fifteen percent increase in hog production estimated by the United States Department of Agriculture as necessary, due to war conditions.
2. Castor Beans.-This circular describes the cultural methods for castor beans and was prepared on account of the large acreage to be planted in 1918 thru the efforts of the War Department.
CHANGES IN STAFF
OnJuly 1, 1916, Miss Sarah W. Partridge took up the work of district agent for East and South, Florida, and at the same time Miss Harriette B. Layton began similar work for the counties in North and West Florida. On July, 16, 1916, Miss Minnie Floyd took charge of the poultry clubs organized by county agents. On October 1, 1916, A. P. Spencer, district agent for South Florida, was assigned to the duties of assistant director. On December 1, 1916, M. N. Beeler, editor, resigned and was succeeded on the 4th of the same month by 0. W. Weaver. On January 1, 1917, H. S. McLendon took up the duties of district agent for South Florida. On February 15, 1917, E. S. Pace resigned the position of district agent for North and West Florida, and was immediately succeeded. by E. W. Jenkins.
COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES
The furtherance of enterprises undertaken cooperatively with the Department of Agriculture, aside from those provided for in the Smith-Lever Act, has been somewhat limited by the lack of State funds.
The most important cooperative enterprise is with the Bureau of Animal Industry in hog cholera control. This has proven a valuable line of work and one that fits ' into the county agent's program. Inasmuch as Florida is largely an open range territory ;all infectious diseases of livestock are more difficult to control than where animals are on pastures and in divided fields. The primary






Annual Report, '1917


object of this work is educational. The specialist in charge accompanies county agents to farms where the disease exists and conducts demonstrations, inoculating' and properly disinfecting, and discusSing the best means at hand to control hog cholera. Special instructions are given as to how the disease may be prevented when hogs have access to the open range and herds from different farms have an opportunity to intermingle. Florida has made substantial progress in swine improvement since farmers understand that hog cholera can be controlled. Hog cholera control work has properly occupied a large share of the county agent's time because it is one of the most important things undertaken by them. Thru persistent effort many stubborn outbreaks have been controlled and thousands of dollars worth of hogs saved.
Another important co6perative enterprise'Was that undertaken with the Bureau of Chemistry working with home demonstration agents. Temporary assistance was rendered to work out. some of the problems'in preserving Florida fruits and by-products. This undertaking dealt with some complex problems due'to the subtropical climate and the nature :of sub-tropical products. Thru this cooperation the home economics workers of the Extension Division have been able to offer to club members and farmers valuable information on the canning and preserving of fruits.
Additional'assistance was obtained thru the office of Extension Work in the South by securing the services of an expert in canning meats and fish and drying vegetables. The specialist assigned was able to spend only a short time in the state giving instructions to the home demonstration agents in the best methods of canning meat and fish, and preserving fruit and vegetables by drying and sealing them in paper catons. This method promises to be of special value during the period of can shortage.
It is important that'cooperative enterprises should be undertaken on a proper basis and consist of problems in which the Government is best able to offer the greatest aid. The various bureaus in the Department of Agriculture have been provided with funds for cooperative projects to be used in different states but in most cases the states receiving such assistance are required to offset the funds by an appropriation of equal amount, and while the Florida Legislature has met the Smith-Lever requirements the amount of money appropriated was only sufficient to place agents in a little more than half the counties, leaving no funds for additional cooperative enterprises. Had Florida been provided with the necessary funds to carry out such plans it' is probable that cooperation could have f.e.e-2






Florida Cooperative Extension


been secured to extend the h6g cholera vork, pig clubs, beef and dairy production, and Other projects, but inasmuch as our funds are insufficient other states have secured these benefits. It is a matter of serious importance, particularly at this time, when emergencies caused by war conditions are to be met. County agents have endeavored thru every means at their ommand to stimulate food production but because of their many duties can not specialize on individual projects except in a few instances.

EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK
The report of Dr. A. H. Logan, Veterinary Inspector in charge of hog cholera work indicates that a large part of Florida has been covered during the past two years and that much interest has been aroused in the control of hog diseasesI and general improvement of hogs. The work is being directed toward the final eradication' of hog cholera in Florida and it must be understood that such a big undertaking can only be accomplished thru a state-wide propaganda of education.
The specialist in charge has actually treated 1,531 'hogs' using both the serum and simultaneous method. He has also visited 379 farms usually accompanied by the county agent for the purpose of diagnosing hog cholera, applying the treatment and advising on the importance of sanitary precautions as the most effective means of prevention and control. He has personally interviewed 2,183 farmers, or an average of about 40 in each county, most of whom have been revisited by the county agent who helps to carry out the recommendations. He has made 115 addresses to 8,789 persons and has given personal instructions to"1 35 persons aside from county agents that would qualify them to administer the serum. Local farmers' organizations have considered hog cholera control one of their most important undertakings and have secured valuable'instruction in handling their individual herds.
Heretofore the usual losses from hog cholera have seriously interfered with the progress in hog raising, and many farmers who would otherwise undertake the work have not done so because it seemed impossible to make hog raising profitable. The marked increase in number of purebred hogs now found thruout the state and the fact that two meat-packing houses have been established, are fair indications of the expansion of hog raising and the success of the educational work that has been underway since demonstration work was undertaken. This work is attracting much attention from the state press and all interests related to farming.








Annual Report, 1917


Doctor Logan submits the following statistical report for the year ending December 31, 1917.
STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of visits made to counties during the year ------ 152
Number of addresses made -------------- 115
(a) Number illustrated by stereopticon views 12
(b) Total attendance ----------------------------- ------------------ 8789
Number of demonstrations of preventive treatment ---------------- 69
(a) W here serum alone was used ---- ---------- -------------------------------------------- 29
(b) W here simultaneous inoculation was used ---------------------------------------- 40
(c) N um ber of hogs treated ----------------------------------------- ----- ---------------------- 1531
(d) Total attendance at demonstrations ---- ------------------------------------------- 534
Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog cholera
or observing conditions and giving advice -------------------------------------- 379
Number of farmers and hog raisers personally interviewed 2183
Number of persons individually instructed and placed in a position to
properly administer the serum preventive treatment . 136
(a) County agents ------------------------------------- ------ 28
(b) Practicing veterinarians ------------------------ ------------- 5
(c) H og ow ners ---------------------------------------- -------- 102
Respectfully,
A. H. LOGAN,
Veterinary Field Agent,

INTRODUCTION OF BEEF CATTLE FROM TEXAS
A part of the Extension Division's work from the first has been
to improve Florida livestock. The most important accomplishment in many years for the improvement of beef cattle was the introduction from Texas of beef animals to be used as foundation stock
on Florida farms and ranges.


FIG. 4-Angus cattle imported from Texas to Alachua County






Florida Cooperative Extension


IWhen it, was realized that the continued drouth in Texas would result in the loss of many thousand high-grade, purebred beef cattle the Bureau of Animal Industry, Working with the States Relations Service;, made an effort to move them t' places where they could be taken care of. A representative of the Bureau was stationed in Fort Worth, Texas, to keep in touch With the cattle situation in that state as to quality, prices -and condition. of. the -breeding stock offered from the ranges and stock'yards. This resulted in the distribution of several car loads of Shorthorn, Hereford and Angus .cattle,most of which were females, to be used as foundation stock for the improvement of Florida-herds. While these cattle were sold at good prices they,,were distributed over a, wide area and the effect will be far reaching in the general improvement in beef cattle that will result thruout the state. About 1,50.0, head of these cattle were distributed in the following named counties: Alachua, Brevard, Clay, Jefferson, Holmes, Polk, Walton, Osceola, Jackson, Duval, Bradford, Putnam, St. Lucie, Volusia, Suwannee and Santa Rosa.
MONTHLY CONFERENCES
In order to coordinate all branches, of the extension work all members of the staff meet in the director's office the third Monday of each month to discuss plans for furthering. the progress of the work. The number of state workers has been materially increased and the work in all branches has been expanded, which necessitates
-a thoro understanding of relationships that must exist under such organization.
War -emergency projects have modified many plans in practically all branches, as food production and conservation must have first consideration during the period of the war. Nevertheless, it is not the better policy to overlook the constructive educational work that the Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so successfully to this point in its period of growth.

THE FOOD CRISIS
From the beginning of extension work -in Florida all workers have been impressed -with the. need for greater food production thruout the state. When a survey of the food supply was made following the declaration of war. it was, clear to 'everyone that the food situation was critical and that Florida must awaken in response to the call for more food.
Inasmuch as the main work of county and home demonstration agents had been in this direction it was only necessary to speed






Annual Report, 1917


'up the machinery in order to carry out President Wilson's order for greater food production. It was not necessary to remind the state workers for each caught- the spirit and endeavored by every means to transmit it to every producer in the state. Committees were organized, timely planting instructions were distributed, the available seed supply in farmers' hands was located and distributed, facilities for canning and storage were arranged, and every interest was appealed to so that food production and conservation should be uppermost in the minds of every thoughtful person.
At the request, of Governor Sidney J. Catts, the Food Preparedness Commission and State Council of Defense was organized, made � up of leaders in the state's most important business affairs.' Organizations in each county made the work 'effective. In each of these the county agents and home demonstration agents were active members and the most important accomplishments were centered in their activities.

EXPANSION OF WORK FOR NEXT YEAR
The plans already approved for the coming year contemplate expansion of the present projects with an addition of new linesof work.
The lists of county and home demonstration agents published herewith show that each county in the state is being served by county agent and a home demonstration worker regardless of county appropriations. The Food Production Act to stimulate food production as a war measure has made this possible. Itis further planned to assign assistant county -agents in a few of the largest agricultural. counties and city and urban workers to a few large centers, each agent having to deal with a special'phase of food production. " . ' '
Additional supervision is made necessary because of this expansion. One additional district agent, one assistant corn-club agent and one assistant pig-club agent have been assigned for the men's and boys' work, also two assistant district agents and one special agent in charge of all city home demonstration work.
The home demonstration work has been enlarged by the addition of a project for home dairy work.; This contemplates the improvement of dairy products made and consumed largely on farms and, in particular, an increase in butter and -cheese making- and the use of milk products as meat savers.
Thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Animal Industry:"four additional veterinary field agents have been employed to assist. the






22 Florida Cooperative Extension

agent in charge of hog cholera educational work. These men have been assigned to districts and work in cooperation with county agents in the district. This Bureau has also assigned a beef cattle specialist to work cooperatively with the extension forces in
Florida for the promotion of the beef cattle interests on farms and ranges.
Thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Entomology twoi men have been assigned to Florida to work in cooperation with the Extension Division and under the direct supervision of tfhe entomniologist .to the Florida Experiment Station.: One secialist will give his' attentibi to the control of insects attacking truck crops, and the 6ther to the control of insects that damage stored grainis.
A specialist for stimulatiiig city gardeningis to' be employed. This 'is a war emergency measure for the proper direction f' city
gardening.

VALUE OF COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK TO FARMERS BY INCREASED CROP PRODUCTION Increase of corn at $1.50 'a iushel ;' $144,344
Increase of silage crop at $4 a ton . 22,484
,Increase of hay at $25 . . 35,993;; .
Increase of oats at 90c a bushel . 23,096
Increase of peanuts at-'$1.50 per buShel 10,447
Increase of velvet beans at $1.50 per bushel. 44,400
t"'otal . ' ' ' $280,764
BY LIVESTOCK AlDDED TO FARMS OR SAVED FROM DISEASE .Purebred dairy bulls .at-$100. each . $ 4,800
Purebred dairy cows or heifers at $125 each. 31,875 G' aide dairy cows'brought initb counties 15,225'
4Purebred beef cows or heifers at $100 each,. 110,000 Purebred beef bulls at $150 each 42,000
'Grade cows at $50 'each - 156,000
;aylue of hogs saved by treatment.-. 160,203
Boars at $15 each 4,350
46ws or gilts at $20 dach 21,060
Increased value of citrus fruits by proper spraying. 70,500
Total - $616,013
: I. I BY IMPROVEMENTS TO FARMS
increased. value .of lands by stumping $ 166,260
Value of improved implements and tools . . 62,575 hliue of silds at $250 each. 14,000
Total ' ' $242,835
BY FERTILIZER OR MANURE APPLIED
*Valie' fe'tifizer b6ouglf cooperatively $ 47,080
Amount saved 'to. farmers - - 5,885
Value manure at $3.50 a ton 1,036,000
Vaiue ground li'iestbine'applied at $2.50 a ton. 12,447
Total $1,101,412
,Gand 7ota of, .Value. - ,. $2,241,024







Annual Report, 1917


oI~'


� KEY WCs'r .FIG. 5.-Shaded areas indicate counties having Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration work during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT
P. H. Rolts, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
C. K. MCQUARRIE,
State Agent.
INTRODUCTION
An unusual interest and progress has been shown in all activities connected with the work. The county commissioners, bankers, merchants, teachers, and other leaders are showing their appreciation to a larger degree than ever before of the work done by the county agents in that they are supporting the movement and what it stands for :by their endorsement and assistance. This is particularly true of.the county commissioners where in a large percentage of the counties they make substantial increases in the supplementary appropriation for the work; the total increase for the state being .about 30 percent over last year. The total county appropriation for the current year is now in excess of forty thousand dollars.
CHANGES.
A number of changes have taken place in the county agent staff in the last year, a few agents resigning to take up other work, others returning to the farm because of better prospects for the farmer than heretofore. The vacancies due to such resignations have ben' filled with competent men and in most cases at increased salaries, this being made possible by an increase in the supplementary appropriations made by county commissioners and others.
Owing to the number of counties making supplementary appropriations being increased to forty-four and the additional war emergency appropriation to increase food production being available, provisions were made to place an agricultural agent in every county in the state except Monroe. This made additional supervision necessary and another district agent was appointed. S. W. Hiatt assumed the duties of the position September 15, 1917.
An assistant in boys' club work, E. M. Manning, was also appointed, and assumed his duties October 1.

CROPS
The acreage planted to staple crops was increased over previous years, especially that of corn, sweet potatoes, Velvet beans, and







Annual Report, 191.7


peanuts. A prolonged drouth in late spring and early summer cut down the average acre-yield to a considerable extent. The earlier planted crops did not suffer as much as the later planted ones, and sweet potatoes wefe far below the normal average because of this drouth, and the inferior quality of seed planted.
The acreage planted to small grains for winter cover crops is above the average, but owing to lack of moisture in the soil at planting time a low percentage of germination in these crops is reported.
MEETINGS
A number of important public meetings was held in which the state and district agents took an active part. The first of these was the Livestock ' Seminar held on the University campus, January 16 to 19, inclusive. The annual meeting of the State Horticultural Society was held at West Palm Beach on April 17 to 20. As this meeting is promoted in the interest of fruit growers and attended by influential horticulturists, it proves a source of inspiration and education for all who can attend and is especially valuable to extension workers.
A very important meeting, known as the "Livestock Round-Up," was held on the University campus September 25 to 28, inclusive. This meeting was well attended by livestock leaders, from Florida and other states. Many important discussions for the benefit of the livestock industry were presented.
The "Citrus Seminar," an annual meeting, was held on the University campus October 9 to 15, in which the extension workers took an active part. These seminars are increasing in attendance


FIG. 6-Poland-China gilts owned by pig-club boys






Florida Cooperative Extension


and popularity every year and .are attended by a large number of the citrus growers of the state.
AGENTS' MEETINGS.
. Group meetings: of the county agents were held at Marianna, February 27; Graceville and Cottondale, February 28; Jacksonville, -March:2 and 3; Plant City, March .5; and Tampa, March 6. At these meetings the agents had an opportunity to see what was being done ihn the other counties and it gave them a better understanding of the agricultural development in sections other than their own. The entire daytime was occupied visiting farms where special work was being done, also in visiting livestock herds, grain elevators, feed mills, etc. At the Jacksonville meeting the agents inspected the Armour. packing plant and received full information as to how livestock is-handled by the ,packers., This was valuable instruction and all felt that such information was important to them,. The.agents and others in the party, were entertained at luncheon by the Armour. Company.
The annual, county agent's conference was held on the University campus October 1 to 6, at which all the agents but one were present. Subjects most pertinent to the county agent work were discussed and most of the men took an active part in the program and discussions.
, AGRICULTURAL PREPAREDNESS COMMISSION
The Seaboard Air Line railroad provided a special car for a systematic trip over their lines in Florida from -May 28 to June 9 for the purpose of stimulating food production, and meetings were.held at:the courthouses of the counties visited.- The party was made up of members of the Agricultural Preparedness Commission and representatives from the Extension Divisi ofth. i I er-Ity of Florida.- The.attehdance in the central and southern par of the- stateyWas fairly good, but onl y fair-inthe western counties. However; at every meeting a keen: appreciation of the imnporftaice of the movement was manifest.
FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS
The agents devoted considerable time during the year to planning and organizing farmers' associations. In some counties con-siderable success has been attained. :In several counties, the agents have been -able tb get a county comriiissioner'fo assist ni lining up the work in: the commissioner's districtt to act as' chairman ' of:f an agricultural .committee, and to preside at all farm ~:feetfigs held there.






Annual Report, 1917


FIG. 7-The first silos erected in Seminole County; filled with corn grown following winter vege6bles
PAIRS
Twelve counties held fairs. One or more of the extension force in addition to the county and home demonstration agents were ,present to help in* judging agricultural and livestock exhibits. These fairs seem to be yearly -increasing in popularity and in . quality and variety of materials exhibited.

SILO AND DIPPING VAT CONSTRUCTION
The county agents have been especially active in helping farmers construct silos. They have given suggestions and information as to capacity needed, materials for and methods of mixing concrete, and building wooden silos. Some agents have also been active in I supervising cattle dipping on occasions when a representative of

the tick eradication force could not be present.
ACTIVITIES ESPECIALLY STRESSED
Ever since the declaration of war and the coming into existence of the Food Preparedness Commission and State Council of Defense county -gents have been bending all possible energy toward getting farmers and others to increase the production of food and feed crops. A large number of meetings have been held thruout the state, called especially for the purpose of stimulating increased







28 Florida Cooperative Extension

food supply. The response to these calls has been satisfactory and in most cases the attendance good. We propose to push these
farmers' "Get-Together" meetings to the limit. The "Home
Garden" has also been one of the live topics under discussion at most of these meetings, and it is quite evident that a great increase in the production of vegetables for home use has resulted.

FIELD SEED SELECTION
The desirability of selecting home-grown seed has been emphasized and instructions given for properly storing it. Quantities
of inferior seeds are sold in Florida each year that give a low yield
and in many cases inferior quality of products. Testing garden
seeds before- planting is -also strongly urged.

GENERAL ACTIVITIES.
Number'of visits made by county agents 26317
Number of miles traveled 232326
Calls on agent relative to work 21505
Number of farmers' meetings held .674
Number of meetings addressed 1817
Total attendance 49280
Number of field meetings held by agents 174
Total attendance at these meetings 6040
Percentage of time spent in office work 22
Percentage of time spent in field work 78
Number of official letters written 16804
Number of articles prepared for publication 755
Number of circular letters issued 13323
Number of bulletins of U. S. D. A. distributed 32998
Number of bulletins or circulars from State sources distributed. -. 8504 Number of visits to schools 531
Number of schools assisted in.outlining agricultural course 39
Number of short courses assisted in 19
Total attendance 1171
Total number of days engaged in these courses 98
ORGANIZATIONS
Number of farmers' clubs agents have assisted in prganizing 60
Total membership of these clubs 1978
S" "MISCELLANEOUS
Number of farmers attending short course at college as result of agents'
efforts o -. 36
Number of boys attending agricultural or other schools or colleges as
result of club work 103
Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as iesulti of girls'
club work 39
Number of times visited by specialists from College orthe Department. 491 Number of county fairs held 12
Number of demonstrators, cooperators and club, members making exhibits 249 Number of prizes won 170
Number of demonstrations in trick or small fruit 226
Number of-farmers keeping cost records at agents' instance: �
Complete 93
Partial " - , 478
Number of farmers practicing, fall plowing as result -of -county-aents',work 2372






AnhtalReport -1,917 29

FARM. AND FARMSTEA6 IMPROVEMENTS'
Number of buildings erected 130
Number of farm buildings improved
Number of new building plans furnished 43
Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed 108
Number of home water systems installed or improved 132
Number of water systems in State before demonstration work was started 84 Number in the State now 296
Number of home lighting systems installed 1:31
Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work was - ,
started 19
Number in the State now 164
Number of home grounds improved 153
Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved 429
Number of homes screened against flies and mosquitoes 414
Number of fly traps installed 77
Number of sanitary privies erected '79
Number of telephone systems installed 103
Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation 315
Total acreage 3796
Number of new pastures established 298
Number of old pastures renovated 62
Acreage comprised 1115
Number of drainage systems established 60
Number of farmers induced to drain their:lands 405
Total acreage drained:
By tile .103
By ditch 6768
Number of farmers who removed stumps 566
Total acreage stumped 8313
Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land 24
Total acreage terraced 1080
Number of home gardens planted 7161
Number of farmers saving surplus farm products for., winter use . 4456 Number of farmers turning under cover crops 664
Total acreage 12900
Numberlof new implements and tools bought 2503
EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION WORK
Number of demonstrators and cooperators who:
Are raising practically all their home supplies 1079
Have opened new bank accounts sincebeginning demonstration
work 425
Have increased their bank deposits since beginning demonstration
work 509
Are trading on a cash basis since beginning demonstration work 698 Are showing a desire to study their farm business 77
Additional industries established since demonstration work was begun:
2 meat packing plants,
I peanut oil mill,
6 elevators and feed mills.
Number of demonstrator's and cooperators installing labor-saving
' devices in the home 383
Corn increase for 1916, in bushels 1,500,000
Peanut acreage increased, percentage 300
Indications of improved rural conditions-.,
Purebred hogs in every county.
Cattle dipping vats in nearly every county.
Many thousand acres wild land fenced for pasture.
Legislative appropriations to support Livestock Sanitary Board ---- $ 150000
Increased appropriation for cooperative demonstration work.
State organization of livestock association.
State organization of hog breeders' association.







30 Florida No operative ttiension

DEMONSTRATIONS AND COOPERATIONS

Number of demonstrators CORN 598
Number of demonstrators reporting . . -- 310
Total acreage grown under improved methods -4264
Average yield per acre, in bushels 31.5
Increased yield over ordinary methods
Number of cooperators ----------- 600
Total. acre ' age grown by cooperators --- 6090
Average yield per* acre, in bushels 21
Number planting selected seed
Number of farmers selecting seed for next crop 737
Estimated number bushels seed selected 2336
Number who fall plowed their demonstration. acres 30.2'
Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres . 250 Number of acres harvested for silage 855
Yield per acre, in tons 6.6
Number of acres "hogged down" 1825,
Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests 40,
Number of farmers using better methods in.gr ' owing corn this year . 2063 Number of farmers so influenced since county agent work was, started . 5447
COTTON
Number of demonstrators 106
Number of demonstrators reporting 50
Total acreage grown under improved methods 1341
Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds 616
Increased yield over ordinary methods 256
Number of cooperators 193
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1589
Average yield per acre, in pounds seed cotton 532
Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed :63
Number of farmers field selecting seed for next year's crop : 73
Number who fall plowed their demonstration acres 1, - - ------------- 72
Number who turned under cover crops on-their demonstration acres . 7 Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests . . . 773
Number of farmers using better cultural methods 891
Note: Farmers have not confined their efforts at growing cotton to one variety. Several varieties arebbinit tested beeduse' of the boll weevil situation.
OATS
Number, of demonstrators 92
Number of demonstrators reporting 23
Total acreage grown under improved methods 2333
Average yield per acre, bushels 26
'Increased yield over ordinary methods 11
Number of cooperators 44
Total acreage grown by cooperators 187
Average yield per acre, bushels 17
Number of acres thrashed for grain 127
Number of acres cut for hay 289
Average yield of cured hay per acre, tons 1
Increased yield of hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons %
Number of acres grazed off 1685
Estimated value per acre $ '&
Number of acres turned under for soil improvement 45
Number bushels of seed treated for smut, rust, etc Number of farmers planting oats for the first time 69
RICE
Number of demonstrators 25
Number of demonstrators reporting 16
Total acreage grown under improved methods 91
Average yield per acre, bushels 39
Increased yield over ordinary methods is







Annual Report, 1917

Number of cooperators
Number of acres thrashed for grain --------- --------- ------_------- 85
Average yield of- cured hay per acre, tons -- ---- ---- --- -- --------- 1
Increased yield of hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons.-. - -- ---------- Y4
Number of farmers planting rice for the first time 16
RYE
Number of demonstrators 34
Number of demonstrators reporting 9
Total acreage grown under improved methods --- . 1 280
Average yield per acre, bushels . . . 11
Number of cooperators 21
Total acreage grown by cooperators 45
Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain 36
Number of demonstration acres cut for hav ------- 127
Average yield of cured hay per acre on demonstrations, tons' 11/4
Increased yield of cured hay per acre -over ordinary methods, tons ---------------- 1/2
Number of acres grazed off 148
Estimated value, per acre
Number of acres turned under 25
Number of farmers. planting rye. for the first-time 41
Note: Rye is grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pasture crop.
SORGHUM
Number of demonstrators 61
Number of demonstrators reporting' 20
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms 148
Average yield hay per acre, tops -.4
Number of acres cut for hay 63
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons 2
Number of acres grazed off 51
Estimated value per acre of grazing 11
Number of cooperators 64
Total acreage grown by cooperators 89
Number of acres sown this fall for late green feeding, 150
Percentage increase in acreage of sorghum in the State as result of county
agents' influence: First year, 1001o; second year, 2001o; third year,
30%; fourth year, 4001o.
SUDAN GRASS''
Number of demonstrators' 70
Number of demonstrators reporting 19
Total acreage grown under improved methods on demonstration farms. 133 Average yield hay per acre, tons 21/2
Number of acres cut for hay 93
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons Number of acres grazed off
Estimated value per acre of -grazing
Number of cooperators 25
Total acreage grown by cooperators 35
Average yield hay per acre, tons 2
Number of demonstration acres turned under for soil improvement ------------ 4
Estimated acreage grown in the State before the county agents' work was
started 50
Percentage increase in acreage of Sudan grass as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second- yea , 15%; third year, 18%;
fourth year, 20%.
JAPANESE CANE
Number of demonstrators 4
Number of demonstrators reporting 2
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms IG
Average yield green forage per acre, tons 35
Increased yield green forage over ordinary methods, tons 20
Number of acres cut for hay 10
Number - of cooperators .3
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1,






82 Florida-Cooperativje Extension

Number of acres planted this fall 225
Estimated acreage grown in the State before the county agents' work was.
started ' ' '2000
Percentage increase in 'acreage of Japanese cane -as result of county
agents' influence: First yeat,; 10%; second year,' 12%; third year,
16%; fourth year, 20%.
MILLET
Number of demonstrators 43
Number of demonstrators reporting '16
Total acreage grown under improved' methods,' 60
Average yield hay per acre, tons''' Number of acres cut for hay 32
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods,' tons' '- /
Number of acres grazed off '15
Estimated value per acre of grazing '$3.50
Number of acres sown for fall grazing 50
NATAL GRASS
Number of demonstrators 29
Number of demonstrators. reporting '8
Total acreage grown under- demonstration methods, 201
Average yield, hay. per .acre, .tons - 1%
Number of acres cut for hay 200
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, toas Estimated value of that grazed off, per acre '$7.50
Number of cooperators ' ' '18
Estimated acreage grown in the State'before the county agents' work was
started 1000
Percentage increase in acreage of Natal grass as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 15%6'; -secoad, year, 25%01; third year, 35%;
fourth year, 25%7.
RHODES GRASS
Number of demonstrators 13
Number of demonstrators reporting '1
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods '44
Average yield hay- per acre, tons I1Y
Number of acres cut for, hay ' '42
Number of acres grazed off 2
Estimated value per acre of grazing, $ 8
Average yield hay per acre, tons -1
Estimated percentage increase as a result of. county ag ents' inlec . 100 CRAB GRASS
Number of demonstrators 15
Number of demonstrators reporting 10
Total acreage grown under demonstration: methods 60
Average yield hay per acre, tons 114
Number of acres cut for hay '50
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons 94
Note: Crab grass grows as a volunteer crop in cultivated fields in summer.
B3UR CLOVER
Number of demonstrators, 4
Number of demonstrators' reporting' 2
Total acreage grown under demonstration ~methods 48
Numbers.of acres grazed -off 4
Estimated value per 'acre of grazing $3.30
Number of acres inoculated 48
VELVET BEANS
Number of demonstrators '' 138
Number of demonstrators reporting "'68
Total acreage grown under demonstration' methods '2960
Average yield seed per acre, bushels -:18 Increased yield over ordinary methods, bushels 10
Number of cooperators 213
Total acreage grown by cooperators ' ' '4815







Annual Report, 1917 33

Average yield seed per acre, bushels 161/2
Total acreage threshed for seed 187
Total acreage cut for hay 40
Number of acres grazed off 4697
Estimated value per acre of grazing $ 11
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement 8225
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence . 8080 Percentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 10,7o; third year, 10%; fourth
year, 1001o. BOY BEANS
Number of demonstrators 10
Number of demonstrators reporting 8
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods 33
Average yield seed per acre, bushels 12
Average yield hay per acre, tons 1
Acreage cut for hay 5
Number of acres grazed off 18
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement 10
Total number of acres inoculated 11
Note: Soy beans are grown experimentally on a small acreage.
PEANUTS
Number of demonstrators 93
Number of demonstrators reporting 45
Total acreage grown under demonstration methods 995
Average yield seed per acre, bushels 32
Average yield hay per acre, tons 1
Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels 7
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons 2/5
Number of cooperators 157
Total acreage grown by cooperators 1960
Average yield seed per acre, bushels 27
Average yield hay per acre, tons 4/5
Total acreage picked for seed 748
Total acreage cut for hay 438
Number of acres grazed off 1958
Estimated value per acre of grazing $16.85
Total acreage turned under for soil improvement 12
Total number of acres inoculated 54
Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence . 2036 Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county agents'
influence: First year, 10%; second year, 1501o; third year, 25%; fourth
year, 4001o.
COWPEAS
Number of demonstrators 68
Number of demonstrators reporting 27
Total acreage grown on demonstration farms 666
Average yield seed per acre on demonstrations, bushels 15
Average yield bay per acre on demonstrations, tons 2
Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels 5
Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons %
Number of cooperators 46
Total acreage grown by cooperators 196
Average yield seed per acre, bushels 16
Average yield hay per acre, tons I
Total acreage thrashed for seed. 57
Total acreage cut for hay 78
Number of acres grazed off 207
Estimated value per acre of grazing $ 7
Acreage turned under for soil improvement 168
Total number of acres inoculated 105
Estimated acreage planted thru the county agents influence 787
Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county agents'
influence: First year, 1001o; second year, 1501o; third year, 15,70;
fourth year, 1501o.
f.c.e.-3







34 Florida Cooperative Extension

SWEET POTATOES
.Number of demonstrators
Number of demonstrators reporting 45
Total acreage grown by demonstrators Acreage treated for diseases and pests 64
Acreage worked by improved methods 1204
Estimated increased acreage 3710
IRISH POTATOES
Number of demonstrators 25
Number of demonstrators reporting 12
Total acreage grown by demonstrators 138
Acreage treated for diseases and pests 675
Acreage worked-by improved methods 530
Estimated increased acreage 831
CITRUS
Number of demonstration groves 57
Total number of trees in these demonstrations 93800
Groves inspected 95; . number of trees 36200
Groves pruned 74; number of trees 41000
Groves sprayed 80; number oftrees 20000
Groves planted 20; number of trees 12000
Totals 269; 109200
Number of other groves where agents gave assistance 95
DAIRY CATTLE
Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru county agents' influence:
Bulls 48
Cows or heifers 263
Number of cows tested for production 102
Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations 339
Number of cattle fed 957
Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised 6
Number of cows in these demonstrations 158
Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started . 1 1421 Number of purebred dairy cows. now 1820
BEEF CATTLE.
Number of pure blood beef cattle bought through county agents' influence:
Bulls 280
Cows or heifers 960
Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes 2600
Number of beef breeding herds started 59
Number of feeding cattle introduced 387
Number of beef feeding demonstrations 6
Number of cattle fed 281
Estimated number of beef cattle.handled according to methods advocated
by county agents 289
Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed 7
Number of members 102
Note: The number of beef cattle has not increased but the quality is showing general improvement.
DIPPING VATS
Number of dipping vats built this year thru county agents' influence. 129 Number agents helped to construct 37
Number agents helped to fill with dipping solution 85
Number in which agents tested the solution 119
Total number in the State at this time 304
Estimated total number of cattle dipped during the year 167,930
Increase -in the number of vats in the State, by years: First year, 24;
secondyear, 38; third year, 94; fourth year, 78*
Tick eradication work is supported by the Florida State Live Stock. Sanitary Board and the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperating-.







Annual Report, 1917 ~ 35

HOGS
Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to colinty agents' influence: Boars 290
Sows or gilts 1053
Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred 1919
Number of herds started 433
Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents 98
Number. of hogs 1262
Number of hog pastures started 345
Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs 76R
Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by county agents 18,41a
POULTRY
Number of poultry demonstrations supervised 4
Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents . 1745 Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved -----108 Number of birds on these farms 3645
Number of farmers producing non-fertile eggs 5
Number of eggs produced '784
Average price, dozen $.35
LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS
Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers to have
treated for diseases or pests:
Cattle 30,979
Hogs 100,227
Sheep 25
Horses 352
FERTILIZER
Number of farmers advised regarding proper use-of fertilizers. ._--3,663 Number of fertilizer demonstrations 209
Tons of fertilizer used 1,690
Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively 40
Tons of fertilizer bought cooperatively 1,177
Value of fertilizer bought cooperatively $47,080
Amount saved to farmers $ 5,88.5
Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers 347
Estimated saving to farmers $1,672
Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers 646
MANURE
Number of farmers induced to take-better care of manure 1,386
Number that provided sheds26 Number composting farm manure 759
Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators -1 19
Number of farmers mixing raw phosphate with farm manure, 1,112
Estimated quantity of farm manure saved, tons 29,600,
SILOS
Number of silos built in the State this year 88
Number built as result of county -agents' advice '56
Number. in State when county agents' work was started 64
Number of silos in the State now 182
Title, 4; cement, 44; Stave, 90; other material, 44.
Growth in number of silos by years: 'First year, 20;,.second. year 35;
third year, 16; fourth year, 46.
LIME
Number of farmers using lime due to' county agents' influence ne.-.--681 Quantity of lime used,, in tons -- 4879
Number of local sources of lime18 Number of crushers installed . 8






Florida Cooperative Extension

Number of acres limed first year of demonstration work 717
Number of acres limed second year 1038
Number of acres limed third year 625
Number of acres limed fourth year 2750
'Number of acres limed fifth year 54
Total acreage limed 5184
HOG CHOLERA INOCULATION WORK
The cooperative arrangement between the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A., and the University Extension Division continues with Dr. A. H. Logan in charge. He has strived persistently to make the work of greatest value'to the state. The county agents have cooperated to the fullest extent .to make the work effective. Doctor Logan's report shows that 152 farmers' meetings in which he took part were held.
Three assistants to Doctor Logan were appointed for the coming year,-Drs. L. N. Peterson, H. F. Walker, and A. S. Houchin. With these assistants the work will be systematized to prevent the customary heavy losses sustained by swine breeders.
Late reports from the county agents indicate a reduction of hog cholera which shows that this educational work is having good effect on the hog industry in Florida.
WORK WITH NEGRO FARMERS
The work among negroes has been conducted along the same lines as last year. There is one regularly appointed negro county agent, in Leon County, who works four days a week in the field and two days at the A. & M. College, Tallahassee. The farm and home makers' club -work among negroes has been conducted with the usual crops in six counties.
The names "farm maker" and "home maker" are applied to negro clubs organized under the supervision of the Extension Division, University of Florida, as provided for in the Smith-Lever Act. While the agricultural club agent-has direct supervision of this extension work among negroes the activities are supervised by A. A. Turner, agent for farm and home makers' clubs, who has headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for negroes, Tallahassee. The purpose of this extension work is to increase production from the farms operated by negroes in the state. So far it has been undertaken only where the work would count for the most and where such work seemed most feasible.
The project has been directed toward agricultural training for c6lored youth, inducing them to raise food crops on a better plan ,than is generally followed by negro farmers in the state. The main






Aitnual Report', 1917, 37,

drops undertaken have been corn, peanuts, andsweet potatoes. The agent. for farm and home makers' clubs reports , that, 175 negro members each raised one-half acre of corn, one-fourth acre peanuts and one-fourth acre sweet potatoes. The yield from 871/2 acres of corn showed a higher average than that for the state. After deducting the cost of production from the value of the crop a profit of more than $2,500, or a little more than $14 an acre was left.
There were 43 Acres planted to peanuts which produced an average yield of about 48 bushels. . This crop netted an average profit of $6.50 for the quarter acre.
For the sweet potatoes planted, the yield was estimated at about 90 bushels to the acre which is considerably above the average for the state.
Comparing this report with last year's it shows an increase of four bushels to the acre in corn. No comparison can be made with the peanut and sweet-potato yields as these crops were not grown the previous year by club members.
HOME MAKERS' CLUBS
The home makers' clubs enroll negro, girls and encourage vegetable gardening. For the most part the main vegetable crop has been tomatoes and the surplus was canned for home use. During the spring and summer seasons six assistant agents were appointed in as many counties whose time was given chiefly to canning vegetables. In most cases excellent products were preserved which added considerably to the food supply and as this is the most important consideration during the present emergency it is important to increase the food supply as far as conditions permit.
NEGRO FARMERS' MEETINGS
More than 2,000 -negro farmers attended public meetings arranged by the negro club agent and assistants. There were arranged at convenient places and times and the subjects discussed were mainly on increased food production with special emphasis placed on better cultural methods. At each one of these places the essentials of hog cholera control were made plain to the negro, farmers. This is especially important as these club workers have been instrumental - in saving many hogs from cholera by having them vaccinated, and, what was more important, to emphasize that outbreaks of hog cholera are often started by allowing the negro's sick hogs to mingle with his neighbor's healthy ones.
Aside from the work undertaken in the counties planned for, additional counties carried on voluntary work induced by the demand for food conservation. The following counties had the







38 Florida Cooperative Extension

services of an assistant home-makers' club agent for four months: Washington, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Alachua, and Marion, with
assistant agents employed in each.
COUNTIES THAT VOLUNTEERED TO CARRY ON WORK
Following is a report of seven other counties that volunteered to organize clubs last season, in which considerable food conservation was accomplished.
Duval County, 12 clubs organized, 1165 cans of fruit and vegetables put up. Hillsboro, 4 clubs organized, 550 cans put up. Volusia, Daytona Industrial School, 2750 cans put up. Putnam, instructor employed by county, 1165 cans put up. Madison-2 clubs organized, 450 cans put up. Suwannee, 2 clubs organized, 275 cans put up. Columbia, 3 clubs organized, 650 cans put up. Total number of clubs organized, 23; cans put up, 7,840.
Arrangements were made with the Department whereby the negro club agent was able to give some assistance.
STATISTICAL REPORT
The reports of the negro club' agent made during the year to the state agent show the following: Days worked in office 60
Days worked in field --- ----- 250
Total days worked . 310
Total number of letters written ---- 4,125
Bulletins sent out - --------- 7,718
Individual visits made:
To club members 368
Meetings held To Farmers 296
Total attendance, or number of people reached ---- -------------- 217
8,990
Miles traveled by rail 9,331
Miles'traveled by auto and other conveyances ------------ ---------- 3,773
Total m iles traveled ----------- ------- -- -------------- 13,101






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
H. S. MCLENDON,
-District Agent.
INTRODUCTION
The farmers' cooperative demonstration, work in the district of East and South Florida has made satisfactory progress, altho after the declaration of war in April it was found inadvisable to carry out all the plans as arranged during the first of the year.
The production of more feeds for livestock and the growing' of more staple crops have been pushed in every county in this district, and in most of them with marked success. Farmers are making a greater effort to produce home supplies and by another year this increase will have a noticeable effect on the total food production of Florida.
CATTLE AND HOGS
In Brevard County the farmers were induced to gr6w An increased acreage of feed which influenced the bankers to buy one car of dairy cattle. This stock was distributed over the county. to individual farmers, the banks' received a cash payment and Carried the balance when the farmers needed help.
The dairy industry has been generally increased, especially.in Dade and Pasco counties. In Dade County several carloads of dairy cattle have been brought in and more will come in the near future. The growing of forage crops for these cattle and 'the erection of silos is progressing.
The beef cattle industry has also received special attention. Steer feeding in the truck counties from crops grown on vegetable fields during the summer gives a new source of income from the truck fields. The fields being well fertilized and cultivated, produce a heavy tonnage of corn in, the summer. This crop makes a 'larg amount of excellent silage where formerly the summer crops grown on these farms were largely wasted. Seminole, Manatee and Marion counties have erected silos for this purpose and most of the other counties have erected one or more silos for steer feeding.
Hogs are being given a prominent place on most of the farms. Where only a few years ago the native piney-woods Irazorback






Florida Cooperative Extension


F


FIG. 8-Registered Hereford he.rd bull, Holmes County
roamed at will, one can see fields enclosed with wire fences growing forage crops to be used for grazing purebred hogs. Forty purebred gilts were purchased for Brevard County farmers. Some of these were bred gilts and cost approximately $100 each.
The agents are still doing a great deal of hog cholera vaccination. In some counties this work is nearly all the agents can handle at times, but with the assistance of the individual hog raisers some counties are able to keep the disease pretty well under control.
A special effort is being made to encourage farmers to grow feed for one or two milk cows, for his work stock, and sufficient to fatten enough animals to furnish meat for his own table.
CITRUS DEMONSTRATIONS
The freezes in February affected a number of groves in which spraying demonstrations had been planned to such an extent that it was impracticable to continue them. However, a sufficient number of groves have been sprayed under demonstration methods to impress grove owners that if the spraying is properly done and at the right time it is profitable to spray. In every county the agent tries to encourage the growers to keep in touch with the Experiment Station and follow its recommendations in controlling fungus and insect troubles.






Annual Report, 1917


TRUCK DEMONSTRATIONS
A number of demonstration I s in the treatment of the soil with cyanamid for the control of root-knot have been conducted in counties where truck is the principal cash crop. This treatment is usually applied to seed beds, yet some fields have been treated. The use of fungicides and other insecticides in the seed bed and field has also been greatly encouraged with marked success, all this work being done cooperatively, with the Experiment Station directing and outlining the work.
Another feature that has been given considerable attention in some of the truck districts is that of collecting samples of fertilizer and forwarding them to the State Chemist for analysis. A large number of these samples have shown an analysis below that guaranteed on the tag. One agent drew and sent in samples that showed a shortage sufficient to cause the fertilizer manufacturers to return to the growers more than $15,000.
APPROPRIATION TO SUPPORT COUNTY WORK
Due to the increased expenses in the.operatiori of a car, it has been necessary to increase county agents' salaries. Inasmuch as the funds from Federal and State sources have been insufficient to make the increases, the counties have been asked to increase their appropriation. In practically all cases, this increase has been granted.
I The average appropriations from counties for the coming year is more than $1,100. It is gratifying to note that boards of county commissioners have come to realize that the county agent's appropriation is one of the most profitable expenditures they can make. They further realize the necessity of sufficient appropriation to secure the services of well trained agricultural leaders, so that each year experiences less difficulty in securing the necessary appropriations than formerly.
DeSoto, Dade and Broward counties were added to the co-operating list during the year.






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST, FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the, report. of the district agent for North and West Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,E. -W. JENKIN'S,
District Agent.

INTRODUCTION
The farmers' cooperative demonstration w, ork'in the district of North and West Florida has been conducted in -twenty-one counties. The work in'Bay, Bradford, Franklin and, Walton counties was not begun until October 1'. Leon County was without an agent from March 1 until April 1, and from June 1 until October 1.
Since beginning the work, February- 15, I have traveled by rail 16,816 miles., and by automobile, 2,620, making a total of 19,436 miles; 122 official visits have been made to the county. agents,.and 55 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings there was a total attendance of 5,347. Accompanied by, the county agents 216 farmers were visited. From these farms I was able to see the average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to the county agent for his general work.
The general interest in the. work, is shown, by the appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1918, which, is. $19,290 as compared with $12,800 for the year endingJune 30, 1917.

1 ORGANIZATION
Organization has been made a special feature of the, county work this year. Several of the counties are now organized and in others the plans are made. The general plan is f(or the county agent to meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner appoint a man in his res pective district. These five men constitute a county agricultural committee. Each man, with the help of the county agent, appoints in his respective district four other men who compose a district agricultural committee. Each district committee assists the county agent in planning and carrying out the work in his district.
Owing to the fact that a great portion of the county agent's time is required to further crop production, food conservation, and food surveys, the organization work has been of more than usual benefit to the county agents.






Annual Report, 1917


CORN
The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some sections of the district the lack of rain reduced the yield to some extent. In'these sections the demonstration fields suffered very little, thus showing the value of proper methods of soil preparation, fertilization, and cultivation.
In one county thirty-three demonstrators havi ng ten acres each in their demonstration plots, made an average yield of 37.3 bushels per acre at a cost of 24.8 cents per bushel.
Several grain elevators have been erected in the district to assist in preparing the corn for market. The county agents have done much work in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their corn to kill the weevils.
COTTON
The acreage planted to cotton was more than that of last year, but owing to the spread of the boll weevil thru the entire district the yield was less. Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, and Suwannee counties suffered the greatest losses from the weevil this year. Madison County produced only twenty-seven percent as much as last year.
A great effort was made to teach the farmers the proper method of cultivation under boll 'weevil conditions, but owing to excessive rainfalls during the summer months, which furnished ideal -conditions for the multiplication of boll weevils, and also to the fact that Sea Island cotton was planted, it being a late-maturing variety, the loss was exceedingly heavy.
VELVET BEANS
An effort was made by the, county agents to induce as many farmers as possible to plant velvet beans -as a soil builder and a forage crop. A large acreage was planted thruout the district.
In a number of towns feed mills have been installed for the purpose of making feed of velvet beans, corn,'and other products. Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an excellent feed for horses and cattle. This feed finds a ready market and has already become an important industry. Large quantities of beans are fed whole on farms or in feedlots in the pods either dry or soaked. There is an increasing demand for such feed. This bean is coming to be a staple article, and great improvement to the soil by growing this crop is seen.
PEANUTS
Peanuts have become an important crop in the northern and western.part of the state., A peanut-oil mill built at Malone this






Florida Cooperative Extension


year has proven of great value to' the farmers of that section. The indications are that several mills will be erected in the district another year which will give the farmers a cash market for all the peanuts they grow. The -farmers of the Malone section find the peanuts much more valuable as a cash crop- than cotton was even before the appearance of the boll weevil.
LIVESTOCK
Quite a large part of the activities of all county agents has to do with fostering the production of more and better livestock. The need of such work is evident. The efforts of the county agents have been. very successful along this line. In West Florida the worli has developed so far that a one, hundred thousand dollar packing house has been erected at Chipley. This packing house, together with the one already in operation in Jacksonville, will give th( farmer a 6arby market. Many farmers are shipping in carload lots. In some sections where farmers do not have enough hogk to make a carload the county agents assist them in making a cooperative shipment. A great many purebred hogs for breeding purposes have been brought into the state thru the influence of the county agent.
Much improvement in pastures and grazing crops, as well as in. methods of feeding has been made.
The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of grade! or purebred beef cattle have been shipped into the district.
HOG CHOLERA
All agents give a good portion of their time to the control of hog cholera. Thru the assistance of the hog cholera specialist they have full instructions and information on diagnosis of the disease,, and the use of serum and virus has consequently added materially to the value of the herds in the district by preventing or controlling hog cholera outbreaks. Farmers are instructed in the use of the serum and are shown the advantage of equipping themselves with outfits for administering it. The agent frequently having other engagements is prevented from getting to an outbreak as quickly as may be necessary to avoid the loss of a good part of the herd, whereas, if the farmer has the outfit he can administer the treatment promptly and avoid unnecessary losses.

DIPPING VATS
Demonstration agents are working with other forces in the educational campaign leading to the eradication of the cattle tick,






Annual Report, 1917


This work has consisted in pointing out. and explaining the loss caused- by the tick, also in giving aid in the construction of dipping vats. Most of the dipping vats constructed under agents' supervision this year are community vats. By means of such vats some of the most effective tick eradication educational work is accomplished. The cattle owners in a community, or within a radius of a few miles, join in constructing a central vat, each one contributing either money or labor. Such citizens thus feel that the vat belongs to them, they use it freely and take pride in telling others of the merits of dipping cattle. The sentiment thus created is much more wholesome than that which sometimes follows the installation of a county or public vat before the necessary educational work has been done. In the latter case the cattle owners sometimes resent the seemingly outside interference with their personal matters.


FIG. 9.-Corn club and pig club members, Madison County











A


FIG. 1O.-Corn club and pig club members attending the Boys' Short Course, University of Florida






Annual Report,, 1917


REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.'
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
G. L. HERRINGTON,
Boys' Club Agent.
INTRODUCTION
The organization of boys' clubs was begun early in the year in each county by ending out enrollment cards to all former club members, to be signed and mailed to the office at-Gainesville by all who desired to continue the work. The roll 1 was augmented almost daily thru the personal work of- county agents as they visited farms and schools.
All plans were definitely made and in the hands of club members when war was declared. Inasmuch as club work is directed toward greater food production there was no reason for radical changes when the campaign for increased food production was started; however, special effort was made to enlarge the scope of the work, and to grow and conserve all additional products possible.
Two main projects, the corn and, pig clubs, and. two minor projects, the peanut and truck-crop clubs, have been followed this year. In all of these clubs 1900 boys in 41 counties are at work. Some are in only one branch of the work, while others are in two or more branches.
Circular letters are sent out from the club agent's office to all members every three or four weeks during the spring and summer, and less frequently at other seasons. Copies of these letters are also mailed to county agents and to superintendents of public instruction. This keeps all workers pulling together. The county agents then visit the boys at schools and on farms and give all necessary instruction relative to the work.
-There is a growing tendency to correlate the club work with the public schools thruout the state. We have the hearty cooperation of all county superintendents of public instruction and the teachers in rural schools. This cooperation has been won by the actual results the boys attained in their community.
Adverse weather at a time when'it meant so much to crop production was a serious handicap to some branches of the club work. This was especially true with the corn club for dry weather prevailed during Midsummer when the crop was reaching. maturity. Many, boys whose ambition it was -to produce-a maximum crop






Florida Cooperative Extension


were entirely defeated by the dry weather., but-they do not seem discouraged. Boys of this kind usually have a determination to try again next year. Many boys failed to report because their yields were not as good as they had expected. We are sure much


FIG. 11-Poland-China gilt; age 81/2 months; weight,
367 pounds. Owned by Dan Gamble, Suwannee
County
more.good has been accomplished this year than during any previous year in the history of the club work.
The following summary of the corn-club work gives an idea of its extent in Florida:
Total number of boys enrolled in the state 1,132
Total number of boys reporting in the state 413
Total number of bushels reported in the state 15,531.54
Total cost of production $6,969.31
Average cost per bushel $ 0.461
Average number of bushels per acre 37.67
This summary was taken from the reports of the various counties thruout the state. There were six counties in which clubs were







Annual Report, 191 . . 49

organized that failed to report. This was due to not having county
agents present in the. fall to work up the contests and assist the boys thru the fall season. These reports do not give the complete results of the corn-club work. Many boys conducted excellent demonstrations but it is not possible to collect the results from all.
The following table gives an idea of the work as it stands in the various counties:
SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK


'4-4
COUNTY bbP A P
~~4 44. 4-5)


Hernando 36 38.0 .37 73.6 $0.15
Hillsboro 33 28.2 .49 60.0 .16
Washington 30 36.7 .60 78.2 .42
Liberty 26 41.4 .36 70.5 .23
Polk 26 37.6 .42 102.1 .27
Holmes 25 36.8 .35 80.5 .16
Madison 21 36.7 .39 62.0 .22
Marion 19 31.9 .49 100.1 .13
Nassau 18 50.7 .57 76.0 .48
Wakulla 16 17.4 .66. 29.0 .67
St. Johns 14 34.2 .42 65.0 .30
Duval 12 39.4 .63 57.5 .80
Walton 12 47.9 .34 85.3 .19
Calhoun 11 46.2 .25 92.4 .19
Santa Rosa 10 14.0 .79 26.5 .42
Alachua 10 33.7 .69 45.7 .53
Suwannee 9 30.9 .47 71.8 .44
Clay 9 46.4 .39 63.7 .46
Hamilton 9 61.9 .45 98.0 .30
Putnam 8 44.7 .40 82.4 .10
Jackson 8 26.0 .42 70.7 .32
Citrus 7 32.4 .35 58.0 .16
Leon 5 29.1 .42 58.3 .19
Baker 5 37.9 .45 67.0 .28
Gadsden 5 50.6 .44 58.7 .36
Lee . 3 24.2 .74 30.0 .59
Lake 3 79.1 .24 106.5 .39
Orange " 3 23.6 .65 27.0 .64
Sumter 3 61.6 .28 69.0 .17
Okeechobee 3 23.8 .52 25.0 .62
Taylor . 2 56.4 .35 56.5 .35
Escambia 2 56.4 .23 80.3 .15
Brevard 2 28.0 .66 50.0 .40
LaFayette 1 50.0 .42 50.0 42
Jefferson . . , 38.5 .36 38.5 .36
If is interesting to, note that there has been a gradual increase

in number of 100-bushel yields each year. In 1915 one boy produced more than a hundred bushels. I-n 1916'three boys made similar records and this year four boys produced more'than a hundred
bushels per acre. Their names and reports are as follows:
].xxe-4






Florida Cooperative Extension


CLUB Boy COUNTY YIELD COST RANK
LeRoy Alderman .Lake . 106.5 .39 First Lawton Martin .Marion . 100.1 .13 Second Edgar Locke Lake . 100.5 .27 Third
Paul Parrish Polk.---- 102.2 .27 Fourth

These four demonstrations created much interest in the corn club thruout the state and a large number of boys will make plans to obtain similar results next year.
The corn-club boys have learned valuable lessons in crop rotation. A great many planted pea-nuts, cowpeas or velvet beans with their corn and produced about the same yield of corn that they have been accustomed to without the legume crop. They find that the legume crop is almost a net profit.
PIG CLUBS
The pig clubs have made unusual progress this year and created more interest among the boys, farmers, and business men thruout the state than any other branch of the club work. The swine breeders 'of Florida have been able to supply about half of the pigs needed by pig-club members, and the other members ordered from breeders in Southeastern states. There were 652 boys who joined the pig clubs and raised purebred pigs. The different breeds were represented as follows: Duroc-Jerseys, 520; Poland-Chinas, 77; Berkshires, 40; and Hampshires, 15.
Each boy keeps a record of all his work, but-on account of the difficulty in bringing the animals to the exhibits complete 'data was collected from only 225., This report is summarized as follows: Weight of pigs at beginning'of contest, pounds 8,955.0
Weight at end of contest, pounds 41,670.0
Net gain in weight, pounds 32,715.0
Average weight at beginning of contest, pounds 39.8
Average weight at end of contest, pounds 185.2
Average net gain in weight, pounds 145.4
Length of feeding period, days 147.3
Average daily gain in weight, pounds .99
Average cost per pound of gain $ .06
Average price paid for pigs .$ 10.38
Average cost of gain per pig $ 9.23
Average value at close of contest $ 50.30
Average net profit per pig $ 30.69
The bankers of the state have again this year loaned money to all boys recommended by the county agents to be used in purchasing purebred swine. The boys are required to give their notes and in most cases no indorsement is necessary. They have the -use of the money for a year and a half at six percent interest. This gives ample time to raise pigs from those bought and to sell a few before the notes are due.






Annual Report, 1917


One of the most interesting reports was that of Dan Gamble, a Suwannee County boy. Dan purchased a twelve-weeks-old PolandChina pig, weighing 18 pounds, for $13. He fed it and gave it good attention during the summer and fall, and exhibited it at the Suwannee County fair. This pig was placed in the entrance of the swine building and was by far the most attractive animal on exhibition. It was eight months and twelve days old, and weighed 367 pounds. Before the fair was over it sold for $125, gold. The pig cost $5.50 to raise, making a total cost of $18.50. The net profit for the six months' work with this animal was $106.50.
Arthur Powers of St. Johns County made a similar record. When his pig was purchased it weighed 23 'pounds and cost him $11.15. He fed it 159 days at an expenseof $8.35. At the end of the feeding period the animal weighed 280 pounds, making a net gain of 257 pounds. It was sold to the highest bidder on contest day in St. Augustine for $95, which left a net profit of $75.50.
The three hundred boys who raised purebred gilts last year' have bred their animals and raised one or two litters this year. A great many who gave $10 for their original gilts have sold pigs this year for $12.50 each.
The boys in the pig clubs have made special effort to grow green' feed for their animals. Many have provided pastures, but those who live in towns where this was not possible grew smallplots of green feed to be used as soiling crops. The increased cost of concentrated feeds made it hard for some who had to buy them but the increase in the price of breeding stock as well as pork gave them the assurance of a good profit. Practically every boy fed his animal himself and the boys have obtained some valuable experience in feeding balanced rations. .
Some boys have 'exhibited their animals at practically all the fairs this year. Their pigs, as a whole, ranked among the best livestock on exhibition. Not only the boys but the farmers and the general public have seen the good results of the pig-club work by having the animals exhibited.
We have made plans to hold a state pig contest during the State Fair in Jacksonville next spring. It has not been possible so far to hold a state contest but with the assistance of the state fair management and the various swine breeders' associations it will no doubt develop into an interesting feature of the pig-club work.
PEANUT CLUBS
The peanut club has made some progress th is year and there seems to be an increased interest in the growing of this crop in all






Florida Cooperative Extension


general farming sections of the state. Thirty-four boys in this club made an average yield of 51.2 bushels of peanuts per acre at a cost of 39 cents a bushel. With our present price for peanuts they made good profits. Many other boys who planted peanuts with their corn left them in the field for their pigs to harvest.
TRUCK-CROP CLUBS
The truck-crop clubs are being developed in the most southern counties where the conditions are most suitable.' The crops are grown during the winter months and reports are not ready at this time.
BOYS' MEETINGS
We have held a great many interesting meetings with the boys in practically all counties. Each boy felt himself a part of the organization. regardless of the branch of club work in which he was engaged. They usually met at the school houses if the schools were not in session or at the county seat or at some picnic ground. The program was given in the forenoon and the afternoon was spent as an outing. Contests were held in thirty-five counties this fall and the exhibits of corn and peanuts showed that the boys had improved a great deal in their methods of selecting products for exhibition. There is also a marked improvement in'the pigs shown this year over those of last year.
The results of the year's work were brought out at the boys' short course in agriculture at the University, Dcemniber 3 to 8. There were 112 boys present from 34 counties, an increase of 53 percent over the attendance last year. Fifteen boys who attended last year returned. There were 48 boys above 16 years of age and many of that number are planning to enter the College of Agriculture.
- The officers and instructors at the University gave every possible agsisfance in presenting a good program and made the short course a success. The bankers, railroads, boards of trade and business men thruout the state paid the expenses of most of these boys to the shbrt course. On the last night of their stay in Gainesville the bankers of Gainesville gave them an excellent supper, at which time the state prizes were awarded and every boy received a diploma for the excellent work he had done.
The boys' club agent took part in 90 meetings in the interest of the club work and the total estimated attendance at those meetings was, 6,570. From one to three days were spent at each of the 118 viits, madeo county agents and considerable time was spent in counties that have no agents, visiting 330 farms. The distance







Annual Report, 1917


FIG. 12-Three of the four boys making more than one hundred bushels of corn to the acre. (Left to right) Leroy Alderman, Lawton Martin, Edgar Locke
traveled by rail was 15,740 miles, by auto 4,345, by team 57; making a total of 20,144 miles.
E. M. Manning, who was appointed assistant emergency boys' 'club agent the first of October, has taken charge of the field work in the northern and western counties. He works directly with the county agents, giving any necessary assistance in the development of the boys' club work.







54 Florida Cooperative Extension

The farm and home makers' clubs under the supervision of A. A. Turner of the A. & M. College, Tallahassee, have made very credit4ble progress. He has had assistant club agents working in Jackson, Washington, Gadsden, Leon, Marion, Alachua and Jefferson counties.
In the farm makers' clubs the negro boys cultivate one acre of land to the following crops: one half corn, one quarter peanuts And one quarter sweet potatoes. In the home makers' clubs the negro girls grow one-tenth acre 0 tomatoes and can and preserve many products from the farm.
About 1250 negro boys and girls are enrolled in the farm and home makers' clubs and many are getting very creditable results.
BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY
*, ALACHUA COUNTY
NAME AGE ADDRESS
tarrol Beacham Emerson 18 Micanopy
Joe S. Fryar 17 Hawthorne
Horace 0. Gay 15 Trenton
John G. Herlong 16 Micanopy
Karl M. Jones 15 Micanopy
Clarence W. Maddox 15 Micanopy
Arthur William Saarinen 15 Alachua
Henry Dorsey Sanchez 15 Newberry
Merrill Mildredge Shaw 14 Gainesville
William S. Williams 16 Micanopy
Albert R. Zetrouer 17 Micanopy
BAKER COUNTY
Alton Lucious Driggers 14 Lake Butler
BREVARD COUNTY
Clarence W. Hughes 18 Eau Gallie
BROWARD COUNTY
Fowler J. Howard 18 Ft. Lauderdale
CALHOUN COUNTY
James Lewis Atkins 13 Selman
CITRUS COUNTY
Edwin Henry Fitzgerald 13 Inverness
Earnest Drew Miley 16 Inverness
Asa Corlin Sharp . 15 Brooksville
Eugene Edward Turner 13 Crystal River
Charles B. Zellner 15 Floral City
CLAY COUNTY
Alton Conway . 13 Green Cove Springs
Willie Guy Hall 11 West Tocoi
John Lewis McDaniel 14 Green Cove Springs
Roy Queen Saunders 16 Green Cove Springs,
DUVAL COUNTY
George N. Barber 13 Jacksonville
Aubrey C. Brinson'' 1 . Fiftone
Leo William -Curry 16. . Loretto
G317 Hartley 15 Loretto
OWeniE. Taylo . '' 1. . .Jacksonville
Sidney Floyd Thomas la . . Baldwin �







.Annual Report, 1917. 55

ESCAMBIA COUNTY
NAME AGE ADDRESS
Tom William Floyd 17 Cantonment
HERNANDO COUNTY
Raymond Walter Wernicke 15 Brooksville
HILLSBORO COUNTY
Jesse Bryant Alderman 16 Youmans
Hugh Charlie Davis 16 Plant City
Jesse Lee Driggers 17 Wimauma
Elmer Franklin Futch 17 Plant City
Raymond Howell 16 Plant City
C. H. Taylor, Jr 13 Plant City
James G. Viers 14 Dover
Luther LeRoy Webb 13 Plant City
JACKSON COUNTY
Wm. Jack Forshee 16 Marianna
LAKE COUNTY
Leroy Alderman 15 Montverde
Paul S. Kirkland 17 Altoona
Edgar Locke 13 Montverde
Ellis Allen Sheppard 15 Montverde
Alec Smith 13 Montverde
Leo Edward Starrs 15 Montverde
William Earl Varn 16 Groveland
LIBERTY COUNTY
Lawrence L. Hentz 15 Bristol
Hillion Owens 15 Bristol
MADISON COUNTY
Malcom Tucker Chason 19 Ebb
Clarence H. Lamb 14 Madison
William Orvin McCullough 17 Lee
Joe P. Smith 13 Ebb
MANATEE COUNTY
John W. Collins 14 Oneco
MARION COUNTY
Jacob Lynn Feaster. 14 Micanopy
Lawton M. Martin 13 Electra
Alonzo P. Meadows 14 Anthony
Vernon F. Neil 14 Ocala
Geo. Myron Rou 15 Lowell
Clyde B. Seckinger 17 Martel
NASSAU COUNTY
Edwin Caswell Brown 16 Callahan
Ellis Van Dyal 16 Callahan
John Upton Davis 17 Callahan
Pasco Fouraker 18 Baldwin
Allen Fouraker 14 Baldwin
Walter K. Green 17 Callahan
Ray Haddock 18 Boulogne
Cecil Johns .14 Crawford
Charles Roland Owens 15 Callahan
Warren W. Pittman 15 Crawford
Frank E. Walker 18 Kings Ferry
OKEECHOBEE COUNTY
James Weymon Potter 16 Okeechobee
Hubert Vaser Raulerson 16 Okeechobee
Arthur Franklin Raulerson 15 Okeechobee







56 Florida Cooperative Extension

ORANGE COUNTY
Thomas Livingston Link 12 Orlando
OSCEOLA COUNTY
Irlo Overstreet Bronson 17 Kissimmee
Edward Campbell 18 Kissimmee
Henry Tollie Simmons 14 St. Cloud
Malcolm Curtis Yates 17 Kissimmee
PALM BEACH COUNTY
Robert Taylor Egbert 17 Boynton
Tuffic Tabit 12 Boynton
POLK COUNTY
Juel Jackson Barksdale 13 Lakeland
Allen Reuben Hall 16 Bartow
Marvyn Ludwig Hurn 14 Haskell
John Allen Williams 16 Haskell
PUTNAM COUNTY
Radcliffe W. Carrington 17 San Mateo
George W. Davies 16 Florahome
Russell Warren Strange 17 Palatka
SAINT JOHNS COUNTY
Oma Carl Minton 13 Hastings
Carl Trueman Morrison 13 Hastings
James Henry Stevens 15 New Augustine
SAINT LUCIE COUNTY
George Holmes Braddock 16 Sebastian
Charles Hersey Harris 13 Vero
SANTA ROSA COUNTY
Max A. Wise 12 Milton
SEMINOLE COUNTY
Wallace W. Bell 14 Sanford
John Lester Brumley 12 Sanford
Watson L. Wallace 12 Sanford
SUMTER COUNTY
Sidney Luther Fussell 15 Coleman
Tom Fussell 17 St. Catherine
Teddie R. Hill 15 Coleman
SUWANNEE COUNTY
Milledge A. Baker 17 O'Brien
Jack S. Henry 18 Live Oak
Walter N. Skeen 14 Live Oak
TAYLOR COUNTY
Artie Bowdoin 15 Perry
John Andrew Bowdoin 17 Perry
Floyd Calhoun 15 Perry
Alvin N. Wilder 17 Perry
VOLUSIA COUNTY
Aaron S. Tedder 18 De Leon Springs
WAKULLA COUNTY
John James Revill 16 Sopchoppy
Wilmer Clyde Rouse 15 Sopchoppy
WASHINGTON COUNTY
Preston Hasty 17 Bonifay






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE SWEET POTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report. of-the specialist in sweet potato storage for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,' SAMUEL C. Ho IOD, Storage Specialist.
INTRODUCTION
'The Office of Horticulture of the U. S. Department of Agri~ulture in cooperation with the Extension Division began active work on September 1, 1917, to improve the sweet. potato storage conditions in Florida.i This work continued for the remainder of the year. It is estimated that fully thirty percent of the crop in past years has rotted due to improper methods of storage, and owing to the greatly increased plantings in 1917 it was thought that the loss would be unusually heavy in that year.
The object of the work was to encourage the erection of approved storage houses where slight heat could be applied to, dry out the extra moisture and prevent sweating,, thereby avoiding the loss that commonly occurs when potatoes are banked in the usual way. In these houses potatoes can be held at proper temperature -with small loss, enabling the grower to hold his crop until late winter or spring and to place it on the market in good condition. On many farms sweet potatoes are grown for home consumption only and the amount produced is not sufficient to justify building a storage house. In such cases a properly constructed ventilated bank was advocated, and a large number of farmers used -this method in 1917. This part of the work alone has saved a considerable quantity of sweet potatoes from rotting on the farms.
The work was carried on thru the cooperation of the county agents who gave it their hearty support. Considering the conditions in Florida it was thought that the, best, results would be secured by working with the farmers direct, and to'encourage the larger growers to build their own houses rather than to work for central storage houses in the towns. Further work justified this view.
Several meetings were held in farming counties but most of the work was conducted by personal visits to the larger growers in each county. Twenty-two counties were visited, eighteen formal meetings were held, and calls made at more than 300 plantations. As a result of the work,.47 storage houses were projected for the season and a considerable additional number were assured for next year. Owing to the serious crop failure, however, which did'.not






Florida Cooperative Extension


become evident until late in the fall, only 15 of these .houses. were constructed for use in 1917 and some of them only half the intended size. There has been difficulty in getting, enough sweet potatoes to fill some of the houses built.
SMALL CROP PRODUCED
The work this season indicated that the most important part of the sweet potato storage work in Florida is growing the crop. In spite of the increased planting in 1917, more than half the counties did not produce enough for local use, and only one-fourth of the counties had a slight surplus over local needs.
From the acreage planted in the state, the crop should have been about 7,000,000 bushels, but the actual crop was probably not more than one-third that. This condition was largely due to drouth, poor seed,. late planting, and improper cultural methods. The Florida farmer can well afford to pay more attention to the sweet potato crop and to regard it as a possible money crop. To bring this about emphasis should be placed on the following:
(1) The planting of improved varieties and the endeavor to keep
them pure.
(2) The planting of seed properly selected for productivity,
uniformity, and disease resistance.
(3) Proper methods of culture to give the most profitable returns.
(4) A study of the proper methods of harvesting and handling
to prevent injury.
(5) Grading in the field so that diseased, ill-formed and stringy
potatoes are kept for hog feed.
(6) Proper storage in banks and houses.
All these points lead up to the successful operation of the storage house and insure the maximum returns for the crop marketed. SWEET POTATO STORAGE HOUSES IN FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1917 CAPACITY
OWNERi POSTOFFICE IN BUSHELS
W. H. Leonard Grand Ridge 5000
Hall & Scidmore Green Cove Springs 1000
C. C. Parsons Bluff -Springs10
W. 1D. Willis Pensacola 2500
L. S. Gilmore Bluff Springs 100
W. C. Barrineau Pensacola 2500
J. M. McLaughlin ------------- Bonifay 1200
D. H. Morris , . Noma 1000
The Traders Exchange_.---Campbelltown 5000
J. C. Braswell Monticello, 500
NathanSMayo Summerfielcf 5000
H.'L. Shearer' Ocala '1200
L. R. Hillfill Largo 500
D. E. Murphey Glendale 300
W. H. 'Folk 'Chipley 1500







Annual Report, 1917


MAP
@IF
PL@MIDA


IEY WEST .

FIG. 13.-Shaded areas indicate counties having Home Demonstration work
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for homedemonstration work for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, and with it statistics of the work done by women and club girls for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
AGNES ELLEN HARRIS,
State Hom6 Demonstration Agent.
INTRODUCTION
Prior to the declaration of war, the entire staff engaged in home demonstration work consisted of, the -state agent; two district agents, each in charge of the work in one-half the counties of the state; a poultry-club organizer; a secretary to the Extension Division; and thirty-three county home demonstration agents. Following that declaration, the staft-'was increased by the addition of, one stenographer; two emergency home demonstration agents; and one assistant to a county home demonstration agent.
This staff was not nearly adequate to meet the demands under war conditions but, since the conditions could not have been anticipated, no financial assistance was available and the fiscal year had ended before the emergency appropriations became available to, increase the force materially. For the maintenance of the work, the following funds were available: .Florida State College for Women -------- $10,733.29
U. S. D. A. Funds 5,400.29
Smith-Lever Federal Fund 11,525.00
County Boards of Education, for.agents' salaries -------- 13,350.00 County Commissioners, for agents' salaries 3,950.00

Total $44,95-8.58
Besides the county appropriations for agents' salaries, appropria-tions were made for equipment for demonstration centers, community kitchens, offices for county home demonstration agents, demonstration materials, and for materials used at county short courses.
THE COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
Consistent with the policy in force since the Florida work was started, the county agent is the factor around which all the work is centered. This year the average salary paid our agents was $108 a month, the average term of employment being 9.4 months.







Annual Report, 1917


One great advance made has been in the employment of women trained in county home demonstration agent work. All newly ap-pointed agents were graduated from either a college or normal school, and each agent was thoroly acquainted with conditions in Florida or in one of the nearby states.
As the scope of the work has broadened counties have furnished the home demonstration agent with the equipment and materials necessary for her to do her work well. The home demonstration agent now needs in this work, which is constantly broadening in scope, well equipped demonstration rooms in different parts of the county, and materials with which to carry on demonstrations. She also needs models of household conveniences, a suitable office as headquarters for her work and a place for storing and distributing literature which she constantly needs to send out in the county.
Most of the home demonstration agents have been furnished offices in the courthouse or some suitable store. Notable among the offices is the one furnished Mrs. Matthews, home demonstration agent for Bay County. Her office is a large airy room near the county superintendent's office, splendidly equipped for holding demonstrations, and with desk, and shelves for bulletins.
By careful observation it has been found that adequate work cannot be done by the home demonstration agent in Florida unless she has an automobile constantly at her disposal. In the district of North and West Florida all agents, with one exception, own their


FIG. 14-Home economics class, State College for Women, Tallahassee






Florida Cooperative Extension


cars. In the southern district all but eight had cars. This is a great financial tax on the agents that is constantly increasing, and for this reason every effort must be made to secure from each county sufficient appropriations to take care of the car, besides paying a sufficient salary to employ well trained women.
In order to keep the standard, of women employed high, good salaries exclusive of the cost of running a car must be provided. This will necessitate an effort to materially increase the salaries of home demonstration agents. At a conservative'estimate $37.36 a month is the cost of the up-keep of a Ford for the second year, counting the depreciation in value of the car as $10 a month. The minimum amount to allow an agent for the up-keep and running expenses of her car is $50 a month,
A well prepared woman with a car at her disposal, and an adequate expense account, will be of far greater value to a community than a poorly prepared, poorly paid woman without means of transportation. Until a community can make sufficient appropriations to support an efficient agent, it is probably better not to undertake home demonstration work in the county.
GENERAL PLAN OF THE WORK
The work this year has been conducted on much the same general plan as it was last year, excepting that greater emphasis was placed on organization. In March we had a far better organization in the state than ever before, practically all girls and women working under our supervision had been banded into clubs. A book containing a constitution, with suggestions for holding club meetings, ,and a roll for keeping attendance records, was furnished all clubs from the state agent's office. Minutes of all club meetings were carefully kept, and on any visit the county and state workers could readily see the kind of work the club had been doing. At the general agent's conference, the district and county agents planned a program to be used as a guide by these clubs and in the majority of clubs these programs were closely followed.
WOMEN'S CLUBS
We have been able, because of the previous work done with the girls' clubs, to add to our organization clubs of country and urban women. The following is an extract from the annual report of the county home demonstration agent for Lee County, showing what she had accomplished in organizing clubs among the rural women.
Ten classes have been formed, with a membership of 180. These classes held meetings once a month. The agent attended and gave a demonstration at each meeting. In the fall and winter the work was with the citrus fruits






Annual Report, 1917


in jellies, preserves, marmalades and crystallization. Next, the building and use of the.fireless cooker. After that the work with the substitute breads. Each woman was given the recipe and assigned a particular kind to make. At the next meeting each brought her loaf, and a bread judging contest was held, followed by a talk on the nutritive value of bread, and a warning given for the conservation of wheat flour. Corn meal bulletins were also distributed. These lessons were well observed, many women abandoning the, making of all wheat breads because their families preferred the substitute breads, and they were so much cheaper. Next came a round of canning demonstrations. In these the club girls in their neat uniforms were eager to assist. The new method of preserving strawberries was given several classes, and each had one demonstration in pickling.
. There are 125 well organized and successful home demonstration clubs in*the state. The members of these clubs are actively carrying on demonstrations at home between meetings. One home demonstration agent reports that after a demonstration with the fireless cooker, eighteen women bought material and made fireless cookers., EGG CIRCLES
Of the women's clubs, none are more profitable than the egg circles. In Escambia County the Burnville and Wardville egg circles, working under the county home demonstration agent's supervision, are successful from both a commercial and a social standpoint. This bit of cooperative selling is helping to increase the spirit of cooperation in their community.
For the work done in poultry, reference may be had to the report of Miss Floyd, state poultryclub organizer.
GIRLS' CLUBS
Two thousand four hundred and eighty-'three girls were enrolled in 243 clubs for canning, gardening and poultry raising. The total production and profit was materially decreased by the February freeze. For instance, in Dade County sixty club gardens just ready for harvesting, were all killed.
FAIRS, CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES
The home demonstration work was featured at two fairs, the Duval County and the Tampa fair, which answered the purpose in Florida of the state fair. Miss Partridge was in charge at the Tampa fair and a description of it is included in her report.
When the work first began the annual county fair, wherever it was held in the county, was the regular place for holding the county contest. At each county having a home demonstration agent and. where a fair was held we have had a home demonstration exhibit. In some counties the demonstration exhibits have developed into, fairs composed very largely of poultry displays, exhibits of sewing, basketry, canning and preserving done by the girls and additional exhibits of the women's club work.






64 Florida Cooperative Extension

Each county had its contest to compare individual records, judge the products and award prizes to club imembers. Short courses of two or three days were held in each of 21 counties either in the fall or spring with an attendance of 608 :club girls:. The program for these short courses: usually consisted of lessons in drying vegetables, pickling and canning, the care of crops, the preparation of peanut products and breadmaking.
Besides the regular program of work the town women entertained the girls and made their visit to the short course a'delightful experience. The effect of this has been felt thruout the state; as one county home demonstration agent writes: "Now when I meet the girls they' do not mind talking; they ask'questions and tell me what they are doing in the way of raising and saving food,"
A most important result of these courses seems to have been the development of initiative in the girl and a broadening of her ideas of life, quite. as much as her increased knowledge in food preparation and other phases of home economics.
STATE MEETINGS"
AGENTS' CONFERENCES
In October, twelve newly appointed home demonstration agents attended the annual meeting of county agents at the University of Florida. At this time separate meetings were held for these newly appointed agents for instruction in organization, canning, preserving, gardening and dairying, by members of the faculty of the Agricultural College and the State College for Women. This meeting was. successful and excellent results followed the joint sessions of men and women agents, but owing to the greater 'expense of meeting in Gainesville than in Tallahassee it was necessary to hold the next annualmeeting of county home demonstration agents in Tallahassee in January, just preceding the opening of the winter session when the- dormitories are vacated by regular students. There were thirty-three home demonstration agents in attendance, and instead of the conference being conducted as a school as in the past, it was a series of conferences. The county home demonstration agents discussed their problems and established uniform policies to be followed thruiout the year.
. WOMEN'S SHORT COURSE i
In the past the women's short:,course and the county home demonstration agent's, annual meeting were held at the same time, but this year because -of; crowded dormitories the women's short course was held in February. This short course is especially planned to meet the needs of county home demonstration agents who require






Annual Report, 1917


training. As the facilities for training prospective agents can be increased, the need for the home demonstration agent attending such short courses will be lessened. Seven county home demonstration agents paid their own expenses to this two-week short course.
The College employed Miss Anna Barrows, a woman of national reputation, to present food preparation facts, and to give daily lectures and demonstrations in nutrition, canning and preserving and in phases of home making. Sixty-two women of Florida were enrolled, but in each demonstration given by Miss Barrows one hundred or more were in attendance. A few of these women manifested distinct ability for county work and have since been employed, as county home demonstration agents.
The following is a list of food conserved by Stella Mae Biddle, a club woman who attended the short course, after her return home: 10 glasses apple jelly, 48 pints fig preserves, 4 quarts dried shelled
-peas, 14 quart tomatoes, 3 quarts okra, 6 quarts okra and tomatoes, 1 peck dried corn, 4P quarts preserved peaches, 10 quarts canned peaches, 8 quarts canned figs, 12 quarts applesauce, 8 quarts blackberries, 1 pint mulberries, 3 quarts buby relish, 1 quart apple vinegar, 2 quarts canned beans, 4 cans of beans in tins.
GIRLS' SHORT COURSE
The fifth short course offered by the Florida State College for Women for the canning-club girls was held November 27 to December 9, 1916. The girls' expenses were paid by county commissioners, boards of trade, women's clubs and public-spirited men in the respective counties. There were 41 girls sent from the 33
-counties.
As the type and training of county home demonstration agents
-has improved there has been a corresponding improvement in the preparation and fitness of canning-club girls. as compared with
-those in attendance at the beginning of the girls' short courses. No ,girls are sent to the short course unless they have made good records as club members. These girls showed unusual ability to grasp the work offered them. Regular lessons in cooking, sewing, home nursing, nutrition and gardening were given, besides'there were ins irrational lectures and trips planned for their benefit.
The recreation hill was used as a dormitory for these girls because of crowded conditions at the college, and proved most satisfactory. Enroute to their homes, the South Florida girls stopped in Jacksonville and were the guests of honor at the Duval County 'fair; they visited also the home of Mrs. Okle Painter Williams, who presented each first-prize winner with a gold watch. Mrs. Williams jxx-5






Florida Cooperative Extension


has presented eighty-five gold watches to Florida prize-winning girls.
. SUMMER SCHOOL FOR COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Because the woman who understands Florida is most efficient in our work, provided she is well trained, and because of the necessity of giving the strong Florida woman opportunities to secure training, an appropriation was asked from the State , Legislature for the support of a home economics, summer school. This was granted, but it was not known until May 26 that this course could be offered. For this reason no information could be given thruout the state. As soon as the appropriation was definitely made, a letter was sent to all county home demonstration agents, and a warning given that no appointments for home demonstration, work in this state would be made the next year unless the applicant had at least the training Which could be secured at the summer school. it is hoped later to demand at least two, summer's courses.
More. than fifty women registered in these courses. One course was called the home demonstration methods course, the instruction being given entirely by the extension workers. Practical home demonstration work was. given and opportunities to. visit"demonstrations and club meetings in Leon County were offered. One day the entire class' was transported eleven miles' into the country and an all day canning was held at the home of the Leon County agent. It is hoped to develop this summer school for county agents until any of the strong teachers in the state who wish to prepare themselves for.this work can, during summer sessions, secure 1he necessary preparation.
WAR CHANGED CONDITIONS
A general survey of the work during March in each county gave evidence that. the work with both girls and women was well organized, but when war was declared and it became necessary to aid the Government in food conservation, the general plan of work was largely changed. Instead of working entirely with organized groups we began a state-wide campaign of instruction in canning and preserving. Each home demonstration agent took a leading part in the county 'campaigns for food conservation and production, and rendered the maximum assistance to her people for food conservation. A great drive was made for saving foodstuffs.
CONTAINERS
In the drive for food conservation the problem of containers was a serious one. Tin cans that formerly cost two cents each were difficult to obtain at five, and five and a half cents. Glass was






Annual Report, 1917


equally as difficult to secure and because of the unprecedented increase in price and disturbed business conditions merchants refused to lay in an adequate stock of cans, even tho the price was constantly rising. For this reason every county home demonstration agent had to spend a great deal of time in working out plans to overcome these inconveniences. Finally, thru the efforts of Mr. Knapp and other officials in the Department of Agriculture, we were able to secure a sufficient supply at a reasonable price. The cans were shipped direct to both district home demonstration agents in car lots for redistribution to the counties. The district agents personally -handled three carloads of cans, had them unpacked and reshipped to the home demonstration agents, who distributed them in the counties.'
FINANCING THE -CONTAINER PURCHASES
Financing the movement of these cans was done in various ways. In several instances the county commissioners bought the cans out right with county funds or with money borrowed for the purpose, in other cases the bankers loaned money without interest. In one county the teachers' association bought the cans and handled them free from their own store room. In three counties the bankers loaned the money to the club girls, who deposited it with the county home demonstration agent, to secure delivery of the' cans. Few merchants were willing to handle the. cans without profit so without this persistent effort on the part of the agents many people would have failed to secure containers.
One of the emergency, workers, employed for six weeks in the canning season, reported that she gave thirty-three demonstrations with eight hundred and seven in attendance, and sold, repacked and delivered twenty thousand cans. One I home demonstration agent personally handled sixty thousand cans for her county. Another home demonstration agent, in her report, says, "approximately three times as many people are canning this year as were canning last year; far more foodstuffs were planted."
In all, there were a million and a halfcans sold under the supervision of the home demonstration agents., It is believed that only a very small proportion of this number of cans would have been used had not this can campaign been carried on. Every available glass container was used.
EMERGENCY WORKERS
When war was declared'a great army of women volunteered to take part in the food conservation campaign each one calling on the home demonstration agent for instruction until the agent, had






Florida Cooperative Extension


FiG. 15.-A Jefferson County canning club member
many more calls for help than she could fill. For relief, assistance from the women whom they had previously trained-was secured .by the agent until there were hundreds of women canning regularly thruout the season to supply these women with information and to conserve food against a possible shortage.
One home demonstration club in Manatee County, having no gardens of their own, but surrounded by farms where tons of vegetables were wasting, advised the farmers that they would gladly can on shares. For three weeks they ran a small emergency canning factory under the supervision of the county home demonstration agent, giving the farmer who brought the vegetables half the product and keeping half, each one paying for his own cans. Seventeen thousand cans were put up by this band of women. As only seven women could work together conveniently they were divided into groups of seven, one group working in the forenoon and another in the afternoon. The president of the club reported that she had a difficult time to keep people from coming to the kitchen to can. Each day the little factory was well supplied with vegetables. At the end of the period the farmers had saved their vegetables, the farmer's wife had been relieved from this work, and the town women without the garden had'utilized their spare time to secure a goodly supply of canned vegetables at small cost. Even tho the cans were five cents apiece, it was a great saving.
A group of women in Redlands, Dade County, on finding that beans were wasting- in the -fields because of, poor markets, secured







Annual Report, 1917


them for the picking and within a week had organized themselves into a canning band and put up fifteen thousand cans. These women managed their own work. Thruout the state there were instances of this kind of work.
CANNING KITCHENS
Because of the ready response to assist in food production and conservation by the women of towns and cities it became necessary to provide canning kitchens or a place to can with sufficient equipment to carry on the work. As a result, Jacksonville equipped eight community kitchens, Palatka one community kitchen, and in Tampa a number were established. Most of the canning kitchens were equipped with steam pressure cookers, hot water canners heated by gas, running water, bottle capers, pans and bowls, show cases for exhibits, tables and chairs. Containers were procurable either at the kitchen or nearby enabling the town woman with a few vegetables to come to the kitchen, receive her instruction, put up her products and take them home to be stored away. In some counties community canning factories were established in a similar way.
The following is an extract from the report of the home demon-


FIG. 16.-A demonstration -kitchen equipment furnished by the business men of Palatka






Florida Cooperative Extension


stration agent for Duval County: "I have assisted in establishing the canning work in Jacksonville in community kitchens, and in the Y. W. C. A.; one community cannery has been established in the country; three girls have built sheds, screened them, and are canning for neighbors."
Negro women were organized into clubs for similar work and were able to conserve large quantities of garden products that otherwise would have been wasted.
DRYING VEGETABLES
Owing to the several emergencies during the canning season the Office of Extension Work of the South detailed Frantz P. Lund to Florida to demonstrate the canning of fish and the drying of vegetables. Demonstration agents were called together in clubs for instruction. The instruction in drying vegetables was especially applicable and was promptly put into practice by the agents in their respective counties. They have had sufficient success to warrant the conclusion that this method of preserving vegetables is practical in Florida if the precaution is taken to properly paraffin the containers to make them insect proof. This method of drying was used most extensively with blackberries, corn, beans and peas, and it is believed that by another year this method of preserving vegetables will be brought into general use.
CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION CAMPAIGNS
In most of the counties having home demonstration work the county officials planned conservation and production campaigns. Meetings were arranged in various sections so that practically everybody was reached with the message to plant more and to save everything. The county and home demonstration agents were largely responsible for the interest taken. The state workers assisted in these campaigns as far as it was possible.
WORK WITH NEGROES
In January, the state home demonstration agent had been called to the negro college to give a lecture and demonstration and there the possibilities in giving the negroes instruction in f.od production and conservation were most evident. Plans were being formulated for starting the work for negroes in the state the folloWing year. From various parts of the state came announcements that the county home demonstration agents were working voluntarily with negroes; as a rule this work was carried on by getting two' ?r three leading negroes in the county to the home of the demonstration agent, andthere with her equipment giving them instructions. The demonstration agent personally attended some of these






Annual Report, 1917


demonstrations, and saw that the work was well done by the negro women. Two of the county home demonstration agents equipped canning sheds in their, yards and allowed the negroes to come and use the canners, bringing their vegetables and putting them up under the agent's supervision.
There is a great need for this work among the negroes, and there has been every indication that the negroes will do their part in getting the instruction. Under the supervision of the negro farm agent, public demonstrations were held. As a result of all this help, there were not only negro volunteer canning agents employed, but in Putnam and Duval counties regularly paid canning agents were employed. by the board of county commissioners. The immediate results of this work were excellent, some clubs putting up fifteen thousand cans. It is a splendid foundation for the work with negroes for another year.
WORK WITH CITY WOMEN
The home demonstration work has been planned primarily for the rural women. Some work, however, has been 'undertaken in the cities and urban centers-there being an urgent demand for it. Regular canning demonstrations were given, in various cities in the state under the instruction, of the county home demonstration agent with the assistance of the domestic science teacher of the city schools.
COLLEGE GIRLS HELP
During the month of May a specialist in canning was employed at the college and every college girl was given defin .ite instructions in both canning and drying. An appeal was made to them to help in food conservation work in their communities when they returned home. This appeal was received with a generous response. Some college girls gave their time, furnished their automobiles and spent many days out in the c country assisting in canning. Others organized their social clubs into canning and drying~clubs. A num-ber. of girls secured cans and equipment before leaving college, and on returning to their homes filled every available can.
I % MEAT AND FISH CANNING
The introduction of *meat and fish canning was made by Mr. Lund who was *assigned to Florida to give instructions in canning these. products. Thirteen home demonstration agents who 'needed help in meat canning were brought together in groups and. given this iin, struction. Group meetings were held in the home eco .nomics d,?-. partment of the schools under the direction of the home demonstration agent and -the district. agents. Special instruction was







Florida Cooperative Extension


given to the agents in the use of the steam pressure canner, in the process of canning fish and meat, and in drying vegetables, and in each section one public demonstration was given which gave Mr. Lund an opportunity to present the process to a large number of people.
Following this, a campaign to introduce steam pressure canners into leading communities in the counties was made by the demonstration agents. Steam pressure canners were bought by groups of families. Two commercial canning factories for putting up fish have been established and many women who went to the resorts for the summer were able to buy fish at reasonable prices and can them. The following are two reports of this kind of work done:
Mrs. Burleigh reports that she canned 23 No. 2 cans fish, bass, mullet, and others; 10 No. 2 cans shrimp, and 10 No. 2 cans crab.
Miss Preston reports that after Mr. Lund's visit to Anna Maria, she filled 250 cans with coquina soup, mullet, shrimp, scallops, and red fish, and that other women on the island filled hundreds of cans and jars with fish, and the tropical fruits found in abundance on the island.
EFFECT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK IN SCHOOLS
There is a closer relationship between the schools and the home demonstration work each year. In Lee, Duval and Santa Rosa counties, with the assistance of the home demonstration agents, teachers have had the pupils prepare one hot dish for their lunch each day. In many counties equipment for home demonstration club work has been placed in the schools, which has resulted in the county making definite provision for teaching home economics.
In Osceola County the teachers are assisting the home demon-


FIG. 17.-Girls in canning demonstration, Marion County







Annual Report, 1917 73

station agent to have a garden planted in every home represented
in the schools. In nine schools home demonstration rooms are
being equipped so that domestic science teachers can work in close cooperation with the home demonstration agent, giving lessons in
breads, meat substitutes, etc.

SUMMARY OF GIRLS' CLUB WORK
That we hav e had our most successful year in girls' club work is evident after studying the summary of yearly reports. The fol.lowing highest ten records made on the tenth acre plots are the best I have ever had the honor to report:
CLUB GIRL COUNTY LBs. PROFIT
Mattie Elmore Manatee 5760 . $ 98.75
Gertie Bishop Manatee 5325 . 226.62
Inez Pearson Gadsden 4944 . 46.89
Julia Squires Washington 4703 . 44.39
Barbara Moore Bradford 4686 . 126.27
Elsie Stoutamire Leon- 4510 . 108.59
Ruth Johnson Hernando 4423 . 99.45
Mattie Ferrell Gadsden 4179 . 44.09
Ethel Gibson Manatee 4130 . 150.96
Alma Priest Marion 3982 . 191.92
Statistics hardly give an idea of the total work accomplished by the home demonstration agents, but the following report of one home demonstration agent indicates the variety of work done.
I gave demonstrations and assisted toward getting the canning club work established in-the city for the white people, also for the colored people, and a canning school for Y. W. C. A. The girls have been taught to sew, have studied the textiles, have been taught plain simple economical ways of preparing food, household accounts, and care of sick in the home.
One large community cannery, fully equipped has been established in the county and three girls in different parts of the county have built sheds in the yard and screened them and are canning on shares for their neighbors.
A number of the canning-club women are going into homes and canning on shares for other women who are too busy to can for themselves. One canning-club girl has built up a steady trade for palmetto hats as the club women of the city have adopted this for their morning wear. .
Several canning-club women have yearly contracts for supplying hotels, restaurants and ice cream parlors with fresh eggs, while two women are making a great success in the sale of capons, I have established.libraries in five rural schools. Two kitchens have been fully equipped in two rural schools, and a penny lunch is served each day in one.
RESULTS FROM HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
Total number cans filled 1,265,627
Total number glass jars filled 50,622
Total girls enrolled, 243 clubs 2,567
Total number women enrolled for regular work, 125 clubs . . 1,628 Total enrollment of girls and women in regular work 4,095
Enrollment women war emergency work 6,813
Number of women making war breads regularly 1,136
Number iceless refrigerators made 82
Number fireless cookers made 115
Number canners bought 797
Number houses screened 92
Number water systems installed 17







74 Florida Cooperative Extension

STATISTICAL REPORT OF WORK BY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS
Number employed in State 33
Average number months employed 9.4
Average salary $ 108
Average traveling expenses per month $ 38.62
Average number miles traveled 42161A
Average number miles per month 493.2
Average number meetings held by each agent- 106
Total number meetings -held 3,515
Total attendance at these meetings 55,783
Total number canning demonstrations 1,662
Total number visits to club members 10,357
Total number visits to schools 3,650
Total number visits to home demonstrators, 3,379
Magazines distributed in eight counties 2,924
Bulletins distributed from county offices 25,229
REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
Vacation 26 days
Attending national and out-of-State meetings 22
Field work 911/2
Office work 1601/2
Conferences at Gainesville 7
Miles traveled in State 19,835
Miles traveled attending out-of-State. meetings 9,150
Total miles traveled 28,985
Meetings attended within State 103
Total attendance, about 15,000
Girls' homes visited 90
Club meetings held 108
Conferences with county agents, exclusive of meetings" in Tallahassee and Gainesville "72 County boards of public instruction visited 13
County commissioners visited 3
Conference with county superintendents of public instruction . 36 Demonstrations given 18
Contests visited 8
Schools- visited 17
PUBLICATIONS
Besides the annual report of home demonstration work, six bulletins have been published and distributed by the home demonstration extension division of the Florida State College for Women,
as follows:
BULLETIN No. 7.Poultry Clubs in Florida, by Minnie Floyd. BULLETIN No. 9.-Pickles and Relishes, by Sarah W. Partridge. BULLETIN No. 12.-Fotrm Butter 3luking, by Harriette B. Layton. BULLETIN No. 13.-Canning Meats and Vegetables in Steam Pressure Canner, by Sarah W. Partridge.
BULLETIN No. 14.-Home Drying of Vegetables, by Sarah W. Partridge. BULLETIN No. 15.-Moderate Cost Menus and Recipes from Florida Food Materials, by Nan Henderson.
The following bulletins were revised:
BULLETIN No. 8.-Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades, by Sarah W.Partridge. BULLETIN No. 11.-The Iceless Refrigerator, by Mrs. Herbert W. Felkel.
Poultry work was organized this year and most satisfactory
results obtained for which I refer to Miss Floyd's reporL
Reports from the district agents and from the poultry club
organizer are included.






Annual Report, 1917


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA
P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district home demonstration agent, for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917.Respectfully, SARAH W. PARTRIDGE,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

INTRODUCTION
This district, on July, 1, 1916, comprised the following named sixteen counties: Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pinellas, Hillsboro, Manatee, Lee, DeSotQ, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade. Upon taking ,up the work in this district it was determined, if possible:
First, to strengthen the work in the district thru better organized clubs among the women and girls, and thru better systematized work on the part of the home demonstration agents,.
Second, to urge greater conservation of stapleTfoods'by canning in tin and glass rather than to emphasize the fancy special products that may be produced from� Florida fruits.
Third, to secure larger county appropriations for the salaries of home demonstration agents, thereby enabling us to secure better trained workers and to provide them with an expense account sufficient to. enable them to -visit the various parts of their respective counties as often asthe needs of the work demanded.
In an effort to perfect a better organized work in the district, a simple plan for the organization of clubs among women and girls was submitted at the agents' meeting in Gainesville, September, 1916. This was adopted-and incorporated in a record book which was prepared for the use of such clubs.
In conference with the district agent for North and West Florida monthly programs for club meetings were outlined and prepared. One home demonstration club has taken a correspondence course in serving from the University of Wisconsin. Fourteen home demonstration centers where club members can meet for study and demonstrations have been: furnished in the past-year. These have been equipped by school boards, by members themselves, or by enterprising communities. In one community a community house has been built. The movement to build it grew out of the organization of a h6me demonstration club, ,which,- tho .retaining its identity as a home-demonstration club, ,isin-fact a community club and is doing







Florida Cooperative Extension


the work of such. The organized clubs are developing team work. Thru them women and girls can in groups. In two instances they have provided themselves with large pressure canners and have developed the community canner.


FIG. 18-0ne of the four steam pressure canners placed in Putnam 'County, 1917

In planning to emphasize canning in tin, we planned more wisely than we knew. The declaration of war gave this work a tremendous impetus. Manatee, Hillsboro and Polk counties were far above the 100,000-mark in products put up. Some good results have been obtained in the drying of vegetables. One woman who had a dryer suspended above her stove and filled its trays each day with vege-






Annual Report, 1917


tables from the garden, had by the end of the season filled her pantry with dried products.
The following items from 4 neighborhood survey made by the Manatee County home demonstration agent are of interest. They show how.generally the gardening and canning were done in this particular place:
"There are 77 families in the community. Of these 73 had home gardens. Canning had been done by 74 families. They had filled 12,966 containers and had dried 1,367 pounds of vegetables."
The canning of meats, fish and vegetables under steam pressure has been successfully done. Following the instructions given by Frantz P. Lund, sent out by the Department of Agriculture to teach this work, a bulletin on "The Home Drying of Vegetables" and one on "The Canning of Meats and Vegetables under Pressure," were written. Steam pressure canners are being used in almost every county in the district.
Organized poultry work has been carried on in three counties in the district. A growing interest is shown in the work.
COUNTY SHORT COURSES
The county short courses held for canning-club girls have stimulated interest in the work not only among the club members, but on the part of the general public as well. Assistance in conducting these courses has been given by professional men and women in the communities where courses were held. Teachers, doctors, dentists, nurses, have all assisted in giving demonstrations and instructions. Where schools had well equipped domestic science departments the laboratories were used in giving the cooking lessons to club girls. In some instances the teacher of the department has given the lessons. In one town the girls of the domestic science department were hostesses at noon to the club girls. The short course promotes a better understanding between the people of the country and the town. In one of the county short courses a lesson was given in well selected clothes and a model outfit, in,eluding a blue serge middy suit, was used for illustration, This suit was given as one of the canning club prizes in the county, and proved to be a much coveted prize. .During the housekeepers' two-weeks short course held in Tallahassee at the Florida State College for Women, the agent taught the class of thirty-two who registered for "Preserves, Jellies and Marmalades," giving a series of six lessons covering these subjects. Much interest has been shown by women and girls thruout. the






Florida Cooperative Extension


state in this phase of work and a high degree of skill in production has been attained by many of them.
Ten days were spent in assisting Dr. Straughn, Bureau of Chemistry, Washington, D. C., in special work with guavas. Valuable results were obtained. Following the work Extension Bulletin No. 6 was revised and "Jellies, Preserves, and Marmalades" added. Extension Bulletin No. 9, "Pickles and Relishes," was also written.
CLUB MEMBERS AT FAIRS
Seven fairs have been attended, in each of which a good exhibit of home demonstration work was made. In most of these fairs, club day was featured. On this day girls in the uniform of the canning clubs of the county, boys of the corn and pig clubs, attended in mass and often took some part in the public program. The exhibit made at the South Florida fair held'in Tampa in February was planned to show the various activities carried on in the state by club members. The exhibit asked of individual counties was small but the whole was most creditable. Preserving, canning, cooking, sewing, basketry, fine needle work, rug weaving, household conveniences, gardening, poultry work, and health work were shown. The exhibit did much to place our work in its broader aspects before the public.
The year shows a large increase in membership; especially is this true of the home demonstration clubs. The enrollment of women has more than doubled and the interest in the broader lines of


FIG. 19-Methods class on way to canning demonstration






I Annual Report,- 1917 79

study and demonstration is greatly increased., This has strengthened the demand for the well trained; experienced worker in the
field.
In organizing the work for another-year this demand with the
very large demand made upon our agents by war conditions has
led us to ask for larger appropriations for agents' salaries and
increased expense accounts in every county in the district. These
requests in every instance have been granted, enabling us to organize our work for another year upon a better basis.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled by rail 15,722
44 . it it it it auto 1,555
it meetings held 86
Attendance 9,101
Number of demonstrations given 79
Attendance 3,170
Number of conferences with Agents 125
it 19 it it
County Superintendents 38
it School Boards 15
It It it 49 1 it Commissioners 8
contests held 10
short courses held 8
girls attending short courses 317
schools and clubs visited 47
homes visited 35
gardens visited 88
letters written 686






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT
FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for home demonstration work in North and West Florida for the year ending December 31i 1917. Respectfully,
HARRIETTE B. LAYTON,
District Home Demonstration Agent.

INTRODUCTION
The district home demonstration agent spent the first month, July, 1916, in visiting the nine counties then at work, acquainting herself with the conditions. By September, 1916, three more counties began work, and by January, 1917, five new counties were organized. In Marchi the last county was added, making in all seventeen counties carrying on home demonstration work in North and West Florida. Splendid results have been accomplished in these counties. In almost every one interest has increased and larger appropriations have been made.
The most important work of the fall was ibe county contests. In spite of the severe July storm in West Florida, the quantity and quality of products shown were gratifying. The attendance of girls and their parents at these meetings was good. In Washington County, five hundred persons came to the contest. Forty-five girls in costume marched from the depot to the school house with club banners flying. An excursion train was run from the southern part of the county to bring in the people.
Very little time was given to county fairs this fall. At two, county contests were held and at one, three days were given to judging exhibits in the women's department.
Short courses have been held at intervals; the first in July, 1916, the second in October, 1916, and the remaining nine in the spring and summer of 1917. There have been three types of short courses. One type, consisting of a one-day meeting in three centers of the county, works well where the county is large and sparsely settled. The second type consists of a three-day meeting in the county seat, to which all the canning-club girls in the county are invited. This is popular type and certainly creates interest in and knowledge of the work of the canning clubs. The third type is the three-day meeting at the county seat to which is invited a representative girl from each club. These girls return to their clubs and instruct the members in the things they learned at the meetings. This is the






Annual Report, 1917


most satisfactory type, I believe.' It was planinedto_ hold a short course in each cou Inty- this year, but owing to the declaration of. war, those which had not been advertised were called off in order to give the time to gardening and canning. However, programs for the short courses to be held were immediately changed to -meet. the new situation. All work 'was based on food economy and preservation. We found that thr'u these meetings we have been able to reach a larger number of persons. Women and men :have attended,, some came regularly to every session.
The largest gathering of canning-club girls was held at a short course of the second type in Chipley, Washington County. More than "one hundred girls attended. The people of Chipley were so eager to cooperate that homes were opened to one hundred and fifty girls. Those homes not receiving a girl were really disappointed. One afternoon twenty cars took these girls, on a ride after which a round-up was made in the business street and patriotic songs and talks were made. I feel sure this meeting did much toward retaining the work in the county as it gave the people an opportunity to see and- know of the great work being done by this band of girls.
.Rapid strides have been made in the women's work this year. Special time has been given this phase of the home demonstration work both in the office and field. Since canning time, however, greater work is being done. Women who have never canned before are now canning. Constant -demands are made upon the county home demonstration agents. Especially in counties in which large towns are situated is this true; first with home gardens, then canning.
Besides the regular county club meetings thruout the year, I have assisted at the two state meetings for county agents, the state short course for canning-club girls, and the state - short course for housekeepers, and have given four demonstration lessons in the summer school. I have also attended the monthly staff meetings at Gainesville and the conference for agents at Washington, D. C.
SPECIAL STATE WORK
Some time has been given to experimental work with both Dr. Straughn and Mr. Lund.
Monthly programs have been prepared by the district agents for the women's club work.
One bulletin, "Home Butter Making," has been published.
Only four demonstrations have been given before the Federated f.c.e.-6






. 82


Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 20.-Emergency agent giving canning demonstration, Suwannee County

Women's Clubs this year as county Work has demanded every possible moment.
SPECIAL COUNTY WORK
This spring the county agents have urged the girls to plant not only tomatoes on their tenth acre, but other vegetables, such as beans, okra and peas,'and to keep the plot working by planting a summer crop.
Emergency work was carried ' on in three counties. In Putnam County an assistant agent was employed. In Suwannee County an agent was put in for June. In Jacksonville, Duval County, thru the advice of this department, an urban agent was employed for the canning month, by the Chamber of Commerce.
In two or three counties the girls' clubs are sewing for the Red Cross.
Canning kitchens are being equipped by boards of trade and by individuals, in some cases, for the use of the people in canning A few small canning plants are canning for the surrounding farms
Santa Rosa County has had three very successful club rally days. At this time the club boys and girls together with all county school children spent the day in athletic contests. These meetings have promoted splendid cooperation between school and club work. As a result valuable assistance is being secured from the teachers in the county. In one school the one-hot-dish lunch, thru the suggestion.and aid of the county home demonstration agent, has been most successfully carried on. In another school one of the teachers gives weekly a lesson in sewing, basketry or cooking to the club girls in that -school.







Annual Report, 1917 83

The agent in Bay County has been instrumental in placing in the school two kitchen equipments. Here her clubs have a weekly meeting for cookery work. In this county the school board has granted credit for canning-club work. It is interesting to, note as a result, that the credit thus received by one girl enabled her to pass her grade. It was a source of gratification to both herself and the agent. Probably this young girl would have left school otherwise as she was almost too large to remain in the grade without embarrassment to herself.
,Good cooperation with teachers has been secured by the county agent in Duval County. One school has put in sewing and the hot lunches at the home demonstration agent's suggestion.
In Escambia County a lesson in preparation and conservation of foods will be given weekly to the teachers of the summer normal at Pensacola by the county home demonstration agent. This frequent, close contact will further strengthen the assistance of teachers in club work and food economy.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled 13,980
it it by rail . 12,246
44 it :: by auto ---- 11: . . . 1,734
Number of meetings held --------- 72
44 11 girls' club meetings held . 26
Estimated attendance 4,124
Number of demonstrations given 103
it 44 canning demonstrations 32
it other 71
talks made 15
fairs attended 5
it it contests held 10
44 it short courses held ------------- 12
Estimated attendance at short courses 590
Number of schools visited 33
19 " homes 11 65
It " club members visited 71
Conferences with County Ilome. Demonstration Agents 62
Superintendents 2_4
School Boards 7
Commissioners 2
Number of cars owned by county home demonstration agents-. ----------------- 15






Florida Cooperative Extension


REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director.
SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club agent for the year ending December 31, 1917.
Respectfully,
MINNIE M. FLOYD,
Poultry Club Agent. INTRODUCTION
State supervision of poultry-club work was begun in August, 1916. After consultation with the state, home and county cooperative demonstration agents it was decided best to undertake poultry work in but five counties. However, the demand for the work became so urgent that it was started in seven counties; namely, Escambia, Leon, Duval, St. Johns, Polk, DeSoto, and Hillsboro.
At the annual meeting of the county home demonstration agents in Tallahassee, January, 1917, a number of the agents asked permission to begin poultry work in their counties with only a few members in the most favorable localities. Accordingly, Osceola, Putnam, and Santa Rosa county home demonstration agents were granted this request.
POULTRY CLUB WORK IN COUNTIES
Only one county, DeSoto, had regularly organized poultry clubs; thirteen of these made exhibits of good breeds of poultry. The girl making the best record was awarded a scholarship, which paid all expenses to the girls' short course in home economics, held in Tallahassee November 28 to December 9, 1916. The club members at the DeSoto County short course were taken to an inexpensive but well managed poultry plant and were given the benefit of the owner's experience in hand ing her poultry.
In St. Johns County the club members were given a boat trip on the St. Johns River to Crescent Beach where they were taken thru one of the larg. est poultry plants in FIG. 21.-Leghorn chickens owned by a poultry club member the state.







Annual Report, 1917


Poultry lectures
were given at the
short course and
contests in Polk
and Hillsboro counties and lectures
and demonstrations on poultry
work were given at
the short courses
n Escambia, St.
Johns, and Washington counties in FIG. 22.-Egg circle, Escambia County
the spring of 1917,
altho there were no well organized poultry clubs.

PLAN OF POULTRY CLUB WORK
The poultry club work has been conducted under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys also were enrolled, and women's poultry clubs.
GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS
It is the plan to have eventually none but purebred poultry owned by the poultry-club members. The girls were required to start with at least one setting of purebred eggs. During this first year they have not been urged to raise more than they can care for properly, but rather to start on a small scale, save their pullets, and increase their flocks gradually. They were given instructions in proper methods of incubating, brooding, feeding, housing, etc., of their chickens.
WOMEN'S WORK
Poultry work among women has been, strongly emphasized. Local onditions determined whether this should be conducted with or*anized clubs or with individuals. It is considered that the best esults have been obtained where regular monthly club meetings ave been held with definite programs, inasmuch as more members an receive instruction in methods of production, management, andling and marketing of poultry products. Altho members were ot required to have purebred poultry, as a result of the better eturns of purebreds over mongrels and, in particular, the uni)rmity of product, a number of members have reported that they ave made a start toward keeping purebred poultry.






Florida Cooperative Extension


COOPERATIVE EGG CIRCLES
In certain localities there is no steady market for eggs. Seven cooperative egg circles have been organized in the counties having poultry-club work. Members were taught to grade, candle, pack andhandle eggs for market. Each member guaranteed the quality of eggs marketed. It is thought that this work helped more toward standardizing the market egg than did any other phase of the work. Eggs were packed at a central place in the community and delivered, according to local facilities, by parcel' post, freight or boat.
The increased price per dozen over the local market quotation was as high as fifteen cents in some instances during the period of scarcity, but when eggs became plentiful the increase varied. The average increase was about five cents a dozen oyer store prices. It is believed that there will be a greater demand for carefully packed, guaranteed fresh eggs when the public generally appreciates the difference between guaranteed eggs and the average. quality supplied from grocery stores.
Some of the egg circles marketed only infertile eggs. Others were planning to observe "Rooster Day" and to produce only infertile eggs for market during the summer months, but when the country entered the war, the director of extension work advised that hatching be continued every month to help increase the meat supply for Florida. In some instances the women were able to have yards and pens for chickens for the production of eggs for market separate from those for breeding purposes.
From March 4 to August 1, the Florahome Circle sold cooperatively 1800 dozen eggs for $576. From January to August the Citrus Center Club sold 1,585 dozen for about $500, or an average of about 32 cents a dozen.
WAR EMERGENCY SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASED POULTRY PRODUCTION
At a meeting of the state extension workers in Gainesville, April 16, the director insisted that the poultry work be extended into more territory and requested that the poultry club agent send a letter to every county cooperative and home demonstration agent, urging increased production of poultry. Pamphlets urging increased production were sent to every poultry club member and newspaper in the state. A poster on "Poultry" was prepared and a supply sent to every extension worker and postoffice in the state. This was followed by circulars and press notices intended primarily to increase the production of poultry products.






Annual Report, 1917


SHORT COURSE AT STATE COLLEGE
Poultry lectures and demonstrations were given at the girls' short course at the State College for Women, November 28 to December 9, 1916, at the annual county home demonstration agents' meeting, January 1 to 6, at the housekeepers' short course and at the annual meeting of county agents in February, 1917. During the summer session at the State College for Women, a regular course was given




















FIG. 23.-Two poultry club girls FIG. 24-Two canning-club girls, Jackson County
consisting of lectures and demonstrations on poultry. Students had practical work in operating an incubator, grading, scoring, and candling market eggs and testing incubating eggs for fertility by candling on the seventh and fourteenth days of incubation.
PROGRESS OF WORK
As reports of the work will not all be available until the fall contests are held, it is impossible to make a statistical report of the club members' work at present. Assuming responsibility for so many counties prevented close follow-up work by the poultry club agent. Altho no marvelous results have been obtained interest has been aroused and the foundation laid for good work in the future.
One of the most serious handicaps in the work has been the high cost of poultry feeds. The price of poultry and eggs has not advanced in accordance with the advance in the price of feed.







88 Florida Cooperative Extension

Special stress has been put on the production of feed at home. For wheat, 'one of the best poultry feeds but not grown in Florida,
members have been urged to substitute in the ration as* high as fifteen percent of such protein feeds as .peas, beans, and peanuts,
which can be grown in the state.

STATISTICAL REPORT
Number of miles traveled 13,944
"t It ' by rail 10,284
it "9 " by auto and other conveyances3,6
Total number of meetings held 123
Total estimated attendance A 4,794
Number of schools visited 66
' ''homes "45
Visits to County Agents *3
Number of County Superintendents visited 10
" " short courses attended - 6
~ fairs ,and poultry-shows attended' 4
" "demonstrations given 36
Stamping and packing eggs for shipping 10
Candling eggs -11
Suggested equipment for poultry club work 1
Model poultry house -5 Preserving eggs with sodium silicate 6
Toe punching chicks
Circulars and bulletins sent 3,256
Letters -written 516
Number-of days spent in office work III
" "" "~'field work and travel 160






Annual Report, 19,17


FARMERS' INSTITUTES
P. H. RomF, Superintendent.
C. K. MCQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent.
Farmers' Institutes have been conducted in all agricultural sections of Florida. The total attendance was 17,887 or an average of 153 at each of the 117 institutes. Most of these institutes were held in county school houses, churches or at farmers' picnics, where the attendance was from 20 to 60, -nearly All of which wag farmers and their families. Other meetings were held in country towns and cities where the attendance var ied from '100 to 500. These meetings were held under the auspices of groups of farmers, who had special agricultural matters to discu ss or by business men with farming interests. The meetings were advertised by posters issued by the*Extension Division of the University and by local newspapers, which gave this advertising free.- The arrangements were usually c ompleted by the county agents.
The lecturers Were the regular farmers' institute staff from theExtension Division, the Experiment Station and' the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida; specialists from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who have given considerable assistance to the county agents -and extension workers; successful farmers, truckers or citrus growers, and representative business men having farming interests.
As Florida has a diversity of agricultural interests, the programs were made to conform with the agricultural interests of the community. In North and West 'Florida the lectures have been confined to farming under boll weevil conditions; peanuts'; legume crops for feed and soil improvement; breeds and care of hogs and cattle; and feeds. that can be, grown on North -and West Florida lands for this livestock. In middle Florida where the boll weevil has recently gained entrance, many farmers are planting cotton for the first time and these have called for -discussions, on -varieties and methods of growing cotton. In. middle, and South Florida, trucking, citrus growing, ,but more e Ispecially the planting of feed and staple crops, led to a greater variety of topics.
Thruout the state, corn, feed crops, hog cholera control and better livestock have been discussed in nearly. every, county.
COUNTY AGENTS' INSTITUTES
County cooperative demo nstr -ation Iagents have held many meetings where truckers would come together to make plans for growing a special crop so that by combining their -products they could






Florida Cooperative Extension


ship in car lots, which would require the planting of the same variety about the same date, to make the product uniform and of sufficient quantity to make up car lots. Where such plans required the advice of specialists, this was supplied thru the office of the superintendent of farmers' institutes. In other cases meetings were held to discuss plans for cooperative marketing of livestock by farmers having less than car lots of marketable animals. The county agents conducted 674 such meetings, and made 1,864 addresses in various meetings with a total attendance of 49,280.
BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS
Boys' corn- and pig-club meetings have been held to discuss subjects of vital interest to the clubs and to conduct club contests. These are arranged by the county agents and are usually attended by either the boys' club agent, the district, or the state agent. Many of these have been combined with the girls' club meetings. These institutes are he Id at school houses or at the home of one of the club members, where the crops and stock can be seen and discussed.
WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' INSTITUTES
Women's and girls' club institutes have been conducted under the leadership of the home demonstration agents. The county home demonstration agent selects the time and the place for these so that the interest in her work can be aroused. As these clubs are organized for uniform methods of production, it is desirable to bring the women and girls together as frequently as possible. As the girls work chiefly with vegetable crops, the methods of planting crops and the control of diseases and insects that interfere with growing the crops must be understood by the girls. Specialists who can discuss insect pests and diseases have given lectures and demonstrations so that the girls are able to combat outbreaks.
Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest in poultry raising. At thes e meetings the topics for discussion are planned sometime in advance. The state poultry club agent arranges a series of topics and the county home demonstration agent follows this plan thru a succession of meetings so that at the end of the term, systematic lecture courses have been given and bulletins supplied to correspond with each lecture.
In women's institutes, rural sanitation, home conveniences, home gardening, and canning and preserving of surplus vegetables and fruits, are systematically discussed, followed with suitable literature for home study. In many communities it is advisable to bring the people in the community together and have both men






Annual Report, 1917


and women lecturers. In such cases joint meetings are held during the forenoon and separate meetings in the afternoon. There were 3,575 meetings conducted by county home demonstration agents with a total attendance of 55,783.
FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN MEETINGS
Immediately following the declaration of war it became evident that every effort should be made to increase food production. The county and home demonstration agents whose work had been very largely in this direction heretofore were the logical workers to promote this campaign in each county.
in the organization of the "Food Preparedness Commission" the county agents and home demonstration agents were members of the county commission in each county. By their efforts food campaigns were conducted thruout the state. In each case they received hearty support from all members of the county commission and, in particular, the chairmen of the boards of county commissioners and the county school superintendents. The matter of food production and conservation was emphasized on every occasion. It was made clear at all meetings that an increase in the production of staple crops was especially needed and that an increase in perishable crops should not be made at the expense of staple crops. Poultry production and home gardening was especially urged.
A good part of the counties in the state carried out food campaigns. In all about 150 meetings were held with a total attendance of approximately 25,000 people. The results of these campaigns are evident from the reports submitted by county agents, showing the increased production of food crops and the -number of cans of fruit and vegetables conserved as reported by home demonstration agents.
MEETINGS HELD
Farmers' institutes 117 . Attendance 17,887
County agents' meetings 1864 ---- . _ 49,280
Home demonstration agents' meetings ---- ------------- 3515 ------------ 55,783
Food production campaign meetings 125 . 25,000
Total attendance 147,950









INDEX


Act, Smith-Lever, rt
war emergency, 8
Activities, especially stressed, 27
general, 28 Agents, city, 6
conferences, 64
county cooperative, 4
county home demonstration, 5, 60
group meetings, 26
improvements by, 22, 28 Agricultural clubs, boys', 47 Agricultural preparedness commission, 26
Appropriations, 7, 8, 41, 60

Beef cattle, demonstrations, 34
introduction from Texas, 19 Board of Control, 4 Boys, agricultural clubs, report, 47
at state short course, 54
club agent, 9
club meetings, 90
meetings, 52
Bulletins published, 15, 74
summary of, 15.
Bur clover, demonstration, 32

Canning, containers for, 66
kitchens, 69, 82
meat and fish, 71 Cattle, and hogs, 39
beef, 34
dairy, 34 Texas, 19
Changes in staff, 16 Cholera control, 18 Circulars published, 15 summary of, 16 Citrus, demonstrations, 34, 40 .seminar, 25 Club members at fairs, 78 Clubs, corn, 48
girls, 63, '85
home makers', 37
negro children, 37, 54
peanut, 51
pig, 50
poultry, 84
truck crops, 52 women's, 62


Commission, food preparedness, 21 Conferences, agents' annual, 26
demonstration agents, 64
monthly, 20
Conservation and production campaigns, 70
Containers, for canning, 616
financing purchase, 67
Cooperations and demonstrations, 30 Cooperative, demonstration agents, 4
egg circles, 86
enterprises, 16,,17 Corn, 30,A43 Corn clubs, boys', 47
summary, 49
Corn, demonstrations, 30 Cotton, 43
demonstrations,, 30 County agents, 10
changes, 24
effect of work, 29 County fairs, 27, 63 County s]bort courses, 77 County work, poultry clubs, 84
special, 82 1
Cowpeas, demonstrations, 33 Crab grass, demonstrations, 32 Crop production, value of increased, 22 Crops, 24
truck, clubs, 24

Dairy cattle, demonstrations, 34 Demonstration work, effect of, 29
value to farmers, 22
Demonstrations and cooperations,
beef cattle, 34 bur clover, 32
citrus, 34, 40
corn, 30, 43
cotton, 30, 43
cowpeas, 33
crab grass, 32
dairy cattle, 34
dipping vats, 34
fertilizer, 35
hogs, 35
Japanese cane, 31
lime, 35
livestock diseases, 35
manure, 35







Annual Report, 1917


Demonstrations-continued
millet, 32
Natal grass, 32
oats, 30
peanuts, 33, 43
potatoes, 34 poultry, 35
Rhodes grass, 32
rice, 30 rye, 31
silos, 35
sorghum, 31
soy beans, 33
Sudan grass, 31
truck, 41
velvet beans, 32, 43 Dipping vats, 44
construction, 27
demonstrations, 34 Director, report of, 7 Diseases, livestock, 35 District agent, reporteast and south, 39, 75 north and west, 42, 80 Drying vegetables, 70

Educational work, 28 Effect of demonstration work, 29 Egg circles, 63
cooperative, 86
Emergency workers, 67 Expansion ofwork, 21 Expenditures, supervision of, 14 Extension, appropriations, 7, 8, 60
changes in staff, 16 conferences, 20, 64
expansion of work, 21
legislation, 7, 8 organization, 8
plan of work, 12, 62 publications, 15, 74
purposes of, 7
value of work, 22
Extension division staff, 4

Fairs, club members at, 78
county, 27, 63
Farm and home makers'clubs, 36 Farm improvements, 29 value of, 22


Farmers', clubs organized, 28
institutes, 89
organizations, 26
Fertilizer, demonstrations, 35 Financial statement, 15, 60 Financing container purchases, 67 Floyd, Minnie M., report of poultry
club agent, 84 Food crisis, 20 Food Preparedness Commission, 21 Food production, 91

General activities, agents', 28, 74 Girls' clubs, 63
summary of work, 73
best records, 73 Girls, college, 71
short course, 65

Harris, Agnes E., report of state home . demonstration agent, 60
Herrington, G. L., report of boys' club
agent, 47
Hog cholera, 44
educational and demonstrational
work, 18
inoculation, 36
Hogs, cattle and, 39
demonstrations, 35
inoculation, 36
Home canning, 68, 71 Home demonstrationeffect of work in schools, 72
fairs, contests, short courses, 63
funds,60
meat and fish canning, 71
plan of Work, 62
publications, 74 results from, 73
state meetings, 64
statistical report, 74
war conditions, 66
Home demonstration agent, state, 60
city, 6
county, 5,.60
district, 75, 80
Home makers' clubs, 37 Hood, Samuel C., report of sweet
potato storage specialist, 57

Improvements, farm, 29 value of, 22






Florida Cooperative Extension


Inoculation of hogs, 36 , Institutes, county agents', 89
farmers', 89
meetings held, 91
women's and girls', 90
Irish potatoes, demonstrations, 34
Japanese cane, demonstrations, 31 Jenkins, E. W., report of district
agent,42

Kitchens, canning, 69, 82
Layton, Harriette B., report of district agent, 80
Legislation, extension, 7, 8 Lime, demonstrations, 35 Livestock, 44
diseases and pests, 35
round-up, 25 value of, 22
Logan, Dr. A. H., report of veterinary
inspector, 19

McLendon, H. S., report of district
agent,39
McQuarrie, C. K., report of state
agent,24
Manure, demonstrations, 35 Manure and fertilizer, value of, 22 Meat and fish canning, 71 Meetings, agents' group, 26
agents' annual, 26, 64
boys', 52
boys' club, 90
negro farmers', 37
state 25, 64
Millet, demonstrations, 32 Monthly conferences, 20 Natal grass, demonstrations, 32 Negro clubs, 37, 54 Negro farmers, meetings, 3 7
work with, 36 Negro work, 11, 70 report of, 36 county volunteers, 38

Oats, demonstrations, 30 Officers, States Relations Service, 4 Organization, county, 42 extension, 8 farmers, 26 farmers' clubs, 28


Partridge, Sarah W., report of district
agent,75
Peanuts, 43
clubs, 51
demonstrations, 33 Pig clubs, boys', 50 Poultry "club, agent,11
report, 84
Poultry clubs, girls', 85
plan of work, 85
progress of work, 87
short course, 87
war emergency, 86
Poultry, demonstrations, 35
production, 86
Posters published, .15 Potatoes, demonstrations, 34 Prizes, boys' club, 52 Projects, extension, 12 Publications, 15, 74

Reports, boys' club agent, 47
director of extension, 7
district agents, 39, 42, 75, 80
farmers' institutes, 89
-negro club agent, 38 poultry club agent, 84
state agent, 24
state home demonstration agent, 60
sweet potato storage, 57 veterinary field agent, 19
Results, cooperative demonstration, 22
home demonstration, 73
Rhodes grass, demonstrations, 32 Rice, demonstrations, 30 Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7
report of superintendent of farmers' institutes, 89 Rye, demonstrations, 31


demonstration


Schools, effect of home
work in, 72 Seed selection, 28 Short course, boys', 52 boys attending, 54 county,77
girls', 65 state, 52, 87
women's, 64







Annual Report, 1917


Sweet potatoes, demonstrations, 34
production, 58
storage houses, 58 storage report, 57

Texas cattle, introduction, 19 Truck-crop clubs, 52 Truck demonstrations, 41

University, boys' short course, 52'

Value of demonstration work to farmers, 22
Vats, cattle dipping, 27, 34, 44 Vegetables, drying, 70 Velvet beans, 43
demonstrations, 32

War conditions, 66 War emergency act, 8 Women, city, 71
poultry work, 85 short course, 64


Silo construction, 27 Silos, demonstrations, 35 Smith-Lever Act, 7 Sorghum, demonstrations, 31 Soy beans, demonstrations, 33 Special, county work, 82
state work, 81
Staff, changes in, 16
extension division, 4 State agent, 9
report, 24
State College, short course, 87 State home demonstration agent, 11
report, 60
State work, special, 81 'Statement of finances, 15 Storage houses, sweet potato, 58 Sudan grass, demonstrations, 31 Summary of bulletins, 15 Summer school, 66 Supervision of expenditures, 14




Full Text

PAGE 1

Cooperative ExtensionWork in Agriultur~ and Home Economics University of Florida Divis.ion of A.gricultural Extension and United States Department j ' of Agriculture Cooperating P. H.11,0LFS, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917 WITH FJN~CIAL STATEMENT FOR THE . FISCAL YEAR ENDING ~. --~ JUNE. 30, 1917

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Cooperative Extension Work -in Agriculture and Home Economics University of Florida Division of Agricultural . Extension and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating P. H. ROLFS, Director REPORT OF GENERAL ACTIVITIES FOR 1917 WITH FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1917 MARCH, 1918

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CONTENTS . . PAGE ~ETT~R OF JRANSMfTTAL TO ~OVE~~O f: ~F FLORIDA. , . .... ,.: ..... : . .... .... . :" :: ; 3 E~~NS~~N i~1:iL::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::~ :: ::::: :::::: :::'.:::::::: ::: : : :: ::::: :~:::: ::: ::::::: ::::::::::'.::: : '. : ! LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL TO . CHAIRMAN BQARD . OF CONTROL .... 1 . . . ... ., . .............. 7 REPORT OF DIRECTOR ...... : .... ..... ...... . .. ' ..... : . ......... . . 0 , .• , :. : ...•• :.:: . : L . .. : ..... . . 7 Organization . .... ..... . . .. .. .... . . .... .. ... . .. .... ..... . .. .. . .... .. . ..... .. .. . ... . .. ... .. .... . . .. . . .. .... ...... .. . .... 8 Plan of the Work. .................... . : ................ .. ....... .. . ... . .".............................. .. ...... .. .. 12 i;i~~1t;t:~::::::i:~i:::::::::::::::: !:::; :::::.: :!::: ::::: ::: :::::::::::::::: ::: ::::!::::::::: ::: :::::::::! H Educational and Demonstrational Hog Cholera _ Work.. ... .. . ...... . ....... .. .......... 18 Expansion of Work for Next Year ................... : ..... '. : . .. .... :..... ..... . ......... . .......... 21 Value of Cooperative Demonstration Work to Farmers.. .... .. . ..................... 22 REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT ..... : . ~ .. , .... ...... .. .......... . . ... . .... ..... ... ..... . ....... ..... .. '. .. .... .... 24 Agents' Meetings ........ ,..................... . . ... .... ... ....... .. ....... . .. . ..... . . .. ..... . . . ................... 26 Activities Especially Stressed .. ........ . .. . ... .... ........ . ....... . ....... .... ... . .. . .. . .... . . .... . ... . . . 27 Activities of Extension Workers (statistical)........ ... ......... . ...... .. ....... ... .... . . ... 28 Hog Cholera Inoculation.......... .... ...... ... .... ...... .... .. .......................... ... ...... . . . ......... 36 Work with Negro Farmers.. ..... ...... .. ................ .. .... ........... .. .. . ....... . ....... .. ...... . ... 36 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH... . . . .............................................. 39 8ft~tl: D~~o~~fr~ti~~;:::::::::::::::::::::: :: ::::::::: :: :::::::: : ::::::::::::::::::::: ::: :::::: :: ::::::: :::: ::: !~ Truck Demonstrations ..... .. ....... .. ........................ , . . . .. ... ... ....... . .......... . ....... . ......... . . 41 Appropriations to Support County Work....... . ................... . ................ .. ....... .. . 41 REPORT OF DISTRICT AGENT, NORTH AND WEST .................... : .. ....... .. .................. 42 8~ffon ::::: ::: ::::::: :: :::::: ::: :::::: ::::: :::::: :: :::: : : :: ::J::: : :::::::::::::::: : '. ::~:::: :: ::::::: ::: :::::::::::::::: : : !: Velvet Beans .. . . ....... ... . : ..... . .. ........ .. ...... .. ..... ..... ...... . ............................................. .. 43 Peanuts . ............... . . .. ... ... : .. : .. .... , ... . .. . . .. . : .... . . . .. ....... ' . . . : .... . , . : :.: ... :... ... .. ... .. ... .... .... . . .... 43 Livestock . . ....... .. ... ... .. ..................................................... . ........ .. ............... . . . .......... 44 REPORT OF BOYS' AGRICULTURAL : CLUB J\.GENT.:.. .. . ... . ....... .. ............. . ............. .. ... 47 Summary of Corn Club Work. . ....... . . .. ...... ... ....... . ....... .... .............. .. ....... . . .. .... ... . 49 Pig Clubs . . .......... . ....... _ .... ... ,.......... .... ... . .. ... ...... .. .................. . ..... .. ............................. 50 Peanut Clubs... .. ..... . . ...... .... . ....... . . .... . ....... .... ........ . .. . ............ .. ...... ...... . . . .. . . ..... .. .... . . 51 Boys' Meetings ...................................... , .............. ..... ..... . ....... .. ..... :....................... 52 Boys Attending Short Course at University.. .. ....... . .................. .. ....... . ....... . .. 54 REPORT OF SWEET POTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST.. . ........... . ... .. . . ........ . ....... .... ...... . . 57 REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT .. ........ . ....... .. ......... . ........ . ......... 60 The County Home Demonstration Agent .......................... . . .. .. .. .. . . ....... .. ..... . .. . 60 General Plan of the Work........ . ........ . ................................. . .. . ....... . ................. . . 62 Fairs, Contests and Short Courses. . . ........................ . .. .. .. ... . . ..... .. ........ .. ...... ...... 63 State Meetings .. ................ . ......... . ............. ........... . . ....... .... ........ . .............. . . ... .... . .. . 64 War Changed Conditions.......... . ....... . ................. .. ............... .. . . ........................... 66 r:!~=~i J?8ir?:nc1~f w~~i ~: :::::: ::::::::::::::: : ::::::::: :: :::::: ::: :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: J~ Statistical Reports ............ . ........ . ........... . .............. .... .... .. . .. ...... . ................. ,........ . . 74 REPORT OF DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT, EAST AND SOUTH . . .. . .. . .. 75 County Short Courses................ .. ...... . .......... . ............... .. ........ ... ..... ... ...... .... ..... ... 77; Club Members at Fairs... . . ............ ... . . . ..... .................. .. ...... ..... ... ...... .. .. .. ... .. ..... .. .. 78 , Statistical Report......................... . ...... . ....... .. .................................... . ................... 79 i REPORT OF DISTRICT Hor.IE DEMONSTRATION AGENT, NORTH AND WEST . ...... 80 1 Special County Work. ..... . :. ............... .. . ......... . .... .. ....... .. ..... ... ........ .. .... ...... .. .. . ....... 82 ! Statistical Report....... . ................. ... ... . .. ... ... ..... ...... .... ..... . ... ...... ... ... ...... ..... .. ...... ... 83 ; REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT . .. . . .... . . .............. .. . ... .. .... ... . . . .......... .. ... .... . . . ..... .. .. 84 1 Plan of Poultry Club Work.... ....... .. ... ........ . . .. ... ....... .. .......... .. ....... . . . .. .... . ........... 85 , Cooperative Egg Circles ....... ............ .... ....... .... ... ...... ... . . .. .... . .. .............. .. .. . .... ... ... 86 ! Progress of Work............. . ... .. ... .. . .. ...... . ....... . .. ............... .. ... ... . . .... ...... . ............... . .. 87 J Statistical Report ..... ... ..... ...... ... .... ...... . .......... ,............... . .......... . ........ . ........ . ...... .. . 88 FARMERS' INSTITUTES .. . .. .. . .. .... .. .. . . . ....... .. ..... . . . ........ . . ...... . . . .............. .. . .. . .. .. ............. 89 ~i~~~.tgae:Js'J~fJ,itr!~iittit~; ::: ::::::::::::::::::::::.: :: :::::: : :::::::::: : ::::::::::::::::: : :::::: ::: g~ Food Production Campaign Meetings...... . ....... .. ................. .. ...... .. ......... .. ....... . 91 INDEX : .. ........ . .. , ............. .... ............... . 92

PAGE 4

Hon. Sidney J. Catts, . Gov e rnor of Florida, Tallahassee, . Fla. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Director of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida for the calendar year ending December 31, 1917, including a fiscal report for the year ending June 30, 1917. Respectfully, JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman of the Board of Contro . l.

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4 Florida Cooperative Extension BOARD OF coNTROL JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville,, Fla. T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla. E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla. J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla. J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla. BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla. OFFICERS, STATES RELATIONS SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. BRADFORD KNAPP, Chief. H. E. SAVELY, Agriculturist and Field Agent. 0. B. MARTIN, Assistant in Charge Demonstration Club Work. I. W. HILL, Assistant in Demonstration Club Work. COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS STAFF A. A. MURPHREE, President of the University. P. H. ROLFS, Director. C. K. MCQUARRIE, State Agent. A. P. SPENCER, Assistant Director. AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, State Agent, Home Demonstration Work. GERTRUDE I. YORK, Acting State Agent, Home Demonstration Work. H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent for South Florida. E. W. JENKINS, District Agent for North and East Florida. S. W. HIATT, District Agent for West Florida. G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Agricultural Club Agent. E. M. MANNING, Assistant Boys' Agricultural Club Agent. MINNIE FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent. SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Agent for East and South Florida, Home Demonstration Work. HARRIET B. LAYTON, District Agent for North and West Florida, Home Demonstration Work. MAY MORSE, Dairy Specialist. A. H. LOGAN, Veterinary Inspector in Charge, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. D. A. A. S. HOUCHIN, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S, D. A. L. N. PETERSON, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. H. F. WALKER, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. J. A. GENUNG, Veterinary Inspector, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. D. H. WATTSON, Scientific Assistant in Beef Cattle Investigations, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. R. L. CLUTE, Insect Control in Stored Grain, Bureau of Entomology, U.S. D. A. 0. K. COURTNEY, Insects of Truck Crops, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A. JOHN M. SCOTT, Lecturer, Animal Industry. B. F. FLOYD, Lecturer', Citrus. . J. R. WATSON, Lecturer, Entomology. H. E. STEVENS; Lecturer, Plant Pathology. S. E. COLLISON, Lecturer, Soils and Fertilizers. 0. W. WEAVER, Editor. BESSIE V. GLOVER, Secretary. K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor. COUNTY COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Alachua .................................... W. E. Brown ............................ Gainesville Baker .....................................•.. J. S. Johns ................................ Macclenny Bay ............................................ D .. G. McQuagge ...................... Panama City Bradford .................................. C. D. Gunn ................................ Starke Brevard .................................... C. D. Kime* .............................. Titusville Broward .................................. J. S. Rainey* ............................ Ft. Lauderdale Calhoun .................................... J. E. Yon* ................................ Blountstown Citrus ......................................... Lecanto

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Annual Report, 1917 5 Clay .. .. . .. ... ... . ..... .... .... .. . .. .. . ....... W. T . Nettles* ......... ................. Green Cove Springs Columbia ............ .. ..... ............... S. S. Smitht . .... . .. . ... .......... ........ Jennings Dade .. ... ..................................... F . J. McKinley ...... ......... .. ...... . . Miami DeSoto .. . . . .................................. w. A. Sessoms . ... ........ .............. Arcadia Duval .. .. .... . .. .......................... W. L. Watson .......................... Jacksonville Escambia . ............................. C. A. Fulford ............................ Pensacola Flagler ....... ........................... W. H. Deant ............................ Bunnell Franklin .................. . ............. Vacancy * .. ... .... ........................ Apalachicola Gadsden .................................. M. N. Smith .............................. River Junction Hamilton .. . ... .... ........... . ........... S. S. Smitht ... ........................... Jennings Hernando ...... .. ......................... Jas. Mountain* .......................... Brooksville Hillsboro .................................. R. T. Kelley* ............................ Plant City Holmes .. . .......... , ...................... J. J. Sechrest ............................ Bonifay Jackson . .. . . ............................... J. 0. Traxler . .. . .. ... ... .............. .. Marianna Jefferson ... .... .. ... ............... ... . ... T. C. Bradford . ....................... Monticello LaFayette .. . ... .. .... .. . . . . ...... . .... ... D. C. Geigert ........................ , ... Mayo Lake . ... ...................................... Wm. Gomme ..... . . ... .... .............. Tavares Lee ... .... ............. . ........... : ........... J. M . Boring * . .......... ............... Ft. Myers Leon . .. ............ ... ... ..................... R. I. Matthews ........................ Tallahassee L<'vy . ... ..... . .... .. .. ........................ R. L. Denson* ... ............ ........... Bronson Liberty ... ... ............... ............... J. J. Hathaway ........................ Bristol Madison . ... .. .. .. .............. , ........... C. E. Matthews ........................ Madison Manatee .................................... 0. W. Caswell* ........................ Bradentown Marion ...................................... R. W. Blacklock ...................... Ocala Nassau ...................................... James Shaw* .......................... Hilliard Okaloosa ....... ........ ................... R. J. Hartt .............................. Laurel Hill Okeechobee . ..... .............. : ., ....... L. E. Davist ............................ Okeechobee i::~;i~ ::::: :::: :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ~. i~~~:~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::~r!:~~ee Palm Beach .... . . . . '. .................... R. N. Wilson* .............. .. ........ West Palm Beach Pasco .. . ... .. ... ............................. R. T. Weaver ... '. .... . . ..... . ............ Dade City Pinellas . . .. ................... ... . ......... R. L. McMullent .. ... ................. Largo Polk . ... ....... ............................... A. A. Lewis* .... '. ....................... Kathleen Putnam .. . ................................. L. Cantrell~ .............................. Palatka Santa Rosa ...... . ....................... R. T. Oglesby .......................... Milton Seminole . .... . ............................ C. M. Berry* . ......................... Sanford Sumter . .... ............................... M. S. HUlt ................................ Coleman Suwannee . . ............................... D. A. Armstrong .. , ................. Live Oak St. Johns ... . .............................. J. E. Cheatham . .. ..................... St. Augustine St. Lucie .................................. Alfred Warren* ...................... Ft. Pierce Taylor .. .... ................ : ............... L. R. Moore .............................. Perry Volusia ... . .... ..... .......... : ............ R. E. Lenfest* .......................... DeLand Wakulla ...... . .. .......................... W. T. Green ................. ............. Arran Walton ....... . ..... . ........................ Q. C, Webb* ..... .. .. , .................... DeFuniak Springs Washington .. .......... ..... .. ... . ...... Geo. E. Mead . . : .. . . , ... . .............. .. Chipley COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS COUNTY AGENT ADDRESS Baker .. . , .... . . . ................. ............ Miss Harriet Hawthorn .......... M_acclenny Bay . . .................. ...................... Mrs. Etta Matthews ................ Panani.a City Bradford .. ................................ Miss Margaret Burleigh ........ Starke . Brevard . .... .. ... .......................... Mrs. W. W. Gay ...................... Melbourne Clay ..... .... ................................. Mrs. W. T. Nettles* ................ Green Cove Springs Calhoun ..... . ..... . .... .................... Mrs. Grace F . Warren .......... ,.Blountstown Citrus .. .. . ......................... ........ Miss Connie DeVane .............. Inverness Dade .... .. : .................................. Miss Genevieve Crawford ...... Miami Mrs. C. W. Bush, Asst.* ........ Gciulds DeSoto .......... ... ......................... Mrs. Ann J . Campbell* .......... Arcadia Duval ..... ........ . .. . ......... . .. . .......... Mrs. Effie Wellington* .......... Jacksonville , Miss Mary Gray, Asst.*, .... , .. Jacksonville •Emer g ency, cooperative. fEmergency. total.. ,

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6 Florida Cooperative Extension Escambia .. . .. ..... . ........... ..... . ..... Miss Lonnie Landrum .... . . .... .. Pensacola Gadsden .. .. .. , . . .......... . .............. .. Miss Ruby McDavid ................ Hinson Hernando . .............. . . : ... .... . ........ Miss Kate . Townsend .............. Brooksville Hillsboro ................ ,, ................ Miss Isabelle Story .............. ... Tampa Miss Irma Higgins; Asst ..... .. Plant City Jackson ... . ................................. Mrs. Ivie . Turnbull .................. Marianna Jefferson .................................. Miss Jennie Carter .................. Monticello Lake. " Clarine Hoyt* ................ Tavares Lee .... .... .. . ................................. Mrs. Enid A. Parker .............. Ft. Myers Leon ....... ... ................................ Miss Laura Dyer*.; ................ Tallahassee Madison ..... ............................ Miss Edna Smith .................... Madison Manatee .. ...... . ........................... Miss Eloise McGriff ................ Bradentown .. Marion ... . . .... . ... ........ ....... .......... Mrs. Caroline Moorhead ........ Ocala Okaloosa ................ , ................. Miss Margaret Cobb ................ Crestview Okeechobee .............................. Miss Marie Benedictt ............ Okeechobee Orange ...... .... ..... ........ : .. . ..... . ..... Mrs. Nellie Taylor : . ................ Orlando Osceola ......... .. ........ : .. . . : ........ ... Miss Albina Smith. ................. Kissimmee Palm Beach . .... . .... . ... ...... ....... . .. Miss Elizabeth Hopkins .......... West Palm Beach Pinellas ........ . ....... . .. ................. Miss Hazel Carter* . ............ ... Largo Polk ..... ............... .. ........ : ..........• J.\frs. Dora Barnes , ................. Bartow . Putnam .. . .. ........ ....................... Miss Josephine SipprelL. ....... Palatka St. Johns . Lois Godbey ..... : .............. St. Augustine St. Lucie ..... ... .......................... Miss Bessie Partee .................. Ft. Pierce Santa Rosa Winnie Warren .............. Milton Seminole .............. ,., ................. Mrs. C. M . . Berryt : ................. Sanford Taylor ....... , .............................. Miss E. H. Volusia ..... . ... . .......................... Mrs. Willa Steed ...................... DeLand Wasliington ..... . Susie Sapp Croftont ...... Chipley Nassau . .. ... . . .... ..... : .............. } . . ; Suwan~ee :...... .... . Miss Marianna Rublef .......... Lake City Columbia . .. ..... .... ................ , . Hamilton . . .. .. ..... . . .... . . .... ... .. . . , Alachua ............... ..... : .. ......... l . t!;;Y~~~~ ... : ::::::::::: : :::::: : :::::::: l Miss Stella Harms:: ... : .......... Gainesville Sumter .. .. l Miss Myrtle Floyd* ................ Dade City Pasco ... .. .. .. . , ......................... f . . Walton .. /Miss Jenni . e . 11 t D F k S Holmes . .. . ... .. . . .. .. . ................ \ . Chappe e ........ e uma prmga Franklin .. .... ... : .................... l Wakulla .. : .. .. .... : ..... ............... f Miss Alice Dorsettt ................ Sopchoppy Liberty .. ...... .. ....... ........ ....... *Emergency, coop~ra . tive. tEmergency, total. CITY ' AGENTS* Arms, Mrs. Jessie Rich .. . .... , .. . . .......... . .. . .. . ... . .. . .. . . ..... .. _. ....... Jacksonville Armstrong, Miss Rena K. : .. , . ......... : .. . . : ... :: . : ... .... . .. . . . ,. : ... : .... Tampa ~~1:s1t: : t :!::::: .. Weaver, Mrs; O. W ............ , ........... . .. , ._. ... . . .. . ... ' ......... ,, .......... Gamesv11le and Ocala All mty Agents are paid entirely irom Emergency Funds.

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Report of General Activities for 191 7 with Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917 Hon. Joe L. Earman, Chairman, Board of Control ... SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Extension Division of the Agricultural College in the University of Florida. This report embodies the financial statement for the fiscal y~ar ending June 30, 1917, and the report of the activities of the Extension Division for. the calendar year 19i7. I respectfully request that you transmit the same, jn accordance with the law, to the Governor of the State of Florida. . . . Respectfully, INTRODUCTION P.H. ROLFS, Director. The Agricultural Extension Division of the University of Florida concerns itself primarily with giving instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not resident on.the campus. The Smith-Lever Agricultural Extension Act is the basis for this work. Thru it the State of Florida receives annually $10,000. An additionalsum of $17,298.52 became avail able, July 1, 1917, on condition that an equal amount be appropri ated by the State. The Legislature of Florida passed an Act, which was approved by the Governor, May 25, 1915 (Chap. 6839), accepting these .funds and the provisions of the Smith-Lever Act. The Act. provides for cooperation between the agricultural colleges in the several states and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A quotation from it will show the general purposes of this Act: ''That cooperative agricultural
PAGE 9

8 Florida Cooperative Extension shall be carried on in such a manner as may be mutually agreed. upon by the Secretary of Agriculture and the State agricultural college or colleges re ceiving the benefits of this act." In addition to the amount derived directly from the Smith-Lever Fund, the U. S. Department of Agriculture has appropriated the sum of $23,000. The principal work carried on with these funds is the county cooperative demonstration work among farmers and the home demonstration work in farm homes. The sum of $600 is allotted to each county availing itself of this opportunity to cooperate in the county demonstration work, provided the county appropriates an equal or larger amount for this same purpose. In the home demonstration work, each new county cooperating is allotted $400 for the year provided an equal or larger amount is appropriated by the county for augmenting this work. In counties where home demonstration work has made . favorable progress, $500 is made available under the condition that the county provides an equal amount. Provision for carrying on the county demonstration work is made i~ the general revenue biU '(Chap. 6949) "to levy a tax of not more than on~-half of one mill_ for the encouragement and protection of agriculture." The Legislature of 1915 passed (Chap. 6833) an act authorizing county boards of education to make appro priations for home demonstration work. WAR EMERGENCY ACT To provide for the national security and defence by stimulating agriculture arid facilitating the distribution of . agricultural prod ucts as a war 'measu~e, Congress authorized the expenditure of• $4,348,400, approved by the President, August 10, 1917, for in creasing food production, eliminating waste and promoting con servation of food by education and derrionstrati_on thru county, district and urban agents and others in the United States. Florida received a proportional part of' these funds, which wm be expended before June 30, 1918, in extending the general ex tension work for greater food product:ton into every county in Florida. Reports of the various departments or proj~cts of tlie ext~nsion work are attached hereto and will show the work in detail. ORGANIZATION T~e Smith-Lever Act requires the appointment of a director for each state, who is responsible to the Board of Control and to the Secretary of Agriculture for carrying out the plans mutually agreed upon. Inasmuch as the budget system is used to g?vern the working

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Annual Report, 1917 9 plans, such budget is submitted to the Board of Control and the United States Department of Agriculture before going into effect, and reports are made upon the completion of the year's work. The Cooperative Extension Work in Florida is carried on in six divisions or projects, the most important projEcts l:eing that of the county cooperative and home demonstration agents. This provides for county agents being located in as many of the counties as can be induced to cooperate with the Extension Division. The work of these agents is fully illustrated in the accompanyin.g reports of the state and district agents. The object of this work is to make farms more productive and make farm life more attrac tive~ in other words, it is intended to improve farm conditions in Florida. The county home demonstration work is carried on by cooperative arrangements with the Florida State College for Women, located at Tallahassee: The object of the home demonstra tion work is to improve the home life of the rural population of the state, principally thru instruction given the women and girls on the farms. The instruction includes all lines of work that may be met with on an ordinary farm: The state agent has supervision over all the different projects in connection with the co~perative demonstration work. His duties are to coordinate and harmonize the different activities in such a way as to secure full and free cooperation among the different projects and also with the rural people of the state. He is also charged with definite and detailed supervision over the county cooperative demonstration agents and thru the district agents keeps himself constantly in touch with the activities coriducted in each county. He is entrusted also with making arrangements for farmers' institutes and either agricultural gatherings. The state has been divided into three districts for carrying on the county cooperative demonstration work and two districts for carrying on the home demonstration work. The district agents for the county cooperative demonstration work and for the home demonstration work spend nearly all of their time instructing and assisting the various county agents and home demonstration agents. The state agents for the boys' club work and for the negro home makers~ clubs, spend the greater portion of their time in the field in the interests of their respective work The boys' agricultural club agent has headquarters at the Uni versity. His work covers the state. The clubs are organized by the county agents and, with the cooperation of s~hool boards and county superintendents, they receive general approval and support.

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Florida Cooperative Extension FIG. 1.-Cowpeas grown on n ew l an d This work is intended to harmonize with other phases of demon stration work according to a well regulated plan and especially to demonstrate correct practice and to instruct club members in the best agricultural methods and practices . suited to Florida con ditions. The county agents usually have their headquarters at the county seat, with an office in the courthouse. The agent's most important work is that of conducting demonstrations with farm crops, usually on a small area, to show the best farming practices. A great deal of his time is given to the control of hog diseases, to garden work, public meetings and, since the United States entered into the world war, to additional duties such as, farm surveys, labor distribution, and to the many activities stimulated by the need of greater agri cultural production. The county agent is looked upon as the agri cultural leader and adviser for a community and uses his office for the promotion of all legitimate agricultural enterprises. He has at his call the assistance of the University of Florida and the States Relations Service, United States Department of Agriculture, when needed for the benefit of agricultural interests in his county. In connection with the general extension work, specialists from various bureaus of the United States Department of Agriculture are assigned to Florida. The most important part of their work has been the control of hog cholera. The special agent in charge of hog cholera works cooperatively with the state, district, and

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. Annual Report, 1917 11 county agents and is at the cail of the farmers working with county agents, as far as conditions permit. This applies t~ all agencies working cooperatively with the extension forces. , The attention of the state agent for home demonstration . work is given to the improvement of homes, primarily for the instruction of girls, :teaching them the underlying principles of home life; special instruction is given in gardening, preserving, canning, poultry rafa!ing, ancl domestic art. The ' work is under her ,direct iuper ' visior{. . , The state agent and her . assistants come in contact lwiththe problems of country life, and spend much time withthe k:qu~ty jiorp.e demonstration age~ts, helping th~m where ' possi})le with assistance and encouragement to greater effort.' . ; Two . ' cJJstricf ag~nts are employed to supervise the . work in the counties. These district agents travel continuously, giving their fuli time to the direction of the home
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12 Florida Coop e rati ve E x tension FIG. 2.-Citrus grove sprayed under county agent's supervision creased production has been the most important phase of the work undertaken. Practically all assistant workers equip themselves . with canning outfits and try to prevent, as far as possible, the usual waste in gardens and especially the usual waste in sweet potato banks. Since the negro farmer's principal meat supply is. pork negro farmers are being instructed how to prevent hog cholera. The disregard by negro farmers of measures to prevent cholera has been serious in that sources of infection to hogs owned by other farmers have been maintained. The assistant agents are under the supervision of the agents in charge of home makers' clubs . They report to the boys' agricultural club agent. PLAN OF THE WORK The whole work of the Extension Division is ca;rried forward in. separate lines, known as projects. These special lines of work are provided for by the Smith-Lever Act creating the fund, and the annual statement as to the sources of the funds and the direc tion in which they were expended will be found herewith . Project I is designed to carry out the provision of this act. It provides for the carrying on of the administrative part of the work. Under Project I-A are grouped salaries for clerical help and expenses not directly chargeable to special projects. A total of $5,518 . 13 was used for this purpose. Under Project I-B are the expenditures for publications . . The law provides that not more than five percent of the Smith-Lever

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Annual R e port, 1917 13 :fund shall be used for printing and distribution of publications. The amount used for this purpose was $1,648.34. Project II is the demonstration work with adult farmers . This ])roject carries on demonstrations in all the principal crops pro d.uced in the state, special attention having been . given to the im provement of staple crops. Close study is given to the adaptability . -0f special crops wherever they seem promising. This project in cludes nearly the entire range of activities on the farm, from the ])roduction of crops and livestock to improvement of the home . The expenditure under this project from all sources was $58,257.38. Project III includes the organization o~ boys' agricultural clubs, . and is confined to corn and pig clubs. This year's work in corn clubs as herewith reported is especially noteworthy in that a num ber of boys have produced more than 75 bushels, and 4 boys :produced more than 100 bushels of corn to the acre. The average cost a bushel for the entire crop raised by the corn-club boys was 46 cents. The work in the pig clubs has been equally successful. Final records show that 652 purebred pigs were distributed among club members. From 225 reports received it was found that the pigs _ gained approximately one pound a day at a cost of six cents. The average cost of each pig and its feed for five months was approxi mately $20 while the value was approximately $50, showing an approximate profit of $30 each, or $6,750 for the 225 pigs reported. These clubs work in cooperation with the schools and have re ceived the generous and unstinted assistance of the county super! . ! ,_ FIG. 3,-Baling Natal hay

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14 Florida Cooperative Extension intendents and teachers. The amount expended for this work was $2,348.11. Project IV has been called the home demonstration project. This includes two lines of club work in rural districts, one for women's clubs and the other for girls' clubs. The women's clubs are organ ized to study the needs of the home, its surroundings and improve ment, and sanitary measures for the preservation of the health of the family. Girls' clubs occupy a large part of the county home demonstration agent's time and are considered the most important work she undertakes. Thru the . cooperation of the school and church organizations, canning, preserving, sewing, and poultry clubs are conducted in such a way that every girl between the ages of ten and eighteen years may become an active member. The excellent reports submitted herewith indicate the splendid work accomplished by the clubs and individual members. The amount expended from all sources for this work was $45,135.09. Project V deals with hog cholera. The work undertaken is con ducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. D. A. Specialists are assigned to Florida and give their entire time to educational and control work in hog cholera. The aim of the work is to inform farmers how to use hog cholera serum and virus properly and to urge the adoption of sanitary precautions necessary to prevent the spread of contagious diseases of livestock Thru the county agent this information is taken direct to the-farms where the serum and virus. treatment . is demonstrated and the importance of sanitation is emphasized. Project VI is planned to give agricultural instruction to negro boys and girls living on farms, thru the home makers' clubs for negro youth. A special negro agent works in cooperation with the Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes at Tallahassee and under the supervision of the state agent. The work is confined to countie~ Jiaving the largest rural negro population. One assist' ant agent for home makers' clubs was employed in each of six counties for four months during the planting and canning season, chiefly to encourage greater food production and to prevent :waste. SUPERVISION OF EXPENDITURES The funds arising from the Smith-Lever Act are strictly truij funds that mus t be employed in accordance with .the laws 1 and reguiations governing the appropriation. Th~ method of account ~ ing and the plans for . the work must be submitted to theU. s. Dep~~t~entof Agric~iture before the ye~r's wo~k is b~g~n . . c A

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Annual Report, 1917 15 Federal officer audits the accounts and inspects the work underway. All other funds used to supplement the Smith-Lever fund have been expended and accounted for in the same way as the Smith-Lever fund. FINAN(;IAL STATEMENT Following is the financial statement for the year ending June 30, 1917: RECEIPTS Agricultural College FundSmith-Lever Federal ..... .. . .. .. ... ................... . .. .... .... . Smith-Lever State ......... , .... . . ...................... . ..... . .... . U. S. D. A. Appropriation ............................... . .. .. .. . . .. . . State Appropriation ............ . ........ . . ....... ......... .......... , . . .. , .. Florida State College for Women .......... . .. . ................... . County Appropriations .......... ..... ........................ . . ....... . . $21,892.73 11,892.73 23,450.00 5,000.00 10,733.29 42,932.15 $115,900.90 EXPENDITURES Administration Project ............ .. . . ................................. . Printing and Publications Project ........... , ...... . ... ... . . .... . County Agents' Project .......... . ... .. ......................... . ....... . Home Demonstration Project .................................. .. ... . Boys' Club Work Project ........ . . ..... .. ....... ......... .............. . Negro Home Makers' Project . .... ... ................ : : . ..... . .. .... . $ 5,518.13 1,648.34 58,257.38 45,135.09 2,348.11 2,993.85 . $115,900.90 PUBLICATIONS Four bulletins, two circulars and three posters have been printed . and distributed by the Extension Divi~ion in the year in addition to a large quantity of multigraphed circulars issued at intervals to the state press and sent to county agents for general distribution. The agricultural news service, published weekly, is sent to news papers in the state as a clipsheet, and to all workers in the Ex tension Division. Bull etin No. Title 8. Boys' Club Work in Florida ............... .. ......................... .... . ..... . ..... . . 9. Poultry in Florida ................... : .......... .... .... .. ..... : ............. ... .............. . 10. Kill Corn Weevils ....... ... .. .. .................. . ........................... ... . ..... ........ , 11. Home Curing Pork .... .. .... . ................. : ........ . ..................................... . Circular Edition 8,000 15,000 6,000 15,000 No. Title Edition 1. Increased Hog Production Essential . ..... , .................... .. .. . ..... :. ....... 6,000 2. Castor Beans ............. ..... ................ : ..................... ,.......... . .... ..... ........... 3,000 p~~r . . . No. Title Edition 1. Increase Poultry Production ............. . . ......... ............ . .. . .... . ... ... ......... 3,000 2. Sweet Potato Storage ... .. .... .. . ......... . . ....... . ...... ........... ... .. ................. 1,500 3. Sweet Potato Root Weevils .............. : ...... . ..................... . ..... . .. ......... . 1,500 Annual . Report for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1916. SUMMARY OF BULLETINS 8. Boys' Club Work in Florida.-This is a special report of the work of the boys' clubs for the previous year prepared especially for the instruction . of club members. It gives a description of the cultural methods employed by members making high crop yields, also some interesting facts concerning the

PAGE 17

16 Florida Cooperative Extension pig-club work. This being the first report of the pig-club work it is of special interest to hog raisers. 9. Poultry in Florida.-This is a revision of Bulletin 3. This publication supplies general information for increasing poultry production on farms to those who make inquiry as to the possibilities of the industry in Florida. 10. Kill Corn Weevils.-This publication is an eight-page folder printed on cardboard so that it may be posted conveniently by county agents for ready reference. It deals with the best methods for applying carbon bisulphide, the importance of the proper temperature in fumigation, treating small grains, and the effect of the treatment on the germination of seeds. 11. Home Curing Pork.-This bulletin was specially needed this year because of the high price of pork and the usual loss that occurs when pork is not properly cured. It deals with the methods of and temperature for scalding, brine curing, dry curing and smoking pork, and gives in detail. the plans and specifications for small meat storage houses that can be used successfully on Florida farms. , SUMMARY OF CIRCULARS l. Increased Hog Production Essential.-This is an appeal to farmers for a fifteen percent increase in hog production estimated by the United States Department of Agriculture as necessary, due to war conditions. 2. Castor Beans.-This circular describes the cultural methods for castor beans and was prepared on account of the large acreage to be planted in 1918 thru the efforts of the War Department. CHANGES IN STAFF On July 1, 1916, Miss Sarah W. Partridge took up the work of district agent for East and South Florida, and at the same time Miss Harriette B. Layton began similar work for the counties in North and West Florida. On July 16, 1916, Miss Minnie Floyd took charge of the poultry clubs organized by county agents. On October 1, 1916, A. P. Spencer, district agent for South Florida, was assigned to the duties of assistant director. On December 1, 1916, M. N. Beeler, editor, resigned and was succeeded on the 4th of the same month by 0. W. Weaver. On January 1, 1917, H. S. McLendon took up the duties of district agent for South Florida. On February 15, 1917, E. S. Pace resigned the position of district agent for North and West Florida, and was immediately succeeded. by E.W. Jenkins. COOPERATIVE ENTERPRISES The furtherance of enterprises undertaken cooperatively with the Department of Agriculture, aside from those provided for in the Smith-Lever Act, has been somewhat limited by the lack of State funds. The most important cooperative enterprise is with the Bureau of Animal Industry in. hog cholera control. This has proven a valuable line of work and one that fits into the county agent's program. Inasmuch as Florida is largely an open range territory all infectious diseases of. livestock are more difficult to control than where animal~ are on pastures and in divided fields. The primary

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. Anri:ual Report,'1'917 17 object of this work is educational. The specialist in charge accom paiiies county agents to farms where the disease exists and conducts demonstrations, inoculating and p'.foperly disinfecting, and dis cussing the best' means at ha:n:d to control hog cholera. Special instructions are given as td how the disease niay be prevented wheri hogs have ' access to the open range and herds from different farms have ah opportunity fo intermingle'. Florida has made substantial progress in swine improvement since < farmers under stand that hog cholera can be controlled. Hog cholera control work has properly occupied . a iarge share ' of the . county agent's time because it is one of'themost important things undertaken by them. Thru persistent' effort many stubborn outbreaks have been con trolled . and thousands of . dollars worth of hogs saved. Another important cooperative enterprise Was that undertaken with the Bureau of Chemist:rY working with home demonstration agents; Temporary assistance was rendered to work out some of the problems in preserving Florida fruits and by-products. This undertaking dealt with some complex problems due to the sub tropical climate and the nature : of;sub-tropical products. Thru this cooperation the home economics workers of the ' Extension Division have been able to offer to club members and farmers valuable information on the canning and preserving of fruits. Additionar assistance was obtained thru the office of Extension Work in the South by securing the services of an expert in canning meats and fish ami drying vegetables. The Specialist assigned was able to spend only a short time in the state giving instructions to the home demonstration agents in the best methods of canning meat and fish; and preserving fruit and vegetables by drying and sealing them in paper c~tons; This method promises to be of special value during the period of can shortage. It is important that' cooperative enterprises should be undertaken on a proper basis and consist of problems in which the Government . is best able to offer the greatest aid . The various bureaus in the Department of Agriculture have been provided with funds for co operative projects to be used in different states but in most Cases the states receiving such assistance are required to offset the funds by an appropriation of equal amount, and while the Florida Legislature has met the Smith-Lever requirements the amount of money . appro priated was only sufficient to place agents in a little more than half the counties, leaving no funds for additional cooperative enter prises. Had Florida been provided with the necessary funds to carry out such plans it is probable that cooperation could have J.c.e-2

PAGE 19

i8 Flo r ida Coop Br dti v i3' E x tension been seci.ired to extertd . the hog choler~ : work, pig clubs, beef and dairy production, aria . other projects, but inasmti2h as otir funds are insufficient other states have . secured these benefits . ' It ' is a matter of serfous importance, particularly afthis time, when emer gencies caused by war conditions are to be met . . ' County agents have endeavored thru every means at their command to stimulate food .production but because of their many duties can not specialize on individual projects except . in . a few insfances . . ' . ' •. : •. , -. -,• : I EDUCATIONAL AND DEMONSTRATIONAL HOG CHOLERA WORK . The report of Dr, A . H. Logah,, Vete~inary Inspecto~ h1 ch a ' rge of hog cholera : woi:kindicates that a large part of Florida has been . covered during the past two years alld th.at much interest has been aroused in the contl'.ol _ o : f hog disea.s'es ' and general irnprovem(?nt cif hogs. . The work is being directed toward the final eradication ' of hog cholera in Florida and it must be ' understood that such a big undertaking can only be acconi.plished thru a state-wfde propaganda of education: _ _ ' . . . . _ _ . . The specialist in charge has actually treat _ ed l _ ,531 ' hogs : using both the serum and simultaneous method. He has also visited 379 far~s-usually accom:pani~d . by the couhty agent for the purpose of diagn9sing hog cholera, applying the treatment and advjsing on the _importance oi sanitary precautions as the . most eff ecti~e means of _ prevention and . control. . He has personally interviewed 2;183 farmers; or an average of about 40 in each county, i:nost of whom . have been revisited by the county agent who helps to. carry . out the . recomm . endations. He.has made 115 addres : sesto 8,789 persons and has given personal instructions to 135 persons ' aside frorn county agents that would qualify them to . administer the serum. Local farmers' organizations have considered h~g choleb control one of their most important undertakings and have secured valu abl( instruction in handling their individual _ herds. Heretofore the usual loss~s from hog cholera have seriously interfered with the progress in hog raising, and many farmers who would otherwise undertake the work have not done so because it see~ed impossible tci make hog raising profitable. The marke d incr~ase in number of purebred hogs now found thruout the state and the fact that two meat-packing . houses have been established, are fair indications of the expansion of hog raising and the succes s of the educational work that has been underway since demonstr ' tionwork w a s undertaken .. This workis attracting much attention from the state press and all interests related to farming.

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Annual R e port, 1917 19 Doctor Logan submits the following statistical report for the year ending December 31, 1917. STATISTIC A L REPORT Number of visits made to counties during the year ___ _ _ __________ ____ _______ _ ____ ___ _ __ _ 152 Number of addresses mad e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------115 (a) Number illustrat ed by stereopticon views __________ _ _____ -____ ___________________ _ 12 (b) Total attendance ---------------------------------------------------------------------------8789 Number of demonstrations of pr e ventive treatment __________________________ _ _______ ____ 69 (a) Where serum alone was us e d _______________________ _ ______________ _ ________ __ __ _ ____ _ ___ 29 (b) Wh ere simultaneous inoculation was us e d ____ __ __________________________________ 40 (c) Number of hogs treated ---------------------------------------------------------1531 (d) Total attendance at demonstrations ___ _ --------------------534 Number of visits made to farms for purpose of diagnosing hog cholera or observing conditions and giving advice _______ _________ ____ _____ ___ __________ 379 Number of farmers and hog raisers personally interviewed ________________________ 2183 Number of persons individually instructed and placed in a position to properly administer the serum preventive treatment ____________________ 135 (a) County agents -------------------------------------------------------------------------28 (b) Practicing veterinarians ------------------------------------------------------5 (c) Hog own e rs _____________ : _____________________________ -----------------------------------------102 Respectfully, A.H . LOGAN, V eterinary Fi e ld Agent. INTRODUCTION OF BEEF CATTLE FROM TEXAS A part of the Extension Division's work from the first has been to improve Florida livestock. The most important accomplishment in many years for the improvement of beef cattle was the intro duction from Texas of beef animals to be used as foundation stock on Florida farms and ranges. FIG. 4.-Angus cattle imported from Texas to Alachua County

PAGE 21

Florida .Cooperative Extension , When it .was realized that the continued drouth in . Texas would result in the loss of many thousand high-grade purebred beef cattle the Bureau of Animal Industry, )Vorking with the States Relations Service~ made an effort to move them' ' to places where they could be taken care of. A representative of the Bur~au was stationed in Fort Worth, Texas, to keepin touch with the cattle situation in that state as to quality; prices and condition . of the . breeding stock offered from the ranges and stock ya . rds. This resulted in the . . . ' . . d{stribution of several car loads of Shorthorn; Hereford and Angus ca.'ttle, . Jll,OSt of .yhich were females, to lie . us~ . d as foundation stock for the improvement of Florida herds. While these cattle were s~ld at good prices they were distributed o\i'er a wide area and the effect will be far reaching in the general improvement in _beef cattle that will result thruout the state. , About 1,500 head of these ; cattle we:re distributed in the following named counties: Alachua, Brevard, Clay, Jefferson, Holmes, Polk, Walton, Osceola, Jackson, Duval, Bradford, Putnam, St. Lucie, Volusia, Suwannee and Santa Rosa. . MoNTHL y cONFERENCES 1 . . . . In prder , to . coordinate all branches ~f the extension work all membel'.s of the . staff meet in the director's office the third Monday of each month to discuss plans for furthering the progress of the work. The number of state workers has been materially increased and the work in all branches has been expanded, which necessitates a thoro understanding of relationships that must exist under such organization. _ War emergency projects have modified many plans in practically all branches, as food production and conservation must have first consideration during the period of the war. Nevertheless, it is not the better po]icy to overlook the constructive educational work thatthe Agricultural Extension Division has carried on so success fully to this point ih its period of growth. THE FOOD CRISIS From the beginning ' of extension work in Florida all workers have beeri impressed . with the . need for greater food production thruout the state . . When a Survey of the . food suppiy was made following the declaration of war ; it was clear to . everyone that the food situation was critical and that Florida must awaken in re sponse to the call for more food. Inasmuch as the main work of county and home demonstration agents had been in this direction it was only necessary to speed

PAGE 22

Annual Report, 1917 :21 up the machinery in order to carry out President Wilson's order for greater food production. It was not necessary to remind the ' state workers for each caught-the spirit and endeavored ; by every means to transmit it to every producer in the state .' Committees were organized, timely planting instructions were distributed, the ; avail able seed supply in farmers' hands was located and distributed, facilities for canning and storage were arranged, and every in terest was appealed to so that food production and conservation should be uppermost in the minds of every thoughtful . person. At the request of Governor Sidney J. Catts , the Food Preparedness Commission and State Council of Defense was organized, made . up of leaders in the state's most important business affairs.' Or ganizations in each county made the work effective. In each of these the county agents and home demonstration agents were active members and the most important accomplishments were centered in their activities. EXPANSION OF WORK FOR NEXT YEAR The plans already approved for the coming year contemplat_~ , expansion of the present projects with an addition of new lirieff" of work. The lists of county and home demonstration agents published herewith show that each county in the state is being served by .a county agent , _ and a home demonstra _ tiori worke:r regardless of county appropriations. The Food Production Act to stimulate food prod\].ction as a war measure has made . this possible. Jt)s further planned to assign assistant county agents in a few of the larg~st agricultural. counties and city _an,d urban workers to a 'few large centers, each agent having to deal with a special phase of food production . •,; '' : . .. . , . :: .' . , Additional supervision is made ne . cessary because of this ex pansion. . One additional district agent, one assistant ~o~n-club agent and one . assisfahit pig~club agent hiv~ ' bee~ assig _ n,ed for}}].~ men's and boys' work, also two assistant . district : agents and one special agent in charge of all city home demoiisti-atiori work. . The home demonstration work has been enlarged by the :addition of a project for home dairy work. ;i This contemplates the improve~ . ment of dairy _ products made and consuined. largely ' on farms . an:<;1., in particular; an increase in . butter and . cheese making -and the use of milk products as nieat s~vers. : ,. -Thru the cooperation of the Bureau of Animal Industry four additional veterinary field agents have been employed to , assist _ the

PAGE 23

22 Floridri,. pooperativ~ Extension agent in charge of hqg cholera. educational work. These men have . been. assigned fo districts_ and work in cooperation. _with county agents in. the distr.ict. .This Bureau has _also assigned a. be_ef. Gattle -spee1alis.t to. work coope'ratively with the . exteiu;io~ forces'' in Florida for the promotion"of the beef'cattle interests on _farms and , ' ',, I ' , , 1", ,; ranges. ._ , . . . . .. _., . . . . _ . . Thru the cooperation of the Bure.au of Entcmiqlogy t~o 111e11. have been assigned t.6 Florida to work in cooperation with the Extension Division and ~nder. the .direct sup~~yisfonof tll1 enJom~iogist 'to the Florida Experiment Station ... _ one specialist wilf give 'his atten tion to the control of insects attacking truck crops; and the '6ther fo the controlofinse'cts that ;damage storeci'grains.'' ,.. . .. A specialist for .stimulating. city gardening is 'to'. be 'employed. This 'is a war emergency me~sure fo'r th~ proper d_frectfort if'dty g~rdening. . . . . . ' ; . . .. . . .. ' : VALUE OF COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK TO FARMERS BY INCREASED CROP PRODUCTION Increase of corn at .$1.50.'a .. b'ushel....:: ... :.:., ..... t.. .... t .... ::. $144,344 Increase of silage crop at $4 a ton............................ ..... 22,484 .Inc;ri,ase hay at $?5.; ... "" ... , ..... ,L ..... : ...... :,.... ............... 35;9.93 , , , . ,ln~iease .of _oats at 90c a bush.e.L, ................... ,.............. 23,096 Increase of peanuts at $L50 per busheL ..... ,, ... :.•: .. . :.. l0;447 Increase of velvet beans at $L50 per bushel.............. 44,400 ._,.,. VII'ota:l . .. .. ..... .. .. ' ... : .. , .. •' ...... , .... ,' .. ';. ........ " •'.. , :-c $2:80,764 .; 1 BYLiVESTOCK2\.DDED TO 'FARMS'. OR SAVED FROM' DISEl\SE'i' :I~ure.bl'.ed dairy bulls ,~t .$1(){), ea~h;;,.:.:, .. ,,,.:,, ..... :..:,:.,L .. Pu;rebred dairy .cows or heifers at $125 each ............ . :Grade dairy cows ,,brought irifo counties ......... : .. : ....... :~. ,:Pu.tebred ,beef .cows• _or h~i~er:;; at $100 each,,:., ... : ......... . P,urebred beef bulls at $150 each ................................. .. !Qfade cows at $50 'each : .......... '. ....... ...... : ... '. ............ ': .... . ,,Y!'l-lu,e of hogs saved by . treat.me,nt.., ..... ,,.... , ................ .. , :z~:so~t J}fs,~~c~2oJ~~h:::::::::::::-:c;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Increased value of citrus fruits by proper spraying .... Total , .: .... , .. , .................... ,: ........ : ............. ,:•., ................. . '1;;_-. BY IMPROVEMENTS TO FARMS , $4,800 31,875 15,225' .110,000, 42,000 156,000 160,203 4,350 21,060 70,500 Jncrj!ased; yalue .of lands by stumping .............. , ............. $ 166,260 Value of improved implements and tools.................... 62,575 Value'of silos at $250 each .. ,c .'.. :,.: ..................... : .......... . 14,000 Toii1,.:: ... '': ... '. .. : ... : ........... :.::. ........................................ : BY FERTILIZER OR MANURE APPLIED 'V ahte 'fei-tifiie:f bought. cooperatively ......................... :.. $ 47,080 . \A.mpu:rit: s/;),yeq/_to, ;farnw;rs .. , ...... , ......... , ........... : .......... ,... . 5,885 'Value manure at $3.50 a. ton .......................................... 1,036,000 -Value ground Hniestohe'applied at $2.50 a ton.......... 12,447 Total .......................................................................... .. _=:1_~ ! ~,J _;~arr;1_J_ ,. ; $616,013 $242,835 $1,101,412 .$2,241,024

PAGE 24

MAP . l R P ort 1917 Annua . e .. ' . ' 23 Kl'I' W.,,.t.sT_ . Demono ' Cooperative . having Far~ers ne 30, 1917 d" ate count1~$_, , endmg Ju Shaded areas m ic . the fiscal_ yea~ . FIG. 5.. work durmg . stration . .

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24 Florida. Cooperative Extension REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT P.H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state age.nt for the year ending December 31, 1917. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION ' C. K. MCQUARRIE; State . Agent. An unusual interest and progress has been shown in all activities connected with the work. The county commissioners, bankers, merchants, te.achers, and other leaders are showing their apprecia tion to a larger degree than ever before of the work done by the county agents in that. they. are supporting the movement and what it stands for ,by their endorsement and assistance. This is par ticularly true of tl:ie county commissioners where in a large per centage of the : ~ounties they make substantial increases in the supplementary appropriation for the work; the total increase for the state being .about 30 percent over last year. The total county appropriation for the current year is now in excess of forty thou sand dollars. CHANGES. A number of changes ha~e tak~~ place in the coun~ agent staff in the last year, a few agents resigning to take up other work, others returning to the farni because of better prospects for the farmer than heretofore. _The vacancies_ due to such resignations have been filled with coinpetent men and in most cases at increased salaries, this being made possible by an increase in the supple mentary_ appropriations made by county c:'o:rrimissione:rs and others. Owing to the number of counties making, supplementary appro priations being increased to forty~four and the additional war emergency appropriation to increase food production being avail able, provisions were made to . place qn agricultural agent in every county in the state except M;onroe. .This made additional super visi~Ii necessary and another district agent was appointed. S. W. Hiatt assumed the duties of the position September 15, 1917. An assistant in boys' club work, E. M. Manning, was also ap pointed, and assumed his duties October 1 . .. . ,,. \ > ' . CROPS The acreageplanted to staple crops was increased over previous years, especially that of corn, sweet potatoes, velvet beans, and

PAGE 26

Annual R e port, 191? 25 peanuts. A prolonged drouth in late spring and early surp.mer cut down the average acre-yield to a considerab le extent. The earlie r planted crops did not s uffer as much as the later planted ones, and sweet potatoes were far below the normal average because of this drouth, and the inferior quality of seed planted . The acreage planted to small grains for winter cover cro ps is above the average, but owing to lack of moisture in the soil at planting time a low p~rcentage of germination in these crops is reported. MEETINGS A number of important public meetings was held . in which the state and district agents took an active part. The first of these was the Livestock . Seminar held _ op. th~ University campu s, Jan uary 16 to 19, inclusive . . _ The annual meeting o;f the State Horti cultural Society was held at West Palm Beach on April 17 to 20 . As this meeting is promoted in the interest of fruit growers and attended by influential horticulturists, it proves a source of in spiration and education for all who can attend and is especially valuable to extension workers. A very important meeting, known as the "Livestock Round-Up," was held on the University campus , September 25 to 28, inclusive. This meeting was well attended by livestock leaders, from Florida and other states . Many important discussions for the benefit of the livestock industry were presented. The "Citrus Seminar," an annual meeting, was held . on the Uni versity campus October 9 to 15, in which the extension workers took an active part. These seminars are increasing in attendance FIG . 6-Poland-China gilts owned by pig-club boys

PAGE 27

Florida . Cooperative Extension . \ . . . : ,. . ' c:ar1d popularity every yearand .are attended. by a large number of the citrus grower's ~f the' state:. . ' . '. ' . l . ; . ' . .. ' . . . ; . . . ' . . . AGENTS' MEETINGS . ' Group meetings of the county agents were held at Marianna, February 27 ; Graceville arid Cottondale, February 28; Jackson ville, .March , 2 and 3; Plant City, March 5; and Tampa, March 6. At these meetings the agents . had an opportunity to see what was b'eing done in the other counties : and it gave them a better under standing of the agricultural development in sections other: than their own. The entire daytime was : , occupied visiting farms where special iWOrk was , being done, also in visiting livestock herds, grain ~Jev~t~rs; fe~d mills: . et~. ' it the J~c~so~yilie hleeti~g 'th~ . agents inspected the A-~mouip~ck:jng : . Pla:n( an,~ . fe~eiyed fuil inf orination as , to , how llvestock is : ;h~ndled b . y . the . pa.'ckers . .. This was. valuable inst~uction , a~d aii .felt . th~t . such . in'formaticm was . important ' to them,' The . agents and . oth~rs .i~ 'the .. p~rty . were . e~ter,tallled at i'un~heo~ _ by the Armour . Company: . : . .. .. . ., . .. •.. . . The annat county ~gent's conrerence ~ as he.Id . on ' theUni~ersjty campus Oct~ber 1 t'o 6, at V.:hich ' ail th~ agetshut ' one were present. Subj~c~s m,o~~ . P~rtin~m~Jo ~he couny ~g~nt W()r~ di~c~s,sed arid m'.ost . of the men' took ' ari . active ; part ' fri the . program and discu . ssioris.' , " .. ' : : ! . : ; :.< , ; : . .':.;. : ,. ' ; . , i , . ; '1 . '. ; ' . :; ' -: : . : .. : ' ., : 't ' ; ! . : : , : ; . ~ . . . . , .,; AGRICULT:U:RAL , PREPAREDNESS :, COMMISSl()N , :, The Seaboard Air Line railroad ' provided' a special car for a systematic-tr.ip:over their lines in , Florida from , May 28 to June 9 . for the ' purpose of stimulating food production; and meetings were.held at : the courthouses of the counties visited. The party was made up of members of the Agricultural Preparedness Commission and representatives ftom the Exten'Sion Divisi&i l ottlil . . UnivekJ}ty of , Florida. The ,,attendance in the central and sou.tliei'n pa.1,+ df th~ state,w , as fairly , good, bt1J , 9nly'. fair ' jr{ : tlie . w.e : ster.n countf~s . . Howevef / af : every meeting a i k~en ' apprec_iation Y oLthe irriportafice P:t'tlie ' f rnoveinent was manifest. , ; : < " . ,. ; , :; . ., . . _ .. ;;,,..;.; ' _ ; _. F ARMERS\0.RGANIZATiONS ' . . The agents devoted considerabl_e;fime ciuringthe ye~r to planning and organizing farmers' associations . . Ji(some c.iJnties consrter able success has been attaiiied . . . : Iii several '. Couritie~+tie agents have been abl1 . to get . a county comrri_issiqn~tJc(assis'f : hi ~ li~ing j1p the work in ' the c ' ommissioner's ' district ? to '. act ' ai ' ch~ir~an . ' •Kf : an ;:igricultura(c ' orpmittee, and to preside at all Jai:in )'ii~~tiiriS:.: h~ld there.

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Anr,,ual R e port, 1917 27 ;F'rc. 7.-The first silos erected in Se:mii-iole County; filled with corn grown following wint e r vege ta bles ' FAIRS T we l ve counties held fairs.One or more of the extension fo rce i:ri _ addition to the . county and hom e ' demonstration , ~gents we re . pres e nt to h~l'p in judging agricultural . and livestcick exhibits. These fairs seem . to be yearly ;i ncreasing fo popularity and in qualit y and variety of materials exhibited. SILO AND DIPPING VAT CONSTRUC TIO N Th e county agents })ave been especially . active in helping farmers construct s ilo s. The y h ave g i ve n suggestio ns and information as to capacity needed, materials for and methods of mixing concrete, and building wooden silos. Some agents have also been active in supervising cattle dipping on occasions when a . representative of the tick eradication force could not be present. ACTIVITIES ESPE CIA L . LY STRESSED E v~ r since the declaration of war and the coming into existence o f the Food PreparedneS'S Commission and State Co uncil of De fense c ou nt y gents ha ve been ber;iding all possible energy toward getti ng farmers and others to incre ase the produ c tion of food and fee d crop.s . A l a rge numb er of meetings h ave been held thruout the sfate, called ~spe c ially for the purpose ~f stimu'lating increa se d

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28 Flo ri da Coop e rative F; x tension food supply. The response to these calls has been satisfactory and in most cases the attendance good. We propose to push these farmers' "Get-Together" meetings to the limit. The "Home Garden" has also been one of the live topics under discussion at most of these meetings, and it is quite evident that a great in crease in the prC>duction of vegetables for home use has resulted. FIELD SEED SELECTION The desirability of selecting home-grown seed has be~n empha sized and instructions given for properly storing it. Quantities of inferior seeds are sold ju ' Florida each year that g~ye aJo.y yieid and in many cases inferior quality of products. ; Testing garden seeds before planting is also strongly urged: GENERAL ACTIVITIES. Number of visits made by ~ounty a g ents ...... . . .. . . . .. ........ ,,. : .. . : .... .. , .... . ..... .. .. . . ~,. 26317 g~~:~; ;}ef f ;~;irv~!li~:ki~i~ :::::::::: :: :::::::::: : ::~ ;'.'.'. '.:::: : ::::::;'. :!:~: '. : ::::~:;:::'. :t~;!~! ~~1::f ... ~.~.~~.~ , ~~:.~::::: : :::: ~: : :::: ::::: ; : :::;::;:::: :::::: ,:: : . ; : : : :::.::: ~;:: :~~:::r;: :::: ~ .4~~~& Number o'f field meetings held by agents .... ... :: .... ........ ~. : ... : .. :.: ... ..... : . . . ... . . : ........ 174 Total attendance at these meetings ....... .. . . . .. ...... . . . .. . .. . .. .. ..... . ........ ... ... . ... . ... . .. . ... 6040 Percentage of time spent in office work .. .... .... . .. . .. ..... . . .... . .. . .... ....... ........ . ..... .. 22 Percentage of time spent in field work ... . . . ...... . .. . : .. :. ..... .............. .... ........ . . . . .... 78 Number of official letters written .. . . , , .. : . .... , .... . .. ... . ... ........ .. . ..... . .. ......... . . . .... .. .... 16804 Number of article s prepared for publication ... .. . . . ............ .. . .... ; ......... . . .. . .. .. . ..... 755 Number of circular letters issued . .. .... , . 13323 Number of bulletins of U. S . D. A. di s tributed . .. ..• ..... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . ..... . .. . .... .. . 32998 Number of bull e tins or circulars from State sources distributed . .. :: : . . : . ... : . . 8504 Number of visits to schools . . , ....... , ;. , .:., ... ,, ......... ..... , . . ..... :.. . .... .. . ... ........ .. .... .... .... . fi31 Number of .schools assisted in outlining agricultural course. . ......... . . .. . .... .... 39 Number of short courses assisted in ... . . . .. ... . .. : . .. .. . .. . .. . . ... ............ .. .. :.: . ... . .. : . . . . .. .. : 19 Total attendance . .. . .... ... ... . . . . ... ; , . , .. _ ,~,;.;, 1 ;,. . , , ' ., , . , .. . ... . •. .,. , .• , ,. ; ,. ; . . .;. . . . 1171 Total number of days engaged in the s e courses .. .. .. ..... ........... . . ..... .... :.. . . . .... ... 98 ' ' ,: ORGANIZATIONS Number of farmers' clubs agents . have assisted in prganizing . . .. _. . ..... .. .. . ... .. , . 60 T tal ' ' b h . f . h . l b . . . . . . . . . . . o ~em . er _ s 1p . o t ese c u s . . ....... .. .... : . . . .... .. . . ...... , .. . . .. .. . . . .. . ...... . ... . . . . . . ..... . .. . . .. .. . 1978 MISCELLANEOUS Number ' of farmers attending short course at . cdUege as ' result of agents' .. efforts . . . : . . . .. ... . . .. : . . . . : : . . . . . .. : . . .. .. . . . . . . ; ' . ' .. . ' . . ' .. , . . ,., . .'' . . . . , ' .. .. ... . : 36 Number oLboys attendtng agricultural or , other -~ c h~ols or _. colleg e s as . result of club work ... . .. . ... .......... ..... ......... . . ...... . : ... .. ... ..... . . ..... . .. . . ... _ . , .. .......... ..... .. 103 Number of girls attending industrial or other schools as result ' . of gids' club work . . .. . ....... :...... . . . ............... . .... . ... . ....... ... . ...... ............. ... .............. . . . . . ........... 39 Number of times visited by specialists from ., College pr i the Department .... 491 Number of county fairs held ... .. . .. .. . . . .. ,...... .. . ..... . ..... . . .. .... . . . .. ..... . . . .. . . ... . .. .. . ... . . .. ...... . . 12 Number of -demonstrators, cooperators . and club . members making xhibits 249 di fe~;:st'Ji~~~ii~ftiJ~f -~f" ' srii~ii'it~it::::;:: :: : ::::::: ::::::::: :: : ,:::'.'.:: :::::::: ~ig Number of:farmers keeping cbst rec 9 rds . at agents' insta.n c: e : . . . ~irif!1te .. :: : ::::::::: :;::: : : ::~:::::: : :: : : : : : :: :: ::::: : , : :: : ::: ; :: ::: ::: , : ::'. : :: :::: ::: :: :::: : :: ::::: :: : : : , :: : : :: : :: : : :: :: 4~: Number of farmers pract i ing. fall plowing . as result ; of _: county , ~g,e,nts' . . wor~ . . c:-. . . :" : : ; : : , :: . . , ...• . . . _.; -. .. : . : , . .,y , _ .

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Annual Report, 1917 29 ' . .. FARM . AND FARMSTEAD" IMPROVEMENTS ' Number . of buildings erected .. .. .............. :: . . .'.. . ......... :. . .. . ................. ... . .... ....... ..... .... 130 Number of farm buildings improved ..... . ... .. ............. ... .............. .... ...... , ...... : .... , ... . 154 Number of new building plans furnished._. .................. , ..... : ....... . : .. . '. .: .......... . ... .. , . 43 Number of farm buildings painted or whitewashed . .... :, .... . . . : .. . : ....... : .. ,.......... 108 Number of home water systems installed or improved . . ..... : . . : .... ......... : . . .. ... . : 132 Number of water systems in State before demonstration work was started 84 Number in the State now .. , . , ................. .. .. .. ............. .. . . ......•....... ... .... : ............ ::.:. 296 Number of home lighting systems installed .. ::.:: .... . : ....... : .... . .. ..... .. , ............. : .'. . .. 131 Number of lighting systems in the State before demonstration work Was ' started .................................................. .. ........................... : ... .. , . ... ............ ,_. . .. . , .. :. 19 Number in the State now ............... . ... ,.-: ......... ; : .... : ....... . . ... .. :.,.::: .. . ... :. : , ........... :.: . . . : . 164 Number of home grounds improved .... , . ... . .. .... : ..... : .... .. ... .' ...... , ... . . . ... : .. :.: ......... : , .... 153 Number of farm and home sanitary conditions improved ... , ... ............ : ... : . ... 429 Number of homes screened against flies and moquitoes ... c: . : : :: .: :.. . . 414 Number of fly .traps i~s~alled ................. . . . : ... .. . ....... . .... . ... : ... : .......... _. .... _., ..... .:: .. ..... . 77 Number of samtary privies erected ....... . . . . .... ......... ... .... .. ....... : .... . . ... ............... . .... 79 Number of telephone systems installed .. ..... ..... :.: . ..... . . : .. .... :, ..... ..... ... : : ........ :. . . .. .. . 103 Number of farmers induced to adopt a systematic rotation .. ...... ......... . . :: . . : ... : 315 Total . acreage .. , :.-. ,: . . . .. : : . .. , .... : .. ,.:.::: . ....................... : ... : ..... . . . ......•........ : ... . . . . : ....... . . .. . .. . .. 3796 Number of new pastures established .:: ......... . : ... .' .... .. .. . ..... : :: .. : .. : .. : .: ..... : ...... . . .. . : .. . . 288 Number of old pastures renovated ..... , .. .. .. . .................... : .... ,....... . . ... ............... .. .... 62 . Acreage comprised ... . . . ................. . ............. ... ............................................................ 1115 Number of drainage systems established . .............. -.... .. ......... . .. ... .................. . ... 60 Number of farmers induced to drain their : lands ....... . : .. . ......... ......... . , . ..... ... .. . .. . . 405 Total acreage drained: . . . . By tile ............ . . . . ........................................................ . ............................ ,. ,, . ......... 103 . By ditch ........... . .................. . . , ............ ... .. . .............. .. .................... .. .................. . .. -6768 Nmber of farmers who removed stumps ......... _ . ...... .... ........... ..... .............. . ..... 566 Total acreage stumped ......... . ... ...... ........ . .. .... .. .. ........ ... : .......................................... 8313 Number of farmers induced to terrace sloping land .. .... .. ... ...... .. ................ .. . ... , 24 Total acreage terraced .................. , ..... ,. : .. . .. .. . .......... . ................... .. .. .. ...... ,...... .... .. 1080 Number of home gardens planted ........... , ......... : ..... , ........... . . . ...... 7l61 Number of farmers saving surplus ,farm products for winter use ...... , . .. .... 44;56 Number of farmers turning under cover crops... . .. .. . .... ............ . ..... . ......... ....... .. 664; Total acreage . ....... : .. . ... ........ .. .... . ........... .-. : ....... . . . . .... ... . ...... .. ...... . . . ... .. .. . .......... .. . . ..... . 12900 Number; . of ne":' im,plements and tools bought ....... ..... . . ...... ... .. ....... ..... ... _. . .. . . .. .. 2503 . . . . EFFECT OF DEMONSTRATION WORK Number of demonstrators and cooperators who: Are raising practically all their home supplies .. . .. , .. .. . . ..... ,. .............. . i079 Have opened new bank accounts since . beginning .demonstration . work ............ .. ............ . . . .............. .. . ... .................. .. ....... ... .... . . .............. 425 Have increased their bank deposits since beginning demonstration work ......... . ........... : ..... : . . . ...... . ..... .. .... ............ . .... . ........ . .. ... .. . .......... .. 509 Are trading on a cash basis since beginning demonstration work 698 Are showing a desire to study their farm business...... . ..................... 77 Additional industries established since demonstration. work was begun: 2 meat packing plants, 1 peanut oil mill, 6 elevators and feed mills . . Number of demonstrators . and cooperators installing labor-saving devices in the home ........ ... ............... . ................... . . . ................ .. ........... :... . . 383 Corri increase for 1916, in bushels ...... ... . ... ........... , .......... , ...... .. .. : .. , .............. 1,500,000 Peanut acreage increased, percentage ... .. ... . ... ,..... . .. . . ... .......... ... .. .... ........... . . 300 Indications of improved rural conditions: , Purebred hogs in every county. Cattle dipping vats in nearly every county. Many thousand acres wild land fenced for pasture. Legislative appropriations to support Livestock Sanitary Board ... . $ 150000 Increased appropriation for cooperative demonstration work. State prganization of livestock association. State organization of hog breeders ' association.

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30 Florid~ Coopera'tive Extension . DEMONSTR~ TIONS AND COOPERATIONS CORN . :, . .. Number of demonstrators .. . ... . .. .. .... . .... . .... . . .. . . .. .. ........ .... ... : .. .. . ..... ... : '.: ............ . ... . 598 Number of demonstrators reporting. , ..... ....... . . . . ............ ...... : .. ..... . .. . . .. . .. ... , .. .... 310 Total acreage grown under improved methods . . .............. . . . ... . , . . . ..... : ......... . . ... 4264 Average yield per acre, in bushels ................. . .......... .. ....... .. . .. , . ..... ................. .. , 31.5 Increased yield over ordinary methods .... . ... . .................. . ... .. .. .... .. , ................. . . 16,5 Number of cooperators ................................ . : ..... . . ............ .... .. , . ... . ... ................ . .. 600 Total acre.age grown by cooperators ...... . : . ... . ..... . . .............. .. : .. : : . . , ... ............. . .. . . 6090 Average yield per acre, in bushels ........ .. : ... . : .. . . .. . ............ . ... ... . : ... ... .. ............ , ... 21 Number planting selected seed ................. . . . ... ....... .......... ... . , . ....... . . . . . . ... . : ... .. . . . .... , 416. Number of farmers selecting seed for next crop . .. . , .. . ..... : .. ,. , . : . . . .......... . . :, .... .' .. . . 737 Estimated number . bushels . seed selected ... : . . . . : ..... . .......... .. . : . . , :, .: . . . ,. . , . . . . : ....... : ... 2336 Number who fall plowed their demostration acres . .'.: ... , ... '. .. . ;: :, .. : ........... , ........ 30.2 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres .......... 250 Number of acres harvested for silage ...... .' ...... . ...................... .... . '. ........ : ............. 855 Yield per acre, in tons ........ . . .. : . : ..... : ........ . . : .. ... . ....................... ... , .. .. ; . . .... : ............... .. 6.6 Number of acres "hogged down" ......... . . ...... . . . .. ..... . .. . .... .... ... .. ... . . : . .. . ... . ............. 1825 . Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests ....... . . .. . . ... . ... . . : .... ,........ 40 . Number of farmers using better methods jn . gl'.owing corn this y:ear ... , .. 206.3 . Number of farmers so influenced since county agent ,vork :i.vas . ~tai:ted ... . . . 5447 COTTON" . .. .. . . . . Number of demonstrators ..... . . : ............ , .... .-.:. . ...... .: .... :., ......... : .. .. . .. ........................ ,. 106 Number of demonstrators repo rting.:.,::: : .,. : ... : .. : ..... : ............. . .. . . ::: . .. .... : ...... : ... :, .. .. . : 50 Total acreage grqwn under improved methods ............ . ... ... . . : : : ,: .-, ........ : : ......... . . , : , 1341 Average yield seed cotton per acre, pounds ... ........... . .... . .. .. , . .. . . . ... ... ..... .. .. ....... ... 616 Increased yield over ordinary methods : :•: : : : . 256 Number of cooperators ........... . ....... , ....... :. .. : .. : ...... . .. . : ... : ....... : :: ... . . . .. , .: : ............ .. : . . : .. . 193 Total _acreage grown by cooperators .......... . . ........................ , : .. : .. :: ........... : ...... :' .... . ' . 1589 Average yield per acre, in poilndsseed cotton :; , .. '.:'. .. .' ... ,:,. .. , .. . : , . .................. :, .. '. . . 532 Number of demonstrators who planted selected seed .......... . ' .. : . :: . ........ ', ...... : . .. . ' 63 Number of farmers field selecting seed for next year's ' crop .... :, .... ...... : . . .. . .. .. 73 Number who fall . plowed their demonstration acres .... ,. :: ... : .. ' :., ' : . : .... 72 Number who turned under cover crops on their demonstration acres ! .... ... :. . 7 Number of acres treated for diseases or insect pests ..... . .. . : . . . .. . .. ... : : .. . .... : .. . . .. 773 Number of farmers using better cultural m ' ethods ...... , .. , . , .. . ,: ...... .' : ....... :: ... i .... . . 891 Note: Farmers have not confined their efforts ,at growing cotton to one variety. Several varieties are . b'eing tested because of the boll weevil situation. OA'rs Number of demonstrators . .. ...... .................... . : : . . . . . .... ..... : . . .... . '. .. . . : . . ... . ... : ., ... , . . ....... : 92 Number of demonstrators reporting ........ :, . . . , .. . . ... , . . .. : ...... , .. ,': .. . : . . .. '. :, . .... . : .... : ... .. . . ' 23 Total acreage grown under improved methods . ................. ... .. . . ...... .... : ... .. . : ...... . 2333 Average yield per acre, bushels ................. : .. . . :: . . ... , .... , ......... O' . ..... .. : .. .. ..... , ........... .'. 26 Increased yield over ordinary methods ..... . . . . . .... .' ...................... . ............. ,.......... .. 11 Number of cooperators ........ . . .. .. . ................. :., .. . . . .. , .... , .............. : ... . .............. .' ........ .-. 44 Total acreage grown by cooperators ..... ... . .. ..... : . ............. : : .. .' : . . .. '. .... . ... :'............... 187 Average yield per acre, bushels . . .... , . , ... , .... ... : .. : .... .. , ...... : : .. . : .. . : ... . .. : .. . ..... : : . ..... . . . .. . 17 Number of acres thrashed for grain ........... . . ... . . ......... ,: ... : . . ... , . . ...... :: . .. . .... :: ... : . . . '. 127 Number of acres cut for hay ........................ ... : .. ....... . ............. . :.' .. . . . .. : . . .. . : : ... ,: .. :.... 289 Average yield of cured hay per acre, tons ... . .......... , ... , .......... . . . ............. : ........ . .. : 1 Increased yield of hay per acre over ordinary methods, tons . . . .. : ................... . : Number of acres grazed off ........................... . . . ................ : .. . . . : . ......... . ........... , .... : . 1685 Estimated value per acre . .. . ... . ..................... . . : . . .. : ... , .. : ......... . . ... . : . . . , . ..................... $ & Number of acres turned under for soil improvement. : . .. . ... .. . : ... . ..... . . :............. 45 Number bushels of seed . treated for smut, rust, etc ........ : . .. ... : ..... ........ . . : . . . . : . .. . 90 Number of farmers planting oats for the first time . . : .. :: . . . , .... . .... . ' .... '. . .. . . . : .. . 63 ' . Number of demonstrators .. '. , .. .. .. .......... . . . . : : .' ... ................. . :~ .. ' . : .: .. . ........ , ..... .. . . .. . . .. 25Number of demonstrators reporting ..... , .. . . . ,' . .. . .. ................. .. , .. :.................... . .... . ... 1& Total acreage grown under improved methods .................. , ... . . . , . . . : ............... : .. .. . .. . 91 Average . yield per acre, bushels ............ . .... ........ . . . . ... . ............. . . . , .. . ,: .. . ............... : . . . . .... 39 Increased yield over ordinary methods ... : .. .. .. .. . ............ . .... . ... .... . .. .............. : ...... .. . . .. . 15 .

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•" 31 :~:t!~ ~1 ~~~~=rt~i:!h;;ri~; "i;;;i~: ::: '. ::::::::~ :::: ~ : :: : ::::: :: : :::: :: : : : : :: : :::: ::: :/:: : : : ::: : /: ::~t Average yield of curedl,iay per acre, tons . . , .......... . : .. : . . ......... . . ... ... . ....... ... : . ... : ...... 1 Increa _ sed yield of h a y per acre over ordinary methods, tons .. ... ....... ... . . ." . . . ...... Number of farmers planting rice for the first time : . . : ........ ... . .. : .. . . ... .' . . .... . ...... , . ...... 16 Number of demonstrators .. . ..... .. ........ :. ~~~ :.' .' .......... , .. . , . . : .: : ...... . : . . . ." , . . . . . . ........ ..... : ... . . 34 Number of demonstrators reporting . . . , . . . ... ........ , . .... : . ............. . ,... ............ .......... .. 9 Total acreage grown under improved m e thods ... .. : . . . . ... . ,: . : . . : . . ......... ...... . .. . . .. : . . . ... 280 ~~Ef [r~!:~:i~il~t~~:::;~i~i:~:i~ :::: : :::: : :: ::::: :: :: ::: : :: : : :?:: : :: : : : :: :?: ::: : : ::::):~::: :: U Number of demonstration acres thrashed for grain ......... : .. , .. . .. .......... .. -., . .... : .. 36 Number of demonstration acres cut for hay ...... . .. . : . . . .. . .. : ..... : : ... .. : :: . . . .: .. .. . ... .. :: 127 Average yield of cured hay per acre on demonstrations, tons. : ... . : .... .. .... . : .. .. .' ' fl,4, Increased yield of cured hay per acre . ov~r ordinary methods, tons... . .. . .. .... ... 1 h Number of acres grazed off .... . . . . ..•........ . .... . .. . ........ . .... ... .......... . . . : . .. : . . . : .... , ... : . . .. :: .. : .. 148 Estimated value, per acre .... : . .. . . . . ............ .... : ......... : .. . . . .. : .. ....... ... : .. : ... ........ , .. . .. : . . .... $ 8 Number of acres turned under . . : ....... c: .. .. . . : .•.. ., ..... .......... . . . . , . . , . . . .... . . .. c: ... ' . . ... 25 Number of farmers , planting rye for the first . time .. . L . .... , .. .... .. .. .. . .. ... . .. . : . . :. ... 41 Note: Rye is grown almost entirely for a winter cover or pa~ture crop. SORGHUM . , Number of demonstrators .............. : ..... ...... , ...... . . ..... . .. . .. . .......... ... ...... . . ....... . .. . ~....... .. 61 Number . of demonstrators reporting ..... . . .. . . . , . . . , ...... , . :. . .. ........... . .. ...... . ... ... . . .... ... .. .. . 20 Total acreage grown on demonstration farms ... .. .. ..... ......... . . ..... .. : . .. .... . . ...... .. .. .. 148 Average yield hay . per acre, to.ns ....... .. ... .. : ............... .. . . .. . . . ... . .. . .... . ... ... ..... ... .. . .. . . .... 4 Number of . acres cut . for hay . .. ..... , ......... . . ... . . ........... : ... , . . .............. .. ................. ... ...... 63 Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons. . ........... . ... . .. . . . .. ............ . . . .. .. .. 2 Number of acres grazed off .. . ... . ,, .... : .... . . . ..... .-.. .. ... . ... . . .. . . .. . . ... . .. ..... .. . ... .. ... ......... .... 51 Estimated value per acre of gr azing .... . . . . . ... . . . . . ... ... ... . . .. . , . ......... . .. , . : .... : : . , . . . ... .. . . $ 11 Number of cooperators .......... . . : . . . . ........ . ..... : . ...... . .. : . . :, . .. ,.: ....... . .. . . . . .. . . ....... ..... . .. ..... 64 Total acreage grown by cooperators .. . .. . , . . ........... : . . .. .. , : .......... ... c:.. ............. . . . . . .... 89 Number of acres sown this fall for late green feeding.: ..... . .. .. . ... . . .... . .. . .-: . .. ; . . . . 150 Percentage increase in acreage of sorghum in the State as result of county agents' influence: First year, 10 % ; second year, 20 % ; third year, 30 % ; fourth year, 40 % . . . . : SUDAN GRASS. Number of demonstrators : . . .. ... . . .... : ..... .. . ... : .. . , : ... . ...... . . .. ........ .. . . , . ' ... ... .' . ..... . .. . ... . : .... . 70 Number of d . emonstrators reporting . .•. . .... . .. , ., . . , .... . ... . . .. . . ...... .............. . . ... ..... ... . . . .. . 18 Total acreage grown under improved m e thods on demon s trat i on farms . .. ... 133 Average yield hay per acre, tons ....... ... . .. . ... .. . ....... . .. .. . . ....... , ... .. . .. . . .. . ...... . . : . . . ......... 2 Number of acres cut for hay . , ... . ............... . . . ............ . ................. . . ... . . .......... . . ..... . . .... !J3 Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons . . .. . .. , ........ . . .. . ... ... .......... .. ..•. ::. . .. . 1 Number of acres grazed off . . ..... ...... . . . . . ... . . .. . . . .... ...... . .. .. . .. . .. .. :... . .. .... ... .. . .. . .. .. . ... . ... . . . . 6 Estimated value per acre of . grazing .. . . , . .. : .. . . . . . .. . . .. .... ... .. .... . . . .. .... , . . ..... ... ... . ..... . :. $ 17 Numb'.!r of cooperators ...... . .. .. , . . . ............. . . .. . . .... ........ .. . .. ..... . ...... .. . . . .. : .. . . , ....... : ... ... : . . ... 25 Total acreage grown by cooperators...... . ................ . . .. ............. ... . . . . . . ............ . . . .. . ... 35 Average yield hay per acre, tons ...... : .. : . ." . .. ,.. ....... ...... ..... . ......... . . . . . ... . . ...... .. ... . . .. .... . . 2 Number of demon s tration acres turned under for soil improvement . ... : ... :: .... . 4 Estimat e d acreage gr own in the State _ before the courity age!lts' work . was started .......... ... . .. ..... . ..... . . . . . ... . ...... . .. ..... ... . . : ...... ... . .... . . : . . ... ..... ........... . . .. .: .. ... 50 Percentage increase in acreage of Sudan grass a s result of county a g ents' influence: First year, 10 % ; second year, 15 % ; third year, 18 % ; fourth year, 20 % . . JAPANESE CANE Number of demonstrators . .. . . . . .. .. ........... . . .. .. . . . ... :... .. .... ...... ..... ... . .. ... ... .. ..... ... . . .. ... . ... 4 Number of demonstrators reporting .. .. .. . .. . ............ ...... ............ .... . . . . .. , ......... , . . ....... 2 Total acreage grown on demonstration farms .. . . .... .. ... ...... ... . .... . .......... .... . .. . . . :... l6 Average yield green forage per acre, tons. . ..... ...... . . ..... .... ... . . . . ... . .. .... .... ... . ... .. . . . . 35 Increased yield green forage ov . er ordinary methods, tons ...... . .. . . ,.. ... . . .. .. .. ... . . 20 Number of acres cut for hay. . ... . ..... . . . . .. ............... .... . .... ...... . . . . . ...... .. ...... .. ... . .. . . .. .. 10 Number .. of cooperators....... ... . . . . ........... .. . . .. . ............ . ... .. . . . ............. . ............... . . . . ....... .3 Total acreage grown by cooperators . ... ... . ............. .. '. .'................. . .. . ............ . ... .. .... t

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32 Florida Cooperative Extension : Number of acres planted . this fall ... .. . ..... .. ............. , ........ , : .. . ...... ' . : ::: .. .. " .: . L .. L. : .. . , : 225 Estimated acreage grown in the State before the county age . nts' work was , started .. .................. .................... ... :. : ::.: .. .. ::.:.-: .. : : ... : .. , . :, ..... :, :,: . . . : .. : .: .. : : .. ::. : ... : . : .. : .2000 Percentage increase in ' -acrettge of J a:panese cane "as result of -county agents' influence: First yeat;'l0%; second year, ' 12 % ; third year, 16 % ; fourth year, 20%. MILLET Number of . demonstrators ............. _. .. . ............ , .. . _. ...... ,._. ..... ,_., ... : .. ,, ...... i ,.'. . . '. .. : . . ; . .. '. . .... 4 1 .3 6 Number of demonstrators reportmg ...... . ..... . ................ , .. , ............. : . . . ... .. .... .... . ... . Total acreage grown under improved niethods . . : .. :., ... : ....... ~.,... :.,'. .. , . . .. . ' .. '.: .. _ .: ._. ._.... . 60 h .. . . . 1 t:~~!: :ie~~re:~tteio:cr:y.~~~~::: : :::: : ::: ::::::::::::::::: . :::::::::::: :::::::::::::::: : ::: :::: :::::::: 32 Increased yield hay over ordinary _ : m~tJrnds, ; tons ' .. '. .. : ..... , .... . ' . '. : . . , .. , , . . /: . . / .. : .. , ~i~:!e!: v;!;:)~l:~~f~:;\t:ttttii:~/:: _ ::::::'.~{/:::/:::\:::'.'.:::L:: : :::): ::\:$ 3 •lg NATAL GRASS , .. . , :: . Number of demonstrators .............. . .. . ....... . .... .............. . ....... ,cc ... ,.,. :, : ..... : .. , . . ,. , .. ... ,:. .. .. 29 Number of demonstrators reporting .. ................ ,,,.:., ........ ,. , ... : ....... . . . . . , . . :: .. .. . : .. :. 8 Total acreage grown under . demonstration methods:... , ........ . . .... ..... . : .. . . . , .. . .. . .. 201 Aver age . yield , hay , per.acre,-.tons ... . .. . ...... : .. , .... . . ,.:.-: .. ......... : ........ :: .... , .. . . : . . .. .. : .' .. .. , . .. 1 . Number of acres cut for hay ........ ............ .. .. . .................................... .. ................... 200 Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons .............................. .... , . . .. . .... .. . Estimated value of that grazed off, per acre ................. : ......... , ... : , ... . ..... :' .. , ... :.:::$7.50 Number . of . cooperators ................ . .. ..... '. , .. . .. ... :::::.: ... :.: ....... :: .. .,,: .. . . . . ,:. ,: . .... . .. : : ... , ... . 18 Estimated acreage grown in the State' before the county agents' work was started .......................................... ...... .............. ' ...... . ..... , ... .. . ... . . . . ... : ........ 1000 Percentage increase in acreage of Natal grass as result of county agents' influence: First year, 15 % ; secohd year, 25 % ; third year, 35 % ; fourth year, 25 %. . RHODES GRASS . Number of demonstrators .............. ... .. .. .. .. .... .... . : ................ ,.: ...... : .... . . . .... .... " 13 Number of demonstrators reporting . ... . ... : .. , ., , ......... cc, . , : .. 1 Total acreage grown under demonstration methods .... : .. :c , .•. , : .•..• :. 44 Average . . yield hay . per . acre,tons .. : . . . . . ... , ..... , .,.: .. ,., ... :,:..:., ... , .. ,,: .... . .. ...... :, . . . , :: .. : ..... 1 Number . . oLacr;es cut for . hay .. , ... . ....... .. ... : . ... .. , ..... ...... :., ... : ....... . ... , ... : .. : ........ : . . .... . .. 42 Number of . acres grazed off ............ , ........ . .. .. ......................... , ... :.,.,.:................... ... .. 2 Estimated value per acre of grazing .... , . ... , ...... . ,. ...................... , .............. . .. ........ ... $ 8 Average yield hay per acre, tons: . . . : .. :: .•. : .... : .......................................... . ...... . . ........ . 1 E _ stimated percentage increase as a result . of ~ounty agents' influence .... 100 . . ,. . . CRAB GRASS Number of demonstrators ........ .. ... ............ . .. , . ....... , ........ , ... .-.,.::: .. : ... :: . . .. .... : ... , . . . . . ... , ... 15 Number of demonstrators reporting .... . . ........ ......... , ... L.~ ......... .. ...... . ........ .. .... .. , .. 10 Total acreage grown under demonstration methods ..... : ............... .... .. . . .. .. : ......... 60 Average yield hay per acre, tons . .... . . ...... .... ... . ....... ..... : ' ...... :.: . . , :: . : : ... . ... ... : ... :: .. ......... 11/4, Number of acres cut for hay .. ......... . .... .. . .. : .. : . .: .. :... : .. : ...... : :, .... : .. ..: .. . .. .. ... 50 Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons ........... :":,,:.'. •.. .... . .. : .... . : ..... . ... .. :. . , Note: Crab grass grows as a volunteer crop in cultivated fields in summer. ~~:t:i 0 [fiit~:0~itiftri:~;P~~r-i:: : :;~~;~;::::::::::::::::: : :::::::::: :: : . .:~ :::: : .. : :: : : . Total a
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Annual Report, 1917 , 33 Average yield seed per acre, bushels ... .. , ...... . , . . , ............ . ........................ . .. ... ....... ... 16 Total acreage threshed for seed... . .... .. ........... ... .. . ..... . . ....... ..... . . ...... ...... . . . ............... 187 . i~%\!~rif~~:e~t i~;z~dy~if : : :: : :: ::::::::: :::: :::::::: :: : ::::; ;::'..: ::::: :::::::::::::: : :::::::: :::'. : :: ::::: ::::: 46i~ : Estimated value per acre of grazing .. ............ ... .......................... . ........ , . . . ...... , ....... $ 11 Total acreage turned under for soil improvement .. . . . ..... . .... ......... .... .. ... .. .... ..... 8225 Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence ... . 8080 Percentage increase in acreage of velvet beans as result of county agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 10%; third year, 10%; fourth year, 10%, SOY BEANS . Number of demonstrators .... .. ...... : ' 10 Number of demonstrators reporting . ............ . .. .. .................................. . .. .. .. . ...... .... 8 . Total acreage grown under demonstration methods .......................... :c. .. ..... .... .. 33 Average yield seed per acre, bushels .. . ........... ...... ..... ......... ....... . ... , .. : ... ....... , ... ..... 12 Average yield hay per acre, tons ....... 1 Acreage cut for hay . ... .... . ....... .. . . ........ . ............... .. .......... .. . .. .. . ...... . .......... .. . .. , . . .......... . 5 Number of acres grazed off ....... . . .... .. . .. . . ......... ...... ... . ... . . ... ..... 18 Total acreage turned under for soil improvement ... ... . . ........... -....................... .. 10 Total number of acres inoculated...... .. ........... . ........................ ..... ........... .. .. . ......... .. 11 Note: Soy beans are grown experimentally on a small acreage. PEANUTS Number of demonstrators ... . ......... o 93 Number of demonstrators reporting........... . . .. ............ . .......... .. ................ . ............ . 45 Total acreage grown under demonstration methods . ... .. .. : .............. .. ... : . ..... : .. ... . 995 Average yield seed per acre, bushels ........... .. . . 32 Average yield hay per acre, tons ...... . ............. . 1 Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels... . ......... . ... ... ..... . . . . . ..... . ..... . 7 Increased yield hay over ordinary methods, tons .... ......... ................... .. .......... . . .. 2 /5 Number of . cooperators . . . 157 Total acreage grown by cooperators ............ .. .. .... ...... .. .......... . .. .. ............ . .............. 1960 Average yield seed per acre, bushels. . ....... . ... . . ...... . . .. .. ... . . ....... . .. .... .. .. .... ... ... .. . . ..... .. 27 Average yield hay per acre, tons ... .. . .... . .. ... ... . .. . .......... ... ............ .... ......... . '. .. . ...... .... 4/5 Total acreage picked for seed ............. , ............ ... ..................................... .. , ............. 748 Total acreage cut for hay .... . . ........................................... . ...... :. .... .. ........ . ............... 438 Number of acres grazed off ...... . ..... . . ...... Estimated value per acre of grazing . ....... . .... . .. . .. . .... . ... .. ..... ... ... . ...... . . , . ...... ....... . $16 . 85 Total acreage turned under for soil improvement................................ .. ......... . . . 12 Total number of acres inoculated ..... . . . ....... .... ............. . ........... . .... ........ . ............ . .. 54 Estimated acreage planted in the State thru the county agents' influence ... . 2036 Percentage increase in acreage of peanuts as a result of county agents' influence: First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 25%; fourth year, 40%. COWPEAS Number of demonstrators ..... . ............. . .......... ... . : . .. ....... . .......................... . ............... 68 Numb e r of demonstrators reporting:.............. ... .......... ... ......... .. ........... ... . .. ........... 27 . Total acreage grown on demonstration farms....................... . . ..... .... ....... ........ ... 666 Average yield seed per acre on demonstrations, bushels.... .. . .. ......... . .. ... ......... ... 15 Average yield hay per acre on demonstrations, tons ............. , . ........... . . ..... ...... ... 2 Increased yield seed over ordinary methods, bushels ... ............ . .......................... 5 Increased yield hay ov ' er ordinary methods, tons...... ..... ..... ........ . . . . .. .. . ... . . ...... .... Number of cooperators . . . .. ........ . . ............................................. . .... ....... .... ..... ... . .. _. .. . . . 46 Total acreage grown by cooperators ......................................... . .................. :....... .. 196 Average yield seed per acre, bushels... . ........ ... ........... .. ................ .. ......... . .. .. ......... . 16 Average yield hay per acre, . tons...... ...... . ... ... ... ......... ......... .. ... ... . ........ ....... ........... . 1 Total acreage thrashed for seed ..... .. . ............. .... ..... ..... . .. ...... .......... ... . .. .. . .. .. . ... ... . 57 ' Total acreage cut for hay .... .. . ,........ ....... ...... ..... ........... . ............. .. ............. . ............. 78 Number of acres grazed off ............................. .... ............. .. ....................... ... ......... .. . 207 Estimated value per acre of grazing .... . ....... . .......... ... .. . .. . ...... ... ......... ........ . . .. .. . ... $ 7 Acreage turned under for soil improvement ............................................. : : ......... 168 Total number . of acres inoculated ...... . ........... .. ............ ... ..................... , .. ....... ...... .... 105 Estimated acreage planted thru the county agents' influence ........................ . . 787 . Percentage increase in acreage of cowpeas as a result of county agents' influence: . First year, 10%; second year, 15%; third year, 15 % ; fourth year, 15%. j.c.e.-3

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34 Florida Coope-rcctiv~ Extension SWEET POTATOES Number of demonstrators ... . ....................... : ............................ ....... ...... : ............... . : 131 Number of demonstrators reporting ..... ...... . ... .. ... .............. . .. ... . ....... : ... ........ ... .. : . . 45 Total acreage grown by demonstrators .... ...... .. :: . . '. . . .... . : ....... .. .... . . . . .. . 518 Acreage treated for diseases and pests ... ....... . ... ..... ... ..... . , .. . : . ... , . ,, . : .. . .. .............. ;,. , . 64 Acreage worked by improved methods ...... .. :.: . . : .. : ......... :~ .. .. '. ... : .. : .. , . . : . ....... .... ... .... . 1294 Estimated inc . reased acreage ... . ' : : IRISH POTATOES Number of demonstrators ... . ...... '.: ............ : .... .. ... ..... .......... : .... , . ... . .... .. ... ... ........... .... 25 . Number of demonstrators reporting ..... ....... . .......... ................. .. . ... ......... ,....... ..... .. 12 Total acreage grown by demonstrators . ... .. : .. . ...................... .... . ... .. ..... . . ........ .. . ... . 138 Acreage treated for diseases and pests ...... . .. . .. . ...... .. . .. . ... ... : .... : ... ... ....... ... .. .. .. ..... . . ; 675 Acreage . worked by improved methods ..... . . .. . : .. . ... . ... , . .. . , .. .. ....... . : ............. : . .. .... ... .. 530 Estimated increased acreage.. ............ , ...•... .. ... . . . .. .. . .. ....... , ... . .. , ... ,.: ... : ... : ......... ... , ... .. 831 . CITRUS Number of demonstration groves............................................ ....... ..................... 57 Total number of trees in these demonstrations ... . ............... . .... .. , ................. . . 93800 Groves inspected .............. ........ ....... . . .. , .... ..... .. ....... . . . .. ... 95; number of trees 36200 Groves pruned .... .. ..... : ......... . ...... ........................ . .... . ...... 74; number of . trees 41000 Groves sprayed ............... : .............. ........ .. . . .. . .. .. .... : .. . ..... 80; number of trees 20000 Groves planted .20; number of trees 12000 . Totals ...... ; .. '. ................... :.; . ... ........................ . . .. ....... '. ... 269; . 109200 Number of other groves where agents gave assistance .... ...... :..................... 95 DAIRY CATTLE Number of purebred dairy cattle introduced thru cou nty agents' influence: Bulls ... .. .. .... .. ................... . .... .. ...... ......................................... ...................... 48 Cows or heifers ... ;....... ......... . .. ................ . .... . . ... .............. .. . ............ .............. . ... 263 Number of cows tested for production ...... . .... .. .................. .. ... ..... ......... :........... l 02 Number of farmers induced to feed balanced rations .... ........... ................. .. :. 339 Number of cattle fed ............. ::.. . .. ................ .. . .. . .. .. .... ............. ..... . ........... .......... ... . 957 Number of demonstrations in dairy work supervised.... .................. .......... .... 6 Number of cows in these demonstrations .. .. . ... .... ........ .. . . .. ... . . ... .. ................. . . . 158 Number of purebred dairy cows when county agent work was started.... .. 1421 Number of purebred dairy cows now ... . .. . .. .. . . ....................... : ...... , ...... ....... .... , .. 1820 BEEF CATTLE. Number of pure blood beef cattle bought through county agents' influence : Bulls ........ . ... . ............... .... . .... ... .... .......... .. .... ........ . . .......... . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... ............. . . . ..... 280 Cows or heifers 960 Number of grade cows introduced for breeding purposes . . ... . .. ............. , .. . . ..... .2600 Number of beef breeding herds started. , .. ... . .... . ..... ........... .... . ... . . ...... . .. .. . : .... .... .... 59 Nu!l'lber of feeding cattle introduced ......... ..... .. . . . .................... . .... ..... ............. ........ 387 Number of beef feeding demonstrations ... .. . . :: .. . ...•. ............... . . .. -. ..... ............... . .... 6 Number of cattle fed .............. ...... ................ . .. .. .... . ...................... , . ............................ '. . . 281 Estimated number of beef cattle handled according to methods advocated . by county agents .. .... .. . .. ... .. .... ...... ......... .... .. . .. . ......... . . ... .. .. . . : .. ... ................... : . ... 289 Number of beef cattle breeders' associations formed .......... . .... . , ..... .. . ... . .. .. .. . ... . 7 Number of members : .... .... . : ....... .. ................................. ..... . . .... .. .... . : ..... . , . . .. :............... 102 Note: The number of beef cattle has not increased but the quality is showing general improvement. . . , , DIPPING VATS Number of dipping vats built this year thru county agents' influence.... 129 Number agents helped to construct ............ . .. . ... . : .............. .... ,: . . : ...................... 37 Number agents helped to fill with dipping solution ...... .. ... . , . ... . ............... :...... 85 Number in which agents tested the solution ... . ... ....... :, ........ , . .. ....... . : . ... , .... ,.... . 119 Total number in the State at this time .... . . . ... . . . ... , .... ..... ,.: ........... , . . ......... : .... . : ... 304 Estimated total number of cattle dipped during the year , .. .......•............... ,.167,930 Increase. in the number of vats in the State, by years: First year, 24; : second . year, 38; third year, 94; fourth year, 78. Tick eradication work is supported by the Florida State Live Stock Sanitary Board and the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry cooperating: , .

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An~ualReport, 1911 35 HOG& Purebred hogs brought into the State this year due to county agents' influence: ~i!~s o~gfft~::::::: :::::::: ::::::: :::: ::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::: :: ...... .. ........... . . .. . ...... .... ......... ::1~~g Extra head of purebred and grade sows bred ................................. ... . . : .... ..... . .. . .. 1919 Number of herds started .......... . ................... . .............. ................. . ............ . ..... . ........ 433 Number of hog feeding demonstrations supervised by agents ..... : .................. 98 Number of hogs ....... ...... ........ .... ..... , ................................................... . .... , ......... . ...... 1262 Number of hog pastures started : ......... .... .......... ....... ..... ......... ... .. ....... .................... 345 Number of farmers induced to grow grazing crops for hogs .......... . ............... 766, Estimated number of hogs cared for according to methods advocated by county agents . .. , ..... ......... .... ......... , ..... . . ....... ........ .. . ......... ........... . . .... ...... : .... .. ... 18,413 POULTRY Number of poultry demonstrations supervised:... . ..... ................. . ...................... 4 Number of poultry cared for according to methods advocated by agents .... 1745 Number of farms on which poultry management has been improved ....... ... .. 108 Number of birds on these farms ............... ....... ............... ...... .......... ...... ............ , .. .... 3645 Number of farmers producing non-fertile eggs ..... ... .. ... ...... ... .. ....... ........ ....... . ... 5 Number of eggs produced . ..... ..... .... ......... .. ....... .. .......... '. ... : ............. : ............. : . .... ..... 784 Average price, dozen ..... . ............... . .. .. ........ .......... , ........... . . ............. , .......... ... . : ........ .. . $ .35 LIVESTOCK DISEASES AND PESTS Number of head of livestock extension workers have induced farmers to have treated for diseases or pests: Cattle .................................................. ..... : ........ . : ................. ............................... : . 30,979 Hogs ...... . ..................... . ............... ...... .............. .. .............. . , . ........ ...... .. . . .. . ........... : .... 100,227 Sheep ...... . ............... . . .... .............. .. ............................... . ... . ............. .. ................. .. 25 Horses ..... . .. ... . .................. : ............................. . :.. ............... . ............ . .. ......... ..... .... ... 352 . FERTILIZER Number of farmers advised regarding proper use . of fertilizers ..... .......... . 3,663 Number of fertilizer demonstrations ........ ........ ........ .... ........ :....... ........ .......... . . 209 Tons of fertilizer used ..... .. :............................................................. . .................... 1,690 Number of communities buying fertilizers cooperatively . ... ......... : .......... . ... 40 Tons of fertilizer bought . cooperatively ... . .. .. .... ..... ........ ........... . ... ... . . ...... : ...... :.. 1,177 Value of fertilizer bought cooperatively .................. ... . ....... ... : ... ........ .......... . . $47,080 Amount save d to farmers ......... : .................. . ............... . .. . . ...... ....... ........ ........... . . . $ 5,885 Number of farmers home-mixing fertilizers ... : .... , ....... . ........... . , .................... . 347 Estimated saving to farmers ................................. ... .. . .... . . . .. . .. . .. ........... . ........... . . $ 1,672 Number of farmers who top-dressed crops with fertilizers ............. . ... ... .... 646 MANURE Number of farmers induced to take.better care of manure ......... . ..... '. ... : ... . . .. . 1,386 Number that provided sheds ..... . ............... , ........ : .. , ......... .......... ... .. ... ::. ........... . .. .. . 264 Number composting farm manure ................................ . ................ .. .................. , 759 Number of manure spreaders purchased by demonstrators ...... .. ...... : .. : ........ , :' 19 Number of farmers mixing raw phosphate with farm manure .,: .... ,.,: .. ,:. ,cc ... 1,112 Estimated quantity of farm m~nure saved, tons ..... ... .... :,::::2 9!600 SILOS Numbe~ of ' silos built in . the State this year ............ ... ......... ..... : ..... . . ..... , .... : ...•.. '. 88 Number built as result of county agents' advice ... :. '.: .: : ............. .: .. . . ;: ... : .... ':! .:. :!.'. Number . in State , when county agents' work was started ... , .;: .. . , ........ . " ' . 64 Number of silos in the State now ............................................. '. ...................... ..... . 182 ' Title; 4; cement, 44; stave, 90; other materiai, 44: ' Growth in number of silos .bY years.: . First .year, ~0; ,second year 1 35; third year, 16; fourth year, 46. LIME Number of :farmers using ume due to cou~ty ager{t~; inflti~nce :::.:. ' .:.:: .. : ... '.:'.: 681 Quantity of . lime used, . in tons .. ........ ,.,, ..... , .. .... ,.,i,: ' ... ... ,,: . : ..• ,::.~:.;.: .. . . : •.....• ,: •...• : .. . : :4879 l~~!!he~~riri~t~1!t~:::::::~::::::::: ::: :::::::.:::::: ?::'.: ' :'.: ?'.:::::: :::::: :::?:'.:'. '.:::: ::: u :lf

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' 36 Flo ri da Coop er ati v e . E ;,; tension Number of acres limed first year of demonstration work ... .. . . . ... ............... . . ..... . 717 Number of acres limed second year .... .. : .... , . , ... .. ... .. . , ........ , .... . ..... . . .. ... . ........ ... .. ... . ... 1038 Number of acres limed third year . ... . ......... .... . .. ...... , ...... . .. .. . , ....... . . : . . .... : : ... . , .. .. '. ..... 625 : Number of acres limed fourth year .... .. ... ..... . . . ... . . ... . . , ....... ... .. ....... . , .. . . .... . , ... . . ...... . 2750 Number of acres limed . fifth year .. . .. , .. , . . , . . . . .. , .. ... .. , . . . .. . .. , . . . .. . .. . . . ... .. ..... .. ,. . . ... ... .. . .. . 54 . Total acreage limed .. . ... .. •. , .... : ...... , .... , . .. ... , .. ,,, . . , . ............. . , . . . . . .... . . .. .......... '. . .. , . .. ,: .5184 HOG CHOLERA INOCULATION WORK The cooperative arrangement between . the Bureau . of Animal Industry ; U. S. D. A., and the University Extension Division con tinues with Dr. A.H. Logan iii cba'rge. He has strived persistently to make .the . work of greatest yalue'to the state. The county agents have cooperated to the fullest extent . to make the work effective . . Doctor Logan's report show~ . that 152 farmers' meetings in _ which he took part were held. . . . Three assistants to Doctor Logan were appointed for the coming year,-Drs. L. N. Peterson, H. F. Walker, and A. S. Houchin. With these assistants the work will be systernatized to , prevent the cu ;;; tomary heavy losses sustained by swine breeders. Late reports from the county agents indicate a reduction o~ hog :cholera whic_h shows that this educational work is having good effect on the hog industry in Florida. WORK WITH NEGRO FARMERS The work among negroes has been conducted along the same I lines , as last year.. There is one regularly appointed negro county agent, in Leon County, who works four days a week in the field ari . d two days at the A. & M , . College, Tallahassee!: The farm and home makers' club work among negroes has been conducted with the usual crops in six counties. The names "farm _ maker" and "home maker''. are applied to :negro clubs organized under the supervision of 'the Extension Di vision, University of Florida, as provided for in the . Smith-Lever Act . . While the agricultural'club agent has direc.t supervision of this extension work among negroes the activities are supervised by A. A. Turner, agent for farm and home makers' clubs, :who has headquarters at the Florida A. & M. College for negroes, Talla hassee. The purpose of this extension work is to increase produc tion _from the farms operated by negroes inthe state .. So far it has . been uridertaken only where the work would count for the most and . where such work seemed most feasible. TJ:le project has been directed toward . agricultural trajning for 2olored youth, inducing them to raise fQod crops on a better plan than is generally followed by negro farmers in the state. The main

PAGE 38

Annual Report; 19J7 " , . . 37 , crops undertaken have been corn, peanuts, and sweet potatoes . . The agent for farm and home makers' clubs reports that 175 negro members each raised one-half acre of cornf one-fourth acre pean~ts and one-fourth acre s:weet potatoes. The yield from 871/2 acres of corn showed a higher average than that for the state. After de ducting the cost of production from the yalue of the crop a profit of more than $2,500, or a little more than $14 an acre was left. There were 43 acres planted to peanuts which produced ari average yield of about 48 bushels. . This crop netted an average profit of $6.50 for the quarter acre. For the sweet potatoes planted, the yield was estimated at about 90 bushels to the acre which is . considerably above the average for the state. Comparing this report with last ye~r•s it shows an increase of four bushels to the acre in corn. No comparison can be made with the peanut and sweet-potato yields as these crops were not grown the previous year by club members. HOME MAKERS' CLUBS The home makers' clubs enroll negro girls and encourage vege table gardening. For the most part the main vegetable crop has been tomatoes and the surplus was canned for home use. During the spring and summer seasons six assistant agents were appointed in as many counties whose time was given chiefly to canning vege tables. In most cases excellent products were preserved which added considerably to the food supply and as this is the most im portant consideration during the present emergency it is important to increase the food supply as far as conditions permit. NEGRO FARMERS• MEETINGS More than 2,000 negro farmers attended public meetings ar ranged by the negro club agent and assistants. There were ar ranged at convenient places and times and the subjects discussed were mainly on increased food production with special emphasis placed on better cultural methods. At each one of these places the essentials of hog cholera control were made plain to the negro farmers. This is especially important as these club workers have been instrumental in saving many hogs from cholera by having them vaccinated, and, what was more important, to emphasize that outbreaks of hog cholera are often started by allowing the negro's sick hogs to mingle with his neighbor's healthy ones. Aside from the work undertaken in the counties planned for, additional counties carried on voluntary work induced by the de mand for food conservation. The following counties had the.

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38 Florida Cooperative Extension services of an assistant home-makers' club agent , for four months: Washington, Gadsden, Leon, Jefferson, Alachua, and Marion, with assistant agents employed in each. coUNTIES THAT VOLUNTEERED TO CARRY ON WORK Following is a report of seven other counties that volunteered to organize clubs last season, in which considerable food conservation was . accomplished. Duval County, 12 clubs organized, l165 cans of fruit and vegetables put up. Hillsboro, 4 clubs organized, 550 cans put up. Volusia, Daytona Industrial School, 2750 cans put up . . Putnam, instructor employed by county, 1165 cans put up. Madison, .2 clubs organized, 450 cans put up. Suwannee, 2 clubs organized, 275 cans put up. Columbia, 3 clubs organized, 650 cans put up. Total number of clubs organized, 23; cans put up, 7,840. Arrangements were mad . e with the Department whereby the negro club agent was able to give some assistance. STATISTICAL REPORT The reports of the negro club agent made during the year to the state agent show the following: g:~: ;~~t:~ \: 0 J:1~~::::::::::: ::::::::::::: ::::: : ::::::::::::: : :: :::::::::: : :: :: : :::~:::::::: :::::::: :::: . 2~g f ~1~t1~q~If ~le~~~~~:::~:~~~~~:::::: : ::::::::: : ::: : :::::::::::::::::::::: : ::::::: : :::::: :::::::::::::: ~:iii Individual visits made: To club members ..... , .. . .......... ..... .... . .. . . . ..... .. ............... 368 Meetings held ................. .. .. :::::::: :::::: : :::::::::::::::::::::::: : . Total attendance, or number of people reached...... . ......... . .. . . 8,990 Miles tr.aveled by rail .......... .. .................... .... . . . . . .. ................ .. 9 331 Miles traveled by auto and other conveyanc es. . . ................ . . .. .. ....... ............... 3' 773 Total miles traveled ..... .... .. , ........ .. ..... ........ .. ..... . ........ ......... .. . . . ::::: ::::::: :::::::::::: rn:101

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Annual Report, 191 REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR EAST AND SOUTH FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. 39 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for East and South Florida for the year ending December 31, 1917. Respectfully, H. S. MCLENDON, District Agent. INTRODUCTION The farmers' cooperative demonstration .work in the district of East and South ~lorida has made satisfactory progress, altho after the declaration of war in April it was found inadvisable to carry out ail the plans as arranged during the first of the year. The productionof _more .feeds for livestock and the growing of more staple crops have been pushed in every county in this district, and in most of them With• marked succe~s. Farmers are making a greater -~ff ort to produce home supplies and by another yea~ this increase will have a noticeable effect on the total food production of Florida. CATTLE AND HOGS In Brevard County the farmers were induced to grow 'an in,. creased acreage of feed which influenced the bankers to buy o'ne. car of dairy cattle. . This stock was. distributed over the county to: individual farmers: the banks received a cash payment andca,rriea' the balance when the farmers needed help. The dairy industry has been generally increased,' especfa,qyjri Dade and Pasco counties. _In Dade County. several carloads .o:f dairy cattle have been brought in and more will come in .the riear future. The growing of forage cfops for these cattk and the erection of silos is progressing. . . . . The beef cattle industry has also received special attention. Steer feeding in the truck counties from crops grown on vegetable fields during the summer gives a new source of income from the truck fields. The fields being well fertilized and cultivated, ptodu:ce a heavy tonnage of corn in the summer. This crop makes a ,large amount of excellent silage where formerly the summer crops grown' on these farms were largely wasted. Seminole, Manatee and Marion counties have erected silos for this purpose and. most of the :other counties have erected one or more silos for steer feeding. ; : , Hogs are being given a promfoent place on most of the farms. Where only a few years ago the native piney-woods razorback

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40 Florida Coop era ti ve E x t ension FIG. 8.-Registered Hereford he . rd bull, Holmes County roamed at will, one can see fields enclosed with wire fences growing forage crops to be used for grazing purebred hogs. Forty pure bred gilts were purchased for Brevard County farmers. Some of these were bred gilts and cost approximately $100 each. The agents are still doing a great deal of hog cholera vaccination. In some counties this work is nearly all the agents can handle at times, but with the assistance of the individual hog raisers some counties are able to keep the disease pretty well under control. A special effort is being made to encourage farmers to grow feed for one or two milk cows, for his work stock, and sufficient to fatten enough animals to furnish meat for his own table. CITRUS DEMONTRATIONS The freezes in February affected a number of groves in which spraying demonstrations had been planned to such an extent that it was impracticable to continue them. However, a sufficient num ber of groves have been sprayed under demonstration methods to impress grove owners that if the spraying is properly done and at the right time it is profitable to spray. In every county the agent tries to encourage the growers to keep in touch with the Experiment Station and follow its recommendations in controlling fungus and insect troubles.

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AnnualReport, 1917 41 .TR.UCK DEMONSTRATIONS A number of demonstrations in the treatment of the soil with cyanamid for the control of root-knot have been conducted in counties where truck is the principal cash crop. This treatment is usually applied to seed beds, yet some fields have been treated. The use of fungicides and other insecticides in the seed bed and field has also been greatly encouraged with marked success, all this work being done cooperatively, with the Experiment Station directing and outlining the work. Another feature that has been given considerable attention in some of the truck districts is that of collecting samples of fertilizer and forwarding them to the State Chemist for analysis. A large number of these samples have shown an analysis below that guar anteed on the tag. One agent drew and sent in samples that showed a shortage sufficient to cause the fertilizer manufacturers to return to the growers more than $15,000. APPROPRIATION TO SUPPORT COUNTY WORK Due to the increased expenses in the.operation: of a car, it has peen necessary to increase county agents' salaries. Inasmuch as the funds from Federal and State sources have been insufficient to make the increases, the counties have been asked to increase their appropriation. In practically all cases, this increase has been granted. The average appropriations from counties for the coming year is more than $1,100. It is gratifying to note that boards of county commissioners have come to realize that the county agent's appro priation is one of the most profitable expenditures they can make. They further realize the necessity of sufficient appropriation to secure the services of well trained agricultural leaders, so that each year experiences less difficulty in securing the necessary appropriations than formerly. DeSoto, Dade and Broward counties were added to the co-operat ing list during the year.

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42 Florida Cooperative E_xtension REPORT OF THE DISTRICT AGENT FOR NORTH AND , WEST . FLORIDA P. H. , Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the . report . of the district ' agent for North and West Florida for the.year ending December 31, 1917. Respectfully, INTRODUCTION K W. JENKINS, District Agent. The farmers' cooperative demonstration ,vork in the district of North and West Florida has been conducted in twenty;.onecounties. The work in.Bay, Bradford, Franklin and Walton counties was not begun until October 1. Leon County was without an agent from March 1 until April 1, and from June ' 1 until October 1. Since beginning the work, February 15, I have trave . led by rail 16,816 miles, and hy automobile 2,620, making a total of 19,436 miles; 122 official visit . s have been mad . e to the county agents, . and 55 farmers' meetings have been attended. At these meetings there was a total attencl~nce 0f . 5,347. Accompanied by . the county agents 216 farmers wefa visited. From these farms I was able to see the average conditions and to give the greatest assistance to the county agent for his general work. . ' The general interest ip the work is 1,hown , by the appropriation for the fiscal year endihg June , 30th, i918, which is $19,290 as compared with $12,800 for the year ending June 30, 1917. ! ORGANIZATION Organizatio11 ' has beeh made a , spe ' cial feature of the c.ounty work this year. ' Severar' of the courities are now organized and in others the plans are made. The . general pla:n . is f6r , th~ county agent to meet the commissioners' court and have each commissioner appoint a man in hi~ respective district. These five men constitute a county agricultural committee. Each man, with the help of the county agent, appoints in his respective district four other men who compose a district agricultural committee. Each district com mittee assists the county agent in planning and carrying out the work in his district. Owing to the fact that a great portion of the county agent's time is required to further . crop production, food conservation, and food surveys, the organization work has been of more than usual benefit to the county agents.

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Annual Report, 1917 43 CORN The acreage planted to corn was greatly increased. In some sections of the district the _lack of rain reduced the yield to some extent. In these sections the demonstration fields suffered very little, thus showing the value . of proper methods of soil prepara tion, fertilization, and cultivation. In one county thirty-three demonstrators having ten acres each in their demonstration plots, made an average yield of 37.3 bushels per acre at a cost of 24.8 cents per bushel. Several grain elevators have been erected in the district to assist in preparing the corn for market. The county agents have done much work in showing farmers how to build cribs and treat their corn to kill the weevils. COTTON The acreage planted to cotton was more th~n that of last year, but owing to the spread of the boll weevil thru the entire district the yield was less. Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, and Suwannee counties suffered the greatest losses from the weevil this year. Madison County produced only twenty-seven percent as much as last year. A great effort was made to teach the farmers the proper method of cultivation under boll _weevil conditions, but owing to excessive rainfalls during the summer months, which furnished ideal con ditions for the multiplication of boll weevils, and also to the fact that Sea Island cotton was planted, it befog a late-maturing variety, the loss was exceedingly heavy. VELVET_ BEANS An effort was made by the county agents to induce as many farmers as possible to plant velvet beans as a soil builder and a forage crop. A large acreage was planted thruout the district. In a number of towns feed mills have been installed for the purpose of making feed of velvet beans, corn, and other products. Mixtures of velvet beans and corn ground together make an ex cellent feed for horses and cattle. This feed finds a ready market and has already become an important industry. Large quantities of beans are fed whole on farms or in feedlots in the pods either dry or soaked. There is an increasing demand for such feed. This bean is coming to be a staple article, and great improvement to the soil by growing this crop is seen. PEANUTS Peanuts have become an important crop in the northern and western .part of the state. A peanut-oil mill built at Malone this

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44 Florid"a Cooperative Extension year has proven of great value to the farmers of that section. The indications are that several mills will be erected ir1 the district another year which will give the farmers a cash market for all the peanuts they grow. The fariners of the Malone section find the peanuts much more valuable as a cash crop than cotton was even before the appearance of the boll weevil. LIVESTOCK Quite a large part of the activities of all county agents has to do with fostering the production of more and better livestock. The need of such work is evident. The efforts of the county agents have been very successful along this line. In West Florida the woi-li has developed so far that a one hundred thousand dollar packing house has been ere~ted at Chipley. This packing house, togethe1 with the one already in operation in Jacksonv1lle, will give th( farmer a nearby market. Many farmers are shipping in carloaC: lots. In some sections where farmers do not have enough hogf to make a carload the county agents assist them in making a co• operative shipment. A great many purebred hogs for breeding purposes have been brought into the state thru the influence of the county agent. Much improvement in pastures and grazing crops, as well as in methods of feeding has been made. The cattle industry has not been neglected. Carloads of grade or purebred beef cattle have been shipped into the district. HOG CHOLERA All agents give a good portion of their time to the control of hog cholera. Thru the assistance of the hog cholera specialist they have full instructions and information on diagnosis of the disease,. and the use of serum and virus has consequently added materially to the value of the herds in the district by preventing or control ling hog cholera outbreaks. Farmers are instructed in the use of the serum and are shown the advantage of equipping themselves with outfits for administering it. The agent frequently having other engagements is prevented from getting to an outbreak as quickly as may be necessary to avoid the loss of a good part of the herd, whereas, if the farmer has the outfit he can administer the treatment promptly and avoid unnecessary losses. DIPPING VATS Demonstration agents are working with other forces in the educational campaign leading to the eradication of the cattle tick

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Annual Report, 1917 45 This work. . haf! c~miiitecl ht ' pointiI}g out . and explaining the loss caused" by the tick, aiso in giving aid in the construction of dipping vats. MQst of the dipping v-ats constructed under agents' super vision this yea:r are community vats. By means of such vats some of the ~ most effective . tick eradieation __ ed . ucational work is accom plished. The cattle owners in a comm.unity, or within a radius of a few mires) -join in constructing a : central Vll-t, each one contributing eith~r . morrey or labor . . Such citize , ns thus feel that the vat belongs to them,they use it freely and take pride in telling others of the merits of dippi _ ng cattle. The sentiment thus created is much more whoieso"ine than that which sometimes follows the installa tion of a coqnty: or pblic va t pefore the necessary educational work ha s . been done. In the latt er case the cattle owners somet imes re sent the seeniing:Jy: qutside interference with their personal matt ers. FIG. 9.-Corn club . and pig club members, Madison County

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FIG. 10.-Corn club and pig club members attending the Boys' Short Course, University of Florida

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AnnualReport, 1917 REPORT OF THE BOYS' AGRICULTURAL CLUB AGENT . P. H. Rolfs, Director. _ _ 47 SIR: I submit herewith the report of the boys' agricultural club agent for the year ending December 31, 1917. . Respectfully, . G. L. HERRINGTON, Boys' Club Agent. INTR
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48 Florida Coop e rati v e E x tension were entirely defeated by the dry . ;weather . , but . they do not . seem discouraged. Boys of this kind usually have a determination to try again next year. Many boys failed to report because their yie lds were not a~ good as they had expected. We are sure much FIG. 11.-Poland-China gilt; age 8 months; weight, 367 pounds. Owned by Dan Gamble, Suwannee County more " good has been accomplished this year than during any previ ous year in the history of the club work. Th e following summary of the corn-club work gives an idea of .its extent in Florida: Total number of boys enrolled in the state .... .. .. .. ..... .. ... . ...... ...... ... ... . ....... .. 1,132 Total number of boys reporting in the state ........ .. ... .. .......... . ...................... 413 Total number of bushels reported in the state ..... .. .. .... : ......... .. ........... . ....... 15,531.54 Total cost of production .. . .......... .. ................ ..... ...... ........ ... .. ...................... ... .... $6,969.31 Average cost per bushel... .......................... ... ............. .. .. .. ..... .. . ......................... $ 0 .46 1 Average number of bushels per acre .. ...... ........ . .. .... .................... . .... ....... .. .. 37 .67 This s umm ary was taken from the reports of the various coun ties thruout the state . There were six counties in which clubs were

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Annual R~port, 191'7 ' 49 organized that failed to report. This was due to not having county agents present in the fall to work up the contests and assist the boys thru the fall season. These reports do not give the complete results of the corn-dub work. Many boys conducted excellent dem onstrations but it is not possible to coll~ct the results from all. The following table gives an idea of the _ work as it stands in the various counties: . SUMMARY CORN CLUB WORK COUNTY Hernando ........... . .......... . , .... ! Hillsboro .:. ..... . ............. : ..... ' Washington .................. .. .... ; ~~krt~ .,: :-:::::::::: : :::::::::::::::: : ;: : ~;~~!n :::::::::;:: : :::::::::: ::: : : :: :; j Nassau . .... .. ..... . . ... ,.: .... .. . .... .. i Wakulla ......... .... .......... .. ... .. ! St. Johns ... .. . . .. ... ... : ... .. . .. .... : 111~:~ ::::::::: :::::::::: :::: : :::::::: ' [ Santa Rosa i . Alachua . .. ..... . .. . . .. .. .. .... ........ . ..... ..... .. : . 1 Hamilton I Putnam ......... ..... ............. . . . Jackson . : ......... . . .. ......... ...... .. : Citrus . : . . .................... ....... .. . Leon .... .. .. . . .. .... .. . ... ........ . . .. . . Baker ........... .. . ... ........ . .. ... .. . Gadsden .......... .. .............. : .. . Lee .. . .. . . ............. . . . ........ . ..... . Lake .. ... . ... ........ ... . . ..... '. ... . . .. . Orange . : .............. : ......... . . . .. . Sumter .: ....... .. ... . ................ . Okeechobee . . ... .. . . .. . ....... ... . . ~:r!:bia;:::~:::: : . ::: : : ::: :: : ::::::: Brevard ........... . ............ .. ... . LaFayette ... : . . ... .......... .. . . .. . Jefferson . .. ._ . ., . . . .. , ............ . ... , 36 33 , 30 26 26 25 21 19 18 16 . : 14 12 12 11 10 10 9 . 9 9 8 8 7 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 . : 1 . 1 (I) ti . (I) (I)::, P./:Q ~P.. o!"C .. , o! , (1) t~ '"'.,.<:; P...,-t CJ i:: gJ . << < 73.6 60.0 78.2 70 . 5 102.1 80.5 62.0 100.1 76.0 29.0 65.0 . 57.5 85.3 . 92.4 26.5 45.7 71.8 63.7 98.0 82.4 70.7 68.0 68:3 67.0 58.7 30.0 106.5 27.0 69.0 25.0 56.5 80.3 50.0 50.0 . 38.5 d /:Q . . ''..<:: ~t>I) ~ "C ..,:r:~'H ~ , oo::,., $0.15 .• 16 .42 .23 .27 .16 ' :22 .13 .48 ' .67 .30 .80 .19 .19 .42 . , . 53 .44 .46 .30 .10 .32 .16 .19 .28 .36 .59 ; 39 .64 .17 .62 .35 .15 .40 '.42 .36 . _ It _ is interesting to note that there has been a gradual increase i n . nurriber of lOO~btishel yields . each year. In 19i5 One boy pro duced more than Rhundred bushels: In l916'three boys made sim ilar reco~ds and this y ear four boys produced mor~ ' than a hundred bushels per acre. Their names and reports are as f o1lows: J .c . e-4

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50 . Florida Coop e rative Extension CLUB Boy COUNTY YIELD COST RANK LeRoy Alderman .... . . ...... , .. .. Lake .. ..... . . . .. . ... .. . . 106.5 .39 First Lawton Martin .. . . . . ... .. .... . .. ... Marion ... .. : .. . : . .. . .. 100.1 .13 Second Edgar Lock e . . .... . .. . . . .... . . . ...... Lake . . . ...... . . . .... .. . . 100.5 .27 Third Paul Parrish . .. ... .. . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. Polk .. . . .... .... ......... 102.2 .27 Fourth These four demonstrations created much intere s t in the corn club thruout the state and a large number of boys will make plans to obtain similar results next year . The corn-club boys have learned valuable lessons in crop rota tion. A great many planted peanuts, cowpeas or velvet beans with their corn and produced about the same yield of corn that they have been accustomed to without the legume crop. They find that the legume crop is almost a net profit. PIG CLUBS The pig clubs have made unusual progress this year and created more interest among the boys, farmers, and business men thruout the state than any other branch of the club work. The swine breeders .of Florida have been able to supply about half of the pigs needed by pig-club members, and the other members ordered from breeders in Southeastern states . There were 652 boys who joined the pig clubs and raised purebred pigs. The different breeds were represented as follows: Duroc-J erseys, 520; Poland-Chinas, 77; Berkshires, 40; and Hampshires, 15. Each boy keeps a record of all his work, but on account of the difficulty in bringing the animals to the exhibits complete data was coHected .from only 225 . This report is summarized as follows : W e ig,4t of pigs at beginning' of co n test, pounds . . . .... . ... . ... . .. . . . ... . ..... . .. .. . . ... 8,955.0 Weight at end of contest, pound s . .. . ....... . ..... .. . . ....... . .. . .. ...... ... . ... . ...... .... ...... 41,6 7 0 . 0 Net gain in weight, pound s . ... ... .. .. . . .... .. . . . ... .. ... . .... ..... ...... . . . .... .. . . . ...... . ....... ... . 32,715.0 Average weight at beginning of contest, pounds. .... . .. .. .. ... ... . .. . . .. . .... . . . . 39 . 8 Average weight at end of contest, pounds .. . .... . . . . .. ... .. . . . . ... .. . .... .... .. . . .. . . . . . . 185.2 Average net gain in weight, pounds . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . ... . .... . .. .. ... .. .. ... .. . 145.4 Length of feeding period, days . ..... . .. . ... . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . : . . ... .. .. , ... ... . . . .... .. . . . .. . .. .. ..... 147.3 Average daily gain in weight, pounds. .. ..... . .. .. ... .. . . . .. ... ... . . .... . . .... ... ... . .. ..... . . . .99 Average cost per pound of gain ... . ... . .. . . . . . . . .. , . . . ... . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .... . . . .... . . .. . . .. ... .... . . $ .06 Average . price paid for pigs ..... ... . . . .... . . ... ..... .... ..... .... .... .. .. .. ... .. . ... ... . . .. . . . ... ... . $ 10.38 Ayerage cost of gain per pig . .... .. . . .... .. . . . . . .. .... : . . . .. .. . . . . . ... . . ...... . .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . .... .. . : $ 9.23 Average value at close of c ontest.... .. . . . ... . ... . .. . . .. . .... ... . .. .. . .. . . ... . .. .. . . . . . .. .. ..... $ 50.30 Average net profit per pig . .. . .. .... ... ...... ..... .... ..... .... .. . . . . ... ...... ... . . . .. ..... . . ; .. ..... .. . $ 30.69 The bankers of the state have again this year loaned money to all boys recommended by the county agents to be used in purchasing purebred swine. The boys are required to give their notes and in most cases no indorsement is necessary. They have the . use of the money for a year and a half at six percent interest. This gives ample time to raise pigs from those bought and to sell a few before the notes are due.

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Annual Report, 1917 51 One of the most interesting reports was that of Dan Gamble, a Suwannee County boy. Dan purchased a twelve-weeks-old Poland China pig, weighing 18 pounds, for $13. He fed it and gave it good attention during the summer and fall, and exhibited it at the Suwannee County fair. This pig was placed in the entrance of the swine building and was by far the most attractive animal on exhibition. It was eight months and twelve days old, and weighed 367 pounds. Before the fair was over it sold for $125, gold. The pig cost $5.50 to raise, making a total cost of $18.50. The net profit for the six months' work with this animal was $106.50. Arthur Powers of St. Johns County made a similar record. When his pig was purchased it weighed 23 'pounds and cost him $11.15; He fed it 159 days at an expense of $8.35. At the end of the feeding period the animal weighed 280 pounds, making a net gain of 257 pounds . It was sold to the highest bidder on contest day in St. Augustine for $95, which left a net profit of $75.50. The three hundred boys who raised purebred gilts last yeai have bred their animals and raised one or two litters this year. A great niany who gave $10 for their vriginal gilts have sold pigs this year for $12.50 each. The boys in the pig clubs have made special effort to grow green feed for their animals. Many have provided pastures, but those who live in towns where this was not possiblo grew small plots 6f green feed to be used as soiling crops. The increased cost of con centrated feeds made it hard for some who had to buy them but the increase in the price of breeding stock as well as pork gave them the assurance of a good profit. Practically every boy fed his animal himself and the boys have obtained some valuable experience in feeding balanced rations. Some boys have exhibited their animals at practically all the fairs this year. Their pigs, as a whole, ranked among the best livestock on exhibition. Not only the boys but the farmers and the general public have seen the good results of the pig-club work by having the ap.imals exhibited. We have made plans to hold a state pig contest during the State Fair in Jacksonville next spring. It has not been possible so far to hold a state contest but with the assistance of the state fair management and the various swine breeders' associations it will no doubt develop into an interesting feature of the pig-club work. PEANUT _ CLUBS The peanut club has made some progress this year and there seems to be an increased interest in the growing of this crop in all

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52 Florida. Cooperati~e . Extension gen~;a:1 far~in'g ' sectioh~ of the s'tiite,' ' Thirty-four b~ys in thh(club made an : ~verage yield : of 51.2 bushelsof ' peanuts per acre at a ccist of 39 . centsa bushel. With our presenfprice for peanuts they made good . profits . . . Many other . boys who planted peanuts ' with . their corn le . ~t . them in the field for ; theit pigs to harvest. . . . . TRUCK-CROP ' CLUBS . The truck-:crop clubs are being developed 1n the most southern counties where the conditions are :tnost suitable.' The crops are grown during the winter months a:i::id ' reports are not ready at this time. : . : BOYS' MEETINGS We htive held a great many interesting fueetings with . the boys in practically an countiei ' Each boy felt himself a part of the orgarti~atiori._ regardless of the branch of club work . in which he was engaged. They _ usually . met at the ' school houses if the schools were not in session or at the county seat or at some picnic ground. The pr'ogra~ wa s . given . in the forenoon and the afternoon was spent as. an outing .. Contests were held . in thirty-five counties this fall and the exhibits of corn and peanuts showed that the boys had improved a great deal in their ' methods _ of selecting products for exhibition. There is also a marked improvement in'the pigs shown this year over those of last year. . ' The results of . the year's work were brought out at the boys' short course ' in agri'cultur~ at the University; December 3 to 8. There were 112 boys present from 34 counties, an increase of 53 . percent over . the attendance last year. Fifteen boys who attended Iasf fearreturned. There were 48 boys above i6 years cif age and many of that number are planning to enter the College of Agriculture. .. . The officers ~nd instructors at the University gave every possible assi~fance in presenting a good programand ' made the short course a . success. The _ bankers, railroads, boards of trade and business men thruout the state paid the expenses of most of these boys to the short course . . On the last riightof their stay in Gainesville the bankers of Gainesville ga.ve _ them an excellent supper, at which time ' tlie state . prizes were awarded and every boy received a diploina fof the excellent work he had done. . TJ:i'e boys) club agent took part in 9() meetings in the interest of the club work and the total , estimated attendance at those meet ings ; Wa~.~6,570 , . F;ron:i . o~e to t4ree day _ s were , sp1ant at each of the 118 . yis~ts. ma,qe, ~o ,cou;nty agents anci considerable time . wgs spent in counties that . have~() agents, visiting 330 farm~. The distance

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. Annual Report, 1917 53 FIG . 12.-Three of the four boys making more than one hundred bushels of corn to . the acre . (Left to right) Leroy Alderman, Lawton Martin, Edgar Locke traveled by rail was 15,740 miles, by auto 4,345, by team 57; making a total of 20,144 miles. E. M. Manning, who was appointed assistant emergency boys' club agent the first of October, has taken charge of the field work in the northern and western counties. He works directly with the county agents, giving any necessary assistance in the development of the boys' club work.

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' 54 Florida Co operative Extension ; , The farm and home makers' clubs under the supervision of A. A. Turner of the A. & M. College, Tallahassee, have made very credit ~ble progress. He has had assistant club agents working in Jack1;1on, Washington, Gadsden, Leon, M arion, Alachua and Jeff erso _ n ~ounties. ' ! '. In the farm makers' clubs the negro boys cultivate one acre of iand to the following crops : one half corn, one quarter peanuts and one quarter sweet potatoes. . . . .. i .; In the home makers' clubs the negro girls grow one-tenth acre tomatoes and can and preserve many products from the farm. ; ; About 1250 negro boys and girls are enrolled in the farm and home makers' clubs and many are getting very creditable results. BOYS ATTENDING SHORT COURSE AT UNIVERSITY i ALACHUA COUNTY ! i;f .. NAME AGE ADDRESS C~rrol Beacham Emerson .............. , ............. .18 .... . ..................... Micanopy U:r:~e Fo:aG;y:.-.-.-...-...._-......~~. : ::::::::::::::::::: : :::::e:t~~rne John G. Herlong . . ..... .... ... . ... , .. . . '. . ... .... ....... .. . .. 16 . ...... .. ... .... .. .. .. ... . Micanopy Karl M. Jones .. . . ..... ......... . . .... ... . . , . ................. .15 .. . . . ............ .. ... .. . Micanopy Clarence W. Maddox ............ .... . .. .................. 15 . . ..... .. .... ........... .. Micanopy Arthur William Saarinen ..... .... . . .. .. .............. 15 ... ..... .................. Alachua l!enry Dorsey Sanchez ....... .. .... . ................... 15 .......................... Newberry Merrill Mildredge Shaw .... ... ..................... . .. 14 . . . ....................... Gainesville William S. Williams ....... ... ... . .. . . ... ............ . ... 16 . ... . . .. . . .......... .. .... Micanopy Albert R. Zetrouer ............... .. .. . . . ..... .. ..... ..... . 17 . ... .. . .. . . , ........... . .. Micanopy : ' :. . BAKER COUNTY Alton Lucious Driggers .............. . ................ 14 . . .. .. .. ....... , .......... Lake Butler . 1;,i , BREY ARD COUNTY C~;rence W. Hughes ................ ... . .... ............. 18, .. . . . . ................... Eau Gallie , , ), BROW ARD COUNTY f::o:wler J. Howard . . .... ... . ....... ... . . . ... .. .... .... . .. . . 18 .... . . ......... .. . .... .. .. Ft . Lauderdale , j,. CALHOUN COUNTY J a mes Lewis Atkins ......... .. ..... . .................... 13 . . ..... .............. .. ... Selman : .,..1 CITRUS COUNTY E1'dwin Henry Fitzgerald ..... . . .. ..... .. ............ 13 . . .... ... ............. .. .. Inverness E!irnest Drew Miley ..... . . . ...... .. . ....... ............ 16 .......................... lnverness .i\~a Corlin Sharp . ............ .. .. .......... . . . .. , . . ... ... . . 15 .. . .. . .... . .......... ... .. Brooksvill.e Eugene Edward Turner .. . . . .. . . ...... .. .. . ..... . .. . . .. 13 ..... .. . ... .. ..... ..... . .. Crystal River Charles B. Zellner .......................................... 15 . . .. ...... . ....... ...... . . Floral City CLAY COUNTY Alton Conway . ...................... . .. . . . . .. . ................ 13 ....................... .. . Green Cove Springs Willie Guy Hall... .................... ......... , ............ 11.. . . . . .................. .. West Tocoi . John Lewfa McDanieL. ........... : . .. . : ..... . ..... .. .. 14 .. : . ..... . ... .. .......... . Green Cove Springs Roy Queen Saunders .............. .. ... . .. . . . .. . .... ... . .. 16 .......................... Green Cove Springs . DUVAL COUNTY _ : ~t:r~!,-~: ::i~si~':.,_-;::"..~_-_-_:: _-. . . -_-_:.._-. ~._-._-_-_-..._-.._-_-_-.}~ ::::: : ::::::::::::: 0 :: ::ii~f:~~ville Leo William, Curry.,L ..... , ... , ; . : .c ................... 16. : . . ...... ....... : ...... . Loretto 8lferil_I~~~~ii6f :;:;;;~:: _-_-_-~~:~ t:?!; .: :: ; _-_-: ; _-. :: : _-_-_-: :.-_-_Jg : ::: : : :: ::::::::::: :::::: }~:k;~~ville Sidney Floyd Thomas ............. .. .. . .. .... ... .. . . . . 1. :, . . , .. ... . .. . ... .. , . .. . Baldwin

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.Annual Report, 1917 . ... ESCAMBIA COUNTY NAME AGE ADDRESS Tom William Floyd ...................................... 17 .......................... Cantonment HERNANDO COUNTY Raymond Walter Wernicke ........ .. .. . . . . ...... . 15 .......... ... ............. Brooksville HILLSBORO COUNTY Jesse Bryant Alderman ............ .. .... .. ........... . 16 .............. . ........... Youmans Hugh Charlie Davis ........ ........... ....... ............ 16 ............... . '. ......... Plant City Jesse Lee Driggers .... ....... ....... . .. ...... ....... ...... 17 . . . .. : . . ...... .. .......... Wimauma Elmer Franklin Futch . ............. ...... .............. 17 .................. , ... , ... Plant City Raymond Howell. ...... .. ................... . ............... 16 . ............. .. .......... Plant City J~i!1~s TG!~i~r~~~ . ::::: . :::.:::::.:.:..::...::..:::.:.....::~!::::::::::::::::::::::::::i/i:e~ City Luther LeRoy Webb , .. .............. .... .. .. ........ .. .. 13 .............. ....... ..... Plant City JACKSON COUNTY Wm. Jack Forshee ....... . , ............ . , . ................ 16 , ............. .... ........ Marianna LAKE COUNTY Leroy Alderman...... . . ...... ........ .. .. ..... . . ...... . 15 .. .......... ... .. . ........ Montverde Paul S. Kirkland ........... ... ........... .. ... ... ......... ... 17 .......................... Altoona Edgar Locke ............... . ................ .. .............. .. 13 ............... .. . . ....... Montverde Ellis Allen Sheppard ...... .. ....... ... .... .. ............. 15 ............ . . . ........... Montverde Alec Smith . .................. .... ... . ........ . . ... ... ......... 13 .......................... Montverde Leo Edward Starrs ... ........ . .......... ...... ....... ..... 15 ............... ... ........ Montverde William Earl Varn ........................................ 16 .......................... Groveland LIBERTY COUNTY Lawrence L. Hentz ................... . . ...... ........ .. . . 15 .......... .. . ... ... .... ... Bristol Hillion Owens . ...... . .... .... ..... .. ........ ...... .......... .. 15 .......................... Bristol MADISON COUNTY Malcom Tucker Chason . ........ , .. ..... ............... 19 .................. : ....... Ebb Clarence H. Lamb ... ....... ........ ............ ........... . 14 .............. . . .... ...... Madison William Orvin McCullough ......... .... ............ 17 .......... ........ .. .. .... Lee Joe P. Smith .............. ... .................................. 13 .... .......... ... ......... Ebb MANATEE COUNTY John W. Collins ...... ............ ....... ....... ............ .. 14 ...... , ...... ... . . ........ 0neco MARION COUNTY Jacob Lynn Feaster ........ .... ....... .. ................ . 14 ............... .. ......... Micanopy Lawton M. Martin ...................... ....... ............ 13 .......................... Electra Alonzo P. Meadows ....................... , .. ............. 14 ............... .. ......... Anthony Vernon F. Neil ............... ..... ............. .. ............. 14 ... .. .......... ... ........ 0cala Geo. Myron Rou ..... ..... ................... .. ............. 15 ............... ... ........ Lowell Clyde B. Seckinger ..... : . .............. ... ................ 17 ............... : .......... Martel NASSAU COUNTY Edwin Caswell Brown .................................. 16 .......................... Callahan Ellis Van Dyal... .. ... . .......... ........ ....... ...... . ...... . 16 .. .. .. ........ .... ........ Callahan John Upton Davis . ...... ........... .... . ....... .... ....... 17 .......................... Callahan Pasco Fouraker ...... . . .. ...... . ........ .... ................. 18 ............ . ............. Baldwin Allen Fouraker ........................... ... . .. .............. 14 ............. . . ..... ...... Baldwin Walter K. Green ...... ........ ... : ........... . . . ...... ... ... 17 ............ ..... ......... Callahan Ray Haddoc;k .......... , .. .. . .... ............ .... . .. ......... .. 18 .. .... .... ........ ........ Boulogne Cecil Johns ................................................ , ., .. . 14 . . ........... ........ : .... Crawford Charles Roland Owens ............... .. , . .............. 15 .......................... Callahan Warren W. Pittman ................. . .................... 15 ................ : ......... Crawford Frank E. Walker .. ... . .... .................. . ............ ... 18 .......................... Kings Ferry OKEECHOBEE COUNTY James Weymon Potter ........................ : ........ 16 ............. .... ......... 0keechobee Hubert Vaser Raulerson .......... .. ................. 16 .............. . ........... 0keechobee Arthur Franklin Raulerson ........................ 15 .............. . ........... 0keechobee 55

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56 Floridq, . Coopera.tive . Extension ORANGE COUNTY Thomas Livingston Link ..... : ......... : . . .. . : . .. . , .. 12 : .... . . : .' . . .. '. .... . ... . . .. . 0rlando OSCEOLA COUNTY Irlo Overstreet Bronson .... .... .. , . . .. . . .. .... , . . . . . 17 . . . ..... .. .. .. . . ........ . . Kissimmee Edward CampbelL ... . . .. . . .. ... .. . ... . . .. .. . ........ . .. . . . . lK . .... . : . . : .. .... ... , . . ... Kissimmee Henry Tollie Simmons ... .. . .... . ... .... . . ....... . ... . .. 14 ......... ..... : .. ... : ... . . St. Cloud Malcolm Curtis Yates ..... . .. . : :. . ......... : . . . ... . . .. .,17 .. ..... : .. . ........ .. .. .. . Kissimmee . . . PALM BEACH COUNTY Robert Taylor E g bert. . . . . .. ... . .. , ..... : . . ... _. . . . .. .. . 17 . . . . . .. . ... .... . . . ....... . Boynton Tuffic Tabit ... : .. .. . .. : . : . . ... . . . . ..... ..... . ... .. . .. . .... . ... . 12 .. ... . ... . . ... . .... ... . . . . Boynton POLK COUNTY Juel Jackson Barksdale .. . . . . . . . ...... .... .. . . ..... .. .. 13 .. . ....... .... . .. .. . . .... . Lakeland Allen Reuben Hall ......... ... . . ........... . .. .... .. .. ..... 16 .. . . .. .... ..... .. ......... Bartow Marvyn Ludwig Hurn , ... . ... . . ... . . . .... ... : .... ...... 14 ... . .. .. .. .. ....... . ... . .. Haskell John Allen Willi a ms ...... . ...... . . .. ....... ....... .. .. .. 16, . . .. .. ............... .... Haskell PUTNAM COUNTY Radcliffe W . Carrington .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. ..... .. .... : . . 17 ...... . .. .... .... . . ..... .. San Mateo George W . Davies ........... .......... .. .. .. .. . . .. ...... .. 16 . .. . . . .. . . ... ... . . ...... .. Florahome Russell Warren Strange ... ... . ... ....... .. . : . .. . ... . .. 17 ... ...... . .. . . .... ... . .. .. Palatka SAINT JOHNS COUNTY Oma Carl Minton .. ... .. ... .. .... .. . ..... ..... . . . . . . . ... ... 13 . . ..... . ... . . ... , ... . . . . . . Hastings Carl Trueman Morrison . . .. .. . ....... .. ...... . . .. ... 1 3 .. . ... . .. . ... ... .. . .... . .. Hastings James Henry Stevens ......... . . . . .... .. . . . . ..... .. ..... 15 .. ...... .. . .. . .... .. . . . . .. New Augustine SAINT LUCIE COUNTY George Holmes Braddock ... . . .......... . : .... . , .. ... 16 .. . . . . .... ........... ..... Sebastian Charles Hersey Harris ... .. . . .. . ..... ... . ... . . . .. . .. . . 13 ...... .. .... .. . .. ...... . . . Vero SANTA ROSA COUNTY Max A. Wise ... . ..... : ................ .. ............. .. . .... . 12 ..... .. .. .. ......... . . . . .. Milton SEMINOLE COUNTY Wallace W. Bell . .. . .. .. .... . . ... . .. . . .... .... . ... .. .. .... . . . 14 ... . . ... ... ... . . . . . . . .. ... Sanford John Lester Brumley .. ... . .. . . .. . : .. . .... .. . .......... . 12 ..... ... . .... . .. .... ... .' . . Sanford Watson L. Wallace .......... . , . ..... ......... ... . . ..... .. 12 ........ ... ... ....... . . ... Sanford SUMTER COUNTY Sidney Luther Fussell... . ....... . .. ..... . . ... . .... ... . .. 15 . . . ... . ......... ... ... .. .. Coleman Tom Fussell . . ..... .. .. .. ...... .. ...... ... . .. .... . .. ..... .. .... . 17 .. . . . : .. : : ... . ..... ... . .. . St. Catherine Teddie R. Hill ..... .. . .. ........ . . ... . . .. ......... .......... .. 15 ... ... .. .. .. . ........ .... . Coleman SUWANNEE COUNTY Milledge A. Baker .. .. ... .. .. .. . . .... .. ......... ....... .... 17 . .. . ... .. .... .. . . . . . . .. .. . 0'Brien Jack S. Henry ... .. ...... .. .. .. . . . .... .. .. ...... .. ... : . ..... .18 .. . .. ... . .... ........ ... .. Live Oak Walter N. Skeen . .. . ......... . ... . . ... . . ......... .... . . . . . . . 14 ..... . .. .. .......... .... .. Live Oak TAYLOR COUNTY Artie Bowdoin . ... ..... .. .. . . .... . . ...... . ... .... .... . . . , .... . 15 .. . .. . .. . ...... .... . ... ... Perry John Andrew Bowdoin . . . ... . .. .. . . . . ..... .... : . . . .. .. . 17 .... . .. ... .... .. .. ... . .... Perry !i~rg . ~~ 1 ~w:i~;:::: :: ::::::. : : : :: : : : : : :::::::: :::: :: ::: ::::tt::: ::: :: : ::::::::: :: : : :J:;;: VOLUSIA COUNTY Aaron S. Tedder: .. .. . . . . . ..... . .. .. : .. _. ... 18 .. ..... . . .. ... . : ......... . De Leon Spri~gs WAKULLA COUNTY Jo~n James Revill . ............ . . .. . .. ........... : ...... , .'.16 ..... . . ... .............. . , Sopchoppy . WIimer Clyde Rouse ...... .. . . .. .. ... .. ... . . . . .. . . ...... 15 ... .. , . .. . .. . . ..... ... ... . Sopchoppy WASHINGTON COUNTY Preston Hasty .. ...... . . .......... .. .. : .: . . ..... . . . ... : . . . : .. i 7 ........ . . .. : .. ...... ... . : ~onifay

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57 . : , ,, . , REP()RT OF THE sw~~T PQTATO STORAGE SPECIALIST P. H. Rolfs, Direc . to.r. . . . . , . . _ . _ . . . . _ _ , .. . . _ _ SIR: !submit herewith the report of . the specialist in sweet po. tato st~rage for the year ending De ' ceinber _ 31, 1917. : , _ . _ _ _ . . . Respectfully, SAMUEL C. Hoon, Storage Specialist. INTRODUCTION The Office of Horticulture of the U. S; Department of Agricultqre in cooperation with the Extension Division began active work on September 1, 1917, to improve the sweet potato .storage conditions in Florida. , This . work continued for the remainder of the year. It is estimated that fully thirty percent of the crop in past years has rotted due to improper methods of storage, and owing to the greatly increased plantings in 1917 it was thought that the loss would be unusually heavy in that year. The object of the work was to encourage the erection of approved storage houses where slight heat could be applied to dry out the extra moisture and prevent sweating, . thereby avoiding the loss that commonly occurs when potatoes are banked in the usual way. In these . houses potatoes can be held at proper temperature with small loss, enabling the grower to hold his crop until late winter or spring and to place it on the market in good condition. On . many farms sweet potatoes are grown for home consumption only and the amount produced is not sufficient to justify building a storage house. In such cases a properly constructed ventilated bank was advocated, and a large number of farmers used this method in 1917. This part of the work alone has saved a considerable _ quantity of sweet potatoes from rotting on the farms. . ; .. . The work was carried on thru the cooperation of . the county agents who gave it their hearty support. Considering the condi tions in Florida it was thought that the best result$ would be secured by working with the farn~ers direct, and to encourage the larger growers to build their own houses rather than to work for central storage houses in the towns. Further work justified th'is view. . Severa.I meetings were held in farni.i _ ng counties but most o f the work was conducted by personal visits _ to the larger growers in each county. Twenty-two counties were visited, eighteen formal meetings were held, and calls made at more than 300 plantations. As a result of the work, 47 storage houses were projected for the season and a considerable additional number were assured for next y~ar. Owing to the serious crop failure, however,which did not .

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58 Florida Cooperative Extension become evident until late in the fall, only 15 of these ,houses. were constructed for use in 1917 and some of them only half the intended size. There has been difficulty in getting enough sweet potatoes to fill some of the houses built. SMALL CROP PRODUCED The work this season indicated that the most important part of the sweet potato storage work in Florida is growing the crop. In spite of the increased planting in 1.917, more than }::talf the c.ounties did not produce .enough for local use, and only one-fourth of the counties had a slight surplus over local needs. From the acreage planted in the state, the crop should have been about 7,000,000 bushels, but the actual crop was probably not more than one-third that. This condition was largely due to drouth', poor seed, late planting, and improper cultural methods. The Florida farmer can well afford to pay more attention to the sweet potato crop and to regard it as a possible money crop. To bring this aqout emphasis should be placed on th.e following: ' (1) The planting of improved varieties and the endeavor to keep them pure~ (2) The planting of seed properly selected for productivity, uniformity, and disease resistance. (3) Proper methods of culture to give the most profitable returns. (4) A study of the proper methods of harvesting and handling to prevent injury. (5) Grading in the field so that diseased, ill-formed and stringy potatoes are kept for hog feed. ( 6) Proper storage in banks and houses. _ All these points lead up to the successful operation of the storage house and irnmre the maximum returns for the crop marketed. SWEET POTATO STORAGE HOUSES IN FLORIDA, DECEMBER 31, 1917 CAPACITY OWNER P0ST0FFICE IN BUSHELS W. H. Leonard ......................... Grand Ridge ............................ , .......................... 5000 Hall & Scidmore ...................... Green Cove Springs 1000 i. CD.PWilli~~::::::::::::::::::::::::::J~i~a.~61:in~.~ .. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 2~gg *; SC. Gi~~i:~J;r::::::::::::::::::::~~ii~a~6!:in!.~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~::::::::: 2~gg . J. M. McLaughlin .................... Bonifay .............. , ................. , ....... , ...... , .. , .............. 1200 D. H. Morris ................... , ........ Noma ............ , ........................................................ 1000 The Traders Exchange.: ........ Campbelltown .................................................... 5000 J. C. Braswl)ll ............. ...... , ............ , ................................. ,...... 500 ~~tt~ns~!~~r':::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:3:~~~~~~~.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::J~gg L. R. HillfilL ............... , ............ Largo ........... ,: ........................................... ,.cc........ 500 ~~~~f[~?:::::::::::::::::::::::::8iiirie l~gg

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Ji'IG, MAP @TIP . WIL@~Il IID~ l Report, 1917 Annua .e,, 59 ,,, ,, -~~-fJO ., WEST --work l
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60_ Florida Cf!operative Ex . tension . REPORT OF THE ST-ATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the state agent for home demonstration work for the fiscal year ending .June 30, 1917, and with it statistics of the work done by women and club girlSfor the year ending December 31, 1917. Respectfully, AGNES ELLEN HARRIS, . State Home Demonstration Agent. INTRODUCTION Prior to the declaration of war, the entire staff engaged in home demonstration work consisted of, the state agent; two district agents, each in charge of the work in one-half the counties of the state; a poultry-club organizer; a secretary to the Extension Di vision; and thirty-three county home demonstration agents. Fol lowing that declaration, the staff was increased by the addition of, one stenographer; two emergency home demonstratiop. agents; and one assistant to a county home demonstration agent. This staff was not nearly adequate to meet the demands under war conditions but, since the conditions could not have been antici pated, no financial assistance was available and the _ fiscal year had ended before the emergency appropriations became available to increase the force materially . For the maintenance of the work, the following funds were available: Florida State College for Women .......... ... . .. ......... . . ... ....... . U. S. D, A. Funds .. . . . .... .. ............ . ... .. .. .. ... .. .. . ...... .. .. .. .... . .... . . Smith-Lever Federal Fund .. ... . . ... ......... , ... .. . ..... , .. . ............ . County Boards _ of Education, for. agents' salaries ......... . County Commissioners, for agents' salaries ..... , . ...... . , ...... : $10,733.29 5,400.29 11,525,00 13,350.00 3,950.00 Total ...... .. . . .. ........ ............... . .. .... .... . . . ..... . -. ... ... ...... $44,95.58 . Besides the county appropriatio~s for agents' salaries, appropria . tions were made for equipment for demonstration centers, com munity kitchens, offices for county home demonstration agents, demonstration matei:ials, and for materials used at county short courses. THE COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Consistent with the policy in force since the Florida work was started, the county agent is . the factor around which all the work is centered. This year the average salary paid our agents was $108 a month, the average term of employment being 9.4 months.

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Annual Report, 1917 61 One great advance made has b . een in the employment of women trained in couiity home demonstration agent work. All newly ap :pointed agents were graduated from either a college or normal school, and each agent , was thoroly acquainted with conditions in Florida or . in _ one of the nearby states . As the scope o f the work _ has broadened counties have furnished the home demonstration agent with the equipment and materials necessary for her to do her work well. The home demonstration agent now needs in this work, which is ~onstantly broadening in scope, well equiI;Jped demonstration rooms in different parts of the county, and materials with which to carry on demonstrations. She also needs models of household conveniences, a suitable office as headquarters fo:r: her work and a place for storing and distributing literature which she constantly needs to send out in the county. Most of the home demonstration agents ha ve been furnished offices in the courthouse or some suitable store. Notable among the offices is the one furnished Mrs. Matthews, home demonstration agent for Bay County. Her office is a large airy room near the county superintendent's office, splendidly equipped for holding demonstrations, and with . desk, and shelves for bulletins. By ~arefu l observation it has been found that adequate work cannot be done by the home demonstration agent in Florida unless she has an automobile constantly at her disposal. In the district of North and West Florida all agents, with one exception, own their Fm. 14.-Home . economics class, State College for Women, Tallahassee

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62 Florida Cooperative Extension cars. In the southern district all but eight had cars. This is a great financial tax on the agents that is constantly increasing, and for this reason every effort must be made to secure from each county sufficient appropriations to take care of the car, besides paying a sufficient salary to employ well trained women. In order to keep the standard of women employed high, . good salaries exclusive of the cost of running a car must be provided. This will necessitate an effort to materially increase the salaries of home demonstration agents. At a conservative estimate $37 .36 a month is the cost of the up-keep of a Ford for the second year, counting the depreciation in value of the car as $10 a month. The minimum amount to allow an agent for the up-keep and running expenses of her car is $50 a month. A well prepared woman with a car at her disposal, and an adequate expense account, will be of far greater value to a com munity than a poorly prepared, poorly paid woman without means of transportation. Until a community can make sufficient appro priations to support an efficient a.gent, it is probably better not to undertake home demonstration work in the county. GENERAL PLAN OF THE WORK The work this y.ear has been conducted on much the same general plan as it was last year, excepting that greater emphasis was placed on organization. In March we had a far better organization in the state than ever before, practically all girls and women working under our supervision had been banded into clubs. A book con taining a constitution, with suggestions for holding club meetings, . and a roll for keeping attendance records, was furnished all clubs from the state agent's office. Minutes of all club meetings were carefully kept, and on any visit the county and state workers could readily see the kind of work the club had been doing. At the general agent's conference, the district and county agents planned a program to be used as a guide by these dubs and in the majority of clubs these programs were closely followed. WOMEN'S CLUBS We have been able, because of the previous work done with the girls' clubs, to add to our organization clubs of country and urban women. The following is an extract from the annual report of the county home demonstration agent for Lee County, showing what she had accomplished in organizing clubs among the rural women. Ten classes have been formed, with a membership of 180. These classes held meetings once a month. The agent attended and gave a demonstration at each meeting. In the fall and winter the work was with the citrus fruits

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Annual Report, 1917 63 in jellies, preserves, marmalades and crystallization. Next, the building and use of the .fireless cooker. After that the work with the substitute breads. Each woman was given the recipe and assigned a particular kind to make. At the next meeting each brought her loaf, and a bread judging contest was held, followed by a talk on the nutritive value of bread, and a warning given for the conservation of wheat flour. Corn meal bulletins were also distributed. These lessons were well observed, many women abandoning the. making of all wheat breads because their families preferred the substitute breads, and they were so much cheaper. Next came a round of canning demonstrations. In these the club girls in their neat uniforms were eager to assist. The new method of preserving strawberries was given several classes, and each had one demonstration in pickling. There are 125 well organized and successful home demonstration clubs in•the state. The members of these clubs are actively carry ing on demonstrations at home between meetings. One home demonstration agent reports that after a demonstration with the fireless cooker, eighteen women bought material and made fireless cookers. EGG CIRCLES Of the women's clubs, none are more profitable than the egg circles. In Escambia "county the Burnville and Wardville egg circles, working under the county home demonstration agent's supervision, are successful from both a commercial and a social standpoint. This bit of cooperative selling is helping to increase the spirit of cooperation in their community. For the work done in poultry, reference may be had to the report of Miss Floyd, state poultry club organizer. GIRLS' CLUBS Two thousand four hundred and eighty.:.three girls were enrolled in 243 clubs for canning, gardening and poultry raising. The total production and profit was materially decreased by the February freeze. For instance, in Dade County sixty club gardens just ready for harvesting, were all killed. FAIRS, CONTESTS AND SHORT COURSES The home demonstration work was featured at two fairs, the Duval County and the Tampa fair, which answered the purpose in Florida of the state fair. Miss Partridge was in charge at the Tampa fair and a description of it is included in her report. When the work first began the annual county fair, wherever it was held in the county, was the regular place for holding the county contest. At each county having a home demonstration agent and where a fair was held we have had a home demonstration exhibit. In some counties the demonstration exhibits have developed into fairs composed very largely of poultry displays, exhibits of sewing, basketry, canning and preserving done by the girls and additional exhibits of the women's club work.

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64 ; -~ ~. ''' > \ . . _ Florida Cooperative Extension .. Each co linty had its contest to ~oinpareJndividual records, judge the. products . and award prizes . tq club. rn~mber.s;. Sllort courses of two or three days were held in each of 21 counties either in the fall or spring with ari.~tte:pdance.o;f 60,8 ~1ub girls. The program for these short courses usually consisted oflessons in drying vege.:. tables, pickling and farming; the. care of. crop~, the. preparation of peanut products and breadmaking. Besides the regular program of work the town women enter tained the girls and made their visit to the short course a delightful experience. The effect of this has been ~It thruout the state, as oi1e county home demonstration: agent writes: "Now when I meet the girls they do :ifot mind talking; they ask' questions and tell me what theyare doing intheway of raisinga:hd saving food.'' A most important result of these courses seems to have been the development of initiativ~ in the girl and. a l;>roa,dening of her ideas of life, quite. as mu.ch as her incr~ased lcnowledge in food prepara tio.n and other phases of home economics . . STATE MEETINGS. AGENTS' CONFERENCES In October, twelve newly appointed home demonstration agents attended the ari.n:ua.l meeting of county agents at the University of Florida. At this time separate meetings were held for these newly appointed agents for instruction in organization, canning, preserving; gardening and dairying, by members of the faculty of the Agricultural College and the -State College for Women. This me~ting was successful and excellent results followed the. joint sessions of men and women agents,:but owing to the greater expense of meeting in Gainesville than in Tallahassee it was neces sary to hold the next a:pnual.tneeting of county hon;ie demonstration agents in Tallahas~eein Januar'y; just.preceding the opening of the .winte:( session when the. dormitories are .vacat~d.by .. regular students. There were thirty-three home demonsti-atfon agents in attendance, and instead -of the conference 'being ~onducted as a school as in the past, it was a series of, conf ei:ences. ' .. The .county home demonstration . agents discussed their problems and estab li~hed uniforrn'polic~es to be followed thr~out the year: . . >. -• .• ' , .,. , ._ , , , WOMEN'S SHORT COURSE : . In the past the women's short course and the county home dernon stration agent's, :annual meeting: were. helcl at the same time, but this year. because -of; crowded d,ormitories. the ,women's short ,course was held in February. This short cou:Fse,. is .especially planned to meet the needs of county home demonstration agents who require

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Annual Report, 1917 65 training. As the facilities for training prospective agents can be increased, the need for the home demonstration agent attending such short courses will be lessened. Seven county home demonstra tion agents paid their own expenses to this two-week short course. The College employed Miss Anna Barrows, a woman of national reputation, to present food preparation facts, and to give daily lectures and demonstrations in nutrition, canning and preserving and in phases of home making. Sixty-two women of Florida were enrolled, but in each demonstration given by Miss Barrows one hundred or more were in attendance. A few of these women mani fested distinct ability for county work and have since been em ployed_ as county home demonstration agents. The following is a list of food conserved by Stella Mae Biddle, a club woman who attended the short course, after her return home: 10 glasses apple jelly, 48 pints fig preserves, 4 quarts dried shelled peas, 14 quarts tomatoes, 3 quarts okra, 6 quarts okra and tomatoes, 1 peck dried corn, 4 quarts preserved peaches, 10 quarts canned peaches, 8 quarts canned figs, 12 quarts applesauce, 8 quarts black berries, 1 pint mulberries, 3 quarts buby relish, 1 quart apple vinegar, 2 quarts canned beans, 4 cans of beans in tins. GIRLS' SHORT COURSE The fifth short course offered by the Florida State College for Women for the canning-club girls was held November 27 to Decem ber 9, 1916. The girls' expenses were paid by county commis sioners, boards of trade, women's clubs and public-spirited men in the respective counties. There were 41 girls sent from the 33 counties. As the type and training of county home demonstration agents bas improved there has been a corresponding improvement in the preparation and fitness of canning-club girls. as compared with those in attendance at the beginning of the girls' short courses. No girls are sent to the short course unless they have made good records as club members. These girls showed unusual ability to grasp the work offered them. Regular lessons in cooking, sewing, home ;nursing, nutrition and gardening were given, besides there were inspirational lectures and trips planned for their benefit. The recreation hall was used as a dormitory for these girls be cause of crowded conditions at the college, and proved most satis factory. Enroute to their homes, the South Florida girls stopped in Jacksonville and were the guests of honor at the Duval County fair; they visited also the home of Mrs. Okle Painter Williams, who presented each first-prize winner with a gold watch. Mrs. Williams .f.c.e.-5

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66 Florida Cooperative Extension has presented eighty-five gold watches to Florida prize-winning girls; SUMMER SCHOOL FOR COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS Because the woman who understands Florida is most ~fficient in our work, provided she is well trained, and because of the necessity of giving the strong Florida woman . opportunities to secure train ing, an appropriation was asked from the State Legislature for the support of a home economics summer school. This was granted, .but it was not known until May 26 that this course . could be offered. For this reason no information could b . e given . thruout the state. As soon as the appropriation was definitely made, a letter was sent to all county home demonstration agents, and a warning given that no appointments for home demon~tration . work in this state would be made the next year unless the applicant liad at least the training which could be secured at the summer school. It is hoped later to demand at least two summer's courses. More . than fifty women registered in these courses. One course was called the home demonstration methods course, . the i . nstruction being ; given entirely by the extension workers. Practical home demonstration work was given and opportunities to visft demon strations and club meetings in Leon County were offered . one day the entire class was transported eleven miles into the country and an all day canning was held at the home of the Leon County agent. It is hoped to develop this summer school for county agents until . any of the strong teachers in the state who wish to prep . are them selves for. this work can, during summer sessions, secure the neces sary preparation. WAR CHANGED CONDITIONS A general survey of the work during March in each county gave evidence that . the work with both girls and women was well organized, but when war was declared and it became necessary to aid the Government in food conservation, the general plan of work was largely changed. Instead of working entirely with organized groups we began a state-wide campaign of instruction in canning and preserving. Each home demonstration agent took a leading part in the county campaigns for food conservation and produc tion, and rendered the maximum assistance to her people for food conservation . . A great drive was made for saving foodstuffs. CONTAINERS In the drive for food conservation the problem of containers was a serious one. Tin cans that formerly cost two cents each were difficult to obtain at five, and five and a half cents. Glass was

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Annual Report, 1917 67 equally as difficult to secure and because of the unprecedented increase in price and disturbed business conditions merchants re fused to lay in an adequate stock of cans, even tho the price was constantly rising. For this reason every county home demonstra tion agent had to spend a great deal of time in working out plans to overcome these inconveniences. Finally, thru the efforts of Mr. Knapp and other officials in the Department of Agriculture, we were able to secure a sufficient supply at a reasonable price. The cans were shipped direct to both district home demonstration agents in car lots for redistribution to the counties. The district agents personally handled three carloads of cans, had them unpacked and reshipped 1;o the home demonstration agents, who distributed them in the coi.mties. FINANCING THE CONTAINER PURCHASES Financing the movement of these cans was done in various ways. In several instances the county commissioners bought the cans out right with county funds or with money borrowed for the purpqse, in other . cases the bankers loaned money without interest. In one county the teachers' association bought the cans and handled them free from . their own store room. _ In three counties the bankers loaned the money to the club girls, who deposited it with the county home demonstration agent, to secure delivery of the cans. : Few merchants were willing to handle the cans without profit so without this persistent effort on the part of the agents many people would have failed to secure cont~foers. . . . . One of the emergency . workers, employed for six weeks in the canning season, reported that she gav~ thirty-three demonstrations with eight hundred and seven in attendance, and sold, repacked and delivered twenty thousand cans. One . home demonstration agent personally handled sixty thousand cans for her . county. Another home demonstration agent, in her report, says, "approximately three times as many people are canning this year as were canning last year; :far more foodstuffs . were planted." In all, there were a million and a half cans sold under the super vision of the home demonstration agents. It is believed that only a very small proportion of this number of cans would have been used had not this can campaign been carried on. Every available glass container was used. EMERGENCY WORKERS When war was declared a great army of women volunteered to take part in the food conservation campaign each one calling on the hon:ie demonstrati_on agent for instruction until the agent . had

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68 Florida Coop e rative Extension FIG. 15.-A J efl'erson County canning club member many more calls for help than she could fill. For relief, assistance from the women whom they had previously trained was secured by the agent until there were hundreds of women cann~ng regu larly thruout the season to supply these women with information and to conserve food against a possible shortage. One home demonstration club in Manatee County, having no gardens of their own, but surrounded by farms where tons of vegetables were wasting, advised the farmers that they would gladly can on shares. For three weeks they ran a small emergency canning factory under the supervision of the county home demon stration agent, giving the farmer who brought the vegetables half the product and keeping half, each one paying for his own cans. Seventeen thousand cans were put up by this band of women. As only seven women could work together conveniently they were di vided into groups of seven, one group working in the forenoon and another in the afternoon. The president of the club reported that she had a difficult time to keep people from coming to the kitchen to can. Each day the little factory was well supplied with vege tables. At the end of the period the farmers had saved their vege . tables, the farmer's wife had been relieved from this work, and the town women without the garden had ' utilized their spare time to secure a goodly supply of canned vegetables at small cost. Even tho the cans were five cents apiece, it was a great saving. A group of women in Redlands, Dade County, on finding that beans were wasting in the fields because of. poor markets, secured

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Annual R e port, 1917 69 them for the picking and within a week had organized themselves into a canning band and put up fifteen thousand cans. These women managed their own work. Thruout the state there were instances of this kind of work. CANNING KITCHENS Because of the ready response to assist in food production and conservation by the women of towns and cities it became necessary to provide canning kitchens or a place to can with sufficient equip ment to carry on the work. As a result, Jacksonville equipped eight community kitchens, Palatka one community kitchen, and in Tampa a number were established. Most of the canning kitchens were equipped with steam pressure cookers, hot water canners heated by gas, running water, bottle cappers, pans and bowls, show cases for exhibits, tables and chairs. Containers were procurable either at the kitchen or nearby enabling the town woman with a few vegetables to come to the kitchen, receive her instruction, put up her products and take them home to be stored away. In some counties community canning factories were established in a similar way. The following is an extract from the report of the home demonFIG . 16.-A demonstrati~n kitchen equipment furnished by the business men of Palatka

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70Florida Cooperative Extension stration agent for Duval County: "I have assisted in establishing the ' canning work in Jacksonville in community kitchens, and in the Y. W. C. A.; one community cannery has been established in the country; three girls have built sheds, screened them, and are canning for neighbors." Negro women were organized into clubs for similar work and were able to conserve large quantities of garden products that otherwise would have been wasted. DRYING VEGETABLES Owing to the several emergencies during the canning season the Office of Extension Work of the South detailed Frantz P. Lund to Florida to demonstrate the canning . of fish and the drying of vegetables. Demonstration agents were called together in clubs for instruction. The instruction in drying vegetables was especially applicable and was promptly put into practice by the agents in their respective counties. They have had sufficient success to war rant the conclusion that this method of preserving vegetables is practical in Florida if the precaution is taken to properly paraffin the containers to make them insect proof. This method of drying was used most extensively with blackberries, corn, beans and peas, ~nd it is believed that by another year this p1ethod of preserving vegetables wBI be brought into general use. . . . . CONSERVATION AND PRODUCTION CAMP AJGNS In most . of the counties having home dempnstration work the county officials planned conservation and productiqrt campaigns. Meetings were arranged in various sectiotis so that practically everybody was . reached with the message to plant more and to save everything. The county and home demonstration agents were largely responsible for the interest taken. The state workers as, sisted in these campaigns as far as it was possible. WORK WITH NEGROES In January, the state home demonstration agent had been called to the negro college to give a lecture and demonstration and there ihe possibilities in giving the negroes instruction in f q o
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Annual Report, 1917 71 demonstrations, and saw that the work was well done by the negro women. Two of the county home demonstration agents equipped canning sheds in their yards and allowed the negroes to come and use the canners, bringing their vegetables and putting them up under the agent's supervision. There is a great need for this work among the negroes, and there has been every indication that the negroes will do their part in getting the instruction. Under the supervision of the negro farm agent, public demonstrations were held. As a result of all this help, there were not only negro volunteer canning agents employed, but in Putnam and. Duval counties regularly paid canning agents were employed by the board of county commissioners. The imme diate results of this work were excellent, some clubs putting up fifteen thousand cans. It is a splendid foundation for the work with negroes for another year. WORK WITH CITY WOMEN The home demonstration work has been planned primarily for the 'rural women. Some work, however, has been undertaken in the cities and urban centers-there being an urgent demand for it. Regular canning demonstrations . were given, in various cities in the state under the instruction of the county home demonstration agent with the assistance of the domestic science teacher of the city schools. . COLLEGE GIRLS HELP During the month of May a specialist i:t;t canning was employe9at the college and every college girl was given definite instruction~ in both canning and drying. An appeal was made to them to help in food conservation work in their communities when they re turned home. This appeal was received with a generous response. Some college girlsgave their time, furnished their automobiles and spent many days out in the cmintry assisting in canning. Others organizedtheir social clubs into canning and drying,clubs. A number of girls secured cans and eguipnie:rit before leaving co~leg~, and on returning to their homes filled every available can. i;f MEAT AND FISH CANNING The introduction of meat and fish cariningwas made by Mr. Lund who was assigned to Florida to give instructions in carining these. products: Thirteen home demonstration agents who n~eded help in meat canning were brought together in groups and. given this itt.a: 1 struction. Group meetings were held in the home economics di! partment of the schools under the direction of the home demon-. stration agent and the district . agents.. Special instruction was

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72 Florida Cooperative Extension given to the agents in the use of the steam pressure canner, in the process of canning fish and meat, and in drying vegetables, and in each section one public demonstration was given which gave Mr. Lund an opportunity to present the process to a large number of people. Following this, a campaign to introduce steam pressure canners into leading communities in the counties was made by the demon stration agents. Steam pressure canners were bought by groups of families. Two commercial canning factories for putting up fish have been established and many women who went to the resorts for the summer were able to buy fish at reasonable prices and can them. The following are two reports of this kind of work done: Mrs. Burleigh reports that she canned 23 No. 2 cans fish, bass, mullet, and others; 10 No. 2 cans shrimp, and 10 No. 2 cans crab. Miss Preston reports that after Mr. Lund's visit to Anna Maria, she filled 250 cans with coquina soup, mullet, shrimp, scallops, and red fish, and that other women on the island filled hundreds of cans and jars with fish, and the tropical fruits found in abundance on the island. EFFECT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK IN SCHOOLS There is a closer relationship between the schools and the home demonstration work each year. In Lee, Duval and Santa Rosa counties, with the assistance of the home demonstration agents, teachers have had the pupils prepare one hot dish for their lunch each day. In many counties equipment for home demonstration club work has been placed in the schools, which has resulted in the county making definite provision for teaching home economics. In Osceola County the teachers are assisting the home demonFrG . 17.-Girls in canning demonstration, Marion County

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Annual Report, 1917 73 stration agent to have a garden planted in every home represented in the schools. In nine schools home demonstration rooms are being equipped so that domestic science teachers can work in close cooperation with the home demonstration agent, giving lessons in breads, meat substitutes, etc. SUMMARY OF GIRLS' CLUB WORK That we have had our most successful year in girls' club work is evident after studying the summary of yearly reports. The fol lowing highest ten records made on the tenth acre plots are the best I have ever had the honor to report: CLUB GIRL COUNTY LBS. PROFIT Mattie Elmore .............................. Manatee .............................. 5760 .................... $ 98.75 Gertie Bishop ............................... Manatee .............................. 5325 ........•........... 226.62 Inez Pearson ................................ Gadsden .............. --4944.................... 46.89 Julia Squires ................................ Washington ................... ... 4703.................... 44.39 Barbara Moore ............................ Bradford ............................. 4686 .................... 126.27 Elsie Stoutamire ......................... Leon. .................................... 4510.................... 108.59 Ruth J ohnson ................................ Hernando ............................ 4423.................... -99.45 Mattie Ferrell .............................. Gadsden .............................. 4179.................... 44.09 Ethel Gibson ................................ Manatee ...... , ...................... .4130.................... 150.96 Alma Priest .................................. Marion ................................. 3982 .................... 191.92 Statistics hardly give an idea of the total work accomplished by the home demonstration agents, but the following report of one home demonstration agent indicates the variety of work done. I gave demonstrations and assisted toward getting the canning club work established in the city for the white people, also for the colored people, and a canning school for Y. W. C. A. The girls have been taught to sew, have studied the textiles, have been taught plain simple economical ways of pre paring food, household accounts, and care of sick in the home. One large community cannery, fully equipped has been established in the county and three girls in different parts of the county have built sheds in the yard and screened them and are canning on shares for their neighbors. A number of the canning-club women are going into homes and canning on shares for other women who are too busy to can for themeselves. One canning-club girl has built up a steady trade for palmetto hats as the club women of the city have adopted this for their morning wear. Several canning-club women have yearly contracts for supplying hotels, restaurants and ice cream parlors with fresh eggs, while two women are making a great success in the sale of capons. I have established .libraries in five rural schools. Two kitchens have been fully equipped in two rural schools, and a penny lunch is served each day in one. . RESULTS FROM HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK Total number cans filled .................................................................................. 1,265,627 Total number glass jars filled........................................................................ 50,622 Total girls enrolled, 243 clubs ........................... ,............................................ 2,567 Total number women enrolled for regular work, 125 clubs.................... 1,628 Total enrollment of girls and women in. regular work.............................. 4,095 Enrollment women war emergency work .............................. ,....................... 6,813 Number of women making war breads regularly........................................ 1,136 Number iceless refrigerators made................................................................ 82 Number fireless cookers made........................................................................ 115 Number canners bought................................................................................... . 797 Number houses screened.................................................................................. 92 Number water systems installed...................................................................... 17

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74 Florida Cooperative Extension STATISTICAL REPORT OF WORK BY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS Number employed in State.................................................................................... 33 Average number months employed................................................................... 9.4 Average salary ................................. : ...................................................................... $ 108 Average traveling expenses per month ............................... , ............................ $ 38.62 Average number miles traveled ...................... : .................................................. .4216 Average number miles per month ........................................................ : ............. 493.2 Average number meetings held by each agent:............................................... 106 Total number meetings -held .............. ,.,: ......... :c :..:.,: ,.: 3,515 Total attendance at these meetings .............................. , ..................................... 55,783 Total number canning demonstrations ......... : ................................... , .......... ,....... 1,662 Total . number visits to club. members ...................................... , ......................... 10,357 Total Ii.umber visits to schools ...................... : .. : ............. : ........................... : ...... ~... 3,650 Total number visits to home demonstrators, ...................... , ..... ... , ...... ,............ 3,379 Magazines distributed in eight counties ...•.............................................•........... 2,924 Bulletins distributed from county offices .... , ..... : ............. : .... : ............................ 25,229 REPORT OF STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT Vacation ::: .......... : ................... :: ..... :: ...................................... :........................... 26 days . Attending national and out~of~Sfate meetings ...... : ........... :....................... 22 " Field work ......................... : ..................................... , ............. : : ...• :: ......... : ........ 91 " Office work ...... : ................ ............ , ............. ': ......... , ........... ... :.:. : .. :: ... : ..... :.: ....... 160 " Conferences at. Gainesville ......... :: ....... : ................ , .. : ........................ .:........... 7 . " Miles traveled in state ....................... :,:::: ... : .. ::: .. , ... , ........ :: ....•. ,...................... 19,835 Miles traveled att~nding . out.of-State ineetings .. : .... , ...... , ......... ..... . .......... . 9,150 ii.~i4r#]lf~-.~~~-::•••::::): : i :::Iii Club meetings held ........... : .................................. , ..........................•.......... ,..... 108 Conferences with county agents, exclusive of meetings in Talla• hassee and Gainesville ...... : .. : ......... 72 County boards of public instruction visited ............................................ ,... 13 County commissioners. visited ......... ,............................................................ 3 Conference with county superintendents of public instruction.............. 36 Demonstrations. given ..........................•. ,....................................................... 18 Contests visited ........................................................................................... ,..... 8 Schools visited ..................... , ........................ , .................... : ........ , .... _ :.............. 17 PUBLICATIONS Besides the annual report of home demonstration work, six: bulletins have been pubFshed and distributed by the home demon stration extension division of the Florida State College for Women, as foilows : BULLETIN No. 7.-Poultry Clubs in Florida, by Minnie Floyd. BULLETIN No. 9.-Pickles and Relishes, by Sarah W. Partridge. BULLETIN No. 12.-F,um Butter JI.laking, by Harriette B. Layton. BULLETIN No. 13.-Canning Meats and Ve.getables in Steam Pressure Canner, by Sarah W. Partridge. BULLETLN No. 14.-Home Drying of Vegetables, by Sarah W. Partridge. BULLETIN No. 15.-Moderate Cost Menus and Recipes from Florida Food Materials, by Nan Henderson. : The following bulletins were revised : BULLETIN No. 8.-Jellies, Preserves and Marmalades, by Sarah W:
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Annual Report, 1917 75 REPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOREAST AND SOUTH FLORIHA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district home demon stration agent. for East and . South Florida for the year ending December 31, 19.17.. Respectfully, SARAH W. PARTRIDGE, District Home Demonstration Agent. INTRODUCTION This district, on July . 1, 1916, comprised the following named sixteen , counties: Marion, Citrus, Hernando, Pinellas, Hillsboro, Manatee, Lee, DeSotQ, Polk, Osceola, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, . Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade. Upon taking up the work in this di~trict it was determined, if possible : i , First( to strengthen the work in the district thru better organized clubs among the women and girls, and thru . better systematized work on the part of the home demonstration agent.$ i .. , . Second, to urge greater co:dservation of staple: ":: tdods : by canning in tin and glass rather than to emphasize the fancy special'products that may be produced from F;lorida fruits. Third, to secure . larger county appropriations for the salaries of home demonstration agents; . thereby . enabling us to . secure better trained workers and to provide them with an expense account sufficient to. enable them to visit the various parts of their re. spective counties as often as . the needs of the work demanded. In an effort to perfect a better organized work in the district, a simple plan for the organization of clubs among women and girls was submitted at" the agents' meeting in Gainesville, September, 1916. This was adopted and incorporated in a record book which was prepared for the use of s~~h clubs. In conference : with the district agent for North and West Florida monthly programs for . club ' meetings were outlined and prepared. One home demonstration club has taken a correspondence course in serving from the Uriiversity0f Wisconsin. Fourteen home demon stration centers where club members can meet for study and demon. sfrations have been : furnished in the past year. These have been equipped by school . boards, by members themselves, or by enter prisfog communities. In one community a community house has been built., The niovetnent fo build it grew out 'bf the organization of a : h6nie denionstration : chib, . which; tho , retaining "its identity . as a : hoine demo.nstration : cluh, : isfo.fact a community club and is doing

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76 Florida Coop er ati ve E x t e nsion the work of such . The organized clubs are developing team work. Thru them women and girls can in groups. In two instan~es t h ey have provided themselves with large pressure canners and have developed the commun it y canner. FIG. 1 8.0ne of the four stea m pressure cann e r s plac ed in Putnam co unty, 1 91 7 In planning to emphasize canning in tin, we planned more wisely than we knew. The declaration of war gave this work a tremen dous impetus. Manatee , Hillsboro and Polk counties were far above the 100,000-mark in products put up. Some good results have been obtained in the drying of vegetables. One woman who had a dryer suspended above her stove and filled its trays each day with vege

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Annual Report, 1917 77 tables from the garden, had by the end of the season fi,lled her pantry with dried products. The following items from a neighborhood survey made by the Manatee County home demonstration agent are of interest. They show how generally the gardening and canning were done in this particular place: "There are 77 families in the community. Of these 73 had home gardens. Canning had been done by 7 4 families. They had filled 12,966 containers and had dried 1,367 pounds of vegetables." . The canning of meats, fish and vegetables under steam pressure has been successfully done. _Following the instructions given by Frantz P. Lund, sent out by the Department of Agriculture to teach this work, a bulletin on "The Home Drying of Vegetables" and one on "The Canning of Meats and Vegetables under Pressure," were written. Steam pressure canners are being used in almost every county in the district . . Organized poultry work has been carried on in three counties in the district. A growing interest is shown in the work. COUNTY SHORT COURSES The county short courses held for canning-club girls have stimu lated interest in the work not only among the club members, but on the part of the general public as well. Assistance in conducting these courses has been given by professional men and women in the communities where courses were held. Teachers, doctors, dentists, nurses, have all assisted in giving demonstrations and instructions. Where schools had well equipped domestic science departments the laboratories were used in giving the cooking lessons to club girls. In some instances the teacher of the depart ment has given the lessons. In one town the girls of the domestic science department were hostesses at noon to the club girls. The short course promotes a better understanding between the people of t~e country and the town. In one of the county short courses a lesson was given in well selected clothes and a model outfit, in . eluding a blue serge middy suit, was used for illustration. _ This suit was given as one of the canning club prizes in the county , and : proved to be a much coveted prize . . During the housekeepers' two-weeks short course held in Talla . hassee at the Florida State College for Women, the agent taught the class of thirty-two who registered for "Preserves, Jellies and Marmalades," giving a series of six lessons covering these subjects. Much interest has been shown by women and girls thruout 'the

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78 Flo ri da Cooperative E x tension state in this phase of work and a high degree of skill in production has been attained by many of them. Ten days were spent in assisting Dr. Straughn, Bureau of Chem istry, Washington, D. C., in special work with guavas. Valuable results were obtained. Following the work Extension Bulletin No. 6 was revised and "Jellies, Preserves, and Marmalades" added. Extension Bulletin No. 9, "Pickles and Relishes," was also wri . tten. CLUB MEMBERS AT FAIRS Seven fairs have been attended, in each of which a good exhibit of home demonstration work was made. In most of these fairs, club day was featured. On this day girls in the uniform of the canning clubs of the county, boys of the corn and pig clubs, at tended in mass and often took some part in the public program. The exhibit made at the South Florida Jair held in Tampa in February was planned to show the various activities carried on in the state by club members. The exhibit asked of individual coun ties was small but the whole was most creditable. Preserving, canning, cooking, sewing, basketry, fine needle work, rug weaving, household conveniences, gardening, poultry work, and health work were shown. The exhibit did much to place our work in its broader aspects before the public. The year shows a l arge increase in membership; especially is this true of the home demonstration clubs. The enrollment of women has more than doubled and the interest in the broader lines of FIG. 19.-Methods class on way to canning demonstration

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Annual Report ,1917 79 study and demonstration is greatly increased ; This has strength ened the demand for the well trained, experienced worker in the field. In organizing the work for another . year this demand with the very large demand made . upon our agents by war conditions has led us to ask for larger appropriations for agents'. salaries an d increased expense accounts in every county in the district. These requests in every instance have been granted, enabling us to or ganize our work for another year upon a better basis. STATISTICAL REPORT . . Number of miles trav e led by rail... .. .. .. . : . ...... .. .... .. .. . .. .. .. . : .. .... .... .... .. ... : .. .. .. .... . '' '' ' ' '' ' ' aut~ . ~ . ~ ---: . . . . . . . . _ . .......... . .. .. Att~ndan~:e~ ~ ~~ . ~ .. . . : : :: : ::::::: : ::: :::::::::::: : : ::: : : : : : :: : :: ~ ::::: : :::: : ::: ::::::::: : :: : : :: :: :: : :::::: :: : Number of . demonstrations given . .. ..... .. ... . . ....... . . : ... .......... .............. . ... .. .. ....... .. . Attendance . . . . . ... ..... . ... . .............. : ............ . ... . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .... . . .... . ....................... .. . .. .. .. . . . Number of conferences with Agents .. ........ ... . ... . . . . . .. , ... , ... , ................ , ..... , . ... .. .. :: :: : : :: . County Superintendents ........... , ............ .. , .. . " " " " :: ::::::::::::::::::: : : : :: :: : ::::: " " contests held u . . --. ~" ~ ~-" '' short courses held _. -" " girls attending short courses .... .. .. : ... ...... : .. . : .. .. . .. . : .. . .. . ....... . ... .. .. :: . . ;; ~~1;::~!s vl~ii e d 1 ~~~ .. .. : : :::: : :::::: ::: :: : : : :::: : :: : :: : : :::: ::::: : ::::::::::: :: :: : : : : " gardens visited . ........ . .. .. . . , . .. : .. ..... . .. . ..... : .. . : .... : .. . _ . .. : ... . : .. .... . ...... ... . . " " lett e rs written ....... ......... . .. .. .. ... . ... ... . , .. . . ,. ... . ............ ...... ..... . . .... ..... .. 1 5 ,722 1,555 86 9,101 , 79 3,170 125 38 15 8 10 8 317 47 35 8 8 686

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80 Florida Cooperative Extension RFPORT OF THE DISTRICT HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENT FOR NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA P. H. Rolfs, Director. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the district agent for home demonstration work in North and West Florida for the year ending Dece _ mber 31; 1917. Respectfully, HARRIETTE B. LAYTON, District Home Demonstration Agent. INTRODUCTION The district home demonstration agent spent the first month, July, 1916, in visiting the nine counties then at work, acquainting herself with the conditions. By September, 1916, three more coun ties began work, and by January, 1917, five new counties were organized. In March; the last county was added, making in all seventeen counties carrying on home demonstration work in North _ and . West Florida. Splendid results have been accomplished in these counties. In almost every one interest has increased and larger appropriations have been made. The most important work of the fall was the county contests. In spite of the severe July storm in West Florida, the quantity and quality of products shown . were gratifying. The attendance of girls and their parents at these meetings was good. In Washing ton County, five hundred persons came to the contest. Forty-five girls in costume marched from the depot to the school house with club banners flying. An excursion train was run from the southern part of the county to bring in the people. Very little time was given to county fairs this fall. At two, county contests were held and at one, three days were given to judging exhibits in the women's department. Short courses have been held at intervals; the first in July, 1916, the second in October, 1916, and the remaining nine in the spring and summer of 1917. There have been three types of short courses. One type, consisting of a one-day meeting in three centers of the county, works well where the county is large and sparsely settled. The second type consists of a three-day meeting in the county seat, to which all the canning-club girls in the county are invited. This is a popular type and certainly creates interest in and knowledge of the work of the canning clubs. The third type is the three-day meeting at the county seat to which is invited a representative girl from each club. These girls return to their clubs and instruct the members in the things they learned at the meetings. This is the

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Annual Report, 1917 st mo . st satisfactory type, I believe .. . It . was ' planned tc / hold a sh6rt course in each county : this year, '.but : owfog to the I dec~aration of war , those which had not been advertised were called off in order to give the time to gardening and canning. However, . programs : foi the short courses to be held were immediately changed to meet : the new situation. All work .was based on food economy and preservation. We found that thril these meetings . we have . been able to reach a larger number ofper : rnns. Women and meri ' haye attended, some came regularly to every session. .. . . The largest gathering of canning-club girls was held at a sho . rt course of the second type in Chipley, Washington County. More than one hundred girls attended. The people of Chipley were so eager to cooperate that homes were opened to one hundred and fifty girls. Those homes not receiving a girl were really disap pointed. One afternoon twenty cars took these girls on a ride after which a round-up was made in the business street and patriotic songs and talks were made. I feel sure this meeting did much toward retaining the work in the county as it gave the people an opportunity to see and know of the great work being done by this band of girls . . Rapid strides have been made in the women's work this year. Special time has been given this phase of the home demonstration work both in the office and field. Since canning time, however, greater work is being done. Women who have never canned before are now canning. Constant demands are made upon the county home demonstration agents. Especially in counties in which large towns are situated is this true; first with home gardens, then canning. Besides the regular county club meetings thruout the year, I have assisted at the two state meetings for county agents, the state short course for canning-club girls, and the state short course for housekeepers, and have given four demonstration lessons in the summer school. I have also attended the monthly staff meetings at Gainesville and the conference for agents at Washington, D. C. SPECIAL STATE WORK Some time has been given to experimental work with both Dr. Straughn and Mr. Lund . Monthly programs have been prepared by the district agents for the women's club work. One bulletin, "Home Butter Making,'' has been published. Only four demonstrations have been given before the Federated f.c.e.-6

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. 82 Florida Cooperative Extension FIG. 20 . ...:_Emergency agent giving canning demonstration, Suwannee County Women's Clubs this year as county work has demanded every possible moment. SPECIAL COUNTY WORK This spring the county agents have urged the girls to plant not only tomatoes on their tenth acre, but other vegetables, such as beans, okra and peas, and to keep the plot working by planting a summer crop. Emergency work was carried on in three counties. In Putnam County an assistant agent was employed. In Suwannee County an agent was put in for June. In Jacksonville, Duval County, thru the advice of this department, an urban agent was employed for the canning month, by the Chamber of Commerce. In two or three counties the girls' clubs are sewing for the Red Cross. Canning . kitchens are being equipped by boards of trade and by individuals, in some cases, for the use of . the people in canning A few small canning plants are canning for the surrounding farms , Santa Rosa County has had three very successful club rally days. ' At this time the club boys and girls together with an county school children spent the day in athletic contests. These meetings have promoted splendid cooperation between school and club work. As a result valuable assistance is being secured . from the teachers in the county. In one school the one-hot-dish lunch, thru the sug gestion.and aid of the county home demonstration agent, has been most successfully carried on. In another school one of the teachers gives weekly a lesson in sewing, basketry or cooking to the club girls in that school.

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Annual Report, 1917 83 The agent in Bay County has been instrumental in placing in the school two kitchen equipments. Here her clubs have a weekly meeting for cookery work. In this county the school board has granted credit for canning-club work. It is interesting to . note as a result, that the credit thus received by one girl enabled her to pass her grade. It was a source of gratification to both herself and the agent. Probably this young girl would have left school otlierwise as she was almost too large to remain in the grade with out embarrassment to herself. Good cooperation with teachers has been secured by the county agent in Duval County. One school has put in sewing and the hot lunches at the home demonstration agent's suggestion. In Escambia County a lesson in preparation and conservation of foods will be given weekly to the teachers of the summer normal at Pensacola by the county home demonstration agent. This fre quent, close contact will further strengthen the assistance of teachers in club work and food economy. STATISTICAL REPORT Number of miles traveled ..................... ..... ........... .... . .... . ....... ........... .............. . . " " " by rail ............ . ... ............ ............ ........... ................ .... .. .... .. .. .. . .. " " by auto .......... , . ............. ............ ................. ............ .......... ... . Number of meetings held .................... . ...................... ... .................... ... . .... . ..... . " " girls' club meetings held ....... ....... . .... ............. .................... . ..... .. .. Estimated attendance ........................ . . ...... ...... . ............. ...... ....................... ..... .. . Number of demonstrations given .... .. ................. . .. ... . ......... ..... ... ...... ...... . .. .. .. .. " " canning demonstrations .. ....... ....... ................... ...... ................... .. '' '' other " ............. . ....... ... ... ...... .................. ..... .... .. . . 13,980 12,246 1,734 72 26 4,124 '' '' talks made --------------103 32 71 15 " " fairs attended ---------: ........ .. ... ........... . '' '' contests held .......... ................ ............. .... : .............. ....... .. .. ... . ........... . " " short courses held .......... .................... ... ... .. .......... .... ................. . ... . Estim ated attendance at short courses .................... ........ .................... ........ .. Number of schools visited .. ............ ..... ......... .. ..... ........... .... ....... ...... ................ . " " homes " .......... ........ ....................... .. ......................... ........ .. .. " " club members visited .... .. ..... .............. .... . .... .................... ............. . Confe,~ences w_i,th Co~nty Home, Demon.stration A,gents .... ,., ... : .. ,-. .: :::: . . Supermtendents ....... ............ ................. .............. .. " " " School Bo a rds .... ...... .. , ......... .. ...... .. : .... ..... ... ....... .. .. " Commissioners ..... .. ..................... ..... ......... . .... . ...... . Number of cars owned by county home demonstration agents ..... .. ............. 5 10 12 590 33 65 71 62 2 4 7 2 15

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84 Florida Cooperative Extension REPORT OF POULTRY CLUB AGENT P. H. Rolfs, Dir ect or. SIR: I submit herewith the report of the poultry club agent for the year ending December 31, 1917. Respectfully, MINNIE M . FLOYD, Poultry Club Agent. INTRODUCTION State superv1s1on of poultry-club work was begun in August, 1916. After consultat ion with the state, home and county coopera tive demonstration agents it was decided best to undertake poultry work in but five counties. However, the demand for the work be came so urgent that it was started in seven counties; namely, Escambia, Leon, Duval, St. Johns, Polk, DeSoto, and Hillsboro. At the annual meeting of the county home demonstration agents in Tallahassee, January, 1917, a number of the agents asked per mission to begin poultry work in their counties with only a few members in the most favorable localities. Accordingly, Osceola, Putnam, and Santa Rosa county home demonstration agents were granted this request. POULTRY CLUB WORK IN COUNTIES Only one county, DeSoto, had regularly organized poultry clubs ; thirteen of these made exhibits of good breeds of poultry. The girl making the best record was awarded a scholarship, which paid all expenses to the girls' short course in home economics, held in Tallahassee November 28 to December 9, 1916. The club members at the DeSoto County short course were taken to an inexpensive but well managed poultry plant and were given the benefit of the FIG. 21.-Leghorn chickens owned by a poultry club member owner's experience in ha n d i n g her poultry. In St. Johns Coun ty the club mem bers were given a boat trip on the St. Johns River to Cres cent Beach where they were taken thru one of the larg est poultry plants in the state.

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Poultry lectures were given at the short course and contests in Polk and Hillsboro coun t i es an d lectures and demonstra tions on po u 1 t r-y work were gi . ven at the short courses in Escambia, St. Johns, and WashAnnual Report, 1917 ington counties in Fm. 22.-Egg cir c l e, Esc a mbia County the spring of l917, altho there were no well organized poultry clubs. PLAN OF POULTRY CLUB WORK 85 The poultry club work has been conducted under two divisions: girls' poultry clubs, in which a few boys also were enrolled, and women's poultry clubs. GIRLS' POULTRY CLUBS It is the plan to have eventually none but purebred poultry owned by the poultry-club members. The girls were required to start with at least one setting of purebred. eggs. During this first year they have not been urged to r _ aise more than __ they can care for propedy, but rather to start on a small scale, save their pullets, and increase their flocks gradually. They w~re given instructions in proper methods of incubating, brooding, feeding, housing, etc . , of their chickens. WOMEN'S WORK Poultry work among women has been _ strongly emphasized. Local onditions determined whether this should be conducted with or : anized clubs or with individuals. It is considered that the best esults have been obtained where regular monthly club meetings ave been held with definite programs, inasmuch as more members in receive instruction in methods of production, management, andling and marketing of poultry products . Altho members were ot required to have purebred poultry, as a result of the better :!tur ns of . purebreds over mongrels and, in particular, the uni )rmity of product, a number of members have reported that they ave made a start toward keeping purebred poultry.

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86 Florida Cooperative Extension COOPERATIVE EGG CIRCLES In certain localities there is no steady market for eggs. Seven coop~rative egg circles have been organized in the counties having poultry-club work. Members were taught to grade, candle, pack and handle eggs for market. Each member guaranteed the quality of eggs marketed. It is thought that this work helped more toward standardizing the market egg than did any other phase of the work. Eggs were packed at a central place in the community and de livered, according to local facilities, by parcel' post, freight or boat. The increased price per dozen over the local market quotation was as high as fifteen cents in some instances during the period of scarcity, but when eggs became plentiful the increase varied. The average increase was about five cerits a dozen oyer store prices. It is believed that there will be a greater demand for carefully packed, guaranteed fresh eggs when the public generally appre ciates the difference between guaranteed eggs and the average quality supplied from grocery stores. Some of the egg circles marketed only infertile eggs. Others were planning to observe "Rooster Day" and to produce only in fertile eggs for market during the summer months, but when the country entered the war, the dfrector of extension work advised that hatching be continued every month to help increase the meat supply for Florida. In some instances the women were able to have yards and pens for chickens for the production of eggs for market separate from those for breeding purposes. From March 4 to August 1, the Florahome Circle sold coopera tively 1800 dozen eggs for $576. From January to August the Citrus Center Club sold 1,585 dozen for about $500, or an average of about 32 cents a dozen. WAR EMERGENCY SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASED POULTRY PRODUCTION At a meeting of the state extension workers in Gainesville; April 16, the director insisted that the poultry work be extended into more territory and requested that the poultry club agent send a letter to every county cooperative and home demonstration agent, urging increased production of poultry. Pamphlets urging in creased production were sent to every poultry club member and newspaper in the state. A poster on "Poultry" was prepared and a supply sent to every extension worker and postoffice in the state. This was followed by circulars and press notices intended primarily to increase the production of poultry products.

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Annual R e port, 1917 87 SHORT COURSE AT STATE COLLEGE Poultry lectures and demonstrations were given at the girls' short course at the State College for Women, November 28 to December 9, 1916, at the annual county home demonstration agents' meeting, January 1 to 6, at the housekeepers' short course and at the annual meeting of county agents in February, 1917. During the summer session at the State College for Women, a regular course was given FIG. 23.-Two poultry club girls Fm . 24.-Two canning-club girls, Jackson County consisting of lectures and demonstrations on poultry. Students had practical work in operating an incubator, grading, scoring, and candling market eggs and testing i ncubating eggs for fert ili ty by candling on the seventh and fourteenth days of incubation. PROGRESS OF WORK As reports of the work will not all be available until t h e fall contests are held, it is impossible to make a statistical report of the club members' work at present. Assuming responsibility for so many counties prevented close follow-up work by the poultry club agent. Altho no marvelous results have been obtained int~rest has been aroused and the foundation laid for good work in the future. One of the most serious handicaps in the work has been the high cost of poultry feeds. The price of poultry and eggs h as not advanced in accordance with the advance in the price of feed.

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88 Florida Cooperative . Extension Special stress has been put on the production of feed at home. For wheat, one of the best poultry feeds but not grown in Florida, members have been urged to substitute in the ration as' high as fifteen percent of such . protein . feeds as peas, beans, and peanuts, which can be grownhi the state. STATISTICAL REPORT Number of miles traveled .... ........ : . .. .. : ... .. .. .......... . .. . . , ... : ....... . . .... : .: ......... .. .... , ..... 13,944 ;: :: :: by rail ................... . ..................................................... .. . . ....... 10,284 by auto and other conveyances.................................. . ....... . 3,660 Total number of meetings held . . ...... .. . .. ......... : ......... ....... .... . . . ....... ...... . ........... , : ~ 123 i~~li::\ra::to!i;e~!i:iec; :::::::::: :: :::::: ::::::::::: ::::: : : :::~ : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: t::?~4 •;~: Vis~~s to •~o~~~eAge~~s .... :::::::::::::: : ~::::::::::::::~ i:::'.: :.::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :'. . : :'.:::~:: .: ~f g Number '. of County Superintendents visited .~: .; ,: .. : .. , ...... , .... ... .. . ..... . .. :.;,: :.,... . ;> 10 . :: . :: : : l:ii ~~ iti~if ri:;~;~~~~~;~:~~: ::t:::: :::: ::::::::::::: : ??\:::}:~~ -.. ~: Stamping and packing eggs for shipping ........ .. ...........•. . ..... ... :'. 10 Candling eggs ................... . ............... :, .............. .. ............. , .: .: : ......... 11 Sugge~ted equipment for poultry club work. ... . ... . . . . ... ; '.... : :.: ....... \ 1 Model poultry house " -' ;,:.: ... :... 5 Preserving eggs with sodium silicate .............. .. ......... ... , .. .. . i .... : 6 Toe punching chicks ...... ..... ............. . ............... ... ................ . ......... , 3 Circulars and bulletins sent 3,256 Letters written : ... . ~.: ... ..... . ... :......... ... . .. .. . ... ...... , ... ............. , ..... , .... . . .... , ...... . ... ,... . 516 Number of days spel!.t . in office work ...... ... .............. ,. .. , .. , . .... . ... ;;.:: ...... .. , ... . ' ... 111 " . " " " " field work and travel .. :: ..... : ... ;.: . .:. .. ::;,;, ...... ... ... ,, 160

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Annual Report, 1917 FARMERS' INSTITUTES . . . P. H. ROLFS, Superintendent. C. K. MCQUARRIE, Assistant Superintendent. 89 Farmers' Institutes have been conducted in all agricultural sec tions of Florida. The total attendance was 17,887 or an average of 153 at each of the 117 institutes. Most of these institutes were held in county school houses, churches or at farmers' picnics, where the attendance was from 20 to 60, nearly all of which was farmers and their families. Other meetings we're held in: country towns and cities where the attendance varied from 100 to 500. These meet ings were held under the auspices ~f gro~ps of farmers, who had special agricultural matters to . discuss or by business men with . farming interests. The meetings were advertised by posters issued by the Extension Division of the University and by local news papers, which gave this advertising free. The arrangements were usually completed by the county agents. The lecturers were the regular farmers' institute staff from the . Extension Division, the Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture of the University of Florida; speciali.sts from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who have given considerable assist~nce to the county agents and extension workers; successful farmers, truckers or citrus growers, and r~preseritative business ~en having farming interests. As Florida has a diversity of agricultural interests, the programs were made to conform with the agricultural interests of the com munity. In North and West Florida the lectures have been con fined to farming under boll weevil conditions; peanuts _ ; legume crops for feed and soil improvement; breeds and care of hogs and cattle; and feeds that can be grown on North and West Florida lands for this livestock. In middie Florida wher~ the boll weevil . . . . . . has recently _ gained entrance, many farmers are planting cotton for the first time and these have call~d fo1: discussions on varieties and methods of growing cotton. In middle and South Florida, trucking, citrus growing, _but more especially the planting of f~ed and staple crops, led to a greater variety of topics. . Thruout the state, corn, feed crops, hog cholera control and better iivestock have been discussed in nearly every . ccmnty. COUNTY AGENTS' INSTITUTES County . cooperative demonstration agents have held many . meet ings where truckers would come together to make plans for grow ing a special crop so that . by combining their products th~y could ' ,, ' ' . . . '

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90 Florida Cooperative Extension ship in car loti,i, which would require the planting of the same variety about the same date, to make the product uniform and of sufficient quantity to make up car lots. Where such plans re quired the advice of specialists, this was supplied thru the office of the superintendent of farmers' institutes. In other ca.ses meet ings were held to discuss plans for cooperative marketing of live stock by farmers having less than car lots of marketable animals. The county agents conducted 67 4 such meetings, and made 1,864 addresses in various meetings with a total attendance of 49,280. BOYS' CLUB MEETINGS Boys' cornand pig-club meetings have been held to discuss sub jects of vital interest to the clubs and to conduct club contests. These are arranged by the county agents and are usually attended by either the boys' club agent, the district, or the state agent. Many of these have been combined with the girls' club meetings. These institutes are heJd at school houses or at the home of one of the club members, where the crops and stock can be seen and discussed, WOMEN'S AND GIRLS' INSTITUTES Women's and girls' club institutes have been conducted under the leadership of the home demonstration agents. The county home demonstration agent selects the time and the place for these so that the interest in her work can be arous~d. As these clubs are organized for uniform methods of production, it is desirable to bring the women and girls together as frequently as possible. As the girls work chiefly with vegetable crops, the methods of plant ing crops and the control of diseases and insects that interfere with growing the crops must be understood by the girls. Specialists who can discuss insect pests and diseases have given lectures and demonstrations so that the girls are able to combat outbreaks. Special meetings have been conducted to arouse interest in poultry raising. At these meetings the topics for discussion are planned sometime in advance. The state poultry club agent ar ranges a series of topics and the county home demonstration agent follows this plan thru a succession of meetings so that at the end of the term, systematic lecture courses have been given and bulle tins supplied to correspond with each lecture. In women's institutes, rural sanitation, home conveniences, home gardening, apd canning and preserving of surplus vegetables and fruits, are systematically discussed, followed with suitable litera ture for home study. In many communities it is advisable to bring the people in the community together and have both meri

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Annual Report, 1917 91 and women lecturers. In such cases joint meetings are held during the forenoon and separate meetings in the afternoon. There were 3,575 meetings conducted by county home demonstration agents with a total attendance of 55,783. FOOD PRODUCTION CAMPAIGN MEETiNGS Immediately following the declaration of war it became evident that every effort should be made to increase food production. The county and home demonstration agents whose work had been very largely in this direction heretofore were the logical workers to promote this campaign in each county. In the organization of the "Food Preparedness Commission" the county agents and home demonstration agents were members of the county commission in each county. By their efforts food cam paigns were conducted thruout the state. In each case they re ceived hearty support from all members of the county commission and, in particular, the chairmen of the boards of county commis sioners and the county school superintendents. The matter of food production and conservation was emphasized on every occasion. It was made clear at all meetings that an increase in the pro duction of staple crops was especially needed and that an increase in perishable crops should not be made at the expense of staple crops. Poultry production and home gardening was especially urged. A good part of the counties in the state carried out food cam paigns. In all about 150 meetings were held with a total attendance of approximately 25,000 people. The results of these campaigns are evident from the reports submitted by county agents, showing the increased production of food crops and the number of cans of fruit and vegetables conserved as reported by home demonstration agents. MEET.INGS HELD Farmers' institutes .................................................... 117 ............ Attendance County agents' meetings .......................................... 1864............ " Home demonstration agents' meetings .................. 3515 ........... . Food production campaig:q meetings ...................... 125 ........... . 17,887 49,280 55,783 25,000 Total attendance .................................... , ................................................... 147,950

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INDEX Act, Smith-Lever, '( war emergency, 8 Activities, especially stressed, 27 general, 28 Agents, city, 6 conferences, 64 county cooperative, 4 county home demonstration, 5, 60 group meetings, 26 improvements by, 22, 28 Agricultural clubs, boys', 47 Agricultural preparedness commis sion, 26 Appropriations, 7, 8, 41, 60 Beef cattle, demonstrations, 34 introduction from Texas, 19 Board of Control, 4 Boys, agricultral clubs, report, 47 at state short course, 54 club agent, 9 club meetings, 90 meetings, 52 Bulletins published, 15, 74 summary of, 15 Bur clover, demonstration, 32 Canning, containers for, 66 kitchens, 69, 82 meat and fish, 71 Cattle, and hogs, 39 beef, 34 . dairy, 34 Texas, 19 Changes in staff, 16 Cholera control, 18 Circulars published, 15 summary of, 16 Citrus, demonstrations, 34, 40 seminar, 25 Club members at fairs, 78 Clubs, corn, 48 girls, 63, "85 home makers', 37 negro children, 37, 54 peanut, 51 pig, 50 poultry, 84 truck crops, 52 women's, 62 Commission, food preparedness, 21 Conferences, agents' annual, 26 demonstration agents, 64. monthly, 20 Conservation and production cam paigns, 70 Containers, for canning, 66 financing purchase, 67 Cooperations and demonstrations, 30 Cooperative, demonstration agents, 4 egg circles,. 86 enterprises, 16,. 17 Corn, 30;43 Corn clubs, boys•, 47 summary, 49 . Corri, demonstrations, 30 Cotton, 43 demonstrations,. 30 County agents, 10 ch;mges, 24 effect of work, 29 County fairs, 27, 63 County sb,ort courses, 77 County work, poultry clubs, 84, 92 special, 82 Cowpeas, dem01;1strations, 33 Crab grass, demonstrations, 32 Crop production, value of increased, 22 Crops, 24 truck; clubs, 24 Dairy cattle, demonstration,s, 34 . Demonstration work, effect of, 29 value to farmers, 22 Demonstrations and cooperations; beef cattle, 34 bur clover, 32 citrus, 34, 40 corn, 30, 43 cotton, 30, 43 cowpeas, 33 crab grass, 32 dairy cattle, 34 dipping vats, 34 fertilizer, 35 hogs, 35 Japanese cane, 31 lime, 35 livestock diseases, 35 manure, 35

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Annual Report, 1917 93 Demonstrations-continued millet, 32 Natal grass, 32 oats, 30 peanuts, 33, 43 potatoes, 34 poultry, 35 Rhodes grass, 32 rice, 30 rye, 31 silos, 35 sorghum, 31 soy beans, 33 Sudan grass, 31 truck, 41 velvet beans, 32, 43 Dipping vats, 44 construction, 27 demonstrations, 34 Director, report of, 7 Diseases, livestock, 35 District agent, reporteast and south, 39, 75 north and west, 42, 80 Drying vegetables, 70 Educational work, 28 Effect of demonstration work, 29 Egg circles, 63 cooperative, 86 Emergency workers, 67 Expansion of work, 21 Expenditures, supervision of, 14 Extension, appropriations, 7, 8, 60 changes in staff, 16 conferences, 20, 64 expansion of work, 21 legislation, 7, 8 organization, 8 plan of work, 12, 62 publications, 15, 74 purposes of, 7 value of work, 22 Extension division staff, 4 Fairs, club members at, 78 county, 27, 63 Farm and home makers' clubs, 36 Farm improvements, 29 value of, 22 Farmers', clubs organized, 28 institutes, 89 organizations, 26 Fertilizer, demonstrations, 35 Financial statement; 15, 60 Financing container purchases, 67 Floyd, Minnie M., report of poultry club agent, 84 Food crisis, 20 Food Preparedness Commission, 21 Food production, 91 General activities, agents', 28, 74 Girls' clubs, 63 summary of work, 73 best records, 73 Girls, college, 71 short course, 65 Harris, Agnes E., report of state home demonstration agent, 60 Herrington, G. L., report of boys' club agent, 47 Hog cholera, 44 educational and demonstrational work, 18 inoculation, 36 Hogs, cattle and, 39 demonstrations, 35 inoculation, 36 Home canning, 68, 71 Home demonstrationeffect of work in schools, 72 fairs, contests, short courses, 63 funds, 60 meat and fish canning, 71 plan of work, 62 publications, 74 results from, 73 state meetings, 64 statistical report, 74 war conditions, 66 Home demonstration agent, state, 60 city, 6 county, 5, .60 district, 75, 80 Home makers' clubs, 37 Hood, Samuel C., report of sweet potato storage specialist, 57 Improvements, farm, 29 value of, 22

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94 Florida Cooperative Extension Inoculation of hogs, 36 Institutes, county agents', 89 farmers', 89 meetings held, 91 women's and girls', 90 Irish potatoes, demonstrations, 34 Japanese cane, demonstrations, 31 Jenkins, E. W., report of district agent, 42 Kitchens, canning, 69, 82 Layton, Harriette B., report of district agent, 80 Legislation, extension, 7, 8 Lime, demonstrations, 35 Livestock, 44 diseases and pests, 35 round-up, 25 value of, 22 Logan, Dr. A. H., report of veterinary inspector, 19 McLendon, H. S., report of district agent, 39 McQuarrie, C. K., report of state agent, 24 Manure, demonstrations, 35 Manure and fertilizer, value of, 22 Meat and fish canning, 71 Meetings, agents' group, 26 agents' annual, 26, 64 boys', 52 boys' club, 90 negro farmers', 37 state, 25, 64 Millet, demonstrations, 32 Monthly conferences, 20 Natal grass, demonstrations, 32 Negro clubs, 37, 54 Negro farmers, meetings, 3 work with, 36 Negro work, 11, 70 report of, 36 county volunteers, 38 Oats, demonstrations, 30 Officers, States Relations Service, 4 Organization, county, 42 extension, 8 farmers, 26 farmers' clubs, 28 Partridge, Sarah W., report of district agent, 75 Peanuts, 43 clubs, 51 demonstrati<;ms, 33 Pig clubs, boys', 50 Poultry dub, agent, .11 report, 84 Poultry clubs, girls', 85 plan of work, 8G progress of work, 87 short course, 87 war emergency, 86 Poultry, demonstrations, 35 production, 86 Posters published, .15 Potatoes, demonstrations, 34 Prizes, boys' club, 52 Projects, extension, 12 Publications, 15, 74 Reports, boys' club agent, 47 director of extension, 7 district agents, 39, 42, 75, 80 farmers' institutes, 89 -negro club agent, 38 poultry club agent, 84 state agent, 24 state home demonstration agent, 60 sweet potato storage, 57 veterinary field agent, 19 Results, cooperative demonstration, 22 home demonstration, 73 Rhodes grass, demonstrations, 32 Rice, demonstrations, 30 Rolfs, P. H., report of director, 7 report of superintendent of farm ers' institutes, 89 Rye, demonstrations, 31 Schools, effect of home demonstration work in, 72 Seed selection, 28 Short course, boys', 52 boys attending, 54 county, 77 girls', 65 state~ 52, 87 women's, 64

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Annual Report, 1917 95 Silo construction, 27 Silos, demonstrations, 35 Smith-Lever Act, 7 Sorghum, demonstrations, 31 Soy beans, demonstrations, 33 Special, county work, 82 state work, 81 Staff, changes in, 16 extension division, 4 State agent, 9 report, 24 State College, short course, 87 State home demonstration agent, 11 report, 60 State work, special, 81 statement of finances, 15 Storage houses, sweet potato, 58 Sudan grass, demonstrations, 31 Summary of bulletins, 15 Summer school, 66 Supervision of expenditures, 14 Sweet potatoes, demonstrations, 34 production, 58 storage houses, 58 storage report, 57 Texas cattle, introduction, 19 Truck-crop clubs, 52 Truck demonstrations, 41 University, boys' short course, 52 Value of demonstration work to farmers, 22 Vats, cattle dipping, 27, 34, 44 Vegetables, drying, 70 Velvet beans, 43 demonstrations, 32 War conditions, 66 War emergency act, 8 Women, city, 71 poultry work, 85 short course, 64